3.

Loads (1/4)

3.

LOADS

Rev A. 22 Feb 1999, units for load at the end of 3.4 corrected.

3.1

DENSITY OF MATERIALS1,2
Material Density (kN/m3) Aluminium Asphalt, paving Blockwork Lightweight Standard Brickwork Concrete Facing Cement Chalk, in lumps Clay (in lumps) Clay (dry) Clay (moist) Clay (wet) Concrete Crushed brick Crushed stone Foamed blocks Glass Gravel, clean Iron Cast Wrought Lead, cast or rolled Limestone Normal Lightweight 27.2 22.6 12.6 21.2 22.8 19.7 14.1 11.0 - 12.6 11.0 18.8 - 22.0 20.4 - 25.1 20.4 - 25.1 24.0 18 - 20 12.6 - 15.7 17.3 - 20.4 13.0 27.4 14.1 - 17.3 70.7 75.4 111.1 25.1 Water Steel Timber (Softwoods) C18 C24 C30 Shale Slate, Welsh Snow Wet compact Fresh Plaster Plasterboard Sand Dry Moist Wet Sandstones Marble Mastic Mortar, cement Mud Oils In bulk In barrels In drums Material Density (kN/m3) 25.5 - 27.8 11.0 18.9 - 20.4 16.5 - 18.8 8.8 5.7 7.1 13.3 8.6 15.7 - 18.8 18.1 - 19.6 18.1 - 20.4 12.6 - 18.8 14.1 - 18.8 28.2 3.1 0.9 78.5 - 3.8 - 4.2 - 4.6 9.8

3.2
3.2.1 C

DEAD LOADING
General1,3 In the absence of specific details, use the following: Floor finish (screed) 75mm Ceiling boards False ceiling Services: nominal HVAC Demountable lightweight partitions Blockwork partitions External walling: curtain walling and glazing cavity walls (lightweight block/brick) 1.2 kN/m2 on plan 0.4 kN/m2 on plan 0.25kN/m2 0.25kN/m2 0.4kN/m2 1.0 kN/m2 on plan 2.5 kN/m2 on plan

0.5 kN/m2 on elevation 3.5 kN/m2 on elevation

THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. Ver 3.1/Feb 99

4 0.5 0.2 2.0.3.76 Dead load on elevation (kN/m2) 5.3 * 2.8 . industrial type Patent glazing: single double Doors . C Cladding1 Cladding Arrangement Load on Elevation (kN/m2) Cladding sheeting and fixings Steel wall framing only Framing + brick panels and windows Framing + steel sheeting Windows.3 .5mm brick plastered both sides 225mm thick plastered both sides Curtain wall Acoustic wall Partition Glazing + spandrel 265 brick and block Demountable Stud with lath & plaster 1.industrial wood Lath + plaster + studding Plate glass / 25mm thick Lead plywood 0.65 C Walls Wall type Concrete walls Composition 225 wall 12mm plaster each face Masonry wall (280 cavity) 102.25 1.25 .6 * The lower value is for a trapezoidal deck (Ribdeck AL).4 2.15 5.75 0.5 brick leaves plastered both sides Internal wall 100mm lightweight block plastered both sides 102.25 0.4 0.4 1. Ver 3.2 C Specific dead loading Composite construction4 Layer Typical Thickness (mm) Screed Normal Lightweight Slab Normal Lightweight 130 50 Typical Dead Load on plan kN/m2 1.1/Feb 99 .5 0.5 brick 100 lightweight block and plaster Party wall Cavity wall two 102.9 2.2.4 2.4 0.3. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. the higher value is for a re-entrant profile (Holorib).0 2.5 1 on plan 0.0 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.75 4. Loads (2/4) 3.2 0.2.3 0.55 0.

0 2.8 for each metre of storage height (min 9.5 4.0 3.g. floor Factories (general industrial) File rooms in offices . add 1. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY.6 2.7 2. hospitals) Book stores Churches Classrooms Communal kitchens Corridors Domestic.0 4.5 4.6 This may increase up to 5.58 0.0 2.0 5. 0.0 5.5 4.7 3.0 kN/m for lightweight demountable partitions.compactus † Garages (cars and light vans) Grandstands (fixed seats) Gymnasia Libraries .70 0.5 Description Dead load on plan (kN/m2) (Assuming flat) 0.0 kN/m depending on the clients requirements.4 for each metre of storage height (min 6.0 4.5 7.0 3.5 4.mobile racking Plant / motor rooms etc.5 1.5 2. † THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.29 0.7 1.0 3.4 4. general Shops (not stock rooms) * 2 Concentrated load 5.48 .25 0.3.0 1. Ver 3.0 3. Loads (3/4) Roofs1.5 * 4. Use of structure Intensity of distributed loading (kN/m2) Assembly areas Banking hall Bedrooms (hotels.0.3 C C C TYPICAL IMPOSED LOADING2 Be generous at scheme design stage Allow for change of use and flexibility of building.5 2.0 3.5 4.5) 3.0.5 5.7 4.5 2.reading rooms .55 Bituman roofing felts (3 layers including chipping) Ceiling tray/panels Asphalt (19mm.6 4.5 5. Museum floors Rooms with mainframe computers Offices.6 3. 25mm) Tiles (clay laid to 100mm gauge) Concrete tiles interlocking 3.5 9.41. Compact filing system (usually over a small proportion of the floor area e.1/Feb 99 .0 4. Make no allowance for imposed load reductions during the scheme design except when assessing the load on foundations.8 7.0 7.0 4.0 2 3.6) 7. adjacent to cores).62 .0 2.

4.5 100 Note : where δ = 0 use F = 150 kN for mass of vehicle = 2500 kg. IStructE & ICE. Ver 3. b 3. RICHARD LEES Ltd.4 3. is the deflection of the barrier (in mm). 4) (1991) 2.3. Steel Deck Flooring Systems 5. Metric Handbook (1970) 3.1 IMPOSED LOADS ON BARRIERS The horizontal force F (in kN). is the velocity of the vehicle (in m/s) normal to the barrier. SCI. required to withstand the impact of a vehicle is given by: F' 0. OVE ARUP & PARTNERS. normal to and uniformly distributed over any length of 1. is the ceformation of the vehicle (in mm).5 10 Mass of vehicles >2500 kg mass of vehicles 4.5m of a barrier for a car park.5mv 2 *c%*b where m v δ c δ b Is the gross mass of the vehicle (in kg). Variables m v δ c Mass of vehicles <2500 kg 1500 4. IT IS NOT INTENDED FOR AND SHOULD NOT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. BS 6399 . Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures ("Green Book") (1985) 4. Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950 (Vol.5 REFERENCES 1.1/Feb 99 . Loads (4/4) 3.Parts 1 & 2 THIS DOCUMENT IS COPYRIGHT AND IS PUBLISHED FOR DISTRIBUTION ONLY WITHIN THE OVE ARUP PARTNERSHIP.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful