Person-Centred Therapy: A LEADING EDGE

Professor Dave Mearns

The Counselling Unit, University of Strathclyde, Jordanhill Campus, Glasgow G13 1PP

• • • • • • • • •

PCE Worldwide; A schema of working at relational depth; Client processes; Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self; Configuration Theory; Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory; The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth; „Existential Touchstones‟; 2 Working with Dominic.

Same family – different emphases
• emphasising „non-directivity‟ (Brodley, Bozarth) • emphasising the client‟s „process‟ (Greenberg, Elliott) • emphasising „focusing‟ (Gendlin, Lietaer) • emphasising the client‟s existential experiencing (Cooper) • emphasising the relationship (Schmid, Mearns)

2008.A World View of PCE • The World Association of Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling (WAPCEPC) <pce-world. England • The International Journal: Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies. Norwich. Germany – July 6-10.> • The Triennial World Conference – July 12-16. 2006 Potsdam. 4 .

S.PCE Worldwide U.A. Britain Germany Austria Holland Belgium France Italy Greece Croatia Slovakia Portugal Brazil Argentina Japan China 5 .

• • • • • • • • • Contents PCE Worldwide. Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. . 6 Working with Dominic. A schema of working at relational depth. Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self. Configuration Theory. The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. „Existential Touchstones‟. Client processes.

A Schema of Working at Relational Depth A Offering relational depth B Negotiating client processes (including „difficult‟ process) C Contact with the existential process 7 .

and able to understand and value the Other‟s experiences at a high level.Definition „Relational depth‟ is a state of profound contact and engagement between two people. in which each person is fully real to the Other. (2005) Working at Relational Depth in Counselling and Psychotherapy. D. Mearns. & Cooper. M. London: Sage. 8 .

(2002).F. „Knowledge or acknowledgement? Psychotherapy as “the art of notknowing” – prospects on further developments of a traditional paradigm‟. P. 1(1/2): 56-70. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies.„I-thou‟  „Thou-I‟ relating (Buber) (Schmid) Schmid. 9 .

not invasion 10 .Encounter.

Two Aspects of Relational Depth • „moments‟ of relational depth. • relational depth experienced as a continuing relationship 11 .

„Presentational Level‟ of Self 12 .

„Approach/ Avoidance‟ towards being met at relational depth 13 .

Clues. Lace Curtains and Safety Screens 14 .Disguises.

• We respect his positioning. • But we do not collude with a superficiality norm.How do we show our client that we are willing and able to meet him at relational depth? • We touch him in his experiencing. • We „knock on his door‟ at a deeper level of his experiencing. 15 .

Creating the conditions for meeting the client at „relational depth‟ • High levels of the „therapeutic conditions‟ in mutually enhancing interaction. 16 . • The „stillness‟ and „fearlessness‟ of the therapist.

Two aims in offering the client an engagement at relational depth • „Listening to the expressing rather than the expression‟ • „Meeting the client inside his experiencing‟ 17 .

I can‟t …. I need to go …. • Bill: • Tony: • Bill: 18 .. Silence (Thumping his fist on the floor and screaming) I need to kill myself. …. Silence.. you can‟t.. I must go …. I can‟t. I must go away from me. No one can. I can‟t. I can‟t.„Listening to the Expressing/ Entering the experiencing‟ • • • • • Tony: Bill: Tony: Bill: Tony: I can‟t.. No. Silence.

Can you warm me Bill? Puts his arm round Tony. Tony …. How do people do it? God knows Tony.• • • • • • Tony: Bill: Tony: Bill: Tony: Bill: I don‟t know how to do it. 19 . No way …. no way …. It‟s hard... there‟s no way ….. It‟s hard …..

that‟s what we 20 were in. there was no way to do it .to kill it or for it to go away to „exorcise‟ it might be a good metaphor. Yet all the time you can feel them and be with them feeling. Tony was „being‟ the part of him which had done some bad stuff. . Tony was feeling that part . In war people can do bad stuff that they can‟t live with later.he wanted to get rid of it . But. It was weeks later that I found out the „content‟ of this meeting.Much later Bill comments on this meeting: It‟s an example of how you can be with someone and have conversation without having any idea what it‟s about. of course.

„Relational Depth‟ „Emotional Depth‟ 21 .

Relational depth is about the quality of the relational contact. not the quantity 22 .

Relational Depth in Everyday Life • Doug the teacher • Mhairi the nurse • Lillian the social worker 23 .

The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. A schema of working at relational depth. „Existential Touchstones‟. Working with Dominic. Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self. • • 24 .Contents • • • • • • • PCE Worldwide. Client processes. Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. Configuration Theory.

Client Processes „Existential Process‟ „Psychotic Process‟ (Prouty) „Fragile Process‟ (Warner) „Dissociated Process‟ (Warner) „Ego-Syntonic Process‟ „Existential Disconnection‟ „Transference‟ Restricting Existential Contact 25 .

Ridicule.The Developmental Basis of „EgoSyntonic Process‟ • The person has survived a parenting in which love and acceptance was not reliable. To survive. the person needed to: 1) Withdraw their emotional attachment. Negative experiences would follow when positives might be expected – there was no way to rely on the relationship. hate or abuse would come when love might be expected. 26 • . 2) Find ways to control the relationship 3) Find ways to control themselves in relationship.

among other things.„Sandy‟ The fellow who has a parent who is sometimes nice and sometimes horrible thinks that is the way the world is. in my own case. At the time when I came to the school I think the difficulty was. I wasn‟t able to accept the affection. Now. 27 . who was an exceptionally fine human being and a very affectionate and decent human being. which caused even more anger because everyone likes to accept affection. that I was confronted by Patti [his counselor]. that is how it was.

if by accepting it you only let yourself in for the next downfall. „The man who cared for children‟. that explains my own need to hurt them. London: BBC Television. B. Horizon. In a sense.But if you condition yourself to not accepting affection because. step by step. 28 . and that‟s the process where. you put yourself in a position where you don‟t dare to hope that the affection is for real and you keep testing to find out if it is for real. (1987). you find out whether it is. maybe. whether or not the affection would continue to come… Bettelheim.

29 . The person may become: • • • • • • popular but „unreachable‟. controlling. cruel. alone and lonely. homicidal and suicidal. cold.Ego-Syntonic Process in Adult Life The person‟s self-protective systems become generalised to other relationships (cf Sterne‟s „RIGs‟ – „Representations of Interactions that have become Generalised‟). The seriousness of the resulting pattern can vary hugely.

But they genuinely do not understand why they go wrong.In its mild expression their ego-syntonic process leads the person to be confused and scared in relationships. and be that (within limits). They have done their best. But it always goes wrong. 30 . They have even tried to think about what the other person wants. They know that things go wrong for them and they come to expect things to go wrong.

but they must not make themselves existentially vulnerable. they had done their best.In another expression they attract relations but fail in relationships because. Again. 31 . They provide well on a material level. ultimately. function well enough in more superficial relationships. Usually they are genuinely surprised when the other person leaves them. They need to define the reality and protect against its changing. they have to be so controlling.

Their fear is so profound and the degree of adjustment they have obtained so tenuous that detachment and even destruction (of self or other) are the only existetial „protections‟ they have left. They are so threatened by relationship that their self-protection manifests itself not in confusion or controlling. but in detachment and even violence.In a more serious expression. the person is dangerous to themselves and others. 32 .

We could even talk about how he couldn‟t let me in – Maybe that was it – at times he wasn‟t who he was‟. • „He couldn‟t let me in. • „It‟s not just a “rescuer” thing – it‟s much stronger than that‟. 33 .The „Hook‟ in Ego-Syntonic Process • „But there really was someone there to love – I saw him – I saw him often‟. I couldn‟t let him go because there were times I really saw him. • „It‟s so frustrating – sometimes she was a wonderful person – she was the fullest human being anyone could want…but then it would evaporate in tears and anger‟. For 20 years he couldn‟t let me in.

Client Processes „Existential Process‟ „Psychotic Process‟ (Prouty) „Fragile Process‟ (Warner) „Dissociated Process‟ (Warner) „Ego-Syntonic Process‟ „Existential Disconnection‟ „Transference‟ Restricting Existential Contact 34 .

f.„EXISTENTIAL DISCONNECTION‟ The separation of the person in their everyday life from the existential significance of their life (c. Bill Murray and Scarlett Johansson in „Lost in Translation‟) 35 .

Client Processes „Existential Process‟ „Psychotic Process‟ (Prouty) „Fragile Process‟ (Warner) „Dissociated Process‟ (Warner) „Ego-Syntonic Process‟ „Existential Disconnection‟ „Transference‟ Restricting Existential Contact 36 .

but…‟. like that.‟ 37 . with an old man like you. • „I can‟t believe I‟ve just talked about me.Getting beyond Transference • „A part of me is not sure she should trust you.

Its appearance can be erratic and its voice very small. Often there is a dissonant part that houses a different conception of self.‘Difficult process’ rarely defines the whole of the person. 38 . Often its dominant feeling is sadness.

protective strategies • He finds it impossible to lie.Working with the Client in his Existential Process • He gives you his self as he experiences his self. 39 . • What he gives is not dominated by relational self.

. It‟s a difficult thing even for me to say. Is that meant to put me off? No. it‟s just what I do.I think that‟s why I was glib. do you want to meet the „me‟ that I am to myself? Yes. I want to meet all of you. 40 . I kill my babies.Striving to meet at Relational Depth with the Client in her Existential Process Sandie: Dave: (Pause) Sandie: Dave: Sandie: Dave: Do you really want to know me? Like. (serious eye contact) You „kill your babies‟ …. They are hard words for me to say . I have to „steel‟ myself to say the words.

You sound ….on the outside at least . it‟s the only way …..I‟ve never thought about that before. Isn‟t that funny ….the words are me . Survive. You sound „flat‟ about it ... I think I really can …... I think I can understand that …. That when you feel as you do..I don‟t know what you are „inside‟ about it ….? I need to feel „flat‟ inside about it as well..Sandie: Dave: Sandie: Dave: Sandie: Dave: Sandie: Dave: Sandie: It‟s what I do . Yes …. Yes.I‟ve killed three babies inside me. 41 . you still want to survive? Yes . to …..

I want to kill me. I don‟t know if I can Dave ….. different ….. I don‟t know if I can. I say „tell me Bobby‟ like I usually do ….I could make a good job of it too.really bad things.. But it‟s still maybe not possible. (Long silence) Bobby: All the roads lead there . but this is not „usual‟ stuff .I can see that in your face. Tell me Bobby.. You‟ve tried to make yourself tell me by bringing it up. 42 .. (Pause) Bobby: Dave …. This is really tough for you Bobby .Striving to meet at Relational Depth with the Client in his Existential Process Bobby: Dave: Bobby: Dave: I‟ve been feeling really bad things Dave .this is ….

it‟s nice for me to hear that. you couldn‟t stop me.I‟ve got to this point and I feel a kind of …. I could feel how „all the roads lead there‟. this is tough for me.. What are all the feelings Bobby .how do „all the roads lead here‟? I don‟t know if I want to go into it Dave . I knew you were going to say that.I‟m scared to use my imagination..Dave: Bobby: Dave: Bobby: Dave: Bobby: Dave: I bet you could. I‟m no use to you unless I can stay with you in it.. It would be one thing I could do well. and a retribution for you …. That‟s not true Dave . I can see how that is a conclusion for you …. I want to stay with you in that and I want to pull you away from that. 43 . Anyway. peace. Bobby . I really knew you were going to use that „peace‟ word. Christ Bobby.

(Long silence) 44 . You must face the question that perhaps the only way to make retribution is to execute detail.. (Long silence) Dave: You will have worked it all out? Bobby: In detail. (Long silence) Bobby: It‟s funny to feel so alone. Do you understand how important it is for me to face this? Dave: Yes. I do.It‟s the same as cutting yourself used to be for you. isn‟t it? Bobby: Yes. it has the same sense of „punishment‟ and „control‟ …. yet with someone. Dave .

When a client is met at relational depth and enters his existential process. he takes an „inside‟ view of his Self. 45 . From that perspective he sometimes experiences his Self in terms of different „parts‟ rather than a single „whole‟.

Working with Dominic. The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. • • 46 . Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self. Configuration Theory. Client processes. „Existential Touchstones‟.Contents • • • • • • • PCE Worldwide. A schema of working at relational depth.

„Taking an “Inside” View of me‟ When you are close to me I go „inside‟ myself .and see the different parts of me.I don‟t look alive at all. From the outside I look confused and selfdefeating . but who really loves and protects her. Both of these parts are very alive. I see the scared and angry „little girl‟ and her „big sister‟ who bosses her around. 47 . But „inside‟ me I see the different parts in their own right.

D. & Thorne.„Configurations‟ • Mearns. London: Sage. D. • Chapter 6: „The nature of “configurations” within Self‟. 48 . Counselling. 10(2): 125-130. Chapter 7: „Person-centred therapy with “configurations” of Self‟ in Mearns. B. (2000) Person-Centred Therapy Today: New Frontiers in Theory and Practice. (1999) „Person-centred therapy with configurations of Self‟.

thoughts and preferred behavioural responses symbolised or pre-symbolised by the person as reflective of a dimension of existence within the Self.Definition A „configuration‟ is a hypothetical construct denoting a coherent pattern of feelings. 49 .

50 . or „configuration‟. with its own feelings.Definition of „Configuration‟ (Non-Jargon Version) Sometimes people experience themselves as having different „parts‟ to their Self. Each part. thoughts and ways of behaving which may be quite different from other parts. is well-developed.

it talks with other people . It carries on as though nothing has even makes love with my wife. I watch myself watching myself. I stand in the background and wonder how I can do all that stuff‟. I have a “me” that I use for everyday goes to work . And I watch goes to the store .Sam: A 23 year old Traumatised „Veteran‟ „I walk around watching people and myself. It does all the “normal‟ things that other people do . 51 .

Avoiding „zero-sum‟ responding. Empathic mediation: helping the parts to hear each other. but don‟t invent them. Chapter 7) Staying close to the client‟s symbolisation. 52 . Listen for the parts. Therapist‟s use of her configurational Self. Multi-directional partiality: prizing all the parts.Person-Centred Therapy with Configurations of Self • • • • • • (See Mearns & Thorne: Person-Centred Therapy Today.

