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WHIRLPOOL OF INDIA LIMITED PLANT ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
SUBMITTED BY: RAHUL JAIN ROLL NO: 8 ME 073 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LINGAYAS INST. OF MGMT. & TECHNOLOGY
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This is to certify that
Mr. RAHUL JAIN
student of LIMAT,Faridabad
has successfully completed six weeks industrial training in Faridabad Refrigeration Plant of Whirlpool of India Ltd in the PED department under the guidance of Mr . HB TIWARI from 2'June 2009
to 31'July 2009
Under The Guidance Of:
(Mr. HB TIWARI) (Maneger, PED)
Mr. SHOBHIT TYAGI (Senior Engineer, PED)
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I, at this very outset, thank all those who directly or indirectly helped me in the completion of my project work and encouraged me in moments of my despair. First of all, I would like to express my earnest gratitude to Mr. UTSAV KHANDELWAL ( HR ) who has given me the opportunity to undergo for two months training in this esteemed organization. I take this as an opportunity to acknowledge the invaluable support and guidance given By Mr. HB Tiwari , Senior Manager ( PED) , Mr. Shobhit Tyagi , Senior Engineer ( PED), Mr. Atul Mehta , Engineer ( PED ), Mr.
Deenanath, Dept. Manager (PED) , Mr. Omender Sharma, Senior Technicion Mr. Balwan, senior Technicion from PED department for their able guidance.
My sincere thanks to all the faculty members of LIMAT Nachauli,Faridabad for their support and guidance. I would also like to thank all the workmen of PED department for there technical as well as general guidance and support. Last but not the least I express my thanks to my colleagues and other persons who have directly or indirectly involved in my projects along with me.
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Preface 1. Introduction to Whirlpool Of India Ltd. (WOIL) 1.1 The Whirlpool Group 1.2 Whirlpool in India 1.3 Vision of WOIL 1.4 Manufacturing facilities in India 1.5 Product Distribution and services 2. Whirlpool Of India Ltd. (WOIL) Faridabad 2.1 Plant Organization 2.2 Management structure 3. Manufacturing processes at WOIL Faridabad 3.1 Basic units 3.2 Plant Process Layout 3.3 Press Shop 3.4 Paint Shop 3.5 Extrusion Plant 3.6 Vaccume Forming 3.7 Foaming Process 3.8 Evaporator Section 3.9 Assembly line 4. P.E.D. at Faridabad 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Type of projects at P. .E.D. 5. Projects Dealt at P.E.D . 5.1 PLC (Programmeble Logic Controller)
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Preface Industrial training is really a very advantageous exercise as a part of Industrial Design curriculum. It has given me the feel of actual ground level jobs which are required to be performed in a manufacturing industry. This report shares first hand experience of a project summer trainee in Whirlpool of India Ltd. It compares the realities faced against the theoretical experience of a fresher in an industrial atmosphere and comprehends role of the designer and process of object development and manufacture. -: 5: - .
Air conditioners Microwaves All high growth areas. the whirlpool products currently available in the market include Refrigerators. Whirlpool’s association with India goes back to the year 1987 with the establishment of the joint venture TVS Whirlpool Ltd. Whirlpool guarantees performance. Air conditioners. Whirlpool plans to launch products to suit the Indian customer in various income groups. There has been a rapid entry of global brands which has resulted in local infrastructure / industry waking up to opportunity and of course the threats. Samsung. All Whirlpool products are backed by suitable warranties and a wide network of service centers. Whirlpool Corporation is the world’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances the industry is fast growing. microwaves and washing machines. Emphasis is placed on after sales service and whirlpool strives to achieve those goals In refrigerators the industry growth has been less than 27%. Whirlpool has a market share of about 30% and is the market leader. Whirlpool portfolio will follow its top-4 agenda in India: Refrigerators. which allow it to leverage WOI’s existing strengths. Whirlpool. The 180L occupy around 75% segment of market. The main players in the market are LG.COMPANY PROFILE The Refrigeration industry in India is fast growing and with the advent of global brands the industry has woken up to new opportunities and new challenges. -: 6: - . Washing machines. promise and reliability of its products. Godrej. Electrolux and Videocon.
In 1958 Whirlpool made its first investment outside North America in Brazil. efficient and profitable. In 1950 the company was renamed the ‘ The Whirlpool Corporation – automatic dyers were added to washer line. We will be market driven. Whirlpool purchased ‘Kitchen Aid’ brand in 1986 and began its globalization efforts in 1980’s. Michigan and the major brand names in about 140 countries. Sold first order of washers in 1916 to Sears Roebuck and Co. THE WHIRLPOOL VISION ‘EVERYHOME. THE HISTORY Founded in 1911 as Upton Machine Company produced motor driven wringer washer.our largest retail customer today. the company began.ABOUT WHIRLPOOL CORPORATION Whirlpool Corporation is the world’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances. Full line of major home appliances. Our success will make Whirlpool a company that worldwide customers. We will be driven by our commitment to continuous quality improvement and to exceeding all our customer’s expectations. EVERYWHERE WITH PRIDE. PASSION AND PERFORMANCE’ Whirlpool. Though now a global leader. Revenues reached $ 1 billion in 1968. Revenue: $ 12 billion. as a family owned machine shop located in a small town on Eastern Shore of Lake Michigan. Headquartered at Benton Harbor. in its chosen lines of a business will grow with new opportunities and be the leader in an ever-changing market. employees and stockholders can depend on -: 7: - . We will gain competitive advantage through this by building our existing strengths and developing new competencies. WHIRLPOOL CORPORATION TODAY World’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances. Manufacturer: 12 countries.
