# NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No.

75（2007）

Presentation of award-winning articles
The 2006 Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Young Engineers Award

Logarithmic Profiles of Rollers in Roller Bearings and Optimization of the Profiles*
Hiroki FUJIWARA** Tatsuo KAWASE**

1. Introduction
It is known that when a cylindrical surface or conical surface comes in contact, concentrated stress occurs at the end portion of the contact with the resultant contact pressure becoming excessive. This excessive contact pressure at the end portions is called edge stress. In a common roller bearing the roller rolling surface and/or the raceway surface of the race is crowned to avoid edge stress. Fig. 1 schematically shows a cylindrical roller bearing whose roller is crowned. The amount of decrease in the radius generated by crowning is called the drop. Shapes of crowning include a straight line, a single circular arc or a combination of multiple circular arcs. However, Lundberg worked out a shape of crowning expressed in a logarithmic function (hereinafter referred to as logarithmic crowning) 1). When a Lundberg curve is used, the distribution of contact

pressure can be made axially uniform. However, this curve has an infinite drop at the end of the effective contact length. Lundberg gives a finite value as an approximation to the drop at the end. However, this method has its disadvantageous in that the shape becomes discontinuous depending on design conditions. JohnsGohar presented a logarithmic functional formula obtained by improving Lundberg's method. 2) Incidentally, the housing and the shaft of a roller bearing are not exactly parallel to each other, with a certain misalignment present. In addition, the misalignment varies depending on the deflection of the shaft caused by the loading condition. Under these conditions, the roller rotates about the x-axis as shown in Fig. 1 and slants against the inner or outer ring; this is called tilt. In the Johns-Gohar curve, the tilt of a roller causes edge stress to occur. Reusner states that forming a crowned part in a

**This paper is reprinted from the original paper (in Japanese) carried in the Proceedings of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Part C, Vol.72 (2006), pp.3022 - 3029 **Elemental Technological R&D Center

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Although he shows the crowning technique. the design method does not take misalignment into consideration. all of the reports above do not give detailed descriptions of the methods for optimum crowning design. This method has a drawback of complicated calculation that express the amount of crowning corresponding to misalignment by means circular arc. present a functional formula that gives an optimum shape 5). according to their theory. which will minimize the damage the material undergoes as well as elongate bearing life. and zm. The purpose of this report is to propose a logarithmic functional formula that can be -141- （ ＝ z y） 2Q πlE' ln 1 2 1− （1−0.3033b/a）2y/l） （ … （1） where a : 1/2 of the effective contact length b : Half width of contact E' E : Equivalent Young's modulus ＝― ― ― ―― 1−ν2 （ ） E : Young's modulus ν: Poisson's ratio l : Effective contact length Q : Load y : Position in the axial direction z (y): Drop at the position in the axial direction y However. resulting in a long service life 3). however. he does not show the specific shapes. Paying attention to inner stress. the stress will become axially uniform. In addition. we propose a design technique. one can set a straight section of an arbitrary length in the contact area. Providing a cylindrical roller or conical roller with a straight section may be desirable for machining or functional reasons. three design parameters. when Mises’ equivalent stress or Tresca’s equivalent stress appear near the contact area between the roller and the race.Logarithmic Profiles of Rollers in Roller Bearings and Optimization of the Profiles Outer ring z y x Flat region Crowned region Chamfer Crown drop Inner ring designed easily and to give the technique of optimizing it. K1. 1 Schematic drawing of a crowned roller in a cylindrical roller bearing 2. has given to represent crowning curves does not take into account the effect of misalignment. Using this formula. Johns-Gohar's logarithmic functional formula and its improvement Johns-Gohar improved Lundberg's formula. these parameters can be optimized through the use of a mathematical optimization method. A functional formula is introduced in which the degree of freedom is improved by introducing three design parameters into JohnsGohar’s equation. based on improving Johns-Gohar’s equation that will prevent edge stress due to misalignment. However. To be more specific. carrying out the calculation using the technique to be described later results in edge stress occasionally. are introduced into equation (1) written it into equation (2): （ ＝ z y） ×ln 2KlQ πlE' 1 b 1− 1−0. which is different than that of Lundberg’s contact theory. using this equation does not allow a straight section to be set up. with tolerable amount of misalignment not made clear. Km. In addition. Urata has proposed a crowning shape formed by combining two or more circular arcs whose curvatures diminish as they move from the center to the end of the roller 6). when this equation is applied. edge stress does not appear in the crowning shape even under the presence of misalignment.3033Km a （ ｛ ） y− （a−ym）2 （2） l/2 ｝ . Takata et al. This trend becomes more remarkable under the presence of misalignment. the functional formula that Kamamoto et al. propose a crowning shape formed by combining Lundberg’s logarithmic curve and circular arcs that brings a long service life under the presence of misalignment 4). showing the following equation 2): logarithmic shape prevents edge stress from occurring even under the presence of misalignment. In other words. To solve this problem. which is shown below. Fig. However. Kamamoto et al.