Working with Dominic. A schema of working at relational depth.Contents • • • • • • • PCE Worldwide. The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self. „Existential Touchstones‟. Configuration Theory. • • 53 . Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. Client processes.

B. 54 . 1(1&2): 14-27. & Thorne. • Mearns. (2002) Further theoretical propositions in regard to Self Theory within Person-centered therapy. D. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies. D.• Mearns. London: Sage. (2000) „Advancing person-centred theory‟. Chapters 6&9 in Person-Centred Therapy Today: New Frontiers in Theory and Practice.

Proposition 1 Configurations may be established around introjections about self. 55 .

Proposition 2 Configurations may also be established around dissonant selfexperiences. 56 .

Proposition 3 Formative configurations assimilate other consistent elements. 57 .

Proposition 4 Further elements may be accrued by the self-fulfilling nature of configurations. 58 .

59 .Proposition 5 Configurations inter-relate and reconfigure.

• Theory expands the imagination of the therapist.„Configuration Theory‟: Using theory in the person-centred approach • Theory does not predict the behaviour or the experience of the client. 60 .

„General‟ Psychological Theory + „Individual‟ Psychological Theory 61 .

Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. A schema of working at relational depth. Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self. Working with Dominic.Contents • • • • • • • PCE Worldwide. Configuration Theory. • • 62 . „Existential Touchstones‟. Client processes.

(1951) „A theory of personality and behavior‟. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Rogers. pp 481-533 in Client-Centered Therapy. C. 63 .R.

R. Volume 3: Formulations of the Person and the Social Contract. (1959) „A theory of therapy. 64 . pp 184-256 in S. C.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Psychology: A Study of a Science.Rogers. personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the clientcentered framework‟. Koch (ed.

). pp 1-24 in M. C. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 65 .Rogers. Jones (ed. (1963) „The actualizing tendency in relation to “motives” and to consciousness‟.R. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation.

Rogers‟ „California‟ Period A „Unitary‟ Theory 66 .

The „value-added‟ actualising tendency • Feelings valued over thoughts • Non-self-conscious „being‟ valued over „considered action • „Free-expression‟ valued over „censoring‟ • „Radical‟ choices valued over „conservative choices • “Volume-up” expression of feeling valued over „volume-down‟ expression of feeling 67 .

P.O. 68 . W.COULSON. Box 134. Comptche. (1987) Reclaiming Client-Centered Counseling from the Person-Centered Movement. Center for Enterprising Families. USA. Ca 95427.

Reconfiguring Rogers‟ Concept of the Self 69 .

Rogers (1959: 200) Self = Self-Concept 70 .

Mearns & Thorne (2000) Self = Self-Concept + Edge of Awareness Material 71 .

A Dialogical Person-Centred Theory of the Self 72 .

„Growthful‟ Configurations „Not for growth‟ Configurations 73 .

74 .Proposition 6 The actualising tendency is the sole motivational force.

75 .Proposition 7 The promptings of the actualising tendency inspire their own resistance within the social life-space of the person. A working label for this resistance is the term ‘social mediation’.

76 .• I could do more with my life but I am scared to lose what I have. • I need to stop this road – I can see where it points and I don‟t want it – not yet anyway.

• Part of me says „go for it‟ and part of me says „watch it‟ – I need to stay with „watch it‟ for now.• I fought my way out of a relationship previously. and I lost more than I ever imagined. 77 .

So I rolled up my sleeves and made the best of it. • Everything seemed to point in the direction of leaving the job – I needed to be free of it. But my child isn‟t going to make all my decisions. But my family would have lost too much – and that would mean me losing too much.• I look at what other people have got and I want it like a child wants everything. 78 .

The configuring and re-configuring of this homeostasis is the actualising process. 79 .Proposition 8 A psychological „homeostasis‟ develops between the drive of the actualising tendency and the restraint of social mediation.

(Person-Centred Therapy Today: p184) 80 .„In this revision of the theory. the central concept becomes the actualising process which is described by the homeostasis of the imperatives of the actualising tendency and social mediation within different areas of the person‟s social life space and the reconfiguring of that homeostasis to respond to changing circumstances‟.

81 .Proposition 9 „Disorder‟ is caused when the person becomes chronically stuck within his/her own actualising process such that the homeostatic balance cannot reconfigure to respond to changing circumstances.

„A Tyranny of Growth‟ 82 .

After countless years of going against my instinct and fitting into other people‟s wishes I finally broke free. For a time after that I was impossible to live with – I couldn‟t compromise at all. 83 .

