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# PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 311 RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICS CLASS NOTES (1992

)

Instructor/Author: Ching H. Wu

**DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
**

COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. ROCK POROSITY I) II) III) VI) V) VI) VII) II. Definition Classification Range of values of porosity Factors affecting porosity Measurement of porosity Subsurface measurement of porosity Compressibility of porous rocks I-1 I-1 I-1 I-2 I-3 I-5 I-13 I-25 II-1 II-11 II-15 III-11 III-1 III-3 III-5 III-13 III-14 III-17 III-19 III-25 III-27 III-29 III-31 IV-1 IV-1 IV-1 V-1 V-1 V-8 V-9 V-18 VI-1 VI-1 VI-2 VI-2 VI-14 VI-14 VI-33

SINGLE PHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) Darcy's equation II) Reservoir systems

III. BOUNDARY TENSION AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE I) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) IX) X) XI) Boundary tension Wettability Capillary pressure Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation history Capillary pressure in reservoir rock Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure Converting laboratory data to reservoir conditions Determining water saturation in reservoir from capillary pressure data Capillary pressure variation Averaging capillary pressure data

IV. FLUID SATURATIONS I) Basic concepts of hydrocarbon accumulation II) Methods for determining fluid saturations V. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK-FLUID SYSTEMS I) Electrical conductivity of fluid saturated rock II) Use of electrical Formation Resistivity Factor, Cementation Factor, and Saturation Exponent III) Laboratory measurement of electrical properties of rock IV) Effect of clay on resistivity VI. MULTIPHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) II) III) IV) V) VI) Effective permeability Relative permeability Typical relative permeability curves Permeability ratio (relative permeability ratio) Measurement of relative permeability Uses of relative permeability data

ii

VII. STATISTICAL MEASURES I) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) IX) X) Introduction Frequency Distributions Histogram Cumulative Frequency Distributions Normal Distribution Log Normal Distribution Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Variability (dispersion) Normal Distribution Log Normal Distribution

VII-1 VII-1 VII-2 VII-3 VII-6 VII-8 VII-9 VII-10 VII-11 VII-12 VII-16

iii

I. ROCK POROSITY I) Definition A measure of the pore space available for the storage of fluids in rock In general form: Porosity = φ = where: φ is expressed in fraction Vb = Vp + Vm Vb = bulk volume of reservoir rock, (L3) Vp = pore volume, (L3) Vm= matrix volume, (L3) Vp Vb - Vm = Vb Vb

II)

Classification A. Primary (original) Porosity Developed at time of deposition B. Secondary Porosity Developed as a result of geologic process occurring after deposition C. Total Porosity φt = total pore space Vb - Vm = Vb Vb

D.

Effective Porosity φe = 1. 2. interconnected pore space Vb Clean sandstones: φe = φt Carbonate, cemented sandstones: φe < φt

I-1

.

Particle arrangement 3. Particle shape 2.VI) Factors affecting porosity A. ft I-3 . Vugs and fractures Particle shape Porosity increases as particle uniformity decreases. Factors: 1. EFFECT OF NATURAL COMPACTION ON POROSITY (FROM KRUMBEIN AND SLOSS. C. % 20 SHALES 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 DEPTH OF BURIAL.) 50 40 SANDSTONES 30 POROSITY. Cementation 5. Particle size distribution 4. Packing Arrangement Porosity decreases as compaction increases B.

Contribute substantially to the volume of pore spaces Highly variable in size and distribution There could be two or more systems of pore openings .little interstitial material Shaly sand . Particle Size Distribution Porosity decreases as the range of particle size increases SAND 100 FRAMEWORK FRACTION SILT CLAY CLEAN SAND SHALY SAND WEIGHT % INTERSTITIAL MATERIALS AND MUD FRAGMENTS 0 1. Fractures 1. 3. Interstitial and Cementing Material 1. Porosity decreases as the amount of interstitial material increases Porosity decreases as the amount of cementing material increases Clean sand .extremely complex I-4 . 3. MM E.D. 2.1 0.01 0.has more interstitial material F. 2.0 0. Vugs.001 GRAIN SIZE DIAMETER.

a.87 Laboratory measurement 1. Vb matrix volume.71 2.V) Measurement of porosity φ= Vb .65 2.Vm Vp = Vb Vb Table of matrix densities Lithology ρ m (g/cm3) ___________ ___________ Quartz Limestone Dolomite A. Conventional core analysis measure any two 1) 2) 3) b. Vp bulk volume 1) 2) calculate from dimensions displacement method a) volumetric (measure volume) (1) (2) drop into liquid and observe volume charge of liquid must prevent test liquid from entering pores space of sample (a) (b) (c) b) coat with paraffin presaturate sample with test liquid use mercury as test liquid gravimetric (measure mass) (1) (2) Change in weight of immersed sampleprevent test liquid from entering pore space Change in weight of container and test fluid when sample is introduced I-5 . bulk volume. Vm pore volume. 2.

V2 I-6 .c. matrix volume 1) assume grain density dry weight Vm = matrix density 2) displacement method Reduce sample to particle size. evacuate Open valve CORE VALVE OPEN V2 = Volumetric of first chamber & volume of second chamber-matrix volume or core ( calculated) Volume of first chamber + volume second chamber (known) VT 4) Vm = =V T . then a) b) 3) volumetric gravimetric Boyle's Law: P1V1 = P 2V2 a) P(1) V(1) VALVE CLOSED b) c) P(2) Put core in second chamber.

dry weight density of saturated fluid Boyle's Law: P1V1 = P 2V2 a) P(1) V(1) CORE VALVE CLOSED b) c) P(2) Put core in Hassler sleeve.d. evacuate Open valve V(1) CORE VALVE OPEN V2 3) Vp = Volume of first chamber + pore volume of core (calculated) = V2 .V1 I-7 . pore volume 1) gravimetric Vp = 2) saturated weight .

use representative plugs from whole core in laboratory measurements don't use sidewall cores secondary porosity (most carbonates) 1) 2) 3) use whole core in laboratory measurements calculate bulk volume from measurements determine matrix or pore volume from Boyle's Law procedure I-8 .2. intergranular porosity (sandstone. Application to reservoir rocks a. some carbonates) 1) 2) b.

7 cc V . and immersed in a Russell tube. What is the bulk volume of the sample? Solution: Weight of paraffin coating = 20. Assume the density of solid paraffin is 0.9 cc It is total porosity.9 gm .20.9 gm.7 cc φ= b = = 0.0 gm. The dry sample coated with paraffin weighed 20.0 cc = 9.9 cc of liquid.9 cc 7.9 gm Volume of paraffin coating = 0. Solution: Bulk Volume Matrix Volume = = 9. crushed to grain size.0 cc Bulk volume of sample = 10. The volume of the grains was 7. The dry sample weighed 20. The paraffin coated sample displaced 10.9 gm / (0.Example I-1 A core sample coated with paraffin was immersed in a Russell tube. What was the porosity of the sample? Is this effective or total porosity. I-9 .9 gm/cc.9 cc.1.9 gm/cc) = 1.9 cc Example I-2 The core sample of problem I-1 was stripped of the paraffin coat.Vm 9.0 gm = 0.22 Vb 9.7 cc.7.9 cc .

0 cm3 11. in air .6 gm . in water density of water 448. in air .3 cm3 sat. core wt.6 gm Density of water = 1.427.0 cm3 Vp = 21. density of water 448.6 gm .269.0 gm/cm3 Weight of water saturated sample immersed in water = 269.3 gm 1 gm/cm3 21.6 gm Solution: Vp Vp = = sat.6 gm 1 gm/cm3 179.9% Vp Vb Vb = = = Vb = φ = φ = I . core wt. core wt.dry core wt.10 .Example I-3 Calculate the porosity of a core sample when the following information is available: Dry weight of sample = 427.119 Vb 179.3 gm Weight of sample when saturated with water = 448.3 cm3 = .sat.

7 cm 3 wt.Vp 179.What is the lithology of the sample? Vm Vm ρm = = = Vb . of dry sample matrix vol.3 gm = 2. because fluid was forced into the pore space. Is the porosity effective or total? Why? Effective.0 cm3 .11 .21.7 cm3 I .71 gm/(cm3) 157. = 427.3 cm3 = 157. The lithology is limestone.

Each of the cells has a volume of 1.512 cc VT .Example I-4 A carbonate whole core (3 inches by 6 inches.V2 2.512 cc .0 psig.1. Cell two is evacuated.12 .000 cc) / (42.1 psig + 14.000 cc.1 psig.7 psia 28.7 psia = 64.000 cc 50 psig + 14.8 psia (64.488 cc = = .8% VT 695 cc V 2 V 2 V m V m φ I .7 psia) (1.000 cc .488 cc VT . 695 cc) is placed in cell two of a Boyles Law device.Vm 695 cc . Calculate the porosity of the core.298 = 29. Solution: P V 1 1 V 1 P P 1 2 = = = = = = = = = P V 2 2 1. The cells are connected and the resulting pressure is 28.7 = 42.8 psia) 1. Cell one is pressured to 50.

65 2.0 ρ m gm/cc 2.5 43. Density log: ρ -ρ φd = m L ρm .87 2.VI) Subsurface measurement of porosity A.13 . Volume I) Lithology Sandstone Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite Salt Water ∆tm µsec/ft 55. ∆tL . Sonic log: φs = 3.ρf 2.71 2.96 2.6 47.0 189. Log Interpretation Principles.∆tm Neutron log: e-kφ = CNf Table of Matrix Properties (Schlumberger.∆tm ∆tf .0 67.00 I .5 50.17 1. Types of logs from which porosity can be derived 1.

3.the denser the rock the fewer gamma rays reach the detector Equation ρL = ρm 1 .φ + ρf φ ρ -ρ φd = m L ρm . Gamma rays are stopped by electrons .B.ρf I .14 . Density Log 1. Measures bulk density of formation M UD CAKE FORM ATION GAM M A RAY SOURCE SHORT SPACE DETECTOR LONG SPACE DETECTOR 2.

FORMATION DENSITY LOG GR.6 2.0 I . ft 4100 ρ.8 3.2 2. gm/cc 4120 4140 4160 4180 4200 4220 4240 0 40 80 120 160 200 2.0 2.4 2. API depth.15 .

157 ft : ρ = 2.16 .450 Example: Interval 4.68 gm/cc . gm/cc _________ 2.1.430 2.375 2.68 gm/cc .Example I-5 Use the density log to calculate the porosity for the following intervals assuming ρ matrix = 2.% ______ 18 20 15 17 0 14 L.375 gm/cc φd = m L = = 0.68 gm/cc and ρ fluid = 1.400 2.0 gm/cc I .2.18 ρm .0 gm/cc.375 gm/cc L ρ -ρ 2.680 2. Interval.350 2.ρf 2. ft __________ 4143-4157 4170-4178 4178-4185 4185-4190 4197-4205 4210-4217 ρ φd .143 ft -4.

3. Sound travels more slowly in fluids than in solids.φ + ∆tf φ (Wylie Time Average Equation) I .17 .C. Measures time required for compressional sound waves to travel through one foot of formation T A B C R1 D E R2 2. Sonic Log 1. Travel time increases as porosity increases. Equation ∆tL = ∆tm 1 . Pore space is filled with fluids.

µ seconds/ft GR.18 . API depth. ft 4100 4120 4140 4160 4180 4200 4220 4240 0 100 200 140 120 100 80 60 40 I .SONIC LOG ∆T.

Example I-6 Use the Sonic log and assume sandstone lithology to calculate the porosity for the following intervals.

Interval (ft) 4,144-4,150 4,150-4,157 4,171-4,177 4,177-4,187 4,199-4,204 4,208-4,213 Example: Interval 4144 ft - 4150 ft : ∆tL φs = = 86.5 µ-sec/ft

∆tL µ second/ft 86.5 84.0 84.5 81.0 53.5 75.0

φs ,%

25 24 24 21 1 17

∆tL - ∆tm 86.5 µ sec/ft- 51.6 µ sec/ft = = 0.25 ∆tf - ∆tm 189.0 µ sec/ft- 51.6 µ sec/ft

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D.

Neutron Log 1. Measures the amount of hydrogen in the formation (hydrogen index)

Element Calcium Chlorine Silicone Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen

Average Number Collisions 371 316 261 150 115 18

Maximum Energy Loss/ Collision, % 8 10 12 21 28 100

Atomic Collision 40.1 35.5 28.1 16.0 12.0 1.0

Atomic Number 20 17 14 8 6 1

CLEAN SAND POROSITY = 15%

CLEAN SAND POROSITY = 15%

103

SLOWING DOWN POWER

RELATIVE PROBABILITY FOR COLLISION

1

O

102

Si 10 1

10-1 10-2 10-3

H

O

Si

H .1 1 10

102 10 3 10 4 105 106 107

.1

1

10

102 10 3 10 4 105

106 107

NEUTRON ENERGY IN ELECTRON VOLTS

NEUTRON ENERGY IN ELECTRON VOLTS

2. 3.

In clean, liquid filled formations, hydrogen index is directly proportional to porosity. Neutron log gives porosity directly. If the log is not calibrated, it is not very reliable for determining porosity. Run density log to evaluate porosity, lithology, and gas content.

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NEUTRON DENSITY LOG

GR, API

depth, ft 4100

φ (CDL)

4120

4140

4160

4180

4200

4220

4240 0 200 30 -10

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Example I-7 Use the neutron log to determine porosity for the following intervals.

Solution: φ

Interval (ft) 4,143-4,149 4,149-4,160 4,170-4,184 4,198-4,204 4,208-4,214

n (%) 23 20 21 9 19

.

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73 µ sec/ft.ρf 2.76% ρm .73 µ sec/ft .76% ∆tf .23 . Assume sandstone: ρ m = 2.71 gm/cc = 47.∆tm 62.743 feet are: bulk density travel time Solution: Assume fresh water in pores.73 µ-sec/ft φs = Assume limestone: ρm ∆tm = 2.0 gm/cc φs = ∆tL . 1 drilled in Lake Maracaibo.0 µ sec/ft .65 gm/cc .71 gm/cc .∆tm 62.1.522 gm/cc φd = m L = = 7.522 gm/cc = 62.42% ∆tf .0 gm/cc ∆tL .99% ρm . The depth of interest is 13.55.5 µ-sec/ft ρ -ρ 2.743 feet.5 µ sec/ft I .47.55.Example I-8 Calculate the porosity and lithology of the Polar No.5 µ sec/ft = 2.5 µ sec/ft = = 5.ρf 2.0 µ sec/ft . The readings at 13.522 gm/cc φd = m L = = 10.1.2.5 µ-sec/ft ρ -ρ 2.∆tm 189.47. A density log and a sonic log were run in the well in addition to the standard Induction Electric Survey (IES) survey.65 gm/cc ∆tm = 55.5 µ sec/ft = = 10.71 gm/cc .65 gm/cc .∆tm 189.2.

