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# 9/24/2012

1
Transmission Media and Antenna Transmission Media and Antenna
Systems Part ÌÌ Systems Part ÌÌ
Sources:
Com3 Lecture Notes
Fvaliente's Com3 2011 presentation slides
JCardenas' Com+fCom5 2011 presentation slides
Carr, Practical Antenna Handbook, TAB, 1989
Tomasi,
Connor ECSE2100 lecture RP! 200+
http:ffwww.maxim-ic.comfappnotes.cfmfappnote_numberf7+2f
http:ffwww.ece.uvic.caf~whoeferfelec+5+fLecture¾200+.pdf
http:ffwww.sss-mag.comfsmith.html
http:ffwww.educatorscorner.comfindex.
http:ffwww.amanogawa.comfindex.html
Excerpts of presentation materiaIs,
not in MIT Lecture Notes
2012 © Jose Cardenas, v 1.0
Excerpts of presentation materiaIs,
not in MIT Lecture Notes
2012 © Jose Cardenas, v 1.0
Telecommunications
SC Movie-Lectures
Novies
- !ntro Nale
- !ntro Female
- Reflection coefficient
- Transmission coefficient
- Open and Short Circuits
- !nput !mpedance
- vSWR vmax vmin
- Slotted Line
- Natching
- Antenna
- Summary
These and other on-line sources
- www.antenna-theory.com
- `ECE3300'
- Others..
9/24/2012
2
Topic 05
Students and presenters should have sample charts, ruler,
compass and colored pens. Presenter: get a giant compass,
a giant ruler
Basics of Smith Charts, more on the chart than history
Get reflection coefficients, transmission coefficients, vSWR
Find SWR, { { , resistive load
Find Zi of a shorted or open line of length L
SOLvE FOR LENGHT
Find Zi of a line terminated with ZL
SOLvE FOR LENGHT
Telecommunications
The Smith chart, named after Phillip Hagar Smith, is a graphical aid to solving
transmission-line impedance problems and to illustrate how RF parameters behave at
given frequencies; still usedl for antenna problems and equipment displays
Two Smith Charts samples are shown below:
- Red: impedance
- Combined: immittance
The Smith Chart
9/24/2012
3
Telecommunications
Smith Chart Applications
- Smith charts can be used to represent parameters such as impedances,
admittances, transmission coefficients (scattering parameters), noise figure
circles, constant gain contours, Q contours, regions of unconditional
stability, etc.
- !t is the graphical equivalent (geometry) to mathematical calculations
using complex algebra to match ladder networks to T.L. for example.
- Applications to be discussed in this course:
- Find SWR, { {Z , RL
- Find Y
L
- Find Z
i
of a shorted or open line of length l
- Find Z
i
of a line terminated with Z
L
- Find distance to v
max
and v
min
from Z
L
- Solution for quarter-wave transformer matching
- Solution for parallel series single-stub matching
Telecommunications
Smith Chart Basics
- The coordinates on the chart are based on the intersection of two sets of
orthogonal circles.
- One set represents the normalized resistive component, r (= RfZ
o
), tangent
to a point on the right side of the outer circle along the center horizontal line
Open circuit
Short circuit
9/24/2012
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Telecommunications
¹j0.7
-j1.4
j0
Smith Chart Basics
- The other set is the normalized reactive
component, ± jx (= ± jXfZ
o
), tangent to
the same point but rotated 90 º clockwise
or counter clockwise.

Telecommunications
Smith Chart Basics
- There is a 3
rd
set of circles, not normally visible ~ concentric circles from
the center of the chart showing constant reflection coefficients 8for SWR.
These are added when solving problems. What is visible in the chart are
scale lines indicating values of reflection coefficient, SWR, etc.
The Smith Chart has circumferential scaling in
wavelengths and degrees. The wavelengths scale is
used in distributed component problems and represents
the distance measured along the transmission line
connected between the generator or source and the
load to the point under consideration. The degrees
scale represents the angle of the reflection coefficient at
that point. The complete circle around the edge of the
chart represents ½ .
VSWR
9/24/2012
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Telecommunications
PIotting Points on the Smith Chart
- Define Normalized !mpedance
- Reflection Coefficient in terms of z
L
Note: this keeps values wfin range on S.C.
L L L
0 0
L L L
Z R fX
: r fx
Z Z
+
÷ = ÷ +
L 0 0 L
L 0 0 L
1/ 1
1/ 1
Z Z Z :
Z Z Z :
| |
÷ ÷
I= =
|
+ +
\ .
