Curriculum Materials English as a Second Language th th 4 -12

October, 2012

Civil Rights Law Department of Education of Puerto Rico

PUBLIC POLICY NOTICE The Department of Education does not discriminate in its activities, educational services or employment opportunities on the basis of race, color, sex, age, birth, national origin, social condition, political ideas, religious beliefs or any handicap.

EXPLANATORY NOTE For the purpose of legal matters and in relation to the “Civil Rights Law” of 1964, the terms teacher, director, supervisor and any other generic term that makes reference to gender, includes both: masculine and feminine.

Table of Contents
Pages Credits Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…. 4-8 9-10 11-41 42-271 272-301 302-670 671-697 698-931 932-954 955-1180 1181-1208 1209-1316 1317-1357 1358-1388 1389-1422 1423-1458 1459-1489 1490-1525 1526-1558 1559-1577

4th Grade Maps

4th Grade Attachments 5th Grade Maps

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5th Grade Attachments 6th Grade Maps

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6th Grade Attachments 7th Grade Maps

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7th Grade Attachments 8th Grade Maps

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8th Grade Attachments 9th Grade Maps

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9th Grade Attachments 10th Grade Maps

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12th Grade Attachments

Editorial Board
Edward Moreno Alonso Ed.D Secretary Grisel Muñoz Marrero, Ph.D Undersecretary for Academic Affairs Pura Cotto López, M.A. Special Assistant Standards and Assessment Aidita Vélez Ortíz, M.A. Director English Program

Curriculum Maps
English as a Second Language—Fourth to Eighth Grade Authors
Julia Hainer-Violand, M.A. edCount, LLC, curriculum consultant

Collaborating Teachers
Irene Ruiz Distrito Escolar de Carolina Elba Otero Distrito Escolar de San Juan Marie Grau Distrito Escolar de San Juan Julia B. Rodriguez Distrito Escolar de Dorado Yeadealeaucks Baez Distrito Escolar de Dorado Lillian M. Cotto Distrito Escolar de Tao Bajo María M. Cordero Distrito Escolar de San Juan Juanita Torres Distrito Escolar de Ponce Bethzaida Torres Modera Distrito Escolar de Humacao Vanesa Cadona Distrito Escolar de Ponce

Curriculum Maps
English as a Second Language—Ninth to Twelfth Grade Authors
Stacie Blyhe, M.Ed edCount, LLC, consultora curricular Yolanda Sejuela, M.Ed Distrito Escolar de Bayamón Julia Rodríguez, M.A Distrito Escolar de Dorado

Collaborating Teachers
Danielle Wright Distrito Escolar de Vega Alta Rebecca Molina Distrito Escolar de Arecibo Yeadalucks Baez Distrito Escolar de Vega Alta María Cordero Distrito Escolar de San Juan II María Delgado Distrito Escolar de Aguas Buenas Lisette Orengo Distrito Escolar de Manatí Sheyla Santos Distrito Escolar de Ponce Amarilys Fonseca Distrito Escolar de San Juan II

Curriculum Maps
English as a Second Language Other Collaborators
Aidita Vélez Ortíz English Program Director Pura Cotto López Ex English Program Director Marilyn Medina Martínez Regional Coordinator Mayaguez (PPAA) Miguel Ruiz Cotto Regional Coordinator Bayamon (PPAA) Elizabeth Greninger, Ph.D. edCount, LLC Linda Fink, M.S edCount, LLC

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English as a Second Language
Curriculum Maps Grade 4

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4.1 Writing Dialogues Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this introductory unit, students are introduced to the idea that reading is thinking. They will explore strategies for understanding and decoding new vocabulary words with a focus on homophones, increase their reading comprehension by exploring character traits in fictional texts and learn the art of writing dialogue. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.4.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character and setting. L/S.4.2 Recognizes simple homophones and figurative language. L/S.4.3 Listens and responds to complex instructions, complete statements, and answers and formulates the 5 W-Questions as well as how questions (who, what, when, where, why, and how) in formal and informal discussions. Reading R.4.3 Uses context clues and resources to build vocabulary, verify meaning, determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, and transfer meaning into a variety of narrative and expository texts. R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text. Writing W.4.1 Arranges words in alphabetical order using first, second, and third letter criteria. Expectations that appear in other Curriculum Maps L/S.3.2 Applies phonemic awareness and auditory discrimination and distinguishes between singular/plural forms as well as past/present tense of regular verbs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Reading is thinking (we are always making connections, asking questions and making inferences as we read).  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  Readers identify unknown words using context clues and reference tools.  Writers use words in many different ways. Content (Students will know…)  Simple homophones (see/sea, bee/bee, hi/high, their/they’re/there, which/witch, are/our, to/two/too)  Character traits (i.e. bossy, brave, kind, friendly, curious, determined)  5 W questions (who, what, where, when, why and how) Content Vocabulary June 2011 Essential Questions:  What do good readers do while they are reading?  Who would I be without my family?  What parts in a word help me understand it?  How do I know that I don’t know a word?  What do I do with an unknown word?  What words do good writers use? Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character and setting  Listen and respond to complex instructions  Complete statements  Answer and formulate the 5 W-Questions as well as how questions (who, what, when, where, why, and how) in formal and informal discussions 12

4.1 Writing Dialogues Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Define  Alphabetical order  Homophone  Main character  Connection  Character trait  Context clues

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Use context clues and resources to build vocabulary, verify meaning, determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, and transfer meaning into a variety of narrative and expository texts Identify the main character(s) Compare and contrasts character traits Arrange words in alphabetical order using first, second, and third letter criteria

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: About Me Posters  Create an “About Me” poster about yourself that has a paragraph description about yourself that lets your classmates know who you are o Discuss “Who would I be without my family?” by filling out the “About me” organizer (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer - About Me) o Describe themselves to a partner. Partner can use 5W’s questions to learn more about their classmate o Draft, Peer revise and edit paragraph Peer Edit: Use paragraph check list (See Attachment: 4.1 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist) o Publish with an illustration  Funny Dialogues  Write and present a funny dialogue with a partner that will use three or four pairs of homophones (See Attachment: 4.1 Performance Task – Write a Dialogue) o Dialogue uses homophones correctly in their two contexts (example: “I will be there soon, unless I get a bee sting.” o Students can use homophones from readings or self-select four pairs Other Evidence:  Homophones picture chart (draw examples of homophones and use in sentences; can turn these into a class book on homophones and add to it during the year)  Alphabetical order chart of vocabulary  Inference chart (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Use a word square (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Word Square) for each vocabulary word from the reading  Homophones assessment (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Homophones Assessment)  Vocabulary assessment (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Assessment)  Character Map: group poster of character actions, feelings, traits (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer – About Me)  5W’s organizer from read aloud (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer – 5 W’s Chart)  Fluency running records and paired fluency checks (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)  Dialogue Journal entries of connections made during read aloud (See Attachments: 4.1 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal and 4.1 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal Rubric)

Stage 3 - Learning Plan

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4.1 Writing Dialogues Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Learning Activities Homophones  Have students act out in pairs the difference between homophones  Create a homophones list in the classroom as homophones are discovered in reading and class discussion  Students create a drawing and write a sentence for each homophone pair or trio to illustrate their different meanings  Students will compare and contrast homophones, discuss in a small group: why do words that are spelled differently sound the same? Vocabulary & Word Work  Model “What do I do with an unknown word?” using a picture book where the main character has shows that he/she is shaped by his/her family. Use an inference chart (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart) as a way of modeling your strategy of using context clues to infer an unknown word (See Sample Lessons).  Create a word web with the class, or as pairs on all the connections they can make with a vocabulary word using: (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer – Word Web). Have students classify words in a vocabulary inventory chart (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer – Vocabulary Inventory Chart) (I understand and can use this word, I have heard of this word, I don’t know this word) and then in pairs look up the vocabulary words in a Spanish-English dictionary.  Create a word wall of the vocabulary and spelling covered from the readings and use for vocabulary building activities (See Attachment 4.1 Learning Activities – Word Wall Ideas).  Practice alphabetizing by organizing students in the room in ABC order by first name and by last name (can also alphabetize other items, places, or people as practice).  Practice inferring unknown words using “Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup” by Sharon Creech (See Attachment: 4.1 Text – Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup). Reading  Model making connections to text, self, and world using a read loud with a focus on connecting to the character. Students will use a cue card to refer to connections made while reading (See Attachment: 4.1 Reading Tool – Cue Card) and chronicle their connections using a dialogue journal (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal).  Create a character map from a character in a read aloud. In a small group, create a poster of the main character (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer – About Me). Create a 5W’s chart to summarize a read aloud by using questions. Teacher models examples how to turn a question into a statement: Who is the main character  the main character is… (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer – 5 W’s Chart). Sample Lessons  Poetry Lesson on “ To Be a Butterfly” (See Attachment: 4.1 Sample Lesson – To Be A Butterfly)  Vocabulary Lesson: Making inferences to understand unknown words Essential Question: What do I do with an unknown word? Good readers treat unknown words like a mystery. They don’t skip over a word but they dig in to the book like a detective and use clues from the text to solve the mystery word. Good readers: o Identify words they do not know (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer - Vocabulary Inventory Chart) o Use clues from the text to make a good guess (to infer) the meaning of the word June 2011 14 Adapted from Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe

4.1 Writing Dialogues Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks o Use tools to help them such as a dictionary or thesaurus. Read Aloud first half of picture book & model through a think aloud how you: o Recognize an unknown word (See Attachment: 4.1 Graphic Organizer - Vocabulary Inventory Chart) o Use clues in the text (grammar and context) o Infer the meaning of an unknown word (See Attachment: 4.1 Other Evidence - Vocabulary Inference Chart)  “Wordstorming:” Building background with words o Ask students to write down all the words they can think of related to a given concept, theme or target word. o When students have exhausted their contributions, help them add to their individual lists by giving some specific directions:  Can you think of words that describe someone without ____________?  Can you think of words that would show what someone might see, hear, feel, touch, and smell, in a situation filled with ____________?  Ask the students to group and label their words. Introduce any words you think should be included and ask students to put them in the right group. Additional Resources  Printable homophones sheet (See Attachment: 4.1 Resource – Printable Homophones Sheet) Literature Connections  Going Home by Eve Bunting  Grandma’s Records by Eric Velasquez  Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup by Sharon Creech

June 2011 15 Adapted from Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe

4.2 My Timeline Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks Stage 1- Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will continue to improve their fluency and decoding skills while exploring the concept of how their family shapes who they are. They will be introduced to sequencing through a timeline project that represents the major events in their family history. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.4.3 Listens and responds to complex instructions, complete statements, and answers and formulates the 5 W-Questions as well as how questions (who, what, when, where, why, and how) in formal and informal discussions. L/S.4.5 Identifies, states, and paraphrases the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts; uses transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.4.1 Decodes words and phrases; reads fluently. R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text. R.4.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text; makes predictions and connections. Writing W.4.2 Applies phonemic awareness, phonics strategies, and structural analysis to correctly spell words that have three letter clusters, common spelling patterns, and uncommon consonant patterns. W.4.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to write descriptive and narrative paragraphs. W.4.5 Follows the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling errors in writing. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  Writers use words wisely to create visualizations through sensory language and description.  Good writers guide the readers through the story with transition words.  Through discussion and questions, writers improve their writing. Content (Students will know…)  Elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing  Prewriting strategies to generate ideas (Using 5W’s to question a peer, create a cluster web on a picture, describe ideas orally before writing) Essential Questions:  Who would I be without my family?  How can I paint a picture with words?  How do good writers make themselves understood?  What questions will bring out the details?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond to complex instructions  Complete statements  Answer and formulate the 5 W-Questions as well as how questions (who, what, when, where, why, and how) in formal and informal discussions to bring out details in their pictures

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4.2 My Timeline Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks Content Vocabulary  Reader’s Response Journal  Rubric  Fluency  Accuracy  Intonation  Venn Diagram  Timeline  Gallery walk  Backwards spell check  Main character  Character trait        Use transitions to tell, retell, and explain the story of your personal timeline using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure Decodes words and phrases when reading Read fluently with intonation Identify the main character(s) Compare and contrast character traits and connect them to self Use story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence in student’s personal timeline Apply phonemic awareness, phonics strategies, and structural analysis to correctly spell words that have three letter clusters, common spelling patterns, and uncommon consonant patterns Follow the writing process to write a personal narrative Apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas (i.e. cluster webs for brainstorming) Use the dictionary as an aid in the writing process Identify spelling errors in writing

    Performance Tasks: Reader’s Response Letter  Write a reader’s response letter that shares personal connections to a fictional text that can answer the essential question: “Who would I be without my family?” (See Attachment: 4.2 Performance Task – Reading Response Example) My Personal Timeline  Students create a timeline of 3 to 5 images that have a description of important events in his/her life.  Students will write a descriptive paragraph for each picture/ illustration of important event (use sentence starters to assist students)  Prewriting: o Students will ask each other questions to create a cluster web of ideas to describe the event in the picture (See Attachment:

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Fluency running records and paired fluency checks (See Attachment: 4.2 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)  Word Journal of phonemic patterns & phonemic pattern sorts (include words they have trouble pronouncing and words that follow the same patterns)  Phonemic Word Patterns Assessment (See Attachment: 4.2 Other Evidence – Phonemic Word Pattern Assessment)  Word Squares based on words on word wall (See Attachment: 4.2 Other Evidence – Word Square)  Dialogue Journal on character connections to family (See Attachment: 4.2 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal Rubric)  Venn diagram that compares the character to self (See Attachment: 4.2 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram)

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4.2 My Timeline Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks 4.2 Graphic Organizer – Word Web) by having a “gallery walk” (a way of having students move around the room to take in visual information, like they would in an art gallery o Go over the expectations (we will talk how we talk in a museum or library, in whisper voices). Students walk around and look at the pictures and leave questions that come to their mind “why…, “how…” “what…” “when…” students then take these questions to complete the cluster web o Teacher models use of word web to model description of details and how that will help to “paint a picture with words” in writing (See Attachment: 4.2 Graphic Organizer – Word Web)  Revision: Students conference with the partner to ask questions (5W’s) if the paragraph is unclear and lacks details  Peer Edit: Use paragraph checklist (See Attachment: 4.2 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist)  Students will present their timelines with members of their family and school community; students stand by their timelines and parents ask questions and students discuss and answer questions based on their timelines; parents can leave comments on what they enjoyed about their discussion. This can be done bilingually if adults only speak Spanish. Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Fluency  Define “reading with fluency” (reading at a comfortable speed, not too slow and not too fast), accuracy (reading exactly what is on the page), and intonation (reading with rhythm: how the voice goes up and down). Review “slide it out” and “break it down” with difficult to pronounce words.  Have students practice reading aloud with fluency and rate each other using fluency check document (See Attachment: 4.2 Other Evidence - Paired Fluency Check)  Listen in on paired fluency and/or conduct running records on students and based on errors, plan phonemic lessons (e.g. long vowel patterns of consonants and vowels: CVVC, CVCe, (e.g. train = CVVC, cane = CVCe) (See Attachment: 4.2 Learning Activities – Phonemic Pattern Analysis)

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4.2 My Timeline Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks Reading  Compare and contrast the character in the beginning, middle, and end of the story. Has the character changed? How has the family helped him or her?  Create Venn Diagrams for students to compare themselves to the main character (See Attachment: 4.2 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram) Writing  Backwards spell check: read the writing from the last word to the first in order to isolate each word to locate spelling errors  Practice editing and revising a piece of writing as a full class (on overhead projector or chart paper) Sample Lessons  Create a timeline of family events: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/creating-family-timelines-graphing-870.html?tab=4#tabs  Share journals to enhance comprehension: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/exchanging-ideas-sharing-journals-1054.html  Use Reader’s Theatre to enhance fluency: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/reading-idol-bringing-readers-30621.html  Lessons on Stella Luna (See Attachment: 4.2 Sample Lesson – Stella Luna) Additional Resources  Fluency (See Attachment: 4.2 Resource – Fluency)  Running Records (See Attachment: 4.2 Resource – Running Records)  Phonics: Word Families: http://www.kidzone.ws/phonics/index.htm  Create and print your own graphic organizers: http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers.html Literature Connections  Stella Luna by Jannell Cannon  So Far from the Sea by Eve Bunting  Fly Away Home by Eve Bunting

June 2011 19 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

4.3 Making Predictions, Inferences and Connections About Characters Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will analyze characters from stories and pictures using effective strategies of good readers: making inferences, predictions and connections. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.4.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character and setting. Reading R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text R.4.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text; makes predictions and connections. Writing W.4.3 Uses appropriate grammar and mechanics to write complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences; identifies the parts of speech correctly. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  Writers make characters come alive using descriptive text.  Authors create text patterns and make word choices that help readers better understand the text. Content (Students will know…)  Character traits (hero and villain)  Strategies of effective readers (i.e. connections, predictions, inferences)  Parts of speech (i.e. adjectives)  Four sentence types (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory) Content Vocabulary  Main character  Character traits  Prediction  Inference  Connection  Adjectives Essential Questions:  What can I learn about myself from stories and pictures?  How does a character come alive?  How does the author’s story-organization and word choice help the reader understand a story? Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond during a read-aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character  Identify the main character(s)  Make inferences to compare and contrast character traits (i.e. between characters or between character and self)  Make predictions and connections (i.e. predictions about what will happen next in a story, connections between characters in fiction and self)  Use appropriate grammar and mechanics to write complete declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences

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4.3 Making Predictions, Inferences and Connections About Characters Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Character Posters Part 1: Pre-Reading  Give students Alphabet Chart (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task - Alphabet Chart) and the topic, “Hairs.” Ask them what words come to mind when they think of this topic. Have them place each word in the correct box and share answers with the class. For example the word “curly” will go in the “C-D” box.  Tell students that they will now read a story titled Hairs. Ask students what they think the story is about based on the title and the words that they gathered in the alphabet chart. Record students’ answers on the board.  Explain to students that they just made predictions about the text. Present to students the definition of “prediction.” Post the definition of “prediction” on the board: Prediction is a reading strategy that efficient readers use to develop ideas about what to expect next in the text. They modify their expectations as they obtain additional information while reading. When the text suddenly stops making sense, good readers go back and re-read. Making predictions becomes automatic to good readers, but it is a skill that can be taught and developed. Part 2: Reading  Read the story Hairs aloud (See Attachment: 4.3 Text – Hairs), pausing to clarify any new vocabulary. Ask students to describe the different characters presented in the story. Part 3: Character Organizers  Have students work in small groups and have them illustrate the mother character in Hairs on a character organizer (See Attachment: 4.3 Graphic Organizer – Blank Character Map).  Make sure that they use the descriptions in the story to help them illustrate the figure. In the illustration, have them write sentences June 2011 Other Evidence:  Journal Writing: Have students create a journal entry where they make text-to-self connections (can be used as closing to poster assessment). Review “text-to-self connections” (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence – Making Connections Prompts)  Order of Adjectives quiz (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence – Order of Adjectives Quiz)  Identifying adjectives quiz (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence – Identifying Adjectives Quiz)  Quiz on the different types of sentences (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence – Different Sentence Types Quiz)  Fluency Running Records and Paired Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)

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4.3 Making Predictions, Inferences and Connections About Characters Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks describing what the mother would say. Example: “Dear, do you want me to give you a hug?” Part 4: Share  Have each group present its poster to the class to be assessed based on their understanding of the character traits of the mother. Using Visual Clues to Make Inferences About Character Traits  Step 1: Introduce what the word “inference” means: Making an inference is using clues from the text and your own knowledge and experience to figure out what the author is trying to tell you.  Step 2: Give a comic strip to students and ask them to infer the dialogue that is taking place between the two characters in the comic strip (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task – Making Inference Comic Strip 1).  Step 3: Have students work in pairs as they create the dialogue for the comic strip. After everyone has completed the dialogue, have each pair read their dialogue aloud to the class.  Step 4: Discuss with the class that although each pair had a different dialogue, each one is correct (i.e. each pair may have had different knowledge and experience regarding the activity that the characters in the comic strip were performing and each pair may have taken different clues from the text).  Step 5: Provide a second comic strip to each student and ask them to repeat the same activity with the new comic strip (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task – Making Inference Comic Strip 2)  Step 6: Have each student present his/her dialogue to the class. Making Connections  Step 1: Explain to students that they will compare and contrast a hero from a movie to someone in their life whom they consider their hero. June 2011 22

4.3 Making Predictions, Inferences and Connections About Characters Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Step 2: Tell students that they will use a Venn diagram graphic organizer to compare the two heroes or heroines (See Attachment: 4.3 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram)  Step 3: Teacher may brainstorm a list of heroes or heroines with the class, from which they can choose. Possible examples: Superman, Supergirl, Spiderman, Incredible Hulk, Wonder Woman, Elektra, etc. Explain to students that the super hero or heroine in their life may not look exactly like the super hero or heroine in their lives; however, the qualities of the heroes/heroines are what they are using to compare and contrast in this activity.  Step 4: Have students share their work with the class. You may want to use a gallery walk to have students share their work. Have students post their work around the room. During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room. You may want to give students sticky notes that they can use to give feedback to the class. For example, ask students to write something on their sticky note that they like about the work of another student. Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Inferences & Predictions  Introduce inferences by showing students a visual text and asking them what they think is happening in the text (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence - Making Inference Visual 1).  Introduce predictions using visual texts (See Attachment: 4.3 Other Evidence - Making Inference Visual 2)  Have students compare and contrast predictions and inferences using the “think/pair/share” strategy  Use photos from magazines or newspapers and have students make predictions or inferences based on the images  Use stories with illustrations and have students write sentences to describe them, by inferring what the picture describes  Have students play a game where they have to make inferences (See Attachments: 4.3 Learning Activity - Inferring Card Game and 4.3 Learning Activity - Inferring Card Game Rules). You can use the format of this game to create your own game on making predictions and connections.

June 2011

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4.3 Making Predictions, Inferences and Connections About Characters Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Parts of Speech  Give students a list of adjectives and a list of pictures showing everyday activities. Ask students to create sentences describing the pictures using the adjectives. To extend the activity, you can also have students create different types of sentences to describe the same picture. For example, “The woman is attractive.” (declarative sentence). “Is the woman attractive?” (interrogative sentence) (See Attachment: 4.3 Learning Activity – Adjectives to Describe Everyday Situations)  Have students copy the following sentences into their notebook, underline the adjectives and draw an arrow to each adjective’s modifier. o A green dragon climbed into the dark castle and kidnapped the beautiful, sleeping princess. o A giant, fuzzy spider was crawling in Chad’s hair. o The tall, handsome boy wearing a brown leather jacket walked into the math classroom and smiled at Denise. o This European inventor hoped to make a usable, permanent photograph. o It was a black, white, and gray version of the window view.  Have students underline the adjectives in a piece of text from a book or magazine article. Then have them rewrite the paragraph without the adjectives and describe the differences between the two paragraphs to understand why adjectives make writing better. Sentence Types  Write a dialogue with a group of three or four based on vocabulary that uses all four sentence types & act it out (See Attachment: 4.3 Performance Task - Write a Dialogue)  Perform the dialogue, reading the dialogue with fluency, gestures, and intonation to reflect the sentence type  So Many Questions Please: Have students work in pairs and ask them to discuss their favorite book or TV show using only questions or exclamations. Discuss with students how difficult it is to have a conversation using only one type of sentence. Sample Lessons  Lesson on teaching prediction: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/action-character-exploring-character-175.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on making connections using double entry journal: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/ lesson-plans/guided-comprehensionmaking-connections-228.html?tab=4#tabs Additional Resources  Useful activities to teach different types of sentences (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource – Different Sentence Types)  Activities for making inferences (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource – Making Inferences)  Useful resource for making inferences with text and with new words (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource – Making Inferences 2)  Gallery Walk resources (See Attachment: 4.3 Resource – Gallery Walks)  Character trait resources (See Attachments: 4.3 Resource – List of Character Traits, 4.3 Resource – Identifying Character Traits, and 4.3 Resource – Identifying Character Traits Worksheet) Literature Connections  Grandfather’s Journey by Allen Say  Tomas and the Library Lady by Pat Mora

June 2011 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

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4.4 My Story: Exploring Figurative Language and the Writing Process Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will analyze who and how they are in their native languages vs. who and how they are when they are in their English-speaking environment, and analyze texts that use figurative language to create vivid images of these two contrasting worlds. The unit will culminate in a writing project that focuses on the writing, revision and editing processes. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.4.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify main character and setting. L/S.4.2 Recognizes simple homophones and figurative language. L/S.4.5 Identifies, states, and paraphrases the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts; uses transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text. Writing W.4.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to write descriptive and narrative paragraphs. W.4.5 Follows the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling errors in writing. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  Metaphors and similes paint a picture in the reader’s mind.  Setting can influence character.  Good writers revise and improve their writing through the writing process. Content (Students will know…)  Figurative language (i.e. similes and metaphors)  The writing process (brainstorming, freewriting/drafting, revising, editing and publishing)  Pre-writing strategies to generate ideas (i.e. making a list, mapping and free writing) Content Vocabulary  Figurative language  Images  Similes  Metaphors  Context June 2011 Essential Questions:  How can I use words to express who I am?  Why do writers use metaphors and similes?  Are we the same person in every setting?  How do writers improve their writing?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond during a read-aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend and identify setting  Use transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story (about who you are), using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure  Compare and contrast character traits (i.e. between who you are in your native language and who you are in your English-speaking environment)  Identify setting (in stories about yourself)  Identify elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing (i.e. figurative language) 25

4.4 My Story: Exploring Figurative Language and the Writing Process Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Setting  Character traits  Visual imagery

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Follow the writing process (i.e. to edit and revise writing about your character) Use the dictionary as an aid in the writing process Identify spelling errors in writing

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: My Two Different Worlds  Sequence chart: Students will analyze the character’s traits in the story My Name (See Attachment: 4.4 Text – My Name) in the beginning of the story using a sequencing chart (See Attachment: 4.4 Graphic Organizer - Story Map) to identify how she changes from the beginning to the end of the story.  Paragraph writing: Students will write at least one comprehensive, well-written paragraph that describe who they are and how they act in their native languages vs. who they are and how they act in their English-speaking worlds. Each paragraph should have: o A topic sentence o At least 3 supporting sentences o No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors  Use figurative language (similes and metaphors) to describe their feelings The Real Me  Visual Representation: Students will create a dualistic visual representation that captures “Who Am I?” in both their native and new languages/cultures.  Have students select two pictures of themselves that best represent who/how they are in their native language/culture vs. who they are in their English speaking environment. Point out that these two worlds represented by their pictures may look the same or they may look different. Have them title their pictures, “The Real Me,” in Spanish or English.  On the poster, students will also draw a Venn diagram (See Attachment: 4.4 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram), which they will June 2011 Other Evidence:  Journal writing: Have students write daily reflections on their reading (See Attachment: 4.4 Other Evidence – Journal Writing)  Complete paired-reading fluency check (See Attachment: 4.4 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)  Vocabulary packet (See Attachment: 4.4 Other Evidence – Unit Vocabulary Packet) for this unit’s vocabulary words  Complete word square activity for new words (See Attachment: 4.4 Other Evidence – Word Square)

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4.4 My Story: Exploring Figurative Language and the Writing Process Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks use to compare and contrast their two worlds.  At the end of the project, have students present their posters to the class. Have them explain how the pictures they selected are representative of their two worlds. Expressing Yourself Using Figurative Language  Introduce Similes and Metaphors (See Attachments: 4.4 Performance Task – Introduction to Metaphors and 4.4 Performance Task – Introduction to Similes). Explain how authors create images using figurative language to explain an experience.  Have students re-read My Name for the purpose of finding the images that the author created using figurative language.  Have students analyze their experiences learning English using the five senses to describe how they feel and incorporating similes and metaphors that create images for readers (See Attachment: 4.4 Graphic Organizer – Brainstorming Using the Senses)  Introduce the steps of the writing process (brainstorming, freewriting/drafting, revising, editing and publishing) and write them up on the board in a circle to show students that the writing process is a circular process in which you go back and forth from one step to the other.  Have students take ideas from their Brainstorming Using the Senses worksheet (See Attachment: 4.4 Graphic Organizer - Brainstorming Using the Senses) and have them each write a paragraph describing their English- and Spanish-speaking worlds. Continue the steps of revising, editing and publishing as students complete their writing pieces (See Attachment: 4.4 Writing Tool – Peer Editing Checklist).  At the end, have students share their writings with the class. You can have students assess their own writing (See June 2011 27

4.4 My Story: Exploring Figurative Language and the Writing Process Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Attachment: 4.4 Writing Tool – Writing Process Rubric). For each writing assignment, you may want to edit the content category (i.e. use figurative language to describe their two worlds). Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Figurative Language (Similes & Metaphors)  Give the class a list of similes and metaphors from different texts and have them underline the similes and circle the metaphors (See Attachment: 4.4 Learning Activity – List of Similes and Metaphors)  Practice identifying the meaning of similes and metaphors  Have students illustrate a simile and a metaphor. These could be similes or metaphors from texts or created by the students. Have them explain their illustrations to the class.  Have students think of how they could use similes or metaphors to say that somebody: a) runs fast, b) is pretty, c) jumps well, and d) is strong. The Writing Process  Have students do a two-minute free-writing activity about their English-speaking worlds and two-minute free-writing activity on their Spanish-speaking worlds. Make sure that their pens/pencils continue to move during the two-minute exercise. If they run out of ideas, have them write whatever is on their minds and then have them come back to the topic you assigned. You may repeat this activity several times. The goal of this activity is for students to write non-stop and have them come back to what they wrote and search for writing ideas that they wrote on which they want to expand.  After students have each completed a writing piece, have them work in pairs to edit their work (See Attachment: 4.4 Writing Tool – Peer Editing Checklist) Sample Lessons  Lesson on prewriting: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/colorpoems-using-five-375.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on peer editing: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/peeredit-with-perfection-786.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on revising: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/promptingrevision-through-modeling-1183.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on using poetry and similes: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/lonely-cloud-using-poetry-907.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on figurative language, similes and metaphors: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/figurative-language-awards-ceremony-115.html?tab=4#tabs Additional Resources  Resource for structuring your read alouds (See Attachment: 4.4 Resource – Structuring Read Alouds)  Figurative language resources and activities: http://www.sturgeon.k12.mo.us/elementary/numphrey/subjectpages/languagearts/figuresofspee ch.html  Resources for activities on writing similes (See Attachment: 4.4 Resource – Writing Similes Activity) Literature Connections June 2011 28

4.4 My Story: Exploring Figurative Language and the Writing Process Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Poems by Francisco Alarcon (See Attachment: 4.4 Text – Francisco Alarcon Poetry)  The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros  My Name is Maria Isabel by Alma Flor Ada  The Last Dragon by Susan Miho Nunes  The Stranger by Chris Van Allsburg

June 2011 29 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

4.5 Non-Fiction Study: Creating a Non-Fiction Book About Me Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will do a genre study on non-fiction. They will explore the text features and organization of non-fiction, and use them create their own non-fiction text about themselves. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.4.5 Identifies, states, and paraphrases the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts; uses transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.4.2 Analyzes the text and identifies text features to enhance comprehension. R.4.3 Uses context clues and resources to build vocabulary, verify meaning, determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, and transfer meaning into a variety of narrative and expository texts. R.4.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text; makes predictions and connections. R.4.6 Identifies differences between fiction and nonfiction; identifies main idea or topic and fact and opinion in informational text. Writing W.4.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to write descriptive and narrative paragraphs. W.4.5 Follows the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling errors in writing. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  Each person has unique qualities that make them an individual.  My family’s history is a part of who I am.  Writers use words wisely to create characters and to guide the readers through transitions.  Readers use strategies to figure out words they don’t know. Content (Students will know…)  Text features that enhance comprehension of informational texts (i.e. labels, photographs, index, glossary, table of contents, diagram, table, map, cutaways, comparisons, close ups, types of print)  Differences between fiction and nonfiction (fiction is a narrative and main character, problem, and solution is created by the author, non-fiction is based on facts, can have expository (news paper articles, June 2011 Essential Questions:  Who would I be without my family?  What makes me, me?  How do writers choose their words?  What do I do with an unknown word?  Can a story be “true”?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Identify, state, and paraphrase the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts  Use context clues and resources to build vocabulary, verify meaning, determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, and transfer meaning (in a variety of non-fiction texts)  Use story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within 30

4.5 Non-Fiction Study: Creating a Non-Fiction Book About Me Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks encyclopedias) and narrative structure (like biographies) Content Vocabulary  Fiction  Non-Fiction  Structure  Compare and contrast  Main idea and details  Sequence, sequential  Chronological  Procedure, procedural  Sequential words (first, second, third, then, next, last, finally)

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informational texts (including the use of transition words to explain sequence, such as: first, second, then, next, afterwards, finally, etc.) Identify main idea or topic in informational texts Identify fact and opinion in informational texts (i.e. using a t-chart) Use a variety of sentence types to write descriptive and narrative paragraphs (using transition words and declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory sentences) Follow the writing process for non-fiction (brainstorming, free-writing/drafting, revising, editing and publishing) Use the dictionary as an aid in the writing process Identify spelling errors in writing

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Non-Fiction Posters Create a poster with a partner that compares four types of non-fiction organization (description or list, sequence, compare and contrast, cause and effect)  Read four examples of non-fiction text that use different text structures  Use Graphic Organizers to represent the information for each type of structure  Description (main idea) (See Attachment: 4.5 Performance Task – Main Idea)  Sequence (step by step) (See Attachment: 4.5 Performance Task – Step by Step)  Sequence (chronological order) (See Attachment: 4.5 Performance Task – Chronological Order)  Compare and Contrast (See Attachment: 4.5 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram) Non-Fiction Books Create a non-fiction book using:  Non-fiction conventions (table of contents, titles, captions, glossary, index, types of print, tables)  Non-fiction organizational structure or June 2011 Other Evidence:  KWL Chart on a non-fiction text (See Attachment: 4.5 Graphic Organizer – KWL Chart)  Non Fiction Conventions Notebook (See Attachment: 4.5 Other Evidence – Non-Fiction Conventions Notebook)  Fluency Partner Check and Running Records (See Attachment: 4.5 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)  Word Squares based on words on word wall (See Attachment: 4.5 Other Evidence – Word Square)

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4.5 Non-Fiction Study: Creating a Non-Fiction Book About Me Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks structures. Students choose to use one type of structure for the whole book (main idea and details) or different structures for different sections. Examples: compare and contrast self to a sibling; procedural text that explains how to do an activity like cooking or creating something; chronological order on a timeline of events from their life (connection to first project of the year)  Revision: Students conference with partners to ask questions (5W’s) if the paragraph is unclear and lacks details  Peer Edit: Use paragraph check list (See Attachment: 4.5 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist) Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Reading Non-Fiction  Compare and contrast fiction and non-fiction genre by using Venn Diagrams as a class and then also in pairs using a variety of texts (See Attachment: 4.5 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram)  Read aloud non-fiction text and model using context clues for inferring unknown words and have students complete word squares for vocabulary based on the text (See Attachment: 4.5 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Compare and contrast as a class, in a group or in pairs a variety of non-fiction texts to find examples of non-fiction organization (description or list, sequence, compare and contrast, cause and effect) (See Attachment: 4.5 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram) Writing Non-Fiction  Students interview each other about what they want the world to know about them to brainstorm ideas and create a list of topics for their non-fiction book  Use student’s “Non-Fiction Conventions Notebook” (See Attachment: 4.5 Other Evidence – Nonfiction Conventions Notebook) in order for them to decide what types of conventions they want in their own book  Students create word web of ideas for each photograph based on information from questions (See Attachment: 4.5 Graphic Organizer – Word Web)  From the information in their clusters, students use poster from their Non-Fiction comparison project to decide which type of structure best fits the information  Students use paragraph check list (See Attachment: 4.5 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist) to revise and edit work using a dictionary and thesaurus  Backwards spell check: read the writing from the last word to the first in order to isolate each word. This helps to locate spelling errors  Students can use shared writing to collaboratively create a non-fiction piece of writing Sample Lessons  Creating Background Knowledge and Predictions through Non-Fiction & Drawing (See Attachment: 4.5 Sample Lesson – Creating Background Knowledge) June 2011 32

4.5 Non-Fiction Study: Creating a Non-Fiction Book About Me Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks  Text Structure of Non-Fiction (See Attachment: 4.5 Sample Lesson – Text Structure of Non-Fiction) Additional Resources  Article on Non-Fiction Structure (See Attachment: 4.5 Resource – Non-Fiction Structure Article)  Explore non-fiction through Gail Gibbons Books (See Attachment: 4.5 Resource – Explore Gail Gibbons) Literature Connections  Magic School Bus Series  “Coral Reef,” “Frogs” and “Dinosaurs” by Gail Gibbons  Note: Gail Gibbons has many additional titles that provide great examples of non-fiction text structures  Time Magazine for kids online: http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/teachers/ns/0,27955,101105,00.html

June 2011 33 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

4.6 Family Interviews Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will study non-fiction texts such as newspapers and magazines to classify fact and opinion, and compare and contrast expository versus narrative forms of biographies. They will explore the genre of biography and conduct interviews of their family members in order to write the biography of a family member. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.4.4 Applies correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds of narrative texts. Reading R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text. R.4.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text; makes predictions and connections. R.4.6 Identifies differences between fiction and nonfiction; identifies main idea or topic and fact and opinion in informational text. Writing W.4.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to write descriptive and narrative paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  The setting and environment where we grow up can create challenges that shape who we are.  My family’s history is a part of who I am.  Good readers can determine the truth of a text by finding the facts in a text and recognizing opinion. Content (Students will know…)  Correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds of narrative texts (i.e. sequence cues such as first, second, third, then, next, last, finally)  Examples of fact and opinion in newspapers or magazines (letter to the editor, editorial, article)  Elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing Content Vocabulary  Fact  Opinion  Article June 2011 Essential Questions:  Who would I be without my family?  How does where you grow up effect who you are?  How do writers choose their words?  Can a story be “true”?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Identify the main character and setting within narrative and expository text  Use story organization of beginning, middle, and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text (i.e. telling someone’s story through reading or writing their biography)  Make connections (between self and subject of a biography, between different subjects in biographies)  Describe how a setting affects a person in a biography (i.e. what challenges did this person have to face growing up?)  Identify differences between fiction and 34

4.6 Family Interviews Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Editorial  Letter to the editor  Biography  Obstacle  Struggle  Impact  Influence  Challenge Performance Tasks: Comparing Biographies Create and present a poster that compares and contrasts two biographies that follow a narrative and expository structure  With a partner, read two biographies, write a paragraph summary that uses main idea and details for each. Prewrite using hamburger organizer (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Hamburger Paragraph)  Use Venn Diagram that compares and contrasts the two people (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram)  Create a sequence of events of the people’s lives (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Timeline)  Find facts from both texts and create opinions from the facts (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Fact and Opinion)  Write a paragraph where the pair evaluates which style (expository or narrative) they prefer for biographies Biography of a Family Member Write a biography on a family member based on an interview using the 5W’s. Students will use sequence words to tell a parent or family member’s 2 to 3 paragraph biography. For question ideas, see attachment: 4.6 Performance Task – Question Ideas.  From the interview, create a sequence of events of the people’s lives (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Story Map)  The beginning of the biography can be about the family member’s childhood, the middle about an obstacle in their life, and the end is June 2011

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nonfiction Identify main idea or topic in informational text Identify fact and opinion in informational text

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 4.6 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Alphabetical Order of Vocabulary words in journal  Pair reading fluency check and running records (See Attachment: 4.6 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)  Word Squares based on words on word wall (See Attachment: 4.6 Other Evidence – Word Square)  Dialogue Journal for examples of how the setting created a challenge or shaped the person in a biography (See Attachment: 4.6 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal Rubric)

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4.6 Family Interviews Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks how they overcame it, and what they do now.  Have students decide whether or not to use an expository or a narrative form in their biography  Revision: Students conference with the partner to ask questions (5W’s) if the paragraph is unclear and lacks details  Peer Edit: Use paragraph check list (See Attachment: 4.6 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist)  Create an illustrated cover of a portrait of the family member Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities  Model with the students how to organize a fictional narrative story into a Beginning/Middle/End Story Map (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Story Map)  Use transition words (first, then, next, so, finally) in your writing. Create a poster of transition words for beginning, middle, end that students will use as a reference to when they sequence stories and in their writing project.  With a partner, have students complete the “who wanted but so” plot summary for a fictional narrative before beginning the biography unit. This way students can compare a fictional text to a non-fiction text (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Somebody Wanted To But)  Fact vs. Opinion: students work in partners in order to find fact and opinions in a biography using notebook or graphic organizer (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Fact and Opinion)  Make connections to self, text, world with a person featured in a biography. Students can use a dialogue journal (See Attachment: Other Evidence – 4.6 Dialogue Journal) to write down connections to the text. Students will review the three types of connections that are glued in their journal (See Attachment: 4.6 Reading Tool – Cue Cards)  Read aloud a biography and find examples of how the person was affected by his/her setting, have students find examples and write in their dialogue journal connections and predictions based on the setting’s impact  Take a paragraph from the biography and find the main idea of the paragraph and supporting details. First do this as class, then with partners, then individually (for an assessment) “Sandwich” Main idea and details (See Attachment: 4.6 Graphic Organizer – Hamburger Paragraph)  Create a t-chart to compare editorials and news articles to compare facts vs. opinions Sample Lessons  Lessons on Researching and giving an Oral Presentation on a Biography: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/biography-project-researchclass-243.html?tab=4#tabs  Lessons on exploring and sharing family stories through interviews: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/exploring-sharing-familystories-805.html?tab=1#tabs Additional Resources  Non-Fiction Structure (See Attachment: 4.6 Resource – Non-Fiction Structure)  Question Ideas (See Attachment: 4.6 Resource – Question Ideas) June 2011 36 Adapted from Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe

4.6 Family Interviews Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Literature Connections  Harvesting Hope: The Story of Cesar Chavez by Kathleen Krull (narrative)  Malcolm X: A Fire Burning Brightly by Walter Dean Myers (narrative)  Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. by Doreen Rappaport (narrative)  Moses: When Harriet Tubman Led Her People to Freedom by Carole Boston Weatherford  My name is Celia / Mi Nombre es Celia by Monica Brown

June 2011 37 Adapted from Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe

4.7 Exploring Story Elements, Organization and Setting Through Narratives Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary Through the reading of a variety of fairy tale stories, students will analyze the elements of narrative story organization and setting to create their own narrative writing piece. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.4.4 Applies correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds of narrative text. Reading R.4.4 Identifies the main character(s), compares and contrasts character traits, and identifies setting within narrative and expository text. R.4.5 Uses story organization of beginning, middle and end to identify sequence within narrative and expository text; makes predictions and connections. Writing W.4.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to write descriptive and narrative paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Making connections to what we read helps us understand who we are.  There are “rules” for good story-telling.  Setting can change the mood of a story.  Stories often teach lessons. Content (Students will know…)  Story organization within a narrative: beginning, middle and end  Elements of narrative text (once upon a time/happily ever after, the structure of a fairy tale) Content Vocabulary  Setting  Plot  Problem  Solution  Structure  Main character  Minor character Essential Questions:  How do stories help us understand ourselves and others?  How are good stories organized?  Why does setting matter?  Does “happily ever after” really exist? Skills (Students will be able to…)  Apply correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds of narrative text (i.e. the structure of fairy tales)  Listen and respond during a read-aloud from a variety of narrative texts (fairy tales) to improve comprehension  Identify main character and setting in fairy tales and other narrative stories  Use story organization of beginning, middle and end to identify sequence within narrative (i.e. fairy tales)  Identify elements in narrative forms of writing (once upon a time, happily ever after, etc.)  Use a variety of sentence types to write narrative paragraphs in fairy tales Other Evidence:  Character maps of the main character (See Attachment: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Character Map)  Journal reflections on fairy tales 38

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Sequence & Story Organization in Fairy Tales  Read the traditional version of the story, “Cinderella” aloud to the class (See Attachment: 4.7 Text – Cinderella if you do June 2011

4.7 Exploring Story Elements, Organization and Setting Through Narratives Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks not have access to book)  As you read aloud, pause to clarify new vocabulary and ask students questions about the text, characters and setting. Show illustrations of the story to help students understand the text (See Attachment: 4.7 Text – Cinderella Illustrations if you do not have access to book)  At the end of the story, have students complete a sequence chart retelling what happens in the beginning, middle and end of the story. Assess the completed sequence chart for accuracy (See Attachment: 4.7 Performance Task – Cinderella Sequencing)  Have students share their sequence charts with a partner and have them share aloud what was different or similar about their sequence charts. Explain to students that when you retell a story from beginning to end, it doesn’t always have to be the same, but it must include the main parts of the story. Analyzing Setting in Fairy Tales  Read aloud the story titled, “Cendrillon,” by Robert D. San Souci, which is a Caribbean version of Cinderella. Ask students questions about the setting to help students understand the text.  After reading the story, ask students to think about the similarities and differences between “Cinderella” and “Cendrillon.” Record student responses on the board.  Next, ask students to do an illustration of the setting for each story. Along with the setting, have students complete a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the settings of the two stories (See Attachments: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram and 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Compare and Contrast). Have them write a paragraph describing the similarities and differences between the two settings. Have students share their setting illustrations, Venn diagrams and paragraphs with the class. You may have them work with a partner to complete the illustrations and the Venn diagrams and have them June 2011

 Journal entries on story ideas (brainstorming)  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 4.7 Other Evidence - Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Alphabetical Order of Vocabulary words in journal  Pair reading fluency check and running records (See Attachment: 4.7 Other Evidence – Paired Fluency Check)  Word Squares based on words on word wall (See Attachment: 4.7 Other Evidence – Word Square)

39

4.7 Exploring Story Elements, Organization and Setting Through Narratives Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks complete the paragraphs individually. Once Upon A Time…My Own Fairy Tale  Have students work in pairs to rewrite the classic fairy tale of Cinderella and update it to modern times.  Have students plot the story elements of their version of Cinderella (See Attachment: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Story Map). For example, for setting, tell them that it can be set in their hometown or the characters can be updated, which can change the plotline.  Have students illustrate each part of the story (character, setting, problem, plot and resolution) to create an illustrated fairy tale. Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Identifying Main Character  Have students create a Facebook page of the main character from a story (See Attachment: 4.7 Learning Activity – Facebook Page)  Compare and contrast characters from fairy tales using a Venn Diagram (See Attachment: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram) or a other organizer (See Attachment: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Compare and Contrast)  Complete Web organizers about the main character (See Attachment: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Character Map) Setting  Ask students to rewrite one of their favorite stories changing the setting  Have students illustrate the settings of the stories they read or give them a picture and have them write a story using the picture as the setting to their story Narrative Elements/ Story Organization  Have students compare and contrast a story map of two stories using a Venn diagram (See Attachment: 4.7 Graphic Organizer – Venn Diagram)  Give students the beginning and the end of a story and ask them to complete the story making sure that it follows elements of narrative text (setting, character, problem, plot and resolution) Sample Lessons  Setting development: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/usingpicture-books-teach-a-107.html?tab=4#tabs  Story structure and fairy tales: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/teaching-about-story-structure-874.html?tab=4#tabs  Rewriting fairy tales: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/onceupon-time-rethought-853.html?tab=4#tabs Additional Resources  Resource on narrative writing (See Attachment: 4.7 Resource – Narrative Writing)  Resources on activities to teach character analysis (See Attachment: 4.7 Resource – Character Analysis) June 2011 40

4.7 Exploring Story Elements, Organization and Setting Through Narratives Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks  Resources on activities to teach setting (See Attachment: 4.7 Resource – Setting)  Resources on activities to teach plot (See Attachment: 4.7 Resource – Plot)  Novels and picture books to support the unit (See Attachments: 4.7 Resource – List of Novels and 4.7 Resource – List of Picture Books)  Transition Phrases (See Attachment: 4.7 Resource – Transition Phrases)  Elements of Setting (See Attachment: 4.7 Resource – Elements of Setting) Literature Connections  Magic Stream: The Fairy Tale by Regina Garson (See Attachment: 4.7 Literature Connections – Magic Stream)  Beauty and the Beast  Goldilocks and the Three Bears  Hansel and Gretel  Little Red Riding Hood  Sleeping Beauty

June 2011 41 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

English as a Second Language
Attachments Grade 4

42

4.1 Graphic Organizer About Me Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________________ Date ________________________________

Source: edHelper.com

43

4.1 Graphic Organizer 5 W’s Chart Subject: ESL Name _______________________________________ Date ___________________________________ Five W’s Chart Fill in each row with details that answer the question.

What happened?

Who was there?

Why did it happen?

When did it happen?

Where did it happen?

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/5Ws.pdf 44

4.1 Graphic Organizer Word Web Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Cluster/Word Web Write your topic in the center circle and details in the smaller circles. Add circles as needed.

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/cluster.pdf 45

4.1 Learning Activity Word Wall Ideas Subject: ESL  Point, Clap, Chant. The teacher states the word, one student points to the word on the word wall and then all students chant the letters of the word and clap for each letter.  Rhymes. The students take their notebooks out and when the teacher states the word, the student tries to write 1-3 rhyming words in their notebook. The teacher then lets the students say their rhyming words.  Alphabetical Order. Depending on the number of word wall words, students can alphabetize all of them or they can alphabetize the first 20 or last 20 words.  Sign Language. This works best when the sign language pictures are also available. The children use sign language to spell the word the teacher says. A terrific inclusive activity!  Add an ending (s, ed, ing). The students take out their notebooks and add endings to each of the words where appropriate.  Vowel Play. The students can write the words and underline all the vowels, or decide if the vowels are long, short or controlled by another letter (star - r controlled vowel and neither long nor short)  Peer test. Students take turns testing each other on the spelling of each of the words  Scavenger Hunt. Use old magazines or newspapers. Students try to locate as many of the word wall words as they can, they can cut them out and paste them into their books.  Change a letter. Students try to make new words by changing just one letter. This can be a fun, challenging activity that can also be played in teams.  Word wall stories. Students use as many of the word wall words as they can to write a story. This too can be quite a challenge to ensure that the story makes sense yet still uses many of the words.  Guess the word wall word. Students work with partners and draw the word with their finger on their partner's back. When the student guesses the word, they trade places. (Great for tactile learners)  Letters or syllables. The teacher states the word and the student then hold up the right number of fingers to show the number of letters or the number of syllables.  Missing word. This one can be really fun. The teacher gives a sentence that is missing a word wall word and the students have to guess what the word is. For instance, if the word wall word is 'at', the teacher could say, "Who was _____ the park yesterday?" The teacher could have students state the word orally by turn, or have them do the activity in their notebooks. The activity could then be taken up after the dictation.  Guess my word wall word. This activity can be done in a couple of ways. The teacher gets the students to number off from 1 to 10 in their notebooks and gives clues about the word. For instance: "The word I'm thinking about rhymes with _____ and has 1 syllable and 4 letters." The student then writes down what they believe the word is. The other method is to do the activity orally and let a student point to the word on the word wall.  Word wall Bingo. Students always love a good game of bingo. In this activity, the students write down a stated number of word wall words, 10, 15 or 20. The teacher then randomly states the names of some of the word wall words. As she says the words, the students underline the word or put a chip over the word. The first one to have their words read out by the teacher first is the winner.  Word wall snap. The class forms 2 lines. The teacher is in front of the 2 lines. The teacher points to a word wall (or uses the word wall cards), the first student to say the word remains in front of the line. The other student goes to the back of the line and the 2 students in front continue on.

Source: http://specialed.about.com/od/wordwalls/a/morewordwalls.htm 46

4.1 Learning Activity Word Wall Ideas Subject: ESL  Sounds like.... The teacher says a word that sounds like the word wall word, for instance in the case of 'are' the teacher would say "sounds like far" and the students write down what they think the word wall is. This one can also be played orally.

Source: http://specialed.about.com/od/wordwalls/a/morewordwalls.htm 47

4.1 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Rubric Subject: ESL

Name ____________________________________ Date ______________________________ Rubric for Reading Dialogue Journals
Score Student's Response Demonstrates Complete response with support  Includes a personal and specific response  Uses evidence from the text  Focuses on important ideas  Provides thoughtful responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that student read the assigned reading with full comprehension Adequate response with some support  Includes a general response  Uses some evidence from the text  Focuses on less important ideas  Shows some thoughtfulness in responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Somewhat reflects that the student read the assigned reading with some comprehension Limited response with little support  Includes a superficial response, such as “It was funny” Uses little or no evidence from the text  Focuses on details rather than important ideas  Shows limited thoughtfulness in responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that the student did not complete nor comprehend the assigned reading No response to text  Includes disconnected story details  Fails to include personal response to the story  Is incomplete or too short  Shows little or no thoughtfulness and provides no questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that the student did not complete any of the assigned reading No response

4

3

2

1

0

Source: edCount, LLC

48

4.1 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: __________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

49

4.1 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Text: __________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

50

4.1 Other Evidence Homophones Assessment Subject: ESL Name______________________________________ Date__________________________

Homophones quiz! Which word goes where?
Instructions: Underline the clues that help you solve which homophone goes into the blank. Then, write the correct homophone in the blank. YOU MUST SPELL IT CORRECTLY FOR FULL CREDIT. Misspelled homophones = - ½ point Group one: There, their, they’re 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I just heard that _____________ all going to the football game tonight. All of a sudden, _______________ was a rustling in the bushes. Last week, Sam went to _____________ picnic and had a great time. I just spoke to your mother, and she said _______________ going to the zoo tomorrow. At what time will you get _______________ ? _________________ friends are always a funny group of people.

Group two: which, witch 7. 8. 9. 10. ______________ person went to the office without a pass? I will dress up as a ________________ for Halloween. Elizabeth was a small girl, ___________ helped her sneak past the security guards. A warlock is a male version of a ________________.

Group three: to, too, two 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. There are _________ many mosquitoes in Washington, DC! All of a sudden, ___________ Great Blue Herons emerged from the cattails. Jason has been _______ Missoula ____________, and he loved it! Going _______ the metro from my house requires me ______ take a bus. Sandy ate _______ much candy this Halloween, and now her stomach hurts. ____________ students walked ________ the 7-11 after school.

Group Four: are, our 17. 18. 19. 20. ________ special family recipes are a secret. Three chaperones _______ joining us on this field trip. Four score and seven years ago, ____________ founding fathers gathered…. ___________ you going to Harper’s Ferry this year?

Source: edCount, LLC

51

4.1 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 52

4.1 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

53

4.1 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inventory Chart Subject: ESL Name: _______________________ Date: _______________

Vocabulary Inventory Chart
Good Readers can identify an unknown word. From a selection of vocabulary words, write the vocabulary words into the column that shares how well you know the word.

I know and can use the word

I kind of know this word

I have heard or seen it

I don’t know this word

Source: Adapted from Words, Words, Words by Janet Allen 1

4.1 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL

Name ________________________________________ Date _____________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot 1

4.1 Performance Task Write a Dialogue Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________ How to Write a Script! There are three bodies of a script: headings, narrative and dialogue. Each of these has important points to remember. Headings include:  Camera location - EXT. (exterior or outside) or INT. (interior or inside)  Scene location (SCHOOL HOUSE)  Time (DAY or NIGHT) Narrative describes:  Action (what is happening)  Character and settings (visual)  Sounds (in the background/music) Dialogue is printed in the center of the page, with:  The name of the person speaking appears at the top, in CAPITAL LETTERS.  The actors direction (AKA angry, disappointed).  The speech. Putting all this together you should come up with something that looks like this:

INT. WELTON ACADEMY HALLWAY - DAY

This is a HEADING

A young boy, dressed in a school uniform and cap, fidgets as his mother adjusts his tie. MOTHER Now remember, keep your shoulders back. A student opens up a case and removes a set of bagpipes. The young boy and his brother line up for a photograph PHOTOGRAPHER Okay, put your arm around your brother. That's it. And breathe in. This is the DIALOGUE The young boy blinks as the flash goes off. PHOTOGRAPHR Okay, one more. This is the NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION

56

4.1 Performance Task Write a Dialogue Subject: ESL Heading:

Narrative (description of what the audience sees):

Dialogue:

Narration:

57

4.1 Reading Tool Cue Card Subject: ESL

Making Connections Cue Cards

Source: time4teachers.com

58

4.1 Resource Printable Homophones Sheet Subject: ESL

Homophones Sheet

Source: http://www.imaginativeteacher.com/uploads/Homophones_pack.jpg 1

4.1 Sample Lesson To Be A Butterfly Subject: ESL Aim: What is a homophone? Definition: Homophones are words that sound the same, but have different meanings and are spelled differently. Motivation: Students will be asked what they think a homophone is. Encourage each student to think of the word homophone as a compound word - two whole words put together to form a new word. Ask the students to separate the word. Homo - ask students what they think the word "homo" means. Phone - ask students what they think the word "phone" means. Since homo and phone are both Greek words, this should be especially easy for students who are familiar with the Greek language. Be sure to inform students that homophone is a word that we use from the Greek language. If students aren’t able to figure out what homo and phone mean, then tell them. Homo = same Phone = sound Homophones = words that sound the same, but have different meanings and are spelled differently Engagement Activity: Each student will be given a puzzle piece with a homophone word on it. Students must go around and find the puzzle piece or homophone that matches his/her own. You may want to put children in a circle to avoid confusion. Once children find their partner or missing puzzle piece, they will get together and create two sentences with their two homophone words. Children will write the sentences on their dry erase boards. (Comprehension, Application, Synthesis, & Evaluation) Development: 1. Begin lesson with the motivation. (Knowledge, Comprehension, & Analysis) 2. Have students try to name at least three examples of homophones. (Knowledge) 3. Explain to students that homophones are sometimes tricky words. Tell students it is important that they should know how homophones are spelled and most importantly, they should use context clues to help figure out the meaning of the word. Let students know that they will be learning several different homophones during this lesson. 4. Introduce the poem To Be a Butterfly by Christine Thies. Tell students there are a few (5) homophones within the poem. a. Read the poem to the class. b. In a choral reading style, read the poem as a class. c. Ask students to find the homophones in the poem. Have students come up and circle the homophones they find in the poem. (Knowledge) 5. At this point, be sure to clarify any confusion the children may have about homophones. Tell students that they will play a fun game using homophones. Conduct engagement activity. Give approximately 5-7 minutes to complete the engagement activity. (Comprehension, Application, Synthesis, & Evaluation) 60

4.1 Sample Lesson To Be A Butterfly Subject: ESL 6. Finally, after engagement activity, have students share his/her homophone words and sentences with the class. If time permits, try to define each homophone. (Evaluation) To Be a Butterfly By Christine Thies \/ Sometimes I wish that I could fly, High in the sky like a butterfly. Oh, how nice it would be To soar above the big blue sea, Saying "hi" to all that I can see Like the dragonfly and buzzing bee; To hear the wind as I flap my wings, And listen as two lovebirds sing, Flying here and there around the sky, Oh, how I wish that I could fly

61

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

62

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

63

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

64

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

65

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

66

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

67

4.1Text Grandma Torrelli Makes Soup Subject: ESL

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/clubs/pdfs/grannytorrellimakessoup_t.pdf 7

4.1 Writing Tool Dolch List Subject: ESL DOLCH WORDS - FOURTH GRADE above across address ago air airplane almost also ant awake bad bake banana bath beans beat began bend beside between bill bit blow bone born bottom bowl brave breakfast brick broke broken button camp cap care careful case cause center chimney chin city clock cloud cook cool count country course cover creek cross cup dead dear deer desk different dime dirty dream drop dry enough even eye family feather feel felt few field fight finger foot fresh front fur gift gold gone gray grew hair half hall hang heavy herself hid himself hole hundred hung hungry kitten knew knife knock lake land lap large late lead leaf learn leave leaves led left lift line listen lost loud march mark matter mean meat meet middle Miss most mouth Mr. nine nothing number outside page pail path pay peas pen pencil people pie piece place plain plant plate pond poor pot press queen question quick quiet radio ready real remember rich river sea seat seem seen send shake shine shook should shut side silver skin sky slip slow smile smoke soap socks soft something sometime sound soup space spot stairs stand station stay still such suit supper suppose sure sweep sweet teach teeth than thin thought through throw till tired trade tried true twelve wake wall wave wear week west wheel while whisper win wing winter

4.1 Writing Tool Dolch List Subject: ESL brought bug building built busy dust early east edge else kept kick kill king kiss Mrs. nap neck need nice rock roof row sand save sting stood story straight strong without wonder wool world yard yet

4.1 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC

71

4.2 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

72

4.2 Graphic Organizer Word Web Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Cluster/Word Web Write your topic in the center circle and details in the smaller circles. Add circles as needed.

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/cluster.pdf 1

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Analysis: Letter Sounds Self Check Subject: ESL Recognizing Letter Sounds Steps Monitor Your Work

1: Say the word aloud.

2: Say the sound of the underlined letter aloud.

3: Compare the word to the sample word.

4: Write the word in the correct group.

Recognizing Letter Sounds Steps Monitor Your Work

1: Say the word aloud.

2: Say the sound of the underlined letter aloud.

3: Compare the word to the sample word.

4: Write the word in the correct group.

74 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Pattern Analysis: Long A Short A (2) Subject: ESL Long and Short “A” Pattern Analysis Directions: Write the letter “c” above the consonants and “v” above the vowels. Then, write the consonants and vowels pattern in the pattern analysis column. Pattern Analysis Pattern Analysis back space flash frame

Name: _________________________ Date: __________________________ Pattern Analysis rain brain oddball said Pattern Analysis

black

place

paint

want

rash

blame

train

have

camp

state

main

was

stand

paste

faint

bat

trace

pain

crass

rake

chain

stamp Short a Pattern

base Long a Silent e Pattern

tail Long ai Pattern Oddball Pattern

75 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Pattern Analysis: Long A Short A Subject: ESL Long and Short “A” Pattern Analysis Directions: Write the letter “c” above the consonants and “v” above the vowels. Then, write the consonants and vowels pattern in the pattern analysis column. Pattern Analysis Pattern Analysis back space

Name: _________________________ Date: __________________________ Pattern Analysis rain oddball Pattern Analysis

Short a Pattern

Long a Silent e Pattern

Long ai Pattern

Oddball Pattern

76 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Pattern Analysis: Long E Short E Subject: ESL Long and Short “e” Pattern Analysis Directions: Write the letter “c” above the consonants and “v” above the vowels. Then, write the consonants and vowels pattern in the pattern analysis column. fresh CVCC clean CVVC oddball

Name: _________________________ Date: __________________________ Pattern Analysis Write Your Own Words

Short e Pattern

Long e Pattern

Oddball Pattern

77 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Pattern Analysis: Long I Short I Subject: ESL Long and Short “I”; long “a” Pattern Analysis Directions: Write the letter “c” above the consonants and “v” above the vowels. Then, write the consonants and vowels pattern in the pattern analysis column. Pattern Pattern kiss CVCC time CVCe

Name: _________________________ Date: __________________________ rain CVVC Write Your Own Words

Short i Pattern

Long i Pattern

Oddball Pattern

78 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Pattern Analysis: Long O Short O Subject: ESL Long and Short “o” Pattern Analysis Directions: Write the letter “c” above the consonants and “v” above the vowels. Then, write the consonants and vowels pattern in the pattern analysis column. Pattern CVC Pattern CVCC

Name: _________________________ Date: __________________________ Pattern CVCe Write your short O examples Write your long O examples

box

lost

close

Short “o” Pattern

short “o” Pattern

Long o silent e Pattern

79 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Learning Activity Phonemic Pattern Analysis: Long U Short U Subject: ESL Long and Short “U” Pattern Analysis Directions: Write the letter “c” above the consonants and “v” above the vowels. Then, write the consonants and vowels pattern in the pattern analysis column. Pattern CVCe Patterns CVC (CVCC)

Name: _________________________ Date: __________________________ New Pattern CVV (ew) Write your short U examples Write your long U examples

Cute

Sun or Much

Short “o” Pattern

short “o” Pattern

Long o silent e Pattern

80 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Rubric Subject: ESL Name ____________________________________ Date ______________________________ Rubric for Reading Dialogue Journals Score Student's Response Demonstrates Complete response with support  Includes a personal and specific response  Uses evidence from the text  Focuses on important ideas  Provides thoughtful responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that student read the assigned reading with full comprehension Adequate response with some support  Includes a general response  Uses some evidence from the text  Focuses on less important ideas  Shows some thoughtfulness in responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Somewhat reflects that the student read the assigned reading with some comprehension Limited response with little support  Includes a superficial response, such as “It was funny” Uses little or no evidence from the text  Focuses on details rather than important ideas  Shows limited thoughtfulness in responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that the student did not complete nor comprehend the assigned reading No response to text  Includes disconnected story details  Fails to include personal response to the story  Is incomplete or too short  Shows little or no thoughtfulness and provides no questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that the student did not complete any of the assigned reading No response

4

3

2

1

0

Source: edCount, LLC

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4.2 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 1

4.2 Other Evidence Phonemic Word Pattern Assessment Subject: ESL Name: ________________________ Date: _________________________

Directions: As you read each of the following words, on the left column right whether the underline letter is a long or short vowel. See number one for an example. Words 1. BAKE 2. MEAT 3. DEAL 4. STATE 5. CHAIN 6. DREAM 7. CLASS 8. DRESS 9. SELF 10. RASH 11. FAME 12. STRESS 13. WEST 14. FAINT 15. BASE 16. DESK 17. BLAME 18. SEEK 19. DRENCH 20. CAMP Pattern 1. CVCe 2. ________ 3. ________ 4. ________ 5. ________ 6. ________ 7. ________ 8. ________ 9. ________ 10. ________ 11. ________ 12. ________ 13. ________ 14. ________ 15. ________ 16. ________ 17. ________ 18. ________ 19. ________ 20. ________ Long vowel or Short vowel 1. Long A 2. _________ 3. _________ 4. _________ 5. _________ 6. _________ 7. _________ 8. _________ 9. _________ 10. _________ 11. _________ 12. _________ 13. _________ 14. _________ 15. _________ 16. _________ 17. _________ 18. _________ 19. _________ 20. _________

83 Source: Adapted from Words Their Way: Word Study for Vocabulary and Spelling Instructions by Donal R. Bear, Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston

4.2 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL

Name ________________________________________ Date _____________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot 1

4.2 Performance Task Readers Response Example Subject: ESL 9/8/11 Dear Class of 5B, Currently I am reading the book, The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros. It’s a realistic fiction novel on the life of a young Latina girl named Esperanza, who is growing up in Chicago. She’s a really funny girl because she dislikes her name and prefers to be called “Zeze the X”! I wonder why! I predict she is a bit weird and wants to be mysterious. I already am enjoying it because of the way Sandra Cisneros writes. She uses lots of metaphors so her writing sounds like poetry. For example, when Esperanza talks about how she feels around her younger sister, Nenny, she says she feels like a “red balloon tied to an anchor.” When I read that, I visualized it and it seemed like a funny image. But then I re-read and I’m inferring that Esperanza feels like Nenny weighs her down (like an anchor) because she is younger, and doesn’t let Esperanza explore the way she wants to. I am a younger sister, so I wonder if my brother felt that way about me. I hope not! So far, I’m enjoying the book. I’ll let you know if my prediction of Esperanza being a weirdo is true! Sincerely, 4. Make Connections  Share how the book reminds you of your life, other books, or the real world! 5. Evaluate  Do you like how the author writes? Why?  Why is the author writing this? For entertainment? To inform? To persuade? Why? Find out! 1. Make Predictions As you read, use the clues in the book to guess what will happen next. Then read to find out you were right! Share if you were or not! 2.     3. Ask Questions What will the character do next? Why are these things happening? Who is that person? Is this important? Why? Make Inferences

(Inferences are like predictions based on clues in the book. It’s what detectives do to solve mysteries. They infer from the clues!)  Make inferences about how the character feels  Make an inferences about how the story will change  Make an inference about why the character does something

Using Reading Strategies in your Reader’s Response Letter These Reading Strategies help make your letter come alive by showing how you are THINKING as you read your book! Source: edCount, LLC 85

4.2 Resource Fluency Subject: ESL

Developing Reading Fluency
Fluent reading is reading in which words are recognized automatically. With automatic word recognition, reading becomes faster, smoother, and more expressive, and students can begin to read silently, which is roughly twice as fast as oral reading. But beginning readers usually do not read fluently; reading is often a word-by-word struggle. How do we help children struggling with slow, painstaking sounding out and blending? Support and encourage them. Effortful decoding is a necessary step to sight recognition. You can say, "I know reading is tough right now, but this is how you learn new words." Ask students to reread each sentence that requires unusual decoding effort. In general, the fluency formula is this: Read and reread decodable words in connected text. Decode unknown words rather than guessing from context. Reread to master texts. Use text with words children can decode using known correspondences. Use whole, engaging texts to sustain interest. There are two general approaches to improving fluency. The direct approach involves modeling and practice with repeated reading under time pressure. The indirect approach involves encouraging children to read voluntarily in their free time. The direct approach: Repeated readings. We often restrict reading lessons to "sight reading." Who could learn a musical instrument by only sight-reading music and never repeating pieces until they could be played in rhythm, up to tempo, with musical expression? In repeated reading, children work on reading as they would work at making music: They continue working with each text until it is fluent. Repeated reading works best with readers who are full alphabetic, i.e., who know how to decode some words. Use a passage of 100 words or so at the instructional level. The text should be decodable, not predictable. The reader might select a favorite from among familiar books. Here are two ways to frame repeated reading. 1. Graph how fast students read with a "one-minute read." Graphing is motivating because it makes progress evident. The basic procedure is to have your student read for one minute, count the number of words read, and graph the result with a childfriendly graph, e.g., moving a basketball player closer to a slam dunk. Aim for speed, not accuracy. Time each reading with a stopwatch— if available, use the countdown timer, with its quiet beeping signal, rather than saying "stop," which can be startling. It is important in one-minute reads to emphasize speed rather than accuracy. Over repeated readings, speed in WPM will increase and errors will decrease. If you emphasize accuracy, speed falls off.

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4.2 Resource Fluency Subject: ESL I recommend you get a baseline reading first. A realistic average goal for a first grade reader is 60 WPM, but adjust the goal to your student's level—30 WPM may be plenty for very slow readers, and 120 WPM may be an appropriate challenge for others. Laminate your chart, and place a scale in erasable marker to the right. When the goal is reached, raise the bar 5 WPM for the next book, which requires a new scale on your graph. To speed up the word count, mark off every 10 words in light pencil so that you can count by tens. Subtract a word for each miscue so accuracy is not totally abandoned. Continue to support reading in ordinary ways: Ask a question or make a comment about story events after each reading to keep a meaning focus. Collect miscue notes to analyze for missing correspondences.

Children enjoy one-minute reads because their success is evident. They will ask you if they can read the passage again! 2. Use check sheets for partner readings. With a class of children, pair up readers to respond to one another. Begin by explaining what you'll be listening for. Model fluent and nonfluent reading. For example, show the difference between smooth and choppy reading. Show how expressive readers make their voices go higher and lower, faster and slower, louder and softer. In each pair, students take turns being the reader and the listener. The reader reads a selection three times. The listener gives a report after the second and third readings. All reports are complimentary. No criticism or advice is allowed.

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4.2 Resource Fluency Subject: ESL The indirect approach: Voluntary reading. Sustained silent reading (SSR, a.k.a. DEAR, "drop everything and read") gives children a daily opportunity to read and discover the pleasure of reading. Each student chooses a book or magazine, and the entire class reads for a set period of time each day. SSR has been shown to lead to more positive attitudes toward reading and to gains in reading achievement when peer discussion groups discuss the books they read. When students share their reactions to books with classmates, they get recommendations from peers they take seriously. Tierney, Readence, and Dishner, in Reading Strategies and Practices (Allyn & Bacon, 1990, pp. 461-462) list three "cardinal rules" for SSR: a. Everybody reads. Both students and teacher will read something of their own choosing. Any text that keeps the reader interested is acceptable. The teacher reads too. Completing homework assignments, grading papers, and similar activities are discouraged. I recommend teachers read children's books so they can participate in discussions and give booktalks for their students. b. There are to be no interruptions during USSR. The word uninterrupted is an essential part of the technique. Interruptions result in loss of comprehension and loss of interest by many students; therefore, questions and comments should be held until the silent reading period has concluded. c. No one will be asked to report what they have read. It is essential that students recognize SSR is a period of free reading, with the emphasis on reading for enjoyment. Teachers should not require book reports, journal entries, or anything other than free reading. Do not give grades for SSR. d. One landmark study of SSR* showed that reading gains from SSR depend on setting up discussion groups and other peer interactions around texts. In other words, students need to talk with one another about the books they are reading to motivate a significant increase in reading. With regular opportunities to discuss books, students learn about good books and read more because they want to read what their peers are reading. They usually experience peer pressure to read in order to be able to have something to say to their friends. In this way, reading becomes part of the culture of the classroom. Manning, C. L., & Manning, M. (1984). What models of recreational reading make a difference? Reading World, 23, 375-380. Other essentials for encouraging voluntary reading include a plentiful library of books and frequent opportunities to choose. Children should be allowed and encouraged to read page turners (e.g., easy series books) rather than the classics for their independent reading. For gaining fluency, quantity is more important than quality. Book introductions help children make informed decisions about what they want to read. For an effective booktalk, choose a book you like. Show the illustrations to the students. Give a brief talk, hitting the high points: the setting, characters, and the inciting incident leading to the problem or goal. Do not get into the plot, and especially not the resolution! If there is no clear plot, ask a have-you-ever question (e.g., Have you ever been afraid of the dark?) and relate the question to the book. Good booktalks often feature some oral reading, e.g., of a suspenseful part.

88 Source: http://www.auburn.edu/~murraba/fluency.html

4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL

What is a Running Record? A running record allows you to assess a student's reading performance as she/he reads from a benchmark book. Benchmark books are books selected for running record assessment purposes. A running record form, with text from the book printed on the form, accompanies each of the benchmark books. Only the first 100 -150 words of the longer benchmark books are used for the upper level running records. A blank running record form is supplied for teachers who wish to perform running records on books other than the benchmark books or for additional text from the upper level benchmark books. There are conflicting views on whether students should be assessed using a book they have never read versus using a book they are familiar with. We believe using a book that has not been previously read will give a more accurate measure of a student's ability to handle text at the assessed level. For this reason, we provide two benchmark books at each level: one fiction and one non-fiction. You can always opt to read the book before doing a running record if you prefer using previously-read text for your running record. After completing a running record, you may want to assess a student's comprehension of the book read. Reading A-Z provides Retelling Rubrics for this purpose. Both fiction and non-fiction Retelling Rubrics are provided. Taking a Running Record Running records are taken most often at the earlier stages of reading. Students who are not progressing at the expected rate should be assessed even more frequently than the schedule suggested below.     Early Emergent readers (Levels aa – C): every 2 to 4 weeks Emergent readers (Levels D – J): every 4 to 6 weeks Early fluent readers (Levels K – P): every 6 to 8 weeks Fluent readers (Levels Q – Z): every 8 to 10 weeks

Taking a running record takes practice. Before attempting a running record, read the procedural steps below, then go to the section on Marking a Running Record Form. 1. Select a book that approximates the student's reading level. Explain that she/he will read out loud as you observe and record her/his reading skills. 2. With the running record form in hand, sit next to the student so that you can see the text and the student's finger and eye movements as she/he reads the text. 3. As the student reads, mark each work on the running record form by using the appropriate Running Record Symbols and Marking Conventions shown below. Place a checkmark above each work that is read correctly. 4. If the student reads incorrectly, record above the word what the student reads. 5. If the student is reading too fast for you to record the running record, ask her/him to pause until you catch up.

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4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL 6. Be sure to pay attention to the reader's behavior. Is the student using meaning (M), structural (S), and visual (V) cues to read words and gather meaning? 7. Intervene as little as possible while the student is reading. 8. If the student is stuck and unable to continue, wait 5 to 10 seconds, then tell her/him the word. If the student seems confused, provide an explanation to clear up the confusion and say, "Try again."

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4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL Marking a Running Record Form Several terms are used when marking a running record form. You should become familiar with these terms by reviewing the explanations below.  Errors (E)--Errors are tallied during the reading whenever a child does any of the following: o Substitutes another word for a word in the text o Omits a word o Inserts a word o Has to be told a word Self-correction (SC)--Self-correction occurs when a child realizes her or his error and corrects it. When a child makes a self-correction, the previous substitution is not scored as an error. Meaning (M)--Meaning is part of the cueing system in which the child takes her or his cue to make sense of text by thinking about the story background, information from pictures, or the meaning of a sentence. These cues assist in the reading of a word or phrase. Structure (S)--Structure refers to the structure of language and is often referred to as syntax. Implicit knowledge of structure helps the reader know if what she or he reads sounds correct. Visual (V)--Visual information is related to the look of the letters in a word and the word itself. A reader uses visual information when she or he studies the beginning sound, word length, familiar word chunks, and so forth.

 

 

There are two steps to marking a running record. Step 1 involves marking the text on the running record form as the student reads from the benchmark book. Before taking your first running record, become familiar with the symbols used to mark a running record form. These symbols are found in Table 1. Also review the Sample Running Record to see how a completed form looks. It also is a good idea to take a few practice running records by role-playing with a fellow teacher as she/he plays the role of a developing reader, intentionally making errors for you to record. Once the student has read all the text on the running record form and you have recorded their reading behavior, you can complete Step 2. In Step 2 you fill in the boxes to the right of the lines of text you have marked. Begin by looking at any error the student has made in the first line. Mark the number of errors made in the first box to the right of the line. If the student self corrected any of these errors, mark the number of self-corrections in the second box to the right of the line. Next determine whether the errors and self-corrections were made as a result of meaning, structure, or visual cueing. For a description of each of these cues, review the explanations provided above. Write MSV in each box for each error and a self-correction made and circle the appropriate letter for the cue used by the student. After completing step two you should total the number of errors and self-corrections and write each total in the box at the bottom of the appropriate column. Next calculate the student's error rate, accuracy rate, and self-correction rate, found in the next section Scoring and Analyzing a Running Record. You do not have to mark the MSV cueing portion of the running record form. It is simply used to help you further analyze a student's reading behavior and provide deeper insight into a student's possible

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4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL reading deficiencies. You can still use the information on error, self-correction, and accuracy rates to place the student at the developmentally appropriate instructional level.

Sample Running Record

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4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL

Scoring and Analyzing a Running Record Scoring: The information gathered while doing a running record is used to determine error, accuracy, and self-correction rates. Directions for calculating these rates are given below. The calculated rates, 93

4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL along with qualitative information and the student's comprehension of the text, are used to determine the student's reading level.

Qualitative Analysis: The qualitative analysis is based on observations that you make during the running record. It involves observing how the student uses the meaning (M), structural (S), and visual (V) cues to help her/him read. It also involves paying attention to fluency, intonation, and phrasing. Think back to the prompts you offered and how the student responded. These observations help you form a picture of the student's reading development. Error Accuracy Self-Correction The formulas below were used with the sample running record above. Error Rate Error rate is expressed as a ratio and is calculated by using the following formula: Total words / Total errors = Error rate Example: 99 / 8 = 12.38, or 12 rounded to nearest whole number The ratio is expressed as 1:12. This means that for each error made, the student read approximately 12 words correctly.

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4.2 Resource Running Records Subject: ESL Accuracy Rate Accuracy rate is expressed as a percentage. You can calculate the accuracy rate using the following formula: (Total words read – Total errors) / Total words read x 100 = Accuracy rate Example: (99 – 8) / 99 x 100 = Accuracy rate 91/99 x 100 = Accuracy rate .919 x 100 = 91.9%, or 92% rounded to the nearest whole number You can use accuracy rate to determine whether the text read is easy enough for independent reading, appropriate to use without frustration during reading instruction purposes instruction, or too difficult for the reader. The breakdown of these three categories is as follows: Easy enough for independent reading = 95 – 100% Instructional level for use in leveled reading session = 90 – 94% Too difficult and will frustrate the reader = 89% and below Self-Correction Rate Self-correction rate is expressed as a ratio and is calculated by using the following formula: (Number of errors + Number of self corrections) / Number of self corrections = Self-correction rate Example: (8 + 3) / 3 = Self-correction rate 11 / 3 = 3.666, or 4 rounded to the nearest whole number The self-correction rate is expressed as 1:4. This means that the student corrects approximately 1 out of every 4 errors. If a student is self-correcting at a rate of 1:4 or less, this indicates that she/he is self-monitoring her/his reading.

95 Source: http://www.auburn.edu/~murraba/fluency.html

4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

Stellaluna Vocab Bingo
Below are three cards to choose from. Print out the needed cards. The teacher is to read the definition, and the child is to put a marker on the word that matches. First person to get four in a row wins. Vocabulary Anxious- worried Babble- excessive or meaningless talk Clambered- climbed Clumsy- lacking in grace Clutched- to hold on tightly Downy- soft Graceful- with ease of movement Limp- lacking strength or firmness Muse- to ponder or meditate on (to think for a long time) Peculiar- weird/strange Perched- to sit at a high vantage point Sultry- very hot and moist

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

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4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.homeschoolshare.com/stellaluna.php 8

4.2 Sample Lesson Stella Luna Subject: ESL Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: http://www.homeschoolshare.com/stellaluna.php 8

4.3 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

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4.3 Graphic Organizer About Me Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________________ Date ________________________________

Source: edHelper.com

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4.3 Learning Activity Adjectives to Describe Everyday Situations Subject: ESL

107 Source: http://www.eslflow.com/Adjectives_to_describe_everyday_situations.pdf

4.3 Learning Activity Inferring Card Game Rules Subject: ESL

Inferencing Board Game

Materials:    Game Board 1 die Inferencing Cards

Directions: 1. Students roll the die to figure out order of turns. Highest roll goes first. 2. First student rolls the die and draws a card. If student correctly answers the question, he/ she may move the number of spaces rolled. If student does not answer correctly, he/ she may not move. 3. First student to the finish line wins.

108 Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CBsQFjAB&url=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww.mandygregory.com%2F Documents%2Finferring%2520card%2520game.doc&rct= &q=inferring%20card%20game&ei=t4QwTdSkDcKBlAevg9XQ&usg=AFQjCNFlHgYGOBpVEsED2Bker1wNnpuCjg&sig2=6LCGrI-hSaeGhpadQ-7Vxg&cad=rja

4.3 Learning Activity Inferring Card Game Subject: ESL 1. When I woke up, there were branches and leaves all over the yard. 2. We bought tickets and some popcorn.

3. I forgot to set my alarm clock last night.

4. A student yawns several times

5. A student falls asleep.

6. One student takes a pen from a classmate's desk.

7. A group of students has not completed homework.

8. Three students leave the room without permission.

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4.3 Learning Activity Inferring Card Game Subject: ESL 9. A student returns from recess crying. 10. Mary plays her flute for 2 hours every day.

11. Sharon grabbed her rain coat and her umbrella.

12.

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4.3 Learning Activity Inferring Card Game Subject: ESL Inference Answer Key 1. There was a big storm the night before. 2. We were going to a movie. 3. I overslept. 4. They are tired. 5. They are tired. 6. They do not have a pen and they are stealing. 7. They will go to study hall. 8. They will get in trouble. 9. They got hurt or were picked on. 10. She plays well. 11. It was raining outside.

28. They do not have a pen and they are stealing. 29. They will go to study hall. 30. They will get in trouble. 31. They got hurt or were picked on. 32. She plays well. 33. It was raining outside.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Inference Answer Key There was a big storm the night before. We were going to a movie. I overslept. They are tired. They are tired. They do not have a pen and they are stealing. They will go to study hall. They will get in trouble. They got hurt or were picked on. She plays well. It was raining outside.

Inference Answer Key 34. There was a big storm the night before. 35. We were going to a movie. 36. I overslept. 37. They are tired. 38. They are tired. 39. They do not have a pen and they are stealing. 40. They will go to study hall. 41. They will get in trouble. 42. They got hurt or were picked on. 43. She plays well. 44. It was raining outside.

Inference Answer Key 23. There was a big storm the night before. 24. We were going to a movie. 25. I overslept. 26. They are tired. 27. They are tired. 111 Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CBsQFjAB&url=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww.mandygregory.com%2F Documents%2Finferring%2520card%2520game.doc&rct= &q=inferring%20card%20game&ei=t4QwTdSkDcKBlAevg9XQ&usg=AFQjCNFlHgYGOBpVEsED2Bker1wNnpuCjg&sig2=6LCGrI-hSaeGhpadQ-7Vxg&cad=rja

4.3 Other Evidence Different Sentence Type Quiz Subject: ESL

Exclamatory and Imperative Notes
The main difference between exclamatory and imperative is that exclamatory is said in a loud, excited way usually expressing some sort of feeling. Imperative sentences are telling someone to do something. If "please" is in the sentence, the sentence probably should end with a period instead of an exclamation mark.

1. Oh my, that sounded just like an owl screeching a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 2. Please be careful over there a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 3. Sit down next to me on the bench a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 4. Yikes, there’s a cat peering in that window a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 5. Reach into this bowl a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!)

6. Oh, something cold and slimy is in there a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 7. How awful it feels a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 8. Please say what this is a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 9. Turn the lights on a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!) 10. Please look in the bowl a. Imperative (.) b. Exclamatory (.) c. Imperative (!) d. Exclamatory (!)