joint ventures with companies in Mexico and India and increased ownership in companies in Canada and Brazil. in all the countries where it has presence was established in Eastern Europe. We will dare to change the standards of our industry and be the envy of our competitors. In Asia. WHIRLPOOL WENT THE GLOBAL WAY Whirlpool strategy has been to remain focused on major home appliances but to expand into markets not already served by Whirlpool. North America and Europe. Whirlpool determined to lead that globalization process and be one of those companies. Whirlpool’s strategy to shape and lead the emerging global home appliance industry is working because the company consistently improves the quality of its products and services while refining its understanding of customers and what they want from whirlpool. Latin America. become global and a handful of companies would dominate the manufacturer and the sale of home appliances. In 1980’s there was a major acquisition in Europe. over time. a move that established the company as a world leader in major home appliances. Throughout the early 90’s the company continued its expansion in Latin America and Europe and a manufacturing and marketing presence was established in Eastern Europe. The goal has been world leadership in a rapidly globalizing major appliances industry. A conclusion was that the industry would. Before whirlpool began its expansion into Europe. it undertook a global analysis of markets and opportunities in home appliance industry. WHIRLPOOL IS POSITIONED GLOBALLY North America Latin America Europe Asia -: 8: - #1 #1 #3 # Leading Western Company . We will serve with pride in every Indian home and bring prosperity to our investors. We will be the leader in home appliances with all others will want to emulate.THE WHIRLPOOL MISSION STATEMENT We will be demanding of ourselves so as to care for our customers like no other brand does. Whirlpool seeks to set standards against which the global major domestic appliance industry is measured. To that end the company vigorously pursues the goal of its worldwide excellence system (WES).
which are leading companies. Kitchen Aid. the middle east and Africa. Whirlpool and its affiliates have the largest market share and one third of the manufacturing capacity of the region. In 1993.43 billion. Across Supermatic. WEBV has the third largest marketing presence in Western Europe and has been growing steadily in Central and Eastern Europe. -: 9: - . NAAG recognized around a strategy focused on delighting customers and giving them compelling reasons beyond price to choose whirlpool built appliances. Today it holds equity positions in Electrodomesticos.Latin America: Whirlpool defines the Latin America region as including Central and South America and Caribbean. The Sear’s sales and marketing group is dedicated to serving sears Roebuck & Co. United States: NAAG maintains its strong U. de C.A. Whirlpool. Product lines were moved between Whirlpool plants and across borders to improve manufacturing efficiencies. Kitchen Aid and Roper Products built in U. North America: In 1989. The Latin America home appliances market. is a joint venture company between Whirlpool and Vitro in which Whirlpool holds 49% stake. industry position with full line of Kitchen Aid. Roper.V. Mexico and Canada were brought together to form the North America alliance group. Estate.000 and annual sales of $2. Crolls and Philips brand names. Estate and Speed Queen.A.S.V.S. Whirlpool has been a part of the Brazilian Home Appliances since 1958. The largest home appliance retailer. Canada: Inglis ltd. holding company. Is also serves as an exclusive Mexicon distributor of full line of Whirlpool. Empressa Brasileirade Multibras Compressors and S. which today accounts for some 6% of the global market for the home appliances is expected to expand more rapidly than either North America or Europe in the decade ahead. Whirlpool operations in the United States. A wholly owned subsidiary is a leading supplier of major home appliances in Canada and markets under seven brand names – Inglis. It is one of the two major appliances companies in Mexico and manufactures under Whirlpool. Mexico: Vitromatic S. The Latin America Appliances Group (LAAG) of manufacturing capacity of the region. Whirlpool. Admiral. With a staff of 11. Roper. Coolerator and chambers brand appliances. Europe: Whirlpool Europe B. (WEBV) became the wholly owned European subsidiary of Whirlpool Corporation in July 1991 following Whirlpool purchase of the remaining shares of the JV with Philips NV of Netherlands.
WHIRLPOOL IN ASIA In 1992. washers. As a result. microwaves and air conditioners. Bauknecht. Ensuring quality in all respects of business. Offering four key products: refrigerators. WEBV is the third largest producer of major appliances in Europe. retaining and developing the best people. The company has been aggressively pursuing its Asian Strategy. Attracting. second in French market and solid presence in Germany. In 1993. -: 10: - .Principal brand includes Whirlpool. WAAG began a series of moves to increase its presence in Asia and position the company to aggressively pursue potential business opportunities throughout the region. it is the second largest white good producer in Italy. With nine factories in 4 countries. Exceeding customer needs and satisfaction. stand-alone business unit was established in these two major regions of the world. Thus the Whirlpool Asian Appliances Group (WAAG) was formed. the company decided to focus on the significant growth opportunities in Asia and Latin America. PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE Washers Refrigerators Microwaves Air conditioners Dryers Dishwashers Freezers Cooking ranges Exhaust fans / ovens / hoods etc. Ignis and Laden. which focuses on: Partnering to build wins – win relationships.
