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JBC © 1982~2009 Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Transmission Media and Antenna Transmission Media and Antenna
Systems Part ÌÌ Systems Part ÌÌ
Sources:
Com3 Lecture Notes
Fvaliente's Com3 2011 presentation slides
JCardenas' Com+fCom5 2011 presentation slides
Carr, Practical Antenna Handbook, TAB, 1989
Tomasi,
Connor ECSE2100 lecture RP! 200+
http:ffwww.maximic.comfappnotes.cfmfappnote_numberf7+2f
http:ffwww.ece.uvic.caf~whoeferfelec+5+fLecture¾200+.pdf
http:ffwww.sssmag.comfsmith.html
http:ffwww.educatorscorner.comfindex.
http:ffwww.amanogawa.comfindex.html
Excerpts of presentation materiaIs,
not in MIT Lecture Notes
2012 © Jose Cardenas, v 1.0
Excerpts of presentation materiaIs,
not in MIT Lecture Notes
2012 © Jose Cardenas, v 1.0
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
SC MovieLectures
Novies
 !ntro Nale
 !ntro Female
 Reflection coefficient
 Transmission coefficient
 Open and Short Circuits
 !nput !mpedance
 Load !mpedance
 vSWR vmax vmin
 Slotted Line
 Natching
 Antenna
 Summary
These and other online sources
 www.antennatheory.com
 `ECE3300'
 Others..
9/24/2012
2
JBC © 1982~2009 Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Topic 05
Students and presenters should have sample charts, ruler,
compass and colored pens. Presenter: get a giant compass,
a giant ruler
Basics of Smith Charts, more on the chart than history
Plot impedances and admittances
Get reflection coefficients, transmission coefficients, vSWR
Find SWR, { { , resistive load
Find Zi of a shorted or open line of length L
SOLvE FOR LENGHT
Find Zi of a line terminated with ZL
SOLvE FOR LENGHT
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
The Smith chart, named after Phillip Hagar Smith, is a graphical aid to solving
transmissionline impedance problems and to illustrate how RF parameters behave at
given frequencies; still usedl for antenna problems and equipment displays
Two Smith Charts samples are shown below:
 Green: admitance (+ below)
 Red: impedance
 Combined: immittance
The Smith Chart
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Smith Chart Applications
 Smith charts can be used to represent parameters such as impedances,
admittances, transmission coefficients (scattering parameters), noise figure
circles, constant gain contours, Q contours, regions of unconditional
stability, etc.
 !t is the graphical equivalent (geometry) to mathematical calculations
using complex algebra to match ladder networks to T.L. for example.
 Applications to be discussed in this course:
 Find SWR, { {Z , RL
 Find Y
L
 Find Z
i
of a shorted or open line of length l
 Find Z
i
of a line terminated with Z
L
 Find distance to v
max
and v
min
from Z
L
 Solution for quarterwave transformer matching
 Solution for parallel series singlestub matching
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Smith Chart Basics
 The coordinates on the chart are based on the intersection of two sets of
orthogonal circles.
 One set represents the normalized resistive component, r (= RfZ
o
), tangent
to a point on the right side of the outer circle along the center horizontal line
Open circuit
Short circuit
9/24/2012
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
¹j0.7
j1.4
j0
Smith Chart Basics
 The other set is the normalized reactive
component, ± jx (= ± jXfZ
o
), tangent to
the same point but rotated 90 º clockwise
or counter clockwise.
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Smith Chart Basics
 There is a 3
rd
set of circles, not normally visible ~ concentric circles from
the center of the chart showing constant reflection coefficients 8for SWR.
These are added when solving problems. What is visible in the chart are
scale lines indicating values of reflection coefficient, SWR, etc.
The Smith Chart has circumferential scaling in
wavelengths and degrees. The wavelengths scale is
used in distributed component problems and represents
the distance measured along the transmission line
connected between the generator or source and the
load to the point under consideration. The degrees
scale represents the angle of the reflection coefficient at
that point. The complete circle around the edge of the
chart represents ½ .
VSWR
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
PIotting Points on the Smith Chart
 Define Normalized !mpedance
 Reflection Coefficient in terms of z
L
Note: this keeps values wfin range on S.C.
L L L
0 0
L L L
Z R fX
: r fx
Z Z
+
÷ = ÷ +
L 0 0 L
L 0 0 L
1/ 1
1/ 1
Z Z Z :
Z Z Z :
 
÷ ÷
I= =

+ +
\ .