112 Source: http://www.dowlingcentral.com/MrsD/quizzes/grammar/AlphaExer/SentImpExclam.htm

4.3 Other Evidence Identifying Adjectives Quiz Subject: ESL Let's practice finding ADJECTIVES. Study these examples: Jack is a nice man. ADJECTIVE: nice Sara is very busy. ADJECTIVE: busy The expensive shoes are over there. ADJECTIVE: expensive The guests are not here yet. ADJECTIVE: none Directions: Find the adjective in each sentence and write it below. If there is no adjective, write NONE. 1. Kittens and cats make fun pets. ADJECTIVE: 2. Jack’s computer got a virus. ADJECTIVE: 3. The concert last night was fantastic. ADJECTIVE: 4. Playing on the computer is a favorite pastime of mine. ADJECTIVE: 5. I usually put ketchup on hotdogs. ADJECTIVE: 6. When I listen to music, I enjoy listening to loud music. ADJECTIVE: 7. My teacher was very helpful. ADJECTIVE: 8. The little girl I was telling you about is sitting over there. ADJECTIVE: 9. During basketball last night, Shaq threw a wild ball, but it went into the net! ADJECTIVE: 10. Students who study often learn more quickly. ADJECTIVE:

113 Source: http://www.english-zone.com/grammar/adjective-find01.html

4.3 Other Evidence Making Connection Prompts Subject: ESL

Make a Connection
*This reminds me of …

*This part is like…

*This is similar to…

*The differences are…

*This character makes me think of …

*This setting reminds me of …

*This character (fill in name) is like (fill in name because…

*I also (name something in the text that has also happened to you)…

*I never (name something in the text that has never happened to you)…
Source: edCount, LLC 114

4.3 Other Evidence Order of Adjectives Quiz Subject: ESL Quiz: Order of Adjectives 1. I bought a pair of _____ shoes. a. black leather b. leather black 2. It was a _____ car. a. red fast b. fast red 3. It’s a _____ building. a. big round b. round big 4. It’s _____ film. a. a beautiful old b. an old beautiful 5. I bought _____ knife. a. a Swiss army b. an army Swiss 6. He’s _____ man. a. an unfriendly rich b. a rich unfriendly 7. It’s _____ phone. a. a mobile expensive b. an expensive mobile 8. It’s _____ village. a. an old lovely b. a lovely old 9. The _____ visitors were Japanese. a. two last b. last two 10. He’s got _____ eyes. a. blue big b. big blue 11. It’s a _____ house. a. nice new b. new nice 12. It’s _____ airline. a. a popular American b. an American popular 13. It’s _____ company. a. a family old b. an old family 14. It’s a _____ restaurant. a. cheap good b. good cheap

115 Source: http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/139.html

4.3 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 116 Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum

4.3 Performance Task Making Inference Comic Strip 1 Subject: ESL Making Inferences Directions: Show the following comic strip to the class and ask students to infer the dialogue that is taking place between the two characters. Have students work in pairs and then have each pair read their dialogues aloud to the class. Make sure you review the definition of inference to the class before they start the activity.

Possible names of the characters: Baseball boy: Hockey boy: or Bald head: Blue hat:

117 Source: http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com/comic-strip-template.html

4.3 Performance Task Making Inference Comic Strip 2 Subject: ESL

Source: Created by David Kirkpatrick

118

4.3 Performance Task Write a Dialogue Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________ How to Write a Script! There are three bodies of a script: headings, narrative and dialogue. Each of these has important points to remember. Headings include:  Camera location - EXT. (exterior or outside) or INT. (interior or inside)  Scene location (SCHOOL HOUSE)  Time (DAY or NIGHT) Narrative describes:  Action (what is happening)  Character and settings (visual)  Sounds (in the background/music) Dialogue is printed in the center of the page, with:  The name of the person speaking appears at the top, in CAPITAL LETTERS.  The actors direction (AKA angry, disappointed).  The speech. Putting all this together you should come up with something that looks like this:

INT. WELTON ACADEMY HALLWAY - DAY

This is a HEADING

A young boy, dressed in a school uniform and cap, fidgets as his mother adjusts his tie. MOTHER Now remember, keep your shoulders back. A student opens up a case and removes a set of bagpipes. The young boy and his brother line up for a photograph PHOTOGRAPHER Okay, put your arm around your brother. That's it. And breathe in. This is the DIALOGUE The young boy blinks as the flash goes off. PHOTOGRAPHR Okay, one more. This is the NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION

119

4.3 Performance Task Write a Dialogue Subject: ESL

Heading:

Narrative (description of what the audience sees):

Dialogue:

Narration:

120

4.3 Performance Task Write a Dialogue Subject: ESL

121 Source: http://www.filmscriptwriting.com/basicscriptformatting.html Example Script: Dead Poets Society

4.3 Resource Different Sentence Types Subject: ESL

Types of Sentences Teacher Activities
Q&A Together watch or read an interview together. Review with your children that in an interview someone asks questions and the other person responds with an answer. The questions can be serious or they can be light-hearted and silly. Group students into pairs and have each person write down a list of questions he or she would like to ask the partner. Encourage your students to start their questions with words other than who, what, where, when, why, how or do. You may want to give a list of starting words on the board for their questions. Then have partners ask each other the questions and write down their answers. Remind your students to capitalize the first letter of the sentence and use the correct end punctuation. Pairs may wish to swap papers and proofread each other’s work. Say Please Review with your students that a command is a direction or an order to do something. Have a student write a command to do something in the classroom. Remind the student to “say please.” Have the student share his or her command with the class or write it on the board, making sure to use proper capitalization and punctuation. Then ask a volunteer to follow the command. Continue this process until everyone in the class has a chance to write and follow a command. Surprise! Remind your children that an exclamation is a sentence that shares a strong feeling, such as happiness, anger, or surprise. Stage a mock surprise party and have students write an exclamation about how they feel, such as “Wow!” or “I’m excited!” Students can write their sentences on the board and use proper capitalization and punctuation. Then take one student’s exclamation and turn it into a statement by replacing the exclamation mark with a period. How does this change the sentence? How does the feeling expressed in the sentence change? Discuss with your students how punctuation can change the message of a sentence.

Types of Sentences Family Activities
Sentence Hunt Read different books, short stories, cookbooks, and newspaper and magazine articles together. Have your child find different types of sentences such as statements, questions, exclamations, and commands in each text. Which kind of writing has more statements? Which kind of writing contains more exclamations? Where is the best place to find commands? Help your child understand that different types of sentences serve different purposes in writing. So Many Questions As a fun activity, have a discussion with your child using only questions or exclamations. Pick an activity to do together, such as playing in the park or playing a board game, and use only one type of sentence in your conversation. Challenge your child to come up with creative questions or exclamations and write them down together. Remind your child to use capitalization and the proper punctuation mark. Then discuss how difficult it was to have a discussion using only one type of sentence.

122 Source: http://www.brainpopjr.com/readingandwriting/sentence/typesofsentences/grownups.weml

4.3 Resource Gallery Walks Subject: ESL

Gallery Walk Teaching Strategy
Rationale: During a Gallery Walk, students explore multiple texts or images that are placed around the room. Teachers often use this strategy as a way to have students share their work with peers, examine multiple historical documents, or respond to a collection of quotations. Because this strategy requires students to physically move around the room, it can be especially engaging to kinesthetic learners. Procedure: Step one: Select texts Select the texts (e.g. quotations, images, documents, and/or student work) you will be using for the gallery walk. You could also have students, individually or in small groups, select the text for the gallery walk. Step two: Organize texts around the classroom Texts should be displayed “gallery-style” - in a way that allows students to disperse themselves around the room, with several students clustering around a particular text. Texts can be hung on walls or placed on tables. The most important factor is that the texts are spread far enough apart to reduce significant crowding. Step three: Instruct students on how to walk through the gallery Viewing instructions will depend on your goals for the activity. If the purpose of the gallery walk is to introduce students to new material, you might want them to take informal notes as they walk around the room. If the purpose of the gallery walk is for students to take away particular information, you can create a graphic organizer for students to complete as they view the “exhibit,” or compile a list of questions for them to answer based on the texts on display. Sometimes teachers ask students to identify similarities and differences among a collection of texts. Or, teachers give students a few minutes to tour the room and then, once seated, ask them to record impressions about what they saw. Students can take a gallery walk on their own or with a partner. You can also have them travel in small groups, announcing when groups should move to the next piece in the exhibit. One direction that should be emphasized is that students are supposed to disperse themselves around the room. When too many students cluster around one text, it not only makes it difficult for students to view the text, but it also increases the likelihood of off-task behavior.

123 Source: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/strategies/gallery-walk-teaching-strateg

4.3 Resource Identifying Character Traits Worksheet Subject: ESL

Identifying Character Traits Worksheet
Book Title: ____________________________________________________________________________ Character Name: _______________________________________________________________________

Actions

Character Trait They Revealed

Source: ReadWriteThink

124

4.3 Resource Identifying Character Traits Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

125

4.3 Resource List of Character Traits Subject: ESL Character Traits

Source: ReadWriteThink

126

4.3 Resource Making Inferences 2 Subject: ESL Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions Read with purpose and meaning Drawing conclusions refers to information that is implied or inferred. This means that the information is never clearly stated. Writers often tell you more than they say directly. They give you hints or clues that help you "read between the lines." Using these clues to give you a deeper understanding of your reading is called inferring. When you infer, you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the details suggest or imply (not stated). When the meanings of words are not stated clearly in the context of the text, they may be implied - that is, suggested or hinted at. When meanings are implied, you may infer them. Inference is just a big word that means a conclusion or judgement. If you infer that something has happened, you do not see, hear, feel, smell, or taste the actual event. But from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened. You make inferences every day. Most of the time you do so without thinking about it. Suppose you are sitting in your car stopped at a red signal light. You hear screeching tires, then a loud crash and breaking glass. You see nothing, but you infer that there has been a car accident. We all know the sounds of screeching tires and a crash. We know that these sounds almost always mean a car accident. But there could be some other reason, and therefore another explanation, for the sounds. Perhaps it was not an accident involving two moving vehicles. Maybe an angry driver rammed a parked car. Or maybe someone played the sound of a car crash from a recording. Making inferences means choosing the most likely explanation from the facts at hand. There are several ways to help you draw conclusions from what an author may be implying. The following are descriptions of the various ways to aid you in reaching a conclusion. General Sense The meaning of a word may be implied by the general sense of its context, as the meaning of the word incarcerated is implied in the following sentence: Murderers are usually incarcerated for longer periods of time than robbers. You may infer the meaning of incarcerated by answering the question "What usually happens to those found guilty of murder or robbery?" Write down what you have inferred as the meaning of the word incarcerated. If you answered that they are locked up in jail, prison, or a penitentiary, you correctly inferred the meaning of incarcerated. Examples When the meaning of the word is not implied by the general sense of its context, it may be implied by examples. For instance, Those who enjoy belonging to clubs, going to parties, and inviting friends often to their homes for dinner are gregarious. You may infer the meaning of gregarious by answering the question "What word or words describe people who belong to clubs, go to parties a lot, and often invite friends over to their homes for dinner?" Write down what you have inferred as the meaning of the word gregarious. If you wrote social or something like: "people who enjoy the company of others", you correctly inferred the meaning of gregarious. Antonyms and Contrasts When the meaning of a word is not implied by the general sense of its context or by examples, it may be implied by an antonym or by a contrasting thought in a context. Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, such as happy and sad. For instance, Ben is fearless, but his brother is timorous. 127

4.3 Resource Making Inferences 2 Subject: ESL You may infer the meaning of timorous by answering the question "If Ben is fearless and Jim is very different from Ben with regard to fear, then what word describes Jim?" Write down your answer. If you wrote a word such as timid, or afraid, or fearful, you inferred the meaning of timorous. A contrast in the following sentence implies the meaning of credence: Dad gave credence to my story, but Mom's reaction was one of total disbelief. You may infer the meaning of credence by answering the question "If Mom's reaction was disbelief and Dad's reaction was very different from Mom's, what was Dad's reaction?" Write down your answer. If you wrote that Dad believed the story, you correctly inferred the meaning of credence; it means "belief." Be Careful of the Meaning You Infer! When a sentence contains an unfamiliar word, it is sometimes possible to infer the general meaning of the sentence without inferring the exact meaning of the unknown word. For instance, When we invite the Paulsons for dinner, they never invite us to their home for a meal; however, when we have the Browns to dinner, they always reciprocate. In reading this sentence some students infer that the Browns are more desirable dinner guests than the Paulsons without inferring the exact meaning of reciprocate. Other students conclude that the Browns differ from the Paulsons in that they do something in return when they are invited for dinner; these students conclude correctly that reciprocate means "to do something in return." In drawing conclusions (making inferences), you are really getting at the ultimate meaning of things what is important, why it is important, how one event influences another, how one happening leads to another. Simply getting the facts in reading is not enough - you must think about what those facts mean to you.

128 Source: http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/AS/309.HTM

4.3 Resource Making Inferences Subject: ESL

Making Inferences About Characters
Making an inference about a character requires you to act like a detective. Based on the different facts given in the text (A+B+C), you have to make a judgment, or inference (D), about that character. What makes inference-making hard is that the word you come up with must come out of your own brain, for the text very rarely will supply you with it (A+B+C=D). The following lists of words may help you in your inference-making about a character. They are loosely divided into positive inferences and negative inferences, but many fall into a gray area in between. You should be able to support your inference with evidence from the text. Positive caring - showing feeling for others compassionate - showing sympathy for and connection to others' pain sensitive - easily affected by one's own and others' needs and emotions kindhearted - understanding, considerate of others, generous proud - showing self-respect, dignity, self-esteem obedient - being respectful of the law, one's elders, one's superiors concerned - interested and involved in the problems of others aggressive - initiating action, leading attacks, being bold naive - unsophisticated, like a child in one's understanding of the world and people gullible - easily tricked, deceived, or taken in by others easily controlled - manipulated easily by others secure - feeling safe and free from self-doubt loyal - faithful to a person, a job, or an idea intelligent - smart dedicated - whole committed to a particular thought, action, or job bold - fearless, daring, courageous, brave conscientious - guided by a sense of right and wrong; showing principles in one's actions and thoughts cautious - being careful in what one says or does trusting - believing that one can rely on or depend on others generous - willing to give to and share with others modest - not want to call attention to oneself, either through one's appearance or behavior gentle - kind, considerate, and tender in the way one deals with others optimistic - taking a positive view of things rational - being logical in one's actions and/or thoughts imaginative - creative passionate - controlled by powerful emotions carefree - without worries or responsibilities open-minded - accepting of new or different ideas or opinions straightforward - being plain and direct in one's dealings with others loving - showing tender feelings and affection for others humane - showing kindness, mercy, and compassion conciliatory - trying to overcome distrust, resolve differences, and gain goodwill through pleasant behavior content - happy with oneself; satisfied with the way things are understanding - showing sympathy to and comprehension of others' situations and feelings helpful - assisting others; providing support emotional - easily affected by one's feelings 129

4.3 Resource Making Inferences Subject: ESL Negative uncaring - not showing feelings for others insensitive - not affected by others' needs or others' pain coldhearted - lacking sympathy or feelings for others coldhearted - lacking sympathy or feelings for others critical - finding fault in and judging others harshly defiant - boldly opposing authority rebellious - refusing to be controlled by others, even to the point of violence or organized resistance indifferent - having no particular feeling or interest in anyone or anything; apathetic passive - accepting what happens or what others do to you without argument or resistance shrewd - showing cleverness and intelligence in practical matters, such as business or politics domineering - tending to rule over and control others insecure - lacking confidence in or doubting one's abilities disloyal - not faithful to a person, job, or idea unintelligent - not smart in one's thinking or judgments apathetic - showing little concern or interest in events or people distant - emotionally removed from others timid - shy, meek withdrawn - emotionally distant from others; not sociable guilt-ridden - feeling a sense of guilt at having done something wrong impulsive - acting as a result of sudden urges or wishes, rather than a careful plan or thought suspicious - doubting others' motives manipulative - smart in the way one uses others to one's own advantage selfish - concerned chiefly with oneself; not generous conceited - having an unreasonably high opinion of oneself ruthless - having no pity or compassion for others; showing no mercy pessimistic - taking the most negative and gloomy view of things irrational - not logical in one's actions and/or thoughts reckless - uncaring about danger or the dangerous consequences of one's behavior destructive - wanting to destroy people, things, or institutions unimaginative - lacking in creativity; dull unemotional - unfeeling; not easily affected in terms of one's feelings troubled - mentally distressed, worried, anxious narrow-minded - unwilling to accept new or different ideas; intolerant of others devious - using roundabout means to get what one wants; shifty hostile - treating others as enemies; antagonistic; showing ill will cruel - enjoying the harming of others inhumane - showing no sympathy or feelings for the suffering of others competitive - enjoying rivalry, contests, or other tests that put one in competition with others stubborn - unreasonably unwilling to do something; obstinate

130 Source: http://www.brocktonpublicschools.com/page.cfm?p=2097

4.3 Text Hairs Subject: ESL

Hairs from The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros Everybody in our family has different hair. My Papa’s hair is like a broom, all up in the air. And me, my hair is lazy. It never obeys barrettes or bands. Carlos’ hair is thick and straight. He doesn’t need to comb it. Nenny’s hair is slippery—slides out of yourhand. And Kiki, who is the youngest, has hair like fur. But my mother’s hair, my mother’s hair, like little rosettes, like candy circles all curly and pretty because she pinned it in pincurls all day, sweet to put your nose into when she is holding you and you feel safe, is the warm smell of bread before you bake it, is the smell when she makes room for you on her side of the bed still warm with her skin, and you sleep near her, the rain outside falling and Papa snoring. The snoring, the rain, and Mama’s hair that smells like bread.

Notes

131 Source: “Hairs” from The House on Mango Street copyright 1984 by Sandra Cisneros. Published by Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York.

4.4 Graphic Organizer Brainstorming Using the Senses Subject: ESL Name: _____________________________ Directions: Using the senses, describe how English is to you. Date: _________________________________

English sounds like…

English looks like…

English smells like…

English tastes like…

English feels like… Source: edCount, LLC 132

4.4 Graphic Organizer Story Map Subject: ESL Name ______________________________________ Date ____________________________________ Story Map Write notes in each section.

133 Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/storymap3.pdf

4.4 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram Subject: ESL

Name ___________________________________

Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

134

4.4 Learning Activity List of Similes and Metaphors Subject: ESL

135

4.4 Learning Activity List of Similes and Metaphors Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

136

4.4 Other Evidence Journal Writing Subject: ESL

Tips for Writing in a Journal
                                       Pick one fun thing to write about. Write about something that happened to you. Use words that will help readers picture what happened. Tell why the event was so much fun. Check your spelling and handwriting. If I were the teacher, I would... If I were a leaf, I would... (snowflake, wind, rain, etc.) If I could get anything in the world for my birthday, it would be...(Tell me what you'd do with it.) My hero is...(Tell me why.) Describe a nightmare that you had recently. I remember when _____ taught me to_____. Describe how. (I remember when my father taught me to tie my shoes.) A joke that makes me laugh is... My favorite foods... The foods I dislike are... When I grow up I want to be.. (Why?) Is there an event that took place in your life that has changed you? Tell me how. Tell me about your pet (s). If you don't have any, what kind of pet would you like to have? I was most angry when... I was most happy when... I was most disappointed when... My favorite holiday is... Tell me why If I looked under your bed, what would I find? Describe your perfect vacation. My worst mistake was... Sometimes I wish that... What would you do if you were Principal for a day? What would you do if you were the President? If you could change places with anyone, who would it be and why? You could go anywhere in the world. Where would it be, what would you do, and why? You have an extra $1,000,000 to give away; you cannot spend it on yourself. What would you do with the money? How would you make this world a better place to live in? Tell me about your family. Tell me about your best friend. Why is that person your best friend? If you were an animal, what kind would you be and why? What is silence to you? What is your favorite season? What is your favorite animal? If you were this animal what would you do? (where does it live, what does it eat, how does it protect itself, etc.) What I know about...(Could be anything you are studying, or anything the child knows a lot about) My favorite book is... 137

Writing Prompts

4.4 Other Evidence Journal Writing Subject: ESL                    My favorite character is... If I could be any color in a crayon box, I would be... If I were a fireman, I would... (a flag, plant, pencil, box, a book, etc.) My favorite movie is... Ten things that make me laugh. (cry, make me angry) A list of things I'll never do. Ten crazy reasons why I couldn't do my homework. If I were...(mother, father, teacher) I would... When I'm on top of the world... What is your favorite day of the week and why? Describe your perfect house. 10 types of food or dishes I've never eaten that I'd like to try How do you feel about the holidays? What did you do before we had the internet? What is the nicest thing you've done for someone? What would happen if children ruled the world? What would you do if you were the teacher and everyone forgot their homework? What would happen if you found gold in your backyard? How would your life be if you had a pet dinosaur?

138 Source: http://www.tooter4kids.com/journal_writing.htm

4.4 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 139 Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

Homework Packet for DATE: Name: ______________________________ Homework Package is worth ____ points To get credit, you must complete all work correctly. This homework packet is due Friday, DATE: Standards: R.4.3 Uses context clues and resources to build vocabulary, verify meaning, determine the meaning of
unfamiliar words, and transfer meaning into a variety of narrative and expository texts.

Date Monday, DATE Tuesday, DATE

Homework Assignment  Complete How Well Do I Know These Words?

Student Checklist

Complete "What do these Words Mean in My Language?"

Wednesday, DATE

 

Complete Using Context for Numbers _____ Complete Word Square for two new Words

Thursday, DATE

 

Complete Using Context for Numbers _____ Complete Word Square for two new words

Friday, DATE

 

Complete How Well Do I Know These Words Be ready for vocabulary quiz!

140

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

How Well Do I Know These Words?
Vocabulary from, “My Nme”, by Sandra Cisneros

Words:
Hope Sob Tin Sadness chandelier baptize Muddy inherited

Directions: Write the word in the column that best describes how you feel about your knowledge of the word. For example, if I have seen or heard the word “dialogue” but do not know its meaning, I would write it in the second column. I DO NOT KNOW THIS WORD AT ALL I HAVE SEEN OR HEARD THIS WORD, BUT I DO NOT KNOW ITS MEANING I THINK I KNOW THE MEANING OF THIS WORD I KNOW A MEANING FOR THIS WORD

141

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

What do these Words Mean in My Language?
Directions: Use context clues and the dictionary, if necessary, to find the meaning of the following words into your first language.
Word in English 1. Hope 2. Sadness (sad) 3. Muddy 4. Sob (sobbing) 5. Chandelier 6. Inherited 7. Tin 8. Baptize Word in Spanish 1. __________________ 2. __________________ 3. __________________ 4. __________________ 5. __________________ 6. __________________ 7. __________________ 8. __________________ Word in English ADD additional vocabulary words from unit or stories you are using in the unit. Choose words that students may not know and that knowing them will help them understand what they read. Word in Spanish

142

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

Using Context To Find Meaning What is context?
When you use context, you use the words or sentences that come before and after a particular word to determine its meaning.

Directions: Read the sentences from “My Name”. Use context to find the meaning of the words.
1. The fancy hotel has a chandelier with many colorful lights in the front lobby. Based on the context, the word chandelier most likely means… a. a light bulb b. a flashlight c. a light hanging from ceiling 2. The sad song made the young girl sob because it reminded her of her lost dog. Based on the context, the word sob most likely means… a. laugh b. cry c. happy 3. I inherited my grandmother’s name. Now there are two of us in the family with the same name. Based on the context, the word inherited most likely means… a. received from someone else b. made up c. To take away from some

143

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

144

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

145

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

146

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

147

4.4 Other Evidence Unit Vocabulary Packet Subject: ESL

How Well Do I Know These Words?
Vocabulary from, “My Nme”, by Sandra Cisneros

Words:
Hope Sob Tin Sadness chandelier baptize Muddy inherited

Directions: Write the word in the column that best describes how you feel about your knowledge of the word. For example, if I have seen or heard the word “dialogue” but do not know its meaning, I would write it in the second column. I DO NOT KNOW THIS WORD AT ALL I HAVE SEEN OR HEARD THIS WORD, BUT I DO NOT KNOW ITS MEANING I THINK I KNOW THE MEANING OF THIS WORD I KNOW A MEANING FOR THIS WORD

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot and Words, Words, Words by Janet Allen 9

4.4 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL Name ________________________________________ Date ________________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot

149

4.4 Performance Task Introduction to Metaphors Subject: ESL

Metaphors are a way to compare to by saying that one thing is another thing. For example, we say somebody is a fool. In the past in Europe, a fool was a person who entertained the king or queen by doing silly things. The fool was a kind of clown. He often did crazy or stupid things to make people laugh. So when we call somebody a fool we really mean that he or she is doing something silly or stupid. We don’t really mean that they are somebody who entertains the king or queen. We are using a metaphor. What do we mean when we say these things: When we say someone is a pig we really mean that ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ When we call someone an angel we really mean that _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ If we say someone is a giant we really mean that __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ When we call a man an ogre or a woman a witch we really mean ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ When somebody plays cards and we call them a shark, we really mean that _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ If we say that somebody is a volcano ready to explode, we really mean that _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ When we say somebody is bright we mean that ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Source: www.bogglesworldesl.com

150

4.4 Performance Task Introduction to Similes Subject: ESL

Similes
Similes are a way to compare two things using ‘like’ or ‘as’. For example, if I want to say that somebody swims well, I can say they swim like a fish because fish swim well. There are two basic patterns that you can use.

Pattern 1: like

verb + like + noun She swims like a fish. He looks like an ogre. She plays like a pro. He walks like a duck. She acts like a fool.

Examples

Pattern 2: as

as + adjective + as + noun He is as tall as a giant. She is as fast as a rocket. He is as graceful as a swan. She is as sneaky as a fox. He is as quiet as a mouse.

Examples

How could I say that somebody: runs fast is pretty jumps well is strong

How could I say that something: is hard feels soft is sweet feels rough is heavy sounds noisy is light

Source: www.bogglesworldesl.com

151

4.4 Pre Reading Activity Subject: ESL My Name Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________ My Name My name means… In my language my name means…. In _________ my name sounds like…

In English my name means…

In English my name sounds like…

If I could choose a name for myself I would like my new name to be…

152

4.4 Pre Reading Activity Subject: ESL My Name Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________ My Name My name means… In Spanish Esperanza means…. In Spanish Esperanza sounds like…

In English Esperanza means…

In English Esperanza sounds like…

If Esperanza could choose a new name for herself, what name would she choose?

153 Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot

4.4 Resource Structuring Read Alouds Subject: ESL Read Alouds What are read alouds and what can they do for instruction? A read aloud is a planned oral reading of a book or print excerpt, usually related to a theme or topic of study. The read aloud can be used to engage the student listener while developing background knowledge, increasing comprehension skills, and fostering critical thinking. A read aloud can be used to model the use of reading strategies that aid in comprehension. Reading aloud good books can become a tradition and favorite activity in the classroom. (An excellent site for information on read alouds is located at: http://www.trelease-on-reading.com/rah.html) The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) maintains a library of articles about using read alouds for engagement and comprehension in their archives. http://www.google.com/u/ciera?q=read+alouds&domains=ciera.org&sitesearch=ciera.org Benefits of using read alouds One of the most important things adults can do in preparing children for success in school and in reading is to read aloud with them.  Listeners build listening and comprehension skills through discussion during and after reading.  Listeners increase their vocabulary foundation by hearing words in context.  Listeners improve their memory and language skills as they hear a variety of writing styles and paraphrase their understanding.  Listeners gain information about the world around them.  Listeners develop individual interests in a broad variety of subjects and they develop imagination and creativity: what better way to build skills which foster inquiry?  Other suggestions and benefits are in the Education World article at: http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr213.shtml. Why read alouds in science? Science-related literature, especially non-fiction, is often an untapped resource for read aloud book selections. By choosing well-written, engaging science books, teachers provide the opportunity to introduce students to new genres of literature at the same time as they model reading and thinking strategies that foster critical thinking. Science-related books motivate students. Whether emergent readers or avid readers, children often select nature and science books as their favorite genre of literature. Read alouds can inspire the teacher, too. Often early childhood or elementary teachers are uncomfortable with teaching science. They know there should be more to their instruction than the textbook, but they do not feel like 'experts' in the science content or process. Using read alouds can complement the curriculum and help students make connections between their knowledge, the textbook and their own questions. Read alouds can be used to  introduce lessons  provide an introduction to new concepts and increase science vocabulary  lower the abstract nature of science textbooks' explanations  invite conversation and generate questions for discussion and investigations  model scientific thinking  provide content to support hands-on investigations 154

4.4 Resource Structuring Read Alouds Subject: ESL  model different problem-solving approaches to science that may support students in their own scientific investigations  examine the colorful illustrations and photographs; they can tell a story beyond the words on the page Using a read aloud-think aloud  When students are provided with models and explanations of the reasoning involved in reading, they are better able to use the modeled strategies on their own.  Typically a science-related read aloud focuses on a science concept, the author's craft or a particular literary feature.  Don't do everything with one read aloud; use a variety of opportunities to revisit a particular focus and limit how much you focus on with any one book.  Inspire questions and investigations by modeling curiosity and question-posing-- let the students in on the 'secret' of how you, the teacher, construct questions.  Explicitly share thinking processes-- thinking aloud is making thinking public. For instance, "When I look at this picture of children playing in the wind, I think of the wind near our school. It always seems strongest to me over near Ms. Foster's room." OR "I wonder what the author means when she says ...." OR "Wait, this seems different than what we read in book X. I wonder how to decide which author to believe."  Improve comprehension of science text by modeling the use of reading strategies that are most helpful for reading a particular type of literature.  Use books about scientists and their work to inspire questions about scientific processes or the importance of life events in choosing a career. For example, Donna Dieckman reads books such as A Snake Scientist or Elephant Woman to invite her students into the field with working scientists and to explore the questions and the challenges they encounter in their work. As she reads, she pauses to reflect aloud on her wonderings, which in turn both model and inspire wonderings in her students. (See also Two Models of a Read Aloud-- Think Aloud based on 1999 Caldecott Medal Winner Snowflake Bentley by Jacqueline Briggs Martin. Selecting the read aloud  Young children have difficulty separating fact from fiction, so carefully select books with the most accurate information.  Select an appropriate book based on a specific reading purpose: concept background, exploring author's craft, introduction of key vocabulary, looking at science process or the life of scientists, or some other clearly defined purpose.  Choose a book or section of a book that lends itself to being read aloud that supports your goal or purpose. o Does the text flow? o Is the topic engaging? o Are there opportunities for stopping points to wonder aloud? o Does the text inspire questions? 155

4.4 Resource Structuring Read Alouds Subject: ESL  Locate relevant artifacts, illustrations or other hands-on materials that might support the text and foster student questions.  Think about connections to other literature-- by this author, on this topic or in this genre. Collect related books for classroom reading display. (The Search-It database can provide these connections.)  Book Links is a web-based resource for literacy activities. They have an annotated list of books for science read alouds at: http://www.ala.org/Content/ContentGroups/Book_Links1/ReadAloud_Science.htm. Knowing the authors Become familiar with the authors by gathering background information. Many authors of sciencerelated literature have interesting backgrounds that may inspire students in their own scientific or literary endeavors. Selected sites:  Jim Arnosky : http://jimarnosky.com  Jean Craighead George: http://www.jeancraigheadgeorge.com  Gail Gibbons: http://www.gailgibbons.com  Patricia Lauber: http://www.eduplace.com/kids/hmr/mtai/lauber.html  Dorothy Hinshaw Patent: http://www.dorothyhinshawpatent.com  Laurence Pringle: http://www.author-illustr-source.com/laurencepringle.htm  Seymour Simon: http://www.seymoursimon.com Planning the read aloud  Think about the focus for your read aloud. Identify any key words or concepts to discuss in context as you read the text. Mark "talking points" where you want to: o Stop and reflect or ask questions. o Support the target skill or purpose.  Develop open-ended questions to stimulate students minds and imaginations.  Use the questions to keep children involved in the book.  Plan related activities to follow or precede the read aloud.  Additional hints and Do's and Don'ts can be found in the Book Pals Reading Tips web site. Scroll down and visit the "More Reading Tips" pages: http://www.bookpals.net/cgibin/bookfinder/index.pl?page=tips. How do I read aloud effectively? Creating the read aloud atmosphere  Allow time for students to settle as you make yourself comfortable. Whether you are sitting in a low chair or on the floor, be sure that each child can see the book. Remember, you are creating a community of learners. If they have to elbow each other to see it will defeat your efforts. o Some teachers even "dress" for the occasion. Debra Bunn slips into a raincoat to read about sea monster tales. o Other teachers create ritualized signals: "Here's the reading puppet" OR "Let's settle in as we pass around the listening stick." 156

4.4 Resource Structuring Read Alouds Subject: ESL  As you read, move the book around (either while reading or after reading each page) so that each student can see the illustrations. Most picture books depend on the illustrations to tell the story and students are "reading" the pictures while you are reading the words. If there are no (or few) pictures, pause and look at your listeners.  Pace your reading to allow time for the student listeners to think about what they are hearing.  Read with expression; create a mood. Modulate your voice to reflect emotions and emphasize key points. Give young students an opportunity to add to the story with appropriate noises. For example, have students use their fingers to drum out the sound of soft or hard rain.  Use motions for emphasis. Do not overdo it, but use natural and comfortable movements. Reading aloud does not come naturally, but don't despair. Practicing will make it much more comfortable. And the time spent practicing is definitely worthwhile. CAUTION: Do not read a book aloud that you have not read yourself beforehand! Ready to read  Introduce the text with a short sentence or two that relates the book to the students.  Discuss the title, content, author and illustrator for less than three minutes.  Set a purpose for listening by sharing the reason you selected the book.  Invite students to listen while you read (using the voice modulations and movements you practiced).  Interrupt your reading at selected points to emphasize a planned focus point. o Hint: Mark these points with sticky notes so that you remember to stop and your reason for stopping. o Sticky notes can also be used to quickly note student reactions or queries. o Stop to do a think aloud, ask a question of yourself or of your students, provide opportunities for students to make personal connections o Do not overdo the stopping points-- keep in mind your audience, time limits and purpose for the reading and for the stopping. You do want to maintain a sense of story as you read-- too many stopping points will lose that.  At the end of the reading, wait a few moments to provide time to ask questions or make comments. If you ask, "Wasn't that a good story?" students will answer in the affirmative because they want to please you and that will end a major opportunity to generate discussion. Instead, just ask openended questions to generate discussion like, "What did you think of that book?" OR "How did the author ...?" Depending on the reading purpose, you may want to comment, "This reminds me of ..." OR "Reading this made me wonder...." After you model a thought, encourage students to share their wonderings and discoveries.  Discuss what students learned. Through discussion students can synthesize and extend their understanding of the reading. They can connect their prior knowledge to the new information presented in the reading. They can make intertextual connections to other literature. This time for reflection is the key to making the reading an instructional activity.

157 Source: http://www.esiponline.org/classroom/foundations/reading/readalouds.html

4.4 Resource Writing Similes Activity Subject: ESL Similes: As Fast As a Horse We use similes to describe things by comparing them to other things. For example, if I want to say someone is fast, I can say she is as fast as a horse. Here are some examples of similes:

She's as fast as a horse. He's as strong as an elephant. She's as silly as a monkey. It's as cold as ice. It's as light as a feather. Try to make some similes using the adjectives in the box below. soft pretty big hard ugly tiny strong black cold weak white hot quick green light slow blue heavy

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

158 Source: Lanternfish ESL at www.bogglesworldesl.com

4.4 Text Francisco Alcarón Poetry Subject: ESL

Francisco X. Alarcón
Francisco X. Alarcón is an acclaimed poet and educator, author of ten volumes of poetry. Alarcón is the recipient of 1993 American Book Award, the 1993 PEN Oakland Josephine Miles Award, and the 1984 Chicano Literary Prize. In April 2002 he received the Fred Cody Lifetime Achievement Award from the Bay Area Book Reviewers Association (BABRA). He was one of the three finalists nominated for the state poet laureate of California. Alarcón was also awarded the 1997 Pura Belpré Honor Award by the American Library Association and the National Parenting Publications Gold Medal. He also received 2002 Pura Belpré Honor Award, Danforth and Fulbright fellowships, 1998 Carlos Pellicer-Robert Frost Poetry Honor Award by the Third Binational Border Poetry Contest, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. Alarcón's most recent books are Sonnets to Madness and Other Misfortunes / Sonetos a la locura y otras penas (Berkeley: Creative Arts Book Company 2001) and From the Other Side of Night / Del otro lado de la noche: New and Selected Poems (University of Arizona Press 2002). He currently teaches at the University of California, Davis.
Poor Poets to Miguel Ángel Flores poets go astray on the streets like chicks fallen from their nest they bump into light posts that without warning cross their path courteous as ever they ask empty park benches for permission to sit nobody knows not even they why wings sprout on their shoulders 159

maybe one day they'll finally use that key they carry forever in their pocket From the Other Side of Night what to say about silence the pages left unwritten the books in which we are yet to be appear exist this life

4.4 Text Francisco Alcarón Poetry Subject: ESL condemned to oblivion here nobody knows nor will know of the sea we carry within us X "there are two ways in the world: to see yourself one day in the mirror, or never see your true self-image, to see yourself is to live, not seeing yourself is death," you tell me "look at me, I am more than my look, more than a passing smile on a street, more than piled horizons, the one who looks at you is more than the one you look at" "seeing myself in you, I discover who I am, I want you to see yourself likewise in me: looking at me, see yourself looking at you" "look at me, for I see myself in you, look at me, for you are my mirror, look at me, I want to be yours" De amor oscuro/Of Dark Love Sonnet X "dos caminos hay en el mundo: el verse un dia en un espejo o el nunca llegar a verse de veras, verse es vivir, no verse, estar muerto," me aleccionas "mírame, yo soy más que mi mirada, más que una sonrisa en plena calle, más que todos los horizontes juntos: el que te mira es más que ése que miras" "al verme en ti, descubro lo que soy, así quiero que tu te veas en mí: que al mírarme te mires mirándote" "mirame que me estoy mirándo en ti, 160

mírame que tú eres espejo mio, mírame que yo quiero ser el tuyo"

The X in My Name the poor signature of my illiterate and peasant self giving away all rights in a deceptive contract for life Mestizo my name is not Francisco there is an Arab within me who prays five times each day behind my Roman nose there is a Phonecian smiling my eyes still see Sevilla but my mouth is Olmec my dark hands are Toltec

4.4 Text Francisco Alcarón Poetry Subject: ESL my cheekbones fierce Chichimec my feet recognize no border no rule no code no lord for this wanderer's heart

161 Source: http://www.poetrymagazine.com/archives/2003/May03/alcaron.htm

4.4 Text My Name Subject: ESL “My Name” by Sandra Cisneros from The House on Mango Street In English my name means hope. In Spanish it means too many letters. It means sadness, it means waiting. It is like the number nine. A muddy color. It is the Mexican records my father plays on Sunday mornings when he is shaving, songs like sobbing. It was my great-grandmother's name and now it is mine. She was a horse woman too, born like me in the Chinese year of the horse--which is supposed to be bad luck if you're born female-but I think this is a Chinese lie because the Chinese, like the Mexicans, don't like their women strong. My great-grandmother. I would've liked to have known her, a wild, horse of a woman, so wild she wouldn't marry. Until my great-grandfather threw a sack over her head and carried her off. Just like that, as if she were a fancy chandelier. That's the way he did it. And the story goes she never forgave him. She looked out the window her whole life, the way so many women sit their sadness on an elbow. I wonder if she made the best with what she got or was she sorry because she couldn't be all the things she wanted to be. Esperanza. I have inherited her name, but I don't want to inherit her place by the window. At school they say my name funny as if the syllables were made out of tin and hurt the roof of your mouth. But in Spanish my name is made out of a softer something, like silver, not quite as thick as sister's name Magdalena--which is uglier than mine. Magdalena who at least- -can come home and become Nenny. But I am always Esperanza. I would like to baptize myself under a new name, a name more like the real me, the one nobody sees. Esperanza as Lisandra or Maritza or Zeze the X. Yes. Something like Zeze the X will do. Notes

162 Source: Adapted from The House on Mango Stree, Sandra Cisneros

4.4 Writing Tool Peer Editing Checklist Subject: ESL Peer Editing Checklist Title of Work Writer’s Name Editor’s Name Check for:  Does the writing make sense?  Do the sentences sound right?  Does each section have two complete, detailed sentences?  Are words spelled correctly?  Is there a capitol at the beginning of each sentence? Are names capitalized?  Is there a period at the end of each sentence?  Does the title page clearly state Past or Present/Then or Now?  Does the student have evidence of having use the writing process to complete the writing assignment? Peer Editing Checklist Title of Work Writer’s Name Editor’s Name Check for:  Does the writing make sense?  Do the sentences sound right?  Does each section have two complete, detailed sentences?  Are words spelled correctly?  Is there a capitol at the beginning of each sentence? Are names capitalized?  Is there a period at the end of each sentence?  Does the title page clearly state Past or Present/Then or Now?  Does the student have evidence of having use the writing process to complete the writing assignment? 163 Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDAQFjAD&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.wcs.k12.va.us%2Fusers%2Fhonaker%2FComp%26Tech%2F2nd-peer-editingtemplate.doc &rct=j&q=Peer%20Editing%20Checklist&ei=MpIwTb2tDcH-8Abfmo3vCA&usg= AFQjCNENwj9fgnMnBM2wEQwwk_PlakBeFg&sig2=KLEZtxtpSGE6N LoncpfPgg&cad=rja

4.4 Writing Tool Writing Process Rubric Subject: ESL Writing Process Rubric Category 1—emerging  Brainstorming/prewriting not done  Drafts are not complete by deadlines  Drafts are too rough to be critiqued effectively  All self critiques and reflections are not complete  At least one peer critique done ever (their work)  At least one peer critique requested & done ever (own work)  Revisions are not based on feedback  Revisions are insubstantial from draft to draft 2—developing  Brainstorming/prewriting is incomplete  Drafts are mostly complete by deadlines  Drafts require some explanation in order to be critiqued  All self critiques and reflections completed  At least one peer critique per draft completed (for their work)  At least one peer critique requested and done per draft (for your own work)  Revisions are somewhat based on feedback  Some revisions are substantial 3—proficient  Appropriate brainstorming/pre-writing is completed  All drafts completed by deadlines  Each draft is thorough enough to be critiqued  All peer and self critiques and reflections completed  Thoughtful and useful feedback given 4—exemplary  All drafts completed in detail by deadlines, including specific pictures to be used and all text.

Drafts

 Creative feedback is given  Genuine assistance given freely to peers

Critiques

Revisions

 Revisions are clearly based on feedback  Revisions are substantial from draft to draft, particularly from first to second drafts 

 All revisions are substantial

 Content

Source: Sarah Ferrency, Web Design, December 19, 2010

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4.5 Graphic Organizer KWL Chart Subject: ESL

Name _________________________________________ Date ________________________________ KWL Chart Before you begin your research, list details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing your research. Topic ______________________________________________________________________ What I Know What I Want to Know What I Learned

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/kwl.pdf 1

4.5 Graphic Organizer Sequencing Chart Subject: ESL

Name _______________________________________ Date _________________________________

Sequencing Chart

Source: Time for Kids

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4.5 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

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4.5 Graphic Organizer Word Web Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Cluster/Word Web Write your topic in the center circle and details in the smaller circles. Add circles as needed.

168 Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/cluster.pdf

Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Labels help the reader identify a picture or a photograph and
its parts. My example of labeling: My example of a label

169

Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Photographs help the reader understand exactly what
something looks like. My example of a photograph was found on page ____________ in the book titled, _____________________________________ It was a photograph of a ______________________________ . It helped me learn ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Here is another example of a photograph:

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Captions help the reader better understand a picture or
photograph. My example of a caption is:

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Comparisons help the reader understand the size of one
thing by comparing it to the size of something familiar. Here is my example of comparisons:

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Cutaways help the reader understand something by looking
at it from the inside. Here is an example of a cutaway:

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Maps help the reader understand where things are in the
world. Here is my example of a map:

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Types of print help the reader by signaling, "Look at me!
I'm important!"

Here is my example of a special type of print:

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Close-ups help the reader see details in something small.
Here is my example of a close-up:

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Table of Contents help the reader find key topics in the
book in the order that they come.

Here is an example of a table of contents for a book about ________________________________________________.
List at least 4 chapters.

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Index is an alphabetical list of almost everything written in
the text, with page numbers so you can find the information.

Here is my example of an index in a book about ______________________________________________.
List at least 5 words and include the page numbers.

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Glossary helps the reader understand key words that are in
the text. This glossary could be from a book about ________________ __________________________________________________. Here is my example of a glossary:
List at least 2 words and include the definition of the words. The two words should be in alphabetical order.

179

Subject: ESL

4.5 Other Evidence Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Table helps the reader understand important information by
listing it in a table or a chart form.

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
Here is my example of a table:

Source: http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Nonfiction%20Conventions%20Notebook.doc 12

4.5 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 181 Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum

4.5 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

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4.5 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL Name ________________________________________ Date ________________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot

183

4.5 Performance Task Chronological Order Subject: ESL Name _______________________________________ Date ____________________________________ Time Line Write dates for each event in time order from left to right. Add details along the line.

184 Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/timeline.pdf

4.5 Performance Task Main Idea Subject: ESL Name _______________________________________ Date __________________________________ Sandwich Chart Write your topic at the top. Add details to the middle layers. Add a concluding sentence at the bottom.

185 Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/sandwich.pdf

4.5 Performance Task Step-by-Step Subject: ESL Name ____________________________________________ Date _______________________________ Step-by-Step Chart Write each step in order. Add details.

Materials ________________________________________________________ Steps Step 1: Details

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

Step 5:

186 Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/stepchart_eng.pdf

4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Explore Gail Gibbons Subject: ESL

203 Source: www.holidayhouse.com

4.5 Resource Nonfiction Structure Article Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Nonfiction Structure Article Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Nonfiction Structure Article Subject: ESL

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4.5 Resource Nonfiction Structure Article Subject: ESL

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4.5 Sample Lesson Creating Background Knowledge Subject: ESL

Activating Prior Knowledge/Schema
Talking Drawings Objectives:  To activate schema  To provide information that shapes future teaching  To provide a vehicle for students to measure learning  To make connections TS, TT, TW (for extension) Materials:  Book that will be used to introduce subject matter  (Any text can be used, alter lesson to your needs)  Talking Drawings sheet (if you choose) or anything to draw on  Writing implements  Concrete item to activate schema (especially for younger students)  Making connections posters (for extension)  Chart paper/overhead transparency (for extension)  Timer (helps to keep students on track) Process: Introduce the book/area of study using the concrete item (ex: toy insects for an insect unit, etc.) or by telling the title of the story. Show the cover of the book if you want to help give a clue. (I normally do not show the book because I do not want them to draw the picture on the cover.) Invite students to quickly draw a picture that shows everything they know about this subject. Take about 5 to 10 minutes for drawing time. Once the time is up, have them turn to their neighbor and discuss their drawings— what they know about the subject. Take about 5 minutes for each pair. Use timer to help, set it for two and a half minutes so it goes off and then let the next person talk for the remaining two and a half minutes. Be sure that the drawings reflect an activation of schema/prior knowledge about the subject matter. If not, try to engage that student in conversation that helps them activate their prior knowledge/schema. If not using for unit of study: Read the story and discuss it as you normally would. Make comparisons to their drawings and see if they learned anything new about the subject matter. This is where a lesson just to work on activating schema would end. Extension: At this point, you can record the various ideas under K of a KWL chart and move into the wonder questions as you make predictions about the story/subject. While recording on the KWL chart students can write one or two word labels on their drawings as reminders. (Be sure everyone is with you as you move on to predicting—only write during the recording of the K.) Read the story to the students and use the drawings to help make connections with the text. You can have “connection people” that hold the posters and/or write down the connections that are made during and after reading the text. The “connection people” can record their specific type of connection.

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4.5 Sample Lesson Creating Background Knowledge Subject: ESL (Connections should be done as you go along in your study and only after you have practiced with each type of connection.) Management: This lesson can be carried out over several days or throughout a unit. First Day:  Activate Schema using Talking Drawings technique  Start KWL: Use Drawings for K, and make predictions for W  Collect drawings Day Two: (This can be done for every text used for every text in unit)  Review KWL chart (OWL can be used instead of KWL)  Read story  Make connections (record under L if using OWL)  Use W list of KWL to help generate what was learned for L.  Record “what was learned” under the L of the KWL chart. Day Three: (You can do this as you see fit, mostly for OWL)  Read the connections one by one  Decide if response helped with the text. Mark it with a 1.  Decide if the response did not help. Mark it with a 2.  If child who made response disagrees, have them explain their thinking.  Stop here with L if using OWL—these are your links. Last Day: (Culmination of Unit)  Compare W to L of KWL and see if all was answered, etc.  Draw a picture representing what they know about the subject now  Use pre and post drawings as a comparison—authentic assessment Talking Drawing Source: Talking Drawings: A Strategy for Assisting Learners by Suzanne McConnell, Journal of Reading, December 1992/January 1993.

209

Subject: ESL

4.5 Sample Lesson Text Structure of Non-Fiction Knowledge

Teach Text Structure for Nonfiction
This lesson plan will provide students with a strong foundation for reading, writing, and using nonfiction. OBJECTIVE Students will: 1. Gain an awareness and general understanding of what text structures are 2. Learn what clues they can use to identify the text structure of a piece of writing MATERIALS 1. Five Text Structures 2. Student copies of Stopping a Toppling Tower – 1 for each student DIRECTIONS Step 1: Use the Five Text Structures chart to explain what text structures are and what clues students can use to identify text structures. Step 2: Help students understand the importance of understanding text structure by explaining that a reader who is aware of the patterns that are being used can anticipate the kind of information that will be presented. Example: If we we know a selection follows a “compare and contrast” organization, we can expect to read about likeness and differences between people or things. This will help us connect ideas and remember them. Step 3: Have students reread Stopping a Toppling Tower (PDF). Step 4: Ask students to identify what type text structure this selection is (problem and solution). Ask them, “How does the reader know?” They should be able to identify that the first paragraph states that there is a “problem.” The second paragraph states that engineers have found a “solution.” What headings offered clues?

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Subject: ESL

4.5 Sample Lesson Text Structure of Non-Fiction Knowledge

211

Subject: ESL

4.5 Sample Lesson Text Structure of Non-Fiction Knowledge

212

Subject: ESL

4.5 Sample Lesson Text Structure of Non-Fiction Knowledge

213

Subject: ESL

4.5 Sample Lesson Text Structure of Non-Fiction Knowledge

Source: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/lessonplan.jsp?id=234 5

4.5 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC

5

4.6 Graphic Organizer Fact and Opinion Subject: ESL Name ________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Fact and Opinion Write your topic at the top. Add details to each column.

FACT

OPINION

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/factopin.pdf 1

4.6 Graphic Organizer Hamburger Paragraph Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________________ Date _______________________________

Source: superteacherworksheets.com

217

4.6 Graphic Organizer Somebody Wanted To But Subject: ESL

Plot Summary

Somebody_________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ wanted___________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ so________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ but______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

so_______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Finally,___________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

218

4.6 Graphic Organizer Somebody Wanted To But Subject: ESL

Plot Summary

Somebody (The main character) ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Wanted (their goal or motivation) ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ So (what they did to try to get it) ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ But (the conflict) ______________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ____ So (the resolution to the problem) ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Finally, (the ending if different from above) _________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ______________________ 219 Source: http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Plot%20Summary%20Chart%20%20Somebody%20Wanted%20to%20But.doc

4.6 Graphic Organizer Story Map Subject: ESL Name ______________________________________ Date ____________________________________ Story Map Write notes in each section.

220 Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/storymap3.pdf

4.6 Graphic Organizer Timeline Subject: ESL Name ________________________________________ Date _____________________________ Time Line Write dates for each event in time order from left to right. Add details along the line.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

221

4.6 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

222

4.6 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Rubric Subject: ESL

Name ____________________________________ Date ______________________________ Rubric for Reading Dialogue Journals Score Student's Response Demonstrates Complete response with support  Includes a personal and specific response  Uses evidence from the text  Focuses on important ideas  Provides thoughtful responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that student read the assigned reading with full comprehension Adequate response with some support  Includes a general response  Uses some evidence from the text  Focuses on less important ideas  Shows some thoughtfulness in responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Somewhat reflects that the student read the assigned reading with some comprehension Limited response with little support  Includes a superficial response, such as “It was funny” Uses little or no evidence from the text  Focuses on details rather than important ideas  Shows limited thoughtfulness in responses to their own questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that the student did not complete nor comprehend the assigned reading No response to text  Includes disconnected story details  Fails to include personal response to the story  Is incomplete or too short  Shows little or no thoughtfulness and provides no questions or reflections about the reading  Reflects that the student did not complete any of the assigned reading No response 223

4

3

2

1

0 Source: edCount, LLC

4.6 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Rubric Subject: ESL

Source: edCount, LLC

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4.6 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: __________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

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4.6 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Text: __________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

226

4.6 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 227 Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum

4.6 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

228

4.6 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL Name ________________________________________ Date ________________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot

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4.6 Performance Task Question Ideas Subject: ESL These questions are merely suggestions for getting a good conversation going. We encourage you to use the ones you like and to come up with your own. Great questions for anyone  What was the happiest moment of your life? The saddest?  Who was the most important person in your life? Can you tell me about him or her?  Who has been the biggest influence on your life? What lessons did that person teach you?  Who has been the kindest to you in your life?  It’s been said that after they pass away, the most important people in our lives “live within us.” Is there anyone from your past that lives within you?  What are the most important lessons you’ve learned in life?  What is your earliest memory?  Are there any words of wisdom you’d like to pass along to me?  What are you proudest of in your life?  When in life have you felt most alone?  How has your life been different than what you’d imagined?  How would you like to be remembered?  Do you have any regrets?  What does your future hold?  Is there anything that you’ve never told me but want to tell me now?  Is there something about me that you’ve always wanted to know but have never asked? Friends or Colleagues  If you could interview anyone from your life living or dead, but not a celebrity, who would it be and why?  What is your first memory of me?  Was there a time when you didn’t like me?  What makes us such good friends?  How would you describe me? How would you describe yourself?  Where will we be in 10 years? 20 years?  Do you think we’ll ever lose touch with each other?  Is there anything that you’ve always wanted to tell me but haven’t? Grandparents  Where did you grow up?  What was your childhood like?  Who were your favorite relatives?  Do you remember any of the stories they used to tell you?  How did you and grandma/grandpa meet?  What was my mom/dad like growing up?  Do you remember any songs that you used to sing to her/him? Can you sing them now?  Was she/he well-behaved?  What is the worst thing she/he ever did?  What were your parents like? 230

4.6 Performance Task Question Ideas Subject: ESL  What were your grandparents like?  How would you like to be remembered?  Are you proud of me? Raising children  When did you first find out that you’d be a parent? How did you feel?  Can you describe the moment when you saw your child for the first time?  How has being a parent changed you?  What are your dreams for your children?  Do you remember when your last child left home for good?  Do you have any favorite stories about your kids? Parents  Do you remember what was going through your head when you first saw me?  How did you choose my name?  What was I like as a baby? As a young child?  Do you remember any of the songs you used to sing to me? Can you sing them now?  What were my siblings like? What were the hardest moments you had when I was growing up?  If you could do everything again, would you raise me differently?  What advice would you give me about raising my own kids?  What are your dreams for me?  How did you meet mom/dad?  Are you proud of me? Growing up  When and where were you born?  Where did you grow up?  What was it like?  Who were your parents?  What were your parents like?  How was your relationship with your parents?  Did you get into trouble? What was the worst thing you did?  Do you have any siblings? What were they like growing up?  What did you look like?  How would you describe yourself as a child? Were you happy?  What is your best memory of childhood? Worst?  Did you have a nickname? How’d you get it?  Who were your best friends? What were they like?  How would you describe a perfect day when you were young?  What did you think your life would be like when you were older?  Do you have any favorite stories from your childhood? 231

4.6 Performance Task Question Ideas Subject: ESL School  Did you enjoy school?  What kind of student were you?  What would you do for fun?  How would your classmates remember you?  Are you still friends with anyone from that time in your life?  What are your best memories of grade school/high school/college/graduate school? Worst memories?  Was there a teacher or teachers who had a particularly strong influence on your life? Tell me about them.  Do you have any favorite stories from school? Love & Relationships  Do you have a love of your life?  When did you first fall in love?  Can you tell me about your first kiss?  What was your first serious relationship?  Do you believe in love at first sight?  Do you ever think about previous lovers?  What lessons have you learned from your relationships? Marriage & Partnerships  How did you meet your husband/wife?  How did you know he/she was “the one”?  How did you propose?  What were the best times? The most difficult times?  Did you ever think of getting divorced?  Did you ever get divorced? Can you tell me about it?  What advice do you have for young couples?  Do you have any favorite stories from your marriage or about your husband/wife? Working  What do you do for a living?  Tell me about how you got into your line of work.  Do you like your job?  What did you think you were going to be when you grew up?  What did you want to be when you grew up?  What lessons has your work life taught you?  If you could do anything now, what would you do? Why?  Do you plan on retiring? If so, when? How do you feel about it?  Do you have any favorite stories from your work life? Religion  Can you tell me about your religious beliefs/spiritual beliefs? What is your religion? 232

4.6 Performance Task Question Ideas Subject: ESL  Have you experienced any miracles?  What was the most profound spiritual moment of your life?  Do you believe in God?  Do you believe in the after-life? What do you think it will be like?  When you meet God, what do you want to say to Him? Serious Illness  Can you tell me about your illness?  Do you think about dying? Are you scared?  How do you imagine your death?  Do you believe in an after-life?  Do you regret anything?  Do you look at your life differently now than before you were diagnosed?  Do you have any last wishes?  If you were to give advice to me or my children, or even children to come in our family, what would it be?  What have you learned from life? The most important things?  Has this illness changed you? What have you learned?  How do you want to be remembered? Family heritage  What is your ethnic background?  Where is your mom’s family from? Where is your dad’s family from?  Have you ever been there? What was that experience like?  What traditions have been passed down in your family?  Who were your favorite relatives?  Do you remember any of the stories they used to tell you?  What are the classic family stories? Jokes? Songs? War  Were you in the military?  Did you go to war? What was it like?  How did war change you?  During your service, can you recall times when you were afraid?  What are your strongest memories from your time in the military?  What lessons did you learn from this time in your life? Remembering a loved one  What was your relationship to _____?  Tell me about _____.  What is your first memory of _____?  What is your best memory of _____?  What is your most vivid memory of _____?  What did _____ mean to you? 233

4.6 Performance Task Question Ideas Subject: ESL  Are you comfortable/ can you talk about _____’s death? How did _____ die?  What has been the hardest thing about losing _____?  What would you ask _____ if _____ were here today?  What do you miss most about _____?  How do you think _____ would want to be remembered?  Can you talk about the biggest obstacles _____ overcame in life?  Was there anything you and _____ disagreed about, fought over, or experienced some conflict around?  What about _____ makes you smile?  What was your relationship like?  What did _____ look like?  Did you have any favorite jokes _____ used to tell?  Do you have any stories you want to share about _____?  What were _____’s hopes and dreams for the future?  Is there something about _____ that you think no one else knows?  How are you different now than you were before you lost _____?  What is the image of _____ that persists?  Do you have any traditions to honor _____?  What has helped you the most in your grief?  What are the hardest times?

Source: http://storycorps.org/record-your-story/question-generator/list/ 4

4.6 Reading Tool Cue Card Subject: ESL

Making Connections Cue Cards

Source: time4teachers.com

235

4.6 Resource Non-Fiction Structure Subject: ESL

236

4.6 Resource Non-Fiction Structure Subject: ESL

237

4.6 Resource Non-Fiction Structure Subject: ESL

238

4.6 Resource Non-Fiction Structure Subject: ESL

239

4.6 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC

240

4.7 Graphic Organizer Character Map Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________________ Class/Subject ____________________________________

Date _______________________________ Teacher ____________________________

Character Map

What character says and does.

What others think about character.

Character’s Name

How character looks and feels.

How I feel about character.

Source: Thinkport

241

4.7 Graphic Organizer Compare and Contrast Subject: ESL Compare and Contrast Chart

Source: ReadWriteThink

242

4.7 Graphic Organizer Finding Evidence Subject: ESL

Finding Evidence
Name: Write a statement about the main character from your story here.

Fill in the squares with evidence from the story that supports your statement in the box above.

On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph that describes the main character from the story. The topic sentence should be your statement from the top of the page. The supporting details in your paragraph come from each of the smaller boxes at the bottom of the page.

243 Source: Adapted from Literature Study Guide Tahoma School District

4.7 Graphic Organizer Story Map Subject: ESL Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________ Story Map Text: ________________________________________________ Who are the characters in the story? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Describe the setting of the story. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is the main conflict or problem in the story? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Retell 5 main events that happened in the story. First, ___________________________________________________________________ Second, _________________________________________________________________ Next, ___________________________________________________________________ Then, __________________________________________________________________ Lastly, __________________________________________________________________ What is the resolution of the story? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Source: edCount, LLC 244

4.7 Graphic Organizer Venn Diagram Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

245

4.7 Learning Activity Facebook Page Subject: ESL

Source: Adapted from facebook.com

246

4.7 Literature Connections Magic Stream Subject: ESL

Magic Stream The Fairy Tale By Regina Garson
Once upon a time there was a princess. She was not a very beautiful princess. She was rather ordinary, but she was a princess just the same. She was daughter of a splendid young king and queen. Strong in battle and a knowledgeable ruler, her father the king, had been the most handsome and wealthy of princes. From a neighboring kingdom, her mother the queen, had been a royal princess. She was as beautiful as the king was strong. Suitors traveled for miles to pursue her beauty and favors. Not unaware of the admiration she aroused, the clever young princess would settle only for the most noble of spouses. So it was the young prince and princess married to become king and queen. They overlooked a vast and prosperous kingdom from a magnificent castle on a hill. Royal as they were, they soon beget a daughter, but nature could not repeat the beauty of the queen nor the strength of the king. The beautiful couple looked at their child in dismay. The young princess was not a frog, but it might have been better. No one you see, equaled the king and queen in strength or beauty. The young princess was very ordinary but the subjects of the kingdom welcomed her with love and acceptance. Not one you see, equaled the king and queen, and as the princess was very ordinary, so were they. Homely though she was, she had an unselfconscious zest for life. This brought a beauty that nature couldn't touch. The queen grew jealous, for her own attentions declined with years. One day in a rage she cut off the nose of the princess. Not one would say it, but they knew it was the queen who had cut off her nose. The princess went on being a princess. She had a harp and she played and sang. Strange and beautiful were her songs, for they had no laughter and they had no tears. People would come for miles to hear her music. She received many attentions and fine gifts from royal subjects who used to love the queen. Missing the adoration of her princess days, the queen's resentment grew until one day in another rage she took a hot iron and burned the tongue of her daughter. She said, "You will sing no longer." The princess played sad notes on the harp, and moved her mouth without singing. Strange and beautiful were her songs, for they had no tears and they had no voice. Still the people listened and loved her.
247

4.7 Literature Connections Magic Stream Subject: ESL

Jealously consumed the queen and she commanded the king, "We will take the child to the woods and dispose of her." He loved his daughter but, he loved his queen more. They took the child to the forest and the king held her while the queen poked nails in her eyes. Climbing back into their carriage, the queen tossed the harp out beside her. They tore their clothes, and without looking back, the royal couple returned to the castle. In royal despondency they explained that while on a royal family picnic the young princess had been consumed by a wild boar. The valiant king had fought desperately to save her, while the queen cried in royal despair. The subjects were saddened and bestowed many attentions on their beloved queen and king. The queen was happy and the king sat beside her. The young princess picked up her harp and stumbled through the forest, her tongue was too sore to speak and her eyes too crusted to see. Groping for berries and nuts she survived. She didn't weep, she didn't laugh, and neither did she sing. She wandered for many years, until one day she came to a quiet and beautiful place in the heart of the forest. She couldn't see it, but she could feel it and she knew that she was safe. Exhausted, she lay on soft grass and wept, and as she wept her tears rolled down the bank into a stream. When she ceased weeping she reached for the cool water, for she could hear it. She dipped her hands into the stream and washed her eyes with its magic waters. As she did, her eyes began to heal and she could see a faint reflection of herself in the blackness. In the safety of the quiet glade she mourned the loss of her king and queen. She cried for many days for she loved them deeply. Her teardrops mingled with the waters of the deep. Feeling her strength returning, she drank freely of the water. Her mouth was healed. She had a voice and she sang, but her songs were not yet real. Once more she washed her eyes and drank the water, and this time she understood its magic. When she picked up her harp her songs were real, for as she looked in the wet darkness she could see herself clearly. She wasn't very pretty for she had traveled far and she would never have a nose, but she was real and she could sing. As she sang, she realized she wasn't singing alone. Surrounding the quiet place, was a quiet people. They weren't very pretty either, some were missing ears, some eyes and some were missing legs, but they all understood and shared love with each other. Their songs were not beautiful, but they were real, for they had all traveled far. They sang in joyous laughter and wept in sorrow's tears. They lived happily for many years in joyous celebration for each who made it to the Magic Stream. And the Magic Stream flowed until the end of their days with tears wept for the ones who didn't.

248 Source: http://hiwaay.net/~garson/fairy.htm

4.7 Other Evidence Paired Fluency Check Subject: ESL Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 249 Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum

4.7 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

250

4.7 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL Name ________________________________________ Date ________________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot

251

4.7 Performance Task Cinderella Sequencing
Subject: ESL

Cinderella – Sequencing
At the beginning of the story…

In the middle of the story…

At the end of the story…

252 Source: http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks1/english/story_telling/ cinderella/cinderella1.htm

4.7 Resource Character Analysis Subject: ESL Background Information & Activities A character is any person, animal, or personified object in a story. Characters work together to tell a story. Usually there is one or a few main characters and varying number of supporting characters. In many stories, characters confront challenges and overcome obstacles and as a result, they grow and change. Characters vary as widely as people; they each have different personalities, backgrounds, and react to their surroundings in different ways. Just like people, all characters have traits. Sometimes the author tells the reader exactly what the character is like, while other times the author gives clues to help the reader understand the character. One good way of understanding a character is to create a character chart, which can include information about how the character looks, how they feel about things, what they like or dislike, how other people react to them, and what they do or do not do. Another way your child can grasp a deeper understanding of a character is through comparisons. Your child can compare the character to him or herself, someone he or she knows, or to another character. How are they alike and different? How is the character like other characters in the story? How is the character alike or different from characters in other books? In some stories, especially in fables or fairy tales, characters learn a lesson and change. When the character learns a lesson, the reader learns it as well. Writers and storytellers use characters as a way to teach about friendship, family, virtues, and life in general. Encourage your child to think of memorable characters from books, poems, plays, television shows, and films. Why are these characters memorable? What makes them special? Would the story be different if the main character were different? What makes a good story? Have your child think about these questions when she or he reads. Good readers ask questions as they read a book, story, or poem. We recommend watching the Choosing a Book movie together as a review.

Character Teacher Activities
Character on Trial Together with your students, discuss the antagonists, or “bad guys,” in several fairy tales or stories. How are the antagonists alike and different? What motivates them to go against the main character? What are their character traits? Select one antagonist and review what happens in the story. Then set up a mock trial in the classroom. Volunteers can play the antagonist, the main character, supporting characters as “witnesses,” and jury members. You may want to act as the judge so you can control the discussion. Have each character come up and ask questions to the antagonist. Students should question the antagonist’s motivation, reasons for his or her actions, and whether or not the antagonist changed in the course of the story. To expand the activity, have students act out the fairy tale or story and film it. Then film the trial to create an episode of Law & Order: Fairy Tale Unit. You can air or perform the play in front of family members, friends, and other classes. Alternate Story There are many different and updated versions of the fairy tales we learned when we were young. For example, the classic story of Cinderella is retold as a princess who does not need a prince to rescue her. Bring in modern, updated, or global versions of fairy tales and read them to the class or have students read them independently. Discuss how the tales are alike and different and how the characters have been changed. Students can write their observations down in their notebooks or in a chart. As an extension, have students rewrite a classic fairy tale and update it to modern times. The tale can be set in their hometown or the characters can be updated, which can change the plotline. Write the story together as a class and have groups of students illustrate each page. Put the pages together to make your own “modern” fairy tale. Character Charades Write down the names of famous characters from books, poetry, television, and film and put the names in a box or hat. Have students draw a name and act out the character. Student volunteers can guess the character. After each turn, discuss how the students knew which character was being acted out. What clues were used? Discuss the character’s traits and how the character changes in the story. 253 Source: http://www.brainpopjr.com/readingandwriting/storyelements/character/grownups.weml

4.7 Resource Character Analysis Subject: ESL Feeling Great about Character Traits Have students write their name on the top of a piece of paper. Then have students pass the papers one person to the right. When students receive their neighbor’s paper, have them write down one positive trait or anecdote about the person named on the paper. Students may want to write a character trait such as funny, friendly, energetic, or hard-working, or students may want to write short phrases such as “good at soccer” or “great artist.” Encourage students to think of positive anecdotes about the person and write it down in complete sentences. Remind students that only positive traits should be listed on the paper. Pass around the papers until every person has at least ten traits listed. Character Family Activities Character Study Read a book with your child or attend a reading at a local bookstore or library. You may want to choose a story they will be familiar with, like The little Red Hen,Discuss the main character in the book and have your child describe the character’s traits. Then have your child choose a friend or close relative and analyze his or her character. How is the friend or relative alike or different from the main character in the book? For example, a child might compare their mother to the Little Red Hen. Would the friend or relative act similarly in the same situation as the main character? Why or why not? Have your child write his or her ideas down of what might happen if the friend or relative was in the story. Then have your child rewrite the story using the friend or relative as a character. Your child may want to tell the story instead of writing it. After your child completes the activity, she or he can share or perform the story to the friend or relative. Getting Into Character One great way to understand character is to get into character. Have your child choose a story and act it out. Or, if you prefer, there are many plays for young children available on the internet that can be found by googling “readers theater”. She or he may want to recruit friends, siblings, or even dolls to act out the story. Help your child make masks and costumes for his or her character and put together a backdrop or scene. As your child practices lines, encourage him or her to think about how the character is feeling when delivering the lines. Is the character angry, sad, or happy? How do you know? Guide your child to explain his or her answers. After rehearsals are finished, your child can perform the play in front of family and friends. My Own Character Characters in a book are not the only ones who have traits. People have them too. Have your child write a list of his or her own character traits. Discuss moments when your child was brave, clever, or helpful and think about activities that he or she excel at or enjoy doing. Your child can also use the letters of his or her name to name a specific character trait. Post the list of traits in front of a mirror so your child can be reminded of his or her great qualities everyday.

254 Source: http://www.brainpopjr.com/readingandwriting/storyelements/character/grownups.weml

4.7 Resource Elements of Setting
Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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4.7 Resource List of Novels Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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4.7 Resource List of Picture Books Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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4.7 Resource Narrative Writing Subject: ESL Narrative Writing

Goal: Narrative writing tells a story or part of a story. The general characteristics of narrative writing include:  plot structure o introduction o rising action o climax o falling action o resolution Characteristics:  conflict  characterization  setting  theme  point of view  sequencing  transitions Narrative writing appears in and is not limited to novels, short Uses: stories, biographies, autobiographies, historical accounts, essays, poems, and plays.   Write a story about the best celebration you have ever had; tell why this is your favorite. Think of a time when you were nervous. It might be your first plane ride or the first time you slept over night with a friend. Tell what happened and how you reacted. Write a fictional story about being an eyewitness at a historical event. Find an example of a narrative; explain the elements that make this a good example.

Exercises:

  

Additional Internet Sites:

A one-page article that describes this genre while also including links to examples of narrative writing. http://members.accessus.net/~bradley/narrativeprompts2.html Visit this list for additional resources gathered by the Web English Teacher. http://www.webenglishteacher.com/narrative.html

258 Source: http://www.thewritingsite.org/resources/genre/narrative.asp

4.7 Resource Plot Subject: ESL Plot Background Information & Activities Reading is an exciting experience for children and people of all ages and we recommend providing a print-rich environment for your children. As you read together, it is important to model active reading skills and help your children to identify fundamental story elements such as character, setting, and plot to increase and strengthen comprehension. Plot is simply what happens in a story, or all the events that the author arranges to tell a story. In almost every story, the main character or characters face a conflict, or problem, and try to find a solution, or an answer. Review with your children that a character is anyone in a story. The main characters are the most important characters in the story. The setting is the time and place of a story. Settings can change throughout a story. You may wish to screen the Character or Setting movies for review. All the events that happen in a story make up the plot. Choose a book or story together and identify the characters and setting. Then discuss what happens in the plot. A conflict is the overarching problem the characters face in a story. In some stories, characters struggle against nature. For example, in one story, a protagonist might try to climb the highest mountain or cross the hottest desert. Characters can also struggle against machines. For example, they might battle a malfunctioning computer or try to fix a car. Some characters struggle against other characters, as in classic comic books where heroes and anti-heroes battle. Other conflicts might arise between a character and society, such as when a character battles poverty or racism. Some conflicts, however, are fought within the characters on an emotional level. Internal conflicts can include a character who tries to overcome a fear or cope with a loss of a pet or family member. Conflicts can involve emotions, loyalties, desires, or the conscience. Encourage your children to think about stories, characters, and the conflicts they encounter. You may also want to discuss conflicts your children have struggled with or overcome in their own lives. The solution is an answer to a problem or how the conflict is solved. Throughout a story, characters might find different solutions to a problem, successfully or unsuccessfully. Suspense happens when the reader is not sure what will happen next. It is important for your children to understand that stories may not end happily and not all problems the characters face will be solved. Sometimes at the conclusion of stories, new problems arise. You may wish to identify stories and book that end this way. A book in a series might end with a problem that will then lead into the next book. Stories and plotlines differ, but the classic parts of a story include the introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. The introduction presents the characters and the setting, and the rising action brings in the conflict, which then escalates into the climax, or the point in the story where the conflict appears to be at the highest point. The falling action involves the characters getting closer to solving the conflict and managing the effects from the climax, and the resolution is when the conflict is solved. While your children are not responsible for knowing all these elements of a story, they should understand that throughout a story, characters can struggle with conflicts, and as a result, grow and change or stay the same. Often characters learn something about themselves or about others. Stories can be confusing, especially when there are many characters, plotlines, and conflicts, but there are many ways readers can follow the events in a story. The easiest way is to create a graphic organizer. Charts, lists, and story maps are helpful ways to keep track of events in the story. Drawing pictures or taking notes while reading are also useful strategies. Good readers think, take notes, and ask questions 259

4.7 Resource Plot Subject: ESL while they read. Every child can find his or her own way of reading and understanding, so encourage your children to find their own strategies of following plots as they read. Plot Teacher Activities Personal History Ask a person from the community to come in for an interview. This person can be a public servant, such as a firefighter, police officer, doctor, or bus driver, or she or he can be an elderly person, store owner, artist, or chef. Before the interview, brainstorm questions for your students to ask the person. Try to come up with questions that might elicit tales of overcoming challenges. (Where and when did this person grow up?) What is the most important event that has happened in his or her life? What were the happiest and saddest moments? Moderate the interview and then have students make a timeline showing major conflicts in the person’s life. Then use the timeline to write a biography of the person. You can also focus on one event of the person's life and write a story about it, paying close attention to the plot and order of events. To extend the activity, have students pick a family member or friend and ask similar questions. Then have students write a timeline and/or story about the person using real events. Book Jacket Have students look at different books in the classroom. Focus their attention to the back of the books or the book jackets, which often feature synopses of the book’s plot. Then have students pick a book or a story and create a new book jacket or cover. Students can decorate the cover and write a short synopsis of the plot on the back. Students may also wish to draw pictures of the person for the author’s photo. Display all the books in the classroom just as in a bookstore. Climb Every (Story) Mountain Discuss different stories with your students. If needed, read a few short books together and discuss the plots. What happened in each story? Explain that the events in a story often build to a very exciting event, called the climax. Identify the climaxes in different stories. Then have students choose a book and describe the plot verbally or by writing short sentences. Have students draw or print out pictures of mountains, such as Mount Everest, from the Internet. They can also copy pictures of different mountains from a book. Have each student create a story mountain for their story using the picture. You may also wish to print out the Talk About It and modify it to suit your class. After students have completed their story mountains, attach them in a line or in several rows to create a story mountain range. Display the range so students can see each other’s work. Plot Family Activities Ready, Set, Sequence Have your child pick a well-known story, such as a nursery rhyme, fairy tale, or fable. Then have him or her write five sentences on five separate pieces of paper that describe what happens in the story. Your child can also draw pictures to illustrate their sentences. Younger children may wish to draw pictures and write a few words or short phrases. Then have your child mix up their papers and challenge you to put them in order. After you are done sequencing the plot, you can switch roles. Plot Line If possible, take sidewalk chalk and draw a long line on your driveway or neighborhood sidewalk. Together with your child, come up with a story. You may wish to adapt a fairy tale and tell it from a different point of view, or tell a memorable event from the past year. Then take a walk along the line and write down each major event in the story. Remember to identify the characters, setting, and main conflict in the story on your line. You can share the plot line with other community members or relatives. 260 Source: http://www.brainpopjr.com/readingandwriting/storyelements/plot/grownups.weml

4.7 Resource Setting Subject: ESL Setting Background Information & Activities Setting is the time and place in which a story occurs. A setting of a story, poem, or play can be anchored to a specific time and place, such as on the Oregon Trail in the 1800s, or it can be fictitious, such as a faraway kingdom or in outer space. Whether or not the location is real or fantastical, characters interact with the setting to show and tell a story. We recommend watching the Character movie together as a review. Most stories have several settings. In Homer’s The Odyssey, the main character goes through a journey filled with obstacles and danger in order to return home to his family. The setting constantly changes and the characters are forced to confront and adapt to these changes. Other stories, such as fables, have one setting in which the characters grow and change. Encourage your child to point out different settings as he or she reads. One important element of setting is time. The period of time in which a story takes place dictates how the characters act, talk, react to each other, or even travel. For example, a story that takes place in the South today would be drastically different from a story that takes place in the South in the early 1800s. Encourage your children to think about setting whenever they read or write. How might the story be different if the setting were changed? Setting contributes not only to the plot, but also to the mood. For example, the setting of a story about vampires could be an old, dark mansion tucked away in a foggy bayou. This setting lends an air of suspense and uneasiness to the plot and characters. If the setting were the busy streets of New York City, there would be a different mood. Many authors might not explicitly tell the reader about the setting. Readers must use clues to infer the time and place. Encourage your children to look for clues about the setting as they read. How do the characters travel? How do they dress? How do they talk? Encourage your children to ask questions as they read, an important step to reading well. Setting Teacher Activities What might happen? Together with the class, read and discuss a fairy tale or fable, such as “The Three Little Pigs.” How might the story be different if it took place in a different time or place? What if the three little pigs lived in different types of houses? What if the story took place in the distant future? What might change? What might stay the same? Lead a discussion and write students’ ideas on the board or have students write their ideas in their notebooks. To extend the activity, have students write or act out their own modified fairy tale or fable. Students can write their stories and illustrate them to create a book or they can break up into groups and perform their story in front of the class. Setting Improv Explain to students that improv is a form of comedy in which actors and actresses create skits off the top of their heads. Many improv shows begin with a specific time and place, which is agreed upon by audience members. Some improv shows may also begin with specific characters in a situation. For example, one idea might be The Boy Who Cried Wolf and his mother going to the grocery store together. Invite volunteers to come up and do improv comedy in front of the class. Other students can be audience members and call out ideas or you can put ideas in a hat or box to draw from. To change up the activity, you can add twists to the improv sketches. For example, you can call out “Freeze!” right in the middle of a sketch and then name a different situation in which the actors and 261

4.7 Resource Setting Subject: ESL actresses must adapt to or students can yell “Freeze!” and tag out one of the actors or actresses to finish off the scene. Setting Skit Settings can inspire people to write. Together with the class, pick one setting, such as a haunted house, old castle, circus, farm, or park. Then break the students up into small groups and have each group create a skit that works in the setting. Encourage them to be creative when they write a script or story in which the characters interact with the setting. Each group can then draw or paint a backdrop for their skit and collect or make props as needed. Then have students perform their skits in front of the class. Students will be able to see how different stories can occur in the same setting and how characters can react differently to the same setting. Art Connection Paintings offer rich settings that can spark some imaginative storytelling. Find a reproduction of a painting that has a detailed setting, like a landscape. Post the picture in a place where all students can see it (or provide a different picture for each table of students.) Ask students to come up with a story that takes place in the setting they are viewing. Depending on their abilities, students can tell their partners their stories or write them down. Be sure to save room for some share time as these are bound to be creative! Setting Family Activities On the Set If possible, take your child to see a play or musical. Check your local listings for productions of plays or musicals at community centers, local theaters, area junior high and high schools, or even elementary schools. After the performance, discuss the setting with your child. When and where did the play take place? What clues did your child use to find out about the setting? Why is the setting important to the play? What might have happened if the setting were different? Puppet Show Have your child perform a puppet show for friends and family. First help your child pick a story and find puppets or dolls to use as characters. You’re your child write a script under your guidance. How many settings will be in the puppet show? What should the setting look like? Encourage your child to make sketches or create lists to design his or her sets. Then have your child create the sets by decorating cardboard boxes. You can add a curtain to the set by draping a towel or cloth napkin over the boxes. Setting Memory Game Create several flash cards with descriptions of settings on one card and the name or picture of a character on another. For example, one card might describe a castle and a pumpkin carriage, while the other card might have a picture and name of Cinderella. Your child can match the setting to the character and then create more cards to add to the game. As your child matches up each pair of cards, ask him or her how she knows that the two go together.

262 Source: http://www.brainpopjr.com/readingandwriting/storyelements/setting/grownups.weml

4.7 Resource Transition Phrases Subject: ESL Name: _______________________ Date:____________________

Transitional Words/Phrases
Useful Words to Introduce Ideas

First, Second, Third,

Next, Then, Later,

Useful Words to Connect ideas and Add New Information

For example, After, Also, Then, In addition, So,

Furthermore, Well, Because, For instance, In other words, Additionally,

For Contrast However, On the contrary, On the other hand, But, In contrast, Instead,

For Conclusion In conclusion, Consequently, Finally, In summary, Lastly, In short, As you can see,

Source: edCount, LLC

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4.7 Text Cinderella Illustrations Subject: ESL

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4.7 Text Cinderella Illustrations Subject: ESL

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4.7 Text Cinderella Illustrations Subject: ESL

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4.7 Text Cinderella Illustrations Subject: ESL

269 Source: http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks1/english/story_telling/cinderella/ cinderella1.htm

4.7 Text Cinderella

Subject: ESL

Cinderella
Once upon a time there lived an unhappy young girl. Her mother was dead and her father had married a widow with two daughters. Her stepmother didn't like her one little bit. All her kind thoughts and loving touches were for her own daughters. Nothing was too good for them - dresses, shoes, delicious food, soft beds, and every home comfort. But, for the poor unhappy girl, there was nothing at all. No dresses, only her stepsisters’ hand-me-downs. No lovely dishes, nothing but scraps. No rest and no comfort. She had to work hard all day. Only when evening came was she allowed to sit for a while by the fire, near the cinders. That’s why everybody called her Cinderella. Cinderella used to spend long hours all alone talking to the cat. The cat said, “Miaow“, which really meant, “Cheer up! You have something neither of your stepsisters has and that is beauty.” It was quite true. Cinderella, even dressed in old rags, was a lovely girl. While her stepsisters, no matter how splendid and elegant their clothes, were still clumsy, lumpy and ugly and always would be. One day, beautiful new dresses arrived at the house. A ball was to be held at the palace and the stepsisters were getting ready to go. Cinderella didn't even dare ask if she could go too. She knew very well what the answer would be: “You? You're staying at home to wash the dishes, scrub the floors and turn down the beds for your stepsisters.” They will come home tired and very sleepy. Cinderella sighed, “Oh dear, I'm so unhappy!” and the cat murmured “Miaow.” Suddenly something amazing happened. As Cinderella was sitting all alone, there was a burst of light and a fairy appeared. “Don't be alarmed, Cinderella,” said the fairy. “I know you would love to go to the ball. And so you shall!” “How can I, dressed in rags?” Cinderella replied. “The servants will turn me away!” The fairy smiled. With a flick of her magic wand Cinderella found herself wearing the most beautiful dress she had ever seen. “Now for your coach,” said the fairy; "A real lady would never go to a ball on foot! Quick! Get me a pumpkin!” “Oh of course,” said Cinderella, rushing away. Then the fairy turned to the cat. “You, bring me seven mice, and, remember they must be alive!” Cinderella soon returned with the pumpkin and the cat with seven mice he had caught in the cellar. With a flick of the magic wand the pumpkin turned into a sparkling coach and the mice became six white horses, while the seventh mouse turned into a coachman in a smart uniform and carrying a whip. Cinderella could hardly believe her eyes. “You shall go to the ball Cinderella. But remember! You must leave at midnight. That is when my spell ends. Your coach will turn back into a pumpkin and the horses will become mice again. You will be dressed in rags and wearing clogs instead of these glass slippers! Do you understand?” Cinderella smiled and said, “Yes, I understand!”

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4.7 Text Cinderella

Subject: ESL Cinderella had a wonderful time at the ball until she heard the first stroke of midnight! She remembered what the fairy had said, and without a word of goodbye she slipped from the Prince’s arms and ran down the steps. As she ran she lost one of her slippers, but not for a moment did she dream of stopping to pick it up! If the last stroke of midnight were to sound... oh... what a disaster that would be! Out she fled and vanished into the night. The Prince, who was now madly in love with her, picked up the slipper and said to his ministers, “Go and search everywhere for the girl whose foot this slipper fits. I will never be content until I find her!” So the ministers tried the slipper on the foot of every girl in the land until only Cinderella was left. “That awful untidy girl simply cannot have been at the ball,” snapped the stepmother. “Tell the Prince he ought to marry one of my two daughters! Can't you see how ugly Cinderella is?” But, to everyone’s amazement, the shoe fitted perfectly. Suddenly the fairy appeared and waved her magic wand. In a flash, Cinderella appeared in a splendid dress, shining with youth and beauty. Her stepmother and stepsisters gaped at her in amazement, and the ministers said, “Come with us Cinderella! The Prince is waiting for you.“ So Cinderella married the Prince and lived happily ever. As for the cat, he just said “Miaow!”