was In 1995 Whirlpool entered the fast growing home appliance market in the People’s Republic of China through four majorities owned joint ventures. The product form this plant is specifically designed for the Indian consumer and is backed with latest world-class technology. On February 24. Headquartered at Madras. From a small volume exporter to niche markets thirty weeks ago.Also in 1994 Great Techno Whirlpool Ltd. 1995. A marketing joint venture in Taiwan formed with great Techno Trade Co. WHIRLPOOL IN INDIA Whirlpool’s association with India goes back to the year 1987 with the establishment of joint venture TVS Whirlpool Washing Machines Ltd. with manufacturing base in Pondicherry. A new project in the Global No-Frost refrigerator plant in Ranjangoan. The emerging market holds promise and we believe that estimates of market potential are yet to be defined totally. With the manufacturing base in Faridabad. Ingis Kitchen Aid. Whirlpool sees a tremendous opportunity in white good segments in India. with the largest investor in MDA industry in India with financial commitments in access of INR 350 crores. Whirlpool management expertise and transfer of technology has helped to expand manufacturing capabilities and product lines for increased market shares throughout region. WAAG today comprises 12000 people in 25 countries. Whirlpool is now selling the Whirlpool brand and Opera Brand Refrigerators. Whirlpool is well on it’s way to achieving its objectives in Asia. -: 11: - . Ltd. Whirlpool acquired controlling interest in Kelvinator of India. replacing the Kelvinator brand name. plant is manufacturing no frost CFC Free Refrigerators. With six manufacturing sites in India and China and more coming up and over $US350 million in investments. WHIRLPOOL IN ASIA Western Company $250 million in sales Brands: Whirlpool. traditionally the countries largest manufacturer and marketer of refrigerators. Haryana this association has also yielded a network over 3500 trade dealers. Pune. SMC and Snowflake. To meet the growing trend Whirlpool is expanding its local production capabilities in both Washing Machines and refrigerators. Bauknecht.
MICROWAVES AND WASHING MACHINES. Whirlpool calls them trade partners. At Whirlpool. OUR PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICES The Whirlpool products currently available in the Indian markets include refrigeration. With the combined strengths. an integral part of the chain of “the partners in progress “. microwaves. BPL. IN INDIA. Whirlpool is driving the entire market of home appliances by launching products to suit consumers in various income groups. The main players in the market are Godrej.WHIRLPOOL’S GOAL IN INDIA TO BECOME THE MOST PROFITABLE PRODUCER OF T-2 PRODUCTS. and washing machines. REFRIGERATORS. suitable warranties and a wide network of service centers back all Whirlpool products. All whirlpool products are suited to local customers needs while conforming to international standards of quality and safety. Trade partners are also used for customer service. which has resulted in the local infrastructure/ industry waking upto opportunity and of course the threats. which resulted from the merger of Kelvinator of India’s network and Whirlpool washing machines Ltd. Whirlpool has a market share of around 30% while the market leader. Whirlpool guarantees performance and promises reliability of all its products. there are 100 service partners. In fact. THE INDUSTRY The industry is fast growing. Whirlpool aims to achieve critical in their distribution with over 4000 dealers. -: 12: - . Emphasis is placed on after sales services and Whirlpool strives to achieve 90% customer satisfaction by servicing products within 24 hours of receiving the call. The 180L occupy around 75% segment of the market. Whirlpool has its own 17 consumer service branches all over the country and to cover other towns. AIR CONDITIONERS. In refrigerators the industry growth has been less than 27%. air conditioners. consumer feedback is given a great deal of thought while designing the products. Sales network. Electrolux and Videocon. There has been rapid entry of global brands. Whirlpool. Thus our sales team and trade partners form a formidable team in the market with network across the country. The distribution of the entire whirlpool range is through an integrated sales network.
this association also yielded a network of over 3500 trade dealers. Whirlpool is expanding its local production capacities in both washing machines and refrigerators RAW MATERIAL AND POWER CONSUMPTION Whirlpool of India. with the later having reverted to Electrolux in the early 1997. Faridabad mainly deals with the assembly of refrigerators. which has 7-DG sets out of which 4 remain functional at a time. Whirlpool. traditionally the country’s largest manufacturer and marketer of refrigerators. replacing the Kelvinator brand name. Their main raw material and supplier are as listed above -: 13: - . With the manufacturing base in Faridabad. PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN FRO PLANT The production capacity in Faridabad Refrigeration Organization Plant is 1095000 lakhs annually. Pondicherry. It also consumes electricity from Haryana Electricity board. Pune Started April’94 Started Feb’95 Started March’98 WHIRLPOOL IN FARIDABAD On February 24th 1995. Haryana. Haryana Ranjangoan. Madras Faridabad. Whirlpool acquired controlling interest in Kelvinator of India.MANUFACTURING FACILITIES Whirlpool has manufacturing facilities at three places: Washing Machines Refrigerators CFC free ref. Faridabad caters to its power requirements through its own powerhouse. In summers this rate is as high as 1300000 KW/hr and it falls down to around 7500000 KW/hr in months of December and January. They outsource raw material from different vendors and give the shape of refrigerator. Whirlpool is now selling. the Whirlpool brand refrigerator. Its monthly power requirement is around 1000000 KW/hr per month out which it takes wound 200000 KW/hr from Haryana Electricity Board and produces rest of the power in its own powerhouse. This power consumption varies widely with season. They have more than 200 vendors.
