1

CHAPTER-7
TRANSISTOR AT LOW
FREQUENCY
2
7.1 Transistor Amplifier Circuit:-
Transistor equivalent ckt are divided in two
types (i) D.C. equivalent ckt. (ii) A.C. equivalent ckt.
Fig.7.1(a) Transistor Amplifier using Self Bias
3
4
Fig.7.1(b) D.C. Equivalent Ckt.
Fig.7.1(c) A.C. Equivalent ckt.
5
 The capacitors C
C1
& C
C2
are called the coupling
capacitors. Capacitors C
C1
is used to couple the a.c.
input signal to the base of the transistor. A coupling
capacitor is also called a blocking capacitor because
it blocks d.c.
Another capacitor C
E
is called bypass capacitor
because it bypasses the all a.c. current from the
emitter to ground.
6
7.2 Hybrid Parameter (h-Parameter):-
 h-parameter is widely used because they gives
accurate results & can be measured very easily.
 The transistor is a three terminal device but if one
terminal is grounded, then transistor can be used as a
two port network.
 The h-parameters are
V
1
=h
11
I
1
+h
12
V
2
I
2
=h
21
I
1
+h
22
V
2

The parameter h
11
,

h
12
, h
21
& h
22
are called h-
parameters.

7
Fig.7.2 (a) General h-parameter Equivalent Circuit
Fig.2.2(b) Transistor Two Port Network
8
o 22
1 -
2
2
22
r 12
2
1
12
f 21
1
2
21
i 11
1
1
11
h h as, d represente also is it
mho. or ohm is unit & ckt. open I/P with admittance O/P h
h h as, d represente also is it
unit. no has & circuited open I/P gain with voltage Reverse
V
V
h
h h as d represente also is it
none. is unit & shorted O/P gain with current forward
I
I
h
h h as, d represente also is it
ohm is unit & shorted O/P with impedance I/P
I
V
h
as, summarized is parameter - h the
=
= =
=
= =
=
= =
=
= =
V
I
9
7.3 h-Parameter Representation for Transistor:-
Sr. No. h-Parameter Common
Emitter
Common
Base
Common
Collector
1. h
11
h
ie
h
ib
h
ic
2. h
21
h
fe
h
fb
h
fc
3. h
12
h
re
h
rb
h
rc
4. h
22
h
oe
h
ob
h
oc
10
7.4 Analysis of Transistor Amplifier by h-Parameter:-
Fig 7.4(a) General Amplifier Circuit with Source & Load Resistance
Fig 7.4(b) h-Parameter Equivalent Circuit of above General Amplifier
11
1. The Current Gain (A
i
):- The current gain for the
transistor amplifier is defined as the ratio of O/P
current to the I/P current. Mathematically,


I h ) h R 1 ( I
h .R I - I h I
get, we eq.(4) in V of value the putting Now
...eq.(4) V h I h I
...eq.(3) V h I h V
are, equations Parameters - h the Now
...eq.(2) .R -I .R I V
, V is minal output ter the across voltage the figure above from
...eq.(1)
I
I
-
I
I
A
1 f o L 2
o L 2 1 f 2
2
2 o 1 f 2
2 r 1 i 1
L 2 L L 2
2
1
2
1
L
i
= +
=
+ =
+ =
= =
= =
12

h R 1
h -
I
I
I
I -
A

h R 1
h
I
I
So
o L
f
1
L
1
2
i
o L
f
1
2
+
= = =
+
=
13
2. The Input Resistance (R
i
):- The I/P resistance R
i
is defined
as the resistance we see looking into the amplifier I/P
terminals (1-1’). Mathematically,
i
1
1
r L
1
2
i
1
1
1
r L 2 1 i 1
2 r 1 i 1
L 2 2
1
1
i
R
I
V
But h .R
I
I
- h
I
V