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English as a Second Language
Curriculum Maps Grade 5

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5.1 Communities Create Heroes Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will read tall tales and reflect on who is a hero in their community. The students will also make connections to characters in tall tales and focus on describing the setting, characters, and problem and solution of the stories. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend, identify, and describe characters and setting. L/S.5.2 Identifies and uses homophones and recognizes figurative language. Reading R.5.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning; uses prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words. R.5.3 Distinguishes main character from supporting characters, compares and contrasts character traits, and describes setting in fiction. R.5.5 Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect, organizes plot, makes predictions and connections, and recognizes problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.5.1 Applies common spelling patterns and structural analysis to correctly spell words. W.5.5 Follows the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  Stories can teach us lessons and connect us to our community history.  The mythical heroes of tall tales can shape the culture of a community.  Setting can define characters and change the mood of a story. Good writing takes hard work and requires multiple drafts, revisions, and editing before it is published. Content (Students will know…)  Simple homophones (allowed/aloud, beat/beet, aunt/ant, ate/eight, board/bored, break/brake, buy/ bye/by)  Different types of references to understand unknown words (context clues)  The difference between main character and supporting characters June 2011 Essential Questions:  What creates community?  Why do people tell stories?  What makes a hero?  How does the setting affect a story?  What do good writers do?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend, identify, and describe characters and setting  Apply context clues to determine meaning of unknown words (such as homophones)  Apply reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning 273

5.1 Communities Create Heroes Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks  Adjectives to describe the character traits of heroes (brave, strong, kind, helpful, courageous, funny, thoughtful, determined)  Prewriting strategies to generate ideas (brainstorming through a word web, using graphic organizers, discussing topic with a peer, freewriting)  Spelling Patterns such as blends (bl-, gl-, pr-, sk-, sc-, pt, -ie, -ou) Content Vocabulary  Community member  Neighborhood  Hero  Tall tale  Setting  Define  Homophone  Main character  Supporting characters  Blends Performance Tasks: “My neighborhood hero is…”: Exploring the Writing Process  Introduce the writing process by asking students “what do good writers do?” See as a class what parts of the writing process they remember. Cut out arrows and have students use each other to come up with the order of the steps of the writing process (drafting, revising, editing and publishing). Have groups share and explain why they ordered it in a certain way. As a closing, show the correct order of the writing process and make it a circular process (where after publishing, comes brainstorming because writers continue writing and do not stop after they publish one piece)  Brainstorming: have students share what they do to come up with their ideas to write. Create a class list of ways of brainstorming (examples: draw pictures, use a picture, use a memory, create a word web of ideas, use a timeline, compare and contrast, free write June 2011

       

Distinguish main character from supporting character orally and in writing Compare and contrast character traits orally and in writing Describe the setting in fiction Make predictions and connections while reading Recognize problem and solution in narrative and expository text Apply common spelling patterns and structural analysis to correctly spell words Follow the writing process (drafting, revising, editing and publishing) Use the dictionary as an aid in the writing process (identify spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors)

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 5.1 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart) on word wall  Spelling test weekly based on blends (See Attachment: 5.1 Learning Activity – Blends)  Use a word square (See Attachment: 5.1 Other Evidence – Word Square) for each vocabulary word from the reading  Character comparison chart (See Attachment: 5.1 Graphic Organizer – Character Comparison Chart)  Reader’s Response Letter: Write a reader’s response letter that shares personal connections to a fictional text that can answer the essential question: “What makes a good member of a community?” (See Attachment: 5.1 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal as a graphic organizer to find examples of connections)

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5.1 Communities Create Heroes Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks on a topic, use 5W questions to interview a peer) Have students brainstorm on topic “A hero is…?” to find traits or qualities of heroes. Add these words to the word wall. Have students select a brainstorming strategy that the prefer  Drafting and Revising: Now that they have brainstormed traits of a hero, have the students write for 20-30 minutes on the topic “My neighborhood hero is…” To Revise, have students share with a peer and have peer share “what you did well was….” “what I didn’t understand was…” Have students rewrite their paragraphs to include the suggestions from their peer. Also, suggest that students include any vocabulary words from the word wall of character traits of heroes that would make their writing stronger.  Editing: Tell them they will move onto the next part of the writing process, editing. Editing deals with “how does my writing look?” meaning: Correct capital letters, correct spelling, and correct punctuation. Have a peer use the editing checklist (See Attachment: 5.1 Writing Tool – Editing Checklist) to correct each other’s second draft by using a dictionary. Then have students check their own paragraphs (See Attachment: 5.1 Writing Tool – Paragraph checklist).  Publishing: Have examples of books, newspapers, magazines, and a school brochure. Share how all of these pieces of writing went through the writing process and were published. Publishing simply means sharing your writing to an audience. Part of publishing is how the writing is presented. Study the models and ask, “Are there illustrations? Photographs? A cover? How is it shared?” Have students publish their paragraph on their neighborhood by illustrating their writing and put it together in a class book or share by displaying it outside the classroom.

June 2011

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5.1 Communities Create Heroes Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Character Connection Posters Create and present a poster comparing a character in a text that connects to the student the most.  Student compares and contrasts the main character to self (See Attachment: 5.1 Graphic Organizer – Compare and Contrast) Write a “who is who” 2-4 sentence description of the main character and two or three supporting characters in the book and illustrate them  Summarize and illustrate the setting, problem and solution of the story  Follow the writing process (brainstorming, drafting, revising, editing, publishing) (See Attachments: 5.1 Editing Checklist and 5.1 Paragraph Checklist) Create a personal homophone book from 8 to 10 pairs of homophones  Students search for homophones in their reading in pairs, create a class list  Select 8 to 10 examples of homophones from the reading, or from teacher examples  Create a book that has illustrations and sentences for each homophone pair (See Attachment: 5.1 Performance Task Homophone book organizer) Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Homophones  Use worksheets (See Attachment: 5.1 Learning Activity – Homonyms Worksheets) as a basis for selecting homophone pairs to study  Create a class word wall of homophones, have an activity where with a pair, students select 3 to 5 homophones off the word wall and write a paragraph using all the homophones. Have a peer check to see if the homophones were used correctly  Based on the homophone pairs from the worksheets, students create illustrations of homophones and a definition in their own words of each word Vocabulary: Using Context Clues  Model “What do I do with an unknown word?” using a fictional text. Use an inference chart (See Attachment: 5.1 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart) as a way of modeling your strategy of using context clues to infer an unknown word  Place vocabulary words and unknown words from the reading on a word wall display in the classroom  Have students illustrate the definition of the new words to have a visual in the classroom by the June 2011 276

5.1 Communities Create Heroes Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks word wall Create a word web with the class (or in pairs) of all the connections they can make with a vocabulary word (See Attachment: 5.1 Graphic Organizer – Word Web) Spelling  Use blends to create cards so students can play games such as memory (print two copies of each and students have them all face down and they have to find the pairs) (See Attachment: 5.1 Learning Activity – Blends)  Use spelling words to create a story or comic that uses all the words Character Traits/Setting/Problem and Solution/Predictions and Connections through Tall Tales  Focus genre on tall tales to as a way of describing incredible heroes. Discuss how tall tale characters were heroes that helped his/her community. Have students share who are people who help their community (in the school or neighborhood) and create a list.  Use a tall tale character map to describe the character traits of the tall tale hero (See Attachment: 5.1 Learning Activity – Tall Tale Character Map)  Read a tall tale and share how a tall tale character solves problems that the community solves. To build background, ask if the students know real heroes in their neighborhood who help solve problems. Include how setting (time and place) help set up the problem. With the students, find the time and place, the problem and solution (See Attachment: 5.1 Learning Activity – Story Map 2)  Read aloud a tall tale and model predictions (taking a guess about what will happen next) and connections (connections to self, another book, the world)  While reading a tall tale, have students use a dialogue journal to keep track of their predictions and connections to the story (See Attachment: 5.1 Other Evidence– Dialogue Journal) Sample Lessons  Lesson on Spelling Patterns to play game “go fish”: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/spelling-patterns-fish-card-1046.html  Lesson on homophones: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/developing-understanding-homophones-284.html  Lesson on Describing Characters with adjectives using Character Traits: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/charlotte-wise-patient-caring176.html  Lesson on comparing character traits from tall tales: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/american-folklore-jigsaw-character-30524.html  Lesson on Peer Editing: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/peeredit-with-perfection-786.html Additional Resources  Spelling strategies (See Attachment: 5.1 Resource – Spelling Strategies)  Tall tales (See Attachment: 5.1 Resource – Tall Tales) Literature Connections  John Henry Races the Steam Drill by Paul Robert Walker  Sally Ann Whirlwind by Mary Pope Osborne  Paul Bunyan, the Mightiest Logger of Them All by Mary Pope Osborne  American Tall Tales by Mary Pope Osborne 

June 2011 277 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

5.2 Leaders in My Community Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will explore problem and solution in fiction and discuss how characters solve problems in stories. From these discussions, students will make connections to real life leaders solving problems in their community and interview these leaders for a writing project. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.3 Listens, responds to, and analyzes complex instructions; expresses self using complete sentences; answers and formulates both closed and open-ended questions in both formal and informal scenarios. L/S.5.4 Applies correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds in a variety of narrative texts. Reading R.5.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning; uses prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words. R.5.5 Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect, organizes plot, makes predictions and connections, and recognizes problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.5.1 Applies common spelling patterns and structural analysis to correctly spell words. W.5.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph; applies organizational patterns to connect ideas in narrative and descriptive paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  Leaders come in many forms.  Leaders lead by their actions, not their words.  Writers use problems to create suspense and keep readers reading. Content (Students will know…)  Plot structure of a story (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution) and how problems drive a story  Different types of references to understand unknown words (context clues, use of prefixes: e.g. un-, re-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, dis-)  Qualities of a leader (honest, fair, strong, caring, thoughtful, determined)  Transitions (sequence words) to tell, retell and explain a story, (e.g. meanwhile, next, before, then, earlier, soon, immediately, suddenly, June 2011 Essential Questions:  What creates community?  What qualities make a good leader?  How can I lead by example?  How do good writers keep your attention?  Do all stories have problems?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Answer and formulate both closed and openended questions in both formal and informal scenarios, such as interviewing a community leader  Apply correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds in a variety of narrative texts (sequencing)  Apply context clues and prefixes to determine meaning of unknown words  Identify sequence of events in narrative and expository text

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5.2 Leaders in My Community Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks however, even though, thus, also, therefore, finally, In conclusion) Content Vocabulary  Leader, leadership  Honesty, fairness  Strength, strong  Caring, thoughtful  Determined  Prefix  Cognate  Transition word  Problem  Solution  Plot line  Introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution Performance Tasks: Community Leader Interviews Students select a person they think is a leader in the neighborhood, interview him/her and write a description of what he/she does that makes them a leader  Have students brainstorm a list of leadership qualities from the characters in their readings. From this list, students will describe who are the leaders in their family or in their community that have these same characteristics  Interview the leader asking these questions: o How did he or she overcome a problem? o Why is this person a leader? o What characteristics must a good leader have?  From the interview, write two paragraphs on why this person is a leader and how he/she overcomes problems  Writing must include three to five transition word (See Attachment: 5.2 Performance Task – Transition Words) and edit their work using the paragraph checklist (See Attachment: 5.2 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist) Prefix Word Tree Select three major prefixes and create a prefix June 2011

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Organizes plot in narrative and expository text Make predictions and connections in narrative and expository text Recognize problem and solution in narrative and expository text Apply common spelling patterns and structural analysis to correctly spell words Apply organizational patterns to connect ideas in narrative and descriptive paragraphs

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 5.2 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart) on word wall  Plot line organizer (See Attachment: 5.2 Graphic Organizer – Plot line Organizer)  Spelling test weekly based on blends (See Attachment: 5.2 Other Evidence – Blends)  Dialogue journal to document predictions and connections based on the reading (See Attachment: 5.2 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal)

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5.2 Leaders in My Community Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks tree poster that has words that share the same meaning of the prefix. Have students use dictionaries to find example words, give definition in their own words My Favorite Story Poster In pairs, students create a poster on their favorite story from the unit.  Have pairs of students draw a story map based on pictures of the problem and the solution of the story  Write a description of the most exciting part, the climax and what part of the story got them excited in the rising action  Draw pictures of the main characters before and after the climax of the plot. Make sure the pictures show how he/she changed after the problem was solved Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Prefixes  Select 3 prefixes a week for the 5 weeks to have as the focus. Select prefixes from list (See Attachment: 5.2 Learning Activity – Prefixes) With these prefixes have students: o Brainstorm words they already know that use this prefix o Find Spanish cognates (if word is Latin based, there is a Spanish cognate) o Find non-examples (e.g. read is not an example of a word that uses the prefix re-) o Look up words in the dictionary that use the prefix and give their meaning in student’s own words o Search for words with prefixes from the reading and add to class chart Sequencing  Find the problem and solution in a text and plot it on a graphic organizer (See attachment: 5.2 Learning Activity – Story Map 2)  Have students discuss the most exciting part of a story they are reading. What did the author do to get you excited? What information did he/she give you as you were reading? What questions were you asking yourself? Have students write down their predictions about what will happen and what is pulling them as they read in their dialogue journals (See Attachment: 5.2 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal)  In pairs, have students find the most exciting part of a the story, use a plot line organizer (See Attachment: 5.2 Plot Line Organizer) to fill it out and then give examples of how the writer built their interest (rising action), how were we introduced to the characters, setting, and problem (introduction) and then what happened after the climax (falling action) and how was the character changed after the climax (resolution)  Create cards out of transition words for the word wall, have students with a partner retell a story using time transition words (See Attachment: 5.2 Performance Task – Transition Words)  Have students have a small group discussion based on an essential question and use transition June 2011 280

5.2 Leaders in My Community Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks words from the word wall to articulate their thoughts and to comment on their peers ideas (See Attachment: 5.2 Performance Task – Transition Words)  With a partner, find examples of transition words in stories and create a list in their journal Leadership through Reading  Ask students “What are the qualities of a good leader?” Have students brainstorm as a class and then free write about who they consider to be a good leader. To connect to the previous unit, have students discuss with a partner, “Does a leader have to be a hero?”  Read aloud a book (fiction or a biography) of a leader. Have students use a dialogue journal to find examples in the text where the character leads by example and have students make connections (See Attachment: 5.2 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal)  Compare and contrast two books of leaders, one where the leader is a famous figure (such as Abraham Lincoln or Rosa Parks) and a character from a text who leads by example, but is not famous. Have students compare and contrast the actions of the characters (See Attachments: 5.2 Graphic Organizer – Character Comparison Chart or 5.2 Graphic Organizer – Venn Lines) Sample Lessons  Lessons on Prefixes: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/spell-wordprefix-without-399.html  Lessons on Plot line: Comparing and contrasting a person conflict with a conflict in a story: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/examining-plot-conflictthrough-802.html  Lesson on Transition Words (See Attachment: 5.2 Sample Lesson – Transition Words) Additional Resources  On Prefixes, roots, suffixes (See Attachment: 5.2 Resource – Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes) Literature Connections  Si Se Puede! Yes we can! Janitor Strike in LA by Diana Cohn  Amelia and Eleanor go for a Ride by Pam Muñoz Ryan  Lincoln and Douglass by Nikki Giovanni  Click Clack Moo: Cows that Type by Doreen Cronin  Me, Mop, and the Moondance Kid by Walter Dean Myers  Elena by Diane Stanley  La Bamba by Gary Soto

June 2011 281 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

5.3 Discovering My Neighborhood Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary Students will read fiction and non-fiction text about neighborhoods in order to write about their own neighborhood. This unit focuses on identifying and correcting sentence fragments and run-on sentences. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.5 Identifies, states, and paraphrases the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts; uses transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.5.1 Analyzes the text and uses text features to enhance comprehension. R.5.4 Explains the differences between fiction and nonfiction; states the main idea and topic and identifies fact and opinion in expository text. R.5.5 Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect, organizes plot, makes predictions and connections, and recognizes problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.5.2 Recognizes a complete sentence and a fragment; writes complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences. W.5.3 Uses the parts of speech correctly in sentences; demonstrates understanding of subjects and objects with the use of prepositional phrases in sentences. W.5.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph; applies organizational patterns to connect ideas in narrative and descriptive paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  A community where its members work together can grow and improve.  Your neighborhood is a part of your identity.  Good writers use a variety of sentence types to communicate their ideas clearly. Content (Students will know…)  The difference between a fragment and a complete sentence (through having a subject and object)  Transitions (sequence words) to tell, retell and explain a story, orally and in writing (i.e. meanwhile, next, before, then, earlier, soon, immediately, suddenly, however, even though, thus, also, therefore, finally, In June 2011 Essential Questions:  What creates community?  What makes a good neighbor?  How does my neighborhood shape who I am?  How can my sentences clearly communicate my ideas?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Identify, state, and paraphrase the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts  Use transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure orally and in writing 282

5.3 Discovering My Neighborhood Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks conclusion)  Main idea and details of non-fiction and fiction  Elements of expository text (table of contents, index, glossary, captions)  The differences of fiction and non-fiction and the text features that distinguish them from each other (i.e. fiction stories have chapters or illustrations, follow a problem and solution narrative, while non-fiction texts have a variety of features and information through captions, diagrams, maps, glossary, index, etc and can be organized through cause and effect, chronologically, or procedurally) Content Vocabulary  Neighbors  Neighborhood  Fragment  Run-on Sentence  Subject  Object  Expository  Narrative  Sequence  Transition words (first, second, third, then, next, last, finally)  Text features: index, table of contents, glossary, captions Performance Tasks: Create a poster about your neighborhood  Complete a KWL chart on their neighborhood and use “want to know” as a springboard for their research into their neighborhood (See Attachment: 5.3 Performance Task – KWL Chart)  Select key words that describe your neighborhood  Pick three important things you want to share (people, places, things to do) and write a descriptive paragraph on each using the key words. Paragraphs must include two transition words each. June 2011

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Analyze the text and uses text features to enhance comprehension Explain differences between fiction and nonfiction State the main idea and topic in expository text Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect in fiction and non fiction Recognize a complete sentence and a fragment Demonstrate understanding of subjects and objects in sentences Use a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph

Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall (See Attachment: 5.3 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Spelling test weekly based on blends (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Blends)  Sentence fragment tests (See Attachment: 5.3 Other Evidence – Sentence Fragment Test)  Summarize a fiction and non-fiction text by finding key words and using them in a summary of the main idea (See Attachment: 5.3 Other Evidence - Key Words Summary)  Sequence a fiction and non-fiction text (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Story Map 283

5.3 Discovering My Neighborhood Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Edit Paragraph (See Attachment: 5.3 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist)  After the presentations have students compare and contrast their neighborhoods (See Attachment: 5.3 Graphic Organizer – Venn Lines) Reader’s Response Letter Write a Reading Response Letter based on a character who is influenced by his or her neighborhood (Use 5.3 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal as a graphic organizer to find examples of connections) Book Review Poster At the end of the reading unit, have students select their favorite text to review (See Attachment: 5.3 Performance Task – Book Review). The review must have:  Introduce the story with a summary (but don’t give it away!) and include author’s name and title of the book  Two to three reasons why you like the book  A personal connection to the book  Who would you recommend this book for?  Illustrate your poster with a pictures from the story and if possible, a picture of the author

Summary)

Stage 3 – Learning Plan Learning Activities Main Idea and Details  Select major events from a read aloud and illustrate them to create a visual summary. Turn this visual summary into writing (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity - Summarizing Through Pictures)  Create cards, which have example of a main idea of a paragraph, and a card for a detail (one detail per card), and have cards that give supporting details (one supporting detail per card). Have students sort out the cards to build a main idea pyramid with the main idea on top, details as the second layer, and supporting details on the bottom. Discuss what is the difference between main ideas and supporting details (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Main Idea and Details Pyramid)  Have students read aloud in partners a text. At the end of each paragraph have one partner ask “what is going on?” and have the other partner use transition words “first, then, next” to retell what happened in the paragraph. Partners should switch roles every paragraph to practice fluency and retelling (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Transition Words) Non-Fiction Text and Text Features June 2011 284

5.3 Discovering My Neighborhood Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Connect to what students learned last year in 4th grade about text features in non-fiction text. Use KWL chart (See Attachment: 5.3 Performance Task – KWL Chart) about non-fiction text features to determine what needs to be included.  Based on the above activity, study non-fiction conventions that students need to review by comparing a variety of texts and complete Nonfiction Conventions Notebook (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Nonfiction Conventions Notebook)  Read aloud non-fiction text and model using context clues for inferring unknown words and have students complete word squares for vocabulary based on the text (See Attachment: 5.3 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Compare and contrast as a class, in a group, in pairs a variety of non-fiction texts to find examples of non-fiction organization (description or list, sequence, compare and contrast, cause and effect)  Have students select from organizers to sequence non-fiction text (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Main Idea and Details Pyramid, or 5.3 Learning Activity – Story Map Summary) Writing: Sentence Fragments  Have students find the subject and predicate of the lyrics of song by School House Rock on subject and predicate (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – School House Rock)  Define and find the “who“ (subject) and “what” (object or predicate) of a sentence (See Attachment: 5.3 Learning Activity – Subject-Predicate)  Have students create sentence strips of subject and object and combine them to create complete sentences. Have students create fragments and other students can add to their sentence to make them complete  Have students create a run-on sentence by attaching sentences they write on sentence strips  Have students correct a paragraph that contains fragments and run-on sentences (as a class, in pairs or individually)  Have students revise each other’s writing on their neighborhood to find sentence fragments Sample Lessons  Lessons on Idea development for writing using the novel Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street (See Attachment: 5.3 Sample Lesson – Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street)  Lessons on non-fiction text features, and summarizing: http://www.shelleducation.com/samples/10177s.pdf  Lesson on writing book reviews: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/thumbs-students-writing-publishing-976.html Literature Connections  Be My Neighbor by Maya Ajmera  House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros  Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street by Roni Schotter  Seed Folks by Paul Fleischmann

June 2011 285 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

5.4 Community Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will read a variety of fiction and non-fiction to compare and contrast the winter holidays (Hanukkah, Ramadan, Kwanzaa, and Christmas) to their own experiences. Students will also practice using a variety of sentence types and explore the use of figurative and sensory language to add detail and color to their writing. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of narrative texts to comprehend, identify and describe characters and setting. L/S.5.2 Identifies and uses homophones and recognizes figurative language. Reading R.5.3 Distinguishes main character from supporting characters, compares and contrasts character traits, and describes setting in fiction. Writing W.5.2 Recognizes a complete sentence and a fragment; writes complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences. W.5.4 Identifies elements in descriptive and narrative forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph; applies organizational patterns to connect ideas in narrative and descriptive paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  Celebrations are a way of marking an important stepping stone in people’s lives or creating a sense of unity in a family or community.  Celebrations have customs that reflect the history and traditions of a culture. Content (Students will know…)  The meaning of U.S. Idioms and figurative language (i.e. feeling under the weather, raining cats and dogs, happy as a clam, quiet as a mouse, a piece of cake, a dime a dozen, cry wolf, drive someone up the wall)  The difference between main character and supporting characters  The characteristics, similarities, and differences between major winter holidays (Hanukkah, Christmas, Ramadan, and Kwanzaa) June 2011 Essential Questions:  What creates community?  Why do we celebrate special events?  What do our celebrations say about us?  What do I love about celebrations?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Identify and describe characters and setting orally and in writing  Distinguish main character from supporting character orally and in writing  Compare and contrast character traits orally and in writing  Identify and use figurative language  Write complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences using appropriate grammar and mechanics o Use a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph 286

5.4 Community Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Content Vocabulary  Celebrate  Holiday  Parade  Customs  Tradition  Culture  Hanukkah, Ramadan, Christmas, Kwanzaa  Honor  Declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory sentence types  Idiom  Figurative language  Simile  Sensory language  Five senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste, feel) Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Neighborhood Celebrations Create and present a class book on celebrations in the neighborhood  Have students write a descriptive personal narrative of a favorite memory from a celebration (birthday, or a cultural or religious holiday)  How did they feel during that event? What did they experience? Use Sensory Language Sheet (See Attachment: 5.4 Graphic Organizer - Sensory Language)  Describe their feelings or senses using figurative language (I was happy as a clam, It was as loud as a concert) Reader’s Response Letter on Celebrating Events Write a reader’s response letter answering one of the following essential questions, “Why do we celebrate events?” or “What do our celebrations say about us?”  Use Dialogue Journal (See Attachment: 5.4 Other Evidence - Dialogue Journal) to find examples and make connections based on text on celebrations. Celebration Comic Strips Create a Comic Strip of a night of celebration in your family or neighborhood June 2011 Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 5.4 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Spelling test weekly based on blends (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Blends) or once finished: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/spel linglevelc.html  Assessment on Sentence types (See Attachment: 5.4 Other Evidence – Sentence Types)  Explanation of figurative language from text (See Attachment: 5.4 Graphic Organizer – Figurative Language)  Explanation of Idiom use (See Attachment: 5.4 Other Evidence - Idiom Word Square)

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5.4 Community Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Use the four types of Sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory in your comic strip  Create comic strip (See Attachment: 5.4 Performance Task - Sentence Type Comic Strip)  Extension: have students act out comic strip or read aloud to partners to practice intonation of sentence types Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Reading & Celebrations  Read about different holidays and compare and contrast a variety of religions based on their celebrations: i.e. What are the differences between Ramadan and Christmas? Between Christmas and Hanukkah? What do they have in common? (See Attachments: 5.4 Learning Activity Celebration 5W Organizer and 5.4 Graphic Organizer - Venn Lines) o Reading for Kids on Kwanzaa (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Holiday Handouts) o Reading for Kids on Ramadan (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Holiday Handouts) o Reading and activities on Hanukkah (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Holiday Handouts) o Reading and activities on Christmas (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Holiday Handouts)  Compare and contrast the characters from fictional stories (See Attachment: 5.4 Graphic Organizer – Character Comparison Chart)  During read aloud and partner reading, use dialogue journal to note connections and predictions of characters and the sequence of events (See Attachment: 5.4 Other Evidence - Dialogue Journal)  Find examples of figurative language from text as well as from idioms in English. Draw the visual of the figurative language and then write the explanation of what it means (See Attachment: 5.4 Graphic Organizer – Figurative Language)  Have students explore idioms (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Idioms) and illustrate their favorite idioms (See Attachment: 5.4 Other Evidence – Idiom Word Square) Writing & Grammar  What do holidays express about our culture? Have students reflect on how celebrations in their neighborhood reflect or show about what is important in their neighborhood.  Create a story map and then use the map to describe the events of their holiday (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Story Map)  Use the Valentine’s Day Holiday to teach sentence types (See Attachment: 5.4 Learning Activity – Valentine’s Day Activity)  Find examples of sentence types from read alouds and classify in a classroom chart and in student’s journal as partner work  Take a declarative sentence (e.g. I found a book under the table) and in partners transform it into an interrogative sentence (“What is this book doing under the table?”), imperative (“Get that book under the table!”) and exclamatory “Look! Book!”) Sample Lessons  Create a shape poem using the five senses on a celebration: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/shape-poems-using-five30582.html June 2011 288

5.4 Community Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Lesson on teaching figurative language through idioms: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/figurative-language-teaching-idioms-254.html Additional Resources  Activities for the Holidays: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/holidays/ Literature Connections  Holidays Around the World: Celebrate Kwanzaa (National Geographic)  Holidays Around the World: Celebrate Hanukkah (National Geographic)  The Tree of Dancing Goats by Patricia Polacco  The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polacco  The Polar Express by Chris Van Allsburg  The Grinch Stole Christmas by Dr. Seuss  Note: Gail Gibbons also publishes several non-fiction texts about holidays that may be useful for this unit

June 2011 289 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

5.5 Making Maps Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary Students will focus on creating maps of their class, neighborhood, and school in order to practice using prepositional phrases as well as suffixes. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.3 Listens, responds to, and analyzes complex instructions; expresses self using complete sentences; answers and formulates both closed and open-ended questions in both formal and informal scenarios. Reading R.5.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning; uses prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words. R.5.5 Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect, organizes plot, makes predictions and connections, and recognizes problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.5.3 Uses the parts of speech correctly in sentences; demonstrates understanding of subjects and objects with the use of prepositional phrases in sentences. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  Neighborhoods change slowly over time for a variety of reasons.  Maps provide information on where places are and how to get from place to place.  Prepositional phrases allow us to describe nouns with more detail. Content (Students will know…)  Suffixes (er, est, en, ful, less, ly)  Prepositional phrases (of, on, to, with, in, from, by, for, at, over, across, under) Content Vocabulary  Preposition (in, at, on, out, under, with, without)  Prepositional phrases (next to, behind, across from, in front of)  Suffix  Transition words (first, second, third, then, next, last, finally)  Map  Key  Cardinal directions (north, south, east, west) June 2011 Essential Questions:  What creates community?  Why do neighborhoods change?  How do maps help us?  How do I get around my town?  How can I use prepositional phrases to be better understood?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen, respond to and analyze complex instructions  Express self using complete sentences  Answer and formulate closed and open ended questions in both formal and informal scenarios  Use suffixes to determine the meaning of words and compare and contrast  Identify sequence of events and cause and effect as it relates to neighborhood changes  Demonstrate understanding of subjects and objects with the use of prepositional phrases in sentences  Use prepositional phrases orally and in writing 290

5.5 Making Maps Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks  Compass  Directions Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Neighborhood Maps  Create a map of your neighborhood and label the buildings and streets. Teacher can draw model map for class to base their maps on.  Use the map to create a list of questions that use prepositional phrases as the answer (e.g. where is the store?” The store is next to the red house, on the corner)  Have students answer the questions orally using prepositional phrases  Students write directions to their home from school based on their neighborhood map (if both locations are on same map) using prepositional phrases Before & After Maps of Our Community  Research to see how the neighborhood around the school has changed over the last twenty-five years by interviewing school staff, older members of the family, older members of the community (See Attachment: 5.5 Performance Task – Neighborhood Interview)  Find any maps of Puerto Rico, your town or city and study the key features of maps (key, compass, symbols)  Have the class create a before and after map of the school (map must have title, compass, key with symbols)  Write a paragraph describing the changes in the neighborhood using the cause and effect organizer (See Attachment: 5.5 Graphic Organizer – Cause and Effect)  Use suffixes of comparison (-er, -est, -less, ful) in describing the changes of their neighborhood around the school. Comparing Students  Create a paragraph that compares one student to another.  Students use –er and –est to compare and contrast themselves to each other based on June 2011 Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall (See Attachment: 5.5 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Suffix Assessment (See Attachment: 5.5 Learning Activity – Suffix Worksheets)  Prepositional Cards to assess student knowledge of prepositions by showing the card and having the student describe the picture (See Attachment: 5.5 Other Evidence – Prepositional Cards)  Prepositional phrase assessment (See Attachment: 5.5 Other Evidence – Prep Phrase Test)

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5.5 Making Maps Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks physical features and personality  Use drawings to show the differences between two students Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Suffixes  Introduce suffixes as way of changing meaning of a word. Focus on comparison suffixes –er, and – est to have students describe people in the class (who is taller? Shorter? Funnier? Youngest? Oldest?)  Create posters that show the difference between: short, shorter, shortest, tall, taller, tallest. Explain how if the adjective is long (over 3 syllables), you do not use –er or –est (e.g. beautiful is not beautifuller but more beautiful and most beautiful)  Use suffix worksheets (See Attachment: 5.5 Learning Activity – Suffix Worksheets)  On cards, write various root words and suffixes (one root word or suffix on each card. (Example: on one card, write love and another –ly), give students a card each and have them find their match (Example: love and ly = lovely)  Search in books students are reading for suffixes and create a class list, a list in their journals and add to class word wall Prepositional Phrases  Use real life examples of prepositional phrases (describe items in the room with phrases: next to, behind, across from, in front of, underneath, above)  Introduce prepositions by showing School House Rock video, “Busy Prepositions”: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Busy.html  Have students find the examples of the prepositions from the song, “Busy Prepositions” (See Attachment: 5.5 Learning Activity – Busy Prepositions) and have them create sentences based on those prepositions (of, on, to, with, in, from, by, for, at, over, across)  Have students play “I spy” where they describe they are looking at “something under the desk” and their partner guesses what they are looking at, based on the prepositional phrase  Have students review for assessment (See Attachments: 5.5 Learning Activity - Prep Phrase 1 and 5.5 Learning Activity – Prep Phrase 2) Sample Lessons  Lesson on mapping your neighborhood (See Attachment: Sample Lesson – Mapping Your Neighborhood)  Lessons on Prepositions (See Attachment: 5.5 Sample Lesson – Prepositions)  Lesson on –er and –est (See Attachment: 5.5 Sample Lesson – Suffixes –er and –est) Additional Resources  Common prefixes and suffixes (See Attachment: 5.5 Resource – Common Prefixes and Suffixes)  Prepositional phrases (See Attachment: 5.5 Resource – Prepositional Phrase)  Suffix activities: http://www.freereading.net/index.php?title=Prefixes_and_Suffixes_Activities Literature Connections  Mapping Penny’s World by Loreen Leedy  Where do I live by Neil Chesanow  Me on the Map by Joan Sweeny

June 2011

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5.5 Making Maps Subject: ESL Length: 4 weeks  Follow that Map! A First Book of Mapping Skills by Scott Richie

June 2011
Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

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5.6 My Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary Students will read fiction and study what characters do that they enjoy. Then students will write create posters and write personal narratives regarding their own way of celebrating life. There is a special focus on identifying and including parts of speech in writing. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.4 Applies correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds in a variety of narrative texts. Reading R.5.5 Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect, organizes plot, makes predictions and connections, and recognizes problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.5.3 Uses the parts of speech correctly in sentences; demonstrates understanding of subjects and objects with the use of prepositional phrases in sentences. W.5.5 Follows the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  We can celebrate life with others and by ourselves.  Learning to enjoy quality time by yourself is important for peace of mind and self reflection. Content (Students will know…)  Plot structure of a story  The difference between a noun, verb, and adjective  The six traits of writing (ideas/content, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, voice) Content Vocabulary  Alone  Solitude  Personal narrative  Hobby  Tradition  Culture  Parts of speech Essential Questions:  What creates community?  How do I celebrate life?  Can someone be alone and not lonely?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Apply correct language patterns to organize events from read alouds in a variety of narrative texts (sequence words)  Identify sequence of events in plot of narrative and expository text  Recognize problem and solution in a narrative and expository text  Correctly spells words using spelling patterns and structural analysis  Use parts of speech correctly in sentences (nouns, verbs, adjectives)  Classify words by the correct part of speech  Follow the writing process (drafting, revising, editing and publishing)  Use the dictionary as an aid in the writing 294

June 2011

5.6 My Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Noun, verb, adjective

process (identify spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors) Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 5.6 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Spelling test weekly based on blends (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Blends) or once finished: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/spel linglevelc.html  Parts of Speech assessments: o Noun (See Attachment: 5.6 Other Evidence – Nouns) o Verb (See Attachment: 5.6 Other Evidence – Verbs) o Adjectives (See Attachment: 5.6 Other Evidence – Adjectives)  Journal entries on examples of parts of speech from books read in class

Performance Tasks: In My Neighborhood Posters Create and present a poster of what you like to do in the neighborhood. Describe your poster in writing:  Have three actions (verbs) you like to do in your neighborhood  Have three places (nouns) you like to go to  Have three feelings (adjectives) that describe how you feel when you are doing these activities Personal Narrative: My Celebration Write a personal narrative on a time when you celebrated something for yourself, or when you did something that you loved and you lost yourself in thought. Your writing should:  Have organization of introduction, body, and conclusion (See Attachment: 5.6 Performance Task – Five Paragraph Essay)  Use correct verb tense  Use rubric and have students study examples to rate using the rubric (See Attachment: 5.6 Writing Tool – Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric)  Use a variety of vocabulary to improve word choice (5.6 Resource – Word Choice)  Conclude with peer edit and self edit and have students rate themselves with the rubric (See Attachment: 5.6 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist) Parts of Speech Poster or Song  Student illustrates the differences between a noun, verb, and adjective by giving a definition of each part of speech and examples of words for each type  Examples of songs on parts of speech: Schoolhouse Rock songs on adjectives, nouns, verbs (For lyrics, See Attachments: 5.6 Learning Activity – Schoolhouse Rock: Noun, 5.6 Learning Activity – Schoolhouse Rock: Verb, and 5.6 Learning Activity – June 2011

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5.6 My Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Schoolhouse Rock: Adjective) http://www.sqooltools.com/edvideos/shr/m aster.html Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Reading & Plot Structure  When reading aloud or with partner reading, focus on what the character does for fun. Use the story map (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Story Map 2)  Read in partners and have students use dialogue journal (See Attachment: 5.6 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal) to write down their connections and predictions about what will happen and what is pulling them as they read  Create a story map with pictures of the sequence (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Story Map) and then pull out important words from the text to describe the pictures  In pairs, have students find the most exciting part of a the story, use a plot line organizer (See Attachment: 5.6 Graphic Organizer – Plot Line) to fill it out and then give examples of how the writer built their interest (rising action); how the reader is introduced to the characters, setting and problem (introduction); what happened after the climax (falling action); and the character changed after the climax (resolution) Writing  Select examples from texts that feature good descriptive writing for the personal narrative, including exciting verbs or descriptive adjectives. Have students create a T-chart in their journal of “Exciting words” and “what I see” when they hear the word. Have the students notice if the exciting words are nouns, verbs, or adjectives.  Have students write about an important celebration, then have a peer help them pull out more details (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Brainstorming an Important Event)  Introduce the six traits of writing (ideas/content, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, voice) by focusing on one trait every three days (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Six Traits Descriptions) Parts of Speech  Focus on one part of speech a week, introduce with Schoolhouse Rock Songs for Noun, Verb, and Adjective Noun: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Noun.html Verb: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Verb.html Adjective: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Unpack.html  Use the song lyrics for students to highlight or underline the parts of speech (See Attachments: 5.6 Learning Activity – Schoolhouse Rock – Noun, 5.6 Learning Activity – Schoolhouse Rock – Verb, and 5.6 Learning Activity – Schoolhouse Rock – Adjective)  Reinforce identifying parts of speech with worksheets to search and classify parts of speech: Noun: http://www.worksheetworks.com/english/partsofspeech/nouns/identify.html Verb: http://www.worksheetworks.com/english/partsofspeech/verbs/identifying.html Adjective: http://www.worksheetworks.com/english/partsofspeech/adjectives/identifying.html Sample Lessons  Lesson on peer revision: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/prompting-revision-through-modeling-1183.html June 2011 296

5.6 My Celebrations Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks  Lessons on teaching personal narrative (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Personal Narratives)  Parts of speech (See Attachment: 5.6 Learning Activity – Parts of Speech)  Create “mad libs” story for parts of speech (See Attachment: 5.6 Sample Lesson – Mad Libs) Additional Resources  Activities on “all about me” celebrations (See Attachment: 5.6 Resource – All About Me)  Grammar activities and sheets for parts of speech: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/grammar.html  On writing personal narratives with ESL students: http://www.eslflow.com/narrativeessay.html Literature Connections  All the Places to Love by Patricia Maclachlan  Yang the Second and Her Admirers by Kees de Kiefte  Mariah Keeps it Cool by Mildred Pitts Walter  Summer on Wheels by Gary Soto

June 2011 297 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

5.7 Issues Facing the Local Community Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary Students will conduct an in-depth study of the organization of articles and text features in newspapers in order to create their own classroom newspaper based on what is happening in the local community, including coverage of some of the local issues facing the community. Students will then study the art of writing and delivering speeches and conduct research to write a speech about something they would like to change in their neighborhood or school. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.5.3 Listens, responds to, and analyzes complex instructions; expresses self using complete sentences; answers and formulates both closed and open-ended questions in both formal and informal scenarios. L/S.5.5 Identifies, states, and paraphrases the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts; uses transitions to tell, retell, and explain a story using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.5.1 Analyzes the text and uses text features to enhance comprehension. R.5.4 Explains the differences between fiction and nonfiction; states the main idea and topic and identifies fact and opinion in expository text. R.5.5 Identifies sequence of events and cause and effect, organizes plot, makes predictions and connections, and recognizes problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.5.2 Recognizes a complete sentence and a fragment; writes complete declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences. W.5.5 Follows the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Community is created by a sense of connection between its members and their dedication to the improvement of their community.  News can be international and local, and it is something that concerns the general public.  Newspapers are an important service to a community to keep people informed about issues and current events.  Public speaking has an important place in a community because it gives people the chance to share their opinions and make change. Content (Students will know…)  Sequence words orally and in writing (first, then, next, afterwards, second, third, lastly, June 2011 Essential Questions:  What creates community?  What makes the news? Why?  How can I improve my community?  What creates change?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Express self using complete sentences while writing and delivering speeches 298

5.7 Issues Facing the Local Community Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks finally)  Elements of expository text (subtitles, chronological order)  The difference between complete sentences and fragments (subject and predicate)  Text features that distinguish fiction from non fiction Content Vocabulary  News, newspaper  Article  Byline  Headline  Subheading  Caption  Editor  Active citizen  Civic duty  Problem  Solution  Cause  Effect  Subject  Predicate  Fragment Performance Tasks: Classroom Newspaper Create a class newspaper on events in the community  Include stories that follow a newspaper format (See Attachment: 5.7 Performance Task – Newspaper Format)  Include text features from newspapers (heading, subheading, byline, caption) Speeches on Problems in the Community Write a speech on problem in the community and propose solutions  Prewriting: Use organizer with a peer to find what are the problems and possible solutions (See Attachment: 5.7 Performance Task – Prewriting)  Plan how to persuade your audience (See Attachment: 5.7 Performance Task –

   

Identify, state, and paraphrase the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of simple informational texts such as newspapers Analyze the text and uses text features of newspapers to enhance comprehension (i.e. caption, byline, photograph, headline, heading, subheading, table of contents, etc.) Identify fact and opinion in news articles and editorials Identify sequence of events and cause and effect in news articles and editorials Recognize a complete sentence and a fragment Use the dictionary as an aid in the writing process (identify spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors)

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary (See Attachment: 5.7 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Spelling test weekly based on blends (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Blends) or once finished: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/sp ellinglevelc.html  Graphic organizer for main idea and supporting details of non-fiction text (See Attachment: 5.7 Graphic Organizer – Main Idea Details)  Assessment on Subject and Predicate (See Attachment: 5.7 Other Evidence – Subject Predicate Test)

June 2011

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5.7 Issues Facing the Local Community Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Persuasion)  Research possible actions to help solve the problem in the community  Interview family members for their opinions  Peer edit and revise for sentence fragments and spelling  Peer revise speech using rubric (See Attachment: 5.7 Writing Tool – Speech Rubric) Letters to Elected Officials  Write a persuasive letter to the mayor or council about your issue (See Attachment: 5.7 Performance Task – Persuasive Letter)  Peer edit and revise for sentence fragments, spelling (See Attachment: 5.7 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist) Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Reading & Newspapers  Compare a newspaper and a story. Have students discuss the differences between an article and a story. Have them discuss how they are organized (do stories have subheadings?) and what the main idea/topic is  Bring in newspapers and have students create a poster of the text features of a newspaper (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Newspaper Vocabulary)  Have students read the first few sentences in a newspaper article and notice how the first sentence always gives a summary of the event (See Attachment: 5.7 Graphic Organizer – 5Ws and 1H)  In a non-fiction text or article, see what are three chain of events there are connected (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Chain of Events)  Find examples of speeches and identify the speech organization (See Attachment: 5.7 Graphic Organizer – Main Idea Details)  Select an issue with the class, do some internet research and prepare ideas for a debate with classmates on the topic (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Debate Organizer) Writing & Newspapers  Have a class meeting to brainstorm what topics they should cover for their class newspaper. Have students share what are important events or problems they want to include in their newspaper. Include a mix of events from the school, neighborhood, and in the student’s own life  Study examples of newspaper articles to understand the “inverted pyramid” organization of newspaper articles (See Attachment: 5.7 Performance Task – Newspaper Format)  Select a fictional story to turn into a newspaper article (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Story to Article) Speech Writing  Prewriting: finding the problem. Have students work in pairs to narrow topic for a persuasive speech. Use organizer (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Prewriting Triangle)  Have students interview each other about what they would change about their community.

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5.7 Issues Facing the Local Community Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Brainstorm on possible cause/effect relationships for problems in the community and solving them (See Attachment: 5.7 Graphic Organizer – Cause and Effect)  Research the possible solutions to community problems or effects of working toward changing something in the community (See Attachment: 5.7 Graphic Organizer – Cause and Effect) Complete Sentences & Fragments  Have students revise each other’s writing of their speeches to find sentence fragments, underlining the fragments and working together to complete the sentences  Write sentences and cut them between the subject and predicate (See Attachment: 5.7 Learning Activity – Subject Predicate Cutting Activity) Sample Lessons  Lessons on creating a class newspaper: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/creating-classroom-newspaper-249.html  Lessons on writing persuasive speech: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/vote-developing-writing-evaluating-414.html  Teaching newspaper articles to ESL students (See Attachment: 5.7 Sample Lesson – Newspaper Articles)  Teach text features in articles (See Attachment: 5.7 Sample Lesson – Nonfiction Text Features) Additional Resources  Teaching news writing: http://www.eduhound.com/site_sets/News_Writing.cfm  NY Times teaching and learning blog: http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/  Scholastic News by Kids: http://teacher.scholastic.com/scholasticnews/press_corps/index.asp  On sentence fragments: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/fragments.htm  On Public Speaking: http://www.kidsturncentral.com/links/speakinglinks.htm Literature Connections  Time for Kids: http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/news  National Geographic for Kids: http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/stories/  Scholastic News for Kids: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/scholasticNews.jsp  CNN Student Edition: http://www.cnn.com/studentnews/  I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King, Jr. (Picture Book)  Yes We Can! A Salute to Children from President Obama’s Victory Speech by Barack Obama  American Rhetoric Speech Bank: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speechbank.htm

June 2011 301 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

English as a Second Language
Attachments Grade 5

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5.1 Graphic Organizer Character Comparison Chart Subject: ESL

Character Comparison Chart
Select two characters from the same story and compare what they say, do, think, and feel. Then find something similar and different about them from the chart. Character: Says… Character: Says…

Thinks…

Thinks…

Does…

Does…

Feels…

Feels…

I think these two characters are similar because:

I think these two characters are different because:

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.1 Graphic Organizer Compare and Contrast Subject: ESL

Name _________________________________________ Venn Diagram

Date __________________________________

Source: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/graphic-organizers/venn-lines.pdf 304

5.1 Graphic Organizer Word Web Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Cluster/Word Web Write your topic in the center circle and details in the smaller circles. Add circles as needed.

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/cluster.pdf 305

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Source: http://specialed.about.com/library/Spelling/blends.pdf 323

5.1 Learning Activity Homonyms Worksheets Subject: ESL Name _______________________________________ Date ____________________________________ Homonyms Worksheet # 1 1. I am not ____________________________ to drink soda. allowed aloud 2. My _________________________ bought me a new bike! ant aunt 3. I was so hungry, I ______________________ my entire dinner. eight ate 4. I got a new bat and ________________________ last week. bawl ball 5. Winnie the Pooh is a friendly ______________________. bare bear 6. What do you want to __________________ when you grow up? be bee 7. I was stung by a _________________. be bee 8. Eat that last green ___________________ on your plate! been bean 9. Where have you _____________________ all this time? been bean 10. I _____________ you in the race. I was first! beat beet

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5.1 Learning Activity Homonyms Worksheets Subject: ESL Name _______________________________________ Date ____________________________________ Homonyms Worksheet # 2 1. I love the color ________________. blue blew 2. The wind ____________________ my kite across the playground. blue blew 3. When I have nothing to do I get ________________________. board bored 4. Do you like to play any _______________________ games? board bored 5. I need a __________________________ from all this homework! break brake 6. I didn’t use the ________________________ on my bike and ran into the tree! brake break 7. I would love to ______________________ a new baseball glove! by buy bye 8. I have to finish my homework _______________________ 7:00 PM today. by buy bye 9. Can you wave ______________________ to your friend from the window? by buy bye 10. One penny is the same as one ______________________. cent sent

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5.1 Learning Activity Homonyms Worksheets Subject: ESL Homonyms Worksheet #3 1. The window __________________________ needs cleaning. pane pain 2. My headache is causing me to have a lot of ____________________. pane pain 3. The ____________________ is now behind us. passed past 4. I _____________________ every spelling test this year! passed past 5. You’re always in a hurry, you need to be more _______________________. patients patience 6. There are 600 _____________________ in this hospital. patients patience 7. _________________ to look both ways before you cross the street. paws pause 8. My puppy has really furry ____________________. paws pause 9. Let there be __________________ on earth. piece peace 10. May I have a __________________ of pie? piece peace

326 Source: http://specialed.about.com/od/homonyms/HomonymHomophone_Worksheets.htm

5.1 Learning Activity Story Map 2 Subject: ESL

Name ________________________________________ Date ___________________________________

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/

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5.1 Learning Activity Tall Tale Character Map Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _________________________________

Tall Tale Hero Character Map Objective: Describe a tall tale hero using adjectives Draw the tall tale character here!

Why is this person a hero to his or her community?

What is the setting to this story? Time: Place: Character Traits (describes his/her personality with ADJECTIVES) 1. 2. 3. 4.

NAME: ________________________
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Source: edCount, LLC

5.1 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

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5.1 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.1 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

331

5.1 Other Evidence Word Square Subject: ESL

Name ________________________________________ Date ________________________________________

Word Square
Word Sentence

Part of Speech: ____________ Divide Word into Syllables: __________________________

Meaning

Illustration

Synonym: _________________ Antonym: _________________

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot 332

5.1 Performance Task Homophone Book Organizer Subject: ESL Homophone: ___________________________________ Draw the homophone:

Homophone: ___________________________________ Draw the homophone:

Use the homophone in a sentence: Use the homophone in a sentence:

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.1 Resource Spelling Strategies Subject: ESL

Spelling Strategies: Make Smart Use of Sounds and Spelling Patterns
Young writers often try to use the sounds in words to figure out their spellings; experienced writers often use this phonetic strategy first, and then try other approaches, including applying common spelling patterns. So it is definitely worthwhile to help children hear the sounds in words by developing phonemic awareness, and then exploring sound/symbol relationships and spelling patterns — especially if you continuously encourage kids to think about how these strategies will help them as readers and writers. Here's how. Strategy 1: Develop Phonemic Awareness  I find that children develop the ability to hear sounds in words when I involve them in lots of shared reading of poems, chants, songs, and big books with repetitive refrains and rhyme. I ask children to listen for and identify rhyming words, and clap when they hear them.

Select words children know — from books, rhymes, songs, and so on — and discover together how knowing one word can help with the recognition or writing of others, just by changing the beginning letter(s). For example, when reading the chant "Mary Mack" or the book Zoo-looking by Mem Fox (Mondo, 1996), write the words Mack, black, back, crack, quack on a chart. Invite children to suggest other words with the same sound: pack, sack, whack, track. Ask children, "How will this help you with your reading and writing?"

Strategy 2: Explore Sounds  Tell children you have noticed them listening for sounds in words they are trying to write — so you will help them discover how different sounds can be written. Reread familiar books, rhymes, chants, and songs, asking children to listen for words with a particular sound. List these on a chart; for example, words with a /k/ sound: kite, cat, school, bike, Christine, truck, cake, back.

Help children to identify the letter(s) that represent this sound. Underline these and ask children to group the words according to the different ways the sound is represented. For example:

kite, bike, cake cat, cake school, Christine truck, back Reinforce how the same sound may be represented in more than one way, depending on the word. This is important for children whose first language is not English, particularly if their first is a phonetic language, such as Spanish.  During the next few days, ask children to find other words they know with this sound and add them to the class list. I usually explain that kids must say a word to listen for the sound, and I do not confuse them by referring to the sound by a particular letter name. As other sounds are explored, ask children how this will help them with their writing.

334

5.1 Resource Spelling Strategies Subject: ESL Strategy 3: Discover Spelling Patterns  Tell the children that thinking about what a word looks like is a useful spelling strategy, so you are going to explore some common spelling patterns together. Reread a familiar big book, poem, or so on, selecting a particular spelling pattern to look for. For example, look for and list words with ea, such as: bead, bread, dead, instead, great, read, treat, break.

Ask children to identify and underline the ea spelling pattern in each word, say the words, and group them according to their pronunciation, such as: bead, read, treat bread, dead, instead, read great, break Select one of the words and show how knowing it can help with the spelling of other words in that word family. For example, great: greater, greatest, greatly, or break: breaking, breaks. Ask children to try this with the other words you've found. Talk about how thinking about spelling patterns and building on word families can help with reading and writing.

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/lessonrepro/lessonplans/instructor/spell4.htm 335

Subject: ESL Students will explore the common elements of folktales and tall tales while learning how these tales built the spirit of American people. Students will identify the tall tale elements. Students will also write responses to these tales, including a composition in the form of a monologue or a news report. They will perform these compositions for the class. Students will:  Activate prior knowledge and relate it to the reading selection.  Demonstrate grade-level proficiency in  Demonstrate grade-level proficiency to read  Identify meanings of terms unique to literary.  Identify the structure of literary or narrative  Interact with text using the four stances: 1. Global understanding 2. Developing interpretation 3. Personal reflections and responses 4. Critical stance  Interpret tall tales.  Present a report to the class in the form of a dramatic monologue or a news report.  Read for literary experience.  Respond to literature through writing and discussion.  Use strategic reading behaviors to construct, extend, and examine meaning for a variety of texts.

5.1 Resource Tall Tales

336

Subject: ESL  Write for various audiences and address the following purposes: 1. To inform 2. To persuade 3. To express personal ideas Teaching Approach Arts Integration Teaching Methods Large or Small Group Instruction Assessment Type Performance Assessment

5.1 Resource Tall Tales

337 Source: http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/lessons/grade-5/Exploring%20Tall%20Tales.aspx

5.1 Writing Tool Dolch List Subject: ESL

DOLCH WORDS - FIFTH GRADE accident ache act afternoon against alone already answer arm automobile bandage bank bathe beautiful begin begun believe blackboard bleed blind blood body bow bridge broom bump burnt butcher butterfly captain careless catch chain chalk chance change cheek class clear cloth cocoa company copy cost cough cousin crackers crayons crowd crown cry cupboard curtain danger date dentist die dining dinner dirt doctor double drawer drug each earth either eleven end eraser evening everything except expect follow forget forgot fork forth furniture garage gate glad golden grade grain great grocery guess hammer handkerchief heard heart hour ice indoors instead iron juice knee lady laid lamp leather lemonade lesson lettuce lie lip load low mind minute mirror month mountain move music napkin neither nickel none noon nor north note nurse ocean office often other ought outdoors overalls pain pants pass past paste peach pillow point porch post potatoes pound puzzle quarter road room rooster root rose rubber rug ruler sail salt sandwich scissors scooter season self sent serve several shadow shape ship shirt short shoulder sick silk sir size skirt sold soldier sore south speak spoke spoon spread sugar summer sweater talk taste teacher tear Thanksgiving thick thirsty thousand throat thumb tire toe tomatoes tomorrow tongue touch tough towel train tub twenty ugly umbrella until valley visit wait war waste weather wheat whether whole whom

5.1 Writing Tool Dolch List Subject: ESL

chief child chocolate choose church circle

fair feed fell fellow fill finish

mailman market measure medicine mend mile

quite rather reach reason rest ribbon

spring square star stocking stomach stove

whose women worry wrap wrong zipper

5.1 Writing Tool Editing Checklist Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink 340

5.1 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC 341

5.2 Graphic Organizer Character Comparison Chart Subject: ESL

Character Comparison Chart
Select two characters from the same story and compare what they say, do, think, and feel. Then find something similar and different about them from the chart. Character: Says… Character: Says…

Thinks…

Thinks…

Does…

Does…

Feels…

Feels…

I think these two characters are similar because:

I think these two characters are different because:

Source: edCount, LLC

342

5.2 Graphic Organizer Plot Line Organizer Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________________ Date _______________________________

Plot Line of a Story
Fill in the Introduction Rising Action (2 major examples), Climax, Falling Action (2 major examples), and Resolution of the Plot of the story you read. Include the page where you found this part of the plot. P:____ P:____

P:____ P:____ P:____

P:____

P:____

Source: edCount, LLC

343

5.2 Graphic Organizer Venn Lines Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

344

5.2 Learning Activity Prefixes Subject: ESL

345

5.2 Learning Activity Prefixes Subject: ESL

346 Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/reading/bestpractices/phonics/prefixes.pdf

5.2 Learning Activity Story Map 2 Subject: ESL

Name ________________________________________ Date ___________________________________

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ 347

5.2 Other Evidence Blends Subject: ESL

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5.2 Other Evidence Blends Subject: ESL

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5.2 Other Evidence Blends Subject: ESL

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5.2 Other Evidence Blends Subject: ESL

Source: http://specialed.about.com/library/Spelling/blends.pdf 365

5.2 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

366

5.2 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

367

5.2 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

368

5.2 Performance Task Transition Words Subject: ESL Transitional Words/Phrases for Ideas Good Writers use transitional words to guide the reader through the text. Use these words when you are writing non-fiction. Useful Words to Introduce Ideas First, Second, Third, Next, Then, Later, In conclusion, Consequently, Finally, In summary, Lastly, In short, As you can see,

Transitional Words/Phrases for Time Good Writers use transitional words to guide the reader through their story. Using time transitions gets you thinking as a writer also how to sequence your events. Words to describe the time before Earlier Before Shortly before that, A moment before

Useful Words to Connect ideas and Add New Information For example, Furthermore, After, Well, Also, Because of this, Then, For instance, In addition, In other words, For example, Additionally,

Words to describe at the same time Meanwhile During all this, At that very moment, While this was happening,

To Contrast Ideas However, In contrast, On the contrary, Instead, On the other hand,

Words to describe right after an event Shortly after that, Along the way, An hour later Soon, Immediately As soon as Not a moment too soon Before long,

To Conclude

Words to describe some time after the event After all that, Later on, Eventually, At last, Next, Finally,

Source: edCount, LLC

369

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL Following is a list of roots for English vocabulary. The list is formatted so that the root with its definition is shown first, then the source of the root (Latin, Greek, etc.) with the source word's definition, and then last is an example of the root as used in a word and the word's definition. The sample words are linked to additional words with the same root.

     

act, ag: do, act, drive o Latin, agere: to drive, lead, act, do o active (adjective): moving about am, ami: love, like o Latin, amare: to love o amorous (adjective): loving anim: mind, life, spirit, anger o Latin, animus: spirit o animal (noun): a living creature annu, enni: yearly o Latin, annuus: yearly o annual (adjective): yearly auc, aug, aut: to originate, to increase o Latin, augere: to originate, increase o augment (verb): to increase, to add to aud, audit, aur: hear o Latin, audire: to hear o audible (adjective): can be heard

   

bene, ben: good, well, gentle o Latin, bene: good o benign (adjective): harmless, mild, gentle bio, bi: life o Greek, bios: life o biography (noun): a book written about a person's life bibli, biblio: book o Greek, biblion: book o bibliophile (noun): a person who likes or collects books brev: short o Latin, brevis: short o abbreviate (verb): to shorten 370

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

        

cad, cap, cas, ceiv, cept, cid: to take, to seize, to hold o Latin, capere: to seize o receive (verb): to take in, to acquire ceas, cede, ceed, cess: go, yield o Latin, cedere: to go o exceed (verb): to go beyond a limit, to be greater than chron: time o Greek, khronos: time o chronological (adjective): arranged in order of time or sequence clam, claim: shout o Latin, clamare: to call out, shout o clamor (verb): to make noise cogn, gnos: know to know o Latin, cognoscere: to know o recognize (verb): to know, to identify corp: body o Latin, corpus: body o corporate (adjective): formed into a body or association, united in one group cre, cresc, cret: grow o Latin, crescere: to grow o create (verb): to originate, to produce through imagination cred: trust, believe o Latin, credere: to believe o incredible (adjective): unbelievable cour, cur, curr, curs: run, course o Latin, currere: run o occur (verb): to happen, to come to mind

 

dic, dict, dit: say, speak o Latin, dicere: to say o indicate (verb): to show, to point out doc, doct: teach, prove o Latin, docere: to teach o docile (adjective): obedient, easily taught 371

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL    dog, dox: thought, idea o Greek, dokein: seem, think o dogma (noun): an established opinion dec, dign: suitable o Latin, decere: to be suitable o decent (adjective): conforming to standards, suitable, good duc, duct**: lead o Latin, ducere: to draw or lead o conduct (verb): to lead or guide (noun) - a person's behavior o **ducere is one of the most prolific sources of English words

ev, et: time, age o Latin, aevum: lifetime o medieval (adjective): related to the Middle Ages (500 - 1500 AD)

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o

fac, fact, fec, fic, fas, fea: make do, do Latin, facere - make, do difficult (noun): hard to do, troublesome fer: bear, carry Latin, ferre: bear, carry infer (verb): to come to a conclusion from looking at facts, to guess fict, feign, fain: shape, make, fashion Latin, fingere: shape, make fiction (noun): something produced from imagination, an invented story fid: belief, faith Latin, fidere: to trust confide (verb): to trust, to trust another person with a secret fig: shape, form Latin, figura: form, shape, figure figurem (noun): shape, pattern, drawing (verb) - decide, plan, decipher flu, fluct, flux: flow Latin, fluere: to flow 372

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o  o o  o o

fluid (adjective): capable of flowing, a smooth easy style (noun) - a liquid form: shape Latin, forma: beauty, shape, form format (noun): the shape and size of something fract, frag, frai: break Latin, frangere: to break frail (adjective): easily broken, not strong, weak

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

gen, gin: to give birth, kind Greek, genus: birth generate (verb): to produce, to create geo: earth Greek, ge: earth geography (noun): a science that describes the earth's surface gor: to gather, to bring together Greek, ageirin: to gather category (noun): a class or set in which a thing is placed grad, gress, gree: step, go, move Latin, gradus: step degree (noun): a step or stage in a process graph, graf: write, draw Greek, graphein: write, scratch, carve graphic (adjective): written, drawn, vividly shown

her, hes: to stick o Latin, haerere: to stick o adhere (verb): to stick

jac, ject, jet: to throw 373

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o o  o o

Latin, jacere: to throw, to lie reject (verb): to throw out, unwilling to accept jug, junct, just: to join Latin, jungere: to join junction (noun): a place at which two things join

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o o o

lex, leag, leg: law Latin, lex: law legal (adjective): based on law lect, leg, lig: choose, gather, select, read Latin, legere: to choose collect (verb): to gather, to bring together loc: place, area Latin, locare: to place location (noun): a place, a position occupied log: say, speech, word, reason, study Greek, logos: speech, word, reason logic (noun): the study of reason, reasoning luc, lum, lust: light Latin, lucare: shine Latin, lumen: light Latin, lustrare: light-up translucent (adjective): permitting some light to come through

 o o  o o  o o  o o

man: hand, make, do Latin, manus: hand manage (verb): to handle with skill, to be able to do mem: recall, remember Latin, memor: mindful memory (noun): the ability to recall or to bring to mind ment: mind Latin, mens: mind mental (adjective): related to the mind min: little, small Latin, minuere: to lessen minor (adjective): less important, lesser 374

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

mit, miss: send o Latin, mittere: put, send o admit (verb): to accept, to allow entry mob, mov, mot: move o Latin, movere: move o motion (noun): act of moving, action

 o o  o o  o o

nasc, nat, gnant, nai: to be born Latin, nasci to be born nascent (adjective) - just born nom, nym: name Latin, nomen: name nominate (verb): to name for office nov: new latin, novus: new novice (noun): a beginner or newcomer

oper: work o Latin, opus: work o operate (verb): to work, to perform

 o o  o o  o

pat, pass: feel, suffer Latin, pati: suffer passion (noun): a strong feeling or emotion path: feel Greek, pathos: feeling sympathy (noun): sharing another person's feelings ped: foot Latin, pes: foot 375

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

impede (verb): to hinder, to slow down pod: foot Greek, pous: foot podium (noun): a platform, an area raised above the surrounding ground pel, puls: drive, push Latin, pellere: to drive, push, beat repel (verb): to drive away or push back pend, pond: to hang, weigh Latin, pendere: to hang, to weigh append (verb): to add or correct phan, phas, phen, fan, phant, fant: show, make visible Greek, phainein: show phantom (noun): something seen but having no physical existence, a ghost phil: love Greek, philos: loving philosopher (noun): a person who seeks (loves) wisdom phon: sound Greek, phone: voice, sound phonetic (adjective): related to speech sounds pict: paint, show, draw Latin, pingere: to paint picture (verb): to paint or draw port: carry Latin, portare: carry import (verb): to bring in from a foreign country pli, ply: fold Latin, plicare: fold reply (verb): to respond, to answer pon, pos: put, place Latin, ponere: to lay down, put, place postpone (verb): to put off to a later time psych: mind Greek, psukhe: soul, spirit psychology (noun): study of how the mind works

quir, quis, quest, quer: seek, ask o Latin, quaerere: seek, ask o query (verb): to ask questions

376

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rupt: break o Latin, rumpere: break o rupture (verb): to break or burst

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

sci, scio: to know Latin, scire: to know conscious (adjective): aware, having knowledge of oneself scrib, scrip: write Latin, scribere: to write script (noun): handwriting, something written sent, sens: feel, think Latin, sentire: feel sentiment (noun): a thought prompted by feeling sequ, secut, sue: follow Latin, sequi: to follow sequence (noun): a continuous series sist: to withstand, make up Latin, sistere: to make a stand insist (verb): to be firm about something needed, to demand soci: to join, companions Latin, sociare, socius: to join, a companion sociable (adjective): inclined to seek friendship, companionship sol: alone Latin, solus: alone, single solitary (adjective): being alone solv, solu, solut: loosen, explain Latin, solvere: too loosen, release solve (verb): to find an answer spec, spi, spic, spect: look Latin, specere: look, look at spectator (noun): a person who watches spir: breath, soul Latin, spirare: breathe respiration (noun): breathing 377

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
 o o  o o  o o

stab, stat: stand Latin, stare: to stand stature (noun) - height of a standing body, importance of position strain, strict, string, stige: bind, pull Latin, stringere: to bind or pull tight constrict (verb) - to squeeze, to make narrow stru, struct, stroy: build Latin, struere: to build destroy (verb): to ruin, to pull down

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

tact, tang, tig, ting: touch Latin, tangere: to touch tactile (adjective): related to the sense of touch tele: far away Greek, telos: end telepathy (noun): communication from one mind to another without verbal or written communication tend, tens: stretch Latin, tendere: to stretch contend (verb): to strive or reach for, to argue tain, ten, tent, tin: hold, keep, have Latin, tenere: to hold retain (verb): to keep, to hold in place term: end, boundary, limit Latin, terminusm: limit, boundary exterminate (verb): to kill off, to get rid of terr: earth Latin, terra: earth territory (noun): area of land test: see, witness Latin, testis: witness attest (verb): to provide proof, to say something is true therm: heat Greek, therme: heat thermometer (noun): a device for measuring heat tor, tors, tort: twist Latin, torquere: twist torsion (noun): twisting of the body tract, trai, treat: pull, draw Latin, trahere: pull attract (verb): to draw toward, to arouse interest 378

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

uni: one o Latin, unus: one o unite (verb): to make one, to join together

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o o  o o  o o  o o

vac: empty Latin, vacare: to be empty vacant (adjective): empty, not occupied ven, vent: come Latin, venire: to come convene (verb): to assemble, to come together ver: true Latin, venus: true verify (verb): to confirm that something is true verb, verv: word Latin, verbum: word verbalize (verb): to express in words, to put into words vers, vert: turn,change Latin, versare: to turn versatile (adjective): capable of changing or adapting, useful vid, vie, vis: see Latin, videre: to see; Latin, videre: to separate visible (adjective): able to be seen divide (verb): to separate vit, viv: live Latin, vivere: to live vital (adjective) - necessary for life voc, voke: call Latin, vocare: call, voice vocal (adjective): spoken or uttered by the voice volv, volt, vol: roll, turn Latin, volvere: to roll, turn revolve (verb): to turn around

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5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL Prefixes and suffixes were originally words themselves but they are now groups of letters added to words or to roots to create new words. Prefixes [pre (before) + fix (fasten) = fasten before] are groups of letters placed before words or roots. Prefixes modify or extend the meanings of words and roots. Following is a list of commonly used prefixes and sample vocabulary.

o o o o o o o o o
 o o  o o  o  o 

a-, ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, as-, at- to, toward, near, in addition to aside (adverb): to or toward the side  a + side accompany (verb): to go with someone as a companion  ac + com + pan + y adjust (verb): to correct, to move closer to a correct position  ad + just affix (verb): to attach to something, to fasten  af + fix aggression (noun): hostile behavior towards someone or something  ag + gress + ion allocate (verb): to distribute to specific people or for specific purposes  al + loc + ate annihilate (verb): to destroy  an + nihil + ate associate (verb): to join with  as + soci + ate attend (verb): to look after, to go to  at + tend a-, an- not, without apolitical (adjective): without interest in politics  a + polit + ic + al anemia (noun): the condition (disease) of not having enough red blood cells  an + em + ia ab-, abs- away from, off abrupt (adjective): unexpected change  ab + rupt absolve (verb): to be set free from one's actions or obligations  ab + solve ante- before anterior (adjective): before or near the front  ante + rior anti- against antipathy (noun): dislike, opposite feeling  anti + path + y auto- self 380

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o 

automotive (adjective): related to self-propelled machines auto + mot + ive

bi- two
o  o

biped (noun): a two-footed animal bi + ped biennial (adjective): happening every two years bi + enni + al

 o o o  o  o o o o o o  o

cat-, cata-, cath- down, with category (noun): a class or set to which a thing belongs  cate + gor + y catalogue (noun): a book or pamphlet that lists and describes  cata + log + ue catheter (noun): a medical device used to tranfer fluids cath +eter circum- around circumvent (verb): to manage to get around a situation  circum + vent co-, cog-, col-, com-, con-, cor together, with cohesiveness (noun): the ability to stick together  co + hes + ive + ness cognate (adjective): related, similar in nature  cog + nate collaborate (verb): to work together  col + lab + or + ate commitment (noun): to entrust, to put into a place  com + mit + ment convenient (adjective): handy, nearby  con + veni + ent correct (verb): to set right, to be right  cor + rect contra- against, opposite contradict (verb) to state the opposite  contra + dict

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 o  o o  o

de- to do the opposite, to take away from decrease (verb): to grow smaller, to become less  de + cre + ase di-, dif-, dis- apart, separate, two, opposite, not divide (verb): to separate into two or more parts  di + vide differ (verb): to be unlike  dif + fer dis- not, opposite of, exclude distrust (verb): to have no confidence or trust  dis + trust

 o o  o o  o  o

e-, ex- out, out of, from emit (verb) to send out  e + mit expel (verb): to force out ex + pel en-, em- put into enamor (verb): to cause to love, to "put" someone "into" love  en + am + + or empower (verb): to give power, to put into power em + pow + er epi-, upon, beside, over epilogue (noun): the concluding section of a play or literary work  epi + logue extra- beyond extraordinary (adjective): going beyond normal  extra + ordin + ary

il-, im-, in-, ir, not, in 382

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o o o o  o o  o  o

illegible (adjective): cannot be read  il + leg + ible imposter (noun): someone who poses as someone else  im + post + er inaction (noun): lack of motion, idle  in + act + ion irresolute (adjective): uncertain about hot to act, undecided, not having a solution  ir + re + solute in-, im-, il- in, into instead (adverb): in place of, an alternative  in + stead import (verb): to bring into a country from another country  im + port inter- between, among interject (verb): to throw something (usually a comment) between other things  inter + ject intro- into introspection (noun): to look into one's own thoughts and feelings  intro + spect + ion

 o  o  o  o

mal- bad malfunction (noun): when something does not work properly  mal + funct + ion mis- wrong misconduct (noun): wrong doing, bad behavior  mis + con + duct mono- one monologue (noun): a dramatic performance or speech given by one actor  mono + logue multi- many multiply (verb): to increase in number  multi + ply

non- not, no o nonsense (noun): something that has no meaning or makes no sense  non + sense 383

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

 o o o o  o

ob-, oc-, of-, op- toward, against, in the way obtain (verb): to gain or get, to get a hold of  ob + tain occur (verb): to happen, to come to mind  oc + cur offer (verb): to attempt to give, to propose, to try to hand out  of + fer oppose (verb): to be against, to stand in the way of something  op + pose over- excessive, above overwork (verb): to have too much work  over + work

 o  o  o  o  o

para- beside paradox (noun): a statement that seems true and contradictory at the same time  para + dox per- through persecute (verb): to go after, to pursue  per + secute post- after postpone (verb): to put off to a later time, to delay  post + pone pre- before precede (verb): to go before, to come in front of  pre + cede pro- for, foward propel (verb): to push forward  pro + pel

384

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
 o  o

re- back, again readmit (verb): to allow in again  re + ad + mit retro- backward retrospect (noun) to look back at past events  retro + spect

 o  o  o o o o o o  o  o o

se- apart, move away from secede (verb): to withdraw from an organization  se + cede semi- half semiannual (adjective): occurring twice a year  semi + annu + al sub-, suc-, suf-, sup-, sur-, sus under, beneath, near, from below, secretly, above, up submarine (adjective): underwater  sub + mar + ine succeed (verb): to do well, to come after  suc + ceed suffice (verb): to be enough  suf + fice support (verb): to hold up, too keep up  sup + port survive (verb): to live, to live through something, to exist  sur + vive sustain (verb): to keep up, to hold up,  sus + tain super- over, above superimpose (verb): to place something on top of something else  super + im + pose syn-, sym- together, at the same time synchronous (adjective): happening at the same time  syn + chron + ous sympathy (noun): sharing another person's feelings, compassion  sym + path + y

385

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
 o  o

trans- across, beyond, change transform (verb): to change shape  trans + form tri- three tripod (noun): a three-legged stand  tri + pod

 o  o

un- not, against, opposite unceasing (adjective): never ending, continuous  un + ceas + ing uni- one uniform (adjective): having the same form or consistancy  uni + form

386

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL Suffixes are groups of letters attached to the ends of roots, words, and word groups. Suffixes serve a grammatical function. A suffix can indicate what part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) to which the word belongs. Suffixes can also modify and extend meaning. The following suffixes are grouped beneath the grammatical function they perform. NOUNS Nouns perform the function of naming. Nouns name persons, places animals or things, as well as groups, ideas and qualities. In a sentence, nouns can be subjects, objects, or appositives.

 o

 o

 o

 o

 o

 o

-acy, -cy Noun: state or quality  privacy: the state of being alone  priv + acy  infancy: the state of being a baby or young child  in + fan + cy -age Noun: activity, or result of action  courage : having the spirit to overcome fear  cour + age -al Noun: action, result of action  referral : the action of directing a person to another place, person or thing  re + ferr + al -an Noun: person  artisan : a craftsperson  arti + san -ance, -ence Noun: action, state, quality or process  resistance : the action of opposing something  re + sist + ance  independence: the state of not being under the control of others, free, selfgoverning  in + de + pend + ence -ancy, -ency Noun: state, quality or capacity  vacancy : an empty room or position  vac + ancy  agency: the capacity to exert power or influence, a position or person that performs a function  ag + ency -ant, -ent 387

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o      o    o  

Noun: an agent, something that performs the action disinfectant : an agent that destroys germs, somthing that cleans dis + in + fect + ant dependent: a thing supported by another, a thing determined by another de + pend + ent Noun: state, office, fuction candidate : a person nominated for an office or position candid + ate Noun: action, resulting state specialization : the result of being distinguished by one quality or ability spec + ial + iz + ation

-ate

-ation

 o

-dom
 

Noun: place, state of being wisdom : possessing knowledge wis + dom

 o

-er, -or
   

Noun: person or thing that does something porter : a person who carries things port + er collector: a person who collects or gathers things col + lect + or

-ful
o 

Noun: an amount or quanity that fills mouthful : an amount that fills the mouth  mouth + ful 388

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

 o

-ian, an
   

Noun: related to, one that is pedestrian : a person who walks ped + estr + ian human: a person hum + an Noun: names, diseases phobia : an illogical fear of something phob + ia Noun: art of healing psychiatry : branch of medicine that deals with the mind and emotions psych + iatry Noun: related to the arts and sciences arithmetic : a branch of math that usually deals with non-negative numbers arithm + et + ic economics: the social science related to studying business eco + nom + ics Noun: act malice : the desire to do evil mal + ice Noun: material made for, activity, result of an activity flooring : a material made for floors floor + ing swimming: the activity of swimming or moving through water swim(m) + ing building: the result of making a structure build + ing Noun: condition or action abduction : the action of carrying someone away by force ab + duct + ion Noun: doctrine, belief, action or conduct 389

 o

-ia
 

 o

-iatry
 

 o

-ic, ics
   

 o

-ice
 

 o

-ing
     

 o

-ion
 

 o

-ism

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
   o    o    o      o  

formalism : a belief in sticking to prescribed forms or artistic styles form + al + ism Noun: person or member podiatrist : a foot doctor pod + iatr + ist Noun: product or part graphite : a black material used in making pencils graph + ite Noun: state or quality lucidity : clear thinking luc + id + ity novelty: something new or unusual nov + el + ty Noun: condition native : a person born in a specific place nat + ive

-ist

-ite

-ity, ty

-ive

-ment
o 

Noun: condition or result document : an official paper usually showinf proof or evidence of something  docu + ment

-ness
o 

Noun: state, condition, quality kindness : the quality of being kind or nice  kind + ness

390

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
 o    o  

-or Noun: condition or activity valor : bravery, courage val + or Noun: place for, serves for territory : an area around a place territ + ory

-ory

 o

-ship
 

Noun: status, condition relationship : the state of being related or connected to something or someone re + lat + ion + ship

 o

-ure
 

Noun: act, condition, process, function exposure : the condition of being exposed or unprotected pos + ure

 o

-y
   

Noun: state, condition, result of an activity society : companionship soci + et + y victory: the result of winning something vict + or + y

391

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL VERBS Verbs make statements about nouns, ask questions, give commands, or show states of being. Verbs can be active or passive. Verbs also show tense or time of action.

-ate
o 

Verb: cause to be graduate : to give a degree to, to pass from one stage to the next  gradu + ate

 o

-ed
 

Verb: past tense attained : something that has been reached or grasped at + tain + ed Verb: to cause to become moisten : to cause to become moist or damp moist + en Verb: action ponder : to think about pond + er clamor: to make noise, to call for loudly clam + or

 o

-en
 

 o

-er, -or
   

-ify
o 

Verb: cause specify : to name or indicate in detail  spec + ify

-ing 392

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o    o  

Verb: present participle depicting : showing, describing with images or pictures de + pict + ing Verb: cause fantasize : to dream about something, to create images in the mind fant + as + ize

-ize

-ure
o  

act Verb: conjecture : to come to a conclusion by supposition or guesswork con + ject + ure

393

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL ADJECTIVES Adjectives describe or modify nouns. Adjectives tell the reader more about the noun used in the sentence.

 o

 o

 o

 o

 o

-able, -ible Adjective: worth, ability  solvable : able to be solved or explained  solv + able  incredible: not able to be believed, amazing  in + cred + ible -al, -ial, -ical Adjective: quality, relation  structural : related to the physical make up of a thing  struct + ure + al  territorial: related to nearby or local areas  territ + or + ial  categorical: related to a category, aboslute  cate + gor + ical -ant, -ent, -ient Adjective: kind of agent, indication  important : marked by worth  im + port + ant  dependent: determined or relying upon something else  de + pend + ent  convenient: at hand, easy to use  con + ven + ient -ar, -ary Adjective: resembling, related to  spectacular : related to something that is eye-catching or amazing  spectac + ul + ar  unitary : related to units or single groups representing quantities  unit + ary -ate Adjective: kind of state  inviolate : not disturbed, pure  in + viol + ate

394

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

 o

-ed
 

Adjective: having the quality of terraced : having terraces or steps terrac + ed Adjective: material silken : made from silk, a fiber produced by worms silk + en Adjective: comparative brighter : more light bright + er Adjective: superlative strongest : having the most strength strong + est

 o

-en
 

 o

-er
 

 o

-est
 

-ful
o 

Adjective: having, giving, marked by fanciful : marked by imagination  fanci + ful

 o

-ic
 

Adjective: quality, relation generic : related to a whole group gener + ic 395

-ile

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL
o    o    o

Adjective: having the qualities of projectile : something thrown with an outside force pro + ject + ile Adjective: activity cohering : the act of sticking together co + her + ing

-ing

-ish Adjective: having the character of  newish : modern, recent  new + ish -ive, -ative, -itive Adjective: having the quality of  festive : having the quality of a festival or party  fest + ive  cooperative : being able or willing to work with another person or thing  co + oper + ative  sensitive: easily felt, responsive to the senses  sens + itive

 o

-less
o 

Adjective: without, missing motiveless : a reason for someone to do something  mot + ive + less

-ous, -eous, -ose, -ious o Adjective: having the quality of, relating to  adventurous : charcterized by the desire to seek new experiences or risks  ad + vent + ur + ous  courageous : characterized by courage, brave  cour + ag + eous  verbose: having more words than needed  verb + ose  fractious: characterized by being difficult or troublesome  fract + ious 396

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL

-y
o 

Adjective: marked by, having hungry : having hunger, marked by a desire  hungr + y

397

5.2 Resource Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes Subject: ESL ADVERBS Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

-fold
o 

Adverb: in a manner of, marked by fourfold : being four times as great  four + fold

-ly
o 

Adverb: in the manner of fluently : marked by ease of movement, effortlessly smooth  flu + ent + ly

 o

-ward
 

Adverb: in a direction or manner homeward : toward home home + ward Adverb: in the manner of, with regard to timewise : with regard to time time + wise

 o

-wise
 

Source: http://www.southampton.liunet.edu/academic/pau/course/webesl.htm 398

5.2 Sample Lesson Transition Words Subject: ESL

Transition words and phrases
Students will learn to combine sentences using two kinds of transition words: time transitions and thought (logical) transitions. Transition words link related ideas and hold them together. They can help the parts of a narrative to be coherent or work together to tell the story. Coherence means all parts of a narrative link together to move the story along. Think of transition words as the glue that holds a story together. Using transition words helps avoid the "Listing" problem in stories. Learning outcomes Students will:  Combine provided sentences using two kinds of transition words: time transitions and thought (logical) transitions.  Incorporate time and thought transitions into their own work to help their narratives move along. Teacher planning Time required for lesson 1 hour Materials/resources  Transition Words Sentence Strips with transitional words and phrases and prepared sentences (See Transition Words Attachment, page 3)  Pocket Chart Activities Modeling/Mini-lesson 1. Tell students that there are different kinds of transition words. Explain that one kind of transition word is time transitions, which helps the reader know the order of events in a story. 2. Discuss how using different transition words changes the meaning of a sentence. Put the following 2 sentence strips in the pocket chart:  Dad and I went fishing.  Mom made our lunch. Show students how you can connect the sentences by adding transition words. For example:  Dad and I went fishing. / Meanwhile / Mom made our lunch.  After / Dad and I went fishing, / Mom made our lunch.  Before / Dad and I went fishing, / Mom made our lunch.  Dad and I went fishing / after / Mom made our lunch.  While / Dad and I went fishing, / Mom made our lunch. Discuss how the different transition words change the meaning of the sentences by changing the sequence (order) of events. Guided Practice 1. Put the following 3 sentence strips up on the pocket chart. a. Marty saw the puppy. b. He recognized it. c. He picked it up. 2. Give 3 student volunteers three cards with 3 transition words on them (First, Then, After that). Tell students that the transition words on the cards will help them put the sentences in the correct order: 399

5.2 Sample Lesson Transition Words Subject: ESL First, Marty saw the puppy. Then he recognized it. After that, he picked it up. 3. Give students other transition words on cards and ask them how the words change the meaning of the sentences: After Marty saw the puppy, he recognized it, and he picked it up. As soon as Marty saw the puppy, he recognized it and immediately picked it up. Time Transitions Shortly after that Along the way After all of that An hour later At that very moment Later that same day Meanwhile Before long Later on Without delay At last During all of this Soon Earlier Eventually Immediately Next As soon as

Not a moment too soon While this was happening 4. Point out that other transition words link related thoughts on a subject. Use the following 3 sentence strips: a. The puppy shivered. b. It was afraid. c. Marty spoke in a gentle voice.

Have students select transition strips to make the sentence come to life. For example:  The puppy shivered / because obviously / it was afraid / even though / Marty spoke in a gentle voice.  Although / Marty spoke in a gentle voice, / the puppy shivered / because / it was afraid.  Without warning / the puppy shivered, / even though / Marty spoke in a gentle voice. / Obviously, / it was afraid. Thought Transitions Also Mainly Furthermore For example Because Otherwise

Without warning Even though Suddenly Which, if I must say so myself Independent Practice 1. Have students select a draft from their writing folder. Have them highlight the transition words they used. Then have them choose a paragraph to revise by adding 3-5 transition words. Have students read their revised paragraphs to a partner. Assessment  Can students make a list of time transition words and thought transition words?  Can students select the appropriate time transition words to link three sentences?  Can students select the appropriate thought transition words to link three sentences?  Can students identify time and thought transition words in their own writing?  Can students revise their own writing to link related sentences with the appropriate transition words? 400

5.2 Sample Lesson Transition Words Subject: ESL Supplemental information  Writing Feature: Organization  Writing Process Stage: Revising  Writing Environment: Expressive, Informational, Critical, Argumentative, Literary  Writing Genre: Personal Narrative

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3739

401

5.2 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC

402

5.3 Graphic Organizer Venn Lines Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

403

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

404

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

405

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

406

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

407

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

408

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

409

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

410

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

411

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

412

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

413

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

414

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

415

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

416

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

417

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

418

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

419

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

420

5.3 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

Source: http://specialed.about.com/library/Spelling/blends.pdf 421

5.3 Learning Activity Main Idea and Details Pyramid Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________________ Date __________________________________ Main Idea and Details Pyramid of __________________________ Organize the Main Idea and Details of a text into a pyramid. Select transition words that will link the main idea and details together Main Idea

Transition word: ________________ Detail One

Transition word: ________________ Detail Two

Transition word: ________________ Supporting Detail

Transition word: ________________ Supporting Detail

Transition word: ________________ Supporting Detail

Transition word: ________________ Supporting Detail

Source: edCount, LLC

422

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Labels help the reader identify a picture or a photograph and
its parts. My example of labeling: My example of a label

423

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Photographs help the reader understand exactly what
something looks like. My example of a photograph was found on page ____________ in the book titled, _____________________________________ It was a photograph of a ______________________________ . It helped me learn ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Here is another example of a photograph:

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
424

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Captions help the reader better understand a picture or
photograph. My example of a caption is:

425

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Comparisons help the reader understand the size of one
thing by comparing it to the size of something familiar. Here is my example of comparisons:

426

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Cutaways help the reader understand something by looking
at it from the inside. Here is an example of a cutaway:

427

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook Maps help the reader understand where things are in the
world. Here is my example of a map:

428

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Types of print help the reader by signaling, "Look at me!
I'm important!"

