The System Development Life Cycle

What is an information system (IS)?

Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information

System—Set of components that interact to achieve common goal
Businesses use many types of systems

The System Development Life Cycle
What are the phases of the system development cycle?
Phase 2. Analysis

Phase 1. Planning
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Review project requests Prioritize project requests Allocate resources Identify project development team

Conduct preliminary investigation Perform detailed analysis activities: Study current system Determine user requirements Recommend solution

Phase 3. Design

Acquire hardware and software, if necessary Develop details of system

Phase 5. Support

Phase 4. Implementation

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Conduct post-implementation system review Identify errors and enhancements Monitor system performance

Develop programs, if necessary Install and test new system Train users Convert to new system

The System Development Life Cycle What are guidelines for system development? Arrange tasks into phases (groups of activities) Involve users (anyone for whom system is being built) Develop clearly defined standards (procedures company expects employees to follow) .

The System Development Life Cycle Who participates in the system development life cycle? .

The System Development Life Cycle What is a systems analyst? Responsible for designing and developing information system Liaison between users and IT professionals .

and other IT professionals Project leader—one member of the team who manages and controls project budget and schedule . systems analyst.The System Development Life Cycle What is the project team? Formed to work on project from beginning to end Consists of users.

The System Development Life Cycle What is feasibility? Operational feasibility Measure of how suitable system development will be to the company Four feasibility tests: Schedule feasibility Economic feasibility (also called cost/benefit feasibility) Technical feasibility .

and other deliverables . diagrams. programs.The System Development Life Cycle What is documentation? Collection and summarization of data and information Includes reports.

The System Development Life Cycle What are six data and information gathering techniques?  Review documentation  Observe  Questionnaire  Interview  Joint-application design (JAD) session  Research .

The System Development Life Cycle What are some reasons to create or modify an information system? To correct problem in existing system To improve existing system Outside group may mandate change Competition can lead to change .

The System Development Life Cycle What is a request for system services?  Formal request for new or modified information system  Also called project request .

The System Development Life Cycle What is the planning phase? Begins when steering committee receives project request Steering committee— decision-making body for the company Function of committee: Review and approve project requests Form project development team for each approved project Prioritize project requests Allocate resources .

also called feasibility study Perform detailed analysis .The System Development Life Cycle What is the analysis phase? Conduct preliminary investigation.

also known as a feasibility study .The System Development Life Cycle What is the preliminary investigation?  Determine exact nature of problem or improvement and whether it is worth pursuing  Findings are presented in feasibility report.

needs. Determine user’s wants.The System Development Life Cycle What is detailed analysis? 1. and requirements 3. Recommend solution Sometimes called logical design . Study how current system works 2.

which decides how system will be developed .The System Development Life Cycle What is the system proposal? Assesses feasibility of each alternative solution Recommends the most feasible solution for the project Presented to steering committee.

The System Development Life Cycle What are possible solutions? Buy packaged software—prewritten software available for purchase Horizontal market software—meets needs of many companies Write own custom software—software developed at user’s request Vertical market software—designed for particular industry Outsource—have outside source develop software .

The System Development Life Cycle What is the design phase? Acquire hardware and software Develop all details of new or modified information system .

and magazines . newspapers.The System Development Life Cycle What is needed to acquire new hardware and software?  Identify all hardware and software requirements of new or modified system Talk with other systems analysts Surf Web Visit vendors’ stores Read print and online trade journals.

The System Development Life Cycle What are three basic documents used to summarize technical specifications? Identifies product(s) you want Request for quotation (RFQ) Vendor quotes price(s) for listed product(s) Vendor selects product(s) that meet(s) your requirements and then quotes price(s) Request for proposal (RFP) Request for information (RFI) Less formal method that uses standard form to request information about product or service .

The System Development Life Cycle How do systems analysts test software products?      References from vendor Talk to current users of product Product demonstrations Trial version of software Benchmark test measures performance .

The System Development Life Cycle What is a detailed design? Detailed design specifications for components in proposed solution Includes several activities Database design Input and output design Program design .

The System Development Life Cycle What is a mockup?  Sample of input or output that contains actual data .

The System Development Life Cycle What is a prototype? Working model of proposed system Beginning a prototype too early may lead to problems .

The System Development Life Cycle What is computer-aided software engineering (CASE)?  Software tools designed to support activities of system development cycle .

or build.The System Development Life Cycle What is the implementation phase?  Purpose is to construct. new or modified system and then deliver it to users Convert to new system Train users Install and test new system Develop programs .

The System Development Life Cycle What are the three types of tests performed by system developers? Unit Test Verifies each individual program works by itself Systems test Verifies all programs in application work together Integration Test Verifies application works with other applications .

The System Development Life Cycle What is training?  Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in system .

The System Development Life Cycle What is the support phase?  Provides ongoing assistance after system is implemented Conduct post-implementation system review—meeting to find out if information system is performing according to expectations Identify errors Identify enhancements Monitor system performance .

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