have, we . I by side both on eq. above the dividing Now
h .R I - I h V
V h I h V
parameter - h of eq. in .R -I V of value the putting Now
I
V
R So
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ =
=
=
14
Admittance Load
R
1
Y where
Y h
h h
h
R
1
h
h h
h R
R h 1
h R h
h h .R
R h 1
h -
h R so
R h 1
h
A that know we h .R A h R
A
I
I -
but h .R
I
I
- h R therefore So
L
L
o
r f
i
L
o
r f
i i
L o
r L f
i r L
L o
f
i i
L o
f
i r L i i i
i
1
2
r L
1
2
i i
= =
+
÷ =
+
÷ =
+
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
+
÷
= + =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
15
3. The Voltage gain (A
v
):- The voltage gain is
defined as the ratio of the O/P voltage V
2
to I/P
voltage V
1.

Mathematically,

o
L
f r
i i
L o
f
i
i
L i
v i
1
1
1
1
L i
1
L 1 i
v
1 i 2
1
2
i
1
L 2
1
2
v
h
R
1
h h
h R &
R h 1
h
A that, know Again we
..eq.(2)
R
R A
A So, R
I
V
But
V
I
R A
V
R I A
A Therefore
I A I or
I
I
A that, Know we Since
eq.(1) ...
V
R I
V
V
A
+
÷ =
+
÷
=
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
÷ = ÷ =
÷ = =
16
( )
h h - h h Δh where
R . Δh h
R h
A
R . Δh h
R h
R h h - h h h
R h
A
h
R
1
h h
h
R h 1
R h -
A
have, then we eq.(2) in value these putting now
f r o i
L i
L f
v
L i
L f
L f r o i i
L f
v
o
L
f r
i
L o
L f
v
=
+
÷
=
+
÷
=
+
÷
=
+
÷
+
=
17
4. Output Resistance (R
o
) :- The O/P resistance may be
calculated by reducing the source voltage V
s
to source &
load resistance R
L
to infinity & driving the O/P terminals by
a voltage generator V
2
. as shown below,
Fig.7.4(c) h-equivalent ckt. to calculate the O/P resistance
O/P resistance R
o
is the ratio of the voltage V
2
& the
current drawn from the voltage source I
2
So R
o
=V
2
/I
2
18
( )
( )
2 o
i s
2 r f
2
2 o
i s
2 r
f
2
o
1
i s
2 r
1
2 r 1 i s
2 r 1 i 1 s
2 o 1 f
2
o
2 o 1 f 2
V h
h R
V h h
V
V h
h R
V h
h
V
R
get, we eq.(1) in I of value the putting Now
...eq.(2)
h R
V h
I
V h I h R or
0 V h I h I R
fig.7.4(c) in shown as ckt. the of side I/P the to KVL Applying
...eq.(1)
V h I h
V
R hence
V h I h I eq. parameter - h from
+
+
÷
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
+
÷
=
÷ = +
= + +
+
=
+ =
19
( ) ( )
Δh
h
R
be, will resistance O/P then 0 R resistance source if
h h h h Δh where
Δh R h
h R
R ,
h h h h R h
h R
h h h R h
h R
R
get, we arranging Re
i
o
s
r f i o
s o
i s
o
r f i o s o
i s
r f i s o
i s
o
=
=
÷ =
+
+
=
÷ +
+
=
÷ +
+
=
So
20
5. The Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):- The overall voltage gain
of the transistor amplifier is the ratio of O/P voltage V
2
to
the source voltage V
s
. It is denoted by A
vs
.
Fig 7.4(d) Equivalent I/P ckt.
...eq.(1) . A A fore there
V
V
A but,
V
V
V
V
A gain, voltage overall ally Mathematic
1
v vs
1
2
v
1
1
2
s
2
vs
s
s
V
V
V
V
= =
× = =
21
0) (R source
voltage ideal an gain with voltage the is A therefore
A A en th 0 R if