Telecommunications
r ÷ 1
r ÷ 2
¹j0.7
-j1.4
z
1
z
2
z
1
÷ 1¹j0.7
z
2
÷ 2-j1.4
Example
- Plot the following:
9/24/2012
6
Telecommunications
Smith Chart
- !mpedance divided by line impedance
(50 Ohms)
- Z1 = 100 + j50
- Z2 = 75 -j100
- Z3 = j200
- Z+ = 150
- Z5 = infinity (an open circuit)
- Z6 = 0 (a short circuit)
- Z7 = 50
- Z8 = 18+ -j900
- Then, normalize and plot. The points
are plotted as follows:
- z1 = 2 + j
- z2 = 1.5 -j2
- z3 = j+
- z+ = 3
- z5 = infinity
- z6 = 0
- z7 = 1
- z8 = 3.68 -j18S
Telecommunications
More ExampIes
Consider, for example, the normalized
load impedance 1 + j2. You can locate
the point representing that value on
the Smith chart at the intersection of
the rL = 1 constant-resistance circle
and the xL = 2 constant-reactance
circle segment; the intersection is point
A in Figure 6. With point A plotted,
you can directly read the resulting
reflection coefficient: G = 0.5 + j0.5, or
G = 0.707f+5º
As another example, the complex impedance
value 1 - j1 is located at
point B in Figure 6; at point B, you can
coefficient G = 0.2 - j0.+, or G =
0.+5f-63º.
.
9/24/2012
7
Telecommunications
The circle represents any point along the line. To change impedance to admittance
the point is moved through exactly 180 degrees at the same radius. The distance
moved on the line is indicated on the outside of the chart in wavelengths or
degrees. Full circle is , or g for waveguides.
z
1
z
1
÷ 1¹j0.7
y
1
0 degrees
towards generator
Smith Chart Basics
For example the
point z
1
in the
example
represents a
reIlection
coeIIicient oI | |
Z ZZ Z , a line is
drawn with a
ruler Irom z
1
through the
Smith chart
center to y
1
.
z
1
÷ 1¹j0.7
Telecommunications
ExampIes of Smith Chart Usage
- Example
Given: Z
L
= (120 - j60) O, Z
0
= 300 O
and u = |l = 0.8ì = 288º as before
Find: Z
in
, I, vSWR
Solution: follow these steps on the chart
L
L L
120 60
1) normalize: 0.40 0.20
300
2) locate point: (to lower leIt oI center)
on 0.40 circle and 0.20 curve
f
: f
r x
÷
= = ÷
= = ÷
9/24/2012
8
Telecommunications
ExampIes of Smith Chart Usage
- Solution: (continued)
L
L
L
( 2 )
in in
1
3) 0.45 153
1
(can veriIy on RFL COEFF scale or 0 line)
1 1.45
4) 2.6 (or by SWR scale)
1 0.55
5) rotate 2 2(288 ) 576 (360 216 )
to get 2.52 0.46
f l
:
:
x
JSWR
l
e : f
| |
|
÷
÷
I = = Z÷
+
I =
+ I
= = =
÷ I
I = = +
I = I ¬ = ÷

=
in
(to lower right oI center)
6) Un-normalize: (2.52 0.46)(300 ) (755 138) Z f f = ÷ O = ÷ O
Telecommunications
Given: A transmission line with a Zo oI 50 ohms and length oI 0.3 is terminated with 25
¹j25 ohm load. Find the input impedance.
· Solution outline:
Normalize: z
L
÷ 0.5 ¹ j0.5
Plot Z by locating intersection oI two circles
Draw SWR circle, center and radius at Z
Project down to SWR scale, A ÷ 2.62
Draw line Irom center through point
Read scale intersect, C ÷ 0.088
0.088 ¹ 0.3 ÷ 0.388, or point D
Draw radial line Irom D to center
Intersect with SWR circle,. z
IN
÷ 0.6 j0.66
Actualize impedance: 30 j33
Example
9/24/2012
9
Topic 06
This is continuation of previous topic with focus on these
problem solving exercises
Previous TL examples, solve them again graphically this time
Solve previous matching problems, graphically this time
Find distance to vmax and vmin from ZL
Solution for quarter-wave transformer matching
SOLvE FOR BOTH !NPEDANCES AND LENGHTS
Solution for parallel and series single-stub matching
Solution for 2-stubs matching
Telecommunications
Matching ProbIem
- Single Stub Natching
Given: a uniform Z
0
= 100 O T-line
L
= (150 + j50) O
Find: a) min. dist. d
1
from load to parallel shorted stub
b) min. length d
2
of the shorted stub to match
Solution: first examine the schematic diagram
9/24/2012
10
Telecommunications
SingIe Stub Matching
- Solution: take the following steps on S.C.