84 .It‟s like I couldn‟t go against my view of events and what was right for me in the moment. Having finally got hold of myself I wasn‟t going to let go – I suppose I was scared I would lose myself again.

when I feel „warm‟.I can see that my sense of myself isn‟t working. They say that I look „cold and detached‟. and they are pretty unanimous. Other people are giving back a different view of myself. 85 . It is difficult to know who to trust.

Either they share the same illusion or I have a huge blind spot that I can‟t see past. It is really difficult to go against my sense of myself – I have no sense of being wrong. But these are good people – I need to pause awhile.


• • • • • • • PCE Worldwide; A schema of working at relational depth; Client processes; Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self; Configuration Theory; Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory; The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth; „Existential Touchstones‟; Working with Dominic.

• •


The Developmental Agenda for the Therapist Working at Relational Depth
• expanding our experience of humanity; • expanding the self available in the therapy room
- configurations - „existential touchstones‟

Expanding Our Experience of Humanity
• „Eventually I realised that if I was going to work professionally as a counsellor, I had better find out something about the other half of humanity. So I started to work with men!‟ • „I never actively accepted myself as “homophobic”, but I was. Joining the men‟s group soon blew that away‟.

I got over that edge. That would take me into my tears – and closer to my sense of my own existence. through reading about people‟s experiences of despair. initially.• „When it would come to the edge of meeting the depths of my clients‟ despair I would always pull back.‟ 90 .

2005: 107) 91 .‟ (Mearns & Cooper.• „An experience which helped me to sustain myself [in the work with ‘Rick’] was attending an informal „rap‟ group of veterans….I used that group to stay connected with the kinds of experiencing they spoke about.

„existential touchstones‟ 92 . • expanding the self available in the therapy room .The Developmental Agenda for the Therapist Working at Relational Depth • expanding our experiences of humanity.configurations .

The Therapist‟s use of her configurational self? 93 .

She doesn‟t think you want to know her …. when we are working on my strong Self .k. She doesn‟t trust me. No.. But my „little girl‟ isn‟t so sure about you.that work has been great .. We are o. You mean you knew that I wouldn‟t understand it? Yes …. She is pretty scared you know.Working all together with „Clair‟ Extract 1 Dave 1: I really don‟t understand why you are leaving the job. I‟ve seen it for ages.I wouldn‟t take anything away from it. I knew you wouldn‟t. 94 Clair 1: Dave 2: Clair 2: Dave 3: Clair 3: .

(pause) I guess I didn‟t hear her very well .. I am not sure if I can trust you …. I didn‟t let her come out very often with you. But I want to trust you.I didn‟t realise how bad she felt. She needs to become a big girl now. So I am holding her hand and walking her out. and I am angry. little girl? I am scared …. she has got to come out now. I see now that I didn‟t hear her very well. And perhaps I wasn‟t as open to her as I could have been …. Maybe I thought you wouldn‟t like me if I really showed you her. 95 .. And what are you feeling.Dave 4: Clair 4: Dave 5: Clair 5: Dave 6: Clair 6: Dave 7: (pause) I suppose we haven‟t spent enough time on her. Well. I want to apologise to you for not really listening to you until now..

in here.what is your sense of them? One is watching over everything that is happening. He helps me to be „soft‟ with myself.? 96 .. It feels as though there are four of us working here at least . You mean. He helps you to be soft with yourself …. two of you and two of me? Yes. don‟t you? Yes. But you also sense two parts to me here? Yes.Extract 2 (two sessions later) Clair 1: Dave 1: Clair 2: Dave 2: Clair 3: Dave 3: Clair 4: Dave 4: It is better now. The two parts of you. He has got a softness and vulnerability which is really good for me. but I haven‟t given them names yet . but he is also nervous. you have called your „strong Self‟ and your „little girl‟. The other is not so used to being here but he has been invited. He is pretty competent.

than I look. competent‟ self that was here . like yours do. together. silly! Being „unsure‟ is part of being „soft‟..then my strong self just got together with you and there was no space for „softies‟ .? It is important that we are all here. Never mind. I think you are more experienced at this than me. And it is important that we touch that „softness‟ in you …. Clair. That is what „soft parts‟ are space for „softies‟ in either of us. My parts both have strength . we‟ll help each other along! 97 . Maybe I am more „tentative‟.but they need to „get along‟ together.Clair 5: Dave 5: Clair 6: Dave 6: Clair 7: Dave 7: Clair 8: When it was only your „strong. my „soft‟ part kind of feels okay with this but is a bit unsure.

• expanding the self available in the therapy room .The Developmental Agenda for the Therapist Working at Relational Depth • expanding our experiences of humanity.„existential touchstones‟ 98 .configurations .

Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. • • 99 . The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. „Existential Touchstones‟.Contents • • • • • • • PCE Worldwide. A schema of working at relational depth. Working with Dominic. Client processes. Configuration Theory. Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self.