If equation (3) is used. which gives （ ＝ z y） ×ln 2KlQ πl E' 1 z πlE' 1− 1−exp − m 2KlQ h x. In other words. and zm. 3. p η ） （ . the surface shape of a semi-infinite elastic body is given by g (x. y) can be exoessed in the following equation: （7） h x. y） 0＋g x.ζ). y) is affected by the contact pressure p at all points and that the magnitude of the effect is inversely proportional to the distance between (x. y） ＝ 2 πE' （8） ∫∫ （x−η）＋ ） …… （y−ζ −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ ｛ （ ） （ ｝ ） … （5） where. however. the length of crowning ym can be established by specifying K1. the following relationships are obtained: h x.ζ) is the coordinate on the xy-plane. 3 Contact deformation and pressure distribution -142- . let us determine Km on the basis of equation (3) by substituting Km into equation (2). Method of calculating contact pressure Fig. (η. A＝ 2K1Q πl E' In this equation.ζ) and the displacement u (x. since the surface integral of the contact Contact pressure distribution Deformed profile h (x. defining K2 as shown below ym = K2a which gives the following equation: （ ＝Aln z y） 1 z 1− 1−exp − m A y−a ＋1 K2 a 2 When the elastic proximity amount between two bodies is given by ho (<0).3033Km b/a ） ……………… （3） Selecting these design parameters adequately makes it possible to design a logarithmically crowned shape that will not produce edge stress even if the roller is tilted. y). y） （ ＞0. y) and the displacement of the surface of the semi-infinite elastic body is given by u (x. y) and (η. p x. y) h K2×a Position of axial direction g Fig. y） （ ＝0. equation (8) means that the displacement at (x.ζ dηdζ 2 2 In the above equation. y） （ ＞0 Contact area ｛ （ ｛     ｝ ） ｝ y− （a−ym）2 （4） ym Further. Therefore.NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No. if the distance between the two surfaces is supposed to be h (x. 2 Logarithmic profile parameters Fig. 2 shows the portion that each parameter represents and the corresponding shape. 75（2007） where ym denotes the length of the straight section and is given by ym＝ 1 2 1−exp −zm （ πlE' 2K1Q 1−0. y）………………… （ ＝h （ ＋u The contact pressure p (η. Pressure occurs at the area where two surfaces come in contact with each other and no pressure occurs where there is no contact. y) are in a relationship given by the following equation u （x. a straight section is set up on the roller of a cylindrical roller bearing in some cases. y) Roller profile a zm K1 u h0 (＜0) Undeformed profile g (x. In addition. y） （x. the design parameters have the following meanings: K1 : Multiple of Q K2 : Ratio of the crowning length to a zm : Drop at the end of the effective contact length K1 corresponds to the curvature of the crowned section geometrically. p x. Km. Fig. y） （ ＝0 Non-contact area …… （6） As described above. y) then distance between two surfaces h (x. 3 shows the schematic diagram of the cross section at the contact area. In other words. directly giving ym as a design parameter is more convenient.