Here is my example of a special type of print:

429

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Close-ups help the reader see details in something small.
Here is my example of a close-up:

430

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Table of Contents help the reader find key topics in the
book in the order that they come.

Here is an example of a table of contents for a book about ________________________________________________.
List at least 4 chapters.

431

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Index is an alphabetical list of almost everything written in
the text, with page numbers so you can find the information.

Here is my example of an index in a book about ______________________________________________.
List at least 5 words and include the page numbers.

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
432

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Glossary helps the reader understand key words that are in
the text. This glossary could be from a book about ________________ __________________________________________________. Here is my example of a glossary:
List at least 2 words and include the definition of the words. The two words should be in alphabetical order.

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

433

Subject: ESL

5.3 Learning Activity Nonfiction Conventions Notebook

Table helps the reader understand important information by
listing it in a table or a chart form.

Nonfiction Conventions Notebook
Here is my example of a table:

Source: http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Nonfiction%20Conventions%20Notebook.doc 434

5.3 Learning Activity School House Rock Subject: ESL

The Tale of Mr. Morton
This is the tale of Mister Morton Mister Morton is who? He is the subject of our tale and the predicate tells what Mister Morton must do Mister Morton walked down the street Mister Morton walked Mister Morton talked to his cat Mister Morton talked (Hello, cat. You look good.) Mister Morton was lonely Mister Morton was Mister Morton is the subject of the sentence, and what the predicate says, he does Mister Morton knew just one girl Mister Morton knew Mister Morton grew flowers for Pearl Mister Morton grew Mister Morton was very shy Mister Morton was Mister Morton is the subject of the sentence, and what the predicate says, he does The subject is a noun, that's a person, place or thing It's who or what the sentence is about And the predicate is the verb That's the action word that gets the subject up and out

Mister Morton wrote Pearl a poem Mister Morton wrote Pearl replied in the afternoon Pearl replied by a note Mister Morton was very nervous Mister Morton was Mister Morton is the subject of the sentence, and what the predicate says, he does! The cat stretched, the sun beat down, a neighbor chased his kid. (Come here kid - come on!) Each sentence is completed when you know what the subject did. Mister Morton knocked on her door Mister Morton knocked Mister Morton sat on her porch Yes, he just sat there and rocked. Mister Morton was a nervous man; when she opened up the door he ran. Mister Morton climbed up his stairs Mister Morton climbed Mister Morton rhymed pretty words Mister Morton rhymed Mister Morton was lonely Mister Morton was until Pearl showed up with a single rose. Who says women can't propose? Now Mister Morton is happy and Pearl and the cat are too They're the subjects of the sentence and what the predicate says, they do

Source: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Tale.html 435

5.3 Learning Activity Story Map Summary Subject: ESL Name: ___________________________ Date: ____________________

Story Map Summary
Title of Story Map: _________________________________________

In the beginning,

Then,

Afterwards,

Next,

Later,

Finally,

Source: edCount, LLC

436

5.3 Learning Activity Subject-Predicate Subject: ESL

437

5.3 Learning Activity Subject-Predicate Subject: ESL

438

5.3 Learning Activity Subject-Predicate Subject: ESL

439

5.3 Learning Activity Subject-Predicate Subject: ESL

440 Source: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/subjectpredicate/subject-predicate-word-box.pdf

5.3 Learning Activity Summarizing through Pictures Subject: ESL

Summarizing through Pictures
Activity One: Sketch, Describe, Summarize. Select three major events from your reading:
Page: ___________ Describe this event:

Page: __________ Describe this event:

Page: __________ Describe this event:

Now Summarize! Write one or two sentences that summarizes the major event of the chapter:

Double-check your summary. Complete this chart: Who: _______________________ wanted ______________________________________________________________

but, ______________________________________________________________________________________________ so _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Source: edCount, LLC 441

5.3 Learning Activity Transition Words Subject: ESL

Transition words and phrases
Students will learn to combine sentences using two kinds of transition words: time transitions and thought (logical) transitions. Transition words link related ideas and hold them together. They can help the parts of a narrative to be coherent or work together to tell the story. Coherence means all parts of a narrative link together to move the story along. Think of transition words as the glue that holds a story together. Using transition words helps avoid the "Listing" problem in stories. Learning outcomes Students will:  Combine provided sentences using two kinds of transition words: time transitions and thought (logical) transitions.  Incorporate time and thought transitions into their own work to help their narratives move along. Teacher planning Time required for lesson 1 hour Materials/resources  Transition Words Sentence Strips with transitional words and phrases and prepared sentences (See Transition Words Attachment, page 3)  Pocket Chart Activities Modeling/Mini-lesson 3. Tell students that there are different kinds of transition words. Explain that one kind of transition word is time transitions, which helps the reader know the order of events in a story. 4. Discuss how using different transition words changes the meaning of a sentence. Put the following 2 sentence strips in the pocket chart:  Dad and I went fishing.  Mom made our lunch. Show students how you can connect the sentences by adding transition words. For example:  Dad and I went fishing. / Meanwhile / Mom made our lunch.  After / Dad and I went fishing, / Mom made our lunch.  Before / Dad and I went fishing, / Mom made our lunch.  Dad and I went fishing / after / Mom made our lunch.  While / Dad and I went fishing, / Mom made our lunch. Discuss how the different transition words change the meaning of the sentences by changing the sequence (order) of events. Guided Practice 4. Put the following 3 sentence strips up on the pocket chart. a. Marty saw the puppy. b. He recognized it.

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5.3 Learning Activity Transition Words Subject: ESL c. He picked it up. 5. Give 3 student volunteers three cards with 3 transition words on them (First, Then, After that). Tell students that the transition words on the cards will help them put the sentences in the correct order: First, Marty saw the puppy. Then he recognized it. After that, he picked it up. 6. Give students other transition words on cards and ask them how the words change the meaning of the sentences: After Marty saw the puppy, he recognized it, and he picked it up. As soon as Marty saw the puppy, he recognized it and immediately picked it up. Time Transitions Shortly after that Along the way After all of that An hour later At that very moment Later that same day Meanwhile Before long Later on Without delay At last During all of this Soon Earlier Eventually Immediately Next As soon as

Not a moment too soon While this was happening 5. Point out that other transition words link related thoughts on a subject. Use the following 3 sentence strips: a. The puppy shivered. b. It was afraid. c. Marty spoke in a gentle voice. Have students select transition strips to make the sentence come to life. For example:  The puppy shivered / because obviously / it was afraid / even though / Marty spoke in a gentle voice.  Although / Marty spoke in a gentle voice, / the puppy shivered / because / it was afraid.  Without warning / the puppy shivered, / even though / Marty spoke in a gentle voice. / Obviously, / it was afraid. Thought Transitions Also Mainly Furthermore For example Because Otherwise

Without warning Even though Suddenly Which, if I must say so myself Independent Practice 2. Have students select a draft from their writing folder. Have them highlight the transition words they used. Then have them choose a paragraph to revise by adding 3-5 transition words. Have students read their revised paragraphs to a partner. Assessment  Can students make a list of time transition words and thought transition words?  Can students select the appropriate time transition words to link three sentences?

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5.3 Learning Activity Transition Words Subject: ESL  Can students select the appropriate thought transition words to link three sentences?  Can students identify time and thought transition words in their own writing?  Can students revise their own writing to link related sentences with the appropriate transition words?

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3739 444

5.3 Learning Activity Summarizing through Pictures Subject: ESL

Supplemental information  Writing Feature: Organization  Writing Process Stage: Revising  Writing Environment: Expressive, Informational, Critical, Argumentative, Literary  Writing Genre: Personal Narrative

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3739

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5.3 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

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5.3 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.3 Other Evidence Sentence Fragment Test Subject: ESL

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5.3 Other Evidence Sentence Fragment Test Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/grammar/fragmentrunon.pdf 449

5.3 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.3 Performance Task Book Review Subject: ESL Book Review Template

Source: ReadWriteThink

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5.3 Performance Task KWL Chart Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date ________________________________ KWL Chart Before you begin your research, list details in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing your research. Topic ______________________________________________________________________ What I Know What I Want to Know What I Learned

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/kwl.pdf 452

5.3 Sample Lesson Main Idea and Supporting Details Subject: ESL

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Source: http://www.shelleducation.com/samples/10177s.pdf 461

5.3 Sample Lesson Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street Subject: ESL

Student Writer Instructions:
In Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street, four characters give young Eva advice about make familiar things more interesting when writing about them. By now, you should have thought about those four pieces of advice and found examples of them in Roni Schotter's picture book. Now, you're going to create a descriptive paragraph that includes three nouns: a person, a place, and a thing. The paragraph you create might be a jumping off place for a longer story, so write your paragraph well! If you need ideas for your person, place, and thing, press the buttons below until you find a combination you think would work together in a story. As you introduce us to your person, place, and thing in your writing, use as many of the pieces of advice Eva got in Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street. When you're done writing, you will read your paragraph aloud to a friend, and he/she will try to spot where you used the four pieces of advice in your draft. Can you use them all?

Teacher Instructions & Lesson Resources:
Step one (sharing the published model): Read and enjoy this book by Roni Schotter! Her tale of Eva, who doubts that a place she is overly familiar with can inspire interesting writing, is a marvelous story and lesson for writers. After reading, have your students recall the four pieces of advice Eva is given, then paraphrase each piece of advice into their own words. Share their paraphrases aloud. After students have paraphrased the four pieces of advice, read aloud the page from the story where Baby Joshua is introduced; it's six or eight pages into the story. Tell your students that, on this page, Eva seems to have used all four pieces of advice. Say, "I'm going to read the page again--slowly--, and I'd like you and a partner to be prepared to talk about where she used--at least--three of the four pieces of advice. If you need to write down a sentence or phrase that seems to have followed the advice in order to remember it, that's okay. I'll read slowly, and I'll probably even read it another time, if you ask nicely." The worksheet provided below has spaces for students to record each character's advice to Eva, spaces to paraphrase the advice, and spaces to record sentences from the text from the Baby Joshua page. After students have completed the worksheet, have them talk to each other to note differences in paraphrasing and differences in the sentences and phrases they have taken from the Baby Joshua page.

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5.3 Sample Lesson Nothing Ever Happens on 90th Street Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.writingfix.com/Picture_Book_Prompts/90thStreet2.htm 463

5.3 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Graphic Organizer Character Comparison Chart Subject: ESL

Character Comparison Chart
Select two characters from the same story and compare what they say, do, think, and feel. Then find something similar and different about them from the chart. Character: Says… Character: Says…

Thinks…

Thinks…

Does…

Does…

Feels…

Feels…

I think these two characters are similar because:

I think these two characters are different because:

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Graphic Organizer Figurative Language Subject: ESL Example of Figurative Language: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Draw what it looks like: Example of Figurative Language: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Draw what it looks like:

Now explain what it REALLY means!

Now explain what it REALLY means!

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Graphic Organizer Figurative Language Subject: ESL Name: _____________________________ Date: _________________________________ Directions: Using the senses, describe what you experienced at your favorite celebration.

My celebration sounds like…

My celebration looks like…

My celebration smells like…

My celebration tastes like…

My celebration feels like…

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Graphic Organizer Figurative Language Subject: ESL

Name ___________________________________ Venn Diagram Write different in tell how circles

Date ______________________________________

details that tell how the subjects are the outer circles. Write details that the subjects are alike where the overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

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5.4 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.4 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

Source: http://specialed.about.com/library/Spelling/blends.pdf 486

5.4 Learning Activity Celebration 5W Organizer Subject: ESL Celebrations Around the World! Let’s learn about a celebration from a different culture and see why people celebrate and what do they do! What is the name of the celebration? ______________________________________ When do they celebrate this holiday? _______________________________________________________________________ Why do people celebrate this holiday?

What are three important traditions or customs that people follow during this holiday? Tradition One:

Tradition Two:

Tradition Three:

What do you find interesting about this holiday?

Is there anything similar about this holiday and one that you celebrate?

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Ramadan Subject: ESL What is Ramadan? Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, preceded by the month of Sha'aban and succeeded by the month of Shawwal. Ramadan is the Holy Month for Muslims, when those twelve years old and above observe a dawn to dusk complete fast. They do not take any liquids (not even any water), no food, abstain from smoking, marital relations, and gossiping or saying anything malicious against another person. Some of the most pious and strict Muslims even manage to stop swallowing their own saliva during the fasting hours of Ramadan, but this isn't actually a requirement under observance of Ramadan, one of The Five Pillars of Islam, which are:      Observing Sawm (complete fasting) during the Holy month of Ramadan Payment of Zakat (alms tax) during Ramadan Performing the Hajj in Mecca at least once in a lifetime Reciting the Shahadah (profession of faith) Performing Salah (ritual prayers, five times a day)

When is Ramadan? The Muslim calendar is a Lunar Calendar, which means that the month follows the cycles of the moon. This also means that by comparison to the western calendar, the month of Ramadan will be approximately 11 days earlier in the year compared to the previous year. Ramadan will start on the 11th of August 2010, Wednesday and will continue until the 9th of September. In North America, Ramadan will start one day later, that is the 12th of August. While the above dates are almost certainly going to be accurate, Islam traditionally requires that the new moon be sighted by a person appointed by the Islamic authorities in the country where you're located. Why do Muslims fast during Ramadan? The first reason of course, is that fasting is a requirement of one of the Five Pillars of Islam. What is important, however, is to appreciate the reasons behind the fasting, what those reasons signify and what this means to fasting Muslims. It is most important to a Muslim to show intent in the fast. It is required that they recite short prayer of intent either before they sleep or just before Suhoor, the pre-fast meal. The Arabic word for fasting means to 'refrain', to discipline yourself to avoid doing certain things which would be quite normal during the other twelve months of the year. It is also meant to teach Muslims to appreciate how much better off they are than millions of other fellow Muslims. So by refraining from drinking (even water) and food, for the long daylight hours, they should be reminded of those much less fortunate, for whom severe shortage of water and food is a way of life, not something merely done one Source: http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Ramadan/ 488

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Ramadan Subject: ESL month of the year. By reminding themselves of this fact, it is hoped that not only will they be more sensitive to those less fortunate, but to try to do something practical to help them. Do Muslims eat and drink immediately before they start their daily fast? Yes, most Muslims certainly do take a pre-fast meal and the period of eating before the fast is called Suhoor. This is an important meal, for it must set them up for the rest of the day, often 12 or 13 hours before their next meal or drink. A few choose to go to bed slightly later than usual and take a meal and drink before they sleep. While this isn't ideal, and is even frowned upon by more traditional Muslims, for some it does mean that they sleep longer and can cope more easily with the fast of the day to come. What happens every day when Muslims break their fast? As daylight begins to fade, Muslims await the Muezzin's call to perform the Maghrib prayers. Once the call is heard, and the Maghrib prayers are performed, they may break fast (called Iftaar in Arabic). (You can see here too the origin of the word "breakfast", which literally meant to break the fast during the night, after having eaten the last meal the day before). Most will first take some form of thirst-quenching drink, and this varies not only by individual preferences, but also but local customs. It is quite common in the Middle East to break fast with water and dates, but in Malaysia it is more common to drink a local fruit juice, sugar cane juice or rose syrup water, with either dates or kway (small, sweet cakes or pastry). Some prefer to drink soya bean milk not only as a thirst quencher, but also for its extra protein value. Upon breaking fast, most very strict Muslims, will merely take a few fresh dates, or dried dates if fresh are not available. If neither is available they will just take a few sips of water. It is common for most families to have their evening meal at home straight after breaking fast, and while the meal should be in keeping with the meanings of Ramadan (in other words not a feast), it has become common in modern cities around the world for Muslim families to go out to eat at a local restaurant, particularly those in a hotel. If during Ramadan you see Muslim families sitting quietly at a restaurant table, with the meal served, but not yet eating, it is because the Maghrib prayers have not yet been called, and they cannot yet break fast. Can younger children fast during Ramadan? Indeed they can, and in fact many even as young as four or five, are encouraged to fast for a few hours a day during Ramadan, to begin to appreciate the significance of the Holy month. As they get a little older, most families encourage their children under 12 to fast for half a day, until they reach twelve years old, when all Muslim children are expected to fast for the full dawn to dusk period. Interestingly (and perhaps surprisingly to non-Muslim children), many who are approaching twelve look forward to being old enough to fast for the full day, more than anything else. It means to them, that they are now being treated the same as an adult, and all the responsibilities that adulthood brings. Source: http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Ramadan/ 489

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Ramadan Subject: ESL How is the end of Ramadan celebrated around the world? Wherever a Muslim resides, be it in one of the Middle East countries, in Indonesia (the country with the world's largest Muslim population), or even in London, Paris or Dearborn, Michigan, they will start their end of Ramadan celebrations by going to the mosque for special congregational prayers which give thanks to God for His blessings during the Holy month of Ramadan, now ended. Both men and women may go to the mosque at this time, but the men will say their prayers separately from the women. Many will return to their family home for Ramadan, usually where their parents are living, and in Indonesia and Malaysia this is known as Balik Kampung. Paying homage to their parents is a very important part of the celebrations, when the younger Muslims will ask their parents for forgiveness for misdeeds during the year, and kiss their hands as a sign of respect. They return home (or go to the homes of family and friends) to continue their celebration, which in Arabic is called Eid Al Fitr. The meals prepared will reflect the culture and traditions of the country from which the Muslim family is living in or hails. For those who are now residing in western countries, it can be fascinating to find the end of Ramadan celebrations of Muslims from India, Pakistan, Arab countries, Malaysia, Indonesia or even European countries, reflected in the variety of food on the table. In Malaysia, where I live, Muslims celebrating the end of Ramadan, what they call Hari Raya Puasa, will also hold an Open House, when they invite their non-Muslim friends and neighbors to join them for food and drink. The special Hari Raya Puasa food includes delicious beef or chicken rendang, often Johor or Penang Laksa and many different kueh delicacies, small sweet cakes and pastries, especially made for Puasa. It's a wonderful time, and of course enjoyed by all, who will also all look forward to the next festival being celebrated, which might be for Chinese New Year, Christmas or Deepavali (Diwali), the Hindu festival of lights.

Source: http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Ramadan/ 490

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Hanukkah Subject: ESL Hanukkah Traditions

Hanukkah is the story of a great victory of the Jews over the Syrian-Greeks. In 165 BCE, led by the Hasmonean family of Mattathias the High Priest and his youngest son, Judah, the Jews succeeded in evicting the Syrian-Greeks from Israel and restored the Temple. According to the Talmud, after the Temple had been cleaned and the Priests were ready to light the Temple menorah, they could find only one jug of oil that was fit to use. This was only enough for one day, but it lasted for eight. This is why Hanukah is eight days long. For eight days beginning on the twenty-fifth day of the month of Kislev we light the menorah to celebrate the victory and the miracle of Hanukah. Hanukkah comes from the Hebrew word "Khanu" meaning "and they rested," and from the Hebrew date Kaf Hey which equals 25. That is why we celebrate Hanukah beginning on the 25th of the month of Kislev. Miracle of the Oil Why is it important that the oil lasted eight days? In the temple, a menorah was lit every day. The oil used in the menorah was the purest olive oil. The rabbis say the oil was so pure, only the first drop of oil from each olive could be used. Because of the need for strict purity of the oil, it took seven days to make a single batch of oil. The small jar of oil that had not been disturbed lasted for the one day it was expected to last and continued for the full week it took to make new oil. Hannah and her seven sons Hanukah is the story of heroes and bravery. It took great courage to go against the king and not worship idols. It took courage to fight against a powerful enemy and win as the Maccabees did. One of the most amazing parts of Hanukah is in the Book of the Maccabees. It is the story of Hannah and her sons. She loved them very much and they were loyal to HaShem. They would not do what the king wanted them to do and worship idols. One day the soldiers came and took Hannah and her sons away. They brought them to the temple where there was an idol of Zeus and ordered them to bow down and worship and say that they accepted Zeus as their god. Hannah and her Source: http://www.akhlah.com/holidays/hanukkah/hanukkah.php 491

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Hanukkah Subject: ESL sons refused. The soldiers killed her oldest son, hoping that when the others saw this they would worship their idol. But they did not. One after the other they were killed as was Hannah. She died declaring her faith in HaShem. Judah HaMaccabee For three years Judah the Maccabee led his followers, those loyal to HaShem, against the Syrians. The Syrian Greeks had weapons, the Maccabees did not. The Jews were greatly outnumbered. They hid in the Judean hills, and attacked whenever they could. Slowly but surely, they wore down the enemies, and retook Jerusalem and cleaned out the temple of the idols and restored it. That is the festival of rededication called Hanukah. Hanukkah - The Menorah

The Menorah or candle holder is a really important part of the tradition of Hanukkah. It is why we call the holiday "the festival of light". We light the menorah from the left side to the right side.

We place the candles in the menorah from the right to the left. When we light the menorah we say the blessings for the candles. There are many different styles of menorot (plural for menorah). In most cases the Shamash (the helper candle) is in the middle or to the left side. Some are made for burning oil and some for candles.

Hanukkah - Dreidel "Oh Dreidel, dreidel, dreidel, I made it out of clay. And when its dry and ready, Oh dreidel I shall play." Children's Hanukkah Song

Source: http://www.akhlah.com/holidays/hanukkah/hanukkah.php 492

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Hanukkah Subject: ESL

The dreidel is a four sided spinning top with a different Hebrew letter on each side. The word for dreidel in Hebrew is S'veevon. Dreidel is a Yiddish word taken from the German word drehen (which means to turn). Dreidels can be made of any materials.

Outside of Israel (and prior to 1948), dreidels have the letters nun, gimmel, hay, shin. These stand for "Nes Gadol Haya Sham" which means "a great miracle happened there." In Israel, dreidels have the letters nun, gimmel, hay, pay. These stand for "Nes Gadol Haya Po" which means "a great miracle happened here." Dreidel Game Rules Everyone starts out with the same amount of pennies, chocolate coins (Hanukkah gelt), candies, raisins, or tokens. All players put one token in the pot in the center. Then players take turns spinning the dreidel. The player acts according to the letter which is facing up when the dreidel stops spinning.

Nun player does nothing

Gimmel player takes the pot

Hey player takes half the pot

Shin Pay player puts one in the pot

Source: http://www.akhlah.com/holidays/hanukkah/hanukkah.php 493

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Hanukkah Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.akhlah.com/holidays/hanukkah/hanukkah.php 494

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Christmas Subject: ESL WHAT IS CHRISTMAS ALL ABOUT? Christmas is the date set aside for the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. Christians celebrate it on December 25th all over the world. Jesus was not born on December 25th exactly but this date was chosen to coincide with the pagan Roman celebrations honoring Saturnus (Harvest God) and Mithras (Ancient God of Light). The day of this celebrations came just after the winter solstice, that is the shortest day of the year in the northern hemisphere. The celebrations were to make known that winter is not forever. It was a form of worshiping the sun. Jesus was born nearly 2000 years ago. To the Christians, Jesus is the Son of God and the Savior/Saviour of the world. The Christians believe that He came to die for our sins so that we may go to heaven. WHAT DOES THE WORD "CHRISTMAS" MEAN? Christmas actually comes from "Mass of Christ". It was however shortened to "Christ Mass". Sometimes the shorter version "Xmas" is also used. JESUS CHRIST Where did He come from? What did He teach? Was He God in the flesh? Was He only a man? Why did He die? Few will dispute that a man named Jesus lived 2,000 years ago and that He was a great teacher who impacted the world from His time onward. But He has always been a controversial figure. He made a claim that was breathtaking in its audacity—that He was the very Son of God, the longprophesied Messiah! Yet the religious authorities in Jerusalem rejected Him, hated Him and eventually succeeded in having Him put to death. Likewise, the local Roman civil authorities also saw Him as a threat and became complicit in His execution. The religions of His day, both Judaism and paganism, opposed the growth of His teachings and used unlawful and violent means to try to destroy the Church He founded. The government of Rome also came to vigorously persecute the followers of this Jewish teacher from Galilee. WHAT IS BOXING DAY? Boxing Day is the day right after Christmas. This December 26 holiday is observed in England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. It is a day of giving to the less fortunate and charitable institutions in the form of money and gifts. Some will spend the day doing volunteer work. It is called Boxing Day because it was the custom during those days for tradesmen to collect their Christmas boxes (gifts) in return for their good and reliable service throughout the year. Today, Boxing Day is celebrated with family and friends with lots of fun, food and friendship. WHO IS SANTA CLAUS? The true story of Santa Claus begins with Nicholas, who was born during the third century in the village of Patara. At the time the area was Greek and is now on the southern coast of Turkey. His wealthy parents, who raised him to be a devout Christian, died in an epidemic while Nicholas was still young. Obeying Jesus' words to "sell what you own and give the money to the poor," Nicholas used his whole inheritance to assist the needy, the sick, and the suffering. He dedicated his life to serving God and was made Bishop of Myra while still a young man. Bishop Nicholas became known throughout the land for his generosity to the those in need, his love for children, and his concern for sailors and ships. Under the Roman Emperor Diocletian, who ruthlessly persecuted Christians, Bishop Nicholas suffered for his faith, was exiled and imprisoned. The prisons were so full of bishops, priests, and deacons, there was no room for the real criminals—murderers, thieves and robbers. After his release, Nicholas attended the Council of Nicaea in AD 325. He died December 6, AD 343 in Myra and was buried in his cathedral church, where a unique relic, called manna, formed in his grave. This liquid substance, said to have healing powers, fostered the growth of devotion to Nicholas. The anniversary of his death became a day of celebration, St. Nicholas Day, December6th.

Source: http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Christmas/ 495

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Christmas Subject: ESL Through the centuries, many stories and legends have been told of St. Nicholas’ life and deeds. These accounts help us understand his extraordinary character and why he is so beloved and revered as protector and helper of those in need. CHRISTMAS SYMBOLS Christmas is also a time where homes and malls are decorated with all kinds of decorations. Most of the decorations are symbols of Christmas. Without them, it would seem something is missing. Christmas symbols include: Reindeer, mistletoe, Santa Claus, Poinsettias, Holly, Elves, and Candy Cane. DO ALL COUNTRIES CELEBRATE CHRISTMAS ON THE SAME DAY? Christmas in The Netherlands (Holland) For example, in The Netherlands, the Dutch eagerly await December 5th for it is on this day that they celebrate the coming of Sinterklaas Avond or St. Nicholas eve, whose legends of generosity and kindness are well known. But Dutch children are really lucky, because on December 6th they celebrate with family activities, after which everyone settles down to prepare for Christmas Day on December 25th and Three Kings Day on January 6th. Christmas in Russia In the traditional Russian Christmas, special prayers are said and people fast, sometimes for 39 days, until January 6th, which is their Christmas Eve, when the first evening star in appears in the sky. Then begins a twelve course supper in honor of each of the twelve apostles - fish, beet soup or Borsch, cabbage stuffed with millet, cooked dried fruit and much more. Hay is spread on the floors and tables to encourage horse feed to grow in the coming year and people make clucking noises to encourage their hens to lay eggs. On Christmas Day, January 7th, hymns and carols are sung. People gather in churches which have been decorated with the usual Christmas trees or Yelka, flowers and colored lights. Christmas dinner includes a variety of different meats - goose and suckling pig are favorites. Babushka is a traditional Christmas figure who distributes presents to children. Her name means grandmother and the legend is told that she declined to go with the wise men to see Jesus because of the cold weather. However, she regretted not going and set off to try and catch up, filling her basket with presents. She never found Jesus, and that is why she visits each house, leaving toys for good children. Christmas in Turkey The tradition of Santa Claus is named after St Nicholas, who lived in the Turkish village of Demre, in the 4th Century, when he was Bishop of Myra, on Turkey's southern shores. St Nicholas's Day (which you could say is Santa Claus's Day too) is celebrated on December 6th. GEOGRAPHY 1. Divide the children into 3-5 groups. Give each group a world map. a. Have them locate the following places: i. Lizzard, Indiana The North Pole Seattle, Washington ii. The children should color in these places on a map of the world that you copy and give to them. iii. Older children may be able to tell you the longitude and latitude of these locations. 2. Answer the following questions: a. Where is Lizzard, Indiana? b. Does it exist? How do you know? c. What do you think the weather is like in the North Pole? Why? Source: http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Christmas/ 496

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Christmas Subject: ESL d. In which state is Seattle located? e. What do you think the weather is like in Seattle? CREATIVE WRITING There are many wonderful possibilities for creative writing with this book! These ideas will get you started! 1. Ask the children to write about these topics in their journals: a. Do you think Santa went back to the North Pole? b. If I made a blizzard... c. If I lived in Lizzard, Indiana, I would... d. Create Your own story about a storm in your town. e. Write about what it would be like to live through a big storm like a blizzard, tornado, or hurricane. If you've lived through a big storm like that, describe what it was like. f. What do you think it would be like to visit the North Pole? g. What kind of storm do you think would be most exciting to see?

Source: http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Christmas/ 497

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Kwanzaa Subject: ESL History of Kwanzaa Kwanzaa, is an African-American celebration of cultural reaffirmation, is one of the fastest-growing holidays in the history of the world. It took root 30 years ago, when graduate student Maulana Karenga, disturbed by the 1965 riots in Los Angeles' Watts area, decided that African-Americans needed an annual event to celebrate their differences rather than the melting pot. Not a religious holiday, Kwanzaa is, rather, a seven-day celebration that begins on Dec. 26 and continues through Jan. 1. Kwanzaa is a spiritual, festive and joyous celebration of the oneness and goodness of life, which claims no ties with any religion. It has definite principles, practices and symbols which are geared to the social and spiritual needs of African-Americans. The reinforcing gestures are designed to strengthen our collective self-concept as a people, honor our past, critically evaluate our present and commit ourselves to a fuller, more productive future. Kwanzaa, which means "first fruits of the harvest" in the African language Kiswahili, has gained tremendous acceptance. Since its founding in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga, Kwanzaa has come to be observed by more than15 million people worldwide, as reported by the New York Times. Celebrated from December 26th to January 1st, it is based on Nguzo Saba (seven guiding principles), one for each day of the observance: Umoja (OO-MO-JAH) Unity stresses the importance of togetherness for the family and the community, which is reflected in the African saying, "I am We," or "I am because We are." Kujichagulia (KOO-GEE-CHA-GOO-LEE-YAH) Self-Determination requires that we define our common interests and make decisions that are in the best interest of our family and community. Ujima (OO-GEE-MAH) Collective Work and Responsibility reminds us of our obligation to the past, present and future, and that we have a role to play in the community, society, and world. Ujamaa (OO-JAH-MAH) Cooperative economics emphasizes our collective economic strength and encourages us to meet common needs through mutual support. Nia (NEE-YAH) Purpose encourages us to look within ourselves and to set personal goals that are beneficial to the community. Kuumba (KOO-OOM-BAH) Creativity makes use of our creative energies to build and maintain a strong and vibrant community. Imani (EE-MAH-NEE) Faith focuses on honoring the best of our traditions, draws upon the best in ourselves, and helps us strive for a higher level of life for humankind, by affirming our self-worth and confidence in our ability to succeed and triumph in righteous struggle.

The Kwanza Feast or Karamu Source: http://www.teachersfirst.com/getsource.cfm?id=7845 498

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Kwanzaa Subject: ESL

The Kwanzaa Karumu is traditionally held on December 31st (participants celebrating New Year's Eve, should plan their Karamu early in the evening). It is a very special event as it is the one Kwanzaa event that brings us closer to our African roots. The Karamu is a communal and cooperative effort. Ceremonies and cultural expressions are highly encouraged. It is important to decorate the place where the Karamu will be held, (e.g., home, community center, church) in an African motif that utilizes black, red, and green color scheme. A large Kwanzaa setting should dominate the room where the karamu will take place. A large Mkeka should be placed in the center of the floor where the food should be placed creatively and made accessible to all for self-service. Prior to and during the feast, an informative and entertaining program should be presented. Traditionally, the program involved welcoming, remembering, reassessment, recommitment and rejoicing, concluded by a farewell statement and a call for greater unity. Below is a suggested format for the Karamu program, from a model by Dr. Karenga. Kukaribisha (Welcoming) Introductory Remarks and Recognition of Distinguished Guests and All Elders. Cultural Expression (Songs, Music, Group Dancing, Poetry, Performances, Unity Circles) Kuumba (Remembering) Reflections of a Man, Woman and Child. Cultural Expression Kuchunguza Tena Na Kutoa Ahadi Tena (Reassessment and Recommitment) Introduction of Distinguished Guest Lecturer and Short Talk. Kushangilla (Rejoicing) Tamshi la Tambiko (Libation Statement) It is tradition to pour libation in remembrance of the ancestors on all special occasions. Kwanzaa, is such an occasion, as it provides us an opportunity to reflect on our African past and American present. Water is suggested as it holds the essence of life and should be placed in a communal cup and poured in the direction of the four winds; north, south, east, and west. It should then be passed among family members and guests who may either sip from the cup or make a sipping gesture. LIBATION STATEMENT. For The Motherland cradle of civilization. For the ancestors and their indomitable spirit For the elders from whom we can learn much. For our youth who represent the promise for tomorrow. For our people the original people. For our struggle and in remembrance of those who have struggled on our behalf. For Umoja the principle of unity which should guide us in all that we do. For the creator who provides all things great and small.

Source: http://www.teachersfirst.com/getsource.cfm?id=7845 499

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Kwanzaa Subject: ESL

Seven Days of Kwanzaa Here is a short account of the seven days of Kwanzaa, and how they should be spent. Each day has a specific meaning and purpose, and provides valuable reading for our Youth and Children. Feel free to send this site to a fellow American. Umoja (Unity) Kujichagulia (Self-determination) Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility) Ujamaa (Cooperative Economics) Nia (Purpose) Kuumba (Creativity) Imani (Faith) UMOJA Umoja (ooh-MOE-jah) means Unity, and it is the principle for the first day of Kwanzaa. Our families and communities need unity in order for them to be productive and to survive. On this day, we pledge to strive for -- and to maintain -- unity in the family, in the community, in the nation that we have helped to build, and with our PEOPLE. KUJICHAGULIA Kujichagulia (koo-gee-cha-goo-LEE-ah) means self-determination and is the second day of Kwanzaa. On this day, we pledge to define ourselves, to NAME ourselves, to create for ourselves, and to speak for ourselves, instead of being defined, named by, created for and spoken for by others. On this day we design for ourselves a positive future and then vow to make that prophecy -- that DREAM -- a self-fulfilling one. UJIMA Ujima (ooh-GEE-mah) is the third day of Kwanzaa and means "collective work and responsibility". On this day we celebrate working together in the community to help others. For Ujima, we pledge to rebuild our communities and to help our people solve our own problems by working together to do it. UJAMAA Ujamaa (OOH-jah mah) means cooperative economics and is the fourth day of Kwanzaa. On this day of Kwanzaa, we pledge to develop our own businesses and to support them, to maintain shops, stores and industry that contribute to the well-being of our community and to drive out businesses (boycott, etc.) that take FROM our communities and give nothing back. NIA Nia (NEE-ah) is the fifth day of Kwanzaa and it means "purpose". On this day, Source: http://www.teachersfirst.com/getsource.cfm?id=7845 500

5.4 Learning Activity Holiday Handout: Kwanzaa Subject: ESL we pledge to build and develop our communities, our schools and our families. We also pledge to provide a strong communal foundation from which our children can develop into strong and productive people. KUUMBA Kuumba (koo-OOM-bah) is the sixth day of Kwanzaa, and it means "creativity". On this day, we pledge several things. We pledge to do whatever we can to make our communities and homes more beautiful and better than we found them. We also pledge to use our creative talents and energies to improve young minds and hearts. Imani Imani (ee-MAH-nee) is the seventh and last day of Kwanzaa. Imani means faith. On this day, the beginning of the new year we pledge to believe with all our hearts and minds in our people, our parents, our good and dedicated teachers and leaders, and in the greater good of the work we do with and for one another, for the community and for the PEOPLE.

Kwanzaa Symbols 1. TABLE CLOTH/ THE BLACK NATIONAL FLAG (BENDERA). 2. MKEKA - Straw Mat/ Symbolizes our African traditions and history. 3. KINARA - Candle Holder (for seven candles)/Symbolizes the continent of Africa, our place of origin and roots. When putting the candles in the Kinara, the 3 red candles are placed on the left side. The 3 green candles are placed on the right. The single black candle is placed in the center and is the candle which will be lit first. On each day of Kwanzaa a new candle will be lit as a symbol of the Kwanzaa Nguzo or principle of that day. The candles will be lit in alternating colors. First the black candle is lit, then the farthest left red candle, then the farthest right green candle, then the next red, then next green, then the last red, and then the final green. 4. MISHUMAA SABA - Seven Candles (1 BLACK, 3 RED, 3 GREEN)/Symbolize the seven principles of Kwanza. 5. MAZAO - Crops/ Symbolize the historical roots of Kwanzaa as a harvest-type/first fruits celebration. 6. MUHUNDI OR VIBUNZI - Ears of corn (at least one)/Symbolize the offspring the children. 7. KIKOMBI CHA UMOJA - Unity Cup/Symbolizes the First Principle of Kwanzaa and is used for pouring libation. 8. NGUZO SABA POSTER - The Seven Principles Poster/Symbolize the key role they play in kwanza. 9. ZAWADI - Gifts (African history-cultural books and/or heritage symbols) Symbolize the key role of education and culture in Kwanzaa.

Source: http://www.teachersfirst.com/getsource.cfm?id=7845 501

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL A A Bird In The Hand Is Worth Two In The Bush: Having something that is certain is much better than taking a risk for more, because chances are you might lose everything. A Blessing In Disguise: Something good that isn't recognized at first. A Chip On Your Shoulder: Being upset for something that happened in the past. A Dime A Dozen: Anything that is common and easy to get. A Doubting Thomas: A skeptic who needs physical or personal evidence in order to believe something. A Drop in the Bucket: A very small part of something big or whole. A Fool And His Money Are Easily Parted: It's easy for a foolish person to lose his/her money. A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand: Everyone involved must unify and function together or it will not work out. A Leopard Can't Change His Spots: You cannot change who you are. A Penny Saved Is A Penny Earned: By not spending money, you are saving money (little by little). A Picture Paints a Thousand Words: A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words. A Piece of Cake: A task that can be accomplished very easily. A Slap on the Wrist: A very mild punishment. A Taste Of Your Own Medicine: When you are mistreated the same way you mistreat others. A Toss-Up: A result that is still unclear and can go either way. Actions Speak Louder Than Words: It's better to actually do something than just talk about it. Add Fuel To The Fire: Whenever something is done to make a bad situation even worse than it is. Against The Clock: Rushed and short on time. All Bark And No Bite: When someone is threatening and/or aggressive but not willing to engage in a fight. All Greek to me: Meaningless and incomprehensible like someone who cannot read, speak, or understand any of the Greek language would be. All In The Same Boat: When everyone is facing the same challenges. An Arm And A Leg: Very expensive. A large amount of money. An Axe To Grind: To have a dispute with someone. Apple of My Eye: Someone who is cherished above all others. As High As A Kite: Anything that is high up in the sky.

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5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL At The Drop Of A Hat: Willing to do something immediately. B Back Seat Driver: People who criticize from the sidelines, much like someone giving unwanted advice from the back seat of a vehicle to the driver. Back To Square One: Having to start all over again. Back To The Drawing Board: When an attempt fails and it's time to start all over. Baker's Dozen: Thirteen. Barking Up The Wrong Tree: A mistake made in something you are trying to achieve. Beat A Dead Horse: To force an issue that has already ended. Beating Around The Bush: Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue. Bend Over Backwards: Do whatever it takes to help. Willing to do anything. Between A Rock And A Hard Place: Stuck between two very bad options. Bite Off More Than You Can Chew: To take on a task that is way to big. Bite Your Tongue: To avoid talking. Blood Is Thicker Than Water: The family bond is closer than anything else. 503 Break A Leg: A superstitious way to say 'good luck' without saying 'good luck', but rather the opposite. Buy A Lemon: To purchase a vehicle that constantly gives problems or stops running after you drive it away. C Can't Cut The Mustard : Someone who isn't adequate enough to compete or participate. Cast Iron Stomach: Someone who has no problems, complications or ill effects with eating anything or drinking anything. Charley Horse: Stiffness in the leg / A leg cramp. Chew someone out: Verbally scold someone. Chip on his Shoulder: Angry today about something that occured in the past. Chow Down: To eat. Close but no Cigar: To be very near and almost accomplish a goal, but fall short. Cock and Bull Story: An unbelievable tale. Come Hell Or High Water: Any difficult situation or obstacle.

Blue Moon: A rare event or occurance.

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL

Crack Someone Up: To make someone laugh. Cross Your Fingers: To hope that something happens the way you want it to. Cry Over Spilt Milk: When you complain about a loss from the past. Cry Wolf: Intentionally raise a false alarm. Cup Of Joe: A cup of coffee. Curiosity Killed The Cat: Being Inquisitive can lead you into a dangerous situation. Cut to the Chase: Leave out all the unnecessary details and just get to the point. D Dark Horse: One who was previously unknown and is now prominent. Dead Ringer: 100% identical. A duplicate. Devil's Advocate: Someone who takes a position for the sake of argument without believing in that particular side of the arguement. It can also mean one who presents a counter argument for a position they do believe in, to another debater. Dog Days of Summer: The hottest days of the summer season. Don't count your chickens before they hatch: Don't rely on it until your sure of it. 504

Don't Look A Gift Horse In The Mouth: When someone gives you a gift, don't be ungrateful. Don't Put All Your Eggs In One Basket: Do not put all your resources in one possibility. Doozy: Something outstanding. Down To The Wire: Something that ends at the last minute or last few seconds. Drastic Times Call For Drastic Measures: When you are extremely desperate you need to take extremely desperate actions. Drink like a fish: To drink very heavily. Drive someone up the wall: To irritate and/or annoy very much. Dropping Like Flies: A large number of people either falling ill or dying. Dry Run: Rehearsal. E Eighty Six: A certain item is no longer available. Or this idiom can also mean, to throw away. Elvis has left the building: The show has come to an end. It's all over. Ethnic Cleansing: Killing of a certain ethnic or religious group on a massive scale. Every Cloud Has A Silver Lining:

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL Be optomistic, even difficult times will lead to better days. Everything But The Kitchen Sink: Almost everything and anything has been included. Excuse my French: Please forgive me for cussing. Cock and Bull Story: An unbelievable tale. Cock and Bull Story: An unbelievable tale. F Feeding Frenzy: An aggressive attack on someone by a group. Field Day: An enjoyable day or circumstance. Finding Your Feet: To become more comfortable in whatever you are doing. Finger lickin' good: A very tasty food or meal. Fixed In Your Ways: Not willing or wanting to change from your normal way of doing something. Flash In The Pan: Something that shows potential or looks promising in the beginning but fails to deliver anything in the end. Flea Market: A swap meet. A place where people gather to buy and sell inexpensive goods. Flesh and Blood: This idiom can mean living material of which 505 people are made of, or it can refer to someone's family. Flip The Bird: To raise your middle finger at someone. Foam at the Mouth: To be enraged and show it. Fools' Gold: Iron pyrites, a worthless rock that resembles real gold. French Kiss: An open mouth kiss where tongues touch. From Rags To Riches: To go from being very poor to being very wealthy. Fuddy-duddy: An old-fashioned and foolish type of person. Full Monty: This idiom can mean either, "the whole thing" or "completely nude". Funny Farm: A mental institutional facility. G Get Down to Brass Tacks: To become serious about something. Get Over It: To move beyond something that is bothering you. Get Up On The Wrong Side Of The Bed: Someone who is having a horrible day. Get Your Walking Papers: Get fired from a job. Give Him The Slip:

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL To get away from. To escape. Go Down Like A Lead Balloon: To be received badly by an audience. Go For Broke: To gamble everything you have. Go Out On A Limb: Put yourself in a tough position in order to support someone/something. Go The Extra Mile: Going above and beyond whatever is required for the task at hand. Good Samaritan: Someone who helps others when they are in need, with no discussion for compensation, and no thought of a reward. Graveyard Shift: Working hours from about 12:00 am to 8:00 am. The time of the day when most other people are sleeping. Great Minds Think Alike: Intelligent people think like each other. Green Room: The waiting room, especially for those who are about to go on a tv or radio show. Gut Feeling: A personal intuition you get, especially when feel something may not be right. H Haste Makes Waste: Quickly doing things results in a poor ending. Hat Trick: When one player scores three goals in the same hockey game. This idiom can also mean three scores in any other sport, such as 3 homeruns, 3 506 Hold Your Horses: Be patient. I Icing On The Cake: When you already have it good and get something on top of what you already have. touchdowns, 3 soccer goals, etc. Have an Axe to Grind: To have a dispute with someone. He Lost His Head: Angry and overcome by emotions. Head Over Heels: Very excited and/or joyful, especially when in love. Hell in a Handbasket: Deteriorating and headed for complete disaster. High Five: Slapping palms above each others heads as celebration gesture. High on the Hog: Living in Luxury. Hit The Books: To study, especially for a test or exam. Hit The Hay: Go to bed or go to sleep. Hit The Nail on the Head: Do something exactly right or say something exactly right. Hit The Sack: Go to bed or go to sleep. Hocus Pocus: In general, a term used in magic or trickery.

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL Jaywalk: Crossing the street (from the middle) without using the crosswalk. Joshing Me: Tricking me. K Keep An Eye On Him: You should carefully watch him. Keep body and soul together: To earn a sufficient amount of money in order to keep yourself alive . Keep your chin up: To remain joyful in a tough situation. Kick The Bucket: Die. Kitty-corner: Diagonally across. Sometimes called CattyCorner as well. Knee Jerk Reaction: A quick and automatic response. Knock On Wood: Knuckle tapping on wood in order to avoid some bad luck. Know the Ropes: To understand the details. L Last but not least: An introduction phrase to let the audience know that the last person mentioned is no less important than those introduced before him/her. Lend Me Your Ear: To politely ask for someone's full attention. 507

Idle Hands Are The Devil's Tools: You are more likely to get in trouble if you have nothing to do. If It's Not One Thing, It's Another: When one thing goes wrong, then another, and another... In Like Flynn: To be easily successful, especially when sexual or romantic. In The Bag: To have something secured. In The Buff: Nude. In The Heat Of The Moment: Overwhelmed by what is happening in the moment. In Your Face: An aggressive and bold confrontation. It Takes Two To Tango: A two person conflict where both people are at fault. It's A Small World: You frequently see the same people in different places. Its Anyone's Call: A competition where the outcome is difficult to judge or predict. Ivy League: Since 1954 the Ivy League has been the following universities: Columbia, Brown, Cornell, Dartmouth, Yale, Pennsylvania, Princeton, and Harvard. J

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL

Let Bygones Be Bygones: To forget about a disagreement or arguement. Let Sleeping Dogs Lie: To avoid restarting a conflict. Let The Cat Out Of The Bag: To share a secret that wasn't suppose to be shared. Level playing field: A fair competition where no side has an advantage. Like a chicken with its head cut off: To act in a frenzied manner. liquor someone up: To get someone drunk. Long in the Tooth: Old people (or horses). Loose Cannon: Someone who is unpredictable and can cause damage if not kept in check. M Make No Bones About: To state a fact so there are no doubts or objections. Method To My Madness: Strange or crazy actions that appear meaningless but in the end are done for a good reason. Mumbo Jumbo: Nonsense or meaningless speech. Mum's the word: To keep quiet. To say nothing. N 508

Nest Egg: Savings set aside for future use. Never Bite The Hand That Feeds You: Don't hurt anyone that helps you. New kid on the block: Someone new to the group or area. New York Minute: A minute that seems to go by quickly, especially in a fast paced environment. No Dice: To not agree. To not accept a proposition. No Room to Swing a Cat: An unsually small or confined space. Not Playing With a Full Deck: Someone who lacks intelligence. O Off On The Wrong Foot: Getting a bad start on a relationship or task. Off The Hook: No longer have to deal with a tough situation. Off the Record: Something said in confidence that the one speaking doesn't want attributed to him/her. On Pins And Needles: Anxious or nervous, especially in anticipation of something. On The Fence: Undecided. On The Same Page: When multiple people all agree on the same thing.

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL Out Of The Blue: Something that suddenly and unexpectedly occurs. Out On A Limb: When someone puts themself in a risky situation. Out On The Town: To enjoy yourself by going out. Over My Dead Body: When you absolutely will not allow something to happen. Over the Top: Very excessive. P Pass The Buck: Avoid responsibility by giving it to someone else. Pedal to the metal: To go full speed, especially while driving a vehicle. Peeping Tom: Someone who observes people in the nude or sexually active people, mainly for his own gratification. Pick up your ears: To listen very carefully. Pig In A Poke: A deal that is made without first examining it. Pig Out : To eat alot and eat it quickly. Pipe Down: To shut-up or be quiet. Practice Makes Perfect: 509 By constantly practicing, you will become better. Pull the plug: To stop something. To bring something to an end. Pulling Your Leg: Tricking someone as a joke. Put a sock in it: To tell noisy person or a group to be quiet. Q Queer the pitch: Destroy or ruin a plan. R Raincheck: An offer or deal that is declined right now but willing to accept later. Raining Cats and Dogs: A very loud and noisy rain storm. Ring Fencing: Seperated usual judgement to guarantee protection, especially project funds. Rise and Shine: Time to get out of bed and get ready for work/school. Rome Was Not Built In One Day: If you want something to be completely properly, then its going to take time. Rule Of Thumb: A rough estimate. Run out of steam: To be completely out of energy. S

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL T Saved By The Bell: Saved at the last possible moment. Scapegoat: Someone else who takes the blame. Scot-free: To escape and not have to pay. Sick As A Dog: To be very sick (with the flu or a cold). Sitting Shotgun: Riding in the front passenger seat of a car. The Ball Is In Your Court: It is your decision this time. The Best Of Both Worlds: There are two choices and you have them both. The Bigger They Are The Harder They Fall: While the bigger and stronger opponent might be alot more difficult to beat, when you do they suffer a much bigger loss. The Last Straw: When one small burden after another creates an unbearable situation, the last straw is the last small burden that one can take. The Whole Nine Yards: Everything. All of it. Third times a charm: After no success the first two times, the third try is a lucky one. Tie the knot: To get married. Til the cows come home: A long time. To Make A Long Story Short: Something someone would say during a long and boring story in order to keep his/her audience from losing attention. Usually the story isn't shortened. To Steal Someone's Thunder: To take the credit for something someone else did. Tongue And Cheek: humor, not to be taken serious. Turn A Blind Eye: Refuse to acknowledge something you know is 510

Sixth Sense: A paranormal sense that allows you to communicate with the dead. Skid Row: The rundown area of a city where the homeless and drug users live. Smell A Rat: To detect somone in the group is betraying the others. Smell Something Fishy: Detecting that something isn't right and there might be a reason for it. Son of a Gun: A scamp. Southpaw: Someone who is left-handed. Spitting Image: The exact likeness or kind. Start From Scratch: To do it all over again from the beginning.

5.4 Learning Activity Idioms Subject: ESL real or legit. Twenty three skidoo: To be turned away. U Under the weather: Feeling ill or sick. V Up a blind alley: Going down a course of action that leads to a bad outcome. Use Your Loaf: Use your head. Think smart.

A diversion away from something of greater importance. Water Under The Bridge: Anything from the past that isn't significant or important anymore. Wear Your Heart On Your Sleeve: To openly and freely express your emotions. When It Rains, It Pours: Since it rarely rains, when it does it will be a huge storm. foods. You Can't Judge A Book By Its Cover: Decisions shouldn't be made primarily on appearance. You Can't Take it With You: Enjoy what you have and not what you don't have, since when you die you cannot take things (such as money) with you.

Van Gogh's ear for music: Tone deaf. Variety Is The Spice Of Life: The more experiences you try the more exciting life can be. W Wag the Dog: When Pigs Fly : Something that will never ever happen. Wild and Woolly: Uncultured and without laws. Wine and Dine: When somebody is treated to an expensive meal. Without A Doubt: For certain. X X marks the spot: A phrase that is said when someone finds something he/she has been looking for. Y You Are What You Eat: In order to stay healthy you must eat healthy 511

Your Guess Is As Good As Mine: I have no idea. Z Zero Tolerance: No crime or law breaking big or small will be overlooked.

5.4 Learning Activity Story Map Subject: ESL Name: ___________________________ Story Map Summary Title of Story Map: _________________________________________ Date: ____________________

In the beginning,

Then,

Afterwards,

Next,

Later,

Finally,

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5.4 Learning Activity Valentine’s Day Activity Subject: ESL

Candy Heart Sentences Using the Four Sentence Types
Objectives: Students will create four sentences given one or two words which appear on a candy heart, per each sentence; they will create declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentences. Materials Needed:
  

Lined Card Stock Paper Glue Candy Message Hearts (prescreen them to make sure they are "Rated-G")

Optional Materials:  Markers  Scalloping Scissors  Colored Pencils  Stickers  Glitter Procedure: 1. Review the four sentence types, their functions, and respective end punctuation. 2. Distribute materials. 3. Have students create their own Valentine’s Day themed sentences around the messages on the candy hearts. For example:

WANT YOU TO BE MY VALENTINE! (exclamatory)

BE MY VALENTINE? (interrogative) 4. Have students glue the conversation heart candies onto the paper and write their sentences around them (remind them that these candies ARE NOT for eating!) 5. Decorate the paper. Assessment: Students participate appropriately for class participation credit. Students will be graded based on whether or not they successfully create four coherent and complete sentences (one for each sentence type).

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5.4 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

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5.4 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL

Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Other Evidence Idiom Word Square Subject: ESL Name _____________________________ Date ________________________

Idiom Square
Idiom Use it in a sentence

What it really means

What it looks like

When would l use this idiom?

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot 516

5.4 Other Evidence Sentence Types Subject: ESL Identifying Sentence Types Name ______________________________________ Date ____________________________________

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5.4 Other Evidence Sentence Types Subject: ESL Answer Key

518 Source: http://www.worksheetworks.com/pdf/21a/4310b20cc204a/WorksheetWorks_Identifying_Sent ence_Types_1.pdf

5.4 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.4 Performance Task Sentence Type Comic Strip Subject: ESL Name __________________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Use all Four Sentence types in your Comic Strip (declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory)

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.5 Graphic Organizer Cause and Effect Subject: ESL

Cause and Effect Chart

Source: TIME for Kids

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5.5 Learning Activity Busy Prepositions Subject: ESL

Busy Prepositions
Like a butterfly, or a like bee Like an ant, as busy as can be These little words we call the "busy P's" Prepositions Nine or ten of them Do most all of the work Of, on, to, with, in, from By, for, at, over, across And many others do their jobs, Which is simply to connect Their noun or pronoun object To some other word in the sentence. Busy p's, If you please. "On the top is where you are!" Top relates to where you are. "With a friend you'll travel far!" With a friend you'll go. "If you try you know that you can fly Over the rainbow!" Over the rainbow is where you can fly. Busy prepositions, Always on the go. Like a bunch of busy bees, Floating pollen on the breeze. Buzzing over the meadows, Beyond the forest, Through the trees, In to the beehive. Busy, busy P's In, to, beyond, over, on, through! Busy prepositions always out in front, On the edges, in the crack. 'Round the corner, from the back. In between the action. Stating clearly to your satisfaction, The location and direction. Prepositions give specific information.

Though little words they are, They never stand alone Gathering words behind them, You soon will see how they have grown Into a parade; a prepositional phrase. With a noun, or at least a pronoun, bringing up the rear. A little phrase of two or three or four or more words. Prepositions! Attention! Forward, March! Busy prepositions, Always on the march. Like a horde of solider ants, Inching bravely forward on the slimmest chance That they might better their positions. Busy, busy prepositions. In the air, on the ground, everywhere. The sun sank lower in the west. "In the west it sank." And it will rise in the morning, And will bring the light of day; We say the sun comes up in the east every day! "In the east it rises." Busy prepositions, Busy, busy, busy! On the top is where you are! On the top. If you try you know that you can fly! Fly where? Over the rainbow.

Source: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Busy.html 522

5.5 Learning Activity Prep Phrase 1 Subject: ESL Prepositional Phrases

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5.5 Learning Activity Prep Phrase 1 Subject: ESL Answer Key

Source: Worksheetworks.com

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5.5 Learning Activity Prep Phrase 2 Subject: ESL Prepositional Phrases

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5.5 Learning Activity Prep Phrase 2 Subject: ESL Answer Key

Source: Worksheetworks.com

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5.5 Learning Activity Suffix Worksheets Subject: ESL

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5.5 Learning Activity Suffix Worksheets Subject: ESL

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5.5 Learning Activity Suffix Worksheets Subject: ESL

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5.5 Learning Activity Suffix Worksheets Subject: ESL

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5.5 Learning Activity Suffix Worksheets Subject: ESL

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5.5 Learning Activity Suffix Worksheets Subject: ESL

Source: abcteach.com

532

5.5 Other Evidence Idiom Word Square Subject: ESL

Name _____________________________

Date ________________________

Idiom Square
Idiom Use it in a sentence

What it really means

What it looks like

When would l use this idiom?

Source: Adapted from Dr. Anna Uhl Chamot 533

5.5 Graphic Organizer Prep Phrase Test Subject: ESL Prepositional Phrase Test

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5.5 Graphic Organizer Prep Phrase Test Subject: ESL Answer Key

Source: Worksheetworks.com 535

5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

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5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

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5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

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5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

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5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

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5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

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5.5 Other Evidence Prepositional Cards Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.mes-english.com/flashcards/prepositions.php 542

5.5 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend Means

Source: edCount, LLC 543

5.5 Performance Task Neighborhood Interview Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date __________________________________ Neighborhood Interview Directions: Interview an older member of the school, neighborhood, or your family to see what has changed about your neighborhood or school. You will use this information to create a before and after map Person I interviewed: __________________________ How was this neighborhood like 25 years ago?

Was my school there 25 years ago? What did it look like around the school?

Do you think the changes are good or bad? Why?

In the back, have the person you are interviewing help you draw a quick map of how your neighborhood was 25 years ago.

Source: edCount, LLC

544

5.5 Resource Common Prefixes and Suffixes Subject: ESL

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5.5 Resource Common Prefixes and Suffixes Subject: ESL

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/reading/bestpractices/vocabulary/pdf/prefixes_suffixes.pdf 2

5.5 Resource Prepositional Phrase Subject: ESL

The Prepositional Phrase
Recognize a prepositional phrase when you see one. At the minimum, a prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition. The object of the preposition will often have one or more modifiers to describe it. These are the patterns for a prepositional phrase: PREPOSITION + NOUN, PRONOUN, GERUND, OR CLAUSE PREPOSITION + MODIFIER(S) + NOUN, PRONOUN, GERUND, OR CLAUSE Here are some examples of the most basic prepositional phrase: At home At = preposition; home = noun. In time In = preposition; time = noun. From Richie From = preposition; Richie = noun. With me With = preposition; me = pronoun. By singing By = preposition; singing = gerund. About what we need About = preposition; what we need = noun clause. Most prepositional phrases are longer, like these: From my grandmother From = preposition; my = modifier; grandmother = noun. Under the warm blanket Under = preposition; the, warm = modifiers; blanket = noun. In the weedy, overgrown garden In = preposition; the, weedy, overgrown = modifiers; garden = noun. Along the busy, six-lane highway Along = preposition; the, busy, six-lane = modifiers; highway = noun. By writing furiously By = preposition; writing = gerund; furiously = modifier. Understand what prepositional phrases do in a sentence. A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb. As an adjective, the prepositional phrase will answer the question Which one? Read these examples: The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam. Which book? The one on the bathroom floor! The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold. Which sweet potatoes? The ones forgotten in the vegetable bin! The note from Beverly confessed that she had eaten the leftover pizza. Which note? The one from Beverly! As an adverb, a prepositional phrase will answer questions such as How? When? or Where? Freddy is stiff from yesterday's long football practice. How did Freddy get stiff? From yesterday's long football practice! Before class, Josh begged his friends for a pencil. 547

5.5 Resource Prepositional Phrase Subject: ESL When did Josh do his begging? Before class! Feeling brave, we tried the Dragon Breath Burritos at Tito's Taco Palace. Where did we eat the spicy food? At Tito's Taco Palace! Remember that a prepositional phrase will never contain the subject of a sentence. Sometimes a noun within the prepositional phrase seems the logical subject of a verb. Don't fall for that trick! You will never find a subject in a prepositional phrase. Look at this example: Neither of these cookbooks contains the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew. Cookbooks do indeed contain recipes. In this sentence, however, cookbooks is part of the prepositional phrase of these cookbooks. Neither—whatever a neither is—is the subject for the verb contains. Neither is singular, so you need the singular form of the verb, contains. If you incorrectly identified cookbooks as the subject, you might write contain, the plural form, and thus commit a subject-verb agreement error. Some prepositions—such as along with and in addition to—indicate "more to come." They will make you think that you have a plural subject when in fact you don't. Don't fall for that trick either! Read this example: Tommy, along with the other students, breathed a sigh of relief when Mrs. Markham announced that she was postponing the due date for the research essay. Logically, more than one student is happy with the news. But Tommy is the only subject of the verb breathed. His classmates count in the real world, but in the sentence, they don't matter, locked as they are in the prepositional phrase.

Source: http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/prepositionalphrase.htm 548

5.5 Sample Lesson Mapping Your Neighborhood Subject: ESL

Mapping Change in Your Neighborhood
During your lifetime, you have probably witnessed many changes in your neighborhood. New families arrive and old friends move away. Stores open for business or close up shop. Bicycle riders switch to skateboards and then graduate to driving cars. Over time, little changes like these alter the character of a neighborhood and even change the way it appears on a map. In this activity, you will trace the changes that have transformed your neighborhood over the past 25 years. Activities 1. Begin by defining the area you will survey. Depending on where you live, your neighborhood might be as small as a city block or as large as the region surrounding a small town. Talk with members of your family about their perceptions of your neighborhood. A younger brother or sister, for example, might see it as the area immediately around your home, while older family members, with wider networks of friends and acquaintances, might see your neighborhood in much broader terms. Decide how you see it and draw an outline map showing the boundaries of your neighborhood. You can get some good ideas about making a neighborhood map on the Kennedy Center's ArtsEdge website. 2. Make two copies of your outline map. Save one to map your neighborhood as it appeared 25 years ago. Use the other one to show the main features of your neighborhood as it appears today.  Indicate where people live and the kinds of homes they live in—apartment buildings, multi-family housing, townhouses, single-family homes, etc.  Identify businesses and workplaces that may be in your neighborhood—supermarkets, convenience stores, banks, gas stations, restaurants, clothing stores, offices, factories, shopping malls, etc.  Mark the location of schools, churches, and public buildings such as a library, post office, police station, fire station, park, or community center.  Label the roads in your neighborhood and identify other modes of transportation, such as bus and subway lines. 3. Now research what your neighborhood was like 25 years ago. Check at the library for copies of your local newspaper from that period. Look for stories about your neighborhood, obituaries of people who lived in the neighborhood, pictures of the neighborhood, and advertisements for businesses located there. You might also find old maps and other records at the library, a local historical society, or your town hall. 4. The best source of information about how your neighborhood has changed will likely be your neighbors and the older members of your own family. Interview at least three neighbors or relatives who have lived in your neighborhood over the past 25 years, using your map to find out how things have changed. In your interviews, try to get a sense of what it was like to live in your neighborhood back then. For example, you might ask:  When were the homes on your map constructed? What did they look like 25 years ago? Who lived in the neighborhood back then—families like your neighbors today or families with different cultural backgrounds?

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5.5 Sample Lesson Mapping Your Neighborhood Subject: ESL  Which businesses in your neighborhood were already in operation 25 years ago? How have those businesses changed? What kinds of businesses did they replace? Were there chain stores and fastfood restaurants, video stores and automatic teller machines back then?

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5.5 Sample Lesson Mapping Your Neighborhood Subject: ESL  Have there been changes in the schools and churches in your neighborhood? What was school like 25 years ago? Are there any religious denominations that have left the neighborhood or moved into it over the years?  Where did kids go to play 25 years ago? What were summers and winters like back then? What languages did people speak? What holidays did they observe?  Be sure to ask if your interviewees have photographs of life in the neighborhood 25 years ago. With their permission, make photocopies of any photographs that seem especially revealing of what the neighborhood was like back then. 5. Use your interviews and research to create a map of your neighborhood as it appeared 25 years ago. Then organize the news clippings, pictures, and reminiscences you have collected to create a presentation about change in your neighborhood over the past 25 years. Your presentation might take the form of a scrapbook, a bulletin board display, or a webpage. Share your presentation with family members, classmates, and with the people you interviewed.

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

Five Ways to Teach Prepositions
It doesn't have to be difficult to teach prepositions to your young ESL students. Granted, prepositions are a little bit harder because they are more of a concept than a mere vocabulary word. However, students are probably familiar with these words in their native language, so they can catch on quite quickly. Here are five of my favorite ideas for teaching prepositions: 1. Use flash card games. You probably have some flash cards illustrating the different prepositions. If not, then see pages 2-8. You can use these cards to play bingo, memory, or many others. 2. Say the Opposite. Most prepositions have opposites. It's a good challenge to have the students say the opposite. For example, if you say "in", they must say "out". It's extra challenging if you show them a card and have them say the opposite because your first reaction is to say what's on the card. 3. Place the toy. Give each student a toy. I like to use small plastic animals. Sit in a circle and, as a group, practice using prepositions by having everyone put the animal "in front of you", or "on your head". Then, tell each student to put their animal somewhere around the classroom--"under the chair" or "in front of the door". If your students are more advanced, you can have them tell another student where to put their animal. 4. As a Group. One thing that I have found to be very fun is to direct the students around the room. Say "Everybody stand next to the sink!" and when everyone has gone there, change to a new place. If you're very daring, and have fairly young students, you can instruct them to "Jump over me." or "Stand on me." 5. Create an Obstacle Course. Set up a small obstacle course around the classroom using tables, chairs, and anything else you might have in the classroom. Students enjoy getting active and being told to "crawl under the table" and "walk around the chair three times".

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

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5.5 Sample Lesson Prepositions Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.teach-esl-to-kids.com/teach-prepositions.html 559

Subject: ESL

5.5 Sample Lesson Suffixes –er and –est Web

Introduce: The Suffixes –er and –est
Group Size: Pairs, Small Group, Large Group, Whole Class Length: 15 minutes Goal: Given the suffixes -er and –est, students will generate and use words that contain -er and –est Materials: Board or chart paper What to Do Prepare Write the suffixes -er and -est on the board or on a piece of chart paper for the students to see. Model/Instruct 1. Introduce the suffixes -er and -est and solicit examples of words that contain -er and -est. Today we are going to learn about suffixes. Who knows what a suffix is? 2. Allow time for students to respond. A suffix is a word part added to the end of a word. It changes the meaning of a word. -er and -est are suffixes that are used in many words. Bigger, prettier, fastest and quietest are all words that have the suffixes -er and -est in them. Do you know of any other words that have the suffixes -er and -est? 3. As students share, write the responses on the board or on a piece of chart paper. Circle the suffixes er and -est in each word as it is given. 4. Define the meaning of -er and -est, as well as words containing the suffixes -er and -est. Look at the list of words with the suffixes -er and -est. Who knows what -er and -est mean? -er and est- are comparatives. Look at bigger. Bigger means “big in comparison to something else.” Look at fastest. Fastest means “the most quick in comparison to other things.” When the suffix -er is added to big, it changes the meaning of the word. Can anyone tell us what prettier means? What about fastest and quietest? 5. Solicit the meanings of the remaining words from the first step. Practice 6. Connect words to students’ prior knowledge. Ask students a variety of questions to help them connect their experiences to the words in the list generated in the first step. For example: Which bulletin board is bigger? Which of these pictures is prettier? Who is the fastest runner in the class? Who do you think is the quietest teacher in the school? Adjust For Advanced Students: Encourage these students to use each word on the class-created list in a sentence. Explain how the parts of speech may change when a suffix is added. In the case of the suffixes –er and est, however, both the root word and the word with the suffix added are adjectives.

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Subject: ESL For Struggling Students: For the students who have difficulty understanding what a suffix is, try presenting the word list above as a series of math equations. For example: big + er = bigger pretty + er = prettier fast + est = fastest quiet + est = quietest For ELL Students: Point out that some of the same suffixes may exist in their native language. If the suffix is not the same as in English, there may be an equivalent in their native language.

5.5 Sample Lesson Suffixes –er and –est Web

561 Source: http://www.freereading.net/index.php?title=Introduce:_The_Suffixes_%E2%80%93er_and_-est

5.6 Graphic Organizer Plot Line Organizer Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________________ Date _______________________________

Plot Line of a Story
Fill in the Introduction Rising Action (2 major examples), Climax, Falling Action (2 major examples), and Resolution of the Plot of the story you read. Include the page where you found this part of the plot. P:____ P:____

P:____ P:____ P:____

P:____

P:____

Source: edCount, LLc

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

Source: http://specialed.about.com/library/Spelling/blends.pdf 580

5.6 Learning Activity Brainstorming an Important Event Subject: ESL

Brainstorming an Important Event

Source: http://www.eslflow.com/narrativeessay.html 581

5.6 Learning Activity Schoolhouse Rock: Adjective Subject: ESL

Unpack Your Adjectives
Got home from camping last spring. Saw people, places and things. We barely had arrived, Friends asked us to describe The people, places and every last thing. So we unpacked our adjectives. I unpacked "frustrating" first. Reached in and found the word "worst". Then I picked "soggy" and Next I picked "foggy" and Then I was ready to tell them my tale. 'Cause I'd unpacked my adjectives. Adjectives are words you use to really describe things, Handy words to carry around. Days are sunny or they're rainy Boys are dumb or else they're brainy Adjectives can show you which way. Adjectives are often used to help us compare things, To say how thin, how fat, how short, how tall. Girls who are tall can get taller, Boys who are small can get smaller, Till one is the tallest And the other's the smallest of all. We hiked along without care. Then we ran into a bear. He was a hairy bear, He was a scary bear, We beat a hasty retreat from his lair. And described him with adjectives. [Turtle, spoken:] Whoah! Boy! That was one big, ugly bear! [Girl, spoken:] You can even make adjectives out of the other parts of speech, like verbs or nouns. All you have to do is tack on an ending like "-ic" or "-ish" or "-ary". For example, this Source: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Unpack.html 582

boy can grow up to be a huge man – but still have a boyish face. "Boy" is a noun, but the ending "-ish" makes it an adjective - boyish. That describes the huge man's face, get it? [Sung:] Next time you go on a trip, Remember this little tip: The minute you get back, They'll ask you this and that, You can describe people, places and things... Simply unpack your adjectives. You can do it with adjectives. Tell them 'bout it with adjectives. You can shout it with adjectives.

5.6 Learning Activity Schoolhouse Rock: Noun Subject: ESL

A Noun is a Person, Place or Thing
Well every person you can know, And every place that you can go, And anything that you can show, You know they're nouns. A noun's a special kind of word, It's any name you ever heard, I find it quite interesting, A noun's a person, place, or thing. Oh I took a train, took a train to another state. The flora and the fauna that I saw were really great. When I saw some bandits chasin' the train. I was wishin' I was back home again. I took a train, took a train to another state. Well, every person you can know (Like a bandit or an engineer) And every place that you can go (Like a state or a home) And anything that you can show (Like animals and plants or a train) You know they're nouns - you know they're nouns, oh... Mrs. Jones is a lady on Hudson Street. She sent her dog to bark at my brother and me. We gave her dog a big fat bone, And now he barks at Mrs. Jones. She's a lady who lives on Hudson Street. Well, every person you can know (Mrs. Jones, a lady, or a brother) And every place that you can go (Like a street or a corner) And anything that you can show (Like a dog or a bone) You know they're nouns - you know they're nouns, oh... I took a ferry to the Statue of Liberty. My best friend was waitin' there for me. (He took an early ferry.) Source: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Noun.html 583

We went for a walk on the island you know, And in the middle of summer it started to snow, When I took a ferry to the Statue of Liberty. Well every person you can know (Like a friend or the captain of a ship) And every place that you can go (An island or a sea) And anything that you can show (Like a statue, a ferry, or snow) You know they're nouns - you know they're nouns. Oh, I put a dime in the drugstore record machine. Oldies goldies started playing if you know what I mean. I heard Chubby Checker, he was doin' the twist And the Beatles and the Monkees, it goes like this! I put a dime in the drugstore record machine. Well every person you can know (The Beatles and the Monkees, Chubby Checker) And every place that you can go (Like a neighborhood or a store) And anything that you can show (Like a dime or a record machine) You know they're nouns. A noun's a special kind of word, It's any name you ever heard, I find it quite interesting, A noun's a person, place, or thing. A noun is a person, place or thing. (doodle, doodleh; doodle doodleh...)

5.6 Learning Activity Schoolhouse Rock: Verb Subject: ESL

Verb: That’s What’s a’Happenin!
I get my thing in action (Verb!) To be, to sing, to feel, to live (Verb!) That's what's happenin' I put my heart in action (Verb!) To run, to go, to get, to give (Verb!) (You're what's happenin') That's where I find satisfaction, yeah! (Yeah!) To search, to find, to have, to hold (Verb! To be bold) When I use my imagination (Verb!) I think, I plot, I plan, I dream Turning in towards creation (Verb!) I make, I write, I dance, I sing When I'm feeling really active (Verb!) I run, I ride, I swim, I fly! Other times when life is easy (Oh!) I rest, I sleep, I sit, I lie. (Verb! That's what's happenin') I can take a noun and bend it, Give me a noun (Bat, boat, rake, and plow) Make it a verb and really send it! (Show me how) Oh, I don't know my own power. (Verb!) I get my thing in action (Verb!) In being, (Verb!) In doing, (Verb!) In saying A verb expresses action, being, or state of being. A verb makes a statement. Yeah, a verb tells it like it is! (Verb! That's what's happenin'.) I can tell you when it's happenin', (Past, present, future tense) Ooh! Tell you more about what's happenin', (Say it so it makes some sense) I can tell you who is happenin'! (Verb, you're so intense) Every sentence has a subject. (Noun, person, place, or thing) Source: http://www.schoolhouserock.tv/Verb.html 584

Find that subject: Where's the action? (Verb can make a subject sing) Take the subject: What is it? (What!) What's done to it? (What!) What does it say? (Verb, you're what's happenin') I can question like: What is it? (Verb, you're so demanding.) I can order like: Go get it! (Verb, you're so commanding.) When I hit I need an object (Verb, hit! Hit the ball!) When I see, I see the object (Do you see that furthest wall?) If you can see it there, put the ball over the fence, man! Go ahead. Yeah, alright. What?! He hit it. It's going, it's going, it's gone! (What!) I get my thing in action. (Verb, that's what's happenin') To work, (Verb!) To play, (Verb!) To live, (Verb!) To love... (Verb!...)

5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

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5.6 Learning Activity Six Traits Descriptions Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.writingfix.com/traits.htm#inservice 591

5.6 Learning Activity Story Map 2 Subject: ESL

Name ________________________________________ Date ___________________________________

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ 592

5.6 Learning Activity Story Map Subject: ESL Name: ___________________________ Date: ____________________

Story Map Summary
Title of Story Map: _________________________________________

In the beginning,

Then,

Afterwards,

Next,

Later,

Finally,

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.6 Other Evidence Adjectives Subject: ESL

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5.6 Other Evidence Adjectives Subject: ESL

595 Source: http://superteacherworksheets.com/adjectives/alienadjectives.pdf

5.6 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL Name _____________________________________ Date _____________________________________ Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

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5.6 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal Subject: ESL

Text: _________________________________________________ Reading Focus: __________________________________________

Directions: Read _________. As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your questions, reactions, opinions, predictions or connections about the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text My Questions, Reactions, opinions, predictions about the text

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.6 Other Evidence Nouns Subject: ESL

Name _________________________________________ Date

__________________________________

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5.6 Other Evidence Nouns Subject: ESL

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5.6 Other Evidence Nouns Subject: ESL

601 Source:res://ieframe.dll/acr_error.htm#superteacherworksheets.com,http://www.superteacherworksh eets.com/nouns/nouns.pdf

5.6 Other Evidence Verbs Subject: ESL

Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________

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5.6 Other Evidence Verbs Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/actionverbs/action-verbs2.pdf 603

5.6 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend Means

Source: edCount, LLC

604

5.6 Performance Task Five Paragraph Essay Subject: ESL

The Five Paragraph Essay
Getting started means getting organized: Analyze the assignment; determine what is required. With a highlighter, note important words that define the topic. Then organize your plan For example, you have been given this writing prompt: You have a present that was really memorable. It could have been given for an important occasion or just for no reason at all. Tell us about the present and why it was memorable. Include the reason it was given, a description of it, and how you felt when you got it. The objective is to write a narrative essay about a present you were given The subject is a memorable present The three main subtopics are:  the reason it was given
 

a description of it and how you felt when you got it

Outline your five paragraph essay; include these elements: Introductory Paragraph General Topic Sentence: memorable present 1. Subtopic One: the reason it was given 2. Subtopic Two: a description of it 3. Subtopic Three: how you felt when you got it (Transition) First Supporting Paragraph Restate Subtopic One Supporting Details or Examples Transition Second Supporting Paragraph Restate Subtopic Two Supporting Details or Examples Transition Third Supporting Paragraph Restate Subtopic Three Supporting Details or Examples Transition

Closing or Summary Paragraph Synthesis and conclusion of the thesis rephrasing main topic and subtopics. Write the essay! Think small; build the full essay gradually. Divide your essay into sections and develop each piece separately and incrementally. The Introductory Paragraph

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5.6 Performance Task Five Paragraph Essay Subject: ESL  The opening paragraph sets the tone It not only introduces the topic, but where you are going with it (the thesis). If you do a good job in the opening, you will draw your reader into your "experience." Put effort up front, and you will reap rewards.

Write in the active voice It is much more powerful. Do that for each sentence in the introductory essay. Unless you are writing a personal narrative, do not use the pronoun "I." Varying sentence structure Review to avoid the same dull pattern of always starting with the subject of the sentence. Brainstorm to find the best supporting ideas The best supporting ideas are the ones about which you have some knowledge. If you do not know about them, you cannot do a good job writing about them. Don't weaken the essay with ineffective argument. Practice writing introductory paragraphs on various topics Even if you do not use them, they can be compared with the type of writing you are doing now. It is rewarding to see a pattern of progress.

Supporting Paragraphs  Write a transition to establish the sub-topic Each paragraph has to flow, one to the next.

Write the topic sentence The transition can be included in the topic sentence. Supporting ideas, examples, details must be specific to the sub-topic The tendency in supporting paragraphs is to put in just about anything. Avoid this: the work you have made above with details and examples will help you keep focused. Vary sentence structure Avoid repetitious pronouns and lists Avoid beginning sentences the same way (subject + verb + direct object).

The Ending or Summary Paragraph This is a difficult paragraph to write effectively. You cannot assume that the reader sees your point  Restate the introductory thesis/paragraph with originality Do not simply copy the first paragraph

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5.6 Performance Task Five Paragraph Essay Subject: ESL  Summarize your argument with some degree of authority this paragraph should leave your reader with no doubt as to your position or conclusion of logic

Be powerful as this is the last thought that you are leaving with the reader.

Edit and revise your essay Check your spelling and grammar Subjects and verbs agree, and verb tenses are consistent Examine your whole essay for logic Thought builds and flows? Avoid gaps in logic, or too much detail. Review individual sentences  Use active verbs to be more descriptive Avoid passive constructions and the verb "to be"

Use transitional words and phrases Avoid sentences beginning with pronouns, constructions as "There are....," Example: "There is a need to proofread all works" becomes "Proofreading is a must." Be concise though vary the length and structure of sentences

Ask a knowledgeable friend to review and comment on your essay and to repeat back what you are trying to say. You may be surprised.

Source: http://www.studygs.net/fiveparag.htm 607

5.6 Resource All About Me Subject: ESL

Writing Prompt
Personal Narrative: Have students write a paragraph that tells about a time they helped a friend or family member.

Activities
Personal Outline With the help of older students or adults, trace the students' bodies on long lengths of paper. Then have the students decorate the shapes by adding facial details and clothing. Students can use colored markers or, if available, real pieces of fabric. Have the students dictate or write stories about themselves to accompany their silhouettes. Students can also label parts of the body. On the Block Where I Live Students will enjoy identifying specific characteristics of their own neighborhoods and sharing the information with their classmates. A “Me” Day Have each student put together a “me” bag including favorite toys and other personal objects (sports item, trophy, doll, book, and so forth) that have special importance. Then have a “me” presentation day in which students show and discuss the importance of the items with classmates. Self-Portrait Show students a variety of famous self-portraits. Then have students study themselves in a mirror and create their own self-portraits. Each student can dictate or write important facts on his or her picture. A Story of One's Own As students grow up they learn more about themselves and the people around them. Have them create their very own personal books. You may want to keep the books in a classroom library for students to read. Fingerprints Have a class discussion on individual physical differences, such as hair and eye color, height, and right- and left-handedness. Explain that while some people may have certain characteristics in common, everyone has a unique set of fingerprints. Make fingerprints of some or all of your students, using a stamp pad (the washable type) and paper. Have the students examine the fingerprints closely to see how they are different. Provide magnifying glasses if possible. Role Drawings Students will develop a better appreciation of the roles they fill in their families and community by showing some of the different aspects of their lives. Have the students draw pictures to share with classmates. Me to a Tee Have the students use their artistic skills to create Me-shirts that express something important about themselves. Capsule Bio Have the students record and graph information about themselves and the class to be included in a time capsule. At the end of the year, have the students open the capsule to see how they have changed. 608

5.6 Resource All About Me Subject: ESL Me in Pictures Students will have fun making personal collages representing things they consider important. Classroom “Squares” Have students share special events from their lives with their classmates by making a classroom quilt. Sign Here The “stars” and role models in your students' lives are often their personal friends, family members, teachers, and classmates. Have the students compliment these special people by collecting their autographs. Measuring Up Give the students a length of string, yarn, or rope to measure the length, width, and circumference of different parts of the body. Challenge the students to find similarities and differences in the measurements they make. Personal Dates With the help of an older student, friend, or family member, have the students create personal calendars of special dates of the special people in their lives. Collect Them All! All the big-league players have them. Your students can, too. Have the students create personalized trading cards to keep or share with their friends. Birthday Pages Have your students create pictures to celebrate themselves and their birthdays. A Year of Virtues Have your students create a calendar illustrating positive character traits. Pleased to Meet You! Have students get to know their new classmates and then write acrostic poems about their new friends. Words Within a Word Have students see how many words they can find in the word “myself” (“my,” “self,” “me,” “fly,” “yes,” “elf,” “elm,” “elms”). A Personal Welcome! Put your students to work as a team. Have them create a “welcome book” to help new students feel at ease and to express personal views of their school and themselves. Similar and Different Have students explore the ways in which they are similar and different from each other.

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/monthlytheme/september/allaboutme.html 609

5.6 Resource Word Choice Subject: ESL

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5.6 Resource Word Choice Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.admc.hct.ac.ae/hd1/english/narrate/narrative_words.pdf 611

5.6 Sample Lesson Mad Libs Subject: ESL

Creating Mad Libs
Overview and Purpose: In this lesson, students create their own Mad Libs story that they can share with classmates. Objective: The student will be able to write their own Mad Lib story. Resources: Mad Lib sample pages Activities: Complete some Mad Lib stories with your class. Explain that they are going to write their own Mad Lib to share with their classmates. Have them fold their paper in half and write the story on the bottom part of the paper. Have them number the spaces and write what part of speech should be there. On the top half of the paper, have them list the parts of speech that are missing. Example: 1. Adjective ___________________________________ 2. Noun (place) ________________________________

After they have finished their story and labeled the missing parts of speech, have them work in trios to fill in the spaces. (The student who wrote the story should ask the other two for the parts of speech.)

612 Source: http://www.teach-ology.com/teachers/lesson_plans/language_arts/grammar/912madlibs.html

5.6 Sample Lesson Parts of Speech Subject: ESL

Parts of Speech
Use a charade-type of game to teach and review the concepts of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Materials: Index cards with words that are either nouns, verbs, adjective and adverbs. As well you will need 4 cards with corresponding symbols to the 4 parts of speech. I use an arrow for Noun (pointing), an + for an Adjective (adding to a noun), a V for verb, for and an A for Adverb. Game Rules: Split the class into two groups. Call up one member from each team. I show only these two kids a word and they have to bid on how much time it would take them to act it out, and for their team members to bid. Once the bid is set, the timer is set and that student is required to use the corresponding symbol to assist their team, and then act it out. If the team guesses the word - they get the point. If the first team doesn't get it, the second student gets a crack at it. The kids get very involved and enjoy the 'game' aspect and it is a fun break from pencil/paper activities.