6. 7 Compressor CRCA Steel Masterbatch HIPS Granules Wireharness Condenser Packaging Supplier Tecumseh Bushan Steel SCJ Supreme Dudeja & Deltron STI Box & Carton.Component 1. 4 5. Kemeka PRODUCT RANGE IN FRO Existing Models are: 180L RANGE Genius supreme Genius Premier Genius Royal 175L RANGE Master Piece Sanyo Coke FUSION RANGE 200L Royal 200L Premier 230L Royal 230L Premier 260L Premier 310L Maxigerator -: 14: - . 2 2.
To improve productivity and discipline at the plant. -: 15: - . LGT of 90% (assembly and foaming) Total calls reduction by 10%. discipline and ownership though natural work groups. ANALYSIS OF WHIRLPOOL FRO PLANT STRENGTHS: Its technology Its manpower and their dedication towards work Training and education It’s sophisticated paint shop Whirlpool LOGO 5-S conscious Implementation of 6 sigma.GENIUS XL RANGE 200L Royal 200L Premier 230L Royal 230L Premier EXPORT RANGE Nigeria export Philippines export Venus Nakai OBJECTIVES AND FUTURE PLANS 5star energy rating by April 2009. Total saving of 250Rs on 180L Genius supreme. Culture of quality.
On an average around 3000-3500 refrigerators are produced everyday.WEAKNESSES: Resistance to change Not much effective team work High rejections in door High rework in door High rework of Sealed system CAPACITY OF THE PLANT The company works in three shifts of eight hours duration each for seven days a week. Maximum daily production till date has been 4524pcs. -: 16: - . The actual production time is around 7hours 10 minutes. The FRO has production capacity of about 4500 refrigerators per day but the demand is not that high. These days (March to June) the production is around 4500pcs everyday. therefore the company also manufactures for some other companies. This year record production of 135000pcs is done in the month of May.
PLANT PROCESS LAYOUT PRESS SHOP Shell/ wrapper and door for painting PAINT SHOP Painted door Painted Shell/ wrapper Door liner EXTRUDER VACCUME FORMING DOOR FORMING Main liner Painted Shell/ wrapper CABINET FORMING Finish cabinet Finish Door Important component an STORE ASSEMBLY LINE -: 17: - .
The bottom panel is curved in shape and has space for the compressor to fit in. the Back Panel is welded with the cabinet.A. Rolled conveyer. which are PRESS SHOP PAINT SHOP VACCUM FORMING EXTRUSION ASSEMBLY LINES PRESS SHOP In the press shop. where holes are punched into the sheet. Here the ends of the sheet are bended by 90 deg. Next operation is of removing sharp edges at the corners cabin and doors are loaded on overhead conveyer and then are passed on to the Paint Shop for further processing.25 mm. there are some separate units for welding of various reinforcements used in the cabinet. Here the edges of the sheets are bend into U-shapes.ABOUT THE PLANT The whole plant is broadly classified into five major parts. Doors are also made here in the Press Shop. The thickness of door panel is 0. Apart from these basic operations. where the liners are later inserted. -: 18: - . Next sheet is folded in the Folding Fixture by the application of Hydraulic Pressure. First.42 mm.C. on Carriage Unit shapes the sheet the roll forming of sheet is done to get the desired thickness. Next. cabinet and door are made from C. the folded sheets are sent for various spot welding operations. The next step is the roller End Bending. Steel Cold Rolled Cold Annealed Steel sheet cut to the desired size as per model and is fed into the Carriage Unit. Then the bottom (deck) is welded.R. After this sheet is send to Notching and Punching (N/P) unit.38 mm and for deck the thickness of sheet is 0. The next operation is roller edge bending. that of back panel and cabinet is 0.
A VIEW OF PRESS SHOP -: 19: - .
Process flow-chart of Press Shop A) Formation of Shell This involves following steps: Bhushan Company. Roller conveyor moves the sheet to the Notching & Punching Unit. which punches the necessary holes and notches. Bending Ends Bending Starts These rollers push the sheet at both edges -: 20: - . Noida Sopplies CRCA Sheet (0.25m thickness) The Carriage unit picks the sheet C The sheet is then moves into Roll Former & sheet is bent through required angles as it moves through the rollers.
The sheet is then taken into spot welding unit. 1 2 Folded Sheet -: 21: - .C Parting unit parts the sheet into two halves. So the machine does not operate & the sheet simply passes through it. The sheet acquires the shape as shown in figure 3. The sheet then passes through edge-bending unit. which is also not working. C1 Folding Fixture folds the sheet at points 1 & 2 as shown in the figure. End Bending Unit bends the sheet at the both ends.