JBC © 198 v A1.05
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JBCardenas © 1982
r ÷ 1
r ÷ 2
¹j0.7
j1.4
z
1
z
2
z
1
÷ 1¹j0.7
z
2
÷ 2j1.4
Example
 Plot the following:
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6
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Smith Chart
 !mpedance divided by line impedance
(50 Ohms)
 Z1 = 100 + j50
 Z2 = 75 j100
 Z3 = j200
 Z+ = 150
 Z5 = infinity (an open circuit)
 Z6 = 0 (a short circuit)
 Z7 = 50
 Z8 = 18+ j900
 Then, normalize and plot. The points
are plotted as follows:
 z1 = 2 + j
 z2 = 1.5 j2
 z3 = j+
 z+ = 3
 z5 = infinity
 z6 = 0
 z7 = 1
 z8 = 3.68 j18S
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
More ExampIes
Consider, for example, the normalized
load impedance 1 + j2. You can locate
the point representing that value on
the Smith chart at the intersection of
the rL = 1 constantresistance circle
and the xL = 2 constantreactance
circle segment; the intersection is point
A in Figure 6. With point A plotted,
you can directly read the resulting
reflection coefficient: G = 0.5 + j0.5, or
G = 0.707f+5º
As another example, the complex impedance
value 1  j1 is located at
point B in Figure 6; at point B, you can
read off the corresponding reflection
coefficient G = 0.2  j0.+, or G =
0.+5f63º.
.
9/24/2012
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
The circle represents any point along the line. To change impedance to admittance
the point is moved through exactly 180 degrees at the same radius. The distance
moved on the line is indicated on the outside of the chart in wavelengths or
degrees. Full circle is , or g for waveguides.
z
1
z
1
÷ 1¹j0.7
y
1
0 degrees
towards generator
towards load
Smith Chart Basics
For example the
point z
1
in the
example
represents a
reIlection
coeIIicient oI  
Z ZZ Z , a line is
drawn with a
ruler Irom z
1
through the
Smith chart
center to y
1
.
z
1
÷ 1¹j0.7
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
ExampIes of Smith Chart Usage
 Example
Given: Z
L
= (120  j60) O, Z
0
= 300 O
and u = l = 0.8ì = 288º as before
Find: Z
in
, I, vSWR
Solution: follow these steps on the chart
L
L L
120 60
1) normalize: 0.40 0.20
300
2) locate point: (to lower leIt oI center)
on 0.40 circle and 0.20 curve
f
: f
r x
÷
= = ÷
= = ÷
9/24/2012
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
ExampIes of Smith Chart Usage
 Solution: (continued)
L
L
L
( 2 )
in in
1
3) 0.45 153
1
(can veriIy on RFL COEFF scale or 0 line)
1 1.45
4) 2.6 (or by SWR scale)
1 0.55
5) rotate 2 2(288 ) 576 (360 216 )
to get 2.52 0.46
f l
:
:
x
JSWR
l
e : f
 

÷
÷
I = = Z÷
+
I =
+ I
= = =
÷ I
I = = +
I = I ¬ = ÷
=
in
(to lower right oI center)
6) Unnormalize: (2.52 0.46)(300 ) (755 138) Z f f = ÷ O = ÷ O
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Given: A transmission line with a Zo oI 50 ohms and length oI 0.3 is terminated with 25
¹j25 ohm load. Find the input impedance.
· Solution outline:
Normalize: z
L
÷ 0.5 ¹ j0.5
Plot Z by locating intersection oI two circles
Draw SWR circle, center and radius at Z
Project down to SWR scale, A ÷ 2.62
Draw line Irom center through point
Read scale intersect, C ÷ 0.088
Towards generator add length 0.3
0.088 ¹ 0.3 ÷ 0.388, or point D
Draw radial line Irom D to center
Intersect with SWR circle,. z
IN
÷ 0.6 j0.66
Actualize impedance: 30 j33
Example
9/24/2012
9
JBC © 1982~2009 Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Topic 06
This is continuation of previous topic with focus on these
problem solving exercises
Previous TL examples, solve them again graphically this time
Solve previous matching problems, graphically this time
Find distance to vmax and vmin from ZL
Solution for quarterwave transformer matching
SOLvE FOR BOTH !NPEDANCES AND LENGHTS
Solution for parallel and series singlestub matching
Solution for 2stubs matching
Solution for broadband matching
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Matching ProbIem
 Single Stub Natching
Given: a uniform Z
0
= 100 O Tline
terminated by a load Z
L
= (150 + j50) O
Find: a) min. dist. d
1
from load to parallel shorted stub
b) min. length d
2
of the shorted stub to match
Solution: first examine the schematic diagram
9/24/2012
10
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
SingIe Stub Matching
 Solution: take the following steps on S.C.