Source: http://www.lessonplanspage.com/LACharadesGameForPartsOfSpeechIdea79.htm 613

5.6 Sample Lesson Personal Narratives Subject: ESL

Ten Prewriting Exercises for Personal Narratives
These prewriting exercises probably work best when combined with a more traditional technique such as using the Journalist's Questions. The idea is to ask students to think about the events that they narrate in a less typical way and then to use those thoughts to develop their narratives. These exercises can be useful after the students have begun drafting, since they think about the details of the event that the writer can add to a working draft. For instance, after scripting a section of the narrative, writers could work on adding dialogue to their working drafts. Or after thinking about the decision points in the series of events, they can add some details to their working drafts on the reasons that the series of events occurred in the way that they did. The exercises listed below include connections to the writer's working draft, but I'd suggest cutting that part off when assigning the exercises, to help students focus on invention rather than on thinking about how to use the material later. Once they complete the exercise, I'd give them the follow-up application, focusing on their working draft of the narrative itself. Some of the exercises make for good class or small group discussion as well. If students script pieces, they can read the scripts out loud, assigning one another parts -- with the author of the script taking notes on places where the dialogue is difficult or incorrect. Using this technique, writers can find places where their attempt to capture the flow of a conversation is stilted or unrealistic. Students also seem to enjoy sharing their writing on the event for a tabloid, an interview or as a fable -though the exercise can lead to giggling and noise. Student writers can also benefit from sharing their list of decision points, since classmates can often think of alternatives that the writers do not. By thinking through all the possible alternatives, students are better able to think about the significance of the events for the "So what?" details that they'll need in their narratives. 1. Think of the different people involved in the event that you're narrating as characters in a piece of literature. In the same way that you'd write a character sketch for characters in a short story or play, write a paragraph on each of the people involved in the event you're writing about. Once you've finished, compare the details in your sketches to the details on the characters in your draft. Revise your draft, based on the differences that you find. 2. Sketch out the events as blocks in a comic strip. Don't worry about the artwork -- just use stick figures. What events would you focus on in your sketches? What parts would you leave out? Comic strips don't show every single event that occurs; they focus on the events that are necessary to the overall message. Once you've sketched out your blocks, take a look at your working draft. Are the blocks that you include in your comic strip included in the narrative? Are they recognizable -- how do the blocks in your comic strip relate to the organizational structure of your narrative? Are the ones that you've left out of the comic strip included in the narrative -- if so, what do they add to your overall purpose? 3. Write a version of the events in your narrative for a newspaper article. Remember to include the answers to the journalist's questions (who? what? where? when? why? how?). Focus on the facts as they occurred. Use an inverted pyramid order -- begin with the facts and details that are most important to readers and end with the facts that are less important. Once you've finished, compare the article to your working draft. Have you included all the facts in your draft that you included at the beginning of your newspaper article? Are the details that you include toward the end of the

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5.6 Sample Lesson Personal Narratives Subject: ESL article (the ones that are less important) included in your working draft -- are they emphasized or subordinate? Think about what you would want someone who read that newspaper article to know that isn't included in the article itself. Are those points included in your narrative? 4. Outline the events that occur in your narrative. Identify the places where you or others involved had to make a decision of some kind. For each decision point, brainstorm on the alternatives that could have been pursued. What other options were available? Once you've thought through the possibilities, examine the way that you discuss the decisions in your draft -- do you include details on the alternatives? How do these other options affect the way that you think about the event now? Have you looked back at the event that you're writing about and thought, "Gee, I wish I had done that differently"? Add some depth to your narrative by fleshing out alternatives as well as how and when they became important. 5. Choose a time in your narrative when you and other characters are talking with one another. Script out the conversation as an exchange in a play. Try to capture the language in the style that would have actually been used. Make the dialogue accurate to the event; don't worry if it's not Standard Written English (personal conversations rarely are). Once you've scripted out your dialogue, move to your working draft. How does the dialogue that you've written in your script compare to the episode in your narrative? Can you add details from the script to your draft? How would adding the dialogue affect the purpose of your narrative? 6. Describe the events that occurred for a different audience. How does your narrative change if it is written for an older family member, someone interviewing you for a job, a younger student, or someone you had never met before? What would you leave out? What would you add? What would you describe in different language and style? How would the points that you emphasize change? Once you've thought about the differences, return to your working draft. Are the points that you DO include right for your audience? Are there parts of your alternate version that can be added to your working draft? As you revise, think about the details in the narrative fit your audience in particular. 7. Reflect on the events as you recall them. Readers will want to know why you're sharing the story. Your narrative needs to answer the question, "So what?" When your readers get to the end of the story, you should have answered the question for them. Draw a chart with three columns. Label the columns as follows: Events So What Do/Did I Think? So What Do/Did I Think?

Outline the major events in rows under the "Events" column; then, fill in the spaces under the other columns for each of the major events. For each of the columns, try to think about the "So What?" Explain why the event matters to you in the second column, and why the event matters to others who are involved (directly or indirectly) in the third column. Think about how the events mattered at the time and how they matter now, looking back. Once you've finished filling in the chart, move to your working draft. Are the "So what?" details that you included in the chart clear in your draft? Are there details that you can add to make the significance of the event understandable to your readers?

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5.6 Sample Lesson Personal Narratives Subject: ESL 8. Think about the longevity of the event in your narrative. How will you remember the event five years from now? ten years? twenty-five years? As you think about the effect of the events in the narrative, you need to focus on how the events will matter to you and your readers. What kind of staying power do the events have? Brainstorm or freewrite a few paragraphs on why you think this event will still matter in the future. Once you've written about the longevity and enduring importance, move back to your working draft. When you talk about events is their staying power clear to the reader? How do you communicate the enduring qualities of the events in your narrative? What details from your brainstorming or freewriting might you work into your draft? 9. Think about the details included in your narrative -- facts, sensory details, and emotions. Draw a chart like this: Facts Sensory Details Emotions

Then think about the facts that are important to your narrative, and fill in the chart. Work to find at least ten important facts. For each, think about related sensory details (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell), and consider the emotions related to the facts (fear, pleasure, sadness, etc.). For instance, a fact in my narrative might be "three fresh baked loaves of bread on the kitchen table." For sensory detail, I'd write about the smell of fresh baked bread, the warmth of the kitchen from the still hot stove, and the golden brown color of the bread. For emotions, I'd write about how the loaves of bread gave me a happy feeling as I remembered how my father always bakes bread for special holidays and how my grandmother always baked us bread when we visited her. Once you've finished working through the chart for the facts from your paper, move back to your working draft. Are the sensory details and emotions that you included in the chart communicated in your draft? Revise to add details, taking material from your chart whenever you can. 10. Write an account of the events in your narrative for a fable, a tabloid, or a television or radio interview. These options give you a lot of room for creativity. What happens if the people involved in the events were animals and you had to come up with a moral? If the events were reported in a tabloid paper, what would be emphasized? Where would things be embellished? What would be left out? Finally, if you were interviewed about the event, what would you include in your story -- your answer depends on where you're being interviewed (by Barbara Walters once you're rich and famous? on a talk show by Oprah? on a late night show by David Letterman or Jay Leno?) Be sure to indicate where you're being interviewed. Once you finish your alternate account of the events, move to your working draft. Are there facts that you can add now that you've thought about the events in your narrative from a different point of view? Are there facts that seem less important? Can they be deleted? Did you add details and description to your account that can be revised and added to your draft? What parts of your alternate version wouldn't make any sense at all in your final draft of the narrative?

Source: http://www.tengrrl.com/tens/006.shtml 616

5.6 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL

Name __________________________________ Date __________________________________ Student Checklist

Yes

No

1. Does your paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Did you indent your paragraph?

2. Does your paragraph have three major details? Did you capitalize your sentences?

3. Does your paragraph have three minor details?

4. Does your paragraph have a concluding sentence?

5. Did you check your work for capital letters?

6. Did you check your work for spelling errors?

7. Did you write complete sentences?

8. Did you check the correct conjugation of verbs in your sentences?

9. Did you indent your paragraph?

10. Did you put the correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.6 Writing Tool Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric

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5.6 Writing Tool Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

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5.6 Writing Tool Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

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5.6 Writing Tool Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

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5.6 Writing Tool Personal and Fictional Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.fsusd.k12.ca.us/education/assessment/docs/rubric_4.pdf 622

5.7 Graphic Organizer 5Ws and 1H Subject: ESL

Five Ws and One H

Source: TIME for Kids

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5.7 Graphic Organizer Main Idea Details Subject: ESL

What’s the Big Idea?

Source: TIME for Kids

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5.7 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

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5.7 Learning Activity Blends Subject: ESL

Source: http://specialed.about.com/library/Spelling/blends.pdf 642

5.7 Learning Activity Chain of Events Subject: ESL Name ____________________________________________________ Date _____________________________________________

Source: http://www.edhelperclipart.com/clipart/teachers/org-cogs3.pdf 643

5.7 Learning Activity Debate Organizer Subject: ESL

Debate Organizer

Source: TIME for Kids

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5.7 Learning Activity Newspaper Vocabulary Subject: ESL Objective: To recognize and describe the text features of Newspapers Directions: In your group, find examples of these vocabulary words in the newspaper. Cut them out and label them with these text feature words. Then, paste them on the poster and give it a title. Lastly, write your definitions in the boxes. If you have time, decorate your poster.

Article

Byline

Headline

Subhead

Caption

Editor

Political Cartoon

Editorial

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.7 Learning Activity Prewriting Triangle Subject: ESL

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.7 Learning Activity Story to Article Subject: ESL Title Overview Bears' House Vandalized, Witnesses say Blonde Girl Spotted Fleeing from the Scene! The students will approach a familiar story (Goldilocks and the Three Bears) from the perspective of a newspaper reporter. Children will learn and apply the 5 W's + 1 H (Who, What, When, Where, Why and How). 45 Minutes 5 W's, headline, interview, lead, news story, reporter Students will be able to: 1. Read news stories for information about the 5 W's + 1H. 2. Understand simple newspaper vocabulary. 3. Conduct a simple interview and make point form notes to record the results. 4. Create their own news story lead.     One or two sample newspaper clippings Story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears White board or flip chart and markers Paper and pencil

Suggested Time Materials Objectives

Materials

Preparation Search through newspapers for one or two simple articles that children will enjoy. Examples might be human interest stories or sports stories. Make sure the sample follows the traditional 'Inverted Pyramid' -- the 5 W's + 1 H should be answered within the first 2 paragraphs of the story. Prepare bulletin board or table display. Motivation Present a Bulletin Board or Table display. Include a picture or book of Goldilocks and the Three Bears, the words Who?, What?, When?, Where?, Why? and How? prominently displayed, newspaper clippings and the headline (title) of our lesson plan ("Bears' House Vandalized...") Begin the class discussion with a brainstorming session. Ask the children 'What is a newspaper?', 'Why do people read them?', 'What types of things are written in them?', 'Who writes news stories?' Note their answers on the board. Explain to the children, that a news story is written by a reporter. The reporter interviews people and observes events to answer the questions Who, What, When, Where, Why and How. Reporters call these questions the 5 W's + 1 H and try to include them in each news story. Show the children a sample newspaper clipping. Point out the headline. Ask the children what the headline does? Does it capture their attention? Does it answer any of the 5 W's + 1H questions? Read the first paragraph. How many of the 5 W's + 1H do you know now? Continue through the article a paragraph at a time until all of the 5 W's + 1H questions are answered. Write Who:, What:, When:, Where:, Why:, and How on the board. Beside each, write the answer to the question from your sample clipping and where in the news story you found 647

5.7 Learning Activity Story to Article Subject: ESL the answer (headline, paragraph 1, paragraph 2). Explain to the children that the first two paragraphs of a newspaper article are called the 'Lead'. Reporters try to answer all 5 W's + 1H within the lead. OPTIONAL: Read a fairly short version of Goldilocks and the Three Bears to the children to refresh their memory of the story. Activity Have the children form pairs. Point out our headline (Bears' House Vandalized...). In each pair, one of the children should act as the reporter and the other should act as a bear. The reporter should interview the bear to discover the answer to each of the 5 W's + 1 H and record the answers in point form. Then the children should switch roles so each has a chance to be the reporter. (Printable template for point form notes ("jot notes")) Once all of the children have their point form answers recorded, have them return to their desks. Ask the children to complete their job as reporters for your class and write the lead to go with the headline. Remind them that the lead should be written in complete sentences with no more than 2 paragraphs. Conclusion Recreate the point sheet on the board and have the class fill in the answers to the 6 important questions. OR Chose a few students to read their news story leads out loud in front of the class. Short Extension Have the students imagine they are a police officer reading the interview with the three bears. Provide suggestions for the bears as to what they should do next? How should they prevent these events from happening in the future?

Home Work Repeat the process with another fairy tale, for example "Little Red Riding Hood". Have the Extension children invent their own headline this time. Next Day Extension In a news story, the 5 W's + 1 H should be answered right away - either in the headline or in the first two paragraphs of the article. Reporters call this the 'Inverted Pyramid' Examine an 'Encyclopedia Brown' mystery story. When are the 5W's + 1H answered in this story? How is this different from a news story? Why is it different? Would it be a good mystery story if the 5 W's and 1 H were answered in the first two paragraphs?

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5.7 Learning Activity Story to Article Subject: ESL

The Story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears
Once upon a time, there was a little girl named Goldilocks. She went for a walk in the forest. Pretty soon, she came upon a house. She knocked and, when no one answered, she walked right in. At the table in the kitchen, there were three bowls of porridge. Goldilocks was hungry. She tasted the porridge from the first bowl. "This porridge is too hot!" she exclaimed. So, she tasted the porridge from the second bowl. "This porridge is too cold," she said So, she tasted the last bowl of porridge. "Ahhh, this porridge is just right," she said happily and she ate it all up. After she'd eaten the three bears' breakfasts she decided she was feeling a little tired. So, she walked into the living room where she saw three chairs. Goldilocks sat in the first chair to rest her feet. "This chair is too big!" she exclaimed. So she sat in the second chair. "This chair is too big, too!" she whined. So she tried the last and smallest chair. "Ahhh, this chair is just right," she sighed. But just as she settled down into the chair to rest, it broke into pieces! Goldilocks was very tired by this time, so she went upstairs to the bedroom. She lay down in the first bed, but it was too hard. Then she lay in the second bed, but it was too soft. Then she lay down in the third bed and it was just right. Goldilocks fell asleep. As she was sleeping, the three bears came home. "Someone's been eating my porridge," growled the Papa bear. "Someone's been eating my porridge," said the Mama bear. "Someone's been eating my porridge and they ate it all up!" cried the Baby bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair," growled the Papa bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair," said the Mama bear. "Someone's been sitting in my chair and they've broken it all to pieces," cried the Baby bear. They decided to look around some more and when they got upstairs to the bedroom, Papa bear growled, "Someone's been sleeping in my bed," "Someone's been sleeping in my bed, too" said the Mama bear "Someone's been sleeping in my bed and she's still there!" exclaimed Baby bear. Just then, Goldilocks woke up and saw the three bears. She screamed, "Help!" And she jumped up and ran out of the room. Goldilocks ran down the stairs, opened the door, and ran away into the forest. And she never returned to the home of the three bears. THE END

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5.7 Learning Activity Story to Article Subject: ESL Printable template for point form notes (“jot notes”) Bears’ House Vandalized Witnesses Say Blonde Girl Spotted Fleeing from the Scene! By: ____________________________________ Who? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ When? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Where? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Why? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ How? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Source: http://www.kidzone.ws/plans/viewprint.asp?i=60 650

5.7 Learning Activity Subject Predicate Cutting Activity Subject: ESL

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5.7 Learning Activity Subject Predicate Cutting Activity Subject: ESL

Source: superteacherworksheets.com

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5.7 Other Evidence Subject Predicate Test Subject: ESL Subjects and Predicates

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5.7 Other Evidence Subject Predicate Test Subject: ESL Answer

Key

Source: Worksheetworks.com

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5.7 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence Unknown Word What I think it What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend Means

Source: edCount, LLC

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5.7 Performance Task Newspaper Format Subject: ESL Name ______________________________________

Date ____________________________

Newspaper Story Format

Source: ReadWriteThink

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5.7 Performance Task Persuasion Subject: ESL Name _________________________________________ Date __________________________________

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/persuasion.pdf 657

5.7 Performance Task Persuasive Letter Subject: ESL

Persuasive Letter Organizer

Source: TIME for Kids

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5.7 Performance Task Prewriting Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/probsol.pdf 659

5.7 Resource Explaining an Article Subject: ESL Name ____________________________________ Inside a News Story

Date ____________________________

Source: TIME for Kids

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5.7 Sample Lesson Newspaper Articles Subject: ESL

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5.7 Sample Lesson Newspaper Articles Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.readingmatrix.com/reading_projects/hess/project.pdf 667

5.7 Sample Lesson Nonfiction Text Features Subject: ESL Objective: Students will identify and use nonfiction text features in a news story 1. Tell students that news stories follow a certain format. List and discuss the following terms: headline (or hed), dek, and subhead. (The headline is like a title; the dek conveys the main idea; and the subheads are like subtitles that hint at what information will be found in each section of the article.) 2. Pass out the article A Queen's Homecoming and have students underline the hed, dek and subheads. Then have students make predictions about what they will find in the article and what information will be in each section. 3. Have students read the article and check their predictions. Ask: Were your predictions correct? Why do writers use heds, deks and subheads? How do these features help readers? 4. To review the features of a new story use the worksheet

A Queen's Homecoming
BY MELISSA KONG Egyptian archaeologists announced on Wednesday that they have identified a mummy discovered in 1903 as that of Queen Hatshepsut (hat-shep-soot), Egypt's most powerful female pharaoh. The mummy was originally found in the Valley of the Kings, a sacred burial site for kings and powerful nobles located on the west bank of the Nile River in Egypt. Although the mummy was discovered more than a century ago, it remained in a tomb until this past spring, when it was brought to the Cairo Museum for testing. Royal Clues to a Mystery Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass led the search for Queen Hatshepsut. A few clues helped Hawass and his team identify the mummy: She was found with her left hand positioned against her chest. This is a traditional sign of royalty in ancient Egypt. The researchers became even more certain that this mummy was the queen when they made a match between the mummy's missing tooth and a tooth discovered in an ancient box inscribed with the female pharaoh's name. The tooth fits exactly into an empty space in the jaw. Hawass says that he is "one hundred percent certain" that the mummy is that of Hatshepsut. But not everyone is so sure. Some experts not involved in the discovery said they were waiting for additional scientific proof. If confirmed, the identification of the mummy as the missing queen would be a significant archeological discovery. "Hatshepsut is an individual who has a unique place in Egypt's history," says molecular biologist Paul Evans. Hawass and his team are doing DNA testing that could clear up any doubt. They are comparing DNA taken from a mummy known to be Hatshepsut's grandmother with that of the mummy. The Discovery Channel gave Egypt $5 million to set up a lab to study the DNA of mummies. The channel plans to air a documentary about the find in July. A Powerful Ruler's Legacy Queen Hatshepsut was the only woman to rule ancient Egypt while the kingdom was at the height of its wealth and power, from about 1502 to 1482 B.C. Of all the female pharaohs--including Cleopatra and Nefertiti--Hatshepsut's reign was the longest and most successful. While in power, she established trade routes and built hundreds of monuments and temples throughout Egypt. Despite her prosperous reign, both her mummy and her legacy were virtually erased from Egyptian history. Many historians believe that Tuthmose III, Hatshepsut's stepson, destroyed records and monuments bearing her name. It may have been his revenge. It is believed that she stole the throne from him. Finding the mummy of this powerful queen may provide details about an important part of Egyptian history. Source: http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/news/story/0,28277,1638044,00.html 668

5.7 Sample Lesson Nonfiction Text Features Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/news/story/0,28277,1638044,00.html 669

5.7 Writing Tool Speech Rubric Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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English as a Second Language
Curriculum Maps Grade 6

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6.1 Narrative Writing: Challenges Facing Characters Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will read narrative texts about challenges that characters encounter in stories. They will apply reading and vocabulary strategies to help them understand what they read and they will use the writing process to create narrative writings. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.6.4 Applies correct language patterns to identify and organize events in a variety of narrative texts and text styles. L/S.6.5 States the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of expository texts; applies understanding to summarize the text using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.6.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and compound words. R.6.3 Distinguishes main character from supporting characters, compares and contrasts character traits, and describes the setting in fiction. R.6.4 Sorts and organizes relevant events, identifies cause and effect, makes predictions and inferences, and identifies problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.6.1 Examines spelling patterns and applies structural analysis to correctly spell words. W.6.3 Applies the parts of speech; identifies subjects and objects using prepositional phrases in sentences. W.6.4 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, and expository forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types and basic organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Challenges are openings to new learning.  Great narratives capture the reader’s attention from beginning to end.  Readers use many tools to figure out unknown words.  The writing process helps us more effectively communicate our own stories. Content (Students will know…)  Vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning (i.e. Word Wall)  Elements of narrative text and narrative writing: character, setting, plot, conflict and resolution  Parts of speech (adjectives to describe character traits) Essential Questions:  How do challenges lead to new learning?  What makes a great story?  How do I figure out a word I don’t know?  What makes great writing?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Identify and organize events in narrative texts  Distinguish main characters from supporting characters in narrative fiction  Compare and contrast character traits of characters in narrative fiction  Describe the setting in narrative fiction  Sort and organize relevant events to

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6.1 Narrative Writing: Challenges Facing Characters Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  Suffixes (-er, est and other suffixes that can be used to compare characters to each other) Content Vocabulary  Main event  Problem/solution  Strategies  Main character  Supporting character  Setting  Plot  Resolution  Writing process  Narrative  Text structure  Character trait Performance Tasks: Character Trait Essays Analyzing Characters Challenges to Determine Character Traits  Read aloud the story, “Gonzalo”, by Paul Fleischman (See Attachment: 6.1 Text – Gonzalo) and have the class brainstorm the challenges that the two characters face.  Have students highlight things the characters thought, said, felt, and did to overcome their challenges, using the five senses, highlight each action and place them in a four-column chart in their notebooks.
Things the character thought Things the character said Things the character felt Things the character did

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reconstruct narrative fiction Identify problem solution in narrative fiction Examine spelling patterns and applies structural analysis to correctly spell words (i.e. suffixes) Use a variety of sentence types to construct narrative paragraphs Summarize narrative text using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure (sequencing language, retelling main ideas)

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Spelling quiz using suffixes (See Attachment: 6.1 Other Evidence – Spelling Quiz)  Reflective journal entries at the end of each project (See Attachment: 6.1 Other Evidence – Reflective Journal)  Journal entries on challenges students have faced and overcome in their lives and challenges they know others to have faced and overcome  Story Map of Gonzalo’s story (See Attachment: 6.1 Graphic Organizer – Story Map)  Story elements quiz (See Attachment: 6.1 Other Evidence – Story Elements Quiz)  Create a Word Wall using unit vocabulary and new concepts/words students encounter in texts they read during the unit (See Attachment: 6.1 Other Evidence – Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction)  Fluency Running Records and Paired Reading Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 6.1 Other Evidence – Paired Reading Fluency Check)

Ask students to select one thing each of the characters thought, said, felt and did that best represent the characters and place their selections on the character trait chart (See Attachment: 6.1 Graphic Organizer – Character Trait Chart). Have students use descriptive adjectives to describe the characters traits based on the actions they took to confront their

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6.1 Narrative Writing: Challenges Facing Characters Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks challenge/s (See Attachment: 6.1 Learning Activity – Adjectives Describing Character Traits).  Have students use their character trait organizer to write a two paragraph essay describing the character’s major traits, using examples of actions that the characters took when facing a challenge to support their argument.  The essay should include at least 2-3 character traits and at least one piece of evidence (i.e. action) supporting each character trait. Sequencing Picture Books Analyzing sequence to understand how characters solve problems  Read aloud the book, The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle (Note: while this text is below grade level for Grade 6 students, picture books are ideal for teaching this skill. Students should practice the skill independently with texts at their appropriate reading level).  Explain that the main purpose of reading the book is to listen for the main events in the story in order and identify when the character (caterpillar) overcomes challenges he is facing in the book.  After reading aloud the book, as a class, plot out the timeline of the main events in the book using sequencing language (first, then, next, after that, finally, etc.).  Circle the point on the timeline where problem was identified, and where the caterpillar overcame the problem.  Have students read their own books that include a character that faces a challenge and overcomes it. Ask them to draw pictures of at least five events in the book and write 2-3 sentences describing each events next to each picture.  Assemble the pages into a sequencing picture book that includes at least five events, uses appropriate sequencing language (first, next, then, after, finally,

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6.1 Narrative Writing: Challenges Facing Characters Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks etc.), and identifies the problem and when the character solves the problem.  Have students share their work with the class and have them do reflective journal entries to reflect on what they learned during this activity. Writing My Own Narrative using Challenge as a Theme  Review elements of narratives  Explain to students that in the story “Gonzalo,” the character Gonzalo faces the challenge of not knowing English and having to learn it when he moves to the United States.  Have students make a list of challenges that people face when they relocate to a new country different from their own.  Invite students to write about a fictional character (someone you make up) who moves to a new country and needs to learn how to do something in the new culture. Maybe the character needs to learn how to speak a new language, get around the new city, or find his/her way in a new school.  Have students brainstorm titles for their stories.  Tell students to make sure their stories have a beginning, middle and an end.  Ask them to include details that tell how the character resolves his or her problem about how to do something. Have them use adjectives to show how the character changes through the story.  Have students revise their stories for ideas, spelling, capitalization and punctuation (See Attachment: 6.1 Writing Tool – Peer Editing Checklist).  Have students make two illustrations of the narrative they wrote to accompany the story. The first illustration will show the character and the problem that he/she encountered. The second illustration will show the character after the problem was resolved.  Students can share stories aloud with class.

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6.1 Narrative Writing: Challenges Facing Characters Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Reading & Story Maps  Have students do a story map of their favorite story.  Have students describe the elements of a narrative without saying the term and have the class identify the term. For example a student may say, “The people or animals in a story are the ______.” The class will answer, “characters.”  Have students illustrate the main events in Gonzalo’s story and have them place the events in sequential order. Character’s Traits and Character’s Challenges  Give students a list of character traits (See Attachment: 6.1 Learning Activity – Adjectives Describing Character Traits) and have them describe the personalities of their family members. Have them explain why they use these words to describe their family.  Compare and contrast characters or classmates using suffixes (Gonzalo is taller than Tio Juan… My mom is the kindest and prettiest woman I know… My hair is longer than Sara’s hair but Juanita’s hair is the longest in the class).  Have students make a list of all the characters in Gonzalo’s story and have them identify them as major or minor characters and explain their choice.  Use a Venn Diagram (See Attachment: 6.1 Graphic Organizer – Venn Lines) and the list of character traits (See Attachment: 6.1 Learning Activity – Adjectives Describing Character Traits) to write a paragraph comparing and contrasting Gonzalo and Tio Juan’s characters from the story Gonzalo.  Have students write about a time they had to learn something new and have them describe how they solved the problem - based on the actions they took to solve the problem, have them use adjectives that describe their own character. Sample Lessons  Lesson on comparing and contrasting character traits (See Attachment: 6.1 Sample Lesson – Compare and Contrast Character Traits)  Lesson on developing stories through picture books: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/creative-writing-through-wordless-130.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on plot structure: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/teaching-plot-structure-through-401.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson plan on understanding characters (See Attachment: 6.1 Sample Lesson – Understanding Character) Additional Resources  Video: Every Young Person Has Challenges, Ages 8-12: Dealing with peer pressure and other challenges Copyright 2004 / 60 minutes  Graphic Organizer: Problem and Solution Diagram (See Attachment: 6.1 Resource – Problem and Solution Diagram)  Ideas and lessons on teaching challenges (See Attachments: 6.1 Resource – Describing the Unknown and 6.1 Resource – The Art of Communication)  Traits of Fiction (See Attachment: 6.1 Resource – Traits of Fiction) Literature Connections  The Hundred Dresses by Eleanor Estes (character analysis)  Seed Folks by Paul Fleischman (story narratives) June 2011 676

6.1 Narrative Writing: Challenges Facing Characters Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  New Kids in Town: Oral Histories of Immigrant Teens by Janet Bode  The Diary of a Wimpy Kid by Jeff Kinney  The Absolutely True Dairy of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie  Little Red Riding Hood (story sequence)  Gloria Estefan-Houghton Mifflin Traditions  Paul Bunyan-Houghton Mifflin Expeditions

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6.2 Non-Fiction Study: Challenges Facing Communities Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will read expository texts about challenges faced by communities. They will learn and use reading and writing strategies specific to expository texts. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.6.5 States the main idea or topic and important details from learned concepts or read alouds of a variety of expository texts; applies understanding to summarize the text using acquired vocabulary and appropriate language structure. Reading R.6.1 Analyzes the text and distinguishes text features to enhance comprehension. R.6.4 Sorts and organizes relevant events, identifies cause and effect, makes predictions and inferences, and identifies problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.6.4 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, and expository forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types and basic organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. W6.5 Uses the writing process; applies pre-writing strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling, capitalization and ending punctuation errors. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Challenges are openings for new learning.  Expository texts have unique features that help readers better understand what they read.  The details in a text help explain the bigger picture.  The writing process helps more effectively inform our audience. Content (Students will know…)  Main idea, topic and important details from expository texts  Text features to enhance comprehension of expository text  Elements of expository writing  The steps of the writing process: brainstorming/free-writing, drafting, revising, editing, publishing  Pre-writing strategies to generate ideas (webbing, listing) Content Vocabulary  Main idea  Details  Topic sentence June 2011 Essential Questions:  How do challenges lead to new learning?  How can understanding organizational structures aid the comprehension of text?  Are all details in text of equal importance?  Why is written expression important?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Sort and organize relevant events in expository texts  Identify cause and effect in expository texts  Identify problem and solution in expository texts  Use a variety of sentence types to write expository paragraphs  Identify spelling, capitalization and ending punctuation errors using a peer editing checklist

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6.2 Non-Fiction Study: Challenges Facing Communities Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  Conclusion  Brainstorming  Drafting  Revising  Editing  Publishing Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Writing About Challenges that Occur in Nature  Review the purpose of expository writing (to inform or describe) and the basic structure of an expository paragraph (introductory sentence, major and minor details and a concluding sentence).  Have students read about three challenges that occur in nature (natural disasters)— earthquakes, volcano eruptions and hurricanes (See Attachments: 6.2 Performance Task – Volcanoes, 6.2 Performance Task – Earthquakes, and 6.2 Performance Task – Hurricanes).  After reading the texts, have students each select one natural disaster on which to write two expository paragraphs.  As a pre-writing activity, have students create a web to gather all the information they know about their natural disaster (See Attachment: 6.2 Graphic Organizer – Web).  Have students write the first draft of their paragraphs using Rainbow Writing graphic organizer (See Attachment: 6.2 Graphic Organizer – Rainbow Writing).  Help students write topic sentences that hook the reader (See Attachment: 6.2 Writing Tool – Topic Sentence Starters).  Have students revise their paragraphs for ideas, spelling and punctuation errors. Have them use the list of transitional phrases as a reference for transitional words or phrases they want to add to make their ideas flow from one sentence to the next (See Attachments: 6.2 Writing Tool – Transitional Phrases and 6.2 Writing Tool – Peer Editing Checklist).  Have students assess each other’s writing June 2011 Other Evidence:  Reflective journal entries at the end of each project (See Attachment: 6.2 Other Evidence – Reflective Journal)  Transition quiz (See Attachment: 6.2 Other Evidence – Transitional Words Quiz)  Fluency Running Records and Paired Reading Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 6.2 Other Evidence – Paired Reading Fluency Check)  Continue using Word Wall with new unit vocabulary and new concepts/words students encounter in texts they read during the unit (See Attachment: 6.2 Other Evidence – Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction)

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6.2 Non-Fiction Study: Challenges Facing Communities Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks (See Attachment: 6.2 Writing Tool – Expository Paragraph Rubric). Problem & Solution in Non-Fiction  Have students read the article titled, “About Beaches” (See Attachment: 6.2 Text – About Beaches) and complete a selected problem solution graphic organizer (See Attachment: 6.2 Resource – Spider Graphic Organizer).  After reading the article, tell students that they will write two paragraphs about beaches. The first paragraph will summarize the problem that the beaches described in the article experience. The second paragraph will provide three possible solutions, with at least one detail for each solution. Both paragraphs will have an introductory and concluding sentence.  Provide students with copies of the Rainbow Writing graphic organizer (See Attachment: 6.2 Graphic Organizer – Rainbow Writing), which they will use to create the first drafts of their expository paragraphs.  Provide copies of the topic sentence starters handout (See Attachment: 6.2 Writing Tool – Topic Sentence Starters) to help students write their topic sentences.  Have students revise their paragraphs for ideas, spelling and punctuation errors. Have them use the list of transitional phrases as a reference for transitional words or phrases they want to add to their paragraphs (See Attachments: 6.2 Writing Tool – Peer Editing Checklist and 6.2 Writing Tool – Transitional Phrases) for students to use while they edit each other’s work.  Have students share their work with the class and assess writing using rubric (See Attachment: 6.2 Writing Tool – Expository Paragraph Rubric). Public Service Announcement: Solving Problems in Our Community  Have the class brainstorm problems that they see in their community (possible examples: a dirty playground, a beach that is littered or a river that has polluted water) and the negative effect of these problems. June 2011 680

6.2 Non-Fiction Study: Challenges Facing Communities Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  Have students break into small groups and come up with the problem from the list that they think is the most important to solve.  Have each group come up with a public service campaign to educate the community on how to solve the problem they have identified.  Their campaign must include at least two forms of educating their fellow students and the community (i.e., a poster that they could post in the school and in the community, a skit that they could perform for classmates or a school assembly, or a newspaper announcement that they could post in the school or local newspaper).  At the end of the project have students do a reflective journal entry reflecting on if they plan to execute their public service campaign and how they would do it. Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Cause & Effect in Non-Fiction  Tell students that every action has an opposite and equal reaction and have them make a list of 5 actions they performed and the consequences of those actions.  Read aloud the article on school bullying (See Attachment: 6.2 Text - Bullying in Schools) and ask students to identify the causes and effects of bullying described in this article.  Play the Cause and Effect game to match causes and effects using cards (See Attachments: 6.2 Learning Activity – Cause and Effect Game and 6.2 Learning Activity – Cause and Effect Game Matching Cards). Problem & Solution in Non-Fiction  Have students read the local newspaper to identify problems facing the community and possible solutions.  Have students create a questionnaire to ask members of community about problems in the community and proposed solutions. The Writing Process  Present students with sentence strips from a sample expository paragraph and have them determine where each sentence belongs (See Attachment: 6.2 Graphic Organizer – Rainbow Writing).  Have students work in pairs to assess sample expository paragraphs (See Attachments: 6.2 Writing Tool – Expository Paragraph and 6.2 Writing Tool – Expository Paragraph Rubric).  Have students write a letter to a local leader about a problem facing the community or write a letter to their principal about a problem they see in the school. Sample Lessons  Lesson on cause and effect: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonJune 2011 681

6.2 Non-Fiction Study: Challenges Facing Communities Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks plans/exploring-cause-effect-using-925.html?tab=3#tabs  Lesson on expository writing (See Attachment: 6.2 Sample Lesson – Expository Writing) Additional Resources  Cause and effect connectors (See Attachment: 6.2 Resource – Cause and Effect Connectors)  Characteristics of expository writing (See Attachment: 6.2 Resource – Characteristics of Expository Writing) Literature Connections  Communities Pull Together to Save the Environment by Russ Henderson (See Attachment: 6.2 Text – Communities Pull Together to Save the Environment)  Our Earth Making Less Trash by Peggy Hock  Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon  Scholastic News: Our Earth Keeping It Clean by Peggy Hock  You Can Save the Planet: 50 Ways You Can Make a Difference by Jacquie Wines and Sarah Horne  Use newspaper and magazine articles on current event issues

June 2011 682 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

6.3 Non-Fiction Study: Newspapers & Current Events Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit students will further explore the genre of non-fiction by studying newspapers and reporting on challenges facing their community. They will examine the differences between fact and opinion through comparing news and editorial articles and create their own classroom newspaper publication, complete with news reporting, editorials and interviews of community or school leaders who are tackling challenges faced by the community. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.6.3 Listens, responds to, and analyzes complex instructions and statements; applies instructions and directions; answers and formulates both closed and open-ended questions in a variety of scenarios. L/S.6.4 Applies correct language patterns to identify and organize events in a variety of narrative texts and text styles. Reading R.6.1 Analyzes the text and distinguishes text features to enhance comprehension. R.6.5 Explains the differences between fiction and nonfiction; identifies fact and opinion; states main idea or topic and determines important details. Writing W.6.2 Identifies complete sentences, fragments, and run-on sentences; uses a variety of sentence types in writing. W.6.3 Applies the parts of speech (noun, pronoun); identifies subjects and objects using prepositional phrases in sentences. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Challenges are openings for new learning.  Readers must read news with a critical eye.  A newspaper is a resource that keeps members of the community informed.  Through media we can learn about our local and global community. Content (Students will know…)  Text features in newspapers that enhance comprehension (headlines, bylines, subheaders, captions, photos, table of contents)  Differences between fiction and nonfiction  Differences between complete sentences, fragments and run-on sentences  Subjects and objects in sentences  Prepositional phrases (they explain when, where, why or how) Essential Questions:  How do challenges lead to new learning?  What is newsworthy?  What service does a newspaper provide to a community?  How can I learn more about what is going on in my community and around the world? Skills (Students will be able to…)  Answer and formulate both closed and openended questions in a variety of scenarios such as interviewing subjects for a newspaper article  Apply correct language patterns to identify and organize events in news and editorial articles  Identify fact and opinion in newspaper articles and editorial articles  State main idea or topic and determine important details in news articles and editorial articles  Use a variety of sentence types in writing news and editorial articles  Identify complete sentences, fragments, and 683

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6.3 Non-Fiction Study: Newspapers & Current Events Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  run-on sentences in a variety of types of text Identify subjects and objects using prepositional phrases in sentences

Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Classroom Newspaper Project (3 parts) Students will write news articles, editorial articles and a profile piece on a local leader in these three Performance Tasks which will be compiled to create a classroom newspaper that reports on the theme of issues and challenges facing their communities (alternately, they can report on issues/challenges facing the school if that is more manageable for the teacher). They can do real life research by reading local newspapers for ideas and also speak to community members for quotes to include in their reporting. I. News Reporting  Have students brainstorm a list of challenges facing their community. Have them include ideas from their classmates, family and neighbors.  Have them choose one of the challenges to investigate.  Have them research the challenge using local newspaper, local government offices. Have them interview local officials or community members about the challenge (alternately, they can read coverage of these topics in which local officials were quoted or interviewed and quote these sources). Have them select quotes from their interviews that they want to use in their newspaper article.  Tell students that the newspaper articles are written using an “inverted pyramid format”. The most important information is at the top (beginning of article) and the least important information is at the bottom (end of article). (See Attachment: 6.3 Performance Task – Writing a Newspaper Article). Provide a graphic organizer for students to write their first draft (See Attachment: 6.3 Graphic Organizer – Newspaper Article Planning). June 2011 Other Evidence:  Subject/Object quiz (See Attachment: 6.3 Other Evidence – Subject/Object Quiz)  Continue using Word Wall with unit vocabulary and new concepts/words students encounter in texts they read during the unit. (See Attachment: 6.3 Other Evidence – Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction)  Fluency Running Records and Paired Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 6.3 Other Evidence – Paired Reading Fluency Check)  Fragments and run-ons quiz (See Attachment: 6.3 Other Evidence – Fragments and Run-ons Quiz)  Reflective journal entries at the end of each project (See Attachment: 6.3 Other Evidence – Reflective Journal)

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6.3 Non-Fiction Study: Newspapers & Current Events Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  Have students revise their article for clarity and transitions. Have them add transitional phrases to make their writing more descriptive to the reader (See Attachment: 6.3 Writing Tool - Transitional Phrases).  Have students edit their work using the Writing Newspaper Article Rubric (See Attachment: 6.3 Performance Task – Newspaper Article Rubric). II. Editorial Articles  Have students write an editorial for their classroom newspaper.  First, have them brainstorm an issue or problem that they want to write about.  Have them research the topic before writing their letter. Tell them to use moderate language, facts and strong, logical arguments.  Have students use the proper format of an editorial: o Headline o Explain the problem o Explain the other side and its weaknesses o Explain their solution and its strengths o Support their solution with facts, examples o Restate their position plus their view of the future  Have students revise their editorial for clarity and transitions. Have them add transitional phrases to make their writing more descriptive to the reader (See Attachment: 6.3 Writing Tool – Transitional Phrases).  Have students revise each other’s editorial using a rubric (See Attachment: 6.3 Writing Tool – Rubric for an Editorial). III. Leadership Profile Pieces  Read examples of profile pieces in magazines or from the Internet that profile an important leader in the community, in Puerto Rico, or in the world and discuss the features of this type of writing.  Have students choose a local leader or June 2011 685

6.3 Non-Fiction Study: Newspapers & Current Events Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks school leader to profile for the newspaper, ideally someone working to improve the community or school, or facing a challenge.  The “leadership profile piece” should include an interview of the leader with at least 5 student-created questions (should be questions that require a descriptive answer, not yes/no or one-word-answer questions).  Students should take notes on their interviews (which can be in-person, over email, on telephone, etc.).  Use these notes to create an article that includes: o Basic biographical information about the subject o Their role in the community/school o How they demonstrate leadership o What issues/challenges they are working on improving o Accomplishments o Proposed solutions/next steps for addressing issues/challenges Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Grammar  Write fragments, complete sentences and run-on sentences on sentence strips and have students identify which is a complete sentence, run-on sentence or fragment.  Create a very long run-on sentence on a sentence strip and have students read it without pausing. Students will find out, as they read, that they need to pause. Have them rewrite the run-on sentence into several complete sentences.  Read news articles and underline prepositional phrases in the articles. Discuss how prepositions help make our writing more descriptive and specific (telling us when, where, why or how). Expository Text Features: Newspapers  Examine the structure of the newspaper and talk about why it is organized in that order (i.e. How do they pick what goes on the front page? How do I find where something is in the paper? What do they put in the back of the paper?).  Get a class set of newspapers and create a Newspaper Scavenger Hunt to have students identify examples of the different text features in a newspaper (i.e. headlines, photos, captions, bylines, subheadings, captions, table of contents, etc.).  Have students brainstorm examples of where they can find expository texts.  Explain to students that newspaper articles answer the questions who, what, where, when, and why. Show them an example by answering each of the five W questions using the popular rhyme "Jack & Jill." Example: o Who? Jack and Jill June 2011 686

6.3 Non-Fiction Study: Newspapers & Current Events Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks o What? Fell down and broke crown o Where? On the hill o When? Sometime in the past o Why? Trying to fetch water Fact & Opinion  Have students write 5 facts and 5 opinions about themselves. Have them share their facts and opinions with a partner and have the partner identify which sentences are facts and which are opinions.  Play fact and opinion game (See Attachment: 6.3 Learning Activity – Fact and Opinion Game): In a group of four, students place all the cards in the center. The first student draws a card and states the number on the card. The student to their right holds the answer key. The student reads aloud their card and tells whether it is a fact or opinion. The student with the answer key checks. If they are right, they keep the card, if they are wrong it goes to the bottom of the pile. They rotate so everyone gets a turn. The student with the most cards "wins" when all cards have been claimed.  Have students read examples of news articles and editorial articles and underline facts and opinions in each type of article. Discuss how facts and opinions are used differently in these pieces and which appears more in which type of article. Sample Lessons  Unit on writing a news article (See Attachment: 6.3 Sample Lesson – Writing News Articles)  Lesson on creating a classroom newspaper: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/creating-classroom-newspaper-249.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on writing editorials: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/persuading-audience-writing-effective-929.html?tab=4#tabs  Lesson on writing an editorials (See Attachment: 6.3 Sample Lesson – Writing Editorials 2)  Lesson on using question/answer relationship: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/guided-comprehension-self-questioning-227.html?tab=4#tabs Additional Resources  Resource on prepositions about time and place (See Attachment: 6.3 Resource – Prepositions)  Activities on complete and run-off sentences and fragments (See Attachment: 6.3 Resource – Sentences)  Resource on climate change (See Attachment: 6.3 Text – Climate Change)  Traits of Non-Fiction (See Attachment: 6.3 Text – Traits of Non-Fiction) Literature Connections  TIME for Kids  National Geographic for Kids

June 2011 687 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

6.4 Memoirs: Exploring Personal Challenges Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will explore the genre of memoirs through reading memoirs of individuals who faced challenges in their lives. They will be introduced to several prewriting strategies as they brainstorm ideas for their own personal memoir about their childhood, and experience the writing process in depth as they draft, revise and publish their childhood memoirs. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.6.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of fiction and text styles to comprehend, identify, and relate to character and setting. Reading R.6.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and compound words. R.6.4 Sorts and organizes relevant events, identifies cause and effect, makes predictions and inferences, and identifies problem and solution in narrative and expository text. Writing W.6.3 Applies the parts of speech; identifies subjects and objects using prepositional phrases in sentences. W.6.4 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, and expository forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types and basic organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. W.6.5 Uses the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Challenges are openings for new learning.  Experiences can be turned into memoirs.  Understanding words help us become better readers and writers.  The writing process is made up of a series of strategies that authors use to improve their writing. Essential Questions:  How do challenges lead to new learning?  Which experiences are worth writing about?  How would the world be without words?  What makes our writing great?

Content (Students will know…) Skills (Students will be able to…)  Root words and compound words  Listen and respond during a read-aloud from a variety of memoirs to comprehend and identify  Prefixes (un- not, against, opposite; transcharacter and setting across, beyond, change; re- back, again; disnot, opposite of, exclude)  Use prefixes, suffixes and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and  Suffixes (-age activity, or result of action, -er, compound words -or person or thing that does something, -ful an amount or quantity that fills)  Make predictions and inferences while reading memoirs  Parts of speech (nouns & verbs)  Use a variety of sentence types and basic  The steps of the writing process: organizational patterns to construct descriptive brainstorming/free-writing, drafting, paragraphs as part of a memoir revising, editing, publishing June 2011 688

6.4 Memoirs: Exploring Personal Challenges Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks  Prewriting strategies to generate ideas (writing prompts, drawing)  Elements of memoirs (focuses on a particular time period, event or experience; reveals the writer’s feelings, shows the significance of the time period, event or experience to the author) Content Vocabulary  Memoir  Descriptive text  Setting  Event  Dialogue  Inference  Prediction  Verb  Noun  Pronoun  Prefix  Suffix  Root word  Compound word Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Using the Writing Process to Write My Personal Childhood Memoir (4 Parts) (1) Prewriting  Have students reply to prompts to help students thinks of ideas to write about, such as: o What is your first memory as a child? Walking? A birthday party? A car ride? o What is the most embarrassing thing that happened to you in first grade? o What is the best gift you ever received? o Who were your best friends in second grade? Are they your friends now? o Did you ever get lost in your own neighborhood? Did you spend time outside? Think of something that happened to you outside and write about the experience.  Neighborhood Map: Have students create maps of their childhood neighborhoods & June 2011 Other Evidence:  At the end of each project, have students do a reflective journal entry (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Reflective Journal)  Create a Word Wall using unit vocabulary and new concepts/words students encounter in texts they read during the unit. (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Using Word Wall to Improve Instruction)  Fluency Running Records and Paired Reading Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Paired Reading Fluency Check)  Verb Tense exercises (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Verb Tense Activity)  Noun Quiz (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Noun Quiz)  Pronoun Quiz (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Pronoun Quiz)  Root and compound word quiz (See Attachment: 6.4 Other Evidence – Root and Compound Word Quiz) 689

6.4 Memoirs: Exploring Personal Challenges Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks connect them to stories from their childhood for ideas by choosing three places on the map and remembering things that happened to them in those places. (2) Rough Draft  Ask students to select one of their ideas from the prewriting and write a story from this experience as their own childhood memoir. The student should aim for at least 4 pages double-spaced (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Characteristics of a Memoir). (3) Revision  Have students revise their work (See Attachments: 6.4 Writing Tool – SelfRevision Worksheet and 6.4 Writing Tool – Peer Revision Checklist).  After completing their self-revisions, have them make changes, if necessary, to their memoirs.  Next, have students work in pairs to revise their work (See Attachment: 6.4 Writing Tool – Peer Editing Worksheet). (4) Final Drafts and Assessment  Have students make final revisions based on the feedback they received from you and their peers.  Have students keep all pre-writings, revisions, maps, self-revisions and peerrevisions and turn them in with their final drafts. Collect rough drafts and maps for daily grades, and give them back during the same class period. Give the students grades on their finished papers.  Have students share their memoirs with the class.  Assess using memoir rubric (See Attachment: 6.4 Writing Tool – Memoir Rubric). Reader’s Response Letter Read a memoir about someone who experienced a personal challenge and overcame the challenge. Write a reader’s response letter to the author of the memoir making connections between the experiences of the author and either: June 2011 690

6.4 Memoirs: Exploring Personal Challenges Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks 1. Your life 2. The life of a fictional character from another novel 3. The life of a real life character from another memoir or biography Your reader’s response letter should contain at least three connections, or one connection with three reasons about why the connection is valid.ted about becoming more Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Memoirs: Predictions & Connections  Show students the titles and covers of various memoirs and have the make predictions and inferences about what the book is about. Have students check to see if their predictions and inferences were correct or not by having them read the back pockets of the books and their summaries.  Read aloud an excerpt from the memoir, When I Was Puerto Rican, by Esmeralda Santiago (See Attachment: 6.4 Text – When I Was Puerto Rican), keeping in mind the characteristics of a memoir (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Characteristics of Memoirs).  Have students select a part of a memoir that they identify/connect with. Have them do an illustration of the scene they selected and a journal entry reflecting how this scene relates to them. Have them make connections to the setting and the author’s experience. The Writing Process: Prewriting & Brainstorming  Ask students to choose a brainstorming strategy to write for 3-5 minutes (See Attachment: 6.4 Writing Tool – Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir). After time is up, have students choose a different prompt and write for 3-5 minutes. Repeat this exercise as many times as you see necessary.  Ask students to pick two of their brainstorming exercises and have them write details about each event using the senses (See Attachment: 6.4 Graphic Organizer – Brainstorming Using the Senses).  Give students a list of dialogue tags (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Dialogue Tags) and copies of an excerpt from “Summer of the Monkeys” (See Attachment: 6.4 Text – Summer Excerpt). Have students revise the dialogue tags in the excerpt using dialogue tags from the dialogue tags list. Vocabulary Strategies  Word Hunt: Have students skim through the memoir, When I Was Puerto Rican (See Attachment: 6.4 Text – When I Was Puerto Rican), and have them identify ten new words that have prefixes, suffixes or compound words (See Attachment: 6.4 Graphic Organizer – My New Words).  Practice context clues (See Attachment: 6.4 Learning Activity – Context Clues).  Practice prefixes (See Attachment: 6.4 Learning Activity – Prefixes Worksheet). Sample Lessons  Lesson on introduction to memoirs (See Attachment: 6.4 Sample Lesson – Memoirs)  Lesson on memoir writing (See Attachment: 6.4 Sample Lesson – Memoir Writing) Additional Resources  Information on compound words (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Common Compound Words)  Information on suffixes (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Common Suffixes) June 2011 691

6.4 Memoirs: Exploring Personal Challenges Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks  Information on prefixes (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Common Prefixes)  Esmeralda Santiago Interview (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Esmeralda Santiago Interview)  Root words resource (See Attachment: 6.4 Resource – Roots) Literature Connections  When I was Puerto Rican by Esmeralda Santiago  Destined To Live: A True Story of a Child in the Holocaust by Ruth Gruener  The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie  My Thirteenth Winter: A Memoir by Samantha Abeel  Sample Childhood Memoirs (See Attachment: 6.4 Text – Sample Childhood Memoirs)

June 2011 692 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

6.5 Exploring Poetry Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit students will analyze how poets express their everyday challenges through their poems. Students will read and write poems about everyday experiences. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.6.2 Distinguishes between homophones and identifies figurative language. Reading R.6.1 Analyzes the text and distinguishes text features to enhance comprehension. R.6.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and compound words. Writing W.6.4 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, and expository forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types and basic organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. W.6.5 Uses the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary as an aid in the writing process; identifies spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation errors. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Challenges are openings for new learning.  Poets write poetry about their personal challenges from everyday experiences.  Our approach to reading poetry affects our understanding. Content (Students will know…)  Homophones (morning, mourning, night, knight, week, weak, door and adore)  Elements of poetry (similes, rhyme, imagery)  Prewriting strategies to generate ideas for writing poetry (such as brainstorming ideas for poems that connect to life experiences) Content Vocabulary  Poetry  Figurative language  Similes  Rhyme  Metaphors  Sensory language  Homophones  Descriptive text  Pre-writing Essential Questions:  How do challenges lead to new learning?  How do poets reflect their experiences in poetry?  What makes a poem a great piece of work?  What challenges do poems present to readers? Skills (Students will be able to…)  Identify figurative language as an element of descriptive writing (poetry)  Analyze text of poems to enhance comprehension  Apply context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar and compound words in poetry  Use a variety of sentence types and basic organization patterns write different styles of poetry

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6.5 Exploring Poetry Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Analyzing Poets and their Poetry  Have students work in small groups and read the poem “The Road Not Taken,” by Robert Frost (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – The Road Not Taken). Assign a student facilitator for each group and use the following questions to discuss the poem: o What are the challenges presented to the traveler in this poem? o What choices does the traveler need to make and how do these choices differ? o Which road does the traveler pick? o How does he feel about his choice? o How would you describe the traveler?  Have students imagine that they are the traveler in Robert Frost poem. They are confronted with the challenge to make a choice. Have them rewrite the poem from their perspective reflecting an experience from their own life when they had to make a difficult choice. Invite them to use Robert Frost poem as a model for their own poem. Creating a Community of Poets Simile Poetry  Explain to students that they will write their own poems to create a book of poetry.  Explain to students that poets use a variety of figurative language when writing poems. Tell students that simile is a form of figurative language that writers use. Explain that a simile is "a figure of speech in which two essentially dissimilar things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by the words like or as." Tell them that they will read the poem “Willow and Ginkgo,” by Eve Merriam (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – Willow and Ginkgo), and identify the similes that the poet uses.  Read aloud the poem “Willow and Ginkgo.” Then have students reread the poem and ask them to underline all the similes in the June 2011 Other Evidence:  At the end of each project, have students do a reflective journal entry. (See Attachment: 6.5 Other Evidence – Reflective Journal).  Poetry Notebooks  Teacher-created simile quiz  Create a Word Wall using unit vocabulary and new concepts/words students encounter in texts they read during the unit. (See Attachment: 6.5 Other Evidence – Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction)  Fluency Running Records and Paired Fluency Checks (See Attachment: 6.5 Paired Fluency Reading Check)

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6.5 Exploring Poetry Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks poem. Have them share with a partner the similes they found and have them decide what two things are being compared.  Now, invite them to write their own poems using similes. Tell them to describe 10 different parts of the body using similes. For example, “My head is round like a melon,” “My feet move as fast as a moving bike” (See Attachment: 6.5 Writing Tool – Simile Brainstorm) Homophone Poetry  Explain to students that poets like to play with words in their poems. Homophones are words that poets often use to play with words. Explain to students a homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning. The words may be spelled the same, such as rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as carat, caret, and carrot, or to, two, and too.  Read aloud the poem “Wishing Well,” by Ros Shrapnel (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – Wishing Well). As you read aloud, have students identify words that sound alike.  Provide copies of the poem and have students underline the homophones that the author uses.  Now, invite students to write their own poems using homophones. Provide a list of homophones for students to use as a reference (See Attachment: 6.5 Performance Task – List of Homophones).  Have students share their poems with the class and have them put them together in a poetry book. Have them come up with a creative title for the book. Challenge them to come up with a title that uses homophones or similes or both. Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Poetry  Create a class KWL chart on poetry (a three column chart with a K for what students Know about poetry, a W for what students Want to know about poetry, and an L for what students Learned about poetry as the unit progresses) to track what students learn and explore throughout the unit June 2011 695

6.5 Exploring Poetry Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks and get a sense of their perceptions and misperceptions of poetry.  Have students work in groups of 4 to write a Stereotype Poem responding to the question ”what do people think about you before they get to know you?” and starting with the phrase “People Think…” Combine students’ one-liners to create a group poem on stereotypes.  Host a Poetry Slam event for students to share their poetry with classmates and possibly family. Set up the classroom like a coffee house and make it into a community event.  Have students read about Robert Frost (See Attachment: 6.5 Resource – Robert Frost Facts). Have students predict the topics and themes that Frost's poetry might cover.  Read aloud the poem, The Pasture, by Robert Frost (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – The Pasture). Discuss the poem with students using the following questions: o What do you see when listening to this poem? o Who is Frost talking to in the poem? o Why does he invite the listener to come out to the pasture with him? o What things does he want the listener to see? o Are there any words in the poem that are unfamiliar?  Have students read the poem “Speak,” by Janet Wong and “Harriet Tubman,” by Eloise Greenfield and discuss the challenge that the subjects of the poems experienced. Discuss how these challenges have shaped who they are (See Attachments: 6.5 Learning Activity – Speak and 6.5 Learning Activity – Harriet Tubman). Prewriting Strategies for Poetry  Put students in small groups and have them brainstorm ideas for poetry prompts.  Remind students that poets often write about what they know and what they have experienced in their own lives. Have students create writing prompts that connect to experiences from their life.  Have them evaluate their prompts (See Attachment: 6.5 Writing Tool – Poetry Prompt List). Homophones & Figurative Language  As students read texts during this unit, have them identify and group homophones in two’s or three’s (i.e. hour/our, bare/naked, bear/animal, bear/tolerate)  Have students illustrate similes they find in poems they read and write during this unit.  Provide students with a list of similes and have them identify the two things that are being compared.  Have the class select a theme and have students work in small groups to create poems based on the selected theme using similes. (See Attachment: 6.5 Learning Activity – Snow Similes) Sample Lessons  Lesson on similes and metaphors (See Attachment: 6.5 Sample Lesson – Similes and Metaphors)  Lesson analyzing Robert Frost’s work: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lessonplans/robert-frost-prompts-poet-859.html  Lesson on writing poems about everyday objects: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/shape-poems-writing-extraordinary-798.html?tab=4#tabs  Robert Frost poems that use imagery: http://www.frostfriends.org/imagery.html  Robert Frost poems that use figurative language: http://www.frostfriends.org/figurative.html  Robert Frost poems that use sound devices: http://www.frostfriends.org/sounddevices.html Additional Resources  Poetry and the Writing Process: http://teacher.scholastic.com/writeit/poetry/  Ideas for writing poetry: http://teacher.scholastic.com/writeit/poetry/brainstorm/ June 2011 696

6.5 Exploring Poetry Subject: ESL Length: 6 weeks  Activities on similes and metaphors: http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/bedford/harrisms/1poe.htm  Writing Bio-Poems: http://www.canteach.ca//elementary/poetry1.html  Who am I? (See Attachment: 6.5 – Who am I) Literature Connections  Band-Aids by Shel Silverstein  Honey, I love and Other Love Poems by Eloise Greenfield  Poetry Matters by Ralph Fletcher  List of sample poems that use homophones (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – Homophone Poetry)  Poems by Robert Frost (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – Robert Frost)  I rise (See Attachment: 6.5 Text – I Rise)

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English as a Second Language
Attachments Grade 6

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6.1 Graphic Organizer Character Traits Chart Subject: ESL

Character Traits Chart

Source: edCount, LLC

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6.1 Graphic Organizer Story Map Subject: ESL Name: ____________________ Date: ____________________

Story Map
Text: ________________________________________________ Who are the characters in the story? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Describe the setting of the story. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is the main conflict or problem in the story? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Retell 5 main events that happened in the story. First, ___________________________________________________________________ Second, _________________________________________________________________ Next, ___________________________________________________________________ Then, __________________________________________________________________ Lastly, __________________________________________________________________ What is the resolution of the story? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Source: edCount, LLC 700

6.1 Graphic Organizer Venn Lines Subject: ESL Name ___________________________________ Date ______________________________________

Venn Diagram
Write details that tell how the subjects are different in the outer circles. Write details that tell how the subjects are alike where the circles overlap.

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

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6.1 Learning Activity Adjectives Describing Character Traits Subject: ESL

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6.1 Learning Activity Adjectives Describing Character Traits Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.1 Other Evidence Paired Reading Fluency Check Subject: ESL

Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet
Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 704

6.1 Other Evidence Reflective Journal Subject: ESL

Reflective Journal
Directions: Write a short journal to think about your project. In your journal answer the following questions: What I did Explain what you or your group did to finish your project.

What I enjoyed

Write about what you liked most about the project.

What I found difficult

Write about any part of the project you found hard to do.

What really worked

Write about any part that you thought worked well

Next time

Write what you would do differently next time.

What I learned

Write about what you learned from this project.

Questions I still have

List any questions you still about the topic or concept you studied during this project.

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.1 Other Evidence Spelling Quiz Subject: ESL

Spelling Quiz
Directions: Complete the following sentences. On a sheet of paper, write the suffix spelling rules discussed in this chapter and give your own examples. As homework, read a book and find words with suffixes and group them based on the spelling rules discussed in this chapter. 1. Joe Magik is _______ for his card tricks. a. fameous b. famous 2. Christina won the second place a ______ competition. a. diving b. diveing 3. In the ________, there was a king and a queen. a. beginning b. begining 4. The moon has an unusually _____ glow today. a. reddish b. redish 5. The dent on the car is ________. a. noticeable b. noticable 6. You may leave your luggage in the ________. a. storeage b. storage

Source: http://www.kwiznet.com/p/takeQuiz.php?ChapterID=10015&CurriculumID=26

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6.1 Other Evidence Story Elements Quiz Subject: ESL

Story Elements: Multiple-Choice Quiz
1. The _____ is the action of a story. A. Setting B. Plot C. Solution D. Problem 2. The _____ is what needs to be fixed or solved in a story. A. Setting B. Solution C. Plot D. Problem 3. Where and when a story takes place is the _____. A. Plot B. Setting C. Solution D. Problem 4. A person, animal, or thing that adds details to a story and makes the story better is a _____. A. Main character B. Setting C. Character D. Supporting character 5. The ____ is how the problem of a story is fixed or solved. A. Plot B. Setting C. Main character D. Solution 6. A person, animal, or thing that does an action in a story is a _____ A. Main character B. Character C. Supporting character D. Plot 7. The person, animal, or thing that does most of the action in a story is the _____. A. Supporting character B. Main character C. Character D. Solution

Source: edCount, LLC

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6.1 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL

Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction
What is a Word Wall? “A word wall is an organized collection of words written in large prints and displayed in an area of the classroom where it can be seen.” -Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 “A word wall is a place on which important words are posted as references for reading and writing.” Regie Routman, “Conversations: Strategies for Teaching Learning, and Evaluating”, 2000 Why use Word Walls? • Provides a visual that helps students remember connections between words. • Serves as an important tool for helping students learn to read and spell new words. • Fosters students’ independence. • Promotes reading and writing. • Holds students accountable for spelling specific words correctly at all times. -Trisha Callella, “Making Word Walls More Interactive”, 2001 How do I set up a Word Wall? • Begin with a blank word wall. • Write the words on cards in large print with black ink. • Tape the words onto your word wall, don’t staple them so that the students can manipulate them. • Introduce approximately five words per week depending on your grade level and the difficulty level of the words. Carry over to the next week any words students are having trouble spelling. -Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 How do I choose words? • High frequency words • Phonograms (Word families) • Contractions • Antonyms • Synonyms • Homophones • Theme Vocabulary • Personal Word Walls • Any other words that will help your students become better at reading and writing -Irene C.Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell, “Voices on Word Matters”, 1999

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6.1 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL There are Three Tiers of words: Tier 1 – basic words, well known, used often: clock, baby Already in oral language concepts Direct instruction rarely required Tier 2 – high-frequency words used by mature language users in a wide range of contexts: coincidence, absurd Surprising, precise and conversation Direct instruction required Tier 3 – low-frequency words, often limited to specific content areas: cirrus, mollusk Not used in many contexts Direct instruction required to include related concepts where applicable Criteria for tier one and tier two words:  Useful – can be used in many contexts for reading, writing, speaking. How generally useful is this word? Is it a word that students are likely to meet often in other texts? Will it be of use to students in describing their own experiences?  Understandable – children have some ideas or concepts to connect to the new word. How does this word relate to other words, to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to some topic of study in the classroom? Or might it add a dimension to ideas that have been developed?  Interesting – What does this word bring to a text or a situation? What role does the word play in communicating the meaning of the context in which it is used? How do we develop word knowledge?  Describe words  Support words with visuals  Connect words to students’ lives  Extend words with anecdotes  Make associations  Give definitions  Compare and contrast  Question  Chart characteristics  Rephrase sentences  Provide tactile experiences  Give examples of correct and incorrect usage  Make analogies

Source: Christina Casher

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6.1 Resource Describing the Unknown Subject: ESL

Describing the Unknown to Others
Learning Objectives Students will:  Utilize creative and descriptive writing skills to communicate ideas to others;  Implement the use of graphic organizers to arrange ideas;  Simulate the communication challenges faced by the members of the Corps of Discovery as they attempted to describe unfamiliar plants, animals, climates, terrain, and people to people in the eastern United States. Technology Standard 3: Understands the relationships among science, technology, society, and the individual. Materials  A copy of the program Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery (To order, visit ShopPBS)  A television, and a VCR or DVD player  Computers with Internet access  Selected journal entries from the Archives section of this Web site  Lesson 14 Student Activity Sheet (included below)  Two to three 45-minute class periods or one to two 90-minute class periods Teaching Strategy 1. Ask students to imagine they are members of the Lewis and Clark expedition team. They have discovered new animals and plants, experienced new climates and challenges with terrain, and met new groups of people. The challenge now is how to preserve this information for people back home. Discuss the following: How are you going to record this information? How will you describe your new discoveries and experiences to your friends and family back home? 2. Once discussion has been completed, tell students they will hear actual journal entries written by members of the Corps. Their job is to listed to each journal entry and try to guess what plant, animal, climate, or terrain the Corps member is describing. Students will then share their guesses and point out specific words or phrases that led them to make their guess. The teacher should be sure to provide the correct answer for each of the journal entries once guesses have been shared or students have answered correctly. Selected Journal Entries Clark: June 6, 1804 "What are greens?" Clark: June 26, 1804 "What kind of Parakeets?" Clark: June 30, 1804 "What kind of very large wolf?" Clark: July 14, 1804 "What kind of storm?" Clark: July 29, 1804 "What species of catfish?" Ordway: July 30, 1804 (Excellent example) "What is a brarow?" Gass: September 3, 1804 "Where could they be located?" Ordway: September 7, 1804 "Read Ordwayís description of ground hogs." 710

6.1 Resource Describing the Unknown Subject: ESL Clark: October 7, 1804 "What species of white bear?" Clark: November 13, 1804 "Where might the expedition team be located now?" Lewis: May 28, 1805 "Where might the expedition team be located now? What species of bear might they have seen?" Whitehouse: June 16, 1805 "Where would they have found sulfur/mineral water?" Gass: June 25, 1805 "What species of brown bear? Can you eat spear- mint and currant bushes?" Ordway August 3, 1805 (Excellent example) "What species of panther?" 3. Finish the activity by explaining to students that members of the Corps of Discovery faced real communication challenges because they encountered so many new things that had to be documented and shared with others later on. 4. To further illustrate this point, have students view the two segments of the Lewis and Clark documentary described below. Discuss the challenges of documenting and sharing this information after viewing. Video Clips: Landscape View of the Prairies: Part I, 00:33:20-00:38:50. New Species: 0:53:10-0:54:20. 5. Students are now ready to undertake the challenge of describing a “mystery” plant, animal, climate, terrain, or group of people to another student. To do this, they should read and research information available in the journal entries located in the Archives section of the Lewis and Clark Web site. Students should read until they find the topic of their “mystery” description. Students should use the graphic organizer from the Lesson 14 Student Activity Sheet to record information about their topic in order to organize it and provide details in their writing. 6. To complete the graphic organizer, students should write the name of the topic in the center, main ideas describing the subject in the extending ovals, and precise details on the “fingers” of the ovals. 7. Using their graphic organizer, students should write a paragraph describing the "mystery" plant, animal, or climate. They should use as much detail and description as possible in order to paint a word picture for readers who are attempting to guess what the “mystery” subject is. 8. Students should exchange “mystery” writings with one another or share them with the entire class. As in the earlier activity, students should guess what is being described based on clues from the writing. Encourage students to discuss specific things in each piece of writing that made them formulate their guesses. 9. Close the lesson by reminding students that this process resembles how Lewis and Clark had to record and explain their observations during the expedition. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to this type of recording.

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6.1 Resource Describing the Unknown Subject: ESL Assessment Recommendations 1. Create a scoring guide to evaluate the effectiveness of each writer’s paragraph. This could be completed by the teacher, the writer, or a peer evaluator. 2. Assign participation grades for class discussion and game activities. 3. Assign completion grades for students who finish the graphic organizer and construct their writing according to the established guidelines. Extensions/Adaptations  Instead of a written paragraph, have students exchanges graphic organizers, but be sure the center section naming the “mystery” subject has been kept blank. Have students make guesses about the topic based on the details supplied in the graphic organizer.  Students might prefer creating a limerick, poem, or even rap lyrics, to describe their chosen plant, animal, or climate.  Pair up with another class from another school to complete the “mystery” subject writing activity by sharing writing assignments via email.

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6.1 Resource Describing the Unknown Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/class/l14.html 713

6.1 Resource Problem and Solution Diagram Subject: ESL

Source: http://www2.scholastic.com/content/collateral_resources/pdf/l/lessonplans_graphicorg_pdfs_ problemdiagram.pdf 714

6.1 Resource The Art of Communication Subject: ESL

The Art of Communication
Learning Objectives Students will:  Participate in communication decoding experiences;  Experience the international language, Morse Code;  Hypothesize how Morse Code may have impacted Lewis and Clark’s expedition if it had been available to them. Materials  A copy of the program Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery (To order, visit ShopPBS)  A television and a VCR or DVD player  Computers with Internet access  Lesson 15 Student Activity Sheet (included below) Time Needed Two or three 45-minute class periods or one to two 90-minute class periods. Teaching Strategy 1. Create interest by having students view the first section of Part II. This segment (0:05:30-0:12:20 ) tells the story of how Chief Cameahwait agreed to sell the Corps of Discovery all the horses they needed to cross the mountains. This segment illustrates the lengths that were necessary in order for the two groups to communicate. 2. Point out that translating from Shoshone to Hidatsa to French to English was what made it possible for the expedition members to communicate. Discuss how much time the translation must have taken, the possible problems translating through so many languages may have caused, and how remarkable it is that the Corps was able to complete the transaction and obtain the horses needed. 3. Next, introduce students to Morse Code. Created by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1838 and still used today, particularly by amateur radio operators, Morse Code was used to transmit messages via telegraph beginning. Explain to students that Morse Code consists of a short sounds (dits) and longer sounds (dahs). Some students may be familiar with Morse Code from involvement in scouting activities or use of walkie talkies, etc. 4. Distribute the Lesson 15 Student Activity Sheet . Review the letter chart and the series of dits and dahs used to represent each letter. 5. Have students decode the message on the sheet and record it in the space provided. Check decoding for accuracy. The message should read: February 6, 1805 The blacksmiths take a considerable quantity of corn today in payment for their labour. 6. Have students write their own Morse Code message and have a peer decode it. 715

6.1 Resource The Art of Communication Subject: ESL 7. After the Morse Code activity is completed, students should write a 1-2 paragraph response to the following question: “How would Lewis and Clark’s journey have been different if they had been able to communicate with others using Morse Code? Give several examples.” Online Resources A Science Odyssey: Sending Messages http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/resources/campcurr/telecommunication.html NOVA: Vanished http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vanished/sten_morse.html International Morse Code Chart http://freenet.msp.mn.us/people/calguire/morse.html Morse Code Alphabet http://www.zianet.com/sparks/coder.htm National Association for Amateur Radio http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/learncw/ Assessment Recommendations 1. Assign participation grades for completion of the Activity Sheet and classroom discussion activities. 2. Assign a completion grade for the written response paragraphs activity. Extensions/Adaptations 1. Have your students learn more about how Morse Code is used by amateur radio operators. Use the internet to research this or contact a local amateur radio operators club or organization and invite a guest speaker in to discuss and demonstrate if possible. 2. Review photographs and information on various communication devices that have been developed. Some to research might include the telegraph transmitter and receiver, early telephone equipment, the first digital electronic computers developed during WWII , the first model of the 45 rpm record player , An Apple 1 Kit Computer, Robot Auto Factory, Digital/cellular telephones, and the Internet and email communications systems. Use information learned from researching to construct a timeline or display that illustrates the evolution of communication devices and the impact they have had on communication and our culture. 3. Draw on multi-lingual students or people in your community and have a short, translated discussion in front of the class.

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6.1 Resource The Art of Communication Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/class/l15.html 717

6.1 Resource Traits of Fiction Subject: ESL

Source: www.scholastic.com

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

The Hundred Dresses by Eleanor Estes
Objectives Students will:

describe characters from the story using character traits  compare and contrast two main characters from the story  apply their knowledge, understanding, and analysis of characters to determine how they would react in a situation Materials  The Hundred Dresses book (copy for each student)  Character Trait Map  Character Comparison Map  What Would They Do? Worksheet  Vocabulary Words  Vocabulary Puzzle  Comprehension Quiz Set up and Prepare
  

Make a class set of copies for each worksheet When copying the Character Trait Map, create a double sided copy with a blank map on both sides. Create a Character Comparison Map on chart paper, or you can use the PDF on a SMARTboard

Directions Before Reading: Have students make predictions about the book based on cover and title. Discuss with students ways that they are different from one another. Also discuss the positive and negative aspects about being different. During Reading: Review with students the meaning of character traits. If the class doesn’t already have a list of common character traits, make one before students complete the activity. Distribute a double sided, blank Character Trait Chart to each student. As the students read the story, have them fill in two charts, one for each character. There should be a blank chart on each side of the paper. Have the students leave the boxes labeled “character traits” empty until after the story is finished. Discuss how a character’s actions, words, feelings, and thoughts determine their character. (These charts can be completed over the next couple of days of reading.) After finishing the story, have the students reread their Character Trait Charts, and use the information about their characters to infer traits to describe them. They may use the “Character Traits” chart made before reading the story for help. After Reading: Once students are finished reading the story and have completed a character map for two characters in the story, they are going to compare and contrast the characters. Model the Character Comparison Map for the students using two characters from another book that the students are familiar with. Then 719

6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL have the students use the information they collected about the characters from The Hundred Dresses to complete a Character Comparison Map. Next Day: Once the students have successfully compared the two characters, they are going to use that information to determine how each of those characters would react to a certain situation. Explain to students that people respond to situations differently depending on their character and beliefs. Read aloud the example situation on the “What Would They Do?” worksheet. Explain to the students that they are going to write how they think their two characters would respond to the situation based on their character traits and the character comparison charts. Have students share their responses when finished. Lesson Extension Have the students write a sequel to The Hundred Dresses. They can think about Wanda’s life in the new city. Is it different from living in Boggin Heights? Do the children tease her there? Does Wanda want to return to her old home and be friends with Maddie and Peggy? Reader’s Theater is a great way for students to practice reading fluently. Break the class into small groups of 3-5 children. Give each group an important scene or event from the story to create into a Reader’s Theater script. Students can then perform their scripts for students in the school or other grade level classes. Assess Students Question students and listen to their responses while reading the book. Evaluate the Character Trait chart, Character Comparison Map, and students’ responses to the What Would They Do? worksheet. Assignments Character Trait Map Character Comparison Map What Would They Do? Worksheet Evaluate the Lesson Are students able to use inference skills to identify character traits based on a character’s actions, thoughts, words, or feelings, while independently reading? Are students able to use critical thinking to predict how a character would react or respond to a situation based on their previously determined character traits?

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL Character Trait Map

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL Character Comparison Map

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

What Would They Do? Worksheet

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

Vocabulary Words

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

Vocabulary Puzzle

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

Comprehension Quiz

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6.1 Sample Lesson Compare and Contrast Character Traits Subject: ESL

Source: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/collateral.jsp?id=38456 728

6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL

Understanding Character
Students will learn various literary terms and how to give a thorough analysis of a character within a piece of literature. Objective Students will:  Empathize, for the purpose of understanding, the character.  Understand the difference between direct characterization and indirect characterization.  Understand the difference between a static and dynamic character.  Understand the various complications with which a character must deal.  Understand the difference between internal conflict and external conflict.  Understand the role of motivation within a character.  Understand how poetry elements are an important aspect of character analysis. Materials Materials for the Teacher:  Teaching Literary Elements with Short Stories by Tara McCarthy (Available in the Teacher Store)  A short story or novel to use as an example  Plain white T-shirts, one for each student (cheaper if you buy them in a package from the men or boy's department)  Markers, puffy paints  Iron transfer printer paper (Use if you have access to technology in the classroom, so students can create their character analysis on the computer. Be sure to assist students with the iron-on transfer.)  Overhead projector  Transparency paper  Activity sheets o Literary Elements and Definitions o Character Analysis Graphic Organizer, helps students analyze a character. o Character Analysis T-Shirt Project Instructions  Transparency copies of pages 12-17 from La Bamba by Gary Soto. This is taken from Teaching Literary Elements with Short Stories by Tara McCarthy Materials for Students:  A white plain t-shirt  Activity handouts: provided by teacher  Additional handouts from various literature or teaching resources: provided by teacher  Markers: regular, puffy paint, etc.  Computer, Internet or library access, if necessary

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6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL Set up and Prepare  Create a Character T-shirt before teaching the lesson to get an understanding of the time requirement based on the resources available and to have an example of the final product.  Make enough copies of all handouts before introducing the lessons. Be sure to have any additional materials available. Reproducibles 1. Literary Elements and Definitions (included below) 2. Character Analysis Graphic Organizer (included below) 3. Character Analysis T-Shirt Project Instructions (included below) 4. Character Analysis T-Shirt Rubric (included below) Directions Hand out all copies of the various worksheets before beginning each part of the lesson. Part I Step 1: Introduce the literary elements and definitions in the worksheet Understanding Character Have students read through each of the elements and definitions aloud. Step 2: Using the story, La Bamba by Gary Soto, identify examples of the literary elements on an overhead. Conduct a class discussion and allow students to ask questions if necessary. Step 3: Assess understanding of the various elements by quizzing students orally. Part II Step 4: Using the designated piece of literature as a resource (class story, novel, etc.) and the Character Analysis Chart, have students begin analyzing a character of their choosing. This may be facilitated in groups or as an independent activity. Part III Step 5: Introduce the Character T-shirt using your teacher sample. Show how an understanding of literary elements dealing with character was needed in order to create it. Hand out the Character T-shirt Instructions and go over with the class. Step 6: Allow students to begin creating their Character T-shirts. This project may be completed in class or as an at-home assignment. Lesson Extension By extending the lesson, I integrate language arts and reading standards with the multiple intelligences. Any standards aligned rubric or project rubric can work for the assessment of these activities. Here are some examples of what students could do: 1. Have a Character T-shirt Day, where students come to school dressed in their T-shirt and promote the story/novel from which the character comes. 2. Make up flyers to promote daily reading. 3. With permission from the teacher, act out a scene during lunch or class with students from the same class. 4. During break or lunch time, orally read a passage from the story/novel. 5. Post a picture of the Character T-shirt on the Class Homepage. 730

6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL 6. Create a poem in the first person narrative about the character and read it in front of the class. 7. Hang the shirts up in class as examples of the various ways to do character analysis. 8. Hold a class discussion about the different characters that were chosen by students. Discuss their traits and qualities, then compare and contrast their similarities and differences. Allow students to support their opinions of the characters by conducting a debate. Challenge students to support their opinions with facts from the stories. Assess Students Using the Character Analysis T-Shirt Rubric (included below), assess students based on their ability to analyze the chosen character. I also assess students' effort and class participation throughout the unit. Evaluate the Lesson  Did students respond to the way I introduced the literary elements?  Did using Soto's La Bamba, as an exemplar help students understand how to find various literary elements?  Did I provide them with the ability to get started right away?  Did students develop an overall understanding of character analysis? Was their understanding evident in their Character Analysis worksheet?  Did students remain on task during various activities?  Did students create Character T-Shirts that represented an accurate understanding of character analysis? Were students able to articulate their analysis of character in the extended lesson?  Should I change anything in the way I model or teach this lesson?

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6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL Literary Elements and Definitions

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6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL

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6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL Character Analysis Graphic Organizer

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6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL Character Analysis T-Shirt Project Instructions

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6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL Character Analysis T-Shirt Rubric

Source: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/lessonplan.jsp?id=39 736

6.1 Sample Lesson Understanding Character Subject: ESL

Gonzalo
The older you are, the younger you get when you move to the United States. Two years after my father and I moved here from Guatemala I could speak English. I learned it on the playground and watching lots of TV. Don’t believe what people say—Cartoons make you smart. But my father, he worked all day in a kitchen with Mexicans and Salvadorans. His English was worse than a Kindergartner’s. He would only buy food at the bodega down the block. Outside of there he lowered his eyes and tried to get by on mumbles and smiles. He didn’t want strangers to hear his mistakes. So he used me to make phone calls and to talk to the landlady and buy things in stores where you had to use English. He got younger. I got older. Then my younger brothers and mother and Tio Juan, came north and joined us. Tio Juan was the oldest man in his pueblo. But here he became a little baby. He was a farmer, but here he could not work. He could sit out in the plaza and talk, but there are not any plazas here, and if you sit outside in public some gang driving by might use you for target practice. He could not understand TV. So he wandered around the apartment to himself, just like a kid in diapers. One morning he wandered outside and down the street. My mother practically fainted. He does not speak Spanish or English, just an Indian language. I finally found him standing in front of the beauty salon, looking through the glass at a woman with a drier over her head. He must have wondered what weird planet he had moved to. I took him home, holding his hand, the way you would with a three-yearold. Since then I’m suppose to baby-sit him after school. One afternoon I was watching TV, getting smart. Suddenly I look up. He was gone. I checked the halls on all five floors of the apartment house. I ran to the street. He was not in the bodega or the pawnshop. I called his name. I could imagine my mother’s face when she found out he had fallen through a manhole or been run over. I turned the corner, looking for a white straw hat he always wore. Two blocks down I saw it. I ran down the sidewalk and found him standing in front of a vacant lot, making gestures to a man with a shovel. I took his hand, but he pulled me through the trash and into the lot. I recognized the man with the shovel—he was the janitor at my old school. He had a little garden planted. Different shades of green leaves were coming up in rows. Tio Juan was smiling and trying to tell him something. The man could not understand him and finally went back to digging. I turned Tio Juan around and led him home. That night he told my mother all about it. She was the only one who could understand him. When she got home from work the next day she asked me to take him back there. I did. He studied the sun. Then the soil. He felt it, then smelled it, then actually tasted it. He chose a spot not too far from the sidewalk. My mother bought him four packets of seeds. I cleared the trash, he turned the soil. I wished we were far from the street and I was praying that none of my friends or girlfriends or enemies saw me. Tio Juan did not even notice people. He was totally absorbed in the work. He showed me exactly how far apart the rows should be and how deep. He could not read the words on the seed packets, but he knew from the pictures what seeds were inside. He poured them into his hand and smiled. He seemed to recognize them, like old friends. Watching him carefully sprinkling them into the troughs he had made, I realized that I did not know anything about growing food and that he knew everything. I stared at his busy fingers, then his eyes. They were focused, not far away or confused. He had changed from baby back into a man.

Source: http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/lessonplan.jsp?id=39 737

6.1 Writing Tool Peer Editing Checklist Subject: ESL

Peer Editing Checklist
Title of Work Writer’s Name Editor’s Name Check for:  Does the writing make sense?  Do the sentences sound right?  Does each section have two complete, detailed sentences?  Are words spelled correctly?  Is there a capitol at the beginning of each sentence? Are names capitalized?  Is there a period at the end of each sentence?  Does the title page clearly state Past or Present/Then or Now?  Does the student have evidence of having use the writing process to complete the writing assignment?

Peer Editing Checklist
Title of Work Writer’s Name Editor’s Name Check for:  Does the writing make sense?  Do the sentences sound right?  Does each section have two complete, detailed sentences?  Are words spelled correctly?  Is there a capitol at the beginning of each sentence? Are names capitalized?  Is there a period at the end of each sentence?  Does the title page clearly state Past or Present/Then or Now?  Does the student have evidence of having use the writing process to complete the writing assignment? Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2F www.wcs.k12.va.us%2Fusers%2Fhonaker%2FComp%26Tech%2F2nd-peer-editing-template.doc &rct=j&q=Peer%20Editing%20Checklist&ei=MpIwTb2tDcH-8Abfmo3vCA&usg= AFQjCNENwj9fgnMnBM2wEQwwk_PlakBeFg&sig2=KLEZtxtpSGE6N LoncpfPgg&cad=rja 738

6.2 Graphic Organizer Rainbow Writing Subject: ESL

Rainbow Writing: One Paragraph Organizer

Blue Sentence Supports Red

Blue Sentence Supports Red

Blue Sentence Supports Red

Green Sentence Supports Blue

Green Sentence Supports Blue

Green Sentence Supports Blue

Concluding Sentence: Red

Source: edCount, LLC

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6.2 Graphic Organizer Web Subject: ESL

Writing Web
Name _____________________________

Source: www.superteacherworksheets.com 740

6.2 Learning Activity Cause and Effect Game Matching Cards Subject: ESL

Index Matching Cards
Write each phrase on an index card.

Your foot trips over a rock at recess My pencil lead broke I skipped dinner last night Your forgot to do your homework Cory hit the switch Jason dropped his glass of orange juice You charge lunch in the cafeteria y cat was hungry Ashley breaks her leg during gymnastics You have earned three tickets You get in a fight at recess

you will fall and hurt yourself. so I had to sharpen it. and I was very hungry this morning! so you will have study hall. so the lights went off. and the glass shattered on the floor. you will have to get a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. so he ran to the bowl and I fed him. so she will have to get a cast put on. so you can buy a piece of candy from the candy box. you will get in trouble with your parents and will get written up.

Source: http://www.mandygregory.com/Mini%20Lessons.htm 741

6.2 Learning Activity Cause and Effect Game Subject: ESL

Cause and Effect Game
Directions: Match possible causes to effects or results.

Fell off bicycle

Got lost

Dropped pencil

Ouch!

Jumped lunch line

Scrapped knee

Didn’t listen to instructions

Stayed well

Ate healthy food

Teacher put me at the end of the line

Stubbed toe

Leaned over to pick it up

Wandered off the trait

Didn’t know how to do work

Misbehaved on playground

Got punished

Source: http://www.quia.com/mc/94601.html 742

6.2 Other Evidence Paired Reading Fluency Check Subject: ESL

Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet
Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 743

6.2 Other Evidence Reflective Journal Subject: ESL

Reflective Journal
Directions: Write a short journal to think about your project. In your journal answer the following questions: What I did Explain what you or your group did to finish your project.

What I enjoyed

Write about what you liked most about the project.

What I found difficult

Write about any part of the project you found hard to do.

What really worked

Write about any part that you thought worked well

Next time

Write what you would do differently next time.

What I learned

Write about what you learned from this project.

Questions I still have

List any questions you still about the topic or concept you studied during this project.

