# Antenna Theory

Basic Principles For Daily Applications

Base Station Antenna Systems March 2009

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Base Station Antenna Technology Evolution
Antenna Core Technology
Omni Vertical Directional Polarization DualPol® MIMO DualPol® Dual Band RET Capacity Improvement Interference Reduction with Frequency MIMO MIMO
Low Application

Digital Beam Former SDMA Capacity

Air Interfaces
AMPS GSM CDMA W-CDMA WiMAX TD-SCDMA LTE

Dominate Application

Significant Application

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Dipole
F0 (MHz) 30 λ (Meters) 10.0 3.75 1.87 1.07 0.65 0.38 0.31 0.18 0.15 λ (Inches) 393.6 147.6 73.8 42.2 25.7 14.8 12.3 6.95 5.9

¼λ

80 160 280 460 800

F0

¼λ

960 1700 2000

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3D View Antenna Pattern Source: COMSEARCH PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 4 .

02 pWatt or ~1 microvolt dBc PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 5 .Understanding The Mysterious “dB” dBd dBi dB dBm Signal strength relative to a dipole in empty space Signal strength relative to an isotropic radiator Difference between two signal strengths Absolute signal strength relative to 1 milliwatt 1 mWatt = 0 dBm Note: The 1 Watt = 30 dBm Logarithmic Scale 20 Watts = 43 dBm 10 * log10 (Power Ratio) Signal strength relative to a signal of known strength. in this case: the carrier signal Example: –150 dBc = 150 dB below carrier signal If two carriers are 20 Watt each = 43 dBm –150 dBc = –107 dBm or ~0.

00 Return Loss (dB) ∞ 26.1 100.8 17.6 14.Effect Of VSWR Good VSWR is only one component of an efficient antenna.7 2. VSWR 1.8 99.0 88.8 4.0 11.0 99.2 98.30 1.0 0.3 97.00 1.50 2.2 96.0 9.9 PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 6 .10 1.04 0.2 0.08 0.8 1.12 0.01 0.20 1.7 15.00 0.40 1. (%) 0.4 20.5 Transmission Loss (dB) 0.18 0.51 Power Power Reflected (%) Trans.

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 7 . The more dipoles that are stacked vertically. the flatter the vertical pattern is and the higher the antenna coverage or ‘gain’ is in the general direction of the horizon.Shaping Antenna Patterns Vertical arrangement of properly phased dipoles allows control of radiation patterns at the horizon as well as above and below the horizon.

are secondary minor lobes.9λ. • Doubling the number of elements increases gain by 3 dB. • Optimum spacing (for non-electrical tilt) is approximately 0. and reduces vertical beamwidth by half. illustrated in the 4 Dipoles Vertically Stacked • General Stacking Rule • Collinear elements (in-line vertically). • The peak of the horizontal or • The little lobes. vertical pattern measures the gain.Shaping Antenna Patterns (Continued) Aperture of Dipoles Vertical Pattern Horizontal Pattern • Stacking 4 dipoles vertically in Single Dipole line changes the pattern shape (squashes the doughnut) and increases the gain over single dipole. lower section. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 8 .

How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard of +/–1 dB accuracy. The reference gain standard must always be specified. Why is it useful? Gain can be associated with coverage distance and/or obstacle penetration (buildings.Gain What is it? Antenna gain is a comparison of the power/field characteristics of a device under test (DUT) to a specified gain standard. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 9 . etc). foliage.

Isotropic Pattern Dipole Pattern Isotropic (dBi) Dipole (dBd) Gain dBi dBd • • 3 (dBd) = 5.14 (dBi) PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 10 . A gain antenna is two or more radiating elements phased together.Gain References (dBd And dBi) • An isotropic antenna is a single point in space radiating in a perfect sphere (not physically possible). A dipole antenna is one radiating element (physically possible).14 (dBi) 0 (dBd) = 2.

Side View -3 dB Directional Antennas.Principles Of Antenna Gain Omni Antenna.5° +9 dBd -3 dB +9 dBd 45° -3 dB PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 11 . Top View 0 dBd 0 dBd 60° -3 dB +3 dBd 30° -3 dB +3 dBd 180° -3 dB +6 dBd 15° -3 dB +6 dBd 90° -3 dB 7.

5 1 1.) 800/900 MHz PCS 1 2 3 4 6 8 DCS Vertical 1800/1900 Beamwidth 0.5 2 3 4 60° 30° 20° 15° 10° 7.5 13 5 8 9.5 9 3 6 7.5 9 10.5 15.9λ) 1 2 3 4 6 8 0 3 4.5 13.5 12 4 7 8.5 13.5 16.1 19.5 10 11.5 13.1 16.6 18.5 12 14 15 12.5 6 7.6 15.6 Typical Length of Antenna (ft.5 14 15 17 18 Could be horizontal radiator pairs for narrow horizontal apertures.Theoretical Gain Of Antennas (dBd) 3 dB Horizontal Aperture (Influenced by Grounded Back “Plate”) 360° 180° 120° 105° # of Radiators Vertically Spaced (0.5° 10.5 11 90° 6 9 60° 8 11 45° 9 12 33° 10.5 12. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 12 .

