Dialogues of hadith

Different perceptions & insights.
Bint Bani Adam

Much has been written on the subject of hadith. The study of hadith has traditionally been regarded as important tools for understanding the Quran, history and matters of jurisprudence. For many Muslims, the study of ahadith is one that was left only to traditional scholars of the past. A study that is considered to have already thoroughly investigated, authenticated, verified and explained. Thus, anyone who doubts the authenticity or validity of hadith is swiftly scorned upon and looked at as a deviant. Little avenue is given to question or understand, to the extent that blind faith appears to be the doctrine of implementation. The purpose of this book is to provide a simple, easy to read text to better understand the nature of hadith; through my own personal collections and analysis of information from various sources. I aim by the will of God to challenge the long held view of

the lofty hadith status, almost holding a similar if not identical status to The Quran. In no way am I asking you to totally dismiss hadith as that would be brash. All Muslims should make an effort into understanding hadith before making any conclusions. Inshallah (God Willing) this book will bring in some insights, ultimately God knows best. The book aims to give the reader the opportunity to reconfirm, challenge and possibly refute their thoughts. These findings may not be easily digestible and I can only plea that one should try to study this important topic with a fair mind before emotionally disregarding long held views and misconceptions one may have. May Allah swt forgive me for any error and guide us all to Truth.

Bint Bani Adam

Dialogues of hadith: ..................................... 1 Prologue ................................................... 1 Introduction .... Error! Bookmark not defined. What is hadith ............................................. 8 Hadith in Quran. ....................................... 8 Sunnah and hadith ..................................... 23 Sunnah in the Quran ............................... 26 Hikma ........................................................ 34 Hadith classification ................................... 45 Authority of hadith ................................. 45 Chain of transmission ............................. 46 Scholars and classification of hadith ....... 54 The Sahihayn ....................................... 55 Hadith compilation. ................................... 61 Forgery ...................................................... 72

Shia’s and hadith........................................ 77 Adherence of the prophet ......................... 84 Rejecting hadith ......................................... 91 Common arguments ............................ 93 Quran interpretations ................................ 97 Exegesis from Quran ............................. 100 Grammar and language ........................ 101 Quran compilation and preservation ....... 104 Glossary ................................................... 111 References ............................................... 114

Hadith is an overwhelming field of knowledge that is discussed in practically every field of Islamic jurisprudence. It is such a serious issue for Muslims. It is for this reason that this book is created to have an understanding about hadith in simple terms. The book will be using translation by Yusuf Ali. I opted for Y.Ali due to his universal popularity and acceptance by mainstream Muslims. This book is told in the position of a Muslim perspective (myself of course) however, with a critiquing mind that some might find offensive as it may question their beliefs. Particularly, for this reason, I have chosen to share a verse from the Quran: 17:36 (Y. Ali) And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). I chose to use this phrase as my opening because people tend to harden up due to their reverence to particular learned and forget to reflect or even study for their selves. The main focus will be the source that no Muslim doubts, no Muslim disputes; that is, The Quran. I use a mixture of traditional and orientalist sources. For no particular reason other than to dispense


knowledge. That being said, everything should be verified as different authors have their own biases. The book will be subdivided into sections. Don’t be disheartened by the first chapter. I’ve specifically chosen to be tedious by outlining verses to show how Quranic terms have been assimilated into Islamic law. The writing style you notice is somewhat like a dialogue; very relaxed. The casual sense is to help allow ease of transmission without difficult literature. I hope this book answers the queries of many in terms of hadith. May God guide us, forgive us if we have done any wrong and continue to guide us to truth, to the straight path and keep us there insha’Allah

Peace and blessings,

Bint Bani Adam.

Hadith ‫خديث‬

What is hadith
Hadith is commonly known as traditions of the Prophet Mohammed. However, the root of the word is essentially defined to mean “narrative” (refer to Lane’s Lexicon (1968) volume 2, p. 528). Any form of discourse is hadith though, in the socio-religious contexts of Muslims it has morphed; it is used specifically to relate to the traditions attributed to Prophet Mohammed. Mainstream Sunni Muslims define this as the “shar`i meaning”. (Coming from the word sharia, meaning law thus shar’i meaning would mean the religious law meaning).

Hadith in Quran.
The usage of the term hadith is imbedded within the Quranic Text however, not to mean hadith as we know today; as stated earlier this has been a socioreligious influence which morphed into the meaning of Prophet’s way. Below I have outlined in bold the usage of the verses with the hadith root words1. The translation is provided along with the transliterated root word. It might appear be tedious for some readers however I’ve specifically chosen to be pedantic. The term has been used in the following:


Root words are used in the Arabic language. They form the base of a word without the affixes.

ٍ ‫ْ َ ذ َ د ِين َ َ ُ ا َ َ َ ُا َّ ُ ول و َ َّ ِبم ْ ض َل‬ ٍَ ‫يَومئِ ٍ يَوٍ الَّذ ٍَ كفروٍْ وعصوٍْ الرس ٍَ لَ ٍْ تُسوى ِِ ٍ األَر ٍُ و‬ ُ ):4:4( ‫يَكُمو ٍ الّ َ حد ًا‬ ‫ْت ُ ن ل ٍ َ ِيث‬ ‫َ و‬
4:42 (Y. Ali) On that day those who reject Faith and disobey the apostle will wish that the earth Were made one with them: But never will they hide a (single fact: Hadeethan) from Allah.

ِ ‫أَيْنَما تَكونُوٍْ يُدكك ٍ الْمو ٍُ ولَ ٍْ كنتُ ٍْ ِ ٍ بُر ٍٍ مشيَّدٍٍ وإِن‬ َ ‫َ ُ ا ْ ر م َ ْ ت َ و ُ م ف ُوج َ َ ة‬ ُ ِ ِ ‫ِ ُ م َ َ ٍ ُ ا َ ِه ِ ن ِند و َ ِ ُ م َ ٍ ُ ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ٍْ‫تُصْب ه ٍْ حسنَ ٌ يَقولُوٍْ ى ذٍِ م ٍْ ع ٍ اللٍّ وإِن تُصْب ه ٍْ سيِّئَ ٌ يَقولُو‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫َ ِه ِ ن ِ ِك ل ُ ل ِّ ن ِند و َ ِ ُ َ ْ م ل َ ُ ن‬ ٍَ ‫ى ذٍ م ٍْ عند ٍَ قُ ٍ ك ٍ م ٍْ ع ٍ اللٍّ فَما ِلَؤلء الْقوٍِ ٍَ يَكادو‬ ْ ):4:4(ٍ‫يَفقهو ٍ حد ًا‬ ‫ْ َ ُ ن َ ِيث‬ َ
4:78(Y. Ali) "Wherever ye are, death will find you out, even if ye are in towers built up strong and high!" If some good befalls them, they say, "This is from Allah.; but if evil, they say, "This is from thee" (O Prophet). Say: "All things are from Allah." But what hath come to these people, that they fail to understand a (single fact?: hadeethan)


ِ ِ ‫و و ل ُ و ْ َ َ ُ م ل ْ م ِ َ ة ل َ ب يو َ َ ن‬ ٍْ ‫اللٍُّ ل إِلَ ٍَ إِ ٍَّ ى ٍَ لَيَجمعنَّك ٍْ إِ ٍَ يَوٍِ الْقيَام ٍ ٍَ ريْ ٍَ فِ ٍ وم‬ ِ ):44:( ‫أَصد ٍُ م ٍ الٍّ حد ًا‬ ‫ْ َ ق ِ ن لو َ ِيث‬ َ
4:87 (Y. Ali) Allah, There is no god but He; of a surety He will gather you together against the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt. And whose (word: hadeethan) can be truer than Allah's?

ِ ‫د َّل ُ م ف ِ اب ن َ َِ م ات و َ َ ر‬ ِ ‫وقَ ٍْ نَزٍَ علَْيك ٍْ ِ ٍ الْكتَ ٍِ أَ ٍْ إِذا َسعتُ ٍْ آيَ ٍِ اللٍّ يُكف ٍُ ِبَا‬ َ ْ َ ِ ‫أ ِ ل ْ ا م ّت َ ا ف‬ ٍِ‫ويست هزٍُ ِبا فَ ٍَ تَقعدوٍْ معه ٍ ح ٍَّ َيوضوٍْ ِ ٍ حد ٍٍ غْي‬ ‫ُم‬ ٍْ ‫َ يث َ ِْه إِنَّك‬ ُ ُ َ ْ ََُ ُُ َ َ ْ َْ َُ ‫ً ِّ ُ م ن و َ ِ ع ُ ِ ي َ َ ِين ف َ َ َّم‬ ٍ ‫إِذا مثْ لُه ٍْ إِ ٍَّ اللٍَّ جام ٍ الْمنَافِق ٍَ والْكافِر ٍَ ِ ٍ جهن‬ ُ َ ِ ):41:4( ‫َجيعا‬ ً َ
4:140 (Y. Ali) Already has He sent you Word in the Book, that when ye hear the signs of Allah held in defiance and ridicule, ye are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different (theme: hadeethan) if ye did, ye would be like them. For Allah will collect the hypocrites and those who defy faith - all in Hell:

‫ْ ِض َ ُ م َ ّت َ ُ ا ف‬ ٍ ِ ٍْ‫وإِذا رأَيْ ٍَ الَّذ ٍَ َيُوضو ٍَ ِ ٍ آيَاتِنَا فَأَعر ٍْ عْن ه ٍْ ح ٍَّ َيُوضو‬ ‫َ َ َ ت ِين َ ُ ن ف‬ ‫َ ِيث َ ِْه َ َّ ِ َّك الشْ ن ل ْ د ْ د ِّ ْ َ َ ع‬ ٍَ ‫حد ٍٍ غْيٍِ وإِما يُنسيَ ن ٍَ َّيطَا ٍُ فَ ٍَ تَقعُ ٍْ بَع ٍَ الذكرى م‬ ):4:4( ٍ ‫الْقوٍِ ال َّ ِم‬ ‫َ ْ م ظال ِ ي‬ َ
6:68 (Y. Ali) When thou seest men engaged in vain discourse about Our signs, turn away from them unless they turn to a different (theme: hadeethin). If Satan ever makes thee forget, then after recollection, sit not thou in the company of those who do wrong.

ٍ ‫َل ُ ا ف َ ُ وت َّ َ َات َ ْ ض َ َ َ ق و ِ َ ْ ء‬ ٍ ‫أَوٍَْ يَنظُروٍْ ِ ٍ ملَك ٍِ السماو ٍِ واألَر ٍِ وما خلَ ٍَ اللٍُّ من شي‬ ِ ٍ ‫ُ ن د َب َ ُ م َي َ ِيث ْ َ ه‬ ٍُ‫وأَ ٍْ عسى أَن يَكو ٍَ قَ ٍ اقْ تَ ر ٍَ أَجلُه ٍْ فَبِأ ٍِّ حد ٍ بَعد‬ َ َ ‫َن‬ ):4147( ٍ ‫يُؤمُو‬ ‫ْ ِن ن‬ َ
7:185 (Y. Ali) Do they see nothing in the government of the heavens and the earth and all that Allah hath created? (Do they not see) that it may well be that their terms is nigh drawing to an end? In what (message hadeethin) after this will they then believe?


ِ ‫وَ َ ِك َْ يك َ ك َ َ ُ ك ِ ِيل َ ِيث َ ِم ِ ْ َ و‬ ٍَُ‫َكذل ٍَ َيتَبِ ٍَ رب ٍَ ويُعلِّم ٍَ من تَأْو ٍِ األَحاد ٍ ويُت ٍ نعمت‬ ‫َ ك َ َ آل ْ ُوب َ َ َ َ َ َ ك ِ ل َ ِ يم‬ ٍ ‫علَْي ٍَ وعلَى ٍِ يَعق ٍَ كما أََتَّها علَى أَبَويْ ٍَ من قَ ْب ٍ إِبْراى‬ َ ُ َّ َ )144:(ٍٍ ‫وِسح ٍ ِ ٍ ربَّ ٍَ عِ ٍ حك‬ ‫َ إ ْ َ ق إن َ ك َليم َ ِيم‬ ٌ ٌ
12:6 (Y. Ali) "Thus will thy Lord choose thee and teach thee the interpretation of (stories (and events): alahadeethi) and perfect His favour to thee and to the posterity of Jacob - even as He perfected it to thy fathers Abraham and Isaac aforetime! for Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom."

ِ ‫ال‬ ِِ ِ ِ ِ ‫وقَ ٍَ الَّذي اشتَ ر ٍُ من مصٍَ لمرأَتٍِ أَكرمي مثْ و ٍُ عسى أَن يَنفعنَا‬ ََ َ َ َ ‫ْ َاه ِّ ْ ر ْ َ و ْ َ َاه‬ ِ‫و‬ َّ َ ‫َو ِ َ ه ً وَ َ ك‬ ‫أ ٍْ نَتَّخذٍُ ولَدا َكذلِ ٍَ مكنِّا لِيُوس ٍَ ِ ٍ األَر ٍِ ولِنُعلِّم ٍُ من‬ َ َ َ ‫ُف ف ْض‬ َ ‫ِيل َ ِيث َ و َ ب َ ْ ِه َ ِن ْ ر َّاس ل‬ ٍَ ٍِ ‫تَأْو ٍِ األَحاد ٍِ واللٍُّ غالِ ٌٍ علَى أَمرٍِ ولَك ٍَّ أَكثَ ٍَ الن‬ )14441( ٍ ‫يَعَمو‬ ‫ْل ُ ن‬ َ
12:21 (Y. Ali) The man in Egypt who bought him, said to his wife: "Make his stay (among us) honourable: may be he will bring us much good, or we shall adopt

him as a son." Thus did We establish Joseph in the land, that We might teach him the interpretation of (stories (and events): alahadeethi). And Allah hath full power and control over His affairs; but most among mankind know it not.

