This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
To explain the main tasks undertaken by project managers To introduce software project management and to describe its distinctive characteristics To discuss project planning and the planning process To show how graphical schedule representations are used by project management To discuss the notion of risks and the risk management process
Management activities Project planning Project scheduling Risk management
Software project management
Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software. Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software.
Software management distinctions
The product is intangible. The product is uniquely flexible. Software engineering is not recognized as an engineering discipline with the sane status as mechanical, electrical engineering, etc. The software development process is not standardised. Many software projects are 'one-off' projects.
Proposal writing. Project planning and scheduling. Project costing. Project monitoring and reviews. Personnel selection and evaluation. Report writing and presentations.
These activities are not peculiar to software management. Many techniques of engineering project management are equally applicable to software project management. Technically complex engineering systems tend to suffer from the same problems as software systems.
May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project
• • • Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff; Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available; An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a software project.
Managers have to work within these constraints especially when there are shortages of trained staff.
Why Do Projects Succeed?
• • • • • • • • • Executive support User involvement Experience project manager Clear business objectives Minimized scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodology Reliable estimates
Standish Group “CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success”
Why Executive Support?
Top management can help to:
• • • Secure adequate resources Get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner Receive cooperation from people throughout the organization Provide leadership guidance
• • A) Processes B) Knowledge Areas 1. PM processes: describing and organizing the work of the project 2. Product-oriented processes: specifying and building the project’s product
Processes. 2 types
• • Engineering, Marketing, Design, etc P&L from production Project A, Project B Income from projects PM has P&L responsibility Functional and Project based Program Mgmt. Model Shorter cycles, need for rapid development process
• • •
• • •
– Clear definition of authority – Eliminates duplication – Encourages specialization – Clear career paths
– “Walls”: can lack customer orientation – “Silos” create longer decisions cycles – Conflicts across functional areas – Project leaders have little power
– Unity of command – Effective inter-project communication
– Duplication of facilities – Career path
Examples: defense avionics, construction
– Project integration across functional lines –Efficient use of resources –Retains functional teams
– Two bosses for personnel – Complexity – Resource & priority conflicts
Weak, Strong, Balanced Degree of relative power Weak: functional-centric Strong: project-centric
Organizational Structure Influences on Projects
Organization Type Project Characteristics Project Manager's Authority Percent of Performing Organization's Personnel Assigned Fulltime to Project Work Project Manager's Role Common Title for Project Manager's Role Project Management Administrative Staff Functional Little or None Virtually None Part-time Project Coordinator/ Project Leader Part-time Weak Matrix Limited Matrix Balanced Matrix Low to Moderate 15-60% Strong Matrix Moderate To High 50-95% Projectized High to Almost Total 85-100%
Part-time Project Coordinator/ Project Leader Part-time
Full-time Project Manager/ Project Officer Part-time
Full-time Project Manager/ Program Manager Full-time
Full-time Project Manager/ Program Manager Full-time
PMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 19
Methods for Selecting Projects
There are usually (always?) more projects than available time and resources to implement them
• Therefore: It is important to follow a logical process for selecting IT projects to work on
• • • • Focusing on broad needs Categorizing projects Financial methods Weighted scoring models
Probably the most time-consuming project management activity. Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available. Various different types of plan may be developed to support the main software project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget.
Types of project plan
Plan Quality plan Validation plan Configuration management plan Maintenance plan Staff plan. Description Describes the quality procedures and standards that will be used in a project. Describes the approach, resources and schedule used for system validation. Describes the configuration management procedures and structures to be used. Predicts the maintenance requirements of the system, maintenance costs and effort required.
development Describes how the skills and experience of the project team members will be developed.
Project planning process
Establish the project constraints Make initial assessments of the project parameters Define project milestones and deliverables while project has not been completed or cancelled loop Draw up project schedule Initiate activities according to schedule Wait ( for a while ) Review project progress Revise estimates of project parameters Update the project schedule Re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables if ( problems arise ) then Initiate technical review and possible revision end if end loop
The project plan
The project plan sets out:
• • • The resources available to the project; The work breakdown; A schedule for the work.
Project plan structure
Introduction. Project organisation. Risk analysis. Hardware and software resource requirements. Work breakdown. Project schedule. Monitoring and reporting mechanisms.
Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress. Milestones are the end-point of a process activity. Deliverables are project results delivered to customers. The waterfall process allows for the straightforward definition of progress milestones.
Milestones in the RE process
Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task. Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce. Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.
The project scheduling process
Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing a solution is hard. Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task. Adding people to a late project makes it later because of communication overheads. The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning.
Bar charts and activity networks
Graphical notations used to illustrate the project schedule. Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should not be too small. They should take about a week or two. Activity charts show task dependencies and the the critical path. Bar charts show schedule against calendar time.
Task durations and dependencies
A ct i v i ty T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 D u r a t io n (da y s) 8 15 15 10 10 5 20 25 15 15 7 10 T 2 , T 4 (M 2 ) T 1 , T 2 (M 3 ) T 1 (M 1) T 4 (M 5) T 3 , T 6 (M 4 ) T 5 , T 7 (M 7 ) T 9 (M 6) T 1 1 ( M 8) T 1 (M 1) D e p e n d e n c ie s
1 4/7 /03 M1 8 da ys T1 2 5/7 /03 4/7 /03 M3 s tar t 1 5 da ys T7 T2 2 5/7 /03 1 0 da ys M2 T4 1 8/7 /03 M5 2 5 da ys T8 1 9/9 /03 Fin ish 1 0 da ys T5 M7 1 5 da ys T1 0 1 0da M8 ys T1 2 1 1/8 /03 5/9 /03 2 0 da ys 7 da ys T1 1 T6 M4 M6 5 da ys 4/8 /03 1 5 da ys 1 5 da ys T3 T9 2 5/8 /03
4/7 Star t T4 T1 T2 M1 T7 T3 M5 T8 M3 M2 T6 T5 M4 T9 M7 T1 0 M6 T1 1 M8 T1 2 Fin ish 1 1/7 1 8/7 2 5/7 1/8 8/8 1 5/8 2 2/8 2 9/8 5/9 1 2/9 1 9/9
4/7 1 1/7 1 8/7 2 5/7 1/8 8/8 1 5/8 2 2/8 2 9/8 5/9 1 2/9 1 9/9 Fr ed
T4 T8 T1 1 T1 2
T1 T3 T9
T2 T6 T1 0
Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project. A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur
• • • Project risks affect schedule or resources; Product risks affect the quality or performance of the software being developed; Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software.
R isk S ta ff tu rn o v e r M a na g e m e n t c h a n ge A ff e c ts P ro je ct P ro je ct D e s cr i p t ion E x pe r ie n ce d s ta ff w il l l ea v e t h e p ro je ct b e f o r e i t is f in is h e d. T h er e w i ll b e a c h a n ge o f o rg an is at i o n al m a na g e m e n t w it h d if fe r e n t pr io r it ie s. H ar dw ar e u n a v ai l ab i li t y P ro je ct H ar dw ar e th at is e sse nt i al fo r th e p ro jec t w il l n o t be d eli v e r e d o n s c h ed u le . R e q u ir e m en ts c h an g e P ro je ct a n d p ro d u ct S p e ci f ic a tio n de l ay s P ro je ct a n d p ro d u ct S iz e u n d e re st im a t e P ro je ct a n d p ro d u ct C AS E t o o l u n d er p er fo rm a n ce T ec h n o lo g y c h an g e B us in e ss P ro d u c t C AS E t o o ls w h i ch su p p o r t th e p ro je c t d o n o t p er fo rm as a n tic ip ate d T h e u n d e rl y i n g te c h n o l o g y o n w h ic h th e sys te m is b ui l t is s u p e rs ed e d b y ne w t ec h n o lo g y . P ro d u c t co mp et i ti o n B us in e ss A c o m p e t it i ve p r o d u c t i s m ar k e t ed be f o r e t h e s y st e m i s c om pl e te d . T h er e w i ll b e a l a r ge r n u mb er o f c h an g e s t o t h e r eq u ir e m e n ts t ha n a n ti ci p ate d . S p e ci f ic a tio n s o f e ss e n ti al i n t er f a c e s a r e n o t a v ai l ab l e o n s c h ed u le T h e s iz e o f t he s y st e m h as be e n u n d e r e s tim ate d .