The general consensus is that the sonic log measures effective porosity when we use the Wyllie "time-average" equation.0 gm/cc = ∆tL .Assume dolomite: ρm ∆tm = 2.619% ρm .43.1. I .0 µ sec/ft . Are the tools measuring total or effective porosity? Why? The density log measures total compressibility because is "sees" the entire rock volume.or equal to.87 gm/cc = 43.including all pores.5 µ-sec/ft ρ -ρ 2.22% ∆tf .5 µ sec/ft = 11% φd φs φlimestone Since both logs "read" nearly the same porosity when a limestone lithology was assumed then the hypothesis that the lithology is limestone is accepted. It is expected that the effective porosity is always less than .the total porosity. The sonic log tends to measure the velocity of compressional waves that travel through interconnected pore structures as well as the rock matrix.24 .87 gm/cc .87 gm/cc .5 µ sec/ft = = 13.522 gm/cc = m L= = 18.ρf 2.73 µ sec/ft .43.2.∆tm 62.∆tm 189.

c is the fractional change in volume per unit change in pressure: ∆V ∂V V T c=. Fo = Fm + Ff it follows that Po 3.0 psi/ft 0.VII) Compressibility of porous rocks Compressibility. Downward force by the overburden must be balanced by upward force of the matrix and the fluid Fo Fm Ff 2.25 . Normally pressured reservoirs 1. Thus.1 ≅ V ∂P T ∆P A. Po Pf = ≅ ≅ pm + pf 1.465 psi/ft I .

b. Vb by definition ∂Vp cf = . Pf will usually decrease: a.dP f I . important to reservoir engineers 1) 2) 3) 4) depletion of fluid from pore spaces internal rock stress changes change in stress results in change in Vp. Types of compressibility 1.4. the fluid pressure. Po.26 . cm cm 2. Matrix Compressibility. Formation Compressibility. ≅ 0 Bulk Compressibility cb used in subsidence studies 3. As fluid is produced from a reservoir. the force on the matrix increases causing a decrease in bulk volume and a decrease in pore volume B. cf . Vm. c.1 Vp ∂pm b.also called pore volume compressibility a. is constant dPm = . since overburden pressure.

vp.1 Vp ∂pm 2) where the subscript of f on cf means "formation" and the subscript of f on Pf means "fluid" procedure (a) (b) (c) measure volume of liquid expelled as a function of "external" pressure "external" pressure may be taken to represent overburden pressure. thus. ∂Vp cf = . Po fluid pressure. dVp = .1 Vp ∂pm it follows that ∆ Vp expelled cf = + 1 Vp ∆Po I .1) Thus. pf.dVexpelled (e) from definition ∂Vp cf = . is essentially constant. decreases. thus.27 . dPo (d) = dP m 3) expelled volume increases as pore volume.

I .(f) plot CUMULATIVE VOLUME EXPELLED PORE VOLUME OVERBURDEN PRESSURE. psi slope = cf.28 .

Measurement of compressibility 1) Laboratory core sample a) b) 2) apply variable internal and external pressures internal rock volume changes Equipment Internal Pressure Gauge Hydraulic Pump Mercury Sight Gauge Overburden Pressure Gauge Hydraulic Pump Copper .29 .C.Jacketed Core Apparatus for measuring pore volume compressibility (hydrostatic) I .

83 X 10-6 I . calculate the pore volume compressibility for a sandstone sample at 4.448 0. cc 0. psi 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Solution: from graph @ 4.25 X 10-6 @ 6000 psi: Slope cf = 0.546 0.500 0.392 0.0 cc vol.000 and 6.000 psi.244 0.324 0.30 .009 4000 psi 1 psi = 50.011 6000 psi 1 psi = 1.000 psi: Slope cf = 0.Example I-9 Given the following lab data. fluid expelled. pore volume pressure.596 0.630 = 2.

31 .015 VOLUME EXPELLED. cc PORE VOLUME.005 0.0. psi I .010 0. cc 0.000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 COMPACTION PRESSURE.

% I . CONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES 10 HALL'S CORRELATION 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 INITIAL POROSITY AT ZERO NET PRESSURE. PORE VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY X 10-6 psi-1 100 UNCONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES 10 HALL'S CORRELATION 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 INITIAL POROSITY AT ZERO NET PRESSURE. % PORE-VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY AT 75 % LITHOSTATIC PRESSURE VS INITIAL SAMPLE POROSITY FOR UNCONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES.32 .PORE VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY X 10-6 psi-1 100 PORE-VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY AT 75 % LITHOSTATIC PRESSURE VS INITIAL SAMPLE POROSITY FOR CONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES.

Abnormally pressured reservoirs "abnormal pressure": fluid pressures greater than or less than the hydrostatic fluid pressure expected from an assumed linear pressure gradient PRESSURE NORMAL LINEAR DEPTH SUBNORMAL (LOWER) SURNORMAL (GREATER) I .E.33 .

The limestone sample coated with paraffin was found to weigh 249.241. uncoated sample ρ 249.34 .6 cc .4 cc 0. What is the porosity of the rock? Does the process measure total or effective porosity? Solution: wt.5 gm .Compressibility/Porosity Problem No.88. The density of the paraffin is 0.26.6 cc = Vb .9.231 Vb 115.7 cc = = 0.5 gm.90 gm/cc.90 gm/cc Vm = Vparaffin = Vparaffin = Vb Vp Vp = 125 cc .0 gm. The coated sample when immersed in a partially filled graduated cylinder displaced 125.7 cc Vp 26.1% (total porosity) I .st.6 cc φ = φ = 23.4 cc = 115. coated sample .0 gm = 9. 1 A limestone sample weighs 241.71 gm/cc wt. dry 241.0 gm = = 88.9 cc ρ ls 2.9 cc .0 cc of water.Vm = 115.

0 25. remaining pore volume (ft3) 1.Compressibility/Porosity Problem No.039 Final porosity .750 0. The correlation is seen below: gravel coarse sand fine sand 25% porosity 38% porosity 41% porosity What would be the minimum porosity of the mixture? What basic assumption must be made in order to work the problem? Solution: Begin calculation with a volume of 1 cu.9 void space gravel coarse sand fine sand I .9% (Complete mixing of the grains) remaining matrix volume (ft3) ___ 0. Previous laboratory work indicates there is a correlation between grain size and porosity displayed by those particular particles.3.961 component porosity (%) 100.905 0. ft.250 0.0 9. 2 You are furnished with the results of a sieve analysis of a core from Pete well #1.095 0.000 0.35 .5 3.000 0.

D.500 psi? Calculate: A.000 3.196 0. A rock sample was sent to the laboratory and the following tests were run.2.1. change (-cc)_________ 0. pore vol.650 acre-feet.00 Reservoir Porosity Sample Pore Volume Compressibility at 4. C.273 0.000 2.36 .960 inches in diameter.500 psi to 3.000 4.000 5.65 .250 0.40 = 15.162 0.315 The dry weight of the core sample was found to be 140 gm while the sample dimensions were 1. Solution: A. B.ρ f 2. Assuming the compressibility at 4. pressure (psig) 1. Density log readings through the fresh water portion of the reservoir indicate a density of 2.Compressibility/Porosity Problem No.000 8.500 psi Amount of Ground Subsidence.224 0.298 0. Reservoir Porosity ρ -ρ φ = m L = 2.122 0.575 inches long and 1.22% ρ m . I . 3 A sandstone reservoir has an average thickness of 85 feet and a total volume of 7.40 gm/cc. The Highgrade #1 Well was drilled and cored through the reservoir.65 . how much subsidence occurs when the reservoir pressure declines from 5.500 psi is the average compressibility in the reservoir.000 6.000 7.000 cum.

Compressibility (see graph) Vp = 25.Vm = 78. I .B.0 cm = (1.54 cm/in) = 4.0 = matrix volume = 140 gm cc = 52.37 .14 5.0 = bulk volume = πD h = = 78.54 cm/in) = 5. An experienced engineer would be wary of this small number.69x 10 -7 psi-1 0.7 cc D.8 cc = 25.7 cc C.0 2 4.000 psi = 0. Subsidence ∆H ∆H ∆H ∆H = H cp φ ∆P = 85 ft 9.152 2. Experience shows that this is not the case. Sample Pore Volume L D Vb Vm Vp Vp = (1.32 inches Note: the pore volume (formation) compressibility is somewhat smaller than usually encountered.5 cc 4 4.52.5 cc .0 cm 2 3.65 gm = Vb .8 cc 2. Also it was assumed that the formation compressibility was exactly the same as the bulk volume compressibility.960 in) (2.026 ft = 0.575 in) (2.

0040 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 PRESSURE.0100 C p = 9. cc PORE VOLUME.0060 0.0120 SLOPE = . psig I .0068 7000 . 3 0.0118 .0080 0.0140 0.38 .2000 VOLUME EXPELLED..96 x 10-7 psi -1 0.POROSITY PROBLEM No. cc 0.

960.000 psi. The pore compressibility is 5.665.000) (. what is the subsidence (ft)? Assume Cf = Cb Solution: A Vb Vp = 160 (43.000 psi dVp = 1.969.1 Vp dp 5 x 10-6 (1/psi) = dVp -1 76.600 ft2 = 696.15 x 106 ft3 ∆H = 1.600 ft2 I .665.39 .960.Compressibility Problem A 160-acre and 100 ft thick reservoir has a porosity of 11%.969.600 ft3 3.165 ft 6.969.15 x 106 ft3 x 1 = 0.560) = 100 (6.11) = 76.000 ft3 = Vb(f) = (696.0 x 106 (1/psi).600) = 6.600 ft3 dVp Cp = . If the pressure decreases 3.

3. characteristics of particular sand pack. SINGLE PHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) Darcy's equation (1856) A. k. constant of proportionality. 2.II. kA(h1 .h2) µL Length of sand pack. Water flow through sand filters q A h 1 .1 . not sample size Darcy's work confined to sand packs that were 100% saturated with water equation extended to include other liquids using viscosity II .h2 h1 Z h2 q WATER SAND DARCY'S FOUNTAIN.L = Z q= 1.

980 cm/sec2 = pressure gradient along s . Generalized form of Darcy's equation 1. Equation ρg dz vs = -k dP µ ds 1.centipoise = permeability .2 .darcies II .cm/sec = interstitial velocity .cm/sec = density of flowing fluid .0133 x 10 6 ds +Z Vs s Θ +1 90o 180o 270o 360o +X -Z -1 +Y θ 2.h2) µL B.gm/cm3 = acceleration of gravity .q= kA(h1 .atm/cm = viscosity . Nomenclature vs vs/φ ρ g dP ds µ k = superficial velocity (volume flux along path s) .

3 . Conversion factors dyne atm ρgh poise = gm cm/sec2 = a unit of force = 1. The dimensions of permeability L m t vs µ ρ p g = length = mass = time = L/t = m/Lt = m/L3 = m/Lt2 = L/t2 ρg dp dz = .k m/Lt L L = L2 = cross-sectional area vs L t k II .3.0133 x 10 6 ds m/Lt2 .m/L3 L/t2 L = .k µ ds 1.0133 x 106 dyne/cm2 = dyne/cm2 = a unit of pressure = gm/cm sec = dyne sec/cm2 4.

Definition of Darcy units a. k A P1 . c.4 .P2 µL q = II . conventional units would be: 1) 2) b. feet squared in the English system centimeter squared in the cgs system both are too large for use in porous media definition of darcy A porous medium has a permeability of one darcy when a single-phase fluid of one centipoise that completely fills the voids of the medium will flow through it under conditions of viscous flow at a rate of one cubic centimeter per second per square centimeter cross-sectional area under a pressure or equivalent hydraulic gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter.5.

A = constant incompressible liquid. k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature. q II . Horizontal. ds = 0 linear system. can use Darcy's equation non-reactive fluid. q = constant laminar flow. linear flow system q P1 A q P2 L a.5 . Flow of incompressible liquid 1. µ.II) Reservoir systems A. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dz horizontal system.

6 .0133 x 10 6 ds q = .k dP = µ ds A p2 kA = dP µ p 1 = .P1 Lµ Note: P1 acts at L = 0 P2 acts at L = L q is + if flow is from L = 0 to L = L II .b. derivation of flow equation vs vs L q 0 qL-0 q ds = .k µ ρg dP dz ds 1.kA P2 .P1 µ = kA P2 .

k A L P1 P2 q q q = 1 darcy = 6 ft2 (144 in2/1 ft2) (6.42 cm 3/sec II .54 cm/1 in) = 182.88 cm = 5.88) = 91.7 .0 .45 cm2/1 in2) = 5572.8) (5.0) (1) (182.572.8 cm 2 = 6 ft (12 in/1 ft) (2.P1 Lµ = (1) (5.2.0 atm Solution: We must insure all the variables are in the correct units.0 cp length = L = 6 ft inlet pressure = P1 = 5.0 atm = 2.0 atm = kA P2 .Example II-1 What is the flow rate of a horizontal rectangular system when the conditions are as follows: permeability = k = 1 darcy area = A = 6 ft2 viscosity = µ = 1.0 atm outlet pressure = P2 = 2.

2. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dz = sinθ non-horizontal system. Non-horizontal. linear system -Z P2 S Θ X P1 a. ds = constant linear system. q = constant laminar flow. A = constant incompressible liquid. q II . use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid.8 . k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature µ.

k A µ k ρg sin θ dP + ds µ 1. vs derivation of equation ρg dz = .b.P2 + µL 1.kA µ q = .0133 x 10 6 ds = L q 0 ds = .0133 x 10 6 II .9 .0133 x 10 6 L ds 0 vs q ρgLsinθ = .0133 x 10 6 P2 P1 kA ρg sin θ dp + µ 1.kA P1 .k dP µ ds 1.

use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid. upward flow. ds = sinθ = constant upward flow.10 .1 linear system. A = constant incompressible liquid. µ II . q = 270°. sinθ = . Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) dz vertical system. k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature. q = constant laminar flow. Vertical. linear system FLOW UNDER HEAD h h x L a.3.

0133 x 10 6 P1 L P2 = ρg h ρg + 1.0133 x 10 6 = q = .0133 x 10 6 L 1.0133 x 10 6 1.0133 x 10 6 ρg h = kA µL 1.0133 x 10 6 ρg (h + x + L) 1.P2 L 1.0133 x 10 6 q II .0133 x 10 6 ρg x 1.k A µ kA µ = P1 P2 = = ρg h ρg ρg q = kA + µ 1.0133 x 10 6 ds ρg dP + ds 1.0133 x 10 6 L 1.b.11 .0133 x 10 6 ρg P1 . vs vs q derivation of flow equation = k µ ρg dP dz ds 1.

constant temperature. Horizontal. h = constant incompressible liquid. use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid. µ. q = constant laminar flow. flow is inward constant thickness. q II .4. A = 2πrh .dr. ds = 0 radial system. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) dz horizontal system. k = constant 100% saturated with liquid.12 . radial flow system re Pw Pe rw re rw h a. ds = .

ds = 0 linear system. linear flow system q P1 A q P2 L a.Pw µ 1n (re/rw) e Note: if q is + . A = constant compressible gas flow.k µ ρg dP dz ds 1.13 . Derivation of flow Equation vs vs q 2πh q 2πh q = = .1n( rw) = k Pe . Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dz horizontal system.b.0133 x 10 6 ds q q = + k dP = = µ dr A 2πrh re rw dr = k r µ pe dp pw 1n(re) . horizontal. q = f(p) laminar flow. k= constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature II .Pw µ 2πhk P . use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid. flow is from r e to rw B. Flow of gas (compressible fluid) 1.