Antenna Gain • • Gain (dBi) = Directivity (dBi) – Losses (dB) Losses: Conductor Dielectric Impedance Polarization • Measure using ‘Gain by Comparison’ PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 13 .

low multipath environments Polarization diversity – Slant 45° (+ and –) is now popular – Requires only a single antenna for diversity – Lower zoning impact – Best performance in high and medium multipath environments Measured data will be presented in the Systems Section PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope • 14 .Antenna Polarization • Vertical polarization – Traditional land mobile use – Omni antennas – Requires spatial separation for diversity – Still recommended in rural.

Various Radiator Designs Elements Dipole 1800/1900/UMTS Directed Dipole™ DualPol® (XPol) Directed Dipole™ Patch 800/900 MHz Directed Dipole™ MAR Microstrip Annular Ring PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 15 .

Dipoles Single Dipole Crossed Dipole PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 16 .

Feed Harness Construction ASP705 (Old Style) ASP705K LBX-6513DS Series Feed Center Feed (Hybrid) Corporate Feed PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 17 .

sidelobe suppression • Minimum feed losses • Simple feed system • Frequency • independent main lobe direction Reasonably simple feed system Disadvantages +2° +1° 0° +1° +2° 450 455 BEAMTILT • Not as versatile as ASP-705 465 470 MHz 460 corporate (less bandwidth.Feed Harness Construction (Continued) Series Feed Advantages Center Feed (Hybrid) Corporate Feed • Frequency independent main beam direction • More beam shaping ability. less beam shaping) • Complex feed system PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 18 .

corporate feeds – Dielectric substrate – Air substrate PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 19 .Feed Networks • Coaxial cable – Best isolation – Constant impedance – Constant phase • Microstripline.

1 dB/m at 2 GHz) PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 20 .Microstrip Feed Lines • Dielectric substrate – Uses printed circuit technology – Power limitations – Dielectric substrate causes loss (~1.0 dB/m at 2 GHz) • Air substrate – Metal strip spaced above a groundplane – Minimal solder or welded joints – Laser cut or punched – Air substrate cause minimal loss (~0.

Air Microstrip Network PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 21 .

LBX-3316-VTM Using Hybrid Cable/Air Stripline PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 22 .

LBX-3319-VTM Using Hybrid Cable/Air Stripline PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 23 .

DB812 Omni Antenna Vertical Pattern PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 24 .

932DG65T2E-M Pattern Simulation PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 25 .

the key pattern objective is to focus as much energy as possible into a desired sector with a desired radius while minimizing unwanted interference to/from all other sectors.Key Antenna Pattern Objectives For sector antenna. This requires: • • • • Optimized pattern shaping Pattern consistency over the rated frequency band Pattern consistency for polarization diversity models Downtilt consistency PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 26 .

How is it measured? The main lobe is characterized using a number of the measurements which will follow. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. 35° Total 35° Total Main Lobe Main Lobe Why is it useful? Shaping of the pattern allows the contained coverage necessary for interference-limited system designs.Main Lobe What is it? The main lobe is the radiation pattern lobe that contains the majority portion of radiated energy. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 27 .

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 28 . interference requirements. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. 1/2 Power 1/2 Power Beamwidth Beamwidth 30 30 Why is it useful? It allows system designers to choose the optimum characteristics for coverage vs.Half-Power Beamwidth Horizontal And Vertical What is it? The angular span between the half-power (-3 dB) points measured on the cut of the antenna’s main lobe radiation pattern.

Front-To-Back Ratio What is it? The ratio in dB of the maximum directivity of an antenna to its directivity in a specified rearward direction. traditional dipole and patch elements will yield 23–28 dB while the Directed Dipole™ style elements will yield 35–40 dB. In general. Why is it useful? It characterizes unwanted interference on the backside of the main lobe. The larger the number. Note that on a dual-polarized antenna. F/B Ratio @ 180 degrees F/B Ratio @ 180 degrees 0 dB – 25 dB = 25 dB 0 dB – 25 dB = 25 dB What is Andrew standard? Each data sheet shows specific performance. it is the sum of co-pol and cross-pol patterns. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 29 . the better! How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing.

Why is it useful? Sidelobe level or pattern shaping allows the minor lobe energy to be tailored to the antenna’s intended use.Sidelobe Level What is it? Sidelobe level is a measure of a particular sidelobe or angular group of sidelobes with respect to the main lobe. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 30 . What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. See Null Fill and Upper Sidelobe Suppression. Sidelobe Level Sidelobe Level (–20 dB) (–20 dB) How is it measured? It is always measured with respect to the main lobe in dB.

null filling significantly improves signal intensity in all coverage targets below the horizon. we expect no less than 15 and typically 10–12 dB! PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 31 . Why is it useful? For arrays with a narrow vertical beamwidth (less than 12°). What is Andrew standard? Most Andrew arrays will have null fill of 20–30 dB without optimization. How is it measured? Null fill is easiest explained as the relative dB difference between the peak of the main beam and the depth of the 1st lower null. To qualify as null fill.Null Filling What is it? Null filling is an array optimization technique that reduces the null between the lower lobes in the elevation plane.

