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Network Security & cryptography

Network Security & cryptography

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Published by Udhay Prakash
Introduction to Network Security and cryptoscience
Introduction to Network Security and cryptoscience

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Published by: Udhay Prakash on Jan 10, 2013
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01/26/2015

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Network Security and Cryptography Lecture 1

Uday Prakash Pethakamsetty Lecturer, JNTUHCEH uday3prakash@gmail.com

The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable. —The Art of War, Sun Tzu

Prevention is better than Cure.
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Timeline: Art of WAR

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Information Security
• Computer Security generic name for the collection of tools designed to protect data and to thwart hackers. protect data during their transmission.

• Network Security - measures to

• Internet Security -

measures to protect data during their transmission over a collection of interconnected networks.

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Computer
• Objective: security
Resource with

Security
Information system

• Protection to an automated information system.

with

preserving

Integrity Availability Confidentiality

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Levels of Impact
There are 3 levels of impact from a security breach
1. Low 2. Moderate 3. High

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Low Impact
• Security Breach may have a limited adverse effect on

organizational operations, organizational assets, or individuals.
• Ex: loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability might
1. cause a degradation in mission capability to an extent and duration

that the organization is able to perform its primary functions, but the
effectiveness of the functions is noticeably reduced; 2. result in minor damage to organizational assets;

3. result in minor financial loss; or
4. result in minor harm to individuals.
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Moderate Impact
• May have a serious adverse effect on organizational operations,

organizational assets, or individuals.
• Ex: The loss might
1. cause a significant degradation in mission capability to an extent and duration that the organization is able to perform its primary

functions, but the effectiveness of the functions is significantly
reduced; 2. 3. result in significant damage to organizational assets; result in significant financial loss; or

4.

result in significant harm to individuals that does not involve loss of
life or serious, life-threatening injuries.

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High Impact
• May have a severe or catastrophic adverse effect on

organizational operations, organizational assets, or individuals.
• Ex: The loss might
1. cause a severe degradation in or loss of mission capability to an extent and duration that the organization is not able to perform one or more of its primary functions; 2. 3. result in major damage to organizational assets; result in major financial loss; or

4.

result in severe or catastrophic harm to individuals involving loss of
life or serious life threatening injuries.

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Examples of Security Requirements
• Confidentiality • Integrity

– student grades

– patient information – authentication service

• Availability

• Authenticity (Origin Integrity)-admission

Ticket
• Non-Repudiation-stock
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sell order
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HACKING Ex: exploiting Browser Vulnerability

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Computer Security Challenges
1. 2.

Not simple – easy to get it wrong
Must consider potential attacks

3.
4.

Procedures used counter-intuitive
Involve algorithms and secret info

5.
6.

Must decide where to deploy mechanisms
“Unusable security is not secure”
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Standards Organizations
• National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) • Internet Society (ISOC) • International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

• RSA Labs (de facto)
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Security Aspects
• There are THREE aspects of information security: I. II. III. SECURITY ATTACK SECURITY MECHANISM (CONTROL) SECURITY SERVICE

Difference Between Threat, Vulnerability and an Attack – Threat – a potential for violation of security – Vulnerability – a way by which loss can happen

?

– Attack – an assault on system security, a deliberate attempt to evade security
services

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Classify Security Attacks
• PASSIVE ATTACKS - eavesdropping on, or monitoring of, transmissions to:
– – obtain message contents, or monitor traffic flows

ACTIVE ATTACKS – modification of data stream to:
– – – – masquerade of one entity as some other replay previous messages modify messages in transit denial of service

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Passive Attack - Interception

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Passive Attack: Traffic Analysis

Observe traffic pattern

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Active Attack: Interruption

Block delivery of message

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Active Attack: Fabrication

Fabricate message

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Active Attack: Replay

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Active Attack: Modification

Modify message

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Handling Attacks
 Passive

attacks – focus on Prevention

– Easy to stop – Hard to detect

 Active attacks – focus on Detection and Recovery
– Hard to stop – Easy to detect
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Security Services
• X.800: a service provided by a protocol layer of

communicating open systems, which ensures adequate
security of the systems or of data transfers • RFC 2828 : a processing or communication service provided by a system to give a specific kind of protection to system resources

• X.800 defines it in 5 major categories

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Security Service
– enhance security of data processing systems and information transfers of an organization – intended to counter security attacks – using one or more security mechanisms – often replicates functions normally associated with physical documents
• which, for example, have signatures, dates; need protection from disclosure, tampering, or destruction; be notarized or witnessed; be recorded or licensed
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OSI Security Architecture
• ITU-T X.800 “Security Architecture for OSI” • defines a systematic way of defining and providing security requirements • for us it provides a useful, if abstract, overview of concepts we will study

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Security Services (X.800)
• AUTHENTICATION - assurance that the communicating entity is the one claimed


• • • •

ACCESS CONTROL - prevention of the unauthorized use of a resource
DATA CONFIDENTIALITY –protection of data from unauthorized disclosure DATA INTEGRITY - assurance that data received is as sent by an authorized entity NON-REPUDIATION - protection against denial by one of the parties in a communication. AVAILABILITY – resource accessible/usable

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Security Mechanisms (X.800)
• specific security mechanisms:
– encipherment, digital signatures, access controls, data integrity, authentication exchange, traffic padding, routing control,

notarization

• pervasive security mechanisms:
– trusted functionality, security labels, event detection, security audit trails, security recovery
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Security Mechanisms (X.800)
• a.k.a. control • feature designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack • no single mechanism that will support all services required • however one particular element underlies many of the security mechanisms in use:
– cryptographic techniques

• hence our focus on this topic
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Security Mechanisms (X.800)
• specific security mechanisms:
– encipherment, digital signatures, access controls, data integrity, authentication exchange, traffic padding, routing control, notarization

• pervasive security mechanisms:
– trusted functionality, security labels, event
detection, security audit trails, security recovery
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References
• William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security-Principles and Practices”, 4e, PearsonPrintice Hall publications,ISBN 81-7758-774-9. • Behrouz A. Forouzan, Debdeep Mukhopadhyay, “Cryptography and Network Security” 2e, McGrawHill Publications, ISBN 978-0-07-070208-0.

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