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Cien años de soledad: the Critique of Sophism and Pseudo-Science William O. Deaver1 In brief, this study explores the philosophical underpinnings of García Márquez’s 1967 novel and his ludic nature in dealing with critics who fail to perceive the comic nature of the novel. In addition, I explain the importance of toxic chemical and botanical substances used as curatives in the novel which critics have accepted at face value without considering that these remedies lead to sterility, birth defects, and death. The quest for knowledge within the novel parodies critical stances that unquestioningly accept what is read. [Article copies available for a fee from The Transformative Studies Institute. E-mail address: email@example.com Website: http://www.transformativestudies.org ©2013 by The Transformative Studies Institute. All rights reserved.] KEYWORDS: García Márquez, Colombia, Medicine, Philosophy, Pharmakon, Solitude. I first read One Hundred Years of Solitude in 1982 for an undergraduate seminar that explored the philosophical novel. Later, I would read Cien años de soledad many times in Spanish as well as scores of articles to understand its philosophy, which Kay García broadly defines as, “. . .el mensaje filosófico de la obra: que todo está escrito, no se puede escapar del destino. La vida es una serie de repeticiones de lo ya hecho, de lo ya escrito, con pequeñas diferencias significativas” (75). Few of the studies that I have read seem to incorporate Socrates’s ideas into their analyses. Of course some of them mention bits and pieces of Socrates’s dialogues that are detailed in Plato’s works, but only as they are convenient to manipulating text. Some are utterly absurd and lack a critical perspective
Dr. William O. Deaver, Jr. holds a BA in English and an MA in Spanish from the University of Virginia as well as a Ph.D. in Spanish from Florida State University. He is a professor of Spanish at Armstrong Atlantic State University, where he has taught for the last eighteen years. In addition to teaching, he directs the study abroad program in Mexico and the Latin American Studies Certificate. He has published on Gabriel García Márquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Pío Baroja, Roberto Fernández, Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, Guillermo del Toro, Miguel Piñero, among others. Address correspondence to: Bill Deaver; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 1937-0229 ©2013 Transformative Studies Institute 8
Theory In Action
despite including copious research. Consequently, Clive Griffin acknowledges that, “García Márquez is aware of his readers and sets out to dupe them, just as he later claimed, possibly with some measure of truthfulness, to have planted banana skins in One Hundred Years for the critics whom he so despises to slip on” (62-63). I believe that García Márquez explores the dialectic between knowledge and wisdom, between having useless information and the practical application of knowledge to improve oneself and/or society. At the same time, he lampoons Sophists--pseudointellectuals and scholars who do not or cannot think critically or logically, yet vehemently argue to convince their listeners or readers that their knowledge is fundamentally sound. Most especially, García Márquez uses his knowledge of pharmaceutical products and home remedies to satirize the quacks and charlatans who offer “Plato’s Pharmacy” as a diagnostic to interpret the novel. The title of the novel presents a philosophical dilemma for the reader due to the temporal constraint of one hundred years as well as the nebulous meaning of solitude. Scholars have neglected one aspect of solitude even though they have focused on the individual, collective, geographical, and cultural solitude of the Buendía clan, Macondo, and Latin America. To wit, “To live alone one must be an animal or a god– says Aristotle. There is yet a third case: one must be both–a philosopher” (Nietzsche 33). The philosopher delights in the contemplative life and the search for wisdom and knowledge; however, not all of the characters in the novel lead a philosophical life, but they do tend toward the extremes of action or meditation. For Socrates, all learning was merely remembering prior knowledge. Plato attributes this remark to Socrates: The soul, then, as being immortal, and having been born again many times, and having seen all things that exist, whether in this world or in the world below, has knowledge of them all; and it is no wonder that she should be able to call to remembrance all that she ever knew about virtue and about everything; for as all nature is akin, and the soul has learned all things, there is no difficulty in her eliciting, or as men say “learning,” out of a single recollection, all the rest, if a man is strenuous and does not faint; for all inquiry and all learning is but recollection. (Meno 37) Socrates’s thoughts on memory and recollection suggest that the soul is the source of omniscience; hence, this notion contradicts the biblical idea that mankind suffers exile from the Garden of Eden as punishment for
William O. Deaver, Jr.
breaking the taboo against eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. Numerous studies read Cien años from a biblical perspective, but Paul Borgeson alludes to a parody of the Bible without negating the struggle between Good and Evil in Judeo-Christian terms. He writes: Esta sed de saber y de conocer, desde luego, también se cifra en otras imágenes: la piedra filosofal, la transubstanciación del oro, y otras. Así, el motivo de la búsqueda del conocimiento no sólo forma parte del mito del pecado original; también nos ayuda a comprender varias de las paradojas que nos presenta la novela. (47) The contrast between Socrates’s quest for knowledge as good (virtuous) and the depiction in Genesis that knowledge is bad (sinful) highlights the ambiguity of having knowledge and what to do with it in Cien años. On one hand, we see that knowledge in itself is useless without action, and is not synonymous with wisdom. When talking to Aureliano II, “Melquíades le hablaba del mundo, trataba de infundirle su vieja sabiduría, pero se negó a traducir los manuscritos. ‘Nadie debe conocer su sentido mientras no hayan cumplido cien años’, explicó” (García Márquez 231). This prohibition parodies the biblical idea of knowledge, albeit within the confines of a time limit rather than for eternity. Nevertheless, Melquíades imparts his wisdom, which evidently is a learning process; hence, a form of knowledge, but with discernment. On the other hand, Aureliano II refuses to admit his ignorance when he teaches the children even though he esteems the idea of educating them: “Aureliano Segundo se acordó entonces de la enciclopedia inglesa. . . . Como no sabía inglés, y como apenas podía distinguir las ciudades más conocidas y las personalidades más corrientes, se dio a inventar nombres y leyendas para satisfacer la curiosidad insaciable de los niños” ( García Márquez 353-354). This quote bears a striking resemblance to the Sophism that Plato criticizes via Socrates in Protagoras when he claims that the Sophists pander knowledge to whomever is willing to pay for their wares even though what they sell may be faulty. Furthermore, false or inaccurate knowledge, to Socrates, is more harmful than no knowledge at all. Another example of Sophism occurs when el padre Antonio Isabel educates José Arcadio Segundo: Le enseñaba el catecismo. . .con ejemplos simples, mientras ponían en sus nidos a las gallinas cluecas, cómo se le ocurrió a Dios en el segundo día de la creación que los pollos se formaran dentro del
