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MICROBIOLOGY AN : INTRODUCTION
COMPILED BY WARIH NUGROHO, DVM
SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE FOR DEVELOPMENT PELAIHARI-SOUTH KALIMANTAN 2009
Microbiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Microbiology (from Greek µ κρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. This includes eukaryote such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes, which are bacteria and archaea. Viruses, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. In short; microbiology refers to the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microbiology is a broad term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other branches. A microbiologist is a specialist in microbiology.
An agar plate streaked with microorganisms
Microbiology is researched actively, and the field is advancing continually. We have probably only studied about one percent of all of the microbe species on Earth. Although microbes were first observed over three hundred years ago, the field of microbiology can be said to be in its infancy relative to older biological disciplines such as zoology and botany.
1 History 1.1 Ancient 1.2 Modern 2 Types 3 Benefits 4 References 4.1 Further reading 5 See also 6 External links 6.1 General 6.2 Journals 6.3 Professional organizations
The existence of microorganisms was hypothesized for many centuries before their actual discovery in the 17th century. In 600 BCE, the ancient Indian surgeon Susruta held microbes responsible for several diseases and explained in Sushruta Samhita that they can be transmitted through contact, air or water. Theories on
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Microbiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
microorganisms was made by Roman scholar Marcus Terentis Varro in a book titled On Agriculture in which he warns against locating a homestead in the vicinity of swamps:
...and because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and there cause serious diseases.
This passage seems to indicate that the ancients were aware of the possibility that diseases could be spread by yet unseen organisms. In The Canon of Medicine (1020), Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected. He also hypothesized on the contagious nature of tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, and used quarantine as a means of limiting the spread of contagious diseases. When the Black Death bubonic plague reached al-Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by "minute bodies" which enter the human body and cause disease. In 1546 Girolamo Fracastoro proposed that epidemic diseases were caused by transferable seedlike entities that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact or even without contact over long distances. All these early claims about the existence of microorganisms were speculative in nature and not based on any data or science. Microorganisms were neither proven, observed, and correctly and accurately described until the 17th century. The reason for this was that all these early inquiries lacked the most fundamental tool in order for microbiology and bacteriology to exist as a science, and that was the microscope.
Bacteria, and other microorganisms, were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676 using a single-lens microscope of his own design. In doing so Leeuwenhoek made one of the most important discoveries in biology and initiated the scientific fields of bacteriology and microbiology. The name "bacterium" was introduced much later, by Ehrenberg in 1828, derived from the Greek βακτηριον meaning "small stick". While Van Leeuwenhoek is often cited as the first microbiologist, the first recorded microbiological observation, that of the fruiting bodies of molds, was made earlier in 1665 by Robert Hooke. The field of bacteriology (later a subdiscipline of microbiology) is generally considered to have been founded by Ferdinand Cohn Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first (1828–1898), a botanist whose studies on algae and photosynthetic microbiologist and the first to observe bacteria led him to describe several bacteria including Bacillus and microorganisms using a microscope. Beggiatoa. Cohn was also the first to formulate a scheme for the Known as the 'Father of Microbiology'. Whilst he did not invent the microscope, taxonomic classification of bacteria. Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) he greatly developed it. and Robert Koch (1843–1910) were contemporaries of Cohn’s and are often considered to be the founders of medical microbiology. Pasteur is most famous for his series of experiments designed to disprove the then widely held theory of spontaneous generation, thereby solidifying microbiology’s identity as a biological science. Pasteur also
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 While Pasteur and Koch are often considered the founders of microbiology.Wikipedia. He developed a series of criteria that have become known as the Koch's postulates. diversity and ecology). Pharmaceutical microbiology: the study of microorganisms causing pharmaceutical contamination and spoilage. Characterisation of key bacterial habitats such as the rhizosphere and phyllosphere.Microbiology . the free encyclopedia http://en. This field also includes brewing. Includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. microbial metabolism and microbial cell structure. Closely related to the field of molecular biology. 3 of 6 2/18/2009 11:47 PM . Industrial microbiology: The exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes. for example by fermentation. the causative agent of tuberculosis. Food microbiology: The study of microorganisms causing food spoilage and foodborne illness. Types The field of microbiology can be generally divided into several subdisciplines: Microbial physiology: The study of how the microbial cell functions biochemically. microbial diversity and bioremediation. Evolutionary microbiology: The study of the evolution of microbes. Examples include industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment. fowl cholera and rabies.org/wiki/Microbiology designed methods for food preservation (pasteurization) and vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax. soil and groundwater ecosystems. Includes the study of microbial growth. It was not until the work of Martinus Beijerinck (1851–1931) and Sergei Winogradsky (1856–1953). Winogradsky was the first to develop the concept of chemolithotrophy and to thereby reveal the essential role played by microorganisms in geochemical processes. that the true breadth of microbiology was revealed. Oral microbiology: the study of microorganisms of the mouth in particular those causing caries and periodontal disease. Beijerinck made two major contributions to microbiology: the discovery of viruses and the development of enrichment culture techniques. microbially-mediated nutrient cycling. it was his development of enrichment culturing that had the most immediate impact on microbiology by allowing for the cultivation of a wide range of microbes with wildly different physiologies. Using microorganisms to produce foods. Veterinary microbiology: The study of the role in microbes in veterinary medicine or animal taxonomy. Medical microbiology: The study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness. While his work on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus established the basic principles of virology. Includes the study of microbial ecology. Environmental microbiology: The study of the function and diversity of microbes in their natural environments. Aeromicrobiology: The study of airborne microorganisms. the founders of general microbiology (an older term encompassing aspects of microbial physiology. open oceans or extreme environments (extremophiles). Includes the study of bacterial systematics and taxonomy. their work did not accurately reflect the true diversity of the microbial world because of their exclusive focus on microorganisms having direct medical relevance. Microbial genetics: The study of how genes are organised and regulated in microbes in relation to their cellular functions. He was responsible for the first isolation and description of both nitrifying and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Koch was one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture resulting in his description of several novel bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. an important application of microbiology. proving that specific diseases were caused by specific pathogenic microorganisms.wikipedia. geomicrobiology. Koch is best known for his contributions to the germ theory of disease. Closely linked to the biotechnology industry.
Corynebacterium glutamicum is one of the most important bacterial species with an annual production of more than two million tons of amino acids. ISBN 0-13-144329-1.Wikipedia. and polyamides. 59: 143–169. cellulose. the free encyclopedia http://en.nlm. http://www. reporter genes for use in other genetic systems and novel molecular biology techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid system. the most effective approach to microbial biodegradation is to use a mixture of bacterial species and strains. organic acids.Microbiology . poly(gammaglutamic acid).nih. many microbes are also responsible for many beneficial processes such as industrial fermentation (e. hyaluronic acid.org/wiki/Microbiology Benefits Whilst there are undoubtedly some who fear all microbes due to the association of some microbes with many human illnesses. The ability of each microorganism to degrade toxic waste depends on the nature of each contaminant. ^ a b c d e f Madigan M.  A variety of biopolymers. ^ Amann RI. "Are Viruses Alive?". oligosaccharides and polysaccharide. cyanophycin. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.ncbi. Prentice Hall.g. sediments and marine environments. Microorganisms are beneficial for microbial biodegradation or bioremediation of domestic.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed& 4 of 6 2/18/2009 11:47 PM .html. agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils. Since most sites are typically comprised of multiple pollutant types.carleton. Ludwig W. Scientists have also exploited their knowledge of microbes to produce biotechnologically important enzymes such as Taq polymerase.wikipedia. alginate. Microorganisms are used for the biotechnological production of biopolymers with tailored properties suitable for high-value medical application such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. mainly L-glutamate and L-lysine. "Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation". Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer Bacteria can be used for the industrial production of amino acids. the production of alcohol and dairy products).gov/entrez /query. There are also various claims concerning the contributions to human and animal health by consuming probiotics (bacteria potentially beneficial to the digestive system) and/or prebiotics (substances consumed to promote the growth of probiotic microorganisms).). Retrieved on 2007-07-23. ^ Rice G (2007-03-27).edu/microbelife/yellowstone /viruslive. 2. Rev. Microorganisms are used for the biosynthesis of xanthan. are produced by microorganisms. 3. Martinko J (editors) (2006). Recent research has suggested that microorganisms could be useful in the treatment of cancer. References 1. Schleifer KH (1995). each specific to the biodegradation of one or more types of contaminants. Various strains of non-pathogenic clostridia can infiltrate and replicate within solid tumors. antibiotic production and as vehicles for cloning in higher organisms such as plants. polyesters. http://serc. such as polysaccharides. Microbiol. and polyhydroxyalkanoates. levan. Clostridial vectors can be safely administered and their potential to deliver therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.
Medicine.). Winogradsky initiate the field of environmental microbiology". 17. http://www. 5 (6): 553–60.2008. Witzany.org/Articles/Ferdinand. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.asm.1738.2005. Heart Views 4 (2).1353/pbm. 48 (2): 266–72. Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed. ISBN 978-1-904455-38-7. American Phytopathological Society. ^ Ryan KJ.Wikipedia. hdl:10101/npre.html. 10. PMID 15834198.horizonpress. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. Ph. ^ Gest H (2005). ^ Johnson J (1998-07-01). http://www. ^ Tannock GW (editor). "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times". 7. ^ Burkovski A (editor). Caister Academic Press. "The remarkable vision of Robert Hooke (1635-1703): first observer of the microbial world". 2-9.com /biod. Lee Lerner (eds) (2006). ISBN 1414406231. "Martinus Willem Beijerinck". Syed. ^ a b Ibrahim B.0053.). "Clostridia in Anti-tumor Therapy".com/biopolymers.Microbiology . 12. Perspect. Caister Academic Press. ^ David W. "Arab Roots of European Medicine". 6. 16. Probiotics and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects. Brenda Wilmoth & K.com/pro3. Biol. ^ Mengesha et al (2009). and bioethics : essential primary sources (1st ed. Caister Academic Press.org/wiki/Microbiology dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7535888. The Microbial World.1.). 11. Bio-Communication of Bacteria and its Evolutionary Interrelations to Natural Genome Editing Competences of Viruses.html.apsnet. 8. ^ Diaz E (editor). PhD (August 2003). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology (1st ed. Microbes Infect. See also Archaea Bacteria Biochemistry Biomilling Biosafety Biotechnology Environmental microbiology Eukaryote Food microbiology Genetics Geomicrobiology Good Hygiene Practice Good Microbiological Practice Immunology Important publications in microbiology Industrial microbiology Medical technologist Medicine Mycology Oral microbiology Bacteriophage meetings Prokaryote Virology 5 of 6 2/18/2009 11:47 PM .com/cory. http://www.horizonpress. PMID 12758285. (2005). ^ Paustian T. Thomson Gale. p. McGraw Hill. Caister Academic Press.horizonpress. doi:10. (2008).xii Loeb 5. http://www. Caister Academic Press.wikipedia. Med.. "Ferdinand Cohn.D. 14. Further reading Lerner. ^ Rehm BHA (editor). (2002). health. 4. http://www. the free encyclopedia http://en. MSPH. Corynebacteria: Genomics and Molecular Biology. 15. 9. (2008). ^ Bordenave G (2003). Guenther (2008). Nature Precedings. "Beijerinck and 13. http://www. ISBN 978-1-904455-01-1. Clostridia: Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. ISBN 978-1-904455-36-3. Tschanz. "Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)".horizonpress.org/Education/feature /TMV/intro. ASM News 65 (8).php?module=Book&func=displayarticle& art_id=32. ISBN 978-1-904455-30-1. Roberts G. http://www. Microbial Production of Biopolymers and Polymer Precursors: Applications and Perspectives. ^ Varro On Agriculture 1.microbiologytext. a Founder of Modern Microbiology". Ray CG (editors) (2004). (2008). Journal of the Islamic Medical Association 2.com /index. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. ^ Drews G (1999).
org/wiki/Microbiology External links General Online lectures in microbiology (http://media. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.S.htm) Journals Annual Review of Microbiology (http://arjournals.html) ) Springer Protocols in Microbiology Professional organizations Information portal For Microbiology Students (http://www.microbiologystudents.org/) Society for General Microbiology (http://www.informaworld.com/nrmicro/index.wikipedia.microbiologytext. the free encyclopedia http://en. Inc.edu/microbiology2007/) University of South Carolina Microbiology Online (http://www.Microbiology .Wikipedia. a U. at 12:31.com/crmicrobiology) ) International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Journal of Bacteriology Nature Reviews Microbiology (journal home (http://www.php?module=Book&func=toc& book_id=4) Todar's Bacteriology textbook (http://www..org/loi/micro/) Critical Reviews in Microbiology (journal home (http://www.htm) Online Microbiology textbook (http://www.med.asm.edu/academics/programs_of_study/science /MicrobiologyOnline.socgenmicrobiol.uk/) Society for Industrial Microbiology (http://www.wikipedia.com/) American Society for Microbiology (http://www.org/wiki/Microbiology" Categories: Microbiology | Subjects taught in medical school Hidden categories: Articles containing non-English language text | Articles needing additional references from July 2007 This page was last modified on 4 February 2009.org/) Retrieved from "http://en.nature. (See Copyrights for details. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.net/) Online Medical Microbiology textbook (http://pathmicro.med.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.annualreviews.simhq.org.edu/book/welcome.sc.sc. 6 of 6 2/18/2009 11:47 PM .ocean.com/index.textbookofbacteriology.
