HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN DEFINITION OF HEAT EXCHANGER: A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer between a hot process stream and a cold process stream. PDEC 6 .

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS: • Shell & Tube heat exchanger • Plate heat exchanger PDEC • Plate & Shell heat exchanger 7 .

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC Shell & tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes & cylindrical shell. 8 . A set of tubes is called the tube bundle. The second fluid runs over the tubes i.(as shown in Fig). One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled.e inside the shell that are being heated or cooled.



slightly separated plates that have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages for heat transfer.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC It is composed of multiple. thin. • Much higher heat transfer co-efficient • Lower cost. low space requirement 11 .


high operating temperature • Compact in size • Low fouling PDEC 13 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PLATE AND SHELL HEAT EXCHANGERS • It is combines with plate heat exchanger and shell & tube heat exchanger technologies. high pressure. • High heat transfer.


HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN TYPE OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS • Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (STHEs) are the most widely and commonly used unfired heat transfer equipment in the chemical process industries. • Shell and tube heat exchanger may be classified By construction and By service PDEC 15 .

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN HEAT EXCHANGERS NOMENCLATURE: An STHE is divided into three parts mainly: • The front head • The shell and • The rear head PDEC 16 .


U-tube and floating head. D and N. N. T. • There are eight rear head types: L. P. and W which corresponding in practice to only three general construction types. namely fixed tube sheet. B. S. C. 18 . M.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN HEAT EXCHANGERS NOMENCLATURE: PDEC • There are five front head types: A. V.

• There are seven types of shell depending on fluid flows through a shell . J. H. 19 .E. G. F.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN Cont: PDEC • Rear head ‘L’ is identical to a front head ‘A’ and rear head ‘M’ is identical to a front head ‘B’ while N is the same nomenclature. K and X.

head heat exchanger PDEC 20 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN • CLASSIFICATION BY CONSTRUCTION It may be classified into three categories. • Fixed-tube sheet heat exchanger • U-tube heat exchanger • Floating.



• A fixed-tube sheet heat exchanger has straight tubes secured at both ends to tube sheets welded to the shell. • The construction may have removable channel covers (e.g. AEL), bonnet –type channel covers (e.g. BEM) or integral tube sheets (e.g. NEN)

Bonnet Stationary (Stationary Tubesheet Head) Support Bracket Stationary Tubesheet Bonnet (Stationary Head)





Advantages of this exchangers • The main advantage of a fixed-tube sheet construction is low cost as it has the simplest construction. • Permits mechanical cleaning of the inside of the tubes as these are accessible after removal of the channel cover or bonnet.

Disadvantages of this exchangers • The outside of the tube can not be cleaned mechanically as the bundle can not be removed from the shell. • Due to this shell side fluid should be clean 24 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN FIXED-TUBE SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC • No leakage from the shell side fluid as there are no flanged joint.

the tubes of a U-tube heat exchanger are bent in the shape of a U. 25 . There is only one tube sheet in a U-tube heat exchanger.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER • As name implies.

• It permits the outside of the tubes cleaning as the tube bundle can be removed.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER Advantages of this exchangers • It permits the tube bundle to expand or contract according to the differential stress set up due to free at one end. 26 .

• This exchangers should not be used for services which have dirty fluid inside the tubes. 27 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER Disadvantages of this exchangers • The inside of the tube cannot be cleaned effectively.

28 . which usually have dirty streams on both the tube side and shell side. This is primarily the reason why U.tube heat exchangers are not generally used in oil refineries .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC • It places a very severe limitation on U-tube heat exchangers for refinery services.

29 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC FLOATING.HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER • A Floating-heat exchanger is one where one tube sheet is fixed relative to the shell and the other is free to float within the shell.

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN FLOATING. It is used for services where both the shell side and tube side fluids are dirty.HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER •Advantages of the exchangers PDEC This type of heat exchanger permits free expansion of the tube bundle It permits cleaning of both the inside and outside of the tubes. 30 .

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC FLOATING.tube exchangers due to:  More components in this construction  Shell diameter is larger than floating tube sheet. 31 .HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER Floating head exchanger is the most versatile construction. •Disadvantages of this exchangers It is more costlier than Fixed tube & U.

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN FLOATING.HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER Various types of floating head construction are: PDEC • • • • Pull through with backing device:TEMA type S Pull through: TEMA type T Outside.packed stuffing – box: TEMA type P Outside-packed lantern ring: TEMA type W 32 .

The floating head cover is secured against the floating tube sheet by bolting it to an ingenious device called split backing ring.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN • PULL THROUGH WITH BACKING DEVICE: TEMA type S PDEC Most commonly used type in the chemical processing industries. The floating head closure is located beyond the end of the shell and contained by a shell cover of a larger diameter. 33 .

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC Cont. For dismantling the heat exchanger. 34 . then the split backing ring and finally the floating head cover after which the tube bundle can be removed from the stationary end. the shell cover is removed first. the reverse order is followed. For assembling the heat exchangers.


PDEC 36 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN Pull through: TEMA type T • The floating head cover is bolted directly to the floating tube sheet so that a split backing ring is not required. • The advantage of this type construction is that the tube bundle may be removed from the shell without removing either the shell or floating head cover.

Pull through: TEMA type T


• It is generally used for kettle re-boilers having a dirty heating medium where u-tube cannot be used. • The shell diameter is the largest in this type of construction since floating head tube sheet with cover has to be removed through the shell. Hence, the cost is the highest in this type of construction.

• Pull through: TEMA type T
Rear tubad end
6 21


16 15

Stationary Head end


3 10




OUTSIDE-PACKED STUFFING–BOX:TEMA TYPE P • In this construction, the shell side fluid is sealed by ring of packing compressed within a stuffingbox by a follower ring. • This construction is prone to leakage. Due to this, its usage is limited to shell side services, which are:  Non-hazardous and non-toxic services  Moderate pressure and temperature (40 kg/cm² and 300ºc).


Hence any leakage will be the outside. • The width of the tube sheet necessarily has to be sufficient to accommodate the two packing rings and the lantern ring. plus the expansion margin.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN OUTSIDE-PACKED LANTERN RING: TEMA TYPE W PDEC • The shell side and tube side fluids are sealed by separate ring of packing or O-ring and separated by a lantern ring provided with weep holes. 41 .

9 kg/cm² and 204ºc.HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN OUTSIDE-PACKED LANTERN RING: TEMA TYPE W • This design is limited to 9. 27 26 24 PDEC 3 30 42 .

• Single phase (both shell side and tube side) • Condensing (one side condensing and other single phase) • Vaporizing ( one side vaporizing and the other single phase) • Condensing/vaporizing (one side condensing and the other vaporizing) 43 .HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC CLASSIFICATION BY SERVICE It may be classified into four categories.

44 . • Cooler: One stream a process fluid and the other stream a cold utility. such as cooling water or air. • .PDEC DIFFERENT TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENTS • Heat Exchanger: both side single phase process streams (that is not an utility).

such as cooling water or air. 45 .PDEC Cont. such as stream or hot oil • Condenser: One stream a condensing vapor and the other stream a cold utility. • Heater: One stream a process fluid and the other stream a hot utility.

• Re-boiler: One stream a bottom stream from a distillation column and other a hot utility (stream or hot oil) or a process stream. 46 . • Chiller: One stream a process fluid being condensed at sub-zero temperature and the other stream a boiling refrigerant or process stream (evidently cryogenic).PDEC Cont. • Vaporizer: One stream a vaporizing liquid and the other a gas or a liquid.


PDEC COMPONENT OF STHEs : The principal components of an STHE are: • Shell and Shell cover • Tubes • Channel and Channel cover 48 .

PDEC COMPONENT OF STHEs : • Tube sheet • Baffles • Floating head cover • Nozzles 49 .

• Impingement plate. 50 . • Pass partition plates. • Tie-rods and spacers.PDEC COMPONENT OF STHEs : The other components are.