B) Formation of Bottom Deck Sheet punched and notched with Notching & Punching press of capacity 63 ton Embossing on 40 ton press Bending of sheet (involving three bending operations) on a 40 ton brake C2 Welding of the front cross piece (supplied by an external supplier) to the bent sheet C) Formation of Back Panel Punching of sheet on a 40 ton punch Spot welding of small square pieces on back panel sheet in order to provide a bearing screw surface for screws Drilling for screws C3 -: 22: - .
except for one difference. As already described. company has brought automatic spot welding machinery also.C1 C2 In the spot welding unit.its manufacturing takes place on a older version of the shell making (used by Kelvinator earlier) machine which is different from the newer version in the following respects: No lateral movement in the carriage unit Bending and folding on the same fixture E) Formation of door panel Carriage unit picks sheet Cutting in the cutting unit Notching & punching in the notching & punching unit To the paint conveyor Bending in the bending unit -: 23: - . but now. back panel and bottom are all spot welded together. At the moment. spot welding machine is hand operated. C3 Welded cabinet To the paint conveyor D) Formation of Opera Shell The entire process for the manufacturing of Opera Shell is exactly the same as that for the other shells. shell.
the cabin/door is dried properly.Following Machines and equipment’s are used in the press shop: Power press Brake press TIG welding equipment Spot welding equipment Roll former Shearing press Hand grinding wheel Door metal line THE PAINT SHOP The Cabinet/Door from the Press Shop is hanged on the overhead conveyor line. so that the pain sticks to the surface nicely. Next. After this the cabinet/door is coated with Zinc Phosphate. which allows the exothermic reaction to take place. the cabin/door goes through the process of electrostatic paining where the sides and the top surface of the cabin or the from side of the door is painted by the electrostatic guns. which are five in no. After this process. Then the cabin is rinsed in soap solution to free all the dirt. This is -: 24: - . Prior to this the cabin is also soaked in a solution to free all the grease on the surfaces. After phosphating the surface. So. The locking system is deactivated so that the cabin is free to rotate. The painted cabinet obtained in this process does not have a proper finishing. there is an Inspection process and the passed components are sent for the foaming process. to obtain a shine on the surfaces. This process is called Phosphating. smoothened in the Passivation stage. where the cabin/Door is kept in a medium. the cabin/door is now sent to the curing oven where it is heated to specified temperature. The next step is Activation. This is known as Degreasing. is very rough and irregular. Four to paint the sides and one at the bottom to paint the top surface of the cabin. manually. Next. which results.
A VIEW OF PAINT SHOP Machines and equipment’s used in the various painting operations: Spray phosphating line Baking oven for spray phosphated components Powder coating plant Baking oven for powder coating plant Dip type phosphating plant Baking oven for liquid paint line Single platform type liquid spray painting Oven for small component -: 25: - .
Vacuum Forming Shop In vacuum forming. the inner liner of the refrigerator (both of shell and door) is formed. The following cycle takes place on the machine named: ROTAFAST The white material visible in the picture is the shell liner is being cooled by air pipe direct cool air on to it. -: 26: - . The rotafast machine is provided by two heaters that make possible multiple stage heating of the HIP sheet Material of the plastic sheet is HIPS for High Impact Polystyrene.
punching of holes and fastening of assemblies. a) Tape the back. drain cup and tube. -: 27: - .Pre Heating of the sheet Final heating of the sheet at 120 degree Celsius. snap type lock retainer. Sheet placed and formed liner taken out and goes for visual inspection a) Air blown to form a bubble b) The forming die comes up into the bubble c) The material is sucked in through vacuum through holes in die to make the contour d) Die moves down Necessary cutting. bottom and LH/RH with anti blister tape b) Position and tape plastnut.
The process flow chart for liner manufacture on Rigo is shown below: Loading (Vacuum) Flanks square sheet Upper and lower thickness pressure point measure sheet thickness If ok A Line goes for punching and trimming Vacuum forming Three stage heating -: 28: - .
EXTRUSION PLANT In the extrusion plant.6 % Masterbatch.4 % HIPS. The sheets produced are then sent to Vacuum Forming plant. The mixture of these components is fed into a CNC Extrusion Machine in above-mentioned proportions. 35 % regrind and 2 % 585. The mixture contains 61. the sheet for cabinet and door liner is prepared from: HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) Masterbatch 585 to provide gloss Regrind VIEW OF EXTRUSION PLANT The three components – HIPS. The extruded material from the machine moves past the two cylinders and takes the form of a sheet. The cabinet or door liner sheets of definite size are cut by means of adjustable cutting knifes. Masterbatch and regrind are fed to different pipes and finally the mixture is prepared. 1. -: 29: - .