0133 x 10 6 ds q = .P2 1 qsc = kA Tsc µL Tz Psc 2 Note: real gas equation of state Pq = ZnRT = volumetric flow/time = mass flow/time = ZnRT n R Tsc Psc qscz T 1 Tsc P where q n thus.k dP = µ ds Ads but q thus Psc T qsc Tsc A Psc T qsc Tsc A L ds = .k dP µ ds 1. Pq Pscqsc q = where qsc is constant Z is determined at P.14 . Assumptions 1) 2) µ. T II .k µz 2 2 P2 .b. Derivation of equation for qsc vs vs ρg dz = .P12 L -0 = . Z = constant Z(and µ ) can be determined at mean pressure c.k o p1 p2 PdP µz = Psc qscz T PTsc P22 .

P22 = k A µL T z Psc 2 k A 1 P12 .15 . linear flow of incompressible liquid thus if gas flow rate is determined at mean pressure.d.P22 µL P 2 P12 . T = ZnRT z is determined at P.P22 k A 2 µL P1 + P 2 2 k A P . P. T qsc = P q Tsc z Psc T II .P 1 2 µL q q = = This equation is identical to the equation for horizontal. Derivation of equation for q qsc = 2 P1 .P2 kA Tsc 2 µL Tz Psc 2 but qsc = q = P q Tsc Z Psc T Tsc P12 . the equation for incompressible liquid can be used for compressible gas! Note: real gas equation of state Pq thus Psc qsc n R Tsc = znRT Pq where P P = = P1 + P 2 2 volumetric flow rate at P.

q = f (P) laminar flow. A = 2πrL. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) dz horizontal system ds = 0 radial system. Horizontal. inward flow constant thickness. radial flow system re Pw Pe rw re rw h a. h = constant compressible gas flow. use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid.2. ds = .16 .dr. k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature II .

derivation of equation for qsc ρg dz vs = .k dP = µ ds A but q and A = 2πrh and ds = .b.0133 x 10 6 ds q vs = .P2 2πhk e w µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2 II .17 .k dP µ ds 1.P2 w 1n r e = k e µz 2 2 Tsc π h w qsc = Tsc P2 . Assumptions µz = constant z (and µ ) can be determined at mean pressure c.dr thus Psc T qsc 2Tsc π h re rw dr = k r Pe Pw ρdP µz P q zT = sc sc PTsc PscT qsc r P2 .

d. II .P2 e w 2 = P q Tsc z Psc T q = 2 π h k 1 (P2 .P2 2πhk e w µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2 but q thus P q Tsc z Psc T = Tsc 2πhk µ 1n re/rw Psc zT P2 . q. is measured at mean pressure.18 .P2 ) e w µ 1n re/rw P 2 (P2 . derivation of equation for q qsc = Tsc P2 .P2 ) 2πhk 2 e w µ 1n re/rw Pe + P w 2 2πhk P .Pw µ 1n re/rw e q q = = Note: Equation for real gas is identical to equation for incompressible liquid when volumetric flow rate of gas.

P2 P1 .P2 L cm = L ft 30.39 cc cu in d 24hr hr 3.841 q = q = 0.01127 k A P1 .841 q bbl d darcy k darcy = k md 1.615 cu ft d bbl cc q sec = 1.P2 µL in oilfield units II .P2 0.000md k darcy = 0. Conversion to Oilfield Units Darcy units cc/sec darcy sq cm cm atm cm cp gm/cc Oil field bbl/d or cu ft/d md sq ft ft psia ft cp lb/cu ft Symbol q k A h P L µ r Example: q= hkA P1 .600 sec cc q sec = q bbl 5.001 k 929.48 cm ft meter = 100 cm 1.48 L P1 .P2 atm = P1 .728 cu in cu ft 16.0 A sq ft P1 .19 .0 sq cm A sq ft sq ft A sq cm = 929.06805 µ 30.001 k md A sq cm = 929.0 A .696 psia psia atm = 0.P2 µL in Darcy's units 1.06805 P1 .P2 psia atm 14.C.

Linear Incompressible Liquid Real Gas q = 2 π kh µ ln (re/rw) Pe .Pw 2 q = 2 π kh µ ln (re/rw) Pe . Darcy Units System Horizontal.Pw Tsc qsc = kA µ L Tz Psc q = kA µL P1 . Radial Horizontal. Linear Dipping.D.P2 q = kA µL P1 .0133 x 10 6 Horizontal.Pw II . Table of Equations 1.P2 P2 .P2 + ρ g L sin θ 1.20 . Radial Real Gas qsc = µ π kh ln (re/rw) Tsc Tz Psc Pe 2 . Linear Fluid Incompressible Liquid Incompressible Liquid q = kA µL Equation P1 .P2 1 2 2 Horizontal.

P2 + Horizontal.Pw P1 .P2 q = res bbl/d Dipping.2.1118 P12 .P22 q = res bbl/d Horizontal.001127 kA µL P1 . Linear Incompressible Liquid q = 0.007082 Real Gas qsc = . Linear Fluid Incompressible Liquid Equation q = 0.007082 Pe .0133 x 10 6 kh µ ln (re/rw) kA µ LzT qsc = scf/d q = .001127 kA µL P1 .001127 kA µL ρg L sinθ 1.21 . Radial qsc = . Oilfield Units System Horizontal.Pw II .7032 kh µ ln (re/rw) Tz kh µ ln (re/rw) Pe 2 . Radial Horizontal.Pw2 Real Gas q = . Linear Incompressible Liquid q = .P2 Pe .

4 psi q = 1.0 atm.5 .5 psi (2.1271 x 10-3 kA P1 .P2 µL q = 1.0 atm.000 md 2 6 ft 6 ft (5.7 psi/atm) = 73.7 bbl / day 1. Solutions: We must insure that all the variables are in the correct units.29.1271 x 10-3 q = 49. outlet pressure = P2 = 2.0 cp length = L = 6 ft inlet pressure = P1 = 5.4 II . k A L P1 P2 = = = = = 1 darcy = 1.0 atm) (14.22 .000 6 1 6 73.7 psi/atm) = 29.Example II-2 What is the flow rate of a horizontal rectangular system when the conditions are as follows: permeability = k = 1 darcy area = A = 6 ft2 viscosity = µ = 1.0 atm) (14.

082 x 10 -3 kH Pe .1.500 psia Pw =1.3 cp Solution: q= 7.23 .740 1.500 .Example II-3 Determine the oil flow rate in a radial system with the following set of conditions: K h = = 300 md 20 ft re rw re/rw ln (re/rw) = 330 ft = 0.Pw µ ln Re / Rw 7.082 x 1--3 300 20 2.3 6.492 Pe =2.5 ft = 660 = 6.740 psia µ = 1.492 q= q = 3.826 res bbl/d II .

P2 + kC whC µL P1 . Horizontal. linear flow parallel to bedding P1 q A B C L qt = qA + qB + qC h = hA + hB + hC let k be "average" permeability.P2 k h = kA hA + kB hB + kC hC k = n kj hj ∑ h j=1 II .P2 + kB whB µL P1 .24 . Layered Systems 1.E. then k wh P1 .P2 µL P2 q W qt = and qt = then kA whA µL P1 .

Horizontal.Pw + then 2 π kc hc µ ln (re/rw) Pe .Pw + 2 π kB hB µ ln (re/rw) Pe .25 .2. radial flow parallel to bedding re re hA hB rw qA qB Pe ht hC qC Pw again qt = qA + qB + qC h = hA + hB + hC qt = 2πk h µ ln (re/rw) Pe .Pw k h = kA hA + kB hB + kC hC and again k = n kj hj ∑ h j=1 II .Pw and qt = 2 π kA hA µ ln (re/rw) Pe .

P2 µL P1 .3.P2 = qt µ L q µLA q µLB q µLC = A + B + C kA wh kB wh kC wh k wh since qt = qA = qB = qC L = LA + LB + LC kA kB kC k thus K = L n Lj ∑ j = 1 kj II .26 .p2 = ∆PA + ∆PB + ∆PC L = LA + LB + LC qt = and since k wh P1 . linear flow perpendicular to bedding A P1 q B C P2 q kA ∆P A LA kB ∆P B LB kC ∆P C LC h W L qt = qA = qB = qC p1 . Horizontal.P2 = ∆ PA + ∆PB + ∆PC P1 .

flow perpendicular to bedding q Pw PA PB PC h rw rA rB rC qt = qA = qB = qC Pe .4. radial.Pw µ ln (re/rw) qt µ ln (re/rw) 2π k h + then k = ln re/rw n ln(rj/rj-1) ∑ kj j=1 = qA µ ln (rA/rw) 2 π kAh Pe .27 .Pw = qB µ ln (rB/rA) q µ ln (rC/re) + C 2 π kB h 2 π kC h II .Pw = ∆PA + ∆PB + ∆PC q = 2 π k h Pe . Horizontal.

25 ft Solution: k = ln (re/rw) n ln (rj/rj-1 ) ∑ kj j=1 ln 300 0.Example II-4 Damaged zone near wellbore k1 = 10 md k2 = 200 md r1 r2 rw = 2 ft = 300 ft = 0.28 . II .4 md The permeability of the damaged zone near the wellbore influences the average permeability more than the permeability of the undamaged formation.25 ln 300/2 + 10 200 k = k = 30.25 ln 2/0.

P2 A = π r2.29 . Flow through constant diameter channel A L a. Poiseuille's Equation for viscous flow through capillary tubes q= πr4 8µL P1 . Darcy's law for linear flow of liquids q = kA µL P1 .P2 II .P2 = kA µL P1 .P2 assuming these flow equations have consistent units Ar2 8µL thus 2 k = r2 = d 32 8 where d = inches. therefore q= Ar2 8µL P1 . k = 20 x 10 9 d2 md P1 . Flow through channels and fractures 1.P2 b.F.

Solution: A.Example II-4 A. what will the permeability be? B. k k k = 20 x 109 d2 = 20 x 109 (0.30 .25 (200 md) = 50 md II .25). k k = 0. If only 25 percent of the rock is pore channels (f = 0. Determine the permeability of a rock composed of closely packed capillaries 0.0001 inch in diameter.0001 in) 2 = 200 md B.

Flow through fractures b v= q h2 (P 1-P 2) = A 12 µ L 2 q = b A (P1 -P2) 12 µ L setting this flow equation equal to Darcy's flow equation.P2 12 µ L µL solve for permeability of a fracture: 2 k = b in darcy units.2. or 12 k = 54 x 109 b2 where b k = = inches md II .P2 = kA P1 .31 . b2 A P1 .

linear flow parallel to fracture k = k = matrix area + fracture k total area 12 in 2 + 12 in 144 in2 0.005 in 144 in2 k = 1.01 . Assuming the fracture is in the direction of flow.005 in fracture area + 54 x 109 x 0. 0.005 2 12 in x 0.439 + 81.Example II-6 Consider a rock of very low matrix permeability. which contains on the average a fracture 0.32 . determine the average permeability using the equation for parallel flow.000 144 k = 563 md II .005 inches wide and one foot in lateral extent per square foot of rock. Solution: ∑ kj Aj k = A matrix k 0. similar to horizontal.01 md.

individual samples (perm plugs) from larger core extract hydrocarbons in extractor dry core in oven flow fluid through core at several rates qsc P sc A TURBULENCE SLOPE = k / m P 12 . real gas flow with T = Tsc and Z = 1.0 qsc Psc = k A µ k = ( slope ) m II .III) Laboratory measurement of permeability A. cut small. c.P22 2L horizontal. Perm plug method a. Procedure 1. b.33 . d. linear.P 22 2L qsc = kA P12 .P22 2 µ L Psc P12 .

the horizontal flow data must be adjusted due to complex flow path whole core method gives better results for limestones II . b.2. prepare whole core in same manner as perm plugs mount core in special holders and flow fluid through core as in perm plug method VERTICAL FLOW LOW AIR PRESSURE (FLOW) CORE RUBBER TUBING HIGH AIR PRESSURE PIPE TO FLOWMETER c. d.34 . Whole core method a.

called Klinkenberg effect mean free path is function of size of molecule thus permeability measurements are a function of type of gas used in laboratory measurement.rocks which contain fractures in situ frequently separate along the planes of natural weakness when cored. Factors which affect permeability measurement 1. Fractures . gas molecules "slip" along the grain surfaces occurs when diameter of the capillary openings approaches the mean free path of the gas molecules Darcy's equation assumes laminar flow 2. Gas slippage a. Thus laboratory measurements give "matrix" permeability which is lower than in situ permeability because typically only the unfractured parts of the sample are analyzed for permeability.B. d. b.35 . f. c. gas flow path with slippage e. II .

negligible at high pressures.H2 N2 k CALCULATED CO2 0 1 P g. kMEASURED 0 1 P II . thus Klinkenberg effect is greater for measurements at low pressures . i. mean free path is a function of pressure. thus Klinkenberg effect is greater for low permeability rocks. effect of gas slippage can be eliminated by making measurements at several different mean pressures and extrapolating to high pressure (1/p => 0) h. permeability is a function of size of capillary opening.36 .

1 II .8 1. Mean Pressure ( atm ) 1. 1/pressure Intercept is equivalent to liquid permeability From graph: kliq = 2.76 2.38 md 5 GAS PERMEABILITY.4 0.76 3.Example II-7 Another core taken at 8815 feet from the Brazos County well was found to be very shaly.38276 + 1.0 Measured Permeability ( md ) 3.04 2.571 9. since nitrogen was used in the permeameter.64632 P bar Equivalent Liquid Permeability = 2. There was some question about what the true liquid permeability was.0 0.2 0. md 4 3 2 1 0 0.37 . atm .192 2.38 md RECIPROCAL MEAN PRESSURE.484 Solution: Plot kmeasured vs.54 k gas = 2.517 4.6 0. Calculate the equivalent liquid permeability from the following data.

Injection water may. reduce the permeability due to clay swelling. II .000 ppm Cl ion.3. md 100 10 Water concentration 20. md b. 1 1 10 100 1000 10000 AIR PERMEABILITY.38 .if its salinity is less than that of the formation water. Reactive fluids a.25.000 . Formation water reacts with clays 1) 2) lowers permeability to liquid actual permeability to formation water is lower than lab permeability to gas RELATIONSHIP OF PERMEABILITIES MEASURED WITH AIR TO THOSE MEASURED WITH WATER 1000 WATER PERMEABILITY.

0 1960.0 Ka means permeability to air. Kw means permeability to fresh water 4.0 1550.0 5.This is likely to result in a change in permeability (+ or -).2 147. Field S S S S S S S S T T T T Zone 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 36 36 36 36 Ka 4080 24800 40100 4850 22800 34800 13600 7640 2630 3340 2640 3360 K1000 1445 11800 23000 1910 13600 23600 5160 1788 2180 2820 2040 2500 K500 1380 10600 18600 1430 6150 7800 4640 1840 2140 2730 1920 2400 K300 1290 10000 15300 925 4010 5460 4200 2010 2080 2700 1860 2340 K200 1190 9000 13800 736 3490 5220 4150 2540 2150 2690 1860 2340 K100 885 7400 8200 326 1970 3860 2790 2020 2010 2490 1860 2280 Kw 17.0 19.0 2460.Effect of Water Salinity on Permeability of Natural Cores (Grains per gallon of chloride ion as shown). II . K500 means permeability to 500 grains per gallon chloride solution. The removal of the core from the formation will likely result in a change in pore volume.9 197. The production of fluids.39 .0 119. b. Change in pore pressure a.0 2060.especially around the well.5 9.will result in a decrease in pore pressure and a reduction of in-situ permeability.0 270.