The risk management process
• Identify project, product and business risks;
• Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks; Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk;
Monitor the risks throughout the project;
The risk management process
Technology risks. People risks. Organisational risks. Requirements risks. Estimation risks.
Risks and risk types
R is k ty p e T echno logy P oss ibl e r is k s T he da ta base us e d in the sy st e m c anno t p r oce s s as m any tr an s ac ti ons per s e cond a s exp e c ted. S of tw a re co m ponen ts tha t shou ld b e r eus e d con ta in de f ec ts t ha t limit f unc ti ona li ty . P eop le It is im pos s ib le to r ec r u it st a f f w it h the sk ill s re qu ired . Key s ta ff a r e i ll and unava il ab le at c riti ca l tim e s . R e qui r ed t ra in ing fo r s ta f f i s no t av a ila bl e . O r gan isa ti ona l T he o r gan is at ion i s re s tr uc tur e d so tha t d iff er e n t m anag e m e n t a r e re s pons ib le fo r the pro je c t. O r gan isa ti ona l f in a nc ia l p r ob le m s fo r c e r educ ti ons i n the pro je c t budge t. T ool s T he cod e gen e ra ted by C A S E t oo ls is i ne ffi c ien t. CA SE too ls canno t be in teg r a ted . R e qui r e m en ts Ch a nges to r equ irem en ts th at r equ ire m a jo r de si gn r ewo r k a re p r oposed . Cu st o m er s f a il to unde r s tand t he im pa c t o f r equ irem en ts change s . E s tim a ti on T he tim e requ ir ed t o deve lop t he s o f tw ar e is unde r es tim a ted . T he r a te of de f ec t r epa ir is und e re stim a ted. T he si ze o f t he s of tw a re is unde r es tim a ted . the ir
Assess probability and seriousness of each risk. Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high. Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant.
Risk analysis (i)
R is k O r gan isa ti ona l f in a nc ia l p r ob le m s fo r c e r educ ti ons i n the pro je c t budge t. H igh C a ta s tr oph ic P ro b ab ilit y L ow E ff ec t s C a ta s tr oph ic
It is im pos s ib le to r ec r u it st a f f w it h the sk ill s re qu ired f or t he p r o jec t. Key s ta ff a r e i ll a t c rit ic a l tim e s in th e p r o jec t.
Mod e ra te Mod e ra te
S e ri ous S e ri ous
S of tw a re co m ponen ts tha t shou ld b e r eus e d con ta in de f ec ts wh ich li m it the ir f unc tion al ity . Ch a nges to r equ irem en ts th at r equ ire m a jo r de si gn r ewo r k a r e propo s ed. T he o r gan is at ion i s re s tr uc tur e d so tha t d iff er e n t m anage me nt a r e r e s pons ib le fo r th e p r o jec t.
Mod e ra te
S e ri ous
S e ri ous
Risk analysis (ii)
R is k T he da ta base us e d in the sy st e m c anno t p r oce s s as m any tr an s ac ti ons pe r s econd as expec ted . H igh S e ri ous P ro b ab ilit y Mod e ra te E ff ec t s S e ri ous
T he tim e requ ir ed t o deve lop t he s o f tw ar e is unde r es tim a ted . CA SE too ls canno t be in teg r a ted . Cu st o m er s f a il to unde r s tand t he im pa c t o f r equ ire m e n ts change s . R e qui r ed t ra in ing fo r s ta f f i s no t av a ila bl e . T he r a te of de f ec t r epa ir is und e re stim a ted. T he si ze o f t he s of tw a re is unde r es tim a ted . T he cod e gen e ra ted by C A S E t oo ls is i ne ffi c ien t.