ِ ‫َ د َ ن ف ِ ِ م ِ ٍ ِّ ل اب َ ن‬ ‫لَق ٍْ كا ٍَ ِ ٍ قَصصه ٍْ عْب رٌ ألُوِ ٍ األَلْبَ ٍِ ما كا ٍَ حديثًا يُفتَ رى‬ َ ْ ‫َة‬ َ َ َْ ٍ ‫ولَكن تصد ٍ الَّذي ب ٍ يدي ٍ وت فص ٍ ك ٍ شي‬ ِ ‫َ َّ ء َ ُ ً َ َ ْ ة‬ ًٍَ‫َ ِ َ ْ ِيق ِ َي َ َ ْو َ َ ْ ِ يل ُ ل َ ْ ٍ وىدى ورْح‬ َْ َ )144111( ٍ ‫ِّقوٍٍ يُؤمُو‬ ‫لَ ْم ْ ِن ن‬ َ
12:111 (Y. Ali) There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding. It is not a (tale: hadeethan) invented, but a confirmation of what went before it,- a detailed exposition of all things, and a guide and a mercy to any such as believe.

ِ ‫ِِ م ل ْ ِ ِ َ ْ ِيث‬ ٍِ ‫فَلَعلَّ ٍَ بَاخ ٍ نَّفس ٍَ علَى آثَارى ٍْ إِن ٍَّْ يُؤمنُوا ِبَذا اْلَد‬ َ ‫َ ك ع ْ َك‬ ٌ )144:( ‫أَسفا‬ ًَ
18:6 (Y. Ali) Thou wouldst only, perchance, fret thyself to death, following after them, in grief, if they believe not in this (Message: alhadeethi).


)4442( ‫موسى‬ َ ُ

‫َ َ ل اك َ ِيث‬ ٍُ ‫وى ٍ أَتَ ٍَ حد‬ ْ

20:9 (Y. Ali) Has the (story: hadeethu) of Moses reached thee?

‫ٍَُّ أَرس ْلنَا رسلَنَا تَْت را ك ٍ ما جاء أُم ًٍ رسوِلَا كذبُ ٍُ فَأَتْ بَ عنَا بَعضهم‬ َّ ُ َ ْ ْ ‫ث ْ َ ُ ُ َ ُ ل َ َ َّ ة َّ ُ ُ َ َّ وه‬ )444::( ٍ ‫بَعضا وجعلَاى ٍ أَحاد ٍَ َ ُ عدا ِّقوٍٍ ٍَّ يُؤمُو‬ ‫ْ ً َ َ َ ْن ُ م َ ِيث ف ب ْ ً ل َ ْ م ل ْ ِ ن ن‬ َ ْ
23:44 (Y. Ali) Then sent We our apostles in succession: every time there came to a people their apostle, they accused him of falsehood: so We made them follow each other (in punishment): We made them as a (tale (that is told): ahadeetha) So away with a people that will not believe!

ِ ِ ‫َ ِ ن َّاس َ ْ َِ َ و ْ ِ يث ِ ل َ َ يل و ْي ِ م‬ ٍ ‫وم ٍَ الن ٍِ من يَشَتي ِلٍَْ اْلَد ٍِ لِيُض ٍ عن سبِ ٍِ اللٍَّ بِغَ ٍْ ع ْل‬ َّ )414:(ٍ ‫ويََّخذىا ىزوا أُوَِ ٍَ ِلٍُ عذ ٌٍ مه‬ ‫َ ت ِ َ َ ُ ُ ً لئك َ م َ َ اب ِ ي‬ ٌ ْ
31:6 (Y. Ali) But there are, among men, those who purchase (idle tales: alhadeethi), without knowledge (or meaning), to mislead (men) from the Path of Allah and throw ridicule (on the Path): for such there will be a Humiliating Penalty.

‫َ ِين َ ل ْ ُ وت َّب ل ْ َن ُ م ل‬ ٍَ ِ‫يَا أَي ها الَّذ ٍَ آمنُوا ٍَ تَدخلُوا بُيُ ٍَ النِ ٍ إٍَِّ أَن يُؤذ ٍَ لَك ٍْ إ‬ ِّ ‫عام َ ر ِ ِين اه َ ِن َ ُ ِ م ْ ُ َ ْ م‬ ٍْ ُ‫طٍَ ٍٍ غْي ٍَ نَاظر ٍَ إِنَ ٍُ ولَك ٍْ إِذا دعيتُ ٍْ فَادخلُوا فَِإذا طَعِمت‬ َ ِ ِ ‫ِي‬ ِ‫فَانتشروا وٍَ مستأْنِس ٍ ْلد ٍٍ إِ ٍَّ ذلِك ٍ كا ٍَ ي ؤ‬ َِ ‫َّب‬ ٍ ِ‫ُ َل ُ ْ َ َ َ يث ن َ ُ م َ ن ُ ْ ذي الن‬ َّ ْ ِ ِ ‫فَيَستَحيِي منك ٍْ واللٍَُّ ٍَ يَستَحيِي م ٍَ اْلَ ٍِّ وإِذا سأَلْتُموى ٍَّ متَاعا‬ ً َ ‫ُم َ و ل ْ ْ ن ْ ق َ َ َ ُ ُن‬ ْ ْ ِ ِ ‫فَاسأَلُوى ٍَّ من وراء حج ٍٍ ذلِك ٍْ أَطْه ٍُ لِقلُوبِك ٍْ وقُلُ ِِ ٍَّ وما‬ َ َ ‫ْ ُ ن َ َ َ اب َ ُ م َ ر ُ ُ م َ وِبن‬ ٍِ‫كا ٍَ لَك ٍ أَن تُؤذُوا رس ٍَ اللٍَّ وٍَ أَن تَنكحوا أَزواج ٍ من ب عد‬ ِ ‫ِ ُ ْ َ َ وُ ِ َ ْ ِه‬ ‫َ ن ُ م ْ َ ُ ول و َل‬ ْ ِ ‫أَبدا إِ ٍَّ ذلِك ٍ كا ٍَ ع ٍَ اللٍَّ ع‬ ِ ‫ً ن َ ُ م َ ن ِند‬ )44474( ‫و َظيما‬ َ ْ ً
33:53 (Y. Ali) O ye who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses,- until leave is given you,- for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation: but when ye are invited, enter; and when ye have taken your meal, disperse, without seeking familiar (talk: lihadeethin). Such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet: he is ashamed to dismiss you, but Allah is not ashamed (to tell you) the truth. And when ye ask (his ladies) for anything ye want, ask them from before a screen: that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs. Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy Allah's Messenger, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in Allah's sight an enormity.

‫َ َ ِد ي ْ َ ِ َ ُ ُ َ ُ م َ َ ُ م َ ِ يث‬ ٍَ ‫فَقالُوا ربَّنَا بَاع ٍْ بَ ْ ٍَ أَسفارنَا وظَلَموا أَنفسه ٍْ فَجع ْلنَاى ٍْ أَحاد‬ ‫َ َ َّ ُ م ُ ل ُمَّق ن ف َ ك َ ات ُ ل َ ر‬ ٍ ‫ومزقْ نَاى ٍْ ك ٍ َُزٍٍ إِ ٍَّ ِ ٍ ذلِ ٍَ َليَ ٍٍ لِّك ٍ صبَّا‬ َّ ِّ )4:412( ٍ‫شكو‬ ‫َُر‬
34:19 (Y. Ali) But they said: "Our Lord! Place longer distances between our journey- stages": but they wronged themselves (therein). At length We made them as a (tale: ahadeetha) (that is told), and We dispersed them all in scattered fragments. Verily in this are Signs for every (soul that is) patiently constant and grateful.

‫َ ِ َّ ان ْ َ ر ِ و ُ ود‬ ٍ ُ‫اللٍَُّ نَزٍَ أَحس ٍَ اْلَد ٍِ كِتَابًا متَشاِبًا مثَ ِ ٍَ تَقشعِ ٍ مْن ٍُ جل‬ ‫و َّل ْ َ ن ْ ِ يث‬ ُ ِ ِ ‫ِين َ َ ْ ن َ ُ م ث ي ُ ُ ُ م َ ُ م ل ِ ْ ر و َ ك‬ ٍَ ِ‫الَّذ ٍَ َيْشو ٍَ ربَّه ٍْ ٍَُّ تَلِ ٍُ جلُودى ٍْ وقُلُوبُه ٍْ إِ ٍَ ذك ٍ اللٍَّ ذل‬ ِ ِ ‫ُ َ و ْ ِ و َن َ َ َ ْ ل و َ و ِ ن‬ ٍْ ‫ىدى اللٍَّ يَهدي بٍِ م ٍْ يَشاء ومن يُضلِ ٍ اللٍَُّ فَما لٍَُ م‬ ْ ٍ )42444( ٍ ‫ى‬ ‫َ اد‬
39:23 (Y. Ali) Allah has revealed (from time to time) the most beautiful (Message: alhadeethi) in the form of a Book, consistent with itself, (yet) repeating (its teaching in various aspects): the skins of those who fear their Lord tremble thereat; then their skins and their hearts do soften to the celebration of Allah's praises. Such is the guidance of Allah. He

guides therewith whom He pleases, but such as Allah leaves to stray, can have none to guide.

ِ ِ ِ ‫ك ات و َ َ ك ْ ق َي َ ِ يث ْ د و َ و‬ ٍِ‫تِْل ٍَ آيَ ٍُ اللٍَّ نَْت لُوىا علَْي ٍَ بِاْلَ ٍِّ فَبِأ ٍِّ حد ٍٍ بَع ٍَ اللٍَّ وآيَات‬ ):74:( ٍ ‫يُؤمُو‬ ‫ْ ِن ن‬ َ
45:6 (Y. Ali) Such are the Signs of Allah, which We rehearse to thee in Truth; then in what (exposition: hadeethin) will they believe after (rejecting) Allah and His Signs?

)7144:( ٍ ‫الْم ْرم‬ ‫ُك ِ ي‬ َ


‫َ ل اك َ ِيث َ ف َ ِ يم‬ ٍ ‫ى ٍ أَتَ ٍَ حد ٍُ ضْي ٍِ إِبْراى‬ ْ َ

51:24 (Y. Ali) Has the (story: hadeethu) reached thee, of the honoured guests of Abraham?

)7444:( ٍ ِ ‫صاد‬ ‫َ ِ قي‬ َ

ِ ‫فَ ْليَأْتُوا ِبَد ٍٍ مثْلٍِ إِن كانُوا‬ َ ‫ِ ِيث ِّ و‬

52:34 (Y. Ali) Let them then produce a (recital: bihadeethin) like unto it,- If (it be) they speak the truth!


)74472( ٍ ‫َعجُو‬ ‫ت ْ َب ن‬ َ

‫ِ ن َ َ ْ ِيث‬ ٍِ ‫أَفَم ٍْ ىذا اْلَد‬

53:59 (Y. Ali) Do ye then wonder at this (recital: alhadeethi)?


‫ِْ ن‬ ٍَ ‫أَفَبِهذا اْلَد ٍِ أَنتُم مدىنُو‬ ‫َ َ ْ ِيث‬

56:81 (Y. Ali) Is it such a (Message: alhadeethi) that ye would hold in light esteem?

ِ ِ ‫َ ذ َ ر َّب ل ْ ض ْ َ ِ و َ ِ َّ َت و َ َ َه و‬ ْ ٍَُّ‫وإِ ٍ أَسٍَّ النِ ٍ إِ ٍَ بَع ٍِ أَزواج ٍ حديثًا فَلَما نَبَّأ ٍْ بٍِ وأَظْهرٍُ الل‬ ِ ِ ‫َ و َ َّف ْ َ و َ ْ َض َ ْض َّ َ و ت َ ن‬ ٍْ ‫علَْي ٍ عر ٍَ بَعض ٍُ وأَعر ٍَ عن بَع ٍٍ فَلَما نَبَّأَىا بٍِ قَالَ ٍْ م‬ )::44( ٍ َِ‫أ َأ ٍَ ىذا َ ٍَ نََّأِ ٍ الْعِ ٍ اْل‬ ‫َنب َك َ َ قال ب َنَ َليم ْ بْي‬ ُ ُ
66:3 (Y. Ali) When the Prophet (disclosed a matter: hadeethan) in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another), and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said, "Who told thee this? "He said, "He told me Who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things)."

‫َ ْن َ َ َ ِّ ب ِ َ ْ ِ يث َ ْ ْ ِ ُ ُ ِّ ن َ ث ل‬ ٍَ ٍُ ‫فَذرِ ٍ ومن يُكذ ٍُ ِبَذا اْلَد ٍِ سنَستَدرجهم م ٍْ حْي‬ ):44::( ٍ ‫يَعَمو‬ ‫ْل ُ ن‬ َ
68:44 (Y. Ali) Then leave Me alone with such as reject this (Message: alhadeethi) by degrees shall We punish them from directions they perceive not.

)::474( ٍ ‫بَعد ُ يُؤمُو‬ ‫ْ َ ٍ ْ ِن ن‬ ‫ه‬ َ

‫َي َ ِيث‬ ٍٍ ‫فَبِأ ٍِّ حد‬

77:50 (Y. Ali) Then what (Message:hadeethin), after that, will they believe in? ):2417( ‫موسى‬ َ ُ

‫َ ل اك َ ِيث‬ ٍُ ‫ى ٍ أتَ ٍَ حد‬ ْ

79:15 (Y. Ali) Has the (story: hadeethu) of Moses reached thee?

ِ )4741:( ٍ ُُ‫اْل‬ ‫ْ نود‬ ِ )4441( ٍ َ‫اْ َاش‬ ‫لغ ِ ية‬

‫َ ل اك َ ِيث‬ ٍُ ‫ى ٍ أَتَ ٍَ حد‬ ْ ‫َ ل اك َ ِيث‬ ٍُ ‫ى ٍ أَتَ ٍَ حد‬ ْ

85:17 (Y. Ali) Has the (story: hadeethu) reached thee, of the forces-

88:1 (Y. Ali) Has the (story: hadeethu) reached thee of the overwhelming (Event)?

‫َ َ ُ ا ِين َ ا ا َ َ َ َ ل ْ ُ ُ م ل ْ ض ا‬ ٍْ‫وإِذا لَقوٍْ الَّذ ٍَ آمنُوٍْ قَالُوٍْ آمنَّا وإِذا خ ٍَ بَعضه ٍْ إِ ٍَ بَع ٍٍ قَالُو‬ َ ِ ‫ح و َ ُ م َ وُ و ِند َ ُ م ل‬ ٍَ َ‫أَُتَدثُونَهم ِِبَا فَتَ ٍَ اللٍُّ علَْيك ٍْ لِيُحآج كم بٍِ ع ٍَ ربِّك ٍْ أَف‬ ُ ِّ ُ )44::( ٍ ‫َعق ُو‬ ‫ت ْ ِل ن‬ َ
2:76 (Y. Ali) Behold! when they meet the men of Faith, they say: "We believe": But when they meet each other in private, they say: "Shall you (tell: atuhaddithoonahum) them what Allah hath revealed to you, that they may engage you in argument about it before your Lord?"- Do ye not understand (their aim)?

ٍ )224:( ‫يَومِ ٍ َُد ٍُ أَخَارىا‬ َ َ ‫ْ َ ئذ ُت ِّث ْ ب‬
99:4 (Y. Ali) On that Day will she tuhaddithu) her tidings: (declare:

)24411( ٍْ ‫َحد‬ ‫ف َ ِّث‬

ِ ‫َ َّ ْ َ ة َ ك‬ ٍَ ِّ‫وأَما بِنِعم ٍ رب‬

93:11 (Y. Ali) But the bounty of the Lord - rehearse and (proclaim: fahaddith)


The result of these verses highlight hadith in The Quran as a general linguistic sense e.g. story; 12:6, tale; 12:111, tell; 2:76 and also in relation to Quran; 7:185, 18:6: (see above verses to clarify or check your own Quran). The verses are never in association with the Prophet Mohammed’s traditions which strengthens the argument of the term hadith morphing into the Muslim socio-cultural & socioreligious context; to mean traditions of the prophet. Note: whilst ‘ahadith’ prescribe ‘events’ the term hadith related to the Prophet’s events can be used. However, it should be noted that the primary definition for hadith is not “prophetical traditions” this specific meaning is not used in the Quran.


Sunnah & Hadith ‫الدديث والسنة‬

Sunnah and hadith
Sunnah and hadith are often used interchangeably however differ in meaning. Sunnah relates to a way or line of conduct (Lane’s Lexicon, 1968, Volume 4, p.1436). Whereas a hadith is a narrative of something, it could be a narrative about a conduct or it could simply be a narrative of events hence why the terms are used separately. Thus, hadith is an umbrella term for all narrations; with or without sunnan (plural of sunnah). Ahadith without sunnan are commonly known as maghazi (Siddiqi, 2006/1961). According to the mainstream Sunni Muslims, Sunnan outline deeds the Prophet implemented that should be implemented for extra guidance or hasanat (granted goodness: opposite of sin) furthermore because they believe it is necessary (see chapter about following The Prophet p.82). Sunnan are often used to describe deeds which lead to salvation e.g. laws and practices. It is for this reason there are hadith compilations under titles of Sunnan such as Sunnan Abu Dawud, Sunnan Al-Tirmidhi, Sunnan AlSughra, Sunnan Ibn Maja. These books are specifically identified as such to narrate directions, deeds or imperatives in specific ways to be practiced. An example of a sunnah can be seen in Abu Dawud’s Sunnan collection, it is an additional guideline for wudu (ablution):

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not get up after sleeping by night or by day without using the tooth-stick before performing ablution. (Abu Dawud, Book 1, hadith number 56). Another more explicit sunnah highlighted in Sahih Muslim is the act of keeping a beard: Ibn Umar said: The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered us to trim the moustache closely and spare the beard. (Sahih Muslim, Book 2, hadith number 499). This overt order for men to keep a beard and trim their moustache is a clear imperative. Mainstream Sunni Muslims believe sunnan are obligated thus becoming mandated in Islamic law. However, there is of the opinion that these actions are not all obligated but mustahab; meaning commendable or preferred, not obligated. Each act or sunnah is considered to have its own ruling and such rulings of obligation or not are taken from scholars (i.e. scholarly interpretations and opinion). In contrast to sunnah is hadith which contains maghazi. Maghazi hadith are those which discuss an event or biography. Bukhari gives many examples, to

recognise the contrast between following hadith will be outlined:



Narrated 'Abdullah bin Dinar: Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding." 'Abdullah (Ibn 'Umar) used to do the same. (Sahih Bukhari, book 21, hadith number 284). This hadith shows the Prophet’s method of transportation to a mosque. There is no authorisation or command, it is simply an event of what the Prophet is said to have implemented. The usage of sunnah predates Islam. Pre-Islamic Arabs used the term “sunnah” as a tradition to describe ways of someone or people. It is said after the conversion of Arabs to Islam they adopted the use of sunnah tradition into the religion (Ignaz, 1981, Daniel Brown, 1996). Although one may argue this is an Orientalist view, the Quran also highlights the term sunnah. Sunnah is used in a negative form most of the time, in the context referring to ways of the past, ways of the ungrateful or unbelievers. However, Sunnah is sometimes used positively only in reference to God’s ways.


Sunnah in the Quran
Sunnah is used in the Quran in the following verses:

ِ‫د ت‬ ‫ُ م ُ ن ِ ا ف ْض ُ ا َ ف َ ن‬ ٍَ ‫قَ ٍْ خلَ ٍْ من قَ ْبلِك ٍْ سنَ ٌٍ فَسْيُوٍْ ِ ٍ األَر ٍِ فَانْظُروٍْ كْي ٍَ كا‬ َ )4414:( ٍ ِ ‫ع َِ ُ الْمكذ‬ ‫َاقب ٍ ُ َ َّ بي‬ ‫ة‬ َ
3:137 (Y. Ali) Many were the (Ways of Life: Sunanun) that have passed away before you: travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who rejected Truth.

ِ ‫ِيد و ي ُ م ِ ُ م ن ِين‬ ‫ُ م َ وب‬ ٍَ ُ‫يُر ٍُ اللٍُّ لِيُبَ ِّ ٍَ لَك ٍْ ويَهديَك ٍْ سنَ ٍَ الَّذ ٍَ من قَ ْبلِك ٍْ ويَت‬ َْ ُ ):44:( ٍ ‫عَيك ٍ والّ ُ عِ ٍ حك‬ ‫َلْ ُ م َ ل ٍ َليم َ ِيم‬ ٌ ٌ ‫ْ و‬
4:26 (Y. Ali) Allah doth wish to make clear to you and to show you the (ordinances; sunana) of those before you; and (He doth wish to) turn to you (In Mercy): And Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

‫ُ ا َ ر َ َّ د َ ف َ ن ُ ا َ د‬ ٍْ ‫قُل لِلَّذ ٍَ كفروٍْ إِن يَنتَ هوٍْ يُغَف ٍْ ِلُم ما قَ ٍْ سلَ ٍَ وإِ ٍْ يَعُودوٍْ فَق‬ ‫ِين َ َ ُ ا‬ ِ )4444( ٍ ِ‫مض ٍْ سَّ ُ ا َو‬ ‫َ َ ت ُ ن ٍ أل َّلي‬ ‫ة‬
8:38 (Y. Ali) Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them; but if they (persist: sunnatu), the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them).


ِ ‫ل ْ ِ ن و َ د َ ت ُ ة َّ ي‬ ٍَ ِ‫ٍَ يُؤمنُو ٍَ بٍِ وقَ ٍْ خلَ ٍْ سنٍَُّ األَول‬

15:13 (Y. Ali) That they should not believe in the (Message); but the (ways: sunnatu) of the ancients have passed away.

ِ ِ‫ك‬ ‫سنٍََّ من قَ ٍْ أَرس ْلنَا قَ ْب لَ ٍَ من رسلِنَا و ٍَ َت ٍُ لِسنَّتِنَا‬ َْ ‫ُةَ د‬ ُ ‫ُ َل َ د‬ )1:4::( ً ‫ُتوي‬ ‫ل‬ ٍ ِ َْ
17:77 (Y. Ali) ((This was Our) way: sunnata) with the apostles We sent before thee: thou wilt find no change in (Our ways: lisunnatina).

‫وما منَ ٍ الن ٍَ أَن يُؤمنُوا إِ ٍ جاءى ٍ اِلُدى ويَستَ غفروا ربَّه ٍْ إٍَِّ أَن‬ ‫َ َ َ ع َّاس ْ ِ ذ َ ُ م ْ َ َ ْ ْ ِ ُ َ ُ م ل‬ ْ َ ُ )14477( ًٍ ُُ‫َأْتَِ ه ٍ سَّ ُ ْ َوِ ٍ أ ٍْ يَأْتَِ ه ٍ الْعذ ٍُ ق‬ ‫ت ي ُ م ُ ن ٍ األ َّلي َو ي ُ م َ َ اب بل‬ ‫ْ ة‬ َ ُ
18:55 (Y. Ali) And what is there to keep back men from believing, now that Guidance has come to them, nor from praying for forgiveness from their Lord, but that (they ask that) the (ways: sunnatu) of the ancients be repeated with them, or the Wrath be brought to them face to face?


ِ ‫َّ َ ن َ َّب ِ ن َ َج َ َض و و ُ ة و ف ِين‬ ٍَ ‫ما كا ٍَ علَى النِ ٍ م ٍْ حرٍٍ فِيما فَر ٍَ اللٍَُّ لٍَُ سنٍََّ اللٍَّ ِ ٍ الَّذ‬ ِّ ِ َّ‫خلَوا من قَب ٍ كا ٍَ أَم ٍ الل‬ )44444(‫َ ْ ِ ْل وَ ن ْ ر ٍ َدرا مقدورا‬ ً ُ ْ َّ ً َ ‫ُ و ق‬ َُ
33:38 (Y. Ali) There can be no difficulty to the Prophet in what Allah has indicated to him as a duty. It was the (practice: sunnata) (approved) of Allah amongst those of old that have passed away. And the command of Allah is a decree determined.

ِ ِ ِ ‫ُ ة و ف ل ِين َ ْ ِ ل َ َِد ُ َّة و‬ ٍَّ‫سنٍََّ اللٍَّ ِ ٍ اٍَّذ ٍَ خلَوا من قَ ْب ٍ ولَن َت ٍَ لِسن ٍ الل‬ ُ )444:4( ًٍ ‫َبد‬ ‫ت ْ ِيل‬
33:62 (Y. Ali) (Such was) the (practice: sunnata) (approved) of Allah among those who lived aforetime: No change wilt thou find in the (practice: lisunnati) (approved) of Allah.

ِ ‫ْ ك ً ف ْ ْ ض َ َ ْر َّ ئ َل َِ يق َ ْر َّ ئ ل ْ و‬ ٍِ‫استِ ْبَارا ِ ٍ األَر ٍِ ومكٍَ السيِّ ٍِ وٍَ َي ٍُ الْمك ٍُ السيِّ ٍُ إٍَِّ بِأَىل‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫فَه ٍ يَنظُرو ٍَ إٍَِّ سن ٍَ األَولِ ٍَ فَلَن َت ٍَ لِسن ٍِ اللٍَّ تَْبد ًٍ ولَن‬ َ ‫َ ل ُ ن ل ُ َّت ْ َّ ي َ د ُ َّت و يل‬ ْ ِ )474:4(ًٍ ‫َت ٍ ِسن ٍِ الٍَّ ُتو‬ ‫َِد ل ُ َّت لو َْ ِيل‬ َ
35:43 (Y. Ali) On account of their arrogance in the land and their plotting of Evil, but the plotting of Evil will hem in only the authors thereof. Now are they but looking for the (way: sunnata) the ancients were

dealt with? But no change wilt thou find in Allah's (way: lisunnati) (of dealing): no turning off wilt thou find in Allah's (way: lisunnati) (of dealing).

ِ ‫م ك َ ُ م ُ م َّ َ ْ َ ُ َّت و ت د َ ت ف‬ ٍ ِ ٍْ َ‫فَلَ ٍْ يَ ٍُ يَنفعُه ٍْ إِميَانُه ٍْ لَما رأَوا بَأْسنَا سن ٍَ اللٍَّ الَِّ ٍ قَ ٍْ خل‬ ):4447( ٍ ‫عَاد ِ وخس ٍ ىَ ِ ٍَ الْك ِرو‬ ‫ِب ِ ٍ َ َ ِ ر ُ نالك َ اف ُ ن‬ ‫ه‬ َ َ
40:85 (Y. Ali) But their professing the Faith when they (actually) saw Our Punishment was not going to profit them. (Such has been) Allah's (Way: sunnata) of dealing with His Servants (from the most ancient times). And even thus did the Rejecters of Allah perish (utterly)!

ِ ِ ِ ‫ُ ة و ت د َ ت ِ ل َ َِد ُ َّة و‬ ٍَّ‫سنٍََّ اللٍَّ الَِّ ٍ قَ ٍْ خلَ ٍْ من قَ ْب ٍ ولَن َت ٍَ لِسن ٍ الل‬ ُ ):4444( ًٍ ‫َبد‬ ‫ت ْ ِيل‬
48:23 (Y. Ali) (Such has been) (the practice: sunnata) (approved) of Allah already in the past: no change wilt thou find in the (practice: lisunnati) (approved) of Allah.