Rotaviruses are often spread by direct contact with infected children.Wikipedia. These disease-bearing organisms are known as vectors. Viruses infect all cellular life. and is a branch of microbiology. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. The first known virus. viral infections in animals usually cause an immune response. The study of viruses is known as virology. and others such as norovirus.org/wiki/Virus Virus From Wikipedia. Viruses vary in shape from simple helical and icosahedral shapes. The origins of viruses are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—others may have evolved from bacteria. as many viruses reproduce without causing any obvious harm to the infected organism. was discovered by Martinus Beijerinck in 1899. They are about 100 times smaller than bacteria.1 Helical 4. plant viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on sap. food or water. and the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the hosts' defence mechanisms. Some viruses such as HIV can cause life-long or chronic infections. which can completely eliminate a virus. However. tobacco mosaic virus. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. These immune responses can also be produced by vaccines that give lifelong immunity to a viral infection. such as restriction modification systems. Viruses Rotavirus Virus classification Group: I–VII Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (−)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses Not all viruses cause disease. the free encyclopedia http://en. are transmitted by the faecal-oral route. and now more than 5. and some have an envelope of fat that surrounds them when they are outside a cell. the free encyclopedia A virus (from the Latin virus meaning toxin or poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell.wikipedia. long molecules that carry genetic information. all have a protein coat that protects these genes. but antiviral drugs have been developed to treat life-threatening and more minor infections. Viruses spread in many ways. Viruses consist of two or three parts: all viruses have genes made from either DNA or RNA. such as aphids. while animal viruses can be carried by blood-sucking insects. when they contaminate hands.000 types of virus have been described. to more complex structures. Microorganisms such as bacteria also have defences against viral infection. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Origins 4 Structure 4.2 Icosahedral 1 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . HIV is one of several viruses that are transmitted through sex.Virus .
Virus .3 Cancer 9.1 Epidemiology 9. from Latin virulentus (poisonous) dates to 1400. first used in English in 1392.2 Baltimore classification 9 Viruses and human disease 9.1 Plants 10.1 Replication cycle 6.Wikipedia. Virulent. The term virion is also used to refer to a single infective viral particle.5 Prevention and treatment 9.2 Materials science and nanotechnology 11.org/wiki/Virus 4.1 Vaccines 9.1.1 Life sciences and medicine 11.5.wikipedia.4 Complex 5 Genomes 5.2 Bibliography Etymology The word is from the Latin virus referring to poison and other noxious substances.1.1 Notes 13. A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728.3 Enveloped 4.1 DNA viruses 6.1 Genetic change 6 Replication 6.2 Antiviral drugs 10 Infection in other species 10. The adjective viral dates to 1948.4 Host defence mechanisms 9. The plural of virus is "viruses".2 RNA viruses 6.3 Archaea 11 Applications 11.1 ICTV classification 8. before the discovery of viruses by Dmitry Ivanovsky in 1892.5. the free encyclopedia http://en.1.2 Epidemics and pandemics 9.3 Weapons 12 External links 13 References 13. History 2 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM .2 Bacteria 10.3 Reverse transcribing viruses 7 Effects on the host cell 8 Classification 8.
they concluded that the agent could replicate. H. In the same year. In the early 20th century. the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter. when poliovirus was grown on a large scale for vaccine production. Thus. filterability. Harrison invented a method for growing tissue in lymph. Their method was not widely adopted until the 1950s. By the end of the nineteenth century. He accurately diluted a suspension of these viruses and discovered that the highest dilutions. the first virus to be grown without using solid animal tissue or eggs. Thomas Weller and Frederick Robbins grew polio virus in cultured human embryo cells. and their requirement for living hosts. In 1928. in 1913. the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered the viruses that infect bacteria. would produce areas of dead bacteria. At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium—this was part of the germ theory of disease. In 1892 the Russian biologist Dimitri Ivanovski used this filter to study what is now known to be tobacco mosaic virus. A. Friedrich Loeffler and Frosch passed the agent of foot and mouth disease (aphthovirus) through a similar filter and ruled out the possibility of a toxin because of the high dilution. formed discrete areas of dead organisms. E. In 1906. and the French-Canadian microbiologist Félix d'Herelle described viruses that. C. Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature. C. Enders. the free encyclopedia http://en.Virus . Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor allowed him to calculate the number of viruses in the suspension. Steinhardt. but as his experiments Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in 1921 did not show that it was made of particles. 3 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . In 1949 John F. Ivanovski suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria. which are now called bacteriophages. Lambert used this method to grow vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue. viruses were defined in terms of their infectivity. who proved they were particulate. and. (known today as the Chamberland filter or Chamberland-Pasteur filter).org/wiki/Virus In 1884. He went on to observe that the agent multiplied only in dividing cells. with pores smaller than bacteria. Maitland and M. His experiments showed that the crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants are still infectious after filtration. Maitland grew vaccinia virus in suspensions of minced hens' kidneys. This work enabled Jonas Salk to make an effective polio vaccine.Wikipedia. when the American pathologist Ernest William Goodpasture grew influenza and several other viruses in fertilised chickens' eggs. Israeli and R.wikipedia. Another breakthrough came in 1931. but did not pursue the idea. when added to bacteria growing on agar. rather than killing all the bacteria. a theory later discredited by Wendell Stanley. Viruses had only been grown in plants and animals. 1899. B. he called it a contagium vivum  fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. In 1899 the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the experiments and became convinced that this was a new form of infectious agent. he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.
Based on her pictures. like viruses. The origin of viruses is unclear because they do not form fossils. equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhea (a pestivirus) were discovered. they have characteristics that are common to several viruses and are often called subviral agents. In the same year. A short time later. Rosalind Franklin The second half of the twentieth century was the golden age of virus discovery and most of the 2. They do not code for proteins but 4 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . the free encyclopedia http://en. as their dependence on parasitism is likely to have caused the loss of genes that enabled them to survive outside a cell. Viroids are molecules of RNA that are not classified as viruses because they lack a protein coat. There are three main theories of the origins of viruses: Regressive theory: Viruses may have once been small cells that parasitised larger cells. These techniques rely on the availability of ancient viral DNA or RNA. the hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg.Wikipedia. Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified Tobacco mosaic virus RNA and its coat protein can assemble by themselves to form functional viruses. can reproduce only inside host cells. In 1963. Howard Temin described the first retrovirus. Once called "jumping genes". They lend credence to this theory. these are examples of mobile genetic elements and could be the origin of some viruses.Virus . This is also called the degeneracy theory. first isolated the retrovirus now called HIV.000 recognised species of animal. Viroids are important pathogens of plants. Transposons were discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in 1950. Reverse transcriptase. but. In 1935 American biochemist and virologist Wendell Stanley examined the Tobacco mosaic virus and found it to be mostly made from protein. Tobacco mosaic virus was the first one to be crystallised and whose structure could therefore be elucidated in detail. Coevolution theory: Viruses may have evolved from complex molecules of protein and nucleic acid at the same time as cells first appeared on earth and would have been dependent on cellular life for many millions of years. genes not required by their parasitism were lost. The bacteria rickettsia and chlamydia are living cells that. The first X-ray diffraction pictures of the crystallised virus were obtained by Bernal and Fankuchen in 1941. Rosalind Franklin discovered the full structure of the virus in 1955. so molecular techniques have been the most useful means of investigating how they arose. the key enzyme that retroviruses use to translate their RNA into DNA. Origins Viruses are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved. The escaped DNA could have come from plasmids—pieces of naked DNA that can move between cells or transposons.org/wiki/Virus With the invention of electron microscopy in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll came the first images of viruses. Over time. plant and bacterial viruses were discovered during these years.wikipedia. and in 1965. However. Cellular origin theory (sometimes called the vagrancy theory): Some viruses may have evolved from bits of DNA or RNA that "escaped" from the genes of a larger organism. suggesting that this simple mechanism was probably how viruses assembled within their host cells. unfortunately. was first described in 1970. independently by Howard Temin and David Baltimore. These are molecules of DNA that replicate and move around to different positions within the genes of the cell. this virus was separated into protein and RNA parts. In 1983 Luc Montagnier's team at the Pasteur Institute in France. most of the viruses that have been preserved and stored in laboratories are less than 90 years old. In 1957.
although they have genes. Negative staining overcomes this problem by staining the background Diagram of how a virus capsid can be constructed using multiple copies of just two protein molecules 5 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . called morphologies. Most viruses are unable to be seen with a light microscope so scanning and transmission electron microscopes are used to visualise virus particles. The Virophage 'sputnik' infects the Mimivirus and the related Mamavirus which in turn infect the protozooan Acanthamoeba castellanii. and these new prions then go on to convert even more protein into prions. To increase the contrast between viruses and the background. as it lends further credence to the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules. electron-dense "stains" are used. In humans they cause kuru and Creutzfeld-Jacob disease.Virus .org/wiki/Virus interact with the host cell and use the host machinery for their replication. it seems unlikely that all currently known viruses have a common ancestor and viruses have probably arisen numerous times in the past by one or more mechanisms. Some filoviruses have a total length of up to 1400 nm. It is therefore a defective virus and cannot replicate without the help of hepatitis B virus. since they resemble organisms in that they possess genes and evolve by natural selection. such analyses have not helped to decide on which of the theories are correct. they do not have a cellular structure. Accepted forms of life use cell division to reproduce. They are able to replicate because some proteins can exist in two different shapes and the prion changes the normal shape of a host protein into the prion shape. which is analogous to the autonomous growth of crystals. whereas viruses spontaneously assemble within cells. fine detail is obscured. however their diameters are only about 80 nm. However. Opinions differ on whether viruses are a form of life. or organic structures that interact with living organisms. Most viruses which have been studied have a diameter between 10 and 300 nanometres. However. the free encyclopedia http://en. When virus particles are coated with stain (positive staining). Prions are infectious protein molecules that do not contain DNA or RNA. viruses do not have their own metabolism. These are solutions of salts of heavy metals such as tungsten. which is often seen as the basic unit of life.Wikipedia. Virus self-assembly within host cells has implications for the study of the origin of life.wikipedia. To date. They therefore cannot reproduce outside a host cell (though bacterial species such as rickettsia and chlamydia are considered living organisms despite the same limitation). their discovery gives credence to theory that viruses could have evolved from self-replicating molecules. They have been described as "organisms at the edge of life". Although they are fundamentally different from viruses and viroids. This starts a chain reaction where each prion protein converts many host proteins into more prions. and reproduce by creating multiple copies of themselves through self-assembly. The hepatitis delta virus of humans has an RNA genome similar to viroids but has protein coat derived from hepatitis B virus and cannot produce one of its own. Computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences is giving a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships between different viruses and may help identify the ancestors of modern viruses. that scatter the electrons from regions covered with the stain. They cause an infection in sheep called scrapie and cattle bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease). Structure Viruses display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes. Viruses are about 100 times smaller than bacteria. Additionally. and require a host cell to make new products. These viruses that are dependent on other virus species are called satellites and may represent evolutionary intermediates of viroids and viruses.
A regular icosahedron is the optimum way of forming a closed shell from identical sub-units. there are four main morphological virus types: Helical Helical capsids are composed of a single type of capsomer stacked around a central axis to form a helical structure which may have a central cavity. Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins. the length of a helical capsid is related to the length of the nucleic acid contained within it and the diameter is dependent on the size and arrangement of capsomers. In general. Capsomers on the triangular faces are surround by six others and are call hexons.Virus . Overall. These are formed from identical protein subunits called capsomers. or hollow tube. The minimum number of identical capsomers required is twelve. consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid.org/wiki/Virus only. generally requiring the presence of the virus genome. is bound into the protein helix. Many viruses. This arrangement results in rod-shaped or filamentous virions: these can be short and highly rigid. complex viruses code for proteins which assist in the construction of their capsid. Virally coded protein subunits will self-assemble to form a capsid.Wikipedia. or long and very flexible. the free encyclopedia http://en. such as rotavirus. known as a virion. Diagram of the structure of tobacco mosaic virus: the viral RNA is coiled inside the helix formed by repeating protein sub-units Icosahedral Electron micrograph of icosahedral viruses (adenovirus) Enveloped 6 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . have more than twelve capsomers and appear spherical but they retain this symmetry. A complete virus particle. The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction. The well-studied Tobacco mosaic virus is an example of a helical virus.wikipedia. Viruses can have a lipid "envelope" derived from the host cell membrane. generally single-stranded RNA. The genetic material. However. Capsomers at the apices are surrounded by five other capsomers and are called pentons. by interactions between the negatively-charged nucleic acid and positive charges on the protein. but ssDNA in some cases. and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral nucleic acid is called a nucleocapsid. each composed of five identical sub-units. Most animal viruses are icosahedral or near-spherical with icosahedral symmetry.
 Genomes 7 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . ranging from ovoid to brick shape. Mimivirus is the largest known virus. The whole particle is slightly pleiomorphic. thus gaining an outer lipid bilayer known as a viral envelope. Protein filaments measuring 100 nm project from the surface. the free encyclopedia http://en. or internal membranes such as nuclear membrane or endoplasmic reticulum. The capsid appears hexagonal under an electron microscope. complex viruses which have an unusual morphology. Some bacteriophages have a complex structure consisting of an icosahedral head bound to a helical tail which may have a hexagonal base plate with protruding protein tail fibres. The influenza virus and HIV use this strategy. The virus has an outer envelope with a thick layer of protein studded over its surface. the lipid membrane itself and any carbohydrates present are entirely host-coded.org/wiki/Virus Some species of virus envelope themselves in a modified form of one of the cell membranes. with a capsid diameter of 400 nm.Virus . and which may possess extra structures such as protein tails or a complex outer wall.Wikipedia. The viral genome is associated with proteins within a central disk structure known as a The structure of a nucleoid. therefore the capsid is probably icosahedral. The poxviruses are large. The nucleoid is surrounded by a membrane and two lateral bodies of typical bacteriophage unknown function. Most enveloped viruses are dependent on the envelope for their infectivity.wikipedia. This membrane is studded with proteins coded for by the viral genome and host genome. Electron micrograph of negatively-stained herpes zoster virus—note the envelope around the virus particle Complex These viruses possess a capsid which is neither purely helical. either the outer membrane surrounding an infected host cell. nor purely icosahedral.
the genome is often divided up into separate parts within the virion and is called segmented.Virus . Some viruses. RNA viruses generally have smaller genome sizes than DNA viruses due to a higher error-rate when replicating. Positive-sense viral RNA is identical to viral mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. A viral genome. contain a genome which is partially double-stranded and partially single-stranded. Single-stranded genomes consist of an unpaired nucleic acid. The smallest viral genomes code for only four proteins and weigh about 106 Daltons. Double-stranded genomes consist of two complementary paired nucleic acids. By far most viruses have RNA. Among RNA viruses. To compensate for this. errors in the genome when replicating render the virus useless or uncompetitive. the largest weigh about 108 Daltons and code for over one hundred proteins. in that the coding strand for the viral mRNA is complementary to it (−). RNA viruses often have segmented genomes where the genome is split into smaller molecules. Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase before translation. Genomic diversity among viruses Property Parameters DNA RNA Both DNA and RNA Nucleic acid Shape Linear Circular Segmented Strandedness Single-stranded Double-stranded Double-stranded with regions of singlestrandedness Sense Positive sense (+) Negative sense (−) Ambisense (+/−) Genetic change 8 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM .wikipedia. such as adenoviruses. thus reducing the chance of error. animals. Every segment is not required to be in the same virion for the overall virus to be infectious. such as those belonging to the Hepadnaviridae. the free encyclopedia http://en. depending on whether it is complementary to the viral messenger RNA (mRNA). A virus has either DNA or RNA genes and are called DNA viruses and RNA viruses respectively. Each segment often codes for one protein and they are usually found together in one capsid. and have a maximum upper size limit. as a group they contain more structural genomic diversity than the entire kingdoms of either plants. analogous to a ladder. Viral genomes are circular. In contrast. the strands are said to be either positive-sense (called the plus-strand) or negative-sense (called the minus-strand). analogous to one-half of a ladder split down the middle. or linear.Wikipedia. The type of nucleic acid is irrelevant to the shape of the genome. DNA viruses generally have larger genomes due to the high fidelity of their replication enzymes. and the non-coding strand is a copy of it (+). or bacteria.org/wiki/Virus An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species. For viruses with RNA or single-stranded DNA. Genome size varies greatly between species. Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA. such as polyomaviruses. Beyond this limit. irrespective of nucleic acid type. as demonstrated by the brome mosaic virus. DNA nomenclature is similar to RNA nomenclature. is either singlestranded or double-stranded.
from cell-to-cell. Segmented genomes confer evolutionary advantages.org/wiki/Virus Viruses undergo genetic change by several mechanisms. This occurs as a result of recombination or reassortment. the free encyclopedia http://en. These include a process called genetic drift where individual bases in the DNA or RNA mutate to other bases. For example. Viruses such as tobacco mosaic virus can also move directly in plants. gp120. HIV infects only human T cells. Penetration follows attachment. Most of these point mutations are silent in that they do not change the protein that the gene encodes. have strong cell walls which a virus must breach to infect the cell.wikipedia. through pores called plasmodesmata. because its surface protein. RNA viruses often exist as quasispecies or swarms of viruses of the same species but with slightly different genome nucleoside sequences. Some viruses have evolved mechanisms which inject their genome into the bacterial cell while the viral capsid remains outside. Plants have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose and viruses can only get inside the cells following trauma to the cell wall. 9 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . Antigenic shift is where there is a major change in the genome of the virus. Bacteria. instead. but others can confer evolutionary advantages such as resistance to antiviral drugs. like plants.Virus . How antigenic shift. or reassortment. because they are acellular. viruses enter the host cell through receptor mediated endocytosis or membrane fusion. Replication cycle The life cycle of viruses differs greatly between species but there are six basic stages in the life cycle of viruses: Attachment is a specific binding between viral capsid proteins and specific receptors on the host cellular surface. This is called reassortment or viral sex. This mechanism has evolved to favour those viruses that only infect cells in which they are A typical virus replication cycle capable of replication. different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) that have unique characteristics. can result in novel and highly pathogenic strains of human influenza Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. Attachment to the receptor can induce the viral-envelope protein to undergo changes that results in the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Recombination is common to both RNA and DNA viruses. Replication Viral populations do not grow through cell division. they use the machinery and metabolism of a host cell to produce multiple copies of themselves. pandemics may result. can interact with CD4 and receptors on the T cell's surface. This specificity determines the host range of a virus. and they assemble in the cell. When this happens with influenza viruses.Wikipedia. This is often called viral entry. Such quasispecies are a prime target for natural selection. The infection of plant cells is different to that of animal cells. This can occur when viruses infect cells simultaneously and studies of viral evolution have shown that recombination has been rampant in the species studied.
During this process the virus acquires its envelope. An example of the first type is HIV which is a retrovirus. Following the assembly of the virus particles.wikipedia.Virus . Most DNA viruses are entirely dependent on the host cell's DNA and RNA synthesising machinery. occurs after the virus has been released from the host cell.. whereas those containing DNA genomes use an RNA intermediate during genome replication. Enveloped viruses (e. zidovudine and lamivudine.g. e. post-translational modification of the viral proteins often occurs.  Most virus infections eventually result in the death of the host cell. the free encyclopedia http://en. The viral genome must cross the cell's nuclear membrane to access this machinery. Replication involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for viruses except positive sense RNA viruses (see above). Replication usually takes place in the cytoplasm. not all of which are components of the virus particle.org/wiki/Virus Uncoating is a process in which the viral capsid is degraded by viral enzymes or host enzymes thus releasing the viral genomic nucleic acid. Often cell death is caused by cessation of its normal activities due to suppression by virus-specific proteins. Both types use the reverse transcriptase enzyme to carry out the nucleic acid conversion. RNA viruses use their own RNA replicase enzymes to create copies of their genomes. These are called cytopathic effects. In viruses such as HIV. Effects on the host cell The range of structural and biochemical effects that viruses have on the hosts cell is extensive. and RNA processing machinery. Some bacteriophages inject their Viruses are released from the host cell by lysis—a process that kills genomes into bacterial cells the cell by bursting its membrane. RNA viruses can be placed into about four different groups depending on their modes of replication.Wikipedia. these viruses enter the cell by fusion with the cell membrane or by endocytosis. (sometimes called maturation). alterations to the cell's surface membrane and apoptosis. and whether the genetic material is single-stranded or double-stranded. HIV) typically are released from the host cell by budding. The causes of death include cell lysis. which is the formation of DNA from an RNA template. this modification. Examples of the second type are the Hepadnaviridae.g. which is a modified piece of the host's plasma membrane. RNA viruses RNA viruses are unique because their genetic information is encoded in RNA. viral protein synthesis and assembly of viral proteins and viral genome replication. Cells in which the virus is latent and inactive show 10 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . The polarity (whether or not it can be used directly to make proteins) of the RNA largely determines the replicative mechanism. They are susceptible to antiviral drugs that inhibit the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Reverse transcribing viruses containing RNA genomes use a DNA intermediate to replicate. DNA viruses The genome replication of most DNA viruses takes place in the cell's nucleus. Reverse transcribing viruses Reverse transcribing viruses replicate using reverse transcription. which includes Hepatitis B virus. Some viruses cause no apparent changes to the infected cell. Retroviruses often integrate the DNA produced by reverse transcription into the host genome. If the cell has the appropriate receptor on its surface.
order. Viruses. and Paul Tournier were the first to develop a means of virus classification. Baltimore classification 11 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . A universal system for classifying viruses. such as papillomaviruses are an established cause of cancer. Viruses were grouped according to their shared properties (not of their hosts) and the type of nucleic acid forming their genomes. This causes persistent infections and the virus is often dormant for many months or years. 82 families.  but viruses. The 7th lCTV Report formalised for the first time the concept of the virus species as the lowest taxon (group) in a branching hierarchy of viral taxa. André Lwoff. 11 subfamilies. 2. and a unified taxonomy. The general taxonomic structure is as follows: Order (-virales) Family (-viridae) Subfamily (-virinae) Genus (-virus) Species (-virus) In the current (2008) ICTV taxonomy. the free encyclopedia http://en. such as from seawater and ocean sediments. such as Epstein-Barr virus often cause cells to proliferate without causing malignancy. and isolates. at present only a small part of the total diversity of viruses has been studied. and samples from the environment.org/wiki/Virus few signs of infection and often function normally. ICTV classification The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) developed the current classification system and wrote guidelines that put a greater weight on certain virus properties to maintain family uniformity. has been established since 1966.Wikipedia. The committee does not formally distinguish between subspecies. strains. and species. In total there are 5 orders.083 species and about 3. However. This is often the case with herpes viruses. finding that the large majority of sequences are completely novel. class.wikipedia. genus. Mononegavirales. Robert Horne. This system bases classification on phylum. family. the Caudovirales.Virus . In 1962. 307 genera. Herpesvirales. based on the Linnaean hierarchical system. later the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses was formed. with analyses of samples from humans finding that about 20% of the virus sequences recovered have not been seen before. Nidovirales. and Picornavirales. five orders have been established. Classification Classification seeks to describe the diversity of viruses by naming and grouping them based on similarities.000 types yet unclassified.
Orthomyxoviruses.wikipedia. Other diseases are under investigation as to whether they too have a virus as the causative agent. belongs to the order Herpesvirales. Many serious diseases such as ebola. and genus Varicellovirus. Reoviruses) IV: (+)ssRNA viruses (+)sense RNA (e. Picornaviruses.g. Viruses must generate mRNAs from their genomes to produce proteins and replicate themselves. Parvoviruses) III: dsRNA viruses (e.g. varicella zoster (VZV). family Herpesviridae.Virus . RNA or DNA. Viruses and human disease Examples of common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold. This classification places viruses into seven groups: I: dsDNA viruses (e.g. The Baltimore Classification of viruses is based on the method of viral mRNA synthesis.g. Retroviruses) VII: dsDNA-RT viruses (e. There is current controversy over whether the borna virus. Togaviruses) V: (-)ssRNA viruses (-)sense RNA (e.g. influenza. 12 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . Herpesviruses. Viral genomes may be single-stranded (ss) or doublestranded (ds). such as the possible connection between human herpes virus six (HHV6) and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. the free encyclopedia http://en. The ICTV classification system is used in conjunction with the Baltimore classification system in modern virus classification.g. Poxviruses) II: ssDNA viruses (+)sense DNA (e. avian influenza and SARS are caused by viruses. Additionally. the chicken pox virus. chickenpox and cold sores. The Baltimore classification of viruses is based on the mechanism of mRNA production. AIDS. The relative ability of viruses to cause disease is described in terms of virulence. and may or may not use reverse transcriptase (RT). could be responsible for psychiatric illnesses in humans. subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. VZV is in Group I of the Baltimore Classification because it is a dsDNA virus that does not use reverse transcriptase. ssRNA viruses may be either sense (+) or antisense (-). Hepadnaviruses) As an example of viral classification.Wikipedia.g.org/wiki/Virus The Nobel Prize-winning biologist David Baltimore devised the Baltimore classification system. Rhabdoviruses) VI: ssRNA-RT viruses (+)sense RNA with DNA intermediate in life-cycle (e. previously thought to cause neurological diseases in horses. Adenoviruses. but different mechanisms are used to achieve this in each virus family.
community or region they are called epidemics. or horizontal. The rate or speed of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density. the number of susceptible individuals.g. e. which causes glandular fever. Epstein-Barr virus. Epidemiology Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the transmission and control of virus infections in humans. In populations with a high proportion of carriers. Transmission can be exchange of blood by sexual activity.g. Control measures are used which are based on knowledge of how the virus is transmitted. An example would include the ability of the herpes simplex virus.g. or from contaminated food or water. Once the virus has been identified. or sources. more rare. can be fatal to the foetus and newly born baby. if enough cells die the whole organism will start to suffer the effects. Some viruses can cause life-long or chronic infections. by breathing in viruses in the form of aerosols. as they serve as reservoirs of infectious virus. In multicellular organisms. This is called latency and is a characteristic of the all herpes viruses including the Epstein-Barr virus. resulting in disease. the chain of transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines. Epidemics and pandemics 13 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . HIV. Although viruses cause disruption of healthy homeostasis. People chronically infected are known as carriers. which means from person to person. dengue.e.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV where the baby is born already infected with the virus. the disease is said to be endemic. to remain in a dormant state within the human body. by mouth by exchange of saliva. e. and by insect vectors such as mosquitoes. When vaccines are not available sanitation and disinfection can be effective.g. Mechanisms at the cellular level primarily include cell lysis. norovirus. Often infected people are isolated from the rest of the community and those that have been exposed to the virus placed in quarantine. and the varicella zoster virus. Latent chickenpox infections return in later life as the disease called shingles. When outbreaks cause an unusually high proportion of cases in a population. e. thousands of cattle were slaughtered. a time when an infected individual or animal is contagious and can infect another person or animal. which cause cold sores. Another.org/wiki/Virus A child with chickenpox Viruses have different mechanisms by which they produce disease in an organism. those who are not immune). It is important to find the source. To control the outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle in Britain in 2001. which causes chicken pox. e. where the viruses continue to replicate in the body despite the hosts' defence mechanisms. (i. If outbreaks spread worldwide they are called pandemics.Virus . that is from mother to child. which largely depends on the viral species. This too is known for many viral infections and knowledge the length of both periods is important in the control of outbreaks. Following the incubation period there is a period of communicability. the breaking open and subsequent death of the cell. Incubation periods for viral diseases range from a few days to weeks but are known for most infections. influenza virus.g. Horizontal transmission is the most common mechanism of spread of viruses in populations. Most viral infections of humans and other animals have incubation periods during which the infection causes no signs or symptoms. This is common in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections. which although causing relatively mild infections in humans. e. of the outbreak and to identify the virus. the quality of health care and the weather. example is the varicella zoster virus. Transmission of viruses can be vertical. hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Epidemiology is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases. they may exist relatively harmlessly within an organism.Wikipedia.