σ A. B.1 . I) BOUNDARY TENSION AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE Boundary tension. at the boundary between two phases there is an imbalance of molecular forces the result is to contract the boundary to a minimum size GAS SURFACE LIQUID III.III.

E. D. 2.2 . work in ergs required to create 1 cm 2 of surface (ergs/cm 2) is termed "boundary energy" also can be thought of as force in dynes acting along length of 1 cm required to prevent destruction of surface (dynes/cm) . Surface Tension . Law of Universal Gravitation applied between molecules physical attraction (repulsion) between molecules Liquid-Gas Boundary attraction between molecules is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 3.this is called "boundary tension" Boundary Energy = Boundary Tension x Length 3.Boundary tension between gas and liquid is called "surface tension" Interfacial Tension . H. b. F.Boundary tension between two immiscible liquids or between a fluid and a solid is called "interfacial tension" σgw σgo σwo σws σos σgs = surface tension between gas and water = surface tension between gas and oil = interfacial tension between water and oil = interfacial tension between water and solid = interfacial tension between oil and solid = interfacial tension between gas and solid I. Forces a. Forces creating boundary tension 1. G.C. the average molecule in the liquid is uniformly attracted in all directions molecules at the surface attracted more strongly from below creates concave or convex surface depending on force balance creation of this surface requires work 1. Solid-Liquid Boundary physical attraction between molecules of liquid and solid surface III. 2.

AT AT = σws .4. forces at boundary of two liquids and a solid (or gas-liquid-solid) σow OIL WATER Θ σos σw s SOLID OIL σws = σos + σow cos θ B. Adhesion Tension.3 . Liquid-Liquid Boundary some of each II) Wettability A.strongly water-wet III. if the solid is "water-wet" σws ≥ σos AT = + cos θ = + 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° if θ = 0° .σos = σow cos θ C.

(A) Silica surface.7% ISOQUINOLINE ISOQUINOLINE NAPHTHENIC ACID θ = 300 θ = 480 θ = 540 θ = 1060 (B) Interfacial contact angles.strongly oil-wet θ = 1580 θ= 300 θ= 830 θ = 350 (A) ISOOCTANE ISOOCTANE + 5. if the solid is "oil-wet" σos ≥ σws AT = cos θ = 90° ≤ θ ≤ 180° if θ = 180° .D.4 . (B) calcite surface III.

liquid will rise in the tube until total force up equals total force down a. total force down equals the weight of the column of water converted to force = πr2 hgρ w c.5 . capillary pressure between air and water h Θ AIR WATER 1. III.III) Capillary pressure A. thus when column of water comes to equilibrium 2πr A T = πr2 hgρ w d. total force up equals adhesion tension acting along the circumference of the water-air-solid interface = 2πr AT b. units dyne gm cm cm = cm2 cm cm sec2 cm3 gm cm sec2 dyne = force unit adhesion tension dyne AT = 1 r hgρ w cm 2 dyne = e.

2. since AT = σaw cosθ. 1 and 2 above both result in h= 2 σaw cos θ rg ρw III.6 . vertical component of surface tension is the surface tension between air and water multiplied by the cosine of the contact angle acting along the water-air-solid interface = 2πr σaw cosθ b. units dyne gm cm cm = cm2 cm cm 2 cm3 sec gm cm dyne = cm cm sec2 3. total force down = πr2 hgρ w c. liquid will rise in the tube until the vertical component of surface tension equals the total force down a. thus when the column of water comes to equilibrium 2πr σaw cosθ = πr 2 hgρ w d.

III.(pa .pw = pa . call this pressure difference between B' and B "capillary pressure" Pc = pa .ρ wgh) pa .7 .ρ wgh units: c. pressure at B is equal to the pressure at A minus the head of water between A & B pw = pa . dyne dyne gm ⋅ cm = cm cm2 cm2 cm3 ⋅ sec2 thus between B' and B there is a pressure difference pa .pw = ρ wgh d.4. pressure at A' is equal to pressure at A Pa' = Pa b. capillary pressure (air-water system) Pa h A' Pa A WATER Pw B' B Θ AIR pressure relations in capillary tubes a.pw = ρ wgh remember h= 2 σgw cos θ rg ρ w e.

vertical component of surface tension equals the surface tension between oil and water multiplied by the cosine of the contact angle acting along the circumference of the water-oil-solid interface = 2πr σow cosθ b. the downward force caused by the weight of the column of water is partially offset (bouyed) by the weight of the column of oil outside the capillary thus.8 . III.f. capillary pressure between oil and water h Θ OIL WATER 1. thus Pc = 2 σgw cos θ r B. total force down equals the weight of the column of water minus the weight of an equivalent column of oil converted to force 1) weight per unit area of water = ρw h 2) weight per unit area of oil = ρo h c. liquid will rise in the tube until the vertical component of surface tension equals the total force down a.

ρ o) 2.9 . III. 2 σow cos θ rg (ρ w .ρ oh = h(ρ w . pressure at A' equals pressure at A Poa = Pwa b.ρo) capillary pressure (oil-water system) Po h Po A WATER Pw B' B Θ OIL a.3) net weight per unit area acting to pull surface down = ρ wh . pressure at B is equal to the pressure at A minus the head of water between A and B Pwb = Pwa . thus the equilibrium for the height of the column of water h= 3.ρ o) 4) total force down = πr2 gh (ρ w .ρ o) d. thus when the column of water comes to equilibrium 2πr σow cosθ = πr 2 gh (ρ w .ρ wgh pressure at B' equal to the pressure at A' minus the head of oil between A' and B' c.

thus capillary pressure.ρ ogh) .(Pwa . the difference between pressure at B' and the pressure at B is Pc Pc = Pob .ρ wgh) = Pwa since Poa Pc e. and Pc = thus Pc = f (adhesion tension. remember h= f.ρ ogh d. 1/radius of tube) 2 σow cos θ r III.ρ o)gh 2 σow cos θ rg (ρ w .Pob = Poa . remember adhesion tension is defined as AT = σow cosθ.ρo) 2 σow cos θ r same expression as for the air-solid system except for the boundary tension term Pc = 2 σ cos θ r C. thus Pc = 4.Pwb = (Poa .10 . = (ρ w .

3. pressure is greater in the non-wetting phase E. the pressure on the concave side of a curved surface is greater than the pressure on the convex side or. i.but it is a simple and ideal system packing of uniform spheres 2. 3. 2. by analogy to capillary tube 1 + 1 = 2 cos θ r R1 R2 where Pc = 2 σ cos θ r call it Rm(mean radius). the straight capillary previously discussed is useful for explaining basic concepts . 1 = 2 cos θ = (∆ρ)gh rm Rm σ III.ADHESION TENSION AIR AIR AIR WATER Hg WATER 1/radius of tube D.e.11 . an important result to remember 1. Pc = σ 1 + 1 R1 R2 R1 and R2 are the principal radii of curvature for a liquid adhering to two spheres in contact with each other. pwb < pob thus. capillary pressure-unconsolidated sand 1.

occupies the small interstices-non-wetting phase is in contact with some of the solid Funicular distribution . 2. 1. (b) funicular distribution III.F. wettability-consolidated sand Pendular-ring distribution-wetting phase is not continuous. (a) Pendular-ring distributions. completely covering surface of solid WATER WATER SAND GRAIN SAND GRAIN OIL OR GAS OIL OR GAS (A) (B) Idealized representation of distribution of wetting and nonwetting fluid phase about intergrain contacts of spheres.12 .wetting phase is continuous.

adhesion fluid density variation of tube diameter with height consider an experiment in which liquid is allowed to rise in a tube of varying diameter under atmospheric pressure. B. b. Pressure in the gas phase is increased forcing the interface to a new equilibrium position. Capillary pressure is greater for small radius of curvature than for large radius of curvature An inverse relationship between capillary pressure and wettingphase saturation Lower wetting-phase saturation results in smaller radius of curvature which means that the wetting phase will occupy smaller pores in reservoir rock III. 3.IV) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation A. 2. Capillary pressure is defined as the pressure difference across the interface.13 . remember that the height a liquid will rise in a tube depends on 1. This illustrates: a. 2. c. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE R R HIGHER PRESSURE DEPENDENCE OF INTERFACIAL CURVATURE ON FLUID SATURATION IN A NON-UNIFORM PORE 1.

for given capillary pressure a higher value of wetting-phase saturation will be obtained from drainage than from imbibition III. This is an oversimplified example. same contact angle. same capillary pressure. however it illustrates that the relationship between wetting-phase saturation and capillary pressure is dependent on the saturation process (saturation history) a.14 . LOW PC HIGHER P C LOW PC Θ Θ R Θ SATURATION = 100% PC = LOW VALUE SATURATION = 80% CAPILLARY PRESSURE = P C SATURATION = 0% P C = HIGH VALUE Θ SATURATION = 10% CAPILLARY PRESSURE = P C (A) (B) Dependence of equilibrium fluid saturation upon the saturation history in a nonuniform pore. Same pore. (a) Fluid drains.V) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation history A. tube is filled with a wetting fluid and allowed to drain until the interface between wetting fluid and non-wetting fluid reaches equilibrium (drainage) tube is filled with non-wetting fluid and immersed in wetting fluid allowing wetting fluid to imbibe until the interface reaches equilibrium (imbibition) HIGHER P C R 2. consider an experiment using a non-uniform tube (pore in reservoir rock) 1. (b) fluid imbibes. different saturation history 3.

4 0.B. drainage means replacing a wetting fluid with a non-wetting fluid imbibition means replacing a non-wetting fluid with a wetting fluid 2. Sw % 1. III.4 Φ Drainage Φ Imbibition Sand I Sand II (k/ø)1/2 1. capillary pressure is expressed in terms of a non-dimensional correlating function ( remember Pc = (∆ρ gh ) in general terms. a.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Drainage σ Φ WATER SATURATION.6 Φ 1.2 1.6 0.2 Imbibition 0. (FROM LEVERETT) 1.8 0. DATA FROM HEIGHT-SATURATION EXPERIMENTS ON CLEAN SANDS. b.0 Φ ∆ρgh Φ 0.15 . Leverett conducted a similar experiment with tubes filled with sand.

DRAINAGE PC IMBIBITION 0 WATER SATURATION.16 . S W 100 III.

ρo = = = = pressure in oil phase. psia = density of water.VI) Capillary pressure in reservoir rock Water Oil ρw h P w = Po/w 144 P w2 P o2 P o = Po/w - ρoh 144 Oil and Water P o1 = P w1 100% Water Pc = P o . lb/cf = density of oil. psia pressure in water phase. lb/cf At any point above the oil-water contact. psia distance above 100% water level. po ≥ p w III.Pw = h 144 Where: Po Pw h Po/w ρw ρo ρ w .17 . ft pressure at oil-water contact.

PC HEIGHT ABOVE O-W-C P O = PO/W - ρoH 144 ρ H P w = PO/W .18 .w 144 PRESSURE III.

4. 4. Repeat at successively higher pressures until no more wetting fluid will come out. 2. Results Advantages a. very accurate can use reservoir fluids Disadvantages a. 2. 5. 3. B.up to 40 days for one core pressure is limited by "displacement pressure" of porous disk III. porous diaphragm mercury injection centrifuge dynamic method Porous diaphragm 1.VII) Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure A. 6. Measure Sw periodically. Start with core saturated with wetting fluid. Methods 1.19 . very slow . b. The pressure difference between the pressure in the non-wetting fluid and the pressure in the wetting fluid is equal to Pc. Use pressure to force non-wetting fluid into core-displacing wetting fluid through the porous disk. 7. b. 3. 8.

20 . 2.mercury is non-wetting phase . Similar to porous disk method except centrifugal force (rather than pressure) is applied to the fluids in the core Pressure (force/unit area) is computed from centrifugal force (which is related to rotational speed) Saturation is computed from fluid removed (as shown in window) Advantages a. b.C. 1. Mercury Injection Method Force mercury into core . 3. 5. 4. b. b. fast reasonably accurate use reservoir fluids III. fast-minutes reasonably accurate Disadvantages a. 4. 2. 3. c. ruins core difficult to relate data to oil-water systems D.air (usually under vacuum) is wetting phase Measure pressure Calculate mercury saturation Advantages a. Centrifuge Method CORE HOLDER BODY WINDOW TUBE BODY 1.

3. b.E. establish simultaneous steady-state flow of two fluids through core measure pressures of the two fluids in core (special wetted disks) difference is capillary pressure saturation varied by regulating quantity of each fluid entering core advantages a.PRESSURE APPARATUS (HASSLER'S PRINCIPLE) 1.21 . 4. Disadvantages a. 2. very tedious III. Dynamic Method GAS INLET ∆Po GAS OUTLET ∆P g Pc CORE TO ATMOSPHERE OIL INLET OIL BURETTE DYNAMIC CAPILLARY . seems to simulate reservoir conditions reservoir fluids can be used 5.

1.22 . Comparison of methods diaphragm method (restored state) is considered to be most accurate.9 (other data indicate value between 5. c.5) b. 2. III.8 and 7. simple theory shows that capillary pressure by mercury injection should be five times greater than capillary pressure of air-water system by diaphragm method capillary pressure scale for curves determined by mercury injection is five times greater than scale for diaphragm air-water data these comparisons plus more complex theory indicate that the ratio between mercury injection data and diaphragm data is about 6.F. thus used as standard against which all other methods are compared comparison of mercury injection data against diaphragm data a.

Pore geometry is very complex.23 . PcAH g .Example VIII-1 Comparison of Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Data with Porous Diaphragm Data A. for the following data: PcAW σAHg = 480 Dynes/cm θ AH = 140° g σAW = 72 Dynes/cm θ AW = 0° B. Calculate the ratio using the relationship. PcAH g σAHg = PcAW σAW Solution: PcAH σ cos θAHg 480 cos(140°) g = AHg = PcAW 72 cos (0°) σAWcos θ AW (A) PcAH g PcAW (B) PcAH g PcAW PcAH g PcAW = 5.1 @ σAHg = 480 σAW 70 = 6. Calculate capillary pressure ratio. The curvature of the interface and pore radius are not necessarily functions of contact angles.9 III.

D. Reduction in permeability results in a higher minimum irreducible wetting phase saturation. Minimum irreducible wetting phase saturations are the same.24 . For this given set of conditions.Discussion: A. Mercury Injection and Porous Diaphragm Methods B. C. For both cases. mercury system still has higher required displacement pressure. must adjust ratio between scales until match is obtained. III. Best way to determine the relationship between mercury and air-water data is to generate capillary pressure curves for each set of data and compare directly. mercury injection method requires a higher displacement pressure.

psi = interfacial tension measured in laboratory.25 . degrees III. degrees = laboratory contact angle. dynes/cm = reservoir contact angle.VIII) Converting laboratory data to reservoir conditions 2σLcos θ L r 2σRcos θ R r PcL PcR setting r = r r= = = 2σLcos θ L 2σRcos θ R = PcL PcR ∴ σcos θ R PcR = PcL σcos θ L where Pc R Pc L σL σR θR θL = reservoir capillary pressure. psi = capillary pressure measured in laboratory. dynes/cm = reservoir interfacial tension.