R Z
Z
A . A A
get, we eq.(1) in /V V of value the putting

R Z
Z
V
V
or
R Z
.Z V
V
have, we figure from resistance I/P
amplifier the represents Z here ckt. equivalent from now
s
v
v vs s
s i
i
v
1
v vs
s 1
s i
i
s
1
s i
i s
1
i
=
= =
+
= =
+
=
+
=
s
V
V
22
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):- overall current gain of the
transistor amplifier is the ratio of the O/P current (I
L
) to the
current delivered by the source (I
s
)
Fig 7.4(e) Modified I/P Equivalent ckt.
1
2
i
s
1
1
2
is
s
2
s
L
is
I
I
A but ...eq.(1)
I
I
I
I
A but,
have, we expression above the modifying
I
I
I
I
A gain, Current overall ally Mathematic
÷ = × ÷ =
÷ = =
23
) (R source current ideal an gain with current
the is A therefore A A then R if Now
Z R
R
A
I
I
. A A
get, we eq.(1) in
I
I
of value the putting now
...eq.(2)
Z R
R
I
I
then
Z R
R
I I
have we fig.7.4(e) from , resistance I/P amplifier is Z here
ckt., equivalent I/P modified use we A determine To
...eq.(1)
I
I
. A A So
s
i i is s
i s
s
i
s
1
i is
s
1
i s
s
s
1
i s
s
s 1
i
is
s
1
i is
· =
= · =
+
× = =
+
=
+
=
=
24
7.5 h-Parameter Expression for CE amplifier:-
Fig. 7.5 h-parameter equivalent circuit for CE amplifier
E
C
B
E E
25
1. Current gain (A
i
):-

h R 1
h
- A
Amplifier, Emitter Common for Gain Current
) Expression (General
h R 1
h -
A
oe L
fe
i
o L
f
i
+
=
+
=
R then Z resistance biasing
no for & R R Z ckt. bias fixed for the
R
1
h
h h
h R
Amplifier, E - C for resistance I/P The
) Expression (General
R
1
h
h h
h R
i i
B i i
L
oe
re fe
ie i
L
o
r f
i i
=
=
+
÷ =
+
÷ =
2. Input Resistance (R
i
):-
26
h h - h h Δh where
R . Δh h
R h
A amplifier, CE for gain Voltage
) Expression (General
R . Δh h
R h
A
fe re oe ie
L ie
L fe
v
L i
L f
v
=
+
÷
=
+
÷
=
3. Voltage Gain (A
v
):-
L o o
s re fe ie oe
s oe
ie s
o
s o
i s
o
R R Z
be will stage amplifier the of resistance O/P The
resistance source the is R & h h h h Δh where
amplifier) CE (for
Δh R h
h R
R
) Expression (General
Δh R h
h R
R
=
÷ =
+
+
=
+
+
=
4. Output Resistance (R
o
):-
27
fe re oe ie
s i
i
L ie
L fe
s i
i
v vs
s i
i
v
1
v vs
h h h h Δh here
amplifier) CE (for
R Z
Z

ΔhR h
R h -

R Z
Z
A A
) expression (general
R Z
Z
A . A A
÷ =
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=
+
= =
s
V
V
amplifier) CE (For
Z R
R
R h 1
h
A
) expression (General
Z R
R
R h 1
h
Z R
R
A A
i s
s
L oe
fe
is
i s
s
L o
f
i s
s
i is
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
+
× =
5. Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):-
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):-
28
Properties of Common Emitter Amplifier:-
1. Large current gain (A
i
=100).
2. Large voltage gain (A
v
=500).
3. Large power gain (A
p
=A
v
.A
i
)
4. Moderate I/P impedance (50KΩ).
5. Moderate O/P impedance (10KΩ).
6. Phase shift is 180º bet I/P & O/P voltage.
29
1. Current gain (A
i
):-

h R 1
h
- A
Amplifier, Base Common for Gain Current
ob L
fb
i
+
=
R Z
then, biasing no is there t.if arrangemen biasing
upon the depends stage amplifier the of resistance i/p The
R
1
h
h h
h R
Amplifier, B - C for resistance I/P The
i i
L
ob
rb fb
ib i
=
+
÷ =
2. Input Resistance (R
i
):-
7.6 h-Parameter Expression for CB amplifier:-
30
h h - h h Δh where
R . Δh h
R h
A amplifier, CB for gain Voltage
fb rb ob ib
L ib
L fb
v
=
+
÷
=
3. Voltage Gain (A
v
):-
L o o
s rb fb ib ob
s ob
ib s
o
R R Z
be will stage amplifier the of resistance O/P The
resistance source the is R & h h h h Δh where