100 .Definition of „existential touchstones‟ Life events and self-experiences from which we draw considerable personal strength and which help to ground us in relationships as well as making us more open to and comfortable with a diversity of relationships.

That is a really secure part of me that helps me to feel „at ease‟ even in difficult situations.Lesley‟s existential „touchstones‟ • One of my earliest memories is sitting on my grandfather‟s knee. Every time I met him he had a radiant smile and he would plonk me on his knee. What I get from that is huge – it is the experience of completely unconditional love. 101 .

102 . It is amazing how often that sense of a child‟s frustration helps me to get a „flavour‟ of my client‟s distress. I could never please my father. It happened time after time. as I talk about it. I would be proud of myself for something and he wouldn‟t respond or he would nit-pick it and so devalue it. I can feel a child‟s frustration even now.• No matter what I did.

representing nothing but her own selfimportance. In a flamboyant way. the teacher announced. It is surprising how often that strong.• In primary school I was frequently ridiculed for being thin. „Watch that Lesley doesn‟t fall through the cracks in the floorboards!‟ The strength I take from this experience is in feeling my own rage. The most distressing event happened each year when we would be ceremonially measured and weighed in front of the whole PE class. At the time it happened I nearly exploded into tears but I was determined not to give her the satisfaction so all I felt was the pure rage. 103 . clean feeling is a source of strength for me with clients.

• One year. Usually I was around tenth place but in this particular year. with a broad smile and a wave of her arm towards me she said. what the teacher did was to ask me to spell the word „inexplicable‟. I thought that my considerable achievement was going to be honoured. „inexplicable! Yes. I came top of the class. once all the marks were averaged. However. To my enormous pride the teacher invited me to the front of the class. late in my primary schooling. Then. I was top. I was thoroughly confused but I spelled it. accurately I think. that is the best word to describe you coming top of the class!‟ 104 .

This time I didn‟t feel angry, what I felt was an intense humiliation. That is something I have felt fairly often in my life. It is an absolutely dreadful feeling. It is the feeling of being stripped naked in public. And that is precisely the strength I take from it. I have been so severely humiliated so often that I know what it is. I don‟t need to fear it because I know it better than most people. I don‟t need to be afraid of looking silly or getting things wrong – I can take risks with my self-expression because, no matter what happens, I could never be so humiliated as I have been.

• I learned that a very slight girl needed to use her brain rather than her brawn. One example of that was when I was surrounded pretty late at night in a dodgy area of town by a group of men. Running was not an option and fighting certainly wasn‟t! so, I amazed myself by taking the initiative. I broke into talking with them and cracking jokes and making first one and then another and then another laugh. One of them clapped me on the shoulder and said, „You‟re a good sport‟ and I was allowed to walk away. As well as being a selfexperience that makes me feel good about myself, incidents like this help me to feel pretty safe with just about anybody.

• From my time as a nurse I remember one of my patients who died. It had been a medical „mistake‟ – he was given ten times the proper dosage of medication. It didn‟t happen on my shift, thank God, but I still carry a lot of guilt about it because I colluded with the cover-up to protect the doctor. At the time it felt that I couldn‟t do anything else although I was incredibly angry. The feeling was one of total powerlessness. That feeling of powerlessness is an incredibly valuable touchstone for meeting many of my clients.


so I sat with her and she used me to talk about her life. Often the nursing profession runs away from that challenge but I remember a few cases – one was with „Mary‟. I had finished my shift and I knew that Mary would not be there the next time I clocked on. There was no one to spend her death with her. It took two and a half hours and then she died.• Being with someone dying and opening yourself to that helps to develop depth. so I did it. who was eighty-three years of age. 108 . What Mary left me is useful for me with every single client I meet.

Working with the client‟s „configurations‟ of self. Revising Rogers‟ Self-Theory. Configuration Theory. A schema of working at relational depth. 109 • • . Client processes.Contents • • • • • • • PCE Worldwide. „Existential Touchstones‟. The developmental agenda for the therapist working at relational depth. Working with Dominic.

Because you‟ve been drinking? Yeah – I‟ve been drinking. 110 T1 D2 T2 D3 T3 . Do you want to go or do you want to stay? I wouldn‟t mind staying. M.[From Mearns. I would like that too. (2005) Working at Relational Depth in Counselling and Psychotherapy.] Dominic 1: [At the start of session 3] D1 I shouldn‟t have come today. & Cooper. Why I say that is that I want us to have a record of what happens – when you‟re pissed it‟s easy to forget. London: Sage. D. I‟ll go away if you like. But I‟d like us to keep the tape on like we usually do.

here.D4 T4 D5 T5 D6 T6 Fine – I hadn‟t realised it was on.. It‟s like I feel that we‟ve made a really good connection …. That‟s what makes me a bit scared... now. a bit …. I‟m scared in case we have to start again.. „Scared‟? It surprises me too ….today. „scared‟. (Long pause) How do you feel about me …. here (pauses) I feel …. but will that still be there …. now …. I want to tell you that I feel absolutely nothing about the fact that you‟ve been drinking.. Good that I mentioned it then. 111 . I guess it does matter to me that you‟ve been drinking …. Dom... But you asked how I felt about you..