These verses recognise sunnah as a conduct, a practice or a way however one of these verses is commonly used in reference to following the Prophet Mohammed’s Sunnah:

ِ ‫َّ َ ن َ َّب ِ ن َ َج َ َض و و ُ ة و ف ِين‬ ٍَ ‫ما كا ٍَ علَى النِ ٍ م ٍْ حرٍٍ فِيما فَر ٍَ اللٍَُّ لٍَُ سنٍََّ اللٍَّ ِ ٍ الَّذ‬ ِّ ِ ِ )44444(‫خَوا من َب ٍ كا ٍ أَم ٍ الٍَّ َدرا مقدورا‬ ً ُ ْ َّ ً َ ‫َ ل ْ ق ْل وَ ن ْ ر لو ق‬ ُ َ َُ
 33:38 (Y. Ali) There can be no difficulty to the Prophet in what Allah has indicated to him as a duty. It was the practice (approved) of Allah amongst those of old that have passed away. And the command of Allah is a decree determined.

It is interesting to note that this verse discusses “sunnata Allah” loosely translated as way of God or God’s way. If one reflects back to other verses it should be noted the way of God does not change: see 48:23 and 33:62. Thus, it is not exclusive to Mohammed’s practices. This verse verifies that the obligated sunnah of God has been decreed to the Prophet with no difficulty as it has been prescribed to those before who strayed from the path. And the command of Allah is a decree determined. What the Prophet is asked to do is not something new. Therefore it would be illogical to say

that Sunnah mentioned in The Quran refers to following the Prophets’ way in recognition of specific duties only known to us by Islam; the Nabi Mohammed.


Summary -The word hadith is translated to mean narrative. - The word sunnah is translated to mean conduct; way; practice. -The attributed books of sunnan contain apparent ways and conducts of the Prophet Mohammed however the Sunnah Quran speaks about, is not exclusive to Prophet Mohammed. - Sunnah is something that was approved of in the past that people strayed from (see 33:38, 18:55). - Gods sunnah does not change and this is the sunnah God asks the Prophet to prescribe (see 48:23, 33:62, 33:38).


Hikma which is commonly known and defined as wisdom turned into the definition of prophetic traditions. Shafi (b. 150AH, 760CE) instigated, documented and established the definition of hikma to prophetic traditions. Shafi, commonly known as Imam Shafi or Muhammad ibn Idris was a Sunni jurist who perpetuated this approach to understanding Islamic law. His understandings developed new ideas such as his position of portraying hadith as a dual revelation with The Quran; this changed the shape of Islamic law. His arguments are highlighted in his book Kitab Al Um (Musa, 2008; Rehman, 1996; Joseph Lowery, 2007). According to Lowery (2007) early Quranic tafsir (exegesis) did not seem to consider nor analyse the full implications of the term hikma, only later in time it came to discussion by Shafi as “Prophet Mohammed’s sunnah”. Before Shafi, hikma was recognised by some commentators as sunnah; in a broad sense i.e. not in reference to the Prophet. Abu Hanifa supported this view along with Hassan Al Basri and Abd Al Razzaq Al Sanani (Joseph Lowery, 2007). Moreover, the term hikma took on many philosophical discussions. Nasr (2003) writes: “Each school of thought sought to define what is meant by hikmah or falsafah (philosophy)

according to its own perspective and this question has remained an important concern of various schools of Islamic thought especially as far as the schools of Islamic philosophy are concerned.” He highlights in his discussion that not one interpretation was taken rather each school of thought had differing understandings based on their perspectives. This reveals a different understanding based on influences of particular ideologies and beliefs. There are numerous interpretations on hikma, some examples include: - Wisdom (e.g. Quran 2:269) - Prophetic traditions (Shafi) - Sunnah; Way, path, way of the past (Abu Hanifa, Hassan Albasri, Abd Al Razzaq Al Sanani) - Transcendent theosophy (Mulla Sadra) - Purification of the soul through the perfection of theoretical understanding not just mental understandings (Suhrawardi) - Unveiled wisdom through the manifestations of God’s word (Ibn Arabi) - Sirr – known to be synonymous with Hikma- Sirr defined as; inner meaning of objects, wisdom and purpose (Al-Ghazzali)

- Understanding matter and responding to it (Ibn AlQayim Al Jawziyah). (Refer to Nasr, 2003; Rehman, 1996; Burhan N.D, Lowery, 2007; Umar, 1975; Kahteran, 2006.) The word hikma has a wide branch of meanings, however its core and base meaning appears to be that of “wisdom”, commonly linked with the understandings of the world and application of the self. Hikma comes from the root h-k-m. In classical Arabic dictionaries it is translated to mean wisdom, authority, judge, command or jurisdiction (Lane, 1968). When analysing the term hikma within the Quran, it is also a term reflecting back upon other rightly guided men peace be upon them e.g. Sulaiman/Solomon, Luqman and Ibrahim/Abraham. Suleiman/Solomon

ِ ٍ‫فَفهمنَاىاٍسلَْيمان َكلٍآتَ ْي نَاٍحكماٍوع ْلما‬ ُ‫َ َّ ْ َ ُ َ َ ٍو‬ ً َ ًْ ُ ٍ‫وسخ ْرنَاٍمعٍداوودٍاْلِبَالٍيُسبِّحنٍوالطَّْي ر‬ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ َ َّ َ َ ‫وُ ِ ي‬ ٍَ ِ‫َكنَّاٍفَاعل‬

 21:79 (Y. Ali) To Solomon

We inspired the (right) understanding of the matter: to each (of them) We gave Judgment and Knowledge; it was Our power that made the hills and the birds celebrate Our praises, with David: it was We Who did (all these things)


ِ ُْ ِ ْْ َ ْ ٍ‫ولَقدٍآتَ ْي نَاٍلُقمانٍاْلِكمةٍَأَنٍاشك ْرٍلِلَّو‬ َْ َ َ َ ٍ‫ومنٍيَشك ْرٍفَِإَّنَاٍيَشكرٍلِنَ فسوٍومنٍكفر‬ َ َ َ َ ِ ِ ْ ُ ُ ْ َّ ُ ْ َ َ َ ‫َّ َ ِ ٌّ َِ د‬ ٌٍ ‫فَِإنٍاللَّوٍَغِنٍْحي‬

 31:12 (Y. Ali) we

bestowed (in the past) Wisdom on Luqman: "Show (thy) gratitude to Allah." Any who is (so) grateful does so to the profit of his own soul: but if any is ungrateful, verily Allah is free of all wants, Worthy of all praise



ِ ٍ‫أَمٍَيسدونٍالنَّاسٍعلَىٍماٍآتَاىمٍاللّوٍُمن‬ ُ ُ َ َ َ َ ُ ُ َْ ْ ِ ِ َ ٍ‫فَضلِوٍفَقدٍآتَ ْي نَآٍآلٍإِبْراىيمٍالْكتَاب‬ َْ ِ ْ َ َ َ ِ ‫واْلِكمةٍَوآتَ ْي نَاىمٍم ْلكاٍعظيما‬ ً َ ً ُ َ َْ ْ َ

 4:54 (Y.

Ali) Or do they envy mankind for what Allah hath given them of his bounty? but We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.

This implicates that Hikma isn’t exclusive to the Prophet Mohammed. Hikma is not purely traditions of the Prophet Mohammed.

Shafi asserts that the Prophet Mohammad is to teach mankind the wisdom. The wisdom taught outside of the Quran is problematic in pinpointing. The Prophet’s mission was to deliver the message (3:20, 5:67, 5:92, 5:99, 16:82). The message was perfected as God perfected the law (5:3). However, due to Shafi’s assertion, hadith became attributed as

“the wisdom” stopping the alternative explanations of wisdom from gaining prominence. God mentions that the deen is perfect; that God perfected it (as per 5:3). According to Sunni traditions this verse was revealed in Medina times. Thus it happened after Mecca verses after Hijra. Therefore, a later revealed verse. If the laws of God were perfected then, why is it that additional laws were sorted? Another problematic issue is the basis of the hadith collection. Wisdom based on recollections of sayings through chains of generations going back in time isn’t the most reliable source of wisdom especially with the impact of political movements and superiority of particular faction (this will be discussed in later chapters). However, with all distortions Muslims will argue a science of hadith to glorify or even justify their position (see section: hadith classification p. 45). To show an analogy it would be like finding the original fairy tale of “Little Red Riding Hood”. Little Red Riding Hood was a common fairy tale. Many various people claimed it as their own along with their own unique variations; the Grimm brothers, Charles Perrault, Charles Marelle, Alfred Mills, Anne Sexton, James Thurber, Edith Anna, Joachim Ringelnatz and many more (Zipes, 1993; D. L. Ashliman 1999). The oral story is told and told but

who is the originator? Similarly, hadith although no fairy tale; a serious matter, in which jurisprudence is sort, is left at the hands of various opinions and chains. How can God inspired wisdom bestow upon mankind with supposed chains of narrations which the Prophet did not authorise, nor check... A problematic thought indeed. Had hadith been the source of the wisdom, how would the deen be perfected? The Prophet would have done injustice by leaving hadith in the scarcity it was in. Of course that goes against the Prophet’s mission which is illogical thus the wisdom wouldn’t be missing. Additionally, wisdom and judgement has come from The God to the Prophet and has been explicitly referenced to the holy book; The Quran. 3:58 (Y. Ali) "This is what we rehearse unto thee of the Signs and the Message of Wisdom." Quran the most amazing God given guidance to mankind was bestowed upon us in which no Muslim doubts. Wisdom sought through a holy book would be vouched for over lost oral stories. Interestingly there is a hadith in support of the Quran being the wisdom:

Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Number 73: Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud: The Prophet said, "Do not wish to be like anyone except in two cases. (The first is) A person, whom Allah has given wealth and he spends it righteously; (the second is) the one whom Allah has given wisdom (the Holy Qur'an) and he acts according to it and teaches it to others." (Fateh-al-Bari page 177 Vol. 1) No doubt wisdom can be sought or derived from hadith, as with many other aspects in life. However, the assertion of hadith being holy developed over time; the declaration of hadith being the wisdom that God specifically intended was an innovation of Shafi’s deductions2. Based on Shafi’s knowledge and personal opinion and reasoning, hadith had become viewed as a dual revelation with Quran. Hadith was not viewed as a dual revelation with Quran before Shafi’s time (Musa, 2008; Daniel Brown, 1996). It


Please note: I am not defaming the Prophet, advice sorted from the Prophet is valuable however to refer hadith as a dual revelation with GOD is another matter all together.


may surprise some though Shafi received backlash for his thoughts.3


Without going into details, Daniel Brown’s “Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought” (1999) and Joseph Schachts “The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence” (1950) are recommended books for reading about this.

Summary Hikma is referenced to mean wisdom. Wisdom can be sort in many wonders God has created. Hikma was defined as ‘Prophetic traditions’ by Shafi. Shafi received a lot of criticism for this innovation Hikma pre-Shafi’s time was known as “sunnah” in the general sense by some authorities. Hikma had numerous interpretations based on different creed beliefs and opinions Tafsir (exegsis) came about later in time with reference to hadith.







Hadith Classification
‫مصطلح الدديث‬

Hadith classification
It is common to hear terms such as “this hadith is authentic, this hadith is odd it’s probably weak”. This section will outline the common terms and what they mean.

Authority of hadith
Firstly hadith is classified based on a particular authority: 1. Qudsi – meaning sacred. That is hadith in which the Prophet relates that God said. E.g. “On the authority of (Companion) from the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), who said:"Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says ...” 2. Marfu – meaning Elevated. Any hadith that the Prophet specifically attributed. e.g. A reporter (whether a Companion, Successor or other) says, "The Messenger of Allah said ..." 3. Mawquf – meaning stopped. Any hadith that stops at the authority of a companion. e.g. “Abu Bakr (or any other companion) said...” Notice no authority of The Prophet. 4. Maqtu – meaning cut off/ severed. That is a hadith that is attributed to a successor. E.g. “Al-Zuhri (or any other successor) said...”. Again with no authority of The Prophet.


The differing authority’s presents interesting data as people assume hadith is simply God’s order to the Prophet to the rest of mankind. The fact that different authorities beyond the Prophet is used recognises how hadith has developed to operate specific homogenization of rites, practices, traditions and thoughts of particular elites, learned or powerful. One may argue most hadith read are attributed to the Prophet and the Prophet is not going to misguide us. Of course the Prophet’s mission is to guide. The problem is pinpointing the authenticity of the words ascribed upon the Prophet; whether or not the alleged ahadith are actually authentic; his words. Hadith compilers reported what people said but who really knows what the Prophet ordained? Or what was recorded is actual truth? God knows best. The argument of the chain is usually used to supersede any doubt and to authenticate sayings.

Chain of transmission
Hadith classification is very much reliant upon the Isnad which is basically the chain of transmission (see point 3 on graph p.53).

The chain of transmission will either be:  Muttawatir

Muttawatir hadith means reoccurring hadith. Hadith that are identified as such involve a magnitude of quantity being repeated e.g. a hadith (with same meaning) being repeated by many different narrators. It could also be the case of muttawatir by word though this is not as frequent. According to traditional scholars, muttawatir hadith would be considered authentic regardless of who narrates the hadith due to the vast number of repetition and it would be considered impossible for error to enter such ahadith. Interestingly there is no known agreement in scholarship as to what number makes a hadith muttawatir, Jonathan Brown (2009) mentions that at every stage of transmission a requirement of four witnesses is necessary to be classified as muttawatir, however some scholars mention it could be upto 70 witnesses (Brown, 2009, p.104). Due to the repetition, muttawatir ahadith are considered sahih; authentic.  Ahad also known as khabar ahad.