Δh R h
h R
R
=
÷ =
+
+
=
4. Output Resistance (R
o
):-
31
rb fb ib ob
s i
i
L ib
L fb
s i
i
v vs
h h h h Δh here

R Z
Z

ΔhR h
R h -

R Z
Z
A A
÷ =
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=

Z R
R
R h 1
h
A
i s
s
L ob
fb
is
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
5. Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):-
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):-
The overall current gain for the CB amplifier is,
32
Properties of Common base Amplifier:-
1. current gain is less than 1(A
i
<1).
2. Large voltage gain (A
v
=150).
3. Power gain is less than CE configuration (A
p
=A
v
.A
i
)
4. Small I/P impedance (40Ω).
5. Large O/P impedance (1MΩ).
6. No voltage & current Phase shift.
33
1. Current gain (A
i
):-

h R 1
h
- A
Amplifier, collector Common for Gain Current
oc L
fc
i
+
=
R Z
then, biasing no is there t.if arrangemen biasing
upon the depends stage amplifier the of resistance i/p The
R
1
h
h h
h R
Amplifier, C - C for resistance I/P The
i i
L
oc
rc fc
ic i
=
+
÷ =
2. Input Resistance (R
i
):-
7.7 h-Parameter Expression for CC amplifier:-
34
h h - h h Δh where
R . Δh h
R h
A amplifier, CC for gain Voltage
fc rc oc ic
L ic
L fc
v
=
+
÷
=
3. Voltage Gain (A
v
):-
resistance source the is R
h h h h Δh where

Δh R h
h R
R
is, amplifier CC the of resistance O/P The
s
rc fc ic oc
s oc
ic s
o
÷ =
+
+
=
4. Output Resistance (R
o
):-
35
rc fc ic oc
s i
i
L ic
L fc
s i
i
v vs
h h h h Δh here

R Z
Z

ΔhR h
R h -

R Z
Z
A A
÷ =
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
=

Z R
R
R h 1
h
A
i s
s
L oc
fc
is
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
5. Overall Voltage Gain (A
vs
):-
6. Overall Current Gain (A
is
):-
The overall current gain for the CC amplifier is,
36
Properties of Common Collector Amplifier:-
1. current gain is Very high (A
i
=100).
2. Voltage gain is less than unity (A
v
<1).
3. Power gain is less than CE configuration (A
p
=A
v
.A
i
)
4. Large I/P impedance (750KΩ).
5. Small O/P impedance (50Ω).
6. No voltage & current Phase shift.
37
7.8 Simplified or Approximate model:-
..Simplified model are used to reduce the ckt complexity.
…If the load resistance R
L
is small it is possible to neglect
the parameter h
re
& h
oe
and obtain the approx. equivalent
ckt. as shown in fig.7.8 below. By using h
oe
.R
L
<=0.1 the
error in calculating A
i
, A
v
, R
i
& R
o
is less than 10%
Fig.7.8 h-parameter Approximate CE model
38
Parameter

Symbol

CE
Approx.
CB
Approx.

CC Approx.