26 .333 PcL PcR PcR PcR = P cL III. lab data: σAW = 72 dynes σAW = 0o reservoir data: σOW = 24 dynes/cm σOW = 20o Solution: = σcos θ R PcL σcos θ L 24 cos20° 72 cos0° = 0.Example III-2 Converting Laboratory Data to Reservoir Conditions Express reservoir capillary pressure by using laboratory data.

ρ O.IX) Determining water saturation in reservoir from capillary pressure data A. psI = ρ w .) III.27 . convert laboratory capillary pressure data to reservoir conditions calculate capillary pressure in reservoir for various heights above height at which capillary pressure is zero (∆ρ)gh Pc = 144 gc in English units ∆ρ g gc h 144 thus Pc = lbf/(sq in). lb/cu ft = 32 ft/sec2 = 32 lbm ft lbf sec2 = ft = (sq in)/(sq ft. B.

Drop vertically to the x-axis.0 gm/cm3 P CL 10 8.85 62.3 0 0 50 100 SW Solution: PcR = ρw − ρ o h 144 1.313 P cL. PcR = 0.3 psi to the capillary pressure curve. ρo = 0.6 psi 144 PcR 0. Sw = 50% III.6 = 8.4 lb 40 ft3 = 2.0. above the oil-water contact.28 .Example III-3 Determining Water Saturation From Capillary Pressure Curve Given the relationship. use the laboratory capillary pressure curve to calculate the water saturation in the reservoir at a height of 40 ft.313 2. read Sw.85 gm/cm3 20 ρ w = 1.313 PcR PcL PcL = = = move to the right horizontally from PcL = 8.0 .3 psi 0.

X) Capillary pressure variation A. 2.Water Capillary Pressure. psi (reservoir conditions) 24 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Sw % 60 70 80 90 0 100 18 36 54 90 18 12 6 III -29 Air . ft Oil .Water Capillary Pressure. displacement pressure increases as permeability decreases minimum interstitial water saturation increases as permeability decreases RESERVOIR FLUID DISTRIBUTION CURVES (From Wright and Wooddy) 900 md 200 md 100 md 10 md 30 200 180 Height above zero capillary pressure. psi (laboratory data) 72 . effect of permeability 1.

8 116 10 58 0 0 100 20 80 40 Water 60 40 Hg 80 20 0 100 0 60 1.curve (a) (well sorted) large range in grain and pore sizes . 2. psi Mercury capillary pressure. so most pores are same size .5 112. psi 290 40 232 30 174 20 Limestone Core Porosity = 23.5 10 75.0 . majority of grains same size.36 md Factor = 5.0% Permeability = 3.1% Permeability = 1. Effect of grain size distribution 30 225.0 25 Water/nitrogen capillary pressure. psi 187.B.5 Sandstone Core 15 Porosity = 28. psi 20 150.5 0 0 100 0 20 80 40 Water 60 40 Hg 80 20 100 0 60 60 348 50 Water/nitrogen capillary pressure.43 md Factor = 7.curve (b) (poorly sorted) III -30 Mercury capillary pressure.0 5 37.

XI) Averaging capillary pressure data J-function J Sw = Pc k 1/2 σcos θ φ attempt to convert all capillary pressure data to a universal curve universal curve impossible to generate due to wide range of differences existing in reservoirs concept useful for given rock type from given reservoir where Pc σ k φ = = = = dyne/(sq cm) dyne/cm (sq cm) fraction or can use any units as long as you are consistent III -31 .

1 0.1 1.4 0.9 1.7 1.8 0.4 1.0 0. Sw Reservoir Hawkins El Roble Kinsella Katie Leduc Alundum Leverett Formation Woodbine Moreno Viking Deese Devonian (consolidated) (unconsolidated) III -32 . J EL ROBLE KINSELLA HAWKINS 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 WATER SATURATION.9 0.5 1.6 0.6 1.CAPILLARY RETENTION CURVES.0 0 LEDUC LEVERETT KATIE ALUNDUM CAPILLARY PRESSURE FUNCTION.5 0.8 1.2 0.3 1.) 2.2 1.3 0.0 1.7 0. (From Rose and Bruce.

2. what is the difference in pressure in psi across the air-water interface in the tube.0 980 h = 14.01 cm h= 2 72 cos0° 2σAWcos θ = rρg .69 14.0142 atm 0. The interfacial tension between the air and water is 72 dynes/cm and the contact angle is 0 degree. A glass tube is placed vertically in a beaker of water. The displacement pressure for a water saturated porcelain plate is 55 psi of air.Capillary Pressure Problem 1 1.0 980 14.01 centimeters. What is the diameter in inches of the largest pore in the porcelain plate? Assume 72 dynes/cm and 0 degrees.69 cm (b) pressure drop in psi across interface Pc = = = pa .209 psi III -33 . Calculate: a.01 1. the capillary rise of water in the tube if the radius of the tube is 0.696 psi atm Pc Pc 0. Solution: (1) σAW = 72 dynes/cm ρW g θ (a) = 1 gm/cm3 = 980 dynes/gm = 0o capillary rise of water if radius is .pw = ρ wgh = 1. b.

797 x 10 -5 cm 6 2.792 x 10 1.0133 x 10 6 dynes/cm2 atm 3.495 x 10-5 in 2.792 x 106 dynes/cm2 2σAW cos θ Pc 2 72 cos0° in = 3.54 cm 3.(2) Pc Pc Pc = = = = 2σAWcos θ r 55 psi 55 psi atm 14.99 x 10-5 in r = r = r d = = III -34 .696 psi 1.

Capillary Pressure Problem 2 Given the information below and graph of PcL vs. wetting phase saturation Sw , construct the curves for PcR, h in reservoir, and J-function vs. Sw. Water is the wetting phase in both the laboratory and the reservoir.

fluids θ σ ρwet ρnon-wet k φ

lab air-water 0° 60 dyne/cm 1.0 gm/cm3 0 gm/cm3 37 md 16%

res oil-water 25° 20 dyne/cm 1.1 gm/cm3 0.863 gm/cm3 variable variable

Pc k/φ 1/2 J= σ cos θ

III -35

35.0 32.5 30.0 27.5 25.0

22.5

PCL, psi

20.0 17.5 15.0

12.5

10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5

0.0

0 10 20 30 40 50 Sw % 60 70 80 90 100

Solution: σR cosθ R Pc σL cosθ L L 20 cos25 P 60 cos0 cL 0.302 P cL

(1) PcR

=

= =

PcR

III -36

(2) P cR

= =

hR ρw - ρo 144 hR 1.1 - .863 62.4 144 .103 h R 9.74 P cR Pc k 1/2 σ cos θ φ PcL k 1/2 σAW cosθ L φ L PcL 37 1/2 60 cos0° .16 .253 P cL PcL psi 32 19.5 15.6 13.2 9.9 7.8 6.0 4.7 3.7 2.8 2 PcR psi 9.7 5.9 4.7 4.0 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.8 0.6 hR ft 94.1 57.4 45.9 38.8 29.1 22.9 17.6 13.8 10.9 8.2 5.9 J assorted 8.1 4.9 3.9 3.3 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.5

PcR hR (3) J

= =

=

=

= J =

Sw % 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

III -37

10 8 6 Pc R 4 2 0 0 100 80 60 h R 40 20 0 0 10 8 6 J 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Sw % 80 100 20 40 60 Sw % 80 100 20 40 Sw % 60 80 100

III -38

flushing by mud filtrate 1) differential pressure forces mud filtrate into formation Ph > Pres 2) for water base mud. D. factors affecting fluid saturations a. C. saturations may or may not change. filtrate will be oil. water filled 100% of pore space Hydrocarbons migrate up dip into traps Hydrocarbons distributed by capillary forces and gravity Connate water saturation remains in hydrocarbon zone Methods for determining fluid saturations A. FLUID SATURATIONS I) Basic concepts of hydrocarbon accumulation A. II) Initially. B.IV.1 . Core analysis (direct method) 1. filtrate displaces formation water and oil from the area around the well (saturations likely change) for oil base mud. 3) IV .

Example: Effects of flushing by mud filtrates Coring with water base mud Oil zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↑ ↓ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↓ ↑ ? probably ↑ ↓ ↑ Gas zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↑ ↓ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ? ? Water zone: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ IV .2 .

3 .Coring With Oil Base Mud Oil zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ Gas zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↑ ↓ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓ Water zone: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↓ ↑ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ IV .

bringing core to surface 1) 2) reduction in hydrostatic pressure causes gas to come out of solution gas displaces oil and water causing saturations to change 2. laboratory methods a. evaporation using retort distillation apparatus HEATING ELEMENT CORE COOLING WATER IN CONDENSER COOLING WATER OUT IV .4 .b.

1) process a) b) c) d) heat small sample of rock oil and water vaporize.3 Multiplying Factor 1. multiply oil volume recovered by factor corresponding to gravity of oil in core 1.0 0.5 .9 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Oil Gravity.4 1. °API at 60° F IV .1 1.2 1. then condense in graduated cylinder record volumes of oil and water correct quantity of oil For converting distilled oil volume to oil volume originally in a sample.

core sample ruined c) IV . fraction oil saturation.e) determine saturations V So = o Vp V Sw = w Vp Sg = 1 . cc disadvantages of retort process a) must obtain temperature of 1000-1100oF to vaporize oil. cc volume of oil collected.Sw where Sw So Sg Vp Vw Vo 2) = = = = = = water saturation. oil will crack and coke. water of crystallization from clays also vaporizes causing increase in water recovery WATER RECOVERED PORE WATER 0 0 TIME b) at high temperatures. fraction gas saturation. fraction pore volume. cc volume of water collected.S o . (change in hydrocarbon molecules) amount of recoverable liquid decreases.6 .

7 . leaching using solvent extraction apparatus WATER OUT WATER IN GRADUATED TUBE CORE SOLVENT HEATER 1) process a) b) c) weigh sample to be extracted heat applied to system causes water from core to vaporize solvent leaches hydrocarbons from core IV .3) advantages of retort process a) b) short testing time required acceptable results obtained b.

8 .Vw ρ w ρo = weight of core sample after leaching V So = o Vp V Sw = w Vp 2) disadvantages of leaching a) b) 3) process is slow volume of oil must be calculated advantages of leaching a) b) c) very accurate water saturation value obtained heating does not remove water of crystallization sample can be used for future analysis IV . collects in trap. Record final water volume reweigh core sample determine volume of oil in sample Vo = where: Wi = after leaching Wdry weight of core sample Wi .Wdry .d) e) f) water condenses.

uses of core determined fluid saturation a.9 . cores cut with water base mud 1) 2) 3) presence of oil in formation determination of oil/water contact determination of gas/oil contact 0 SO 50 GAS OIL WATER So ≅ 0 in gas zone So ≥ 15% in oil zone 0 ≤ So ≤ Sor in water zone Sor = residual oil saturation IV .3.

10 .b. C. Capillary pressure measurements (discussed in Chapter VIII) Electric logs IV . cores cut with oil base mud ("natural state" cores) 1) 2) 3) minimum interstitial water saturation hydrocarbon saturation oil/water contact B.

Vg Vw = = 3 cc 10 cc porosity water saturation oil saturation assuming 35o API gas saturation matrix density lithology 219.2 .216. water and gas.3 . Vb bulk volume = 95 cm3 Wt initial = 216.7 .Example IV-1 You want to analyze a core sample containing oil.199.2 gm 7.0 cm3 the oil is extracted and the sample is dried Wt dry = 199.7 . Wt fluids Wt oil = = = = 219.5 gm calculate: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Solution: gas vol.7 . 13 .2 gm IV .7 gm the water with in the sample is removed and collected Vw removed = 13.5 = 20.11 .7 gm the sample was evacuated and the gas space was saturated with water ρ w = 1 gm/cm3 Wt new = 219.10 . water vol.3 = 20.

ρo Vo Vp φ Sw So Sg ρm = = = = = = = = 141.49 cc 8.46% 3/21.6% 10/21.47 = 39.49 + 3 + 10 = 21.71 gm/cc lithology = limestone IV .2/0.97% 199.5 + 35°API 7.57% 8.47 = 13.5 = 0.85 = 8.47 = 46.47/95 = 22.47) = 2.49/21.47 cc 21.12 .5/(95-21.85 gm/cc 131.

52 = 23.8 cc 100 gm = 3.5(1.5 cc of oil and 2.7 cc 100 gm = 43.63(. (Assume ρ w = 1.014 . 70 gm of the core sample were placed in a mercury pump and found to have 0.63 cc 80 gm 2.5.14 cc 10.71 cc 100 gm = 1.5.014 cc 70 gm 4.13 .014 + 5.71 gm Vm Vp φ = = = 43.1.50 = 33.8 cc of water. 80 gm of the core sample was placed in a retort and found to contain 4.Example IV-2 A core sample was brought into the laboratory for analysis.0 gm/cc and 35o API oil) calculate: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Solution: Vg Vo Vw Vb = = = = .7 cc. A piece of the original sample weighing 105 gm was placed in a pycnometer and found to have a bulk volume of 45.14/43.50 cc 80 gm 45.5 cc 100 gm = 5.0) = 91.63 + 3.50 = 10.3.71 cc of gas volume.31% IV .52 .37 cc 1.85) .63 .3.52 cc 105 gm porosity water saturation oil saturation gas saturation lithology Wt matrix = 100 .

38) = 2.63/10.14 = 34.Sw So Sg ρm = = = = 3.50/10.14 = 10% (91.14 = 55.75 IV .5% 5.14 .014/10.71/33.5% 1.

95 gm core was extracted with water recovery being 7.5 + °API 141.5 = 0.95 gm weight of core immersed in water = 48.5 + 40° 0.17 1.Vwρ w .5 131.825 131. and lithology from the following core analysis data. and gas saturations.0) .12 cc after drying core in oven. weight of core = 87.4 gm after gas space was saturated with water.66 gm Solution: = = = (1) = = = = Wo = IV .Fluid Saturation Problem 1 Calculate porosity. oil.825 gm/cc Vp Vb Vw + Vo + Vg Wsat .15 . water. core weighed 79.Wdry 87.0 gm/cc oil gravity = 40° API γo γo ρo φ Vp Wo 141.95 . How should the calculated saturations compare with the fluid saturations in the reservoir? Oil well core with water base mud initial weight of saturated core = 86.12(1.17 gm assume ρ w = 1.7.79.

16 .0% 9.Wi / ρ w 7.13 = 23.95 .55 cc = 17.13 cc Wsat .13 cc Vo Vp 2.4% 39.Vo Vo Vw = = = = Wo ρo 1.55 cc 5.0 cc 1 gm/cc 9.95) gm = 39.13 cc Vg Vp 1.57 + 2.01 cc = 22.66 gm = 2.12 .01 cc 0.55 9.0 Vw Vp 5.(87.Wsat .0) 5.86.13 cc Vb .4)/(1.48.Vp Vw Vg Vp Vp Vb Vb φ = = = = = = = (2) Sw Sw So So Sg Sg = = = = = = = (3) Vm IV .95 .01 + 1.0% 9.825 gm/cc Vwrec .0% 9.57 cc 1.Wimm ρw (87.57 cc = 61.