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.2 Other Evidence Transitional Words Quiz Subject: ESL

Transitional Words/Phrases Quiz
1. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'therefore' belong to? A. Addition B. Emphasis C. Consequence 2. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'to begin with' belong to? A. Exception B. Sequence C. Direction 3. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'on one hand' belong to? A. Contrast and comparison B. Similarity C. Summarising 4. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'over there' belong to? A. Sequence B. Contrast and comparison C. Direction 5. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'except' belong to? A. Exception B. Illustration C. Emphasis D. Exception 6. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'coupled with' belong to? A. Generalizing B. Summarizing C. Addition 7. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'as an example' belong to? A. Illustration B. Exception C. Similarity 8. What category of transitional words or phrases does 'in other words' belong to? A. Contrast and comparison B. Restatement C. Sequence

Source: http://www.scoilnet.ie/Quiz.aspx?id=1135 745

6.2 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL

Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction
What is a Word Wall? “A word wall is an organized collection of words written in large prints and displayed in an area of the classroom where it can be seen.” -Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 “A word wall is a place on which important words are posted as references for reading and writing.” Regie Routman, “Conversations: Strategies for Teaching Learning, and Evaluating”, 2000 Why use Word Walls? • Provides a visual that helps students remember connections between words. • Serves as an important tool for helping students learn to read and spell new words. • Fosters students’ independence. • Promotes reading and writing. • Holds students accountable for spelling specific words correctly at all times. -Trisha Callella, “Making Word Walls More Interactive”, 2001 How do I set up a Word Wall? • Begin with a blank word wall. • Write the words on cards in large print with black ink. • Tape the words onto your word wall, don’t staple them so that the students can manipulate them. • Introduce approximately five words per week depending on your grade level and the difficulty level of the words. Carry over to the next week any words students are having trouble spelling. -Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 How do I choose words? • High frequency words • Phonograms (Word families) • Contractions • Antonyms • Synonyms • Homophones • Theme Vocabulary • Personal Word Walls • Any other words that will help your students become better at reading and writing -Irene C.Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell, “Voices on Word Matters”, 1999

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6.2 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL There are Three Tiers of words: Tier 1 – basic words, well known, used often: clock, baby Already in oral language concepts Direct instruction rarely required Tier 2 – high-frequency words used by mature language users in a wide range of contexts: coincidence, absurd Surprising, precise and conversation Direct instruction required Tier 3 – low-frequency words, often limited to specific content areas: cirrus, mollusk Not used in many contexts Direct instruction required to include related concepts where applicable Criteria for tier one and tier two words:  Useful – can be used in many contexts for reading, writing, speaking. How generally useful is this word? Is it a word that students are likely to meet often in other texts? Will it be of use to students in describing their own experiences?  Understandable – children have some ideas or concepts to connect to the new word. How does this word relate to other words, to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to some topic of study in the classroom? Or might it add a dimension to ideas that have been developed?  Interesting – What does this word bring to a text or a situation? What role does the word play in communicating the meaning of the context in which it is used? How do we develop word knowledge?  Describe words  Support words with visuals  Connect words to students’ lives  Extend words with anecdotes  Make associations  Give definitions  Compare and contrast  Question  Chart characteristics  Rephrase sentences  Provide tactile experiences  Give examples of correct and incorrect usage  Make analogies

Source: Christina Casher

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6.2 Performance Task Earthquakes Subject: ESL

Earthquakes

Seismic Destruction Photograph by Mosanori Kobayashi Earthquakes, also called temblors, can be so tremendously destructive, it’s hard to imagine they occur by the thousands every day around the world, usually in the form of small tremors. Some 80 percent of all the planet's earthquakes occur along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, called the "Ring of Fire" because of the preponderance of volcanic activity there as well. Most earthquakes occur at fault zones, where tectonic plates—giant rock slabs that make up the Earth's upper layer—collide or slide against each other. These impacts are usually gradual and unnoticeable on the surface; however, immense stress can build up between plates. When this stress is released quickly, it sends massive vibrations, called seismic waves, often hundreds of miles through the rock and up to the surface. Other quakes can occur far from faults zones when plates are stretched or squeezed.

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6.2 Performance Task Earthquakes Subject: ESL Scientists assign a magnitude rating to earthquakes based on the strength and duration of their seismic waves. A quake measuring 3 to 5 is considered minor or light; 5 to 7 is moderate to strong; 7 to 8 is major; and 8 or more is great. On average, a magnitude 8 quake strikes somewhere every year and some 10,000 people die in earthquakes annually. Collapsing buildings claim by far the majority of lives, but the destruction is often compounded by mud slides, fires, floods, or tsunamis. Smaller temblors that usually occur in the days following a large earthquake can complicate rescue efforts and cause further death and destruction. Loss of life can be avoided through emergency planning, education, and the construction of buildings that sway rather than break under the stress of an earthquake.

Source: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/naturaldisasters/earthquake-profile/ 749

6.2 Performance Task Hurricanes Subject: ESL

Hurricanes

Engines of Destruction Hurricanes are giant, spiraling tropical storms that can pack wind speeds of over 160 miles (257 kilometers) an hour and unleash more than 2.4 trillion gallons (9 trillion liters) of rain a day. These same tropical storms are known as cyclones in the northern Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, and as typhoons in the western Pacific Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean’s hurricane season peaks from mid-August to late October and averages five to six hurricanes per year. Hurricanes begin as tropical disturbances in warm ocean waters with surface temperatures of at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit (26.5 degrees Celsius). These low pressure systems are fed by energy from the warm seas. If a storm achieves wind speeds of 38 miles (61 kilometers) an hour, it becomes known as a tropical depression. A tropical depression becomes a tropical storm, and is given a name, when its sustained wind speeds top 39 miles (63 kilometers) an hour. When a storm’s sustained wind speeds reach 74 miles (119 kilometers) an hour it becomes a hurricane and earns a category rating of 1 to 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

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6.2 Performance Task Hurricanes Subject: ESL Hurricanes are enormous heat engines that generate energy on a staggering scale. They draw heat from warm, moist ocean air and release it through condensation of water vapor in thunderstorms. Hurricanes spin around a low-pressure center known as the “eye.” Sinking air makes this 20- to 30-mile-wide (32- to 48-kilometer-wide) area notoriously calm. But the eye is surrounded by a circular “eye wall” that hosts the storm’s strongest winds and rain. These storms bring destruction ashore in many different ways. When a hurricane makes landfall it often produces a devastating storm surge that can reach 20 feet (6 meters) high and extend nearly 100 miles (161 kilometers). Ninety percent of all hurricane deaths result from storm surges. A hurricane’s high winds are also destructive and may spawn tornadoes. Torrential rains cause further damage by spawning floods and landslides, which may occur many miles inland. The best defense against a hurricane is an accurate forecast that gives people time to get out of its way. The National Hurricane Center issues hurricane watches for storms that may endanger communities, and hurricane warnings for storms that will make landfall within 24 hours.

Source: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/hurricaneprofile/ 751

6.2 Performance Task Volcanoes Subject: ESL

Volcanoes

Earth's Fiery Power Photograph courtesy NASA Earth Observatory Volcanoes are awesome manifestations of the fiery power contained deep within the Earth. These formations are essentially vents on the Earth's surface where molten rock, debris, and gases from the planet's interior are emitted. When thick magma and large amounts of gas build up under the surface, eruptions can be explosive, expelling lava, rocks and ash into the air. Less gas and more viscous magma usually mean a less dramatic eruption, often causing streams of lava to ooze from the vent. The mountain-like mounds that we associate with volcanoes are what remain after the material spewed during eruptions has collected and hardened around the vent. This can happen over a period of weeks or many millions of years. A large eruption can be extremely dangerous for people living near a volcano. Flows of searing lava, which can reach 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,250 degrees Celsius) or more, can be released, burning everything in its path, including whole towns. Boulders of hardening lava can

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6.2 Performance Task Volcanoes Subject: ESL rain down on villages. Mud flows from rapidly melting snow can strip mountains and valleys bare and bury towns. Ash and toxic gases can cause lung damage and other problems, particularly for infants and the elderly. Scientists estimate that more than 260,000 people have died in the past 300 years from volcanic eruptions and their aftermath. Volcanoes tend to exist along the edges between tectonic plates, massive rock slabs that make up Earth's surface. About 90 percent of all volcanoes exist within the Ring of Fire along the edges of the Pacific Ocean. About 1,900 volcanoes on Earth are considered active, meaning they show some level of activity and are likely to explode again. Many other volcanoes are dormant, showing no current signs of exploding but likely to become active at some point in the future. Others are considered extinct.

Source: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/volcanoprofile/ 2

6.2 Resource Cause and Effect Connectors Subject: ESL COORDINATING CONJUNCTION A coordinating conjunction occur s mid-sentence and joins two independent clauses. A comma is placed before the conjunction (for and, nor, but, or, yet, so). See FANBOYS CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIO N A correlative conjunction i s paired with another word and is used to join equivalent sentence elements such as one noun or noun-phrase with another noun or noun-phrase. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION A subordinating conjunction introduce s a dependent clause, which requires attachment to an independent clause to complete the rest of the thought. When the dependent clause occurs: (1) before the independent clause, a comma separates the clauses; (2) after the independent clause , no comma separates the clauses. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB / TRANSITION A transition word is used at the beginning of a sentence with a comma after it. It marks a change in thought from one sentence (or paragraph) to the next. A period or semicolon comes before it.

TERM

DEFINITIO N

SENTENCE

He The children People helped. As a raised so much survived because they consequence, the children money that the had help. survived. y created a food Because they had People helped; as a bank. help, the children consequence, the children He raised such a survived. survived. large amount of The children money that survived because of the they created a help. (noun phrase) food bank. CAUSE *for (reason or so . . . that because, since, now For this reason, For all EXPRESSIONS cause) *rarely used (emphasis on that, as, as long these reasons cause) as ,inasmuch such . . . as, because of, due that (emphasis to, owing to, on account on cause) of, despite , if only because EFFECT so (result) so that (purpose-result) Therefore, Consequently, EXPRESSIONS in order (purposeAs a consequence, As a result) result, Thus, Hence

He saw starving children, so he helped. He helped, for he knew they could survive.

Source: http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/8-7.html 754

6.2 Resource Characteristics of Expository Writing Subject: ESL Goal: Characteristics: Expository writing seeks to inform, explain, clarify, define or instruct. The general characteristics of expository writing include:  Focus on main topic  Logical supporting facts  Details, explanations, and examples  Strong organization  Clarity  Unity and coherence  Logical order  Smooth transitions Expository writing appears in and is not limited to letters, newsletters, definitions, instructions, guidebooks, catalogues, newspaper articles, magazine articles, manuals, pamphlets, reports and research papers.
 

Uses:

Exercises:

 

Write a story about a trip you are going to take and what friend you want to take with you. Explain why this friend would be the best person to go with you. Describe the cause and effects of pollution in the environment. Narrow your topic to one form of pollution, such as something that causes air, water or land pollution. Explain the process of baking a birthday cake. Find an example of expository writing; explain the elements that make this a good example. http://library.thinkquest.org/10888/expos.html?tqskip1=1 A Think Quest entry, this site explains and offers examples of the different kinds of expository writing. http://jc-schools.net/write/grade8.html A one-page article that describes this genre while also including links to examples of expository writing. http://www.webenglishteacher.com/expwriting.html Visit this list for additional resources gathered by the Web English Teacher.

Additional Internet sites:

Source: http://www.thewritingsite.org/resources/genre/expository.asp 755

6.2 Resource Spider Graphic Organizer Subject: ESL

Source: BalancedReading.com

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6.2 Sample Lesson Expository Writing Subject: ESL

The Personal Touch: A Lesson in Expository Writing
Overview: Human beings use hand-to-hand touch between individuals to convey a wide range of affective communication. This lesson uses examples of such communication as a springboard for practice in expository writing. Purpose: In addition to providing an opportunity to practice clarity and thoroughness in writing, students are made aware of some of the subtle non-verbal messages in common social situations involving hand touching. Objective(s): Affective: Students will understand that much of what we say to one another is communicated without words. Students will reflect on the meanings of some common non-verbal messages communicated through the way we touch each other's hands. Students and teacher will experience a moment of personal communication. Cognitive: Students will express their thoughts in clear, grammatically correct sentences organized into coherent paragraphs. Students will use descriptive words and phrases to describe physical actions and sensations. Students will use feeling words to convey emotional reactions. Students will share their writing with each other. Activities: The teacher will explain that a simple, familiar interpersonal exchange such as a handshake can convey a number of different messages and that she is going to go around the room demonstrating. The teacher then approaches each student and, without saying anything, touches each one's hand in a different way. For example, one student may receive a "power" handshake, another a limp one. She may give one a "High Five" and do a hand jive with another. She may simply hold a student's hand like a little child holds the hand of an adult. She may grasp the wrist of another student as if helping him to stand, or link "pinkies" and swing hands playfully. The possibilities are numerous! Students are then instructed to write about their experience as clearly as possible so that a reader of their paragraph(s) could demonstrate the touch the writer has received. Encourage them to write about how the touch made them feel as well as a description of the actual physical action. Students read each other's finished paragraphs and attempt to replicate the touch described. Remind them to use the written word only and no remembered visual clues. Allow ample time for revisions if needed - and they will be! Ask for volunteers to demonstrate their finished products for the class. Follow with a class discussion and sharing. It will be lively! Tying it all Together This is a great exercise to do early in the year, as it provides the teacher with a vehicle for personal interaction with each student. Students ordinarily respond quite positively, seem to enjoy the "personal 757

6.2 Sample Lesson Expository Writing Subject: ESL touch", and love to talk animatedly about their experience. Even when the rare student reacts negatively, the teacher acquires a better understanding of that individual. It is usually best to limit the touch to that which will leave the student with a positive experience, especially if done before teacher/class bonds have been established. These lesson plans are the result of the work of the teachers who have attended the Columbia Education Center's Summer Workshop. CEC is a consortium of teachers from 14 western states dedicated to improving the quality of education in the rural, western United States, particularly the quality of math and science Education. CEC uses Big Sky Telegraph as the hub of their telecommunications network that allows the participating teachers to stay in contact with their trainers and peers that they have met at the Workshops.

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6.2 Text About Beaches Subject: ESL

About Beaches
What is a Beach? A beach is made of very small loose rock (sand) that gathers at the shore of a body of water. Beaches are created by waves or currents. The sand comes from erosion of rocks both far away from and near the water. Coral reefs are a major source of sand. A beach's shape depends on how the waves move. Some waves move material up the beach, while others move it down the beach. On sandy beaches, the waves move sand away from the beach, making gentle slopes. When the waves are not strong enough to move the sand away, the beach is steeper. Crabs, insects, and birds feed on material left by the waves. Some small animals dig into the sand to get their food. Birds use beaches to nest, and sea turtles lay their eggs on ocean beaches. Sea grasses and other beach plants grow on areas of the beach and dunes where there is not much activity. How to Protect Your Beach Things you can do to help protect your beach:  Dispose of trash properly - use trash cans at the beach or take your trash home with you  Reduce, reuse and recycle as many as possible of the things you use -- anywhere, anytime  Cut the rings off plastic six-pack holders so that animals (like fish, turtles or seals) can't get tangled in them — leave no solid plastic loops  Join local beach, river or stream clean-ups  Teach others how to practice good beach safety About the EPA's BEACH Program Everyone wants to have a good time at the beach without worrying about getting sick. EPA helps the states and local governments run a beach protection program will help keep you from getting sick. Beach Protection Programs help reduce your exposure to bacteria, viruses and other micro-organisms that cause people to get sick. EPA's BEACH program aims to create tests that will detect pollution faster and find better ways to keep you informed about problems at beaches near you. We also look for ways to help states and local governments better predict when pollution will occur (like after rain storms). With better ways to predict problems, test the water, and let people know about dangerous conditions, your beach managers can help you decide when and where to swim. EPA is also offering grants (money to help build these programs) to states on the coast so they can get their programs up and running faster. Our beaches web site for grownups has information about those grants and about specific beaches in the United States.

Source: http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/beaches/basicinfo.cfm 759

6.2 Text Bullying in Schools Subject: ESL

Bullying in Schools – Cause and Effect of Bullying
Have you ever wondered why or how bullying in schools even starts? Bullying has a major effect on kids who are subjected to it. It’s kind of like if you have a bulldog, and you beat it up constantly as it is growing up. The dog will grow up to be mean, and possibly vicious. This is because the dog now has been trained to think that everyone that comes near it has a hostile attitude. When kids get bullied in school, it has a major impact on them. For one, they now see the person bullying them in a negative tone. Not only that, but since most kids seem to dress in a certain style, the kid being bullied may include everyone that dresses or acts like the bully as a potential bully. If a child is bullied their entire childhood, or all throughout school, they will not grow up to have a positive outlook on society. Bullied kids may grow up to show a rebellious or uncaring nature. Most of the kids that tend to get in trouble a lot are the ones who were bullied in school. Bullies typically do not intend any physical harm to their target; they are usually just looking for a way to get attention. They do not realize the severity of what they are doing. Kids who are being subjected to bullying in schools must learn to rise up against bullies who are coming against them.

Source: http://www.ihatebullies.net/bullying-in-schools-%e2%80%93-cause-and-effect-of-bullying.html 1

6.2 Text Communities Pull Together to Save the Environment Subject: ESL

Source: Baldwin Register, June 20, 2010. 761

6.2 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about the first time you jumped into water

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6.2 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about a time you hiked up your pants to wade through water.

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6.2 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about the history of your hands, or the hands of someone you know.

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6.2 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about a wedding you once attended.

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/writeit/memoir/brainstorm/artresponse.asp 765

6.2 Writing Tool Expository Paragraph Rubric Subject: ESL Name _______________________________________

Expository Paragraph Rubric
4 Introductory sentence A creative introductory sentence made the reader interested in reading the paragraph At least three major details supported by minor details A creative, clear, and interesting concluding sentence was included Information in paragraph was very organized No capitalization, spelling, or punctuation errors 3 An introductory sentence with some creativity was included 2 A simple introductory sentence was included 1 No introductory sentence was included

Major and minor details

Two major details supported by minor details A concluding sentence with some creativity was included Information in paragraph was somewhat organized One to three capitalization, spelling, or punctuation errors

One major detail supported by minor details A simple concluding sentence was included Information in paragraph was poorly organized Four to six capitalization, spelling, or punctuation errors

No major details supported by minor details No concluding sentence was included Information in paragraph was not organized More than six capitalization, spelling, or punctuation errors

Concluding sentence

Logical order/ organization Language conventions

Total Score: ___________

Source: edCount, LLC

766

6.2 Writing Tool Expository Paragraph Subject: ESL

Sample Paragraph
Have you ever thought about what makes a volcano erupt or what happens afterward? The book Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon, describes many cause-and-effect relationships. When the temperature rises deep under the Earth’s crust, it becomes hot enough to melt rock and turn it into magma. Sometimes this melted rock blasts through the Earth’s surface, which causes rock, ash, and deadly gases to fly into the air. The lava that flows out of the volcano can knock down trees and destroy houses and even whole towns. Although volcanoes can cause lots of destruction, the volcano’s eruption also creates new land. Many times this new land forms an island in the ocean. You might even live on land created by a volcano!

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.2 Writing Tool Peer Editing Checklist Subject: ESL Peer Editing Checklist Title of Work Writer’s Name Editor’s Name Check for:  Does the writing make sense?  Do the sentences sound right?  Does each section have two complete, detailed sentences?  Are words spelled correctly?  Is there a capitol at the beginning of each sentence? Are names capitalized?  Is there a period at the end of each sentence?  Does the title page clearly state Past or Present/Then or Now?  Does the student have evidence of having use the writing process to complete the writing assignment? Peer Editing Checklist Title of Work Writer’s Name Editor’s Name Check for:  Does the writing make sense?  Do the sentences sound right?  Does each section have two complete, detailed sentences?  Are words spelled correctly?  Is there a capitol at the beginning of each sentence? Are names capitalized?  Is there a period at the end of each sentence?  Does the title page clearly state Past or Present/Then or Now?  Does the student have evidence of having use the writing process to complete the writing assignment? 768 Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2F www.wcs.k12.va.us%2Fusers%2Fhonaker%2FComp%26Tech%2F2nd-peer-editing-template.doc &rct=j&q=Peer%20Editing%20Checklist&ei=MpIwTb2tDcH-8Abfmo3vCA&usg= AFQjCNENwj9fgnMnBM2wEQwwk_PlakBeFg&sig2=KLEZtxtpSGE6N LoncpfPgg&cad=rja

6.2 Writing Tool Topic Sentence Starters Subject: ESL Name: ____________________________ Date: ___________________________

Topic Sentence Starters
Have you ever thought about ___________________________ Have you ever wondered _______________________________ It is interesting to note that _____________________________ There are many reasons why ____________________________ There are many ways in which ___________________________ Have you ever seen ____________________________________ It all began when ______________________________________ In my experience ______________________________________ Most people believe that _______________________________ Often times __________________________________________ No one will argue that _________________________________ In many ways ________________________________________ Do you remember when ________________________________

769 Source: edCount, LLC

6.2 Writing Tool Transitional Words Subject: ESL Name: _________________________

Date:__________________________

Transitional Words/Phrases
Useful Words to Introduce Ideas First, Second, Third, Next, Then, Later, Useful Words to Connect ideas and Add New Information For example, After, Also, Then, In addition, So, Furthermore, Well, Because, For instance, In other words, Additionally, For Contrast However, On the contrary, On the other hand, But, In contrast, Instead, For Conclusion In conclusion, Consequently, Finally, In summary, Lastly, In short,

Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2F www.wcs.k12.va.us%2Fusers%2Fhonaker%2FComp%26Tech%2F2nd-peer-editing-template.doc &rct=j&q=Peer%20Editing%20Checklist&ei=MpIwTb2tDcH-8Abfmo3vCA&usg= AFQjCNENwj9fgnMnBM2wEQwwk_PlakBeFg&sig2=KLEZtxtpSGE6N LoncpfPgg&cad=rja 770

6.3 Graphic Organizer Character Traits Chart Subject: ESL

Character Traits Chart

Source: edCount, LLC

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6.3 Graphic Organizer Subject: ESL Identifying Expository Text Features

Identifying Expository Text Features
Expository texts seek to inform, explain, clarify, define or instruct. It appears in newsletters, definitions, instructions, guidebooks, catalogues, newspaper articles, magazine articles, manuals, non-fiction books, pamphlets, reports and research papers. Directions: Identify which of the text features you can find in the article titled, “Climate Change.” Place an “X” if the article has the feature. Write “no” if the feature is not found in the article. On the last column, list the transition words that you see in the article. Title of Text Table of Contents xiii Example: Poisonous Plants Pictures/ Captions 4, 5, 18, 19, 38 Cutaways /Cross Sections 12, 14 Maps Diagrams Glossary Index Pick 1-2 pages and list the transition words that you see 17-18, Secondly, Therefore, However, On the other hand, As a result, For this reason, To sum up, Even so, etc.

No

55, 105, 126

224

218

Source: http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/jmullet/Word%20Docs/Identifying%20Expository%20Text%20Features.doc 772

6.3 Graphic Organizer Newspaper Article Planning Subject: ESL Name ______________________________________

Date ____________________________

Newspaper Story Format

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.3 Graphic Organizer Question Chart Subject: ESL

Source: www.educationoasis.com

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6.3 Learning Activity Fact and Opinion Game Subject: ESL 1. Wolves are sly, cunning and mean.

2. Wolves live in packs or families.

3. Wolves are carnivores.

4. Chocolate is my favorite flavor of ice cream.

5. Wolves have supernatural powers.

6. Wolves are always hungry.

7. Wolves are very clever.

8. Wolves can dig with their paws.

9. Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 15, 1929.

10. Martin Luther King believed Gandhi's ideas could help black people in the United States. 12. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech was the best speech he ever gave.

11. The Montgomery bus boycott was the most important event in Martin Luther King's life. 13. Martin Luther King Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

14. Martin Luther King was one of the smartest students in his class at Boston University 16. I think dogs are the best.

15. I guess that cats are not very nice animals.

17. My cat’s name is Beau.

18. Mrs. Nelson is the best teacher ever!

19. The Boston Massacre killed five colonists.

20. The lobster backs were mean to the colonists!!!

775 Source: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CCIQFjAC&url=http%3A %2F%2Fwww.mandygregory.com%2FDocuments%2Ffact%2520and%2520opinion%2520game.d oc&rct=j&q=fact%20and%20opinion%20game%201.%09Wolves%20are%20sly%2C%20cunning% 20and%20mean.&ei=zCZDTZC8I4WdlgeVq6DoDw&usg=AFQjCNGW_zF7TzbmNkSplG63rHB9DOC swQ&sig2=AfDCdp4hay7Zshj0rI0SPw&cad=rja

6.3 Other Evidence Fragments and Run-ons Quiz Subject: ESL

Fragments and Run-ons Quiz
After each sentence, select the option which best describes that sentence. The first option will always be that the sentence is fine. Other options will not only define the structural flaw but suggest a way of fixing it. Choose the option with the best remedy. 1. Although he had been an often decorated soldier during World War II and had fought many battles for the losing cause of liberalism in Congress. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Run on-: put a comma after World War II. C. Run-on: put a semicolon after World War II. D. Fragment: put a comma after Congress and finish the sentence. 2. This is going to be the most difficult exam of your college career, you had better start studying for it immediately. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Fragment: put a comma after immediately and finish the sentence. C. Run-on: replace that comma with a semicolon. 3. Knowing better than anyone else how the state legislature had ignored the needs of the community college system and created a crisis characterized by an uneducated workforce that had no place to go for proper training and realizing that someone had to do something about the situation or the state would begin to lose jobs to states in the American south that were more aggressive in providing and publicizing excellence in education, Representative Fuentes began to lay plans for an education bill that took into consideration the needs of the state's community colleges and the students who attended them. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. This sentence is too long; it must be a run-on C. Even though this sentence is very long, it is actually a fragment. 4. Coach Espinoza really wants this job with Notre Dame University, she is very excited about returning to the college she graduated from. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Fragment: put a comma after from and finish the sentence. C. Run-on: change that comma to a period and start a new sentence. 5. Right after the Christmas holidays and during those three weeks before class begins in January. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Fragment: put a comma after January and finish the sentence. C. Run-on: put a comma after holidays. 6. She ran. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Fragment: the sentence is too short and needs more details to be a complete thought.

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6.3 Other Evidence Fragments and Run-ons Quiz Subject: ESL 7. Perplexed by the rising rates of inflation and alarmed by the decline in major construction projects. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Run-on: put a comma after inflation. C. Fragment: put a comma after projects and finish the sentence. 8. A. B. C. Anabel realizes what she is doing, I think, but she doing it anyway. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. Fragment: we're missing part of a verb. Run-on: change the comma after doing to a semicolon.

9. Professor Pepin spends a lot of time translating medieval texts on ancient medicine, however, he also stays informed about the latest developments in modern asthma treatments. A. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. B. Fragment: although this is a long sentence, it's missing part of a verb. C. Run-on: remove the verb from the second independent clause. D. Run-on: change the comma after medicine to a semicolon. 10. If we're ever going to get out of here in time, we're going to have to re-write all these papers, set up the desks, and clean the chalkboards; stack those books in the corner and clean up the mess around the wastebasket; notify security about the broken window, the thermostat that Raoul messed up, and the desk that was stolen before we even got here. 11. A. B. C. There is nothing wrong with the structure of this sentence. Run-on: the sentence should be broken into three smaller sentences. Fragment: although the sentence is very long, it's missing a verb string. Run-on: change those two semicolons to commas.

Source: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quiz_list.htm 777

6.3 Other Evidence Paired Reading Fluency Check Subject: ESL

Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet
Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 778

6.3 Other Evidence Reflective Journal Subject: ESL

Reflective Journal
Directions: Write a short journal to think about your project. In your journal answer the following questions: What I did Explain what you or your group did to finish your project.

What I enjoyed

Write about what you liked most about the project.

What I found difficult

Write about any part of the project you found hard to do.

What really worked

Write about any part that you thought worked well

Next time

Write what you would do differently next time.

What I learned

Write about what you learned from this project.

Questions I still have

List any questions you still about the topic or concept you studied during this project.

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.3 Other Evidence Subject/Object Quiz Subject: ESL

Subject and Object Questions Quiz
Put the following words in order to make a question. Remember to conjugate the verbs and add an auxiliary verb if required. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. he/who/visit/last week/ which/car/kind of/300 k.p.h/go him/invite/who/dinner/to/yesterday which/you/tv/buy book/thy/read/which/for/class who/ask/question/the

Write questions to fill in the missing information. ________ (who) bought a new car last week. It is a beautiful new Cadillac. He bought the car because ______________ (why). My father has driven a Cadillac for many years. _______ (who) says it's the kind of car that people respect. In fact, ____________ (who) have always driven Cadillacs. I remember that __________ (who) used to drive a Cadillac. When my _________ (who) first met Elvis, he saw that he was driving a___________ (what). It was then that my father decided to buy a__________ (what).

Full text – Answer Key My father bought a new car last week. It is a beautiful new Cadillac. He bought the car because he says it's the best car in the world. My father has driven a Cadillac for many years. He says it's the kind of car that people respect. In fact, rich and famous people have always driven Cadillacs. I remember that Elvis Presley used to drive a Cadillac. When my father first met Elvis, he saw that he was driving a pink Cadillac. It was then that my father decided to buy a Cadillac.

Source: Christina Casher

780

6.3 Performance Task Newspaper Article Rubric Subject: ESL

Source: abcteach.com

781

6.3 Performance Task Writing a Newspaper Article Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

782

6.3 Resource Prepositions Subject: ESL

Prepositions
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened. Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it. You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk. All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction]. Those words in bold font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing. Common Prepositions about before beyond above behind by across below down after beneath during against beside except around besides for at between from

in inside into like near of off

on out outside over since through throughout

till to toward under until up upon

with without according to because of by way of in addition to in front of

in place of in regard to in spite of instead of on account of out of

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6.3 Resource Prepositions Subject: ESL Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in We use at to designate specific times. The train is due at 12:15 p.m. We use on to designate days and dates. My brother is coming on Monday. We're having a party on the Fourth of July. We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. She likes to jog in the morning. It's too cold in winter to run outside. He started the job in 1971. He's going to quit in August. Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in We use at for specific addresses. Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc. Her house is on Boretz Road. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents). She lives in Durham. Durham is in Windham County. Windham County is in Connecticut. Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on and No Preposition IN (the) bed* the bedroom the car (the) class* the library* school* AT class* home the library* the office school* work ON the bed* the ceiling the floor the horse the plane the train NO PREPOSITION downstairs downtown inside outside upstairs uptown

* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations. Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition We use to in order to express movement toward a place. They were driving to work together. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. 784

6.3 Resource Prepositions Subject: ESL Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. We're moving toward the light. This is a big step towards the project's completion. With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition. Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. They both went outside. Prepositions of Time: for and since We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). He held his breath for seven minutes. She's lived there for seven years. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. We use since with a specific date or time. He's worked here since 1970. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs. Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs. NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for interest in love of need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of

ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about

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6.3 Resource Prepositions Subject: ESL VERBS and PREPOSITIONS apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out give up grow up look for look forward to look up make up pay for prepare for study for talk about think about trust in work for worry about

A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation. Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions
     

agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities) correspond to a thing, with a person differ from an unlike thing, with a person live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

Unnecessary Prepositions In everyday speech, we fall into some bad habits, using prepositions where they are not necessary. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether, but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal, academic prose.
      

She met up with the new coach in the hallway. The book fell off of the desk. He threw the book out of the window. She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. [or use "in"] Where did they go to? Put the lamp in back of the couch. [use "behind" instead] Where is your college at?

Prepositions in Parallel Form When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct, the preposition does not have to be used twice. You can wear that outfit in summer and in winter. The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance. 786

6.3 Resource Prepositions Subject: ESL However, when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions, we must be careful not to omit one of them. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman.

Source: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/prepositions.htm 787

6.3 Resource Sentences Subject: ESL

What is a sentence?
A sentence is a group of words that has a complete thought. A sentence can stand alone with no other sentences around it and make sense. Which group of words contains a complete thought? 1. I found some slick little trails out in the garden down under some tall hollyhocks. 2. Once I decided to make friends with him. 3. Thinking they were game trails. 4. Mama had another talk with Papa. The main parts of a sentence are the subject and the predicate. The subject tells who does the action, and the predicate contains the verb and tells what the action is. Tell which part of the sentence (subject or predicate) is missing in each group of words below. 1. 2. 3. 4. A whole bucketful of tears. My dog-wanting. Bawling and yelling for Mama. Had a talk with him.

All sentences begin with capital letters and end with punctuation - period, question mark, or exclamation point. If you have a group of words that does not contain a complete thought or is missing the subject, verb, or both then you have a sentence fragment. Understanding sentence fragment errors may help you avoid making them. Here are some common mistakes:

A detached phrase or clause phrase - a group of words that adds information to a sentence and does not have a subject or a predicate
o o

His long tail was swishing. This way and that. (sentence fragment - phrase) Oh, he came in once in a while. All long and lean. (sentence fragment - phrase)

clause - a group of words that adds information to a sentence and does have a subject and a predicate
o

She said he was going to have to say something to me. Because if I caught that cat one more time. (sentence fragment - clause)

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6.3 Resource Sentences Subject: ESL o He was lying all sprawled out in the sunshine. With all four paws bandaged and sticking straight up. (sentence fragment - clause)

Separating an appositive o I want dogs. Coon hounds. (sentence fragment - separated appositive) o The first thing I caught was Samie. Our house cat. (sentence fragment - separated appositive) Dividing up a compound predicate o He spit and yowled. And dared anyone to get close to him. (sentence fragment - divided predicate) o She put the forked end over Samie's neck. And pinned him to the ground. (sentence fragment - divided predicate)

Practice Part A - One group of words in each pair is a fragment. Determine which group is the fragment and rewrite it to form a complete sentence. 1. 2. The ones that fascinated me the most. He follows me around all day long. __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. 4. Begging for hounds. I figured out a way to help. __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. 6. With me that night. One would be enough. __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 7. 8. Allotted to my mother because of the Cherokee blood that flowed in her veins. I saw the hurt in his eyes. __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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6.3 Resource Sentences Subject: ESL 9. Like someone was squeezing water out of my heart. 10. I hugged him and told him what a wonderful papa he was. __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Part B - Multiple Choice 1. Choose the sentence that is written correctly. a. If Santa Claus himself had come down out of the mountains. Reindeer and all. I would not have been more pleased. b. If Santa Claus himself had come down out of the mountains, reindeer and all, I would not have been more pleased. c. If Santa Claus himself had come down out of the mountains. d. If Santa Claus himself had come down out of the mountains. I would not have been more pleased. 2. Read this sentence. He showed me how to set them by mashing the spring down with my foot, and how to work the trigger. What is the correct way to write this sentence? a. He showed me how to set them by mashing the spring down with my foot. And how to work the trigger. b. He showed me how to set them. By mashing the spring down with my foot, and how to work the trigger. c. How to set them by mashing the spring down with my foot and how to work the trigger. d. Best as is. 3. Which sentence is written correctly? a. I figured something drastic must have happened in his life. As it is very unusual for a hound to be traveling all alone. b. As it is very unusual for a hound to be traveling all alone. c. I figured something drastic must have happened in his life, as it is very unusual for a hound to be traveling all alone. d. For a hound to be traveling all alone. 4. Which of the following is NOT a complete sentence? a. My sisters yelled their fool heads off, all the time saying, "Poor Samie! Poor Samie!" b. He would gobble down his milk and then scoot for the timber. c. In neat little rows I tacked the hides on the smokehouse wall. d. When the hunting season opened that fall. 5. Choose the sentence that is written correctly. a. The newness wore off. And I was right back where I started from. b. Down in the canebrakes back of our fields and trap. 790

6.3 Resource Sentences Subject: ESL c. I was firmly convinced that a smart old coon had deliberately poked that stick in my trap. d. Only this time it was worse. Much worse. 6. Which of the following is NOT a complete sentence? a. I was a hunter from the time I could walk. b. It made me feel all empty inside, and I cried a little too. c. I offered to get him a dog. But he doesn't want just any kind of dog. d. I had overheard this conversation from another room. 7. Read this sentence. By the little wrinkles that bunched up on her forehead. I could tell that Mama wasn't satisfied. What is the correct way to write this sentence? a. By the little wrinkles. That bunched up on her forehead, I could tell that Mama wasn't satisfied. b. By the little wrinkles that bunched up on her forehead, I could tell that Mama wasn't satisfied. c. By the little wrinkles. That bunched up on her forehead. I could tell that Mama wasn't satisfied. d. Best as is. 8. Which sentence is written correctly? a. To him it made no difference how long the road or how tough or rocky. b. His old red feet would keep jogging along. On and on. Mile after mile. c. After my friend had disappeared in the darkness. d. Memories of my boyhood days, an old K. C. Baking Powder can, and two little red hounds. Part C - There are three sentence fragments in the paragraph below. Draw a line through the fragments. Write a complete sentence for each fragment on the lines below. When the hunting season opened that fall, something happened that was almost more than I could stand. Lying in bed one night. I was trying to figure out a way I could get some dogs when I heard the deep baying of a coon hound. I got up and opened my window. The deep bark. The deep voice rang loud and clear in the frosty night. Now and then I could hear the hunter. Whooping to him. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____

2.

3.

791 Source: http://www.mce.k12tn.net/dogs/fern/sentences/lesson_1.htm

6.3 Sample Lesson Writing Editorials 2 Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing Editorials 2 Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing Editorials 2 Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing Editorials 2 Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing Editorials 2 Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing Editorials 2 Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.newspapersineducation.ca/eng/level_7to9/lesson11/lesson11_eng.html 797

6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

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6.3 Sample Lesson Writing News Articles Subject: ESL

Source: abcteach.com

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6.3 Text Climate Change Subject: ESL

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6.3 Text Climate Change Subject: ESL

Source: NOAA National Weather Service 818

6.3 Text Traits of Nonfiction Subject: ESL

Source: www.scholastic.com

819

6.3 Writing Tool Rubric for an Editorial Subject: ESL Name: ________________________________

Rubric for an Editorial
Title: __________________________________________________________________________ Level 1 Lead Persuasive Argument Does not relate to topic No logical progression of information, opinion or ideas No research included Level 2 Needs to be more focused on topic Some logical progression of information, opinion or ideas Some research included Level 3 Focused on topic Logical progression of information, opinion or ideas through most of the writing Well researched topic Level 4 Focused on topic and cleverly written Logical progression of information, opinion or ideas. Well researched topic with more than three sources of information All paragraphs contain a complete thought No spelling errors

Research

Paragraphs

Paragraphs do not Some paragraphs Most paragraphs contain a complete contain a complete contain a complete thought thought thought Editorial has more Editorial has three than five spelling to five spelling errors errors Editorial contains more than five errors Editorial has three to five errors Editorial has one to three spelling errors Editorial has one to three errors

Spelling

Punctuation

No errors

Writing an Editorial Marking Sheet Student Name: _____________________________________ Editorial: ___________________________________________ The editorial contains facts: __ marks __One fact __Two fact __Three fact __Four or more facts

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6.3 Writing Tool Rubric for an Editorial Subject: ESL The review contains opinion: __ marks __Personal opinion backed up with an example __Opinions expressed by others, including experts in a field of study

Conventions of Language Are Followed: __ marks __Place names, titles and proper names capitalized __Words are spelled correctly __Sentences contain one thought __ Proper punctuation

Ideas are Expressed Clearly: __ marks __Some of the time __Most of the time __All of the time

Two stars and a wish: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Source: http://www.newspapersineducation.ca/eng/level_7to9/lesson11/lesson11_eng.html 821

6.3 Writing Tool Transitional Phrases Subject: ESL

Name: _________________________

Date:____________________

Transitional Words/Phrases
Useful Words to Introduce Ideas First, Second, Third, Next, Then, Later, Useful Words to Connect ideas and Add New Information For example, After, Also, Then, In addition, So, Furthermore, Well, Because, For instance, In other words, Additionally, For Contrast However, On the contrary, On the other hand, But, In contrast, Instead, For Conclusion In conclusion, Consequently, Finally, In summary, Lastly, In short,

Source: edCount, LLC

822

6.4 Graphic Organizer Subject: ESL Brainstorming Using the Senses Date: _________________________________

Name: _____________________________ Directions: Using the senses, describe an event in your life.

What sounds did you hear?

What did you see?

What did the place, people, or things smell like?

What flavors do you remember?

What did it feel like? Source: edCount, LLC 823

6.4 Graphic Organizer My New Words Subject: ESL

My New Words
Sentence containing word (underline word) Prefix Root Suffix Definition of word

Source: edCount, LLC

824

6.4 Learning Activity Context Clues Subject: ESL

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6.4 Learning Activity Context Clues Subject: ESL

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6.4 Learning Activity Context Clues Subject: ESL

Source: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 827

6.4 Learning Activity Prefixes Worksheet Subject: ESL

Source: www.firstschoolyears.com

828

6.4 Other Evidence Noun Quiz Subject: ESL

Noun Quiz
Noun Quiz- Level A
A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B. Instructions: Circle the nouns in these sentences. Hint: there are 20. The cat and the dog were playing in the park. Misha plays the piano and the drums. David said to take the cake, cookies, and cups to the picnic. Danielle went to see the Avatar at the theater. Love and peace are better than hate and war. My family plays as a team. Instructions: Circle the proper nouns and underline the common nouns. 1. To make cookies, Mother need eggs, flour, sugar, and butter. 2. Jose read The Giving Tree last week. 3. Every Tuesday in June, my team goes to Sonic. 4. Spongebob is my favorite show on television. 5. Disneyland is a fun place to be with my friends and parents.

Noun Quiz- Level B
A. Instructions: Circle the proper nouns and underline the collective nouns. HINT: There are 10 all together. 1. Bob is on the faculty and is the head of his department. 2. My family is going to Florida on vacation. 3. I love August because school starts. 4. The jury was picked on Monday. 5. I want a puppy and a computer for Christmas. B. Instructions: In each sentence a noun is underlined. Put “A” if it is abstract, and “C” if it is concrete. 1. ___ Democracy is the best kind of government. 2. ___ The baby beluga whale was just born. 3. ___ Curiosity killed the cat. 4. ___ Patience is a virtue. 5. ___ The school needed new desks. 6. ___ There is nothing to fear but fear itself. 7. ___ The Chinese culture is ancient. 8. ___ Yesterday, I saw a good movie. 9. ___ Trust is a two-way street. 10. ___ Eat your vegetables to stay healthy. C. Instructions: In each sentence a noun is underlined. Put “C” if it is a countable noun, “U” if it is uncountable. 1. ___ I really love chocolate! 2. ___ She has coffee every morning. 3. ___ My dog had five puppies. 4. ___ You need to change the oil in the car.

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6.4 Other Evidence Noun Quiz Subject: ESL 5. ___ I have three final tests tomorrow.

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6.4 Other Evidence Noun Quiz Subject: ESL

Answers – Level A
A. cat, dog, park, Misha, piano, drums, David, cake, cookies, cups, picnic, Danielle, Avatar, theater, love, peace, hate, war, family, team. B. common nouns: cookies, eggs, flour, sugar, butter, week, team, show, television, place, friends, parents proper nouns: Mother, Jose, The Giving Tree, Tuesday, June, Sonic,

Answers – Level B
A. proper: Bob, Florida, August, Monday, Christmas collective: faculty, department, family, school, jury B. B: 1. A, 2. C, 3. A, 4. A, 5. C, 6. A, 7. A, 8. C, 9. A, 10. C C. C: 1. U, 2. U, 3. C, 4. U, 5. C

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6.4 Other Evidence Noun Quiz Subject: ESL Study Sheet for Noun Test- Level B The following is a study sheet for the noun quiz for level B. It covers common and proper nouns, as well as countable, uncountable, collective, abstract, and concrete. Noun Study Sheet A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. Proper nouns refer to a specific idea or living or non-living thing and are capitalized. These include days of the week, months of the year, books, movies, places, musical compositions, magazines, and more. Common nouns are everything else and are not capitalized. Countable nouns can be shown with a number, like eight houses. Just like the name, they are a noun that is able to be counted. Uncountable nouns are neither singular nor plural. They refer to something which has mass but cannot be counted. Examples include: air, sugar, money, furniture, and sadness. Collective nouns refer to a set of things, a unit. You may think of it as a collection. Some examples are: class, society, team, family, and army. Concrete nouns are physical and you can see, smell, touch, taste, or hear them. They can be common or proper, countable or uncountable, singular or plural, or collective. Examples are: bears, Mary, cars, butter, nose, feet, and school. Abstract nouns refer to things that are not physical. They are ideas, feelings, traits, concepts etc. Examples include: sympathy, curiosity, tyranny, love, and patience.

Source: http://www.yourdictionary.com/grammar/nouns/noun-quiz.html 832

6.4 Other Evidence Paired Reading Fluency Check Subject: ESL

Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet
Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 833

6.4 Other Evidence Pronoun Quiz Subject: ESL

Circle the correct answer.
1. A pronoun takes the place of a. a noun b. a preposition c. an adjective d. a verb e. a conjunction 2. Which is not a subject pronoun? a. we b. it c. they d. her e. you 3. Which is not a plural pronoun? a. you b. us c. themselves d. it e. we 4. Which is not a possessive pronoun a. his b. her c. yours d. mine e. theirs 5. The form of the intensifying pronoun is the same as the ______ pronoun a. object b. possessive c. reflexive d. subject e. interrogative 6. Which is not a 3rd person pronoun? a. themselves b. it c. his d. they e. you 7. What is the form of the 1st person plural object pronoun? a. my b. ours c. us d. we e. I

8. What is the form of the 3rd person singular feminine subject pronoun? a. they b. mine c. she d. her e. it 9. What is the form of the 2nd person singular possessive pronoun? a. she b. ours c. we d. his e. yours 10. What is the form of the 1st person singular reflexive pronoun? a. they b. myself c. hers d. itself e. our

Source: http://eslus.com/LESSONS/GRAMMAR/POS/pos6.htm#Pop Quiz 1 834

6.4 Other Evidence Reflective Journal Subject: ESL

Reflective Journal
Directions: Write a short journal to think about your project. In your journal answer the following questions: What I did Explain what you or your group did to finish your project.

What I enjoyed

Write about what you liked most about the project.

What I found difficult

Write about any part of the project you found hard to do.

What really worked

Write about any part that you thought worked well

Next time

Write what you would do differently next time.

What I learned

Write about what you learned from this project.

Questions I still have

List any questions you still about the topic or concept you studied during this project.

Source: ReadWriteThink

835

6.4 Other Evidence Root and Compound Word Quiz Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.englishmedialab.com/Quizzes/advanced/prefixwordbase.htm 836

6.4 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL

Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction
What is a Word Wall? “A word wall is an organized collection of words written in large prints and displayed in an area of the classroom where it can be seen.” -Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 “A word wall is a place on which important words are posted as references for reading and writing.” Regie Routman, “Conversations: Strategies for Teaching Learning, and Evaluating”, 2000 Why use Word Walls? • Provides a visual that helps students remember connections between words. • Serves as an important tool for helping students learn to read and spell new words. • Fosters students’ independence. • Promotes reading and writing. • Holds students accountable for spelling specific words correctly at all times. -Trisha Callella, “Making Word Walls More Interactive”, 2001 How do I set up a Word Wall? • Begin with a blank word wall. • Write the words on cards in large print with black ink. • Tape the words onto your word wall, don’t staple them so that the students can manipulate them. • Introduce approximately five words per week depending on your grade level and the difficulty level of the words. Carry over to the next week any words students are having trouble spelling. Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 How do I choose words? • High frequency words • Phonograms (Word families) • Contractions • Antonyms • Synonyms • Homophones • Theme Vocabulary • Personal Word Walls • Any other words that will help your students become better at reading and writing -Irene C.Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell, “Voices on Word Matters”, 1999 There are Three Tiers of words: Tier 1 – basic words, well known, used often: clock, baby Already in oral language concepts Direct instruction rarely required Tier 2 – high-frequency words used by mature language users in a wide range of contexts: coincidence, absurd Surprising, precise and conversation 837

6.4 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL Direct instruction required Tier 3 – low-frequency words, often limited to specific content areas: cirrus, mollusk Not used in many contexts Direct instruction required to include related concepts where applicable Criteria for tier one and tier two words:  Useful – can be used in many contexts for reading, writing, speaking. How generally useful is this word? Is it a word that students are likely to meet often in other texts? Will it be of use to students in describing their own experiences?  Understandable – children have some ideas or concepts to connect to the new word. How does this word relate to other words, to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to some topic of study in the classroom? Or might it add a dimension to ideas that have been developed?  Interesting – What does this word bring to a text or a situation? What role does the word play in communicating the meaning of the context in which it is used? How do we develop word knowledge?  Describe words  Support words with visuals  Connect words to students’ lives  Extend words with anecdotes  Make associations  Give definitions  Compare and contrast  Question  Chart characteristics  Rephrase sentences  Provide tactile experiences  Give examples of correct and incorrect usage  Make analogies

Source: Christina Casher

838

6.4 Other Evidence Verb Tense Activity Subject: ESL Name: _____________________________ Date: ______________________________

Verbs Tenses
Past Tense Present Tense Live Lives Future Tense Meaning in My Language

Is Are

Come Comes

Go Goes

Help Helps

Want Wants

Love Loves

Meet Meets

Know Knows

Source: edCount, LLC

839

6.4 Resource Characteristics of a Memoir Subject: ESL

Characteristics of a Memoir
 life      Focuses on a person, place, object, or animal which has a particular significance in the writer's Has a particular focus, an element which receives the most emphasis Recreates for the reader incidents shared with the person, place, or animal Reveals writer's knowledge of and feelings about the person, place, or animal Shares new insights gained in recalling the significance of the subject of the memoir Makes the person, place, or animal come alive for the reader

Source: http://crc.bullittschools.org/WritingResources/Characteristics%20of%20Writing%20Genres/ Characteristics%20of%20a%20Memoir.doc 1

6.4 Resource Common Compound Words Subject: ESL

Common Compound Words
sand flower news paper petal stand storm bud paper box pot clip

Source: http://www.janbrett.com/piggybacks/compound.htm 841

6.4 Resource Common Prefixes Subject: ESL

Common Prefixes

un- not, against, opposite o unceasing (adjective): never ending, continuous  un + ceas + ing trans- across, beyond, change o transform (verb): to change shape  trans + form re- back, again o readmit (verb): to allow in again  re + ad + mit dis- not, opposite of, exclude o distrust (verb): to have no confidence or trust  dis + trust

Source: http://www.southampton.liunet.edu/academic/pau/course/webroot.htm 842

6.4 Resource Common Suffixes Subject: ESL

Suffixes

-age
o 

Noun: activity, or result of action courage : having the spirit to overcome fear  cour + age Noun: person or thing that does something porter : a person who carries things  port + er collector: a person who collects or gathers things  col + lect + or Noun: an amount or quanity that fills mouthful : an amount that fills the mouth  mouth + ful

-er, -or
o  

-ful
o 

Source: http://www.southampton.liunet.edu/academic/pau/course/webroot.htm 843

6.4 Resource Dialogue Tags Subject: ESL

Dialogue Tags

Source: ReadWriteThink

844

6.4 Resource Esmeralda Santiago Interview Subject: ESL Esmeralda Santiago, the oldest of 11 children, grew up moving back and forth between the countryside and the city in Puerto Rico. She came to the United States in 1961, attended junior high school in Brooklyn and Performing Arts High School in New York City. She received degrees from Harvard University and Sarah Lawrence College. Santiago now lives in Westchester County, New York, with her husband and children. An interview with Esmeralda Santiago When an editor suggested she write her memoirs, Santiago started a journey through her childhood. Her first book, When I Was Puerto Rican, tells of her poverty-stricken but happy upbringing in Puerto Rico. Its sequel, Almost a Woman, carries the story into her challenging adolescence in Brooklyn, where she moved with her mother and siblings in 1961, when she was thirteen. Both books have become classics in the literature of emotional and cultural awakening, and have won Santiago an enthusiastic readership. Santiago has also written a highly praised novel, América's Dream; she is currently working on her second novel and her third volume of memoirs. What prompted you to write about your life? It was the experience of returning to Puerto Rico right after I graduated from Harvard. This was about twelve years after I had come to the United States, and I had not been back in all that time. I was very proud of myself -- the daughter of the island of enchantment returns! But to my surprise, I had a very negative reception. Many Puerto Ricans questioned my 'Puerto Rican-ness,' because I had lived in the United States for so long. The Puerto Rican culture that I had with me was the one of twelve years earlier, and that's the one that I was functioning in, not realizing that everything had changed. So when I came back to the United States, I began to write about these issues, really for myself so I could understand them. Two or three years later, I was by then married and had a child, and I began to think about my mother and what it must have been like for her. At the same age, she had already had nine children. That's when I began to write these personal essays that I thought were good enough to be published. The first one was about how my life is lived in English, but my internal life is in Spanish. A few years later, I was discovered by [book editor] Merloyd Lawrence, who saw one of the essays in the Radcliffe Quarterly and offered me the opportunity to write a book of memoirs. How were you able to remember your childhood in such rich detail? When Merloyd asked me to do the first book, I said to her, 'Merloyd, I don't remember my childhood! I only have two strong memories, and I don't think I can build a book around two strong memories. She said, why don't you take those two strong memories and write them out and see where they lead you?' That's exactly what happened. I began the book when my family moved to Macún [Puerto Rico] when I was four. I touched the sunny side of the metal wall of the house and burned my fingers; that was the first strong memory. The second one was also a tactile memory, of closing a dead baby's eyes, which happened when I was around nine or ten. So I began with the first memory, and before I knew it I had written a couple of hundred pages. I was surprised at how much I remembered and how accurate the memory was, because later on, when my sisters and brothers read the book, none of them argued with the way I remembered things. 845

6.4 Resource Esmeralda Santiago Interview Subject: ESL What is it like to see your life turned into a movie? It is the most bizarre thing that has ever happened to me! It is so strange to see scenes from your life being played out by somebody who looks the way you did, because Ana Maria Lagasca looks a lot like I did at that age. Plus everything is so distilled and compressed and combined. Something that might have taken place over the space of a year happens within two minutes. Those things were bizarre for me. I had to constantly be reminded by [executive producers] Marian Rees and Anne Hopkins that, in fact, this was a movie; it was not a documentary. And also I had to control myself not to get emotionally involved in the process of the film, because it would have interfered with my ability to be of use to the filmmakers. So it was an emotionally exhausting time for me. Since you were trained as an actress, were there aspects of the performances that you particularly liked? I loved the way Wanda De Jesus conveyed the dignity that my mother has. No matter how many times people tried to beat her down, she just wouldn't stay down. And I think Ana Maria was very successful in capturing my bewilderment, innocence, and wide-eyed wonder. Also, in their scenes together, there is this prickly relationship that mothers and daughters have; they did a wonderful job conveying that. It's a very complex relationship, and I think a lot of it came through. Do you get a lot of mail from people who read your books? I get a lot of mail from all ages, in both English and Spanish, because my books are in published both languages. It's really remarkable to see the variety of experiences that are related to me in response to what I write. That is the dream of any writer -- to make that very personal and intimate connection with your reader. Do your readers tend to identify with your life? They tend to compare the experiences in the book to similar incidents in their lives. For instance, somebody would write and say, I grew up in Kentucky, but when I went to school in Connecticut it was like learning a whole new culture. The letter has nothing to do with being Puerto Rican, or a woman, or having Spanish as a first language, or moving to New York. It really has to do with an experience that is universal: the experience of being faced with something new in which your identity is challenged. People do make these leaps based on my writing, and that is so satisfying. You're in wide demand for school appearances... My books are in a lot of schools -- high schools and colleges mostly. I've done long tours, talking to students and to the professors that teach them. And I also talk to a lot of librarians and teachers' groups. The questions from the younger groups, in middle school, tend to reflect more what's going on in their own lives. They'll say something like, when your uncle touched you inappropriately, why didn't you tell your mother? They're interested in the things that are left out of the story, situations where the behavior would be different today than it would have been in 1961. When I get into the older groups, they're much more interested in the craft of writing. If I talk to college students, they ask, how did you remember so much? How did your family react to your books? What was it like to say so many intimate 846

6.4 Resource Esmeralda Santiago Interview Subject: ESL things in such a public forum? So it really varies by the age group. What other feedback do you get from readers? Many times I'll get letters from kids who'll say, 'In our class we had to read the prologue and the first two chapters of your book. But I liked it so much I read the whole thing!' I get letters from people who say, 'this is the first book I have ever read cover to cover.' This might be from kids who've been in gangs or young women who got pregnant at fourteen and are dealing with life as a single mother. I've gotten letters from people in prison who've been sent the book. I get a lot of mail from people who find the book serendipitously, on their aunt's bedside table or someplace. The reactions I love the most are the ones that say, 'your book has inspired me to continue my education; your book has taught me that even though there is prejudice and racism, and people treat me badly because I'm poor, or short, or blind, or whatever, I know I can succeed.' They thank me for sharing a story that ultimately helps them feel inspired to do something that is very, very difficult to do. It's so great to get that kind of reaction. When I was a young woman struggling with a lot of these issues, I so wished that there had been a book like this to help me feel that way. In Almost A Woman, you say the first book you ever bought was The Power of Positive Thinking by Norman Vincent Peale, which sounds like it served that function for you... I was desperate. There was no one I could turn to for help through this morass of my life. If you belong to a church at least you have God, but I didn't even have that. So I was just searching for a way to learn if people like me had ever existed, and if they had existed, what happened to them? I must have been sixteen or seventeen. The reason it came to my attention was because it was a popular book at the time. What this book did was tell me that I didn't have to look outside myself for a role model; I could look inside and if that person didn't exist, I could be that person. I don't know that I entirely understood everything the book was saying. But at the time it was the perfect book for me, because it gave me very specific things to do in order to get where I wanted to go. It talks about setting goals, making lists, being organized -- all the things that I didn't have in my life. I didn't get them from anywhere else. It's the example of the right book at the right time. When you were younger, you were very influenced by Archie comics... Archie was my best friend. The thing that was great about Archie is that it had these bubbles with dialog, where I actually could read the slang of my generation -- very clean slang, not like the slang that was being spoken on my street. I really looked forward to going to my cousin's house, because she had a subscription to Archie. To me the characters were real people. They were American kids. Did you have any contact with people like that? Not at all. The very first time I did was when I was in my early twenties and living in Lubbock, Texas. I was in a neighborhood of ranch houses and very neat streets. That's when I said to myself, oh my God, I am in Archieland! Later, I lived in Lincoln, Nebraska, for six or seven months, and I said, I am in Archieland again! The way people behaved, the way teenagers were, the way they dressed wasn't really that far from what I had imagined from the Archie comic books. 847

6.4 Resource Esmeralda Santiago Interview Subject: ESL Was your mother's strictness unusual for a mother in your neighborhood? I think it was not at all unusual for that generation. It isn't unusual now if you look at some of the families coming up to the United States from Mexico, Guatemala, and similar places. They have a lot of the same values, especially for male/female roles, protection of virginity, and that sort of thing. My mother thought that the kids who were allowed to run all over the place were the unusual ones. She would say that the United States has done this to them, that in American culture families don't stick together; they don't love being with one another every second of the day. To her, family values meant that we were this little tribe. I think of the circumstances in which I grew up as like a village; it was a village of eleven children and three adults. When I left the apartment, I literally left the village and was in a completely different culture. And when you went to high school in Manhattan? I was just wide-eyed. My graduating class from high school has recently started getting together for reunions. So I have come to know a lot of those people who were not my friends when I was there, because I was not part of that culture. Now, as I talk to them, the things they say about me are so funny. They talk about my being very innocent and happy. They say, 'you were just always smiling!' I remember my adolescence as the most miserable time of my life! But somehow I managed to convey something completely different. Did any of your high school classmates become famous? There are several who are musicians in orchestras around the country. One of the men had a long stand on Sesame Street before he died. A couple classmates have been working actors. So none of us has reached the kind of fame, perhaps, that we dreamed about. They talk about me as being the most famous in our graduating class, in terms of public recognition. But, you know, I think we all wanted to be Jennifer Lopez, but not one of us reached that goal. What are you working on now? Right now, I'm working on a historical novel that follows five generations of a Puerto Rican family, beginning in 1844 and ending in the late 1990s. For me, it's a way of exploring the Puerto Rico of another era before I was born; and then the generation that I am a part of will make up the last third of the book. The research involved is tremendous. I was saying to somebody yesterday, if I ever say I'm going to write a historical novel again, shoot me first! Will there be a third volume of your memoirs? Yes. I'm about one-fifth of the way through it. It's about creating an identity from the raw materials that have been given to you. I will talk about the kinds of adventures that I had as a mature woman. Some of them happened to me because of my innocence; and some of them happened to me because I chose to do certain things. It was a very long and painful process and it's also a book that I don't think will be appropriate for some of my younger readers. I will devote myself to it after I finish the novel, which I hope will be this summer (of 2002). 848

6.4 Resource Esmeralda Santiago Interview Subject: ESL What became of your parents? My father is still alive and lives in Puerto Rico and is still married to the woman that he married right after we left. We've stayed in touch. He's very proud of the work that I do, and he's just thrilled with the film. My mother lives in Florida. Did she ever learn to speak English? Yes. She speaks very good English, but she refuses to do it around us because she's very proud, and she thinks she doesn't pronounce it well. She has a job in Orlando, where she works in social services, and I know that she has to speak English. We used to speak in English to each other so that she wouldn't know what we were saying, until we finally figured out that she knew exactly what we were saying.

Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/americancollection/woman/ei_santiago.html 849

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL

Roots
Following is a list of roots for English vocabulary. The list is formatted so that the root with its definition is shown first, then the source of the root (Latin, Greek, etc.) with the source word's definition, and then last is an example of the root as used in a word and the word's definition. The sample words are linked to additional words with the same root.

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

act, ag: do, act, drive Latin, agere: to drive, lead, act, do active (adjective): moving about am, ami: love, like Latin, amare: to love amorous (adjective): loving anim: mind, life, spirit, anger Latin, animus: spirit animal (noun): a living creature annu, enni: yearly Latin, annuus: yearly annual (adjective): yearly auc, aug, aut: to originate, to increase Latin, augere: to originate, increase augment (verb): to increase, to add to aud, audit, aur: hear Latin, audire: to hear audible (adjective): can be heard

850

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL

 o o  o o  o o  o o

bene, ben: good, well, gentle Latin, bene: good benign (adjective): harmless, mild, gentle bio, bi: life Greek, bios: life biography (noun): a book written about a person's life bibli, biblio: book Greek, biblion: book bibliophile (noun): a person who likes or collects books brev: short Latin, brevis: short abbreviate (verb): to shorten

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o

cad, cap, cas, ceiv, cept, cid: to take, to seize, to hold Latin, capere: to seize receive (verb): to take in, to acquire ceas, cede, ceed, cess: go, yield Latin, cedere: to go exceed (verb): to go beyond a limit, to be greater than chron: time Greek, khronos: time chronological (adjective): arranged in order of time or sequence clam, claim: shout Latin, clamare: to call out, shout clamor (verb): to make noise cogn, gnos: know to know Latin, cognoscere: to know recognize (verb): to know, to identify corp: body Latin, corpus: body 851

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o  o o  o o  o o

corporate (adjective): formed into a body or association, united in one group cre, cresc, cret: grow Latin, crescere: to grow create (verb): to originate, to produce through imagination cred: trust, believe Latin, credere: to believe incredible (adjective): unbelievable cour, cur, curr, curs: run, course Latin, currere: run occur (verb): to happen, to come to mind

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o o

dic, dict, dit: say, speak Latin, dicere: to say indicate (verb): to show, to point out doc, doct: teach, prove Latin, docere: to teach docile (adjective): obedient, easily taught dog, dox: thought, idea Greek, dokein: seem, think dogma (noun): an established opinion dec, dign: suitable Latin, decere: to be suitable decent (adjective): conforming to standards, suitable, good duc, duct**: lead Latin, ducere: to draw or lead conduct (verb): to lead or guide (noun) - a person's behavior *ducere is one of the most prolific sources of English words

ev, et: time, age o Latin, aevum: lifetime

852

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o

medieval (adjective): related to the Middle Ages (500 - 1500 AD)

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

fac, fact, fec, fic, fas, fea: make do, do Latin, facere - make, do difficult (noun): hard to do, troublesome fer: bear, carry Latin, ferre: bear, carry infer (verb): to come to a conclusion from looking at facts, to guess fict, feign, fain: shape, make, fashion Latin, fingere: shape, make fiction (noun): something produced from imagination, an invented story fid: belief, faith Latin, fidere: to trust confide (verb): to trust, to trust another person with a secret fig: shape, form Latin, figura: form, shape, figure figurem (noun): shape, pattern, drawing (verb) - decide, plan, decipher flu, fluct, flux: flow Latin, fluere: to flow fluid (adjective): capable of flowing, a smooth easy style (noun) - a liquid form: shape Latin, forma: beauty, shape, form format (noun): the shape and size of something fract, frag, frai: break Latin, frangere: to break frail (adjective): easily broken, not strong, weak

 o

gen, gin: to give birth, kind Greek, genus: birth

853

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o  o o  o o  o o  o

generate (verb): to produce, to create geo: earth Greek, ge: earth geography (noun): a science that describes the earth's surface gor: to gather, to bring together Greek, ageirin: to gather category (noun): a class or set in which a thing is placed grad, gress, gree: step, go, move Latin, gradus: step degree (noun): a step or stage in a process graph, graf: write, draw Greek, graphein: write, scratch, carve o graphic (adjective): written, drawn, vividly shown

854

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL

 o o

her, hes: to stick Latin, haerere: to stick adhere (verb): to stick

 o o  o o

jac, ject, jet: to throw Latin, jacere: to throw, to lie reject (verb): to throw out, unwilling to accept jug, junct, just: to join Latin, jungere: to join junction (noun): a place at which two things join

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o

lex, leag, leg: law Latin, lex: law legal (adjective): based on law lect, leg, lig: choose, gather, select, read Latin, legere: to choose collect (verb): to gather, to bring together loc: place, area Latin, locare: to place location (noun): a place, a position occupied log: say, speech, word, reason, study Greek, logos: speech, word, reason logic (noun): the study of reason, reasoning luc, lum, lust: light Latin, lucare: shine

855

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o o o

Latin, lumen: light Latin, lustrare: light-up translucent (adjective): permitting some light to come through

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

man: hand, make, do Latin, manus: hand manage (verb): to handle with skill, to be able to do mem: recall, remember Latin, memor: mindful memory (noun): the ability to recall or to bring to mind ment: mind Latin, mens: mind mental (adjective): related to the mind min: little, small Latin, minuere: to lessen minor (adjective): less important, lesser mit, miss: send Latin, mittere: put, send admit (verb): to accept, to allow entry mob, mov, mot: move Latin, movere: move motion (noun): act of moving, action

 o o  o o  o

nasc, nat, gnant, nai: to be born Latin, nasci to be born nascent (adjective) - just born nom, nym: name Latin, nomen: name nominate (verb): to name for office nov: new latin, novus: new

856

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o

novice (noun): a beginner or newcomer

oper: work o Latin, opus: work o operate (verb): to work, to perform

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

pat, pass: feel, suffer Latin, pati: suffer passion (noun): a strong feeling or emotion path: feel Greek, pathos: feeling sympathy (noun): sharing another person's feelings ped: foot Latin, pes: foot impede (verb): to hinder, to slow down pod: foot Greek, pous: foot podium (noun): a platform, an area raised above the surrounding ground pel, puls: drive, push Latin, pellere: to drive, push, beat repel (verb): to drive away or push back pend, pond: to hang, weigh Latin, pendere: to hang, to weigh append (verb): to add or correct phan, phas, phen, fan, phant, fant: show, make visible Greek, phainein: show phantom (noun): something seen but having no physical existence, a ghost phil: love Greek, philos: loving philosopher (noun): a person who seeks (loves) wisdom

857

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o

phon: sound Greek, phone: voice, sound phonetic (adjective): related to speech sounds pict: paint, show, draw Latin, pingere: to paint picture (verb): to paint or draw port: carry Latin, portare: carry import (verb): to bring in from a foreign country pli, ply: fold Latin, plicare: fold reply (verb): to respond, to answer pon, pos: put, place Latin, ponere: to lay down, put, place postpone (verb): to put off to a later time psych: mind Greek, psukhe: soul, spirit psychology (noun): study of how the mind works

quir, quis, quest, quer: seek, ask o Latin, quaerere: seek, ask o query (verb): to ask questions

rupt: break o Latin, rumpere: break o rupture (verb): to break or burst

858

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o 

sci, scio: to know Latin, scire: to know conscious (adjective): aware, having knowledge of oneself scrib, scrip: write Latin, scribere: to write script (noun): handwriting, something written sent, sens: feel, think Latin, sentire: feel sentiment (noun): a thought prompted by feeling sequ, secut, sue: follow Latin, sequi: to follow sequence (noun): a continuous series sist: to withstand, make up Latin, sistere: to make a stand insist (verb): to be firm about something needed, to demand soci: to join, companions Latin, sociare, socius: to join, a companion sociable (adjective): inclined to seek friendship, companionship sol: alone Latin, solus: alone, single solitary (adjective): being alone solv, solu, solut: loosen, explain Latin, solvere: too loosen, release solve (verb): to find an answer spec, spi, spic, spect: look Latin, specere: look, look at spectator (noun): a person who watches spir: breath, soul Latin, spirare: breathe respiration (noun): breathing stab, stat: stand Latin, stare: to stand stature (noun) - height of a standing body, importance of position strain, strict, string, stige: bind, pull

859

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o o  o o

Latin, stringere: to bind or pull tight constrict (verb) - to squeeze, to make narrow stru, struct, stroy: build Latin, struere: to build destroy (verb): to ruin, to pull down

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o 

tact, tang, tig, ting: touch Latin, tangere: to touch tactile (adjective): related to the sense of touch tele: far away Greek, telos: end telepathy (noun): communication from one mind to another without verbal or written communication tend, tens: stretch Latin, tendere: to stretch contend (verb): to strive or reach for, to argue tain, ten, tent, tin: hold, keep, have Latin, tenere: to hold retain (verb): to keep, to hold in place term: end, boundary, limit Latin, terminusm: limit, boundary exterminate (verb): to kill off, to get rid of terr: earth Latin, terra: earth territory (noun): area of land test: see, witness Latin, testis: witness attest (verb): to provide proof, to say something is true therm: heat Greek, therme: heat thermometer (noun): a device for measuring heat tor, tors, tort: twist Latin, torquere: twist torsion (noun): twisting of the body tract, trai, treat: pull, draw 860

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
o o

Latin, trahere: pull attract (verb): to draw toward, to arouse interest

uni: one o Latin, unus: one o unite (verb): to make one, to join together

 o o  o o  o o  o o  o o  o o o  o o  o o

vac: empty Latin, vacare: to be empty vacant (adjective): empty, not occupied ven, vent: come Latin, venire: to come convene (verb): to assemble, to come together ver: true Latin, venus: true verify (verb): to confirm that something is true verb, verv: word Latin, verbum: word verbalize (verb): to express in words, to put into words vers, vert: turn,change Latin, versare: to turn versatile (adjective): capable of changing or adapting, useful vid, vie, vis: see Latin, videre: to see; Latin, videre: to separate visible (adjective): able to be seen divide (verb): to separate vit, viv: live Latin, vivere: to live vital (adjective) - necessary for life voc, voke: call Latin, vocare: call, voice vocal (adjective): spoken or uttered by the voice

861

6.4 Resource Roots Subject: ESL
 o

volv, volt, vol: roll, turn Latin, volvere: to roll, turn

Source: http://www.southampton.liunet.edu/academic/pau/course/webesl.htm 862

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

Memoir Writing
Overview: In this unit, students will explore the genre of memoir. They will see that writers write about the ordinary happenings of their lives and that their own lives are packed with meaningful experiences and memories that can form the basis of their own writing. Students will be encouraged to reflect upon the significance of remembered events and to keep a notebook of their thoughts and feelings. Topics for the Memoir Include: Focus #1: What Will I Be? Focus #2: Sibling Rivalry Focus #3: Parents Focus #4: What is Memoir? Focus #5: A Treasured Object Focus #6: A Photo Focus #7: Emblematic Moments Focus #8: Tales from the Prairie Pioneers Objectives: The learner will demonstrate increasing:  Ability to use oral langauge to generate, clarify and extend their personal understandings of what they observe, feel, hear and read through personal reflection and interaction with others  Ability to communicate ideas orally and in writing to a variety of peer, adult and group audiences with growing confidence, sensitivity, fluency and clarity  Ability and confidence to adapt oral and written language to various settings, purposes and the needs of their audiences  Respect for the ideas, language and communication styles of others and ability to respond sensitively and thoughtfully  Interest in reading as a means of understanding themselves . . .  Interest in reading as a means of understanding themselves and their world  Ability to adjust oral and silent reading rates to the complexity of the material and the purpose for reading  Ability to integrate the cueing systems and monitor for meaning during oral and silent reading  Awareness of, and respect for, the similarities and differences found among cultures, human behaviors, experiences, emotions and ideas conveyed through literature  Maturity of thought in interpreting and responding to various media and print materials  Ability to convey ideas using various media Materials: Picture Books:  A Chair for My Mother by Verna B. Williams  Belle's Journey by Marilyn Reynolds  Coat of Many Colors by Dolly Parton  Dakota Dugout by Ann Turner 863

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

Grandpa Baxter and the Photographs by Caroline Castle  Great Grandma Tells of Threshing Days by Verda Cross  Hattie and the Wild Waves by Barbara Cooney  How My Parents Learned to Eat by Ina R. Freedman  My Mom is so Unusual by Iris Loewen  My Prairie Christmas by Brett Harvey  My Prairie Yearby Brett Harvey  The Pain and the Great One by Judy Blume  This Quiet Lady by Charlotte Zolotow Poetry Books:  Hey World, Here I Am! by Jean Little  Secrets of a Small Brother by Richard M. Margolis Volumes of Memoirs:  Little by Little by Jean Little  Stars Come Out Within by Jean Little. Novels for Lessons and Literature Studies:  Dear Mr. Henshaw by Beverly Cleary  Journey. by Patricia MacLachlan (Lesson #6)  Lost and Found.by Jean Little  Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing by Judy Blume  The War with Grandpa by Robert Kimmel Smith Resources for Lesson #4 (What is Memoir?):  Home Place by Crescent Dragonwagon  Watch the Stars Come Out by Riki Levinson  Annie and the Old One by Miska Miles  The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant  When I was Young in the Mountains by Cynthia Rylant  Owl Moon by Jane Yolen  All the Places to Loveby Patricia MacLachlan  Jessica Moffat's Silver Locket by Allen Morgan  My Kokum Called Today by Iris Loewen  The Old Barn.by Rose Miller  Up North in Winter by Deborah Hartley  Miss Rumphius by Barbara Cooney  The Big Big Seaby Jennifer Eachus.  My Great-Aunt Arizonaby Gloria Houston  I Have a Sister; My Sister is Deaf by Jeanne Whitehouse  Tar Beach by Faith Ringgold Novels for Independent Reading or Reading Aloud:  The Remembering Box by Eth Clifford 864

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL In the Year of the Boar and Jackie Robinsonby Bette Bao Lord  Sarah, Plain and Tall by Patricia MacLachlan  Woodsong by Gary Paulsen  Family Secrets by Susan Shreve  Skylark by Patricia MacLachlan  Missing May by Cynthia Rylant Ongoing Activities and Procedures for the Duration of the Unit:  Students share their writing using Author's Chair, book making, wall displays, etc.  Books used in the lessons are made available for students to read independently  Students keep a record of their writing and its status: incomplete, rough, published, etc.  Students keep all of their writing, including rough drafts, in their writing folders  Teacher keeps anecdotal records  Various pieces of writing are selected for detailed documentation of the student's progress  Students peer-edit  Students edit their own writing using a classroom checklist  Students are encouraged to find connections to the unit in current events, books, and in their own lives  Invented spelling is encouraged in rough drafts

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6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #1: What Will I Be? Learning Objectives:  Sequence significant events in a reading selection.  Identify literary elements - characters, setting.  Interpret the traits of main characters.  Use personal writing to develop self-awareness.  Plan and organize a task sequentially.  Incorporate own experiences in writing attempts. Resources:  Hattie and the Wild Waves by Barbara Cooney Strategies Used:  Instruction  Silent sustained writing  Reading to students  Discussion  Story Grammar  Point of View stories  "Notebook" (journal) writing  Pattern writing Assessment  Anecdotal records  Writing folder  Note students willing to share SSW, journal writing, etc. Engaging Activities:  Silent sustained writing - have students write about what they think they would like to be "when they grow up" or the kind of person they would like to be. Sit in a circle and quietly (seriously) share their thoughts, hopes, fears, etc. Those who do not wish to share may pass.  Tell students that the author, Barbara Cooney, has written this book about her mother. Exploring Activities:  Examine the cover and note the alliteration in the title. Predict the setting of the story.  Students review the parts of a story grammar and take note of these elements as they listen to the story.  Read Hattie and the Wild Waves to the students.  Discuss Hattie's decision to become an artist and students' response to the book.  Complete the story grammar.  Discuss why the author uses German expressions.  Reread the book to the students.  Tell part of the story from Hattie's point of view: o Sunday and holidays with the aunts & uncles o Mama's treasures

866

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL Piano lessons Learning needlework Life at the summer house Moving to Long Island The wedding The opera Visiting the fortune teller  Students may work in pairs to prepare an interview. One student assumes the role of Hattie and the other of interviewer. Students present their interviews to the class.  Discuss the book as an example of memoir. Write about a memory that this book triggers for you in your "notebook" (journal writing). Memories might include family traditions, how you differ from your siblings, your home, your talents, etc. Lesson Extensions:  Plot strands of Hattie's life on a time line. One strand could be the places where Hattie lives. Another strand could be how Hattie becomes an artist.  Make a time line of your life choosing events that are important to you and that show what kind of person you are. Write these events into a story. Use the book as a pattern for your writing.  The time line might be of one particular strand of your life - how you became a hockey player, piano player, lover of books, computer whiz, etc. o o o o o o o

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6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #2: Sibling Rivalry Learning Objectives:  Explore writing models and patterns.  Determine an appropriate format for writing.  Participate in class and small group discussions. Resources:  Poem: "All My Hats" from Secrets of a Small Brother by Richard J. Margolis  The Pain and the Great One. Judy Blume Strategies Used:  Instruction  Brainstorming  Reading to students  Reading logs  Pattern Writing  Writing Workshop  Book sharing  Discussion Assessment  Memoir reading record  SSR to be used throughout the unit  Writing Record for memoir to be used throughout the unit Engaging Activities: In small groups brainstorm advantages and disadvantages of (1) having older brothers or sisters (2) having younger brothers or sisters (3) being the only child (4) being the oldest (5) being the youngest. Each group could have a different topic. Exploring Activities:  Read "All My Hats" to the students.  Students write their responses to the poem in their reading log. Students could discuss the poem in small groups.  Read The Pain and the Great One to the students.  Students could sit in a circle and orally share memories triggered by the book.  Writing Workshop - allow students time to write about their families - perhaps write their "secret" feelings. Students may choose to write a poem, story, or "notebook" (journal) entry. Lesson Extensions:  Examine the pattern of "All My Hats" and follow this pattern to write a poem.  Book share Judy Blume novels. Students could prepare talks about novels they have read. Make these novels available to the students to read during SSR. Students could keep a reading log of memories triggered by these novels.

868

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #3: Parents Learning Objectives:  Tell and retell personal experiences.  Express ideas and feelings with increasing clarity, fluency and sentence variation.  Share personal thoughts, feelings and images evoked by literary selections. Resources:  My Mom is so Unusual. Iris Loewen.  "About Loving" from Hey World, Here I Am! by Jean Little.  How My Parents Learned to Eat. Ina R. Friedman Strategies Used:  Instruction  Discussion  Read to students  Personal writing Assessment  Writing Folder  Anecdotal records  Checklist to show participation  Writing Record for memoir Engaging Activities:  Think-pair-share: How can you show someone (best friend, parent, relative, etc.) that you care about them? Students should write their thoughts, then share their ideas with a partner. This may be followed by a whole class discussion. Exploring Activities:  Read My Mom is so Unusual to the students.  Discuss and list how the mother and daughter show that they care for each other.  Read "About Loving" to the students. Compare to My Mom is so Unusual. Discuss and list how this family shows that they care for each other.  Write about a scene from your own life that shows feelings of caring. Perhaps think of a special experience you've had with your parents, sisters, brothers, grandparents, friends, etc. Lucy Calkins in The Art of Teaching Writing suggests the following starters: o I remember ... o Once, when I was young ... o One time, a long time ago ... o In my family, we usually ... o He/she remembers ... Lesson Extensions:  Read chapter one of Little by Little by Jean Little. Then write about a scene from your own life. Read other published memoirs and write about your own memories.  Read Little by Little or Stars Come Out Within by Jean Little to the students - use literature to ignite memories. Students could write in response one day and tell stories in response the next. Students 869

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL could tell stories in a class circle (pass an imaginary microphone), small groups, or pairs. Read How My Parents Learned to Eat by Ina R. Friedman and respond in one of the ways described above.

870

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #4: What is Memoir? "A memoir is not what happens but the person to whom things happen." Virginia Woolf Learning Objectives:  Attempt and practice reading behaviors.  Recognize a literary genre: memoir.  Develop a tentative outline to guide information gathering.  Share information. Resources:  Use a variety of picture books that are possibly memoir. Strategies Used:  Instruction  Brainstorming  Discussion  Display  Research  Categorizing Assessment  Cooperative Group Learning rating scales:  Teacher Assessment  Group Assessment  Student's Reading Record for memoir Engaging Activities:  Brainstorm characteristics of memoir.  Discuss and display definitions for memoir. o Virginia Woolf: "A memoir is not what happens, but the person to whom things happen." o William Zinsser: "Memoir is a window into a life." o Jean Little: "Memoir is not the whole head of hair but one or two strands of hair." o Lucy Calkins: "Our memoir will come not only from our memories but also from our imaginations." o Gage Canadian Dictionary: "mem-oir (mem' war or mem' wor) n. a record of a person's own experiences." Students could rewrite these in "kid language". Exploring Activities:  Small groups read picture books to determine if they would qualify as memoir.  Help students plan a guide sheet for their research. Students should also find out the different kinds of memoir.  Students share their research findings with another group or the whole class.  Brainstorm and chart the kinds of memoir based on students' research and books read in the course of the unit so far. Lesson Extensions: 871

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

Make a selection of picture books that are possibly memoir available for SSR. Students could write reading log entries for these books.

872

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #5: A Treasured Object Learning Objectives:  Relate story events to personal experiences.  Create personal narratives.  Share or display published works. Resources:  A Chair for my Mother. Vera B. Williams Strategies Used:  Instruction  Discussion  Brainstorming  Book making  Reading to students  Journal writing Assessment  Anecdotal records  Writing folder Engaging Activities:  Discuss favorite places to read, watch T.V., etc. Exploring Activities:  Read A Chair for my Mother.  Discuss how the author starts with an object - the money jar - and writes a story around this. What other object is important to the story? (the chair)  Brainstorm a list of objects that are important to you.  Choose one object and write about its importance in your life. Students might bring their object and read their story to the class. Students might make their story into a book. Lesson Extensions:  Discuss how coins were saved in the story. How are coins collected in your family? Are you saving for anything special? Write about this in your "notebook" (journal writing).

873

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #6: A Photo Learning Objectives:  Express ideas and feelings with increasing clarity, fluency and sentence variation (orally and in writing).  Identify and describe literary elements - personification. Resources:  Grandpa Baxter and the Photographs. Caroline Castle and Peter Bowman  Journey. Patricia MacLachlan Strategies Used:  Instruction  Storytelling  Discussion  Brainstorming  Reflective Writing (memoir)  Assessment  Anecdotal records  Writing folder Engaging Activities:  Make a display of baby pictures of your class. Have students match names with pictures. (Number each picture and give students a class list - write the number beside the name. See who can identify the most.)  Each student could tell the "story" of his photo.  Discuss the purpose of taking photographs. Exploring Activities:  Examine the cover and predict the story.  Read Grandpa Baxter and the Photographs to the students.  Discuss how the bears in the story use the photographs.  Brainstorm ways that the bears are like humans (personification).  Read a section of Journey pp. 11-13 (See The Art of Teaching Writing by Lucy Calkins p. 408). Discuss how Journey looks at a photo and remembers his past.  Do what Journey did. Take one photograph and write about what you see, wonder, feel, remember. Lesson Extensions:  Have students bring photographs or albums to share orally with a group.  Write captions for photos taken of school activities to make a display or album.  Read This Quiet Lady by Charlotte Zolotow.

874

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #7: Emblematic Moments "In writing memoir, we select moments that reveal our own experiences of our lives." Lucy Calkins The Art of Teaching Writing p. 407 Learning Objectives:  Use language to develop and clarify thoughts and feelings.  Participate in class and small group discussions and collaborative tasks.  Tell and write about personal experiences. Resources:  Coat of Many Colors. Dolly Parton  Poem: "Teased" from Secrets of a Small Brother. Richard J. Margolis Strategies Used:  Instruction  Reading to students  Brainstorming  Discussion  Journal Writing  Author's Chair  Research Assessment  Anecdotal records.  Checklist to show participation Engaging Activities:  Read the poem "Teased" to the students and discuss. Brainstorm times when someone made fun of you. Discuss how you handled these incidents. Exploring Activities:  Read Coat of Many Colors to the students. * Note the dedication.  Discuss how the story of the coat reveals the kind of person Dolly Parton is. How did she handle a situation where other children made fun of her?  Listen to the song "Coat of Many Colors" and sing along.  Write about memories triggered by this selection in your "notebook" (journal writing). Activities #1 & #2 come from The Art of Teaching Writing by Lucy Calkins p. 407. Lesson Extensions:  Choose a single item in the classroom that best conveys the spirit of our class. Share these objects in small groups, asking the others in the group to help us explore ways our object might be emblematic of our classroom.  Record specific observations about a single person in our lives - a parent, grandparent - and then tell about that person by selecting one detail that seems to "say it all". Share using Author's Chair.  Read the Bible story of Joseph's coat of many colors.  Research Dolly Parton (independent activity).