PDEC COMPONENT OF STHEs : • Longitudinal baffles. sliding strips. • Sealing strips. • Supports and foundation 51 .


Packing Gland 26. Stationary Head-Channel 2. Packing 25. Floating Tubesheet Skirt 23. Shell Nozzle 13. Floating Head Cover 22. Tierods and Spacers 28. Shell Flange-Rear Head End 12. Expansion Joint 15. Shell Cover 10. Slip-On Backing Flang 21. Shell Flange-Stationary Head End 11.VARIOUS PARTS OF HEAT EXCHANGER 1. Floating Head Cover Flange 18. Stationary Tubesheet 7. Floating Head Cover 17. Shell Cover Flange 14. Floating Tubesheet 16. Channel Cover 5. Stationary Head-Bonnet 3. Vent Connection PDEC 53 . Impingement Plate 30. Packing Box 24. Pass Partition 32. Longitudinal Baffle 31. Floating Head Backing Device 19. Tubes 8. Lantern Ring 27. Shell 9. Stationary Head Nozzle 6. Split Shear Ring 20. Transverse baffles or Support Plates 29. Stationary Head Flange-channel Or Bonnet 4.

TUBE BUNDLE: • The tube bundle is the heart of the shell and tube unit and comprises tubes. split ring. longitudinal baffle and sealing/sliding strips. tube sheets. Tie rods. 54 .PDEC SHELL AND SHELL COVER: • The shell is cylinder in which tubes are contained and serves to contain the shell side flowing stream and forms the outer casing of the tube bundle. baffle. floating head cover. impingement plate. baffles.

namely a) plain or bare and b) finned – external or internal • Plain tubes are most common ones which are generally used in refineries 55 .PDEC TUBES: • Tubes are most vital component of the heat exchangers. • Tubes are two types.

or average wall thickness (when there is both under tolerance and over tolerance). but only over tolerance).PDEC Cont. • Wall thickness can be either minimum wall (when there is no under-tolerance. 56 .Birmingham Wire Gauge). • Tubes are usually defined by outer dia (OD) and wall thickness (or BWG.

PDEC Cont. Hastealloys and Tantalum. • Material of construction of tubes are. low and high alloy steels. • The usual practice is to order tubes with minimum wall thickness for carbon steel and low alloy steel tubes and with average wall thickness for non-ferrous and high-alloy steel tubes. Admiralty brass and bronze. special stainless steels. alloys of copper and nickel.carbon steel. 57 .

58 .PDEC TUBE SHEETS: • The ends of the tubes fit into a common sheet and are expanded against or welded to the shell to form a pressure tight seal which separates fluid in the shell and that in the tubes. Tube sheet are two types • Fixed/stationary tube sheet – A tube sheet fixed or welded to the shell.

PDEC Welded tube to tube sheet joints are usuallyemployed for severe condition such as high pressure (say. Floating tube sheet: • A tube sheet which can move to allow for expansion or contraction of the tubes relative to the shell. 59 . in excess of 80 kg/cm²) or when handling toxic or inflammable fluids where leakage is not permitted.

to 300 mm for high pressure & large shell • Depending on the severity of the situation.PDEC • Tube sheet thickness can vary from 25 mm for low-pressure low shell dia. tubes are either expanded into grooves in the tube sheet or welded to theme to tube sheet Baffles: • It serve to support the tubes as well as to impart a sufficiently shell side velocity to yield a satisfactory heat transfer co-efficient. 60 .

61 . • The outside diameter of the baffle has to be less than the inside diameter of the shell to permit insertion of the tube bundle into the shell and removal of the bundle from the shell.PDEC • Baffles are held securely in place by a combination of tie rods and spacers. • The length of spacers is equal to the baffle spacing.

• A single longitudinal baffle from one tube sheet to just sort of the other tube sheet produce on ‘F’ shell i. 62 .PDEC LONGITUDINAL BAFFLES: • A plate which is placed transversely along the centre line of the shell and is employed to divide the shell into two or more compartments is called longitudinal baffle.e. a shell with two shell passes.