Gastón pensaba que no compraba los libros para informarse sino para verificar la exactitud de sus conocimientos. In fact. Aureliano Babilonia. Contrary to the Socratic confession to not know anything. A superficial reading of this passage without critical thought leads the unwary to believe what is said. su sabiduría enciclopédica. an authority figure in the novel serves as a model of ignorance that the reader must pity or ridicule. años más tarde. eran tan 11 . In fact: Aureliano tuvo conciencia por primera vez de que su don de lenguas. . Purportedly. When questioned about his prodigious knowledge. the priest should know the order of events in the Bible. (García Márquez 415) Nevertheless. it is worthless when the world around him begins to deteriorate. sin revelar su verdadera identidad para atrapar a los incautos. y que era aquél quien estaba sentado en el trono celeste. (García Márquez 232) In Genesis. Aureliano Babilonia admits that he is omniscient. su rara facultad de recordar sin conocerlos los pormenores de hechos y lugares remotos. Another example of imparting inaccurate knowledge occurs at the beginning of the novel when José Arcadio mistakes ice for the largest diamond in the world. the reader must reject the pseudo-intellectual interpretations of some scholars that are just as ridiculous as José Arcadio. . Likewise. failed lesson for the obvious reason that the father is unable to communicate any accurate knowledge of the object under observation to his children” (66). typifies the knowledgeable man who does not use his knowledge to improve his family or his community. which Van Delden notes is a “. aunque por la forma en que se refería a sus lecturas. who epitomizes the division between wisdom and folly. Desde entonces manifestaba el párroco los primeros síntomas del delirio senil que lo llevó a decir. the creation of animals does not take place until the fifth day. Here. a los cuales dedicaba las mejores horas de la mañana. twice he replies. 415). y que ninguno le interesaba más que los pergaminos.Theory In Action huevo. “‘Todo se sabe’” (García Márquez 407. Aureliano Babilonia realizes that despite all his knowledge. que probablemente el diablo había ganado la rebelión contra Dios. he suffers from pride since he: Leía con avidez hasta muy altas horas de la noche.
William O. Deaver. (García Márquez 439) In this case. unless the person puts that knowledge to use to benefit himself and others. its tangential nature undermines the process of learning as well as the goal of education. los últimos habitantes de Macondo. se volvió impotente desde niño por una mordedura de alacrán. albeit one who shows an utter disdain for learning without action. y sabía muchas cosas que simplemente no se debían saber. the Catalán does impart a lesson on the cruelly ludic nature of literature as opposed to the practical side of pragmatic learning. In essence. to Aureliano Babilonia: No se le había ocurrido pensar hasta entonces que la literatura fuera el mejor juguete que se había inventado para burlarse de la gente. para quien la sabiduría no valía la pena si no era posible servirse de ella para inventar una manera nueva de preparar los garbanzos. In other words. Conversely. (García Márquez 432) This knowledge of minutiae typifies information that has no purpose. Había de transcurrir algún tiempo antes de que Aureliano se diera cuenta de que tanta arbitrariedad tenía origen en el ejemplo del sabio catalán. juntos. Jr. como si todos hubieran sido en alguna época sus compañeros de cuarto. omniscience (“todo se sabe”) is pure folly since education for its own sake as an end is a selfish act that fails to improve humanity or community. como que San Agustín usaba debajo del hábito un jubón de lana que no se quitó en catorce años. what a person knows is unimportant. (García Márquez 421) In this instance. Another example of a knowledgeable man. For example. knowledge put to use characterizes the virtuous and wise man. como lo demostró Alvaro en una noche de parranda. This sage character is a fountain of information and trivia who: Trataba a los clásicos con una familiaridad casera. el nigromante. que entonces debía valer tanto como todo el dinero de que hubieran podido disponer. is the old. What other knowledge does one need to exist than to 12 . hence. inútiles como el cofre de pedrería legítima de su mujer. y que Arnaldo de Vilanova. wisdom reveals itself as creativity in the preparation of basic sustenance. Catalán book vendor.
predispuesto para empezar la estirpe otra vez por el principio y purificarla de sus vicios perniciosos y su vocación solitaria. the characters are left to wallow in solitude. consequently. and homosexuality. como también ha sugerido la crítica. a living force opposed to people’s solitude in a dehumanized world and to the cosificación of modern man” (281). Sexuality among characters in Cien años. the lesson that is pleasant and gratifying. Moreover. besides Amaranta’s abstinence and Fernanda del Carpio’s frigidity. “Sexuality is seen as a positive answer to lack of communication. the sexual act not only helps one realize self-identification. . She writes: Lejos de ser reflejos degradados de las mujeres legítimas Buendía. incest. clothing. El lector percibe que el verbo “conocer” se ha de tomar tanto en su acepción de “captar por medio del intelecto” como en el sentido carnal bíblico. this is child abandonment. not even love conquers all since Amaranta Ursula dies during childbirth even though the child that she and Aureliano Babilonia had engendered was “. to the radical ‘otherness’ of one’s fellow men and women. a woman has to initiate him into this form of knowledge. porque era el único en un siglo que había sido engendrado con amor” (García Márquez 443). Furthermore. and shelter? Evidently.Theory In Action provide for life’s necessities such as food. which are themes repeated throughout the 13 . Lorena Roses believes that the concubines are the legitimate sources of learning. but also obtain wisdom in the ways of the world. At once. las mujeres marginadas y despreciadas por la sociedad son precisamente las únicas que guardan una relación estrecha con los valores que rigen la novela: la búsqueda por el (auto)conocimiento y la consecución de la sabiduría. parental neglect. bestiality. hence. Aureliano Babilonia leaves the child alone as he wanders the streets grieving until he winds up sharing two bottles of aguardiente with a bartender. On the surface. it is the perfect symbol of the Horatian idea of the utile dolce. . useless. the lessons learned typify hedonism and debauchery where sexuality is not the same as love. she posits that a man realizes he is indeed a man when in the throes of passion. after the physical act. (4) Essentially. Contrary to the critical view that the men of Cien años seek to obtain knowledge. all the rest is superfluous. and complete irresponsibility. It is ludicrous to believe that the prostitutes help the male characters achieve self-identity or any practical knowledge. Sexuality is posited as vital. involves adultery. Rather. Nevertheless. Shaw seems to concur with this idea since he believes that.