Doors are also foamed in the similar manner in Door Drum. Next. The shells. the shells are sent for Pre-Foaming. the shell is heated in the oven to a specified temperature to start the chemical reaction of foaming. After this the shell is unloaded. are sent to the assembly line.T. the door liner is placed over the door shell. This is done manually. 18 in no. Here a mixture of Isocyanate and Polyol is added in between the liner and cabin.K. Next. which are O. After this the shell is loaded into the Foaming Plugs. -: 30: - . The foamed doors are then unloaded. Here after addition of Isocyanate and Polyol. cleaned and inspected.CABINET FOAMING SECTION VARIOUS PROCESSES IN FOAMING: - The first stage is to unload the painted shells or cabinets from the overhead conveyer line.) are fitted into the shell. The foam expands and covers all the space in between. inspected and sent to the assembly line. Here among other things the liner and the anti-moisture tube (A.M.
paper tape and BOPP tape to prevent PU leak Assemble wire harness Assemble corner fillers Fit thermo bulb & suction grommet in position Position AMT inside cabinet flange channel Position HIPS strips inside flange channel Assemble mainliner in the cabinet Unload the cabinet & load on the foaming conveyor Preheating of the cabinet -: 31: - A . foam tape.The process flow-chart for the cabinet foaming: Unloading of cabinet from paint shop through overhead conveyor Apply clay.
A Loading in foaming fixtures through Auto Carriage Foaming of the cabinet as per the shot weights specified Foaming process parameters as per PCP Scrap NOT OK NOT OK Rework Unloading and visual inspection OK Loading on trolley and transfer to assembly lines OK -: 32: - .
M x No of Blades in the turbine. VARIOUS PROCESSES IN ASSEMBLY LINE: THERMOSTAT FIXING BULB. Pulse is the value of R. These parameters are: Weight Pulse Temperature Weight here means the gas specification. the Galileo Machine is employed for the Gas and Oil charging. Temperature is the gas temperature at the junction of the cylinder and the Galileo Machine. For this purpose. THERMOSTAT KNOB FIXING BRAZING OF SEALED SYSTEM.P. REAR FIXING ANGLE TRAY FIXING TOP HINGE FIXING COMPRESSOR AND CLAMPS FOR CONDENSER FIXING FREEZER FIXING FREEZER DOOR FIXING CONDENSER FIXING AMT CONNECTION. BOTTOM HINGE. GAS AND OIL CHARGING: Here. -: 33: - . VACUUMISATION: Here. three parameters are set to evaluate the amount of gas charge in the Compressor.ASSEMBLY LINE There are three assembly lines. The machine has to be calibrated before use. RELAY FIXING COMPRESSOR EARTHING. a loop of nine vacuum pumps is employed to vacuumise the compressor completely. or in other words the number of blades passing through a point in a minute.
-: 34: - .3: SR NO. It is kept at around 40-60 seconds. The Compressor should be evacuated to the upper limit in the specified time. If the pressure drops below the lower specified limit in a time less than equal to the Leak Test Time. if the compressor is not vacuumised in the prescribed time the machine gives a signal and further process is stopped. Again. VACUUM TESTING TIME is the time specified for the compressor to be further vacuumised from the upper specification limit to the lower specification limit. It is kept at around 5 seconds. 1 2 3 WEIGHT 87 97 118 PULSE 705 863 1020 TEMPERATURE 36 36 36 Apart from above. It is kept at around 40-60 seconds. otherwise the machine gives an alarm and stops the further process. LEAK TESTING TIME the machine stops the vacuumisation process and checks the pressure in the compressor. the machine gives a Group Leak Signal and the process again stops.During calibration the following data has been used for line no. other parameters used in the setting of a program for a particular slot are: Evacuation Time Vacuum Testing Time Leak Testing Time Vacuum Upper and Lower Limits Recovery Time Reference Pressure EVACUATION TIME is the time set for the compressor to be evacuated to the Upper limit of Vacuum.
where 760 mm of mercury corresponds to 1 Atmosphere. The upper limit is generally set above 1000 micrometers of mercury and the lower limit is set around 300 micrometers of Mercury. The Reference Pressure is the lowest level of Vacuum that the machine can obtain.RECOVERY TIME is the time specified for the excess gas in the filler tubes to be recovered by the machine. The Upper and Lower limits are set in such a manner that the Lower specified limit is above the REFERENCE PRESSURE in the machine. This reduces wastage of the refrigerant. All the pressures are measured in terms of micrometers of mercury. DOOR FIXING SEALING OF THE CHARGING LINE INSPECTION IN TEST LOOP BY CONNECTING TO THE MAINS SUPPLY CABINET AND DOOR CLEANING CRISPER TRAY AND SHELVES FIXING DOOR HANDLE FIXING OUTSIDE CLEANING PLASTIC PARTS FIXING FINAL INSPECTION BAR CODING AND PACKING -: 35: - .
Defects have been classified into the following three classes according to their degree of severity.I FRO In today’s competitive environment no organization can exist with defective products. 2. 3.ONLINE QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR OUTGOING PRODUCTS AT W. C defect.O. A defect. They have made a lab in which each employee acts as a customer and evaluates the product as a customer. All the defects in the product are find out and out going quality index is evaluated. The aim of Whirlpool is to produce minimum defectives to please the customer. B defect. -: 36: - . 1. They have made their own standards to make sure that no defective is passed on.
g. Minimum quantity checked per model is 10 per shift per line. Live wire exposed parts with sharp edges.g. finish of goods. Which can cause failure of unit in service. Samples are drawn randomly from line in such a manner that it is uniformly distributed. Gasket rolling. Class A being the most severe has the penalty of 10. Those. Noticeable but not functional defects like door safe part missing. Each class of defect has got different penalty. Leaks Chokes. -: 37: - . C defect: These are the defects related to appearance. B defect: These are the moderate defects. improper paint rework. door sealing. Following defects are classified into this group: Which can probably affect the performance of unit but can be corrected in the field? E. incompleteness of accessories etc. Sample size is taken as 6-8% of daily production.g.A defect: The defects that are most severing are grouped into this class. Defects of appearance or finish that is extreme in intensity and require finish. E. B has penalty of 5 and C has got 1. dent. Following defects are classified into this group: Liable to cause personal injury or property damage under normal condition of use eg. e. irritating compressor noise. Based on the number of defects and their degree of severity the quality index is evaluated using the following expression. door noise etc. are in use. which cannot be readily corrected in field? E. which are not as serious as A defects. which can cause inconvenience to the user while the machine.g.
B= Number of ‘B’ defects found. If in case same defect is detected then hold order is given to all the products produced in the shift. Analysis of the problem is done to find the root cause and the action is taken accordingly. C= Number of ‘C’ defects found. -: 38: - . If the defect is detected then action similar to that of an ‘A’ defect is taken. If in case the similar defect is observed fifth time in a shift.Q= 100 – 10x(10xA+5xB+C)/n Where Q= quality index. Remedial actions: If an ‘A’ defect is detected then the production and dispatch of products units is stopped and following actions are taken: All the products produced in last 45 minutes with minimum of 25 units are checked and if no defective units are found then the production again starts. A= Number of ‘A’ defects found. If a ‘B’ defect is detected then 10 immediate machines are checked for similar kind of defect in an assembly line. If a ‘C’ defect is observed then production incharge is informed about the defect and the process from where the defect is coming is audited. then remedial actions similar to that of type '' defects are taken.
The Aim and scope of work of PED platform can be summarized below 1. Improvements in Project undergoing 3. Up-Time Improvement 2. This department is the Research & Maintenance center of (WOI) Whirpool of India which caters to the need of up-time and project improvement in Whirlpool. PED gives support and contribution to new projects.PLANT ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT PED stands for Plant Engineering Department. Cost Reduction -:39:- .
Efficiency improvements of machine 4. Availability of equipments 5. Erection & Commissioning of new machine 8. cost reduction 3.The Aim & Scope of work of PED Platform can be summarized below: 1. In-House recovry 7. Performence improvements 6. Improvements in project undergoing -:40:- . up-time improvements 2.
Related to Up-Time improvement Up-Time improvement can be acheived by reducing the Breakdowns in the plant. This provide major saving in the company. Area 2 in which cost reduction is measure by implement new machine designing process.Projects in PED are mainly of three kinds Related to TCR (Total Cost Reduction) The main motivation in this project is to reduce the cost by using diffrent kinds of tools in machine design. and reducing the time to overcome the breakdown. -:41:- . TCR is mainly in two areas: Area 1 in which cost reduction is acheived by using advance n cheaper tools in machine. Related to increasing the efficiency of machine Efficiency improvement on machine is acheived by Lowering the Cycle time.
The heat energy is obtained from a gas flame. The main components used in the refrigerator are: Condenser Capillary Charging line Dip tray -:42:- . using mechanical energy in the form of motor. therefore the maintenance cost is minimum. 310L capacity of refrigerators that fall under the category of DC refrigerators. heat energy is used to circulate the refrigerant. Whirlpool has 170L. 230L. METHOD OF REFRIGERATION Vapor absorption system Vapor compression system VAPOUR ABSORPTION CYCLE In vapor absorption system. It does not have a moving part. or a kerosene flame. 180L. Most of the modern refrigerators fall under this category. The cold air in contact with the evaporator is heavier as compared to the lower portion of the provision compartment and the warm air rises upward from the front side towards the evaporator being cooled. 200L. It is then condensed to the liquid state in the condenser and then again evaporated to the gaseous state by extracting heat from the evaporator area.BASICS OF DIRECT COOL REFRIGERATOR Direct cool refrigerator is the one in which the provision compartment is cooled by the natural circulation of the air. Components in use are: Boiler and generator Condenser Evaporator Absorber connecting to suction pump VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE In vapor compression system the low-pressure refrigerant is compressed to high pressure by the compressor. The air circulates in the provision compartment due to natural convection current caused by this natural temp difference. an electric heater. 260L.
The compressor compresses the ammonia gas. The liquid ammonia immediately boils and vaporizes (light blue). The compressed gas heats up as it is pressurized (orange). That noise is the sound of high-pressure liquid refrigerant flowing through the expansion valve. The compressor sucks up the cold ammonia gas.Anti moisture tube Evaporator Drier and accumulator Compressor In refrigerators the cycle is continuous. On one side of the hole is high-pressure ammonia liquid. You can think of the expansion valve as a small hole. 3. On the other side of the hole is a low-pressure area (because the compressor is sucking gas out of that side). you may have heard a hissing noise under the hood. and the cycle repeats. we will assume that the refrigerant being used is pure ammonia. 2. 4. Pure ammonia gas is highly toxic to people and would pose a threat if the refrigerator were to leak. so all home refrigerators don't use pure ammonia. CFC-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) has about the same boiling -:43:- . this is what happens to keep the refrigerator cool: 1. its temperature dropping to -27 F. This makes the inside of the refrigerator cold. In this example. which boils at -27 degrees F. By the way. The ammonia gas condenses into ammonia liquid (dark blue) at high pressure. originally developed by Du Pont in the 1930s as a nontoxic replacement for ammonia. 5. The high-pressure ammonia liquid flows through the expansion valve. if you have ever turned your car off on a hot summer day when you have had the air conditioner running. You may have heard of refrigerants know as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). The coils on the back of the refrigerator let the hot ammonia gas dissipate its heat.
There are five basic parts to any refrigerator Compressor Heat-exchanging pipes .serpentine or coiled set of pipes outside the unit Expansion valve Heat-exchanging pipes . You probably know that when you put water on your skin it makes you feel cool. Pure ammonia evaporates at -27 degrees Fahrenheit (-32 degrees Celsius). In the 1970s. used in a refrigerator evaporates at an extremely low temperature. Rubbing alcohol feels even cooler because it evaporates at a lower temperature. Many large industrial refrigerators still use ammonia. As the water evaporates. the basic idea behind a refrigerator is to use the evaporation of a liquid to absorb heat. so it can create freezing temperatures inside the refrigerator. it absorbs heat. Parts of a Refrigerator As we learned in the introduction. so as of the 1990s. If you place your refrigerators refrigerant on your skin it will freeze your skin as it evaporates.liquid that evaporates inside the refrigerator to create the cold temperatures Many industrial installations use pure ammonia as the refrigerant. all new refrigerators and air conditioners use refrigerants that are less harmful to the ozone layer. CFC-12 is not toxic to humans. or refrigerant. so it is safe to use in your kitchen. However. The liquid. creating that cool feeling.point as ammonia.serpentine or coiled set of pipes inside the unit Refrigerant . it was discovered that the CFCs then in use are harmful to the ozone layer. -:44:- .
The basic mechanism of a refrigerator works like this: 1. making the inside of the refrigerator cold. 3. 2. making it cold. 4. the liquid refrigerant is allowed to move from a highpressure zone to a low-pressure zone. In evaporating. the refrigerant condenses into liquid form (purple) and flows through the expansion valve. so the heat-exchanging coils outside the refrigerator allow the refrigerant to dissipate the heat of pressurization. As it cools. it absorbs heat. FLOW OF REFRIGERANT Compressor AMT Condenser Drier Suction tube Evaporator Capillary -:45:- . The compressor compresses the refrigerant gas. When it flows through the expansion valve. The cycle then repeats. so it expands and evaporates (light blue). This raises the refrigerant's pressure and temperature (orange). The coils inside the refrigerator allow the refrigerant to absorb heat.
At the same time it compresses the gas and pumps it into the discharge line. The compressed air sharply rises in temperature.ANATOMY OF DC REFRIGERATOR COMPRESSOR The compressor is the heart of the refrigerator. It pumps the refrigerant through the entire system. It draws cool refrigerant gas through suction line from the evaporator coils. Oil is charged into the compressor to: Provide lubrication to the moving parts Cool the compressor body The efficiency of the compressor mainly depends on two things: BTU (British thermal units) EER (Energy efficiency ratio) CONDENSER -:46:- .
DRIER The hot liquid refrigerant from the condenser enters the drier. expansion takes place and the temp of the refrigerant drops rapidly. This is done to increase the heat transfer area and reflect the atmosphere at the faster rate. alumina and silica. The supporting wires act as the fins for the condenser more the surface area more is the heat rejection through condenser. EVAPORATOR The liquid refrigerant at the low pressure leaves the capillary and enters the large tubing of the evaporator. In the process of passing through the evaporator. It may be noted that support wires are used in the condenser tube and the whole assembly is painted black. The drier contains synthetic zeolite composed of soda. -:47:- . It expels the heat of the refrigerant to the atmosphere and changes refrigerant to liquid state. Due to sudden increase in tube diameter.The condenser is the cooling coil for the hot refrigerant. the refrigerant absorbs heat gradually and changes into gaseous form at the same pressure. The function of the drier is to remove the moisture present in the liquid refrigerant.
CAPILLARY The capillary is a small diameter tube connecting the condenser to the evaporator. ANTI MOISTURE TUBE The AMT is in contact with the cabinet sidewalls of the refrigerator near the door. The thermal capillary senses the freezer plate temperature and cuts off the compressor when the temp is attained and cuts in when temp rises for a particular setting. Its resistance or pressure drop due to length of the tube and diameter regulates the exact amount of refrigerant into the evaporator. Accumulator serves the purpose of a storage vessel that stores the unevaporated excess liquid when the load is low and supplies extra liquid to the evaporator when the load is high. It evaporates at a faster rate on high load and at a slower rate on low load. -:48:- . ACCUMULATOR Rate of evaporation of the refrigerant in the evaporator changes with the heat load on the evaporator. It also prevents liquid refrigerant from flowing into the suction line and also into the compressor. The capillary tube is carefully calibrated in length and internal diameter. The basic purpose of the anti moisture tube is as follow It prevents external condensation in the front of the cabinet near the door Prevents heating of the gasket THERMOSTAT Thermostat ensures that the temperature in the freezer and the fresh food storage compartment are maintained as per specified requirements.
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