• A sufficient number of sealing strips is required to be inserted in the gap between the shell and outer most tubes in floating head tube bundles to minimize leakage of the shell 63 .PDEC SLIDING AND SEALING STRIPS: • A pair of sliding strips is provided at the bottom of floating head tube bundles for their insertion and removal to and from the shell.

PDEC IMPINGEMENT PLATE: • The inlet nozzle is provided with a plate which is used to protect the uppermost tubes located just below the shell side inlet nozzle against direct impingement by the shell side fluid is called an impingement plate. CHANNEL COVER & PASS PARTITION PLATES: • Channel is the inlet and outlet chambers for the fluids flowing through the tubes. CHANNEL. 64 .

They fit tightly into grooves in the tube sheet and channel cover in order to eliminate the possibility of leakage of the tube side fluid from one pass to the next. • Pass partition plates are the plate in the channel which make the fluid in the tubes flow through one set of tubes and back through another set. where a dished end is welded to channel barrel or a flanged channel cover. 65 .PDEC • A channel may either be of a bonnet const.


• TEMA(Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association) for design of STHEs 67 . Welding & Testing requirements.PDEC CODES/STANDARDS: • API 660 ..Shell & tube heat exchangers for general refinery services. • ASME Section VIII – Pressure Vessels for Shell thickness cal.

• Class-R Refinery Service • Class-B Chemical Process service • Class-C General service LIMITATION OF TEMA: • Inside diameter of shell is 2540 mm • A design pressure of 211 kg/cm2 68 .PDEC TEMA: There are three classes of TEMA.

Kcal/hr-m2-c 69 . Q = A* U*△T Where. m2 U= Overall heat transfer co-efficient.PDEC BASIC FORMULA: The basic formula for heat transfer is. Kcal/hr A = Required effective heat exchanger surface. Q = Total heat to be transferred. based on the tube O.D .

PDEC Cont. △T = effective mean temperature difference. △T is equal to the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) In most commercial exchangers. the use of shell baffles and multiple tube passes causes the flow to be partially counter current and 70 . OC For exchangers where the flow of the hot and cold fluids is true counter or concurrent.

△T (effective) = LMTD * F ( F= < 1.PDEC Cont.e. partially concurrent flow. LMTD = △Th . For this mixed flow △T is obtained by applying a correction factor (F) to the calculated LMTD for a counter current flow arrangement i.0) Where.△Tc Ln ( h / △Tc ) (△T 71 .

Where. of cold fluid 72 . △Th = T1 .t1 T1 = Inlet temp.PDEC Cont. of hot fluid t 1 = Inlet temp. of hot fluid T2 = Outlet temp. of cold fluid t 2 = Outlet temp.t2 △Tc = T2 .

t1 T1 .t1 73 .PDEC Cont.) P= t2 . “F” is plotted as a function of “P” and “R” . effectiveness or efficiency of exch. Where” and “R” P = Temp. = (△t of cold fluid) / (△t of hot & cold fluid inlet temp. The value of correction factor “F” is obtained from TEMA chart.

R = Heat capacity rate ratio.PDEC Cont. Where. = wc / Wc T1 .t1 74 .T2 R = t2 .

or • 25 psi or 10% greater than the maximum operating pressure in PSIG BASIS OF DESIGN TEMPERATURE: • The minimum design temp is normally set a 25oC above the maximum operating temp at the exchanger 75 .PDEC BASIS OF DESIGN PRESSURE: • Maximum pump shut of pressure.

PDEC DESIGN OF STHEs: The design of shell and tube heat exchangers comprises two distinct activities are: • Thermal design and • Mechanical design 76 .

the heat exchangers is sized. tube length. which means that all the principal construction parameters such as shell type and diameter. 77 . number of tubes. tube pitch. tube OD and thickness. number of tube passes. baffle spacing & cut and nozzles sizes are determined.PDEC Thermal design: • In thermal design.

• Overall cost = initial cost + operating cost • Initial cost is evidently the fixed cost or first cost of the heat exchangers • Operating cost = pumping cost + maintenance cost + down time cost 78 .PDEC Basic aims of a thermal designer are: 1.Produce a thermal design that has a low overall cost.