since “Only Melquíades. He writes: Y no sólo trae a Macondo la tentación del conocimiento. como las alas extendidas de un cuervo. because he recuperates the lost world as a form of redemptive pardon. yet aloof and able to defy death on various occasions. Despite his grief. y un chaleco de terciopelo patinado por el verdín de los siglos. For instance. in a similar vein.” (Borgeson 50) This interpretation follows the biblical notion that knowledge is a sin. Probably the most influential character of the novel is Melquíades since he is the alleged author of the parchments that detail the history of the Buendía clan. Borgeson sees the wandering Gypsy as a demon. he overcomes his stupor upon seeing his child’s cadaver covered in ants and experiences an epiphany since the spectacle in front of him reveals the code to decipher Melquíades’s manuscripts. Deaver. Todos estos datos. the rhythm of sleeping and waking. tenía un peso humano. if we perceive Melquíades to be a deity figure. particularmente cuando recordamos que uno de los nombres del demonio es el de “auctor mortis. Typically. una condición terrestre que lo mantenía enredado en los minúsculos problemas de la vida cotidiana. como es el primero que allí muere. is able to restore language. proffers. He is wise. 14 . (García Márquez 63) Melquíades is an enigmatic figure whom critics have interpreted in myriad ways. sino también trae la muerte. sugieren que Melquíades será una figura satánica. provide allusions to the past that has been forgotten in America: they serve as actualizers of memory” (221). the Wandering Jew and Melquíades. he: Usaba un sombrero grande y negro. Another view holds that Melquíades is more deity than demon. returning from death. Jr. memory. novel. This idea still has its antecedent in the Bible. como se verá. Pero a pesar de su inmensa sabiduría y de su ámbito misterioso. “In their configuration as charcters [sic] who lie somewhere between the historical and the symbolic. and a meaningful historical time to the inhabitants of Macondo” (Baker 154). Sultana Wahnón.William O. “‘El primero de la estirpe está amarrado en un árbol y al último se lo están comiendo las hormigas” (García Márquez 446). then.
or. For example. one of two things follows–either knowledge is not to be attained at all. death is not an onus to the characters of Cien años. In fact. poco después de la muerte de los gemelos. “Does wisdom perhaps appear on earth as a raven which is inspired by the smell of carrion?” (Twilight of the Idols/The Anti-Christ 39). Melquíades también conoce íntimamente a la muerte. or rather what you do not remember” (Meno 44). It is only at the moment of Macondo’s destruction that Aureliano Babilonia 15 . “A través de él [que] los Buendía se enteran de los misterios de la magia. . . Porter and Porter concur with this statement when they write. whether it is while waiting for a firing squad to carry out orders or because of the body merely ceasing to function. This quote suggests that humans achieve wisdom at the point of death. the references to him as a crow-like figure are problematic and confusing to the reader who accepts the novel at face value. In the chapter entitled “The Problem of Socrates. the soul cannot have pure knowledge. then the soul is immortal. after death. we must doubt that Melquíades is demonic. . death was what philosophers desired. if at all. Melquíades seems to be the soul that contains all knowledge since it is. few of the characters fear it. For Socrates. Instead. de la alquimia y del sánscrito. “Un mediodía ardiente.” Nietzsche writes. he is the symbol of omniscience and inscrutability that all the Buendías hold in their memory. This parallels Socrates’s idea presented in Plato that. Plato alleges that he said: It has been proved to us by experience that if we would have pure knowledge of anything we must be quit of the body. None of the Buendías fear death.” (García Márquez 416). they placidly await their death and plan for it accordingly. and Melquíades (wisdom) has achieved immortality. “And if the truth of all things always existed in the soul. If this is the case. como la materialización de un recuerdo que estaba en su memoria desde mucho antes de nacer” (García Márquez 390-391). vio contra la reverberación de la ventana al anciano lúgubre con el sombrero de alas de cuervo.Theory In Action Nonetheless. . “Although death is a pervasive concern in One Hundred Years of Solitude.for if while in company with the body. Wherefore be of good cheer and try to recollect what you do not know. once it is inevitable: nor do they then pass through the five stages of reaction identified by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross” (119). (Phaedo 96) As mentioned above. Como todo iniciador en los misterios del mundo. Instead. de la ciencia.
.William O.la india les explicó que lo más temible de la 16 . Macondo’s denizens learn this lesson when. we must distinguish between recollection of prior knowledge. In fact. with equal force. If. decodes his family’s history and the impossibility of its future. . with no awareness of anything. Contrary to this idea. which would be remembering with fondness or in a wistful manner without any didactic function. Van Delden surmises that: The refusal to provide the reader with solid ground to stand on reaches its climax in the act of self-erasure with which the novel concludes. during the insomnia plague. and at every level of the narrative’s selfpreservation as a transformative remembrance. as Socrates thought. though it is often that. Without a sense of history. Aureliano’s success at deciphering Melquíades’ manuscripts coincides with the destruction of the very world depicted in the manuscripts. all men should be able to recollect this prior knowledge. Deaver. If Melquíades is the novel’s ur-teacher. then Aureliano’s decoding of his text is perhaps the one example of a successful lesson in the novel. But it is a lesson that promptly selfdestructs. the soul is immortal and all knowledge is inherently a part of the soul. as a dimension of any utopian retrieval of the past that would remake history in the image of all those desires shared (“repeated”) by the past and the present–but shared only insofar as they were transformatively recuperated by a “present” community awake to the absences that communicated with it. knowledge and death are inextricably tied together. In this final scene. the acquisition of knowledge is a futile endeavor since mortality precludes the meaningful incorporation of learning into one’s life. which would be remembering in an instructive manner. (70) Based on this analysis. (155) This is an erroneous train of thought that makes no sense at all. one devolves into a state of catatonic stupor. Jr. nostalgia is represented as more than a mere effect of a futile present. foreknowledge of what is already written does not lead people to take preventative measures to avoid repeating the same mistakes as their forebears. Baker practically equates the two ideas when he opines: In this novel. Rather. Now. “. then. It is represented. as opposed to nostalgia. memory in this novel serves as a sense of history.
Aturdido por dos nostalgias enfrentadas como dos espejos. Clouds. con su experiencia de antiguo profesor de letras clásicas y su depósito de libros raros. que la memoria no tenía caminos de regreso.sino su inexorable evolución hacia una manifestación más crítica: el olvido. the rube’s son. Socrates enjoyed being the object of the parody. . an elderly bumpkin how to argue persuasively. At first. For instance: A pesar de su vida desordenada. . goes to the “Pondertorium” to learn the value of the inferior and the superior arguments in order to extricate Strepsiades from lawsuits brought by his creditors. he tried to instill a sense of higher education in his literary group in a region without recourse to such a goal. que olvidaran cuanto él les había enseñado del mundo y del corazón humano. Pheidippides. one would presume that he had a thorough knowledge of Greek and Roman philosophy. and literature. (García Márquez 434) Given that the Catalán’s training stems from the classics. he suffers an intellectual and emotional crisis. hasta que terminó por recomendarles a todos que se fueran de Macondo. en un pueblo donde ya nadie tenía interés ni posibilidades de ir más allá de la escuela primaria. quien los había puesto en condiciones de pasar una noche entera buscando la trigésimo séptima situación dramática. (García Márquez 423) But later. By the same token. history. que se cagaran en Horacio.hasta hundirse en una especie de idiotez sin pasado” (García Márquez 99). Despite his vast knowledge. and took no offense at his 17 . a instancias del sabio catalán. . y que el amor más desatinado y tenaz era de todos modos una verdad efímera. memory of the past can serve as a specter that haunts people as well–something from which they cannot escape no matter how hard they try to forget or erase the unpleasant memories. que toda la primavera antigua era irrecuperable. todo el grupo trataba de hacer algo perdurable. which depicts Socrates as a Sophist who fails to teach Strepsiades. the Catalán bookseller realizes the futility of learning and memory just prior to his departure for Spain.Theory In Action enfermedad del insomnio no era la imposibilidad de dormir. Allegedly. The absurdity of passing a night discussing the 37th dramatic situation may be a reference to Aristophanes’s comedy. Era él. y que en cualquier lugar en que estuvieran recordaran siempre que el pasado era mentira. Instead. . perdió su maravilloso sentido de la irrealidad.
is doomed to oblivion and final extinction in the apocalyptic wind which ultimately wipes Macondo from the face of the earth. Deaver. both groups suffered extinction. “And in general. Jr. and to point the way to a new and enlightened system of learning which. representation. in the opposite?” (Meno 47). Thus. why try to achieve anything at all? Even though the José Arcadios were bent on pursuing folly. Oberhelman states: In the pages which fall between the first and last chapters García Márquez creates a series of episodes designed to outline the history of knowledge and education in Macondo. to ridicule what he considers totally worthless educational practices. it is an effort to educate its readers. Likewise.” Because the Catalán does embark on a return to his own past. and the desire for improvement to which knowledge is inextricably bound. and the classics in general. the new educational practice follows the Horatian ideal and is nothing new. we have to wonder what this new educational practice is. Some critics believe that Cien años is a novel that details the history of Latin America. (130) This bleak forecast nearly suggests that because any effort is fruitless. all that the soul attempts or endures. like the whole of the social and political order. we have to ignore the command to shit on Horace since Cien años is a perfect example of the pleasant lesson. we have to doubt his logic and credibility though since Aureliano Babilonia resorts to Melquíades’s manuscripts to learn about his own history and destiny in spite of the Catalán’s admonition to defecate on Horace in particular (the proponent of the idea utile et dolce). merely knowing without acting upon that knowledge is at heart a battle between mind and body. This idea parallels that of “la literatura fuera el mejor juguete que se había inventado para burlarse de la gente.William O. hence. If we are to trust Oberhelman’s analysis. For instance. which connotes tedium. ends in happiness. rather than pure entertainment devoid of any didactic qualities. when under the guidance of wisdom. through fiction. Could it be the teaching of history. offer only the most perilous and unstable of foundations” (71). but when she is under the guidance of folly. Van Delden appears to agree with Oberhelman’s statement when she asserts. we have to negate Plato’s idea that he ascribes to Socrates. and the Aurelianos spent their time in more intellectual pursuits. Or. which connotes entertainment? If this is the case. 18 . “But the novel itself shows that knowledge.
las mujeres de mala vida y las empresas delirantes. round and revolving in a circle. Instead. . and so he established one world alone. según pensaba Ursula. “Éste será cura.resists and ridicules any attempt to extract from it a 19 . with complete bodies for its parts. This seemingly preposterous analogy bears weight considering Clive Griffin’s assertion that “One Hundred Years. . Ursula sees herself as the person to bring virtue back to the clan: Nadie mejor que ella para formar al hombre virtuoso que había de restaurar el prestigio de la familia. cuatro calamidades que. was the plan of the god who is forever for the god who was sometime to be. According to this plan he made it smooth and uniform. pedophile activities that culminate in his murder during an orgy in a pool full of champagne. . habían determinado la decadencia de su estirpe. solitary but able by reason of its excellence to bear itself company. un hombre que nunca hubiera oído hablar de la guerra. . . he turns to homosexual. This egalitarian distribution of property and urban planning seems to follow Plato’s ideas on the republic that Peter Earle details in his comparison of Macondo to a utopian universopolis. García Márquez writes an intricate adaptation of “The Three Little Pigs” since a child with a pig’s tale is the feared consequence of incest in the novel. los gallos de pelea. (Timaeus 2324) Macondo is this one world and the Buendías are the soul in the center that wrap around its outside. On another level though. Plato writes: All this. everywhere equidistant from its center. And in the center he set a soul and caused it to extend throughout the whole and further wrapped its body round with soul on the outside. then. ha de llegar a ser Papa. The notion of the republic recalls the idea of virtue presented there as manifested in the good citizen.Theory In Action The struggle between the mental and the physical is Platonic in nature. José Arcadio squanders his opportunity in lavish parties without ever becoming a priest. a body whole and complete. needing no other acquaintance or friend but sufficient to itself. Y si Dios me da vida. The notion of equidistance suggest the layout of the city with regard to retrieving water and receiving sunshine.” (García Márquez 236) Nevertheless.
their homes were destroyed. . but planned poorly. (García Márquez 448) Truthfully. The first two pigs knew of the wolf. In this sense.y había cifrado los versos pares con la clave privada del emperador Augusto. Deaver. clear message or meaning. antes de llegar al verso final ya había comprendido que no saldría jamás de ese cuarto. those of Macondo will not be impervious to the huffing and puffing of the big. and we are tempted as a result to take at face value the author’s statement that ‘One Hundred Years of Solitude is completely devoid of seriousness’” (64). García Márquez suggests the Greek and Roman influence in Cien años as the key to understanding the work since Melquíades’s parchment “Era la historia de la familia escrita por Melquíades. . y los impares con claves militares lacedemonias” (446). bad wolf that is knowledge without proper activity. Nonetheless.William O. Aureliano Babilonia intrepidly reads Melquíades’s manuscript while the world collapses around him though. Jr. “‘Like children. Only two offspring in Cien años are born with pig’s tales. especially if a man should happen to die in a great storm and not when the sky is calm’” (Phaedo 111). at its foundation. he appears to be like Socrates. Plato writes that Socrates said. hence. Like the houses made of straw and sticks. y que todo lo escrito en ellos era irrepetible desde siempre y para siempre porque las estirpes condenadas a cien años de soledad no tenían una segunda oportunidad sobre la tierra. Aureliano Babilonia realizes that: Sin embargo. The destructive wind that obliterates Macondo has been the subject of much critical attention. Perhaps a third child with a pig’s tale would have built a home that was indestructible. Instead. Especially since. He insinuates that this dread is ridiculous since children would not have mature thought and logic. the Buendía line has had multiple opportunities because their history has repeated itself and they moved to Macondo to build a new home after the killing of Prudencio Aguilar. the wind does eradicate any vestige of their existence. blancas y enormes como huevos prehistóricos” (García Márquez 59). “Macondo era entonces una aldea de veinte casas de barro y cañabrava construidas a la orilla de un río de aguas diáfanas que se precipitaban por un lecho de piedras pulidas. the wind may really blow her away and scatter her. The yoking of these two codes suggests the 20 . pues estaba previsto que la ciudad de los espejos (o los espejismos) sería arrasada por el viento y desterrada de la memoria de los hombres en el instante en que Aureliano Babilonia acabara de descifrar los pergaminos. you are haunted with a fear that when the soul leaves the body.
García Márquez laughs as well. There was a time. these little puffs of hot air. . . with faulty logic. The wind of destruction has been described as apocalyptic (Oberhelman). just as the folk tale makes us laugh despite the pigs’ predicament. If we consider the huffing and puffing of the big. while these distinctive little breaths. Sánchez Torres makes a feeble effort that details the use of various types of medicine to criticize doctors in Latin America. and the desire and pursuit of the whole is called love. and herbal remedies. which points toward a biblical reading of Cien años. However.” Rita Bergenholtz’s ideas make more sense: It is merely a literal wind which annihilates Macondo. is no laughing matter. but now because of the wickedness of mankind God has dispersed us. but rather an unexpectedly ordinary wind that has silently and unobtrusively been present from the novel’s beginning and that gathers strength when the parchments. .” (Phaedo 182) The last Buendía was the only one to be conceived out of love and the dispersal of the Arcadians resonates with the name José Arcadio. When we first read Solitude. The similarity cannot be circumstantial.Theory In Action incompatibility of the Pax Romana of Augustus and the belicose nature of the Lacedaemonians. especially at the critics who analyze the novel in the manner of the Sophists–in other words. . Or is it? (18-20) Her question deflates the serious nature of extinction. bad wolf in “The Three Little Pigs. collectively they prove to be quite potent. An area that critics neglect is the mention of chemicals. compressed into one climactic instant. I say. We must laugh at Cien años even though serious concepts with historical antecedents recur throughout the novel. when “a century of daily episodes” literally exists simultaneously. that is. these various breaths. Plato’s depiction of the world and love as explained by Socrates seems noteworthy to mention here: “And the reason is that human nature was originally one and we were a whole. may seem to be gratuitous details. Once again. It is not a wind that has supernatural origins or symbolic implications. . . medicines. . but he fails to do much more than list the medicines as they appear in fragments 21 .barely attract our attention.are literally fulfilled. when we were one. One hundred years of hot air. as the Arcadians were dispersed into villages by the Lacedaemonians.
un suplente degradado y falso de la mneme. and pharmakos (scapegoat) is explored. pharmakeus (charmer). In fact. his most impressive contribution is the coinage of “tragic realism” when he writes: Pudiera asegurarse que García Márquez. por lo menos a los que trabajaban con la compañía bananera. y que la ambigüedad irresoluble del concepto se perfila con insistencia al debatirse en el Fedro la relación entre memoria y escritura. (38) Ricardo Gutiérrez Mouat delves into “Plato’s Pharmacy” as interpreted by Jacques Derrida in which the relation between pharmakon (remedy in small doses that can be poisonous in larger doses). Jr. Gutiérrez Mouat follows Derrida since both equate the use of writing as a curative or toxin in preserving memory as can be seen below: La relación entre escritura y memoria la problematiza Derrida en “La farmacia de Platón”. curandería africana. Esta vez no se trata.William O. indican las fuentes mixtas y diversas del conocimiento que el libro reelabora: medicina indígena y del Medioevo español. (11) Carlos Jáuregui mentions that the lack of critical attention given to disease and its treatment in Cien años is an area of serious neglect. . y él mismo. from García Márquez’s works. no ya memoria sino hipomnesis (rememoración). pues. por el otro la memoria escrita es un mero suplemento exterior. vendedor de enciclopedias médicas en la Guajira. Porque si por un lado se puede presentar a la escritura como el báculo o remedio de la memoria (mneme). que deja– con toda razón–muy mal parados a los cultores de la medicina. su abuela y las cocineras indias expertas en bebedizos y hierbas. haciendo notar ante todo que la noción de fármacon (que significa tanto remedio como veneno) describe la escritura en el texto platónico. (273) 22 . etc.fue testigo de esta singular manera de hacer medicina y se aprovechó de ello para ridiculizar y criticar a esos médicos inescrupulosos. . de realismo mágico. but he fails to elaborate on the cures. creencias populares. sino de realismo trágico. Probably his most important contribution is the statement that: Elementos biográficos como el hecho de que el padre de García Márquez fuera curandero. Deaver.