L
L L
2 ( / 4)
in 2 ( / 4)
L
in L
150 50
1) Normalize the load: 1.5 0.50
100
2) Convert to admittance: 1/ 0.60 0.20
1 1
Note: ( / 4)
1 1
1 1 1
1 (0)
going halIway ( /4) around
f f
f f
f
: f
v : f
e e
: l
e e
v
: :
 ì t
 ì t
ì
ì
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+
= = +
= = ÷
+I +I
÷ = ÷ = =
÷I ÷I
÷I
= = = =
+I
the smith chart converts
any impedance to its reciprocal (admittance)!
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
SingIe Stub Matching
 Solution: (continued)
L
1
B B
3) Find the intersection between 0.27
( 1.78) circle and the 1 circle
Note that two intersection points exist, but one
minimizes the length . In terms oI admittance
1.0 0.58
JSWR g
d
v f g f
I =
= =
¬ = + = +
B
1 B A'
(0.647 0.454) 0.193
b
d : : ì ì = ÷ = ÷ =
9/24/2012
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
SingIe Stub Matching
 Solution: (continued)
in B 0
ss
ss
inss C B
4) Find the minimum length oI a shorted stub, that when
inserted in parallel at B, produces a match ( ).
1
(exists at the right extreme)
Desire: 0 0.58
Z Z R
v
:
v v fb f
= =
= = ·
= = ÷ = ÷
C
2 C ss
2
This occurs at the pos. on the S.C.: 0.416
(0.416 0.250) 0.166
5) Adding the shorted stub oI length in parallel at
B completes our path on the S. C. Irom B to C (HOME!).
:
d : :
d
ì
ì ì
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Single stub matching: move along the transmission line to rotate the mismatch to the unity
resistance (conductance) circle and insert the appropriate type and length oI stub in series
(shunt) with the main line to move along this circle to the origin.
Example
· Example: add a stub in parallel with a transmission line
Solution: use an admittance chart because,
at the attachment point, the resulting
admittance is the sum oI the stub's input
susceptance and the main line admittance.
The mismatched point is rotated around the
origin until it reaches the unity
conductance circle.
The characteristic impedance and length oI
the stub is chosen such that its input
susceptance is equal and opposite to the
main line susceptance indicated on the
unity conductance circle.
9/24/2012
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
The example shows two cases: move toward the generator 39 degrees oI line and add a
shortcircuited stub that provides 0.8 siemens normalized inductive susceptance, or move
toward the generator 107 degrees oI line and add an opencircuited stub that provides 0.8
siemens normalized capacitive susceptance.
·
Answer
JBC © 198 v A1.05
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JBCardenas © 1982
9/24/2012
13
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Matching ProbIem
· f+ Natching
Given: a 100 O Tline terminated by a Z
L
= (300 + j200) O
load
Find: a) min. length d
1
to transform Z
L
to a pure resistance
b) impedance of the QWT required for a match
c) vSWR on each section of line
Solution: first examine the schematic diagram
JBC © 198 v A1.05
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JBCardenas © 1982
QWT Matching
 Solution: take the following steps on S.C.
L
B B
B
300 200
1) Normalize load: 3 2
100
2) Rotate CW on the 0.63 ( 4.4) circle to
intersect with the horizontal ( 0) midline where
4.4 0 (4.4)(100 ) 440
1
1
Note:
1 1
f
: f
JSWR
x
: f :
:
+
= = +
I = =
=
= + ¬ = O = O
+ I
+I
= = =
÷I ÷ I
1 B A
4.4 here!
Find length: (0.250 0.224) 0.026
JSWR
d : : ì ì
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
9/24/2012
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JBC © 198 v A1.05
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JBCardenas © 1982
QWT Matching
 Solution: (continued)
B
B'
3) Find ( / 4) Ior a match with 100 line:
( 4) (440 )(100 ) 210
440
then renormalize on the QWT to get 2.09
( / 4) 210
4) Rotate CW on the 0.36 ( 2.09) circle
halIway ( 4)
Z
Z ·/
:
:
:
JSWR
·/
ì
O
= O O = O
O
= = =
O
I = =
C C
0 0
D
around the chart to input oI the QWT
where 0.48 0 and (0.48)(210 ) 100.8
5) Now renormalize on the 100O line to get
1.0 at D (we have arrived at HOME Ior a match!)
: f Z
Z R
: JSWR
= + = O = O
= =
= =
JBC © 198 v A1.05
Telecommunications
JBCardenas © 1982
Other AppIications using SC
Q and Broadband Matching Computer Aids are Available
Antenna Zo vs Freq NEC
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