Ahad meaning one, refers to hadith that are not as common; not having a vast number of repetitions, not many chains of transmissions not necessarily just “one” hadith of its own kind. However if it is of its


own kind it is classified as “gharib” meaning strange or odd. Gharib Gharib hadith is when one single person reports the saying, when people of one location are only known to relate the hadith or if people narrate the hadith of a person in another location. However the ahad hadith may not be Gharib and might be Aziz. Aziz Ahad hadith that are classified as Aziz are stronger than gharib, it refers to a hadith with two reporters narrating the hadith. Mashur The highest level of Ahad hadith would be Mashur meaning famous or popular. This entails more than two reporters narrating the hadith. Other than the 3 subcategories, hadith identified as ahad are further scrutinized under additional categories. These categories relate to the narrators credibility and reliability (see point 5 on graph p.53). These terms are often spoken of when classing hadith, they include:

 Sahih – meaning sound or authentic. This refers to the narrators in the chain (isnad) coming from a continuous link in the sanad (chain) all the way to the prophet Mohammed or a companion. Of course, the companion must be considered upright furthermore; the text should contain no defects (‘illal).  Hasan – meaning good, beautiful or fair. This classification is in between sahih and deaf. This term is said to be first used by At-Tirmidhi (Kamali, 2005; Phillips, 2003). Hasan refers to truthful narrators who do not possess the highest degree of reliability. If the narrator was of a higher status with reliability of character, retention and full trustworthiness (thiqat), then the hadith would be considered sahih.  Daef – meaning weak, fragile. Daef ahadith are also very much related to the credibility of the narrator, a daef narrator comes from a lesser scale than hassan furthermore the content could be weak. Daef hadith are further subcategorised:  Munkar/Mawdu fabricated. – meaning rejected or

This will refer to any hadith with a fabricated narration or content. Furthermore hadith with no

source is also dealt with in this section unless a different hadith with a reliable source is brought up that is like it. Interesting Fact: Whilst hadith Qudsi is considered words from God revealed to the Prophet, they cannot be recited in salat (prayer) nor are all hadith Qudsi sahih but also hasan and daef (refer to Denffer, 1983). So far, hadith is classified by the person who said it; the Prophet, a companion, a successor and of course hadith Qudsi which is exclusive to God. Then hadith is classified based on the virtues or reliability of the person and now another form of classification is the consistency in the link. Consistency in link Musnad – means something supported. This involves hadith that are supported by an uninterrupted chain of authority going back to a companion who related it from the prophet themself i.e. a companion Salman al-Farsi. Mursal – means something that is transmitted. The link of these ahadith will contain an omission between the narrator of the Successor and the Prophet. E.g. a missing link, such as a companion.

Muttasil – means connected. The chain of the hadith is unbroken. All narrators would have heard it from their teachers. Munqati – means broken. It involves a missing link within the chain. Mu`dal – means odd or perplexing are ahadith that involve two consecutive links missing in one or more places. Mu`allaq – means hanging. This involves missing links at the start of the chain. An obvious conclusion from these classification methods is the skewed attention upon the chain and even a bias judgement on companions. Little information is given about contents and comparison for logic, soundness, linkage with core concepts etc.4 Scholars are of the opinion matn (content) should be strongly scrutinized, along with character trustworthy reference because there is difference of

Note: For a deeper study on hadith categorisation and classification I strongly recommend reading Muhammad Hashim Kamali’s book “a textbook of hadith studies” or for a more basic but detailed concept Islamic awareness has a great link: http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Hadith/Ulum/


opinions and each scholar regarded their own thiqat; that is their own classification of the trustworthiness of the character (Kamali, 2005). Interestingly even western scholars believe more scrutiny should be considered in relation to the content of hadith and their influences upon Muslims (Lucas, 2008).

Below is a graph that outlines hadith categorisation:

(Islamic Awareness, 2011) 53

Scholars and classification of hadith
Scholar methodology is very much based on their own ijtihad (independent striving). It seems that alraye (ones judgement or reasoning) took preference under the guise of ijtihad.5 Scholars were not unanimous in their methodology rather they had different approaches. Their similarities are that they based much of their work on the chain they reasoned as trustworthy, and undertook study on what they deemed as a trustworthy person. Interestingly the compilers of hadith determine the validity of isnad by the trustworthy transmitters however the Quran itself states that not even the Prophet knew who the hypocrites were (9:101). It seems the compilers assumed greater judgement than those preceding. A clear example of ijtihad is the introduction of the term Hasan, to classify a hadith in-between authentic and weak. This was the work of AtTirmidhi (Kamali, 2005 and Phillips, 2003). Another example of how raye and ijtihad further took place is the way a companion’s thiqat (trustworthiness) was analysed. Much is left unknown. Jonothan Brown (2009, p.85) writes there are books about this

Interestingly Ijtihad al-raye was the common term used. Both ijtihad with the term raye was used and viewed as synonymous. (Schacht, 1982, p.37)

however most are lost. (Unfortunately I was unable to attain any copy of a book with companion analysis). The Sahihayn This section will briefly focus on the two most famous scholars Muslim and Bukhari. Whilst it’s known that Bukhari and Muslim had different methods of conclusion, their work is unanimously agreed upon by current Sunni commentators as authentic: sahih. Little is digressed about it. When reading deeper into the matter it is evident that both scholars were not always in agreement with each other. Muslim and Bukhari’s main difference is in their methodology for recoding hadith. For example Bukhari held that the meeting of the narrators must have been established for their narration to be accepted whereas Muslim’s requirement was that the transmitters were contemporaries “with no "clear indication (dalala bayyina)" that they did not meet” (Jonathan Brown, 2009, p.105). Although they are popular in current times this was not always the case. Many scholars of their time critiqued their work. Both Muslim and Bukhari were criticised by other fellow scholars. Brown writes “For Ibn Abi Hatim, one of the most influential figures in the development of hadith criticism, Muslim is negligible and al-Bukhari anathema” (Jonathan

Brown, 2007, p.88). It seems quite profound to make such statements. Bukhari and Muslim were not very well praised by their peers; rather their work was viewed as a bid’a (innovation) for boasting superiority. (Jonathan Brown, 2007) Abu Sulayman Hamd b Muhammad Al-Khattabi alBusti (otherwise known as Al-Khattabi) a Sunni Shafi scholar, was one of the earliest commentators of hadith literature (Tokatly, 2001 & Günther, 2008). Tokatly (2001) and Günther (2008) discuss how AlKhattabi had preference to other hadith books (namely Abu Dawud’s sunnan collection) over the sahihayn. He did not place the same reverence to the sahihayn as other people did nor as Sunni Muslims do today. One of Alkhattabi’s distaste is evident from the writing of Tokaltly (2001), in which he states “al-Khattabi does not comment on all the traditions cited by Al-Bukhari, but only on problematic ones that he picks out” (Tokaltly, 2001, p. 57). Similarly other sources recognise that not all hadith from the two most famous sources are authentic regardless of the chain or riwaya (reportage). Mohammad Akram Khan analyses ten examples in which history and dates do not correlate, showing how matn and dirawya (content and analysis) is

taken for granted due to the lofty chain attributions. Khan analyses these ahadith using traditional references, explaining the evident gaps and contradictions (Charit, 1975). Furthermore AlNawawi as well as Ibn Khaldun shed their discoveries of ahadith not fulfilling appropriate conditions (Haykal, 1968). In more current times a student of knowledge, sheikh Albani also weakens the authority of many sunnan (Jonathan Brown, 2009, p.257). Whilst Albani may have focused on a chain there is an enormity of ahadith which were deemed questionable. There is much criticism of Albani due to the praised platform the two scholars have. For this reason some traditionalists discredit Albani’s reasoning and question his scholarship.6 Disregarding intention, scholarly positioning or prominence this information undoubtedly shows inconsistencies of knowledge and difference of understanding. Therefore knowledge in at least one aspect is distorted, false or rather inauthentic. This further suggests that not everything should be taken


Further arguments about the sahihayn can be found in Jonathan Brown‘s book “The Canonization of al Bukhari and Muslim” (2007, p 90-98).


for granted regardless of the scholars positioning as inevitably they are fallible.

Summary Scholars classify work and use their own terms based on their own ijtihad and reasoning. Some scholars followed paths of others, others modified and others introduced terms or used terminology differently. Whilst Muslim and Bukhari are the most renowned and respected, this was not always the case. Bukhari and Muslim have received praise as well as criticism from traditionalist sheikhs and scholars. No scholar is fallible, work should be verified.






Hadith Compilation
‫تصنيف الدديث‬

Hadith compilation.
Bilal Philips writes a great summary about hadith compilation (refer to “Usool al Hadeeth” by Dr Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips (2007) 28-29). Although Phillips summary is simple and quite easy to comprehend, some vital information has not been addressed in the first 2 stages; the following will aim to address these issues: Stage 1: There is no known concrete date of when hadith was compiled, varying sources give different opinions. Philips (2003) as with other scholars (AlAzami, 2002; Siddiqi, 2006) recognises that hadith was compiled roughly in the first century after the Prophets’ death. Al-Zuhri is said to be the first to compile ahadith in books (Siddiqi, 2006 and Azami, 2002). Before this date the use of suhuf (manuscripts) is said to have existed. Sunni’s argue that suhuf are the recordings of the Prophet’s sayings and actions during his livelihood. However, there is no known evidence of the Prophet checking and approving them. There are conflicting views of suhuf authenticity and their existence. There are almost no surviving sources of suhuf (plural sahifa) however the earliest ones are as follows: The Sahifa Of Hammam bin Munabbih who was a student of Abu Huraira



and The Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq alSan`ani

(Islamic Awarness, M, Saifullah & I, Daniel (2000). It would be interesting to see how these suhuf are written or what is said about them, unfortunately my resources and ability to find these are limited. Although it should be noted these men lived after the Prophet and even after the life of the companions. Through my interest in discovering suhuf I managed to find a document called “sahifa Medina”. It is known as the constitution of Medina a translated version of this sahifa is available online.

This sahifa is interesting as it shows a differentiating style compared to hadith that are told to us today through the sahihayn. The style is of direct transmission from the Prophet, there is no chain of authorisation. It is said to be the Prophet prescribed words. This sahifa dictates deeds and actions congruent with the Quran i.e. no fictionist tales. It demonstrates how Muslims acted to their brethren of other faiths. The Prophet’s experience of life is portrayed by understanding how he commissioned and worked with others. Respect, freedom and tolerance are evident in this document. Interestingly

it shows an honest experience, emulating Quran into action. This document was collected by Ibn Ishaq which was recorded roughly 200 years after the Prophet’s death, then translated into English (Rubin, 1985).

There is a hadith commonly used to affirm the recording of Prophetical sayings in early times. This hadith is attributed to Abdullah ibn Amr: Narrated Abdullah ibn amr ibn al-'As: I used to write everything which I heard from the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). I intended (by it) to memorise it. The Quraysh prohibited me saying: Do you write everything that you hear from him while the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) is a human being: he speaks in anger and pleasure? So I stopped writing, and mentioned it to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). He signalled with his finger to him mouth and said: Write, by Him in Whose hand my soul lies, only right comes out from it. (Abu Dawud, Book #25, Hadith #3639). Abdullah ibn Amr is said to have compiled the truthful sahifa; Sahifa Sadiqa. Today we have no actual sahifa of Abdullah ibn Amr even though it is

said to be the most famous. Sahifa Sadiqa is only known to us through reference of other peoples work (one being Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Kamali, 2005)). Other scholars have said they have transferred the knowledge from sahifa’s into their books. Which of these sayings comes from the different sahifa’s are left unknown (e.g. Bukhari is said to have documented hadiths from a sahifa collected by Sa`d ibn Ubada). Whilst the above hadith approves the writing of sayings or information, there was no authoring body checking the truthfulness of the content. Nor whether or not the actual sahifa of Abdullah ibn Amr was in use; that it was his or that it even existed. It shows a lack of importance to Muslims at the time. Their importance seemed so scarce even incorrigible which can be highlighted in the lack of preservation of the suhuf. Poor narrations in Al-Sihah al-Sittah titles also show lack of protection an example can be highlighted in the hadith below: Narrated Aisha “The verse of stoning and of suckling an adult ten times were revealed, and they were (written) on a paper and kept under my bed. When the Messenger of Allah (SAWW.) expired and we were preoccupied with his death, a goat entered and ate away the paper."

- Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of Nikah, Hadith # 1934). This hadith comes from one of the 6 authentic traditions accepted by mainstream Sunni Muslims. This hadith admittedly claims missing parts of the Quran i.e. “verse of stoning”. However clear vindications are shared with scholars, learned and laypeople as to their intolerance of such condescending remarks of Quran not being complete. Yet, the hadith corpus demonstrates otherwise. It is a common stronghold argument of the mainstream Muslims that ahadith have existed in the time of the Prophet in the form of suhuf. It begs the question, if ahadith were simply compiling suhuf and putting them together why such a big threat and need to classify the hadith, moreover why so many books? Why the need for so many versions? These gaps leave questions. Although a system of verification was implemented by scholars, other scholars found faults. It leaves me with the question “What is the truth?”. Consequently if we read on about hadith, compilation we recognise that hadith was a huge fitnah which the companion Umar wanted to stop and declared the burning of such recordings. Haykal

(1968) writes “During his caliphate, `Umar ibn al Khattab instructed the Muslims throughout the provinces: "Whoever has a document bearing a prophetic tradition shall destroy it." The Hadith therefore continued to be transmitted orally and was not collected and written down until the period of al Ma'mun” (Haykal, 1968 p.55). Oddly this assumes that Sahifa’s were burnt. Furthermore the recording of anything other than Quran was strongly discouraged by The Prophet (See Sahih Muslim Book 42, Number 7147). Traditional sources show complimentary and contrary views of hadith recording, which can be problematic to a reader. While the hadith of Abdullah ibn Amr favours recording, there is no evidence of his sahifa being authenticated by the Prophet. Traditionally because Umar was the 2nd caliph in Islam, his authority precedes Abdullah ibn Amr’s. So what is one to conclude? People assert that the recording of hadith was prohibited due to fear; fear of Quran being neglected. It seems peculiar that something which is seen as God bestowed guidance (exclusive to us from the messenger) was not hastened to be preserved. The question of fear may be asked today, have people neglected the Quran over hadith?