elderly. This comprises cells and other 14 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century. Host defence mechanisms See also: Immune system The body's first line of defence against viruses is the innate immune system. The victims were often healthy young adults. Several highly lethal viral pathogens are members of the Filoviridae. Older estimates say it killed 40–50 million people. The reconstructed 1918 influenza virus Cancer For more details on this topic. B lymphoproliferative disorder and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Human papillomaviruses are an established cause of cancers of cervix. 1981. and include the ebola and marburg viruses.org/wiki/Virus For more details on this topic. Within the Herpesviridae. Filoviruses are filament-like viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever. and Epstein–Barr virus causes Burkitt's lymphoma. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognised on June 5. anus. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus causes Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity lymphoma. it is now a pandemic. brought to the Americas by European colonists. the free encyclopedia http://en. In 2007 there were 2. Beginning in October 2004 and continuing into 2005. see Oncovirus. but the numbers have been estimated to be close to 70% of the indigenous population. and penis. the outbreak was the world's worst epidemic of any kind of viral hemorrhagic fever. Hepatitis viruses can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer. The Marburg virus Viruses are an established cause of malignancy(cancer) in humans and other species. making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. skin. while more recent research suggests that it may have killed as many as 100 million people. Native American populations were devastated by contagious diseases.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide. with an estimated 38. hepatitis B virus. or otherwise weakened patients. was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly influenza A virus. particularly smallpox. The Marburg virus attracted widespread press attention in April 2005 for an outbreak in Angola. in contrast to most influenza outbreaks which predominantly affect juvenile. The 1918 flu pandemic. The Spanish flu pandemic lasted from 1918 to 1919. Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus can lead to tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukemia.wikipedia. Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus. or 5% of the world's population in 1918.Virus .7 million new HIV infections and 2 million HIV-related deaths. see List of epidemics. A pandemic is a worldwide epidemic. The damage done by this disease significantly aided European attempts to displace and conquer the native population.Wikipedia. commonly referred to as the Spanish flu. It is unclear how many Native Americans were killed by foreign diseases after the arrival of Columbus in the Americas. and human T-lymphotropic virus. The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus.
they are difficult to eliminate without killing the host cell. This is called humoral immunity. Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. The body's cells constantly display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's surface. it releases its RNA molecule or molecules. Many viruses have a replication strategy that involves double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). it produces specific antibodies which bind to the virus and render it non-infectious. A biochemical pathway called the RISC complex is activated which degrades the viral mRNA and the cell survives the infection. Vaccines For more details on this topic. Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation. A second defence of vertebrates against viruses is called cell-mediated immunity and involves immune cells known as T cells. RNA interference is an important innate defence against viruses. whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime in the past. HIV evades the immune system by constantly changing the amino acid sequence of the proteins on the surface of the virion. which immediately bind to a protein complex called dicer that cuts the RNA into smaller pieces. Rotaviruses avoid this mechanism by not uncoating fully inside the cell and by releasing newly produced mRNA through pores in the particle's inner capsid. measles. called. The second. but it eventually stops the viruses from reproducing by killing the infected cell and its close neighbours Two rotaviruses: the one on the right is coated with antibodies which stop its attaching to cells and infecting them Not all virus infections produce a protective immune response in this way. and if a T cell recognises a suspicious viral fragment there. see Vaccination. When such a virus infects a cell. The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases so far are vaccinations to provide resistance to infection. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections long before the discovery of the actual viruses. Other viruses. IgG is produced indefinitely.Wikipedia. This is a hormone produced by the body when viruses are present. evasion of natural killer cell activities. and antiviral drugs. cytokine resistance. Prevention and treatment Because viruses use the machinery of a host cell to reproduce and reside within them. blockade of antigen presentation. This means that the cells of the innate system recognise. When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters a virus. called neurotropic viruses. and respond to. Their use has resulted in a dramatic decline in morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) associated with viral infections such as polio. mumps and 15 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . Its role in immunity is complex. are disseminated by neural spread where the immune system may be unable to reach them.org/wiki/Virus mechanisms that defend the host from infection in a non-specific manner. the free encyclopedia http://en. and antigenic shift. IgG antibody is measured when tests for immunity are carried out. The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection.wikipedia. The first called IgM is highly effective at neutralizing viruses but is only produced by the cells of the immune system for a few weeks. These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration. the host cell is destroyed by T killer cells and the virus-specific T-cells proliferate.Virus . escape from apoptosis. pathogens in a generic way. Two types of antibodies are important. The production of interferon is an important host defence mechanism. The genomic dsRNA remains protected inside the core of the virion. but unlike the adaptive immune system. it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host.
Such viruses are called attenuated. the honey bee is susceptible to many viral infections. or viral proteins (antigens). they are infected for the remainder of their lives. (fake DNA building blocks). Vaccines can consist of live-attenuated or killed viruses. Aciclovir is one of the oldest and most frequently prescribed antiviral drugs. Live vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that causes the disease. HIV is dependent on a proteolytic enzyme called the HIV-1 protease for it to become fully infectious. link together to form the strong "backbone" of the DNA molecule. is probably the safest and most effective vaccine ever generated. Antiviral drugs are often nucleoside analogues. although viruses occur universally. and more are used to prevent viral infections of animals. are caused by viruses.org/wiki/Virus rubella. the free encyclopedia http://en. dogs and horses. most viruses co-exist harmlessly in their host and cause no signs or symptoms of disease.Virus . the disease is chronic. However.Wikipedia. which viruses incorporate into their genomes during replication. The treatment of chronic carriers of the hepatitis B virus by using a similar strategy using lamivudine has been developed. Canine parvovirus is caused by a small DNA virus and infections are often fatal in pups. Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. This has been driven by the AIDS epidemic.wikipedia. because in these people. the development of antiviral drugs has increased rapidly. Guanosine The guanosine analogue Aciclovir Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus. This is called DNA chain termination. Companion animals such as cats. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity. the yellow fever virus vaccine. each cellular species has its own specific range that often only infect that species. a live-attenuated strain called 17D. Over the past twenty years. Diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease and bluetongue. (who are described as immunocompromised). Infection in other species Viruses infect all cellular life and. Like all invertebrates. Biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques are used to produce subunit vaccines. Antiviral drugs For more details on this topic. Examples of nucleoside analogues are aciclovir for Herpes simplex virus infections and lamivudine for HIV and Hepatitis B virus infections. These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. and without treatment. The life-cycle of the virus is then halted because the newly synthesised DNA is inactive. are susceptible to serious viral infections. 16 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . there is now an effective treatment that uses the nucleoside analogue drug ribavirin combined with interferon. There is a large class of drugs called protease inhibitors that inactivate this enzyme. if not vaccinated. Currently vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans. In 80% of people infected. Other antiviral drugs in use target different stages of the viral life cycle. the weakened virus can cause the original disease. Fortunately. Subunit vaccines are safe for immunocompromised patients because they cannot cause the disease. However. This is because these analogues lack the hydroxyl groups which along with phosphorus atoms. see Antiviral drug. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Smallpox infections have been eradicated.
or proteins involved in cell lysis. These are normally insects. the free encyclopedia http://en.Virus . Defences against these viruses may involve RNA interference from 17 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . cut up the viral DNA that bacteriophages inject into bacterial cells. These viruses infect specific bacteria by binding to surface receptor molecules and then entering the cell. RNA interference is also an effective defence in plants. These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell. but often they only cause a loss of yield. Within a short amount of time. particularly the orders Sulfolobales and Thermoproteales. and it is not economically viable to try to control them. Plants have elaborate and effective defence mechanisms against viruses. These enzymes.org/wiki/Virus Plants There are many types of plant virus. When control of plant virus infections is considered economical. helper proteins which help assembly of new virions. For example. and. Viral enzymes aid in the breakdown of the cell membrane. plants often produce natural disinfectants which kill viruses. in some cases just minutes.000. or teardrops. called restriction endonucleases.000 bacteriophages per millilitre of seawater. efforts are concentrated on killing the vectors and removing alternate hosts such as weeds. but some fungi. These viruses have been studied in most detail in the thermophilic archaea. hooked rods. bacterial polymerase starts translating viral mRNA into protein. with up to ten times more of these viruses in the oceans than bacteria. known as vectors. This genetic system provides bacteria with acquired immunity to infection. such as salicylic acid. reaching levels of 250. nematode worms and single-celled organisms have been shown to be vectors. nitric oxide and reactive oxygen molecules. Transmission electron micrograph of multiple bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall Archaea Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses that appear to be unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of unusual shapes. which allows them to block the virus's replication through a form of RNA interference. The major way bacteria defend themselves from bacteriophages is by producing enzymes which destroy foreign DNA. Plant viruses are harmless to humans and other animals because they can only reproduce in living plant cells. with some resembling bottles. This stops the infection from spreading. in just over twenty minutes after injection over three hundred phages could be released. One of the most effective is the presence of so-called resistance (R) genes. Peppers infected by mild mottle virus Bacteria Bacteriophages are an extremely common and diverse group of viruses.wikipedia. which can often be seen with the unaided eye as large spots. When they are infected. in the case of the T4 phage. Each R gene confers resistance to a particular virus by triggering localised areas of cell death around the infected cell. (for perennial fruits for example). Bacteria also contain a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of viruses that the bacteria have come into contact with in the past. bacteriophages are the most common form of biological entity in aquatic environments. Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by organisms.Wikipedia.
virotherapy uses viruses as vectors to treat various diseases. as they can specifically target cells and DNA. It shows promising use in the treatment of cancer and in gene therapy. For example. protein transport. viruses can be regarded as organic nanoparticles. using Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) particles to amplify signals in DNA microarray based sensors. Weapons For more details on this topic. The study and use of viruses have provided valuable information about aspects of cell biology. Recent examples include work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington. The size and shape of viruses. the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signaling in order to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that act as quenchers. RNA processing. see Biological warfare. such as DNA replication. is precisely defined. As such. DC. This is useful for making the cell produce a foreign substance. Applications Life sciences and medicine Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cellular biology as they provide simple systems that can be used to manipulate and investigate the functions of cells. viruses are commonly used in materials science as scaffolds for covalently linked surface modifications. shape. and interest in this approach is increasing. 18 of 26 2/18/2009 11:46 PM . and immunology. In similar fashion. transcription.Wikipedia. viruses have been useful in the study of genetics and helped our understanding of the basic mechanisms of molecular genetics. and the number and nature of the functional groups on their surface. Geneticists often use viruses as vectors to introduce genes into cells that they are studying.Virus . Eastern European scientists have used phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for some time. In this application. From the viewpoint of a materials scientist. A particular quality of viruses is that they can be tailored by directed evolution. or to study the effect of introducing a new gene into the genome. due to the high level of antibiotic resistance now found in some pathogenic bacteria. Because of their size. Their surface carries specific tools designed to cross the barriers of their host cells. The powerful techniques developed by life sciences are becoming the basis of engineering approaches towards nanomaterials.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. Another example is the use of CPMV as a nanoscale breadboard for molecular electronics. Materials science and nanotechnology Current trends in nanotechnology promise to make much more versatile use of viruses.org/wiki/Virus repetitive DNA sequences within archaean genomes that are related to the genes of the viruses. translation. viruses have been used as templates for organizing materials on the nanoscale. opening a wide range of applications far beyond biology and medicine. and well-defined chemical structures.
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so antibiotic resistance is becoming common. with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year.Bacteria . water. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes. including cholera. leprosy and bubonic plague. antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in various agricultural processes. In developed countries. anthrax. bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. the production of cheese and yoghurt through fermentation. acidic hot springs. Bacteria Fossil range: Archean or earlier Recent Escherichia coli image is 8 micrometres wide. most bacteria have not been characterized. in all. the free encyclopedia The Bacteria [bæk t r ] (singular: bacterium)[α] are a large group of unicellular microorganisms. mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.org/wiki/Bacteria Bacteria From Wikipedia. growing in soil. However. bacteria are important in processes such as sewage treatment. Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes. as well as biotechnology. and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea. The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system. the free encyclopedia http://en. and deep in the Earth's crust. In industry. Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phyla gram positive/no outer membrane Actinobacteria (high-G+C) Firmicutes (low-G+C) Tenericutes (no wall) gram negative/outer membrane present Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes unknown/ungrouped Acidobacteria Chloroflexi 1 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be cultured in the laboratory. a few species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth. the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotic life consists of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes. However. with many important steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms. a branch of microbiology. There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells as human cells in the human body. syphilis. Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients. such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth. bacteria have a wide range of shapes. forming much of the world's biomass. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections.Wikipedia. and a few are beneficial.wikipedia. with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and in the digestive tract. Typically a few micrometres in length. as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. radioactive waste.