L
L L
2 ( / 4)
in 2 ( / 4)
L
in L
150 50
1) Normalize the load: 1.5 0.50
100
2) Convert to admittance: 1/ 0.60 0.20
1 1
Note: ( / 4)
1 1
1 1 1
1 (0)
going halIway ( /4) around
f f
f f
f
: f
v : f
e e
: l
e e
v
: :
| ì t
| ì t
ì
ì
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+
= = +
= = ÷
+I +I
÷ = ÷ = =
÷I ÷I
÷I
= = = =
+I
the smith chart converts
any impedance to its reciprocal (admittance)!
Telecommunications
SingIe Stub Matching
- Solution: (continued)
L
1
B B
3) Find the intersection between 0.27
( 1.78) circle and the 1 circle
Note that two intersection points exist, but one
minimizes the length . In terms oI admittance
1.0 0.58
JSWR g
d
v f g f
I =
= =
¬ = + = +
B
1 B A'
(0.647 0.454) 0.193
b
d : : ì ì = ÷ = ÷ =
9/24/2012
11
Telecommunications
SingIe Stub Matching
- Solution: (continued)
in B 0
ss
ss
inss C B
4) Find the minimum length oI a shorted stub, that when
inserted in parallel at B, produces a match ( ).
1
(exists at the right extreme)
Desire: 0 0.58
Z Z R
v
:
v v fb f
= =
= = ·
= = ÷ = ÷
C
2 C ss
2
This occurs at the pos. on the S.C.: 0.416
(0.416 0.250) 0.166
5) Adding the shorted stub oI length in parallel at
B completes our path on the S. C. Irom B to C (HOME!).
:
d : :
d
ì
ì ì
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
Telecommunications
Single stub matching: move along the transmission line to rotate the mismatch to the unity
resistance (conductance) circle and insert the appropriate type and length oI stub in series
(shunt) with the main line to move along this circle to the origin.
Example
· Example: add a stub in parallel with a transmission line
Solution: use an admittance chart because,
at the attachment point, the resulting
admittance is the sum oI the stub's input
susceptance and the main line admittance.
The mismatched point is rotated around the
origin until it reaches the unity
conductance circle.
The characteristic impedance and length oI
the stub is chosen such that its input
susceptance is equal and opposite to the
main line susceptance indicated on the
unity conductance circle.
9/24/2012
12
Telecommunications
The example shows two cases: move toward the generator 39 degrees oI line and add a
short-circuited stub that provides 0.8 siemens normalized inductive susceptance, or move
toward the generator 107 degrees oI line and add an open-circuited stub that provides 0.8
siemens normalized capacitive susceptance.
·
Telecommunications
9/24/2012
13
Telecommunications
Matching ProbIem
· f+ Natching
Given: a 100 O T-line terminated by a Z
L
= (300 + j200) O
Find: a) min. length d
1
to transform Z
L
to a pure resistance
b) impedance of the QWT required for a match
c) vSWR on each section of line
Solution: first examine the schematic diagram
Telecommunications
QWT Matching
- Solution: take the following steps on S.C.
L
B B
B
300 200
100
2) Rotate CW on the 0.63 ( 4.4) circle to
intersect with the horizontal ( 0) midline where
4.4 0 (4.4)(100 ) 440
1
1
Note:
1 1
f
: f
JSWR
x
: f :
:
+
= = +
I = =
=
= + ¬ = O = O
+ I
+I
= = =
÷I ÷ I
1 B A
4.4 here!
Find length: (0.250 0.224) 0.026
JSWR
d : : ì ì
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
9/24/2012
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Telecommunications
QWT Matching
- Solution: (continued)
B
B'
3) Find ( / 4) Ior a match with 100 line:
( 4) (440 )(100 ) 210
440
then re-normalize on the QWT to get 2.09
( / 4) 210
4) Rotate CW on the 0.36 ( 2.09) circle
halIway ( 4)
Z
Z ·/
:
:
:
JSWR
·/
ì
O
= O O = O
O
= = =
O
I = =
C C
0 0
D
around the chart to input oI the QWT
where 0.48 0 and (0.48)(210 ) 100.8
5) Now re-normalize on the 100O line to get
1.0 at D (we have arrived at HOME Ior a match!)
: f Z
Z R
: JSWR
= + = O = O
= =
= =