if the number of lattice points is set at n.6 -5 K1= 1.8kN θ ＝0 or 0. the following equation holds: Q＝ （ dx ∫∫ p x. zm＝14μm edge stress does not occur. but under the condition of the tilt angle of 0. in the case of crowning according to equation (2).7μm The same values as Johns-Gohar's curve is achieved. The multi-level method is a high-speed arithmetic algorithm combining the multi-grid method that speeds up the convergence calculation of simultaneous equations by means of the iteration method and the multi-level multi-integration (MLMI) method that executes the double integration of equation (8) at a speed of O (n log n). if the conditions are K1＝1.75 GPa has occurred. On the other hand. It is also assumed that both the roller and the inner ring are made of bearing steel.8 2.5. the contact pressure distribution exhibits a decrease at the middle of the contact area and a slight increase at both ends. edge stress having a maximum value of 3.8 No Crowning Johns-Gohar K1= 1.001 rad. K2= 0. Furthermore. Contact pressure distribution on a logarithmically crowned roller The contact between the cylindrical roller and the inner ring shown in Fig. the numerical calculation was made faster through the use of the multi-level method 7). under the conditions of Fig. y） dy −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ ………………………… （9） The above simultaneous equations are solved numerically by means of the iteration method. However. 5 shows the relationship between the crowned shape and the contact pressure distribution for a tilt angle of 0 rad. To handle this problem. If the crowned domain is made into a domain half of "a" by setting K2 at 0. which results in the conditions of K1 = 4 3. zm= 14μm Inner ring d2 θ w ＝10mm r ＝0. a discussion on relative sizes does not pose a problem.Logarithmic Profiles of Rollers in Roller Bearings and Optimization of the Profiles pressure is equal to the normal load Q. the calculation of equation (8) will take a time on the order of O (n2). The common iteration method has a drawback in that it is difficult for long-wavelength error components to converge against lattice spacing established in the space for which calculation is to be carried out.5. edge stress did not occur. in the common calculation method. and zm = 14 mm.0.4 3. a simple comparison between values is not allowed. On JohnsGohar's curve in the case of absence of crowning. zm= 14μm Contact pressure GPa r Q d1 3. K2= 1. However.001 rad.4. this increase in the contact pressure is not a spike-shaped increase in the contact pressure resulting from the contact of the intersection of the crowned part with the chamfer. On Johns-Gohar's curve. an extremely large edge stress of 10. K2 = 0. since calculation lattices of the same size are used in this case. It is assumed that the roller alone is crowned. since the edge stress value depends on the size of calculation lattice.6 3.4. Setting K2 at 1 means providing the entire domain of the effective contact length with crowning. 4 is considered.001rad -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Position of axial direction mm Fig. K2＝1. However. the value of edge stress is reduced to 1/3. Solve this problem by increasing zm from 14 mm to 17 mm. zm＝12. However. 4 Schematic drawing of a roller and an inner ring used in contact pressure calculation Fig. 6 shows the contact pressure distribution with the roller tilted by 0. Under the conditions of K1 = 1. 4. Fig. edge stress occurred.4. 4. The calculation lattices are formed by dividing the system into 256 sections in the axial direction and the tangential direction into 32 sections.4.5. 5 Contact pressure distributions when the tilting angle is 0 rad -143- . When crowning is not provided.7 GPa occurred at the end of the effective contact length of the roller.5mm d1 ＝10mm d2 ＝50mm Q ＝9. w Roller Even on Johns-Gohar's curve. thus differing from edge stress. K2＝1. Fig. the occurrence of edge stress is noted as in the case where the tilt angle is 0 rad.2 3 2. if the conditions are K1＝1.