79 . 2. Utilize allowable pressure drop as fully as possible. • Higher heat transfer co-efficient will be higher pressure drop.foulant cost + any repair or replace. • Higher the velocity of the fluid higher will be the heat transfer co-efficient. Cost.PDEC Cont.: • Maintenance cost= periodically cleaning cost + anti .

: • Higher heat transfer co-efficient will tend to reduce first cost of the exchangers. • Higher pressure drop will tend to increase the operating cost of the exchangers • Thus a very important goal for a good thermal design is the best utilization of the allowable pressure drop 80 .PDEC Cont.

PDEC REQUIRED DATA FOR THERMAL DESIGN : Process dept. have to furnish the following data for thermal design of heat exchangers: • • • • Name of the fluids Flow rate of the fluids Inlet & outlet temperature of the fluids Operating pressure of the fluids 81 .


Cont. • Allowable pressure drop Generally 0.5 to 0.7 kg/cm2 per shell for liquid 0.05 to 0.02 kg/cm2 per shell for gases • Fouling refers- accumulation and deposition of living organisms and certain non-living materials on the surface • Properties of fluids like – Specific gravity/ density, thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat.


Cont. • Heat release profile for two phase flow – it is a plot of heat duty and weight fraction vapor versus temperature and is an essential part of the process data sheet. • Heat exchanged i.e. heat duty



Cont. • Selection of heat exchanger type i.e Fixed tube, Utube or Floating head tube exchangers (i.e AES, BEM )etc. • Placement of Fluids  Generally low flow rate fluid is placed on the shell side .This facilitates provision of adequate turbulence by increasing number of baffles

PDEC Cont. Cooling water which is likely to deposit scales is generally placed on tube side for facilitating mechanical cleaning of tubes from inside  In general highly befouling fluids that need frequent mechanical cleaning of heat exchangers are usually placed on tube side  Highly corrosive fluids are preferably placed on tube side 85 .

5 mm Length: Commonly used length 6000 / 9000 mm 86 .: Commonly used thk.05/ 25.4 mm Tube thick.PDEC Cont.2 / 2.  Fluids with very high operating pressure are preferably placed on tube side • Line sizes: Generally line size match with nozzle sizes • Preferred tube size: OD: Commonly used OD 19.

PDEC Cont. • Maximum shell diameter As per TEMA ID is 2540 mm As per engineering practice. For floating & U-tube exchangers: Shell ID 14001500 mm For fixed tube heat exchanger: No limitation 87 .

Generally 1.5 to 3 mm is used depending on materials. • Corrosion allowance Tube: As per TEMA no corrosion allowance is applied in tube Shell: Depends on services and materials of construction.PDEC Cont. 88 .

PDEC Cont.  For liquid.minimum recommended velocity in s tube side is 0. • Velocity –In-general very high velocity lead to erosion.6 t0 1.9 m/s while maximum is 2.5 m/s For gases – maximum tube side velocity is 35 m/s 89 .4 m/s. Shell side velocity is from 0.

• Tube lay out pattern There are 4 types of tube lay out pattern. • Type of shell As per TEMA. K & X. J. there are seven types of shells like E. H. G. F.PDEC Cont. 90 .

Rotated Triangular.Not Used when mechanically cleaning is required 91 .PDEC Triangular.Not Used when mechanically cleaning is required.

PDEC Square.When mechanically cleaning is required 92 .When mechanically cleaning is required Rotated square.

25 times the tube OD For square or rotated square pattern tube pitch is generally (OD+6mm) 93 . For triangular & rotated triangular pattern tube pitch is 1. center to center distance between two adjacent tubes.PDEC • Tube Pitch.

SELECTION OF HEAT EXC.TYPE BASIS ON SERVICES PDEC Final decision on exchanger type depends on many factors but the table given below is only for guide line Shell side fluid Clean Dirty Tube side fluid Clean Dirty Type of exchanger Yes - Yes - Fixed tube sheet or U-tube with triangular pitch Yes - - Yes Fixed tube sheet or floating head with triangular pitch U-tube or floating head with square pitch - Yes Yes - - Yes - Yes Floating head with square pitch 94 .

PDEC THERMAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGERS IS DONE BY • HTRI (Heat Transfer Research Institute) Soft ware. USA 95 .

General information of exchangers Performance of exchangers Construction of exchangers 96 .PDEC THERMAL DATA SHEET OF HEAT EXCHANGER: • Heat exchanger thermal specification sheet is divided into three parts.

channel barrel. channel. 97 . shell .girth flanges. etc and a complete bill of materials and engineering drawings such as bundles assembly and setting plan drawings are generated.Baffle plate.PDEC • MECHANICAL DESIGN: Detailed calculations are carried out to determine the dimensions of various components such as tube sheets. floating head dish. shell barrel.

Double segmental .Triple segmental PDEC 98 .Baffles: Generally there are two types of baffles • Plate type .Single segmental .


PDEC ROD TYPE BAFFLEEntire heat transfer area is effective Tube bundle is vibration free No stagnation of flow. uniform flow Pressure drop minimum 100 .


PDEC BAFFLE SPACING: • Center to center line distance between adjacent baffles is called baffle spacing • Minimum spacing as per TEMA is one fifth of the shell ID or 51 mm whichever is greater. 102 .

PDEC BAFFLE SPACING: • For example if shell inside diameter = 1000 m Then 1/5th = 1000/5 = 200 mm • So spacing should be 200 mm • Maximum spacing is usually the shell ID 103 .

This is used for single pass shell for minimizing the accumulation of deposit at the bottom. 104 . Baffle cuts are : • Horizontal.PDEC BAFFLE CUT: • It is the segment opening heights expressed as a percentage of the shell inside diameter .

This is used for two pass shell for ease of fabrication and bundle assembly. as well as for condenser. • Recommended baffle cut is from 20% to 35% 105 .PDEC BAFFLE CUT: • Vertical .

7 15.965 991 .1524 1549 .8 6.5 4.Over 914 .4 9.2540 3.Over 1219 914 mm 1219 mm .9 15.4 7.9 9.5 12.7 6.5 9.7 15.BAFFLE PLATE THICKNESS : PDEC Baffle or support plate thickness should be as per below table (R-4.711 735 .5 12.9 19.1 106 .4 9.4 6.5 9.7 15.5 12.5 12.41 of TEMA) Shell ID Plate thickness Unsupported tube length between central baffles 610 mm & under Over 610 .8 6.1524mm Over 1525mm 152 – 356 381 .9 19.1 9.2 4.5 9.

7 12.71 of TEMA) Nominal shell diameter in mm 152 .5 12.381 406 – 686 711 – 838 864 – 1219 1245 – 1524 Tie rod diameter in mm 9.2540 15. Number and size of the tie rods will be as per below table (R-4.7 Minimum number of tie rod 4 6 6 8 10 1549 .TIE ROD AND SPACERS: PDEC Tie rod and spacers shall be provided to retain all baffles and tube support plates securely in position.5 9.9 12 107 .7 12.

2 SA516Gr60/70 SA266Gr.Material Identification chart: Description of parts Shell Shell cover barrel Shell cover bonnet Channel Channel cover Carbon steel SA516Gr60/70 SA516Gr60/70 SA516Gr60/70 SA516Gr60/70 SA105 Alloy steel SA387GR5CL2 SA387GR5CL2 SA387GR5CL2 SA387GR5CL2 SA182GrF5 Stainless Steel SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA182Gr316 PDEC Tubes Tubes sheet Baffles Floating Head Dish Girth Flanges SA179 SA266Gr.2 SA213GrT5 SA336GrF5 SA387 Gr5CL2 SA336GrF5 SA336GrF5 SA213Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA336Gr316 SA336Gr316 108 .2 SA266Gr.