5 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.9 1 Transmit Power = 1 W Base Station Antenna Height = 40 m Base Station Antenna Gain = 16 dBd Elevation Beamwidth = 6.1 0.5° Distance (km) PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 32 .Null Filling Important For Antennas With Narrow Elevation Beamwidths Null Filled to 16 dB Below Peak Received Level (dBm) 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 33 .Upper Sidelobe Suppression What is it? Upper sidelobe suppression (USLS) is an array optimization technique that reduces the undesirable sidelobes above the main lobe. How is it measured? USLS is the relative dB difference between the peak of the main beam peak of the first upper sidelobe. USLS can significantly reduce interference due to multi-path or when the antenna is mechanically downtilted. What is Andrew standard? Most of Andrew’s arrays will have USLS of >15 dB without optimization. The goal of all new designs is to suppress the first upper sidelobe to unity gain or lower. First Upper Sidelobe Suppression Why is it useful? For arrays with a narrow vertical beamwidth (less than 12°).

(As opposed to spacial diversity.54 dB δ =80°. XPol = –0. XPol = –21 dB δ =10°.3 dB δ =60°. XPol = –11 dB δ =20°. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. XPol = –∞ dB δ = 5°. 34 .2 dB δ =70°. δ Why is it useful? Orthogonal arrays within a single antenna allow for polarization diversity. XPol = –1.13 dB δ =90°. XPol = –3 dB δ = 50°.) Decorrelation between the Green and Blue Lines δ = 0°. XPol = –15 dB δ =15°. usually measured in the boresite (the direction of the main signal). XPol = –2.Orthogonality What is it? The ability of an antenna to discriminate between two waves whose polarization difference is 90 degrees. XPol = 0 dB XPol = 20 log ( sin (δ)) PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope How is it measured? The difference between the co-polar pattern and the cross-polar pattern. XPol = –9 dB δ =45°. XPol = –0.

Note: in the rear hemisphere. however. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 35 . for the Directed Dipole™ style elements. cross-pol pattern performance of a dual-polarized antenna generally over the sector of interest (alternatively over the 3 dB beamwidth). it increases to 15 dB min. The better the CPR. the better the performance of polarization diversity. 120° 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 Cross-Polarization (Source @ 90°) Directed Dipole™ What is Andrew standard? For traditional dipoles. 120° 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 Why is it useful? It is a measure of the ability of a cross-pol array to distinguish between orthogonal waves. the minimum is 10 dB.Cross-Pol Ratio (CPR) What is it? CPR is a comparison of the co-pol vs. cross-pol becomes co-pol and vice versa. Typical Co-Polarization How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing and compares the two plots in dB over the specified angular range.

–45° Array +45° Array How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing and compares the two plots in dB over the specified angular range. the beams should track as closely as possible.Horizontal Beam Tracking What is it? It refers to the beam tracking between the two beams of a +/–45° polarization diversity antenna over a specified angular range. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 36 . What is Andrew standard? The Andrew beam tracking standard is +/–1 dB over the 3 dB horizontal beamwidth. 120° 120° Why is it useful? For optimum diversity performance.

Beam Squint What is it? The amount of pointing error of a given beam referenced to mechanical boresite. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 37 . Horizontal Boresite Squint Squint –3 dB θ/2 θ +3 dB Why is it useful? The beam squint can affect the sector coverage if it is not at mechanical boresite. How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. whichever is greatest. For the vertical beam. squint shall be less than 10% of the 3 dB beamwidth. squint shall be less than 15% of the 3 dB beamwidth or 1 degree. It can also affect the performance of the polarization diversity style antennas if the two arrays do not have similar patterns. What is Andrew standard? For the horizontal beam.

The better the SPR. Why is it useful? It is a percentage that allows comparison of various antennas. the better the interference performance of the system. SPR (%) = 60 60 Σ P Σ P X 100 Desired 300 PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 38 . Desired 300 Undesired Undesired What is Andrew standard? Andrew Directed Dipole™ style antennas have SPR’s typically less than 2 percent.Sector Power Ratio (SPR) 120° 120° What is it? SPR is a ratio expressed in percentage of the power outside the desired sector to the power inside the desired sector created by an antenna’s pattern. How is it measured? It is mathematically derived from the measured range data.

