Charlie Analoro Senior Division Individual Website

Works Cited Primary Sources

"Adlai Stevenson at UN | Cuban Missile Crisis." Cuban Missile Crisis | Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center has created this site as a resource for the Cuban Missile Crisis. Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, th. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/post/gallery/adlai-stevenson-at-un/>. There was a meeting at the U.N. explaining the position and locations of the missile sites in Cuba. Adlai Stevenson was presenting that information.

CIA daily report, “The Crisis USSR/Cuba,” October 27, 1962.r r r <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/621027%20The%20Crisis%20USSRCuba.pdf> The CIA took many reports of the progress of the nuclear missile sites in Cuba. This report explains the sites’ progress to being fully operational. Photographs were taken of the sites and missile launchers. They were described to have a range of 50,000 yards. This report helped my research because it showed the United States’ progress of stopping the Cuban Missile Crisis and how they were researching it for example, taking photographs of the missile sites.

CIA Special National Intelligence Estimate, “Major Consequences of Certain U.S. Courses of Action on Cub,” October 20, 1962 <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/19621020cia.pdf> The United States’ surveillance on the Soviet Union and Cuba was closely monitored. This document describes the threat that the Soviet Union and Cuba were putting on the United States, and the rest of the world. The U.S’ surveillance had picked up that the U.S.S.R had been planting nuclear missiles in Cuba. This document helped my research because it showed me how concerned the U.S were from these actions and how their ideas on trying to stop the problem for example, a blockade of Cuba.

"Commentary: Lessons from the Cuban Missile Crisis | The National Interest." The National Interest. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/lessonsthe-cuban-missile-crisis-7672>. The Cuban Missile Crisis shocked the American people. They were scared. This photograph shows how scared the people of the U.S. were and how it changed society.

"Eisenhower, Dwight D." Cold War Reference Library. Ed. Richard C. Hanes, Sharon M. Hanes, and Lawrence W. Baker. Vol. 5: Primary Sources. Detroit: UXL, 2004. 113-122. Gale World History In Context. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. The world's first atomic bomb detonated was on July 15, 1945 by the United States. President Eisenhower's "Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy" speech was meant to tell the dangers of atomic bombs and the precautions countries should take during the atomic age. This source describes President Eisenhower's concerns to the world about the race of nuclear advancement and the threats they can pose. This helped my research because it showed the early stages of nuclear advancement leading up to the Cuban Missile Crisis and the great threat it put on the world.

"Hawks vs. Doves: The Joint Chiefs and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Government Book Talk. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <govbooktalk.gpo.gov/2012/10/18/hawks-vs-doves-thejoint-chiefs-and-the-cuban-missile-crisis/>. This newspaper headline was from the Arizona Republic. It showed me what newspapers were headlining during the crisis.

"JFK and Khrushchev | Cuban Missile Crisis." Cuban Missile Crisis | Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center has created this site as a resource for the Cuban Missile Crisis. Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, th. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/post/gallery/jfk-and-kruschev/>. The Cold War was between the Soviet Union and the United States and their leaders, Premier Khrushchev and President Kennedy. This picture shows their relationship as leaders.

Kennedy, John F. "Cuban Missile Crisis." National Broadcasting Compant. 22 Oct. 1962. Words That Changed America: Great Speeches That Inspired, Challenged, Healed, and Enlightened. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2003. 281-85. Print. On October 22, 1962 President Kennedy released a televised address to the country informing them of the Cuban Missile Crisis and its details. This speech describes the precautions that the Unites States were taking and their intelligence of the situation. This speech helped my research because it shows how the President addressed the people of the situation and informed them of the dangers that it could lead too.

Kennedy, Robert F, "The President...Knew He Would Have to Act." Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. By Robert F. Kennedy. Toronto: W. W. Norton, 1969. N. pag. Print. President Kennedy and his staff were in dire need of a way to stop the Soviets from building missile sites on Cuba. Their two ideas were an airstrike on the missile sites or having a naval blockade and quarantining Cuba. This source describes how naval blockade served to be the better idea because an airstrike described by Robert McNamara as "militarily impractical" and the naval blockade was the best action for the U.S to take without harming any lives. The United States was afraid that if they had an airstrike on Cuba, the Soviet Union would feel that it would be necessary to retaliate on the U.S forces and arms in Berlin. This source helped my research because it it showed how the majority of the President's Cabinet were initially for the idea of an attack on Cuba, as the President felt otherwise.

Khrushchev, Nikita. Letter. 24 Oct. 1962. Letter from Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy, October 24, 1962. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/nikita.htm>. Chairman Khrushchev did not agree to the terms that President Kennedy had first presented him in a letter for a resolution. This source describes how Khrushchev was feeling after the letter he received from President Kennedy. He said he felt that United States was trying to intimidate the Soviet Union. This helped my research because it showed me how Chairman Khrushchev reacted to President Kennedy's concerns.

Letter. 28 Oct. 1962. Letter from Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy outlining his understanding that the Turkish Missiles would be removed. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/nikita5.htm>. Chairman Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba if President Kennedy removed the missiles from Turkey. This source describes the resolution between The United States and The Soviet Union. This helps my research because it shows that both men agreed to remove their missile bases to end the conflict in Cuba.

Map of Missile Range in Cuba. Map. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/post/gallery/map-ofmissile-range-in-cuba-2/> The missiles located in Cuba were a big threat to the United States. They had a range to hit many U.S states and cities including our capital, Washington, D.C., and most of the southern United States. The source describes the danger and threat Cuba and the Soviet Union was putting on the United States when they put the missiles on Cuba. This helped my research because it showed the range the missiles had, which was around one thousand miles.

Letter. 22 Oct. 1962. Letter from President Kennedy to Chairman Khrushchev, October 22, 1962. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kenlet.htm>. President Kennedy sent Nikita Khrushchev letters to express his feeling about the Cuban Missile Crisis and to come up with a peaceful resolution to the crisis. This letter described President Kennedy's feelings toward the Soviet Union's actions by putting missiles in Cuba. This helped my research because it showed President Kennedy's immediate reaction to the situation.

"Newspapers." Main page. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://blog.postcardgallery.net/newspapers/newspaper01.htm>. This newspaper headline was from the New York herald Tribune. It showed me what newspapers were headlining during the crisis.

Prime Minister Fidel Castro’s letter to Premier Khrushchev, October 26, 1962. <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/621026%20Castro%20Letter%20to% 20Khrushchev.pdf> Fidel Castro and Premier Khrushchev planned and designed how the Soviet Union would plant nuclear missiles on Cuba. This letter from Fidel Castro to Premier Khrushchev described Castro’s concerns about the United States reaction to nuclear missiles. This letter helped my research because it shows how Fidel Castro was predicting the United States invading Cuba or trying destroy the missiles.

"Quarantine Proclamation | Cuban Missile Crisis." Cuban Missile Crisis | Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center has created this site as a resource for the Cuban Missile Crisis. Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, th. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/post/gallery/kennedy-signs-cuba-quarantineproclamation/>. The United States decided to have a naval blockade of Cuba. This picture describes President Kennedy signing the Naval Quarantine Proclamation

Sagua La Grande. 23 Oct. 1962. Cuban Missile Crisis. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/>. Nuclear missile sites were located in the Cuban city of Sagua La Grande. This source describes the location of the missiless and were they would be launched, where they were being assembled, and where the were being brought in. This helped my research because it shows me where all the missiles were and what was happening in each area.

Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, military briefing, “Notes on October 21, 1962Meeting with the President.” <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/19621021mcnam.pdf> Robert McNamara and the president had a military briefing discussing the situation in Cuba involving nuclear missiles and the Soviet Union. This report describes the military’s views on the situation and their ideas to stop it. Their current ideas were an air attack on the missile sites. This report helped my research because it showed how the military was weighing out their options on how to end the crisis and invade Cuba without starting a nuclear war.