H igh Mod e ra te
T ol e rab le T ol e rab le
Mod e ra te Mod e ra te H igh Mod e ra te
T ol e rab le T ol e rab le T ol e rab le I ns ign if ic an t
Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk. Avoidance strategies
• The probability that the risk will arise is reduced;
The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced; If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk;
Risk management strategies (i)
R is k O r gan isa ti ona l fi nanc ia l p r ob le m s S tr ategy P re par e a b r ie fing docu m en t f o r s en ior m anage m en t sho w ing how th e p r o jec t is m ak ing a v e ry im por tan t con tri bu tion t o the goa ls o f the bus ine s s . R e cru itm en t p r ob le m s A le rt cu st o m e r o f po ten ti a l d iffi cu lti es and the pos si b il ity o f de lay s , inves ti ga te buy ing- in co m ponen ts . St a f f i lln e ss R e organ is e te a m s o tha t th e re is m or e ove rl ap o f work and peop le th e re f o r e und e rst and e a ch o the r’ s j obs . De f ec ti ve co m ponen ts R e pl a ce pot e nt ia lly de f ec ti ve co m ponen ts w it h bough in c ompon e n ts of known r e li ab ilit y. t-
Risk management strategies (ii)
R is k R e qui r e m en ts chang e s S tr ategy De ri ve tr ac e ab ili ty i nfo rm a ti on to a s se s s requ ir e m en ts chang e im pac t, m ax imi s e in f or m a ti on hid ing i n the de si gn. O r gan isa ti ona l r es tr uc tu r ing P re par e a b r ie fing docu m en t f o r s en ior m anage m en t sho w ing how th e p r o jec t is m ak ing a v e ry im por tan t con tri bu tion t o the goa ls o f the bus ine s s . Da tab a se pe r fo rm anc e Unde r e s tim a te d deve lop m en t ti m e I nves ti ga te t he po s s ib ilit y o f buy ing a high e rpe r fo rm anc e da tab a se . I nves ti ga te buy ing in co m ponen ts , inve sti ga te u s e of a p r ogra m gene r a to r
Assess each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable. Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed. Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings.
R is k ty p e T echno logy P ote nti a l indi cato r s L a te d e live r y of ha r dwa r e o r s uppo r t so ft wa r e , m any repo rt ed techno logy prob le ms P eop le P oor s ta ff m o r a le , poo r r e la ti onsh ip s a m ong st tea m m e m be r , job a va il ab il ity O r gan isa ti ona l T ool s O r gan isa ti ona l gos si p, l ack o f ac ti on by sen io r ma nage m en t
R e lu ct ance by tea m m e m be r s to us e too ls , c omp la in ts abou t CA SE too ls , de m ands fo r high e r- powe r ed work st a ti ons
R e qui r e m en ts E s tim a ti on
M a ny r equ ir e m en ts change
re ques ts , cus to m e r c omp la in ts
F a il ur e to m e e t ag r eed s c hedu le, fai lu r e t o c le a r r e por ted de f ec ts
Good project management is essential for project success. The intangible nature of software causes problems for management. Managers have diverse roles but their most significant activities are planning, estimating and scheduling. Planning and estimating are iterative processes which continue throughout the course of a project.
A project milestone is a predictable state where a formal report of progress is presented to management. Project scheduling involves preparing various graphical representations showing project activities, their durations and staffing. Risk management is concerned with identifying risks which may affect the project and planning to ensure that these risks do not develop into major threats.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.