Antenna–Based System Improvements Key Antenna Parameters To Examine Closely 932LG Directed Dipole™ –7 dB Standard 85° Panel Antenna Roll off at -/+ 60° -10 dB points Horizontal Ant/Ant Isolation Next Sector Ant/Ant Isolation Cone of Silence –6 dB 74° 74° 83° 83° –16 dB –12 dB –35 dB –18 dB 120° Cone of Great Silence with >40 dB Front-to-Back Ratio 60° Area of Poor Silence with >27 dB Front-to-Back Ratio PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 39 .

frequency Limited to sub-bands on broadband models 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 3 Ratings: 1 = Always important 2 = Sometimes important 3 = Seldom important Squint Roll-off past the 3 dB points Front-to-back ratio Cross-pol beam tracking Beam tracking vs.Key Antenna Pattern Objectives Azimuth Beam n n rba al rba Subu r U Ru • • • • • • • • • Beam tracking vs. frequency Upper sidelobe suppression Lower null fill Cross-pol beam tracking Elevation Beam PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 40 .

frequency Effective gain on the horizon Close to the theoretical value (directivity minus losses) 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 Ratings: 1 = Always important 2 = Sometimes important 3 = Seldom important Gain Note: Pattern shaping reduces gain. mechanical tilt Absolute tilt Electrical tilt vs. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 41 .Key Antenna Pattern Objectives (Continued) Downtilt n n rba al rba Subu r U Ru • • • • • Electrical vs.

and 8 column vertical pol designs for WiMAX and TD-SCDMA* Often calibration ports are used * Time Division Spatial Code Division Multiple Access PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 42 .Advanced Antenna Technology Adaptive Array (AA) • • • • • Planar array External digital signal processing (DSP) controls the antenna pattern A unique beam tracks each mobile Adaptive nulling of interfering signals Increased signal to interference ratio performance benefits • • 4. 6.

two separated for 4x4 MIMO Spatial multiplexing works best in a multi-path environment Space Time Block Coding is a diversity MIMO mode PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 43 .Advanced Antenna Technology MIMO Systems 2 x 2 MIMO Spatial Multiplexing • • • Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) External DSP extracts signal from interference Capacity gains due to multiple antennas • • • A DualPol® RET for 2x2 MIMO.

RET – Remote Electrical Tilt (e. business and residential plan) PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 44 .RAB – Remote Azimuth Beamwidth (from 35° to 105°) • Redirect and widen the beam based on traffic requirements • Balance the traffic per area with the capacity per sector • Best utilization of radio capacity per sector • Convenient and low-cost optimization from a remote office • Quick and immediate execution • Scheduled and executed several times a day (e. 0–10°) .Advanced Antenna Technology SmartBeam® Antenna Family • Most flexible and efficient antenna system in the industry • Solution for the traffic peaks instead of raising the bar everywhere • Full 3-way remote optimization options .g.RAS – Remote Azimuth Steering (+/– 30°) .g.

Advanced Antenna Technology SmartBeam® 3-Way Model Azimuth patterns measured at 1710–2180 MHz with no radome. 35° 65° 90° 105° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 45 .

35° 65° 90° 105° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 46 .Advanced Antenna Technology SmartBeam® 3-Way Model Elevation patterns measured at 1710–2180 MHz with no radome.

System Issues • Choosing sector antennas • Narrow beam antenna applications • Polarization—vertical vs. mechanical • RET optimization • Passive intermodulation (PIM) • Return loss through coax • Antenna isolation • Pattern distortion PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 47 . slant 45° • Downtilt—electrical vs.

Choosing Sector Antennas For 3 sector cell sites. what performance differences can be expected from the use of antennas with different horizontal apertures? Criteria • Area of service indifference between adjacent sectors (ping-pong area) • For comparison. use 6 dB differentials • Antenna gain and overall sector coverage comparisons PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 48 .

3 x 120° Antennas 120° Horizontal Overlay Pattern 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 Examples VPol Low Band DB874H120 DB878H120 49° -40 3 dB PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 49 .

3 x 90° Antennas 90° Horizontal Overlay Pattern 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Examples XPol VPol Low Band DB854DG90 DB842H90 DB856DG90 DB844H90 DB858DG90 DB848H90 LBX-9012 LBV-9012 LBX-9013 High Band DB932DG90 DB950G85 HBX-9016 UMWD-09014B UMWD-09016 UMW-9015 44° -35 -40 5 dB PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 50 .

3 x 65° Antennas 65° Horizontal Overlay Pattern 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Examples XPol VPol Low Band CTSDG-06513 DB844H65 CTSDG-06515 DB848H65 CTSDG-06516 LBV-6513 DB854DG65 DB856DG65 DB858DG65 LBX-6513 LBX-6516 High Band UMWD-06513 UMWD-06516 UMWD-06517 HBX-6516 HBX-6517 PCS-06509 HBV-6516 HBV-6517 19° -35 -40 10 dB PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 51 .

Special Narrow Beam Applications

4-Sector Site (45°)

6-Sector Site (33°)

Repeater Narrow Donor, Wide Coverage Antennas Rural Roadway

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Test Drive Route

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Polarization Diversity Tests

DB854HV90 DB854DD90

1 Test A
DRIVE TESTS

2
0°/90° (H/V)

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Test B

+45°/-45° (Slant 45°)

A B

HANDHELD MOBILE

1A 1B

2A 2B

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-70 -80 moving away from tower -90 moving crossface Uplink Signal Strength Vert Left Vert Right Slant Div Slant Div moving towards tower -100 PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 55 .Slant 45° / Hand-Held In Car Space Diversity vs. Slanted +45°/–45° -40 Test Set-Up and Uplink Signal Strength Measurements DB833 A TEST 1A DB833 B DB854DD90 E 9dB Green Black 11dB 9dB Blue Signal Strength (dBm) -50 Red -60 7.5 ft.

Slanted +45°/–45° Difference Between Strongest Uplink Signals 16 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 Difference Between Polarization Diversity and Space Diversity Average Difference TEST 1A Signal Strength (dB) Slant ±45° Improvement PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 56 .Slant 45° / Hand-Held In Car Space Diversity vs.

-60 moving away from tower -70 moving towards tower -80 -90 moving crossface Uplink Signal Strength Vert Left Vert Right Slant Div Slant Div PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 57 .Slant 45° / Mobile With Glass Mount Space Diversity vs.5 ft. Slanted +45°/-45° -40 TEST 1B DB833 B Test Set-Up and Uplink Signal Strength Measurements DB833 A DB854DD90 E 9dB Green Black 9dB Blue Signal Strength (dBm) -50 Red 11dB 7.

Slant 45° / Mobile With Glass Mount Space Diversity vs. Slanted +45°/-45° Difference Between Strongest Uplink Signals 16 TEST 1B Signal Strength (dB) 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 Slant ±45° Degradation Difference Between Polarization Diversity and Space Diversity Average Difference PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 58 .

Rysavy Research PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 59 .

• This figure demonstrates Peter Rysavy of Rysavy Research. indicating that from a link layer perspective. that the focus of future technology enhancements should be on improving system performance aspects that improve and maximize the experienced SNRs in the system instead of investigating new air interfaces that attempt to improve the link layer performance.1xEV-DO.16e are all within 2-3 dB of the Shannon bound. “Data Capabilities: GPRS to HSDPA and Beyond”. there is not much room for improvement. and 802.Future Technology Focus • Figure 16 shows that HSDPA. September 2005 1 PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 60 . 3G Americas.

The Impact Lower Co-Channel Interference/Better Capacity And Quality In a three sector site. traditional antennas produce a high degree of imperfect power control or sector overlap. better defined ‘cones of silence’ behind the array. Imperfect sectorization presents opportunities for: Traditional Flat Panels 65° 90° • • • • Increased softer hand-offs Interfering signals Dropped calls Reduced capacity Andrew Directed Dipole™ 65° 90° The rapid roll-off of the lower lobes of the Andrew Directed Dipole™ antennas create larger. • • • Much smaller softer hand-off area Dramatic call quality improvement 5%–10% capacity enhancement PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 61 .

al IEICE TRANS FUNDAMENTALS.120° Sector Overlay Issues On the Capacity and Outage Probability of a CDMA Heirarchial Mobile System with Perfect/Imperfect Power Control and Sectorization By: Jie ZHOU et. NO. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 62 .7 JULY 1999 . . . 47. VOL.E82-A. 3. AUGUST 1998 15 Percentage of capacity loss 10 5 0 15 10 5 0 Overlapping angle in degree Qualitatively. NO. VOL. al IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Effect of Soft and Softer Handoffs on CDMA System Capacity By: Chin-Chun Lee et. From the numerical results. the user capacities are dramatically decreased as the imperfect power control increases and the overlap between the sectors (imperfect sectorization) increases . . . excessive overlay also reduces capacity of TDMA and GSM systems.

Used in code division multiplex systems .Hard.Smoother communication without the clicks typical in hard handoffs • Softer Handoff . and Softer Handoffs • Hard Handoff .Incorporates a rake receiver to combine signals from multiple cells .Similar to soft handoff except combines signals from multiple adjacent sectors PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 63 .Often results in a ping-pong switching effect • Soft Handoff .Used in time division multiplex systems .Switches from one frequency to another . Soft.

Soft and Softer Handoff Examples Softer Handoff Two-Way Soft Handoff Three-Way Soft Handoff PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 64 .

. Allows more effective penetration of nearby buildings. particular high-traffic lower levels and garages. service and frequency utilization are frequently improved by directing maximum radiation power at an area below the horizon.Beam Downtilt In urban areas. This technique . • • • Improves coverage of open areas close to the base station. Permits the use of adjacent frequencies in the same general region. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 65 . .

Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

• • •

Mechanical downtilt lowers main beam, raises back lobe. Electrical downtilt lowers main beam and lowers back lobe. A combination of equal electrical and mechanical downtilts lowers main beam and brings back lobe onto the horizon!

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Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt (Continued)

Mechanical

Electrical

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DB5083 Downtilt Mounting Kit
DB5083 downtilt mounting kit is constructed of heavy duty galvanized steel, designed for pipe mounting 12” to 20” wide panel antennas.