2 Mutualists 10. anthrax and tuberculosis.) Along with his contemporary. using a single-lens microscope of his own design. for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905. these postulates are still used today. 2 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM .1 Intracellular structures 4. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. (Yeasts and molds.2 Extracellular structures 4. he set out criteria to test if an organism is the cause of a disease.wikipedia. Louis Pasteur demonstrated in 1859 that the fermentation process is caused by the growth of microorganisms. The name bacterium was introduced much later.Bacteria . but rather fungi.Wikipedia. Robert Koch.3 Pathogens 11 Significance in technology and industry 12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres Planctomycetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae History of bacteriology Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676. the first microbiologist and the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope.org/wiki/Bacteria Contents 1 History of bacteriology 2 Origin and early evolution 3 Morphology 4 Cellular structure 4. commonly associated with fermentation.1 Predators 10. Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease. and that this growth is not due to spontaneous generation. He called them "animalcules" and published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society. are not bacteria. Robert Koch was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked on cholera. Koch finally proved the germ theory. by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in 1838. In Koch's postulates. the free encyclopedia http://en. In his research into tuberculosis.3 Endospores 5 Metabolism 6 Growth and reproduction 7 Genetics 8 Movement 9 Classification and identification 10 Interactions with other organisms 10.
as part of the threedomain system. that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Ehrlich had been awarded a 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on immunology. all organisms were microscopic. which are still being found in all known Eukarya (sometimes in highly reduced form. This new phylogenetic taxonomy was based on the sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA. with his work being the basis of the Gram stain and the Ziehl-Neelsen stain. For about 3 billion years. an independent second engulfment by some mitochondria-containing eukaryotes of cyanobacterial-like organisms led to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants. in ancient "amitochondrial" protozoa). Although bacterial fossils exist. Paul Ehrlich developed the first antibiotic. e. or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species. their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the past history of bacterial evolution.org/wiki/Bacteria Though it was known in the nineteenth century that bacteria are the cause of many diseases. no effective antibacterial treatments were available. and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.g.Wikipedia.2 billion years ago. This involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alpha-proteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes. the free encyclopedia http://en. and pioneered the use of stains to detect and identify bacteria. Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence. and divided prokaryotes into two evolutionary domains. In 1910. A major step forward in the study of bacteria was the recognition in 1977 by Carl Woese that archaea have a separate line of evolutionary descent from bacteria. Later on. Here. and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.5 billion–3. about 4 billion years ago. eukaryotes resulted from ancient bacteria entering into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells.Bacteria . However. which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea. There are even some algal groups known that clearly originated from subsequent events of endosymbiosis by heterotrophic eukaryotic hosts engulfing a eukaryotic algae that developed into "second-generation" plastids.wikipedia. gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny. Morphology 3 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was probably a hyperthermophile that lived about 2. Origin and early evolution Further information: Timeline of evolution The ancestors of modern bacteria were single-celled microorganisms that were the first forms of life to develop on earth. by changing dyes that selectively stained Treponema pallidum—the spirochaete that causes syphilis—into compounds that selectively killed the pathogen. such as stromatolites.
However.Wikipedia.3 micrometres. but these ultramicrobacteria are not well-studied. as small as the largest viruses. Bacteria can also be elongated to form filaments. and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters. coccus.Bacteria . for example the Actinobacteria. certain types.5–5. Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus Mycoplasma. similar in appearance to fungal mycelia. the free encyclopedia http://en. called morphologies. are slightly curved or Bacteria display a large diversity of cell morphologies and comma-shaped. others associate in characteristic patterns: Neisseria form diploids (pairs). which measure only 0. Filamentous bacteria are often surrounded by a sheath that contains many individual cells. Some rod-shaped bacteria. This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial cell wall and cytoskeleton.org/wiki/Bacteria Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes. Most bacterial species are either spherical. and is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients. seed) or rod-shaped. Many bacterial species exist simply as single cells. a few species–for example Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni–are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye. such as species of the genus Nocardia. Some bacteria may be even smaller. or tightly coiled. 4 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM .wikipedia. A small number of species even have tetrahedral or cuboidal shapes. attach to surfaces. from Greek kókkos. branched filaments. even form complex. others. swim through liquids and escape predators. from Latin baculus. More recently. can be spiral-shaped. called bacilli (sing. called vibrio. called spirochaetes.0 micrometres in length. grain. bacillus. deep subsurface bacteria have been discovered that grow as long rods with a star-shaped cross-section. arrangements called spirilla. The large surface area to volume ratio conferred by this morphology may give these bacteria an advantage in nutrient-poor environments. Bacterial cells are about one tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0. stick). called cocci (sing. Streptococcus form chains.
or cell membrane. Bacteria were once seen as simple bags of cytoplasm. Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components. and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100. For example. but elements such as prokaryotic cytoskeleton. Myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as quorum sensing. mitochondria. They consequently lack a nucleus. the free encyclopedia http://en. Biofilms are also important in medicine. such as soil or the surfaces of plants. proteins and other essential components of the cytoplasm within the cell. migrate towards each other.000 bacterial cells. which encloses the contents of the cell and acts as a barrier to hold nutrients. relative to those of other organisms and biomolecules Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms or bacterial mats. Cellular structure Further information: Bacterial cell structure Intracellular structures The bacterial cell is surrounded by a lipid membrane. when starved of amino acids. These subcellular compartments have been called "bacterial hyperstructures". For example. Structure and contents of a typical bacterial cell  and the localization of proteins to specific locations within the cytoplasm have been found to show levels of complexity. the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms. such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. which are compartments 5 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . In natural environments. As they are prokaryotes. this type of cooperation is a simple type of multicellular organisation. Micro-compartments such as carboxysome provides a further level of organization.wikipedia. In these fruiting bodies. chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells. about one in 10 cells migrate to the top of these fruiting bodies and differentiate into a specialised dormant state called myxospores. These films can range from a few micrometers in thickness to up to half a meter in depth. and bacteria protected within biofilms are much harder to kill than individual isolated bacteria. as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted medical devices. protists and archaea. which are more resistant to drying and other adverse environmental conditions than are ordinary cells. forming secondary structures such as microcolonies. through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients. Even more complex morphological changes are sometimes possible. and may contain multiple species of bacteria. bacteria do not tend to have membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm and thus contain few large intracellular structures.org/wiki/Bacteria The range of sizes shown by prokaryotes. the bacteria perform separate tasks.Wikipedia.Bacteria .
The order Planctomycetes are an exception to the general absence of internal membranes in bacteria. such as the photosynthetic Cyanobacteria. below is other membrane-bound cellular an image of purified carboxysomes.allowing them to move up or down into water layers with different light intensities and nutrient levels. Scale bars are 100 nm. which they use to regulate their buoyancy . such as energy generation. which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids. These light-gathering complexs may even form lipid-enclosed structures called chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria. respectively.wikipedia. which are made of cellulose and chitin. the free encyclopedia http://en. Like all living organisms.Wikipedia.Bacteria . or to expel undesired molecules from the cytoplasm. The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea. such as glycogen. polyphosphate. which do not contain peptidoglycan. Top left is an electron around their nucleoid and contain microscope image of carboxysomes in Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. 6 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . a function performed by the membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotes. Many important biochemical reactions. bacteria contain ribosomes for the production of proteins. and the antibiotic penicillin is able to kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan. These "polyhedral organelles" localize and compartmentalize bacterial metabolism. Other proteins import nutrients across the cell membrane. On the right is a model of their structure. The nucleoid contains the chromosome with associated proteins and RNA. sulfur or polyhydroxyalkanoates. because they have a membrane Carboxysomes are protein-enclosed bacterial organelles. Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. a potential difference also found in a battery. and their genetic material is typically a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid. occur by concentration gradients across membranes. structures.org/wiki/Bacteria within bacteria that are surrounded by polyhedral protein shells. However. The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria. rather than by lipid membranes. The general lack of internal membranes in bacteria means reactions such as electron transport occur across the cell membrane between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic space. These granules enable bacteria to store compounds for later use. Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi. in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and fills most of the cell with layers of light-gathering membrane. Some bacteria produce intracellular nutrient storage granules. Extracellular structures Further information: Cell envelope Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Certain bacterial species. produce internal gas vesicles. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (called murein in older sources). but the structure of the bacterial ribosome is different from those of eukaryotes and Archaea.
 Pili (sing. Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens. respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement. to a highly structured capsule or glycocalyx. pilus) are cellular appendages. They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition. below).org/wiki/Bacteria There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria. called Gram-positive and Gram-negative. slightly larger than fimbriae. These structures can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells. vancomycin can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative pathogens. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain. as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms. the free encyclopedia http://en. Fimbriae are believed to be Helicobacter pylori electron micrograph. such as macrophages. The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems. Flagella are rigid protein structures.wikipedia.Wikipedia. Flagella are driven by the energy released by the transfer of ions down an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane. S-layers have diverse but mostly poorly understood functions. about 20 nanometres in diameter and up to 20 micrometres in length. In contrast. These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility. Fimbriae are fine filaments of protein. In many bacteria an S-layer of rigidly arrayed protein molecules covers the outside of the cell. so are intensively studied. that can transfer genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation (see bacterial genetics. just 2–10 nanometres in diameter and up to several micrometers in length. Gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. and vary in structural complexity: ranging from a disorganised slime layer of extra-cellular polymer. such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These transfer proteins from the cytoplasm into the periplasm or into the environment around the cell. a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species. but are known to act as virulence factors in Campylobacter and contain surface enzymes in Bacillus stearothermophilus. Endospores Further information: Endospores 7 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . Capsules or slime layers are produced by many bacteria to surround their cells.Bacteria . Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. and resemble fine hairs when seen under the electron microscope. for instance. Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall. This layer provides chemical and physical protection for the cell surface and can act as a macromolecular diffusion barrier. involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells and are showing multiple flagella on the cell surface essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens. They are distributed over the surface of the cell. that are used for motility. and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria.
 Endospores have a central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes surrounded by a cortex layer and protected by an impermeable and rigid coat. pressure and desiccation. Anaerobacter and Heliobacterium. and contamination of deep puncture wounds with Clostridium tetani endospores causes tetanus.Wikipedia. green sulfur- 8 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications. disinfectants. the free encyclopedia http://en. In this dormant state. and endospores even allow bacteria to survive exposure to the vacuum and radiation in space. detergents.org/wiki/Bacteria Certain genera of Gram-positive bacteria. and the electron donors used for growth. dormant structures called endospores. where organic carbon compounds are used as carbon sources. or autotrophic. bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types. Clostridium. The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy. (photoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation Chloroflexi. Clostridium or (chemoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation Enterobacteriaceae (chemoautotrophs) Lithotrophs Organotrophs Carbon metabolism in bacteria is either heterotrophic. Typical autotrophic bacteria are phototrophic cyanobacteria. Metabolism Further information: Microbial metabolism In contrast to higher organisms. these organisms may remain viable for millions of years. In almost all cases. Green sulfur bacteria. such as Bacillus.wikipedia. such as high levels of UV in cerebrospinal fluid light. the source of carbon.Bacteria . Endospores show no detectable metabolism and can survive Bacillus anthracis (stained purple) growing extreme physical and chemical stresses. An additional criterion of respiratory microorganisms are the electron acceptors used for aerobic or anaerobic respiration. or Nitrospirae (lithoautotrophs) Organic compounds Bacillus. can form highly resistant. Heterotrophic bacteria include parasitic types. Endospore-forming bacteria can also cause disease: for example. (lithoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation Hydrogenophilaceae. one endospore is formed and this is not a reproductive process. Sporohalobacter. Bacterial metabolism is classified into nutritional groups on the basis of three major criteria: the kind of energy used for growth. anthrax can be contracted by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis endospores. gamma radiation. or Purple bacteria (photoautotrophs) Organic compounds Thermodesulfobacteria. although Anaerobacter can make up to seven endospores in a single cell. meaning that cellular carbon is obtained by fixing carbon dioxide. heat. Nutritional types in bacterial metabolism Nutritional type Phototrophs Source of energy Sunlight Inorganic compounds Organic compounds Source of carbon Examples Organic compounds Cyanobacteria.
such as nitrate. for example. Respiratory organisms use chemical compounds as a source of energy by taking electrons from the reduced substrate and transferring them to a terminal electron acceptor in a redox reaction. the use of chemical substances for energy. Finally. This leads to the ecologically important processes of denitrification. respectively. Fermentation is possible.g. Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power. carbon monoxide. In both aerobic phototrophy and chemolithotrophy. Growth and reproduction Further information: Bacterial growth Unlike multicellular organisms.wikipedia. This reaction releases energy that can be used to synthesise ATP and drive metabolism. whereas phototrophic organisms use them only for biosynthetic purposes. butyric acid). sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors. some bacteria also fix nitrogen gas (nitrogen fixation) using the enzyme nitrogenase. lactate. which are mostly oxidised at the expense of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors (aerobic/anaerobic respiration). the gas methane can be used by methanotrophic bacteria as both a source of electrons and a substrate for carbon anabolism. the free encyclopedia http://en. and several reduced sulfur compounds. whereas organotrophic organisms are heterotrophic. In aerobic organisms.org/wiki/Bacteria bacteria and some purple bacteria. but also many chemolithotrophic species. while under anaerobic conditions inorganic compounds are used instead. because the energy content of the substrates is higher than that of the products. sulfate-reducing bacteria are largely responsible for the production of the highly toxic forms of mercury (methyl. Facultative anaerobes can switch between fermentation and different terminal electron acceptors depending on the environmental conditions in which they find themselves.Wikipedia. where the electrons taken from the reduced substrates are transferred to oxidised intermediates to generate reduced fermentation products (e. In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds. or on chemotrophy. Unusually.g. Another way of life of chemotrophs in the absence of possible electron acceptors is fermentation. Most lithotrophic organisms are autotrophic. but is not universal. the use of light through photosynthesis. increases in the size of bacteria (cell growth) and their reproduction by cell 9 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste. Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.Bacteria . carbon dioxide fixation). This environmentally important trait can be found in bacteria of nearly all the metabolic types listed above. ethanol. oxygen is used as the Filaments of photosynthetic cyanobacteria electron acceptor. ferrous iron and other reduced metal ions. Common inorganic electron donors are hydrogen. sulfate reduction and acetogenesis. which allows the organisms to synthesise ATP and drive their metabolism. Chemotrophic organisms use the respective electron donors for energy conservation (by aerobic/anaerobic respiration or fermentation) and biosynthetic reactions (e. Energy metabolism of bacteria is either based on phototrophy. ammonia (leading to nitrification). hydrogen. oxygen is used as a terminal electron acceptor. bacteria are further divided into lithotrophs that use inorganic electron donors and organotrophs that use organic compounds as electron donors. These processes are also important in biological responses to pollution. In addition to fixing carbon dioxide in photosynthesis.and dimethylmercury) in the environment. such as nitrifying or sulfuroxidising bacteria.