Does he? Do you? Big question – maybe I‟ll need another vodka before I can answer that. but does „drunk me‟?! I don‟t know. Yes – „sober me‟ knows it. Dom. I know you know that Dom. In fact. Like this isn‟t just a „game‟ to you? I think you know that. Neither you nor I deserve that.D7 T7 D8 T8 D9 T9 D10 T10 D11 T11 Like it matters to you? Yes it does Dom. Dom – be here – be here drunk – but don‟t play fucking games with me. SILENCE SILENCE 112 .

where should we start today? We started long ago – this is me – this is who I am. aren‟t you? As ever. I missed that. Yes. Apology accepted . I‟m sorry. Yes – you‟re right – I see – we started at the beginning as usual – but the start was different – because you were different.D12 T12 D13 T13 D14 T14 You‟re really serious about this. 113 .

What are you with just now? 114 . Yes – a „good Catholic upbringing‟ kept telling me how important my name was. „Dominic‟. Like it told you what you should be? Yeah – but it was a fantasy – pure fantasy ……………. pure ……………. fantasy. Their fantasy? Yeah ……………… It was like I didn‟t exist … you know? Like they had some image of you that was so far from who you were that it was like they were talking about someone else.D15 T15 D16 T16 D17 T17 D18 T18 D19 T19 Dominic 2: [Later in session 3] It‟s not easy to live up to a „holy‟ name. Got it in one. You‟re good at this shit! Hope so.

D23 I‟m just so full of crap. T24 You think that you are serious … and sincere. speaking slowly). But you are really. I don‟t know what I‟ m about. „you– don‟t–know–what–you‟re-about…‟ D21 I‟m so full of crap. 115 . only. a fuckin drunk. (looks directly at T) ………. T20 (looks intensely at D and moves towards him..D20 (long pause) …. T23 You don‟t know whether to believe yourself or not. T21 … and …? D22 I don‟t know whether to believe myself or not. I‟m only a drunk … a fuckin drunk. T22 Say more Dom. But. really. That sounds like a lot. D24 I think I‟m serious … sincere.

(looks up at T) Yes… (shivers). I‟m so fuckin full of shit (cries). and lonely… 116 . (tears welling up) A fuckin drunk. A fuckin drunk – that‟s all you are. you are angry… and you are crying. (hits fist on arm of chair in apparent anger… and cries) Dom.D25 T25 D26 T26 D27 T27 D28 T28 D29 T29 D30 T30 Yes. (moves to Dominic and puts his arm round him) (cries more and more) It feels like a lonely place. Cold.

But. it is also „killing‟ you. T31 It still works – it still gives a feeling of warmth. T32 Dom – can you really help me get hold of this – It sounds really strong – like you feel really „alive‟ – that sounds real powerful.D31 The only warmth comes through the bottle – whether it‟s „single malt‟ or cheap vodka – it doesn‟t matter. then. and everything you love. D33 One part of me is really „hooked‟ on it – it is the only „buzz‟ I get and I can‟t get enough of it. there is another part…? D34 The other part is a loving husband and father… T34 Yes…? 117 . T33 And. D32 It does… I can‟t describe it… I‟m alive… but it‟s killing me… and everything I love.

„Do‟? What would you „do‟ Dom? Either give it up… or give it up. I don‟t mean to be „glib‟ – it really does sound like you are serious. I‟ve got to do something. I think I understand… one „part‟ – the one that is really „hooked‟ would give up on your normal life… and the other „part‟ – the one who is a „loving husband and father‟ would give up the booze. Most people don‟t realize how difficult a choice that is. That sounds serious… No. You are carrying a lot… a helluva lot.D35 T35 D36 T36 D37 T37 D38 T38 D39 T39 Who is killing his family. And I can‟t carry it any more. Is it… does it feel like giving up on „living‟ for the „life‟ you have? 118 .

I have an „ordinary life‟ – did you see that film? T43 „Ordinary Lives‟ – yes. If you don‟t feel sure of yourself you can‟t – you can‟t really do things with your life – you‟ve always got to make „safe‟ choices – choices that don‟t really test you – choices that aren‟t really „living‟. T42 SILENCE D43 And so. If you feel „sure of yourself‟ you can go out and do things with your life. I‟ve never felt like other people – I‟ve never felt „sure of myself‟ the way other people do.D40 Yes. T40 SILENCE D41 It feels like „living‟ when you‟re drunk – but it isn‟t really. T41 SILENCE D42 I‟ve been scared of living – all my life I‟ve been scared of living. 119 .