875

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #8: Tales from the Prairie Pioneers Learning Objectives:  Collaborate and cooperate with peers to participate in dramatic activities.  Recognize and appreciate, through interaction with literature their own cultural identities.  Describe, share and discuss resources, events.  Organize research plans and determine independent strategies. Resources:  a selection of pioneer stories  Dakota Dugout. Ann Turner  Belle's Journey. Marilynn Reynolds  My Prairie Christmas. Brett Harvey  My Prairie Year. Brett Harvey  Great-Grandma Tells of Threshing Days. Verda Cross Strategies Used:  Instruction  Journal writing  Letter writing  Read orally  Story mapping  Contextual drama  Book making  Research Assessment  Conferences  Anecdotal records  Drama checklist o Willing to assume role o Stays in role Engaging Activities: Choose from the following:  Invite a community resource person to show pioneer artifacts. Write a notebook (journal) entry about the presentation.  Visit a museum and write a "notebook" (journal) entry about the experience.  Invite an "old timer" to tell about his childhood. Write a thank you letter. Exploring Activities:  Students choose a pioneer picture book to read orally with a partner or in a small group.  Partners map the story and share their map with another group or the whole class.  Partners assume the roles of pioneer and interviewer and prepare an interview based on their book to be presented to the rest of the class and videotaped. (Contextual drama) Lesson Extensions:  Interview family members for pioneer stories and prepare a class book of remembrances. 876

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

Some students could research their family history by interviewing family members and/or using local history books.

877

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

LESSON #9: Literature Study Learning Objectives:  Read with comprehension by relating previous experience and knowledge to what is read.  Share personal thoughts, feelings and images evoked by literary selections.  Communicate personal interpretations of literature through dramatization, illustrations, written and oral language, etc. Resources:  Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing. Judy Blume  Dear Mr. Henshaw. Beverly Cleary  The War With Grandpa. Robert Kimmel Smith  Lost and Found. Jean Little  Journey. Patricia MacLachlan Strategies Used:  Instruction  Book Share  Literature study  Reflective discussion Assessment  Videotape discussions and presentations  Reading logs  Checklist for Small Group Discussions  Student Self-Assessment for Responding to Literature Engaging Activities:  Book share - give a one minute talk on each of the novels to be offered (including level of difficulty). Offer one more novel than you plan to use.  Line up the novels on the chalkboard ledge and allow students time to sample each of the novels (silent reading time).  Students discuss the novels with friends, partners or in small groups.  Students write their first, second and third choice of novel on a slip of paper and are grouped by the teacher. Exploring Activities:  Students read an assigned amount (1-2 chapters) each day and respond in their reading logs.  Each day the groups meet to discuss the novel. Students are asked to star (*) important ideas in their reading logs that they wish to discuss with the group.  When the group has finished reading the novel they choose an activity to present their novel to the rest of the class. The activity usually will require some rereading and writing. Examples: write a script for a chapter and dramatize it, design a diorama with written or oral explanation, prepare a story map with illustrations and captions, etc. Often the project comes out of the group discussions. Lesson Extensions: 878

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL
 

Choose a second novel and repeat the literature study. Author study.

Source: http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/LP/LA/memoir_stuff_life.htm 879

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoir Writing Subject: ESL

    

Unit Culminating Activities Display all of the resources used in the unit. Students choose their favorite, tell why they liked it, and how it relates to the topic of memoir. Students examine their writing (in their writing folder) and order their pieces from best to worst. Students choose their most powerful piece of writing (perhaps only part of a piece) and read it to a circle of classmates. Invite parents, another class, principal, librarian or others to hear students read their memoirs. Videotape students telling their favorite "I remember..." story.

Bibliography Calkins, Lucy McCormick, with Shelley Harwayne. Living Between the Lines. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1991. Calkins, Lucy McCormick. The Art of Teaching Writing (New Edition). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994 NOTE: Chapter 24 "Making Memoir Out of the Pieces of Our Lives" is the inspiration for this unit and is an excellent reference for the topic of memoir.

Source: http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/LP/LA/memoir_stuff_life.htm 880

Subject: ESL

6.4 Sample Lesson Memoirs

Memoirs
Activity 1: Introduction to the Genre of Memoir: Writing a Comparison/Contrast Essay, ONCE I WAS; NOW I AM (adapted from BEAT NOT THE POOR DESK, by Marie Ponsot and Rosemary Deen, Boynton/Cook Publishers, Portmouth, N.H., 1981). Steps: 1. Tell the class they are going to do some personal experience writing to begin the study of a genre known as memoir. Then write on the board: Once I was; now I am. 2. Tell students you would like them to write as many sentences as they can using the structure you have written on the board. Provide several model sentences, such as those which follow, to help them get started: Once I was a frightened stranger in a new land; now I am a bold American. Once I was a depressed housewife; now I am a happy student. Once I was a laid-back young girl from the islands; now I am a sophisticated city woman. Once I was an angry, rebellious teenager; now I'm a father with teenage sons of my own. Once I was a smoker and a drinker; now I'm a health food nut. 3. Read through the sample sentences you provide, and then ask students to write as many of their own as they can within the next five to ten minutes. When students have finished writing, ask them to share their sentences with the class. Leave time for students to respond to each other's sentences, and to speculate about the experiences underlying them. The sharing time will allow students a chance to feed off of each other's ideas, and to think through the possibilities of some of their own sentences. 4. Have students choose one of the sentences they have written and use it as the first sentence of an essay. Tell them, as they write, to follow two rules for organizing the essay: a) put all the "Once sentences" in one part of the essay and all the "Now sentences" in another part, and b) keep both parts positive - each part should focus on what the student was and is, respectively, not what they were not/are not. Students who are not satisfied with the sentences they have written so far should write a few more before they get started on the essay. 5. When students have finished writing, ask a few of them to volunteer to read their essays to the class. After each volunteer reads his/her essay, ask listeners to write for two or three minutes immediately after the volunteer finishes reading. Have the listeners jot down (a) parts they remember/like the most from the essay; b) parts which they didn't understand, and c) parts which they wanted to know more about. Then have the listeners read their observations, going around the room. Help to guide student attention by reading your own responses to students. 6. Divide the class into groups, and have students read and respond to students in their groups, using the framework for observation modeled with the class. As students read in groups, circulate and provide support as necessary. 7. Collect essays and respond to them in writing, asking clarification/expansion questions and drawing attention to memorable elements. (When their essays are returned to them, ask students to redraft, keeping in mind the responses they received from their peers and their instructor. Assist with editing when students have drafted a final version of the essay.) Activity 2: Introducing Memoir Through Developing a Framework for Analysis. Steps:

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6.4 Sample Lesson Memoirs

1. After students have written and shared two versions of the "Once I Was/ Now I Am" essay, ask them to list a) two or three reasons why they selected the life experiences they wrote about from among the many they had initially brainstormed during Step 2 of Activity One (above), and b) what they liked most about their "favorites" of all the essays written by their classmates. 2. Divide the class into groups. Distribute sheets of newsprint to each group, and have students share their lists in their group and compile a group master list. 3. Have each group report back to the class. Discuss student ideas about how and why an author chooses to write about certain life experiences. Discuss ideas about the students' own "tellings," and how these led to successful essays (as students respond, categorize their observations according to stylistic elements such as "descriptive," tonal elements such as "dramatic" or "humorous," structural elements such as "surprise ending," etc.). 4. Create a class master list on a sheet of newsprint and post it on the wall. Tell students to keep their ideas about topic selection and successful writing in mind as they read one of the two memoirs selected for the study of this genre. As they read, make sure the students pay attention to the elements the author has chosen to use to make their writing interesting to the reader. Refer and add to the master list as students read and respond to the material over the next several class sessions. Activity 3: Making and Revising Predictions. Steps: 1. Divide the class into groups of four or five students. Assign WHEN I WAS PUERTO RICAN to half of the groups, and THE COLOR OF WATER to the other half. Set aside class time for sustained silent reading. 2. Before students begin reading, have students read book and chapter titles and make predictions about what the books will be about. 3. List their predictions on the board. Have them then read the prologues for their books and check their initial predictions. After students have read the prologues, ask them if their predictions seem accurate? If they answer yes, have them read the first chapter and, at the end of it, ask them to make a new prediction. If their predictions do not seem accurate, have them revise their predictions before they read the first chapter. 4. At the end of each chapter, have students evaluate their predictions. Then have them make a prediction for what the next chapter will be about. Have the students list each of their predictions in their notebooks, and evaluate them after reading two or three pages of each chapter. Activity 4: Story Mapping. Steps: 1. After students have read the first five chapters of their books, have them work in groups to map the events in the story so far. Ask each group to list: a) each major event; and b) its cause(s) and effects. 2. When each group has completed its story map for the first five chapters, have groups reading the same memoir compare their maps and use the text to support the decisions they made. 3. Have groups report back on similarities/differences among their story maps.

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6.4 Sample Lesson Memoirs

4. Ask students to create two or three story maps throughout the reading of these texts as a way for them to monitor their understanding of cause and effect, and as means to clarify sequence of events in each text.

Activity 5: Creating Character Charts. Steps: 1. When students have read about halfway through their books, have them work in groups to create character charts. Have each group list the main characters of the book so far. Ask the group to choose two or three characters from their assigned text. 2. For each character they choose, have groups think of two or three adjectives. Then have them find at least six examples from the text which support this description. Ask students to find examples of what the character does, what other characters say about the character, and what the results of the character's actions are. 3. Have students draw a chart for each character. 4. When groups have completed their charts for each of the characters, have them excerpt one or two portions of dialogue or description of each character from the text, omitting any mention of the character's name. When they have found excerpts for each of their characters, have them scramble the excerpts on a new sheet of paper. 5. Ask each group to exchange its character charts and excerpts with a group that has not read their book. Ask groups to match excerpts to characters, using the character charts to guide them. 6. Have groups report back and discuss how they made their decisions. Extensions Homework Ask students to write a second "Once I Was/ Now I Am" essay after students have responded to the first essay. Writing About the Memoir When students have finished reading the text assigned them, have them use their story maps and character charts to help them write essays about the major events in the author's life, and the personal qualities of the authors and those around them which contributed to their sense of identity. Comparing Fiction and Non-Fiction a. Have students rewrite one of their "Once I Was/ Now I Am" essays as a fictional account. Have them read both essays, the fiction and non-fiction, in their groups, and have group members identify changes that need to be made to the essays: omissions, elaboration, and reorganization. b. Ask students to read an excerpt from THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X, and, if possible, then view the movie MALCOLM X, directed by Spike Lee (available at many video stores). Have them compare and contrast the excerpt they read with Lee's film. Establishing Historical Context Have groups research and write group reports on the economic and geographic context within which each memoirist grew up. Ask students to include in their reports their ideas on the relationship between geographic/economic conditions and their author's experiences.

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6.4 Text Sample Childhood Memoirs Subject: ESL

Sample Childhood Memoirs
Tough Times By Nicole C. Age: 12 Michigan My name is Nicole and I’m a seventh grader. When my parents divorced, the person that had the biggest influence on me was, and still is, my mom. I remember so many arguments that I have had with my dad and I have always gone and talked to my mom. She’s my hero, and in some ways, has kept my from going nuts and having major break-downs (none too serious to worry about... I would never go as far as hurting myself). I shall start from the beginning. After my parents' divorce, Dad and I disconnected. When he moved out, I felt that we were from two different worlds with little in common. My whole attitude changed. Instead of being timid and afraid of him, I started to stand up for myself (your attitude is effected by the people around you). I couldn’t have done it without my mom helping my through tough times like these and so many more. When my dad gets mad, he lets it all out- hard! His loud, bellowing voice yelling at me made me want to go hide under a rock. I have cried, and cried again, over the stupidest stuff that he was explaining to me, and I just didn’t get what he was trying to tell me. What do you do when you don’t understand anything? You get frustrated. My mom is always there for me. I really learned that when my dad moved about an hour away to Oxford, Michigan. The first time that I went to his new “location,” my mom taught me how to make long distance calls, just in case. Her exact words were, “If you need me, I’ll come and get you. I may not know where you are, but I’ll find you.” At that moment, I knew that if I didn’t want to fight with my dad, I didn’t have to. My mom was there for me. Out of all the times that I have wanted to call her, I only called once. I went to his house for a one-night weekend. To me, a one-night weekend is when I go to his house for one night and then return home. I felt my face red and hot with anger. I can’t remember why, but I was. I tried calling my mom to help me calm myself down. Unfortunately, no one was home to answer the phone. I left a message telling her briefly about my dreadful night, asking her to call me back in an hour or so. I didn’t think that she would call me back, so I remember thinking that my mom wasn’t always going to be there and I needed to take all the advice that was given to me, and to never forget it. I took some deep breaths. As I did this, I went into a calmer mood and day-dreamed to relax a little bit more. Then, I up and headed for the kitchen to get a glass of water. I walked past my dad, but didn’t say a word to him. I didn’t want to chance saying something that I might regret later in life. My mom never did call me back. In the morning, I was up and ready to go home earlier than normal. I was ready to go home at around two o’clock. The normal time for me is maybe around four o’clock. I felt relieved when I finally returned home. Even though I see my dad about twice a month, I wrote down directions to his house. I know it sounds 884

6.4 Text Sample Childhood Memoirs Subject: ESL shallow, but if I needed my mom that bad, then I would want her there to rescue me fast! I did this because I remembered what she said to me when he first moved out to Oxford; she would be there for me. After all of the extra things that have happened since then, my mom has had the biggest influence on me. She influenced the life that I’m living now. I have learned to calm myself down before I get all worked up about something, and I have gained personal strength to help me keep myself together; all from her. I know that everything would change if anything was just a tiny bit different. In my mind, it’s good that all of this has happened to me and nothing is different from the way it is now. It’s good because when I’m older, I can give my children all the little “life lessons” that she has given to me. I can only wish that I can be as big an influence on their lives as my mom was in mine! Abuleo (Grandpa) By Serena O. Age: 14 Ohio It was a Saturday. My best friend, Jessica had called to ask to have me spend the night. My mom agreed. Some hours later, I was packed and ready to go. My mom dropped me off. As usual, the two moms talked. Jessica and I did the normal things we did whenever we spent the night at one another's house. We played in her room and went on the computer. Day soon became night and it was time for bed. The next day, we hung out a little bit. I was already dark when my dad picked me up. After coming home, we went to abuela's house. In spanish, 'abuela' means grandma. My mom smiled at me when I walked in the door. There were many people there. I wondered what was going on. My mom took me by the hand and led me to the room that was never used and sat me on the bed. She kneeled down. I knew something was wrong. We were supposed to celebrate four holidays: Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year's and his birthday. My grandpa had died. I knew he was in the hospital because I was old enough to visit the room. I cried that night. There were five of us in my sister's Alexis' room. Herself, my sister Grace, and my cousins Hannah and Ciara. All of them thinking it was Ciara when one of them asked how many wanted to go to bed. I was in sixth grade then. When the obituary came out, my teacher gave me her sympathy and a hug. I'm in eighth grade now, two years since the death. Sometimes we go the cold, lonely mausoleum. And my mind wanders to the sixth grade moment.

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6.4 Text Sample Childhood Memoirs Subject: ESL I remember By Ashley P. Age: 12 New York I remember my birthday party. I remember going rollerblading. I remember all the good songs they played. I remember there was only a disco ball and no lights in the ring. I remember me and my friends dancing. I remember that I fell a hundred times. I remember hearing my name being called over the loudspeaker so that we could all eat and cut my cake. I remember how good my cake was. I remember my little 3 year old cousin, Maxine trying to roller skate. I remember my SpongeBob balloons and what presents I got. I remember me and my friends trying to catch up to the boys because they were so fast. I remember the last song. I remember giving everyone their goody bag. I remember my best friend sleeping over. I remember that it was a perfect day.

Source: scholastic.com

886

6.4 Text Summer Excerpt Subject: ESL

Source: Wilson Rawls’ Summer of the Monkeys (Yearling Books, 1998), p. 107. 887

6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

888

6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

889

6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

890

6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

891

6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

892

6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

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6.4 Text When I Was Puerto Rican Subject: ESL

Source: Literary Cavalcade

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6.4 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about the first time you jumped into water

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6.4 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about a time you hiked up your pants to wade through water.

896

6.4 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about the history of your hands, or the hands of someone you know.

897

6.4 Writing Tool Brainstorming Ideas for a Memoir Subject: ESL

Write about a wedding you once attended.

Source: http://teacher.scholastic.com/writeit/memoir/brainstorm/artresponse.asp 898

6.4 Writing Tool Memoir Rubric Subject: ESL A) Writing Style Voice 1 Try again. I don't hear your voice. Many words or expressions are bland. (B) DEVELOPMENT AND DETAILS 1 Try again. There is little development. Add details. (C) KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING 1 Try again. What did you learn from this experience? (D) REVISIONS / PROOFREADING 1 Try again. Did you read your paper out loud? Some sentences are not complete. Many errors found. E) OVERALL IMPRESSION 1 You didn't really try. Spend more time developing ideas for writing.

2

3 I can hear your voice. Some words or expressions can be improved.

4

5 Yes! Fresh words, honest writing! I can hear you loud and clear!

x4=

__________

2

3 Complete story. Look at your beginning or ending, how could it be made better?

4

5 Wow! Exciting vivid details, kept me reading until the end! Good job

x4=

__________

2

3 Good! Try using more descriptive words. How did this change your life? Did it?

4

5 I am there! I can tell why you chose this experience. Great writing!

x4=

__________

2

3 Several errors remain. Try reading story out loud. Proofread carefully.

4

5 I can see the effort! Very few if any errors! I'm impressed!

x2=

__________

2

3 Yes. I see lots of potential here. Keep working and your writing will shine.

4

5 I was touched by your writing. You really made a connection with the audience.

x 6=

__________

Total ________

Source: http://www.wku.edu/3kinds/rwawsgchildhood.html 899

6.4 Writing Tool Peer Editing Worksheet Subject: ESL

Peer Editing Worksheet for Memoirs
Writer’s Name ____________________________ Editor’s Name ___________________________ 1. The names of the people involved in the memory, and their relationship to the author are clear to the audience. Names & relationships: ______________________________________________________________ 2. The subject of the memory is clear to the audience, as is the importance of it to the author. Subject & importance: _______________________________________________________________ 3. It is clear when and where the memory took place, as well as why the event happened “When”: _____________________________________________________________ “Where”: ____________________________________________________________ “Why”: ______________________________________________________________ 4. Descriptive Mode:  Action verbs in the present tense  Figurative language  Sensory detail used  Sensory detail used appropriately  Interesting hook  Well-developed  Strong closing  I made suggested changes in spelling.  I made suggested changes in mechanics such as verb tense, subject/verb agreement, and word choice.  I made suggested changes in sentence structure. What I liked best about your memoir is? (Be specific!) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No

No

An area of weakness you need to work on is? (Be specific!)

*The editor receives points for completeness and detail. Score ________

Source: ReadWriteThink

900

6.4 Writing Tool Peer Revision Checklist Subject: ESL

Story Peer Revision Checklist
Writer’s Name _____________________________ Reviewer’s Name ___________________________ Questions Has the writer narrowed the topic and focused on the purpose? Is there evidence of an individual voice? Can you "hear" the writer? Does the piece begin in an interesting way? Does the piece develop ideas by using interesting or important experience of the writer? Does the piece include sensory details (things for the reader to hear, see, smell, feel and taste)? Can you "see" the location? Can you tell the time period of the experience? Is it framed? Does the writer place ideas and details in meaningful order? Does the writer provide the reader with a natural flow and sequence to the story? Does the writer use imagination and creativity? Can the reader understand the purpose of writing about the incident in the writer's life? Can the reader understand the importance of the relationship between the writer and the subject of the writing? Does the ending leave the reader wondering? Does the ending go on and on? Respond in writing: What is your favorite part of the story? _____________________________________________________________________________________ What is the weakest part of the story? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Questions? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Comments? Yes No. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Source: http://www.wku.edu/3kinds/rwawcheckchildhood.html 901

6.4 Writing Tool Self-Revision Worksheet Subject: ESL

Self-Revision Worksheet for Memoirs
Name _________________________ Title of Piece Revised ________________________

1. I told the names of the people involved in my memory. List their names: _________________________________________________ 2. I told what the subject of my story is. (Example: I got caught sneaking out.) List the subject: _________________________________________________ 3. I told when the story takes place. List “when” here: ________________________________________________ Choose one of these methods of “time”: a. Day (Monday, Tuesday, etc.) ________ b. Time (12:00, late afternoon, etc.) ________ c. Season (spring, fall) ________ d. Other (specify) _________________ ________ 4. I told where the story takes place. List “where” here: ________________________________________________ 5. I told why this memory is special to me. List “why” here: _________________________________________________ 6. I described what happened in five or more sentences. YES NO 7. I described what happened using at least three of the five senses, and used them appropriately. Circle the senses you used: see hear taste touch smell

8. My story has an interesting hook. List it here: _________________________________________________________________________ 9. My story has a strong resolution. List it here: _________________________________________________________________________ 10.      My Descriptive Writing Utilizes action verbs in the present tense (underline in blue) Includes figurative language (underline in red) Incorporates sensory detail appropriately Does NOT revert to narrative mode Relates the event as if it is occurring RIGHT NOW

YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO

Source: ReadWriteThink

902

6.5 Learning Activity Harriet Tubman Subject: ESL

Harriet Tubman by Eloise Greenfield
Harriet Tubman didn't take no stuff Wasn't scared of nothing neither Didn't come in this world to be no slave And wasn't going to stay one either "Farewell!" she sang to her friends one night She was mighty sad to leave 'em But she ran away that dark, hot night Ran looking for her freedom She ran to the woods and she ran through the woods With the slave catcher right behind her And she kept on going till she got to the North Where those mean men couldn't find her Nineteen times she went back South To get three hundred others She ran for her freedom nineteen times To save black sisters and brothers Harriet Tubman didn't take no stuff Wasn't scared of nothing neither Didn't come in this world to be no slave And didn't stay one either And didn't stay one either

Source: http://poetryforchildren.tripod.com/poetryforchildren/id32.html 903

6.5 Learning Activity Snow Similes Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.abcteach.com/free/p/poetryprompts_simile_snow.pdf 904

6.5 Learning Activity Speak Subject: ESL

Speak Up by Janet Wong
*You're Korean, aren't you? Yes. *Why don't you speak *Korean? Just don't, I guess. *Say something Korean. I don't speak it. I can't. *C’mon. Say something. Halmoni. Grandmother. Haraboji. Grandfather. Imo. Aunt. *Say some other stuff. *Sounds funny. *Sounds strange. Hey, let's listen to you for a change. *Listen to me? Say some foreign words. *But I'm American, *can't you see? Your family came from somewhere else. Sometime. *But I was born here. So was I.

Source: http://poetryforchildren.tripod.com/poetryforchildren/id29.html 905

6.5 Other Evidence Paired Reading Fluency Check Subject: ESL

Paired Reading Fluency Check Evaluation Sheet
Reader’s name: ____________________________________ Evaluator’s name: __________________________________ Name of Text: ____________________________________ Reading 1: How did my partner read the first time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Reading 2: How did I my partner read the second time? (Reader check one)

Suggestions: Check the suggestions that best apply to your partner. ______ Remember to read a little faster. ______ Remember to read a little slower. ______ Remember to read with expression. ______ Remember to pause at the end of a comma and stop at the end of a period. ______ You forgot the words _____, _____, and ______. ______ Next time, remember to say __________, not __________. ______ Remember to say the ending of words. For example, the letter “s” in the word, “reads.” Notes for my partner: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Adapted from Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males by Alfred Tatum 906

6.5 Other Evidence Reflective Journal Subject: ESL

Reflective Journal
Directions: Write a short journal to think about your project. In your journal answer the following questions: What I did Explain what you or your group did to finish your project.

What I enjoyed

Write about what you liked most about the project.

What I found difficult

Write about any part of the project you found hard to do.

What really worked

Write about any part that you thought worked well

Next time

Write what you would do differently next time.

What I learned

Write about what you learned from this project.

Questions I still have

List any questions you still about the topic or concept you studied during this project.

Source: ReadWriteThink

907

6.5 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL

Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction
What is a Word Wall? “A word wall is an organized collection of words written in large prints and displayed in an area of the classroom where it can be seen.” -Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 “A word wall is a place on which important words are posted as references for reading and writing.” Regie Routman, “Conversations: Strategies for Teaching Learning, and Evaluating”, 2000 Why use Word Walls? • Provides a visual that helps students remember connections between words. • Serves as an important tool for helping students learn to read and spell new words. • Fosters students’ independence. • Promotes reading and writing. • Holds students accountable for spelling specific words correctly at all times. -Trisha Callella, “Making Word Walls More Interactive”, 2001 How do I set up a Word Wall? • Begin with a blank word wall. • Write the words on cards in large print with black ink. • Tape the words onto your word wall, don’t staple them so that the students can manipulate them. • Introduce approximately five words per week depending on your grade level and the difficulty level of the words. Carry over to the next week any words students are having trouble spelling. Trisha Callella, “Making Your Word Wall More Interactive”, 2001 How do I choose words? • High frequency words • Phonograms (Word families) • Contractions • Antonyms • Synonyms • Homophones • Theme Vocabulary • Personal Word Walls • Any other words that will help your students become better at reading and writing -Irene C.Fountas & Gay Su Pinnell, “Voices on Word Matters”, 1999

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6.5 Other Evidence Using Word Walls to Improve Instruction Subject: ESL There are Three Tiers of words: Tier 1 – basic words, well known, used often: clock, baby Already in oral language concepts Direct instruction rarely required Tier 2 – high-frequency words used by mature language users in a wide range of contexts: coincidence, absurd Surprising, precise and conversation Direct instruction required Tier 3 – low-frequency words, often limited to specific content areas: cirrus, mollusk Not used in many contexts Direct instruction required to include related concepts where applicable Criteria for tier one and tier two words:  Useful – can be used in many contexts for reading, writing, speaking. How generally useful is this word? Is it a word that students are likely to meet often in other texts? Will it be of use to students in describing their own experiences?  Understandable – children have some ideas or concepts to connect to the new word. How does this word relate to other words, to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to some topic of study in the classroom? Or might it add a dimension to ideas that have been developed?  Interesting – What does this word bring to a text or a situation? What role does the word play in communicating the meaning of the context in which it is used? How do we develop word knowledge?  Describe words  Support words with visuals  Connect words to students’ lives  Extend words with anecdotes  Make associations  Give definitions  Compare and contrast  Question  Chart characteristics  Rephrase sentences  Provide tactile experiences  Give examples of correct and incorrect usage  Make analogies

909 Source: Christina Casher

6.5 Performance Task List of Homophones Subject: ESL

List of Homophones
acts/ax ad/add ads/adds/adz aid/aide ail/ale air/heir/err aisle/isle/I'll all/awl all ready/already all together/altogether allowed/aloud alter/altar ant/aunt arc/ark assent/ascent assistance/assistants ate/eight aural/oral away/aweigh aye/eye bail/bale bait/bate ball/bawl band/banned bard/barred bare/bear baron/barren base/bass bases/basis bazaar/bizarre be/bee beach/beech beat/beet beau/bow bell/belle berry/bury billed/build berth/birth bite/byte blew/blue bloc/block boar/bore faze/phase feat/feet find/fined fir/fur flair/flare flea/flee flew/flu/flue flour/flower flocks/phlox for/four/fore foreword/forward fort/forte forth/fourth foul/fowl friar/fryer gait/gate gene/jean gild/guild gilt/guilt gnu/knew/new gored/gourd gorilla/guerilla grate/great grease/Greece groan/grown guessed/guest hail/hale hair/hare hall/haul halve/have hangar/hanger hay/hey heal/heel/he'll hear/here heard/herd heed/he'd hertz/hurts hew/hue/Hugh hi/high higher/hire him/hymn hoard/horde 910 pause/paws pea/pee peace/piece peak/peek/pique peal/peel pearl/purl pedal/peddle/petal peer/pier per/purr pi/pie plait/plate plain/plane pleas/please plum/plumb pole/poll pore/pour pray/prey presence/presents prince/prints principal/principle profit/prophet rack/wrack rain/reign/rein raise/rays/raze rap/wrap rapped/rapt/wrapped read/red read/reed real/reel reek/wreak rest/wrest retch/wretch review/revue right/rite/write ring/wring road/rode/rowed roam/Rome roe/row role/roll root/route rose/rows rote/wrote

6.5 Performance Task List of Homophones Subject: ESL board/bored boarder/border bode/bowed bolder/boulder born/borne bough/bow bouillon/bullion boy/buoy bread/bred brake/break brewed/brood brews/bruise bridle/bridal broach/brooch browse/brows but/butt buy/by/bye cache/cash callous/callus cannon/canon canvas/canvass capital/capitol carat/carrot/caret/karat carol/carrel cast/caste cede/seed ceiling/sealing cell/sell cellar/seller censor/sensor cent/scent/sent cents/scents/sense cereal/serial cession/session chance/chants chased/chaste cheap/cheep chews/choose chic/sheik chilly/chili choral/coral choir/quire hoarse/horse hole/whole holey/holy/wholly hoes/hose hold/holed hostel/hostile hour/our idle/idol illicit/elicit in/inn insight/incite instance/instants intense/intents its/it's jam/jamb colonel/kernel knap/nap knead/kneed/need knight/night knit/nit knot/not know/no knows/nose laid/lade lain/lane lay/lei leach/leech lead/led leak/leek lean/lien leased/least lee/lea lessen/lesson levee/levy liar/lier/lyre lichen/liken lie/lye lieu/Lou links/lynx load/lode loan/lone locks/lox rough/ruff rung/wrung rye/wry sail/sale scene/seen scull/skull sea/see seam/seem seas/sees/seize serf/surf sew/so/sow shear/sheer shoe/shoo shone/shown side/sighed sighs/size slay/sleigh sleight/slight slew/slue/slough soar/sore soared/sword sole/soul some/sum son/sun staid/stayed stair/stare stake/steak stationary/stationery steal/steel step/steppe stile/style straight/strait suite/sweet surge/serge tacks/tax tail/tale taught/taut tea/tee team/teem tear/tier tern/turn their/there/they're

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6.5 Performance Task List of Homophones Subject: ESL chute/shoot chord/cord cite/sight/site clause/claws click/clique close/clothes/cloze coal/cole coarse/course colonel/kernel complement/compliment coo/coup coop/coupe core/corps correspondence/correspondents council/counsel creak/creek crews/cruise cruel/crewel cue/queue currant/current curser/cursor cymbal/symbol dam/damn days/daze dear/deer defused/diffused desert (abandon)/dessert dew/do/due die/dye disburse/disperse discreet/discrete doe/dough/do (musical note) done/dun draft/draught dual/duel earn/urn ewe/you/yew eye/I faint/feint fair/fare faun/fawn loot/lute low/lo made/maid mail/male main/mane/Maine maize/maze mall/maul manner/manor mantel/mantle marry/merry/Mary marshal/martial massed/mast maybe/may be meat/meet/mete medal/metal/mettle/meddle might/mite mince/mints mind/mined miner/minor missed/mist moan/mown mode/mowed moose/mousse morn/mourn muscle/mussel mustard/mustered naval/navel nay/neigh none/nun oar/or/ore ode/owed oh/owe one/won overdo/overdue overseas/oversees pail/pale pain/pane pair/pare/pear palate/palette/pallet passed/past patience/patients theirs/there's threw/through thrown/throne thyme/time tic/tick tide/tied to/too/two toad/towed toe/tow told/tolled trussed/trust vain/vane/vein vale/veil vary/very vial/vile vice/vise wade/weighed wail/whale waist/waste wait/weight waive/wave want/wont ware/wear/where way/weigh/whey ways/weighs we/wee weak/week we'll/wheel weather/whether we'd/weed we've/weave wet/whet which/witch while/wile whine/wine who's/whose wood/would yoke/yolk yore/your/you're you'll/Yule

912

6.5 Performance Task List of Homophones Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

913

6.5 Sample Lesson Similes and Metaphors Subject: ESL

Sample Lesson Plan for Teaching Similes and Metaphors
Goal: Students should be able to use their knowledge of similes and metaphors to promote their appreciation and understanding of poetry. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to interpret similes and metaphors. 2. Students will be able to write similes and metaphors. 3. Students will be able to write similes and metaphors that describe a person from your city, TV, or an era in history Materials: Introductory poem with examples of similes and metaphors Introductory questions to stimulate discussion: 1. What are some ways authors write to make their details more vivid? 2. What are some good describing words to describe a (list something)? 3. How can we write things to show comparisons? Introduction Activity: Students should be given definitions of both the simile and metaphor and those definitions should be discussed. Body: 1. Read or display the introductory poem. 2. Have the students identify the similes and metaphors and what is being compared. 3. Have the students change the similes to metaphors and the metaphors to similes. 4. Use the list of sample similes and metaphors and have the students identify each. 5. As a class, choose a person from TV or an era in history and write several similes and metaphors to describe the person. 6. Have each student choose a different person write similes and metaphors to describe that person. Tell the students to base their comparisons on facts. Evaluation Activity: Assess students similes and metaphors:-Did they use like or as in similes?-Did they use comparisons?-Is the information accurate about the person they chose?

914

6.5 Sample Lesson Similes and Metaphors Subject: ESL

THE SIMILE
A simile is a comparison using like or as. It usually compares two dissimilar objects. For example: His feet were as big as boats. We are comparing the size of feet to boats. Using the poem below underline all of the similes. Decide which items are being compared. (Simile) Willow and Ginkgo Eve Merriam The willow is like an etching, Fine-lined against the sky. The ginkgo is like a crude sketch, Hardly worthy to be signed. The willow’s music is like a soprano, Delicate and thin. The ginkgo’s tune is like a chorus With everyone joining in. The willow is sleek as a velvet-nosed calf; The ginkgo is leathery as an old bull. The willow’s branches are like silken thread; The ginkgo’s like stubby rough wool. The willow is like a nymph with streaming hair; Wherever it grows, there is green and gold and fair. The willow dips to the water, Protected and precious, like the king’s favorite daughter. The ginkgo forces its way through gray concrete; Like a city child, it grows up in the street. Thrust against the metal sky, Somehow it survives and even thrives. My eyes feast upon the willow, But my heart goes to the ginkgo. THE METAPHOR A metaphor states that one thing is something else. It is a comparison, but it does NOT use like or as to make the comparison. For example: Her hair is silk. The sentence is comparing (or stating) that hair is silk. Take a piece of blank white paper and fold it into fourths. In one block, write a simile and illustrate it. In the block immediately to the right, write the same sentence as a metaphor. Do the same for the other two blocks.

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6.5 Sample Lesson Similes and Metaphors Subject: ESL NAME ____________________

Identifying Similes and Metaphors Poetry Worksheet #1 Decide whether each sentence contains a simile or a metaphor. Write the word SIMILE if the sentence contains a simile. Write the word METAPHOR if the sentence contains a metaphor. 1. The baby was like an octopus, grabbing at all the cans on the grocery store shelves. 2. As the teacher entered the room she muttered under her breath, "This class is like a three-ring circus!" 3. The giant’s steps were thunder as he ran toward Jack. 4. The pillow was a cloud when I put my head upon it after a long day. 5. I feel like a limp dishrag. 6. Those girls are like two peas in a pod. 7. The fluorescent light was the sun during our test. 8. No one invites Harold to parties because he’s a wet blanket. 9. The bar of soap was a slippery eel during the dog’s bath. 10. Ted was as nervous as a cat with a long tail in a room full of rocking chairs.

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6.5 Sample Lesson Similes and Metaphors Subject: ESL NAME ____________________

Identifying The Words and Meaning of Metaphors and Simile Poetry Worksheet #2 On your own paper or the computer's word processor, find the metaphor and write it down, and write the words being compared on your paper. Write the meaning of the simile or metaphor based on the context of the sentence. 1. The baby was like an octopus, grabbing at all the cans on the grocery store shelves. 2. As the teacher entered the room she muttered under her breath, "This class is like a three-ring circus!" 3. The giant’s steps were thunder as he ran toward Jack. 4. The pillow was a cloud when I put my head upon it after a long day. 5. I feel like a limp dishrag. 6. Those girls are like two peas in a pod. 7. The fluorescent light was the sun during our test. 8. No one invites Harold to parties because he’s a wet blanket. 9. The bar of soap was a slippery eel during the dog’s bath. 10. Ted was as nervous as a cat with a long tail in a room full of rocking chairs.

Source: http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/bedford/harrisms/2poe.htm 917

6.5 Text Homophone Poetry Subject: ESL

Homophone Poetry
“Night" It's dark outside, and the moon casts Its eerie glow over the shadowy world. It's nearly midnight, and a cat swishes Its agile tail while pursuing Its prey. It's windy, and the breeze passes Its twisting arms over leaves and branches that shudder in Its wake. It's dark outside, and chilly. "There in the Night" There are so many of them. They're depressed, they're miserable. Their bodies long ago succumbed to the cold and Their minds to the darkness. There in the night, they lie with Their thoughts pounding sharp daggers into Their long-numbed consciousnesses until They're reduced to bloody black nothings. They're gasping, grasping for someone who understands Their agony, but There is no one so They're going to give up, and then Their pain will be no more. "Who Can Judge?" Who's worthy to judge me? Whose knowledge lets them understand someone Who's lived such totally different life? Someone Whose thoughts, and Whose experiences are so different? Who's wisdom can possibly encompass a person Whose shoes they've never walked in? Who's ever going to be able to understand me, and Who's at all fit to judge me, save myself?

Source: http://h.whyville.net/smmk/whytimes/article?id=3523 918

6.5 Text I Rise Subject: ESL

I Rise, I Rise
I rise, I rise, I, whose tread makes the earth to rumble. I rise, I rise, I, in whose thighs there is strength. I rise, I rise, I, who whips his back with his tail when in rage. I rise, I rise, I, in whose humped shoulder there is power. I rise, I rise, I, who shakes his mane when angered. I rise, I rise, I, whose horns are sharp and curved. Collected by Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve in Dancing Teepees (Holiday House, 1989) Introduction This is a serious poem from an Osage prayer offered before a young man's first buffalo hunt-- a rite of passage into adulthood. Extension Divide the children into two groups to read the alternating lines chorally.

Source: http://poetryforchildren.tripod.com/poetryforchildren/id40.html 919

6.5 Text Robert Frost Subject: ESL

Robert Frost
Robert Frost was born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874. He moved to New England at the age of eleven and became interested in reading and writing poetry during his high school years in Lawrence, Massachusetts. He was enrolled at Dartmouth College in 1892, and later at Harvard, though he never earned a formal degree. Frost drifted through a string of occupations after leaving school, working as a teacher, cobbler, and editor of the Lawrence Sentinel. His first professional poem, "My Butterfly," was published on November 8, 1894, in the New York newspaper The Independent. In 1895, Frost married Elinor Miriam White, who became a major inspiration in his poetry until her death in 1938. The couple moved to England in 1912, after their New Hampshire farm failed, and it was abroad that Frost met and was influenced by such contemporary British poets as Edward Thomas, Rupert Brooke, and Robert Graves. While in England, Frost also established a friendship with the poet Ezra Pound, who helped to promote and publish his work. By the time Frost returned to the United States in 1915, he had published two full-length collections, A Boy's Will and North of Boston, and his reputation was established. By the nineteen-twenties, he was the most celebrated poet in America, and with each new book—including New Hampshire (1923), A Further Range (1936), Steeple Bush (1947), and In the Clearing (1962)—his fame and honors (including four Pulitzer Prizes) increased. Though his work is principally associated with the life and landscape of New England, and though he was a poet of traditional verse forms and metrics who remained steadfastly aloof from the poetic movements and fashions of his time, Frost is anything but a merely regional or minor poet. The author of searching and often dark meditations on universal themes, he is a quintessentially modern poet in his adherence to language as it is actually spoken, in the psychological complexity of his portraits, and in the degree to which his work is infused with layers of ambiguity and irony. In a 1970 review of The Poetry of Robert Frost, the poet Daniel Hoffman describes Frost's early work as "the Puritan ethic turned astonishingly lyrical and enabled to say out loud the sources of its own delight in the world," and comments on Frost's career as The American Bard: "He became a national celebrity, our nearly official Poet Laureate, and a great performer in the tradition of that earlier master of the literary vernacular, Mark Twain." About Frost, President John F. Kennedy said, "He has bequeathed his nation a body of imperishable verse from which Americans will forever gain joy and understanding." Robert Frost lived and taught for many years in Massachusetts and Vermont, and died in Boston on January 29, 1963.

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6.5 Text Robert Frost Subject: ESL A Selected Bibliography Poetry A Boy's Will (1913) North of Boston (1914) Mountain Interval (1916) New Hampshire (1923) West-Running Brook (1928) The Lovely Shall Be Choosers (1929) The Lone Striker (1933) From Snow to Snow (1936) A Further Range (1936) A Witness Tree (1942) Come In, and Other Poems (1943) Masque of Reason (1945) Steeple Bush (1947) Hard Not to be King (1951)

Source: http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/192 921

6.5 Text The Pasture Subject: ESL

The Pasture
by Robert Lee Frost I'm going out to clean the pasture spring; I'll only stop to rake the leaves away (And wait to watch the water clear, I may): I sha'n't be gone long.--You come too.

I'm going out to fetch the little calf That's standing by the mother. It's so young, It totters when she licks it with her tongue. I sha'n't be gone long.--You come too.

Source: http://www.emule.com/poetry/?page=poem&poem=4002 1

6.5 Text The Road Not Taken Subject: ESL

The Road Not Taken
by Robert Lee Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that, the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I -I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.

Source: Robert Lee Frost 1

6.5 Text Who Am I? Subject: ESL

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6.5 Text Who Am I? Subject: ESL

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6.5 Text Who Am I? Subject: ESL

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6.5 Text Who Am I? Subject: ESL

Source: Scholastic Professional Books

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6.5 Text Willow and Ginkgo Subject: ESL

Using the poem below underline all of the similes. Decide which items are being compared.

Willow and Ginkgo
by Eve Merriam The willow is like an etching, Fine-lined against the sky. The ginkgo is like a crude sketch, Hardly worthy to be signed. The willow’s music is like a soprano, Delicate and thin. The ginkgo’s tune is like a chorus With everyone joining in. The willow is sleek as a velvet-nosed calf; The ginkgo is leathery as an old bull. The willow’s branches are like silken thread; The ginkgo’s like stubby rough wool. The willow is like a nymph with streaming hair; Wherever it grows, there is green and gold and fair. The willow dips to the water, Protected and precious, like the king’s favorite daughter. The ginkgo forces its way through gray concrete; Like a city child, it grows up in the street. Thrust against the metal sky, Somehow it survives and even thrives. My eyes feast upon the willow, But my heart goes to the ginkgo.

928 Source: Eve Merriam

6.5 Text Wishing Well Subject: ESL

WISHING WELL
By Ros Shrapnel With long graceful strides to a door To adore, To bare witness a dazzling vivid seen Vivid scene, Up top his hair prospers fair Prospers fare, O’ shiny white my night My knight, Lo, his redolent charming sent Charming scent, My heart’s aflutter for days to a week So weak, I draw nigh to the wishing well Wishing well, Parting with a golden coin, penny, cent Sent, To wish it cometh to be leased At least, As I dwell in this mourning This morning, ‘Tis he whom I thee missed I the mist, Drift thy prayers and chants And chance, That he shall love me forever holy Forever wholly!

929 Source: Ros Shrapnel

6.5 Writing Tool Poetry Prompt List Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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6.5 Writing Tool Simile Brainstorm Subject: ESL

Source: ReadWriteThink

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English as a Second Language
Curriculum Maps Grade 7

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7.1 Being Puerto Rican through Folktales Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will reflect on what it means to be Puerto Rican through discussion, writing personal narratives and folktales. Students will study folktale structure and compare and contrast Puerto Rican folktales to folktales around the world, culminating in writing their own folktale. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.7.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of fiction and nonfiction to comprehend, generalize, relate to character and setting, and make connections to text. L/S.7.4 Applies correct language patterns to organize events in a variety of narrative texts and identifies problem and solution within presented literature. Reading R.7.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning using prior knowledge to relate to new meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar, multiple-meaning, and compound words. R.7.3 Distinguishes main character from supporting characters, compares and contrasts characters traits, describes and explains setting in fiction. R.7.4 Sorts and organizes relevant events, states cause and effect, makes connections, predictions and inferences; draws conclusions; states the problem and solution in fiction and nonfiction. Writing W.7.1 Combines sentences and ideas by using simple transitional phrases; applies commas to correctly punctuate and construct sentences; distinguishes complete sentences from fragments and run-on sentences. W.7.5 Uses the writing process; applies prewriting strategies to generate ideas; uses the dictionary and thesaurus as an aid in the writing process; revises writing; proofreads to identify errors in spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation when prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and writes a final draft. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Our home country influences who we are through its language, culture, and customs.  The setting of our lives shapes who we are by providing novel experiences.  Folktales provide entertainment, but also share local wisdom or lessons to be learned. Content (Students will know…)  Correct language patterns to organize events in a variety of narrative texts such as folktales orally and in writing Folktale Structure (focused on a problem, solution aided by magic or unreal events, a lesson or moral is learned)  Problem and solution within presented literature such as folktales June 2011 Essential Questions:  What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?  Does our home make us who we are?  Why do people tell stories?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond to read alouds of folktales in order to comprehend, generalize, relate to character and setting and make connections to text  Apply context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning using prior knowledge to relate to new meaning 933

7.1 Being Puerto Rican through Folktales Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks  Proverbs from other countries (will also collect their own from Puerto Rico) o One finger cannot lift a pebble (Iranian). o When elephants battle, the ants perish (Cambodian). o If you chase two hares, you will not catch either (Russian). o The pot calls the kettle black (United States). o It is better to turn back than to get lost (Russian). o Handsome words don't butter cabbage (German). o Talk does not cook rice (Chinese). o After the rain, there is no need for an umbrella (Bulgaria) . o When the kettle boils over, it overflows its own sides (Yiddish). o You can't chew with somebody else's teeth (Yiddish). o Mistrust is an axe at the tree of love (Russian).  The writing process (prewriting, drafting, revising and editing with peers, final draft, publishing) Content Vocabulary  Proverb  Folktale  Lesson  Moral  Wisdom  Inference  Connection  Prediction  Exaggeration  Proofread Performance Tasks: Stories from my Home Country Write a personal narrative on an event that happened in their home country that influenced who you are.  Select a clear, powerful memory of an event that shaped what being Puerto Rican means June 2011

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Distinguish main character from supporting characters in folktales Compare and contrast characters traits of characters in folktales Describe and explain setting in folktales Sort and organize relevant events in folktales (sequencing events) Make connections, predictions and inferences in order to draw conclusions while reading folktales State the problem and solution in folktales Combine sentences and ideas by using simple transitional phrases Use the writing process when drafting and revising folktales Apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas for writing folktales Use the dictionary and thesaurus as an aid in the writing process for writing folktales Revise writing of folktales Proofread folktales to identify errors in spelling, capitalization, and ending punctuation when prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and writing a final draft

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall (See Attachment: 7.1 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Word Detective: Select Seven vocabulary words from a text and have students complete a Word Detective Organizer for 934

7.1 Being Puerto Rican through Folktales Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks to you.  Include description of sensory language that makes the reader feel as if they were there (See Attachment: 7.1 Writing Tool - Sensory Language).  Write in the first person and include dialogue and internal thought.  Use transitions to guide the reader (See Attachment: 7.1 Writing Tool - Transition Words).  Follow the writing process (prewriting, drafting, revising and editing with peers, final draft, publishing).  Peer edit and self assess published piece using rubric (See Attachment: 7.1 Writing Tool – Personal Narrative Rubric). Modern Day Puerto Rican Folktales  Prewriting: Read Puerto Rican folktales, collect folktales and proverbs from family members and friends.  Invite family members into the classroom to share folktales and proverbs, discuss how folktales impart local wisdom and culture.  Select a Puerto Rican proverb or create your own lesson that will share an important part of Puerto Rican culture or beliefs to your readers.  Plan out your folktale (See Attachment: 7.1 Graphic Organizer – Folktale Story Map).  Include humorous dialogue and some magic or unreal events that lead to the solution of the problem.  Follow the writing process (prewriting, drafting, revise and edit with peers, final draft, publishing).  Peer edit and self assess published piece using rubric (See Attachment: 7.1 Writing Tool - Folktale Rubric).  Share folktales in a celebration: invite family members to come and read student’s folktales and have students discuss the process they went through to write them. Reader’s Theater: Adapt a Puerto Rican Folktale in to a play  Edit and revise the text of a Puerto Rican June 2011 935

each one (See Attachments: 7.1 Other Evidence – Word Detective Organizer and 7.1 Other Evidence – Word Detective Example) Vocabulary Analysis (See Attachment: 7.1 Graphic Organizer – Vocabulary)  While students are reading folktales, have them keep a dialogue journal of their inferences and connections (See Attachment: 7.1 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal, Making Inferences)

7.1 Being Puerto Rican through Folktales Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks folktale into a play format (cutting out lines, revising narration by shortening it for the narrator) (See Attachment: 7.1 Performance Task – Sample Reader’s Theater Script).  Revise and proofread the script to ensure it has the description of setting, characters, problem and solution, dialogue of characters.  Guidance on how to adapt a story to a script: http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/Tips1.html  Guidance on how to Stage a play: http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/Tips2.html  Guidance on how to read or perform a play: http://www.aaronshep.com/rt/Tips3.html  Teacher has the option of having all students perform in one play, or having two plays. Have students select roles (have multiple narrators), and crew (directors, props, plan and create background scenery). Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?  Introduce the theme of the year of “Being Puerto Rican” by having a free write on the question: “What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?” Share writing and have a discussion. Create a poster showing: “Being Puerto Rican means….” and have students keep a list in their journal.  Write a “Who I am” poem about Puerto Rico (See Attachment: 7.1 Learning Activity – Who I am Poem)  Read the poem, “Coca-Cola and Coco Frio” by Martin Espada. Share connections and inferences based on the poem and free write “Am I more Coca-Cola or Coco Frio?” Then share and engage in a discussion about what it means to be Puerto Rican. Is it one or the other, or a mix of cultures? (See Attachment: 7.1 Text – Coca Cola or Coco Frio). Folktales: Problem and Solution and Character Analysis  Discuss how folktales follow a narrative of a problem and a solution. Typically the solution is solved by an unreal event occurring or by magic. While reading folk tales, emphasize examples of magic solutions in a class chart. Have students also create the chart in their journals (See Attachment: 7.1 Graphic Organizer – Folktale Problem and Solution Chart).  Summarize problem and solution of folktales (See Attachment: 7.1 Graphic Organizer – Folktale Story Map).  Compare and contrast lessons learned from Puerto Rican Folktales (See Attachment: 7.1 Graphic Organizer – Folktale Comparison Chart).  Compare and contrast characters from folktales (See Attachment: 7.1 Graphic Organizer– Character Comparison Chart). Sequencing  Cut a folktale into separate parts and with pairs rearrange the story in the appropriate sequence, using time sequencing words to organize the events (See Attachment: 7.1 Writing Tool – Transition June 2011 936

7.1 Being Puerto Rican through Folktales Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks Words).  Copy a folktale from a printed anthology and cut it up into sections or scenes. Paste each section on a separate page. Give out the sheets to students who each prepare to retell their small piece of the whole story. Assemble the story by having each student retell his or her part in the plot's sequence. Have students keep the flow going as the story is told so that the performance moves along as though one person were telling it. Do a second round by giving students different sections to retell. Notice how differently students retell the same sections. Proofreading  When introducing the proofreading (revising and editing) in the writing process of writing, model how to edit for capitalization, spelling, sentences, by writing a sample paragraph with errors and having students find the errors with a partner.  Select a topic for editing every week (capitalization, punctuation, correcting fragments, correcting run-on sentences, correcting dialogue) and edit the same text as a class on a chart, the chalkboard, or an overhead projector. Sample Lessons  Lessons on Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales (See Attachment: 7.1 Sample Lesson – Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales)  Lesson on Analyzing Folktales from Around the World: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/exploring-world-cultures-through-91.html  Proofreading Lesson (See Attachment: 7.1 Sample Lesson – Sentence Proofreading) Additional Resources  Puerto Rican Folktale: “The Pesky Goat” (See Attachment: 7.1 Resource – Puerto Rican Folktale 1)  Puerto Rican Folktale: “Rabbit and the Tiger” (See Attachment: 7.1 Resource – Puerto Rican Folktale 2)  Folktales from around the world: http://www.unc.edu/~rwilkers/title.htm Literature Connections  Golden Tales: Myths Legends and Folktales from Latin America by Lulu Delacre  Best Loved Folktales from Around the World by Joanna Cole  12 Fabulously Funny Folktale Plays: Super-Engaging Fractured Tales That Boost Fluency, Vocabulary & Comprehension by Justin McCory Martin

June 2011 937 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

7.2 What Do I Love About Puerto Rico? Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will do a non-fiction study on what they love about Puerto Rico. They will also research the climate and geography of Puerto Rico to create travel guide to their home country, with a writing focus on prefixes, suffixes, commas, and sentence variation. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.7.5 Explains the main idea or topic; identifies important details from learned concepts or read alouds in a variety of expository texts; applies sequence of events to summarize. Reading R.7.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning using prior knowledge to relate to new meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar, multiple-meaning, and compound words. R.7.4 Sorts and organizes relevant events, states cause and effect, makes connections, predictions and inferences; draws conclusions; states the problem and solution in fiction and nonfiction. Writing W.7.1 Combines sentences and ideas by using simple transitional phrases; applies commas to correctly punctuate and construct sentences; distinguishes complete sentences from fragments and run-on sentences. W.7.3 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, expository and persuasive forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph; applies organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Our home country influences who we are through its language, culture, and customs  Personal expression can promote pride and a sense of identity.  Punctuation serves a purpose and provides meaning to sentences. Content (Students will know…)  Correct usage of commas to vary sentences (in a list, with adjectives, with conjunctions, with adverbial clauses, with quotation marks, and appositives) Content Vocabulary  Appositive  Conjunction  Prefix  Suffix  Comma  Quotation mark  Adverbial clause  Clause June 2011 Essential Questions:  What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?  What do I love about Puerto Rico?  What do our creations say about us?  Why use punctuation at all?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Explain the main idea or topic in nonfiction texts  Identify important details from learned concepts or read alouds in a variety of expository texts  Apply sequence of events to summarize nonfiction texts  Use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar, multiple-meaning, and compound words  Sort and organize relevant events in nonfiction  State cause and effect in nonfiction  Make connections, predictions, and inferences in order to draw conclusions in nonfiction 938

7.2 What Do I Love About Puerto Rico? Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks  Phrase  Arts  Culture  Music  Sports  Crafts  Literature  Climate  Geography Performance Tasks: Puerto Rican Travel Brochures Research the climate and geography of Puerto Rico and create a brochure describing the geographic treasures of Puerto Rico. Brochure must have:  Description of three “must visit places” to enjoy the natural beauty of Puerto Rico  Description of what clothes visitors need to bring to be prepared for the climate and the best time to visit  Proper use of commas to create a variety of sentences Puerto Rican Pride Posters Select and research examples of Puerto Rican culture that make you proud (e.g. sports, sport players, music style or musicians, art or artists, history, dance, etc.)  Each topic must have an expository paragraph describing the activity or artist that has a clear main idea, supporting details, and conclusion  Select a graphic organizer that will best help organize information (See Attachments: 7.2 Graphic Organizer – Sequencing Chart, 7.2 Graphic Organizer – Timeline, 7.2 Graphic Organizer – Main Idea and Details Pyramid, 7.2 Graphic Organizer – Cause and Effect, and 7.2 Graphic Organizer – Venn Lines)  Use rainbow writing strategy to organize paragraphs (See Attachment: 7.2 Performance Task – Rainbow Writing Paragraph Organizer)  Have students engage in peer and selfediting (See Attachment: 7.2 Writing Tool – June 2011

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State the problem and solution in nonfiction Apply commas to correctly punctuate and construct sentences Self edit and peer edit for comma use Use a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall (See Attachment: 7.2 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Word Detective: Select Seven vocabulary words from a text and have students complete a Word Detective Organizer for each one (See Attachments: 7.2 Other Evidence – Word Detective Organizer and 7.2 Other Evidence – Word Detective Example)  Weekly prefix and suffix quiz (for this unit) (See Attachment: 7.2 Other Evidence – Prefix and Suffix Quiz)  Comma quiz created by students (See Attachments: 7.2 Resource – Commas in Clauses and 7.2 Resource – Commas in list for examples)  Draw conclusions and identify effects in nonfiction (See Attachment: 7.2 Other Evidence – Dialogue Journal Drawing Conclusions)

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7.2 What Do I Love About Puerto Rico? Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks Paragraph Checklist)  Illustrate poster and present to class Comma Posters Have students get into groups and create a poster for one of the six ways of using commas to vary sentences (in a list, with adjectives, with conjunctions, with adverbial clauses, with quotation marks, and appositives)  Examples of comma use and example sentences (See Attachment: 7.2 Resource Comma Rules and Lessons)  Each poster must explain how to properly use the comma, give examples that are correct and incorrect, and include illustrations  Students must explain clearly and present to the group Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Non Fiction Reading: Puerto Rico  Connect to the previous unit on folktales and Puerto Rican culture to brainstorm points of Puerto Rican pride for the students. What makes Puerto Rico unique? As a class brainstorm a list of examples of creativity and culture in Puerto Rico.  During a read aloud, model how to use facts from a non-fiction to draw conclusions (See Attachment: 7.2 Learning Activity – Drawing Conclusions). Prefixes and Suffixes  Select four prefixes and four suffixes a week to review with students. Add them to the word wall and have them find examples of these prefixes and suffixes in reading, dictionaries (See Attachment: 7.2 Learning Activity – Prefix and Suffix List).  Create flashcards of words that use the prefix and/or suffix and have students find their pairs (example: pre- and occupied can match to create preoccupied).  Find Spanish cognates (if word is Latin based, there is a Spanish cognate).  Look up words in the dictionary that use the prefix and give their meaning in student’s own words.  Select suffixes that correspond with people ( -ant, -ent, -er, -or, -ian, and -ist all mean a person who when added to a verb or noun) have students come up with description of themselves or a partner that use a suffix (e.g. paint +er = painter). Commas and Sentence Variation  Commas separate a series of items in a list. Have students orally list what their favorite activities are to a partner. Have a partner take the list and write it as a sentence using commas (e.g., I love basketball, football, and soccer. Also have them list phrases: I enjoy reading books, writing letters to friends, and cooking).  Commas help vary our sentences by combining two independent clauses with a conjunction (and, but, or, yet, so). Select a topic or have partners select a topic. Have partners write sentences on sentence strips on the topic and see how they can combine their sentences using commas and June 2011 940

7.2 What Do I Love About Puerto Rico? Subject: ESL Length: 7 weeks conjunctions.  Commas help add detail to sentences through adverbial phrases. Write simple sentences, such as: “A boy ran through the park.” Show how you can add on to the sentence using adverbial phrases, such as: “In the middle of the night, through the darkness, a boy ran through the park.” Or “A boy ran through the park, just in time to catch dinner.”  Commas help describe people or places by giving descriptions (known as an appositive) (e.g. James, my older brother, now lives in Bolivia). Have students work with a partner to describe themselves or a family member using appositives. Sample Lessons  Lesson on prefixes, suffixes, and root words: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/improve-comprehension-word-game-1042.html  Lessons on comma uses (See Attachment: 7.2 Sample Lesson – Comma Rules and Lessons) Additional Resources  Encyclopedia on Puerto Rican Culture: http://enciclopediapr.org/ing/  On Six Regions of Puerto Rico: http://www.seepuertorico.com/regions  On Puerto Rico’s Geography: http://welcome.topuertorico.org/geogra.shtml Literature Connections  Atlas de Puerto Rico by Angel David Cruz Báez  EL YUNQUE: Exploring the rain forest of Puerto Rico by Lisa Johnson Vargas  Fiesta en Puerto Rico by Tere Davilad  Puerto Rico Natural by Alfonso Silva Lee

June 2011 941 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

7.3 Poetry: Ode to Puerto Rico Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will analyze poetry by Langston Hughes and Newyorican poets to identify their message and understand their use of poetic devices. By studying these poets, students will perform and write their own poetry that celebrates their own identity and passion. A word study of root words and subject-verb agreement is also included. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening/Speaking L/S.7.1 Listens and responds during a read aloud from a variety of fiction and nonfiction to comprehend, generalize, relate to character and setting, and make connections to text. Reading R.7.6 Identifies imagery and the elements of poetry. R.7.2 Applies context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning using prior knowledge to relate to new meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar, multiple-meaning, and compound words. Writing W.7.2 Applies the parts of speech; identifies the subjects and objects in sentences; uses correct subject-verb agreement. W.7.4 Uses poetry and sensory elements to develop simple poems. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Our home country influences who we are through its language, culture, and customs.  People write poetry to release emotion and capture an essence.  Words are powerful and can make readers connect emotionally to the writer.  Figurative language is used in poems to strengthen their essence and convey a message to the listener or reader. Content (Students will know…)  That poetry is organized into stanzas and lines  Different forms of poetry (free verse, rhyming, ode)  The difference between a simile and metaphor  Sensory language (sight, sound, taste, touch, feel, smell)  Root Words (e.g. equa-, hydro-, arch-, -graph, -morph, -nym, scrib-, spec-, -spire, terr-, theo-)  Subject-Verb agreement (e.g. I eat, she/he/it eats, you eat, they eat, we eat, everyone June 2011 Essential Questions:  What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?  How do writers use words to capture an experience?  Why write poetry?  How is poetry a celebration?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Listen and respond during a read aloud from a variety of poems to make connections to text  Apply context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess the meaning of unknown words  Identify imagery (through sensory language, and figurative language) and elements of poetry such as repetition, rhythm, stanzas, and lines  Use poetry and sensory elements to develop simple poems  Identify root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar, multiple-meaning, and 942

7.3 Poetry: Ode to Puerto Rico Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks eats) Content Vocabulary  Stanza  Line  Free-verse  Rhyming  Sensory language  Figurative language  Simile  Metaphor  Onomatopoeia  Repetition  Rhythm  Root word  Ode  Subject-verb agreement Performance Tasks: Class Poetry Book Have students write and publish two original poems for a class poetry book. Poems must have:  Figurative Language (a simile or metaphor)  Sensory Language (description using the senses)  Organization into lines and stanzas  Rhythm when read aloud  Have students peer edit work for subject verb agreement and poetic devices  Have students have a “Poetry Slam” where they select a poem from the book they would like to read aloud. Student must practice poem to read with rhythm, fluency, and intonation. Revise and edit “Who I am” Poem from Unit 7.1 Poem must:  Include figurative Language (a simile or metaphor)  Include sensory Language (description using the senses)  Be organized into lines and stanzas  Have a rhythm when read aloud  Be peer edited for subject verb agreement and poetic devices June 2011

compound words Use correct subject-verb agreement in writing

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall (See Attachment: 7.3 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Word Detective: Select Seven vocabulary words from a text and have students complete a Word Detective Organizer for each one (See Attachments: 7.3 Other Evidence – Word Detective Organizer and 7.3 Other Evidence – Word Detective Example)  Weekly root word quiz (for this unit) (See Attachment: 7.3 Other Evidence – Root Word Quiz)  Subject –Verb Quiz (See Attachment: 7.3 Other Evidence – Subject-Verb Quiz)  Poetry Assessment (See Attachment: 7.3 Other Evidence – Poetry Assessment)  Figurative Language Assessment (See Attachment: 7.3 Other Evidence – Figurative Language Assessment)  Poetry Unit Reflection (See Attachment: 7.3 Other Evidence – Poetry Unit Reflection)

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7.3 Poetry: Ode to Puerto Rico Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks Ode to Puerto Rico Posters Writing an Ode poem to Puerto Rico and illustrating its imagery (See Attachment: 7.3 Performance Task – Ode to Puerto Rico Posters)  Include figurative language and sensory language  Have peer edit work for subject verb agreement and poetic devices  Proofread poem with a partner  Perform poem in front of class with accuracy, fluency, and intonation Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Poetry  Introduce unit as a celebration of Puerto Rico through rhythm and words. Have students discuss and free write on the topic “Why do people write poetry?” Read aloud “Here” and “Not Neither” by Sandra Maria Esteves (See Attachment: 7.3 Text – Newyorican Poetry) to discuss question “Why do people write poetry?” and come up with a group definition why: Identity? Emotion? Expression? Celebration?  Analyze the poetry of Langston Hughes for a variety of poetic devices: onomatopoeia, figurative language, simile, metaphor, rhythm, and message (See Attachment: 7.3 Text – Langston Hughes).  Once students are comfortable with poetic devices and analyzing the speaker’s message of poetry, have them self select poetry (See Attachment: 7.3 Text – Newyorican Poetry) to analyze for message and poetic devices.  Have students find examples of sensory language in poetry (See Attachment: 7.3 Graphic Organizer – Sensory Language)  Cut up a poem (Suggested Poem: “Juan” by Margarita Engle) and have students organize the words into lines and stanzas to infer where pauses would create rhythm and emphasis (See Attachment: 7.3 Learning Activity – Lines and Stanzas).  Find poetry in everyday life by having students select a song and analyze song lyrics for poetic devices for sound: rhyme, pattern, alliteration, repetition.  Perform a poem (See Attachment: 7.3 Text – Newyorican Poetry) with fluency, accuracy, and intonation. Root Words  Select six root words a week to review with students. Add them to the word wall and have them find examples of these root words in reading, dictionaries (See Attachment: 7.3 Resource – Root Words List)  Create root word trees from the root words with a partner or by themselves (See Attachment: 7.3 Graphic Organizer – Root Word Trees)  Create word cards of words that use the root words and have students find their pairs (example: spec- and –tacle create spectacle).  Brainstorm words they already know that use the root words as a class and create posters or drawings that represent the root word.  Search for words that come from the root words from the reading to add to a class chart and keep June 2011 944

7.3 Poetry: Ode to Puerto Rico Subject: ESL Length: 5 weeks a list in their journals. Subject-Verb Agreement  Explain how subject-verb agreement means that the number of subjects determines what tense the verb is (e.g. one brother finds a dollar, two brothers find a dollar). A singular subject has no “s” on the end, but a singular verb has an “s,” whereas the opposite is true for plural subjects and verbs. Have students write down a sentence with the word “everyone” Discuss if everyone is singular or plural.  Write a paragraph on the board or overhead that has mistakes with subject-verb agreement. Have students find the mistakes and fix them. Have them explain what clue helped them find the mistake  Find examples of subject-verb agreement in poetry. Sample Lessons  Lesson on analyzing an ode poem (See Attachment: 7.3 Sample Lesson – The Elements of Poetry)  Lessons on subject-verb Agreement (See Attachment: 7.3 Sample Lesson – Subject-Verb)  Lessons on teaching root words (See Attachment: 7.3 Sample Lesson –Teaching Root Words)  Lessons on teaching figurative language through similes (See Attachment: 7.3 Sample Lesson – Similes) Additional Resources  Reading poetry aloud (See Attachment: 7.3 Resource – Reading Poetry Aloud)  Subject-verb agreement (See Attachment: 7.3 Resource – Subject-Verb Agreement) Literature Connections  Boricuas: Influential Puerto Rican Writings - An Anthology by Roberto Santiago  The poet slave of Cuba: a biography of Juan Francisco Manzano by Margarita Engle  Neighborhood Odes by Gary Soto  Honey, I Love by Eloise Greenfield  Hip Hop Speaks to Children by Nikki Giovanni  Poetry Matters by Ralph Fletcher

June 2011 945 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

7.4 Author’s Purpose Subject: ESL Length: 9 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will study four types of authors purpose (to entertain, to persuade, to inform, to teach) in order to produce four pieces of writing that exemplify each type of writing. Students will also do daily free writes in order to improve their writing fluency and peer-edit their writing for sentence fragments and run-on sentences. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.7.2 Listens, responds to, and analyzes complex instructions and statements; applies and clarifies instructions and directions; answers and formulates closed and open-ended questions. L/S.7.3 Uses appropriate language structure to problem solve and to explain a process; interacts in discussions and presentations. Reading R.7.1 Analyzes the text, establishes purpose, recognizes author’s purpose, and distinguishes text features to enhance comprehension. Writing W.7.1 Combines sentences and ideas by using simple transitional phrases; applies commas to correctly punctuate and construct sentences; distinguishes complete sentences from fragments and run-on sentences. W.7.2 Applies the parts of speech; identifies the subjects and objects in sentences; uses correct subject-verb agreement. W.7.3 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, expository and persuasive forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph; applies organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Our home country influences who we are through its language, culture, and customs.  Writing can have the power to persuade, teach, and convince people with carefully selected words.  Clear writing can help a writer best communicate his or her thoughts.  Patriotism comes from a love of one’s country, not of one’s government. Content (Students will know…)  Directions sequencing vocabulary (first, second, third, then, next, afterwards, lastly)  Author’s purpose (to entertain, to inform, to explain a procedure, to persuade)  Elements in descriptive writing (sensory and descriptive language, showing not telling)  Elements in narrative writing (story structure: introduction of character, setting, June 2011 Essential Questions:  What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?  What do I love about Puerto Rico?  How can my writing help others to understand me better?  What is patriotism to you?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Vividly describe an event through figurative and sensory language, showing the reader what is happening, rather than telling them directly  Focus on main idea and details, follow a logical, sequential order, and use transition words in expository writing  Take a position, summarize an issue, support a 946

7.4 Author’s Purpose Subject: ESL Length: 9 weeks and problem, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution)  Elements in expository writing (main idea and details, sequencing, transition words)   Elements in persuasive writing (point of view, persuasive language, taking a position, suggesting solutions to a problem) Content Vocabulary   Fragment  Subject  Object  Run-on sentence   Free write  Author’s purpose  National pride  Worth, self-worth  Patriot, patriotism, patriotic 

  

position with facts, use persuasive language, and suggest solutions to a problem through persuasive writing Listen, respond, and analyze complex instructions and statements (use sequence words to follow order of steps, use transition words to connect ideas in both instructions and responses) Apply and clarify instructions and directions (ask questions when there is a misunderstanding, use sequence words to give directions) Use appropriate language structure to problem solve and to explain a process (follow instructions by identifying key sequence and transition words, separate instructions into steps) Analyze the text and establish author’s purpose (e.g. by identifying genre, by asking the question, “Why was this written?”, by analyzing plot structure, etc. Note: non-fiction can use narrative structure as well Distinguish text features to enhance comprehension (e.g. by identifying the elements of a writing genre, through organization, you can find the author’s purpose, use titles, captions, pictures to enhance comprehension in expository) Distinguish complete sentences from fragments and run-on sentences Identify the subjects and objects in sentences Apply organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs (use genre-appropriate transition and sequencing words)

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks: Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall Writing to Entertain (See Attachment: 7.4 Other Evidence – Select a form of writing that is intended to Vocabulary Inference Chart) entertain (story, poem, jokes, a song) and write  Word Detective: Select Seven vocabulary with the purpose to entertain your audience words from a text and have students complete  Peer edit each other’s work (See Attachment: a Word Detective Organizer for each one (See 7.4 Writing Tool – Paragraph Checklist if it’s Attachment: 7.4 Other Evidence – Word in paragraph form) and to check your work to Detective Organizer) make sure it has no fragments or run on June 2011 947

7.4 Author’s Purpose Subject: ESL Length: 9 weeks sentences  Writing to Persuade Select a form of writing to persuade (advertisement or a commercial) and create a poster with a partner or act out a commercial with a group  Study advertisements and commercials for techniques that persuade consumers (See Attachment: 7.4 Performance Task – Writing to Persuade)  Peer edit each other’s work for run on sentences or fragments  Select clear verbs and adjectives that will persuade your audience of your product Writing to Teach Select an activity you are good at and can teach others. It can be cooking, sports, crafts, or explaining a game. Write out step-by-step instructions in order to explain the process.  Sequence instructions in order (See Attachment: 7.4 Performance Task – Writing Instructions).  Select transition words to explain the process step by step (See Attachment: 7.4 Writing Tool – Transition Words).  Add illustrations to your steps.  Have a peer check your work to make sure it has no fragments or run-on sentences.  Create a classroom book of all of the instructions (or if everyone selects recipes, you can have a class cookbook). Writing to Inform Select one topic and write an encyclopedia entry of one paragraph to create a classroom encyclopedia of Puerto Rico.  Each topic must have an expository paragraph describing the activity or artist that has a clear main idea, supporting details, and conclusion.  Use rainbow writing strategy to organize paragraphs (See Attachment: 7.4 Performance Task – Rainbow Writing Paragraph Organizer).  Have students peer and self-edit their work (See Attachment: 7.4 Writing Tool – June 2011 948

Twice during the unit, have students self-select a free write from this unit that they will selfcorrect for fragments and run-ons to write a second draft.

7.4 Author’s Purpose Subject: ESL Length: 9 weeks Paragraph Checklist) Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Author’s Purpose  Students will continue to go in-depth with their exploration of Puerto Rican culture and history to find examples of various examples of author’s purpose. Begin unit with a discussion of what is author’s purpose and have the students give examples of each type they see in daily life (e.g. to persuade: letters to the editor, persuading family members and friends, politics; to entertain: music, poetry, stories, jokes; to inform: newspapers and magazine articles, encyclopedias, brochures; to teach: recipes, directions, instructions for building or making crafts).  Compare and contrast text features of writing with different purposes (See Attachment: 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Venn Lines).  During this unit, select texts with a new type of author’s purpose every two weeks to have students read and create a class list of text features that best communicate the style. Have students find the organizational pattern and self-select a graphic organizer that organizes the information (See Attachments: 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Story map, 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Sequencing Chart, 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Timeline, 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Main Idea and Details Pyramid, 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Cause and Effect, and 7.4 Graphic Organizer – Venn Lines).  Have students look through their writing journal with their work from the year (or other texts) and sort their writing into categories by the author’s purpose (See Attachments: 7.4 Learning Activity – Author’s Purpose 1 and 2) Sentences: Subject and Object, Fragments and Run-on Sentences  Introduce sentences as having a subject (a who) and a verb (a what happened). Create cards with a subject (e.g. An angry shopkeeper, Puerto Rico, The President, A hermit crab, A tree frog, etc.) and cards with verbs (ran, jumped, laughed at, paraded around, is going to, went to, has never eaten, etc.) and have them go around and make sentences with another person who has the missing subject or object (e.g. a subject and subject cannot make a sentence). Another round can have two subjects and one object or one subject and two objects, or a round with a conjunction group (and, or, if, but, so, yet).  For the unit, begin the class with a quick ten minute free write on a topic (See Attachment: 7.4 Learning Activity – Free-writing Prompts). Every three days have students select a free write they would like a peer to edit for run-ons or sentences fragments. Have students share how they found fragments or run-ons and share how they fixed them. Sample Lessons  Lessons on identifying fragments and run on sentences (See Attachment: 7.4 Sample Lesson Sentences)  Lessons on persuasive writing: http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/persuasive-writing30142.html Additional Resources  On elements of descriptive writing (See Attachment: 7.4 Resource – Descriptive Writing)  On elements of narrative writing (See Attachment: 7.4 Resource – Narrative Writing)  On elements of expository writing (See Attachment: 7.4 Resource – Expository Writing)  On elements of persuasive writing (See Attachment: 7.4 Resource – Persuasive Writing) June 2011 949

7.4 Author’s Purpose Subject: ESL Length: 9 weeks  Puerto Rican Recipes: http://www.elboricua.com/recipes.html Literature Connections  Stories from Puerto Rico by Robert Muckley and Adela Martinez-Santiago  Puerto Rico: A to Z by Jeff Reynolds  Puerto Rico (True Books) by Howard Gutner  Cracking Open the Author’s Craft by Lester Laminack

June 2011 950 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

7.5 Debate and Persuasion Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary In this unit, students will select topics of interest in current events or in history to analyze and debate. From their debates, they will then write a persuasive speech and present it to their classmates. Content Standards and Learning Expectations Listening and Speaking L/S.7.2 Listens, responds to, and analyzes complex instructions and statements; applies and clarifies instructions and directions; answers and formulates closed and open-ended questions. L/S.7.3 Uses appropriate language structure to problem solve and to explain a process; interacts in discussions and presentations. Reading R.7.5 Identifies and states fact and opinion, paraphrases and states main idea or topic, and determines important details in narrative and expository texts. Writing W.7.1 Combines sentences and ideas by using simple transitional phrases; applies commas to correctly punctuate and construct sentences; distinguishes complete sentences from fragments and run-on sentences. W.7.3 Identifies elements in descriptive, narrative, expository and persuasive forms of writing; uses a variety of sentence types to construct a paragraph; applies organizational patterns to construct narrative, descriptive, and expository paragraphs. Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:  Our home country influences who we are through its language, culture, and customs.  Writing can have the power to persuade, teach, and convince people with carefully selected words.  Persuasion cannot happen with a heavy hand – you must connect with a person’s beliefs and let them decide. Content (Students will know…)  The structure of a debate (proposing side, opposing side, rebuttal, direct and indirect refutation)  Features found in political cartoons (exaggeration, symbolism, labels, analogy)  Structure of persuasive speeches (state topic, take opinion, support with facts, refute opposition, conclude)  Transition words to organize thoughts (thus, therefore, however, for example, in addition, on the contrary, thus, in conclusion) Content Vocabulary  Oratory June 2011 Essential Questions:  What does it mean to be Puerto Rican?  Is the pen mightier than the sword?  How do we judge a country’s success?  Can anyone be persuaded?

Skills (Students will be able to…)  Answer and formulate closed and open-ended questions during an academic debate  Interact in discussions and presentations such as academic debates  Combine sentences and ideas by using simple transitional phrases to organize thoughts during a debate  Identify and state fact and opinion from nonfiction text such as letters to the editor in order to write a persuasive letter or debate  Paraphrase and state main idea or topic from non-fiction reading, as well as from students’ writing or debate  Determine important details in narrative and 951

7.5 Debate and Persuasion Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  Speech  Debate  Propose  Oppose  Refute  Indirect  Direct  Persuasion  Political cartoons Performance Tasks: Persuasive Political Cartoons Create a political cartoon that persuades the reader to take your side on an issue in Puerto Rico.  Political cartoon must have examples of political cartoon text features (exaggeration, labels, symbolism, analogy)  Include connection to facts but show an opinion  Use organizer to plan (See Attachment: 7.5 Performance Task – Political Cartoon Organizer) Persuasive Speech Writing Write a persuasive speech and perform your speech on how you would help Puerto Rico. Select from topics: “If I were the governor of Puerto Rico I would….” Or “If I had a million dollars, I would…” (See Attachment: 7.5 Performance Task – Persuasive Speech Writing) Speech should:  Include a strong introduction that grabs the reader  Persuade your audience with clear facts that support your opinions (See Attachment: 7.5 Graphic Organizer – Persuasion Map)  Include the “magic of three” to set up the topic (See Attachment: 7.5 Performance Task – Magic of Three)  Summarize main points in the conclusion  Use transition words to organize writing (See Attachment: 7.5 Writing Tool – Transition Words)  Be peer edited and self edited using rubric June 2011

expository texts (read a text and organize information into main idea, details and supporting details) Apply organizational patterns to construct expository paragraphs (clear main idea in expository or position for persuasive writing, supporting details, conclusion summarizing key points)

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Other Evidence:  Inference chart for vocabulary from word wall (See Attachment: 7.5 Other Evidence – Vocabulary Inference Chart)  Word Detective: Select Seven vocabulary words from a text and have students complete a Word Detective Organizer for each one (See Attachments: 7.5 Other Evidence – Word Detective Organizer and 7.5 Other Evidence – Word Detective Example)  Twice during the unit, have students self-select a free write from this unit that they will selfcorrect for fragments and run-ons to write a second draft.

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7.5 Debate and Persuasion Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks (See Attachment: 7.5 Performance Task – Speech Rubric) Debating Issues Facing Puerto Rico Have students work in a group to present a debate on a current event or a political issue in Puerto Rico.  Students conduct research to have points and counter points  Follow debate rules and procedures: http://www.middleschooldebate.com/resour ces/documents/MSPDP.Teachers.Guide.pdf  Have a group of teachers judge the debate (See Attachment: 7.5 Performance Task – Debate Judge Rubric) Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities Analyzing Political Cartoons  Political cartoons are a great visual representation of persuasion through images. Select political cartoons from a local newspaper. Use lesson on analyzing Political Cartoons to introduce the features found in political cartoons(exaggeration, symbolism, labels, analogy): http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/analyzing-purpose-meaningpolitical-794.html?tab=3#tabs. Analyze the features from the lesson and from modern political cartoons (See Attachment: 7.5 Graphic Organizer – Political Cartoon).  Study the American Opinion of the Philippines and Puerto Rico (See Attachment: 7.5 Resource – Political Cartoons) and analyze the cartoon (See Attachment: 7.5 Performance Task – Political Cartoon Organizer). Ask, “Is the pen mightier than the sword?” “What is the purpose of the messages of the political cartoons?” Discuss the role of political cartoons in spreading imperialism in the United States. Analyzing Persuasive Writing  Identify the author’s purpose in various texts and follow questions to find the position of the author (See Attachment: 7.5 Learning Activity – Questions to Identify Persuasive Text).  Find the facts and opinions of a text (See Attachment: 7.5 Learning Activity - Fact vs. Opinion)  Read a speech or letter to the editor or opinions piece from the newspaper to analyze how the author constructed his or her argument with supporting evidence (See Attachment: 7.5 Graphic Organizer – Persuasion Map)  Find transition words that organize the author’s writing and create a classroom list of powerful persuasive vocabulary for the word wall  Have students write a letter to the editor regarding a current event: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/persuading-audience-writingeffective-929.html Debate  Spark students’ interest by having the free writing prompt require students to take a stand. After free writing, have students take sides and share their responses (See Attachment: 7.5 Free-writing Prompts) June 2011 953

7.5 Debate and Persuasion Subject: ESL Length: 8 weeks  State a strong opinion (e.g. “Kids under 18 should have a 10pm curfew to prevent problems”) and have one side of the room be “completely agree” the middle be “I’m not sure” and the other side of the room be “I completely disagree” and have students stand in the place that represents their opinion. Have students volunteer to share their opinion and explain why they stood there. Additional Resources  How to write a persuasive essay organizer and checklist: http://www.timeforkids.com/TFK/kids/hh/writeideas/articles/0,28372,634424,00.html  Writing a persuasive essay: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/convince-developingpersuasive-writing-56.html?tab=1#tabs Literature Connections  Mom, Can I Have a Stegosaurus, Mom? Can I? Please!? by Lois G. Grambling  50 Debate Prompts for Kids: Reproducible Debate Sheets Complete With Background and Pro/Con Points That Get Kids Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Thinking About the Topics That Spark Their Interest” by Michael Dahlie and Patrick Daley  Speak Out! Debate and Public Speaking in the Middle Grades by John Meany and Kate Shuster  Boricuas: Influential Puerto Rican Writings - An Anthology by Roberto Santiago

June 2011 954 Adapted from Understanding By Design by Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

English as a Second Language
Attachments Grade 7

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7.1 Graphic Organizer Character Comparison Chart Subject: ESL

Character Comparison Chart
Select two characters from the same story and compare what they say, do, think, and feel. Then find something similar and different about them from the chart. Character: Says….. Character: Says…

Thinks….

Thinks…

Does….

Does….

Feels…

Feels…

I think these two characters are similar because:

I think these two characters are different because:

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Graphic Organizer Folktale Comparison Chart Subject: ESL Name:______________________________________ Date:________________

Folktale Comparison Chart
Compare folktales of Puerto Rico by summarizing what are the lessons learned. What do these folktales tell us about our culture? Folktale Lesson learned What does it tell us about our culture Do I agree or disagree with the lesson? Why?

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Graphic Organizer Folktale Comparison Chart Subject: ESL Name:______________________________________ Date:________________

Folktale Problem and Solution Chart
Folktales follow the narrative of problem and solution. What is unique is that they have unreal events or magic that help solve the problem. Let’s compare what are the problems and creative solutions to folktales from around the world!

Folk Tale Title

Country of Origin

Problem

Solution

What was magical or unreal about how it was solved?

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Graphic Organizer Folktale Story Map Subject: ESL Name:______________________ Date: _______________

Folktale Story Map
Folktale Title: ___________________________________________________________ Who is the main character? ______________________________

How would you describe this character?

Where does this story take place? ______________________________

How does the setting affect the story?

What is the problem of the story?

How is the problem solved?

Are there any magic or unreal events in the story? Explain

What is the lesson learned?

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Graphic Organizer Vocabulary Subject: ESL

Source: http://www2.sd5.k12.mt.us/hdgs/CITW%20-%20BBK/notebook-vocab.pdf 960

7.1 Learning Activity Who I Am Poem Subject: ESL Name __________________________________________ Date ________________________________

Who I Am Poems (Introductory-Level)
Preparing and Assigning: This activity begins an active introspective process while continuing to provide opportunities for individuals to make connections with each other. Participants write short poems, starting each line with "I am," encouraging them to describe in their own words who they are and what's salient to their identities. Objectives: In any attempt to increase awareness and encourage self-development, it is crucial to engage participants in activities that call for introspection and self-reflection. It is also important to provide opportunities for participants to make connections across, and even within, identity borders. The "Who I Am" activity can provide a non-threatening starting point for encouraging self-reflective thought and introspection. It is a safe way for participants to think about and share the influences that have shaped their identities. Also, it continues the connection-making process as participants find unexpected similarities and differences between themselves and others in the group. This activity also can be an excellent closing activity, allowing folks to re-connect at a self-defined and human level at the end of an experience in which they are discussing difficult issues. Instructions: Ask participants to take ten to fifteen minutes to write a poem called "Who I Am." Instruct them that the only rule is that each line should begin with the words "I am..." Leave it open to their interpretation as much as possible, but suggest that they can, if they wish, include statements about where they're from regionally, ethnically, religiously, and so on; memories from different points in their lives; interests and hobbies; mottos or credos; favorite phrases; family traditions and customs; and whatever else defines who they are. Be sure to let them know that they will be sharing their poems. Facilitator Notes: In order to ensure that everybody has an opportunity to share her or his story, you might consider breaking the group into diverse small groups of 8-10 if necessary. Give participants the option either to read their poems or to share parts of their poems from memory. Points to remember: 1. Because some individuals will include very personal information, some may be hesitant to read their poems, even in small groups. It is sometimes effective in such situations for facilitators to share their poems first. Consider sharing your poem before asking students to write their own pieces. If you make yourself vulnerable, others will be more comfortable doing the same. 2. Be sure to allow time for everyone to be able to speak, whether reading their poems or sharing them from memory. 3. If you're using this as a final activity, not much processing is necessary. Encourage applause and thank folks for sharing their poetry. 4. If you use this activity in the middle of a class or workshop, have some process questions ready. When everyone has shared, ask participants how it felt to share their poems. 961

7.1 Learning Activity Who I Am Poem Subject: ESL 5. Ask what, if any, connections people made with each other from this activity. What were some commonalities across poems? Did any of these surprise you? 6. You might also consider asking people to get up and talk to someone with whom she or he felt a connection through the poetry.

Sample - My Personal "I Am From" Poem:
I am basketball on a snowy driveway. I am fishsticks, crinkle-cut frozen french fries and frozen mixed vegetables. I am primarily white, upper-middle class neighborhoods and racially diverse schools. I am Donkey Kong, Ms. Pac Man, Atari 2600 and sports video games. I am football on Thanksgiving and New Year's Day. I am "unity in diversity" and "speaking from your own experience." I am triple-Wahoos, earning three degrees from the University of Virginia. I am diversity, multicultural education, identity, introspection, self-reflection, and social action. I am Daffy Duck, Mr. Magoo, Hong Kong Phooey, Foghorn Leghorn, and other cartoons. I am Tae Kwon Do, basketball, the batting cages, a soccer family, and the gym. I am a wonderful family, close and loving and incredibly supportive. I am films based on true stories and documentaries I am the History Channel, CNN, ESPN, BRAVO, and Home Team Sports. I am a passion for educating and facilitating, personal development and making connections.

Source: http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/activities/poetry.html 962

7.1 Other Evidence Dialogue Journal: Making Inferences Subject: ESL

Dialogue Journal: Making Inferences
Text: ________________________________________________ Reading Focus: Making inferences from connections and clues from the text Directions: As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your inferences and connections the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class. Quote/word/sentence from text This makes me connect to…. I infer this will happen or this is how the character feels…

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence. Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Other Evidence Word Detective Example Subject: ESL Detective’s Name: Sentence where I found the word:

Albert E.

The release of energy in a nuclear transformation was so great that it could cause a detectable change in the mass of the nucleus.

Context Clue:

The word “change” is used in the sentence.

WORD:

Part of Speech:

transformation

Noun

Context Clue: If energy were released, it would cause the nucleus to lose mass.

My Own Sentence:

I saw a transformation in the day when the rain stopped and the sun came out.

My Own Definition:

It caused a makeover in the mass of the nucleus. It changed.

A picture that will remind me of what this word means to me:

changes to

Source: http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/WordDetective.html

7.1 Other Evidence Subject: ESL Detective’s Name: Word Detective Organizer Sentence where I found the word:

Context Clue: WORD:

Part of Speech:

Context Clue:

My Own Sentence:

My Own Definition:

A picture that will remind me of what this word means to me:

Source: http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/WordDetective.html

7.1 Performance Task Subject: ESL Sample Reader’s Theater Script

Savitri A Tale of Ancient India
Told by Aaron Shepard

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7.1 Performance Task Subject: ESL Sample Reader’s Theater Script

Source: www.aaronshep.com/rt

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 1 Subject: ESL

The Pesky Goat
Translated and retold by Marisa Montes Doña Josefina lived on the outskirts of Ciáles, a small town in the highlands of Puerto Rico. Her tiny house was as spotless as a porcelain teacup. Although she lived alone, except for her dog, Ladrón, and her cat, Misifú, Doña Josefina was too busy to ever be lonely. She spent all her waking moments tending her beloved garden. Doña Josefina was known throughout the island for her mano santa--the blessed hand that turned all plants she touched into breathtaking specimens of splendrous color and robust good health. In the garden, she grew prize-winning roses and orchids, hibiscus and hydrangea, and dozens of jewelcolored flowers that grow only in the tropical climate of the lush Caribbean Islands. The garden air was forever perfumed with the scent of roses and honeysuckle. Since Doña Josefina had no children of her own, she watched over her garden as a mother watches over her children. Each of her flowers was precious to her. She thanked God daily for the gift of being the caretaker of such a delightful paradise. During the day, her paradise attracted butterflies and hummingbirds, bees and ants, and nightingales whose song was as sweet and pure as the water from a secret spring. At night, the garden attracted worms and toads and coquíes, tiny Puerto Rican tree frogs. One unfortunate night, the garden paradise also attracted a pest. The next morning, Doña Josefina noticed, much to her distress, that the blossoms and tender branches of several young hydrangea plants had been badly chewed. The following morning, the leaves and flowers at the bottom of the large vine in front of the house had disappeared. On the third morning, Doña Josefina discovered that her begonias were gnawed almost to the root. Only stubby, mangled fingers remained, protruding from the rich, black soil. On each occasion, Doña Josefina searched the ground for footprints or other signs as to what was destroying her precious garden. But she could find no clue. That night, Doña Josefina didn't sleep. She stayed up all night watching from her window for the culprit to appear. Just before dawn, something crept into the garden. Doña Josefina held her breath and waited. As she watched, the thing seemed to rise into the air and take the shape of a small white goat. The goat floated toward a hydrangea plant. When it reached the plant, the goat began to feast on the large balls of blossoms. "Ay, ay, ay!" cried Doña Josefina. "A cabra is destroying my precious darlings!" Doña Josefina ran through the living room and out the front door. When she raced down the slick, tilecovered steps, her heel slipped, and she twisted her ankle. "Oh, no!" she cried. "What shall I do?"

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 1 Subject: ESL Unable to continue into the garden, Doña Josefina hobbled back into the house and called her dog. "Ladrón, I will give you an extra helping of meat today if you'll go into the garden and chase away that cabra." "¡Seguro!" Ladrón replied with an enthusiastic bark. "Of course I'll do it!" Ladrón raced to the garden, his jowls drooling at the thought of an extra helping of meat. He sniffed loudly as he trotted around the flower beds, searching for the goat. The goat heard him and prepared herself for an attack. She climbed onto a boulder that was hidden behind a bush. Then she took a deep breath to make herself appear larger and said in a deep, loud voice: "Heed my words and stay away. I'll devour the first to disobey!" To Ladrón, the tiny goat seemed to have grown ten times its size. He swore that the goat's evil eyes glowed like burning coals. Its teeth would put a crocodile to shame. He didn't want to put those terrible teeth to a test, not for all the delicious meat in Puerto Rico! Ladrón became a blur of spots and dust. He didn't stop running until he was safely under Doña Josefina's bed. There, he turned into a mass of trembling fur and clattering teeth. He refused to come out until morning, untempted by Doña Josefina's promises of roasted meats and spicy sausages. "Ay, ay, ay!" cried Doña Josefina. "Now, what shall I do?" At that moment, Misifú rubbed up against the old woman's leg. "Ah, Misifú!" said Doña Josefina, stooping to pick up the white cat. "I'll give you two extra helpings of fish tonight if you'll just go into the garden and chase away that pesky cabra." "Why not?" Misifú replied with flick of her tail. "¿Porqué no? It might be interesting to chase a goat." In no particular hurry, Misifú sauntered out to the garden. Because she made no effort to hide herself, the goat spotted her strolling down the main garden path. The pesky little goat prepared herself for battle. She climbed halfway up a sturdy trellis, poking her head between the vines. In a deep, loud voice, the pesky goat said: "Heed my words and stay away. I'll devour the first to disobey!"

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 1 Subject: ESL Misifú froze in her tracks. Her luminous eyes widened and searched the darkness like lanterns for the owner of the voice. High above her head, Misifú saw a horrible head, the shape and size of a dragon's. Huge horns stuck out above its eyes. At its sides flapped large, wide wings. Its serpentine body entwined itself around the trellis. Misifú swore that from the creature's nostrils flames escaped and licked the sky. This was no pesky goat--this was a dragon! And there weren't enough helpings of fish in all of Puerto Rico to tempt Misifú to tangle with a dragon. Misifú became a streak of white in the darkness and didn't stop running until she was safely under Doña Josefina's bed next to Ladrón. No promises of sweet cream and tender giblets could entice her out. Doña Josefina placed her hands on top of her head. "Ay, ay, ay! ¿Qué haré? What shall I do?" In the meantime, a bee had flown into the house through an open window. "¿Qué pasa, Doña Josefina? What's the problem?" "Ah, brave abejita," began Doña Josefina, feeling some hope returning, "I'll give you ten drops of honey if you'll chase that pesky, pesky cabra from my garden." The bee considered Doña Josefina's proposition, and replied: "¡Seguro! It'll be easy. The pesky goat will be gone in no time." The bee buzzed out the window and into the garden. He buzzed in and out of the flowers and vines looking for the pesky goat. But the goat heard him and was ready. Rearing up on her hind legs, she said in a deep, loud voice: "Heed my words and stay away. I'll devour the first to disobey!" The bee stared at the white phantom that loomed up before him. Never had he seen anything so large and hideous! It had to be the ghost of a dreadful ogre. No amount of honey was worth standing up to a phantom ogre! In the next instant, the bee zoomed from the garden and didn't stop flying until he had passed two barrios. He had no intention of ever returning to Doña Josefina's garden paradise. Doña Josefina waited and waited for the bee to announce that the pesky goat was gone for good. When the bee did not return, Doña Josefina began to cry. "Ay, ay, ay! My beloved garden. That pesky, pesky, pesky cabra is going to destroy it all!" The elderly woman felt a sting on her ear. "No llores, Doña Josefina. Please, don't cry," said a tiny voice. "Tell me your problem and perhaps I can help."

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 1 Subject: ESL Doña Josefina flicked her ear and a little black ant dropped onto the palm of her hand. She stared at the little ant in disbelief. If her faithful Ladrón, her irascible Misifú, and a brave little bee could not chase away that pesky goat, how could a tiny little ant?

"Hormiguita," began Doña Josefina, feeling desperate, "are you brave enough to chase that pesky, pesky, pesky cabra from my garden?" "I'm willing to try," said the little ant. She crawled off Doña Josefina's hand and into the garden. Because the little ant was so tiny and quiet, she was able to sneak up on the pesky goat. Before the goat realized what was happening, the little ant climbed onto the goat's hind leg. She stung the goat in the leg, then on the stomach, then on the chest, and headed for her ear. All the while, the pesky goat jumped and kicked and scratched. She rolled and rolled on the ground. But she couldn't make the stinging stop. Suddenly, a voice sang out: "Heed my words and go away. I'll sting the one Believing the garden had been invaded by an army of nasty stinging ants, the pesky goat ran off, never to be heard from again. Doña Josefina rewarded the spunky little ant with all the sugar and bread crumbs she and her friends could carry to their ant hill. When her ankle healed, Doña Josefina went back to tending her beloved garden. With her help, the flowers and vines that the goat had chewed quickly mended and all traces of the pesky goat disappeared.

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL

The Rabbit and the Tiger
Translated and retold by Marisa Montes Many years ago, all the animals were friends except for Tiger, who had sworn to eat all small animals that crossed his path. Especially Rabbit. Rabbit was agile and witty and very, very clever, while Tiger was clumsy and dull and quite stupid. And Tiger couldn't stand for anyone to be more clever than he. So Tiger made it his goal in life to rid himself of the pesky little rabbit. Rabbit knew this and was always on the lookout for Tiger. But Rabbit could not always avoid Tiger because they both enjoyed a good stroll in the forest. One day, after a generous lunch, Rabbit lay in the shade of a huge boulder, ready to begin an afternoon siesta. As he was about to doze off, he heard a twig crack somewhere behind him. Always ready for a possible attack from Tiger, Rabbit jumped up and pushed his back against the boulder, as though he were holding it up. Sure enough, an orange face with black stripes emerged from behind the boulder. The face alone was larger than Rabbit's entire body. "Aha, amigo Conejo, I have caught you. Any last wishes?" Tiger's voice was so deep and loud that it vibrated through Rabbit's bones, making him shake even harder than he was already shaking. But frightened as he was, Rabbit was determined to go through with his plan and save his life. "Only, friend Tiger, that you help me save the world. I care not for myself. After we have saved the world, you can do with me what you will." "What is this?" said Tiger, looking around in terror. "The world is in danger?" Rabbit knew he had the foolish tiger hooked. "This boulder is slipping. If it rolls down the side of the hill, the world will collapse. I am trying to hold it up, but I am small and weak . . ." "Of course, I will help! I do not wish the world to end!" Tiger pushed his back against the boulder and held it up with all his strength. "I will go get help," said Rabbit, starting to hop away. "Good idea," said Tiger. "What a smart rabbit you are!" "I'll hurry. Don't move until I return with all our friends." Rabbit bounced off, chuckling to himself and leaving the stupid tiger huddled against the rock. Hours later, Tiger finally collapsed next to the boulder, exhausted from pushing. Trembling and crying, he resigned himself to his fate and waited for the boulder to roll over him and for the world to end.

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL To his amazement, the boulder did not budge and the world did not come crashing down around him. He stood and touched the boulder. It was solid. In the treetops, monkeys giggled and birds chirped in amusement. It was then that Tiger realized he'd been tricked. "Rabbit!" Tiger roared and shook his fist in the air. "Wait till I get my claws on you!" Tiger hunted Rabbit for weeks, but Rabbit knew how furious Tiger was and kept out of his way. A few months later, it had been so long since he'd seen Tiger that Rabbit grew a bit careless. He was chatting with a monkey friend at the foot of an ancient tamarind tree, when a wide shadow slid over the two friends. "Aha, amigo Conejo! I have you now. This time I will eat you in one bite!" The booming voice vibrated Rabbit's bones. The monkey shrieked and scrambled up the tree. Rabbit knew he could not outrun Tiger. However, he might outwit him once more. Rabbit turned to face his enemy. Tiger had a coil of rope around his shoulder, and he was grinning so hard, all his terrible teeth gleamed in the sunlight. "Oh, friend Tiger, please do eat me! Hurry!" cried Rabbit. "It would be kinder than allowing me to suffer a more horrible death." Tiger narrowed his glistening eyes. "What is this?" "Friend monkey was doing his best to keep my mind off our dreadful fate, but--" "What dreadful fate? Tell me Rabbit!" "Haven't you heard? The hurricane that's approaching. It'll be here within the hour. The worst one in years." "Hurricane!" Tiger began to tremble. He was terrified of hurricanes--the crashing trees, the howling wind, the pouring rain! "Help me Rabbit, please! You are small and can hide anywhere. But I am so large. And the hurricane will be here before I can return to my cave. What shall I do?" "There is only one thing you can do, amigo," said Rabbit, eyeing the coil of rope. "You must tie yourself up to this tree. It is very strong and has withstood many hurricanes." "Sí, friend Rabbit, that is a splendid idea. But I cannot tie myself . . . will you do it for me?" "Well . . . I should be looking for a hiding place. It will take time to tie you--" Tiger threw himself on his knees. "Please, friend Rabbit, have pity!" Rabbit tried not to smile. "Sí, sí, I will tie you. But please stop blubbering."

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL Rabbit took the coil of rope and wrapped it round and round and round the tamarind tree, firmly tying Tiger to the trunk. "Good luck, amigo Tigre. I must find a place to hide." Rabbit hopped from branch to branch till he was high in the tamarind tree. He settled back to watch Tiger. A few minutes later, a herd of young goats passed by the tree. When they saw Tiger tied firmly to the tree, they laughed and jumped for joy. "Laugh now, but you won't be laughing for long," said Tiger. "Why not?" asked one of the goats. "Haven't you heard? A horrible hurricane is coming. There isn't much time." "A hurricane!" The goats laughed and laughed. A frisky young goat leapt forward. "We have been traveling up and down the hills for hours, and we've neither seen any signs of a hurricane nor heard anyone speak of one." "There is no hurricane!" cried another goat and rolled on the grass, giddy with laughter. As Tiger watched the plump goats cavort about, he began to grow hungry. Soon his hunger overpowered his fear. His mouth drooled as he imagined how tasty a tender little goat would be. "Say, little goat, won't you please untie me?" But the goats saw the gleam in Tiger's eye, and they bounded away, down the mountain trail. As they ran, they told all they passed that everyone could celebrate because Tiger was firmly tied to the tamarind tree. In the meantime, Tiger pulled and tugged and tried to wiggle free. But nothing he did would loosen the rope. Just then, the little monkey who'd been playing with Rabbit grew restless and began to swing above Tiger's head. "Little monkey," said Tiger. "Won't you please untie me?" "Not I," said the monkey. "If I do, you will eat me." "No, no! I promise not to eat you if you'll just untie me. I will even repay you with a bunch of ripe bananas." Now, the young monkey had a serious weakness for bananas. And it had been weeks since he'd taken a bite of the sweet fruit. He couldn't resist Tiger's offer.

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL The monkey swung to the next tree. "If my friends will help, I'll untie you." He scampered up the tree and returned with a dozen monkeys. They each gnawed and pulled at the rope till it broke loose. Meanwhile, Tiger's hunger had been growing and growing. The moment the rope fell to the ground he pounced on the monkeys. He clawed and gnashed his teeth, but the slippery little monkeys were too fast for him. They all escaped, but one--Rabbit's friend. Just as Tiger was about to pop the monkey in his mouth, Rabbit called down: "Tiger, shame on you! That's no way to eat a monkey." "Oh?" said Tiger, swinging the terrified monkey in front of his nose. "So how would you do it?" "It's much more appetizing to throw the monkey into the air and catch him in your open mouth." "I can do that." So Tiger tossed the little monkey high in the air and waited for the tender delicacy to drop into his open mouth. As he floated up into the branches, the agile monkey hooked his tail on a branch to break his fall and scampered higher into the tree. Rabbit shook a branch full of tamarinds, dropping several large, tart pods into Tiger's open mouth. Tiger choked and coughed and spit up the sour fruit. He tore off into the forest, his mouth puckering as though he had eaten a dozen limes. As he ran, he swore he would devour Rabbit the very next time he saw him. For many months, Rabbit managed to avoid Tiger. One day, as he was hopping down a steep mountain trail, he passed a farmer and his donkey who were going to market. The donkey carried heavy covered baskets on his sides. The baskets were full to the brim with large rounds of cheese. As Rabbit passed under the donkey, he noticed something. "Señor," he said. "You are in danger of losing one of your banastillas." The farmer stopped the donkey and examined the baskets. Sure enough, the basket nearest the edge of the cliff was coming loose. If he didn't fix it soon, the entire basket--cheese and all--would topple down the steep incline. "Gracias, little rabbit," said the farmer after he had secured the basket. "You saved my cheese and a great deal of income for my family. You deserve a reward. Do you like cheese?" "Oh, sí Señor," replied Rabbit. "I love a good queso."

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL "Well, this is a very good cheese." And the farmer handed Rabbit two large rounds for his good deed. Pleased with his reward, Rabbit tucked a cheese under each arm and bounced away to a nearby lagoon. In the shade of several palms, Rabbit lay back and enjoyed a lunch of fresh cheese and fruit. Before long, his peace and solitude was shaken by a booming voice that rattled his bones. "Aha, this time you will not escape! I will finally eat you." "Right you are, amigo Tigre, you have me at last," replied Rabbit. "But why don't you eat a bit of queso as an appetizer first?" Tiger took the cheese Rabbit offered. "Mmm-mm, I do enjoy a good cheese. And so fresh. Wherever did you find it?" "Why, right down there at the bottom of the lagoon. See,"--Rabbit held up the remaining round of cheese--"I have another right here." The cheese was so delicious, Tiger forgot his promise to eat Rabbit. "How did you gather them?" "Quite simple, really. I just tied heavy stones to my legs and jumped in. There are dozens of rounds of cheese floating near the bottom." Tiger nodded. "I must do the same!" "I won't keep you then. I'll just take my queso and be on my way." Before Tiger could remember his threat, Rabbit disappeared into the forest. Tiger tied one large rock to each of his four legs and jumped into the lagoon. "Glug-glug-glug!" As he sank deeper and deeper, Tiger swallowed large gulps of water. He glanced around him, but he could not see the promised cheeses. Soon he realized Rabbit had fooled him again. Sure he would drown, Tiger began to struggle against the ropes. But he had tied them so well, he could not free himself. Fortunately a strong current carried him to shallow water. He dragged himself to the edge, gasping for air. When he could breathe normally again, Tiger untied the ropes. This was it! Never again would that nasty little Rabbit fool him. Next time, Tiger would have Rabbit pie for lunch! Tiger looked for Rabbit everywhere, but was unable to find him. After many months, he lost interest. During that time Rabbit had been cleverly hiding from Tiger. One day, while Rabbit was visiting his friend Fox, the topic of Tiger came up.

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL "He is such a clever, intelligent fellow," said Fox, who was a great admirer of Tiger. "No one can outsmart Tiger!" Hearing this, Rabbit began to howl with laughter. The laughter turned to silly giggles that made him wiggle and squirm until he fell off his chair and rolled around on the ground. "What is so funny?" Fox said, rather annoyed. "It's--it's just that Tiger is fool! There is no bigger bobo. Why, he will even let himself be used as a horse by his friends." "Not amigo Tigre! I cannot believe it!" "Someday, I will prove it to you," said Rabbit. "I will ride by on my Tiger-horse, and I'll even make him rear up while I wave to you." "Humph!" With a flick of his bushy tail, Fox dismissed Rabbit's talk of nonsense. Soon, Fox forgot their conversation. A few weeks later, Fox decided to have a ball at his home. He would serve a lavish feast and hire an orchestra. With Tiger's help, Fox lined up the best musicians in the land. The best, that is, except for a guitarist. "How can I have a fabulous ball without a guitarist?" whined Fox. Tiger hated to see his friend so distraught. He wanted Fox's ball to be a success, and he agreed that it would fall far short of that without a guitarist. He was determined to help Fox find a guitarist. Tiger asked around and discovered that the best guitarist in the forest was Rabbit. Tiger set out to find him. He had often gone to Rabbit's home looking for him, but Rabbit was far too clever to let Tiger know he was home. This time when Tiger knocked at the door, Rabbit was waiting for him. Rabbit had heard about the ball and knew why Tiger was looking for him. "Go away," Rabbit called from his bedroom. "I'm sick, and I don't want visitors." "Rabbit, it's Tiger." His booming voice rattled the door and shook the windows. "I've come on Fox's behalf. He needs you to play your guitar at his ball tonight." "Too sick. Can't go." Tiger knocked again. "Open up, Rabbit. You must come. The ball will be a disaster without you."

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7.1 Resource Puerto Rican Folktale 2 Subject: ESL Rabbit chuckled to himself. Tiger was begging for him to play at the ball. Rabbit's plan was beginning to work. He wrapped a handkerchief around his head and grabbed a cane. He hobbled to the door and opened it. Leaning on the cane, Rabbit said, "As you can see, I cannot walk." Tiger was anxious to get Rabbit to the ball. "No problem, amigo, I will carry you." Rabbit tried to climb on Tiger's back, but he kept slipping off. "Ay, ay, ay! I cannot get onto your back without a saddle. But I do have one in the back . . . " Annoyed, Tiger twitched his long tail. But he couldn't disappoint Fox. "Fine, get the saddle." When Rabbit had saddled Tiger, he tried again to get on, but slid right off. "I'm afraid I'll need a bridle and some spurs . . . " "Fine, fine, fine! Just hurry up!" Saddled and harnessed, Tiger trotted down the forest path to Fox's house. On Tiger's back sat Rabbit, wearing spurs and carrying a riding crop. As Tiger trotted, he moaned and groaned as though he were in horrible pain. "It would be best to pick up the pace," said Rabbit. "The sooner we arrive, the sooner I'll be out of pain." Tiger began to run at a quick clip. When Rabbit saw Fox's house, he tossed off his kerchief, snapped the whip, and dug the spurs into Tiger's sides. Tiger reared up and began to race toward the house. "Amigo Fox, come out, come out!" cried Rabbit. "It's your friend Rabbit riding his Tiger-horse!" Fox dashed out to the porch. When he saw his friend Tiger saddled and harnessed and ridden like a horse, he put his paws on his head. "Rabbit was right. Tiger is truly a fool. A very great bobo!" Rabbit gave Tiger one more kick with the spurs and made him rear up in front of Fox's house. Rabbit waved and whooped. With another snap of his whip, he sent Tiger racing through the forest. In a dense area of the forest, Rabbit hopped off Tiger's back and hid in the bushes until Tiger was far away. Then he went home, packed up, and found a new home, where Tiger wouldn't find him. To this day, Tiger still looks for Rabbit, swearing to gobble him up before he can utter a word.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL Name __________________________________________ Date ________________________________

Puerto Rican Folktales: Student Activity
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The folktales of Puerto Rico reflect the culture of the people who have lived or influenced the lifestyle of those people living there, the Tainos, the Spaniards, and the Africans. The historical reality of Puerto Rico is that it became part of the modern world as we know it today after Cristobal Colon encountered the island on November 19, 1493. Taino stories, which would be the only authentic and pure expression of pre-Columbian natives of Puerto Rico, are non-existent. It is believed that the Tainos were Arawaks who migrated northward from South America and had been living in Borinquen for nearly 1,000 years when the Spaniards arrived. There had been other cultures in Puerto Rico before the Tainos, but they were nomads and left little evidence of their time and life on the island. The Tainos were fishermen, who eventually became farmers or hunters and established villages in different points of the island they called Borinquen. They did not have a written language and there are no written accounts of their culture or history passed on by them to future generations. Archaeologists are still trying to piece together what their lifestyle must have been like before their rapid and almost total extinction in the early sixteenth century due to illnesses and inhuman treatment given to them by the first colonists, the Spaniards. There are, however, records written from oral tradition by the early Spanish settlers, especially by religious order members. Following orders given to him by Admiral Cristobal Colon (Christopher Columbus) Friar Ramon Pane wrote in 1505 a series of detailed descriptions of the Tainos that lived on Hispaniola, now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. These natives had the same customs and beliefs as those of Borinquen (Puerto Rico). In his lengthy report, Friar Ramon wrote of Taino myths, such as; where the Tainos came from, how the sea came to be, the origin of the Sun and the Moon, and where the dead go and what they look like. There are descriptions of the Taino medicine man and many of the religious beliefs of the Tainos. With the rapid extinction of the Tainos and as the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico continued, black and white slaves were brought to Puerto Rico in the late sixteenth century to provide brute labor in the new colony being set up by Spain in Puerto Rico. They were needed to work in the sugar plantations, the mainstay of Puerto Rico for many years. Their legacy can be found in their music and dances. Like the Tainos before them, they have added some words to the Spanish vocabulary but did not make a strong impact in the developing culture of the colony. In general, with the passing of time, the black population of Puerto Rico assimilated into the Spanish culture. Stories from this group of people reflected their struggles and often-futile attempts to be free.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

The culture of the Puerto Rico of today is predominantly Spanish with traces of Taino Indian and Black influences. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, “culture” is defined as “the arts, beliefs, customs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought created by a people or group at a particular time.” The Spanish acculturation process of Puerto Rico began almost five hundred years ago; three cultures (possibly multiple cultures) came together in Puerto Rico soon after that fateful day of November 19, 1493. The folk tales that are told in Puerto Rico today reflect basically Spanish themes with island adaptations and very little Taino or African participation. The tales, in general, have undergone changes in numbers, names, or settings, which are more tropical or similar to Puerto Rico.

OBJECTIVES
This curriculum unit will contain several tales from the oral tradition from Puerto Rico. In each case, a short summary will be given for each tale with a brief historical background and if possible the location of the tale will be included. In order to work with these folk tales, the students will be asked to analyze the story through identification of its characters, the problem or problems in the tale, the setting, sequence of events, and the solution of the problem(s). Other elements that will also have to be identified are: the lesson or moral, magic, evil vs. good, good conquers evil, talking animals, ordinary people, magic numbers, punishment/reward, trickery, greed, exaggeration. Not all the elements will or can be found in a single folk tale, but students need to know which ones are present in the tale that they are reading. Student opinions on the tales are also important; these stories teach a lesson and should be entertaining at the same time.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

MYTH
Taino Origin of the Sea

There was a man named Yaya who had a son Yayael, whose name means son of Yaya. Yayael wanted to kill his father. When Yaya found out that his son wanted to kill him, he had him exiled for four months and then killed him himself. Yaya put his son’s bones in a gourd, which he hung from the ceiling of his house, and here it hung for some time. One day, Yaya wanted to see his son and said to his wife,” I want to see our son Yayael.” His wife felt great joy, brought the gourd to her husband, and turned it over to empty out the son’s bones. Large and small fish came out of the gourd, and they realized that their son’s bones had turned into fish and decided to eat them. Later, one day when Yaya was out in his conucos, which means possessions or lands, the four children of a woman named Itiba Tahuvava came to his house. Their mother had died giving birth to the four and the first one to be born was Caracaracol, whose name means scabby or leprous. The others did not have names. Itiba Tahuvava’s four identical sons went together to steal Yayals gourd where the bones of his son Yayael were kept. Of the four brothers only Dimivan Caracaracol dared to bring the gourd down from its place but all four ate the fish they found inside it. While they were eating, they heard Yaya returning from his conucos, and in the confusion that followed, when they tried to put the gourd back in its place, it fell and broke. People say that so much water came out of the gourd that it covered the whole earth and along with the water fish of all sizes came out too. This, according to Taino myth is the origin of the sea. This and other fascinating myths and descriptions are found in the work of Friar Ramon in his report to Admiral Cristobal Colon, which can be read in its totality in Crónicas de Puerto Rico by Eugenio Ferndandez Mendez.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

LEGEND
One of the first legends retold in Puerto Rico is that of Guanina by Dr. Cayetano Coll y Toste. Once the Taino Indians had proven that the Spaniards were not immortal through the death of Diego Salcedo, they rebelled. The legend of Guanina tells of that rebellion.

GUANINA
Guanina was a Taino Indian princess in love with Don Cristobal de Sotomayor, a Spanish officer who had come to Borinquen to conquer and colonize. Her brother, Guaybana, was the principal chief of the Tainos who hated the Spaniards because of the way they had mistreated and betrayed the Tainos. He swore revenge against the Spaniards. Juan Gonzalez, Sotomayor’s aide, found out about the plan to kill his captain and tried to warn him. Sotomayor would not hear of the planned uprising. He sent for Guaybana and for some of his men to carry his baggage, since he was going to Caparra, the capital. Guanina begged him not to go because she knew that he was going to die and that it would be her own brother who would kill him. Sotomayor did not change his plans, and the next morning set out with Guaybana and his men to the city. On the way, he and five other Spaniards were attacked by the Tainos, and Sotomayor was killed. When Guanina was given the news of her lover’s death, she tried to bring him back to life through her kisses and caresses. The Taino elders considered Guanina a traitor, and decided to offer her as a sacrifice to the gods as a sign of their gratitude in succeeding in their attack. When they went to get Guanina, they found her dead with her head resting on Sotomayor’s bloody chest. The two were buried together near a giant ceiba tree and on their tomb red hibiscus and white lilies appeared as if by magic. These flowers represent the true and passionate love these two souls felt for each other. The legend has it that on occasion, the huge ceiba tree casts a shadow over the land, a soft breeze gently moves the leaves and

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL whispering sounds are heard, then Guanina and Sotomayor come out of the tomb to look at the evening star and kiss each other under the light of the moon.

TALE OF ENCHANTMENT/FAIRY TALE
Stokes of ghosts and the devil abound in Puerto Rican folktales. In the southern part of the island, it is said that most of these stories or events have happened, because many people say they are true. The following is one such story.

THE ARROGANT PRINCESS
Once upon a time, there was a young lady who was very pretty but very conceited. She was as proud as a peacock. She put on heavy make-up, wore expensive dresses, and turned down all the suitors that came her way because none of them was rich or handsome enough. In just a few years, she had broken the hearts of many an honest man who wanted to marry her. She insisted that she deserved no less than a prince. The years passed by and her beauty was fading when a very handsome suitor swept her off her feet. She knew her prince had finally come. She fell madly in love with him. The man asked her parents for her hand in marriage and they were engaged. Rosamada, that was her name, was the happiest woman in the world. They were married in a fabulous wedding. The groom was more handsome than ever in his high hat and tuxedo. A reception followed with plenty to eat and drink. She looked beautiful in her lace wedding gown, her veil, and flower crown. After the reception, the newlyweds went on their honeymoon. When they arrived at a castle in the forest that the groom had chosen, she embraced and smiled at her husband lovingly. He returned the smile and she noticed that his teeth were very long, sharp, and shone 984

7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL like gold. Rosamada was quite surprised; she had not noticed that his teeth were like this before. Her husband then took off his coat and then she saw that he had a two-pointed tail. She started to tremble with horror. What was happening? She had married a very handsome young man, who was this person? Her husband very abruptly took off his hat and the new wife almost fainted. The man had two horns and two very big and pointed ears. He then took off his shirt and she saw that his chest was covered with long black hairs. When he started taking off his gloves, Rosamada tried to escape from his sight but he caught her with his hairy arms and very long claws. He held her while he took off his shoes and she was able to see that his feet were hoofs. She started to scream for help but no one could hear her. She understood at once that she had married the devil himself, and that she was being punished for her arrogance. They say that the devil and the castle disappeared all at once. By pure luck, a hunter found Rosamada lying on the ground and took her back to the city. She was sick six months with hot and cold chills and then she died, which always happens.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

FOLKTALE
El medio pollito (Half-a-chick)
Summary Half-a-chick decides to travel to the capital to find a doctor to repair or add his missing half. He has one leg, one eye, and one wing but believes he is better than everyone in the chicken coop and cannot stand being there anymore. Before leaving, his mother gives him advice, which he does not follow. On his way to the capital he refuses to help river, wind, and fire. When he finally arrives to the big city, he confuses the king and queen with the cooks of the palace. He is overcooked and thrown out of the kitchen window. The wind picks him and takes him high in the air and puts him on top of the cathedral where he becomes a weathercock at the mercy of the rain, the wind, and the hot sun. The story focuses on the punishment of arrogance and conceit. Half-a-chick pays dearly for his attitude and treatment of those in need. The full translation of this tale is found in the following pages.

EL MEDIO POLLITO (HALF-A-CHICK)
Once upon a time and two more makes three, a beautiful hen hatched many chicks but among them there was one that was different from the others, with only one eye, one leg, and one wing. Mother Hen loved him just a little more because she felt sorry for him. So it happened that with all this extra attention Half-a-chick became very arrogant and conceited; he would look down upon his brothers and sisters with dislike. If the others made fun of him, he thought it was because they were jealous of him. If the pretty chicks looked at him with disgust or anger, he thought it was because lie did not pay attention to any of them. One day Half-a-chick told his mother that the chicken coop where he lived was too small and not good enough for him and that he was going to go to the big city where he could be with really important people. Mother Hen started to tremble when she heard this because she knew that everyone would make fun of him and that he would be very unhappy there. “My son,” she said, “where did you get such a silly idea?” Your father has never left this chicken coop and we have been very happy here. Where are you going to find more love than here with us?” Half-a-chick answered, “I sent to go where the king and queen live, I want to meet them! Everyone here is very stupid and inferior to me.” Mother Hen could not stand to hear him any longer and said,” Son, haven’t you seen your reflection in the pond? You have only one wing, one leg, and one eye! That is your disgrace because your father was very handsome.” “Don’t talk to me about my father’s good looks!” grumbled Half-a-chick, “It’s your fault that I look like this! It was your egg . . .” Mother Hen sadly lowered her head until her until her beak touched the ground. She felt helpless; she couldn’t give Half-a-chick his missing half. She whispered, “Forgive me, my son, even though it is not my fault. Yours was the last egg I laid, maybe that’s the reason . . .” 986

7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL Half-a-chick interrupted her and said coldly, “In the big city I will find a doctor who will operate on me and add the parts that I’m missing. I’m leaving as soon as I can!” Since it was useless to change Half-a-chick’s mind, Mother Hen decided to give him some advice. “Listen to me, my dear son, never walk in front of a church: Saint Peter and the saint there do not like roosters. Stay away from cooks: those are your worst enemies, they are experts at wringing chicken’s necks.” She then gave him her blessing and prayed to Saint Raphael to protect him. Finally she told him to get his father’s blessing even if they did not get along very well. Half-a-chick went to see his father, kissed his foot, and asked for his blessing. His father, who also loved him out of pity, was very kind in his farewell. Mother Hen hid and cried. She did not want her son to see her crying. Half-a-chick flapped his only wing, crowed three times, and hopped out of the chicken coop to conquer the world. After following the road for a while he came upon a river that was almost dry. Down the center he could see a thin trickle of water. The trickle of water said faintly to Half-a-chick, “Friend, I feel so weak that I cannot push those branches out of my way, and I’m too tired to go around them. Can you move them out of the way for me? You can use your beak. I beg you! Help Me!” Looking down on the trickle, Half-a-chick responded showing no real interest, “I could get those branches out of your way, but I don’t feel like it. You are a miserable little stream.” Once he said this, he went on his way. The trickle screamed, “You will need me someday, you fool!” Further down the road, he found a dying breeze lying on the ground. “Oh good Half-a-chick, “ said the weak breeze, “I am lying here and cannot get up. I am really a powerful, strong wind. I would like to go and push some waves and get tangled in the high branches of the trees. Can you lift me up with your beak? If you gave me a little shove with your wing, I could get going. The heat is killing me down here! “Look, you dumb wind, you are getting what you deserve. You’re staying right where you are! You have bothered me enough already. You have spread my feathers apart and since I only have one leg, you have pushed me against the wall. I have gotten a lot of bumps and bruises because of you, mean bad wind.” Half-a-chick yelled furiously and turned to go on his way. The wind that could not get up off the ground screamed, “Every chicken gets cooked! You are a fool!” A little while later, Half-a-chick came across a field on fire. Smoke rose high in the sky and fire was everywhere. He came closer to the flames and heard a tiny voice that said, “Half-a- chick, friend, I am a little spark that does not want to go out. I want to go up to the top of the mountain. If I go out, I will never be able to look at the sky from up high. Put some dry grass on me so that I can be a flame again. Have pity on me, Half-a-chick!”

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL “I am not a farmhand to gather hay for you. Snuff out!” replied Half-a-chick. The spark gathered together its last energy and yelled, “I’ll remember you! Someday you might need me, you fool!” Half-a-chick got so angry at the spark that he stomped on it with his only leg until it became ashes. When Half-a-chick finally arrived at the big city, the first thing he did was to disobey his mother’s advice. He went straight to the cathedral door and started to crow loudly so that Saint Peter would get angry. He then set out for the palace. In front of the palace, where the king and queen lived, the guards told him to stop. For the first time in his life, he was afraid. The guards had guns! Instead of stopping, he turned around and sneaked in through a side door. Once inside the palace, Half-a-chick kept hopping and walked into a huge kitchen where the men were wearing tall white hats. He thought that they were the king and queen. He walked straight up to them. One of the cooks grabbed him and wrung his neck. The cook yelled at his helper, “Get me some hot water to feather this sneak!” “Oh Water, dear friend, don’t scald me too much, have pity on me! begged Half-a-chick. “Did you have pity on me when I asked you to push the branches that were in my way? Do you remember me?” Water asked. After the cook had feathered Half-a-chick, he put him in the oven. Half-a-chick screamed at the fire, “Fire, dear friend, you are so powerful and destructive, have pity on me. Don’t burn me, please!” “You fool! Now you come with that. Don’t you remember me? I was that little spark that begged you for help and to not let me die,” said the fire and roasted Half-a-chick until it burned him to a crisp. Now when the cook saw the burned chick, he cursed and threw it out the window. Then the Wind swept it up. “Dear Wind, I want to lie down on the earth, drop me anywhere, under a tree, don’t take me up high, don’t drop me . . . I have already suffered so much,” Half-a-chick sobbed. “What are you saying?” roared the furious Wind, while rolling Half-a-chick around and around. You have a terrible memory . . . Don’t you remember when I pleaded with you to give me just a little shove, to lift me off the ground? Did you help me? No! You insulted me!” Then the Wind started to go higher and higher in the sky, over the houses, over the buildings, until it got up to the top of the cathedral. Saint Peter grabbed Half-a-chick and put him on top of the steeple and changed him into a weathercock. And now, for the rest of his days, Half-a-chick will pay for his conceit and meanness at the mercy of the wind, the sun, and the rain; going around, and around, and around . . .

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

Lesson Plan #1
Topic: Culture and its different forms of expression. Objectives: 1. Students will improve research skills. 2. Students will understand the different components found within CULTURE. 3. Students will define myth, legend, folktale and fairy tale. Procedure 1. Introduce the concept of culture by presenting several videos, musical samples, and artistic expressions through painting, drawings, artifacts, and stories from different countries and times. 2. Each group will come together again to list different kinds of stories, oral or written, that they have heard either through a storyteller or someone that they know. 3. The students will separate their stories into groups. The stories will then need to be categorized into fairy tales, myths, legends, or folktales. At this time, they may need to do further research to define each of the terms and/or to look for stories to fit the category. 4. After the students have listed stories under the fairy tale category, they will choose one that they remember/liked best and write it down in their own words. They may add drawings and decorations to their story. 5. The group will put together a storybook, which they will present to the rest of the class in a storytelling session.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

Lesson Plan #2
This next lesson may last several days. In the preceding lesson, the students came together to work on stories that they had heard, read, or seen on film. Now they will focus on their ethnic roots. Topic: Stories from My Ancestors Objectives: 1. Students will become familiar or reacquaint themselves with stories from their parents, grandparents, and other relatives. 2. Students will record stories told to them in journals. 3. Students will group stories into the different categories studied in the previous lesson. They need to have at least one story of each type. 4. Each group will share their stories with its members and other members in the class. Procedure: Each group will then rearrange its members so that there will be new people in it. To do this, one original member remains seated and the others move to other empty seats in other parts of the room. The basic rule to follow is that there should not be two or more members from one previous group in the new group. Each new member is to tell a story from his original group.

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7.1 Sample Lesson Analyzing Puerto Rican Folktales Subject: ESL

Lesson Plan #3
Topic: Our Own Folktales In this lesson plan, the students will write a folktale of their own. In the first activity, the students researched the different kinds of tales. Then they told each other tales and have read many others. Before they can actually start the writing process, the students need to develop a list of essential elements needed to write a good folktale. This list will be used as the framework of their story. Basically, the list should include the following elements: 1. Characters; who is(are) in the tale? 2. Setting; where and when does the tale take place? 3. 3 Problem(s) 4. Goal; what does the hero/ine want to accomplish? 5. Events; what important things happen(ed)? 6. Moral or outcome. The list needs to be expanded to include characteristics found only in folktales, such as the use of trickery or enchantment, animal as helpers or doers, the use of numbers, the use of exaggeration and fantasy, many of the characters are regular people who do incredible feats, good overcomes/tricks evil, the hero or heroine is usually young, and in the end there is punishment or reward for an action. Procedure: 1. The students will decide which type of tale they will write. Once this decision has been made, the student will take the basic elements list (above) and fill it in with the names, places, etc. from their proposed tale. This will serve as an outline or framework from which they will work and will facilitate the organization of their tale. 2. The students will work individually on their first draft in the classroom and finish writing it for homework. 3. In class, the students will break up into groups that are working in the same type of tale. They will read their tales to each other or silently, adding notes on the margins with suggestions or comments from other members of their group. There should be at least three people in the group. After this session of group interaction, the students will once again revise/rewrite their tale. 4. The second draft is presented to the teacher for additional comments or suggestions. At this time, if the student wishes to illustrate his/her tale, he should include where these drawings or pictures will be and give a brief description of the illustration. 5. The third and final draft will form part of a book of folktales that will be on display or read to other students in the school library. The students are encouraged to share their stories with other students in their school.

Source: http://www.cantaremusic.com/stories/puertorican.htm 991

7.1 Sample Lesson Sentence Proofreading Subject: ESL

Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/curriculum/languagearts/elementary/greatgrammaradv. pdf

7.1 Text Coca Cola or Coco Frio Subject: ESL

Are you more Coca-Cola or Coco Frio?
Read the Poem, “Coca-Cola and Coco Frio” by Martin Espada. While you read, take notes on the sides of any connections or inferences you make to this poem. Coca-Cola and Coco Frio by Martin Espada On his first visit to Puerto Rico, island of family folklore, the fat boy wandered from table to table with his mouth open. At every table, some great-aunt would steer him with cool spotted hands to a glass of Coca-Cola. One even sang to him, in all the English she could remember, a Coca-Cola jingle from the forties. He drank obediently, though he was bored with this potion, familiar from soda fountains in Brooklyn. Then, at a roadside stand off the beach, the fat boy opened his mouth to coco frio, a coconut chilled, then scalped by a machete so that a straw could inhale the clear milk. The boy tilted the green shell overhead and drooled coconut milk down his chin; suddenly, Puerto Rico was not Coca-Cola or Brooklyn, and neither was he. For years afterward, the boy marveled at an island where the people drank Coca-Cola and sang jingles from World War II in a language they did not speak, while so many coconuts in the trees sagged heavy with milk, swollen and unsuckled. My Connections and Inferences

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7.1 Text Coca Cola or Coco Frio Subject: ESL

Vocabulary
Folklore: stories passed down by generations Scalped: To cut off the skin of the top of the head with a knife Swollen: When something is so full, it expands Suckle: to drink milk from a nipple, like a calf suckles milk from a cow’s udder In your journal, respond to this question: Are you more Coca Cola or Coco Frio? Why?

Source: Martin Espada

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7.1 Writing Tool Folktale Rubric Subject: ESL

Rubric for Evaluating Folktales
Criteria 1 No language is used to indicate that the tale or legend is about to begin. 2 There is an opening statement, but it does not reflect traditional folk tale or legend format. There is some sense of story, but the story does not flow clearly from beginning to end. The characters are described with detail, but the traits are not clearly understood or do not add to the understanding of the story. There is some sense of an ending. 3 There is a traditional beginning which indicates that this is a traditional folk tale or legend. There is a clear sense of story with transition words to facilitate the understanding of the listener/reader. The characters are described with detail and the traits are evident and easily understood to represent key parts of the story. There is a traditional ending which leaves the listener/reader with a clear understanding of the story. There is a clear moral or lesson that is easily understood and can be restated by the listener/reader. Story contains all the four story elements (setting, characters, problem, solution) The folk tale/legend has been carefully edited and is ready for publication.

Beginning

There is no sense of story. Narrative format

Characters with easily identified traits

The character(s) are listed but not described with detail.

Ending

No language is used to indicate that the tale or legend is finished.

Moral

There is no reference to a lesson or moral in the tale or legend

There is some reference to a moral or lesson, but it is not easily understood. Story contains some of the four story elements (setting, characters, problem, solution) There are some grammatical and/or spelling mistakes, but they do not interfere with the ability to understand the story.

Story Elements

Conventional form

Story contains few of the four story elements (setting, characters, problem, solution) Grammatical and/or spelling mistakes interfere with the ability to understand the story

Source: http://www.salemschools.com/uploads/file/SMS/malloyj/Rubric%20for%20Folk%20Tal e%20or%20Legend.doc

7.1 Writing Tool Personal Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

Personal Narrative/Descriptive Writing Rubric
Advanced—4 Content
Lead Strong lead makes the reader want to find out more Length of paper is appropriate and flows smoothly from one idea to the next Paper has excellent structure and is well organized Good lead but could be altered though the reader still wants to continue A few instances of clutter and/or not enough elaboration, but for the most part flows evenly Paper has structure and organization though lacks unity because of occasional confusing details Author’s voice and personality is evident and effort was clearly put into the piece making piece enjoyable to read Paper uses good word choice and some varied wording Paper has some strong sensory details making it enjoyable to read but there may be too few or not enough details, at times telling rather than showing The ending is good but does not fully clinch the paper, leaving the reader wanting more 996 Lead is unremarkable and needs some work Good ideas but at times overshadowed by too much and/or too simplistic writing making paper seem choppy Paper has some structure evident but at times is hard to follow or is not well organized Author’s voice is developing and shows some effort but at times the piece needs more work Paper has simplistic word choice and some words are at times repetitive Paper has too few sensory details or far too many so the piece mainly tells rather than shows or use clichés causing reader to lose interest The ending is too simple—it doesn’t fit the flow of the story or contains weak language leaving the reader confused Lead is unimaginative or too obvious and needs to be rewritten Paper is far too long/short and loses focus or is boring because of overwriting and or no elaboration Paper’s structure is greatly lacking, interfering with reader’s ability to understand piece Author’s voice is not evident and the entire story needs more work

Proficient—3

Needs Improvement—2

Not Yet—1

Idea Development

Organization

Voice

Word Choice

Sensory Details

Closing

Author’s voice is clearly evident and piece is thoughtful and well-written in a sophisticated and unique style Paper uses rich and sophisticated word choice and varied language throughout Paper is rich in sensory details and shows rather than tells creating a vivid picture without overloading the reader The final sentences clinch the piece well leaving the reader completely satisfied

Paper has too simplistic word choice and is far too repetitive Paper is lacking in sensory details and tells rather than shows using empty words and too many clichés There is no real ending leaving the reader unsatisfied

7.1 Writing Tool Personal Narrative Rubric Subject: ESL

`Advanced—4 Mechanics
Sentence Structure Paper is well written using a variety of simple and complex sentence structures creating a smooth rhythm to the piece Strong paragraph placement throughout paper

Proficient—3
Papers has a few sentence errors and/or is lacking in variety or complexity Paragraphs are generally appropriate throughout though at times are too long and/or short Paper has between 3 to 5 errors Verb tense is mainly consistent, though sometimes moves from past to present

Needs Improvement—2
Paper is beginning to be difficult to understand as there are many poorly constructed sentences or fragments Paragraphs are only somewhat evident throughout paper

Not Yet—1
Paper is difficult to read because of too simplistic sentence structure and/or many fragments Paragraph placement is almost entirely or lacking all together

Paragraph Placement

Conventions—spelling, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization Verb Tense

Paper is proofread well with only 1 or 2 errors Verb tense remains consistent throughout

Paper has between 6 to 8 errors as proofreading was not done well Verb tenses are inconsistent throughout, affecting reader’s understanding of paper

Paper has more than 9 errors and shows little to no evidence of proofreading Verb tenses are so inconsistent, paper is difficult to understand

Comments: Grade _________

997 Source: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?screen=ShowRubric&rubric_id=1424405&

7.1 Writing Tool Sensory Language Subject: ESL Name: _______________________ Date: ________________

Writing with Sensory Language
Directions: Using the senses, describe what you experienced at an important moment in your life.

I heard…

I saw…

I smelled…

I tasted…

I felt…

Source: edCount, LLC

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7.1 Writing Tool Transition Words Subject: ESL

Transitional Words/Phrases for Ideas
Good Writers use transitional words to guide the reader through the text. Use these words when you are writing non-fiction! Useful Words to Introduce Ideas First, Second, Third, Next, Then, Later,

Transitional Words/Phrases for Time
Good Writers use transitional words to guide the reader through their story. Using time transitions gets you thinking as a writer also how to sequence your events! Words to describe the time before Earlier Before Shortly before that, A moment before

Useful Words to Connect ideas and Add New Information For example, Furthermore, After, Well, Also, Because of this, Then, For instance, In addition, In other words, For example, Additionally, To Contrast Ideas However, On the contrary, On the other hand, To Conclude In conclusion, Consequently, Finally, In summary, Lastly, In short, As you can see, 999 In contrast, Instead,

Words to describe at the same time Meanwhile At that very moment, During all this, While this was happening,

Words to describe right after an event Shortly after that, Along the way, An hour later Soon, Immediately As soon as Not a moment too soon Before long,

Words to describe some time after the event After all that, Later on, Eventually, At last, Next, Finally,

Source: edCount, LLC

7.2 Graphic Organizer Cause and Effect Subject: ESL

Source: TIME for Kids

1000

7.2 Graphic Organizer Main Idea and Details Pyramid Subject: ESL

Main Idea and Details Pyramid of __________________________
Organize the Main Idea and Details of a text into a pyramid. Select transition words that will link the main idea and details together Main Idea

Transition word: ________________ Detail One

Transition word: ________________ Detail Two

Supporting Detail

Supporting Detail

Supporting Detail

Supporting Detail

Source: edCount, LLC

1

7.2 Graphic Organizer Sequencing Chart Subject: ESL

Source: TIME for Kids

1002

7.2 Graphic Organizer Timeline Subject: ESL

Source: Houghton Mifflin Company

1003

7.2 Graphic Organizer Venn Lines Subject: ESL

Source: www.superteacherworksheets.com

1004

7.2 Learning Activity Drawing Conclusions Subject: ESL

1005

7.2 Learning Activity Drawing Conclusions Subject: ESL

1006

7.2 Learning Activity Drawing Conclusions Subject: ESL

1007

7.2 Learning Activity Drawing Conclusions Subject: ESL

Source: Curriculum Associates, Inc. 1008

7.2 Learning Activity Drawing Conclusions Subject: ESL Name: ____________________ ___________________ Date:

Dialogue Journal: Drawing Conclusions in Non-Fiction
Text: ________________________________________________ Directions: As you read, record parts of the text that you find interesting into the left column. In the right column, record your inferences and connections the text. Be ready to share your thoughts with the class.

Quote/word/sentence from text

This makes me connect to….

I infer/ I conclude the effect of this will be

Source: Curriculum Associates, Inc.

1009

7.2 Other Evidence Prefix and Suffix Quiz Subject: ESL Name:_______________________ Date:_________________

Prefix and Suffix Quiz
Prefix Means/how does it change a word Examples of two words that use this prefix

Suffix

Means/how does it change a word

Examples of two words that use this suffix

Source: edCount, LLC

1010

7.2 Other Evidence Vocabulary Inference Chart Subject: ESL

Infer Unknown Words!
Clues can be: From the text (say what it was), illustrations, or in the sentence. Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

1011

7.2 Other Evidence Word Detective Example Subject: ESL Detective’s Name: Sentence where I found the word:

Albert E.

The release of energy in a nuclear transformation was so great that it could cause a detectable change in the mass of the nucleus.

Context Clue:

The word “change” is used in the sentence.

WORD:

Part of Speech:

transformation

Noun

Context Clue:

My Own Sentence:

If energy were released, it would cause the nucleus to lose mass.

I saw a transformation in the day when the rain stopped and the sun came out.

My Own Definition:

It caused a makeover in the mass of the nucleus. It changed.

A picture that will remind me of what this word means to me:

changes to

Source: http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/WordDetective.html

7.2 Other Evidence Word Detective Organizer Subject: ESL Detective’s Name: Sentence where I found the word:

Context Clue: WORD:

Part of Speech:

Context Clue:

My Own Sentence:

My Own Definition:

A picture that will remind me of what this word means to me:

Source: http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/WordDetective.html

7.2 Performance Task Rainbow Writing Paragraph Organizer Subject: ESL Rainbow Writing: One Paragraph Organizer

Blue Sentence Supports Red

Blue Sentence Supports Red

Blue Sentence Supports Red

Green Sentence Supports Blue

Green Sentence Supports Blue

Green Sentence Supports Blue

Concluding Sentence: Red

Source: edCount, LLC

1014

7.2 Resource Commas in Clauses Subject: ESL

1015

7.2 Resource Commas in Clauses Subject: ESL

1016 Source: www.superteacherworksheets.com

7.2 Resource Commas in List Subject: ESL

1017

7.2 Resource Commas in List Subject: ESL

Source: www.superteacherworksheets.com 1018

7.2 Resource Prefix and Suffix List Subject: ESL

Prefixes and Suffixes
Prefixes
PREFIX a-, anabadambianaantiapoautobenecata-, catcentro, centricircumcomconcontradedia-, didisdyseectoen-, emendoepiesoeuexheterohomohyperhypoilimiminininterintrairmacromal, malemetaMEANING not, without away from to, toward both up, back, again against from, away from self good down, against around, center around with, together with, together against down, away through, across apart, not ill, difficult, bad out of, from on the outside in within, inside upon inward, within well, good out of, from other, different same over under not not into not into between within not large bad, evil beyond EXAMPLES amoral, anesthetic, apolitical, asocial abduction, abstain, abnormal adjoin, adjacent (lying near to) ambidextrous, ambivalent analogy, anatomy, anagram antipathy, antiwar, antisocial apology, apologize autobiography, automobile, autocracy, automaton benediction benevolent benefactor catastrophe--a turning down concentric, centrifugal circumlocution circumference, circumvent communal, community connect, confide conspire contradict, contravene descend, deject (cast down) diameter, division disengage, discord, discomfort dysfunctional, dysentery elect (choose out of), eject (throw out) ectoderm--outer skin empathy--feeling in endoscope--instrument for observing inside epitaph epidermis, epicenter esoteric--more inward, esophagus euthanasia--good death exhume, exhale, exodus heterosexual, heterodoxy, heterodox heterogeneous homosexual, homogeneous, homogenized hypertension, hypersensitive, hyperactivity hypotension, hypodermic illegitimate, illicit, illegal, illegible imperfect, impolite, impossible imbibe (drink in, take in) indiscreet, invisible incorporate (take into the body) intervene (come between), interstate intrastate, intramural irregular, irrational, irredeemable macrocosm, macroeconomics malediction malevolent, malnutrition metaphysical 1019

7.2 Resource Prefix and Suffix List Subject: ESL micromononeoobpalin-, palipanparaperperiphil-, philopolypostpreproprosprotopseudo reretrosesubsur-, supersyn-, sym-, syl-, systeletranssmall one, single new, recent against back, again all, every false through around like, lover of many, several after before for, forward toward, in front first false again, back back away from under over, above with, together distant, far off across DEFINITION leader kill(ing) cutting act, state having to do with things having to do with small the belief in one who believes in one connected with study field of resembling, like-shaped one who takes part in exaggerated fear act, state, condition of microscope, microcosm, microeconomics monologue, monotheism, monarchy, monogamy neologism, neo-liberal, neonatology. neolithic object, obstruct (build against) palindrome pantheism, Pan-Hellenic, panorama, pandemic paramilitary, paralegal, parachute percolate (flow through) perforate (punch through) perimeter, periscope philosophy, Francophile, bibliophile, philanthropy polygon, polygamy, polytechnic, polytheism postgraduate, posthumous postpone precede, predict (tell before) promote, project prospect—view in front, something coming up prototype, protoplasm, protobiology pseudonym, pseudoscience repeat, recede, regress (step back) retrogression, retroactive seduce (lead away), secede submarine, subject, subhuman subterranean superhuman, superego, superintend, surpass symphony, synonym, system, syllable telephone, telepathy, television, telegram transient, Transatlantic, transport (carry across) EXAMPLE demagogue, pedagogue patricide, infanticide, herbicide. suicide appendectomy, splenectomy amnesia, mania, democracy, anarchy anthropomorphic, dramatic, biblical, cardiac optics, physics asterisk--a little star pacifism, terrorism, socialism, communism pacifist, terrorist, socialist, communist meteorite, polite, cosmopolite biology, geology, etymology, cardiology asteroid, spheroid doctor, actor, teacher, driver photophobia, claustrophobia, agoraphobia analysis

Suffixes
SUFFIX -agog, -agogue -cide -ectomy -ia, -y -ic, -tic, -ical, -ac -ics -isk, -iscus -ism -ist -ite -logy -oid -or, -er -phobia -sis

Source: http://www.betterendings.org/homeschool/Words/Root%20Words.htm 1020

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1021

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1022

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

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7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1024

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

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7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1026

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1027

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

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7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

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7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1030

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1031

7.2 Sample Lesson Comma Rules and Lessons Subject: ESL

1032 Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/curriculum/languagearts/elementary/greatgrammaradv. pdf

7.2 Writing Tool Paragraph Checklist Subject: ESL Name: ____________________ Date: _____________________

Paragraph Student Checklist
Yes
Does the paragraph have a clear topic sentence? Is the paragraph indented? Does the paragraph have major details that connect to the topic sentence? Does the paragraph have minor details that connect to the major details? Does the paragraph have a concluding sentence? Did the writer use proper capitalization? Is the paragraph free of spelling errors? Are all sentences complete? Did the writer use the correct conjugation of verbs? Did the writer use correct punctuation at the end of each sentence?

No

Notes

Source: edCount, LLC

1033

7.3 Graphic Organizer Root Word Tree Subject: ESL Name:__________________ Date:________

Root Word Tree
Instructions: Select a Root word and write it at the root of the tree. Write the meaning of the root word in the trunk. Then find words that come from the root and write the word and its meaning in the branches.

_____________________ _____ means: _____________________ _____ means: _____________________ _____ means:

This root word means: _____________________ _____ _____________________ _____ means: means:

Root Word: __________________

Source: edCount, LLC

1034

7.3 Graphic Organizer Sensory Language Subject: ESL Name: _______________________ Date: ________________

Poetry: Writing with Sensory Language
Directions: Find examples of sensory language in poetry. Write the line that describes something with the senses. Be sure to write which poem and which poet wrote it!

Example from poem: __________________________ by: ________________

Example from poem: __________________________ by: ________________

Example from poem: __________________________ by: ________________

Example from poem: __________________________ by: ________________

Example from poem: __________________________ by: ________________

Source: edCount, LLC

1035

7.3 Learning Activity Lines and Stanzas Subject: ESL

Organize Poetry into Lines and Stanzas
Poets separate their poems into lines to create pauses and stanzas to help organize the poem. With a partner, cut out the poem, “Juan” by Margarita Engle and separate it into lines and stanzas. Think: where should there be pauses? Where are there topics that should be separated into stanzas? After organizing the poem into lines and stanzas, read how Margarita Engle organized the poem, “Juan”. What was similar and/or different between how you organized the poem and how Margarita Engle organized it?

“Juan” by: Margarita Engle
My mind is a brush made of feathers painting pictures of words I remember all that I see every syllable each word a twin of itself telling two stories at the same time one of sorrow the other hope I love the words written with my feathery mind in the air and with my sharp fingernails on leaves in the garden When my owner catches a whiff of the fragrance of words engraved in the flesh of succulent geranium leaves of perfumed petals of aleli flowers then she frowns because she knows that I dream with my feathers my wings Poetry cools me, syllables calm me I read the verses of others the free men and know that I’m never alone Poetry sets me aflame I grow furious dangerous, a blaze of soul and heart, a fiery tongue a lantern at midnight

1036

7.3 Learning Activity Lines and Stanzas Subject: ESL

My mind is a brush made of feathers painting pictures of words I remember all that I see every syllable each word a twin of itself telling two stories at the same time one of sorrow the other hope I love the words written with my feathery mind in the air and with my sharp fingernails on leaves in the garden When my owner catches a whiff of the fragrance of words engraved in the flesh of succulent geranium leaves of perfumed petals of aleli flowers then she frowns because she knows that I dream with my feathers my wings

Poetry cools me, syllables calm me I read the verses of others the free men and know that I’m never alone Poetry sets me aflame I grow furious dangerous, a blaze of soul and heart, a fiery tongue a lantern at midnight

Source: “Juan” by Margarita Engle

1037

7.3 Other Evidence Figurative Language Assessment Subject: ESL Name: ____________________________ Date: _______

Assessment of Figurative Language!
Read the poem “Dreams” by Langston Hughes and write a paragraph of 3 to 5 sentences on what is the lesson we learn from this poem. Use EXAMPLES from the poem to support your thinking! Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow.

When finished, decorate the poem with your VISUALIZATIONS!

Source: “Dreams” by Langston Hughes

1038

7.3 Other Evidence Poetry Assessment Subject: ESL Name: __________________________ Date:_______________

Poetry Power
Directions: Read the three poems and answer the questions below

My Tongue is Like a Map
Mami said yes, Abuelita sang sí. They said, two languages makes you a rich man, But words never paid for my penny candy. Agua, water. Arroz, rice. Niño, me! Arroz con leche, sang Abuelita As my mami said, A is for Apple. My ears were like a radio, so many stations. Sometimes I would dream in English and Spanish I was a millionaire each time I said yes and sí. By: Rane Arroyo

Describe who the speaker is: ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ How many stanzas are in this poem? __________________ How many lines does each stanza have? ________________ Give an example of repetition that makes a rhythm:_______________________________ What is the simile in this poem? ________________________________________________ What does it mean? ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

1039

7.3 Other Evidence Poetry Assessment Subject: ESL

Rain Sound
At first it’s like drumming, As it patters down, then stops. Now it’s an animal Outside the window Quietly licking its chops. By: Lillian Morrison

What words rhyme together? __________________________________________ Circle them in the poem. What lines rhyme? ___________________________________________________ What is the metaphor in this poem? _____________________________________ What does it mean? ___________________________________________________________

1040

7.3 Other Evidence Poetry Assessment Subject: ESL

New Baby Poem (II)
sleep coming down bringing dreams that swish like the sound of warm water rocking the baby rocking the baby swish, swish swish By: Eloise Greenfield

What is an example of onomatopoeia? _______________________________________ What is an example of alliteration? ___________________________________________

If you are finished early, draw your visualizations around the poems!

Source: Rane Arroyo, Lillian Morrison, and Eloise Greenfield 1041

7.3 Other Evidence Poetry Unit Reflection Subject: ESL Name:___________________________ Date:__________

Poetry Unit Reflection
All good learners reflect on their work to make it stronger. Let’s take 10 minutes to reflect on our poetry unit.

What do you love about reading poetry? Why?

What do you love about writing poetry? Why?

What did I learn about reading and writing poetry?

Source: edCount, LLC

1042

7.3 Other Evidence Root Word Quiz Subject: ESL Name:_______________________ Date:_________________

Root Word Quiz
Root Word Means Examples of three words that use this root

Source: edCount, LLC

1043

7.3 Other Evidence Subject-Verb Quiz Subject: ESL

1044

7.3 Other Evidence Subject-Verb Quiz Subject: ESL

Source: www.superteacherworksheets.com 1045

7.3 Other Evidence Subject: ESL Vocabulary Inference Chart

Infer Unknown Words!
Unknown Word What I think it Means What Clues helped me? Check the dictionary or a friend

Source: edCount, LLC

1046

7.3 Other Evidence Word Detective Example Subject: ESL Detective’s Name: Sentence where I found the word:

Albert E.

The release of energy in a nuclear transformation was so great that it could cause a detectable change in the mass of the nucleus.

Context Clue:

The word “change” is used in the sentence.

WORD:

Part of Speech:

transformation

Noun

Context Clue:

My Own Sentence:

If energy were released, it would cause the nucleus to lose mass.

I saw a transformation in the day when the rain stopped and the sun came out.

My Own Definition:

It caused a makeover in the mass of the nucleus. It changed.

A picture that will remind me of what this word means to me:

changes to

Source: http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/WordDetective.html

7.3 Other Evidence Word Detective Organizer Subject: ESL Detective’s Name: Sentence where I found the word:

Context Clue: WORD:

Part of Speech:

Context Clue:

My Own Sentence:

My Own Definition:

A picture that will remind me of what this word means to me:

Source: http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/WordDetective.html

7.3 Performance Task Ode to Puerto Rico Posters Subject: ESL

How to Write an Ode Poem
1. Select a topic for your ode, and make a list attributes for that topic. 2. Consider how your ode can be used as a metaphor to illustrate a typical problem or situation. Decide on a scene that will begin the poem and set up the ode so that it points the reader to the conclusion you will assert. 3. Plan the structure of the ode. Decide how many lines each stanza will contain and how many stanzas will make up the ode; most odes are serious poems comprised of several stanzas. Decide on a rhyme scheme. 4. Fit the ideas from your planning process into phrases and stanzas. Use a thesaurus to find synonyms for words that may not fit the structure and rhyme scheme of your ode. 5. Read your draft aloud to see if it flows easily and makes sense. 6. Shift words and phrases around to make it sound better. Add alliteration and internal rhymes to strengthen it. Eliminate words that make the poem sound clumsy. 7. Allow other people to critique your ode.

Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_4895212_write-ode-poe.html 1049

7.3 Resource Reading Poetry Aloud Subject: ESL  Tips for the Enjoyment of Poetry by Robert G. Shubinski 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Read it aloud Be receptive Read carefully Follow the leader Read it over again Forget the technical aspects Consider it as a whole

1. Read it aloud Poetry is word-music, an art which paints pictures with words and sounds. Since the sounds greatly increase the effect of the words, poems must be read aloud to provide your fullest enjoyment. Silent reading just won't do poetry justice--it's like trying to enjoy a concert by reading the score. Reading aloud enables the poem to reproduce the music of rhythm, rhyme, alliteration, assonance, and harmony to enhance the emotional colors of the words. Make your first reading a silent one, if you like, to get a "feel" for the content--but you should read aloud to experience the full potential of poetry. 2. Be receptive Read poetry with an open mind. Try to match your mood to the tone of the content. Be receptive to the word music of the poet--let him speak through you, as if the words were your own. This positive approach will allow the poem an opportunity to awaken a satisfying emotional response. Unless you're willing to have your feelings aroused the way good poetry can stir them, wait until a better time. Should the poem still fail to "deliver" after your best receptive effort, you needn't feel a sense of inadequacy--just as we differ in musical tastes or sense of humor, we each have our own unique artistic criteria for the appreciation of poetry. You cannot expect to like every poem, because no-one does. Look for and enjoy poetry that does something special for you, but you must be in a receptive frame of mind to allow it the opportunity. 3. Read Carefully Relax, slow down; there's no rush. Read with understanding, rather than speed. Speak the words crisply, with good diction, especially the beginning consonants. Don't read with monotony or lack of inflection. Words and phrases can flow like a sparkling stream or be jarring--let them do it their way. As you read the lines, feel their excitement, their joy, their sadness; sense their look, smell and taste. Only by reading carefully will you experience an emotional response to the word sounds and images by which the poet transfers his sense impressions to you. 4. Follow the Leader Pretend you're dancing with the poem and following its lead. Slow down or stop where the punctuation indicates. Hesitate ever so slightly at run-on line endings and pause between stanzas. Don't impose a mechanical "tee-dum tee-dum" meter in your reading--let the words of the poem provide the rhythm and the meter will fend nicely for itself. Enjoy the poetic music as you dance, as well as the visual aspect of a poem's layout on the page, which often represents a careful preparation by the poet to complement the texture of his work. 5. Read it over again Very often we are unable to fully appreciate a poetic work on the first reading. Maybe a distracted mood was interfering with our receptive antennae. Perhaps there are elusive undertones or subtleties not initially perceived which could make a world of difference in our response to subsequent readings. The incremental appreciation of art and music--of which poetry is 1050

7.3 Resource Reading Poetry Aloud Subject: ESL both--is dependent on repetition. What may not have impressed us at all on first exposure may become a beloved favorite if repeated. So if a poem failed to "grab" you the first time, give it another chance. Read it over again. 6. Forget the technical aspects Don't be overly concerned with the technical aspects of poetic construction. It's not vital to understand the metrical variations. The definitions of esoteric terminology are no more necessary for pleasurable reading than to be a connoisseur of vintages in order to enjoy a glass of wine. The only thing that matters is whether or not you like the poem; you don't have to analyze it--let the English professors do that. On the other hand, if you feel such additional knowledge will enhance your pleasure, by all means, pursue it. 7. Consider it as a whole There is truth in the saying that a poem is only as good as its weakest line. A well-written piece of poetry--meaning one which is successful in imparting effective word images and sounds to the reader--results from the unity of its segments with the whole, whether it be a simple sonnet or a sweeping epic. We all like to remember and quote favorite lines which have a memorable meaning or beauty of expression. Other lines, words and phrases, however, which have little apparent significance by themselves, can be integral components in the context of their relationship to the rest of the poem. The obvious conclusion is that the ultimate worthiness of a poetic composition is dependent upon the contributions made by each word and every line to the complete work. Therefore, don't fragmentize the poem in your reading, but evaluate and enjoy it as a whole

Source: https://www.msu.edu/~miazgama/aapoets_day_one_handout2.htm 1051

7.3 Resource Root Words List Subject: ESL

Common Root Words and Word Origins
ROOTS alter ami, amicamphi ann, enni anthrop aqua, aque arch arthro aud bell biblio biobrev cap carn ced chromchroncogn cord/chord corp crac, crat cred cruc crusta crypt culp dei demodent dermdic dox duc, duct duo dynamMEANING other love both ends or all sides year human, man water chief, leader, ruler joint sound war book life short take, seize meat yield, go color time know cord body rule, ruler believe cross shell hidden guilt god people tooth skin speak, say belief, opinion lead two power WORD alternate, alter ego amiable, amicable amphibian anniversary, annual, biennial, perennial anthropology, anthropomorphic, misanthrope aquatic, aquarium, aqueduct archangel, monarch, archaic, archenemy arthritis auditorium, audible, audiologist, audiotape belligerent, bellicose bibliography, bibliophile biography, autobiography, biology, antibiotic brief, abbreviate capture, captivate, capacity carnivorous, chili con carne recede, secede, proceed, intercede, concession chromatic, monochrome, polychrome chronicle, chronology, chronometer, synchronize recognize, cognitive, incognito harpsichord corpus, corpse, corporal autocrat, democracy, bureaucrat, democracy credible, credulous, credibility, credit, credo crucifix, crucial crustacean cryptogram, cryptology, cryptic culpable, culprit deity, deify demography, democracy, epidemic dentist, dentifrice, dentin dermatology, epidermis, hypodermic dictate, predict, diction, indict orthodoxy, paradox, heterodoxy induce, deduce, seduction, conduct, abduct duo dynamo, hydrodynamics

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7.3 Resource Root Words List Subject: ESL ego equ fac fil frater gamgeoglyph grad, gress graphgym gynhemo, hema, hem holo hydro, hydr iso ject jud leg, lect liter loc log luc magn man mar mater mere meta, met metri, metermin mit, miss mob, mot, mov self equal make, do threadlike brother marriage earth vertical groove step writing, printing naked woman blood whole, entire water equal, identical throw judge read, choose letter place word light large hand sea mother part, segment behind, between measure small send move egotist, egomania equal, equity, equanimity, equate, equidistant manufacture, factory, benefactor filament fraternal, fraternize monogamy, polygamy, bigamy geopolitical, geology, geography, geothermal Hieroglyphics—Egyptian “sky writing” gradual, progression, transgression graphology, biography, telegraph, geography gymnasium gynecologist, androgynous hemophilia, hematology, hemoglobin holograph dehydrate, hydraulics, hydroelectric, hydroplane isolate inject, reject, subject, projection judicial, judge, adjudicate legible, lectern, lecturer, election literature, illiterate, literal local, location monologue, epilogue lucid, elucidate magnify, magnate, magnificent manufacture, manual, manuscript marine, mariner maternal, maternity, matriarchy, matricide mere metacognition—behind the thinking geometric, thermometer, odometer minority, minuscule, minute permit, submission, mission, emit, mobile, automobile, motion, promote, movie

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7.3 Resource Root Words List Subject: ESL mon mor, mort morph mut neuro nomen /nomin nov nym, onym odonto orthopac pater path ped, pod pel, puls pend phon-, phonoplan pneum pod port pot psychpugna quer, quis scent, scend schizo, schiz sci sciss scrib, script sec, sect sed, sess sens, sent sequ, secu serv simil siphon sol son soph spec, spic spir spir spond, spons spont warn death form, structure change nerve name new word, name tooth straight, correct peace father feeling, suffering foot push hang, weigh sound, voice flat lung feet carry power soul, spirit, mind fight ask climb division, split know cut write cut sit feel, be aware follow serve, protect same tube sun sound wisdom, knowledge look, see coil breathe promise, answer for by one's own force premonition, admonition mortal, mortician, immortality metamorphosis, amorphous, morphology mutant, mutability, mutate neurology, neurosis, neurobiology nominal, nominate, nomenclature novel, renovate, innovation, novella synonym, acronym, anonymous, pseudonym orthodontist—one who straightens teeth orthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic pacify, Pacific Ocean, pacifist paternal, paternity, patricide, patrilineal, patriotic sympathy, apathy, empathy, telepathy, pathology pedal, pedometer, centipede, gastropod pulsate, repulsive, impulse, compel, propel pendulum, pendant, suspend, pending telephone, euphony, cacophony, phonograph planar, plantation, plane pneumatic podiatrist portable, transport, portage, report, potent, omnipotent, potentate psychology, psychic, psychobiography pugnacious, pugilist query, inquisition, ascend, ascent schizophrenic scientific scissors manuscript, scribe, proscribe, scripture dissect, section sedentary, session sensible, sentient sequence, sequel, consecutive service similar, assimilate, simile, facsimile (fax) siphon solar sonar, resonate, unison philosophy, sophisticated, sophomore (wise fool) spectacles, spectator, inauspicious, prospect spiral inspire, respiration, conspire, perspiration respond, responsible spontaneous

Source: http://www.betterendings.org/homeschool/Words/Root%20Words.htm

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7.3 Resource Root Words List Subject: ESL stat tang, tact temp ten, tent terr theo thermtrophy uro vac ven, vent ver vert vit voc zoo stay, position touch time hold earth god, deity heat nutrition, food urine empty come, go truth turn life call animal station tactile, tangible temporary, temporize tentative, tenable, tenuous subterranean, terrain, terrestrial, disinter theology, polytheism, atheist, monotheism thermal, thermos, thermometer atrophy—without nutrition urologist vacation, vacuum, vacuous, vacant intervene, convene, contravene veracity, verify, verity introvert, irreversible, vertigo vital, revitalize, vitamin revoke, invocation, vocal, evocative, convocation zoo, zoology, zoolatry

Source: http://www.betterendings.org/homeschool/Words/Root%20Words.htm

1055

7.3 Resource Subject-Verb Agreement Subject: ESL

Subject-Verb Agreement
1. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs.   Everyone has done his or her homework. Somebody has left her purse.

Some indefinite pronouns — such as all, some — are singular or plural depending on what they're referring to. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns.   Some of the beads are missing. Some of the water is gone.

On the other hand, there is one indefinite pronoun, none, that can be either singular or plural; it often doesn't matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb — unless something else in the sentence determines its number. (Writers generally think of none as meaning not any and will choose a plural verb, as in "None of the engines are working," but when something else makes us regard none as meaning not one, we want a singular verb, as in "None of the food is fresh.")    None of you claims responsibility for this incident? None of you claim responsibility for this incident? None of the students have done their homework. (In this last example, the word their precludes the use of the singular verb.

2. Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed above, also) certainly feel like more than one person and, therefore, students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. They are always singular, though. Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the cars), thus confusing the verb choice. Each, too, is always singular and requires a singular verb.

 Everyone has finished his or her homework.
You would always say, "Everybody is here." This means that the word is singular and nothing will change that.  Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library.

Don't let the word "students" confuse you; the subject is each and each is always singular — Each is responsible. 3. Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier word (mayor in this case), but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do).   The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison. The mayor and his brothers are going to jail. 1056

7.3 Resource Subject-Verb Agreement Subject: ESL 4. The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though they seem to be referring, in a sense, to two things.    Neither of the two traffic lights is working. Which shirt do you want for Christmas? Either is fine with me.

In informal writing, neither and either sometimes take a plural verb when these pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. This is particularly true of interrogative constructions: "Have either of you two clowns read the assignment?" "Are either of you taking this seriously?" Burchfield calls this "a clash between notional and actual agreement."* 5. The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn't matter; the proximity determines the number.     Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house. Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house. Are either my brothers or my father responsible? Is either my father or my brothers responsible?

Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house" sounds peculiar, it is probably a good idea to put the plural subject closer to the verb whenever that is possible. 6. The words there and here are never subjects.    There are two reasons [plural subject] for this. There is no reason for this. Here are two apples.

With these constructions (called expletive constructions), the subject follows the verb but still determines the number of the verb. 7. Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular subjects (he, she, it and anything those words can stand for) have s-endings. Other verbs do not add s-endings.  He loves and she loves and they love_ and . . . .

8. Sometimes modifiers will get betwen a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.  The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to have several political lives, is finally going to jail.

9. Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're really singular and vice-versa. Consult the section on the Plural Forms of Nouns and the section on Collective Nouns for additional help. Words such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are 1057

7.3 Resource Subject-Verb Agreement Subject: ESL regarded as plural (and require plural verbs) unless they're preceded the phrase pair of (in which case the word pairbecomes the subject).    My glasses were on the bed. My pants were torn. A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.

10. Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require singular verbs.   The news from the front is bad. Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women.

On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb.    My assets were wiped out in the depression. The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically. Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.

The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a plural verb: the Miami Heat have been looking …, The Connecticut Sun are hoping that new talent …. See the section on plurals for help with this problem. 11. Fractional expressions such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes plural, depending on the meaning. (The same is true, of course, when all, any, more, most and some act as subjects.) Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs. The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb: "More than one student has tried this."         Some of the voters are still angry. A large percentage of the older population is voting against her. Two-fifths of the troops were lost in the battle. Two-fifths of the vineyard was destroyed by fire. Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy. Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the policy. Two and two is four. Four times four divided by two is eight.

12. If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject and one is plural, the other singular, the verb should agree with the positive subject.    The department members but not the chair have decided not to teach on Valentine's Day. It is not the faculty members but the president who decides this issue. It was the speaker, not his ideas, that has provoked the students to riot.

Source: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/sv_agr.htm

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7.3 Sample Lesson Similes Subject: ESL


Teaching Point: ‘I opened the poem…’ poems
CONNECTION: Class, we have worked so hard this year on long writing projects and we have gotten so much done. I was very impressed by how much you wrote about in your Social Studies books about different cultures, and for your reading responses. Now that we are getting towards the end of the year, the third grade teachers thought it might be fun to do a unit on writing poetry, to go along with our reading unit on reading poetry. These activities will be fun for everyone, and won’t be nearly as difficult as some of the other writing projects we’ve done this year. Now I know some of you have done some work in poetry in Ms. Bogg’s class, so there may be days where we learn about something that is already familiar to you. This is completely ok, because poetry is something you can always re-do, and each time you can use a new idea, or improve on an old idea you already tried. Today we are going to start with a kind of poem you may have tried before, the “I opened the poem…” poem. How many of you are familiar with this kind of poem? TEACH: One good way to write a poem like this is to do something called ‘word association.’ When you do word association, one person says a word, and the other person responds to them with the first word that comes into their head. For example, if I said “beach” you might think “sand.” Since that is the first word you think of, you say “sand” back. Let’s see if I can try this with one of you [choose a student who you think might pick up on this quickly, and use the following list of words, which you can write up on the board as you say them. Write their response under it so you have a long list of words by the end]. Numbers [their response] Rice [their response] Colors [their response] Rainbow [their response] Fire [their response] Water [their response] Did you see how ______ listened to the word I said and then said the first word that came into his/her head? [you may want to have them turn and talk to try doing this on their own]

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7.3 Sample Lesson Similes Subject: ESL  Now I want you to watch me as I create a poem using our list that we’ve made together.         I opened the poem and numbers came out, I opened the numbers and [their response] came out, I opened the [their response] and rice came out, I opened the rice, and [their response] came out, I opened the [their response], and colors came out, I opened the colors, and [their response] came out… [stop after a few lines b/c you will use the rest of the list for the active engagement section] Did you see how I used my word association list to create a “I opened the poem…” poem? ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT: Now I’d like to see you all try to continue this poem, using the rest of the list we have on the board. Turn and tell your neighbor what the next 2 lines would be in the poem… Students turn and talk, elicit their responses and complete the poem to ensure they all understand the pattern. LINK: When we go back to our seats today, I will be pairing you with a partner to work with. You and your partner will try doing a word association game together. Each of you will make a list of 5 words to use. Then you will try it with each other and record your partner’s responses. Using the list you come up with, you can write your own “I opened the poem…” poem. We will be keeping our drafts of poetry in our writer’s notebooks [or you can have them make a poetry folder and keep drafts in there. Whichever you prefer] until we choose ones we want to revise. NOTE: you could also just have them write these poems without using word association activities, if that is too complicated for them. You could just say to them they are doing their own word association by starting with a word of their choice and picking out a list of things that they think of as they go along. I am not sure which way I will teach it. LINK: Students share poems with class.

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7.3 Sample Lesson Similes Subject: ESL


Teaching Point: learning to use similes—using the “like what” list
CONNECTION: Writers, we started our poetry unit yesterday and many of you wrote great opening poems. I think we are going to do a great job with this unit. Today, I want to introduce a strategy that many poets use when they are writing poetry. How many of you remember what a simile is? Remember, we learned this spring that similes are when you compare two things using the words ‘like’ or ‘as.’ Many poets use similes in their poems, filled with beautiful language and descriptions, so that the reader of the poem gets an amazing picture in their mind of what the poet was trying to say. This picture created in your mind is called imagery. TEACH: Today I am going to teach you how you can begin to collect beautiful similes in your writer’s notebooks that can be used in your poetry. One way to brainstorm similes is to look at the “Like What” list that I have created here on a chart [you can come look at mine if the format is unclear here, which it might be, use a big bracket to indicate that all of these words would be followed by ‘like _______’]: LIKE WHAT color hot cold sounds tastes smells looks feels makes me feel [possible ending] Let me explain to you what this LIKE WHAT list means. When you are writing similes, a lot of you might know you can use the five senses to compare what you are talking about to something else. For example, you might say “My t-shirt is yellow like a bright sunny day” That would be an example of how you would explain a color to be like something else, using a simile. Another simile you could create is if you were saying something was hot, like “my floor was hot like black pavement in August.”If you were going to write a sounds-like simile, you might say something like “The book fell to the floor, crashing like thunder in a rain storm.” [you may want to write down these similes as you go down the list, so they have a point of reference]. like _________________

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7.3 Sample Lesson Similes Subject: ESL  Did you see how I looked at my LIKE WHAT list to think of ways to write similes?  ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT: I want us to create some similes together as a class. Let’s all think about something we want to describe [you can either elicit ideas here, or use the ones I came up with]. What if I wanted to describe the lunchyard at recess time? How might I use similes to explain the lunchyard? Remember to think about all of the things on the LIKE WHAT list, color, temperature, and the five senses… Students turn and talk to create similes about the lunchyard. You can put them all up on a chart in verse form. This may or may not end up being a poem in and of itself. Point out that poems can really be created just like that. For example, the following would be a list of similes about recess that would end up being a poem if you went through the whole LIKE WHAT list.


      

Lunchyard
The lunchyard is bright like a sunny spring day. The lunchyard is hot like black pavement in the summertime. The lunchyard is loud like a marching band before practice. The lunchyard smells like sweat and dirt and candy. The lunchyard looks like rush hour with people rushing everywhere. The lunchyard feels like a bruise on my shins. LINK: Students, so now that we have practiced writing some similes together, we are going to go back to our seats and try writing some of our own similes. [at this point you