the maximum contact pressure between the roller and the inner ring is greater than that between the roller and the outer ring. the change is discarded. K2.4. and n.8 2. K2= 0. However. In this study.001 rad 1. (1) The limits of design parameters within which the initial values are retrieved and the number of values for each parameter within the limits are specified. annealing method and genetic algorithm are proposed as optimization algorithms. for example. K2= 0. 1 Case where the tilt angle is 0 rad The optimization was carried out under the conditions shown in Table 1. 1 Objective function Roller tilting angle Initial value searching area of K1 Initial value searching area of K2 Initial value searching area of zm Maximum pressure 0 rad 1~3 0~1 5 ~ 20μm . an example of optimization calculation of the crowning of a cylindrical roller bearing is shown. zm= 14μm K1= 1.8 Johns-Gohar K1= 1. 2 Example of optimization In the following. the directional vector is modified and the operation goes back to step (1). 75（2007） 4 3. If not.5. If the objective function is degraded. it is possible to decrease the maximum contact pressure by changing design parameters. (2) When a change in the variable improves the objective function. In solving this problem. and this prevents the edge stress from occurring. considering the contact between the roller and the inner ring suffices. 4. a technique of optimizing design parameters by means of a computer is considered.1 Optimization algorithm As described above. Contact pressure GPa 5. Not only the Rosenbrock method but also other optimization techniques have strong dependence on -144- the initial value in terms of the convergence of a solution. (3) The combination yielding the smallest Pmax is adopted as the initial value for optimization. in 3D contour lines. the calculation example uses the geometrical shape and load condition shown in Fig. The convergence of a solution means the convergence solution itself and the amount of calculation required before the convergence solution is obtained. 7 shows. 2.4. Its outline is as follows: (1) A directional vector is defined in the space of variables and the value of a variable is changed along the directional vector. For this reason. It is important to determine a favorable initial value in solving an optimization problem. (l×m×n) combinations of design parameters are defined. It is assumed that a crowned roller is tilted by half the amount of misalignment against the inner ring under a misalignment condition.NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No. (2) When numbers of values of K1. Fig.4. For these reasons. and it is assumed that both the roller and the inner ring are made of bearing steel. the operation is finished.5. In the following description. it is difficult to give the optimum value by means of an analytical method. zm= 17μm 3. 6 Contact pressure distributions when the tilting angle is 0. we adopt the Rosenbrock method 8). When only the roller is crowned. 5. m. Various algorithms including the conjugate gradient method. if the maximum contact pressure or rolling fatigue life is selected as the objective function it is impossible to analytically derive its derivative function with numerical differentiation accompanied by difficulty. the relationship between the design parameters obtained by initial value retrieval and the Table 1 Optimizing condition No. the initial value is determined in the following method: Not only the contact pressure but also the rolling fatigue life can be used as objective functions. (3) If convergence occurs after repeating steps (1) and (2). and zm = 17 mm.6 3. a direct retrieval method. the maximum contact pressure Pmax is used as the objective function. and zm are l.5. For this reason. In the following.2 3 2. 5.6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Position of axial direction mm Fig.4 3. The calculation for the contact pressure is carried out for all combinations to determine Pmax. K2 = 0. Optimization of design parameters 5. when one considers the optimization of crowning. the change is accepted.

9 3.6 3.8 Pmax GPa 3.1 2.5 3.3-3.5-3.8 3.5 1.3 3.4-3.7 3.3-3.6-3.5 1.7 3.7 3.0 2.4 3.2-3.2 3.8-3.1-3.5 14 1.9 3.5 14 1.6-3.5 14 1.2 zm μm K1 zm μm K1 （c）K2=0.8 3.3-3.5-3.6 3.1 3.8 （f）K2=1.8 3.1 3.2 3.2-3.2 2.1-3.7 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.2-3.4-3.2 5 9.0 2.1-3.4 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.5 1.4-3.8-3.1 -145- .6 18.9 3.6 3.8 Pmax GPa 3.2 zm μm K1 zm μm K1 （e）K2=0.6 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.4 3.2 3.8 3.4 3.9 3.1-3.5 14 1.7 3.9 3.0 2.6 3.7-3.9 Pmax GPa 3.5 14 1.9 Pmax GPa 3.7-3.8 3.7-3.3 3.7 3. 7 Design parameters and maximum pressure under the optimizing condition No.0 Fig.0 2.8 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.7-3.5 3.8 3.4 3.5-3.2-3.3-3.6-3.8-3.8 3.6 18.8-3.2 2.3 3.6 18.9 3.6 3.6 5 9.2-3.4 3.7 3.6 3.8-3.5 3.5 3.7 3.0 （b）K2=0.6 18.6 3.2 5 9.2 3.0 2.5 3.8 3.5 3.6-3.6 18.3 3.7-3.3 3.9 3.Logarithmic Profiles of Rollers in Roller Bearings and Optimization of the Profiles 5 9.8 3.40 （d）K2=0.3 3.5-3.6-3.5-3.7 3.5 3.4-3.7-3.2 3.5 3.2 2.3 3.1-3.6 18.3-3.6 3.5 3.6 3.2 5 9.1 2.2 3.5 14 1.9 3.3 3.7 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.5 1.2 zm μm K1 zm μm K1 （a）K2=0.3 3.8-3.5 3.5-3.5 1.3 3.4 3.2 3.6-3.3-3.3 3.5 1.7 3.4 3.2 5 9.4-3.1 2.4 3.1-3.4-3.2-3.8 3.9 Pmax GPa Pmax GPa 3.8 3.0 2.

7 (e). The best initial values are: K10＝2.4 K20＝0. 4 Shape formed as a result of logarithmic crowning Fig. The best initial values are: K10＝1. 2 Case where the tilt angle is 0. K10＝1.684 mm ) 5. zm = 16.001 rad We consider a case where the roller was tilted and a straight section was provided. 75（2007） maximum contact pressure. The optimization conditions for this setting are shown in Table 2. The individual graphs show the relationship among K1. 8 Pressure distribution of the optimized profile under the condition No.982 zm ＝10.253μm The contact pressure distribution then is as shown in Fig. this technique allows the optimum logarithmic crowning to be designed in cases where a tilt or straight section exists.879. The best initial values are the following ones as shown in Fig. 2.799μm Under the optimization conditions adopted here. and Pmax for different K2 values.001 rad 2~4 10 ~ 30μm 4.295. K1＝2. The life is calculated using Harris' method 9). zm.2 between 0 and 1. K2 = 0. 4. 10 with edge stress occurring at both ends.7 (a) to 7 (f). the optimum design parameters are obtained as shown below: K1＝1. In other words.5 2 1.NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No. In this way. 5. Table 3 shows the conditions for optimization. K2 is fixed at 0.295 K2＝0. The contact pressure distribution then is as shown in Fig. 9.8 zm ＝12. Comparing "optimization conditions . 11 shows the shape formed as a result of logarithmic crowning optimized under the conditions described above. 9 Pressure distribution of the optimized profile under the condition No. 2. edge stress is allowed to occur.9 zm ＝11μm The following values are obtained as the best possible design parameters through optimization: K1＝1. the contact pressure distribution is almost uniform along the axis as shown in Fig. K2 is changed in increments of 0.2 ( K1 = 2.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.065 K2＝0.5 to be excluded from the objects to be optimized.5 1 0. 3 Case where life is taken as the objective function The rolling fatigue life of the roller can be used as the objective function for the optimization. Position of axial direction mm Fig. 2.879 zm ＝12.684μm When a crowning operation is carried out using the optimum design parameters.1 ( K1 = 1.2 K20＝0. and the provision of a straight section -146- 5.5 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 causes the contact pressure distribution in the middle to become concave.5.5 3 2.5μm As a result of the optimization based on the Rosenbrock method.5 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Position of axial direction mm Fig. zm = 12.779. 8.5 Table 2 Optimizing condition No.253 mm ) Contact pressure GPa 4 3.8 zm 0＝16μm The best possible design parameter values are obtained through optimization.5 Contact pressure GPa 4 3. The presence of a tilt causes the maximum contact pressure to occur at a negative position in the axial direction. 2 Objective function Roller tilting angle Initial value searching area of K1 Initial value searching area of zm Maximum pressure 0. In Figs. K2 = 0.779 zm 0＝16.