"Soviet Ship Departing Cuba | Cuban Missile Crisis." Cuban Missile Crisis | Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center has created this site as a resource for the Cuban Missile Crisis. Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, th. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/post/gallery/photo-14/>. After the naval blockade, all the Soviet Union's missile equipment was shipped back to the Soviet Union. This photograph shows how the ships traveled back to the Soviet Union.

"THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS - BLOCKADE! | The Mitchell Archives - Original Historic Newspapers." The Mitchell Archives - Original Historic Newspapers For Sale. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2013. <http://mitchellarchives.com/the-cuban-missile-crisis-blockade.htm>. This newspaper headline was from the Daily News in New York. It showed me what newspapers were headlining during the crisis.

"The Slice." The Spokesman-Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.spokesman.com/blogs/slice/tags/cuban-missile-crisis/. The missiles in Cuba were aimed at major cities in the United States. This map shows the locations and range the missiles had.

"Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." The State Department. Department of State, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.state.gov/www/global/arms/treaties/npt1.html#2>. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is aimes towards the nuclear nations and their advancements in nuclear weapons to keep peace. The treaty does not allow non-nuclear nations to obtain nuclear weapons and for nuclear nations to peacefully advise the nations not to conduct nuclear research and they are not allowed to give these nations any weapons. This helped my research because it shows how the world is coming more and more dangerous due to nuclear threats and how the governments of powerful nations are trying to end nuclear advancement.

USSR, Cable, TOP SECRET, Dobrynin Report of Meeting with Robert Kennedy on Worsening Threat, October 27, 1962. <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/621027%20Dobrynin%20Cable%20to%20U SSR.pdf> On October 27, 1962 Dobrynin had a meeting with Robert Kennedy on the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Soviet Union’s role in it. They also came up with resolutions to the issue. President Kennedy was planning on having armored planes fly over Cuba as a retaliation of the attack on an unarmored plane. This telegram helped my research because it explained the steps to resolving the situation in Cuba and the removing of the missiles.

Secondary Sources Allison, Graham. "At 50, the Cuban Missile Crisis as Guide." New York Times 15 June 2012: n. pag. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/16/opinion/at-50-the-cubanmissile-crisis-as-guide.html>. The Cuban Missile Crisis can be a guide for how to handle foreign policy dilemmas for today. This Op-Ed piece describes the similarities between the Cuban Missile Crisis and Iran's Nuclear Program and that the President will one day maybe have to choose to order a military attack on Iran. This helped my research because he author was comparing the situation and choices to President Kennedy's choices during the crisis.

"Bay of PIgs." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx>. The Bay of Pigs invasion was the first invasion on Cuba from the United States. The United States invaded Cuba because they, and U.S trained cuban exiles, wanted to overthrow their leader, Fidel Castro, to establish a non-communist government that is friendly to the United States. The United States was weary of the relationship between Cuba and the Soviet Union. This source describes how the United States planned on invading Cuba to overthrow Castro, and how they did not succeed. This source helped my research because it describes to me events that led up to the Cuban Missile Crisis.

"Berlin Wall." Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006. 354-357. Gale World History In Context. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. On August 13, 1961 the city of Berlin was split between the western, democratic side of Germany controlled by the United States, France, and Great Britain and the eastern communist side controlled by the Soviet Union by erecting a wall on the border of East and West Berlin. This source descrbes how the formation of the Berlin Wall was a huge milestone for Communist advancement in the world. This helped my research because it showed the state of conflict between the United States' spread of democracy and The Soviet Union's spread of communism through the world around the time when the Cuban Missile Crisis happened.

"The Cold War." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Cold-War.aspx>. The Cold War started after the victory of the United States in World War Two in the mid 1940's (1945). It was mainly between The United States and The Soviet Union and the spread of Communism. This source describes how the Cold War started and all the important events that happened during it for example, the spread of Communism from The Soviet Union to most of Eastern Europe. This source helped my research because it showed me how the Cold War started after World War Two and The United States' role in it.

"Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis." Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html>. The Soviet Union had planted nuclear missiles in Cuba as a response to protect their ally from invasions by the United States. This source describes the process of how the U.S.S.R planted missiles in Cuba and the United States received this as a threat from the Soviet Union and quarantined Cuba with a naval blockade. This helped my research because it explained why the U.S.S.R planted missiles in Cuba and how the United States reacted to their actions.

Cox, Jessica L., and Margaret Cosentino. "Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty."Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1131-1133. Gale World History In Context. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. The nuclear test ban treaty prohibits all atmospheric, space, underwater, and partial underground testing. The treaty was signed by the three super-powers, the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain nearly a year after the Cuban Missile Crisis in terms to limit radioactive debris in the atmosphere and to ease the options of having a nuclear war. This source helped my research because it shows how a nuclear threat on the world (the Cuban Missile Crisis) can impact countries to desire peace and to limit the threats from nuclear weapons.

Cox, Jessica L., and Margaret Cosentino. "Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty."Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1341-1343. Gale World History In Context. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is designed to have the nuclear weapons states end the spread of nuclear weapon advancement in non-nuclear weapons states. This source described how tense nuclear advancement got in the world and how it causes problems. This helped my research because it shows how the nuclear weapons states wanted to stop the spread of nuclear arms to keep peace in the world.

Cuban Missile Crisis. Harvard Kennedy School: Belfer Center, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/background/dramatis-personae/excomm/>. Robert Kennedy was the Attorney General under President Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis and was his younger brother. He advised taking action on Cuba but was against the airstrike and favored the bockade. He thought an air strike was against American Traditions and said that the airstrike would "blacken the name of the United States in the pages of history." This source helped my research because it described Robert Kennedy's ideas about how to handle the crisis and what the best interest was for the U.S.

"Cuban Missile Crisis - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Cuban-Missile-Crisis.aspx>. The Cuban Missile Crisis started with the discovery of missile sites on Cuba that were photographed by a U.S U-2 Spy plane. This source describes the events and the actions that took place during the Cuban Missile Crisis. It helped my research because it gave me an overview about my topic about John F. Kennedy‚ and his actions toward the Soviet Union and Cuba.

Ferguson, Charles D. "The long road to zero: overcoming the obstacles to a nuclear-free world." Foreign Affairs 89.1 (2010): 86. Gale World History In Context. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. The powerful countries of the world are all still threatened by the uprising of nuclear advancements. This source describes how the United States, as well is Russia, and other countries with nuclear weapons are in danger of nuclear conflicts and the best way to resolve the issue from happening is to rid of nuclear stockpiles. This source helped my research because it shows how the Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world has gotten to having a nuclear war and the world will be under threat as long as the world's super-power countries have nuclear weapons.

Garthoff, Raymond L. "The Soviet Decision." Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis: Revised to Include New Revelations from Soviet & Cuban Sources. Washington, D.C: Brooking Institution, 1989. N. pag. Print. The Soviet Union and Cuba were allies during the Cold War. The Soviet Union was worried for Cuba because of the Bay of Pigs invasion, and they knew that the United States was trying to remove the Communist regime in Cuba. This source described how the Soviet Union was trying to protect Cuba from the United States thus planting Nuclear Missiles in Cuba aiming at the U.S. This helped my research because it showed the Soviet Union's reasons for their actions.

Hansen, James H. "CSI." Soviet Deception in the Cuban Missile Crisis � Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 14 Apr. 2007. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csistudies/studies/vol46no1/article06.html>. The CIA played a key role in the intelligence of the Cuban Missile Crisis. This source described the actions the CIA took in the resolution and investigation of the situation. This source helped my research because it showed how the CIA researched and investigated the crisis for example, how the CIA covered up the research of the missiles in Cuba by using "Operation ANADYR", which was misleading the Soviets into believing there were strategic actions in Northern U.S.S.R territory.