“....in what message after this will they believe?” (7:185, 77:50) Stage 2. Imam Malik Muwatta is one of the oldest existing sources however Imam Malik refused to place his work in the Kaaba for people to follow (Bashir Ali, 2000; Azami, 1977). A man with great knowledge and wisdom would be doing a big renunciation on a duty that is placed upon the learned. Why would Imam Malik leave the people? The laymen? The women? The men? The children? This can be looked at in multiple ways: His dear humbleness. His recognition that he is fallible. The realisation that people will conform. The idea that another person can further their studies and make their own conclusions. Or even that I dare say that there could be error in his work. Although traditional Muslims attest there were “many” followers and successors at the time and he did not find the necessity to display his book for all of Medina to see.


Whatever the reasoning I respect Imam Malik’s conclusion and wish others took insight from it. Imam Malik’s work used 3 chains of transmission to link the origin of the hadith. The links of Imam Malik excel’s the virtue of the sahihayn even Shafi is

known to praise Imam Malik by stating it the best book after Quran. However, scholars dispute this was before knowledge of the sahihayn (Brown, 2006). Whilst Malik uses a link of only 3 chains, it should be noted that scholars have criticised Malik’s work, indicating some ahadith are weak (Imam Muslim for example related some of his ahadith as mursal; Kamali, 2005). This great man only had 3 links on a chain? What is in store for the longer lengths? If only it made people wonder.7 During this stage chains of transmission were complied. Before this ahadith were cited with no chain. This is problematic as the chain has many speculative origins. Falsehood could have entered and seeped into the hadith corpus. Due to Shafi, the theory of sunnah developed into Muslim jurisprudence. Living traditions that were practiced needed to have an authority cited. It is believed isnads were increased due to the growth of hadith being a clear formalised way of following the sunnah (Berg, 2000). Schachts describes this as the backward isnad growth. He believes because many ahadith were cut off at the companions (mawquf hadith) an increased link to the Prophet was adopted. This adoption was made for maintenance

According to Jonothan Brown (2009) Imam Malik omits the use of isnad on 61 occassions. P.27. it seems that isnad was not as heavily realied upon. Moveover the Muwatta cites rulings from the Propheh, companions and successors!

of practices and also new growth into legal traditions. In this case isnads were forged in hadith to qualify for higher grading (Berg 2000; Schacht, 1950). Upon isnads, hadith then morphed into different stages based on different categories. Such categories included alphabetical ordering or merits; they were known as Musnads. Later scholars developed books based on authentic traditions found in the Musnads. This stage of time formed the development of sahih books. Within the stages forgery took place. It is for this reason many books were recompiled analysed and critiqued however Muslims were not free from error.


Summary - Hadith wasn’t ever a book of sources in which the Prophet mandated people to follow. It was not unanimous that hadith as a source must be followed. - History shows some evidence that suhuf existed in which documentation of things the Prophet conducted and authorised happened. - There is no evidence of the Prophet checking suhuf and “ok-ing” them. - As time progressed peoples ideological views changed and morphed, influences of sects and factions formed uprisings of different creeds. Consequently hadith became idolised in a form it has not been previously. This was done under the guise of “authentic” or sahih and also in the form of need. I.e. the need to be like the prophet - The later sources of hadith (e.g. Buhakhri and Muslim) became regarded as more authentic than earlier sources. - Back tracking of isnad established to give credibility to perpetuate laws and practices.

‫التزوير الدديث‬


Throughout Muslim scholarship ahadith had been in the process of selection and discarding however, forgery didn’t escape all reports. The whole aim of the science of chains of transmission was to eliminate any forgery within ahadith collections. However classification show no clear systematic approach which any person can follow. These ambiguous methods open gates for scholarly interpretations and a skewed analysis on chains (as that’s a larger part of the focus rather than the content). One of the most evident claims of forgery is found in exegesis otherwise known as tafsir. Tafsir which was documented and interpreted later in time (2 nd century Islam according to Berg, 2000) was the process of better understanding the Quran. There was no systematic method nor did all ahadith have a reference to Quranic verses, however scholars believed certain verses linked with certain ahadith. Ahmad ibn Hanbal is claimed to have said “no other branch of literature there had been committed so much forgery as in hadith and tafsir” (Siddiqi, 2006, p. 127).

Kamali (2005) cites tafsir collections which are claimed to have forgery, including: At-Tabari – AlSuyuti is said to try and rectify it. Tabari’s tafsir is still used today. Zamakhashari – it is said to have forged ahadith on the virtues of the Quran – interestingly Zamakhashari is associated with the Mutazilites creed. It would be interesting to read the forged hadith to see the claims. Zamakhashari tafsir can be still found today although not in English (to my knowledge). Other tafsir with forgery include: Al-Thalibi Al-Baydawi Ismail Haqqi All-Wahidi Tafsir Nasafi Tafsir Alkhazin

(Kamali, 2005) Muslims at a certain period of time sought guidance through tafsir. The thought of so many people possibly following a book with fabrications is a distressing concern. Although these fabrications may

be perceived as overtly unintentional, fabrications are still misguidance. Forgery was not only found through scholarly discoveries but also apparent through confession showing clear intentioned fabrications. Ignaz (1967) discusses reports of people confessing to fabrications in the name of bringing people back to the right path. Similarly Siddiqi mentions forgery increased based on enemies of the religion trying to destroy the religion, sectarian leaders preaching particular rulings, story tellers and “so-called pious traditionalists who either committed bona fide mistakes, or held it permissible to forge traditions for religious and pious purposes” (Siddiqi, 2006, p.52). Hadith must have had a significant influence onto people’s actions for one to use it in the name of good deeds. It is worrisome as one may think what about the claims that were never found? It seems the most common form and probably the earliest form of fabrication is through oral telling. Story telling seemed to be the method of communication for many as well as a form of entertainment. Kamali (2005) discusses how ahadith were circulated in this way even exaggerated for large crowd pleasers.

Summary Forgery was found in Quran tafsir: exegesis Forgery existed intentionally and unintentionally Not all forged claims were known Forged claims were confessed and found out for a few reasons;    Destroying islam Uprising of a sect/creed/opinion Making people conform and practice deeds to get closer to God.


Shia & Hadiths
‫شيعة وخديث‬

Shia’s and hadith
Shia place much reverence to the Ahlul bayt (People of the house) it is believed by their school of thoughts that Ali was elected as the Prophet’s vicegerency during an event called Ghadir Khum. During this event it is said that the Prophet advised the Muslims to hold closely and follow the Ahlul Bayt, Shias interpret this as the Prophets elections of succession (Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi, 1936 translated by Hasan M. Najafi, 2007) Unlike the Sunni traditions, Shia ahadith relate exclusively back to the Ahlul Bayt. To the Shia the Ahlul Bayt are considered infallible. This notion is based on interpretations of the Quran. An example can be seen in the verse 33:33 in which God wishes to purify them. Rather than purification, Mainstream Shia’s understand this verse as infallibility to the Ahlul Bayt. The Ahlul Bayt are considered the household of the Prophet’s family and descendents from therein. According to mainstream Shia Muslims (ithna ashari, otherwise known as the twelvers) there are 14 figures who are recognised as infallibles among them are The Prophet and his daughter Fatima Zahra, the other 12 are known as The Imams. The Imams

include: Ali ibn Abu Talib, Hassan ibn Ali, Hussayn ibn Ali, Ali ibn Hussein – Imam Al Sajjad, Muhammad ibn Ali – Imam Al Baqir, Jafar ibn Muhammad Imam AlSadiq, Musa ibn Jafar – Imam Al-Kazim, Ali ibn Musa – Imam AlRida, Muhammad ibn Ali – Imam AlTaqi, Ali ibn Muhammad – Imam AlHadi, Hassan ibn Ali – Imam Askari, Muhammad ibn Alhassan – Imam AlMahdi (Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi, 1936 translated by Hasan M. Najafi, 2007, p.228) The Imams came in different times, later and during the time of the companions and the followers. This heightens the possibility of books and writings to be preserved. However sadly this is not the case. Books and traditions are attributed to some of these imams one including “Sahifa Sajjadiya”. Sahifa Sajjadiya is attributed to the Imam AlSajjad. Interestingly this sahifa comes in many versions, detailing different doxologies (duas and praises) to be practiced. (Syed Husain M. Jafri, 1988 cited in Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library, 2012) Kitab Sulaym ibn Qays is another source accepted by some Shias however there are mixed views of its authenticity (Hussain, 1982; Modarressi, 2003; Crow & Moussavi, 2005; Jonathan Brown, 2009). The original is not intact and the versions which are

currently available do not detail when they were reprinted or made thus leaving the book subject to distortion and controversy. The most prized books read and accepted by Shias today are Kafi, Bihar AlAnwar and Nahj AlBalagh. The latter is a sermon book compiled in the 4th century by Shareef Razi. It was compiled through stages. It is said after 30 years of Ali’s death Sermons were collected. It contains sermons attributed to Ali; the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet. (Allama SYED Razi, 1977) Kitab Kafi was compiled by Muhammad Yaqub Kulayni with exclusive traditions of Shia sources collected in a similar fashion that Sunni hadith sources were collected however with no specific criteria of authenticity (Howard, 1976). In the same way of Sunni ahadith, the Shia ahadith follow a system called “ilm alrajal” which means knowledge of men i.e. biographies. This system is identifies and analyses men for their trustworthiness (thiqat). However, laypersons are not able to access such biographies and are left for the scholars only. This information along with content is considered to gauge authenticity of hadith (Al-Askari, 1980/1990). Unlike Sunni’s, Shia’s do not regard all the companions (even the caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar and

Uthman) as trustworthy characters. For this reason many ahadith by Sunni commentators are not accepted by the Shia school of thought unless it coincides with their own ahadith. The purpose of analysing the trustworthiness of a character heavily relates to hadith chains of transmission. Interestingly Jonothan Brown (2009) mentions that not all shia hadith relate to a chain specifically because of the infalliblity attributed to the imams. So the theory is, if someone is perfect why the need to check it? Ahadith have been a cause for dilemma in the Muslim world for centuries. It is known that Abu Bakr placed a ban on quoting and following hadith similarly Umar and Uthman as well (Al-Askari, 1980/1990, Sayyid Ali al-Shahristaniy translated by Badr Shahin, 2004). Shia’s claim this deprived people of authentic traditions and it was only when Ali came into authority of caliphat that he tried to restore authentic traditions. It is further believed by the Shia Muslims that after the death of Ali, Muawiya supposedly gained jealousy and fabricated traditions for fame, glory and deception (Al-Askari, 1980/1990 & Al-Shahristaniy, Sayyid Ali translated by Badr Shahin, 2004).

Unfortunately for the Shia and the Sunni Muslims this history leaves questionable authority on all ahadith. Interesting both sects agree that if a hadith conforms to The Quran it is acceptable and if it does not it is false. Yet, the corpus of hadith finds many peculiar ahadith.


Summary - Ahadith are significant to the Shia Muslims. - Shia hadiths relate back to the Ahlul Bay, the Imams and some companions. - Methodology of classification is similar to the Sunni Muslims as they both have biographies of companions. - There are no titles in the Shia corpus as “sahih”. Books contain an assortment of grading however Shia’s follow scholarly opinion (Marja) which base their jurisprudence on hadith. - Analysis of hadith for reliability does not seem to be as thorough as Sunni sources.

Obeying the Messenger
‫طاعة الرسول‬


Adherence of the prophet
It is commonly associated that the sahaba (companions) and the tabi`een (followers) were great men (or women) who lived with the Prophet or followed a generation thus their practises are said to conform to the Prophet. It is automatically assumed that they were obedient followers. Many Sunni’s claim following the companions or tabieen will be like following the Prophet as they were closer to him than us. What is known to us of the people of the past is through literature. As people with no knowledge of the unseen we can objectively assume there were good along with the bad including hypocrites. The messenger did not entrust us to follow the companions nor the followers of the companions. Following the Prophet by the source he followed would be more appropriate. However by this people may be left with ambiguity and ask all sorts of questions with scrutiny such as “how and why and what exactly can we do and can’t do and how many different ways are ok”. Astonishingly they seem to be portraying the inquisitive nature Bani Israel did with the cow in the Quranic verses 2:68-71. The Prophet had a mission to bayan the message. That is to make clear to portray the message. 16:44 (Y. Ali) (We sent them) with Clear Signs and Scriptures; and We have sent down unto thee (also)

the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought 16:64 (Y. Ali) And We sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose, that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe These verses outline the importance of following the message that the Prophet was ordered to make clear. So how is one to do it? The message of the Quran would not have been so clear or even come to us had not the Prophet delivered it. The Prophet established a system based on the laws of the Quran. When people obeyed the Prophet, they actually obeyed Allah (4:80) as the Prophet judged all matters according to the Book of Allah (5:48). Yet people are finicky and fastidious in wanting to know exact steps of salat, conditions and methods of zakat, hajj and fasting. Ibadah has come to traditional Muslims in a form of do’s and don’ts rather than betterment and salvation. Interestingly the Prophets in the past commanded people to obey them, for example: Nuh – 26:108 (Y. Ali) "So fear Allah, and obey me Hud –26:126 (Y. Ali) "So fear Allah and obey me.