5 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6.5 3 2. an increase in local contact pressure like edge stress has only a small effect according to Harris' method of calculating the life. 11 Optimized roller profiles under the conditions No. For these reasons.982. This increase in the maximum contact pressure is generated by the occurrence of edge stress. 10 Pressure distribution of the optimized profile under the condition No. In the following. which affects the curvature of a crowned part in terms of geometry K2: Ratio of the crowned part to the length from the home position to the chamfered part zm: Drop at the end of the effective contact length K2 may be defined at the time of designing the basic shape.001 rad) Optimization condition No. whether edge stress occurs or not depends on which of the maximum contact pressure and life is adopted as the objective function for the optimization regardless of the similarity of the shape of rollers. tilting angle 0. we improved Johns-Gohar's functional formula to present a logarithmic crowning equation with an improved degree of design freedom. the shorter the life is. tilting angle 0 rad) Roller profile μm 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Position of axial direction mm Fig. tilting angle 0 rad) Optimization condition No. the maximum contact pressure increases abruptly when K1 or zm becomes slightly smaller than the optimum point for the case where the maximum contact pressure is taken as the objective function. Fig. Conclusion We made a proposition regarding a method of determining design parameters in the design of logarithmic crowning for roller bearings. 7 shows that. however.3 ( K1 =1.799 mm ) 1 (objective function: maximum contact pressure.5 pressure is. However. The Rosenbrock method is used as the optimization algorithm.5 2 1. the greater the contact 20 18 16 Optimization condition No. tilt angle: 0 rad)" reveals little difference between the shapes. Contact pressure GPa 4 3.2 (Objective function : maximum pressure.5 1 0. Qualitatively speaking. tilt angle: 0 rad)" and "optimization conditions 3 (objective function: life. edge stress occurs as shown in Fig.3 (Objective function : rolling fatigue life. By numerically optimizing these design parameters. 3 Objective function Roller tilting angle Initial value searching area of K1 Initial value searching area of K2 Initial value searching area of zm Rolling fatigue life 0 rad 1~3 0~1 5 ~ 20μm 4. with K2 fixed at a value. by introducing the design parameters into a logarithmic crowning equation and using a numerical optimization method. K1 and zm only are optimized. in such a case. 10.065. The optimization condition is either the maximum contact pressure at its lowest or the maximum life. when the life is taken as the objective function.Logarithmic Profiles of Rollers in Roller Bearings and Optimization of the Profiles Table 3 Optimizing condition No. the features of this technique are Position of axial direction mm Fig. The design parameters introduced are the three that follow: K1: Scale factor for design load. K2 = 0. zm = 10. 1 to 3 -147- .1 (Objective function : maximum pressure. Specifically. the optimum logarithmic crowning for a roller bearing can be obtained even under the presence of misalignment.

653(1992). et al. (in Japanese) 7) Venner. H. M. pp. S. (1993). et al. Experimental Study of Fatigue Life of Profiled Roller Bearings. 4) Takata. John Wiley & Sons.. The logarithmic roller profile ― the key to superior performance of cylindrical and taper roller bearings. 14(1981). pp.. A.728-729. 37 Multilevel Methods in Lubrication. H. (in German) 2) Johns. Forth Edition.2-10. Elastic Contact Between Two SemiInfinite Bodies. NSK Technical Journal. (2) With the three design parameters corresponding to the crowning shape. Research on Crowning Profile to Obtain The Maximum Load Carrying Capacity for Roller Bearings. the effect of the misalignment is treated independently of the logarithmic function. 8) Bazarra. pp.131-136. 230(1987). the features of a crowned shape can be expressed by the parameter values only. (2000). C. (3) Incorporating the straight section into a design parameter enables the straight section to be combined with logarithmic crowning easily and with a greater degree of freedom. H. G. Contrary to this. Photos of authors Hiroki FUJIWARA Elemental Technological R&D Center Tatsuo KAWASE Elemental Technological R&D Center -148- . and Gohar...14-23. pp. A. Nonlinear Programming. John Wiley & Sons.201-211. S. pp. R.44-51. A. and Lubrecht. (4) A new design technique is proposed of incorporating the numerical value optimization technique into logarithmic crowning design.. References 1) Lundberg. Tribology International. T. p. (in Japanese) 5) Kamamoto. Rolling Bearing Analysis. Forschung auf den Gebiete des Ingenieurwesen. 5(1939).. (2000). 159(2001). et al. Ball Bearing Journal.. pp. 3) Reusner. 56(2000). Elsevier Science B.291. Tribology Series. 9) Harris.1-7. this technique treats the effect as a design parameter and incorporates it into the logarithmic equation. KOYO Engineering Journal. S..NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No. V. P. FUJIKOSHI Engineering Review. 75（2007） summarized: (1) In considering misalignment in the design of logarithmic crowning. Investigation of Optimum Crowing Profile of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Part 2. pp. M.. 6) Urata. Roller bearings under radial and eccentric loads.