.65 cc .Vm ρm ρm = = = 39 .17 gm/29.87 cc Wdry Vm gm 79.9.87 cc = 2. lithology is sandstone (4) water saturation at surface will probably be greater than reservoir water saturation oil saturation at surface will be less than reservoir oil saturation gas saturation at surface will be greater than reservoir gas saturation IV .13 = 29.17 .

40 cc x 100 = 0.825 gm/cc Vp Vb Vo + Vw +Vg 0.19 cc 86.19 + 0.5 + °API 141. oil saturation.5 + 40° 0.0 gm/cc oil gravity = 40o API 141.90 cc x 100 = 2.5 131.825 131.Fluid Saturation Problem 2 Calculate porosity.87 cc x 100 = 1. gas saturation.5 = 0. How should the saturations you have calculated compare with the fluid saturations in the reservoir? Oil well core cut with an oil base mud Sample 1 weighed 130 gm and was found to have a bulk volume of 51. and from the retort method was found to contain 1. and lithology from the following core analysis data.18 .80 cc 50 gm 100 gm (1.90 cc of water and 0.71 gm.87 cc of oil Sample 3 weighed 50 gm and contained 0. water saturation.00 + 2.80) cc/100 gm Solution: γo γo ρo φ Vp Vo Vw Vg Vp = = = (1) = = = = = = IV .00 cc 86.71 gm 100 gm 1.40 cc of gas space assume ρ w = 1.72 cc Sample 2 weighed 86.71 gm 100 gm 0.

ρ oVo .0 1.79 cc/100 gm Wsat .99/100 x 100 = 10% 39.1% Vg x 100 Vp = (2) Sw = = Sw = (3) So = = So = (4) Sg = = 0.99 cc 20.78 cc 130 gm 100 gm 3.1% Vb .19 cc x 100 3.19 .0 cc x 100 3.99 35.80 cc x 100 3.87 .72 cc x 100 = 39.Vp Vb φ = = 3.78 .1.78/100 Vw x 100 Vp 2.ρ wVw /Wsat 86.3.90 86.8% Vo x 100 Vp 1.825 0.0.99 cc 54.71 97 gm/100 gm Sg (5) Vm = = = Vm Wm = = = Wm = IV .Vp 39.99 cc/100 gm 51.99 cc 25.71 .

71 gm/cc = = lithology .ρm ρm ρm ..20 .79 cc/100 gm 2.limestone (6) water saturations should be fairly close in value oil saturation will be less than reservoir oil saturation gas saturation will be greater than reservoir gas saturation IV . = Wm Vm 97 gm/100 gm 35.

meters area . Definition of resistivity ELECTRICAL CURRENT FLOW A L given a box of length (L) and cross-sectional area (A) completely filled with brine of resistivity (Rw) the resistance of the brine in the box to current flow may be expressed as r = Rw L A r = resistance . ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK-FLUID SYSTEMS I) Electrical conductivity of fluid saturated rock A.V.(meters)2 Rw = L A = = V-1 .ohm meters length .ohm resistivity .

B. 2. water with dissolved salts conducts electricity (low resistance) clay D. oil gas pure water minerals rock fragments C. Conductors of electricity 1. 2. 3. Ap < A b. Development of saturation equation (ignore clay) AP A ELECTRICAL CURRENT FLOW L 1. 4. the area available for current flow is the cross-sectional area of the pores. the electrical current flows through the water (brine) a. Nonconductors of electricity 1. the path through the pores is Lp. 5. Lp > L V-2 .

length of porous media. Rw. then Ro = RwALp ApL = resistivity of formation 100% saturated with brine of resistivity. ohm-m = cross-sectional area available for current flow. a measure of rock cementation. Since Ap ≅ porosity. m 2 = actual path length ion (current) must travel through rock. φ A and Lp ≅ L tortuosity. porous media A thus Ro = RwALp ApL where r = resistance of rock cube with pores filled with brine.2. m V-3 . ohm-m (from water sample or SP log) Ro Ap Lp A L 3. m = m2 = cross-sectional area of porous media. water filled cube Ap R L r = o . ohm Rw = formation brine resistivity. resistance to electrical flow through the porous media is equal to the resistance of a container of area Ap and length Lp filled with water (brine) r= RwLp .

becomes Ro = f Rw. the equation for resistivity of a formation 100% saturated with a brine of resistivity of Rw Ro = f Rw. φ. m a. tortuosity 2. can be written as Ro = F R w where F is the electrical formation resistivity factor F= 3.m log φ V-4 . F 1. tortuosity E. thus log F = log C . φ. Ro Rw cementation factor. it has been found experimentally that the equation for F takes the form F = C φ-m where C is a constant m is the cementation factor b. Electrical formation resistivity factor.

oolitic limestones) Very slightly cemented (Gulf Coast type of sand.6-1. the cementation factor 4.7 1. except Wilcox) Slightly cemented (most sands with 20% porosity or more) Moderately cemented (highly consolidated sands of 15% porosity or less) Highly cemented (low-porosity sands.9 2.15 (best suited for sandstones) Cementation Factor (m) and Lithology Lithology Unconsolidated rocks (loose sands.4-1. Archie's Equation F = φ-m b.1 φ 1.62 φ-2.01 when intercept = C 0.3 1. quartzite.0-2.100 F 10 1 0.dolomite) m values 1. Humble Equation F = 0.2 V-5 . commonly used equation for electrical formation resistivity factor a. limestone.0 slope = -m.8-1.5 1.

05 ohm-meters.1 φ = 14.0 for sandstone φ2 = 1/F φ= 1 42.15 = 0.62 42. V-6 .15 0.62/F φ = 2.41% Humble: F = 0.05/0. Which of the two equations will give the most reasonable answer? Solution: F =21.62/φ2.1 F = φ-m m = 2. The formation water's resisitivity was 0.06% The Humble equation was developed for sandstone.5 = 42.5 ohm-meters. The formation rock 100% saturated with this water was 21.1 Archie's: φ = 15.Example V-1 Determine the porosity for a sandstone using Archie's and Humble equation .15 φ2.

rearrange Sw-n = Rt Ro Rt Ro -n log Sw = log V-7 . n 1. Resistivity Index. definition of resistivity index I= Rt Ro where Ro = resistivity of formation 100% saturated with water (brine) of resistivity Rw.F. ohm-m Rt =resistivity of formation with water (brine) saturation less than 100%. and Saturation Exponent. ohm-m 2.0 3. it has been found experimentally that -1 R -1 Sw = I n = t n Ro where n is the saturation exponent ≅ 2. I.

B. Cementation Factor.log x2 II) Use of Electrical Formation Resistivity Factor.log y2 log x1 . E. obtain porosity.0 slope = -n. Rw. φ.100 Rt Ro 10 1 . from water sample or electric log Ro = F R w convert Rt from electric log to water saturation Ro 1 n Sw = Rt V-8 . when n is the saturation exponent NOTE: slope = log y1 . D. and Saturation Exponent A.1 Sw 1. C. from electric log or core analysis F=Cφ -m (usually use Archie or Humble equation) obtain water resistivity.

RESISTOR CORE VOLTMETER B. resistance of core E = Ir where: E = I r ∴ rcore = E I voltage. volts = = current. Calculations 1. Apparatus AC SOURCE 1000 OHM STD. ohms V-9 . amperes resistance.III) Laboratory measurement of electrical properties of rock A.

ohm-m = resistivity index = I V . determine resistance of core a.2. low current preferred so core does not heat up. c. resistivity of core r A Rcore = core L substituting r = E into the equation I Rcore = EA IL C. ohm-m = resistivity of core less than 100% saturated with brine of Rw. for the first test completely saturate core with brine Sw = 100%. 2. Procedure 1. where Swir Ro Rt Rt Ro = minimum interstitial brine saturation (irreducible). record voltage from voltmeter determine resistivity of core a.10 . R core = Ro for next test. until Sw < 100% Rcore = Rt repeat tests until Sw = S wir b. b. set desired current from AC source. fraction = resistivity of core 100% saturated with brine. desaturate core by 15-20%.

0 3. the slope of the plot is -n. n 1.D. Determine saturation exponent.11 . Plot log Rt vs log Sw or log I vs log Sw Ro 100 I= Rt Ro 10 1 . rearrange saturation equation Ro 1/n Rt Ro Rt Sw-n Sw = = = Swn Ro Rt log Rt = -n log Sw Ro 2.1 Sw 1. where n is the saturation exponent V .

64 10.Example V-2 Given the following data.2 cm E Voltage across Core.0 74.12 . calculate the electrical formation resistivity factor and saturation exponent of the core. volts 7.50 14.0 = Swir Solution: (1) electrical formation resistivity factor F ro Ro F = = = = Ro Rw E = 7.54 2π/4 = = 1210 ohm cm L 3. % 100.0 54.54 cm 3.2 Ro 1210 = = 22 Rw 55 V .67 Sw Water Saturation.01 roA 764 2.0 86.16 27. Rw I D L = = = = 55 ohm-cm 0.64 = 764 ohm I .0 49.01 amp 2.34 20.0 63.52 34.

0) V .49 rt = E I (ohm) 1050 1434 2016 2452 3467 (.1 Sw 1 (1.0.54 .10) 10 Rt/Ro 1 .334.537 -n log Sw = log Sw % 1.63 .877 2.000 1.74 .86 .374 1.00 .saturation exponent Rt Ro rA Rt = t L (ohm-cm) 1663 2271 3192 4358 5490 Rt Ro 1.638 3.1.13 .601 4.

14 .0 so V .log 1 1-0 -.10 = saturation exponent NOTE: Rt Et = Ro Eo Rt could have been calculated as the ratio of voltage at Ro Sw divided by the voltage at Sw = 1.334 .0 2.log 1 log .-n = slope -n n = = = log 10 .4763 .

Ro Rw plot data according to form of equation for electrical formation resistivity factor F = C φ-m log F = log C .01 0.1 φ 1. and constant C for electrical formation resistivity factor equation 1. m. Determine cementation factor. 2.0 slope = -m. determine Ro and f for each sample determine Rw for formation brine F= c. m = cementation factor intercept = C (intercept found at φ = 1.mlog φ 100 F 10 1 0.0) V .15 . b.E. test several core samples from reservoir with formation brine a.

168 0.224 Solution: F = C φ-m log F = log C . Porosity Formation Resistivity Factor φ 0.184 0.Example V-3 The laboratory test of Example IV-2 has been repeated for several core samples from the reservoir.m log φ plot log F vs log φ 100 F 40 32 26 22 19 17 F 10 1 .152 0.16 .199 0.213 0. Data is given below. Calculate the cementation factor and intercept for the formation resistivity factor equation.1 ø 1 V .

284 = slope = -2.2082 062 = intercept V .slope = -m log 50 .137 .21 = cementation factor intercept log F log 10 log C C = = = = log C -m log f log C -2.21 m = 2.log 0.log 10 = -2.17 .284 -.21 log 0.21 log 0.

Rw. measure resistivity of core sample (containing clay) in usual manner. this will be RoA measure resistivity of brine. in usual manner 2. ideally. 100% saturated with brine of resistivity Rw. only water conducts a current in rock if clay is present.18 . ohm-m Rclay Ro 1 = 1 + 1 RoA Rclay F Rw C. portion of current conducted through the clay BRINE CLAY 1 = 1 + 1 RoA Rclay Ro where RoA = resistivity measured on sample of reservoir rock with clay. to determine electrical formation resistivity factor 1. B.IV) Effect of clay on resistivity A. ohm-m = component of measured resistivity due to brine. ohm-m = component of measured resistivity due to clay. V .

19 .3. plot 1 ROA (OHM .M) -1 1 -1 RW (OHM .M) 1 = 1 + 1 1 RoA Rclay F Rw where 1 = intercept Rclay 1 = slope F V .

20 .1 φ 1. formation resistivity factor decreases more gradually when clay is present in the formation 100 CLEAN SAND F 10 SHALY SAND 1 0.0 V .D. clays reduced the apparent formation resistivity F CLEAN SAND SHALY SAND FA RW 2. effect of clay 1. define factor FA = RoA Rw .

0 V .1 CLEAN SAND HIGH R w n=1 Sw 1. 100 CLEAN SAND LOW R w n=2 I= Rt Ro 10 SHALY SAND n =? CLEAN SAND Swn-1 = I 1 .21 .3. saturation exponent n is not constant when clay is present in formation.

1 . Permeability. k. md effective permeability to gas. MULTIPHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) Effective permeability A. 3. geometry of the pores of the rock rock wetting characteristics fluid saturations D. volume/time flow rate of water. md where C. volume/time flow rate of gas. md effective permeability to water. volume/time effective permeability to oil. the above equation becomes k A∆Pο qo = o µoL k A∆Pw qw = w µw L qg = kgA∆Pg µgL qo qw qg and ko kw kg = = = = = = flow rate of oil.VI. Effective permeability is a measure of the fluid conductance capacity of porous media to a particular fluid when the porous media is saturated with more than one fluid Effective permeability is a function of: 1. When pore space contains more than one fluid. previously discussed applies only to flow when pores are 100% saturated with one fluid . 2.sometimes called absolute permeability kA∆ρ µL q= B. VI .

1271 x 10-3 o µoL k A P1 . (not necessarily true in shaly sand) III) Typical relative permeability curves A. in oilfield units k A P1 .P2 g µgL II) Relative permeability A.P2 qo = 1.1271 x 10-3 when k = A = P = L = q = md ft2 psia ft res bbl/day kg A P1 . Defined as the ratio of the effective permeability to a fluid at a given saturation to the effective permeability to that fluid at 100% saturated (absolute permeability) k kro = o k k krw = w k krg = B.1271 x 10-3 w µw L qg = 1.P2 w qw = 1.2 .E. Darcy equation for multiple fluids in linear flow. kg k It is normally assumed that the effective permeability at 100% saturation is the same for all fluid in a particular rock. Use subscript wp to represent the "wetting phase" Use subscript nwp to represent the "non-wetting phase" VI .

krwp = 1. only at S wp = 100% k rapid decrease in rwp as Swp decreases krwp = 0.0 VI . 2. % EQUILIBRIUM S NWP 100 1. 4. 3. at minimum interstitial Swp = 0.3 . at equilibrium Snwp krnwp Note that krwp + krnwp < 1.1 1 NON-WETTING PHASE Kr 2 WETTING PHASE 3 0 0 MINIMUM INTERSTITIAL S WP 4 SWP.

VI . two types of relative permeability curves a.non-wetting phase is displaced by wetting phase.. b. b.e.wetting phase is displaced by non-wetting phase. drainage curve .B. process begins with porous rock 100% saturated with wetting phase (Swp = 100%) wetting phase is displaced with non-wetting phase (drainage) until wetting phase ceases to flow (Swp = minimum interstitial wetting phase saturation) then non-wetting phase is displaced with wetting phase (imbibition) until non-wetting phase ceases to flow (Swp = equilibrium or residual non-wetting phase saturation) c. i.. i. 2. Effect of saturation history 1.4 . wetting phase saturation is increasing the typical relative permeability curve shown below represents a process in which a.e. wetting phase saturation is decreasing imbibition curve .