notably the knowledge one seeks in oneself. as does its opposition to knowledge. and memory loss. .que tomara en ayunas una papeleta de calomel” (García Márquez 355). we find “solimán” (64). condemns it as being of little worth” (91). . but the Buendías would certainly be susceptible to its fatal consequences. He alcanzado la inmortalidad’” (García Márquez 126). which was used as a laxative as well as to treat 23 . A final example of a mercury derivative occurs when Ursula tells Fernanda “. Mercury is odorless and causes birth defects. prolonged exposure can be fatal. “mercurio hermético” (65).Theory In Action Derrida posits that “The link between writing and myth becomes clearer. This would seem to tie into the fatal wind of oblivion that eradicates Macondo as Aureliano Babilonia reads Melquíades’s manuscript. Derrida opines. Melquíades orders that. First. . it is precisely by pointing out. es remedio y al mismo tiempo es veneno: cuando va con sus amigas a visitar la plantación el aire se impregna de ‘una fragancia mortal’ que a la vez fascina a los hombres y los mata” (193). by oneself” (74). quemen mercurio durante tres días en mi cuarto. Ursula says. yet which inherently have a toxicity that escapes notice. as we shall see. “Hasta Amaranta. consignation) and not for the mneme (living. the curious reader has to question the numerous references to it and its possible link to the child with the pig’s tale. Elaborating on this idea. . mercury bichloride is burnt when Melquíades dies. What these critics miss is the abundant use of chemical. that the pharmakon of writing is good for hypomnesis (re-memoration. “Now. “el azogue” (65). a birth defect that could just as easily be attributed to incestuous relations. This is another name for mercury chloride. medical. Amaya and Fernández write that she. knowing memory) that Thamus. Among the references to mercury in Cien años. Remedios es el pharmakon. “las virtudes diabólicas del cinabrio” (64). Purportedly. For instance. acostada en una canastilla de mimbre. In addition. observaba con curiosidad la absorbente labor de su padre y su hermano en el cuartito enrarecido por los vapores del mercurio” (García Márquez 91). “‘Es el olor del demonio’ dijo ella” (García Márquez 64). . in the Phaedrus. Cinnabar is the ore where mercury is mined. “‘Cuando me muera. apathy. “Representa la ‘mujer ideal’ inalcanzable para los hombres. Another example occurs when. Moreover. and botanical references that are used throughout the novel to cure some malady or other. While mercury is an element used in alchemy. he might resist the mortal properties of mercury. García Márquez wrote Cien años to remember his own childhood and to deal with his sense of solitude (Jelinksi 32). In a fantasy world. Critics who use this idea of pharmakon generally equate Remedios la Bella to the poison. recollection.
Jáuregui correctly ascertains that it is important. syphilis. However. On the surface. depression. which is used in black and white photography. Still. blenorragia o estreñimiento. the fumes emitted would lead to loss of memory. and respiratory problems. women use it to punish adulterous husbands.” In fact. the use of this chemical in developing photographs would seem to restore memory or at least preserve it to some extent. hence. Another chemical that appears various times is blue copper sulfate. its medical use has been abandoned due to its noxious nature.” one has to consider its importance. Exposure to silver bromide can lead to loss of memory. Era una terapéutica tan generalizada. “La consulta recrea la imagen de una fila de personas como una de bananas colgadas de un cable en una plantación. así tuvieran paludismo. García Márquez describes its use as a panacea or placebo when: Los médicos de la compañía no examinaban a los enfermos. This chemical appears in the chapter dealing with the insomnia plague and coincides with Melquíades’s return as well as the capacity to remember (García Márquez 105). y los niños mediante el juego y el azar subvierten los valores de verdad y autoridad de la píldora. y una enfermera les ponía en la lengua una píldora del color del piedralipe. In Peru. though he misinterprets its importance when he writes. it is highly toxic and can cause testicular atrophy. que los niños se ponían en la fila varias veces. This compound appears as “el vitriolo de Chipre” (65) and “piedralipe. Deaver. Its mention is what led me to investigate the other chemicals mentioned in Cien años since I had heard of its use in Peru. y en vez de tragarse las píldoras se las llevaban a sus casas para señalar con ellas los números cantados en el juego de lotería. García Márquez seems to be toying with the critics who accept his narrative at face value without considering the effects of the chemical and the contradictory nature between scientific fact and narrative fiction regarding memory loss and recollection. (338) Given that “piedralipe” is mentioned earlier in its synonymous fashion as “el vitriolo de Chipre. Knowing that blue copper sulfate leads to testicular atrophy. and probably Colombia. Jr. the reader has to 24 .William O. sino que los hacían pararse en fila india frente a los dispensarios. Blue copper sulfate is normally used as a fungicide and was used for medicinal purposes in small doses. and birth defects. Another chemical mentioned is silver bromide. Nevertheless. fetiche de la medicina occidental” (38). decreased sperm production.
which forces them to defecate simultaneously eleven times in one day in order to get rid of parasitic worms even though they are suffering from love for Pilar Ternera. hence. Nevertheless. Normally. causes severe burns as well as birth defects. it is used in photography and to clean bricks. The unquestioning reader accepts this statement as a probable cure for the venereal disease.terminaron amándose en un charco de ácido muriático” (García Márquez 419). Generally. This chemical is highly corrosive and causes severe burns. The family celebrates the apparent cure even though the disease has been misdiagnosed. Aureliano and José Arcadio have to ingest “paico machacado” (86). it is used to clean aquariums and ponds since it fights bacteria and controls algae. while García Márquez neglects to mention the physical burns and discomfort that the two lovers would have suffered. y ambos se curaron por separado después de tres meses de sufrimientos secretos” (234). poisonous insect bites. stomach aches. In small doses. and can be fatal. Contrary to suggesting passionate indifference to everything else. this herbal remedy is a treatment for sterility. “Aureliano Segundo se sometió a escondidas a los ardientes lavados de permanganato y las aguas diuréticas. in which Gastón and Amaranta Ursula “Una noche. Likewise. hence. Normally. Yet another chemical mentioned in the novel is potassium permanganate. Remember that Jáuregui notes that García Márquez’s father was a curandero. several herbal remedies appear as well. consequently. . Besides the chemicals mentioned in the novel. The last chemical mentioned is hydrochloric acid. This toxin is a form of strychnine and is highly toxic. during the insomnia plague. his survival would be dubious. It is extremely hazardous to handle and is normally used as a disinfectant. the twins contract a venereal disease from sharing Petra Cotes. it is used to treat skin conditions and to help purify water. in Cien años. but the severity of the burns that one would suffer upon its application to such a sensitive body part signal the critical reader to doubt the statement. During the attempt on Colonel Aureliano’s life. the author is probably aware of the effects of blue copper sulfate and did not mention its use facetiously. This caustic compound affects the central nervous system. diarrhea. and menstrual cramps.Theory In Action wonder if the banana company intentionally tried to sterilize an entire community while eradicating its history. Castor oil is mentioned twice (“aceite de ricino”) and is used as laxative. . Ursula attempts to 25 . he ingests “nuez vómica” (185). this excerpt has to be regarded as ridiculous since Aureliano is the one who suffers burning desire after hearing them. but survives even though he had drunk enough of the poison to kill a horse.