• Correct bracket calibration
assumes a plumb mounting pipe!

• Check antenna with a digital level.

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. . no tilt PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 69 . • Beam peak to tilt below horizon • Back lobe to tilt above horizon • At ± 90°.Mechanical Downtilt Pattern Analogy—Rotating A Disk Mechanical tilt causes .

Mechanical Downtilt Coverage 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 Elevation Pattern Azimuth Pattern Mechanical Tilt 0° 4° 6° 8° 10° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 70 .

0° Mechanical Downtilt Quiz What is the vertical beamwidth of a 4-element array? 85° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 71 .

7° Mechanical Downtilt 93° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 72 .

15° Mechanical Downtilt 123° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 73 .

20° Mechanical Downtilt Horizontal 3 dB Bandwidth Undefined PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 74 .

Feeding vertically arranged dipoles out of phase will generate patterns that look up or look down. Generating Beam Tilt Dipoles Fed In Phase Energy in Exciter Phase Exciter Wa v e Fron t PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope Dipoles Fed Out of Phase 75 . The degree of beam tilt is a function of the phase shift of one dipole relative to the adjacent dipole. each stacked dipole must be fed from the signal source in phase.Managing Beam Tilt • • • For the radiation pattern to show maximum gain in the direction of the horizon.

tilt below horizon All the pattern tilts Cone of the Beam Peak Pattern PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 76 . .Electrical Downtilt Pattern Analogy—Forming A Cone Out Of A Disk Electrical tilt causes . . • • • • Beam peak to tilt below horizon Back lobe to tilt below horizon At ± 90°.

Electrical Downtilt Coverage 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 320 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 320 Elevation Pattern Electrical Tilt Azimuth Pattern 0° 4° 6° 8° 10° PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 77 .

Electrical Downtilt 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 350 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Mechanical Electrical PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 78 .Mechanical Vs.

Remote Electrical Downtilt (RET) Optimization ATM200-002 RET Device (Actuator) Local PC ATC200-LITE-USB Portable Controller Local PC ANMS™ Remote Locations Network Server ATC300-1000 Rack Mount Controller PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 79 .

Intermod Interference Where? F1 Tx F1 Rx F3 Receiver-Produced F3 Tx F1 Rx F3 Transmitter-Produced F2 F2 Tx F2 Tx F2 F1 Tx1 F2 Tx2 F3 Elsewhere Rx F3 Tx1 Tx2 F1 F2 C O M B DUP Rx3 F3 RF Path-Produced PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 80 .

F2 = 1930 MHz n 1 2 1 2 3 2 m 1 1 2 2 2 3 Product Order Second Third Third Fourth Fifth Fifth Product Formulae 1F1 + 1F2 1F1 – 1F2 2F1 + 1F2 *2F1 – 1F2 2F2 + 1F1 *2F2 – 1F1 2F1 + 2F2 2F1 – 2F2 3F1 + 2F2 *3F1 – 2F2 3F2 + 2F1 *3F2 – 2F1 Product Frequencies (MHz) 3875 15 5820 1960 5805 1915 7750 30 9695 1975 9680 1900 *Odd-order difference products fall in-band.High Band Product Frequencies. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 81 . Two-Signal IM FIM = nF1 ± mF2 Example: F1 = 1945 MHz.

3ΔF Higher than the highest – lower than the lowest – none in-between PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 82 . F2 .2ΔF Seventh Order: F1 + 3ΔF. F2 = 1930 MHz ΔF = F1 .ΔF Fifth Order: F1 + 2ΔF. F2 .Two-Signal IM Odd-Order Difference Products Example: F1 = 1945 MHz.F2 = 15 F2 1930 ΔF dBc 2F2 – F1 1915 2ΔF 5th 3rd ΔF F2 F1 ΔF 3rd 2F1 – F2 1960 F1 1945 3F2 – 2F1 1900 dBm 2ΔF 3F1 – 2F2 1975 5th Third Order: F1 + ΔF. F2 .

5.PCS A Band Intermodulation 11th 1855 9th 1870 7th 1885 5th 1900 3rd 1915 1930 1945 Channel Bandwidth Block (MHz) Frequencies C 30 1895–1910. C-4. 1975–1982. 1980–1985 C5 10 1905–1910. 1975–1980 C4 10 1900–1905. 1975–1990 C1 15 1902. 1982.5–1910. C-3.5 C3 10 1895–1900. 1985–1990 FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan Note: Some of the original C block licenses (originally 30 MHz each) were split into multiple licenses (C-1 and C-2: 15 MHz. and C-5: 10 MHz).5–1990 C2 15 1895–1902. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 83 .

C-3. 1975–1990 C1 15 1902.5–1910.5. C-4. 1975–1980 C4 10 1900–1905.PCS A & F Band Intermodulation 3rd 1895 1935 1975 Channel Bandwidth Block (MHz) Frequencies C 30 1895–1910. 1975–-1982.5 C3 10 1895–1900.5–1990 C2 15 1895–1902. 1980–1985 C5 10 1905–1910. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 84 . 1982. and C-5: 10 MHz). 1985–1990 FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan Note: Some of the original C block licenses (originally 30 MHz each) were split into multiple licenses (C-1 and C-2: 15 MHz.