Current
Gain
A
i
-h
fe
h
fb
=1 h
fc
I/P
Resistance
R
i
h
ie
h
ib
h
ic
+h
fc
R
L
Voltage
Gain
A
v
1
O/P
Resistance
R
o
ie
L fe
h
R h
oe
h
1
ob
h
1
ib
L fb
h
R h
fc
ic S
h
h R +
39
7.9 Typical h-Parameter values for Transistor:-
Sr.
No.
h-Parameter Common
Emitter
Common
Base
Common
Collector
1. h
i
1100Ω 1100Ω

22Ω

2. h
r
1
3. h
f
50 -51 -0.98
4. h
o
25μA/V 25μA/V 0.49μA/V
-4
10 2.5×
4
10 3
÷
×
40
7.10 Conversion Expression for h-parameter:-
Sr. No. Common Base Common Collector

1. h
ic
=h
ie
2.

h
rc
=(1-h
re
)≈1
3.

h
fc
=-(1+h
fe
)
4.

h
oc
=h
oe
fe
ie
ib
h 1
h
h
+
=
re
fe
oe ie
rb
h
h 1
h h
h ÷
+
=
fe
fe
fb
h 1
h -
h
+
=
fe
oe
ob
h 1
h
h
+
=
41
r
e
model of Transistor:-
r
e
model of transistor is an alternate approach which
employs transistor beta & resistance values is
gaining importance.
Advantage of using these models are:-
(1) Required parameters are easily available.
(2) Simple & easy procedure.
(3) Results obtained have a fairly good accuracy for
the study of amplifier circuit.
Note:- In CE r
e
-model h
ie
=βr
e
& h
fe

In CB r
e
-model h
ib
=r
e
& h
fb
=-1
Rest of the analysis is very similar to approx. analysis.
42
7.11 Giacoletto or hybrid π-Model:-
Fig. 7.11(a) Giacoletto or hybrid-π Model of a CE transistor
43
Fig. 7.11(b) Diagram showing virtual base B’ & ohmic base
spreading resistance r
bb’

44
7.12 Hybrid-π Parameter Values:-
The typical magnitude for the element of the hybrid
π Parameter Values at room temperature & for
I
C
=1.3mA are,
g
m
=50mA/V, r
bb’
=100Ω, r
b’e
=1K Ω
r
b’c
=4MΩ, r
ce
=80K Ω C
b’c
=3pF
C
b’e
=100pF
45
7.13 Relationship bet low frequency h-parameter & high
frequency or π- Parameters :-
c b' fe oe
ce
ce
re
e b'
c b'
c b'
e b' ie bb'
fe
m
e b'
m
fe
e b'
C
T
C
m
)g h (1 h
r
1
g (V)

h
r
g
1
r (IV)
r - h r (III)
h
g
g or
g
h
r (II)

26
) mA in ( I
V
I
g (I)
+ ÷ = =
= =
=
= =
= =
46
unity. to drops gain current
ckt. short CE he at which t requency the is f
C C C C
f 2
g
C (VI)
T
De Te De e b'
T
m
e b'
~ + =
~
t
47
7.14 Frequency Response of an Amplifier:-
Fig. 7.14(a) Typical R-C Coupled Amplifier Frequency Response
48
If the I/P voltage of an amplifier is kept constant
but its frequency is varied, it is found that the
amplifier gain,
 remains practically constant over a sizable range
of the mid frequency.
 Decrease at low as well as high frequencies.
thus in frequency response curve three values of
frequency are important,
(i) Mid frequency range.
(ii) Lower cutoff frequency, f
L
.
(iii) Upper cutoff frequency, f
H
49
7.15 Frequency Response Parameter:-
 The β cut off frequency f
β
is the CE short ckt small signal
forward current transfer ratio cut off frequency. It is given
by,



 f
α
is the cut off frequency at which the CB short ckt small
signal forward current ratio drops 3dB from its value at low
frequency.

b'e b'c b'e
β
)r c C π
f
+
=
( 2
1
b'e b'e
fe
b'e fb b'e
r πC
h
)r h πC
f
2 1 ( 2
1
~
+
=
o
50
 f
T
is the frequency at which the short ckt. Common
emitter current gain attains unit magnitude.

( )
c b e b
m
T
C C
g
f
' '
2 +
~
t
51
7.16 Cascaded Amplifier:-
Fig. 7.16(a) Cascaded Amplifier
When the amplification of a single stage transistor is not
sufficient for a particular purpose then two or more stages
are connected in cascaded Then the required level of
amplification is achieved.

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