A true folk healer would recognize the disparity between fiction and reality. the statements made in the novel. que había aprendido de su madre el valor medicinal de las plantas.. Contrary to Ursula’s desired effects. Eventually. The hermeneutic endeavor must be grounded in the provable rather than the probable or the possible. He says. Conniff sees the novel much as José Arcadio sees life in Macondo. preparó e hizo beber a todos un brebaje de acónito. because allegedly. This contradicts the true effects of the drug since the denizens seem to be living unconsciously without a clear mind. Macondo’s inhabitants are bustling with activity. “The existence of Melquíades’ parchments implies a preexisting knowledge that will become known to the reader only at the end of One Hundred Years of Solitude” (Ollivier 13). The whole novel questions what is transmitted as knowledge versus what is accepted as opinion. “Ursula.William O. and without the subsequent body paralysis that the drug causes. Aconite is a paralytic that leads to death even though the victim of this type of intoxication remains conscious and clear-minded until the end. During the insomnia plague. the patriarch bemoans the lack of technological advancement.e. It is derived from wolfsbane and monkshood. Nonetheless. This analysis is a 26 . Cien años has served as a critical minefield for scholars whose arguments implode upon careful consideration of their analyses. “Throughout the rest of the novel. Deaver. given that García Márquez’s father was an initiate in this type of healing. In this case. scientific discoveries will continue to serve two purposes: science will mystify the citizens of Macondo and will lead to their exploitation” (172). Its effects are similar to those of hemlock. Once again. ‘Aquí nos hemos de pudrir en vida sin recibir los beneficios de la ciencia’” (García Márquez 70). yet lose their ability to remember. the poison that Socrates drank to die. Jr. As José Arcadio says. i. restore the ability to sleep when she administers the unlikely libation made of aconite. the people dream while awake. which are not plants indigenous to South America. but we must consider the meaning of science as knowledge. asphyxia occurs as the respiratory tract constricts. pero no consiguieron dormir. Plato criticizes the use of the latter instead of the former in the dialogue between Socrates and Protagoras. “‘Nunca llegaremos a ninguna parte-se lamentaba ante Ursula. Science in this case is technological advancement rather than knowledge. The gullible reader accepts opinion as knowledge. sino que estuvieron todo el día soñando despiertos” (García Márquez 100). we have to assume that the author is playing with critics who take his statement at face value. knowledge. The curious reader will try to verify as fact.
and the Ambiguities of Nostalgia in Cien años de soledad. Socrates. In a similar vein. “Utopía. .” The International Fiction Review 20:1 (1993): 17-21. “Thus García Márquez dramatizes in a strikingly original way the contrast between the vita activa and the vita contemplativa. Peter Meineck. Lyana María and Aura María Fernández R. Rita A. that knowledge is simply recollection. of which the last Aureliano is a living example. Barbara Johnson. “The Dark Side of Magical Realism: Science.” Selecta 10 (1989):72-79. “Historical Time. businesses thrive for a time. Kay. but eventually fail. Universópolis. Wasps.. Robert.Theory In Action restatement of Socrates’s ideas disseminated through Plato’s writings.” Modern Fiction Studies 36:2 (Summer 1990): 167-179. trans. Birds.” Revista nacional de cultura 4:255 (Oct-Dec 1984): 41-52. Jr. Peter G. Oppression. “La deconstrucción y la crítica feminista: lecturas posibles de Cien años de soledad y La casa de los espíritus. 1981. Jacques. Plato writes. As Porter and Porter opine. they are doomed.org/10.2307/472687 García. Dissemination. “Cebes added: ‘Your favorite doctrine. “Pecado original y salvación en Cien años de soledad. Those who do act fail to achieve their goals. Aristophanes.” (123124).doi. Earle. Paul W. trans. Brian.org/10. also necessarily implies a previous time in which we have learned that which we now recollect” (Phaedo 104). “La última madrugada de Macondo (Funciones y signos en el último capítulo de Cien años de soledad). . Baker. these critics are the object of García Márquez’s parody because of their erudition that serves no purpose other than to inflate their own egos and pad their publication record even if their interpretations are based on conjecture instead of fact. Macondo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Because the Buendías do not act appropriately on their knowledge.. Conniff.” Nuevo texto crítico 2:4 (1989): 189-195. Like the last Aureliano. http://dx.doi. Borgeson. The colonel loses 32 civil wars. 1-122. Narrative Time.0.” Siglo XX 13:2 (1995): 137-159. 27 . 1998. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. Bergenholtz. and Apocalypse in One Hundred Years of Solitude.1353/mfs. Clouds. “One Hundred Years of Solitude: The Finale.0821 Derrida. http://dx.” Hispanic Review 50:2 (Spring 1982): 143-157. WORKS CITED Amaya R. if true. scholars who offer a perfunctory analysis of the novel without looking deeper at what the author says are guilty of Sophism and pseudointellectual research practices grounded in opinion rather than knowledge that they portray as fact even though much of what has been written about the novel is incorrect or at least distorted. Ursula’s aspirations for her children and their offspring go unrealized and her medical remedies are counterproductive to the illnesses that she seeks to cure.