% 100 minimum interstitial wetting phase saturation residual non-wetting phase saturation VI .5 .1 Krnwp DRAINAGE Kr IMBIBITION Krwp 0 0 SWP.

initial distribution of fluids in reservoir was by drainage at and behind a water front (flood or encroachment) the process is imbibition 5. then oil. finally gas Fluids Present Water & Oil Water & Gas Oil & Gas Wetting Phase Water Water Oil VI . wetting preference for reservoir rocks is usually water first.6 . b.3. the word "hysteresis" describes the process in which the results (kr) are different when measurements are made in different directions the procedure (drainage or imbibition) used to obtain kr data in laboratory must correspond to the process in the reservoir a. 4.

7 . often three phases are present in petroleum reservoirs tertiary (triangular) diagram is used to represent a threephase system 100% GAS 100% WATER 100% OIL VI . Three phase relative permeability 1. 2.C.

dependence of relative permeability to oil on saturations of other phases is established as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) oil phase has a greater tendency than gas to wet the solid interfacial tension between water and oil is less than that between water and gas oil occupies portions of pore adjacent to water at lower water saturations the oil occupies more of the smaller pores. kro is shown in % a.8 .3. The extended flow path length accounts for the change in relative permeability to oil at constant oil saturation and varying water saturation VI . relative permeability to oil in a three phase system 100% GAS 1% 5 10 20 40 60 100% WATER 100% OIL Note.

4. VI .9 . krw can be plotted on cartesian coordinates against Sw. b. straight lines indicate relative permeability to water is a function of water saturation only thus. Relative permeability to water in a three-phase system 100% GAS 0 Krw 10% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% WATER 100% OIL a.

e. d.10 . k curves above indicate that rg is a function of saturations of other phases present.5. 1-Sg) and independent of how much of that total is composed of either phase k thus rg can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates against So + Sw b. occupy the smaller pore openings and wet the surface of the rock k therefore. oil and water. rg should be dependent only on the total saturation of the other two phases (i. Relative permeability to gas in a three-phase system 100% GAS 50% 40 30 20 5 1 100% WATER 100% OIL a. e. VI . k other research shows that rg is a unique function of gas saturation the other phases. c.

1.6 krg 0.for three-phase system in water wetted rock a.0 0.2 0. water 1) is located in smaller pore spaces and along sand grains therefore krw is a function of Sw only thus plot krw against Sw on rectangular coordinates 2) 3) b.11 .4 0. gas 1) 2) 3) is located in center of larger pores k therefore rg is a function of Sg only k thus plot rg against Sg (or So + Sw) on rectangular coordinate VI . Bottom line .0 0 20 40 60 80 100 So + Sw 6.8 0.

S g on a triangular diagram if Sw can be considered to be constant (minimum interstitial) kro can be plotted against So on a rectangular diagram 2) 3) 4) 1. oil 1) is located between water and gas in the pores and to a certain extent in the smaller pore spaces therefore kro is a function of So.12 .6 kro 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.c.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 So. % Minimum Interstitial Water Saturation VI . S w.0 0. and S g thus plot kro against So. S w.

13 .7. 50% water VI . Flow in three-phase system 100% GAS 5% oil 5% gas 5% water 100% WATER 100% OIL Arrows point to increasing fraction of respective components in stream Region of three-phase flow in reservoir centers around 20% gas. 30% oil.

3. When the permeability to water is zero (as at minimum interstitial water saturation) it is sometimes convenient to use permeability ratio to represent the flow conductance of the rock to gas and oil as a ratio. When the permeability to gas is zero (no gas or gas below "critical gas saturation") it is sometimes convenient to use permeability ratio to represent the flow conductance of the rock to oil and water as a ratio kr k permeability ratio = o = o kw krw V) Measurement of relative permeability A. B. Steady-state flow process a. permeability ratio = kg krg = ko kro 2. 2.displacement (unsteady-state process) Calculation from capillary pressure data (not covered here) Calculation from field performance data Laboratory Methods 1.steady-state flow process Laboratory . Laboratory .IV) Permeability ratio (relative permeability ratio) A.14 . saturate core with wetting-phase fluid inject wetting-phase fluid through core (this will determine absolute permeability) VI . Definitions 1. b. Methods 1. 4.

record inlet pressure. outlet pressure and flow rates of each phase measure fluid saturation in core (see below) calculate relative permeability q µ L ko = o o A∆p q µ L kw = w w A∆p e.c. d. g. % 100 VI .15 . inject a mix of wetting-phase and non-wetting phase (start with small fraction of non-wetting phase) when inflow and outflow rates and portion of non-wetting phase equalize. repeat b through f with injection mixtures containing relatively more non-wetting phase until irreducible wettingphase saturation is reached 1 kr kro krw 0 0 Sw. f.

volts = voltage across core with saturation of wetting phase less than 100%.h. gm weight of saturated core. gm weight of dry core. volts 2) volumetric balance 3) gravimetric method .Wd weight of fluid in core. cc Vw/Vf saturation of wetting phase Sw = where: thus Sw = VI . saturated with wetting phase.16 . determination of fluid saturations 1) Sw = resistivity Ro 1 Eo 1 n= n Rt Et where: Ro = resistivity of core 100% saturated with wetting-phase. gm ρ oVo + ρ wVw Wd = Wf and Vf where: ρ V = = = = Vo + Vw density.remove core and weigh it Wf where: Wf Wt = = = Wt . ohm-m Rt Eo Et = resistivity of core with saturation of wetting phase less than 100%. gm/cc volume. ohm-m = voltage across core 100%.

ρo i. end effects 1) causes of end effects a) in the bulk of the core there is a wettingphase saturation and a non-wetting phase saturation.Pwp c) at the face of the core the pressures in the wetting-phase and the non-wetting phase are essentially equal Pnwp = P wp thus capillary pressure is essentially zero d) if capillary pressure is zero.17 . same procedure can be used starting with 100% saturation of non-wetting phase 1) 2) 3) 4) injection ratio start with high ratio of non-wetting phase procedure ends at residual non-wetting phase saturation then is a hysteresis effect of same type as discussed with capillary pressure measurements choice of starting saturation depends on reservoir process which is being simulated j. therefore there is a finite value of capillary pressure thus there is a difference in pressure between the wetting-phase and non-wetting phase Pcap = P nwp .ρ o ρw . the saturation of the wetting phase must be 100% (see capillary pressure curve) there must be a saturation gradient from essential 100% wetting phase at the "end" to some value of Swp less than 100% in the bulk of the core b) e) VI .Sw = Wf/Vf .

cm Distance from outflow face.18 . cm 2) elimination of end effects a) b) install end pieces to contain end effects flow at rapid rates to make end effect negligible (pressure gradient > 2 psi/inch Inlet Thermometer Packing Nut Electrodes Copper Orifice Plate End Section Test Section Mixing Section Differential Pressure Taps Bronze Screen Outlet Highly permeable disk Inlet PENN STATE RELATIVE-PERMEABILITY APPARATUS VI .100 100 80 Theoretical saturation gradient Oil Saturation. % 80 Theoretical saturation gradient Oil Saturation. % 60 60 Inflow face 40 Inflow face 40 20 20 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance from outflow face.

482 darcy VI .07 cp µo = 5.7.1771 0.01 0.5 17. The Core sandstone length = 2.688 38.50 cp Inlet Pressure psig 38.19 .1 15.01 0.2998 Water Flow cc/sec 1.1003 1.56 8.7 Voltage Drop volts 1.1003 0.4 .7 13.2 85.4 Outlet Pressure psig 7.696 0.0000 The Fluids brine.01 0.1227 0.85 cm area = 2.688 cm2 porosity = 25.20 2. Calculate absolute permeability using data with core 100% saturated with water k k k = = = qwµwL A∆p 1.0354 0.6 15.30 cm diameter = 1.1 78.6 78. 40oAPI µw = 1.8898 0.6 17.0794 0.01 Draw the relative permeability curve Solution: 1.67 30. See figure on previous page.01 0.30 2.5% Oil Flow cc/sec 0.0105 0.7650 0.00 Electrical Current amps 0.3206 0.Example VI-1 The relative permeability apparatus shown above was used in a steady-state flow process to obtain the data given below at a temperature of 70oF.0000 0.4 67.07 2.000 ppm oil.7 14.10 2.5 88.01 0.80 4. 60.

2.

Calculate effective permeabilities to oil and water qoµoL ko = A∆P 0.0105 5.50 2.30 2.688 67.5 - 13.5 / 14.696 0.0134 darcy qwµwL kw = A∆P 0.8898 1.07 2.30 2.688 67.5 - 13.5 / 14.696 0.2217 darcy

ko ko

= =

kw kw 3.

= =

Calculate relative permeabilities k kro = o = .0134 = 0.028 k .482 k krw = w = .2217 = 0.460 k .482

4.

Calculate water saturations Sw Sw = = Eo 1/2 Et 1.20 1/2 = .756 2.10

5.

Results Relative Permeability to oil kro 0.000 0.028 0.072 0.182 0.371 0.686 Relative Permeability to water krw 1.000 0.460 0.303 0.143 0.050 0.000

Water Saturation Sw 1.000 0.756 0.655 0.513 0.372 0.200

ko/kw 0.000 0.061 0.238 1.273 7.419 -------

VI - 20

1.0

0.8

Relative Permeability

0.6

0.4

Kro Krw

0.2

0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100

**Sw, % pore space
**

10

Permeability Ratio, k /kw o

1

.1

.01

0

20

40

60

80

100

Sw, % of pore space

VI - 21

6.

The data permit certain checks to be made

F F Rw Ro F Φ Φ

= = = = = = =

0.62 φ-2.15 Ro Rw 12 ohm-m for 60,000 ppm brine EA = 1.20 2.688 = 140 ohm-m IL .01 2.3 140 = 11.7 12 1 1 .62 2.15 = .62 2.15 F 11.7 .255

VI - 22

2.

Displacement (unsteady-state)(Welge) a. b. does not result in relative permeability only give permeability ratio procedure 1) 2) 3) 4) mount core in holder saturate with wetting phase (usually oil) inject non-wetting phase (usually gas) at constant inlet and outlet pressures measure a) b) c. conditions 1) pressure drop across core high enough to make end effects negligible,but not enough to cause turbulent (non-darcy) flow. gas saturation can be described at mean pressure P + Po Pm = i 2 3) d. flow is horizontal and core is short so that effects of gravity can be neglected cumulative gas injected as a function of time cumulative oil produced as a function of time

2)

calculations 1) convert gas injected into pore volumes Gipi LAφ pm = cumulative gas injected (measured at pressure pi), cc

Gipv =

where Gi

Gipv = cumulative gas injected in pore volume pi = inlet pressure, psi

VI - 23

pm = pi + po .24 . cc LA φ = 2) calculate average gas saturation. psi 2 pore volume. cc pore volume. Sgav = Sgav where Np LA φ Np LAφ = = cumulative oil produced. cc 3) plot Sgav vs G ipv Sgav GAS BREAKTHROUGH 0 0 Gipv VI .

fo fo = d Sgav d Gipv fo = slope of plot of Sgav vs qGipv 5) calculate permeability ratio.25 .4) determine fractional flow of oil. calculated above applies only at the gas saturation of the outflow face.Gipvfo where Sgo Gipv fo = gas saturation at outlet face of core = cumulative gas injected.fo = ko fo µo/µg where kg = permeability ratio of gas to oil ko fo = fractional flow of oil 6) Permeability ratio. thus must calculate Sgo Sgo = S gav . kg/ko. pore volumes = fractional flow of oil at outlet face of core VI . kg/ko koA ∆p µoL fo = koA ∆p kgA ∆p + µoL µgL fo = ko/µo ko/µo + kg/µg kg 1 .

e. VI . disadvantages 1) 2) k results in kg/ko. advantages 1) 2) minimum amount of equipment rapid f. resulting in incomplete kg/ko vs Sgo curve. thus initial value of gas saturation may be high.26 . not kro and rg equations don't apply until gas breaks through.

6 30. µo = 2.210.27 cm 2 G Prepare to determine kg/ko by calculating Sgav and ipv.9 769. Cumulative Gas Injection.9 1226.27 cm2 .25 cp. G Calculate ipv VI . p inlet = 5.3 401.6 19.9 5946.5 25. µg = .4 35.0185 cp φ = .0 psig L = 5 5/8 x 2.54 = 14.6 202.4 546. Gi.24 2.2 33.5 22. cc 14.27 .0 50.2 112.3 35.6 Cumulative Oil Produced. cc 14.5 28. Calculate Sgav Sgav = Sgav = Np LAφ 14.3 cm A = p (2.6 cc 14.210 Sgav = 0.4 32.3 cm 20. Solution: 1.Example VI-2 The data from an unsteady-state displacement of oil by gas in a 2 inch diameter by 5 5/8 inch long sandstone core are given below. p out = 0.0 psig.5 3068. Np.54)2 = 20.9 Other data T = 70oF.

55 0.3 cm 20.7 psia + 14.42 0.56 10.210 19.Gipv = Gipv = Gipi LAφ pm 14.0 cc 19.3 14.7 psia 14.47 0.8 112.28 .264 pv 3.12 3.27 cm2 .58 0.264 0. Results Sgav 0.59 Gipv pv 0.32 0.7 psia /2 Gipv = 0.81 7.24 0.945 2.50 0.37 0.1 57.53 0.5 23.0 VI .

53 0.0005 .463 .0046 .945 2. Construct a graph of kg/ko versus S go. Solution: Plot Sgav vs.59 VI .Example VI-3 A core sample initially saturated with oil is flooded with gas.47 0.56 10.375 .50 0.32 0.24 0.338 .59 µo = 2.3 14.5 23.78 6. Determine kg/ko for each of the given saturations.2 Gipv pv 0.53 0.81 7.58 0.58 0.264 0.42 0.3 14.29 . Gipv The slope from this plot is fo.0185 cp S Calculate and construct a fg verses Sgo plot.0001 Sgo .81 7.101 .581 kg/ko .141 .fo µ fo o µo Gipv pv .405 . The following data was obtained: Sgav 0.94 2.37 0.0137 .1 57.381 .32 0.fogipv kg/ko = 1 .550 .55 0.886 1.075 .521 .8 112.294 . Sgo = S gav .25 cp µg = 0.12 3.0 Sgav 0.4 82.8 112.0357 .689 .42 0.264 .5 23.50 0.0118 .56 10.376 .1 57.24 0.17 3.37 0.0092 . Convert gavg to Sgo.222 .32 16.0 fo .0013 .249 .0214 .55 0.47 0.

6 0. pv 100 10 kg/ko 1 .5 Sgav fraction 0.0 Sg.2 0.8 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Gipv.9 1.1 .3 0.30 .0 0.3 0.4 0. % VI .6 0.0.5 0.4 0.01 0.7 0.1 0.

kg qg µg = ko qo µo replace qg/qo with qg Bg Rp . Bg. vol/time = producing gas-oil ratio. procedure a. µo must be determined at some known reservoir pressure b. µg. Field determination of permeability ratios 1. must be calculated from production data and material balance calculations = = formation volume factor of gas.Rs qo = 5.615 Bo 2. equations kg A ∆p µgL qg qo = k A ∆p o µoL where qg qo thus. saturations in reservoir.31 . Rp.Rs = ko µo 5. scf/STB must include both separator gas and stock tank gas) VI . res cu ft/scf formation volume factor of oil. R s. Sg or So. vol/time = oil flow rate measured at reservoir conditions.615 B o where Bg Bo Rp thus kg µgBg Rp . producing gas-oil ratio.C. res bbl/STB = gas flow rate measured at reservoir conditions. and physical properties. Bo.