Salih – 26:144 (Y. Ali) "So fear Allah, and obey me Lut – 26:163 (Y. Ali) "So fear Allah and obey me Shuayb – 26:179 (Y. Ali) "So fear Allah and obey me. Isa – 43:63 (Y. Ali) When Jesus came with Clear Signs, he said: "Now have I come to you with Wisdom, and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) on which ye dispute: therefore fear Allah and obey me. Yet their obedience wasn’t for the purpose of rituals and traditions, rather oneness of God, good deeds, not a whole hadith corpus with imperatives for daily events. A hadith corpus was not sought as it is today. Rituals are taught and mindlessly adhered to in the name of following the Prophet; little wisdom is sort in why. Rather it is commonly remarked “the people of the past did this, we saw our forefathers do this, we got taught this is the sunnah, we “think” it is the sunnah”. People think actions are a sunnah yet to track the saying would be like finding a needle in a haystack. Yet people blindly oblige. Why? A clear inference in the Quran to follow the Prophet has come to the scholarly opinions that Sunnah is paramount and in dire need of following. It’s obvious that traditions associated with the sunnah of the Prophet were later introduced to indoctrinate Muslims to a certain methodology. Scholars believed

this method was to save the ummah from perishing by preserving the hadith. Unfortunately little trust was given upon God in which the Quran states “the deen will be preserved” 85:21-22. Not many individuals are prepared to actually understand the authenticity of hadith, to understand the process taken of scholarly work but rather opt for mere blind following and blame on scholars for any error. Religion has turned into a state of complication in the name of righteousness, being holy or just simply being close to the Prophet (in supposed practices). According to traditions, the Prophet is known to be the walking Quran. If the Prophet is the walking Quran wouldn’t abiding the law given to the Prophet (the Quran) be abiding God? And if we adhere to the Quran, then we are inevitably following the Prophet? One might think it is logical to follow the Quran because Gods law was known through the messenger thus following the messenger would be following God 24:54, 29:18. However, people assume this as an insult to the Prophet that the Prophet is not a mere delivery man however I digress and agree with Soroush (2009): the Messenger’s job was to bring guidance unto us through God’s Will; the message (Soroush, 2009). The messenger did not just give us a book and leave people to it, the messenger delivered the book and acted by it.

There is a term used by orientalists known as the “living sunnah”. It is basically the sunnah (way/practices) that the Prophet left that people upheld and practiced. The notion is similar to muttawatir hadith however it is muttawatir through action. As in the practices are practised all around the Muslim world it is thus inevitably a living practice of The Prophet, wallahu alem (And God knows best). Imam Malik is famous for his method of placing his hands on his side during salat rather than on his chest, this was because of a muttawatir practice (Jonathan Brown, 2009). However, this theory isn’t complete from error as certain practices were assimilated, maintained and influenced upon others. The Quran does not state that every actions must be explicit in a particular form, rather God tells us there are many paths to Him (Quran 5:16) At the end of the day: to God we belong and to God is our return, our ultimate judge is God.The notion of many paths leading to salvation, truths, guidance and God implicates a strong vindication that we should not harden up. We should openly recognise different approaches to practices especially if there is no contradition. Had unity been based on matching methods of prayer, fasting or any other practice maintained by Muslims in confluence today, than the state Muslims are in now should be considered unified. Clearly that is not the case as many Muslims around the world

pray 5 times a day and practice certain acts and rituals. Yet their unity is cringe worthy. For what benefit of prayer or any act if it does not bring you closer to God? Our relations in the world and our doings are interconnected with our deen. I’m sure people will still ask how do we do salat, how about zakat? How much do we give in charity? What are all the conditions? Life becomes a book of rules rather than a practical way of life. Had God willed, we all could have been created as a community that never had differing views. We could all have been created just worshipping God however God create us to test us and placed amongst us differences (5:48, 11:118, 42:8). If we don’t follow the Prophet we’re misguided from the path, the Prophet followed the message so how close do we follow the message? Then the Messenger will say: "O my Lord! Truly my people took this Qur'an for just foolish nonsense." [Yusuf Ali, 25:30] Before asking why, how and specifics has one even tried? How would we know Islam if we didn’t have the messenger? 4:80 (Y. Ali) He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah. But if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds).


Rejecting hadith ‫رفض الدديث‬

Rejecting hadith
Ahadith have become such a significant part of Muslims socio-cultural and socio-political contextual law that one would be deemed a heretic to reject hadith. For century’s Muslims applied education, raye, ijtihad to challenge and investigate Quran, science, wonders of our world, the universe and ahadith (that were orally said, recorded ahadith even practices). This stopped due to reliance of scholars and significant issues of ijtihad (Rahman 1966: Ahmed, 1992: Siddiqi, 1961). To reject hadith would be to reject Quran, as the Quran describes itself as the best hadith (39:23). One must be wise in their decisions as ibn Jawzi said “when you see a hadith that is irrational, or in conflict with the text or basic principles then know that it is forgery” (cited in Kamali, 2005, p. 77). People of the past were not fearful of identifying weaknesses in sayings. History shows evidence of forgery through victors of battles, story tellers, outside influences or even intentions of guiding people to do more good deeds. Yet today a common man is looked at as a kaffir (rejecter, disbeliever) for having a contrary opinion, it seems many people of the Muslim world have graduated with judicial authority. Hadith has significance in recognising historical aspects and also understanding how Muslims applied law. There is the opinion to reject hadith is

the vilification of the sunnah. However, it is obvious that sunnah was not purely based on Prophet Mohammed’s way. The sunnah God wanted from the believers was not something new (Review section on sunnah see p.23). Rejecting hadith is an extremely sensitive topic as the Prophet is the amin (the trustworthy) for one to reject hadith one assumes the rejection of the Prophet’s authority however little is discussed when it comes to the actual truthfulness of hadith. For instance: There is no actual accurate formula which proves the Prophet actually said a particular hadith, all ahadith are prescribed that the Prophet apparently said them through a process of a chain. No evidence of the Prophet authorising sahifa’s, checking the sahifa, acknowledging it’s truth e.g. no Prophet seal, signature or preservation. No old sahifa intact dated from the Prophet’s time e.g. the apparent Sahifa Sadiqa.



While some laypersons like to bury their heads in the sand, assuming they are not worthy of studying hadith due to the enormity of the science or possibly the mind boggling hadith contradictions in which one faces to justify, it begs the question who is Islam for? The learned scholars only... dismissing a study

and assuming everything is plausible does not allow anyone to prosper nor understand truth. Common arguments There is a common assumption rejection of hadith is purely based on desire or whims, to be free and do as one wishes. It is right to say to reject something without any proof is a baseless claim or a claim based on desire. In this case it could fall under the category of “whims and desires”. However, clear contradictions, illogical claims displaying deficiencies are not baseless claims and clearly not the following of desires nor whims but rather highlighting deficiencies which lead to worry, confusion and sometimes possibly guidance or misguidance. Furthermore assertions of “if it is proven sahih you cannot reject it” is a common argument depicting circular reasoning because it relies upon an asserted authority given to it by the compiler themself or other scholars. Faults may arise from the content leaving the identification of sahih negligible and misleading, highlighting a weak argument. Alternatively, what proof shows a hadith as sahih? A sahih claim is very much related to the chain, how closely is content considered? One can argue it is a desire to accept hadith blindly with no study at all with total reliance on scholars. It is nothing but

desire to feel the weight lifted off oneself and place the burden upon another. Rather verification of knowledge is paramount. 17:36 (Y. Ali) And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). To reject hadith wholly is to ostracise a whole history of Muslim practices. Hadith plays a part in interpreting an understanding of the Quran (though this may not necessarily be a true/pure interpretation but nevertheless an interpretation). The hadith corpus is filled with numerous sayings some with great insight, wisdom and truths. To out rightly reject hadith with the premise of too much unknowns would be an erroneous belief. It would be more just to recognise ahadith have faults and weakness along with wisdom and great insights.

Summary To reject hadith is not to reject the sunnah, as the sunnah is described as the way of God, or the way of the people of the past. The Prophet’s authority is not left at hadith but rather the message the Quran. The Quran is known as the best hadith. There is no evidence of the Prophet authorising suhuf or any other hadith books. Rejecting hadith is not necessarily based on desire or whims. Hadith have a place in recognising an interpretation of the Quran. Hadith could indicate practices of Muslims in a particular time and place. Hadith portray wisdom, insight, truths along with stories, fantasies and irrational claims.


Quran Interpretations ‫تفسير القران‬

Quran interpretations
Different people will rationalise different ideas and methodologies for understanding the Quran. Most relate back to a particular interpreter or scholar. Quranic translation and exegesis used today (Yusuf Ali, Muhammad Asad, Marmaduke Pickthall, Muhammad habib Shakir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Tabari, Tafsir Al Jalalayn, Tafsir Al-Mizan) relates back to hadith. Common assertions of today’s Muslims include “the Quran is meaningless without hadith”. However history shows tafsir in earlier times were not purely hadith based. It should be noted that formalised tafsir of Quran as we know today did not start till after the first 2 centuries of Islam (Berg, 2000). Tafsir took on many different forms namely; tafsir bil ray (commentary from opinion), tafsir bil athar (commentary from saying/tradition) also known as tafsir bil mathar (commentary based on precedent) and tafsir bil Quran (commentary taken from Quran i.e. cross referencing) (Berg, 2000; Lane, 2006 & Kamali, 2005). Today tafsir is primarily based on athar however according to Berg (2000) no evidence of manuscripts exist till later in time.


This lack of preservation shows poor attention on the importance of hadith as a source of legislation. Interestingly in earlier times tafsir bil athar wasn’t the central method of exegesis. This recognises that hadith does not necessarily complete the purpose of translating the meaning of the Quran. Moreover traditional sources indicate the Prophet did not give tafsir for every verse of the Quran, rather very little (Alwani and Khalil, 1991) this indicates that many Scholars used Tafsir bil Ray (opinions) and Tafsir bil Mathar (precedent commentaries) to make interpretations. To clarify not all ahadith are attributed to verses of the Quran, there is no systematic way in which hadith explains the Quran. It was later in time due to fear and authority of those in power that hadith played a significant importance. There are opinions in the community that lack of record does not mean lack of preservation. The argument is not about preservation but also usage. The usage of hadith was not in the enormity as it is now. Furthermore raye or personal opinion was considered as a preference over hadith (Goldziher, 1967). It seems that hadith as a source of mandated scripture was an innovation to uphold the dogma of

scholarly opinion or to be more diplomatic, the homogenizing of religion rites and practices. Mentioned earlier tafsir was in different forms. It included translated meaning from opinion, traditions, precedent practices and Quran itself. Furthermore ahadith are used against hadith in support of the Quran. Fazlur (1965) discusses that there seems to be quite a few hadith that say if you find a report that agrees with Quran, accept it or it is from the Prophet, and if it disagrees then reject it or it is not from the Prophet. This clearly indicates the Quran is the criteria within which the hadith MUST be filtered through. However sadly this is not always the case. As some scholars abrogate Quran with hadith e.g. Abu Hanifa, Anas ibn Malik, Ahmad ibn Hanabal as well as ibn Al-Arabi, Hibatullah b. Sallamah and Abu Ubayd (refer to Saaed, 2006, p.78) Traditional Muslims have incorporated 3 methodologies for Quranic exegesis this includes, tafsir bil Quran; understanding Quran by Quran, tafsir from sunnah that is ahadith and lastly tafsir from athar which is considered traditions and sayings of companions and later followers. Tafsir bil athar is used when the above two have no exegetical information (Phillips, 2007). Denffer additionally mentions tafsir bul ishara that is from indications

from signs (1983 p. 124) Besides the above steps knowledge of classical Arabic and grammar structure is necessary (Philips, 2007). Exegesis from Quran This involves reading topics of similar nature in which it is further explained. Furthermore cross referencing words enables one to understanding meaning or verify claims through a link in other verses. Thus, allowing for the quality of study to improve due to the increased knowledge of a subject. To aid with studies resources have been developed in which Quran indexes allow for word to word search; Identifying what Quran says about a topic. For Example: - “The Concordance of the Quran” by Hanna E. Kassis (1983) - http://corpus.quran.com/ by Kais Dukes (20092011) -http://www.quraninenglish.com by Zaheen Fatima Baig (N/D) -http://www.islamicstudies.info/wordtranslation.php by Dr. Shehnaz Shaikh and Ms. Kausar Khatri (2010) - http://www.studyquran.co.uk/TopicsIndex.htm by StudyQuran (2004)

Grammar and language Language plays an essential role as anyone could easily misinterpret or skew meaning. The Quran states: 14:4 (Y. Ali) We sent not an apostle except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them. Now Allah leaves straying those whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases: and He is Exalted in power, full of Wisdom. And 20:113 (Y. Ali) Thus have We sent this down – an Arabic Qur'an - and explained therein in detail some of the warnings, in order that they may fear Allah, or that it may cause their remembrance (of Him).8 These verses indicate the importance of Arabic. The book was revealed in the language of the Prophet. The Quran is without crookedness thus knowledge of classical Arabic is essential. It was a language revealed to people who praised and challenged each other on poetry, grammatical merits as well with other language conventions.


Also check Quran verses: 12:2, 13:37, 39: 28, 41:3, and 46:12.