D44 LONG SILENCE T44 Are you stuck? Are you thinking about the film? D45 Yes – their „ordinary lives‟ were blown apart when something terrible happened. They had taken the safe choices for so long that they hadn‟t developed the strength to deal with real life. T45 And you… what about you. 120 . D48 So all I can do is to go into that feeling of being sad – and get drunk. I think I am seeing it better. It desperately wants to do something – but it has been „scared of living‟ for so long – it doesn‟t know what to do. but it also hasn‟t got experience – it doesn‟t know how to do it. T46 SILENCE D47 SILENCE T47 I am feeling sad for it. D46 Part of me tries to break free. That‟s the closest I can get to „living‟.

DOMINIC 3: [session 4] [after spending time going through part of the tape of session 3] D49 It is difficult to listen to that. I can wipe that tape right now. T53 Dom… If you want. Dom? D50 Because I‟m drunk. T49 Why is that. 121 . D52 SILENCE T52 It‟s not you. D53 How can I be like that? How can I be a drunk? How can I have let you tape that. D51 I hate listening to it – it‟s not me. you are drunk. T51 It‟s not you. T50 Yes – yes.

. D58 Yes… yes… I heard him. T54 It is you. D55 …………. Dom? Where should we go with this right now? Where are you with this right now? D57 I‟ve got to meet him. didn‟t you Dom… you really „heard‟ him. T55 Do you recognise him? D56 Sure… he‟s only a bottle of vodka away. really you heard him… 122 . but not a part of me I want.D54 No………………… No………………… It‟s me……………… It is me. T58 You are keeping him out… but. T56 Where should we go with this. T57 You „heard‟ him.

I cry for him. D60 I don‟t know what made me say that – I hate him. Why did I say that „I have to meet him‟? T60 SILENCE {Dominic meets T’s eyes} D61 I have been running way from him for years but what I need to do is to meet him. I hate him. When I‟m sober I believe he is gone forever.D59 I heard ‘me the drunk’. He is part of me. I cry with him. T59 And you feel you have „got to meet him‟. I am him. T61 SILENCE D62 Let‟s play some more of the tape. 123 .

„desperate‟ me. He is „sad‟ me. properly. 124 .DOMINIC 4: [later in session 4] D63 [Dominic begins to cry as he listens to the tape – particularly D34] T63 SILENCE D64 It‟s like I‟m listening to him – to me – to that part of me. but every minute of every day – he is a part of me. and I‟m not drunk – nor am I going to get drunk… today. It‟s like he‟s with me now. He was an evil drunk. T64 This sounds different – like you are „meeting‟ him rather than „dismissing‟ him. „crying‟ me – though I‟m also crying now. But he is a part of me. I‟ve been locked into antagonism to him – antagonism and denial and hate. „lost‟ me. not just when I am drunk. I had to deny he was „really‟ a part of me. for the first time.

I came into therapy to kill that drunk and now I am listening to him and crying for him/crying with him. He really is part of me – a part that I have not been open to – we had to be separated by a bottle of vodka. T65 SILENCE D66 LONG SILENCE T66 Where are you in your silence Dom? D67 I have suddenly become aware that you are here. T67 And how is that for you – that I am here – with you? 125 .D65 It feels strange – like I am excited but also tense – this feels different. It‟s not like I imagined it.

T69 Can ‘drunk me’ also understand ‘sober me’? D70 Wow – that‟s a big question – that‟s too much right now – that panics me.D68 The first feeling was an acute embarrassment – but that quickly passed. Now it feels good that you are here – that you are sharing this with me. T70 In case he can‟t? 126 . I feel so excited but also tense – might this pass? Could I lose it? T68 „It‟? D69 This is the first time that ‘sober me’ has met ‘drunk me’ in a way that he can understand him.

It‟s like I‟ve won a lot at the „tables‟ today and if we go too far I might lose it.D71 Yes. T72 I‟ve been „found out‟ – guilty as charged! D73 Can we come back to your question when I‟ve lived with this for a while? (smiles) T73 Why can‟t I be as wise as that! SESSION ENDS 127 . I thought I might be pushing too far – I knew it was a big step. In fact. „part‟ of me told me not to push… and another part – a kind of „delinquent‟ part said „go for it‟! D72 Hah! So the therapist is crazy too – he has different parts too. T71 Fair enough.

if only we could be present at the meetings of their parts? 128 . with genuine understanding. „part‟ of him was a „drunk‟ and part of him was „sober‟. instead.This session proved to be critical for the therapy. „Sober‟ Dominic had met „drunk Dominic‟ without judgement or denial but. One wonders how many other people might be described as partial drunks. The problem with these configurations is that the „drunk‟ can generally undermine the whole process and take over the definition of the person. In session 5 Dominic described himself as a ‘partial drunk’.

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