Janulaityte, Gintare. John F. Kennedy and Nikita S. Khrushchev: When Personal Becomes International. N.d. HPU Graduate Degree. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hpu.edu/CHSS/History/GraduateDegree/MADMSTheses/files/gintarejanula ityte.pdf>. The United States and The Soviet Union had a strong conflict during the Cold War. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world has been to having the world's superpowers at risk of starting a Nuclear War. This source describes the relationship between both countries and their conflicts. It helped my research because it explained how the Cuban Missile Crisis started and the events that led up to it and after it and how it changed the world and both nations.

"Nuclear Test Ban Treaty." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty.aspx>. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was designed to decrease atmospheric radioactive debris and to end the nuclear arms race between The Soviet Union and The United States. This source describes the causes of The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and why it was necessary for example, after the Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved Nikita Khrushchev and President Kennedy realized that the crisis could have led to a nuclear world war three. President Kennedy said during a White House meeting that "It is insane that two men, sitting on opposite sides of the world, should be able to decide to bring an end to civilization." This source helped my research because it showed my why the treaty was made and how it will help the world.

"Prime Minister of Cuba Fidel Castro." 50th Anniversary Cuban Missile Crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/background/dramatis-personae/theleaders/>. Fidel Castro came into power in Cuba in 1959. He converted the country to a Communist regime after becoming allies with the Soviet Union. This source describes his role in the Cuban Missile Crisis and how he did not want to withdraw the missiles from the island as a reciprocal to the invasion of the Bay of Pigs by the United States. Castro felt that the Soviet Union had betrayed him because he was excluded from the negotiations to resolve the crisis. This helped my research because it shows how Cuba was used during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Roeschley, Jason K. (2011) "Nikita Khrushchev, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Aftermath,"Constructing the Past: Vol. 12: Iss. 1, Article 12. The Cuban Missile Crisis had many effects towards the Soviet Union, as did the United States. The Soviet Union did not think that planting missiles in Cuba would start a war with the U.S, since the Soviet Union is 11,000 kilometers away from Cuba and an attack on the U.S was described as "unthinkable". This source describes the thoughts of the USSR during the crisis. This source helped my research because it described the Soviet Union's side of the crisis and how they dealing with it.

Stanke, Jaclyn. "One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War." The Historian 72.3 (2010): 719+. Gale World History In Context. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. The United States and Russia were on the brink of a nuclear war that could end mankind. This source describes President Kennedy's and Premier Khrushchev's actions towards resolving the missile crisis in the most responsible way, the U.S quarantined Cuba with a Naval Blockade to force the Soviet Union to eradicate all their missiles, Premier Khrushchev agreed to Kennedy's terms and resolved the conflict peacefully. This helped my research because it shows how both governments, both set up differently, can resolve a conflict for the greater good and for peace.

Stein, R. Conrad. "Spy in the Sky." Cuban Missile Crisis: In the Shadow of Nuclear War. N.p.: Enslow, 2008. N. pag. Print. A U.S U-2 plane that was investigating the Russian forces that were gathering on Cuba discovered the nuclear missiles. U-2 planes were flying over Cuba regularly and this was considered highly illegal, the piot Major Richard Heyser was breaking International Law by flying into another nation's airspace. This source describes how Major Richard Heyser discovered and photographed the missiles. This source helped my research because it explains the details of how the missiles were found and how the United States' government responded to this discovery.

"Timeline | Cuban Missile Crisis -- 50th Anniversary." Cuban Missile Crisis -- 50th Anniversary | Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center has created this website to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from . N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cubanmissilecrisis.org/background/timeline/>. The Cuban Missile Crisis started in the early 1960's between the Soviet Union, The United States and Cuba. This timeline describes the events of the Cold War and specifically, the dates and order of the events that led up to and were during the crisis. This timeline helped my research because it showed me the order of events that led up to the crisis like on May 7th, 1963 the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations with Cuba and on May 13th, 1963 Nikita Khrushchev decides to plant missiles in Cuba.