Material Identification chart: Description of parts Carbon steel Alloy steel Stainless Steel PDEC Nozzles Neck Nozzles Flanges PAD Backing Ring Tie Rods Partition Plate Impingement plate Sealing strips SA106GrB SA105 SA516Gr60/70 SA105 SA516Gr60/70 SA516Gr60/70 SA516Gr60/70 SA516Gr60/70 SA335GrP5 SA182GrF5 SA387GR5CL2 SA336GrF5 SA387GR5CL2 SA387GR5CL2 SA387GR5CL2 SA387GR5CL2 SA312Gr316 SA182Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA336Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 SA240Gr316 Spacers Saddle plate SA179 SA516Gr60/70 SA213GrT5 SA387GR5CL2 SA213Gr316 SA240Gr311 109 .

110 .PDEC MECHANICAL DATA SHEET OF EXCHANGER: • This is required for procurement of heat exchangers.

PDEC • DESIGN SOFTWARE: • PV ELITE and Microprotol software are being used worldwide • Microprotol By EU Research.Elite by COADE taken over by Intergraph. France • PV. USA 111 .

PDEC 112 . overall dimensions.  It is anticipated that a reasonable number of minor drawing changes may be required at that time.MANUFACTURING FEATURES DRAWINGS AND ASME CODE DATA REPORT: • Drawings for approval and change The manufacturer shall submit for purchaser’s approval three(3) prints of an outline drawing showing nozzle sizes and locations. support and weight.

Any changes may cause additional expense chargeable to the purchaser. The manufacturer shall not make any changes on the approved drawings without express agreement of the purchaser. 113 .MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC Cont. Purchaser’s approval of drawings does not relieve the manufacturer of resposibility for compliance with the standard and applicable ASME code requirements.

Any changes may cause additional expense chargeable to the purchaser. Purchaser’s approval of drawings does not relieve the manufacturer of responsibility for compliance with the standard and applicable ASME code requirements.MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC Cont. 114 . The manufacturer shall not make any changes on the approved drawings without express agreement of the purchaser.

PDEC • Drawings for record After approval of drawings manufacturer furnished 3 set of drawings along with all documents to the purchaser 115 . it may be furnished to the purchaser upon request. Shop detail drawings are for internal use by the fabricator.MANUFACTURING FEATURES Cont.

except by the purchaser for his own internal use. • ASME code data reports After completion of fabrication and inspection of ASME code stamped exchangers.MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC • Proprietary rights to drawings The drawings and the design indicated by the manufacturer are to be considered the property of the manufacturer and are not to be used or reproduced without his permission. shall furnish 3 set of ASME data report. 116 . the manufa.

117 .MANUFACTURING FEATURES INSPECTION: There are two yepes of inspection: • Manufacturer’s Inspection • Purchaser’s Inspection PDEC • Manufacturer’s Inspection Inspection and testing of units will be provided by the manufacturer unless otherwise specified.

MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC The manufacturer shall carry out the inspection required by the ASME code and also inspection by state and local codes . • Purchaser’s Inspection The purchaser shall have the right to make inspection during fabrication and to witness any test. 118 . Inspection by the purshaser shall not relieve the manufacturer of his responsibilities.

119 .MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT: • Cleaning Internal and external surfaces are to be free from loose scale and other foreign material that is readily removable by hand or power brushing • Draining Water. oil or other liquids used for cleaning or hydro-static testing are to be drained from all units before shipment.

120 . All threaded connections are to be suitably plugged.MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC • Flange protection All exposed machined contact surfaces shall be coated with a removable rust preventative. • Damage protection The exchangers and any spare parts are to be suitably protected to prevent damage during shipment.

121 .MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC GUARANTEES: It may be given on the basis of • Performance and • Defective parts • Performance Guarantee The manufacturer shall guarantee thermal performance and mechanical design of a heat exchanger. when operated at the design conditions specified by the purchaser in his order.

MANUFACTURING FEATURES Cont. The thermal guarantee shall not be applicable to exchangers where the thermal perfomance rating was made by the purhaser. PDEC This guarantee shall extend for a period of twelve months after shipping date. 122 .