Causes Of IMD • Ferromagnetic materials in the current path: .Steel .Loosely contacting surfaces .Non-conductive oxide layers between contact surfaces PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 85 .Nickel plating or underplating • Current disruption: .

05 1.4 0.00 0.028 0.0000 0.00 1.83 200.26 20.0% 0.1074 1.20 2.00 3.57 Ins Loss w/2 Conn (dB) 0.17 100.48 11.09 6.0000 0.1387 1.30 CommScope 18-Mar-09 Cable Type / Component Loss (dB) VXL7-50 LDF4-50A 2 System Component Antenna or Load Jumper Tower Mounted Amp Jumper Top Diplexer or Bias Tee Jumper Main Feed Line Jumper Bias Tee Jumper Surge Suppressor Jumper Bottom Diplexer or Duplexer Jumper Legacy Jumper / TL Cables 1/2 inch Superflexible Copper 1/2 inch Foam Copper 1/2 inch Superflexible Aluminum 1/2 inch Foam Alum inum Max.2 3.09 1.00 6.0000 0.98 32.00 0.0% 0.33 Feet 100.15 1.00 0.09 1.0% 0.09 1.0% 0.00 6.0000 0.83 27.0000 12.1003 0.00 VSWR 1.32 17.0 Frequency (MHz): Component Used? No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes 850.13 27.00 Return Loss (dB) 13.48 No PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 86 .0% 0.System VSWR Calculator System VSWR Calculator Version 9.83 27.13 27.00 0.42 27.83 1.32 29.00 0.0000 0.0% 0.83 1.0% 0.0% 0.20 1.00 0.8% 0.24 19.10 3.32 29.30 Cable Length (ft) 6.10 FSJ4-50B 1.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.42 27.0% 0.00 6.07 1.20 2 0.00 36.00 30.20 1.00 0. Reflections at System input Reflection 87.0000 0.00 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.00 0.2% 0.00 656.0% 0.09 1.09 1.0000 0.08 Andrew Cable Length (m) 1.0385 100. VSWR 1.00 0.32 23.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.0000 0.00 meters 30.00 89.07 1.83 28.10 2.0000 0.0% FSJ4-50B LDF4-50A Estimated Conn Loss ( 2per cable) CR 540 SFX 500 FXL 540 CommScope 0.32 23.15 1.0% 0.00 Feet to meters converter Typical System Reflection: Typical System VSWR: Typical System Return Loss (dB): Worst System Reflection: Worst System VSWR: Worst System Return Loss (dB): Total Insertion Loss (dB): Return Loss to VSWR converter Legacy Transmission Lines 7/8 inch Copper 1 1/4 inch Copper 1 5/8 inch Copper 7/8 inch Very Flexible Copper 1 1/4 inch Very Flexible Copper 1 5/8 inch Very Flexible Copper 7/8 inch Virtual Air Copper Yes Andrew 1 5/8 inch Virtual Air Copper 7/8 inch Aluminum 1 1/4 inch Aluminum 1 5/8 inch Aluminum LDF5-50A LDF6-50 LDF7-50A VXL5-50 VXL6-50 VXL7-50 AVA5-50 AVA7-50 AL5-50 AL7-50 CR 1070 CR 1480 CR 1873 FXL 780 FXL 1480 FXL 1873 Return Loss (dB) 17.0% 0.83 1.32 20.00 8 4 0.00 % of Est.

2:1 (20.8 dB RL TMA) Then: X (max) = 1.jspx?cc=US&lc=eng&ckey=895674&nid=-35131.0. but be aware that it is possible! From http://www.8:1 (10.5:1 (14 dB RL Antenna) S = 1. If: L = 1.Possible Cascaded VSWR Results Possible results (at a given frequency) when Antenna and TMA are interconnected with different electrical length jumpers.25:1 (19.00&id=895674 PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 87 .1 dB RL) Worst case seldom happens in real life.com/agilent/editorial.9 dB RL) S (min) = 1.agilent.home.

Recommended Antenna/TMA Qualification Test Antenna 50 ohm load 6 foot LDF4-50A Adapter or jumper to bypass TMA 6 foot LDF4-50A TMA TMA 12 foot LDF4-50A 12 foot LDF4-50A Transmission Line Transmission Line 20 foot FSJ4-50 20 foot FSJ4-50 Antenna Return Loss Diagram TMA Return Loss Diagram PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 88 .

Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas.52) 10 (3. The curves will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas.05) 20 (. If values (1) the spacing is measured between the physical center of the tower antennas and it (2) one antenna is mounted directly above the other.24) 100 Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters) The values indicated by these curves are approximate because of coupling which exists between the antenna and transmission line.48) 2 (0. with no horizontal offset collinear).) 03 (30. No correction factor is required for the antenna gains.) 61 30 (9.91) 5 (1.61) 3 (0.14) 50 (15.Attenuation Provided By Vertical Separation Of Dipole Antennas 70 60 50 Isolation in dB 40 Hz 0M 0 20 z MH 0 85 H 0M 45 z H 0M 16 z 7 z MH 5 4 z MH 0 30 20 10 1 (. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 89 .

44) 500 (152. The curves will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas if (1) the indicated isolation is reduced by the sum of the antenna gains and (2) the spacing between the gain antennas is at least 50 ft.Attenuation Provided By Horizontal Separation Of Dipole Antennas 80 70 Hz 0M 200 Isolation in dB 60 M 850 Hz Hz M 450 50 M 150 40 Hz 30 Hz 70 M Hz 50 M z H 30 M 20 10 (3.8) 20 (.48) 200 (60.4) 1000 Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters) Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas.24 m) (approximately the far field).96) 300 (91.) 61 30 (9.14) 50 (15.05) (304. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 90 .24) 100 (30. (15.

A few basic precautions will prevent pattern distortions.Pattern Distortions Conductive (metallic) obstruction in the path of transmit and/or receive antennas may distort antenna radiation patterns in a way that causes systems coverage problems and degradation of communications services.html PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 91 . Additional information on metal obstructions can also be found online at: www.akpce.com/page2/page2.

Pattern Distortions Side Of Building Mounting Building PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 92 .

90° Horizontal Pattern Obstruction @ –10 dB Point 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 70 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 0° 3½' –10 dB Point Antenna Building Corner PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 93 .

90° Horizontal Pattern Obstruction @ –6 dB Point 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 0° ' 3½ –6 dB Point Antenna Building Corner PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 94 .

90° Horizontal Pattern Obstruction @ –3 dB Point 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 0° –3 dB Point ' 3½ Building Corner Antenna PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 95 .

51λ Diameter Obstacle @ 0° 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 0° 12λ Antenna PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 96 .90° Horizontal Pattern 0.

51λ Diameter Obstacle @ 45° 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 45° 8λ Antenna PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 97 .90° Horizontal Pattern 0.

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 98 .com/page2/page2.51λ Diameter Obstacle @ 60° 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 60° 100 110 120 130 6λ Antenna Additional information on metal obstructions can also be found online at www.90° Horizontal Pattern 0.akpce.html.

51λ Diameter Obstacle @ 80° 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60 880 MHz 80° Antenna 3λ Additional information on metal obstructions can also be found online at www.com/page2/page2. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 99 .html.90° Horizontal Pattern 0.akpce.

51λ) Maximum Gain > 12 WL 3 dB Point (45°) 8 W L 6 dB Point (60°) > W >6 WL L > 3 WL 10 dB Point (80– 90°) Antenna 90° horizontal (3 dB) beamwidth PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 100 .General Rule Area That Needs To Be Free Of Obstructions (> 0.

1763 10 x 0.01745 for 0° < θ< 10° : tan θ = θ x tan 1° tan θ = Note: tan 10° = 0.01745 = 0.1745 PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 101 .Pattern Distortions D θ d d D d = D x tan θ tan 1° = 0.

7x θ° below boresite. –6 dB point 1.35 x θ° below boresite. –10 dB point 1.Gain Points Of A Typical Main Lobe θº θ° Relative to Maximum Gain Vertical Beam Width= 2 x θ° (–3 dB point) –3 dB point θ° below boresite. PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 102 .

Changes In Antenna Performance In The Presence Of: Non-Conductive Obstructions Fiberglass Panel 90° PCS Antenna Dim “A” PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 103 .

A) PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 104 .Performance Of 90° PCS Antenna Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass) 120° 110° 100° 90° 80° 1/4 λ 1/2 λ 3/4 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ FIBERGLASS PANEL Horizontal Aperture DIM “A” 70° 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim.

Performance Of 90° PCS Antenna Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass) 1.3 1.2 0 1 1/4 λ 1/2 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim.5 DIM “A” VSWR (Worst Case) FIBERGLASS PANEL 1.6 1.7 1. A) W/Plain Façade W/Ribbed Façade Without Facade PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 105 .4 1.

Distance From Fiberglass 0° 330° 30° 90° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 102° 60° 300° 270° -55 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 90° 270° -55 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 90° 240° 120° 240° 120° 210° 150° 0° 330° 30° 210° 150° 180° 180° No Fiberglass 300° 68° 60° 3" to Fiberglass 270° -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 90° 240° 120° 210° 150° 180° 1.5" to Fiberglass PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 106 .

Distance From Fiberglass 0° 330° 30° 77° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 112° 60° 300° 270° -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 90° 270° -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 90° 240° 120° 240° 120° 210° 150° 210° 150° 180° 180° 0° 330° 30° 4" to Fiberglass 300° 108° 60° 6" to Fiberglass 270° -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 90° 240° 120° 210° 150° 180° 9" to Fiberglass PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL © CommScope 107 .