Plato. “Cien años de soledad y el mito farmacopeyico del realismo mágico.html.doi. http://dx. Nietzsche. 7 May 2009. Bell-Villada. “Relations with the Dead in Cien Años de Soledad. Cien años de soledad. “Scenes of Instruction in Gabriel García Márquez. Jáuregui. Gabriel. ed.” Revista iberoamericana 49:123-124 (Apr-Sept 1983): 403-417. 1949. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. 2002. Carlos.1080/1475382822000359275 Van Delden. Meno. 1959.” Insula 723 (March 2007): 3-5. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Oberhelman. Maarten. _____. Shaw. diagnósticos y pócimas en Macondo: lectura de la práctica médica en Cien años de soledad. Wahnón. Twilight of the Idols/The Anti-Christ. 1956. Francis M. 28 . trans. Ricardo. 1982. trans. trans. 2000. Jelinski. Sultana. _____. Friedrich. 194228.” Revista de estudios hispánicos 17-18 (1990-1991): 267-279. Donald Leslie. ed.” Latin American Literary Review 4:7 (1975): 9-14. ed.com/ggm/marquezlamedicina. Cornford.doi. “Notes on the Presentation of Sexuality in the Modern SpanishAmerican Novel. 1-13. Laurence M. Hollingdale. trans. Crito.org/10. Jr. 1990. Lorena E. Louise Ropes Loomis.” Mosaic 15:1 (Winter 1982): 119-127. Louis L. Republic. Upper Saddle River.” Gabriel García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude: A Casebook.” Charting Memory: Recalling Medieval Spain. Fernando. Jack B.” Hispanófila 115 (Sept 1995): 65-79. “Memory and the Remembered Structure of Cien años de soledad. New York: Garland. Jelinski.” Revista de estudios hispánicos 18:3 (Oct 1984): 323-333. “García Márquez el memorioso. R. “The Humor of One Hundred Years of Solitude. Clive. and Laurel Porter. Phaedo. Protagoras. Roses. New York: Gramercy Books. Five Great Dialogues: Apology. tristes. Sánchez Torres. “Education and the History of Knowledge in Cien años de soledad. “Enfermedad. Martin Ostwald. New York: Oxford University Press. “One Hundred Years of Solitude: Existence Is the Word. _____. Upper Saddle River. Harley D.org/10. New York: Penguin. 53-66. Gutiérrez Mouat.” Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 59 (1982): 275-282. Griffin.” Revista de estudios colombianos 20 (1999): 37-46. http://dx. Stacy N. Michael. “Los pergaminos de Aureliano Babilonia. “Las putas alegres. Deaver. Symposium. Gene H. Jack B. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. García Márquez. Timaeus.sololiteratura. “Memory: One Hundred Years of Solitude. Benjamin Jowett.” The USF Language Quarterly 27:1-2 (Fall-Winter 1988): 28-32. Beckwith. Porter. pero sagradas de García Márquez: Cien años a cuarenta años de distancia.2307/3188471 Ollivier.” The South Central Bulletin 34:4 (Winter 1975): 130-132.William O. Palencia-Roth. J. 1969.” http://www. “La medicina en la obra literaria de Gabriel García Márquez.
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teacher. and friend. .Dedication In memoriam: Michael John Meyer 10/07/1943–03/07/2011. scholar. mentor.
CUNY-Bronx Editor Ali Shehzad Zaidi. Stonehill College Dave Hill. University of Connecticut Book Review Editor Joel Nathan Rosen. CUNY-Bronx Editorial Board Mihaela Albu Lisa Doris Alexander William Armaline John Asimakopoulos Steve Best Marc Bousquet Graham Cassano Jay Corwin Abraham DeLeon Corey Dolgon Luis Fernandez Victoria Fontan Ben Frymer Carol Gigliotti Richard Gilman-Opalsky Rodica Grigore Richard Van Heertum Dave Hill Joy James Patrrice Jones Paul Jonker Nathan Jun Caroline Kaltefleiter Ruth Kinna Michael Loadenthal Elsa Karen Márquez-Aponte Peter McLaren Mechthild Nagel Jesus Lopez Pelaez Michael Parenti Emma Pérez Clayton Pierce Joel Nathan Rosen Christian A.Editor-in-Chief John Asimakopoulos. University of California. Schlaerth Deric Shannon Jeffrey Shantz Stephen Sheehi Kyung Ja (Sindy) Shin Stevphen Shukaitis Caroline Tauxe Bill Templer Sviatoslav Voloshin Debra Wetcher-Hendricks Ali Shehzad Zaidi . SUNY-Canton Associate Editors Corey Dolgon. London Peter McLaren.I. Wayne State University Debra Wetcher-Hendricks. Moravian College Founding Editor John Asimakopoulos. Moravian College Associate Book Review Editors Lisa Doris Alexander. Middlesex University. Los Angeles Deric Shannon.
Continuum. No. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9781441198396 Joel Nathan Rosen Book Review: Security and the Environment: Securitisation Theory and US Environmental Security Policy by Rita Floyd. 6. Take a Liberty. $99 (Hardback) ISBN: 9780521197564 Oluwaseun Bamidele 74 93 112 127 133 138 . $80. Pp.95 (Paperback). Pp. 1 January 2013 Special Edition: Gabriel García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude Guest Editor: Jay Corwin 1 8 29 50 Introduction Jay Corwin Cien años de soledad: the Critique of Sophism and Pseudo-Science William O. Indigenous Myth. 224. Pp. cravo e canela Chris T. 2012. Pp. 2012. Alex. Schulenburg Problematic Communication and Theories of Language in One Hundred Years of Solitude Jonathon Ryan One Hundred Years of Solitude. 230. 80.CONTENTS Vol. Continuum. 2011. 2010. ISBN: 9780957155909 Joel Best Book Review: The False Promise of Global Learning: Why Education Needs Boundaries by Standish. 224. £11. History and Myth in Gabriel García Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude Rodica Grigore Food Fights: The Intertextuality of Food in Cien años de soledad and Gabriela. $22. ISBN: 9781441120106 & Snob’s Law: Criminalizing Football Fans in an Age of Intolerance by Stuart Waiton. Deaver Race and Character in Cien años de soledad Adelaida López-Mejía Truth.00 (Hardcover). and Meaning Jay Corwin Book Review: On Tolerance: A Defense of Moral Independence by Frank Füredi.95 (Hardcover).
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S. United American Nurses. He is a long-time labor activist and community organizer and has used folk songs to build solidarity on the line and engage students in the classroom. and great knowledge about folksongs.coreydolgon. Corey’s words and music bring both history and theory to life. AFL-CIO “Corey Dolgon’s “singing lecture” is a hit. of Louisville Labor-Management Center “Corey’s wonderful voice. from academics to management. U. and organizing.” --Stonehill College student “Corey’s work weaves together a coherent and accessible narrative about labor struggles with a tour de force of labor songs that moves audiences. all received a good time and good learning. More info @ www. New England College “Corey's music added tremendous spirit to our National Labor Assembly. President. Folksinger & Sociologist Corey Dolgon. William Patterson U.D in American Culture and Sociology Professor has been performing “singing lectures” for almost a decade. Professor of Sociology. very informative. Focusing on the role that folksongs play in the U. abundant energy. labor movement. labor.” --Kathleen Odell Korgen. a Ph. [The lecture] made the period come alive for me. I encourage other unions to add Corey's talents and expertise to their agendas. and other social movements were entertaining.” --Chris Dale. Please contact Corey for scheduling a lecture or receiving a sample CD at 617-298-0388 or at cdolgon@worcester. labor. From union retirees to active union members. Professor of Sociology. This singing lecture covers labor history from a multicultural perspective and examines the function of folk songs in workers’ lives. and inspiring.com .edu.” --Cheryl Johnson.” --John Ralston. I never knew there were songs about them. “I learned about the importance and power of strikes and labor unions.In Search of One Big Union: A Singing Lecture by Corey Dolgon.
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