615 Bo 0.34 x 103 res cu ft/SCF 0.314 0.0192 5.32 .100 SCF/STB. Stock tank oil gravity is 30oAPI and surface gas gravity is 0.0192 cp 0.560 0.75 cp µgBg Rp .34 x 10 -3 18100 .0282 z T/p = 5.75 5. What is kg/ko in the reservoir at this time.86 0. Production history and correlations indicate the bubble point at 3500 psia.Rs µo 5.7. Solution: Correlations covered in the fluid properties portion of this course yield the following value of the physical properties of the gas and oil at 3000 psia and 200o F. Producing gas-oil ratio is 18. Rs Bo = = 560 SCF/STB 1.314 res. temperature is 200oF.615 1.Example VI-4 Discovery pressure for your well was 4250 psia. BBL/STB = 390 oR = 665 psia 0. Reservoir pressure is now 3000 psia. and initial producing gasoil ratio was 740 SCF/STB.325 Tpc of gas Ppc of gas z Bg µg µo kg ko kg ko kg ko = = = = = = = VI .

ft 100% Water Production 0 0 Sw. % 100 100 % Sw VI . % 100 Log Response Diagram SP Log RT Log h.VI) Uses of relative permeability data A.33 . Determination of free water surface in reservoir (100% water production) 1 kr 0 0 Sw.

1 Determination of height of 100% oil production kr 0 0 Sw. ft 0 0 Sw. % 100 100 % Sw VI .34 .B. % 100 Log Response Diagram SP Log RT Log 100% Oil Production 100% Water Production h.

C.

1

Effect of permeability on thickness of transition zone

kr

Low K High K

0 0 Sw, % 100

h = height of zone of interest

h, ft

Low K High K

0 0 Sw, % 100

VI - 35

D.

Fractional flow of water as a function of height

q qw 1 fw = q w = q + q = = tot o w ko A ∆ P kw A ∆ P ko µw 1+ + kw µo µo L µo L

1

kw A ∆ P µw L

fw

100

0 0 Sw 100 h

100

0 0 fw h 1

0 0 Sw 100

VI - 36

160

10 md

140 120

Height above free water level, ft

100 80

50 md

60 40

100 md

20 0 0

200 md

20 40 60 80 100

Fraction of water in produced fluid, %

This figure indicates that lower permeabilities result in longer transition zones E. Determination of residual fluid saturations

1

Oil

kr

Water

0 0 Sw

Residual Oil Saturation

100

1. 2.

Imbibition curve used in water flood calculations Maximum oil recovery = area (acre) x h(ft) x f x 7758 BBL/acre ft x ∆Sw

VI - 37

F.

Interpretation of fractional flow curve

1

1

fw

4

0 0

1. 2. 3. 4.

2

3

Sw

fw at water breakthrough Sw at well at water breakthrough

100

Swav in reservoir between wells at water breakthrough 1 = pore volume of water injected slope

VI - 38

1 3 2 Water input Pore vols.% Oil in Place 100 0 VI .39 . fw 1 0 0 Oil Rec .

STATISTICAL MEASURES I) Introduction Usually we can not examine an entire "population" (i. and measure the porosity of every plug). We can only "sample" the population and use the properties of the sample to represent the properties of the population. cut it into plugs. VII .e. If the sample is representative of the population. Often we seek a single number (porosity or permeability) to represent the population (reservoir) for use in reservoir engineering calculations. we have a statistical basis for estimating properties of the population.VII. we can not dig up an entire reservoir. Unclassified data is randomly arranged.1 . The sample data is said to be unclassified or classified depending on whether it is arranged or grouped in a particular order. The classification of data for a large number of samples will often provide additional information to help describe the physical properties of the population.

Rules for forming frequency distributions A. B. The relative frequency of a class is the frequency of the class divided by the total frequency of all the classes.II) Frequency Distributions It is often useful to distribute data into classes. The number of observations for each class interval is the class frequency. D. The division of unclassified data into classified data is accomplished by allocating all data to respective class intervals. C. Determine largest and smallest numbers in the raw data.2 . The number of class intervals depends on the data but is usually taken between 5 and 20 in number. Divide the range of numbers into a convenient number of equal sized class intervals. VII . The midpoint of each class interval is called the class mark. A tabular arrangement of these data according to class is called a frequency distribution or frequency table. Sometimes classified data is called grouped data. The number of individuals belonging to each class is called the class frequency.

III) Histogram A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution. % 24 8 6 4 2 0 20 # of Samples 60 100 140 Permeability. The width of the rectangle corresponds to the class interval. The vertical scale is the number of data points .3 .in each class.the class frequency . Frequency of Occurence Mean Magnitude of Variable 8 6 # of Samples 4 2 0 12 16 20 Porosity. md VII .

20% 35% 25% 15% 5% 100% 10 8 Frequency 6 4 2 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.Net pay thickness data from 20 wells summarized as relative frequency data Range of thickness.15 0.20 0.25 0.00 Relative Frequency as percentage. fraction of total wells) 0. ft.4 . ft VII .05 1.35 0. of wells having thickness values in the range) 4 7 5 3 1 20 Relative Frequency (No. of wells having thickness values in each range. 50-80 81-110 111-140 141-170 171-200 Frequency (No.

Sometimes the relative frequency is plotted on a histogram .4 .3 . ft VII .5 Relative Frequency .2 .1 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.5 .

8 .2 0 Cumulative % less than or equal to 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.IV) Cumulative Frequency Distributions Relative frequencies are summed and plotted at the higher ends of the class intervals to create a "cumulative frequency less than or equal to" distribution Cumulative frequency less than for equal to 1.6 .4 . ft VII .0 .6 .

2 0 Cumulative % greater than or equal to 1. Relative frequencies are summed from the highest class interval and plotted at the lower ends of the intervals Cumulative frequency greater than for equal to . Different probability paper is used for data with different distributions VII .Occasionally a "cumulative frequency greater than or equal to" distribution is plotted. ft Probability graph paper has been constructed so that data from certain probability distributions plot as a straight line.8 .6 .4 .7 .0 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.

m.the mean. and standard deviation.V) Normal Distribution The normal distribution is continuous probability distribution having a symmetrical shape similar to a bell. f(x) Inflection point of curve a a µ −a µ +a Random variable x This distribution is completely and uniquely defined by two values .8 . sometimes called a Gaussian distribution. VII . σ.

VI) Log Normal Distribution The log normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution that appears similar to a normal distribution except that it is skewed to one side. If random variable xi are log normally distributed then the variables log xi are normally distributed. σ.9 . Mode f(x) Median (geometric mean) Mean (arithmetic mean) Random variable x This distribution can also be completely and uniquely defined by the mean. It is also called an exponential distribution. m. and the standard deviation. VII .

the nth root of the product of n numbers µg = x1⋅ x2⋅ x3 . . x n 1/n n 1/n µg = π xi i=1 where µg = the geometric mean VII . mean .the value which occurs with the greatest frequency geometric mean . . These averages are called measure of central tendency.the arithmetic average value of the samples n Σ xi µ = i =1 n where xi = values of the variable of interest for each sample nµ = number of samples median .10 . When a set of data is arranged according to magnitude the average value tends to lie in the center of these data.the value equalled or exceeded by exactly one-half of the samples. mode .VII) Measures of Central Tendency An average is a value which is typical or representative of a set of data.

Standard deviation . however it does not show the spread or variability of the variables on either side of the central tendency. where deviation is defined as the distance of the variable from µ. Mean deviation . A.µ 2 j f where rj = relative frequency for each class = = frequency for each class class mark where VII .VIII) Measures of Variability (dispersion) A measure of central tendency is the "average" or expected value of a set of variables.another measure of the dispersion about the central tendency n Σ xi .µ 2 2 = i=1 σ n-1 where σ2 is the variance σ is the standard deviation B. n Σ xi .µ MD = i=1 n For classified data σ2 = Σ fi xi .11 .The square root of the mean of the squared deviations about µ.µ 2 j Σ fi j fi xj or σ2 = Σ frj xj .

Thus. median and mode have the same numerical values.12 . They are identical measures of central tendency. for unclassified data n Σ xi µ = i=1 n where i refers to each individual data point and. xj is the class mark VII . For the normal distribution the mean. for classified data Σ fj xj j Σ fj j µ= where j refers to each class interval fj is the frequency of the class xj is the class mark or µ = Σ frj xj j f where rj is the relative frequency of the class.IX) Normal Distribution Porosity data is usually assumed to have a normal distribution.

999 .001 Random variable x Cumulative frequency plotted on coordinate graph paper .001 50% 84.999 Random variable x. distributed normally .999 µ+a σ µ µ .1% Cumulative % < VII . distributed normally Random variable x.001 Random variable x Cumulative frequency plotted on normal probability paper Normal probability graph paper .13 .999 Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Frequency .001 50% Cumulative % < ..

64 44.0 204.69 10.0 152.7 -4.µ)2 84.5 fixi 8.89 33.0 17.0<x<10.5 745.5 11.0 15.09 72.7 +1.µ 2 j Σ fi j = 376.0 12.0 14.5 0.0<x<18.23 100.0 147.µ) -9.18 = 8.0 16.64 fi(xi .0 70.0 (xi .2 -6.0<x<22.0 Frequency fi 1 0 1 10 12 8 7 3 42 Interval Midpoint xi 8.89 22.3 +5.0 19.µ)2 84.99% VII .7 -2.00 22.0 20.0 150.7 -0.3 +3.88 13.92 376.Porosity and permeability data from a well in the Denver-Julesburg Basin i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Porosity Interval Percent 7.0 10.09 7.0 22.0 18.29 0.0 21.0<x<20.8 (xi .0<x<25.0 13.0 = 17.0 23.18 µ= Σ fi xi Σ fi = 745.52 76.90 5.0<x<14.64 0.96 42 σ = 8.0 13.49 1.14 .0<x<12.96 = 2.0<x<16.7% 42 σ2 = Σ fi xi .

15 .7% f + σ = 20.7% σ = 20.0 22.8% 28.0 16.2% 92.7 .0% 24 22 Core porosity.0<x<16.0<x<25.0<x<18.0 18.4% 4.0 14.0<x<20.0<x<14.0 10.17. % 7.4% 2.7 = 3% VII .0 12.Porosity Interval.9% 100.0<x<10.0 Frequency 1 0 1 10 12 8 7 3 42 26 Cumulative Frequency Than or Equal to Upper Limit of Interval 1 1 2 12 24 32 39 42 Cumulative Frequency Expressed as Percentage 2.0 20.0<x<12.6% 57. % 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 96 Cumulative % less than or equal to given values of porosity at 50th percentile at 84th percentile f = 17.1% 76.0<x<22.

mode. and mean have different numerical values. For log normal distribution the median. for unclassified data n 1/n µ = π xi i=1 or n log (m) = 1 Σ log xi n i=1 VII . The median has been chosen as the value of central tendency which best represents the data. Thus. The median of a log normal distribution is equal to the geometric mean.X) Log Normal Distribution Permeability data is usually assumed to have a log normal distribution.16 .

1% 66.6% 38.2% 100. md 100 10 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 96 Cumulative % less than or equal to given values of permeability VII .3% 95.0% 1000 Core permeability.1% 57.8% 9.17 .0% 28.5% 19.7% 71.0% 83.Permeability Interval (millidarcies) 0-50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 301-350 351-400 401-450 451-500 501-700 701-1000 Frequency 2 2 4 4 4 8 4 2 4 1 5 2 42 Lognormal probability graph paper Cumulative Frequency Less Than or Equal to Upper Limit of Interval 2 4 8 12 16 24 28 30 34 35 40 42 Cumulative Frequency Expressed As Percentage 4.4% 81.

Capillary flow: Poiseuille's law qi = π r4 ∆p i 8µL 3. qt = kA ∆p µL P c = dynes cm2 σ = dynes cm r = cm = cm2 = cm2 = cm k A L 2 q = cm sec µ = poise = dynes-sec cm2 ∆p = dyne cm2 1 . Capillary pressure in a capillary. Darcy's equation. P c = 2 σ cosθ r 2.PETE 306 HANDOUT 3/5/92 Calculation of Permeability using Capillary Pressure Data Purcell Approach (ABW: pages 167-172) Three basic considerations: 1.

then the flow rate in a capillary is qi = Vr i ∆p.2 Let V i = πr i L. V = cm3 2 8µL Since r i = 2σ cosθ Pci σ cosθ 2 Vi qi = ∆p Pci 2 2 µ L 2 For a bundle of n capillary tubes. qt = k A ∆p µL 2 k i=n σ cosθ 2 = Σ Vi 2 2 A L i=n Pci 2 . i = n σ cosθ 2 ∆p i=n V i qt = Σ Σ 2 i=1 2µL i=1 Pci 2 Since.

σ cosθ 2 dS k= φλ 2 2 S=0 Pc S=1 3 . VT s i = fraction φ = VT . φ = fraction AL k= σ cosθ 2 2 φ i=n Σ i=1 Si Pci 2 Introducing a lithology factor λ for deviation of the actual pore space.Define the fractional volume of ith capillary si = and Vi . k= σ cosθ 2 2 φλ i=n Σ i=1 Si Pci 2 In integral form.

PETE 306 HANDOUT 4/16/92 Calculation of Relative Permeabilities using Capillary Pressure Data Purcell and Burdine Approach (ABW: pages 196-199) Purcell approach: The absolute permeability may be expressed as σ cosθ 2 dS k= φλ 2 2 S=0 Pc The effective permeability of the wetting phase may be expressed as S=1 kwt σ cosθ 2 = φλ 2 S=0 S=Swt dS P2 c The relative permeability of the wetting phase is the ratio of the wetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=Swt krwt = kwt = k S=0 S=1 dS P2 c dS 2 S=0 Pc 1 .

the effective permeability of the nonwetting phase may be expressed as knwt σ cosθ 2 dS = φλ 2 2 S=Swt Pc S=1 The relative permeability of the nonwetting phase is the ratio of the nonwetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=1 krnwt = knwt = k dS 2 S=Swt Pc S=1 dS 2 S=0 Pc 2 .Similarly.

λrwti = λi λwti The relative permeability of the wetting phase is the ratio of the wetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=Swt krwt = kwt = λrwt 2 k S=0 S=1 dS P2 c dS 2 S=0 Pc The tortuosity ratio is related to the minimum wetting-phase saturation Sm.Sm 3 .Burdine Approach: Burdine considered the tortuosity factors for one-phase and multiphase systems and modified the Purcell equations for the effective permeabilities. as λrwt = Swt .S m 1 .

Similarly. and the equilibrium saturation to the nonwetting phase.Sm . the relative permeability of the nonwetting phase is the ratio of the nonwetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=1 krnwt = knwt = λrnwt 2 k dS 2 S=Swt Pc S=1 dS 2 S=0 Pc The tortuosity ratio for the nonwetting phase is related to the minimum wetting-phase saturation. Se. Sm.Se 4 . as λrnwt = Snwt .S e 1 .