Finished materials and accessories purchased from other manufacturers.MANUFACTURING FEATURES • Defective parts Guarantee PDEC The manufacturer shall repair or replace any parts proven defective within the guarantee period. including tubes are warranted only to the extent of the original manufacturer’s warranty to the heat exchanger. 123 .

PDEC MANUFACTURES OF HEAT EXCHANGER: • M/s Aero-therm Products • M/s Hindustan Radiators • M/s Unique Chemo-plant Equipments • M/s Larsen & Toubro 124 .

PDEC MANUFACTURES OF HEAT EXCHANGER: • M/s Hindustan Dorr Oliver Ltd • M/s Godrej • M/s Precision Engineering. • M/s Universal Heat Exchangers 125 .


ROUTINE MAINTENANCE PDEC OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS • Decline in heat transfer efficiency / high pressure drop • Scaling. choking. fouling.. • Internal Leak Causing contamination between shell and tube fluids 127 . etc.

ageing & corrosion BLINDING THE EQUIPMENTS PDEC 128 .ROUTINE MAINTENANCE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS • Gasket Leaks Due to thermal shock during startup. shutdowns & Upsets • Tube Leaks Tube failure due to fatigue.

SS316. SS321. SS310. in the presence of air and liquid water. SS347) 129 . often dew point water.SS 304.PASSIVATION PDEC • Why ? (During a shutdown. the sulfides convert to polythionic acid which causes inter-granular Stress Corrosion Cracking to Austenitic steels) • Materials prone for SCC (Austenitic SS tube bundles .

Sodium Carbonate (2%) and Sodium Nitrate (0.5%) for about 8 hours.PASSIVATION • When ? Before Opening of the equipments PDEC • Solution Soaked with a solution of DM Water. 130 .

PDEC • Opening the covers of heat exchangers • Removing of bundle Bundle Extractor or Puller 131 .

EXCHANGER CLEANING • Chemical Cleaning PDEC  Shell .Fixed Tube Sheet Bundle  Vacuum Condensers.5% concentration HCl with inhibitor circulation for 8 hours  Hot water wash  Branded chemicals  Online by wash water circulation 132 . Ejector Condensers. Reboilers  0.

Asphalt services • Hydroblasting (For Tube exteriors) Water jet at a pressure of 300 .600 Kg/Sq.PDEC • Kero -bath soaking Crude vacuum.cm (Up to 35000 psi / 2500 bar) 133 .

Hydro-blasting (For Tube exteriors) PDEC Before Cleaning After Cleaning 134 .

Hydro-lancing (For Tube interiors) PDEC Manual Operation Power Lancing 135 .

Hydro-lancing (For Tube interiors) PDEC Before Cleaning After cleaning 136 .

of the media to be contained. or combination of materials. Corrosive nature of the application and Criticality of the application 137 . • Gasket Selection Tem.PDEC • Gasket Replacement A gasket is a compressible material. which when clamped between two stationary members prevents the passage of the media across those members.

PDEC • GASKET CLASSIFICATION CAF (Compressed asbestos fiber) 250 deg. Water. steam and for non-critical applications 138 . 30 bar. C.

Asbestos. In-conel Filler . PTEF. Al.PDEC • GASKET CLASSIFICATION IJA (Iron Jacketed Asbestos) High Temperature applications Sheet Metal .SS. Monel . Brass. Grafoil 139 .

PDEC • GASKET CLASSIFICATION Spiral Wound Gasket (SPWD) (SPWD) with Asbestos filled & Inner Ring (13mm) & Outer Nose (4 mm width) 260 – 650 C Winding . Monel. PTFE(260oC). 316. Ceramic(650oC) 140 . Graphite(550oC).CAF(360oC). 304. Inconel Filler .SS 410.

PDEC TUBE BUNDLE RETUBING • More number of tubes plugged • Not possible to clear the tubes • Scaling & poor heat transfer • After average life of the bundle • Frequent failures 141 .

PDEC TUBE BUNDLE RETUBING • Full or Partial • Where At Bundle Shop or at Position 142 .