 These relationships can be essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms (syntrophy). bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly. In nature. The lag phase has high biosynthesis rates. meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce A growing colony of Escherichia coli cells indefinitely. Examples include fruiting body formation by Myxobacteria and aerial hyphae formation by Streptomyces. the cells need to adapt to their new environment. and the time it takes the cells to double is known as the generation time (g). Solid growth media such as agar plates are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain. or budding.Bacteria . also known as the exponential phase. such as the formation of algal (and cyanobacterial) blooms that often occur in lakes during the summer.wikipedia.8 minutes. In cell division. a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the high-nutrient environment and preparing for fast growth. form more complex reproductive structures that help disperse the newly-formed daughter cells.Wikipedia. biofilms) which may allow for increased supply of nutrients and protection from environmental stresses. The first phase of growth is the lag phase. The log phase is marked by rapid exponential growth. the free encyclopedia http://en. nutrients are metabolised at maximum speed until one of the nutrients is depleted and starts limiting growth. Under optimal conditions. In the laboratory. liquid growth media are used when measurement of growth or large volumes of cells are required. two identical clone daughter cells are produced. making the cultures easy to divide and transfer. Some organisms can grow extremely rapidly when nutrients become available. Some bacteria. such as the production of multiple antibiotics by Streptomyces that inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. The final phase of growth is the stationary phase and is caused by depleted nutrients.g. although isolating single bacteria from liquid media is difficult. Bacteria grow to a fixed size and then reproduce through binary fission. antioxidant metabolism and nutrient transport. The rate at which cells grow during this phase is known as the growth rate (k). a form of asexual reproduction. bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media. The second phase of growth is the logarithmic phase (log phase). or with antibiotics added) can help identify specific organisms. Growth in stirred liquid media occurs as an even cell suspension. while still reproducing asexually. The use of selective media (media with specific nutrients added or deficient. and bacterial populations can double as quickly as every 9. This nutrient limitation has led the evolution of different growth strategies (see r/K selection theory). Other organisms have adaptations to harsh environments.org/wiki/Bacteria division are tightly linked in unicellular organisms. When a population of bacteria first enter a high-nutrient environment that allows growth. Budding involves a cell forming a protrusion that breaks away and produces a daughter cell. in natural environments nutrients are limited. many organisms live in communities (e. Most laboratory techniques for growing bacteria use high levels of nutrients to produce large amounts of cells cheaply and quickly. However. However. as proteins necessary for rapid growth are produced. Genetics 10 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . During log phase. Bacterial growth follows three phases. The cells reduce their metabolic activity and consume non-essential cellular proteins. The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair.
Wikipedia. This can occur in three main ways. when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome.000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacteria Sorangium cellulosum. Many types of bacteriophage exist.000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Carsonella ruddii. the cause of Lyme disease.org/wiki/Bacteria Further information: Plasmid. which are small extra-chromosomal DNAs that may contain genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors. while others insert into the bacterial chromosome. 11 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . they are clonal). Movement Further information: Chemotaxis.wikipedia. the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacteria into a lethal pathogen. Some bacteria also transfer genetic material between cells. the free encyclopedia http://en. The third method of gene transfer is bacterial conjugation. bacterial use their type IV pili as a grappling hook. Genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from either random mutation during replication or "stress-directed mutation". Genome Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome that can range in size from only 160. twitching motility or changes of buoyancy. in a process called transformation. Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement. Firstly. and a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of phage that the bacteria have come into contact with in the past. Mutations come from errors made during the replication of DNA or from exposure to mutagens.e. Bacteria may also contain plasmids. Mutation rates vary widely among different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria. This gene acquisition from other bacteria or the environment is called horizontal gene transfer and may be common under natural conditions. Another type of bacterial DNA are integrated viruses (bacteriophages). some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria. where genes involved in a particular growth-limiting process have an increased mutation rate. Bacteria. repeatedly extending it. inherit identical copies of their parent's genes (i. Pilus Motile bacteria can move using flagella. This CRISPR system provides bacteria with acquired immunity to infection. with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi.Bacteria . as asexual organisms. Genes can also be transferred by the process of transduction. Flagella. The genes in bacterial genomes are usually a single continuous stretch of DNA and although several different types of introns do exist in bacteria. to 12. However. all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or mutations. bacterial gliding. which allows them to block virus replication through a form of RNA interference. where DNA is transferred through direct cell contact. these are much more rare than in eukaryotes. anchoring it and then retracting it with remarkable force (>80 pN). Bacteria resist phage infection through restriction modification systems that degrade foreign DNA.200. Gene transfer is particularly important in antibiotic resistance as it allows the rapid transfer of resistance genes between different pathogens. containing a single linear chromosome.. In twitching motility. bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment. in the evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Clostridium botulinum. A bacteriophage can contain genes that contribute to its host's phenotype: for example.
Wikipedia. a flagellum at each end (amphitrichous). as well as lateral gene transfer between unrelated species. (See external links below for link to videos. Flagellum of Gram-negative Bacteria. phototaxis and magnetotaxis. antigens and quinones. individual bacteria move together to form waves of cells that then differentiate to form fruiting bodies containing spores.Bacteria .org/wiki/Bacteria Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface. Many bacteria (such as E. fatty acids. The flagellum is a rotating structure driven by a reversible motor at the base that uses the electrochemical gradient across the membrane for power. By promoting actin polymerization at one pole of their cells. with a Gram stain This uncertainty was due to the lack of distinctive structures in most bacteria. Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviors called taxes: these include chemotaxis. the free encyclopedia http://en. coli) have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling. the myxobacteria. Classification and identification Further information: Scientific classification. pigments. some closely related bacteria can have very different morphologies and metabolisms. The bacterial flagella is the best-understood motility structure in any organism and is made of about 20 proteins. it was unclear whether these differences represented Streptococcus mutans visualized variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species. To 12 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . coli which is motile in liquid or solid media.) The flagella of a unique group of bacteria. are found between two membranes in the periplasmic space. cellular metabolism or on differences in cell components such as DNA. In one peculiar group. Bacteria can be classified on the basis of cell structure. The myxobacteria move only when on solid surfaces. which acts as a propeller.wikipedia. they can form a kind of tail that pushes them through the host cell's cytoplasm. unlike E. The tumbling allows them to reorient and makes their movement a three dimensional random walk. while others have flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell (peritrichous). with approximately another 30 proteins required for its regulation and assembly. Several Listeria and Shigella species move inside host cells by usurping the cytoskeleton. While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains. They have a distinctive helical body that twists about as it moves. Systematics and Clinical pathology Classification seeks to describe the diversity of bacterial species by naming and grouping organisms based on similarities. This motor drives the motion of the filament. the spirochaetes. clusters of flagella at the poles of the cell (lophotrichous). which is normally used to move organelles inside the cell. Due to lateral gene transfer. some have a single flagellum (monotrichous). The base drives the rotation of the hook and filament.
The term "bacteria" was traditionally applied to all microscopic. archaea green and bacteria blue. Gram-positive bacilli. molecular systematics showed prokaryotic life to consist of two separate domains. However. Other organisms may need to be identified by their growth in special media. while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink. as serology. while preventing growth of non-pathogenic bacteria. and Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Some organisms are best identified by stains other than the Gram stain.Wikipedia. Identification of bacteria in the laboratory is particularly relevant in medicine. most bacteria can be classified as belonging to one of four groups (Gram-positive cocci. developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram. the need to identify human pathogens was a major impetus for the development of techniques to identify bacteria. which show acid-fastness on Ziehl–Neelsen or similar stains. Specimens that are normally sterile. such as the rRNA gene. Often these techniques are designed for specific specimens. a sputum sample will be treated to identify organisms that cause pneumonia. or by other techniques. while restricting the growth of the other bacteria in the sample. By combining morphology and Gram-staining. using genetic techniques such as guanine cytosine ratio determination.org/wiki/Bacteria overcome this uncertainty.wikipedia. These two domains. Once a pathogenic organism has been 13 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . single-celled prokaryotes. The International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) maintains international rules for the naming of bacteria and taxonomic categories and for the ranking of them in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Gram-negative cocci and Gram-negative bacilli). Culture techniques are designed to promote the growth and identify particular bacteria. where the correct treatment is determined by the bacterial species causing an infection. along with Eukarya. while stool specimens are cultured on selective media to identify organisms that cause diarrhoea. The Gram stain. such as blood. the free encyclopedia http://en. urine or spinal fluid. bacterial classification remains a changing and expanding field. but now called Bacteria and Archaea that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. Eukaryotes are colored red. are the basis of the three-domain system. Consequently. particularly mycobacteria or Nocardia. characterises bacteria based on the structural characteristics of their cell walls. modern bacterial classification emphasizes molecular systematics. as well as sequencing genes that have not undergone extensive lateral gene transfer. originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. which is currently the most widely used classification system in microbiolology. For example. compared to other organisms. a few biologists argue that the Archaea and Eukaryotes evolved from Gram-positive bacteria. due to the relatively recent introduction of molecular systematics and a rapid increase in the number of genome sequences that are available. such Phylogenetic tree showing the diversity of bacteria. genome-genome hybridization. The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple. Classification of bacteria is determined by publication in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. for example.Bacteria . are cultured under conditions designed to grow all possible organisms. The archaea and eukaryotes are more closely-related to each other than either is to the bacteria. However.
occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume organic acids such as butyric acid or propionic acid and produce hydrogen. Due to their small size. as well as fermenting complex undigestible carbohydrates.000 bacterial species in the normal human gut flora of the intestines can contribute to gut immunity. Other bacterial predators either attach to their prey in order to digest them and absorb nutrients. which forms swarms of cells that kill and digest any bacteria they encounter. These include organisms such as Myxococcus xanthus. In soil.Wikipedia. These methods also allow the detection and identification of "viable but nonculturable" cells that are metabolically active but non-dividing. The presence of this gut flora also inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (usually through competitive exclusion) and these beneficial bacteria are consequently sold as probiotic dietary supplements. The bacteria in this association are unable to consume the organic acids as this reaction produces hydrogen that accumulates in their surroundings. these species called predatory bacteria. it can be further characterised by its morphology. Mutualists Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival. microorganisms which reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria isolated. through adaptations that allowed them to entrap and kill other organisms. their growth can be increased by warmth and sweat. For example. Only the intimate association with the hydrogenconsuming Archaea keeps the hydrogen concentration low enough to allow the bacteria to grow. the presence of over 1. convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus). Predators Some species of bacteria kill and then consume other microorganisms.and even these diverse estimates may be off by many orders of magnitude. and methanogenic Archaea that consume hydrogen. identification of bacteria is increasingly using molecular methods. Diagnostics using such DNA-based tools. the free encyclopedia http://en. are increasingly popular due to their specificity and speed. even using these improved methods. the total number of bacterial species is not known and cannot even be estimated with any certainty. there are fewer than 9. patterns of hemolysis) and staining. mutualism and commensalism. vitamin K and biotin. 14 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM .000 known species of bacteria (including cyanobacteria). However. compared to culture-based methods. Many other bacteria are found as symbionts in humans and other organisms. such as Vampirococcus. such as Daptobacter. Interactions with other organisms Despite their apparent simplicity. such as polymerase chain reaction. synthesise vitamins such as folic acid. Following present classification. but attempts to estimate bacterial diversity have ranged from 107 to 109 total species . and large populations of these organisms in humans are the cause of body odor. which cannot fix nitrogen themselves. or invade another cell and multiply inside the cytosol. converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds. bacteria can form complex associations with other organisms. These predatory bacteria are thought to have evolved from saprophages that consumed dead microorganisms. commensal bacteria are ubiquitous and grow on animals and plants exactly as they will grow on any other surface. growth patterns such as (aerobic or anaerobic growth. One such mutualistic association. This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants. However. called interspecies hydrogen transfer. As with bacterial classification. These symbiotic associations can be divided into parasitism.Bacteria .
fire blight and wilts in plants. Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans. syphilis. soy sauce. or bacteriostatic if they just prevent bacterial growth. while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.Bacteria . salmonella and anthrax in farm animals. often Lactobacillus in combination with yeasts and molds. sauerkraut. and by proper care of indwelling catheters.Wikipedia. Finally. as well as Johne's disease. An example of how antibiotics produce selective toxicity are chloramphenicol and puromycin. Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection.org/wiki/Bacteria Pathogens If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms. can cause skin infections. typhoid fever. contains species that can cause pneumonia. One species of Rickettsia causes typhus. Chlamydia. Each species of pathogen has a characteristic spectrum of Color-enhanced scanning electron interactions with its human hosts. Yet these organisms are also part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease at all. but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome. Burkholderia cenocepacia. which are obligate intracellular parasites able to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms. There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the host. they are classed as pathogens. such as the Rickettsia. vinegar. Significance in technology and industry Further information: Economic importance of bacteria Bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus. Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilized to prevent contamination by bacteria. some species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years after.  The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable and has been used in waste 15 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . Bacterial diseases are also important in agriculture. a systemic cells inflammatory response producing shock. which inhibit the bacterial ribosome. massive vasodilation and death. where they may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. leprosy and tuberculosis. another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites. Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics. wine and yoghurt. pickles. such as micrograph showing Salmonella Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. meningitis and even overwhelming sepsis. Infections can be prevented by antiseptic measures such as sterilizating the skin prior to piercing it with the needle of a syringe. as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. diphtheria. mastitis. with bacteria causing leaf spot. typhimurium (red) invading cultured human pneumonia.wikipedia. and Mycobacterium avium are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Antibiotics are used both in treating human disease and in intensive farming to promote animal growth. the free encyclopedia http://en. foodborne illness. or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease. cholera. Some organisms. have been used for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese. which are classified as bacteriocidal if they kill bacteria.
http://aem.ncbi. 16 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . et al (2004). Washington state". Wiebe W (1998).1128/AEM.4230-4241. Coleman D. Coleman D. 3.pnas. ^ Whitman W. or antibodies. with models of Escherichia coli metabolism now being produced and tested. Bacteria are also used for the bioremediation of industrial toxic wastes. By making mutations in bacterial DNA and examining the resulting phenotypes.nlm.1073/pnas. PMID 9618454. Bacteria can also be used in the place of pesticides in the biological pest control. NCBI.wikipedia. then apply this knowledge to more complex organisms.6578. Bacteria capable of digesting the hydrocarbons in petroleum are often used to clean up oil spills. doi:10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S a 95 (12): 6578–83. PMID 15240306. Zachara J. meaning "small staff". http://www. ^ The word bacteria derives from the Greek βακτήριον. growth factors. with little or no effect on humans. 4.cgi?mode=Undef&id=2&lvl=3& lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock. 2. This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT).70. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. Wiebe W (1998). Taxonomy Browser. genetics and biochemistry. a Gram-positive.nih. In the chemical industry. Subspecies of this bacteria are used as a Lepidopteran-specific insecticides under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide. Because of their specificity. "Prokaryotes: the unseen majority".Bacteria .org/wiki/Bacteria processing and bioremediation. wildlife. "Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear wastecontaminated vadose sediments at the Hanford site. the free encyclopedia http://en. Balkwill D. bacteria are most important in the production of enantiomerically pure chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or agrichemicals. enzymes and metabolic pathways in bacteria. Fertilizer was added to some of the beaches in Prince William Sound in an attempt to promote the growth of these naturally occurring bacteria after the infamous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. References 1. doi:10. bacteria are the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology. these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly. Appl Environ Microbiol 70 (7): 4230–188.8.131.52. pollinators and most other beneficial insects. such as insulin. This aim of understanding the biochemistry of a cell reaches its most complex expression in the synthesis of huge amounts of enzyme kinetic and gene expression data into mathematical models of entire organisms.gov/Taxonomy /Browser/wwwtax. scientists can determine the function of genes. http://www.  This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bioengineer bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins. ^ "Bacteria (eubacteria)".org/cgi/content/full/95/12/6578.org/cgi/content /full/70/7/4230?view=long&pmid=15240306.asm. baktērion.Wikipedia. ^ Fredrickson J.2004. This is achievable in some well-studied bacteria.  See also Biotechnology Extremophiles Transgenic bacteria Psychrotrophic bacteria Microorganism International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria Footnotes α. These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil. Because of their ability to quickly grow and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated. soil dwelling bacterium. ^ Whitman W.
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html) . Nature 427 (6977): 839–43. ^ Chattopadhyay A. Complex Intracellular Structures in Prokaryotes (Microbiology Monographs). External links Bacterial Nomenclature Up-To-Date from DSMZ (http://www.1002/biot. ^ Reed JL. 163. doi:10. Madigan MT (2005). doi:10. Planet of the Bacteria (http://www. ISBN 0-683-00603-7.1080/10408410490270712. Palsson BO (2003). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology (9th ed.J: Prentice Hall. Genome Biol. Principles of microbiology.asm.de/bactnom/bactname. Martinko JM. Vicsek T. Genome Biol 2 (9): RESEARCH0035. Kovács B.Wikipedia. Crit Rev Microbiol 30 (1): 33–54. Premstaller A (2006).list of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature The largest bacteria (http://www. Holt JC. Barabási A (2004).).1221. 195 (1): 1–8. ^ Bozsik A (2006). doi:10.Bacteria . doi:10. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67 (2): 151–9.).html) by Stephen Jay Gould 24 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM .1186/gb-2001-2-9research0035. Tortora GJ.org/wiki/Bacteria 160.org/library/gould_bacteria. PMID 16649191. PMID 14985762. Shai Y (2001). PMID 16892246.2001.200500051. Pest Manag Sci 62 (7): 651–4. ^ Aronson AI. FEMS Microbiol.1038/nature02289. 165. PMID 15580495. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. Liang P. PMID 15116762. ^ Walsh G (2005). "Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity". PMID 9733676. (2008). Fundamentals of microbiology. "Therapeutic insulins and their large-scale manufacture". Hugenholtz P.html) of bacteria swimming and tumbling.1111/j. doi:10. Case CL (2004).1186/gb-2003-4-9-r54. ISBN 0-8053-7614-3. Open Evol J 2: 44–54. 167. J Bacteriol 180 (18): 4765–74.wikipedia. doi:10.). 4 (9): R54. "Why Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins are so effective: unique features of their mode of action".org/pages/sn_arc99/4_17_99/fob5. 166. Further reading Alcamo IE (2001). "Susceptibility of adult Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to insecticides with different modes of action". Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed. (2006).x. Louis: Mosby. PMID 12952533.sciencenews. Riley M (2001). "An expanded genome-scale model of Escherichia coli K-12 (iJR904 GSM/GPR)". Vo TD.dsmz.gov 164.tb10489.1007/s00253-004-1809-x. ISBN 0-8016-7790-4. ISBN 3-540-32524-7.org/tree?group=Eubacteria&contgroup=Life_on_Earth) Videos (http://www. "Bio-Communication of Bacteria and their Evolutionary Roots in Natural Genome Editing Competences of Viruses". doi:10. Shively. Biotechnol J 1 (2): 164–86. Pace NR (1998). Englewood Cliffs. Gopal S. doi:10. Nahum L. 161. N.1574-6968. "A functional update of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome". ed. doi:10. Jessup M.stephenjaygould. Berlin: Springer. the free encyclopedia http://en. PMID 11166987. Lett. ISBN 0-7637-1067-9. Bhatnagar R (2004). Atlas RM (1995). ISBN 0-13-144329-1. "Bacterial insecticidal toxins". PMID 11574054. Witzany G. use of optical tweezers and other videos. Bhatnagar N. Funke BR.fcgi?tool=pubmed& pubmedid=11574054. Goebel BM. "Manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins in microbial systems".bacterio. St. Bergey DH (1994). ^ Serres M.cict. ed.org/cgi/content/full/180/18/4765?view=full&pmid=9733676.2174/1874404400802010044. 162.pubmedcentral. Schilling CH.nih. Oltvai Z.rowland. http://www. ^ Graumann K. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Microbiology: an introduction (8th ed ed. ^ Almaas E. "Global organization of metabolic fluxes in the bacterium Escherichia coli". /articlerender.fr/eubacteria. Gaasterland T. http://jb.1002/ps.htm) Genera of the domain Bacteria (http://www.htm) Tree of Life: Eubacteria (http://tolweb.edu/labs/bacteria/index_movies.harvard.
textbookofbacteriology..Bacteria .com/trun/artwork/Animations /Overview/overview.Wikipedia.newscientist.wikipedia.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.cfm) on-line lecture by Bonnie Bassler Retrieved from "http://en.org/ibioseminars/Bassler/Bassler1.html) Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (http://ascb.org/wiki/Bacteria" Categories: Featured articles | Bacteria | Bacteriology | Microbiology Hidden categories: Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism | Wikipedia protected pages without expiry | Articles including recorded pronunciations This page was last modified on 16 February 2009.net/) Animated guide to bacterial cell structure.com/channel/life/dn14094bacteria-make-major-evolutionary-shift-in-the-lab. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. the free encyclopedia http://en. at 19:17.blackwellpublishing. a U.html) Bacteria Make Major Evolutionary Shift in the Lab (http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria On-line text book on bacteriology (http://www. 25 of 25 2/18/2009 11:45 PM . registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. (http://www.S. Inc. (See Copyrights for details.
such as poisoning or infection.which deals with the study of fungus in terms of their genetics. as well as their dangers. beer. in the form of mycorrhizae. antibiotics. The study of pathogenic fungi is referred to as medical mycology. insect symbionts and lichens as well as their potency in breaking down complex organic biomolecules such as lignin. including their genetic and biochemical properties.taxonomy. Historically.Wikipedia.g." Some fungi can cause disease in humans or other organisms. food (e. the free encyclopedia Mycology (from the Greek µύκης. Christian Hendrik Persoon.g. medicinals (e. cheese. and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi.. and their use to humans as a source for tinder.Mycology . the study of plant diseases. Anton de Bary and Lewis David von Schweinitz. Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungi. meaning "fungus") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi. Field meetings to find interesting species of fungi are known as 'forays'. A mushroom is a reproductive structure of a fungus. as well as xenobiotics.. after the first such meeting organized by the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club in 1868 and entitled "a foray among the fungi.org/wiki/Mycology Mycology From Wikipedia. their taxonomy. the free encyclopedia http://en. For example. Today. Pioneer mycologists included Elias Magnus Fries.wikipedia.g. From mycology arose the field of phytopathology. Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts. and other secondary metabolites. the cosmopolitan (worldwide) genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans were extensively studied by Abraham Joffe. the more durable component of wood . a critical step in the global carbon cycle. A biologist who studies mycology is called a mycologist.biochemistry.use to humans as well as dangers. edible mushrooms) and entheogens. wine. such as oomycetes and myxomycetes (slime molds). e. penicillin). often are economically and socially important as some cause diseases of animals (such as histoplasmosis) as well as plants (such as Dutch elm disease and Rice blast). Many fungi produce toxins. the most comprehensively studied and understood fungi are the yeasts and eukaryotic model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. See also Mycotoxicology List of mycologists Pathogenic fungi Fungal Biochemical Tests 1 of 3 2/18/2009 11:49 PM . Mycology is that branch of life science. mycology was a branch of botany (fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants but this was not recognized until a few decades ago).
google. Elias Magnus Fries.html) Acta Fungorum (http://www.mykoweb.med. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License..org/Fungi/2377) in the Tree of Life web project Fungal Cell Biology Group (http://129.org/) North American Mycological Association North American Truffling Society (http://www. (See Copyrights for details.html) Pacific Northwest Fungi Online Journal (http://pnwfungi. D. Retrieved from "http://en.org/) Mycological Glossary at the Illinois Mycological Association (http://www.156.shroomtalk. 2 of 3 2/18/2009 11:49 PM .horizonpress.org/) (Italy) Fungi (http://www.britmycolsoc.actafungorum.us /Terms/TermsFrame.wikipedia.edu/mycological/) Cornell University. well-structured game. Mycologist's Handbook.tolweb. L.com) The WWW Virtual Library: Mycology (http://mycology.it/) (Italia) Medicinal Mushroom Society (http://vitalpilze. (2008).com/pat2.shtml) Learn to identify mushrooms using this in depth.de/Introduction_1.com/fifthtoc.natruffling.68/index.html) The Fifth Kingdom (http://www.edu/microbiology2007/) University of South Carolina Shroomtalk Mycology Forums (http://www.gen. at 10:37. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.chicago.hk/ecology/mycology/) (Hong Kong.K.. Caister Academic Press.uk/) (United Kingdom) Centre for Research in Fungal Diversity (http://www.ilmyco.com /books?vid=OCLC10462820&id=5BMAAAAAQAAJ) Hawksworth. http://www. Mycological Marvels (http://exhibits. Mann Library The Mushroom Project Game (http://www.org) (North America) Amateur organizations Mycological Society of San Francisco (http://www. ^ San-Blas G. CAB International.org/wiki/Mycology" Category: Mycology This page was last modified on 17 February 2009.S.cornell. Systema mycologicum (1821)  (http://books.org/) Oregon Mycological Society (http://www.com/games/mushproj/mushproj2.mannlib.mycolog. ISBN 978-1-904455-32-5 .org.wildmushrooms.funghi-vitalia.html) at University of Edinburgh. (1974) Kew: U. Pathogenic Fungi.html) MSA: Mycological Society of America (http://www.org/wiki/Mycology References 1.il.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.mssf.msafungi.edu/) MykoWeb links page (http://www.wikipedia.com/links.yeoldelog.hku. UK. Calderone RA (editors).215. the free encyclopedia http://en. Inc. a U. External links Professional organizations BMS: British Mycological Society (http://www.sc.Mycology .Wikipedia.cornell.org/) Miscellaneous links Online lectures in mycology (http://media. China) La società di micoterapia (http://www.
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Parasitism is differentiated from parasitoidism. ants. Contents 1 Types of parasitism 2 Evolutionary aspects 2.Wikipedia. Some branches of biology. it is difficult to demonstrate that the host is harmed.2 Roles in ecosystems 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Mites parasitising a harvestman Types of parasitism 1 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM . butterflies. In many cases. and scabs. flukes. the Plasmodium species. the free encyclopedia http://en. or the interaction between the organisms may be short-lived. only eukaryotic organisms are considered parasites. habitat and dispersal.Parasitism . it is best considered part of a continuum of types of interactions between species.1 Quantitative ecology 3. Parasites increase their fitness by exploiting hosts for food. The harm and benefit in parasitic interactions concern the biological fitness of the organisms involved. and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts. regard members of these groups as parasitic. a relationship in which the host is always killed by the parasite such as moths. impairment of secondary sex characteristics.1 Transmission 4.1 Co-speciation 3 Ecology 3. the parasite. sometimes for a prolonged time. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Parasites) Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between two different organisms where one organism. with the exclusion of bacteria and viruses. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms. In medicine.2 Diversity ecology 4 Adaptation 4. to the modification of host behaviour. takes from the host. rather than an exclusive category. ranging from general or specialized pathology (such as castration).org/wiki/Parasites Parasitism From Wikipedia.wikipedia. Particular interactions between species may satisfy some but not all parts of the definition. however. Although the concept of parasitism applies unambiguously to many cases in nature. In general. show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life. there may be no apparent specialization on the part of the parasite. Parasites reduce host fitness in many ways. flies and others. In others. parasites are much smaller than their hosts.
Parasitism . Endoparasites can exist in one of two forms: intercellular (inhabiting spaces in the host’s body) or intracellular (inhabiting cells in the host’s body). In kleptoparasitism. An example is the brood parasitism practiced by many species of cuckoo and cowbird. resulting in the death of the host. An example of the latter is the avoidance by sheep of open pastures during spring.wikipedia. Examples of host defenses include the toxins produced by plants to deter parasitic fungi and bacteria. some mites) and those that live inside the host are called endoparasites (e. almost all free-living animals are host to one or more parasite taxa. hookworms). the free encyclopedia http://en. and shares some characteristics with predation. The vector does the job of transmitting them to the host. tend to rely on a third organism which is generally known as the carrier or vector. An epiparasite is one that feeds on another parasite. the interaction between the parasitoid and the host is fundamentally different from true parasites and their host. when roundworm eggs accumulated over the previous year 2 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM . parasites appropriate food gathered by the host. some plant species known as myco-heterotrophs "cheat" by taking carbon from a fungus rather than donating it. Evolutionary aspects Biotrophic parasitism is an extremely common mode of life that has arisen independently many times in the course of evolution. Social parasites take advantage of interactions between members of social organisms such as ants or termites. broad classes of plants and fungi exchange carbon and nutrients in common mutualistic mycorrhizal relationships. the complex vertebrate immune system. caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium. however. which can target parasites through contact with bodily fluids. This relationship is also sometimes referred to as hyperparasitism which may be exemplified by a protozoan (the hyperparasite) living in the digestive tract of a flea living on a dog.org/wiki/Parasites For more details on parasitic conjoined twins. Depending on the definition used. Flea bites on a human. Moreover. which do not build nests of their own but rather deposit their eggs in nests of other species and abandon them there. Thus. Parasites evolve in response to defense mechanisms of their hosts. Parasitism can take the form of isolated cheating or exploitation among more generalized mutualistic interactions. to humans by the bite of an anopheline mosquito. Intracellular parasites. Parasites are classified based on a variety of aspects of their interactions with their hosts and on their life cycles. furthermore the young cuckoo may heave the host’s eggs and nestlings from the nest.g. and behavioural defenses. and it is also frequent in plants and fungi. see Parasitic twin. however the cuckoo may remove one or more host eggs to avoid detection.g. Those that live on its surface are called ectoparasites (e. The host behaves as a "babysitter" as they raise the young as their own.Wikipedia. The cowbird’s parasitism does not necessarily harm its host’s brood. For example. A female Catolaccus grandis wasp is attracted by a boll weevil larva. An example of this interaction is the transmission of malaria. as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles. Parasitoids are organisms whose larval development occurs within another organism's body. such as bacteria or viruses.
For instance. In some cases. Ecology Quantitative ecology When considering the distribution of a single parasite species. the free encyclopedia http://en. As a result of these and other host defenses. This poses considerable problems for students of parasite ecology: the use of parametric statistics should be avoided. in that it is in the evolutionary interest of the parasite that its host thrives. In one study. the phylogenies of SFV polymerase and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from African and Asian primates were compared. Surprisingly. these give rise to further problems. however. Log-transformation of data before the application of parametric test. This means that most hosts harbour few parasites. The fact that flamingos share parasites with ducks and geese is evidence these groups may be more closely related to each other than either is to storks. Hosts reproduce less quickly than parasites. female hosts select males for breeding based on such characteristics because they indicate resistance to parasites and other disease.Parasitism . if the host species becomes extinct. including humans. Theoretically.wikipedia. A parasite may evolve to become less harmful for its host or a host may evolve to cope with the unavoidable presence of a parasite to the point that the parasite's absence causes the host harm. Thus. a parasite species may coevolve with its host taxa. In theory. while a few hosts carry the vast majority of parasite individuals. such infections may also reduce the prevalence and effects of autoimmune disorders in animal hosts. parasites may have an advantage in this evolutionary arms race because of their more rapid generation time. many parasites are capable of infecting a variety of host species that are more or less closely related. modern day quantitative parasitology is based on more advanced biostatistical methods.org/wiki/Parasites hatch en masse. Co-speciation In rare cases. Diversity ecology 3 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM . Host defenses also evolve in response to attacks by parasites. with varying success. a parasite may even undergo co-speciation with its host. although animals infected with parasitic worms are often clearly harmed. Parasitism is part of one explanation for the evolution of secondary sex characteristics seen in breeding males throughout the animal world. there has been dispute about whether flamingos are more closely related to the storks and their allies. the phylogenetic trees were very congruent in branching order and divergence times.Wikipedia. and therefore have fewer chances to adapt than their parasites do over a given span of time. geese and their relatives. Therefore. For example. long-term coevolution should lead to a relatively stable relationship tending to commensalism or mutualism. However. some parasites evolve adaptations that are specific to a particular host taxon and specialize to the point where they infect only a single species. According to this theory. or to ducks. the simian foamy viruses may have co-speciated with Old World primates for at least 30 million years. The presumption of a shared evolutionary history between parasites and hosts can sometimes elucidate how host taxa are related. such as the plumage of male peacocks and manes of male lions. One particularly remarkable example of co-speciation exists between the simian foamy virus (SFV) and its primate hosts. Thus. and therefore parasitized. one finds that they exhibit an aggregated distribution among host individuals. or the use of non-parametric statistics is recommended by several authors. Such narrow host specificity can be costly over evolutionary time.
Parasites inhabit hosts. Hence. where there are many vacant niches and interspecific interaction is not as important as stochastic factors in providing structure to the community. more recently." The parasites track the locally common host phenotypes. Jared Diamond's assembly rules and. so parasite component communities in host populations are metacommunities. Wilson's theory of island biogeography. the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia. where niches are saturated and interspecific competition is high. to isolationist communities. Component community All the parasites of all species in a host population. This proposes that parasite assemblages occur along a cline from interactive communities.Wikipedia. null models such as Stephen Hubbell's unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Though the allopatric snails were still infected by the parasites. 4 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM . the parasites were found to have adapted to infecting local populations of snails. There is no true "mainland" other than the sum of hosts (host population). Experiments published in 2002 discuss the analysis of two different snail populations from two different sources.which states that interactions between species (such as host an parasites) lead to constant natural selection for adaptation and counter adaptation. For example. The diversity ecology of parasites differs markedly from that of free-living organisms. the infectivity was much less when compared to the sympatric snails. Frameworks are not so well-developed for parasites and in many ways they do not fit the free-living models.Parasitism . or whether community patterns simply reflect the sum of underlying species distributions (no real "structure" to the community). Infracommunity All the parasites of all species in a single individual host. different types of parasite assemblages have been recognised in host individuals and populations. and many of the patterns observed for free-living organisms are also pervasive among parasite assemblages. The results suggest that the parasites were more highly effective in infecting their sympatric snails than their allopatric snails.Lake Ianthe and Lake Poerua in New Zealand. has not yet been established. Adaptation Parasites infect hosts that exist within their same greographical area (sympatric) more effectively. O. which represent mobile habitat patches with dynamic spatial relationships.org/wiki/Parasites Hosts represent discrete habitat patches that can be occupied by parasites. A hierarchical set of terminology has come into use to describe parasite assemblages at different host scales. In the experiment. the snails were infected by their sympatric parasites. Infrapopulation All the parasites of one species in a single individual host. diversity ecology features many strong conceptual frameworks including Robert MacArthur and E. The most prominent of these is the interactive-isolationist continuum. The populations were exposed to two pure parasites (digenetic trematode) taken from the same lakes. island biogeography is predicated on fixed spatial relationships between habitat patches ("sinks"). allopatric parasites and mixed sources of parasites. Whether this is so. For free-living organisms. Compound community All the parasites of all species in all host species in an ecosystem. This phenomenon supports the "Red Queen hypothesis . Metapopulation All the parasites of one species in a host population. usually with reference to a mainland ("source"). therefore the parasites are less infective to allopatric (from different geographical region) hosts. Nonetheless.
 Roles in ecosystems Modifying the behaviour of infected hosts to make transmission to other hosts more likely is one way parasites can affect the structure of ecosystems. Once inside the host. but rats infected with T. Ectoparasitic arthropods may rely on host-host contact (e. such as monogenean worms. the parasites in an 5 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM . and destroy parasites. Hosts. flukes and parasitic roundworms. such as the malarial parasites and trypanosomes. adult endoparasites need to shed offspring into the external environment in order to infect other hosts. by larval stages of tapeworms. Larval stages of endoparasites often infect sites in the host other than the blood or gastrointestinal tract. For example. a process sometimes referred to as parasite transmission or colonization. the free encyclopedia http://en.g. or wait in the external environment for an encounter with a host (e. In many such cases. Uninfected rats avoid cat odours. Adult stages of tapeworms. where offspring can be shed along with host excreta. a change which may increase transmission to feline hosts. Many parasites require multiple hosts of different species to complete their life cycles and rely on predator-prey or other stable ecological interactions to get from one host to another. the only habitats in which parasites can survive. This parasite matures in egrets. Although parasites are often omitted in depictions of food webs. while others must be ingested. Some endoparasites infect their host by penetrating its external surface. in California salt marshes the fluke Euhaplorchis californiensis reduces the ability of its killifish host to avoid predators. Among protozoan endoparasites. Parasites can function like keystone species. a parasite that matures in cats but can be carried by many other mammals.Parasitism . infective stages in the host’s blood are transported to new hosts by biting-insects or vectors. actively try to avoid. fleas).g. rely on direct contact between hosts. repel.org/wiki/Parasites Transmission Parasites inhabit living organisms and therefore face problems that free-living organisms do not. Some ectoparasites. in the case of Euhaplorchis californiensis (discussed above) it is plausible that the abundance of local predator and prey species would be different if this parasite were absent from the system. which are more likely to feed on infected killifish than on uninfected fish. In this sense. Alternatively. Another example is the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. they usually occupy the top position. For example. variously. ticks). where they actively search for or await ingestion by other hosts. larval endoparasites may shed free-living transmission stages that migrate through the host’s tissue into the external environment. Parasites employ numerous strategies for getting from one host to another. shed eggs that survive off the host (e. an anaerobic parasitic protozoan. thorny-headed worms and most flukes use this method. Life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica. Some parasites modify host behaviour to make transmission to other hosts more likely.wikipedia.Wikipedia. thorny-headed worms.g. reducing the dominance of superior competitors and allowing competing species to co-exist. Some aquatic leeches locate hosts by sensing movement and only attach when certain temperature and chemical cues are present. many lice). Many adult endoparasites reside in the host’s gastrointestinal tract. gondii are drawn to this scent. The foregoing strategies are used. larval endoparasites require their host to be consumed by the next host in the parasite’s life cycle in order to survive and reproduce.
html) – class 6 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM . Evolutionary Biology of Parasites. Aberystwyth University: Parasitology (http://www. ISBN -X Combes. Webster JP. Gautier-Hion A.A. Heneine W. Biol. Beer BE. K. 405. (2007). D.  (http://www. Kuiken C. doi:10. K.W.parazytologia. Godfray (2004).05.trstmh.nih.1098/rspb. Altered behavior of parasitized killifish increases susceptibility to predation by bird final hosts.uk/~mpgwww/Edu/EduIndex. Macdonald DW (2000). G. P.2004. ^ a b Lively. Charles & J. Vallet D. Villinger F. 6. Free Press.(Polish/English) over 50 movies (Filmoteka) and over 250 photos (Fotogaleria/Photogallery) with human and animal parasites. 4. Current Biology Magazine 14 (12): R456. 267 (1452): 1591–4. Carl 2001. Parasite Rex. doi:10. 5. ^ Berdoy M. Who Gave Pinta to the Santa Maria? Harvest Books.004.06. "Parasitoids". Princeton 3. ^ SwitzerWM.2000. Princeton University Press. "Parasite adaptation to locally common host genotypes.1016/j.Parasitism . ISBN-10: Desowitz. 1996.1182. Holmes EC.wikipedia. Robert 1998.gov/toxoplasmosis/) Parasitology Parasites Zoonoses (http://www. Curtis M. "The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders". ISBN-10: External links [Parasitism knol  (http://knol. 2005 Mar 17. and Dybdahl.com/k/klaus-rohde/parasitism-an-introductionto/xk923bc3gp4/51#) ] Toxoplasmosis (http://www. ^ H. doi:10. Gao F. Bhullar V. 1980.cdc.pubmedcentral.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=. ^ Lafferty." Nature.W. See also Intestinal parasite List of parasitic organisms List of parasites (human) List of human parasitic diseases Macroparasite Myco-heterotrophy Pathogen Parasitic plant Parasitoid wasp Pinworm Plasmodium Superparasitism Symbiosis Teratology Toxoplasmosis The Extended Phenotype References 1. ^ a b Price.org/wiki/Parasites ecosystem reflect the "health" of that system. Ancient co-speciation of simian foamy viruses and primates. "Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii". Proc. Salemi M. http://www.google. the free encyclopedia http://en.gov /articlerender. 8 June 2000.aber. Mark F. The University of Chicago Press.1016/j. Ecology 77: 7.2007.014. Shanmugam V. Claude 2005.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT4CNT0D6-4&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0& _userid=10&md5=3c7a3e2fbf44ccce8f7e74d13c1a72a9) 2. and A. Vol. Cong ME. Further reading Zimmer.cub.ac. The Art of Being a Parasite. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101: 1072–4. Sci. ^ Rook.sciencedirect.pl) . Nature. Morris.Wikipedia. 434(7031):376-80. Tooze Z.
wikipedia.S. at 23:26. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.parasitology articles and links.med.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. a U.Virtual Parasite Project at Virginia Commonwealth University's Center for the Study of Biological Complexity Retrieved from "http://en. 7 of 7 2/18/2009 11:43 PM .wikipedia.gov/ncidod/dpd/) .sc.vcu.Parasitism ..edu/book/parasit-sta.edu/csbc/vpp/) .Wikipedia. KSU: Parasitology Research (http://www. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Parasitism" Categories: Parasitology | Symbiosis | Parasitism Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since February 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements since December 2008 This page was last modified on 13 February 2009.cdc.k-state.edu/parasitology) . (See Copyrights for details.htm) – online textbook. Medical Parasitology (http://pathmicro. Inc. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention VCU Virtual Parasite Project (http://www.org/wiki/Parasites outline with links to full text articles on parasitism and parasitology. Division of Parasitic Diseases (http://www.
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