Till this day the Quran is always referred back in Arabic to remove any discrepancies of peoples’ possible interpretations even from the way people pronounce the Quran, the mushaf (master volume of the Quran) is used to rid any clashes (Ali Al Imaan, 1998). Fortunately resources exist which can help aid those with little or no Arabic knowledge. However this wouldn’t authorise people to exegetical positions but aid an individual to self study for deeper understanding. Such resources include: - Project Root List http://www.studyquran.co.uk/PRLonline.htm By Study Quran (2004) -“Arabic English Dictinary of Qur’anic usage” By Elsaid M.Badawi and Muhammad Abdel Haleem (2008) - “Arabic an Essential Grammar” By Faruk AbuChacra (2007) (As well as the above mentioned on page 97). As the Quran calls out to people to study and verify knowledge having access to such resources is fantastic.

Verifying knowledge is a must and sometimes not easy. Extensive study may be required and sometimes alternative minds to gain knowledge from. The Quran states... 16:98 (Y. Ali) When thou dost read the Qur'an, seek Allah's protection from Satan the rejected one. 3:7 (Y. Ali) He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: In it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical, seeking discord, and searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord:" and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. 17:36 (Y. Ali) And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for every act of hearing, or of seeing or of (feeling in) the heart will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning). – 7:204 (Y. Ali) When the Qur'an is read, listen to it with attention, and hold your peace: that ye may receive Mercy. And much much more...

Quran compilation and preservation
According to As-Suyuti cited in Azami (2011 p.83) “the Quran had indeed been written down in its entirety during The Prophet’s lifetime, but had not been collected together nor were suras arranged”. This identifies the Quran being recording in the Prophets’ lifetime however not in book form. It was later during Abu Bakr’s time in which the Quran was compiled into a “master volume” from its fragmented transcripts (Azami 2011 p. 91; Madigan 2001, p.27; Ali Al Imaan, 1998, p.25). Traditions indicate that the Quran was made into a mushaf (a master volume) by Zayd Ibn Thabit; this was then given to Abu Bakr. When Abu Bakr died the mushaf was in Umar’s care until his death. Hafsah the daughter of Umar and one of the wives of the Prophet had the Quran. Later in Uthman’s time he ordered for the copy of Hafsah’s Mushaf it was then copied and sent to every Muslim reigion (Ali Al Imaan, 1998). The Quran was recorded with Arabic calligraphy, from kufic, khat al thulth and khat al naskh were the most popular9. Today we find the Quran recorded in

To clarify the above mentioned are types of calligraphy script i.e.written text font.

Khatt naskh. The first printed Quran was in “Venice in 1530” however church authorities destroyed it. A mushaf was then found printed in 1649 at Humburg and another in 1698 in Marracci. Later distributions were evident in the 1880’s from St Petersburgh, Kazan, Terhan, Tabriz, Leipzig, India, Turkey and Egypt (Ali Al Imaan, 1998, p.73-74). Ali Al Imaan (1998) further writes “The Quran is known to be recorded in one Arabic dialect (harf) to minimise differences in reading. Later in time AlHajjaj introduced the “naqt al ijam” that is the system of dotting so that people who read Arabic would read it with proper pronounciation and accuracy” (p.72). Moreover the Quran employs tala (recition) 2:129, 2:151, 3:164, 22:30, 29:45, 62:2. This is one of its beauties and methods of preservation. A vast number of Muslims not only recite the Quran but also memorise the Quran. Muslims have memorised The Quran and passed it down to generations who memorised it, till this day people memorise Quran.


Summary - The Quran was recorded in different fragmented material. - Abu Bakr orderd the material to be compiled into a master volume (mushaf). - It was during Uthman’s times that there were some disputes of recitation that he ordered for the original copy of the mushaf to make copies and distribute them to all Muslim cities. - The Quran was printed in the 1530’s but was burnt by church officials. - Later in time the Quran was printed and distributed in Muslim countries.

Conclusion ‫ختام الك تاب‬


Concluding remarks:
Hadith has existed from the dawn of mankind. No doubt, Muslims and Non-Muslims alike spread knowledge about practises of The Prophet Mohammed. To reject this is purely irrational. However such ahadith were orally spoken and shared at a very informal level. There were no signs or indications pointing to the need of enforcing a doctrine based on the Prophet’s words or sayings. There is no verifiable proof or evidence that the Prophet ordained that his speech and actions be recorded for emulation in every dire matter. Later in time due to fear of traditions being lost, fear of misguidance and also the development of factions led to an increased support, argument and acceptance of the Prophet’s hadith. An increased number of hadith surfaced which made way for forgery and also a new way in which Islam was practised: as laws were sourced out from hadith and interpretations of learnered. It became a new trend which many aspired to study and collect stories of the past. This gave scholars authority of free interpretations of hadith. Consequently leading to a fiqh (jurisprudence) of

interpretation to emerge. This consensus closed the doors of ijtihad and opened the door of dogma through scholar understanding. Ahadith were never intended to homogenise practices and subjugate people. Hadith shared morals, shared knowledge, shared stories and history. Unfortunately it has now become the outsourced law required to understand the divine law: The Quran. Hadith is always said to come second place however practices show otherwise. May God Guide us all Insha’Allah.




Ahlul Bayt: literally meaning people of the house, usually referring to the prophet’s family. Deen: Way of life, religion in some contexts also referred to as the day of judgement. Falsafah: Philosophy. Fitnah: Turmoil. Ghadir Khum: is a location of a place in Saudi Arabia. Shia sources believe during the Prophet’s last pilgrimage on their way back home to Medina he stopped at this location and proclaimed that anyone who followed The Quran and The Ahlul Bayt will not deviate. Hadith: commonly associated with the collection of traditions and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed. However it’s linguistic meaning refers to a dialogue, discourse, a story or tiding. Hasanat: the opposite of sin, good deeds. Hijra: Prophet Mohammed’s migration to Medina. Ijtihad: Striving and expending ones efforts. Ijtihad is commonly used with legal connotation.

Kaffir: Used as a condescending term to refer to one as a disbeliever. However it’s linguistic meaning refers to one who covers, one who rejects after truth has been shown, one who ignores knowingly. Mushaf: A collection of scrolls or scripts combined to form a book. E.g. The Quran is often referred as a mushaf however it is not exclusively about The Quran. Nabi: Prophet. Raye: Individual judgement or reasoning. Riwaya: Reportage. Sahihayn: literally meaning the authentic (plural), relating to the two most authentic (Sahih) books in Sunni Islam: Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Suhuf: Scroll, commonly associated with the traditions of the prophet Mohammed. Sunnah: Way or line of conduct. Thiqat: Trust, trusting upon another. Commonly used with regard to companion biographies. Wudu: Ablution.

References ‫المراجع‬


References  Abu-Chacra, Faruk. (2007). Arabic an
Essential Grammar. USA and Canada: Routledge Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. (2012). Translator’s introduction Al-Sahifat Al-Sajjadiyya. Retrieved from: http://www.alislam.org/sahifa/intro.html Ahmed, Al-Haj Moinuddin. (1992). The urgency of Ijtihad. New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan Al-Askari, Allamah Murtaza. (1980/1990). A Probe into the History of Hadith. Pakistan: Islamic Seminary/Islamic Education Society. Ali Al Imaan, Ahmad. (1998). Variant readings of the Quran: A critical study of their historical and linguistic origins. USA: The International Institute of Islamic Thought. Al-Samawi al-Tijani, Muhammad. (1936) translated by Hasan M. Najafi (2007). To be with the truthful. Iran: Ansariyan Publications. Al-Shahristaniy, Sayyid Ali translated by Badr Shahin. (2004). The prohibitation of recording the hadith causes and effects. Iran: Ansariyan Publications.

 

Alwani, Jabir Taha & Khalil, Imad al Din. (1991). The Quran and the Sunnah: the timespace factor. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) Azami, Muhammad Mustafa. (1977). Studies in hadith methodology and literature. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. Azami, Muhammad Mustafa. (2002). Studies in hadith methodology and literature Revised edition. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. Azami, Muhammad Mustafa. (2011). The history of the Quranic text: from revelation to complication a comparative study with the old and new testaments. 2nd ed. Saudia Arabia, Malaysia, Canada: Azami publishing house, Islamic book trust and Al-Qalam Publishing. (Jointly published) Badawi, M. Elsaid and Abdel Haleem, Muhammad. (2008). Arabic English Dictionary of Qur’anic usage. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Baig, Fatima Zaheen. (N/D). The Holy Quran. Retrieved from: http://www.quraninenglish.com


Berg, Herber. (2000). The development of exegesis in early islam: the authenticity of Muslim literature from the formative period. UK: Curzon Press. Brown, Daniel. (1996). Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press Brown, Jonathan. (2007). The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim The formation and function of the Sunni hadith canon. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden Brown, Jonathan. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's legacy in the medieval and modern world. Oxford: OneWorld Publications Burhan, Faysal. (N.D) Wisdom (Al-Hikmah). A paradigm for social sunan. A fresh look at islam. Retrieved 28th October 2011 from http://www.islamic-study.org/wisdom_(alhikmah).htm Charit, Mostafa. (1975). Biography of the Prophet (4th Ed). Dhaka, Jhinuk Pustika, pp. 42-51. Retrieved from: http://www.globalwebpost.com/farooqm/st udy_res/islam/hadith/akramkhan_hadith.ht ml

 

Crow, D. Karim and Moussavi, Ahmad Kazemi. (2005). Facing one qiblah. Legal and doctrinal aspects of Sunni and Shi'ah Muslims. Singapore: Kerjaya Printing Pte Ltd Denffer, Ahmad Von. (1983). Ulum al-Quran: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an. United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. D. L. Ashliman. (1999). Little red riding hood. Retrieved October 31st 2011 from http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0333.html Dukes, Kais. (2009-2011). The Quranic Arabic Corpus. Retrieved from: http://corpus.quran.com/ Goldziher, Ignaz. (1981). Introduction to Islamic theology and law. New Jersey: Princeton University Press Goldziher, Ignaz. (1967). Muslim Studies (Muhammedanische Studien) vol. 1. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. (1933/1968). The life Muhammad. Translated (1968) Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. USA: Temple University. Howard, I. K. A. (1976).”Al-Kafi by AlKulayni” Al-Serat: A Journal of Islamic Studies vol 2. (1)Rretrieved from: http://www.alislam.org/al-serat/kulayni-howard.htm

 

Hussain, Jassim M. (1982). The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam (A Historical Background). USA: The Zahra Trust. Islamic Awareness (2011). Hadith Classification. Retrieved from http://www.islamicawareness.org/Hadith/Ulum/hadsciences.ht ml Islamic Awarness, M, Saifullah & I, Damiel. (2000). Are there any early hadiths? Retrieved from: http://www.islamicawareness.org/Hadith/hadith.html Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. (2005). A Textbook of Hadith Studies. United Kingdom: Islamic Foundation Kahteran, Nevad. (2006). The Quran Encyclopaedia. Eds. Oliver Leaman. USA: Routledge Kassis, Hanna E. (1983). The Concordance of the Quran. USA: The Regents of the University of California Lane, Andrew. (2006). A traditional Mu’tazilite Quran commentary; the kashshaf of Jar Allah Al-Zamakhshari. Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV Lane, William. (1863). Arabic-English Lexicon. London: Willams & Norgate

 

Lowry, Joseph. (2007). Early Islamic legal theory. The Risala of Muhammad ibn idris AlShafi. Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). The meaning and concept of philosophy in Islam. Retrieved 28th October 2011 from http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/nasrip1.htm Madigan, Daniel. (2001). The Quran’s Self Image: Writing and Authority in Islam's Scripture. United Kingdom: Princeton University Press Modarressi, Hossein. (2003). Tradition and survival: A bibliographical survey of early Shi’ite literature. Vol 1. Oxford: Oneworld Musa, Aisha. (2008).Hadith as scripture. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan Philips, Bilal. (2007). Usool Al Hadeeth: The Methodology of Hadith Evaluation. Saudia Arabia: International Islamic publishing house. Rahman, Fazlur. (1966, 1979, 2002). Islam second edition. USA: The University of Chicago Rahman, Fazlur. (1965). Islamic methodology in history. Pakistan: Islamic research institute

Razi, Allama Syed. (1977) Nehjuk Balagha. Translated by Sheikh Hasan Saeed cited from: http://www.imamhussain.net/Prophet0/Pro phet/Ahlulbait/Imams/Imam01/body_nahj_a l_balagha.html Rehman, Sy Mubeenur. (1996). Islamic Jurisprudence. Islamabad: IRI Press International Islamic University. Rubin, Uri. (1985). The "Constitution of Medina" Some Notes. Studia Islamica, No. 62. pp. 5-23. Retrieved from: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=05855292%281985%290%3A62%3C5%3AT%22O MSN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O Saeed Abdullah. (2006). Interpreting the Quran towards a contemporary approach. New York: Routledge Schacht, Joseph. (1950). The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. London: Oxford University Press Schacht, Joseph. (1982). An introduction to Islamic law. New York: Oxford University Press Inc

 

Shaikh, Shehnaz and Khatri Kausar. (2010). Quran word to word translation. Retrieved from: www.islamicstudies.info/wordtranslation.ph p Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubayr. (1961/2006). Hadith literature its origin, development, special features and criticism. Malaysia: Islamic book trust (original work published 1961) Soroush, Abdulkarim. (2009). The Expansion of Prophetic Experience Essays on Historicity, Contingency and Plurality in Religion Translated by Nilou Mobasser (eds.). Forough Jahanbakhsh. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill. Study Quran. (2004). Project Root List. Retrieved from:

Umar, Ibrahim. (1975). The Book on the secrets of pilgrimage (kitab ‘asrar al-hajj). Retrieved from: www.ghazali.org/books/hajjumar-intro.doc Zipes, Jack (1993). The trials & tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood. 2nd (ed.). New York : Routledge


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful