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iHAUM'S
OUTLINE
SERIES

THEORY and PROBLEMS
of

GROUP
THEORY
by
B.

BAUMSLAG and

B.

CHANDLER

including

600
problems
Complefely Solved
in

Detail

SCHAUM'S OUTLINE

SERIES

McGRAW-HlLL BOOK COMPANY

1 .'^

SCHAVM'S OVTLIISE OF

THEORY

AIVD
OF

PROBLEMS

GROrP THEORY

BY

BENJAMIN BAUMSLAG, Ph.D. BRUCE CHANDLER, Ph.D.
Department of Mathematics

New York

University

SCHAVM'S OUTLIBTE SERIES
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY
New
York,
St. Louis,

San Francisco, Toronto, Sydney

Copyright © 1968 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
prior written permission of the publisher.

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Inc.,

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York, N. Y.

Preface
The study of groups arose early in the nineteenth century in connection with the solution of equations. Originally a group was a set of permutations with the property that the combination of any two permutations again belongs to the set. Subsequently this definition was generalized to the concept of an abstract group, which was defined to be a set, not necessarily of permutations, together with a method of combining its elements that is subject to a few simple laws.
The theory of abstract groups plays an important part in present day mathematics and science. Groups arise in a bewildering number of apparently unconnected subjects. Thus they appear in crystallography and quantum mechanics, in geometry and topology, in analysis and algebra, in physics, chemistry and even in biology.

One of the most important intuitive ideas in mathematics and science is symmetry. Groups can describe symmetry; indeed many of the groups that arose in mathematics and science were encountered in the study of symmetry. This explains to some extent why groups arise so frequently.
in connection with other disciplines, the study of groups is in Currently there is vigorous research in the subject, and it attracts the energies and imagination of a great many mathematicians.
itself exciting.

Although groups arose

designed for a first course in group theory. It is mainly intended for year graduate students. It is complete in itself and can be used for self-study or as a text for a formal course. Moreover, it could with advantage be used as a supplement to courses in group theory and modern algebra. Little prior knowledge is assumed. The reader should know the beginnings of elementary numbet theory, a summary of which appears in Appendix A. An acquaintance with complex numbers is needed for some problems. In short, a knowledge of high school mathematics should be a sufficient prerequisite, and highly motivated and bright high school students will be able to understand much of this book.
is

This book

college

and

first

The aim of this book is to make the study of group theory easier. Each chapter begins with a preview and ends with a summary, so that the reader may see the ideas as a whole. Each main idea appears in a section of its own, is motivated, is explained in great detail, and is made concrete by solved problems.
Chapter 1 presents the rudiments of set theory and the concept of binary operation, which are fundamental to the whole subject. Chapter 2, on groupoids, further explores the concept of binary operation. In most courses on group theory the concept of groupoid is usually treated briefly if at all. We have chosen to treat it more fully for the following reasons: (a) A thorough understanding of binary compositions is thereby obtained, (b) The important ideas of homomorphism, isomorphism and Cayley's theorem occur both in the chapter on groupoids and in the chapters on groups, and the repetition ensures familiarity.
Chapter 3 shows that the concept of group is natural by producing a large number of examples of groups that arise in different fields. Here are discussed groups of real and complex numbers, the symmetric groups, symmetry groups, dihedral groups, the group of Mobius transformations, automorphism groups of groupoids and fields, groups of matrices, and the full linear group. Chapter 4 is concerned with the homomorphism theorems and cyclic groups. The concept of homomorphism is fundamental, and thus the theorems of this chapter are indispensable for further study.

finite groups. The Sylow theorems are proved, the concept of external introduced, and groups up to order 15 are classified. The chapter concludes with the Jordan-Holder theorem and a proof that most alternating groups are simple.

Chapter 5

is

on

direct product

is

finitely

Chapter 6 is on abelian groups. Two important classes of abelian groups are treated: generated and divisible groups. Undergraduates will probably find their needs are met by the material through Section 6.3. Graduate students will certainly want to
continue.

Chapter 7 is on permutational representations and extensions. Chapter 8 is on free groups and presentations. Those who would like to study the theory of groups more deeply will find a guide to the literature at the end of the book.
Chapters 1-4 must be read in order, although, if desired, only the first three sections of Chapter 3 need be read at first (the other sections of Chapter 3 may be studied when they are needed). The order of reading Chapters 5-8 can be varied, although part of Chapter 7 is required for the last sections of Chapter 8.

The reader need not work all the solved problems; he should decide for himself how much practice he needs. Some of the problems are designed to clarify the immediately preceding text, and the reader will find that the solutions may overcome some of his
advisable to attempt the problems before reading their solutions. The numerous supplementary problems, some of which are very difficult, serve as a review of the material of each chapter.
obstacles.

On

the whole, however,

it is

thank Prof. Gilbert Baumslag for giving us access to several chapters of unpublished notes and for many useful suggestions. We thank Sister Weiss for reading two chapters of an early draft, Harold Brown for much helpful advice, Henry Hayden for typographical arrangement and art work, and Louise Baggot for the typing. Finally we express our appreciation to Daniel Schaum and Nicola Monti for their unfailing editorial

We

cooperation.

B.
B.

Baumslag Chandler

June 1968

Isometries of the plane. c. The dihedral groups.2 CARTESIAN PRODUCTS a. Two points determine an isometry.CONTENTS Page Chapter 1 SETS. b. a.4 GROUPS OP ISOMETRIES Isometrics of the line. Basic notions. 64 3. 40 homomorphism. phisms of group. Mx 47 A Chapter look back at Chapter 2 B GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Preview of Chapter 3 3. 29 2. GROUPOIDS a. 19 table. Even and odd permutations. and isoepimorphisms. Vector spaces. Uniqueness of inverses.4 1.1 50 GROUPS Definition. b. Properties of and semigroups. Definition of mapping.5 HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM a. b. Epimorphism.6 SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE a. 2. morphism.5 THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS a. f. 1. Definition of a b. 2.2 2. d. Formal definition of mapping. Automorphisms of groupoids. a. Types of 17 mappings. b. d. A look back at Chapter 3 91 . e. d. 1. 33 of a set into itself. nating groups. COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS The identity of a groupoid. fields. AutomorThe full linear e. Definition. e. b.1 1 1 SETS a.3 SUBGROUPS THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS The symmetric group on X.3 MAPPINGS a. Isometries are products of reflections. Definition. Definition of a groupoid. 77 Defining the group. Partitions and equivalence relations.4 SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT a. 30 Inverses in a groupoid. 83 3. Union and intersection. 3. The division notation. monomorphism. 2 X 2 matrices. Notation for a mapping.2 3. 50 Examples of groups of numbers. Linear transformations. Equivalence relations. c.3 IDENTITIES a. The order in a product. translations and rotations. b. The alter- 3.1 26 26 b. The multiplication 1 A Chapter look back at Chapter 24 2 GROUPOIDS Preview of Chapter 2 2. The order of A„. c. d. Symmetry groups. b.5 COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS BINARY OPERATIONS a. Equality of groupoids. Naming and isomorphisms. d. b. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS 1 Preview of Chapter 1. c. The semigroup of mappings d. c. 54 56 c. 1. 6 c. 11 b. Fields of complex numbers. b.

Infinite direct sums.1 130 130 THE SYLOW THEOREMS a. Factor groups. The center of a p-group. Direct products of groups.2 SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF ABELIAN GROUPS. Transpositions. d. The subgroup isomorphism theorem. b. d. Groups of small order: orders 12 15. e. a. c. Structure of torsion groups. c. The type of a finitely generated abelian group. p-Prufer Divisible subgroups. centralizers. 6. a. n — 5. 188 The torsion Independence 196 6. 143 5. subgroup. e. groups of finitely generated abelian groups. c. Exponents. Decomposition theorem for 211 A look back at Chapter 6 . Groups of small order: orders 8 and 9. b. a. homomorphic property of direct sums and free abelian groups. The simplicity of A„. and rank. 117 Homomorphisms and A Chapter look back at Chapter 4 127 5 FINITE GROUPS 5 Preview of Chapter 5. b. c. b. c. Proofs of the Sylow theorems.4 HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS factor groups: The homomorphism theorem.2 CYCLIC GROUPS a.5 COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS The Jordan-Holder theorem. Correspondence theorem. Cycles and products of cycles. d. b. and 5. c. b. Subgroups of cyclic groups. and alternative definition for. Homomorphisms of cyclic groups. 139 in finite groups. 158 b. a. Cosets form a partition. normalizers. The importance of p-groups The upper central series. 178 The 6. 107 4. Statements of the Sylow theorems.3 COSETS Introduction to the idea of coset. 5. c. b. b. 101 4.CONTENTS Chapter 4 (SOMORPHISM THEOREMS Preview of Chapter 4 4. groups. Priifer groups.3 DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER a. solvable groups.4 SOLVABLE GROUPS a. Preliminary remarks. Commutator subgroups. torsion-free.2 THEORY OF p-GROUPS a. divisible groups. 5. Factor of a factor theorem. FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS Lemmas for finitely generated free abelian groups. Groups of small order: orders p and 2p.1 Page 94 94 FUNDAMENTALS a. Proof of Jordan-Holder theorem. and even and odd permutations. Properties of. More about subgroups. b. c. 4. d.3 a.4 Sub205 DIVISIBLE GROUPS a. b. AND STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS Tentative classifications: torsion. of abelian groups. Definition of solvable groups. a. and mixed. c. Normal subgroups.1 177 PRELIMINARIES Additive notation and finite direct sums. 163 A Chapter look back at Chapter 5 174 S ABELIAN GROUPS Preview of Chapter 6 6. Lagrange's theorem. b. d. Two lemmas used in the proof of the Sylow theorems. b. c. Fundamental theorem d. Fundamentals of cyclic groups.

Definition. Existence of free groups. Marshall Hall's theorem. Definitions. Schreier transversals. The kernel of a coset representation. 7 CAYLEY'S THEOREM a. A theorem of Schur. 7. h. Subg-roups of finite index.3 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS. Proof that t d. a. a homomorphism. d. 218 222 7. Homomorphisms of free groups. 259 260 A Appendix look back at Chapter 8 266 A B NUMBER THEORY . A look at the elements a^^. b. 7.7 EXTENSIONS a. d.5.3 8. An analysis of splitting extensions. d. is independent A Chapter look back at Chapter 7 243 8 FREE 8. c.1 Page 214 214 b. General extension. The splitting extension. 232 b. b.4 THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS Plan of the proof. b.4.CONTENTS Chapter 7 PERMUTATION AL REPRESENTATIONS Preview of Chapter 7. 7..6 APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS a. c. Another proof of Cayley's theorem.8 Direct product. Remarks about the proof of Theorem One consequence of Theorem 7. Length of an element.2 7. d. c. e. 216 217 Degree of a representation. c. Alternative description of a free group. 269 Appendix A GUIDE TO THE Lil LITERATURE INDEX 270 274 SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 278 . b.4 7. Intersection of finitely generated subgroups. Subgroups of finite index. Proof that of the choice of transversal. Frobenius' theorem. a. Faithful representations.5 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM a.1 GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS 245 Preview of Chapter 8 ELEMENTARY NOTIONS a. 8. The proof of the subgroup theorem. Definition of a free group. f. c. 253 Illustrations of presentations. 7. 227 7. Cayley's theorem and examples of groups. b.. b.2 PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS a. 240 t is THE TRANSFER a. 245 8.

.

1. \ | | . denote (i) synonymous with Usually we collection.2} for the set whose elements are 1 and 2 and similarly we write {—1. Thus we write {x x has the property T} for the set of all those elements X which have the property 'P. N (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) by Z of rational numbers by Q of real numbers by R of complex numbers by C. a. In particular. G. t. while the addition of three more numbers is repeated addition of two numbers. Addition essentially involves two numbers. The objects in a set are termed the elements of denote sets by capital Latin letters. 1. of a set will usually be denoted "s is by small Latin letters such as s. or the set of all those elements X such that a. etc. It s is not an element of S. u.. is a real number. —1 € P.. we write {1. The reader will also pick up much useful notation.chapter Sets. for example. The real numbers have an operation called addition. 1. Welding them together gives rise to an explicit definition of a binary operation. 2. by P by (ii) the set of nonnegative integers integers 0. We introduce the important ideas of cartesian product and mapping. a. Here "iP stands for some "understandable" property.. to (T here is the property of illustrate: {a. is a real number} is R. 0. the objects being the numbers. We shall the set of positive integers the set of the set the set the set all 1. 0. 3. .. . we write s ^ S and read this as "s is not an element of S" or "s does not belong to S" or "s is not in S". which is a generalization of the idea of equality. the set of real numbers. For example. B. T. A variation of this notation is useful to describe a set in terms of a property which singles out its elements. For example. Preview of Chapter 1 Mappings and Binary Operations 1 This chapter begins with a few remarks about sets. 1. The main object of this chapter is to define precisely the notion of a binary operation. Thus. A set is a collection of objects.. being a real number. .. for the addition of a single number or is meaningless. } for the set whose elements are —1.. is a real number. 2. . Another important idea is that of equivalence relation. for example. The concept of binary operation is required to define the concept of group. an element of S" or "s belongs to S". the real numbers form a set. is a real number} as the set of all those elements x which have the property that a. The elements s By G S we mean . 2 GP. Because addition involves two numbers it is called a binary operation. SETS Basic notions is Set the set. In dealing with sets it is advantageous to abbreviate the phrase "the set whose elements are" by using braces. 2.) Notice that we read {a.1 a.. 2.

3. and (1. Thus {2.y) with x.1.yi) is defined by \/{x — xi)^ + {y — V\Y. and write S=T. for False. If every element of the set S is also an element of the set T. We will say (a.4} z (v) 5ep ^ {a. h are any two elements of a set. y) + y^ ~ r^}.We write R'^ = {p\ p = {x. a ^ h (iv) {2. S is any set. Checli the truth of the following assertions. 6} (vii) (viii) (ii) (iii) 3e{2. if a. general. we say S is a subset of T and We say that two express this briefly by writing ScT. (a. 6} (iii) {a} C {a. and 2 G an element in S. h) is called the ordered pair formed from a and h. h) If a (a. {a. 6) and b are real numbers and a <b. d) if and only if a = c and b — d.2. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. (a.1: Proposition Set S is equal to set and only SqT and TqS. 3} = {3. circles and discs. h) = (c. b.y G R}. a. 0) denotes the origin. S c S.b] = {x\ x &R and a — x — h). Thus sets. b) is called an ordered pair because the order of a and b matters. 1 We (i) can now introduce some useful notation. since yfi is (ii) (iii) (v) (vi) True False True. [a. Solution: (i) True. .2 SETS.y) and {xi. In (0. y) G R^ and G R^ and (v) The x^ disc with radius r and center at the origin is defined {p\ {x.a) if a¥'b. S belongs to Proof: every element of SqT T and T CS expresses in symbols "every element of belongs to S". (a. z ¥= a and z ¥= h (vi) feP (ix) (\/^)2ep not a rational number. then the dosed interval by [a. then the open interval = {x\ X E. R^ is not the Euclidean plane we normally think of. 0) the point B.R and a <x <h}.2}. PcN and PgN. where the distance between {x. QCQ {3. Rather it can be interpreted as the set of coordinates of the Euclidean plane. 1) the point A. (i) (ii) If {2} is a subset of {2}.y E R}. V^eQ (\/=l)2G2 T and 1.3} = {3.2. 4} QcR RoC {2}. 6) is not the same as {b. y) where x. c} an integer. True. We can use the notion of subset to give a criterion for the equality of 1. ScT T if means ScT if but S^T. In coordinate geometry (0. is defined by (ii) Again if a and 6 are real numbers and a <h. for example. c. (iv) A circle with radius r and center at the origin is defined by by {p\ p p = = {x. is Solution: (i) True False (iv) False (vii) (viii) False. if every element of S belongs T and every element of T belongs to S. 1. 3. b}. b. Problems Are the following statements true? (i) 2 e {2} (iv) a g {a. The only element of {2} (ii) Any element in S is is 2. (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) PcQ Z <zQ (ix) (x) = {3. h] is defined (iii) B This idea enables us to define the Euclidean plane as {p\ p = {x. sets to S and T are equal.3} = (2. b}. a. True (ix) (V^)^ = -1 and -1 since -1 S P. Having defined the Euclidean plane it is easy to define.

xGN | xGN Union and intersection S and T be sets. Conse- (iv) €{2. But V-i ^ R implies R ¥= C. b. so we say SU T is the smallest set containing S and T.U •. b.2. written SnTnUn -.4} are disjoint. . ScSUT and TcSUT. is said to be the smallest set containing the sets S. Therefore the sets are equal. Notice that SnT can be thought of as the largest subset of S which is also a subset of T. All rational numbers are real numbers but B ¥= Q. . and are the only elements of {3.3} and 2S{3. b}. Here the possibility arises that there are no elements of S which belong also to T.. . a is the only element of {a} and quently {a.b & Z.2} and {3. True. a. R and ? = —1 is the defining property for complex numbers. to r. a. I is (ii) N = Q = P = C = Z = False. Two sets are termed disjoint if they have an empty intersection. Hence a. . then a = a + Ot G C. as the only element in A^ which is not in P is zero. .2}U{3. True. Thus {1. is the set of all those elements which belong simultaneously to S. the intersection of sets S. The and read as "S intersection T".4}U{5.} is any set of sets. to C7.6} ={1.T. .T. denoted by = P.2 ss 1}.1] SETS True. Similarly it [S. . True. Let . Indeed it follows from the definition of SuT that any set containing both S and T contains SU T. .Sec. is real | x GQ b ¥= (iv) (y) (vi) and a. .6}. 6}. . Any a rational number but not all rational numbers are positive integers. Now if X G N and a.2 ^ i_ i^ a. Repeating the definition. xeQ = = is (iii) (iv) xGN (v) (vi) a. False. False. the union of S and . True. True. b Q.5. 6} and 6 € {a}.b e Z} and x^^ 1} u + iv. then x ¥= 0. Thus xe.3} and 7= {2. (x) True. Hence the sets are not equal. We shall agree to the convention that there is a set.U. But G Z.T. . x^ G P implies x ¥= 0. For example.. c. . Are (i) the following statements true? Z — {x\ X {x\ {x\ X {x\ {x\ X {a.U. 2 3 (iii) a S {a. and x > 0} and x^ 0} alb. (vi) (vii) (viii) All integers are rational numbers.3. SnT is the set of those elements which belong simultaneously to S and to T. and x ^ 0} but f € N. {1. Similarly SnTnUn is the largest subset of S which is contained in T and in U and in . The property that x ~ u + iv where u. rational number is defined as the set of all numbers of the form a/b where a. . G {a. 3. Clearly. . intersection is S and T are sets. (ix) Q = 3.6} and PU{0} = N.. .T. False..U. where 6 # and a. with no elements. we define SuTU C7U T and U and to be the set whose elements are the elements that belong to at least one of the sets S.} ^ {o. . (iii) True. A f S {x and a. written SUT and read "S union T".3) U {2. Again we shall agree to the convention that the empty set is a subset of every set.v G R and fi = —1} real and x^ S P} real Solution: (i) {x\ (ii) False. To illustrate.6}U the common part or intersection of S and T. Then SnT={2}. G A^ and a. . For if x & P.{x\ and x^ ^ 1}. we may consider ••• SnT . This notion of intersection can be generalized to any number of sets in the same way that the notion of union was generalized from two to any number. positive integer is (v) True. where u. . > 0} has no negative elements. For if a e c R.4}.2. Then the union of S and T. For example. then and x^ ^ 1. 5}. (1. . • • . G P. To be precise. 1. which we denote by 0.2.. is defined as the set whose elements are either in S or in T (or in both S and T).v e. SuTuUU If .5.5. a.3. suppose S= {1. • • . But 6 G {a. 1.

1) left side of equation (1.2} = {3. correct: Check that the following statements are (i) (ii) {1. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. Thus the disc C boundary U without its boundary. 6).fi.-1.e.2. then [a. in other words. 6] .1. either x G (a. The reverse inclusion can be checked similarly. Proposition 1. is the only element in the intersection [a. 6 (iii) G B and a < 6.0} U {0.2.S = {x\ X GT and x^S} and Thus that if r= {1. 7^.1) by virtue of Proposition 1.a.. x-h. /}. a.3} (ii) n {e. then T-S= {3. 6]. The {o. yp.3. h are distinct.-2.4.1) We and c C left side of equation (1 . The equality follows from Proposition x^ + y^^ 1. x^ + y^ < 7^ implies p G disc p = {x. 6 G B.2. {p\ p = (x. ft. h] n {a. So x G r-(r-S).2.2.4} -{1.0} n {0.. the difference between T and S. or a.y) G R^..3.} If = {0} (iv) a < 6. e}. (ii) True. e} = {1. f.he. 1 If S qT we define T — S.4} but 3 three sets « {1. Now for G {6}. b) = {a.1. y) £ R^.4} {a.(a.2.. h) = {a) u {&}. Then clearly but x^T-S.h) U {a} U {6} C [a. Then and The reverse inclusion is obtained similarly.. by T . 6> If a<x <h. . y) e R^. If x. 6] C (a. a . Therefore x and x GS. i. the right side of equation {1.4} U {e.) Let X e [a. For any sets T and S such (1. 3 e {1.2.a or By definition. {g.4} {1..4} -{1. since True. (iii) {.4 SETS.5.. then [a.1) TdS. Check that the following statements are correct: (i) {1.-1.^ {a) or x& {6} respectively.1) T-(T-S) = S by showing that right side of equation {1. b) U {a} U {6}. — {T — S). Therefore [a. .1) this suppose x G S.} If (iv) (v) = Z a<h. the union of the circle I = {p\ P = (x.-2. a. U {a) U {6}.6.2} {a.j. Suppose — S. xGS.1) is contained in the left side of equation {1.g. disc without its boundary.1. a and 1. Check the following statements: (i) {1. a.-\-yi ^ 72}.2.. is the disc of radius 7 itself. Solution (i) False. prove equation (1. a.3..3.3. {e. e. 6 (iv) a and 6 are the only elements of 6 are the only elements of n {a. {a.1). [a. To do xGT xGT xGT ^T GT Problems 1. 6) U {a} U {b}.3. 6].e. x G {a}. y) is any element of the disc./} U {ff.2.2}. g.1) right side of equation (1.4}. (In other words.3. a.h) (iii) {. 6} and G {a) u {6}.R. and in each case a^ x-h. 6] and is the only element in {0}.4} = S3 If o. b}.2} n {1.e} (ii) U {1. any x Hence (v) then x G (a. /} n {g.4} = {1. {a}u{6}.2}. If 1. h} have no elements in common. h} = then where a. Furthermore. h\ .2 + j/2 = 72} U {p p = {x.{a.} = {.1.1 then implies the sets are equal.3.2. So the left side is contained in the X right side and we have proved equation {1.. we have x S (a. 6).2. (iii) True.4} S- {1. then and x^ + y'^ = 7^ implies p G boundary.. x^ + of radius 7 and the disc of radius 7 y^<l^ without Solution: (iv) its boundary.

The (x) result follows. If a. T cS if and only if S = TuS. (xi) e Sn(TnU) implies xGS and xe(TnU). ment of rnS and SnT C TnS. or a. then x e Hence by Proposition 1. x €. TnS C SnT. Sn0 = 0. for a. Thus GS T or a. then SnU cTn U. GS Thus then xGT since ScT. implies xeSuT.G(Snr) and. So x&S Part (ii) implies xGS e. If S. a. ThereFrom a. T. xGSu{TuU). then xGT G U. x G SuU and. G T it follows that a.GSu(rnC/). ScSnS a. Similarly (Snr)n ?7 c Sn(rn t/).S) = S Solution: (i) Let SuTcTuS. G S. Hence a. which in turn implies x^T and a: G t7. If S C r and T c t/. if a. G S and x ^S which is impossible. TuScSuT. G [/. By Sn(rn C7) = (Sn r)n Su(rn [/) = (Sur)n(Su t/) S-S = S . SnS Q S. or x e. Now. Consea. then SuU cTuU. If k G Tn I/. as x^U. (vi) (vii) Sn0 C 0. If a. x G S and x G T. Hence SuTuU Q Su(TuU). GS Su(rnC7) C (Sur)n(Sul7). hence arGSuT. 1. then x & S or xGTnU. S c T and U is any set. Thus SnTcS. and the equality follows. (ix) Let xSSu{TuU). we S and of have S C TuS. ScSuS. Hence Su(ru 17) C or a. . Su0 = S. If S—S contains an element then a.GSu0. (xiii) S-S = from (xii). S S. and consequently x G (Su T) n (Su U). S SnT. Therefore Su0 c S. For. Thus S-{S-S) = S-0 and clearly S - = S. If eS TuU. € by definition.8.GSuf7. G [/. as before. Using and x above.U Sec. Solution: (i) Let a. Sn(7'U (xii) J7) is established in a similar manner. If a.1. a. If x^SuTuU. If xGS x&U. xGSuS implies implies x&S. The reverse inclusion. C Sn0. same manner. S c r if and only if SnT = S. allows us to write (v) TnS QS.(S . then G S or G T x&TorU. ScSu0 By (iv). 1. Thus Hence SuScS or and the equality (viii) By (iv). by the definition of intersection. TuS (ii) the definition of union of sets. In particular. Similarly if xGTuS. a. using Hence follows. The equality follows from Proposition 1. Then quently xeTuU. xG(SnT)nU. Hence S —S must be empty. and conse- then a. Now. If If If res.1. But we know that is a subset of any set and. Prove the following statements: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) S C r and U is any set.1. xGSuU. then. But x&S x&SnS. SLIT contains (i) all elements of also (iv) GSUT xGSnT and S implies QSuT. a. S. T.GS and fore Sn{TnU) c{SnT)nU. quently xGSuTuU. (i) sur=rus SnT=Tr\S S SnS = s Sli(TuV) = (li) (iii) (ix) SuTuU (iv) cSuT SnTQS and S and cTuS c S (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) TnS (v) (vi) (vii) Su0=S Sn0 = SuS = S xGSdT. SuU qTuU. a. If a. then (S-r)ur = S..1] SETS T and U are any three sets. a. it follows that by Proposition 1.7.GSu(ruC7). prove the following: (viii) 5 1.Gf7. x&S or x G T. is is therefore an eleestablished in the (iii) By X the definition of union. in particular. Then a. G (Su T) n (Su U). SuTU [7. then S qU. by (iii).GruJ7. (iii). (Su T) n (Su U) c and X a. a. Consequently £ TuS and SuT = a.

(2. . 2. S2.3.y) of real R^ hy R. 5). (2. . The reverse inclusion SnTcS is true by 1. t') if and or T = 0. But Hence xGT and S C T. (S-T)uT cSuT.4). circles (see Section 1. (si. 1). t).(S-r)ur. £ S„. 5)} {(1. 4).e. Consequently TuScS. and since T qU. ellipses and other figures in the plane. sets Si. 1).2 a. then Si x S2 x ••• x Sn 0. {1.2. Assume S = TuS. By Problem 1. • • • x Sn of the n S2GS2. T- {1. To show Sc(S-T)uT. . First. Thus Sc. (2.. (5.7(iv). i. . we also have x G T. 1). in S belongs to SnT. Sn ) iff Si = Si . S2. (2. 3}. (2. Proposition S = SnT. only if s = s' and t = t'. 1).1a) consists of all pairs {x.3.7(iii) we have SqTuS. . then Therefore S Q SnT. .t). (vi) TcS xGT xG 1. since S-TuS. in elementary analytic lines. s„) with (si G Si.Sn < 00) as the set of all %-tuples (si. then we shall interpret Si X S2 x is denoted by S". The equality follows by Proposition 1. that (iii) S Q T means Hence S C U. For example.5)} If If any one of the each Si sets Si. . S2. If either S = SxT SxT SxT One {n defines similarly the cartesian product Si x .1). . On the other hand if we assume T Q S. then x G TuS implies that x G S. It is worth pointing out that. let S Q T. 2). R x R.3} X {4. Verify the following statements: (ii) (iii) SX r = rXS = SX r # {(1. 5}. is defined to be the set of all ordered pairs of elements (s. (1. (s. As with . 3). (2. . (2. Let (i) S= (1. {1. and -we have {S-T)UTcS. s« .T and we also have {S-T)uT. 2). . • • • x Sn to be 0.T) c S.5).2} = {p\ p^{s. If x G T. these are subsets of R^. tGT} X {1. (3. Either or x € T.2). . then xGTuS and. S2 = S2 . (1. If x ^ T. e S . . Using (i) above.2. then a: £ (S . CARTESIAN PRODUCTS Definition The plane R^ shall also denote (see Section 1. We often are geometry one investigates interested in certain subsets of SxT. . . Therefore SnV x€iTnU x G. x G S.3} = {(1.SETS.3). S2.2).5} = {(1.5).2. It (v). If x G T. . follows from the definition that (S . 1. xGT and so xGSnT.4).4).1. We term the cartesian product of S and T. (2. t) = (s'.U.Sn = Sn• For example.2.1.3. (3.3. this in turn implies (iv) assume SnT = By S. 3)} TXS . MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS and [CHAP. 1 (ii) xGSnU and implies xGS if xGU. . .2} X {2. then As S Q T.. (5. (1. y) with T: X G R and There is y G a natural extension of this notation to any two sets. let xGS. Problems 1. S and SxT For example.1a). S2 x Si .T) U T. s„) = sz . thus R X R is defined as the set of all numbers x and y. We ordered pairs (x. If x G S. (5. then a. sGS. . 5). Q TnU. (1. (2. . Secondly. Problem (v) The equality implies any element a. (1.9. we interpret S x T as 0. Hence T Q S. (1. (1. two elements of are equal iff (if and only if) they are identical.xGS. xGSnT implies x G T. . (1. S„ = = S. just as in R^. the first member of each pair always belonging to S and the second member always belonging to T. . x G T. the cartesian product of two sets.2. Thus TuS = S. . 1).1).3)} In words. But by implies S = TuS. 5). .

then S X 17 would not be empty.2/)GA and {y. Conversely. z) G when is (2/. = = TxS. r # and U ^ 0. 1) S. If T = 0. T. all 2/) B. This is a contradiction. (iS X T) x 17 = = S x (r X t7). A similar argument gives U C T. y) G V. (iv) Let the Put {a) (6) (c) X V=muL2. then (3/.t) e SxT for any s G S. (i) Clearly these are the only ordered pairs {x.8. we have S X T = S X U. y) xG T € (iii) Looking. (x.11. conclude. y) G y. x) S S^. S = 0. (iv) {SXT)XU = SX(TXU) iff at least one of the sets S.0. a. we fz. find (5. y) e S2 means x if Clearly T=U or 2/ 1. then (a. y) in (S X T) X U. Therefore = whenever S .T or U is empty. by the definition of the cartesian product of any set and the empty set. (s.U or S = 0. If either S.1). If S 7^ 0. 3) € (v) An element (x.10. {x. with x - 3/ divisible by 3}.y)&A. then (x.j/)eA and I (y.y) GP2 and x < y) (recall that P is the set of positive integers). But ((1. then (a. that t S S and s e. But (s.z) If C7 e A. Prove: [/ G i22 X i22. is empty. may also assume S ¥and T ¥-. then {y. Prove: If (x. (x. Let and (such elements exist since S ¥' and T ¥. there is at least one element (x. y) oi (S X T) X S has x G S X T and y ^ (1. since « S. x ^ i/}.: Sec. 1. Solution (i) T implies and S = or T = jZ) implies. Prove the following: S X r = r X S ifF either S = T or at least one of the two If (x. x) if ^A {p for every x if S P. let SxT = SxU and S ¥(if S = we have nothing to prove). (d) y?^i22xi22. (x. as SxT ^ SXU. SxT SxT TxS tGT sGS We SxT qS We (ii) (iii) (iv) S S and ?/ S S. then Sxr = and SXI7=0. P) G y. Thus ((1. . G B for every x G P. S X T. T or U is empty. U = follows from S X U = 0. 1). these are the only ordered pairs (i) {x. (s. and we conclude T = U. a) be the points of the plane J?2 on or above axis and let L be the points below the X axis. Sxr^SxC/ iff either T . for x cannot be both an element of S and an element of S X T. To prove the converse. Thus both T # and T = give r = C7. !/) G B and if (y. assume S X T = T X S. z) G B. S= SxT=T2=TxS. Then {s. t) e T x S. Let (a) (6) (c) A = (x. (a. S = T. a) G V. y) with x with e S and y e. Hence SxT^ TxS. t) G S x [/.j/) (x.2] CARTESIAN PRODUCTS S2 7 (iv) (v) ^ r2 (S2 = S X S and (SxTjXS ¥. If T # 0. T ^ and U ¥must be false and so either S. Hence {y. S = 0. 1) and y & S.T. prove that: (a) (6) (ii) (x.SX(TXS) T^ ^ TX T) Solution. But (x. p if = that (x. x) e S^. 1) S T X S and (5. x) (h) (c) (iii) Prove that J/) G I B.) {p p = eA for x G Z2 G Z. and.at (3. then (x.z) & A. Hence T Q U. Conversely. 5) X T) X S. for if U^0. assume {S X T) X U = Sx{TxU). then (^3.x)GA. x) G B? (x. Let (ct) B = Show If (x. Hence x G S. (i) (ii) (iii) T and 1/ be any three sets. G P2.5)€SX{TXS). <) G S X [/ means t G 17. 1. Then {s.1. or T = 0. let tGT. using Proposition 1. a) G y. Notice that VqR^xR^. y) must also be an element of S X (T X U). Therefore the assumption that S ¥. e (S (iv) G S2 but (3.0). then («. If If If (a. It follows. Let S. (ii) As in (i). /3) G y and (. as = TxS.z)GA. X e Sx T and G ?7.0. (i) If A= {p\ p = (x. T. Therefore T and S Q T. U is empty. T.t)SSxT and.z)GA. from the definition of T X S. by virtue of our assumption S ¥= 0. 3) and (ii). y) e S2. (a.

z€i P. If . and hence (a. (ii) If s is similar to If s is similar to t. then t is t is similar to s. (a. This means that if s. (/3. and so X (iv) —z is divisible by 3 and (x. Hence (s. objection to this definition of equivalence relation is that "relation on X" is vaguely We shall therefore define the idea of equivalence relation by means of sets and subsets. x — y = 3q where q is some integer.8 cannot be an element of both and L. Thus X — z = (x — 2/) + (2/ — z) = a 3^ + 3r = 3{q + r) Hence l. y) G f72. Let us consider again the notion of similarity of triangles. Therefore y — x is divisible by 3 and {y. a) then {a. s) G S. x) (x. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. then a. u) G S. (x.a)&m or e L2. iflF ^ G 2/ - z respectively. x) eB and y — X iff x = y. €A for every x implies e P. b. v)&A z. Thus s and u are similar. But x y (iii) (a) (6) For any (x. y - x. (c) (a. 2/) G A means x — y = 3q for some integer q. t is similar to itself. Consequently. It follows that x - z a. x) G A. Now x <y and By definition of set A. t.a) (6) G £2 X J?2 G L2. » . i. xRx One defined. and (y. we have the following . then xRz.8.y G or L.8 SETS. Continuing in this vein. Now 3/) y — x = -(x-y) = -3q = 3{-q). y G L. 1 Solution: (i) (a) (b) {x. Now implies p. (x.y8)Gy. and zero is divisible by 3. u) S S. but (a. since x is not less than x. Hence a) G V. (c) G Z. If (s. y)&B. p) or a G L. Let T be the set of all Let S be the subset of T x r defined by (s. <y. we have {x. t) and (t. then s and t are similar and t and u are similar. if for any pair of elements x. t) e S. (iii) and similar to u. Then (a. triangles. z) e A. p & U since . x) y < z imply (a) (6) X (c) e B. If t is a triangle.x = 0. a) a G i?2_ which means G C/2uL2 = y.y & X either x is related to 2/ by B (written xRy and read "x is related to y by R") or not. and (y. Equivalence relations Similarity of triangles is an example of an equivalence relation.y8)GL2 and by Problem {p. Therefore (a. x ~ (y. by definition of set B. G A means x — y is divisible by 3. t) G S. z) e B. G Z7 (a) (a. (ii) and (iii) above hold also if "similar" is replaced by "congruent". If xRy and yRz. x) & B.lO(ii). if X is any non-empty set and ^ is a "relation on X".8) g V. x X (ii) < since x. but not both.y) G C/2uL2 = V. y G C7. z) G A means y — z — 3r for a. discarding our informal approach. xRy. Gy V U (d) Let a G 17 and y8 G L. then R is termed an equivalence relation in X if: (i) (ii) If (iii) for all x G X. i. Consequently (x. y. . Another example of an equivalence relation is congruence of triangles since (i). /3)Gy y) (/3. and if (y. Similarly if y8. p) e R^ X R^. {x. t) G S iflf s is similar to t. a) («. y) G L2. p e U or a. it is clear that {t.y and and.x) G A. G m or (a. so {t.e. Similarly if (s. X for P. t (i) and u are any triangles. then s is similar to u. the follow^ing three conditions hold: s is similar to s. &B and z) S B imply x . y) (2/. all a. implies either a. = For if {x. some integer r. (a. a) G 1/2 or If (y8. Hence (x. then yRx. 2) S A implies y < z. and implies (a.e. p G L. z) G A.y. since f/nl/ = 0. we have (a. 2/.

1). 1.y) gR}. {2}.5} If not a partition of {1. x) ^A for all x.3).3.Sec. we Note that we have used a notation that fits in with the notation of Section 1. Examine Problem Solution: (i) 1. (1. 5} are An X X X X {1}.1)} (1. or x is related to sometimes write xRy. {4. Thus though (1. {1. (3. 3). (2. (1. {5} is On the other hand {1. and BR = 4R = IR Thus the iJ-classes here are simply {1. symmetric and transitive properties hold.e. know (x.3. or the R-equivalence class of x.2}.12.4).5}.. a decominto disjoint subsets of such that every element of belongs to some subset. then all R is the equivalence relation i. y) & B and reflexive. 4). (ii) A B x is is not an equivalence relation in P.y)GR and {y. (2.2] CARTESIAN PRODUCTS Let 9 Definition: be a non-empty set and let R he a subset of X^.z)GR Problem 1. To illustrate let and R = {(1. 2R = [2]. 3).4. if R is an equivalence relation in X. 3.4} are i2-related to 1. let If (x. {2. so V is an equivalence fi2. (4. as we y. {x.1). i. position of equivalence relation in is intimately connected with a partition of X. We Z= {1. c.3.2).2b where informally introduced an equivalence relation. (4.3.4}.2.2) in the elements of {1.e.4. xR is thus a certain subset of X. In order to explain. (i) {x. A subset of will be called an R-class or R-block if it is the iZ-class or /2-block of some element x G X. consider the equivalence relation R given by (1. 2). as (x. 2) G B. Here additional notation.3. This subset xR is called the R-class of x.3.3.2. B occurs only if (iii) A is an equivalence relation in Z^ as properties hold. 3. y) G R for e R. Then R is called an if the following conditions are equivalence (or an equivalence relation) in X X satisfied. but 2i24 is an incorrect assertion since (2. y) G R we shall say x is iJ-related to y.3}. GX X li2 = {1. y) G R.4) ^R. (3. then {x. (4. 1R4: This suggests a means of getting a partition of a set X.2. we define xR= {y\ y and {x. x) (ii) (iii) If If (x.4}. Partitions and equivalence relations Suppose y by R. 1) g B. IRl. (1. = not an equivalence relation in P.z)€:R. 4}. x) G.4}. Notice that these iZ-classes constitute a partition of {1. {y. (3.) (reflexive property). 2. or the R-block of x. (transitive property). all x E Z a. Ac ^2 and the symmetric and transitive (iv) yc in i22 X i?2 and the reflexive.11 for equivalence relations. If x G X. 4. Examples of partitions of {1. To illustrate these terms.4} and {2}. Now SRA since (3. {2}. {3. then {y.2) Then it is easy to check that R satisfies the three necessary conditions for it to be an equivalence relation. we need some Let R be an equivalence relation in a set X.5} and {1. 4) G R. More generally. we have the following .2.4} (x. G i? (symmetric property). 4). 1R3.

3g. The verification of 1. Let {x.e. (1. if Thus the J?-classes constitute disjoint. (1. x).0. Let E . z) e E. 2) respectively. z) e E. (c) 2E = {2.14. for «) G A. 1 Theorem 1. since (0. z) S E. 0). (d) 3E. is divisible by 3.) Let Z* be the set of nonzero integers and let S == Z X Z*.3}.2). 2-x . (1. (2. z) = (2.3). This completes the proof of Theorem Problems 1. a. 0) or (2. Let in 1. (2. y) G R and (x'. {x. 0AulAu2A = 1. we find {x.y) = {0. and hence by the transitive property applied to {x. it follows from the symmetric property that {y.1. When x = y. then {x'. = -x by 3. is divisible (2.z)eE. for (i) guarantees that diswhile (ii) shows that every element of X i2-classes. (ii) is trivial since (x. page The i2-equivalance classes if (0. y) G E and {y. Thus (x. we have {x.2). 1 Z. When x = y. 0A. y) = (1. (3. z) G R. 0) or (0. 1).e. x) G A. y) G R. (1. z) G R.2. A- Z and (x.1A. for if {l. If = l-Zq. (c) 2E.0}. Prove that A is an equivalence relation Solution: It was shown {3? g in equivalence relation. x lA = {l-3g| gGZ}.13. 2) and {x.s). x) l-x = Zq and hence x = l-Zq. 3g) G If A.0) or (3. that A satisfies the three conditions of an are: is divisible OA = 1 — 1 G zy. 7. by the transitive property.. {t. y) G R and (y. hence for if G (3) 2A = {2-Zq\ q&Z}. it can be shown that (x.0).2A are Consequently the only fi-blocks. i. (1. To show that E is symmetric. (1) (2) Problem l.u)) G S^ with ru = st}. As R is an equivalence. (y. (3.2. tinct /2-classes are a partition of X. z). Since z was any element of x'R. Simz) & E ilarly if (x. 0). x) G R means x G xR. 2).x)eA. Then (ii) xRnx'Rv^^.ll(iii). Suppose xRnx'R ¥. . Suppose x ¥. z) e E and is transitive. lA. The reverse inequality follows by a similar argument.0). y) is any one of the four.15. (2. 1). (b) IE. (d) SE = {3. (2.1)} is an equivalence relation in S= (ii) {0.10 SETS.3}. then xR = X G xR for every x e X. we verify (i). (a) Find the S-equivalence blocks OE. (i) Prove that E = {(0.3g. by the very definition of xR. 3) e E.a.y) = (y. Hence x'R = xR as required. 3).2}. Hence {x. y) where x ¥= y.y. Therefore for any (x. let us examine all pairs (a.1}. Now if z e x'R. (0. ^ (ii) (a) OE = {0. a. There are only four. (6) IE = {1.y)&E implies (y. x = 2-Sq. Observe that OE = 2E and IE = 3E. (Recall that Z is the set of = {p\ p = {(r.1). so is (y. {x. (3. This means.)GA. If (x. x') G R imply. x') G R. Clearly if («. we have proved x'R c xR.2). y) G Z^ with {p\ find the K-equivalence classes.y)eE and (y. 0) or (3. or 2 by 3. 1). p- x-y divisible by 3}. for any integer can be written as 3q. appears in at least one of the Proof: First. {x. 3). (2. 2-x = Zq and so x = 2-Sq. hence (2. (3. all integers. 2).3).x). (x. 1). (0. that z G xR. x') G R. namely (0. means {x.. (2.2). then {y. j/) can be (0. i. Then there is an element y G xR which lies also in x'R. z) £ E.E. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS let [CHAP.x)e. x') and {x'. (1. Solution: (1) The reflexive property holds.2: Let Z be a non-empty set and (i) R be an equivalence relation in X. z) = (0. But (x. Prove that E is an equivalence relation in S. Also.3). x) e E for all xSS. x'R. Then (a. S is also transitive.

1E}.3] MAPPINGS 11 Solution £7 is reflexive.b)Similarly.17.b) or (b. s)) e JB7. s). a) or (b. To prove that the three conditions of an equivalence definition of fi(a.b) is symmetric since (x.y) = (x. lA.13? Solution: S/E = {0E. by the very Secondly. the unique element +1 in the set {1.bi- Finally. But rw = st can be rewritten as ts = wr. Hence SxS is symmetric. the set of all integers.3 MAPPINGS Definition of a. (6. We exhibit an infinite number of equivalences in X as follows: For a finite each pair a. Since m ^ 0. z) GS imply an equivalence relation on S. i2(o. 1.s). we first notice G R^a.b). and to each odd integer the value —1. then there are at most number of distinct subsets of X^. Therefore when X is finite there are at most a finite number of equivalences in X.s)) S S^. (r. in 1. {x. namely X/R. in which case (y. To show E is transitive. (t. a) or ix. ?/) (b.s) and {t. and rw = st.bGX i2(o.x).14? Solution: Z/A = {OA. S.s)) G E. —1} and to each odd element in Z the unique element —1 in {1.w)) G E.-1}.18. {y.j/) .b).)• R(o.z) G R^^. y and z G {y. (x.z) = (b.s). Problems 1. Prove that a set Solution: X is infinite if and only if there are infinitely many equivalences in X. x) and. .w)) G E. Hence ((f w).y) = (a. (v. If {x. Such an assignment is termed a mapping from Z into {1. thus a assigns to each even element in Z.y) = (a. y) G S X S. {v.Sec.Furthermore.b) G B. {t.d}. mapping Assign to each even integer the value 1.b") is an equivalence. z) S S X S and S X S is transitive. Therefore since X is infinite. y) G S and But then (x.b)- relation.z) = = = (6.s)BS implies ({r. Thus S X S is 1.b). for {r. Prove that S X S Solution: is an equivalence relation SXS is reflexive since (x. define 2/) = {p| P = e X^. we can find an each of which gives a distinct set iZ(a.y) can only be (a.b^ for all xGX. which are both elements of fi(a. which contradicts our hypothesis.z) G Rca.s). Conversely. {r.s).b ^(a. notice that (x.) Assume there are an infinite number of equivalences in X. (Hard. {{r.b) = {c. What is Z/A Problem 1.y) = (a. The division notation it We in a set find useful to introduce a notation for the i?-classes of an equivalence relation R X.b) satisfies R^a. 6). then x and y G S G SxS. Then rw = sf and tw = vu. z) = (a. Hence E is transitive. Hence X must be infinite. a). 2A}. The symmetric property of E is established by noticing {{r.x) {a. 1. {y.x). 6).19. Thirdly. r = — and rw = = —tw = —vu = sv.u). (x. y and then (x. b) implies (y. by definition of SX S. If X is finite. Therefore E is an equivalence relation.y) = (b.w)) € E means {r. Let us give the name a to this assignment.-1} or a map . a) or (a. if (x. in S.y) = then {x.b) = infinite number of ^(c. What is S/E in Problem 1. or x G means (x.x) G R(a.To see this. a) implies (x.a)} Now each R(a. we («. m)) S £7 and {{t.b).y) and (y. 6) respectively.z) efi(„ (x. Thus rw — sv and so ((r. (r.w) S S^. and since rs = sr. a ¥= b. assume X is infinite.-1}.b} a.z) — d. let ((r.a) or (a. Now (x.b) or (x. {y.x) means {x.d) if and only if different pairs {x. x) x. In less detailed terms a assigns to each element in Z a unique element in (1. S S X S for all x & S. hence (x. 1..16. where either x = y.

6a = 12. 6 2 has one preimage.-1}. . 4. Let (i) S= {1. 5. (b) P an image of some element of P How many preimages does 1 have in Solution: (1) in (i)-(v)? How (iv)? in (v)? a preimage (under a) of 2. is 5a = 25. 5a. (ii) (a) (6) (c) (iii) (a) (6) (c) P is an image. 3a = 4. More generally. the mapping a is defined by describing its "action" on every element of P has a unique P. 3 is the preimage of is 6. (iv) (a) (6) (c) 2a = 1. There no preimage of of 6 or 27. 2. 5 has no preimage. 2 is not an image.21. T an image of some Let a:S^T be defined by la = 4. namely 1 ment of P not equal to and 7 have no preimages. if S and T are any two non-empty sets. 6a = 7. In fact any ele1 has an infinite number of preimages.g. 6 and 27 have no preimages. 2a = 5. 6a = 1. By Sa we mean {sa j s S S). the element t in T. Suppose that a: S-* T. a S -> T defined by la = 1. 5a = 6. 5a = 1. 2. 4a = 5. We call Sa the range of Problems 1. la = 2. p. 1 has every element of P as a preimage and no other element of P has a preimage. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. Note that each element of element assigned to it. 27 has no preimage. 1. has no preimage.. 1 has no preimage.12 SETS. 1 and 2 are the only elements of P which have is mapped onto 1. in (i). 2a = 4. so not every element of P an image. . sa = t. 2. For the most part we shall denote mappings by lower case Greek letters such as a. 5a = 1. 5. than Not every element of T is an image. (v) (a) (6) (c) 2a = 1. 5a = 10. T = {1.. thus we shall write For the most part we use the first notation. 6a = 1. (ii) Write down a mapping of S into T. Sff or s". re > 1 above.20. Hence 1. 5}. we write a: s^t and read this as "a sends s into t". If a assigns to s in S : If t e r and a. e. -^ 1 all e P. We call S the domain and T the codomain of a. 5. 1. la = 12 = 1. 2a = 4. If a is a mapping from -S into T. 1 is a preimage of 2. 27. for 1 has no preimage. 3}. we shall express this fact more briefly by writing a:S^T.. Solution: (i) (ii) For example. 5. 6a. we call s a preimage of t. 6a = 36. It is convenient to have a number of notations for the image of an element s in S under a mapping a: S^T. Suppose a (i) : P -» P 1 is defined by re a: n-* n^ for a a : all (ii) re re -* w+ for all all (iii) : -> 2re for eP we P re S P (iv) a a : Ji -^ 1 for re all n e for P re (v) : 1 -^ 2. 6. Only 4 is an image of more has preimages 1 and 3. 3a = 5. Is every element of element in S? element in S under a? Is every element of T the image of more than one Give preimages of 1 and 4. a preimage of 2. Not every element 1 is 1 required preimages. 2a = 3. 26a = 27. preimages. y. (c) Is every element many preimages (under a) does 2 have in (v)? (a) (6) (c) 2a = 4. and 4 . this is read "a is a mapping from S into T". Sa = 9. 26 are the The only element of P which has no preimage is 1. For example. 4. Afofe: In (i)-(v) In each case determine: of (a) 2a. 5. 1 from Z into {1. or even a{s) for the image of s under a. a mapping or a map from S into T is an assignment of a unique element of T to each element of S. We call t the image of s (under «) if a s -* i. 5a = 6. 2a = 4. find it We useful to provide further notation and definitions. one element in S.

for example.5. 1/3 = 4.} Sec.20? Solution: (ii) (iii) = Pa — Pa Pa is the set of squares {1. . being confident that if necessary could justify our arguments using the definition of a mapping in terms of a subset. a. In Section 1. We also write t = sa. Here too we feel uneasy about our definition of mapping and so we shall redefine it in terms of sets. definition the elements of S were assigned unique elements of T. we redefined it in terms of a subset of X^. and (vii). ix _^ i +1 cc .2b is valuable. r = {4. Similarly (iv) is not a mapping.e. Suppose a: (i) C is defined by {v) a : a. After all. (iv) (v) i.23. 2} {2. (iii) does not define a mapping. x^ implies (vii) x if = yfi^ P. .}. . t) where t is assigned to s. let /8 S -» T be defined by Then a¥' 13 since 4a ^ 4:/3. 16. b. either 2 or —2 could be taken as 4a. For example. for every element s & S. is called a mapping of S into T if (s. Pa = Pa = {1} {1. since there are three complex cube roots of x — 1. (ii) 2a. 1. Types of mappings We have talked of mappings without defining what is meant by the equality of two mappings. t) G a. ^2) e a occurs only if and for each s GS there exists an element (s. . all the even integers. Formal definition of comparison with Section 1. In other words. but as we felt uneasy about it. ("^"^ x^ logjo (a) (6) Do of these descriptions really define mappings of Is every element in C a preimage of some element of P P into in C? (vi). 4.. U= : easy to see the relationship between the old definition and the new. T — T'. then = x and thus x S P. Let a:S^T be defined by 1« = 4.4. The two conditions of the new definition are satisfied by this subset. and the same "action" on each element of S.^ ix . Suppose a: S ^ T and (S: S' -^ T'. What (i) is Pa in each of the cases in Problem 1.. 4. 213 = 5.1. We will now remedy this. two mappings are equal if and only if they have the same domain. we c. i. and. . 4^8 = 5. In (vi) 1 has no preimage because IX —1. -» a. a word that is used in many different ways. = 1 implies 1 = 1. A A subset a of S X r ti. (vii)? (i). 9. (ii).3.}. (v). 3. let S— {1. (ii). S is called the domain and T the codomain of a.8. (vi) (i) and (6) (vii) define mappings. .2. it depends upon an English word. 3a = 6. 4a = 4. 3j8 = 6. the same codomain. Then we define a = . (v). 2a = 5. so that each x has three different images.3a. t) G a. Solution: (a) and (ii) define mappings since every x G P has a unique image.3] MAPPINGS P -* 13 1.2b we introduced the concept of equivalence relation in X. . we call t the image of s under a and write « s -* t.22.6. 5. sa = sa'. -: logjo x —1. It is In the old Consider the subset of SxT consisting of the pairs (s. {2. mapping The reader may ask whether our definition of mapping is precise. ti) and (s. . (iii) (iv) a: x^ z x^z all where z SC 6 C is is such that z^ z^ such that — = (vi) x. In the sequel we will use the definition of Section 1. + 27 10* I + X-i gives x = 1 + t g P. assignment. i has no preimage: for (v) ix (i) i = implies 27 x = —— € P.6}.8 if and only if S = S'.4}. (v) j In (i). : . If a is a mapping of S into T (written briefly as a: S^T) and (s.2 a: x a: X a: -> ix -^ + 1 (ii) a: X-* 2x a: + 27 where z .

(ii). countable. ^jj. a:P-*C. G. 1 we say a important to distinguish certain types of mappings.22 is onto by the solution already given to these problems. Then we define a mapping f rom <S" into T by simply restricting the domain of a to S'.22. in (ii).x' &V. The mapping a in Problem 1. i.e. details see. : s ^ Sa for all s G S' Problems 1. x = x'. (6) Problems and so w for in (i). {•n)xa = x'a or (iii) a. 1. Which mappings Solution in Problems 1. a is one-to-one. na = ma implies 2n = 2to or n = m. If S is finite and a matches T. If S is infinite this definition no longer makes sense unless one takes from all the sets which match S a single fixed set which we then term \S\. a Hence we need only compare the mappings in each exercise.e. since x. tx — 1 hence (c) _ 1^+1 —1 = 10« = ta. Suppose a: S^T explicit. = x'a implies ix + \~ix' + l or x = x'.22 a matching. na = ma gives n-|-l=m+l or n = m. (c) matchings? Solution: (a) None of the mappings defined in Problems 1. for if na = n'a. Thus suppose a: S^ T.21(ii) is hot onto. distinct elements have distinct images in T (under a matches S with T or « is a bijeetion Finally. and Problem 1.26.P^Z a is be defined by na = -n for all n e P. since 1 has no preimage.20-1. The mapping defined in Problem 1. (6) one-to-one.20(i). the cardinality of S+. then we say S and T have the same number of elements. It is GT = On of -S the other hand we say a is one-to-one if sa a). 1. since there is xa = x'a means 2x'-f27 or x = x'. i.20-1.20 and 1. if for every t there is at least one element s G S for which Sa = t. in (ii). xa - x'a gives logio^ = logio x' = y x'. (Note that in and (iv) are not mappings. None. for example. or countably infinite.20-1.22 are one-to-one: and (iii) define one-to-one mappings: = to. since none of them is onto. MacLane. Clearly Problems 1. (i).20 features a:P-^P. Macmillan. then n^ = nfi only one positive square root of an element in P. then —n = —n' and hence n = n'. + 27 = means and tx+J. We denote the number of elements in a set S by |S|.25. Let a-. this mapping is denoted by a^g. in this case we call a an onto mapping.24. tFor more 1953. Which of the mappings defined in Problems 1. in (vii). : S -> T. Two sets are termed equipotent or of the same cardinality if there exists a matching of the one with the other. . (read a restricted to S') and is called the restriction of a to S'.22 are (a) onto. 1. and suppose S' c <S.22 are equal? Problem 1. Problem 1. xa = x'a implies 2a. A Survey of Modern Algebra.: : 14 SETS.21(ii) for in is not one-to-one since la = 3a. BirkhoflT and S. Is a onto? One-to-one? A matching? Solution neither onto nor a matching. All the mappings defined in Problem 1. since 1 has no preimage. = 2ix' = x'. a is we say a is a matching of S and T or that both onto and one-to-one.' a. To be quite We require one further definition. = s'a implies s s'. a.) is None of the mappings defined Problems 1. : 'IS' S'-^T is defined by a^.20(iv) and (v) do not define one-to-one mappings. Important results are that the set of rational numbers is enumerable if and the set of real numbers is not+.21. xa and. and in (iii). A set which matches P is called enumerable. if na = ma. Then is a mapping from S onto T (notice that into has now been replaced by onto) if every element in T has at least one preimage in S. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP.2 = x'"^ m 2ix [v).

a2 = 1 and 2a2 = 1. is — 0. since la = 2 and —la (iii) = 2. (3a)y8. b a = a' and has a preimage {a. defined by la2 To find the number of mappings of {1. For example. integer can be expressed in precisely one of the following forms: 3. 1. 1 -> 1 or 1 -> 2 or 1 -> 3. 4 -> 4. not a bijection.27. As 1 3 has no preimage. a^ defined by las — 2 and 2a3 = 1. . 6}.Sec.3] MAPPINGS 15 1. . + 'i92™ + ^29i«i + = *'i»'2 (9i92™ + »-i92 + ^'agO'w + ^^2 Now 1. . for when we once choose an image for 1 there are only two possible images for 2.3} into itself? In each case.b].. : . (la)y = 3y = 4. There are four mappings of {1. has no preimage. 4. i.. 1. (2a)y = 3y = 4. one-to-one. + r where . 1.3} into itself.b] = [a'. since ^ —x-r 71 = 1 implies n. . Therefore a is not onto and hence n'. 5}. either 1. U = {4. .2. .2. Let S [a. na — n'a means - — = or 2n'n +n = 2n'n + hence n = n'. But this therefore one-to-one. a neither onto nor a bijection.b} a = {a'. {0.. 2} into itself. 6 e i?. a^ defined by la4 = 2 and 2a4 = 2.. = (qim + n){q2Vi + rg) = + rg. be the set of open intervals Define by {a. 4k. (3a). (a) (6) a If onto m — 1}. Every integer n can be written uniquely in the form . 1. a:S^T /8 : be defined by a : 3 -^ 4. and —la = la = 1.8 = 5. (2a)y. 1.2} into itself? From how many of these mappings are one-to-one? Onto? Solution: {1. . because is not a bisection. y : 1 -^ 3.S^T is = [a. for any o. Solution: (a) (h) a is onto because =: 0. b) on the real line and Is a one-to-one? let T be the set of closed intervals a. tn —1 = respectively.m — 1} be defined by na = r. (3a)y.28. if an element of the set {0. 2. 7n Let Ml «iW2 QiWi + ri and n2 — 1 have preimages = 92™ + '"2' Then 9192™^ 0. (3a)y = 5y = 4. 3 -* 4.m— 1}.b]. namely: aj defined by laj = 1 and 2q!i = 2.31.e. . 1. letting r^rj = qstn we obtain (wiW2)« = ''s (»'i''2)'>' — (wia'K2«)«- Check which of the following mappings are onto.b']. m — 1}. P. Let a Z -» {0. (2a). There are 3X2X1 = 6 possible one-to-one and onto mappings. Prove: . 2 or 3.30.b') a then [a.8 = 3/3 = 4. T = {3. (2a)j8. .b) a (a.. 5 -» 4. Only a^ and ag are one-to-one and onto. giving 3 X 3 X 3 = 27 possible mappings of {1. 1. 5. integers.8 = 4. if n = qm. 2 -^ 3. then TOj. . 3} into itself.29. b] iff one-to-one and onto. (i) bijections: a: C -^ R defined by a: a defined by a: (ii) a. and let Let p and y be the mappings from T into U given by 1. 1. . and then the image of 3 is uniquely determined. if {a. . 4k + . we proceed as follows: 1 may have any of three images under such a mapping. 4 -> 6. a is For. . Also. Let S = {1. So we have in all 3 X 3 possibilities for the actions of mappings on 1 and 2. a is also onto since a closed interval 1. = —1 € . ^ Compute Solution: (la)y8 (la)/3. 3 5. ^2 ^re any two (n-^n^a — (n-^an2a)a. is a fixed positive integer. How many mappings are there from {1. 2.. + 2. .Z-^P a: + ib-^a^+b^ n -^ n^ + 1 (iii) P^Q is defined by a: n-^ ——r a^+ b^ Solution : (i) a Hence a (ii) neither onto nor one-to-one. is r where the remainder r every m = 4. . = 3y8 = 4. rr ^ 2n' + 1 2n + l Thus each image has a unique preimage and a is one-to-one. Suppose n — qm m + 1. r e {0. Onto? Solution: The mapping equality holds [a. 5 -* 4. 4k then + is 4k . 2 or 3. Then 3 can be sent into 1. . b). = b'. 2 may have any of 3 images. (la)y. Also a is not one-to-one. 3}.

If S matches If T. Now each of the n elements can be mapped onto at most n images. 2.33. so that sa = s'a and s onto.37. if s G S. By definition of a. S = 5 -* 9. 9. a is one-to-one. 5 is a mapping. s e S} is an infinite set since as = «s' if and only if s = s'. prove that T matches S. on the contrary. 9 into itself given by a : 1 {1. But a and /3 are one-to-one. 6. let S be infinite. since a is a mapping. p : x ^ x + 1. which in turn implies.16 SETS. mapping Z into Q. ta = s. 8. 6 -^ 10. s. using this notation.34.) Solution: Let a:S-*T and p-.S. Let if a. In the first place. Define a: of t T -^S as follows.T^U be matchings. so that sa = s'a implies s = s'. 3 -* 5. Then there is a useful alternative ^ 3. e 1. 7. Thus sa = {sa)P =^ tp = u. 5.36. 10 -^ 5.l)a)p = of —^ (3 = —^ + _ 1 i _i_ o = ^ = ^~ _i_ • «|P is '^ ^ mapping of P into Q. ^ following a: we list the elements of S on one line (in any order) and on the each element of S its image under a.32. a: S -^ S by for each s S S. Thirdly. sa = t and s'a = t. a is also sa = s'a implies (sa)p = is'a)p. Thus the image of an element under a is unique. for — s'. then ((xy)a)li = x + 1 = —— What is a^p ? a^^. The image under a defined to be for some is a matching. then by definition of a. . Solution: First we show that if there are infinitely many mappings of S into S. 1. Then a:S^U. For if ta = s and ts = s'. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS into [CHAP. way of describing line we place under 123466789 34579 10 1345 10 Describe the following mappings of S into S. which implies u^ = 1*2 since sa has a unique image under p.S -^ S by a^: x -^ s for all x £ S. "ip i ^ "iz ^ Solution: ({xy)a)li = • {(x . (Hard. We define. Secondly. is a matching. prove that S is infinite if and only if there are infinitely many mappings into S. 4. a is clearly one-to-one and onto. But a is one-to-one. a. t = t'. 8 -> 3. We now t show a T. {qis Therefore we have found an infinite number of mappings of S into S. ' -^^ Prove that X is any element of Q. because ta = t'a = s implies Sa = t and sa = t'. and if sa = u^ and sa = M2 then {sa)P — u^ and {sa)p = M2. Let G T. and we assumed S to be infinite.35. This contradicts our assumption that there is an infinite number of such mappings. If of S S is a non-empty set. Let a be the mapping of 4 -^ 7.^ is a a^^. Now t has a preimage s e S under a. Then there an sG S such that sa = t. for sa S U. for if M e C7 then there is a t 6 T such that tp = u. Solution: S matches is T. p. the mapping a^'. I 1. verify that S matches a: s -* s S. 1. 3. Solution: Hence a Define the mapping is a matching. Hence S is infinite. 5 is one-to-one. If S matches T and if T matches U. for each se. y be the mappings of Q Q defined by a: x^-^ . prove that S matches U. defined by sa = (sa)p. 2 ^ 4. that S is finite and \S\ = n. a is a mapping of S into U. 1 1. 7 -» 1. enclosing the entire description in parentheses as follows. Hence there are at most m" different mappings of S into S. then S is infinite. then there is a mapping a: S t ^T which is is one-to-one and onto. If S is any non-empty set. then sa = t for some t G T. a^p ¥= a^^ since the domain of a^p not the same as the domain of 1. 10} 4. . Conversely. y:x^x-l. Assume. Hence every element of S has a preimage under a and a is onto.

p T : -* U be defined by a: 1^3. not onto. 2. /3:3^6. 5 -» 2. (iv) /? is one-to-one. 2-* 5. for all s in S \& (Some authors use exactly the opposite order. 4 -» 2. e. p: a^ ^a-2. Let a:Q-*Q be defined by a: a^a^ + 2 and let P Q -^ Q be defined by pute a° p. e. p-. S = and let {1. Now n{{a ° p) ° a) — (n{a ° p))a = n^a = = (na){p ° a) = {(in + V)P)a = n^a — in^ + 1. Hence a° p ¥= p°a. . 2 has no preimage. Sec. 9 -^ 4. we can compute {sa)p. Com- . It is only necessary to check whether all the integers 1. . ° a)) 1. Because Sa £ T. . a°{p° a).T^lJ. /3°a.4] COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS 1 -» 2.7} a:S^T. U = {6.g. 7 -> 4. 1. Hence {a° p)°a = a° {jS ° a). (la)/3 (2a). to decide Use these descriptions Solution 1 (i) whether (iii) p = y. What Let do aOyS. hence we Let i2 a: P-* C be defined by na = in + 1 and let = — 1.g. i. p°a: C -* C.39. 3 ^ 2. Problems 1.: : .7^1. 2 17 (i) /3 : ^ 2.38.e. 5^10.2} ^ {6.5}. 10 appear in the bottom row. a"! where Why is p ¥= Solution n&P. the composition of a with p (in this order) as a mapping of S into JJ defined by s{a °P) = {sa)p.4. 2^6 is This notion of the composition of two mappings give the following drill problems. (iv) /3 not one-to-one. 6 -^ 3. "composing the mappings a and ^". Are these mappings equal? Compute {a° p)°a. 10^1. 2 2 2 7 3 2 3 8 4 2 4 9 5 6 7 8 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 10 5 2 1 (ii) 2 5 3 6 1 4 7 1 10 1 6. so that their a°p let our p o a.7} is defined by aop: l-»6. 9^1. (a°/3) °a. . and Then n(a (/3 in^ + 1 a° p: P -^P n{a ° while ° fi) = {na)p — {in + l)/8 = n^. 3^8.4 COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS Definition This suggests Let a: S-^T. T - {3.8 5^6 Then l(aoj8) = = = = 3/3 5/3 = 6 6 2(ao/3) = Hence ao/3: {1.2}. only necessary to find a repetition on the bottom row. and Q:°(/3°a) p C -* P map n G P : be defined by to? p: a a ° + ib 13 <> ^b^. only necessary to compare the bottom rows. = = It is (v) y is 1. 8 ^ 4. 4-^9.) For example. 2-^7. (v) y is onto. 4-»7. 10 -» 5 (li) y:1-*6. defining a mapping of S into U by performing a and p in succession on each of the elements in S.6-*1. More precisely we define a op. of tremendous importance. 6 (iii) j8 10 1/3 7^ is Y since = 2 and ly 1/8 = 2(3 It is 2. 8->l.

) S and every pair of map- a° p First assume that for every set S and every pair of mappings a: S ^ T and a' S -^ T. la°/8 (la)y8 = tp = tp = But a ¥= a'. p : T^ U and a°. Note then that {a° li)°a = a o (/3 ° a).8 is one-to-one. Employing the notation of Problem ^.e. it follows that p = p'. one-to-one but p Define not one-to-one. s(a! o /3) = u.2}. e. = a' ° p implies a = a'. Sjo: = 820: implies Sj {sia)p = {S2a)p S2a ° . one-to-one. Is /3 one-to-one? Let «!« ° y8 Si.42. sa — sa'. Then we can find U. and. and t^ is an element of T which has no .24135/ ! r! VS ! 2 ! 5 ! 4 f^ 1/ (lll'l^ 4 l/ ^2 3 5 /3) /I (iv) '"'' V2 2 5 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 1 1. = Prove that (a ° ° y = a° (/3 o y). Say we can find a set S and a pair of mappings a and a' of S into T such that a° p — a ° p and a ¥= a'.37.2 = la2 . a: S->T Prove that p pings a: Solution T -* U S ^ T and ¥= </)) S -> T. Let aGQ. S= 1 {1}. p is not necessarily and by la = 1. Define a: S-*T by la = 1.2)a = + 2. we can find a preimage of u under a° /3. (Hard.) e S. of 1. Solution If s y. and 2a' ° p = (2a')P = Hence the assumption that p is not one-to-one is false and p must be one-to-one. Prove that Solution if a: S -^ T and p T ^ U and : a = /3 is onto. so that = 82- Hence a is is one-to-one.8. [7 = {1}. p-. So there exists s & S such that sa ¥= sa'. = one-to-one..3) = (sa)y8 = tt and so: is a preimage of u under p.l)a (lo2-l)2 + 2 and a{a°{li°a)) = (aa)(/3°a) = (a^ + Z)l3°a = ((a2 + 2)/3)a = ((|(a2 + 2) . and 13: T ^ U by 1/8 = 2.45. a° p = a' ° p means that s{a ° P) = s(«' ° p). {1.1)2 + 2. 112345/125341 (Hi) '"*' 3 4 4 5 Solution (i) ('i I) .44.a°p'.40. let p be one-to-one. 1. Let S = {1. 2aop = (2a)y8 = t'p = u. Therefore we have a contradiction and a must be equal to a'. e. (T ¥=0) is onto iff for every set U and every pair of mappings Prove that a: S and p': T ->U such that a°p .^ ' ' /I 2 2 3 2 3 1 4 5 4 3 5\ /I 2 2 2 3 4 5 5\ /I 2 4 2 3 5 4 3 5\ /I 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 5 5 4/ 5\ Vl 4 3 3/ 5\ ^2 /I 1/ 5\ ^1 / 1 . Is a onto? (Hard. i. : T ^ V by : 1/3 = and {T a' : = is 1. 1 Solution: a{a ° p) = (aa)/3 = {a^ + 2)/3 = A(a2 + 2) . since : GT = u. compute the following: . a° p one-to-one if and only if for every set — a' ° p implies a = a'. and let a' S -^ T be defined by la' = t' and 2a' = t.(^a^ . 2/3 T = P 1.T-^U. a need not be onto. (Hard. S2 G S and But a° p let s^a is = S2a. (Hard. then /3 is onto.43. « o /? is onto but a is not. la' o p = (la')p = t' p = u. Clearly a° 13^13° a.^ /I 2 3 14 ! ? 5/123451/ (ii) '""' /I 4 . let a: S-*T be defined by la = t t. Thus s(a! ° .41. a(/3 ° a) = (a^)a = (|a .. T = {1.8 = 1. . As a ° j8 is onto. it follows that p = p'.g.) Solution: ^T p : T -> U Let us assume that for every set U and every pair of mappings p and p' of T into U such that a° p = a° p'. To prove the converse. Consequently y = a o (/3 ° y)..(a(a° p))a . As p is one-to-one. Under this hypothesis suppose p is not one-to-one.) Solution if a: S^ T. Let a: S-* T. Prove that (Hard. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. 1. Now a° p — a' ° p.. uG : u. 1.2)a = (i(i2 . then (a o j8) s{{a°p)°y) o (s{a° j3))y = ((sa)/3)y and s(ao(/3°y)) = (sa)(/3oy) = ((sa)/?)y.) Let u & U. a([a°p)°a) . Furthermore.U^V.g. Hence /3 is onto.: : 18 SETS. let S = {!}. Let s & S be a preimage M under a° fS.1.. Say a is not onto. 2}.. then a is one-to-one. Hence {sa)p = {sa')p. by definition of a ° y8. (Aa - 2)2 1.t' such that tp = t'p = (« ^ t') and 2a = t'. 2} a o y8 is and U= {1}.

s + t and s x Ms simply the image of (s. For every pair of integers (m. Which of the following are binary operations (i) in P (throughout (v) e P^) ? a a : (i. j) + j. since sa # ij. Furthermore. j) e P.47. assume a is onto and we can find a set U and two mappings. make the various notations clear. 1. The following problems will help to plicative. We sometimes refer to s-t or st as the product of s and t. (i. e P X P. (ii) : {i. st. where S is any non-empty set. a is clearly a mapping from P X P into P. j) (ii) : -* i +i —j (iii) a a : : {i. Incidentally. (iv) and (v) define mappings from P X P into P. so there is danger of However. we will work with binary operations and the various notations so frequently that the reader will become familiar with the pitfalls. by the usual operation of addition in Z. We therefore conclude P = P'. Problems 1. a: (1. j) -* i (i. sa°p = (sa)p = 1 and sa° p' = {sa)p' = 1. j) -^ j (iv) ^ i + j + i^ Solution : In (i).j) 1.2) ^ 1 h. So a is a binary operation in P.P'. (iii) : -^ ix (regular multiplication of integers). s-t. (iii) . Hence they define binary operations in P. {i. we can find s S S such that sa = i. is called a binary operation in S. p and /?'. We stress that in all these cases the meaning of the various expressions sot.5] BINARY OPERATIONS a. j) j) G P. of T" into U such that a°p = a°p' and P ¥. {i. We shall sometimes write instead of (s.n) G Z xZ is denoted by + n. 1.Sec. j) ^i-^ j a : (i. We may ZxZ into Z where m SxS These notations suppress the binary operation /3.. BINARY OPERATIONS Definition The idea of a binary operation is illustrated which may be analyzed in the following way. P ¥. (i) a: a: a: a: a: PXP ^ P P XP P P X P -* P -* defined by a defined by a defined by a defined by a defined : (i.8'. 19 for {1. Here we have a contradiction because we chose t^p ¥' t^p' . j) -» i {i. j) e P X P. Hence a° 13 — a° p' and /3 t^ y8'. j where {i. in (ii). 2} and define the mappings /3 and p' of T into U as follows: tji = X for all t ?^ tj in T and tiyS = 2.2 = | g P. t/3' = Conversely. n) there is therefore think of addition as being a brief the image of {m. f)/3 (the image of (s. preimage under all t Let 1 U— e r. a: (1. and s + t as the sum of s and t.5 a. j) {i.2) -^ 1 -2 = -1 gP. we read ^ of Sx S into S. Convince yourself that the following mappings are binary operations in P. j) -* i^. Any mapping /3 ot into S.p' means there is a tj S T such that *iy3 # ti. where {i. Now if s&S. But a ° y8 = a° p' implies (sa)p = (sa)/3' or tiP = tiP'. the notations s t and st are termed multiand the notation s + 1 is termed additive. -^2i+ (v) PXP ^ P by a : j)^i + j + (i. 1. t) under (3) one of sot. (iv) PXP-*P : (i.g. Sot s • as "ess circle tee" as "ess dot tee" or "ess times tee" i st as "ess tee" or "ess times tee" as "ess plus tee" as "ess times tee". Thus a must be onto. and in (iii). confusion. • +t sxt s The notation s o Ms called the circle notation. S't. This contradicts the assumption that a° p = tt° p' implies p = /?'. j) {i. t) under the given mapping associated a unique integer description of a mapping ot m + n. st. where Sj. since a is onto.46. (ii) and do not define binary operations in P because not every element in P X P has an image in P: e. j) S P. s + t or sxt.

p) S & is X^. and p S : into S.3)/?)^.49. (3.y') = {x. 3)a = 2. (i) and j denote i° j i (ii) = {i + i)^ +j = i—j— (iii) i°j ij = i i-k-j (v) j (vi) 1X3= i' j V t {ix j) (iv) = — ix = + 27 j Solution: Throughout.y). (x'. (ii)-(v) are binary operations because each has a unique image by virtue of the fact that addition. l)y8 = 3. 2) -* 1. (iv) (a.b. ((1. (1.l)a-l. the point (x. 2)a. {i. 1) -* 1. -^3.8 = l. Interpret the following (abbreviated) definitions of binary operations in Z. then b then 6 = c. (1.3)a.l)/3. (1.2. (ii) The composition of mappings Therefore ir:X^^X. (1. ((l. (iii) (x.2)^1. 2/) ° (x'.y') (a.c — a d (v) 6 -^ a — = a c ^ -i- c.20 SETS. are two mappings of spo a = (sp)a = 2a = 1. is again a mapping of a binary operation. 2. 1) -^ 3. (3. 3)a = 2. (3. (iv) -rib-i-c). 3/') = (x — x'.-6). Make sense of the remark that division (denoted as usual by -^) is a binary operation in Q*. Hence a° P ^ P ° a.1) -*1.(x'. 3)/3 (1. 2/'). 2) -* 2. page 15). 3) (2. ^ 3.'. 3)a)a. R^.y) (x. (iii) = p ° a for all elements p S Xl Solution : (i) |Z| = 27 (see Problem 1.- — a -(6 (c^d)). jR^. Let S= a : {1. 2/) = where 2/ (x. (3. midpoint of the line joining (^. 3)^3.yy'). (3. and let X be the set of all mappings S into S. (x'. then s{a ° p) = {sa)p ^ S defined by = ip — 2 and 1. 3)a = (1.j)^ii a : X j (vi) (i.y') B R^. y) (ii) + — [x'. 2/') S (Notice here Solution: (i) how we have abbreviated the definitions of the binary operations considered.30. {(a-^b)-^c)-. Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (2. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS i [CHAP. l)/3.2 for all s e S. j)^i. 3) in S: (1. {x'. 2)^8.3} \X\.l).j)^(t a : (ii) + . (2.2)->3. Check whether the following statements hold for all a.) o is a binary operation since two points determine a unique line and each line has a unique midpoint. If If a -^ b (ii) (iii) (a-. (2.y)°{x'.y + y').y). 2) -> 3. 3)/3). . 3)/3 = = of 2.j = a : (i.50. a. (1. x'2/ + j/').l)a. (i) (i. y') G B^ where where where (x.S. 3)a)a = (1. y') e e. 2/') (v) (x. V) ° (*'» y') (x'. (2.3)^2. l)a = 2 and = (l. 2)^. 1. j) (ix j) (iv) a: j) -* i ^i + — j i (v) a: (i. l)a. ((1.y'). (ii) Compute (iii) Compute : ((l. 3) -* 2. Compute a° p Verify that the composition Is o of mappings a. jR2. (1. S into S.8 for (2. define if {x.y'). {xx'.52. where arbitrary elements of Z. Check that the following are binary operations (i) in the plane R^. if a: S defined by sa sp . (iii) a: (i.l)/3 ((l. Let Q* be the set of nonzero rational numbers. {a. j) ^ i+ 27} 1. j) e Z^. 3) -* 1 p: (i) (1. 1 1.y) ¥= (x'. y) e R^ to the point ix.1)^3.(2..l)a. (i) a H- 6 = 6 -=- a.(x'.l)a = (l. For example.y). a # . ((1. (2.y)'(x'.l)/3.2)->l. 1.)2 {i. 3)^8 (1. (2. Let (i) (ii) S = {1. multiplication and subtraction are binary operations in R. (3.2)a.ce Q*. If {. ((i. (x. (1.8 = = (1. 3} and let a and p be the following binary operations (2. P)t!- = a° p. y') = = {x + x'. 1) -* 2.x.3)^2. S^ = S 1 for all s€.y') (x. (2. 1) ^ 8. a: defined by S -* S and p S : -> (a. Is a = pi ((l.48. (2. — = (x + x'.51. 2/). 2. (iii) No. is a binary operation in X. y).

y")&Rh = (x'. as a ¥= 0.(2 (2 ^ 2)) = |. y')) ° (x".x. 1. {x{x'x" {{x.g.y") 1. 6. Let all (i) o be the binary operation in R^ defined by (x.b e.y')o(x. y")) Solution: (i) (ii) (x. Let ° be the binary operation in (a) Q defined by (b) aob = a-b + ab.y{y'x" + y"x'). then a°h = a°c For all iff b = c.g. c S Q (i) (ii) a ° 6 = 6 o a for all a. y') o (x.(-2) -4 = 0. y')) ° (x" y") .y. 1°0 = 1 and 0°1 a = .y). since -r- a ¥= 0. y) ° {(x'. y') = (xx' — yy'. y) o (x'. „ a (6) + - + 0.6c) = a-\-b + c-\-bc-\-ab-\-ac + abc a°b = a + b + ab = b + a + ba = b ° a If 6 = c. = {x. then a o 6 = a o c for any a. y") {{xx' — yy')x" — {yx' + xy')y". —+— o a b = b a = b°a . False. Prove that if a # —1. 6.1) ((1 (iii) (iv) True. For all a. cGQ. a°b = b°a.55. 1. y'x + x'y) = (x'. y{x'x" .b. 3 # -=- 3 2 -^ 2.g. since a ¥= (oofe)oc = (a then —1. c = b. R. y') ° (x". a + e + ac. e.y'y.yy' = = — {x.y)o{x'. yx'x" + xy'x" + xx'y" — yy'y") {xx' . a True. Therefore 6 + a6 = c + ac.5] BINARY OPERATIONS 21 Solution: Division integers. {yx' + xy')x" + {xx' — yy')y") {xx'x" — yy'x" — yx'y" — xy'y". yx' + xy') o («".z are a mapping of Q* X Q* -* Q*. Verify that: (ii) (iii) a. Hence -^ if -^ is w/x G Q* and y/z&Q* where w.ceQ. y') ((«.y) (ii) {(x.y)o(x'x" . l°0 = (c) f # ao(6°c) since 6 (ao6)oc for some a. Verify that for (x. e.y")) = = — = = (xx' yx' + xy') = (x'x . {a°b) o c = a° {b° c). Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) + b + ab)°c = a + b + ab + c + {a+ b + ab)c = a + b + c + bc + ab + ac + abc a°{b°c) = ao{b + c+bc) — a + 6 + c + 6c + a(6 + c4. (ii) (2 h. y) ~ yy'. — c ^ a implies ab — ca.Sec.53.g. for -^ y/z = wz/xy S Q*. y) o (x'. 6(1 + a) = c(l + a) and. c G Q.cGR. y) o (x'. = a ^ e implies ac = ab and.y'y" y'x" + y"x') . 6. 6. e. 6 SQ (2o0)o2 = (2 — + 0)o2 = 2o2 = e.y'y") . False. False. Solution: (i) (a) (6) {aob)°c¥' ao(boc) for some a. «°6 = °+ ^-"'""^ ^ .54. (loO)oO = ^oO = ^ and 1°(0°0) = e. 2-2 + 4 = 4 and 2° (0° 2) = 2° (0-2 + 0) (oo6)oc ^ ao(6oc) for some a. If a°b = a°c and a ¥= —1. = 2° -£ = 2.y)°(x'. -^ & (v) b -^ a = 1 and 2 -h (1 ^ 2) = 2 ^ | = 4. yx'x" — yy'y" + xy'x" + xy"x') {x.y')Ax".6 = + 3 I' 6 + + 6a = 6oa /\ (c) o°6 = I. e. then (i) is w/x 2 a binary operation in Q*. (loO)oO = ^oO = A and lo(OoO) = loO = (ii) J.y'))o{x".(x'. Hence b = c. (a) /. Let (i) o be the binary operation in J? defined by a°b = a+ b + ab.g. y) ° (x'. = 1. (c) a°6=^!-t-^ 3 Determine which of the above binary operations satisfy (a o 6) o c = o o (6 o c) for all a.y'y") + x{y'x" + y"x')) {xx'x" — xy'y" — yy'x" — yy"x'.y')o{x". yx' + xy').g. V aob¥=b°a a°6 = . y") .y)o{{x'. 6 a + 6 + a6 = c. -1. ^ 2) -^ 2) -^ 2 = 1 and 1 h.y') (x.

(1. 1 b. looks like the usual multiThus when we talk about a it There is a reverse procedure to the one described above. The multiplication table selves with them.1)^1. So far we have introduced a number of definitions and notations and familiarized ourThe object of this section is to introduce a "table" as a convenient way of either defining a binary operation in a finite set S or tabulating the effect of a binary operation in a set S. 1) ^ 3. multiplication /j. -3. 2. More generally. we put {i. 1) -^ 2.3}.' Write down the multiplication tables for the following binary operations in S (i) = {1. we mean a multiplication in S.j)th square. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. 1) ^ 1. (3. in the {i. 3)/^ = 3 in the square that is the intersection of the row facing 2 (on the left) and the column below 3 (on the top). (ii) : S2 -^ S defined by (i. 2) -> 3. 3} and let /i be the binary operation in S defined by ^: (1. 3) ^ ^ 2.2) (2. i)th place in the table. (iii) y : (1.2. Solution: 12 2 3 3 3 1 12 1 1 (ii) 3 1 1 12 13 3 2 1 3 2 1 (i) 12 12 1 1 1 (iii) 3 1 1 1 11 . = 1.1)-1. ^ 3. 3) -» 3. (3.3)^ 2.1)^1 of associating with this table a binary operation /x in {1. (2. (3. the intersection of the ith row (the row labelled or faced by i) and the ith column (the column labelled by j). y)/i. j)p 1 for all (i. 3) ^ = 1. To explain this procedure. (2.e.3}. 1) -* 2. suppose S = {1.1)^2. 2) -^ 1. (2. 2) -^ 1. (1. 3) -^1. j)ti way We simply define We to be the entry in the (1. shall usually define multiplications in a finite set by means of such Problems 1. 3) a /3 : (1. (1. 2) -> 1. = 3.56. 1) -* 1. 2) -> 2.3)^2. (3. (3. {i. A table of this kind is termed a multiplication table because calls fi plication tables. 2) -3. (2. i.2)ft = 3 tables. (1. (2. 3) 1. (3. (3. 2) -» 3. (3.3)^0 Then there is a natural {i.2. j) e S^. out with a table For example. /x (3. suppose we start 112 2 3 2 3 3 2 13 (2. (2. (1.22 SETS. 3) -2 Then a table which sums up this description of is 112 2 3 2 3 12 13 3 3 2 We put the number (2. One often in a set S. 1) -* 3.2)^1. (2. For example. (2. (1. (3. that ft is a binary operation in S.

2. 1. 4). 3. 4 and . 2-4 = 4-2 = i'j i 4-4 = 1. 3. 3) -^ 4. 3.58(i): 1 +3 = 1. 3 + 4 = 4 + 3 = 2. 3. 3.58(iii): j (j 1. 4o4 = 3. 2 + 2 = 3. additive notation.4} defined 1 1 by the following tables. 2.e. Problem 4.e. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 = + 2 = 2 + 4 = 1. 2) -^ 4. = 2. • 2 = 4. (3. 1. (2.:. = l. . 204 = 402 = i (i 404 = j Problem (6) ioj 1. 4. j)/3 as t ° /. (2. (4. 2o3 = = 3o2 = 3o3 = 303 = l. -> 3. 4). = = 1. 3.4 = 4. Problem 1.2)^3. Solution: (a) Problem 1.2. i) ^. 2 • 3 = 2 3 • 2 = 3 4. 4 + 4 = 1. 2) ^ 1.Sec.2. 3) -^ 4 € {1.ZA).2) (iii) (t. 1) ^ . j (j = = 2. (3.e. also does not define a binary operation in {1.3. 4 +4 = 3.3. 4) ^ (4. 2. 2. write i.58.58. 4 and j = 1. 1.3)^2. (i i • 1 = i (j = 1. . 1. (2. 3}. i + j. etc. (3. Problem 1. 2 + 2 = 4. 3) -* 4. (4.4)->l. 3} since (1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3.58(i): 1°i = i (i 2. (3. (. 3. 2.' = 1. 4). 4). = = (i i (. (2.. (2. Problem 3 + 1 = j (. 2. (j. 1) ^ 3.) ^i (. 3. 4 and j = 1. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 = 1. (2. 4).57.4}. 1 °i 2. (3. 2.3. 3. 2) -^ 4. • 3 = • 2 = 1.2.58(i): !•} - j 3. ^i {i= 1. (4. 4). 4). i.4). 3. 4). 2) -* 1. 3-3 = 4. 2 o 2 = 4.59. (4. 4). 4 (c) Problem 1. 2o2 = 3. because (1. 3-4 = 4-3 = Problem 2. write i.58(iii): i + j = i (t = 1. 2. and / 3.4 = 4. (ii) (1. 2 3 = 3 «2 = 1. 2 + 4 = 4 + 2 = 3.4}? 12 1 3 4 3 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 Solution: The table does not give a binary operation in {1. 1. (3. (i = 1. 4) -^ 2.4). 3. 2-2 = 2 3. (j 2. write j)p as j. (2.5] BINARY OPERATIONS in {1. 1. 3. 3. {i.4).3)^1. 4). 4). 3. 2. 4). 2 1 = y (/ = = 2-4 = 1. i)/3 as (i. = = 304 = 403 = 1. (3.58(ii): 1 + i = i and i + 1 = i (i = 1.58(iii): = 1. 3. 3 + 3 = 4.. 3 +4 = +i = i 4 + 3 = = 1. 2. using circle notation. 2.4).3.58(ii): 4." o 1 = i (. • 1. 3.4)-»2. 3 • 3 = 1. 4.2. 2 3 4 1 2 2 4 1 3 3 1 4 4 3 2 1 2 3 3 4 1 1 1 1111 2 3 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 (iii) 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 (ii) 4 2 (i) 3 4 4 4 Solution: (i) (I. 4o2 = 2o4 = jo\ 3. 4). 2. 2. 3o4 = 4o3 = 1. 2.2. 3. Write down explicitly the binary operations in {1.3 = Problem 2. j) (4.3.4).3}? 23 1. = 1. have The table no images. 4 and i = 1. 2. i • multiplicative notation. 3) ^ 2. 2. 1.4)^3. 1. (i. Does the following table define a binary operation In {1. 3) ^ 1. 4) ^ 1. = 1. 4).58(ii): !•} = - j and 3. Rewrite the three binary operations in Problem (a) (6) (c) 1.

(iii) TnFnEnO. a) G E. If E and is F are equivalence relations on S..62..-4.69.. (iv) XqB and X is not a subset of E. (a) the set of positive integers. —q} for each q G Z. SiUS'2U---uS„.5}. of a single integer. if any. Given A = {-3. B = {-4. 0}. Find the equivalence {n\ E. -1. But by the and transitive Therefore £7 is also reflexive. 1.b)GE and (b. Show that E= {p\ p = {{r. Supplementary Problems SETS 1.61. then by the symmetric property.-2. If P is E= {(a. (v) 2.67. show that reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. Find an example of a subset E of P^ which is .5}. 7). In Chapter 2 we begin to place restrictions on binary operations.-3. —1. 0. If (a. and E = {n\ nG Z and n even}. —2. is (i) EnF. products..a)GE implies (a. -2. (iv) TuF. n) are such that Sj C Sj+i (i = 1.3}}.s).4.63. Prove Let Sn{TuU) = {SnT)D{SnU). (t. C = {-5. the equivalence classes of F are {n\ n = Aq for for g S Z}. and {n n = 3 + 4g for q G Z}.-1. {1.0. . Let 3}. followed by the definition of a binary operation.. What wrong with B 1. Find AuB and AnB. {1. D = {-4. (iii) X C C but X is not a subset of A. T and W. on Z: (i) if qeZ}. is a non-empty subset of S^ which has the symmetric the following argument: properties. Then the notion of a mapping was defined. 6) G pa and a divides 6} is (6) (c) not reflexive. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. Zu(BnD) = A? if Prove ScT if and only (TnC)uS = Tn(CuS) for every set C.-3.}} and B = {-3.. Find SinSaO ••• nS„ and 1. CARTESIAN PRODUCTS Prove S X (TuW) = (SxT)u(SxW) 1. (ii) EuF a. -1. w-1). 1.66. G S^ and Find the E-class determined by 1. P^. b) S E. 1. of these sets take the place = C. .70. transitive property. . Find an example of a subset E of P^ which is both symmetric and transitive but reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. for any sets S. We then introduced the idea of cartesian This led to the idea of an equivalence relation on a set. OnF. . (vi) 1.3. 1.24 SETS.4}.65. 3. 1 A look back at Chapter 1 began with a few remarks about sets. {a. A = E= (ii) {—3. F = 0. We In this book we are mainly concerned with binary operations in sets.2. (iii) if the equivalence classes are (ii) if every equivalence class consists {q.a)GE. 6) i (a.w)) (4. T = {n\ nG Z and n divisible by (i)EnT.2.1. of X if (i) X — C = 0.4}.3.64. Which.71. The sets Sj (i = 1.60.2. (vi) OnT. {-5. Let r P be the set of positive integers and S = + w = s + t} is an equivalence relation on S. At this stage the reader may wonder what one could possibly say about binary operations in a set. Find | and n odd}. (ii) EuT. relation. (6.n equivalence relation on S? 1. {n\ n = 2 + 4q | 1.68. n= l + 4q for q e Z}. Without some specialization we can say very little. XnB (v)ZnCcA.. . O = {« nG Z F={m| nGZ and w divisible by 4}.

6) of jB - {0.^ = ^.CHAP. E = M. 1. < . and onto implies a is onto. Which of the mappings a. Show (i) that the following define mappings of Z into Z. Suppose a « = (ii) a mapping of a set S into a set T and. p and y as the composition of two mappings. Let S be a set and gf the set of all subsets of S. union define binary operations on gf. Find an infinite number of mappings a'. Do a. a a: T -^W.75. p' of P into P such that : 1.83. . and (iii) y : x -> ^/l-x^ define mappings of non-empty subsets of the real numbers R into R. i..y. find an appropriate subset in each case. p : T p -> U is onto. Given a:S-*T X -» sin (x^). a: X ^ \ \x\ is the absolute value of x. f^-.x^-—-. gf = {A | A C S}. Define a: E -* E by na — n for all n&E. . is W Wa (i) {t\ t^T and sa for (AuP)a = AaUBo:.{0. Secondly. 2. some s&W). giving in each case the domain and codomain of each mapping defined.x-^^^^. i. 1] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 25 MAPPINGS 1. and r is the number of distinct primes dividing x f-l (iii) y: X -* \ [ 1 if X < ifx = if X > (iv) S : x -> sin2 x + cos^ x 1. f^-./3.81.x-^—^.79. y define /3 : : mappings Let of R into Rt and n even}.73. of mappings /j (i = 1. . If A and B are any subsets of S.S of the preceding problem are equal? 1.e. How many different binary operations can be defined on a set of 3 elements? 1. COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS 1. (ii) Find subsets S(^0) and T(^0) of the real numbers i2 such that the mappings (i) a x -* cos x. and (iii) y: x -^ tan x are one-to-one mappings of S onto T. Show composition of mappings a binary operation on F and write a multiplication table for the operation.76. /?.x. (i) a : (ii) /? : x -^ sin (sin (x)). f^-.82. for any subset of S.8 {n\ nG P for all by «[e = 2w « and = Z?. (ii) ^. First.x-^x. Suppose a: S ^ T is onto and 1. Show that intersection and 1. show: (AnB)acAanPa. write a. is x ^ 1 . f^:x-^^. F. is one-to-one and : T^ U is one-to-one. 1} that fi-. Prove: (i) a one-to-one implies a is one-to-one. Ixj ' ' = yxl\x\ if cc y^ \ ' ' \-x if a. X „ ^ f if _ jxl l^l = or 1 \ [(—I)'' if # or 1.80. X ^ sin X..77. Consider the by: set. Prove a ° /3 is one-to-one. (ii) Let S be a subset of a set T. Show a° p is an onto mapping.. 1.78. . BINARY OPERATIONS 1. and (iii) A CB implies AaQBa.74.e. 1. .72. and p E -^ E w S £. 1} into R defined for each x /g : G ft .

Z has two binary operations. h)ti. a binary operation in Z is another. To ideas. 3-2 = 2. addition (+) and multiplication (X). and a binary operation when dealing with groupoids. Hence we discuss these The importance of into X.3} and let /x be the in our consideration of binary operation. There is an isomorphism between two groupoids if they are essentially the same but for the names of their elements. consisting of a non-empty set G. G said to be associative called a semigroup.92 » gs) A groupoid with set all gi. Consider the set Z Definition: A groupoid is a pair (G. each semigroup is contained in some Mx. but for the names of the elements.chapter 2 Groupoids Preview of Chapter 2 In this chapter we define a set G together with 1. the two together constitute a groupoid. Suppose we use multiplicative notation . As we remarked without making The at the end of Chapter restrictions. The set Z is one thing./x. then 1-1 = 1. GROUPOIDS Definition of a groupoid of integers. binary We shall mostly use a multiplicative notation write g-k G= 13 3 2 211 2 3 • Then the pair (G. As an example. gs for In order of increasing specialization gi {gi ° fl'2) = ° ga in G. there is a fixed binary operation o to be a groupoid.2. Homomorphism is a more general concept than isomorphism. called the carrier. 1-2 = 3. ° (. {1. 2-2 = 26 1. Two 2. We X Mx is other important concepts we deal with are homomorphism and isomorphism. semigroup. introduce the semigroup Mx of mappings of that. and operation o Such a groupoid is is we have the concepts of groupoid. little one can say about binary operations first restriction is if that of associativity. f^) is a groupoid. Repeating this definition in general terms. g.1 a. in G. let operation in G defined by the following table. .) [j. Thus we This notation has been used in Chapter 1 or simply gh for {g. and group.hGG. etc. gi. define a group we need the concepts of identity and inverse.

it is understood that we in G. If we use the circle notation for /j. 1: sometimes write (G. 2. Let b o + ah. Example be the binary operation in Q. Further.) or (G.e. 2. Let L be the set of all such loops in R'^ . o) is a groupoid. 3}.e. 2. l^ e L. Suppose now that (G. (3. = 2 If we use the circle notation. Let S where makes be the set of all mappings of {1. 27 These products look bizarre unless we version of {l. the unshaded area in the diagram. because for every pair of rational numbers a and h. 3} Therefore a° p. Example 4: Let B2 be the plane. (S.C.= l. use the expression "the groupoid G. 2. °) is then a groupoid. is defined by aa° /3 = (aa)p. °) is a groupoid.C. Example Let G = {1. /*). we write goh instead of {g. •). the composition of a and /?. We term any path beginning and ending at 0. 1)m = 1. If we have already been given a binary operation the groupoid (G. 0) of the coordinate system. then a: {1. a G {1. let there be a cartesian coordinate system in R^ and C be the disc of radius 1 with center at the point (2. let .o) to refer to the groupoid (G. shall we Simh)ix. defined by a°b — a + Then (Q. 2. (G. ° is interpreted as the usual composition of mappings.Sec. (G.gxh respectively for {g. (2. x) if we employ g'h. Consider the region R^ .1] GROUPOIDS recall that the notation 3.2)m = (2. for if a. 2°2 = 2 (G.g + h. a°b defines a unique rational number a + h + ab. j3 G S.l)ix employed 2./x). is a shorthand = l.2)m = etc. (1.2. (1." where G is a set.2)f. Then there is a natural binary operation in L which we denote by • thus if l^. The composition sense. 3} and /? : {1. which does not meet any point of C (i. 2)ix (1. ilarly we write (G. 3} ^ {1. i. 3} into {1. 3}. 2.2} and let n be the binary operation in G defined as follows: (2. and that we have been talking about i^. followed by tracing 4This type of groupoid {L. ix) is a groupoid. 2ol = i. °) is indeed a groupoid.2. For example. 2. the rational numbers. a loop in R'^ — C. By a path we mean any line which can be traced out by a pencil without raising the point from the paper. Then (S. +). 1°1 = The pair Example 2: lo2 = 2.h)ix. 3} ^{1. I and m are loops in R^ .C. /j. •) is of considerable importance in modern topology. 2)/i = 2. 1)m = 1. it is entirely in R^ — C).. and is once again a mapping of {1. we have 1. 3} into itself. . then l^ • I2 is the loop obtained by first tracing out l^.

a binary operation was defined as a mapping and two mappings are equal if and only if they have the same domain and codomain. 2 5: Consider two Let F be the set of all mappings of R. Are any two Solution: of the groupoids in Problems 2. (Z. -^) is not a groupoid operation in Q. b. does not define a binary operation in Z since y/a + b is not always an Let S be any non-empty set and T the set of Solution all subsets of S. Remember. a°b ¥. U) groupoids? Both intersection n and union U are binary operations on T. into R. Therefore - is not a binary (iv) because a is not defined for any aS Q e. the real numbers. Are (T.o) {Z. Therefore division 2. (iii) aob-a-b-ab. — ) is not a groupoid since operation in P.a for all a and (Z. Thus the groupoids described in Examples Two are all different.p & F. n) and {T. (ii) {Z. Solution: The groupoids in (i) are clearly the same. o) where a°b .2. then a—b for is a unique element of Z. n) and (T. Solution: (i) (S. b)ii b. 2. Problems 2. m).3. Which (i) of the following pairs define equal groupoids? (ii) (iii) =a+ (Z. — ) and (Z. Equality of groupoids groupoids are equal if and only if they have the same carriers and the same binary operation.4. 6 £ Z. 3. -V) is is a-b^P -^ all e F. ° in (i) Therefore (Z.3 equal? No. a^b€Z (i) a. aG R. (v) a ° 6 = ^/a+b . 2. the set of positive integers with the usual subtraction as binary operation. -^).: 28 GROUPOIDS Example [CHAP. 6 (iii) (F. for if a # 6. o) is not .g. 2 3 « Z. {Z.5. +). —) is a. elements a. Is {Z. 4} and i°j = l for i and J elements of S. where S = {1. and (Z. °) is a grou poid in (ii) through (v). and the image of each 1-5 element is the same under both mappings. +) is not the groupoid with F as the carrier and the composition of mappings as the binary operation. for " is if clearly a binary operation in S. X) where a X 6 = & for all a and 6 in Z. the set of integers with the usual binary operation of division. °) a (iv) a o 6 = groupoid if o is defined as o 6 = a? 0. (Z. Are the following groupoids? (i) (S. : Problems 2. (ii) (iii) (F. Thus (T. (Q. for all a. +) is a groupoid. (ii) a°b = {a+ 6)2. for the intersection or union of two subsets of S is again a unique subset of S. a + /3 is clearly a unique mapping of R into R and hence is an element in F.2. and hence -^ -^ is not a binary (v) not a groupoid since not a binary operation in Z. ). So the same as (Z. °). The multiplication integer. too are the groupoids in (ii). U) are groupoids. b e Z. +) and (Z. Solution: All but (i) define a binary operation in Z. We define the mapping a + p R -^ R by a{a + p) — aa + ap. X). 6 in Z. where (a.aX b.1. the set of rational numbers with the usual binary operation of division. (iv) (v) {Q. where a^b = a—b.1-2. In (iii) (Z. Notice that {F. a. — ). Therefore + is a binary operation in F and (F. — the set of integers with the usual subtraction of integers as binary operation. o) is a groupoid since a groupoid.

o) is aob — boa for all {2.6) associative or a semigroup. groupoids which are definitely not commutative.Sec. Let G = {1. e.o) is a groupoid. 2. •) Similarly if (Z. (G. Of course it is not clear that there are non-commutative groupoids.3) {2. and a groupoid satisfying {2. G 2 = 2 not a semigroup.2 COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS Let (Z.c a. i. i_ we must examine i i not commutative. so o 2 = 1 but 2 o (1 o 2) = (2 o 1) = 2. (2 o 1) o Observe that lo2 = 1 but 2°! = 2. o) is {2. Definition of commutative and associative groupoids +) be the groupoid of integers under the usual operation of addition. in the integers. The analog of {2. We term a groupoid satisfying {2. Which of the groupoids in Examples 1. a Then {2. is Furthermore. is also For the most part we shall use the multiplicative notation for a groupoid {G. = ioi = (2ol)°l = loi = (lo2)ol = 2oi = (lol)o2 = lo2 = (loi)oi i {g) {h) = 2o(lo2) = 2o2 = lo(2o2) = io2 = 2o(2oi) = 2oi 2o(2o2) = 2o2 = i.g. since 1 o 2 = 2 and 2 the following 8 cases: (e) (/) o 1 = i.^) and simply talk about the groupoid G. 2. If the groupoid is commutative we will use the additive notation instead of the multiplicative notation. is the groupoid of integers under multiplication.c G Z. 3 and 5 are commutative and which are associative? Solution The groupoid of Example To (a) (6) (c) 1 is shovir (G. The order of a groupoid (G. (G.2) and {aob)oc = ao{boc) for all a. We settle the issue now.2] COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS 29 2./x) is infinite if \G\ is infinite.b.A) and for all {a-b).c G Z.2} and let o be the following binary operation in G: 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 Then i. o) is associative i^ 1.{h-c) a.e.2) + 5 = b + a and for all {a + h)-\.c G G.6. and similarly it is not clear that there are nonassociative groupoids.6) a. so G G is not commutative. non-associative.1) and {2.c = a-^{h + c) a. (d) = ioi = 2°(1°1) = 2°1 = l°(2ol) = ioi = lo(lo2) = lo2 = lo(loi) 2. 2. and fi.3) in an arbitrary groupoid {G.5) commutative or abelian.1) {2. but is associative.e.b. Similarly the analog of {2.b.b GG. = 2ol = (2 ol) 02 = 102 = (lo2)°2 = 2°2 = (2o2)ol l 2 2 2 2 2. (2o2)o2 = 2o2 = . /x) is the number of elements in is finite. 2. Thus a semigroup is an associative groupoid. G and is denoted by |G[.5) {2.4) in (G.nite if \G\ Problems 2. since we are accustomed to addition as a commutative binary operation. a • 6 = = b ' a {2.

(here we 2. In Example 2 the set S of all mappings of {1. Construct an example of a commutative groupoid of order Solution: 3. Let S= {a. 5 2. In Problem 2. we construct an infinite number be defined by rpi = r for all fi (i = 1. there are an To show that : as follows.) Therefore we have found an infinite number of infinite F is not finite finite.8 = 1/3 = 2. Notice the pj are not all the elements of F. a. Using the associative and commutative properties of addition and multiplication in the rationals.pe. ^ "^ (i - i) = i) ^ i). 1/3 ° a = (l/3)a = 2a = 3. 2. into itself contains 27 elements. 2 of Example 2 is not commutative. page 18). °) is clearly a commutative groupoid. by 1^ = 2. 2/3 = 1 and 3/3 = 1.g. 3. However. . Therefore division is a binary operation in Q*.d#oy (e. c} and the binary operation a a a b c o be defined by the multiplication table 6 6 c c a c c a (S. 2a = 3 and 3a = 2. (Q. is a groupoid. 2^ a. number of rational numbers.7 the groupoid has only three elements and is therefore . (S.8 are finite? Solution: The groupoid of Example 1 is clearly finite of order 3. a o (6 o c) = a o (6 + c + 6c) = (a + (6 + c + 6c)) + a(6 + c + 6c) = a + 6 + c + 6c + a6 + ac + a6c and (ao6)oc = (a+6 + a6)°c = a+6 + a6 + c + (a + 6 + a6)c = a+6 + a6 + c + ac+6c + a6c. for if a is defined by la = 1. R = 0.8. Which of the groupoids in Examples 1-3.F and aG R binary operation in R). +) + a).9. division neither commutative i 2. Also. a°h = a + h + ah = h + a + ba — b°a. since addition and multiplication are commutative binary operations in Q. since there is an infinite number of nonzero rational numbers. Since the binary composition of mappings is an associative binary operation (Problem 1. IDENTITIES AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS The identity of a groupoid e in Let G be a groupoid written multiplicatively.41. Show that the set Q* of nonzero rational numbers with binary operation the usual division of rational numbers.2.c. then la ° ^ = (la).30 GROUPOIDS The groupoid is [CHAP.7. Let pj iJ -* Clearly p^ = pj iff i = j. f = I ^ 6 = (i ^ |--^i = 2#| and in = i-|) Problems nor associative (e. . and so In Example of 3. Is it commutative? Is it associative? Solution: If I and since I are any two elements of Q*. In Example 5 the groupoid (F. different elements in F.8. +) is also a semigroup. 2.7 and 2. and p defined we a(p see a o (6 o c) = (a o 6) o c. 6. ap G R and addition is a commutative {F. (a/3 + ay) = aa + a(P + a(a + p) = aa + ap = ap + aa = is commutative because use the fact that aa. Q* is not finite.3} is finite.g. Hence a° p ¥= 13° a. An element element of G if eg ^ ge = g G is called an identity . then a. for a{{a + P) + y) = a{a + p) + ay = aa + y) = a{a + (/3 + y)) (here we use the associativity of addition in R). In Problem 2. The groupoid in Example 3 is both commutative and associative. °) is an associative groupoid. f "^ | = |^ is ^ unique element in Q* /^T^O is 6. °) is not finite as In Example mappings of R r^iGR and ipj 5 the set into F is infinite.

e')fx = e'. {1. 3-2 = 2 = 2-3. less natural example is the groupoid {1. 3-3 = 3 = 3-3 identity element. It is instructive to we 2. (iii) -=- e had an identity element e.Sec. Hence there is no identity element. The groupoid with carrier and multiplication table 1 (a) 1 1 (6) 1 1 2 (c) 1 2 1 2 (d) 1 1 2 1 2 Solution: (i) 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 (Z.3] IDENTITIES AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS 31 for every g &G. But e' is also an identity element reformulate the proof of Theorem 2. then e^q = q for all 9 in the groupoid. (ii) If this groupoid particular. 4}. The groupoid The groupoid The groupoid +) under the usual operation of addition. One might ask vs^hether or not a groupoid can have more than one The following theorem settles this question.3} with multiplication table given by A 1 2 3 1 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 The element 3 is an identity element of G since 3-1 = 1 = 1. 2. Hence {e. e = e'. 2. ee' = e'. h)ix. (a 4. Thus revert to the notation (G.2. For example in the multiplicative groupoid Z of integers. and because the image of any element under the mapping is unique. since +z = z+ = z for all z e. Problem Which (i) of the following groupoids have identity elements? (Z. (ii) (iii) of nonzero rational of complex all numbers under division. . 06i2 + bi = a + bi = {1 + Oi){a + bi). 4} into itself (iv) (v) The groupoid of mappings of {1.1 + (K is the identity element of this groupoid. +) has the identity element e 0. Recall ^ that a complex number is any number of the form since a+bi where a. Since e ee' Hence = e an identity element of G. 2} under the composition of mappings.^ Suppose e and e' are identity elements.bi)(l -f Oi) = a+ + the identity element of the group- i) (v) Only (d) has an identity element./x) and instead of the multiplicative notation gh we write (g. 6 G fi and Oai (iv) = V-i. 1. 2. Theorem 2. b. Inverses in a groupoid If we use multiplicative notation for groupoids. and so e = e'.e. then e = e'. we shall for the most part reserve the symbol 1 for the identity element. e')fi . 3. (e. Then as e is an identity element.1 in a different notation. In other words if e and e' are identity elements of G. The identity mapping defined by ji = j. Z. 1 is an identity element.10. namely 1.1: If a groupoid G has an identity element. numbers under multiplication. In = e and so e = 1. it has precisely one identity element. 3. j G {1. But e' is also an identity element.3. But 1-4-2 = 1/2^2. is Proof: of G. is old since i(<i o = (ja)i = ja = (ji)a = i(i o „).

cb Example 7: be the groupoid of mappings of {1. 2or = 3. 2(T o T = — {2a)T i. 2. Here 1 is the identity • • • • Problems 2. {1. for z + (— z) = = (— z) + z. as inspection of the table shows. Then the identity mapping by ji. ra G— Unlike identities. defined by It = 3. 3t = 2. b. 3} into itself. h is an inverse of 6: g. Now let <7 e G be defined by la = 2.c} be the groupoid with multiplication table a a b h h c c a b c a Then a be is = a = is and a Furthermore.32 GROUPOIDS [CHAP. one talks about inverses. let 12 2 3 111 114 2 3 3 4 4 4 element in G.3. Example Let G= {a. Then r e G. thus 2 has two inverses. its own inverse. a bi a is + bi \a + a — — 1 bi 62 62 62' an element in the groupoid and (0 a O-i). 2 In the multiplicative groupoid of nonzero rational numbers. the determining factor being 2x| = l = |x2.4} be the groupoid with multiplication table For example. b is an inverse of c. Consider the groupoids in Problem 2. 3) is the identity element of the groupoid (see Problem 2. is an inverse of a because Let I G defined la o T = (U)t = i. The definition of an inverse requires both 2 4 and 4 2 to equal 1. and aa = a = aa. integer z has an additive inverse. then bi bi inverses. inverses in groupoids are not always unique. then g is an inverse of Examples follow. we term h an inverse of g {h.g G G) if gh ^ Clearly if 1 = hg h. 2 and 3.2.11. 2t = 1. the groupoids have inverses? Solution: (i) What elements in each of Any i. namely —z. -{a+bi) bi = 1 = (a+bi)- bV (0 + Oi) has no in- verse. Scr o r = (3<t)t = It = 3 which implies ar = Similarly.10(iv)). for example.10 which have identity elements. (iii) All nonzero elements in the groupoid of complex a a + bi {a and b not both zero) is 1 numbers under multiplication have any element in the groupoid. so that c is an inverse of b. i is the inverse of 2. 4 is not an inverse of 2 even though 2-4 = 1. 3cr = 1. b and c have no other inverses. since + Oi)(a + bi) = (0 + . the identity element of G. = j {) = 1. 2t = 1. Notice that in this groupoid. = 3t = 2. 2. In general if G is any groupoid with an identity 1. 2 2 = 1 = 2 • 2 and 2 3 = 1 = 3 • 2. a.e. Moreover.

It is tempting to employ the notation used vsrhen dealing with real numbers and write g~^ for an inverse of g. Hence {1. Consequently if p is an inverse of a. We therefore define an inverse p for the mapping a by a/S = -{aa). a G R. So t has no inverse. St = c and 4t = d. 2t ° a = b<T = 2. except —1. by T. since h is an inverse of g) . -r a = 0. 3. (v) Both 1 and 2 have inverses since 1 • 1 = 1 = 1 • 1 and 2 • 2 = 1 = 2 • 2. and 4t ° a = d<r = 4. The mapping aa a: R -^ a{a + a) = + aa = aa + R = 2. +a a = so that ir'. c. then h — h'. 3. 6. page 27). 3.b.4 a. commutative. If /3 is an inverse of a. °) is is an inverse of a. the image of a G jB under /3 must be the negative of the image of a under a. Now a° X — a + X + ax. °). °) where a^b = a + b + ab (see Example 3. as we have already seen in Section 2. cct o t = 3t = c.12. 3. if h and h' are inverses of g. Find the identity of the groupoid Solution: (F. Now au t = It = a. — +a ~T a . To find an inverse for an element aG Q. i. 2. 4}.4} onto I. dtr ° T = 4t = d. Now if o. 4}.2: Let G be a semigroup with an identity element 1. d} = is a mapping of {1. i.= 3 and d<r = 4. ar — c and 6t = c. {F. But a(a + P) = aa + ap and aa = 0. -*>*-> 2. there is no x such that a°x = 0. thus ca = a and cct = 6. 2. /? is a mapping of R into R. c.aa + (— (oa)) = = aa implies a + /3 = a. Hence a + l3 = u = l3 + a and /3 is an inverse of a. But under a mapping each element has a unique image. is the identity of (F. Proof: h = — = = = hi h(gh') (since hi (gh' ^ h for all is h G G) g) = = 1.3b. 4}. ct {a. i. vi^here a. = — 1 = 0. we must find an x G Q such that aoa. Solution: is the identity of {Q. We define the mapping a which will be an inverse of r. we obtain —1 + a. c. 2.e. 2. Hence we have a contradiction. Furthermore. Say t is a one-to-one mapping itself. li g G G has an inverse. SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT Uniqueness of inverses Suppose G is a groupoid with an identity 1 and suppose h is the inverse ot g: gh = l — hg.c. ba° t — 2t = b. then a(T ° cr) = a and 6(t o o-) = 6 or (aT)(r = ca = a and (6t)<7 = cct = 6. +) is a commutative groupoid. 3. 2. 4} which are mapped onto the same element.d are the elements of {1. 3t o <t = ca = 3. +) in Example 5 and show that every element has an inverse. thus if a = —1.3.Sec. thus a ° 1. since h' an inverse of (hg)h' Ih' h' (by associativity) {hg 1. 1 have inverses. a and 6 {a ¥= b) in {1. 2.13.e. 2t = b. However. 2. since It o (T = (1t)ct ~ CU7 = 1. What Find the identity of the groupoid elements have inverses? (Q. If a = —1. defined by roo = for all r G R. 4} onto {1. so that x must satisfy the equation a + x + ax = 0. since -{aa) is a unique element of R. giving x = — i. by aa — 1. The trouble with this notation is that in a groupoid an element may have more than one inverse. a° t = If t is not one-to-one then there are at least two elements. defined by It = a.oa. Thus aa + afl = or — (oa) = a/3. +). 2. 4}. If a ^ —1. For aa = + aa = aa + aa = a{a + a) for all a & R implies a + a = a = a + a. As {a. T°a — We must also show a t = i. the associative law on a groupoid prohibits this as we see from Theorem 2. the equa- tion a + X + ax 1 = ^ o can be solved.2. 3. Since (Q. then a + 13 = a and a(a + /?) = a<o for all a G R. b. — a. Co.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT Only mappings t 33 (iv) which are one-to-one and onto have inverses. her = 2. since Qoa — O + a + Oa = o and a°0 = a + + Oa = a. of {1. Hence all elements of Q. a{a + 13) = aa + af3 . it has precisely one.is an inverse of t. = = a. d} is {1.

°) is to that in since Problem aoO = a + — aO = a and a # 2. is a unique rational number. i. the set of rational numbers.12. then {ab)c = 4 = a(bc) because 2 • 2 = 4 ing calculations take care of the remaining cases: 3(3 2(3 1 is • 3) 3) = = 3 2 • 1 1 = 3 2 • • = = = 1 • 3 3 = = (3 (2 • 3)3 3(2 3(3 • 3) = 3 3 • 2 2 2 2 = 2 • 3 = (3 • 2)3 2 • • 3)3 • 2) = • = (1-2) 1 = (3-3)2 3. (Notice the reversed order. 2. written hy g~^.b. 6 or c is 4.14. 6 or c is 1. G. then (ab)c = 4 = a(bc) if either a. . 2. To check that a-\ is the inverse of a. a{bc) is clearly equal to (ab)c. The followis equal to 2 or 3. b. if c = 1. 2 multiplicatively.15.2 entitles us to denote the inverse of an element g in a semigroup. o) is a groupoid. and binary operation o defined by a+b — ab. Therefore we need only check the products when a. aob — be the groupoid with carrier Q. Let G= {1. 4}.34 GROUPOIDS Theorem [CHAP.e. 3 and 4 have inverses. e.g. Notice that when either a. °). b. is a semigroup. then gh has an inverse. so that (Q. (ab)c = a = a{bc) Associativity follows from the fact that ab = a for all a. 1234 1 1234 3 2 (6) 2 4 2 4 3 2 1 4 4 4 4 2 (a) 3 4 12 14 12 3 3 4 1234 1111 2 (c) 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 4 4 2 3 1 4 4 Which of the groupoids are semigroups? Which have an identity? Which elements have inverses? Solution: (a. namely h~^g~^. e are any elements (aob)°c = (a+b — ab)°c = a + b — ab + = a+b + c — ab — ac— bc + abc — = ao(b a c — — {a + b — ab)c — be) and a°(b°c) + c — be) = + 6 + c — 6c — a a. b. G.c — a. c are equal to 2 and the other and 2 • 3 = 2 = 3 • 2. therefore no element has an inverse. 1 is the and 1. (6) The only elements which have inverses are and these inverses The identity.ab = a(bl). o) ? Which elements of the groupoid have inverses? Let G Solution: Notice a+ b — ab in (Q.) (gh){h-'g-') For. iigh)h-')g-' = {g(hh~'))g-' (S'l)fi'"' = 99~ Similarly. c in G.6 -\- b -k- c — be a{To \. associative law does not hold. The Using an analysis similar r a-\ identity of (Q. G has no identity element. (c) G is a semigroup. we must check associativity. we must show a{bc) = (ab)c for every a. If two of the three elements a.) In order to see that in this case G is a semigroup. Note that if g and h have inverses. 2.b G. since 4(2 • 3) = 4 • 4 = 1 and (4 • 2)3 = 2 • 3 = 4. we find that for ° 1 a = the and that a = 1 has no inverse. {ab)X .c&G. are unique. hence for any a.c + abc Hence (Q. Is the groupoid (Q.o) a semigroup? Is there an identity element in (Q. b and c have values 2 or 3. The binary operations on G given by the following tables make G into a groupoid. Now if a. the identity element of G. Since 4^ = 4 = 9-4 for any g e. 3. 2. {h~'g-'){gh) Problems 2. Notice that the inverses are unique even though G is not a semigroup. °) + o — Oa = inverse of a is a. = = 1.

Then a = r(a. ° 1 = —1 while ° (0 o 1) = Hence (Q. Page 18).G. °). Let G be the groupoid with carrier Q and binary operation ° defined by a°b = a—b + ab. If Q is replaced by Z. Therefore a = 2. +) has no identity. a P -> P and. then a + p — p. However. a H a—1 — a / a \ ) \a— 1/ - a . as the carrier for the groupoids in Problem 2. Thus G is a semigroup. {Q. Therefore (Q. If a were an identity element in G and if p e G. (0 ° 0) o 1 = o — 1 = 1.: 1 o Sec.16. that the addition of mappings in the set F of all mappings of R an associative binary operation.).°)l Which elements of the groupoid have inverses? Solution: (Q. for if e were an identity. -{ —a(a — 1) —^ o— ^^ — = Similarly. For example.19. — 1) =s 2(a . If a < 0.) In Problem 2. a.15 is a semigroup with an identity. b. Then a = r(a. This is clearly impossible. then = 2 is an integer. is: for which integers # a 1 is a ~— ct 2.17. r must be positive and . and so r ^ 2. Our problem then — 1 an integer? Let ^^3-j.6 into we showed R is : 2.°) a semigroup? Is there an identity element in (Q. °) is clearly a groupoid. which have inverses.18. 2. Then G with the binary operation of composition of mappings is a semigroup.2.o) ment for the and o defined as in Problem 2. for if Te. Furthermore. — 6 + ab) °c — a— b — c+(a~b + ab)c = a~b + all — c ac — bc abe values of a. 2.0 G Q. But a & G. Let a.peG and o 6 F. c and that Solution be three elements in a semigroup this inverse is (c~i6~i)a~i. a o (6 o c) = = ao (6 — c + 6c) = a — (b —c+ + ab be) + a(b —c+ be) — a — b + c— ab bc + + ab — ac + + abc and (a o 6) o c (a. Solution: (i) The composition of mappings is an associative binary operation (see Problem 1. °) has no identity element.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT a r a—1 35 a ° = a . (a) Assume first that a > 1. an integer.15.41. since € P. The same is true for the proof that is the with identity of (Z. then /(i t) = (. this is a contradiction. b and c. into P. Is the groupoid (Q. Thus and 2 are the only elements with inverses. Then r must be positive. Let G be the mappings of P. These two expressions are not the same for 2. °) is not a semigroup. Clearly r = 1 is impossible. the integers. The argument here is similar.2. If a = 0.o . then 1 a ^_. Prove that a(bc) has an inverse We need only verify that {a(6c)}{(c-i6-i)a-i} = a{(6c)[(c-i6-i)a-i]} = a{[(6c)(c-i6-i)]a-i} = a{la-i} = aa-i = 1 and similarly that {(c-i6-i)a-i}{a(bc)} = 1 to prove the result. (6) Now assume a ^ 0. °) has no identity element. since 1. then 6°! = 1 and eoO = 0. But eol = e — 1 + 6 = 1 implies 2e = 2 or e = 1. (Compare with Problem 2. —— r ° a = 0. Note our use of the associative law. The mapping defined by i°i = j for all j e P is the identity of G. (ii) the addition of mappings.1) and O — a — 2. and = e°0 = e — + implies e = 0.ja + ip = j/3. If a = 2.) Solution: (Z.i)t = I JT (ii) - (.13. These laws also hold in Z. which is impossible. the inverse of an element a(# a 1) G Z would be "" ^ "-"^ S Z. then j{a + P) . hence ja = 0.1).V)i = i(T o . the positive integers. =0 is an integer. since the arguassociativity depended only upon the associativity and commutativity of addition multiplication in Q. where a + /3 is defined by a{a + p) — aa + aji. . Determine whether G is a semigroup with an identity element if the binary operation in P is (i) the composition of mappings. Hence o ^ 2(a — 1) and thus . Thus (G. are the solutions the same? (Hard. Thus if j e P.= r.

/x. = i^iyp). SO that 1 would have two disi. To check that the definition of y is meaningful. in other words.36 GROUPOIDS The semigroup of [CHAP. i. Then if ^ G Mx. i. i: To show that Mx has an xGX.t all p G Mx. We characterize these elements in the following theorem.(py) To prove the converse.4: An element in Mx has an inverse if and only if it is one-to-one and onto. Suppose p has an inverse is a preimage of and xy GX y. y. = then x = XiJ.e. observe that as p is onto there certainly is at least one element y is the unique element But p is one-to-one. y.(yp) = one-to-one.p)y = ic(py) = xi - and (i/p)y — 3/(py) = 2/ Therefore. then a has no inverse. set X x{tx o y) = {xix)y for all x G X /x • It is clear that o is a binary operation in Mx. images under y. is We shall use the multiplicative notation Mx is a semigroup with an identity. Thus y is the inverse of p and the proof of Theorem 2. = (Xix)i = X{fii) tp. Thus identity element.2. 2 b.: X ^ X and y: X -* X. let X X -* be defined by xi = x for all x{ifji) = (Xt)/i = i Xfn. is y. /x. Let jn. Let x G = (a.y))p = x{{ii. = is p.. /i or simply ixy. So y and xp = y.. X For is if x GX. To conclude we show y is the inverse of p. = (a. Suppose fx. we assume p shown to be an inverse of p. p x. is a semigroup.y)p) Since x is Thus (juy)p any element of X. For 2/' if — y\i. — x. 3<7 = 1.(yp) have the same effect on every element of X. Then x = iViAiyi^) = ((^i")y)M = (2/(/^y))^ = (^')m = yi^ = and so yp = i. then (a. 3} and G Mx is defined by la = 1. instead of If o y.fx)(yp) = ((a.y)p which contradicts the assumption that y is a mapping. then p is onto. Theorem Proof: 2.3: X is any non-empty Mx Mx a semigroup with an identity element. which X GX X Since p is onto. Then using the definition of composition of 3:idyp)) mappings. for if ay — we have = It = l(CTy) = (lor)y — ly and 2 = 2t = 2(ory) = (2cr)y = ly. mappings of a set into itself is the set Mx of all mappings of a given non-emptywhere the binary operation is composition of mappings.e. since y is a mapping. For example. and so Mx {ixy)p and iU. p G Mx and let x G X.p)y — yy — x by the definition of y. We define ft o y to be the mapping of X into X given by A particularly important semigroup into itself. will be element xGX.e. each x ^{y\>) GX must have a preimage y GX./x)y)p = {x{i. distinct elements have distinct images. The proof of the a 1 Not every element in Mx necessarily has an inverse. The subset of those elements which have inverses is very important. 2(t = 1. such that i/p = a. p Define is one-to-one.4 is complete. Moreover. We begin by proving a semigroup. tinct Mx consisting of Theorem Proof: (a. Then a. We repeat the definition of the composition of mappings in this special case. theorem = for complete. i. We now show set. such that Vix. we define xy-y where y is that of which is the preimage of x under p. ^p = x. as follows: if one-to-one and onto. xl = a. and so py = t. all 2. xp = j/p implies x is — y. hence is an identity element of Mx. y S Mx. if X = {1. .

Exhibit all elements of M^ when (i) X= .j> namely ' i : ^ o 1.g. e -* c. b. X — e\ e . 3. Ml \»i <H\ 12/ /a.. b -* a. 1.a„}. (ii) X= 1 {1. 6 ^ a. (ii) The following are the elements /I of M^^_ 2) { -. a. 1. = = = 6. (a) Write the element a in Mx. "'''"^' 2.. the identity mapping.. = 1. 5a 5a 5a 3a 3a (iii) = = 4a 4a 4. . 2a 2a 2a = = = 4. All elements of X need not appear in the bottom row. .. = 1 and .22. 1.qju^^jj^ ^i\ ^^g elements of and under each element will top row X X appear as its we see unique image under from the example above. . e}. = 2.\ a^J ^^e the only elements of M. (iii) Z= {oj. when a is 1<7 (ii) la la = = = 1. 2\ I ' /I { 2\ 1 ' /I ( 2\ /I 2 1 I o i)'( . e^6 e -* (iii) a-> d -* b... say X— {ai. <t. 5. -* a.. e -> e (ii) 6-»e. 5. a. there is a convenient way of denoting any G Mx.\ /a. 6. d-»c. a. c-*d. 2. = 2.. «) its 2. (i) (ii) The identity of M. Solution: (i) There is only one element in M..20.21(i) and (ii). 4.\ V«i «i/ \«2 «i/ J W a. elements of b c c M^.2..^.21. is i = /I ( 2 . ^Hl (i) ej (l ij <"') (654321 /I 2 3 4 5 6 (6) The mappings defined by a a -> 6. therefore the /^» ^2 as . are represented by the following? /a d d \b Solution: a /a \a b e c d c e\ bJ ^ d /a \e b c d b e a c a /I <"^ 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 2 6\ /I (") 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6\ . Write out the multiplication tables of the three semigroups in Problem 2. 2. in the notation introduced above. e. image under <j a. 3. d -» d.J Sec. . 2(t = 1. a„\ ^^jj (. „. . a 2.. Notation for a mapping When a X is finite. dj}.. e. c. d. 2. defined by (i) X= 4ct {1. namely That is. 2}. we place below each element ai 1<t of X 2 1 (i X= {1. {a. Problems 2. 1. 6<r = = = 6 1 1 6a 6a (6) What . c -^ c.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT 37 c.3} and a G Z is defined by = 1 1. if 3<r = then is represented by 3' 1 2 Notice that every element of has a unique image under an element a in Mx. . 6}. {1}. 3ct = 5..^.

Now column consists of is taken to 1 by a^. Solution : The possible representations of elements of 1 M^^^. Solution: ( 2 . But then cg is its own inverse. ' ( ) 2. i and 02 are the only elements which have inverses. .4. a ' = ai. thus aa^ = ai- Hence the second column still consists of CTj.21 (ii).. .n} and a G Mx. List all elements of M.25? Solution: Theorem 2. so (Tjcra = ^3.2. Similarly aa^ = so the last and each element of {1. Similarly : : : .m.Show that a has an inverse if and only if the bottom row in /I the representation of a given on page 37. 2. (T3 3 -> 3.i2) which have inverses. . We and 2 must 1 is calculate ai<72. taken to 2 by ctj.26. ii<^2)''2 — ^"2 — 1 ^nd 2^2 2o'2CT2 — and so ^(73(72 = = 1. In the notation of Problem 2. naj once. Hence {la. .j a^. .m which have inverses are 2 2 3\ 12 1 "4 3/ 3\ 1/ "^"^13 _ /I 2 _ /I 3\ 27 3\ "^""(^213 _ /I "^""13 2 2 3 1 _ /I 2 3 2 3 . <T2<r2 a^.25. As <T is a one-to-one and onto mapping it has. Now lcr2<'2 — then JCT3 = ^ ^ {!> 2}. .. Thus <'3<'2 = ''l- 2. List all elements of M.. then each element in X has a unique image under a. 2a. hence the row and first column are easily written down.. hence <J~' = 05. hence ct2<'^2 — '• ^^ CTgcrj.2. ji . we note a^ takes 1^2. by Theorem 2.4 explains how to find the inverse of a mapping which is one-to-one and onto.^2\ ' "with bottom / row containing 1 and 2. to find the inverse of ag.24.^^} which have inverses. Therefore a is one-to-one. namely the entry under that particular element. we have /I I 2\ ) /I ( and 2\ 1 *^ *"® only elements of M.4.23.j g^j which have inverses.Tg. Sa. a is also onto. then k(aai) = (k<j)ai = 1.22. Conversely if the bottom row of the representation has all the elements of X once and only once. Let X= {1. and only once. = 1. Since = 1. find all representations of elements of Solution : Problem 2. a^ 1 ff-i 3 -» 3. if ct .. i leaves every element of ja^ unchanged. For example.} and the bottom row of \la 2a .2. What are the inverses of the elements in Problem 2. 2} takes every element to 2.38 GROUPOIDS 1 [CHAP.. for if j & X it must be one of the elements in the bottom row and j is then an image of the element of X appearing above it in the representation. first Since i is the identity. By Theorem 2. "^^ = "4' <T2. viz. . Using the result of Problem 2. Hence a~i 2 -^ 1.23 shows us that we must M.2 "'^"(312/ 2. n „ \ ) > ^ 2a „ contains every element of X once no} = has an inverse then a is one-to-one and onto. and if cr S M. hence aj^^ (202)02 — ^"2 — 2. /I 2 n \ contains all elements of X once and only {1. 2 2 Let "1 "2 and ffs Then the multiplication 2 "z t'S table is 2 "2 ( "1 "1 "1 "1 "2 "3 I "1 "3 <'3 "2 "2 "3 "1 "3 The multiplication Affj 2} 3 is calculated as follows. . an inverse.

v and some Ui. Solution: Mx which have inverses is a semigroup with identity under Let S be the elements of Mx which have inverses. Now x = uv and y .n .. when . az. . as desired.Sec. . Thus we write simply 0102. at G S. Hence the result follows. ai and as together (in this order): {aia2)a3 and ai{a2a3). without brackets.Os). m m • • m o's. and On the contrary. .a„ e S. and V the product of the elements Or+i.. . last. . The point of the associative law is that these products coincide.5 that in a semigroup. . Without loss of generality we may suppose that s^r. . 13 have inverses. . we have Let S be a semigroup and ai. .as){(as+i. . Or . . as. . the Oi appears first in each product. the answer is yes. As Mx satisfies the associative law. Then we can multiply ai. .uivi for some u. Theorem 2. for the product of oi. . 02.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT 39 2. Then any two products of 01. S S. . So we ask: if a. ai together (in this order) in the following five ways: ai{a2iazai)). Hence x = uv = {(oi.a„. By the associative law for the three elements (oi. . a„ in that order that n is the first integer for which two different products give rise to different elements. . If n is a second positive integer. 02. . a useful abbreviation for such a product is o*". Here we have. Let x and y be these two different products. o„ in this order. we write ^•a a for the product of o's. contradicting the assumption that not all possible products are equal. The order in a product There is one way in which the associative law makes it easier to work in a semigroup than in a non-associative groupoid. . Is ° the usual composition of mappings.. Suppose now ai. that not all possible products of Oi.0. . if is any positive integer.27. ond Proof: are equal. ai{{ai<as)ai) some of these products give rise to different elements of S.a„) while y = uiVi = (oi. /3) ^ a ° /3 a mapping of S X S ^ S"! If ao p e S. In fact all of the products equal the first. . . . 2. . 02 sec. . the associative law.a«). However. .On). as G S. hence the second product coincides with the first. . If s < r. . {aia2){azai). Suppose S is a semigroup and let ai. Similarly. {ai{a^z))ai. Assume We may assume .. ai.o„)). Hence S is a semigroup.. since n is the first integer for which there exist two unequal products of the same elements. so does S.. . which of course involves products of only three elements. is (a.aT) and (ar+i. Prove that the subset of elements of the usual compositions of mappings. a^. . (o"")" = a""". . the bracketing is immaterial. . As is its own inverse. while ui is the product of oi. . {aia2){asai) = ai{a2{a3ai)).Os)(as+i. . For example. prohibits this. By the associative law. then u = (oi.ar)(ar+i. if we are given the order of a product.Or) while vi = (tts+i. . .02. (as+i..a„. . On coincide. a binary operation in SI In other words. vu Suppose u is the product of the elements Oi. . = (ai(a2a3))a4 = ai{{a2a3)ai) = 01(02(0304)) In general. . . and Vi is the product of Os+i. If s = r then u = Ui and v = Vi.. does a°^? Note that (a ° /3) ° (/3-i oa-i) = ao(^o^-i) Off-i = aoioa-i = I.5: let . . As a second illustration consider ((aia2)a3)a4. . a2. . . ((aia2)a3)a4.aT)(Or+i. It follows from Theorem 2.Or)}(or+i. . i 1 d. There are two ways in which one can multiply ai. . To see this consider first {aia2){azai).a„. then a"* o" = 0*"+" since a"" o" is simply the product of 4. . It is conceivable that {{aia2)az)a4. . Hence a ° /? has the inverse I3^^°a~^.Os)(os+i. we have x = y.

Is a: semigroup for all g G G a homomorphism of G into Ht G^H H Solution: As then in the preceding problem.3} following table. HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Definition of a homomorphism homomorphism of one groupoid into another.29.7) is often expressed as: "6 preserves multiplication. The formal definition we will give an example.+) into Solution Define since Tj.+) be the groupoid of real numbers with binary operation the usual addition inside R.30.: ng & H by t^: g ^ ng where m is a fixed even integer. and let defined by a: g -^2g of even integers under the usual multiplication. Then g^e + QiB = 29^ preserves multiplication and is a homomorphism. is example of a homomorphism.+) and (H. Verify that the mapping e: 9 ^2g for all ff G Gf is a homomorphism of G into H. = 2{gi + g^) = (gx + 92)6.+) be the semigroups of Problem 2. Let us define a mapping e.92^ G.nd gy<jg^<j ^2g^g2 = But a is not a homomorphism. {2. Therefore* 2. t„ is a homomorphism because for any G^H ." Problems 2. 2.28. the semigroup with binary operation given by the 3^ = 3. g^ in G. •) is a mapping {gig2)B The definition then takes the e. 2 For example. form: A homomorphism of (G. Definition: A e: homomorphism from a groupoid G-* {G. hence {xy)e = xO + yO. 92 e G.2. g^gi^G. (H.6i = logioa. + logiot/.g29)p for all gi. Before we give the formal definition of a Let {R. for if for all ^^g^di.: 40 GROUPOIDS [CHAP. 2^ = is 3. •) into {H.R-^R by 6 is an a. Let we must check to see if e is a mapping. 12 2 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 12 12 3 2. +) which Let (G. be the Let G be the semigroup of integers under the usual multiplication of integers. Recall that logio(a. then 1^ = 3. is not equal to e. t„ is a mapping of G into H. Usually groupoids are written in multiplicative notation. •) be the groupoid of positive real numbers with the binary operation of ordinary multiplication.p) is a mapping H which satisfies the condition {{9u92)<x)e = {gi9. Let {R. Since 2g is a unique integer. For each n. g% in G. + ig^. if S = {1. (ffifTzV = ^. Find a homomorphism of (G.5 a.a) into a groupoid {H..2/) = logioa. Let First let e : H be the semigroup G -* H defined by a Solution: mapping.G^H such that (^-T") = gi6g29 for all gi. even integer n and ng is unique.Hence {9192)" ^ (gi<')iff2<') g^. of G be the semigroup of integers under the usual addition of integers and even integers under the usual addition. 2ffiff2 <r is a mapping. e is clearly 0^.28.

5] HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM 41 9i. 3}. 2. for Solution: Let Hence a 2. 2. a is not a homomorphism. Hence <r is a homomorphism. a is not a homomorphism.2/n (if n ^ 0) and 2/n g G. so that (yV = b for any j G {1.33. + g2<' = gf + gl Is the mapping homomorphi sm ? G into i?.g^SG. a is not a homomorphism.2. Verify that the mapping a: not a homomorphism. 2 and 3 is b. Solution: V is clearly H : be the semigroup G^H defined by a mapping.b. 2. Then (ffi + ^2)') = 2 91 + B2 2®'2 ' = givg2V- Hence 1.+). 3 Solution We (o) use a to indicate the mapping in each case.g2 ^ G. • 2(i- 2.: Sec. (d) luStr = be = a and (1 3)<t = 3a = c. is not a homomorphism. Let of (i) G be the semigroup of positive G into G are homomorphisms: <r : integers under the usual addition. ^c 3 ^ a 3 ^ 6 3 1 -* 6.gi S a of g^a (3. mappings are homomorphisms? (d) (e) (/) 1 ^ ^ 2 -» 6. 92 ^ G> then (ffi + g2)<' = and gi<r + g^a = + = 0. H= {{a. 3 ^ ^ c ^ 6. . Thus TOja + nja y= (»ii + n2)<T and hence a is not a (»ii + TC2)<' =1. 3}. 2 1 a. TOja + n^ = 2wf + 2«2Then n^a + ^2(7 ^ (wj + n2)<'> and so a is not a homomorphism.35. is gi. (ii) a: n-* 2v?. 2 -* 6. G^H defined by a-g^g^. (iii) a: w -» 1. (%! (tox homomorphism. Let G = ({1. as in Problem 2.28. Let all G g and H be is & G.32. Let G be the semigroup of positive integers P under the usual addition. since U ¥= It^ if n # 2. and let of positive integers P under the usual multiplication. 2. = a. Show that the mapping ri gtl = 29 for all g G G is a homomorphism. q an integer. and iaja = bb = b. t„ is not onto since 2 has no preimage under t. Determine which mappings m -» 2n -t- 1. Then (srj + ffz)" = (9'i + S'2P = gl + gl+2gig2 and not a homomorphism for (g^ + g^)/! ¥' g^a + g^ for all gi. (6) la2a = aa = c and — a.31. 2 2 -^ 6.r^^ 9.28.a) and by the multiplication tables 2. 2 1 ^ ^ c. is a homomorphism. o. a Solution: If *'i. 2)a = (1 if) lo2a = ca = c and (1 • 2)a = 2a <r • • i. Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) + m2)(T = 2(wi + W2) + 1 and Wja + n^a = 2wi + 1 + 2n2 + 1 = 2(mi + rig) + 2.g-i^G implies (ffi + sr2)'-n = '^(ffi + ^2) = ^S'l + «S'2 = S'l^n + fl'2Tn. Therefore there is an infinite number of different homomorphisms between (<?. 1 -» a. and so a is not a homomorphism. because any element in H is of the form 2q.p) be the groupoids with binary operations a and ^ defined 3 3 1 12 1 a c b c 2 3 1 a 5 b ff : 2 3 2 3 6 c c a b 2 Which (a) (6) (c) of the following a.+) and {H. q&G. defined by ga — for all g e G. For if qr^ — 2. 3 -* 6 & 1 -> c. a is not a homomorphism.34. But when n ¥^ 2.c}. (c) l(r2CT = ab = a and (1 2)ff = b. n^a + n^ = 1 + 1 = 2. and qT2 = 2q. lff2<r • — ab = a and (1 2)ff = 2a = b. then nq = 2 or q. (e) a is a homomorphism since the image of 1. ^ a. Notice r„ is an onto mapping if n = 2. (Wi + re2)a = 2(Wi + 712)^ = 2Wi + 2w2 + 4tciW2. Let gi. Hence + ti2)<' ^ Wi<7 + ii2<r. G and H as in Problem 2.

i is a one-to-one epimorphism. Then we define a mapping one-to-one and onto.36.37. A homomorphism of a groupoid G into a groupoid H may be both onto and one-to-one. First. Thus there exists no isomorphism e: G-^ H. [CHAP. or G is isomorphic to H.gn ^^ the (distinct) elements of G. Now one. When is t„ an isomorphism. 9 is one-to-one and onto. (See Section a 6 maps the carrier of G onto the carrier of 1. (. If t„ is onto. i. ff. We shall prove that y is an Let fi isomorphism. into the carrier of is called a isomorphism if 6 is both an epimorphism and a monomorphism.. K. Let /ij. then we say are isomorphic. Put hp = g. Let y = ayS. there exists a unique g G h/Sa H -* G as follows: Let G such that ga = is h. = g for all fir G G.42 GROUPOIDS Epimorphism. G^G it is be the mapping defined by gi.e. and addition as the binary operation. Then not a monomorphism. which contradicts \G\ # 1H|. 7 G ^ K. g2a = /i2. g^a = fir2«. 2.9i£f2)y : : = 9u ^2^ = 92a: G ^ H and a homomorphism. Hence (ii) an isomorphism. G^ K. Then (since » is onto). a-G^H As yS a is be an isomorphism. for if and hp = g onto G. Prove that if G.3a. Hence \H\ . H an isomorphism from groupoid G onto the groupoid H. A homomorphism of groupoid G into groupoid H may be an onto mapping. page 12. so it is g is = 2/n T„ is one-to-one since gr^ = g'T„ implies ng = ng' and so g = g'. monomorphism or epimorphism? Solution: If H w one. for the definition of Ge. then an equivalence relation. ga = hG hi/3 = h^P. and so G = G. for g G G. {g\a)P = (fi'2«)y8. g^e. Let t„ for n an even integer be the homomorphism (Problem 2. We give these three types of homomorphisms special names. and write G = H. for if g^y . U 2. e:G^H . 1. G and H are finite groupoids and \G\ ¥' \H\. Thus t±2 are isomorphisms and t„ # 0.. Hence G s K. Also j8 one-to- Finally is hiP (iii) -* K be isomorphisms. 2. Definition: Let 1. which Finally. H = G. 9i6.Then Note that (firiff2)a = Qrag^a = /ii?i2. 9 be a homomorphism of a groupoid called G into a groupoid H.38.. for if g G G. If there is G and Problems 2. = gyfi be an isomorphism and let gi. there exists g and n = ±2. 3. g^ = £'2= ((fl'ifl'2)«)y8 = (S'i«fl'2«)i8 = {Sia)p{g2a)p = gi(ap)g2{ap) = gagij.giy. monomorphism. and isomorphism Three special types of homomorphism arise naturally. ji : Let h e H. Then 6 is H. y is onto. so gia/}) = hp = k. In other words " = " (ii) if G = H.. Show that G cannot be isomorphic to H.. we must show that y is a homomorphism. then Aj/Ja = /i2/8a and so h^ = /i2/3 H by definition. A homomorphism of a groupoid G into a groupoid H may be a one-to-one mapping. Hence t±2 are the only epimorphisms. are distinct (since 9 is one-to-one) and are all the elements of n.) Let r.) 9 is called monomorphism H. (iii) if G = H (Hard. the even integers with Let G be the groupoid of integers with addition as binary operation. &G a monomorphism when n ¥= Q. implies. Suppose fifja = hi. since a is one-to-one.Hence (h^h^fi = ^1^2 = KPh2P- H H . there exists hG such that hp = k.30) defined by gr^ = ng. if ^ is a one-to-one mapping of the carrier of G 3. 2. because if k e. i. then: (i) G= is G. an epimorphism if Ge = H.e. tq is not one-tosuch that gr^ = ng = 2. /ij S H. and H = K. Next y is one-to-one. and there exists g G G such that ga = h. 2 b. and as p is one-to-one. Note that is = h. then Solution: (i) if are groupoids. Secondly. Solution : Let .

the isomorphism between them would constitute a matching and hence the reals and the integers would be equipotent.4L Is Mj.37. In particular. o) + b + ab)a — — (o : (Z. *) a + + b + — ab be the groupoid with binary operation * defined by (Z. Thus la = (1 ^ l)a = la • la and so la = ±1. Suppose re = rq for r = n. -^) -> (Q*. n integers and m.2} not iso- ^ ^ .3) which have is Thus is less morphic to M. for (ao)^ = a>// — d while a^axi^ = dd = c. namely -> c.25. = —a for aG Z.) Is the groupoid of nonzero rational numbers under division isomorphic to the groupoid of nonzero rational numbers under multiplication? Is the (c) semigroup of integers under the usual addition isomorphic to the semigroup of rational e numbers under the usual addition? (Hint: Show that under any homomorphism integers under addition into the rationals under addition. since there are only two one-to-one mappings.2. Similarly. -I-) be any homomorphism. for if = ba implies —a = —b and Is Mjj. {n+ l)e = ne + le = nq + q = {n + l)q. for (ab)e = ae = c while aebe = cd = d. Therefore. : -^ a — ib is an isomorphism from the groupoid C of complex . b -^ c. Now 1 = 1 -M.39. Now q = le = (0 + l)e = Qe + le = Os + q and so Oe . But 1/2'm is not an integer. 2. • (®®^ Problem 2.42.{1. re = rq. with m. M^^y cannot be isomorphic to Mjj inverses has 6 elements. a \// : vJ- 2. Let {Z. If r were an integer such that re = l/2n. 2. 2. : not onto.5] HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Is the 43 2. w t^ 0. Thus e is not an epimorphism and there is no isomorphism. page 37).o) = a*b = (Z. then l/2n G Q. We shall show by induction on r that re = rq for all r G N. Thus there is no isomorphism between the two groupoids. by Problem 2. 3a = ±1. Let le = q. *) -l- 6 -1- a6) be defined by aa and aa * fea a is onto. b -> d and a ^ d. a is not an isomorphism.40. is not an isomorphism. Consider r = n + 1.Sec.3} and so Af. Prove that the mapping e a + ib numbers under addition with itself. Now ±1 = la = (2 -V 2)a = 2a2a and so 2a = ±1. ff is Has l/2n a pre-image? 2.0. Let a (Q*. {1. Hence re = rq for all r G N.21.^} a = b. (a o b)a — (— a)(— 6) = —(a + 6 -f.*)? a b ab Solution: (a Let a (Z.l/2n and so r = l/2m._2_3j Solution: l^wl = i and \M {1. °) = (Z.43.) Solution: (a) of the No. If g = m/n.j? ^Mj.ah). the subset of elements in M^j . •) be a homomorphism between the nonzero rationals under division and the nonzero rationals under multiplication. Now — (Z.j^M(j_. +) -^ (Q. o G (Z.2} I ~^ j. by induction. If 9 = 0. (Z. °) and (— a)(T = a. From Problem |Af. then —a G Therefore a is one-to-one and a mapping. (a) of nonzero real (6) semigroup of integers under the usual addition isomorphic to the multiplicative groupoid numbers? {Hint: The integers and the reals are not equipotent. Hence a is not one-to-one. Because if the integers were isomorphic to the reals. then — r e N. re = r(l9). Give an example of two groupoids of order two which are not isomorphic. a = — a * — 5 = (—a) + is clearly (—6) Hence aa <r is a homomorphism.j 2} 2. : (6) (c) Let e {Z. *). then rq .j then the order of M. Hence re = rq for all r G Z. If r G Z and r is negative. °) be the groupoid with binary operation ° defined by a°b = and Is let (Z. *). Solution: a a a b c c c d d c baa e : a d d These two groupoids are not isomorphic. Now e is not an isomorphism. Then since = (r + -r)e = re + {-r)e = re + (-r)q. 2.

•) into {R. Since there is no integer such that logjo X = —1. 6 if Theorem 2. so is H. On the other hand (a -1. x = a + ib. and thus there 2.ib)e = (—a — ib)e. (b) (c) Furthermore ge in H. R Solution homomorphism.5a. Let oid e : •) be the groupoid P under the usual multiplication of positive integers and {R. * is a Thus e is • • • . As ^ is that gO = h. Then h = and 19 -h IS is = 16 'g9 = /. Also 6i fl is 62- one-to-one. so is H. for + i6i) + to the (02 + 162)] 9 = (ffli + 02) - tCfti + 62) = (»! + i6i)9 + + ^^2)* 2. Is the homomorphism e of the complex numbers groupoid C of complex numbers under the usual multiplication of groupoid of real numbers under the usual multiplication defined by 9 : a + ib -^ ]a. c. for if x e («! -I- ib{)e = (ttj + ib2)e C. Properties of epimorphisms We will show in this section that if 6 is an epimorphism from the groupoid G H. not onto. i. Hence e is not onto.&!> epimorphism. G is a semigroup. then |a. + ibj = + y/a?. monomorphism or isomorphism? (P. to the groupoid H. then H shares some of the properties of G. = f9-ge which means f9 is the inverse of ge in . Is the mapping B of (P.+ b^ an epimorphism or monomorphism? Solution: It is well known that if x^iX^ are two complex numbers.e. Therefore ge-fe = {gf)e ^19 = H. +) the groupunder the usual addition of real numbers. 6 is onto and we can find an element h-19 = in h-ie = ge-ie = (g-i)e = ge G such = h 19-h. then logjo a = logio b and hence a = b. As in Section 2. fl' Proof: (a) Let hGH.: 44 GROUPOIDS Solution e is [CHAP.44.ia. for it is always the case that \x\ — 0.6162)^ + 6162 (6ia2 + ^2^1)'^ = = Then exists - + + »(6i«2+ i62)| 62«i)l ](ai-|-ibi)(a2 (x^x^e — Xytx^e and so 9 is so 9 is not one-to-one. an epimorphism. Therefore 9 is a monomorphism but not an epimorphism nor an isomorphism. is a homomorphism. = logjo 1 < logio 2 < logjo 3 < a monomorphism.2l = l^^i! \^2\- The calcula- tions are |ai + i6i||a2 + i62l = V(a? + 6?)(a| + 6|) V'(aia2 [aiOa . then fe is the identity of an inverse of if G is commutative.6: Let (a) be an epimorphism from the groupoid G is to the groupoid Then G is a groupoid with an identity if 1. We shall prove 16 is the identity of H. If aa = be. implies a^ — ibi Now = a^ (a + i{—b))e = a + ib = ttj x. since — tfig and hence a^ = and = (a2 Finally e is [(ai a homomorphism. 1 Thus the identity of H and H is a groupoid with an Then gf = {fg)e Now suppose g GG has an inverse = fg. 2 onto.45. no x such that Finally e xe = —1. so H and 1^ is H. ¥) defined by a -» login o. if / is an inverse of g in G. {l'g)9 = ge = h identity.

the image of g under is the new name of g. will describe a "naming process.h. We must find a one-to-one onto homomorphism e. 2. and. g'9 = h' and have. If fg = h. This is a proper renaming since f = g means that f9 = g9. Let us as before renarne each element f GF. g" G {hh')h" = = {ge'g'6)g"e {9{g'9"))e = [{gg')9]g"e = {{gg')g")e = fl'e[(fl''fl'")e] = ge{g'e-g"9) = h{h'h") d. and G is iso- morphic with G. we can form a new groupoid G by renaming the elements of G. commutative. Also {fg)e . G associative we that multiplication is associative in H. difficulty of obtaining a new groupoid We look at the problem from another point of view. Since Then we can is find = h". To explain why. We show H is commutative. and that 9 is an isomorphism between F and G.e. Thus for each g G G we take a new element g. i. G such that ge . we Let G be the groupoid with binary operation • . f = g. But we shall choose / to be f9. and multiplication table 1 a 1 a We a. f. F suitably renamed. show H is a semigroup.5] HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Suppose Because 45 (6) G is 6 is onto. So we have not used the same name twice. Hence {fg)0 = feoge. we must prove h. As before. if fg = h we define / o g to be Ti. p and have multiplication table a Let G consist of the elements /3 P a What we have done is to call the elements of G by different names. define a new groupoid G by relabeling the elements of G. But fdoge = fog = h. as required. are not interested in distinguishing between groupoids which differ only because their elements have different names. by definition of the multiplication of G..h where fg = h. = ge-g'd = {g'g')e = {g' - g)e — h and g'6 = = g'O-gd = h'h Hence and so (c) To Let g"e H is commutative as claimed. then we define multiplication of elements of Ghy fog -h.e. i.g' G G for which gO hh' To this end let h. 9 is one-to-one onto. Suppose F and G are two isomorphic groupoids. It is easy to prove that G is a groupoid with this multiplication. Thus F becomes a groupoid with respect to the binary operation o . h' h'. Considering groupoids to be the same if they are We isomorphic overcomes this snag. ensuring only that fy^g if f ¥= g. Sec." beginning with an example. elements 1 and a. we can find g. Naming and isomorphisms In our study of groupoids we will take isomorphic groupoids to be essentially the same. G H. h" G H. h'. as 9 is one-to-one. To see this we will show that the G constructed from G above by renaming is isomorphic with G. cannot be distinguished either as regards their elements or the way they multiply. don't use the_ same name twice. g'. as one and only one g corresponds to each g. Thus isomorphism gets rid of the on simply renaming. Then we will apply our renaming process to show that G and F. In general if G is any groupoid. g. Define gO = g.

If /1/2 = /a. in fact. is the into S. /x) where ^u is a binary operation. xp^p^.e.s' • and so s — s' and a monomorphism.2 aa as The mapping 9 is defined by ^ is a monomorphism..e.7: Let S be a semigroup with identity. Thus a groupoid isomorphic with a groupoid F is indistinguishable from a suitable renaming of F as far as the elements and the way they multiply are concerned. = {xs)p^. with binary operation the composition of mappings. Let s./2 are also elements of G. Then there is into M^. ing multiplication table: S= be the semigroup given by the followas «3 Oj 0-2 Oi ai 0-2 a^ ttj aa ttg as (Xi ag Notice that ai is the identity element of Ui tti S and tti that a2 S is a semigroup. s' G S. Mx and semigroups iso- The importance of Mx is explained by the following theorem.. x that p^ is a mapping of ^ is G S S. which says that an morphic copy of any semigroup S is contained in some Mx... Hence the product /10/2 fiO. if X G S. /2 A= = /2^. For this reason we do not distinguish between groupoids that are isomorphic. since 6 is The product /1/2 in G is a homomorphism. Now P^P^. and s9s'9 = As p^p.. this is true for all x G S. But then — 1 s = = 1 • = p. Paj' - Paj' '^3'^ - P03 It can be checked directly that . therefore fiOfzO = in (f if 2)0 — faO = /a. and fi was called /2. does How F Now of /i.. Then /i was previously called /i. But do these elements multiply the same way? Suppose /i and /a are two elements of F. if 1 the identity of S.. then s p^ p^. Secondly we must show is that 9 is one-to-one. In = 1 s' . Here xs i. a^.46 GROUPOIDS [CHAP. 2 compare with G? F has the same elements as G. Theorem 2. S^ S It is clear be defined by xp^ = xs.) (Cayley's Theorem): a monomorphism of S Proof: Let s G S and let p/. — (xs)s' — Xp^^. tti Now a2 ai a2 Ua aa ai 9a^ as a2 a2 as a^9 P'^2 "2^ 0. {x. product of X and s in S.. s)[i.7. particular. {ss')9 a monomorphism.. First Let 9 : S-^ Mg we have to check that be defined by s9 = p^. Suppose Ip^ s9 = ' s'9. i. ^ is Ip^ = Ip^. As an illustration of the proof. = Hence = s9s'9. two elements F is the same element as the product /1/2 inside G. (The semigroup <S is an abbreviation for the semigroup (S. then we defined /i o /a = /g. as} 2. p. We shall show that is a homomorphism. = p.. p^ e M^. let This completes the proof of Theorem (oi. Mg is the semigroup of all mappings of the set S into itself. 6. {ss')9 = (aspjpj.

2. f^:x-^-. be a homomorphism if [(gi. o) is an associative groupoid but not a commutative groupoid./e) where /. 2. •) a commuta- . •) a groupoid if • is the usual multiplication of integers? 2. then S ^ S0 and hence Ms contains an isomorphic copy of S. 2] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 47 Let Se = {se\ s G S} where is the monomorphism of Theorem 2. d) = (oc.{0. {fvfz'fa} o) is Prove a"^ = {/i. 1} into R defined for each a.CHAP.o). A look back at Chapter 2 We We We defined a groupoid.51.°). We proved Cayley's theorem.50.x^l-x. i . with the usual 2. (vi) (G5..48. 6) • (c. mapping : {G. while inverses are unique in a semigroup.6. f^-.7. 4. a groupoid? For which n is ((?„. {fofj} (i) fi- x ^ rr^—.6. and commutative groupoid.°). showed that defined a in a groupoid the identity is unique. Suppose Gy = and that o is Determine which of the following are groupoids: (v)(Gi.b G R*. G fi - {0. g2)a]e = it an isomorphism of (G. Suppose G„ is the set of all integers divisible by the integer n.52.i. tive or Define the binary operation -on an associative groupoid? G = RXR as (a.5.°).47. i = 1. Thus we see that in a rough way every semigroup with identity appears in some Mx.x-^x.2. —1}. but for naming.926)]^. f^-. Let F= (F.46. Define the binary operation o on K* by aob = \a\ b for a. Hence the importance of Mx. GROUPOIDS Let G = Show {1. Is (G.A.49. 6. and • is the usual multiplication of complex numbers.a) onto (G. associative groupoid (called a semigroup).49. Let R* be the set of nonzero real numbers. Let /i.°). 2.y/^.x-^-^. we called Supplementary Problems 2./3). o) is not a groupoid (o is the composition of mappings). that each semigroup has an isomorphic copy in Mx for some suitable X. that (G. Is (G. (iii)(Gi.3. multiplication of integers. (iv)(Gi. In Section 2. Hint: \a\ \b\ = \ab\.4. 2. 1} by fi-.5d we pointed out that. 3. •). be + d). p) to [(910.—i}. If e is one-to-one and onto. a) -* {G. fs'-x^—^. 5. S and an isomorphic copy were the same. are the mappings defined in Problem 2. Prove (R*. the composition of mappings. a groupoid while {H. (Gi. be the set G of mappings of R. (ii)(Gi. H COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS 2.^. •) is a groupoid when G = {l.-l.°).

c.-l. 2 2. i . •) restricted to and F. the positive square root)./z. -i). \ •) a groupoid. -1)} a semigroup with an identity. 6 G R). For a semigroup with an identity? a. Z}. d') = (aa' + cb'. a. X) a groupoid? Does it have an identity? What elements have inverses? For • 2. INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS 2.48 GROUPOIDS The binary operation a on [CHAP. 0. Define a elements have inverses? X .2. ae' + cd' . td ^ d Prove: (a • the usual /\ (i) try (G. Let (G.2}}. Let G = {a I a: Z^ Q.55.56. (-1.60./s.4. 0.58 and 2.°) of {1. Which of the groupoids in Problems 2. Let {a\ a a mapping position of mappings. • Define (a. the groupoid of Problem 2. •) is H FG= {(1. (i) (G.c. •) is commutative but not associative.59 are commutative and which are associative? 2. b. are semigroups with an identity. Which elements of (G. *) is neither associative nor commutative. X) have an identity? What the rational numbers}. Prove: (iii) {a* fi) *a = a* {/} * a) (ii) (G. .49./s. 0.59.A. (Hard. composition of is mappmgs and x (ii) a° P + P°a ~ o x(a ~^ P) + ^~2 — x(p ° a) P°« where « is „ x e R. 1). Is (0. What elements have inverses? X where all a.6 = the + Does (i2 + . d) \ a. let a X ^ be the mapping defined by x{a X p) = xa'xp G Z and is the usual multiplication of integers.67.peG. •). Find the inverse of each element in (G. + on fi by a + 6 = the minimum of a and & (a. Show that (R. be' + dd') and .57.h & R. 6. Find the inverses of the elements of Show that (G.b)-*\a — b\ for a. 2. Let G = {a a: R-^ R}.a) is commutative but not associative. have inverses? 2. 2. Show that the subsets and F respectively. *). Prove that G with the binary operation ° of composition of mappings. c G Z}. Show that (R. For a.x-^ — (xp) for all xGR. ba' + db'.56. maximum 6GB . and • the usual multiplication of com- plex numbers.*). where G= {l. Find an identity in (i2 + .b. Let B+ be the set of is all non-negative real numbers.-|-) have an identity? What elements have inverses? and 6.58. for all a. For a. 2. with the binary operation of (G.{(\. c. SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY 2. 0. 1) | H H 2.d€.63. Show that (G. b'. Suppose we define a binary operation 2.57.) I 2. Q (G. Does 2.53. of a Define the following binary operation + in i2 + the non-negative real numbers: a -I. (iii) ^) • a = a • (/3 • a) for all a. c. Let G be the set in Problem 2. What is the identity of (G.V-l.62.65./e} of Problem 2.PGG.3. Let G = {(a.54./3 e G. (G. 2.i.8 as in the preceding problem. 6eK + iVoF+b^ 2. 2. p & G = {a\ a: Z ^ Z}. *) be the groupoid of Problem 2. *) is a groupoid.66. let a° p be the usual com- . is a semigroup with an identity. Let G = {/i. +) is both associative and commutative. p ^ G define the mapping a* fi = a° ji — fi°a where ° is the usual composition of mappings and x{a ° 13 — /} ° a) = x{a ° P) ~ x{/3 ° a) for all x G R.64. c'.5} into {1. *) ? Find an infinite number of elements which have inverses. p & G define ° a' p = «°P . 0. Is (G. Define a*6 = \/a2 +P for all a. R is defined by «: {a. d) (a'.61.55.55 has no identity.°). (iv) a * /3 = (— /3) * a where — /3 is the element of G defined by —p-.

71.3. /e) be the groupoid of Problem 2. define the mapping a X ^8 by n(a X p) = na "np Is {G. -1)} be the groupoid defined isomorphic to the groupoid (G. 0. (H.5} and • the usual multiplication of integers. 2] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS : 49 2. HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Let H = {(1. /a. Show that * (G. Which Let of the groupoids of Problem 2.69. —1} and is •) • is Problem 2. X) a semigroup with an where n S {1.58 and ° the usual composition of mappings. I {Z. Show that there is no homomorphism of (G. (Hard. 5} ^ {1. /a.) 2.55 be a homomorphic image of the groupoid (Mr.49 are isomorphic? 2. *) of Problem 2.70. the usual composition of mappings? °) where o 2. /4. Can the groupoid is (G. X the binary operation defined in Problem 2. f^} and ° the usual composiand • G= H tion of mappings. 1) c e Z} is the groupoid defined in Problem 2.') the groupoid with the usual multiplication of integers.4. /s. where G = {1. = {1.2. 1). Suppose G = {a\ a: Z Z}.73.65. For a. CHAP.66. page 44. 3. identity? If so. U F = {(1. -1}}. (-1. p e G = {a\ a {1. what elements have inverses? 2.72. in H 2. Show that the usual multiplication of integers. A.66 and under addition.. X) -> (G. 0. 2. c. 0.-1} {/i.6. prove the two groupoids are isomorphic. °) defined by *:«-*« is not a homomorphism. o) into (F. +) the groupoid of integers 2.) : ^ . 0. (See Theorem 2. 0.4.68.74. o) where F = {/j. Find all possible homomorphisms of G into H.

(6 • c = c) •) Thus (i) and (ii) are the conditions for (S.1.1 GROUPS As we remarked in the preview. for every choice of the elements a. (See following examples and problems. a Definition semigroup with an identity in which every element repeat the definition in more detail: has an inverse Definition: is termed a group. This is done by providing illustrations of groups which arise in various branches of mathematics.2. (iii) every element such that aGS is has an inverse in S. set iS We A (i) non-empty words.e.2.c {a'b) ' E a • S. to be a semigroup with identity. \S\. often denoted by a"^ The inverse is unique by Theorem page 33. together with a binary operation in S c. i. for all „ ^ aGS 2. Define a binary operation in S. III. •) contains an identity element. (S.) We of elements of S. is associative. The number page 29. is called a group if there exists an identity element (usually denoted by) . will exhibit groups of infinite and finite order. 1 • a j. is called the order of the group. is IV.b. Verify that the groupoid Verify that the groupoid (-S. -. 1 = o*a T This element b 2. The most important concepts of this chapter are group and subgroup. in other c • 1 is = a = . The object of this chapter is to show that the concept of a group is natural. there is an element b GS a'b = I. •) a semigroup. 1 G S. (Compare Section 2. i. V. 3.) 50 . define a group we shall follow the pattern: Define a set S (?^ P). Recall that the identity (ii) unique by Theorem page 31. II. Whenever we I.e. Verify that every element of S has an inverse.chapter 3 Groups and Subgroups Preview of Chapter 3 We define a group as a semigroup with an identity in which every element has an inverse.

3. III. +) is a semigroup. . m. •).b £ R} C* Recall that II. Let Q* be the set of nonzero rational numbers. Example 2: a group. a ' — = ^ = —'a a ^ Example 5: The multiplicative group of nonzero complex numbers. M+ If I. +). {l + vi) + n = I + {m + n) i. II. c 1 is clearly an identity in the groupoid (Q*. = (— n) + n —n is an inverse of n in {Z. Thus (Z. IV. II. +) has an identity element. be the binary operation of multiplication. =n= +n for every n€. a. so is 1/a and a Thus every element of Q* has an inverse. S Q. I. then a + Q b) + c = a + (b + c). We This define multiplication of complex (a is numbers as (ac follows: + ib){c + id) = ment III. If nG Z. the usual multiplication of rational numbers. III. This group is very similar to that in Example 4. IV. i. shall go through the usual Let C* be the set of all nonzero complex numbers. The description of Example 4: this group is left to the reader. n are integers.b. The rational number If o.Sec. I. V.cG Q. Let • II. then (a • 6) • c = 1 a • (6 • c) V.e.1] GROUPS of 51 Examples groups of numbers 1: Example The additive group of integers. i^ = {x\ X = a + ib where x j^ + iO = -1. + be the binary operation of addition in Q. in a binary operation in C* since C* (not both ac — bd and ad + be can be — bd) + i(ad + 6c) (ac — 6d) + i(ad + 6c) zero). is a unique ele- l + i*0 = l G C* and it is clearly an identity in (C*. Example 3: The additive group of complex numbers. rationale. V.e. {Z. I. III. e Q*. •). so is an identity element for (Q. be the binary operation of addition in /. +) referred to as the additive group of integers. Let Let Q be the set of rational numbers.e. Thus and a. The multiplicative group of nonzero rationale. Z. +). is Thus we have shown that the groupoid (Z. 6. o+0 = If If o = + <i for every a (a in & Q. then —o has the property a + {—a) = = (— o) + a. This group is usually The additive group of I. IV. then —n in Z has the property n + (— n) = i. Let Let Z + be the set of integers. If z G Q*. We five stages in setting up and describing the group.

then e Moreover. a group. If a G S. and • is a binary operation onS. There is no q GQ such that q°0 = Hence (S. e + if G C*. Multiplication of rational numbers if q'l = !• q — q for is all associative q • and every element in (iv) S has an inverse. for \/2 a G S. thus addition is a binary operation on S.b G Q and are not simultaneously a group under the usual multiplication of real numbers. Is (S. a = 2ai implies —a — 2(— a^). but there is no — 1. (S. Then [{a + ib){c + id)](e + if) = [{ac . Hence a^ + 6^ ^ G C*. Solution: Let a — 2(ii and 6 = 26i in S.df) + i{de + cf)] [a{ce . •) is a group and we term group of nonzero complex numbers. c + id. as o + (—a) — {—a) + a = 0. . sociativity of addition in Z. S be the set of real numbers of the form a Show that S becomes + 6\/2 where a. Let zero. We have to check the existence of inverses. "' C" + 62 '„2 + " \{a 62y V- + ib) -> ' = - 1 - = - (a VU- + ib) -> 1 ^^^^+1:2 '(.1. (S.2. Let S be the set of even integers. (ii) Again the {S. (— r) = and addition an associative binary operation onS.°) a (i) group if (ii) (iii) S—Z S— Q S = {g S = {« j and and I ° is the ° is the usual multiplication of integers? usual multiplication in q z Q? (iv) G Q and zG Z and q > 0} and • is the usual multiplication of rational numbers? = yf2} and o is the usual multiplication m Z1 (v) (vi) S —R S=Z The and and ° is the usual addition of real numbers? o is defined by a ° 6 = for all a. a + b = 2(ai + 61) is a unique element Associativity of addition in S follows from the as= 2-0 is an identity element in S.(be + ad)/] + i[(bc + ad)e + a the other hand. then —a £ S since Hence a has an inverse in S. Show that S is a group under addition of integers.2+62 Thus we have proved (C*. •) identity is the number 1. then — G S and — • 9 q o = 1 = — q S— (/) since g S 2. (a {ac - bd)f] On + ib)[{c + id){e + if)] = = + ib)[{c + (a + ib)[{ce . ¥' Therefore (S. r + — + r — r = (— r) +r for all is r G S.bd)e . 3. 52 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS IV. not both a and 6 are zero. 3 Suppose + ib. [CHAP. °) is and r (vi) + a group. (iii) is q G S.°) is not a group.3. be any two elements in S. b in Z"! Solutions (i) identity element is the integer integer z in Z such that z°5 = 5°z 1.df) + + if)] = [{a a(de + cf)] It follows from these two computations that {a id){e + ib){c + id)]{e + if) Thus suppose a + and so ib V..bd) + i{bc + ad)]{e + if) = [{ac .df) . this group the multiplicative Problems 3. o) is is not a group. °) is not a group because 5 GZ 1. 3. Clearly S # hence 1 is an identity.b{de + cf)] + i[b{ce .: . °) is not a group because there no identity element in S. (v) (S.

°) is a group of order m.V2 > Vi leads in a similar way to a and a°{b°c) = {a°b)°c.4. 6 G S. a°{b°c) < 0.b 1. = 1 + 0^/^ is an identity for 6/^ certainly an inverse for o b^/—5 Multiplying top and bottom by a — 6\/— 5 . hence the product of two elements of is S belongs to S. we get 1 a a. a + a („2 we obtain 6\/2 6 _ '^-bV^ "^ a ^2 a+ Hence bV2 - 262 _ 262 _ 262) .o6 let S = {0. The associativity holds because it is a+ 3. G S. Let S qC positive integer.Sec.. 3. then their product cannot be zero. .) S S. this contradicts contradiction. Thus S is a group. so 1 is S. + 6 — Sm where 6 is or a ° (6 o c) = o + (6 o c) . 2.™ e'™ a. The associativity of multiplication in follows from associativity of multi- plication of complex numbers. 1 a = a • = a. 1 = 1 ^ + 0v2 is an identity for 1 S. Thus (m vi = 0. where both Sj and Sg could be or 1. Hence a Similarly ° (b ° c) o c — = a a + + b b b + + c c c — — tjjWi where where is or 1 or 2 or 1 or 2 (aob) v^m V2 is Now because — a.e. a°0 = 0°a = a. where is a fixed Prove that under the usual multiplication of complex numbers. is also.6.o(6oc)<m and a 77J — — {aob)° a < m.m. Let m be any fixed positive integer and a. true. since it is true for complex numbers in a. a+ bV^ S S.2. + f. Solution: Recall that a complex number x Since is an »ith root of unity m 1 • distinct roots of unity. true for multiplication of real numbers. Show that S becomes a group under the usual multiplication of complex numbers. is then ab uniquely defined. not zero. is e*2'rT/m^ t = 1. (Hard. Solution: {a + b^/—E){c + d^/^) = {ac — 5bd) + + {be + ad) \/— 5 . viz.1] GROUPS 53 Solution: (0 = {ae + 2bd) + (cb + ad)\f2 If neither a + 6^2 nor c + rfV2 is zero.S^'m where = a uniquely defined and belongs to yS. {C the set of complex numbers) be the set of all roth roots of unity.. . to — 1). if . Define a binary operation in S by = a+6 if a+ b < m — a°b — Prove that Solution If a. If a. So 6oc = 6 + c — Sitn where Then a° (b° c) = a+ b + e — {Si+ b^m i. ) . . . general. Associativity (l/o. if a. an mth root of unity and hence ab G S. + + c — {v2 + l)»i = — a+ b + c — tj^m < But — + b + c — vgm —m 3. Multiplying la—by by/2. then m ~ a & S and V2 hence w — a is an inverse to a.b & Q and are not both simultaneously zero. (a + 6V2 )(c + dV2 + 0\/2). then a o 6 is Note that a°6 5i is or 1. byjt Let S be the set of complex numbers of the form o + 6\/— 5 where a. (a6)™ — a^b'" = an identity. i.)™ ab = 1 and that there are exactly = cos + i sin «. Hence vi — V2. 1. a° (tu — a) = — a)° a — vi and the above equation implies that a°(b°c). for any 82 is or 1. If aG then = 1/a™ = 1. 1.^fli a2 — 6v— + 562 ^2 + 552 ^ S ^2 + 5^2 and so . r<m (S. and cannot be zero 1 if its factors are S. 6-v/2 . 6 r a+b = m + r..^ G S. If a& S.. Hence the product of elements in S belongs to S. 3. so is an identity. a. Suppose vi>-n2' then a ° (b°c) 7)2 is at least + 1. S becomes a group m of order m. thus 1/a G S and 1/a is the inverse of .5.

(6) existence of identity and inverse. the multiplication table is 1 2 1 2 1 2 If m ~ 4. Describe one way of making S Solution Use as binary operation the usual multiplication of complex numbers. the multiplication table is 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3. Write the multiplication table for the group of Problem Solution : If 3. be a group with binary operation is a binary operation in restricted to if the operation • • H . If a. (a) associativity.7. m = 3. To check (a) (b) (c) we have • the following possible questions: Does 1 • (1 1) equal (l-l)-l? (1 • (e) (/) Does 2 Does 2 Does 2 • (1 (1 • 1) equal equal equal equal (2-l)-l? (2'l)-2? (2 Does 1-(1'2) equal 1) • 2? • • 2) 2) 1) Does l'(2'l) equal (1-2) -1? Does l'(2'2) equal (l'2)-2? all (g) (h) • (2 (2 • -2) -2? (d) Does 2 • • (2-2) -1? Checking (6) these products. Associativity holds for multiplication of complex numbers.9. Hence a6 G iS and is. Thus S is a group with respect to the usual multiplication of complex numbers. all roots of unity. •) Definition Then we say H is a subgroup of G H which makes H into a group. we see that associativity holds. 3. S qC : (C the set of complex numbers) be the set of into a group. then ab is an mwth root of unity because (a6)™" = a'""6'"" = 1 G S and acts as an (a"*)" (6")™ = l"!™ = 1.54 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Let [CHAP. uniquely defined. The inverse of 1 is the inverse of 2 is 2. identity. and let fl^ be a non-empty subset of G. 1 acts as an identity. b an wth root of unity. 1/a G S and is the inverse of a. Is the resultant 1 groupoid a group? 2 2 1 1 1 2 Solution: We (a) need to check only associativity. Hence the table defines a group. of course. 6 G S and a is an mth root of unity. 1.8. 3. The following table defines a binary operation.5 with m= 3 and m = 4. 3 3.2 SUBGROUPS Let (G.

whether a + (—6) = a — 6 G Z. +). the multiplicative group of nonzero rational numbers? Solution: is the identity. 0°2 = 2eif. Also. 3 GZ- {0}. the HnK ?^ 0.ab G H. Hence and and gh-^GH. G H.b GQ and not both zero}. and so Z is a subgroup of {Q. 0. Is Q a subgroup of (C. we ask in negative. of G. a. then a = a + 0^/2 e {a+ Thus Q* C {a+b\2 a. 6 G Q. is a. Thus Q* is a subgroup of (C*. 3. 2GH. since a # 0.b e P. as above. ¥= 0. in If H satisfies these conditions.2] SUBGROUPS 55 is For example. Also. It is.11. inverse of every element of is an element of H. i. Hence Q* is a subgroup. is G is the group with it is m=4 o of Problem 3.14.b G implies a(b"i)-i . Let (Q. •). OoO = OeH. Hence a subgroup of (C. for P does not contain negative numbers. and the inverse accordance with Lemma 3. + (-6) = a — bGPI No. iQ*. H H H H The following lemma facilitates proving a subset of a group is a subgroup. 3. there is an element h G H. Therefore Z- {0} is not a subgroup of 3. So.9.+) be the additive group of rationals. Problems 3. +). a subgroup of (C*. under multiplication? + byf2 . the multiplicative group of nonzero complex numbers? Solution: Q* 3. +). and a. b not simul- Solution: Q* ¥= 0. •). if jfif For ^ then 16-1 = 5-1 ^ ^ then is a group with respect to the binary op0. a.be of 6 —6. ¥= 0. | by/2 a. then HnK and HnK is a subgroup of G. but 3 has no inverse in Z. Hence aa-' = 1 G H. for if a G Q. a. 1 G K.{0}. G Q* implies ab"^ is a nonzero rational. {0} a Is Z— 1 subgroup of (Q*. Solution Is Z a subgroup of Q? Is P a subgroup of Q? (Q. 6 \ a. then ab^^ G H Proof: eration. then there exists a G H.hGHnK. •) is a subgroup. Prove that the intersection of two subgroups Solution: 1 H and if of a group (3 is a subgroup. gh-^GK. identity g. If a. the additive group of complex numbers? Solution: Q# Q 3. 6 G Q and not both 0}. and if a = 1 and 6 = 2. as it is true in G. is & group because: the operation o restricted to is an associative binary operation (since the operation in G is associative). a = a + OiGC. Associativity is true • H H H. and 2o2 = 0G/f. Thus is an associative binary operation on H. if G Z.Sec. •).e.b & Q and a.15. . if a subgroup of G. 1 G H. then the subset H= {0. If a. Therefore {H. as defined in the multiplication table 2oO = a binary operation in H.heH for as is not empty. •) be a group. restricted to H.13.10. and every element in has an inverse in H. then clearly H satisfies conditions and above. is 0. is in H.12. Clearly P ^ and PqQ. and the (i) H Conversely (ii) if ^ is a group with respect to • . Is Q'*. 6 G Q* implies ab~^ is a nonzero rational. for G. b G H. 2} For when the operation in G. the identity. QqC. (i) Then a subset and (ii) ^ of G if is a subgroup of G iff H^^ H a. if b G Hence a. Similarly. 3. then a + (-6) = a-bGQ.'). Is Q* a subgroup of the group of real numbers of the form a taneously zero.1: Let (G. Ii a 6 Q*. 6 Z CQ. +} then the binary operation is +. Thus y/i-i G H IGHnK But then H contains hh~^ = 1. then a — 6 is If Clearly is Z^ 0.1. If g. Lemma 3.

so 3a is not equal to 2a or la. for short. (Sx.2. A very important group one-to-one mappings of X onto X. t is one-to-one. Therefore o is not a binary operation in U. so we can as T is onto.n]. i. Clearly the identity mapping r.can be calculated as follows. Let a G Sx.. 2. .2. then Here we must verify that ar is a matching is also onto. Suppose x G X.) V.4. Now. (tt the only elements in Mx which have inverses are those which are one-to-one onto mappings.3. Therefore Thus composition of mappings is a binary operation in Sx. then we define . t. page 36. The groupoid (Theorem 2. show that the union of two subgroups is is That {0.2. S„ is called the can be one of n elements. If xiar) = y{(TT). This in also one-to-one. G Sx. that <jr — ya.56 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS By considering the group of Problem 3. Therefore t G Sx and r is the required inverse of a. we write Sx = Sn. Since a is one-to-one and onto. since a is one-to-one. The proof that Sx is a group is complete. In the particular case where symmetric group of degree n. then = by the definition of the xa is composition of mappings. ••• •2-1 = «! \Sn\ =n ! The elements of S3. so 2cr ^ la.7t to be the composition of the mappings of X with itself. m= 6. page 36). X with itself. Theorem <t = = t t(t means is We will call an element of Sx a permutation of X.3 THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS The symmetric group on X a. as la and 2a have been chosen and a must be one-to-one.2. implies a has an an inverse of t. 4} 3. for example. Continuing in this way. = {0.4} are subgroups is easily verified. 2o. this means. is IV. as la has been 3a can be one of n . .4b.4} not a subgroup as 3 ° 4 = 1 g C/. If <t G S„.5 with not necessarily a subgroup. or. that x = v.16. we can find x" G X such that x"t = x. called the symmetric group in the usual five steps. Consequently find X' G X such that x'a If T <r <t X'(o-t) = (x'o-)t = X"t (x(t)t = X {y(j)T and hence <7t is onto.2 elements. since turn implies. one of 1 elements.x^x is is in Sx and is an identity element of Sx. We set Sx of all describe this group Sx the set of all matchings of the non-empty set (see Section 2. arises from the on X. is CT. are . But = x". a permutation. Clearly.3} and {0. 3 3.e. Sx C Mx XL and t. Let X be any non-empty set. But U = {0. III.3. . then chosen and a must be one-to-one. I. \Sn\ is X- {1. page 36. •) a semigroup.4 inverse. in Mx. Solution: [CHAP. 3}u{0. since composition of mappings associative. By Theorem 2. we conclude that there are U n - n-{n-l){n-2) elements of Sn.

la-i = 6. To we must compute the products. Here we are using the notation of Section 2. a-i. 3 3 3 1 12 3 3 12 12 3 13 2 12 3 2 3 1 2 12 3 13 find the multiplication a^r^. we obtain so we must have '1 and hence a~i must carry xa to «. Next. we note that = x which X is taken onto 1. Calculate aP. we think as follows: 1 -* 2 (in a. so that Problems 3. since 2 3 4 5 6N .3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS 57 12 12 12 2 3 table. Put 2 beneath 2 to get 12 3 2 1. page 37.4c. 3. Note that <TjTj = r^ and Tj(rj = Tg.612543/ . iaP)-i. 3 Only one other number can appear. Proceeding in this way. 2-^3 3 (in r^) Write down 12 3 2-^3 (in (Tj). we calculate 12 l<TjTj 3 3orjTj 12 2Tj 3tj Itj 3 1 2<r. Hence S^ is not commutative. ¥= TjtTj. To find a~i. and (/3a)-l if 12 2 3 3 6 4 5 3 5 6 and 4 4 2 1 Solution aP = 12 3 5 x(aa~'^) 5 6 6 4 Pa 1 = 12 3 4 5 6 13 5 6 2 4 12 3 4 5 6 2 6 4 13 5 Now we la = 2. 6a = 1. namely Thus 3 1 12 3 2 The multiplication table for Ss is t "i "1 <'2 Tl Tl '•2 '•2 T3 ^3 I "2 I ^2 '"3 "1 "2 Ti "1 "2 i '"I "1 "1 n i ^1 ^2 "1 n '"2 ^3 Tl ^2 ^2 T3 'l "2 I "1 "2 I '3 '3 "2 "1 CTjTj The reader should check some of the entries.).17.Tj 3 2 To do this calculation mentally. As an example. determine 2a~^ = 1. Pa. p-i. 3^2 (in t^).: Sec.

/12345 = (e 4 1 6\ 5 • . page 57. the product of any two elements in R is <r~* = 1T2 and (t~i = cti.19. the multiplication table of S3. [CHAP. and Sj and exhibit multiplication tables for these groups. '1- Solution Si contains one element 1 i .. Verify that a{l3y) - {aP)y where 4 4 5 5 12 3 12 3 Solution: 12 3 2 3 3 4 5 4 12 4 3 3 4 5 15 3 15 4 2 4 2 5 5 2 M)y 12 13 3 4 5 5 12 4 3 4 5 2 4 15 3 2 4 12 3 13 «(i8y) 12 3 12 4 5 5 4 12 13 4 2 5 5 4 12 3 13 4 5 5 3. From Since again in R. 3. There are two ele- 2\ ments in 82'- 1 and J /8 = /I { 2\ ^ ) • .. interchange the rows to obtain /I 3 2 5 3 2 5 4 6 \l and rearrange to get 4 ^"' /12345 . To 6 find P"'^. 3 Take 12 2 3 3 6 4 5 5 6 1 4 Interchange the rows. ctj. 2 3 6 3 5 4 4 5 1 12 6 Rearrange the columns so that the top row reads 12 3 3 4 5 6. it follows that xy^^ & R for any x. '12 This method is 4 5 6 . ^^"^ («^^"' 3 2 =415362 /I 23456 3.y&R.20. The multiplication table for S2 is t /3 p t . Hence a subgroup of 53.58 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS An easy method of calculating the answer mechanically follows.) Solution: R R is ¥= 0.(l 5 2 6 3 6\ 4 • . 1 is a multiplication table for Si. 02} a subgroup of 1S3? (For this notation see above. Find all elements of S. Is the subset R= {i.18.612543^ conceptually the same as the first.

Find the elements of Solution 2 ' 3 (Tg = - = = = = = = 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 TS '1 2 2 3 4 3 1 4 1 1 2 1 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 3 :) CTy (a 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 ^2 "1 G /I 3 4 3 1 I) '\ 2.Sec.3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS S4. "8 G /I - 1 2 2 3 1 4 2 1 4 1 3 3 1 2 4 4 3 4 '"e 3 4 as 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 1 (72 (s (2 4 3 1 2 1 4 2 1 3 3 4 1 "3 = = 2 3 CTg 2 4 "4 4 (l 1 2 :) Tl G G G 3 2 3 2. 3.21. 4 1 3 3 1 2 4 «5 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 4 3 2 3 1 3 4 3 2 4 2 4 1"8 2 3 "4 G G 4 2 3 :) T"2 2 1 4 4 «6 "h = 3 2 4 2 1 3 2 :) 3 3 2 4 1 2 4 We give the multiplication table for future reference. THE SYMMETRIC GROUP OF DEGREE 1 4 Tg rs ffi <Jl a2 "2 0-3 0^3 CT4 £r5 CTg ffy tJg (Tg Tj T2 T3 T3 "^4 T4 T4 «1 l-l T5 Tg i-s Tj '7 a2 «2 ^8 «3 «3 T7 «4 «4 l^S <*5 «6 t »1 "3 I "4 i-e •^S ^6 ^2 CT7 "S •'9 ri '2 's "I '"1 «5 "5 "8 T5 <'l "2 '3 1 «2 "8 «5 ''e T4 «1 Tl T-e "5 ''S rs a7 «3 •r? "9 ^8 "4 '•s "6 T2 «6 i-s "2 "2 "3 "4 "5 ( "l "4 •^3 «3 T? / «6 T5 T-S U «1 Te "1 '4 ^"2 «5 "5 '•s "8 T2 "S CT4 «2 •'S "9 ^8 T-? "3 "4 "5 "1 "2 ^1 «2 «4 "2 «3 "9 t "6 "9 T3 «1 "^l «4 «1 '"2 (77 «6 "3 •^1 •'4 «3 (77 ''g i^e '•8 «3 "8 «4 ''s «2 T-g ''I "6 T7 (77 "5 T\ "l "2 U •'I «5 '4 'e «2 T5 <'8 I <^4 «6 T7 "8 «1 ^2 t T8 T6 "9 T3 "3 l"! «4 "2 Tg 0-4 "3 <'8 (77 "e "6 "7 t ^4 «1 "5 ^•4 "3 fg ''s «5 "4 T5 "2 "6 «6 «5 '•3 T8 ^•3 T6 "5 «1 ''2 «6 "5 «1 T8 1-3 '7 Tl "3 T8 (74 «2 ^2 "4 T\ "2 ^2 '5 O'S "8 "9 1-1 «2 ^2 «5 i-s «3 T8 «1 "1 "2 «6 1-4 «4 '"5 "9 I 0-7 re T7 u «4 ^7 "8 "2 ^2 re I «6 <f5 "'I "6 ^•4 "3 T-l <'9 (77 <'8 «2 I "5 "2 1-8 ''e <'l "3 "8 ^5 Tl <f5 «3 ^z T6 'l <'9 ^1 "4 "I «3 <^9 "'7 «2 ''a TS •^3 T2 t ^6 "5 ^•4 "1 <74 "6 <77 "6 <*5 «4 «6 (77 «5 «4 "3 '2 T2 TS Te «2 <'3 T7 T6 rs 'l <»3 Tl "5 I "2 "& "3 "9 "4 "6 T2 TS «1 <'6 «5 0f7 T7 Tl "4 "4 "1 "5 '7 T3 <'8 '"s T4 I n "s t •^e «S «3 <'4 «2 «8 «1 ^1 T4 T5 •^6 T4 ^5 i-e «1 "5 "3 "2 "5 TS i-s T6 ^2 t^S <^3 "^ <'7 <'4 «2 "1 U '7 i-e «4 "7 "9 ^8 T2 «6 "1 «2 "4 "8 Tl '7 (72 "5 «3 "1 "9 t^e «6 "7 <*3 «2 "3 "4 «3 "1 T3 '•2 "2 "8 '2 <'4 TS Tl '"4 "3 «4 •'9 «5 O'l "3 «2 «1 Ti '7 "6 "4 '"T ^"7 «6 (T4 '"S «S •'g "6 <'2 T4 "8 "3 CT4 T5 CT5 "5 '•3 7-8 I «1 «4 '7 t '"8 '"8 1-1 "6 T4 T5 0-7 ^4 "5 t'2 T6 ffe "2 <*5 t '"7 «2 t "7 T5 TS 1 "3 0'8 «1 «1 ^3 "9 1-2 Tj "5 's '2 "6 "^S "1 «3 "7 «2 «4 «4 «1 •^S '"6 «2 «3 «4 "5 «6 «2 «3 04 «5 «e "5 ^1 «5 "4 "6 "8 ^2 "2 •^8 "1 ^6 l-l <'9 "3 «6 «2 "3 ''G "6 «1 T8 T6 "2 TS l-l '•4 n '4 •'s «4 «3 "3 <f9 "8 "2 '"3 "6 CT4 '7 •^6 ''I (77 «6 CT7 "5 "1 "9 «1 t'4 '•4 •^S T3 '"2 ^5 "S '7 ^3 Tg "5 "6 "6 "9 "3 <'3 "2 (77 T7 7-5 •^8 "5 T6 1"4 ( «2 <T7 T? '"5 "1 '"4 "4 «5 "8 «2 "1 "2 Ta T2 Tl t 'l * 1-6 '•8 "2 «! ''S «4 "3 "4 "X "6 "8 T2 . 59 3.

quotient ^~ '^ or ^^ ~ f'' is thus ±1. the factor hj-m<T = k-i appears in the factor m(j-l(T = -{k-i) appears in the numerator. Therefore every permutation of Sn is either even or odd.. m such that 1<t = k. 8 is 5.k'-i' in the in the denominator give rise to distinct associated factors tor. As cr is a permutation. There is an easy way of determining whether a permutation a is even or odd. . . there exist unique integers I. 3. .1 . Corresponding to each factor k — im the denominator. the number of inversions. 1. . n n<T . ) • Then 2 1 1' 2(7 — 1(7 3<T — Iff — 2<r 2-1 If r 3^n^ 3-2 3 — ~ 2- — 2 1' 3- 1 — 3 3-2 = 1 - ( 3 i ! 2 ? 1 . If we of integers. The the numerator. This subgroup An is obtained from Sn by singling out certain elements. then 1^ 2r - It 3t - It 3t . the product becomes the product of factors ±1 and hence is itself ±1. ma = i.. ±{l'<T — m'<j) numera- Thus regrouping the factors in the numerator. the alternating group of degree n. consider S3.2t 2-1 We say <r 3-1 odd.1. 4. U l> m. If Km. 2. S„ odd (or an odd permutation) if n(7 — 1(7 — 1(7 — 2(7 — 1(7 ' — 2(7 _ — (n — 1)(7 2-1 The 3-1 3-2 odd is n-1 n-2 »-(n-l) _ _ " definition of even or written more briefly as IS (7 even i<fc K —I ?- (7 is odd if 1 1 -Y = —1 i. — m<T). Let a = 3<T f „ « -. 60 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Even and odd permutations [CHAP. we call the number of integers in the row smaller than the Thus for example the number of inversions in the first integer. We will use this concept of inversion to find out if a given are given a row permutation '1 1(7 2 2a . 6. _^ = ±1. We shall show that an element in S„ is either even or odd. is even or odd. we have k = k' and i = ±{l(T i'.. m = m'. 3 b. row 7.e. Note that distinct factors k-i. let us call a Sn even (or an even permutation) -Ho- 2(7 — Ict 3(7 — we 1<7 3<t — 2(7 G — lc7 no' — 2g n^ 2-1 On 2(7 3-1 call 3(7 3-2 a 3(7 nW(7 _ 1 w-2 n(7 — (n — 1)<7 _ w-(»-l) the other hand. For if 1 = 1'. 3-2 G 2-3 1-3 1 2-1 3-1 3-2 if is even and t is More generally. To begin with. usually denoted by An. we will find a factor in the numerator which is either k-i or —{k-i). We are interested in a special subgroup of S„.

i<j arises if in > ka. We must only determine the sign. 2(7. 3. > i for which > fca. . Odd. Is a (i) even or odd? '12 3 (iv) (ii) (V) (iii) a = Solution: (i) Number of inversions in 2 14 14 3 3 : 1 : 4 3 : 1 Total number a is of inversions 2 Hence (ii) even. + l)a. Example 6: Is a = even or odd? in 1. . and hence a is even.1) . But this is the number of inversions in the u row The total number of negative factors is the number of inversions in la. So-.Sec. then TT *<" kjar) k — {(ar) —i — JJot) —i _ TT (fco-)T — (to)T *<fc ka — ia TT kjar) ^ i<k k _ ~ ja ~ i<j "TT fcg — to ^<k k — i ku ka (3. tion I Then A„ fc 0.3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS 61 To do as this we must calculate Tl (-^ —^ ) .22. n^ + the number of inversions in {n . In the denominator we always have positive numbers.71(7 + the number of inversions in 2(r. since the identity permuta- G A„: Tl i<fc ki . Let An be the set of even permutations in S„.na. 5 3 2 4 1 3 2 4 1 Number of inversions in = 4 = = = 2 1 1 2 4 1 4 1 Total number of <r inversions 8 Hence (iii) is even. and negative if / is odd. The number of inversions in 3. 2 is 0. . .1)<7. na. The number of inversions Thus the total number of inversions is 2. Problem 3. (i . the number of negative factors that arise is the number of A. . k — iL —i _ ~ _ T-r i<k k —i —i 2. Let this total be /. So a.. . .. shall show that the set of even permutations forms a subgroup of ¥= S„.. . The product of I negative numbers is positive if / is even. If <T and t G Sn. In the numerator a negative number ka . For fixed i and varying k. 1. (v) Even. c. 2 is 2. Much of the calculation is redundant we have proved that the result is always 1 or -1. The alternating groups We 1. ia.is even or odd according as / is even or odd. (iv) Odd.

~ n ^^ — k »<fc ^^ {3 3) i It follows 3.2) corresponds in this way to one and only one of the (equal) factors of the left-hand side of {3.21. (iv) Accordingly aT~^ if G An. q such If p > q. (Po-)t p<T — — (g(r)T qa If _ " q.2).2: from {3. since therefore a subgroup of Sn.21 we determine that the even permutations are 1 2 3 4\ ""^ 1234/ 1 _ ~ /I 2 1 3 4\ \2 /I (yl 4 3 3/ 4\ ^^ ^ /I ~ 1^3 2 2 2 2 3 ^/l ^-^ 2 1 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 1 ~ \4 2 3 4\ ^1 3 1 4 2 12/ 3 _ ~ ^ ~ 2 3 4 3 2 2/ 4\ "* _ ~ ^ /I (^4 4\ _/l ^^"1^2 2 3 2 3/ 4\ 4321/ The 3.2). that we have of is Lemma The product (i) two even permutations two odd permutations even (ii) is even is is (iii) an odd permutation and an even permutation an even permutation and an odd permutation odd odd. 1.2).i{(rT) —i k _ "»<' Yl ^^""^^ l — m .2) holds. appears on the left-hand side of factor (^"^" {3. From {3.t G A„.1) we therefore obtain Yl i<fc fc((TT) . Corresponding to each of the factors A —~ in the that right-hand side of {3. It I — — niT m _ ~ — — niT appears on the left-hand side of {qa-)T {3.3) and the rules for multiplying +1 and -1.2) To do this we will show that each of the factors -^j-^ — - corresponds to one and only one of the factors ^^-^ —v^ . An is aa"^ = t is even. cr is even. 4\ /I 2 4 /I 1^2 2 3 ^ ^' /I ^^ [1 3) ^' 431/ \3 124 3 multiplication table is easily written down from the multiplication table of Problem . Thus if <t. then ct~^ is even too.2). p < then a factor It I qa — (Po-)t — pa _ ~ {P(t)t p<j — — (g(r)T q(T m . From 4\ 1/ the list of elements of Si given in Problem 3. r- and the (equal) factor -1 / q^ ~ ?"^" _ p^ < q. As an illustration let us find the multiplication table for A4. Hence {3. there exists. unique integers p. since a is & permutation. then a factor Vff — I and qa = m. It is easy to see that each of the factors of the right-hand side of {3. 3 We will prove that rr (fco-)T fco- — {i(j)T — iff _ rr m<i It I — mr —m {3. We \ associate with the factor ^^"^" _ if ^ P the (equal) ~ ^^")" if p<T—q(T p>q. It is called the alternating group of degree n.62 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP.

8) \J " . If 71 1..... IS <Xj. and ir = i (i = S. Aj = Sj.<'s. Prove A„ Solution: else fixed = > S„ implies n - 1. 2r = 1. Ir . and ijTj 2 where ' = L ^j is a multiplication table S3 contains six elements (see example in Section 3. are the "1 "2 i "1 "1 "2 i "2 "2 "1 3. we S again in S. o^ and a.. Sj..24. and a multiplication table for A3 is "2 I The elements .j2. Hence A„ = S„ implies n = 1. --. Show If that the set S= {i. and therefore A„ ¥. i.<'s} is a subgroup of A4.3a). Notice Aj the same group as /I 2 (ii) S2 = ^^ 1 " 1 2\ " I /I ' * 2 " 1 H 1 1 / 1 " 1 2 " \ 2/'V2 : is 2 . an even permutation and 2 is 1 an odd permuta- tion. r € A„. 3.Sec. since r is an odd permutation. Hence a multiplication table for A 1 is [Tj.a-i e S because a. permutations. . Write out a multiplication table for Solution: (i) (i) Aj. .e. . . 3.25.3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS i 63 "2 CT2 "5 ''o ('g ^1 ^2 •^2 T3 ^4 '4 -^5 7-6 Tj 7-8 t I ''S •^1 ^3 •^6 Ts 'e '3 r? ^2 7-8 "2 "S "2 "5 f^s c ''S "5 "2 ^4 "^7 Tl n ^1 T5 '4 "8 "5 i-s t '"S I^S ^2 ^7 TS '7 7-6 "8 Tl <'2 t i-s ''e n 7-6 T4 '7 ^•2 '"a '"1 U T2 T4 TS T7 T6 ^"2 t "2 ''S "s ^5 7"3 '2 ^3 rs ^"2 ^6 ^7 '"1 I Ti i-s ''S "s ^"4 "2 "8 76 '2 1"3 •'S 's U I t "2 ^2 ^8 l^l U T5 ^4 's •^4 •^8 ^"7 ^2 <f5 •^3 "% "5 "'2 •^8 ^1 '"S "s ^"7 7-6 I Te ^•7 ^•6 '7 ^6 '1 ^2 T3 '2 T4 •'S T-8 '"I ^2 "8 '2 t ^5 7-4 "5 I l-T '"S ''2 ^4 'a "5 T3 'l 7-8 's '8 T5 l-fi "8 "5 "2 I 77 Problems 3.S„. (For notation see page 62. By Problem 3.23. (ii) Aj. Therefore A2 = 2 I for (iii) A 2. . = 25 .23(i).) Solution: we look at the multiplication table for A4.n). and it is an even permutation. (iii) A3. . S„ must contain a permutation which interchanges 1 and 2 and leaves everything = 2. It is clear that Hence S is a subgroup of A4.u^&S implies see that the product of any two elements in »-i (7 = a. There is only one element in S^ namely i ^ = L) is . o.

. . C^T.64 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS The order of [CHAP. we have proved integer Theorem Problem 3. and An is of order n Ml.T)T-l = c-Itt"') = e. there are exactly the same number of each. The elements of this To put this definition more explicitly.^) n-(w-l) £^ be the even permutations elements of A„). I{R) ¥= 0. the number of odd permutations But every permutation of is also k. and |S„| = n\ Therefore k = n !/2. as k is the number of even permutations. It Wt - (w 3-2 fjT.. the group of isometries of R. Let t be the following element 1^2. Putting our results together. £fcT all odd. 4) agrees with Theorem 3. . Consequently.4 a. . as a subgroup of Sr in the follow- ing way. 3. for if « is odd. 3. n-1 . = . then o) Indeed = («')'' every odd permutation is listed in {3. a group I{R). 3-^3 n-^n We claim t is odd because 2t - It ' 3t 2-1 Now are let tj. an element set will be called isometries of R. 3. namely the absolute We denote the distance between a and b by d{a. ba) i for every pair of elements a. 3. = .1)t _ _ Then (5. We define what we mean by the distance between a and b. £2 3 - It 1 ' 3t-2t Wt(i.23. b) — d{aa. 1. Solution: IA2I = 1 by Problem by Problem 3. Let I(R) be the set of all elements of Sr which preserve distance. 3. S„ is either even or odd.A). then = e.b GR it is clear of a— b. if e^T — c^t.(tt-') = (.3: If n is any positive > 1. We think of the elements of R arranged as points on the real line. 2^1. Notice that this means there are at least as many odd permutations as even ones. Since <ot is even by Lemma 3. Thus there are precisely the same number of even permutations as odd ones. value. a G Sr is termed an isometry if and only if d{a..3c. the symmetric group on R. t: ^ 2. e.bGR. Check to see whether \A^\ U= 2. IA3I IA4I = = 3 12 by Section 12.. Then if a. \a-b\. Since the identity mapping G I{R).2.e. and 2!/2 and 3!/2 and 4!/2 = = = 1. An Suppose that n We now -PC*- count the elements of A„. b). since t^ = t. then S„ is of order n \.23. the set of real numbers... . and the number of odd and even permutations is 2fc.3.t)t-' = (e. 3. 3 d.26. moreover. GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES Isometries of the line We begin with certain subgroups of Sr.

2-x'2| = 2. since d(x. (iv) a : x -^ —x.27. ca ¥• ct.T G I{R). x'a) G Sr and = d(-x. Thus G I{R). ¥= x'.g. Problems 3.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 65 2. d(x. (iii) a : x -> x^. x' = \ implies d(x. We conclude that ca = ct and. contrary to the hypothesis that a and b are distinct real numbers. since d(l.x'^) = |a. Suppose a. Hence 2a<j = 25<r and a(T — i. d{x. a is an isometry. d{xa. ct is an isometry.x') d{xa. x'a). - a. d(c. Suppose pose a.3) = 1. ca contrary to our assumption. e. 6) as CT is an isometry. Two points determine an isometry The following the same. Ca Similarly. b) its Thus I{R) CTT~> G /(i2) is called and /(/?) is a subgroup of the group of isometries of R. Solution: (i) First note that a G Sr. = d(a<T. We claim <7-» G 7(72).x'a) (iii) — a is not an isometry. ar) — = ±(ct — ar) — ar) implies |ct — ar] — = Assume cct = Ct. = 2(b<T). b(<Tr-i)) = d((a<7)r-i. Since a<7 = ar.T Oct G I{R) have the same effect on two distinct real numbers a and b. (ii) x G R. x') = 1 and d{xa. is Hence d{a. a — t. = \x a. a: x -> nx. ba) = d(a. (b<r-»)<T) = d(a. -x') = a a.4: If a.e. since d{x d{x. x') d(xa.g.e. since d{x. x') |(x d(xa. e. 2a = 1 and = 1| a. Proof: Let c be any element of R. Is a (1) an isometry? a.x' + 2) = = \x — x'\ and + 2) .'| = d{x.' + 2)| = \x-x'\ is not an isometry. x') 3. n an integer or —1.aa) = — — |co- and hence ca aa — a(r| = (i(cT. i.e. + 2. x' = 0. sup- d(a(7-S = d{(a<7-i)(r. G R. an isometry? Solution: No. (&(7)t-») . since d{xa. = — (Ct — ar) = — Ct + ttr.(a. x'a). Considered as a group in own right. Consequently a = b.) 7^ 1 a: -» a. aa = +{ct Therefore Ca Ct aa — ot = 0. But a is a permutation. 3. for all x GR excepting 1 and 2. since c is any element in i2.Sec. — ar and ba = br. x'a) so that.x'a) so that.3a) = d{2. for (iv) x ¥= x'. Set la = 2. — a. for x \n\. |n(a.b (T G I{R).')| 2.28. then a = t. lemma gives us a method of determining whether the two isometries are Lemma 3.Sr. b) = cr-> d(ao-"S &o-"') which and precisely what we need. then t~' G J{R) d(a(<7T->). = \x a. Ca + Ct = 2(a<T) . (In the following.3) = |3 - = 2 and d{la. x') ¥= — x'\ and = d(x2. ca + ct aa = ba. To see this.a) Then = d{c<T. x') ¥= — x'\ and = d(nx.a \-x - {-x')\ = \-x + x'\ = Is a |a. Then Then of course a'^ ftcr-i) G Sr. i.x'a) (ii) <r = + 2.nx') = = d{xa. b.

with composition as the binary operation. y).)r r{aT~^) + i?(a = {rjr + b)ix = — 6). If inverted about the origin and then moved a units to the right. a ^^ 0. Using (i). easy to verify that each /j. (i) sets of mappings.y)TaT^t. (iii) This follows by arguing as in It is (ii).y)Ta-i. there exists {x — a.: r^ r(/xT) TjT ilarly — rjb. of I{R) defined ct by mapping r G R to Hence = a*. the real line is if ra — r + a. = {x + a. Problem 3. The effects of a and t are ra vt a subgroup. Determine whether the following groups. y)Ta = Ii {x. = {x + a — b. Thus if n is an — t~\ = n{ar~^) G Z. Iff — 1 and a CT Oct = a.) c = = 1 or —1 + b »? 1 or —1 r){rir e-q Let jj.. (iv) a permutation of R. U) = d{a. CT* is clearly an isometry.rG(I:Z). T_„ = T-i. a&R Notice that t^ (ii) is defined for each real number The The The set of all t^ with set of all t„ with set of all a&Z. real (iv) mappings of numbers of the form X -^ Ha'. a subgroup of 8^2 and so (ii) it constitutes a group.T\aGl. is a matching of R^ -* R^. = — iT rjr +a where where rijfj.2/i)i"a.. we need only consider whether t„t^i = T^-t.7i(jGZ whenever nGZ}.y)TaT^^ — Thus the set of all Xa is {x. U) = \a. Or = 6. We come now to an interesting subset of / = I{R) which we will prove Let {I:Z) = {. and q{a — b)GZ. = a. then = {xi. constitutes a subgroup of the group of all t^a/bAaMi/b permutations of R and itself forms a group. a& Q (vi) The set of mappings of (v) but with a S Q". Let ct* be the member of I{R) defined by mapping + a. Hence a Let <t G I(R) and let - l<r = ±1 or l<r = a ± 1 (i) Itr r (ii) = a + 1 and Oct = a. Let a and b must be integers. ct* —r + a.ltr| = d(0. which it clearly does.y) G R^. Hence = a r GR to ct == ct*.y + a)T-. aS^ Q (v) The set of all mappings of the plane R^ of the form /"a • (^) y) ~* (*'*^> "-y) with a ¥= Q. t. 3 Qa = a. y — a)Tn = {x. Then = r.- We show first that r^ {x. Hence r„ is a one-to-one onto mapping and so t„ is a permutation of R"^. it "moves" the real line a units to the right. a (iii) G Q.66 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Using this [CHAP.y) is («i. 1) = 1. y + a) a.29. a 6 Q.yi). belongs to the given set.e.^ is = . i. Clearly ctt~^ + (/ b) is : Therefore G{I: Z) and — rjb — r and sim±1. Now lemma it is possible to describe the elements of I{R). fx for (€?. are The set of all mappings of the plane of the form To : (x. Z) is a subgroup of /. ~ Ta-h since {x. The set of all t^ is not empty. Let a. rcr Geometrically. Hence integer. is Oct = —r + a. for if {x. y) -» {x + a. y) e R^. y + a — b) = (x. with (x. ax with a 7^ 0. G I{R). Solution: (i) a permutation of R^. and Tar^^ = Tar^^. Also. Then Thus if and ra Let ct* be the agree on and member 1. Then ct* and a agree on and 1.y — a)GR2 and (x — a. fia/ay — (mo)"'. = tr + Oct where « is either 1 or -1. d{0(r.Now a'oA'^' — Hence the set of all /t„.

' Sec. . C on top of i2. say Pi. the point A is on top of another point of E. A and If (xA.y). B'r . After the sheet S is moved. say. . . The interpretation of E as the Euclidean plane is not an essential part of our argument.B) = the symmetric group on E. . We need to show only that <tt~^ G I whenever (t. there exist.Br-i) and T~' is an isometry. .4 M„ is a one-to-one onto mapping and thus Mo is a permutation of R^. The isometry induced by a movement.4.ax.. Consider the effect of t-"'. Let the points of E be denoted P. B points of E.A - ccb)^ {va . In the initial position suppose that A lies on top of P. then the formula for d{A. .C.yA) = + A. Proof: I is not empty.B gE. Fig. The set is non-empty. .ay)in.5: The set / of all isometries of E forms a subgroup of Se.B. the only elements of Mjj2 which have an inverse are the one-to-one and onto mappings. Consequently d{AaT-\ Bar-') = d{Aa. Ri. "(f'^'l^^ )~ ^ -^ ^^'V^f^a/b- Hence the is a sub- c. the point Qi. Then d{A'. d{A„. since {x. 0). Bt"^ = B\ Hence = d{A. Recall that if we interpret A and B as points of the Euclidean plane with coordinates (xa. .. .R. then I'-al'-^^ (x. . Hence / is a subgroup of Se.y){iii/al^a) (. page 36. As t G Se. 1. B). Theorem 3. A'. 2/)(Mai"i/a) 2.tGI. Vb) relative to a given cartesian coordinate system. the point is on top of. The set of all /i„ (vi) in this case forms a group.B. Logically we do without it and work abstractly with the ordered pairs {x. . Ba) and so aT~^ G I. .ay)n-i group of iSr2. since the identity mapping is an isometry.B'r) = d{A. d{A. and denote <j G Se. is called an isometry if for any A.y) and (x. B .Uo has no inverse. ^^-Euclidean plane— R Pj Qj iij After a movement. C is on top of. Let us imagine that the Euclidean plane E is covered by an infinite rigid metal lamina If we move S so that it still covers E. 3. say. S. .a Ml/a M^' because («. we define the distance between B as \/(a.B') since t is an isometry. B) is the ordinary distance between A and B.ysf it by d{A. In the next four paragraphs we shall argue informally. for each pair of points A. ABC > < -"^ — Metal lamina ~^_-_ ^^'*p Q (6) ABC » » • Q (a) R Initial position. we can define an isometry induced by that movement.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 67 (v) The set of Ma >s not a group.B) = d{A. and by Theorem 2. If Ha is an element.Ba). .Q. B on top of Q.B) But At~^ = A'. as . Ma/b = = = = (». Va) and {xb.?/)• By Theorem ~ MaMi/b — Now set of all /i.B) d(AT-». . For /iq maps all points onto the point (0. {xB. B' G E such that A'r = A. and the points of S be denoted A. = diA'r. Isometries of the plane Let E be the set R^ = Rx R.yB) =B are two elements of E.y)tiali-^ = {ax.

B) = d{Pi. p u i. Re = Ri. A of S on top of P.68 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP. Reflection in a line. Using 1. Qi) = d{P. say. in the initial position.) It t_. p^ is an isometry and (pj-^ = p_. As a simpliflcation describe formally these three types of isometries. and B on top of Qi. . . For if P. Rotate S about through an angle ir. (b) A rotation through an angle *. A lies on top of. (See A counterclockwise rotation about the origin through an angle 9 „^ is the mapping p. / Initial position. Let O be any point of S. . After S is moved. 3. Then 9 is called a translation. Q9 = Qi. .) Problem . Then the isometry induced by this movement of S is called the rotation about O through an angle *. Problem 3.' / Rotating about XY. shows why p is called a rotation through 9. The isometry obtained in this way is called the reflection in XY. I' QR RiQi Pi (c) (a) (6) Final position. then we have d{A. Let us choose a line XY. is parallel to XY. this informal approach. {x cos 9 — y sm9. x sine . defined by {x.30 for details. (See Problem 3.. A on top of P "7 Metal lamina . with. '. B) — d{P. Q are any two points of E. Pi. Then we assert 6 is an isometry. Hence d{A. Let us choose a line in E and turn S over this line and back to E. we now describe three particular isometries: Rotation about a point.S Knclidean plane - (a) Initial position.b. + y cos 9) 3. . describe only rotations about the origin and reflections about the axis OX. the line joining Xe be an isometry corresponding to a movement of S for and Ye. 3 Let e-. A reflection in line XY. Qi) and so d{Pi. Let 9 which XeYe.32 For each 9. y)p^ = . and B of S on top of Q. Q). We now we A translation t^^ is the mapping defined by can be shown that for each a. 3. Q). Fig.^ is an isometry and that (t„ ^)~^ = t_^ .31 for proof.E^E be defined by Pe = Pi. 2 2. Fig.

31. y . Define a reflection in OX to be the map a^ where {x. 3.y — y sin y cos e = = a b i.6) by sin 2/(sin2 9 -I- and the second by cos cos2 e) and subtract the 9 from the y = — b cos 9 — a sin On substituting these values of x and y in (3. the second by cos Is it and subtracting the Similarly by multiplying the first equation of (3.h)Ta. {x.) Similarly.y) and so T(.5) by sin 9 and first from the second.b-r^a. {.j. we find y ~ y'. we call it a reflection. Show that t^^ is an isometry and that (Ta. y')p implies x cos x Multiply the first — + y sin y cos e sin e — = x' cos a.^. Show that p e is an isometry and that (p 6 )~i = p— . then d(A.y) That is. it is easily seen that they satisfy the equation..-t- Solution First we must show that To_ ^.x..y) (x. x = x' .5) j/' sin 9 sin e -\- cos 9 equation by cos a. is readily seen to be an isometry and it is easy to show that = a^ (Problem Since i is the product of two reflections.b is = y/(xA - Xb)^ + (va . -y) {<ry)~^ This 3. y)p — — + (x'.6) is (The reader who knows that the condition for existence of a solution to can verify the existence of a solution to (3. y)a^ = {x.a. Hence p is one-one.30. (x\y').Sec. can we find does there exist a solution to such that (x. Is T„_b an isometry? If - = a one-to-one onto mapping. Hence Tab ^ Sg.3/)- Hence Tq (.b {x. sm s + S Rt solve these equations for x and y using the same stratagem as above.y)GE.8. This is a convenience which will simplify the statement of Theorem 3. is onto.T_a.) 9 Solution: We must show first that p is an element of S^.33). 2/a) and B= (xB.y)p -{a. £ Se.e.y)Ta.-b d{Ar„_^. is —sin cos 9 sm ^ 0. then .h clearly implies i'^yVha.B) and To. so we must show that it is (x. cos 9 (3.VbV = + b)T-a. 9 p an isometry? If -4 = (a.(cos2 9 We multiply + sin2 e) = a cos 9 -(- 6 sin 9 or x = 9 a cos 9 -I- 6 sin 9 first Multiply the first equation of second to obtain (3. y t_„ _bTo_b = and so (xab)"' = t _„__(.'(cos2 e + + {—y cos sin2 0) sine y cos = Since cos^ 9 -(- + {—y' cos 9 sin 9 y' cos sin 9) sin^ 9 = 1. Br^^.6) immediately. onto? In other words. then {x .ys). (x.{x + a.j/a) A = and B= (x^yy^). an isometry. ' = («. Problems 3.6).) Finally.}._b = ' 3. the top equation by cos 9 and the bottom by sin 9 and add to obtain a.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 69 3. If {^'>y')ra.b) G R^l x cos 9 X for x.b) for any (a.(cos2 e and the second by and add to obtain e sin e) -|- + sin2 e) a.)"^ — '^-a.b = (oj^.-b . (Hard.' y' sin (5.

0). is line Lj joining (x.—y)a^ = (a.y)ayay = {x. Thus I. y)p p = = — = = (a.And a^ is (x. is the )~' = Put -0 = *. sin e + = y cos e) sin (— «).I/a) B= (a. y)pj. or — — Iv. Similarly p_ p equidistant from — Show that (0. and the line Lg joining (x. 62) ^ C*'. x sine sin 9) + cos * — 9) y cos e)p^ (a. sin e + y cos 9)p 2/ fl sin e) cos (—9) — + (a. cos e cos M = = 2-n- / -e = (x2 V(a. Bp 6 ) — = \/[(«A COS e ^/{(xa — Va sin e) — {xg cos e sin — y^ sin e)]^ + [(^a sin e -\- Va cos e) — {xg sin e + yg cos 9)]^ . Solution: identity. tf) (a cos [a:(sin2 e — 2/ sin 9) sin (—9) y{sin^ 6 + e)] (a.j/) = (ac'.B. 62)' t^^n the cosine of the angle between L^ and L^ is given by aia2 + 6162 \/(a2+6f)(a|+6|) Put («!. Thus the rotations form a subgroup of /. Show that CTj. and p (p )"> is a rotation.0). a. Solution: If A = a.j/g) cos ef and thus p is an isometry. clearly onto. = = = (x cos e [(x COS ff —y — + sin 9. .y'). (x.Xb) cos e . Obviously {x. Solution: As we have shown in Problem 3. for _ - preserves distance.(cos 9 cos 4' a. y) and (x.70 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS d(Ap d [CHAP. (a2.2 + ij2) cos e " = + 2/2)(a.B) and so 2 ffj. cos » sin 9 + cos 9) sin *. 0)p^. J/)p • Then if /i is ' the smallest angle between the lines Lj and L^. 0) is {x. so p p_ =1.(x.2/B)> d(A<rj„Ba„) = VW^ «bP + (-J/A - (-2/b))' = d{A.0). 3. 2/)) = d((0. 3 . If the one line Li has end point {a^.(y^. {x. y)p^) = d{{0. 2/). /t = 9 if O^^s^tt. 61) = (a..y). (a. {x. if - e - lir. Show that rotations about the origin form a subgroup of I. b^) and the other Lg has end point (02.32. and p. and that the smallest angle between the (0. as it is annoying to carry the minus sign. 2/ 2/ a. the rotation through zero degrees. (wa. sin e + y cos cos (—9)] cos^ i. (p p(„ . y) and 3. e).y)p 2jr — 9 when it and 6 (0. (x. Po.y). 2/)p ^ .. We remind the reader of the formula for calculating the angle between two lines meeting at the origin.P are two rotations. y)p p (x.(cos 9 sin 4' + sin 9 cos *) + 2/(cos 9 cos * — sin 9 sin *)) cos (9 + *)) sin (9 + *) + sin (9 + *). is an isometry and that and <r„ i. 2/ («.y)Oy = {%' .Hence a^ is an isometry.v')ay implies (x.34. (x cos (9 + *) — ((a.2 + y^) it Hence 3. * + sin 9 + cos 9) cos *)) sin 9 sin *) — 2^(sin 9 cos * + cos 9 sin *). hence the set of rotations is not empty. cos^ {x. 2/ — cos 9 — (a. Hence p p = p . 2/ sin 9.y) and e when =s tf - jr.31.)• Is p (p )~i = p p^ a rotation? (x. 2/ cos e — — y sin sin (a.Vb) e^ + [(^a ~ «^b) sin 9 + (2/^ .—y)ay .33. 0). d((0. If p . y)p .

B' and C" intersect in erality two points P and Q. -d = (a. that there are isometries that are neither reflections. Geometrically it is possible to see that Da .0) and (0. we quickly verify that the two possible products of a reflection and the inverse of a reflection is again a reflection.b''-c.36. two points. they must be the same point. from B' is 6. Solution: T'a.0). Similarly Dr is a distance a from A'. Since we have shown <r""i. = d{A. Show OX form a subgroup of /. however. C). d(Aa. A. Let A' Then the distance of Da from A' is a.) We will prove in this section that all any three points not Lemma 3. B') G /. A'P = A'Q and B'P = B'Q. d{D. C). for there are only the two reflections and Oy.b'--c. We shall prove geometrically then that A. (0. C) = d{B. Hence a not an isometry.> = 'a. d.6: Let a d{A'. B' = Ba = Br and = Ca = C two points at most. 3/ + 6)r_e.B. have the same effect on three points on a straight line. Isometries are products of reflections. and O3 with center and radius c. Similarly B'C lies on the perpendicular bisector of PQ. and from C is c.Dt. B). B.7. a. for both Da and Dr lie on the intersection of three circles: Oi with center A' and radius a. and c from C. Without loss of gen- we may assume that B' lies between A' and C. If this is not so. and d{B'. C) = ^2 ¥- d{A.e. Let three circles with centers A'.6.1). . 0)a = (l.y)a = if {x. ''. = Act = At. hence A'B' lies on the perpendicular bisector of PQ. h from B'. This contradiction proves Lemma 3. that = 3. 0)ct = 1 (0.-d = {x-^ /. Find an element of Sg that Solution : is is not an isometry. Show that the set of translations forms a subgroup of /. do not Proof: lie elements of /.C).-d = + o. d{A'. rotations.37. But aAjPC is congruent to straight line. Thus we have and so AABC is congruent to AA'B'C. i We (Tj. (Note. C) = two triangles with corresponding sides equal.C which Let D be any point of E. O2 and O3 have two points in common. Let ctGSe be defined by easy to verify that a e Se- (x.35.7: If a and t. (1. C) = c.b ('cd)"' (a. B Ba = B' and Ca = Proof: C and C Then A'B'C be three noncollinear points in E. a translation and a rotation.A) = a. d{A. C) = A'.0) and C= then = d(A.Sec.d) = {x. C must lie on the same circles intersect in It is possible Two for Da and Dt to be these straight line. 0).y ^h . Let d{D. C' Ct. nor translations. Therefore A'B'C is a straight line. This enables us to prove that every isometry is expressible as the product of a reflection. Ca) = d{B.y)Ta-c. aA'B'C by Lemma 3. Oz with center B' and radius h. 3.B) = h and d{D. Hence Oi and O2 determine two points. Let A.h-A and thus the set of translations forms a subgroup of 3. Hence the set of reflections forms a subgroup of 1 and is of order 2.y) except that (0. Let A<j is a triangle congruent to ABC. then Oi.i-cb-d is easily verified as 2/)Ta.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES that the reflections about 71 3. But we shall show that as Da and Dt must lie on O3. It Now A = is B= (1. Lemma 3. translations and rotations an isometry is determined uniquely by its action on on a straight line. Solution: have only two elements. Hence ABC lies in a But we assumed this was not so. then a — r.

Let C = CorT_„_ _5 p_^. E is first. Atj) parallel to the Then B'A is at an angle Aa and A. [This is a well known fact of coordinate geometry. *. Let A= Fig. C else C' = C. Formal proof: We (a. A(jt_^ _^ Thus Suppose B' Acr = Then = A. B. expressible as the product of a reflection.r and the theorem is true.-bP-^M- Since A. Apply the translation which moves each point a distance d{A. cos 9 sin (-9) + sin 9 cos (-e)) + sin2 e. (6) Ba to B. 0) product. page 34. 3. Let Aa = (a. must be a distance 1 from A. Intuitive proof: 1. B and C are mapped to A. follow the (0. See Fig. X .72 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS 3. rotation and reflection such that To check that <t* = t. 1 Fig. We build * in three stages so that we bring (a) Aa to A. present an intuitive proof The formal proof below follows exactly the same and C = (0. 3 line joining $.-. h). So we must find a ^ which is the product of a translation.^ /„ -bP-e -bP-6 Ac X O = Ao ^"'^-a. B').0) = B Also. since 1 = d{A. sin ^)p_. (c) Ca to C.7. B and C by a^. the equations cos $ = d and sin 9 = e can be solved for 0. = *" f* Lemma f*P<. Ap_ — A. a rotation We steps. of a translation. f>). sin 5) for some angle 0.4. Let B' Be say.-bP-e = C' Fig. e) with d'^ + e^ = 1. we need only prove that for the three noncollinear points <T^ = L. 2 Fig. Hence. in which case let ^ be the reflection in OX. 3 Theorem Every isometry of and a translation. B' P-o (cos e. is of length 1. is at a distance 1 from A and a distance Then since t_„ _^ and p_^ are isometries. a rotation and a as a reflection. . Hence B' is of the form (cos 6. 1) A= (a) (b) (0. Let o- S /. All we must check is that if B' = {d. to OX and. 0). Hence C is either as in Fig. B= (1. in which case let ft be the identity reflection.) = d{A.8: [CHAP. 1) as shown in (0. using our -HP-XKr-a. since t_^_^ and a are isometries. Our idea is first to find <t~* i Bai Aa Bar^a = B' / B P B= ^'""-a. so that AaT_ a. <t* = t by remark on the inverse of a product in Section 2. rotation and translation. or <r. (cos e (cos -61) (cos^ e - sin 9 (sin -6i).7). BaT_„. 2._b.] Then = Bo-T_„ _(. C the effect of and <t* is the same (Lemma 3. C= same three steps and use the same notation.Vb 3. B = (1._i. 0). 0) = (1. ~b = A. A. Let *= /x-a. and a G 7. Apply the rotation through an angle of —Q that takes B' onto B. V2 from B.B) — d(A(TT_„. It is easy then to prove a is the product of a reflection. 0).

and a = *-» = e. But T_i. G S and sorr"^ G S.-1). i. denoted by h. Now we show in Is. C' Let A. Sa 3. - G S. and Thus C<r* C= = C.) (In other words. is characterized by its mapping elements of S.1). (J Gl forms a subgroup of /.TG (ii) Is..9 e S} condition (ii).0) €S to (0. b u. we shall define a group which we will call the symmetry group of the figure. is (TT-i implies st~^ e /s? We first prove r"* G Is. 3.9: Theorem Let S be any subset of the Euclidean plane. Hence ctt"' G Is and Is forms a subgroup of Problems 3.p_^ is a distance 1 from let /.p_. Now T-J = T_i.^p. (An element of Is.e. {<r I <r 6 / and for all s e S. ^ 1}. S = {(a. Hence U is not a subgroup. — . tr-^ G S. Symmetry groups Given a figure in the Euclidean plane. t Because t G h. we will be concerned with subsets of the Euclidean The word symmetry so instead of talking about symmetry.Sec. 1) or (0. Then ti. If a. A B and \/2 from B. plane. into S. = S.o moves (1.39. i. G S. 5<t* = /xt^. and only elements of S. In Theorem we cannot drop Let S be the infinite half-line starting at (1. since t satisfies (i). The set. the symmetry group of what we would normally call a non-symmetrical figure usually turns out to be of order 1. is not sufficiently precise for the needs of Chemistry and Physics. Find the orders of the symmetry group of (i) (ii) a' [E G \^ H 1 D \o 4l^_J I .0) | a. called the symmetry group of S.e. In comparing two figures. = (0. Find a plane figure S such that U = does not form a subgroup of Solution: /.0).38. (ii) implies GS since t~^ satisfies (ii).) 3. therefore. an isometry.) Proof: Is ^ 0. p — e^ " Then A<t^ = A. since a and t~^ are Therefore trr"' Furthermore. we talk about symmetry groups.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 73 (c) C •i- = Co-i-_„ _(.o G U. we have ta and consequently aT~^ also satisfies G S. G h. and t~* G Is. Then tar'^ t sa S. More generally.7. Thus t~^ satisfies (i). since A<tt_„ _bP_^ = ix BaT_„__t. (ii).o. of all such that (i) s gS implies sa G S and (ii) ta G S implies t G S. since <t satisfies If G /. (Clearly. G S.-1). as the identity mapping of the Euclidean plane into itself If s is in Is. st"^ G S. and <rT_„__6p_^ is (0. s G S.0) ^ S. a figure is a subset of the Euclidean plane. Put by Lemma Hence c^ = if t 3. let Hence t~^ satisfies (ii). <tt-* G h. (0. To show T-i also satisfies (ii). 3.. be the identity if C = and ' be the reflection a^ = T— a. Also. it usually turns out that what one would normally think of as the more symmetrical figure has a symmetry group of greater order than the less symmetrical figure. {st-^)t s GS Then implies {tT-^)T = sGS. Let (i).

) Solution (i) Let S = ABCDEF. Ise J. Gs2 S3: Hs2. But we have already exhibited eight elements of /g. and draw its perimeter onto a sheet of paper. reflection in OY. Could .7 at most one isometry could correspond to any one case. 3 {Hint: Use Theorem 3. J.: 74 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP.C. A clockwise rotation Gsg J. Is^ = G. reflection in the diagonal I. K. rotation and translation. Then \Is\ — 8. Therefore the line Gsis is one of the diagonals of S. HsJs GI or IG GI or IG (4) is Since these represent eight distinct cases and each involves the movement of three points not in a straight line. H. OX. Hsg = = - /. That all of these are distinct is clear. Hs^ = H. s |/sl be greater than 8? Let S Ig.D. Then mapping L" ^t"! Ig contains the following elements: (a) the identity of Kai (6) <72. G.8 and argue intuitively. as all other sides of S are either smaller or larger than d{A'. Is) = Vl Only two pairs of points of S are a distance ^2 apart. the reflection in 1. Hsi = = J. Gs^ S4: HS3 Isg = H. for we have as members of /g: A A reflection in the diagonal GI. clockwise rotation about of 0°. J. Gs^ Sg-. about O of 270°. Isi = = /. Is^ Gsi S5: H. = = = ^ L. Lai K. The isometries are obtained on moving each cardboard figure so that it lies on the drawn perimeter. Is2 G.C'. Similarly the line HsJs is a diagonal of S. which means F' must lie on F and hence E' on E. HsJs is HJ HJ or or JH GsIs GsIs GsIs IG. Gsi S2. \J2 I. since Theorem 3. Now A'B' must lie along AB. As s is a permutation of S. M<'2 Ka2 Hence |/s| = ^' — Let a distance \/2^ apart are S Ig. etc. Now Sj: |/s| is at least 8. Accordingly I^ = {i} and is of order 1. Gsg s^.B') — d{A. This means that at most the following possibilities arise: (1) (2) (3) GsIs is is is GI. distinct points of S are mapped by 8 to distinct points. A clockwise rotation about of 180°. Since d(M.. A useful intuitive approach for this problem is to cut a cardboard figure corresponding to each figure. A A A A reflection in J. Isg = H. then either and the only two points of KLM which are a . I. Thus a must be the identity.L) = L and M. by Lemma 3. = = G. I. H. (iii) Let S be the triangle (Tj. IS5 = = clockwise rotation about O O of 90°. Hsi = = — J. label its vertices on both sides. Hence |/s| = 8.8 it is easy to see intuitively that the image of the plane figure S will be the congruent figure A'B'C'D'E'F'. = = = = G. = I.8 states that every element of 7 is a product of a reflection.B). Hs.B'. I) = d{Gs. By Theorem 3. d{G. But if a rigid body is rotated. KLM. be denoted by A'. translated or reflected it retains the same shape.(72 KN. Hsg G. Let the images of A.D'. HJ. HsJs is is is JH JH.B.E' and F'. — = 2. namely G. I and H.E and F under <t e /. HsJs HJ. Let (ii) S = UGH. Gsg Sg-.

by Lemma 3. as there are points of S which are exactly a distance r from 0. We will show that in S. Then as K must be a distance 1 from both M and L. = A. La = M. We Let the vertices of a regular n-gon S with center direction). But by the previous lemma there is only one circumscribing circle of S.A). be Ai.11: The center of a regular n-gon S is taken onto itself by any element of Is.A„ (in a clockwise ^^-^ Let radians CT.. Hence |/sl . But Act is an element of S on the circumference of C. Ka = K. say. Hence the circle with radius r and center Oa is a circumscribing circle of S. there are points of Sa which are exactly a distance r from 0(r..7.. circle. one of the figures below. s^a . the effect of on the regular pentagon shown below. But Sd = S. The symmetry group can now of the regular K-gon is called the dihedral group of degree n. or (6) M f. Also. Proof: Since every point of S is within a distance r. Oa = by Lemma 3. Lemma 3. This will make it easy to determine the order of the symmetry group of a regular n-gon. The dihedral groups Let iS be a regular n-gon. L. from and L. where r is the radius of the circumscribing circle C. vertices are taken to vertices. Thus Act is a vertex.e. n> 2. n> 2. We call the center of the circumscribing circle of an n-gon 3.g. i.Sec. d{Oa. As an example.. then every element of Sir is within a distance r from Oct. Every regular n-gon can be circumscribed by one and only one its center. Ma = Lop = L.2.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES (a) 75 Ma — M. e.12: If S is a regular n-gon and a G h. any isometry of A We Lemma Lemma will take the following geometrical 3.10: lemma for granted. and K is the only point of S which is a distance 1 from both L and M. 3. Then as K must be a distance 1 from both Ma and Lit. Therefore |/s| = 2. and <j is an isometry. . calculate the orders of the dihedral groups. Thus Oa = O. 360 1) is rotate S about O \ in a clockwise direction through an angle ~ ' (= "^0'- / ^ CTj degrees j so that A^ct.11. Proof: If A is a vertex of S and is the center of S. from the center 0. Ka = K. l^j^n.. The only points of S on the circumference of C are vertices.A(j) = d{0.Av) = d{0. then vertices of S are taken onto ver- tices of S by <r. Hence Act is a distance r from O.

toj above. implies t = <j^. illustrates the effect on a regular pentagon of the reflection t fol- Z'^IOZ (A2r)ff3 (Air)(r3 The elements A^a. ¥- <j^. tq. T<7„ are all distinct. Now tvit = a^. Aj(j.So CT3T cordingly the multiplication table is 1 is — j — 2. A^t = A^. mined. Thus there are at most 2n elements of 7^. implies = But = a. .. Finally. j as k. .A^a) = d{A^. ^ A^<j^. S the regular n-gon. = to-^. . i = 3. implies least 2m possible elements of the dihedral group of degree n. j ^ k. Once A^a and A^a are determined. so that on the regular pentagon is shown. 3 The effect of t be the reflection about the line through Aj and O. For if a G 7s. Find D^ and Solution: its multiplication table. As vertices are taken to vertices. Problems 3.76 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Let T [CHAP. CTj. . A^a has only two possibilities once A^a is determined as d{A^a. then there easily show . 4. For certainly Thus a.k. since a^ as AiTtT2T = AiagT = ^2'^ = -^3. and tcts 0302 toji" the identity.40. *"<^ A2T£r2T = '13<'2T = AlT == -^l. . Hence there are at most two elements <r e /g which map A^a to A. A^a is one of A^. A^-r = A^. contrary to assumption. and A^tr ti are also determust also be a vertex. A.A^.a. . = and = a2r. The elements of Dg are the (Tj. . Ac- as follows: ^2 ''s n "1 T T Tffg 7'a2 TO'3 "2 "3 "1 T<T2 <f3 TIT2 TCT3 "2 "3 T T(r2 CT2 "l r TCT3 Tff2 "3 "2 T<r3 T(72 T "3 T T(T2 "1 ''3 <'2 rag T Ta2 »! <'3 "2 "1 Tffg T(r3 T "2 . the identity. Note that aja^ = ffj + i if Also note that t~i = t and a(r — t^ctjt = ttoit. But we can that there are no more than 2n. j ¥. rCT2 = = ai"3. Let D^ denote the dihedral group of degree n. . Ttr.A^. The following diagram lowed by the rotation a^. If then AjTo-^ = Aj(T^. and so \h\ = 2w- So there are at .. are n possibilities for A^<t.

4c) what are the permutations of E that preserve distance. and to^t = <7j. t(T2t = a^ by Lemma 3. j = 1. c. Automorphic Functions. 0. c^O. R. Vj. We = The following calculations implies "s^i facilitate the construction of a multiplication table for D4.39(ii).. the comnumber z = x-\-iy corresponds to the point with coordinates (a. d are fixed complex numbers such that ad But (T(a. Two preserve angles and their things can go wrong. For suppose za = ale. and Solution: its multiplication table. use the notation of Section 3.4f. the very condition we assumed did not hold. Also t~^ = t. A2CT4 = Aj.3. Since t<t2t and (T4 have the same effect on the three points Aj. however. C4IT2 = oTj. E to E. then az + 6 = (c2 + d)alc and b — adic = and hence be — ad — 0. plex . Chelsea. These are called conformal mappings. to the set. A^a^r show To^r = Oi. (ii) {<ri. Find D^.(a. for the rotations and t for the reflection. and tto^t a^ = <T3a2 implies t<74t = Ta3a2T = (Ta3T)(TCT2''") = to ''2* Hence a2T = tto2t O"! = t(T4. agr = '^3 = ^4 Tffg. y).}. Show the {a. the sj^mmetry group of the square. j = 1.AiT<T2T = Aj(T2T = A. d) is not always a mapping of if — bc¥=0. z<T is then: not defined is z = —d/c. We will. Now <rj<j2 = Cj + i for 1 — j — 3. A2T(T2T = A^(r2''' ~ A^T = Aj. b. orientation. i.7. "4 T "1 "2 <'3 Ta2 ^3 <'2 Ta^ T T T<r2 Ta3 T<r4 •'I "3 <'4 ra2 TCT2 TOg T<r4 T "4 <'l "2 "1 "S "2 T<T3 '•'^s T<r4 T Tff2 "3 <'4 Tff4 TCT4 T Tff2 Tffg "2 <'3 "4 "1 3. 2. as then the denominator becomes (ii) There no complex number that maps to a/c. 3. a\ = ag to^t = ~ '"I'' — {''o'2T)(T<r2'') = ''•4 = (T3. It is easy to calculate gh-^ from the multiplication table of Problem 3. ("i) {roztOi}- (Notation is same as It is Solution: gh~^ belongs only necessary to check in each case that the set is not empty and if g. Instead of inquiring (as we did in Section 3. and A^a^^ = A2. L.40. and A3tct2''' — A^T = A2. and "^ mT = T'^2 TT(r4T = TCT2- It is now easy construct the table: 0^2 ^^3 TO3 "^^4 "1 a2 o's "4 T r(r2 T(f4 "2 ''2 (^s "4 "1 T<74 T Ta2 T TCT3 03 "3 "4 "1 a2 Ta3 r<74 T(T2 "4.5 a.5] THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS that the following are subgroups of Dg: in the preceding problem. Notice that we have already found the elements of D4 in Problem 3. we inquire what are the permutations of E that preserve both angles and their orientation.42. Accordingly the elements of D^ are ctj and tctj.b.41. ctz. h belong to the set. c. Furthermore A^a^ = A4. . It can be shown (see Ford.2T ^= A4. b. 1951) that the mappings .Sec. and aiaj = "j^i for all i and j.2. A2 and A3.4. 3.e. ctjt — ttoit. THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS Defining the group The complex numbers can be represented as points of the Euclidean plane E. "s)..c. = . 3.d): az + z--^^:^ where If (i) a. 4.) (i) 77 3.

4c prove the a for various a. c. 1). za(a. e.c. the inverse of by (r(-d. Solution: Case (a) : c = 0. leaving most of the checking of details to the problems. M M First. d form a group.-a) = «• a(-d. put za = for z -die. we just let it map to Itself. da) Note that <r(l.d) is given member of Sg (Problem Finally. Show that a(—d.b. for any complex number z. -a) = « Case (b) : (i) c ¥. define z<t = "^^ ——-r + ''' '' . and the complex numbers. c. z = — d/c. 6. 0. d) <r(—d. (a) If c = 0.c. The reader is cautioned that just as the symbol x can have different meanings (e. 62. d) a{-d.46). «> is any object outside E. It is called the group of Mobius transformations. Hence the product of an element of is a subgroup of S^. 6. Determine the image of Solutions (1) (i) i.43.0. 0.45). dz (Problem 3.7) -¥- (6) If c 7^ 0. We will show that a subgroup of -S^. Next. it is logically distinct. and put °°<t = «>. l 13 "26^ (iv) -l/3a = 3. etc. The «> we introduce should not be confused with the <» in such expressions as lim -= 0.7). 0. belongs to M. = ^(as. Put ooor {—d/c)a — 00 = a/c we have no real problem. b. b. X is sometimes a number and sometimes an element of a group or a groupoid. 0.). Ci. d). 00 —a) = -a) d (-d) + b /(-a) a(a. c. z gC. (ii) 1 + 2t. 63. 0. 0. 1) is the identity mapping and the inverse of an element in (denoted by i). b. by adding an extra element °o to E and forming Eu{'x>} = E we can overcome these difficulties. bi. (iii) «=.g. di) (T{a2. ^ 2i 3i + + ~ 1 7 1 . because not all the <t are permutations of E.-a) = -die = « . b.c.d) is a <T{a. 3. z a(a. Thus for some choice of ag. for we have both defined (—d/c)a and found an element to map to a/c. C2. b.44. Having had to add an extra element. each of the (7(a. Our <7 idea is to extend utoEin order to patch up the difficulties (i) and (ii) above so that G Sjg. In (6) we neatly get rid of both difficulties (i) and (ii) above. in order to However. M M M Problems 3. 63. l 10 2(1 10* 1 (iii) «ff = 2/3 *'" 3(1 + 2i) + + 2i) + —a) 9 " 1 . 3 seems as if we have been cheated in our efforts to argue analogously to Section 3. 1.b. the symmetric group on E. ^2) <T{ai.6.d)a(-d. Cs. In (a) is will denote the set of all mappings of E to E defined by (3. so 00 has different meanings. 0.b. b. Cs.c. given ad — bc¥= 0.c.3.44). and (iv) -1/3 under ct(2.: 78 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS It [CHAP. -a) (Problem 3. is the inverse of <r(a. (3. b. = " a(-d. It is customary to write » for historical reasons.b.

^3) where a^ a^dg — 1102 + — 62''i> ^3 — ''2^1 is + b^d^. za-^ = ». ale and {ale) a{—d. We first show 2 = + —d^lcg 61 if and only if ztri = — d2/c2. We = "3- have two C2 — 0. ''a. can only be mapped to one element of in the following case possibilities: (i) E by 0^0^ and wg. and so = . say (D). Cj. z = —d^lc^ "s- Now if implies = —dile^. b.45.44 we have seen that each a{a. we may and (D). By Theorem 2. b. any mapping of a set into itself which has an inverse is a one-to-one onto mapping. e. then zai<T2 = (—d^lc^a^ = °° and. Show that "(oi. that <r{—d.) Solution: Let a(ai. b. Since o^a^ and ignore one of these cases. d) G Sg for any choice of a. c. e. <t(o2. c. shall not consider Cj = by case (ii) analysis. Note that — 63C3 = — (ajOj (ajdi + 62<'l)(^l<'2 + ^1^2) — (ajd. —a) o{a. d) a(—d. di) Ogrfs = ai. c. Ac- cordingly we (a). Thus (A). —a) — Similarly we can show b. dg) = ag. Therefore (r{a. c^ = aiC2 + SJ^d ^3 61C2 + ^1^2. d) c. b. 0. Thus z<rjjr2 = °° = ZCT3 in this case.b. Case (i) — 0.c. Hence a{—d. z.Sec. d) = i. there is nothing more to pi-ove.c. e. 63.0. c. a^a^ implies z = —d^c^. (B) and (C) do not restrict z. c. hi.46. Cj ¥. b. c. b. ^^2) = d2<'i> •'("•s- 63. c. Prove also that &3C3 7^ 0. Prove <j(a. (Hint: This very much an endurance test. b. # 0. — 6iCi)a2d2 — (61O2 + 62dl)(OlC2 + d^Ci) — 6iCi)&2C2 = (oidi — 6iCi)(a2d2 — 62^2) ^ Hence ^3 is it a Mobius transformation.d) is one-to-one and onto. and so a{a. This obtains because if for all comthen z <» °o plex numbers zaitr2 = zo's. d such that ad — bc ¥= 0. and we can conclude (ii) — C2 v^ 0. C2 = Then cti(T2 Cg aiC2 + Cid2 = 0.c. b. Cg. Solution: In Problem 3. 62. page 36. b. —a) = °o Hence <r{a.d) is an element of Sg. z¥= -djci ZCTi if if C2 ¥= 0.b. = i.5] THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS 2 79 (ii) # —die or ».4. as z = = —d^h'^. d)~^. ^2 + aiz + 61 C2 + 62 (OjOj (aiC2 -f d2Ci)z d» + 62''l)^ + + (<*2^1 + -I- ^2dl) Zor3 {^\e% did2) Thus except for ffg restrictions (A). (C) are permutations. —a) = a{a.—a) = bcz az ez + + h d i-d) + b azc «= + + bd be — — adz aez — bd — ad + b +d /[( {be — ad)z be — ad f az cz a{a. &i. 3. C3 # —d^lc^ z ?«= -dg/ca (D) z ?* M ajZ CjZ then Zaia2 = + 6i + d.c. 3. —d^c^. z Now & if E Ci satisfies (A) (B) (C) ^ 0. di) cr(a2. Ci.b.d) a(—d. d) has an inverse. 62> <'2> ^2) — "2' and ^(as. b.h. -aj(6iC2 z = —d^/e^ implies d2 "2 ai(— d3/c3) + d^d^i + a^c^di aiC26i Cgdi A Zffi zct] simple computation shows that z<rj = (ajZ + 6i)/di = —d^lc^. 3. C3. (B). Then za{(i.

Hence (aiC2 + Cid2)2 = — (61C2 + '^i'^2) and.d) = I. za^ = cz -j—r Then »a. a(a. Solution: Let M d = {aia. zai = = za.b. Suppose ad Solution : If — be ¥= 0. then z = — dg/cg. 3. Let a{a. d) is any Mobius transformation. Therefore z. c. d) = a^ be a Mobius transformation and k a nonzero complex number. b. for (ajz + bi)/(ciZ + dj) = —djc^ implies a^c^z + = — Cid22 — d2d2. then. . kd). b. Thus il? is the set of Mobius transformations. 3. It (r(l. (a) Cg and. 0. then b/d 1 • z = za{a. — — a^ C2 Now ZCTj = Cg —d^/c^ = Oj/cj only if = and we need not consider If z this case.^ and — z 02(— didi + 61C1) C2(0iCi — fflidi) =0. =—=-. 3 (b). Hence a & M. b.^. Thus for all possible choices of we have = za and hence a^ — a. To treat the special cases worj = or —d/c (when Secondly.. (/3) ^ rfi 0. c.—T fed fee 5. C2 = Then Note also that z = —dje^. a But —zr —=: VdVd ad-bc = 7— 1= —= = — ad-bc ^/Dy/D . za-^a^. c.-^lc^c.1) =d = and — b — then.b.0. = — didj/^ida — —d^/c-^. then. 1}. a 0. b. = d. Again there are two possibilities: (i) c^ = 0.47. Ci(6iC2 61C2 + did2 + 6. a) = I.c. If z ¥= «> or z — d/c « (if c ¥= 0). if # + c = 0.c. m5 by » definition. as Hence ctiCT2 = — dj/cj.kc.d) d implies 0.d) implies c = 0. = la(a. d) = — c implies = a 0. If 2 = —djci. as Cg = aiC2 + d2Cj ¥= 0. using the results of Problem 3. d)\ ad—bc — ¥= 0.—= c kc " S and e = = (—kd/kc)a. as c k ¥= 0. Hence oia^ — ag.) + did2) From ajcx = —djc^ we have d2 za^ = {—0. b. all Furthermore.c. Then ai/cj 7^ —djc^. o's- C3 = 0. If (ii) C2 ^0. 6 Hence =° = '^a{a. = aiC2 + 01^2 = if and only if ajc-^ = Cg = e^d<i —d^/c^ c-i =<>. we then first assume = and = «> = <T.47. it follows that c^ ¥= 0.47 above - we know = a( —=. cj ¥= 0. 3. 0. Show that a{a. Hence we need consider only the possibility = 0.b.. Prove a(a. c ¥= 0. fee ¥= 0. Show that the set of all Mobius transformations = {a{a. kc. Solution: kaz -. a(a. xctiCT2 = '"<'2— " while ZCTg = 2 = —dje^. = —d^lc.0. then z<Ti(r2 = + ooo-g = + a2/''2 '^1^2) while Zffg = (— di/ci)(aja2 + C162) (6i«2 — ai(— aid.c. a 0). kb. Therefore dg Cg ^^2 _ _ '^s C2 Cg 3. = 1 Oa(a. (ii) Cj ^ 0.<fi^ + d2Ci) = —djc^. b.b. b. 0. —zz ] viously a Mobius transformation. 0.48. d) = a{ka. D= b ad — be c From Problem 1.d). c.c. \Vd VD —z: —zr . If a = a(a.d) = i iff a — d and 6 = c = 0. d) = a(a. kcz — + + Denote a(ka. c. 80 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Case (i) [CHAP. then.kb.49. b. any element VdVdJ of M obis .kd) by kb .d) \ ad—bc — l). = <»ct2 = 02/02- _ (aia2 (aiC2 C\ + 62Ci)(— '^i/ci) + (02*1 + ^2^1) + d2Ci)(— dj/ci) + (61C2 + did2) <^%{~0'\d^ ~ C2(— ajdj + ^iCi) + 6iC]) _ <H Cg Finally 61C2 z if zai = —d^lc^. = — (61C2 + d^d^l{a.G.0. as a^d^ — cja^ # implies d^ ¥. that a by definition. c.

c^c' and d = d'. then A has no inverse (see Problem 3. we define the determinant of the matrix It is If A = then ( . I The matrix a b ~ { n i ) is the identity matrix. d is called same.^2) = ^(as. c. c and d are called the Two matrices are equal if and only if their entries are the entries of matrix (3. its relation- An array 'I I) (^*> of complex a two by two (2 x 2) matrix. then A~'^ G £M since is in 31. We claim that the set a b c d a. -b _a D{A)I \d{A) is the inverse of A (see Problem 3. We define the product of two matrices as follows: a b c\/a' d)\b' is c'\ d'j _ ~ faa' \ba' + + cb' ac' be' db' + + cd' dd' 3.0. " ( w) = ( f' ^^ d') ^^^ °^^^ ^^ a^a'.&2.?l/ is a group. Therefore . A calculation shows (Problem matrix an associative binary operation.B G M. Problem 3. If D{A) - 0. cs. D{AB) ¥- and AB G IM.di)(T(a2. we usually omit the adjective 2 x 2. Hence the identity / is 1[q \) D{A) D{A~^) = - 1 implies 2x2 mat- The relationship between the group of is matrices now evident. b.51) The product of two matrices multiplication is clearly a matrix. 3. (Since we will only deal with 2x2 matrices.52).bi. ds) .Ci. d complex numbers. D{A~^) ¥.5] THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS matrices 81 b.8). as D{A) D{B) = D{AB).Sec.46 we found (T(ai. A = f M ^1 and D{A) ¥. For in Mobius transformations and the group of 2 x 2 Problem 3.e. numbers a. 62. J J to be the complex number I>(A) = ad — bc.) a. 2x2 In this section we will deiine the group of two by two matrices and indicate ship to the group of Mobius transformations. b.b = b'.0. \^ d Id{A) / 1 -c D{A) . of I then. easy to show D{A) D{B) ( = D{AB) for any two matrices A and B (see . since c\(l dl\0 0\ ij _ ~ a + O [b + O + c\ + dj ^ (a [b c\ d) _ (1 \0 0\( a c \]\b d In order to determine which matrices have inverses. For if A.53(i)). The determinant = D{I) Furthermore if A E S'^.53(ii)). ad — be is ¥= with the operation of matrix multiplication a group. b. c. i. We call iM the group of rices over the complex numbers. &3.

i62)«3 + + di62)o3 + ("l«2 (biC2 + Cld2)63 + did2)bs («l'»2 {b^az + Ci62)<'3 + + dib2)c3 + (<»lC2 (61C2 - /"' \bi c. ' ^"'^ . 3 where - aiOz + 62C1. _ ~ cs = aiC2 + d2Ci. bs = azbi + &2di.51. B = ("' J). Problems (ii) Find the inverse of M 2i\ (I _l) .„ /aa' (6a' + eb' + d6' + cd' + dd' . page 120. Solution: Let A = f' "').\ /a. (c) ^ °V (d) ("^ ^ Solution: 8i (i) -3 + 2i (a) 20 2 (6) (c) 10 y \ ' c — (^ ^ c (d) a 6 Vd ' 14 (ii) + 3 3i 14 + + 3i (6) ^0 ( i\ (c) (a) -7 3i a (d) fl/a \ 1/d J 0/ 14 + 14 3i / 3.g. But L I ft f* \ ^j ^ I Tea Jcf* \ . Show that matrix multiplication is an associative binary operation.i 82 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS as [CHAP. kb. Prove D(A)D(B) Solution: = D(AB) = D(B)D(A). The precise rela- two groups will be given in Problem 4. ac' 6c' /a ^«' „ / a' 6' c' \ ^ = U d)' ^ = d')- ^^^" ^^ = . tti fei Ci \/a2 di/\&2 C2 \ /aia2 ^2/ \6ia2 + + C1&2 aiC2+Cid2\ hiC2 di62 + didi. kd) for any complex number tionship between the A.52. 3. b. For we have seen in Problem 3. C = /"3 "3 f>3 "'). and da = biCz + didi.81.2a3+ C2*3 a2C3+<'2d3\ di/ybza^ + dibs bzCa + d^gJ ai(a2C3 hiia^c^ /ai(a^3 \ 6i(a2«3 + C263) + 61(6203 + dgfcg) + C263) + di(62a3 + d263) {AB)C + C2d3) + + c^^ + Ciib^e^ di(62<'3 + d^^ + d^d^) A check of entries shows = A(BC). = -1. if A. 9^ 0. kc.47 that a(o. c\ for any two matrices A and B. Then (AB)C = 61 a-2 ^2 diJ\b2 dg CsX dg/ _ /aia2+ \6i02 C162 0-102+ Cid2\/ 13 6iC2 "3 + di62 + did2/\63 + Cid2)d3 + did2)d3 dg /(OlOj \ (61O2 + <. [j^^ j^^j e. But by the def/as Ca inition of multiplication.j _ " \ba ds This does not mean the group of 2 x 2 matrices is identical with the group of Mobius transformations. W (J J). d) = a{ka. c.

3. '^)g%. ad — 5c = 1 (iii) "^ - -{[^ j) o. D(A) 1 D(A)\f^ b -b >. bd — db —be + da \D(A) (ii) D(A)j \ D{A) D(A) j -b ^D(A) rc:) D{A)i If A' is an inverse of A. (ii) VC. VO 1/ A-^ 1. <^. % -U a b c a. If real numbers.54. / > Prove: (i) If D{A) ¥ 0. = 1 3. as -5_. If D{A) = 0.6 a. Since zero times any number is zero. A cannot have an inverse. then D(A') D(A) = D(I) where / is the identity matrix. d complex numbers. c. d d real numbers. (iii) 'J'Q.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE D(A) D(B) 83 . Let of The corresponding one-to-one onto is Definition: G be a groupoid. c complex numbers. ' D(A) 1 . But D{I) and D(A) = 0. We mapping have discussed isometrics of plane of a groupoid is defined as follows.^M. Show (i) that the following sets of matrices are subgroups of the group c3/ of 2 X 2 matrices. as it is Then Z)(A) D(A-i) = = 1. 3. c. Solution: a (i) d c\\ D(A) <^/l I ad— be —ac D(A) -\- ac \ \ D{A) a V. Then an automorphism « of G G onto G such that (ab)a — oaba for all a. ^_. b. ad ¥> Solution: (i) %Q^ are all and / = (. ASV. ^_ % is and is a subgroup of ^M. 3.b GG.M and 7 G <P. ad — 6c t^ (ii) = b d a. Thus ? is a subgroup of . a one-to-one mapping . ^DiA) \' (ii) DiA).M D(A-i) and !»(/) = so ZGU Let (^^. e% A^(l dj \b 1)g% "3^ then. 6. A has no inverse. ^ D{A)' D{A)' D(A)' D{A) easy to check that -^.bc)(a'd' . SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE Automorphisms of groupoids figures.Sec. d D(A) -I D(A) is the inverse of A. Let A = 'a I c\ ) be a matrix.53.b'c') = aa'dd' + bb'cc' .adb'c' = (ao' + cb')(bc' + dd') . as it is H®"<=« A-i G "P if 1/d ) easily checked that "P is closed with respect to d) *^ ( o" products.(6a' + db')(ac' + ed') = {ad bca'd' = D{AB) Because multiplication of complex numbers is commutative. . as it is closed with respect to products. Hence X( is a subgroup of easy to check that K • is jD(7) = 1 implies closed with respect to products. D{A) D(B) = D(B) D(A). The inverse of ^ = (a A G'J'. .

a Now an automorphism of a group G is a one-to-one homomorphism of G onto G. Hence {xy)a -yamorphism group therefore contains the two elements and a. a binary operation in A. GG = and a'b' = by A We aut (G). la = 1' (1 an identity of G and 1' an identity of G') and if gh = 1 = hg. gaha = V . •) where G = {a. i. 3 groupoid multiplication.b GG then (a6)(a/3) = {{ab)a)li is = [{aa){ba)]fi Thus the composition of mappings III.84 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP.e.e. Note that xy = y.6. Notice aa = i {xa)iya).e. the identity mapping. G is a subgroup of Sg. is i. as a is a one-to-one onto mapping. the the identity mapping. and hence a subgroup of Sg. page 67. a~^ be the inverse of «. Note that A^ = /. la = Hence there are at most two automorphisms of A3.55. The auto- 3. let choose a'.b so that a'a = a. showed that for any homomorphism a of a groupoid G into a groupoid a mapping of G into G' such that (ffiSTa)" . The set A of all automorphisms of a groupoid symmetric group on G. 92 ^ <?. is the only automorphism for the only other possibility is the mapping a defined by aa = b and ba = a. an automorphism of A3. Then {a'b')a = ab. •) is associative. and A are automor- I A A I I A . i. Note that isometries preserve distance whereas automorphisms of groupoids preserve As the analog to Theorem 3. b' GA (aa""')(6a~^). and so A contains an identity. 6} and • is defined by the multiplication table a a b b a a b b a Solution: (a) I. IV. a^A Let I be the identity mapping. a^l = O" checking the homomorphism property. since a G Sg.5. a"^* makes sense. the image of an identity in G is an Identity in G' and the image of an inverse of g & G is an inverse of ga. aj = a^. Find the automorphism group of Ag. page 44. (6) Define a by aa = b and 6a = a. I.haga. Let A = we see that / be the mapping lA = i.p GA and a. we have 3.) Theorem 2.13: Theorem Proof: I. The identity mapping is an automorphism. belongs to A. J = i. hence {bb)a ¥= {})a) • {Jod). If a e A. Solution: G'. Let a. (A. call A the automorphism group of the groupoid G and sometimes denote it Find the automorphism group of (a) (&) (G. Therefore if Also <ria is either ag or ''i. b'a = b. i. Thus a is not an automorphism. 0-2^ = "v phisms. V. hence A^ 0. Hence {ab)a-^ Thus is a group. i.56.«'i««'2« for a^ 9i. If a. = [a(aP)][b{a(i)] II. (For table of Ag see Problem 3. Problems 3. But {bb)a = aa = b and baba = aa = a. Thus the multiplication table is a^. 0^2.23(iii).

Pl . There- (9i92)Pa = «-~M9'ifi'2)a p. p- are all I ffi ff2 ''1 ''2 '3 I (Tj (72 (72 Tj T2 '"1 Tg ''2 I 1 aj 02 <T2 Ti T2 T3 Pa2 I (Tl (T2 Tj ''S T2 '^2 T3 '"1 (Tl '3 I CT2 ''I 1 CTi '^1 '^2 ^S Tl 1 aj "'2 ^2 "1 ''1 '^2 '3 ''2 i (Tj CT2 ''1 ''2 '"3 C (Ti 02 T2 T3 ' ''l '3 1 (72 (Tl T2 Tl T3 If p were another automorphism. onto. Now (Tip must be either a^ or (Tg. P-1 P<^2 Pl P-2 "-3 P-l Pa-y Po-2 Pl PCTI P-3 P-l P-2 Pt. g has as pre-image aga~^. We use the multiplication table of Section 3. for if g = G then a'^g^a = a~^g2a and hence G. Hence is an automorphism. P-2 Pri P^3 Po-l Pi Pct2 P-3 P-2 P-1 P<T2 Pa. Let a be any element of a group G. 3. to denote the effect of these mappings. so that our argument would not apply to a groupoid which 9{PaPb) g & G. automorphisms of S3. Also p„ If is fore Pa is one-to-one. since '"i"! = a^. ((r]<Ti)p = oipoip. since = Hence there are two possible choices for Tip Tip. that p„pb Per.57 to find six automorphisms.Sec. P-1 Prs P-2 Pi P-2 P-1 Pt.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE G into 85 3. Find the automorphism group of S3. t2 or T3 for if for example. contradicts p a one-to-one mapping.58.4(c). Pi. p . This problem is difficult. then ip = (titi)p = (Tjai = (tj = i. Hence there are 3 possible choices for effect of p on all the elements of S3 is known..57. p^ . p^ . Pt. a^p is given. for if say a^p = ti. a contradiction. Define the mapping p^ of that Pa is an automorphism of G and that pa.) Solution: Then Refer to the multiplication table of S3 given in Section Pt . We use the notation of Section 2.57. then ip = ip 1. Solution: Pa is clearly a mapping.. is the usual multiplication of mappings. But once a^p and Tip are known. Once 1. Note that we have used the associative not a semigroup. Pi P<ri P-2 P-1 P-2 P-3 Per.3(a) to calculate the images under the automorphisms. the = Ts and Tiff2 — T2 So this means that there are at most six possible automorphisms. o~>£fiaa-i£r2a ffi = fif2. prove that there are no other automorphisms. then a^p = = titi = but this cTip. g^p^ g^Pa.3(a). If law. (Hint: Use Problem 3.57. = {9Pa)Pb = (a-~^ 9a)pb h~^a-^gab = (ab)-^g(ah) = gpa and thus Pab = PaPb- 3. By Problem 3. Prove p^pj. Now Tip must be one of tj. page 37. is a homomorphism. To find the multiplication table Pi we use the result of Problem 3. = = is giPa92Pa and so p. p^ . 3.Pb = Pab where G by Pa- 9 '* a^^ga. = Pab- Pt. (tjp is known <tip<tip as <t2P = i.

+ (b - b')i G F . Macmillan. then a—h & R and ab~^ & R whenever 6^0. Solution: e fi.86 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Fields of complex numbers [CHAP.h G C. +) is a subgroup of (C. 0. 1 ~ 266' .{0}.h & Q}. „ . aa' (a -a') 66' . parts (a) and (&) of the definition of a field imply (F.{0}. (a+bi) . i = \/^ \ \ Solution: (i) 1 = 1 + 0\/2 e F. . x) under the usual multiplication of complex numbers (see Example 5.beZ}. for example. field (The definition of bers. is a subgroup of (C*. x) where F* = F.b GF and b -^ 0. (F*. Problems 3.) field. i^ is a field. then ab^^ GF. x). if (F. F* = F. l + Oi= IGF. 3. for a subset of a group to be a subgroup. 1953. We are often interested in a subset of C that satisfies the same conditions. Whenever a. page 55. is called a field of complex numbers if (h) (c) Whenever a. numbers is a group under the usual binary operation of by (C. if a' + b'i ¥> 0. 3 b. C* = C- {0}. Definition: A (a) subset F of C IGF. A Survey of Modern Algebra. and that C* = C — {0} is a group (C*.h & Q} F = {a+ hi a. then a-h&C.60. and if v^ 0. +) is a subgroup of (C. i = yf^ F = {a+bi a. Birkhoflf can be extended to sets which are not contained in the complex numand MacLane.) and (c) imply (F*. x). In view of these remarks the definition of a field is equivalent to: 3. Of course the complex numbers themselves form a Recall that the set of complex addition. If a. plication.59. then also a-b gF. See. afe-i e C. and parts (a. Therefore. Show 1 that R and Q are fields of complex numbers. 1 + iSF but (1 + i)-> = 1/2 - l/2i € F. and. denoted Let F be a field. b G F. using Lemma 3. This leads us to a field of ft complex numbers. X) is a subgroup of (C*. (a (a+bV2) and if + /^v b'yf2) = ««' - a') + {b — b')V2 G F a' + b'y/2 ^ . Which (i) of the following sets are fields? | (ii) (iii) F = {a + 6v/2 a. The same argument applies for Q. page 51). +). since 1 +i# 0. Let a + 6\A2 and {a' a' + 6'\/2 be two elements in F. 6 e J?.1. + a'h — ab' „ (iii) F is not a field.14: Lemma A (1) (2) subset F of C is a field of complex numbers -I-). 1. T rs^w . a'b ab' m ^ n Therefore (ii) F is a field. The complex numbers C have customarily two binary operations. (a' + 6'i) . addition and multiNotice that if a. . -I-).

since has no inverse) and. — is the inverse of r. is mapped onto (Q. Problems 3. Therefore a of the identity mapping Q is of order one. Assume ka . Oa = 0. Automorphisms We have discussed isometries of the plane and automorphisms of groupoids. the symmetric group on F. by the automorphism property of a. X) onto (Q. is a group and. For additional pertinent remarks and references. a a' + 6 =: + b' = Let «"' be the inverse of a. (A. Hence ra = r for all integers. then (a -I- b)(al3) = = {{a + &)«)/? = = and {aa + ba)p = {aa)p + {ba)j3 = a{ap) + b{ap) and for III. then and is \ J the only possible automorphism of Q. any automorphism of Q is an epimorphism of the Hence by Theorem 2.{aa-'){ba-^) and {a + b)a~^ = aa-^ + ba-\ Thus a-^ e A as desired.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE of fields 87 c.Sec. of (Q. 3. then a claim a~^ a is onto.6. Definition: The cor- A if (i) one-to-one mapping a of a field F onto itself is termed an automorphism (ii) + &)« = act + ha for all a. Furthermore. IV. II.6. Notice that X)is a groupoid (not a group. We must prove is A If ?^ 0.b G F. Collecting these m r_ (m--)a = ma— a = m. all (.l3GA. Then as we can find a'. +) is mapped onto 0. {ah)a = {aa){ba) for all a. We G A and so a will have an inverse in A as desired. b = b'a.b GF. Thus mapping composition of mappings in a binary operation in A. because of part (ii) of the definition. X). But the automorphism Now (Q.{o}.k for some integer fc ^ 1. \a = 1. Using mathematical induction integers n. the multiplicative identity of (Q. +). inverses are mapped onto inverses and the identity.61. Let a. X) onto itself so that (±r)-ia facts = ±r — a = ±r — n for all posi- tive integers r. 3. Hence by Theorem 2. because element in Q.5b. Consequently (a6)a-» = a'b' . Let a be an auotmorphism of Q. . X). Solution: We will use the fact that (Q. This group is extremely useful. Theorem Proof: I.— = — 1\ 1 1 —a — / n n n we see that if is — (n ?^ 0) is any n n The automorphism group . Then ab = {a'b')a and {a' + b')a. G Sf We have proved that the automorphisms of a field form a group.b GF. Therefore (—n)a . 1. since na = n and -n is the additive inverse of n.ab){ap) {(ab)a)p [(aa){ba)](3 = [{aa)p][(ba)p] is = [aial3)][b{al3)] a. by definition. X). responding one-to-one onto mapping of a field is defined as follows.') a semigroup. page 158. group (Q. Find the automorphism group of Q.15: The set A of automorphisms of a field F forms a subgroup of the sym- metric group Sf.4a. Q* = Q . is a group. 1. 0.—n for all positive integers n. since composition of mappings V. the automorphism of the field Q is also an epimorphism (see Section 2. is associative. this true since the identity mapping i G A. page 42) of groupoid {Q. page 44. (a Note that the automorphisms of fields preserve both the operations of addition and multiplication. conclude that na = n we show na = n Then (k + l)a = for all We positive integers n. see Section 5. then all positive for ka + la = k + +) la = 1.h &F. If a G A. a is also an epimorphism of the group (Q*. b' G F such that a = a'a. 1 by any automorohism of Q. The identity is is A is an identity element. a. +) is a group and (Q*.

ja and y F X F -> y is . since q arguing as in Problem only then for any q S qa = q an element of Q. /a) and 2/ .) (ii) Let If . as we know it begins at 0.. point of course can be represented by its coordinates. Similarly if / is any real number. \/2aV2a = (^/2^)a-2a = 2. . the moment that all the forces act on a fixed point Any It is then possible to represent a force by its endpoint. Any since 2 is rational number q Q. We write z = x + y. 92) is a third force z computed by the Again it can be shown that z = (fi+gi.6'V2 + a') .(6 + b')^f2 ) ) and (a + + 6\/2 )a + (o' + 6'v/2 )a Hence {(a 6\/2 ) + (a' + 6'\/2 )}a = (a+ 6V2)a + (a' + 6'V2)a Thus a a: is an automorphism of F. we define .. 3./„) (i. If a: a+ + 6V2 )a — a+ b{—y/2 then 6\/2 -> a — 6-\/2 . so a force can be represented by the is coordinates of its endpoint. has (a+b>/2)a + 6\/2 )a = aa + (b-\/2)a = = a+ 6\/2 in which {(a da two possible images under an automorphism of F.u : We shall consider vectors that involve fields other than F be any field. The resultant written as 3x. {(a+ + + 6'V2 )}a 6'\/2)}a = + 6\/2 )a(a' + 6'V2 )a {(o+6\/2) + (a' = = = = {(a o (a (a + a') + (6 + 6')V2 }a + a' . (We must therefore the real numbers.gn) are two elements of V.FxV^V by = e F.61. fn) where /i e F. The sum of two forces x = (/i. ji. + 6\/2 )(a' + b'yf2 )}a = = {aa' aa' (a + 266' + (a'6 + 6'a)V2 )a + 266' . we define fx to be the force x increased in magnitude by a factor / and we can prove We is = (//i.b e Q}.f2). so that (^2 a )2 = 2 or V2a = ±y/2.//2). of relinquish our contact with the real world.(a'6 + b'a)yf2 (o Hence Also..6\/2 )(a' . We shall assume for and act in the Euclidean plane E. Hence + baV2 a = a+b(-^a). n copies of F. .6'V2 aa' + 266' .(6 + 6')v^ . F has two elements i and a+ 6\/2 ^ o — 6\/2 Notice aa = d.. . . Vector spaces In Physics we represent a force a. ). f^ + gi).6 VI + (a' . Now \/2 e F and (\/2^/2)a = 2a — 2. force /a. The set of all 2-tuples {fufz) is called a vector space of dimension 2 over the field of real numbers (because we can multiply the 2-tuples by real numbers). then Sx = (3/1. is an element of F. It a is an automorphism of F. F = {a + b\/2 | a.3/2). / = (/i. . We (a in conclude Vs ..{gi. It x ^ {fi. can talk of increasing the force x in magnitude by a factor 3. There are two possibilities: (1) i. But that + 0\/2 = q. 3 3..62.88 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Find the automorphism group of Solution: [CHAP. by a straight line pointing in the direction the force acting and of length proportional to the magnitude of the force. parallelogram law.e. Let V = F"" be the cartesian product (/i. We (i) shall generalize the concept of We shall two dimensional physical forces in two ways: deal with arbitrary dimensions and not only 2 or 3. and {gu a binary operation in V) and oi-. say. The automorphism group of i.(a'6 + b'a)y/2 ) and (a + 6\/2)a(a' + 6'V2)a: = = 6\/2 )(a' . Then V consists of the w-tuples a. case a is the identity automorphism is (2) {a which case we must check to see whether a an automorphism.

1. and z = {hi. the symmetric group of V..Sec. Solution: n. /„). 12) 3. . = . {{fuf2) (/i. 1).gi) = = ifi.ffn)- = 9i.63. -f^. Let The full linear group F ..f„)..hj. 4 0./2)a) Note that linear transformations preserve both the additive and the multiplicative structures of V. y)ix 89 = (/i + gi. of V + 3 are called vectors.fi+gi) = = (//2. . 0.65. the vector space of dimension n over F. . (ii) 4(6.64.)<o V together with The elements Problems 3.A) /((/l. /g.. then X + x iy + z). 3. .6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE {x... 3. .. fi + Qi. Solution: (i) (1 + 6. . . (ii) Then « is of F said to be a linear transformation if (i) + y)a = let xa + yu {fx)a = /(ica)... by fx. • • • + /„e„. . 3). then x + y - y + x = fifi) + /ii. (ffi. . be a vector space and {x a:V-^V. ... = /i^i + /2e2 + • • + /„e„ Solution: Suppose « = (/„. ./„ + On) {f. y and z + y) + If z = are elements of a vector space of dimension n.. clearly. (/„ + flf„) + K) = x + {y + z) by associativity of addition.0) is the identity element. (/i + ffi. 2.. .. Find (i) (1. (x + y)-\-z + Sn) as = ((/i + addition is .. 11) (ii) (4 6. 7. -2. of Prove that if ^i = (1. 3) (6. . V can be represented uniquely in the form . = . Then indeed x then is = Jf In x = giei + g2e2+---+g^e„. ff„) commutative in any field.F) CSv. 2 + .. 9. 0. 4 • 3) = (24..15. . then the elements of V form an abelian group V is an abelian groupoid by the preceding problem. 8). e„ = (0. y)ix /t hy x + y. Then ifiji) + {gug2)}a = {f2 + g2. . Prove that if V is a vector space of dimension under the operation /i. . 7. Linear transformations. .g2)a For example. {ffu. L„(V. . + /^ej + . 4 • (-2). . 0. + 8) = • (7. Prove that (x if x. .x). unique. y + y = y-^x and Solution: a.. 0).0. .//l) + {g2. for all x. .. 3./2)}« = /(/2. -8..ffn) We denote {x. .y&V and /GF (gi. -/„). Now we have the analog of sist of all one-to-one linear Theorems 3. . fn (fi.13 and 3. . . a.. /je./i). Hence fi 9n and the representation . First let us define L„(7. h = g^. (/>.66. e^ = (0. (0.f2h + ^^«°' (/(/l. /„) is (-/i. .. inverse of The .. is called the vector space of dimension n over the field F.. and and <« (/. 0. ./2)a = (/2. then every element x a. 0).. e.F) to contransformations of V./„) = iffi. — ifi.

8 ((/a. and (a. since {(/iSi + + frfin) + (SiCi + • • • + sr„6„)} a ^ = (/i + S'i)(eia) +•••+(/„ + Sr„)(e„a) -I (/l«l + /n«n)« + -I• (fi'l^'l "f + On^n)^ and {/(/i6i + • • + /„e„)}a = = (//i)(eia) • • -h (//„)(e„«) /{(/lei + • • • + /„e„)a} = = 3.. 3. An arbitrary element /iCj + • • + /„e„ (/i^i +•••-!.. Accordingly «-' + y)a^^. .8-i X{ap-') {Xa)l3-' (ya)^-' = + lj{ap-') and ifx)al3-' is = {{fx)a)r' S^. . a vector space of dimension n. preserves both addition and multiplication. «"' G i Hence Ln{V.67. Thus G L„(F. F) as is a subgroup of Sv. • • Define a:V^V by + • • • + /„e„) 5 = /i(e.F). Of course x^ ask whether «"' GV {x^ e L^{V. Hence a Thus aGZ-„(V.F).66.j)a = /(iKjtt) = so a.F).y and f x^a = X and y^a = y. eja eg. ica""' -l-i/a~' = {x /(««-!) = ifx)a~K Also. . .e. Hence + y^ = + 2/Jaa:~> = {x + y)a-^ fx.16: L [CHAP. Then ej. Also. i^) a subgroup of LJF. /2 = S'2. Problems 3. = (fx)a~^. . -I. if and so i. . ./„e„)a = (fl^iej +••-!- Sf„e„)a is one-to-one.90 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS 3. 3 Theorem Proof: Ln{V. G F. Hence the effect of a is known once effect on the elements .a) + • + /„(e„a) Then 3 is a linear transformation. we transformation? Let x.F).66. r' ^ L^{V.^ a..a + 2/a). iF) is called the full linear group of dimension n.. as a pre-image.eJ^V.F) Ln{V. xa = +/„(e„a). j = 1. Solution: By Problem /i(eia)+ • • • 3. . {ei..i^). Show that 5: y -> V if a is any mapping of such that e^a = e^S.. Show is that if a is a linear transformation of V.n. Is it a linear is one-to-one onto. • • •. then there exists a linear transformation . Solution: Each element of V is uniquely of the form f^e^ (/iBi -I- • • • -I- f„e„. there exists x^ and y^ such that = xa~^..F) if a is a linear transformation and e^a e^. {fi^cc))r' - f{iXa)r') = f{x{ar')) and thus L^(F. uniquely determined by its effect on the elements Ci. . . All we must prove • • is that a has /2ei + /3e2+ • +/„e„_i + /ie„ is one-to-one and onto. then the effect of a .F). (/a. /n = S'n by Problem 3..66 each element of V is of the form x its = Aei + • • • + /„e„. (x We ((a.F) fx^ and we ask whether a^~^ G L^{V.^ + j/Jo: = ic^a + i/ja = (a. have + 2/)a. implies /i = S'i. y^ — ya~^. . e„_ia = e„ and e„a = ei? Solution: Yes.()a)a"i = G LJV.8-i = = = + 2/)a)/3-> = + (a. Is aGl/„(V.69..e„ of Problem 3.1/. F) # 0. If a G L^{V. Since a is onto.68.6„ is known.

82. Let {m B = + n.81. Determine whether are subgroups of G. b e. q) \ q G Q} . If Is we G define {a. 3. 3.72 is not abelian. . symmetry groups.b)o(e.c?)? 3.77. 3] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 91 A look back at Chapter 3 We have met many important groups. Z} where Z is the set of integers. be subgroups of G. a group and Gi c Gg c be subgroups of G.71. d) ~ 3. Let G be the group of Problem 3. H Let S{H) = {x \ x G G and xx & H}. Let Gi. and the full linear group. Prove that D is 3.0) \ aSZ} and K= K= {(0. where Z is the set of integers and Q the set of rationals. .72. + c. and hence general theorems about groups can be useful in apparently unrelated topics. . Prove that S(H) is a subgroup of G. Let n be any positive integer and let Prove that with respect to addition G„ G^ = {a + by/n is \ a. 2=5 .80. is G (of Problem 3. the dihedral groups. Define {a. Define a group with respect to this operation o (a. Let n be any positive integer. 3. 2'=6 + d).76. Determine whether are subgroups of D. Prove that the group Let {a D of Problem 3. Prove G is a group with respect to this operation * . CHAP.. b) * (c. Groups thus arise in many different branches of mathematics. Let G„ = {a + i6 Vm a. Prove that PT a multiplication on by (m.d) . ^) {e\ e:Z^Z}. Z. • • • • • • 3.<£) = (a + c.2-':b + d). e){n. Is the group of Problem 3. d) = (a. Supplementary Problems GROUPS 3. When does G„ = Zl 3.73. b) • (c. H= H= {(a.) W = SUBGROUPS 3. Show that GjUGzU is a subgroup of Find a group G and two subgroups Gj and Gj of G such that GiUGg is not a subgroup of G. 0) | oG Z} and {(0.78. including groups of real and complex numbers. {{a. In subsequent chapters we will derive general theorems for groups. Let be a subgroup of G.74) a group with respect to o? a group with respect to the operation • defined by (a. Let G be G. Let D be the group of Problem 3.74 abelian? 3.beZ} where i = ^/^ and Z is the set of Is G„ a group with respect to addition? Is G„ a group with respect to multiplication of complex numbers? | integers.74. + c.Z} 3. 0) is a group. G2. Let W = ZXB. 5) = (c.72. a group. Prove GinG2n • • is a subgroup of G.a) \ ae. G = ZxQ.75.{a+ c. 3. Z the set of integers. Let D = ZxZ.n)e + z0.(z. the symmetric group S„. We define where for each zG z^ .70. Let G be an abelian group. (Hard.79.74. the automorphism groups of groupoids and fields. (-lyb + d).

Let C = {e = Let B' . (Hard. Find the symmetry group of the figure W.93.83. . Prove that 3. b.2 r} and » G SJ H {$ \ is a subgroup of S„ and find \H\. Z and c S C}. B be sets with 1.97. 6). where P is the set of positive integers.K. Y a proper subset of X. d) be the Mobius transformation defined by only a'd' if a{a. Let a(a. d') if and d = —d'. p.{x\ x = (0.d) c : z-> or c = — c'. = c'.95. i.) THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS 3. by 2wy = 2(n + 1). se GS for all s G S}. 6 £ B}. Determine the symmetry group of the Prove that e if 3. = 9 e S5. 3 3. 1» |A| = = 1}. Prove that K is not a subgroup of S5.90.) . (Hard. z» — z c for all C {a. S' is a congruent figure. 3. Let n and r be positive integers.) 3.77. 3.. p Z ^ Z be defined by 2tc/3 = 2n. Let y: Z -^ Z be defined for 3.87. (Hard. P}. H = Prove that 3. j/ = sin a. be as in Problem 3. Prove that S^ x = ^3.89. {e e Let Sp = {e \ e & Sp and ze =^ z for all but a 3. Find the symmetry group of the figure 8. given ad — 6c = either a = a'. (2w + l)y = 2n + 1 Prove that a. is a subgroup of W. = (0. S is any subspace of the plane and S'. I9 = 1 or 19 = What Prove that is a subgroup of S5.94. Let jfiT H = {e I {tf I « G Sg. finite number of « S Prove that Sp is a subgroup of Sp. Sx = Sy GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 3.2.c. Let iff I H its order? Let 3. Let A. Let H = {e e e. c. Prove that if IXj = jFl. W 3. b = b'.d) a(a. Let (2m + 1)/? = 2n + 3 for all integers n. (Hard. 2}. Let G„ = G = GiUGgU--. Prove that if |y| .b.102.? 3.99. S^ and 3. and is a subgroup of B'.r} for all ie {1. 3. for which mn = nm 3. — <r{a'.91.88.c. Z. H ¥. Iff =: 1}. = i. Let S be the even integers subgroup of 3. but a finite number of integers Prove that B' is a subgroup of C Prove Using the notation of the preceding problem. Let H = {e » I G A5. c'. where ttiG. .86. : Let G= Sp. Prove that H and if & Sx and ye G Y for all thatXDH. Prove (7 : Q) is a subgroup of 7(72). and (I : S) - {e \ e G G I(R). (Hard. Prove (7 : S) is a I(R)..98. Prove that if M is the group of Mobius transformations. S C}. [CHAP. then the only element m G Af . Let a: Z^ Z be defined by za = z + 1 for all z&Z. b = —6'. \ S Sp and ze = for all z SP such that z> is n}.h.84.e.96. What is the symmetry group of the graph of circle.101.92. Sx and G F}.2. Prove that H is a subgroup of A5 and find b its order. Let (7 : Q) = {» 9 I G 7(72) and qe GQ for all q Q}. for all n& M is m.92 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Let z).100. W SYMMETRIC GROUPS AND ALTERNATING GROUPS 3.. c). b'. Let Let X be a set and e \ K = j/ ye = y for all are subgroups of 2/ G F}. z Let G = Sp. all integers n.85. there is an isometry such that Se = then 7s = Is-.y & S^ and show that aa — Py — yp. d = d' Prove that a = —a'. c). {« G {1.) B \ e : Z | -^ a. 3.) let W — {x\ x — (m. — b'c' — 1.

. Find the set of all matrices such that /a \c b\/a 6\ _ dj\c d) " /I \0 1 SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE 3. Let = {a + ib^/l^\ a.103).CHAP. Let V be the vector space over the rationals of dimension n + 1.110.0)a = S is a subgroup of L„ + i(y.107. 3.. e.104. 3. Let N be the set of Mobius transformations (r(a. b. of all Mobius transformations. (1. .. Prove that if m&N {N defined as in Problem 3. Prove that AT is a subgroup of M. Verify that is a field under the usual operations of addition and multiplication of complex numbers.0. where a. Prove that the automorphism group of G is not of order 1. F F 3. 3.b rational numbers. d) with 6 = 0. Prove that the subset K of the symmetric group S4 defined by '1 ^ is 2 1 3 3 4\ /I ' 2 2 3 " 2 4/ Vl 4 4\ /I 3^' V2 (Hard. then there exists s e.. the group 3.F). Find the automorphism group of K. Let T/ be the set of all matrices I j .0. N such that ss = m. where i = V^}. 3. 3.106.. c. Find a finite groupoid G with \G\ > 2.F) and that S= L^(V.F). . 3] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 93 3. . d are integers such that od — 6c = 1.111.108. Determine the automorphism group of F.105.. Let G be a non-abelian group. b. whose automorphism groupoid is of order 1.) 2 1 3 4 4 3/ ' ' a subgroup of S4. Let (l.103. Prove that the automorphism group of a finite group is finite.109.0)} S = Prove that {a\ aeL„ + i(V.

a group. .1: If a-^axi) = a~^{ax2).6.5d. and if G is any group and The product (Theorem of n elements 39). and normal subgroups. Proof: We consider first the solution of the equation ax = b. we have Theorem 4. then He is a subgroup of K. is associative.5.) 2. Here we shall prove three theorems which provide a means of determining whether two groups are isomorphic. in fact y — = yi 94 (2/2a)a-» = 2/2 .heG.) If Gr is a group. Multiplying both sides of the equation on the left by a"*. (3) an element is unique (Theorem then {gh)'^ = h-^g'K of page is 33). (6) If of e-. then a(a~*6) = (aa~*)6 = b. A group is a semigroup which every element has an inverse. Suppose axi = b and ax2 = b. then yia = yza. then there exist unique elements X and y such that ax — b and ya = b. ai. 4. The main concepts that arise are those of subgroups generated by a set. we get similar. . page 44.1. . (See (7) Isomorphic groups are roughly the same except for the names of their elements. and if i? is a subgroup G. (Theorem 2. by He is (5). then axi = ax2.5. Note that 6 maps the identity of G to the identity of G9 and that {g~^)e = {ge)-^ for each g in G. and each is a group. {yia)a-^ ba~^ is a solution. page 45. monomorphisms and isomorphisms for groups are for groupoids. Section 2.chapter 4 Isomorphism Theorems Preview of Chapter 4 We say that two groups are isomorphic if they are isomorphic groupoids.G^K is a homomorphism from the group G to the group K.) The following theorem is useful.2. a and 6 are two elements of a group G. We find a structure theorem for cyclic groups. Also. Hence the equation ax = b has a solution.1 a. page 40. a„. cosets. The contents of this chapter are indispensable for any further understanding of group theory. The inverse g. element has an inverse. page 31. independent of the bracketing defined as they are 2. (a-^a)xi is = {a~^a)x2 or Xi = X2 The argument for solving ya = b yia = b and y2a = b. Consequently we have the following. FUNDAMENTALS Preliminary remarks in We begin by reminding the reader of our previous results. then Ge = {x\ x^ go. GO has an identity. . g &G} For by Theorem 2. (1) (2) The identity is unique. page (4) Homomorphisms. if Multiplying both sides by a~^ on the right. For 0|h is a homomorphism of H into K and. in that order. (5) and 6 any homomorphism of G into a groupoid. If we put x = a~^b. (Section 2.

i. —le ~ 1. the symmetric group of degree 2. Thus the choice for 9 was quite clear. (i) Hence (Thus for holds.) Solution: The multiplication table for G is 1 1 1 while the multiplication table for S2 is (Problem 3. If it is it will be an isomorphism. i. it is obvious that 1 is the identity for G.1] FUNDAMENTALS 95 Problems 4. Then it can be checked that 9 is a homomorphism. = 0. To avoid such ambiguities. the group of Problem the symmetry group of the equilateral triangle. The multiplication table for S3 is on page 57. we will rename the elements of D^.G^H ffi homomorphism sible choices of be defined by le = 0.Sec.40. replacing a <r by an s and a t by a *. = 1. is the identity for H. then 9 is a one-to-one onto mapping.2. we must check (i) (1-1)9 = lel9 (iii) (-1 • -1)9 = (-19)(-19) (ii) (-1-1)9 (i): = {-U)(U) (iv) (1--1)9 = (19) '(-19) l9 (i) to (iv) hold.) Therefore 1-1 G = H. page 76. l9 - 19 0-0 = 0. page 53. As we have used the same Greek symbols for S3 and O3. We must check that (fififfz)* = Qi^g^e for all posand g^ in G. to choose? Of course 9 had to be some mapping of G to H. -11 1 1 1 : -1 G: 1 -1 1 H -1 1 Solution: Let also a e-. is isomorphic to G.20. = 1 by the multiplication table. we face the risk of not knowing whether a. page 58): 1 /8 i8 I Let 9 : S2 As it is -> G be defined by iS = 0. with = 2. (Difficult. Prove S3 s D^ the dihedral group of degree w G is 3. We remarked that any homomorphism must map an identity to an identity.e. that of D^ is in Problem 3. refers to an element of S3 or to an element of ZJj. How did we know which was the right mapping Examining the multiplication table for G.e. ^2 = G. pe one-to-one and onto. 4. for example. Prove that the groups given by the following multiplication tables are isomorphic.1. The multiplication table then becomes Sj S2 S2 S3 S3 t tS2 tS2 tS3 Si t tss S2 S3 Sl tSg t tS2 S3 Sl S2 tS2 tea t t t tS2 t83 Sl S2 H tS2 tea tSg t S3 Sl H Sl tSg tS3 t tS2 82 S3 . where 3. 4. Prove that Sz.5.

Hence a is a homoChecking through this table. Solution: e is one-to-one. S3.tss since these are the only non-identity elements of Dg which have the property that their squares are Sj. j = 1. 4. T29 = isg.3. Similarly is one-to-one. T^e A suitable mapping e S3-* Dg must satisfy ctxA = S2 or S3 while = — t. then the equation gi. Similarly F under e and 4. Prove that on F and if <pe e : F -* G and = identity <p:G^F are two homomorphisms such that are isomorphisms of mapping on G. we see that the entries in each The entry = morphism and as it is one-to-one onto. T39 = iS2 if is to Let lO = Sj. 4 TjSTje satisfies tjTj = i. = 1.96 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Note that an element j [CHAP. ciB = Sg be an isomorphism. S3. an isomorphism.2. for if xe = S ye.93 are elements of a g^xg^^ gz has a unique Solution: If we put X — the left and g:^'^g^~2 find gtxg2 = g3. As 9 must map to Sj. since the effect of 9 on tj. tSj or fSg. the effect of e on trj.*S2 *S2 \S2 \si \s3 *S3\ X^*S2 ^3 \ S2 S3 \ \ tSg \ t t \83 S3 \ S2 Xsi Si iS2X *S3\ X \ \ \ calculated as follows: In the in the second row and third column.2. then 94. tj. Thus = g. then e and e<p = identity mapping F onto G and of G onto F respectively.e)(a. then. In the top corner we place (aiaa)^.3. Prove that solution. So e If we know the effect of e on ctj. is homomorphism. (12 onto the elements Sg. F.92. As a mechanical procedure of doing this we use the following table. e is an isomorphism.r^e-a^e. we must check whether this mapping homomorphism. . If ffi«ifl'2 9\ g'^ on the right we have ^ fl-f Mfl'iiKi«'2)fl'2 = ~ fl'ia'2£'2 ' = ffs. "1 <'2 is ^2 '3 \ S2 S2 \S3 S3 X tSs * X*S3 X*S2 tS2^v \ "i S2 <'2 X X \ t X X*S3 ^\*S2 S2 \S3 \si S3 Si \ \ * X \ X^ Sj t82 X X^Sg tSs X^s X^Sl S3 Si \S2 S2 ^\*S2 *S2 X t X \ X X \. If e is a bottom corner we place . then xe<f> = i But e<p is the identity on F. = {TjTj)e = i (9 = Si. We 026 try the following definition. and Tiff = t. if group G. Next so 6 is let g&G. 9 is g^-e an onto mapping. hence g is the image of an element of is an isomorphism. among the elements t.c2)e. then on multiplying by or a!i ^i (ffi»2^2)fl'2 ' - X2. (cr. then can only map the tj.4. same in each square of the table.Also if we know we know the effect of 6 on all the So we have to experiment. we know T3 tiCT2 ^.3. o-ici = 02. for example.ts2.e) square are equal. It e is an isomorphism from S3 to D3. it maps ffj. Hence x - y. \ \ fS2 \*S3 *S3 \ Si S2 \^S3 S3 \S2 S2 X *S2^\ \ \ \ Si \. Then we must have a To check whether this mapping is an isomorphism. because T2 = elements of 1S3. Hence these two entries should be the {<r.nd = : Tjax.

a. Suppose 9 is an isomorphism from G to and ^ an isomorphism from isomorphism from G to if. s S^ if a one-to-one mapping from G onto H. be an isomorphism from G onto H. For example.38.1 1 Sec. where = ±1. they have order. = x~'^ x'^K n— Proof: gh -I 1 I Similarly hg = — x\^ ^ x'^ x-'ri Ttn ^-H = 1 a. x^ = x^ = x^ = t„ then x\^ x\^ xl^ x\^ x^^ xl^ stands for a^r^ag-lr-lr-la-l.) 4. Then i?-i is an isomorphism from H to G. x^GX to represent the product of n elements chosen from or the set of inverses of the elements of X. and so G. But this is not possible since G is 4. H observed in the solution of Problem 4.9.6 that if two finite groups are isomorphic. there is and H is infinite."'"-i---a. i.^i 1 .e. Example li g = x\^ x'".5. the We same H b. page 59. H # G.1] FUNDAMENTALS if 97 4. G = K. *3 X = ^4 = ^5 = ^6 = 1: -1. no pair of these groups is 4.21. Then by Problem 4.6.7. 11 = 1 . 4. Prove that Solution: if G= H. = Xg = Xg = cr^. and X. and x'".'"-i. then there is a one-to-one mapping of S„ onto S^.-'! 1.6. t^} where 3 "^-[2145) (See Problem 3.l. then G and H are not isomorphic. In fact the identity mapping of G onto G is an isomorphism. i. Prove that Solution: if G is a finite group and H is a subgroup of G. then Gs X. then ff-i = h where h . or r^a^a^ or be convenient to have some general notation. . Since the order of is less than that of G.) <'8'"7<'8 /l 2 4\ .38. no two of which are isomorphic. Let g H= 4. isomorphic... H H to X. On the other hand every group G is isomorphic to itself. (See Problem 2. if ^^ = c^ = 1. Prove that Solution: If finite G is a finite group and H is an infinite group. More about subgroups Let G= S^ and let X= {a^.10. page 42.-'i n— l Q- 1 = ••• = as'ia.a. 4. We will write x\^ x'^. Prove that S„ Solution: and only if n = m. and this implies n — m. Then e<f> is an Prove that there are Solution: infinitely many groups. So S„ and S„ have the same order. ^"^ ^^=(2314 i^ /l 2 3 4 ''f ''7~^'^8 *• It will Suppose we wish to refer to a product such as ^^r. where x\ will mean x^. it follows that G and are not isomorphic. Consider the symmetric groups Si.e. then G and H are not isomorphic. Hence n — m implies S„ = S„.8. (See Problem 2.S2.. S„ has order n\ and S^ has order m! Now if S„ = S^. then H= G. . G = H. n! = m!. page 42.will mean the inverse of x.) Prove that Solution: ii G = H and H= K.

98 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. for example. Recall that as H H and G £f. €^ — ±1.xlW^GH -where £^^^ = ±1. and w are elements of X. 4 x^x^^ proved in Lemma 3.g X is non-empty. we use the previous lemma to conclude H'dS. which we have denoted in this section by a~S is 1/a. = ±1) and ^ flr = y'l • • • V^ ('?. in this case a~^ has the meaning usually associated with it when a is a number.g. Then x^^ since a^j G H.GX.. n a positive integer} is a subgroup of G. {ajj' • • • a. in the multiplicative group of nonzero rationals the inverse of a. to a positive integer} is Now 1 e S and 2 G Also. x. page 53. We GH • H /yt/y* ^Ic "T ft •'"^fc 1 +l +1 _ ~ r'l /yi • • • •*'' X^k + 1 C iff Hence aj^' .^" 1 ^i S {1}. We If a denote S by gp{X) and call <S the subgroup generated by X. n a positive integer} of G? Lemma Let G be a group and let Z be a non-empty subset of G.X" • • • ^n" a positive integer} We is ask what happens is • not "large enough".gGS. Let n.1.e„+„.1. then We of G and x^..e. reader that. x'" n *Ti x'' + m n where x„^j S is .x„^„ a subgroup of G.J a. H D Z. Now if X is "large enough". that x = x^^ x^^ G for n = k. x^^ \ Let S = Then S Proof: (i) {a. Assume.. This proves the lemma. • • i. n a positive integer} is a group. . then H Proof: a?!/ 2 [xl^ • ^1" I x. Let x^+jGZ. if X is a subset of H and S — S a subgroup 4. We remind the .1. fg- Hence g = "1 1 y~ y • • • "1 and x\+i n+1 • • <' •••<"2/.3: {xl^ x^" I a. that: If H is any subgroup containing X. then fg~^GS (Lemma 3.. If 2/„. I we may have €^= ±1. i? X = H. 1*2 = e S. G S means f = xl^ • = xl" (c. Hence iCj* G if.^" G /T for all n.5. Since x. prove the lemma by induction on n. i. e. x^ G H. page f. — ±1.gX. w.= ±1) where x.?^. i e and x. as 55).y G H implies y-^ GH. *' = x^ 1 . Ji = if {Xj* .e. we call it a finitely generated group. We now generalize this and prove Lemma 4. ej = ±1. Example What is ffp({l}) in the group of Problem 3.[' x. = -r/^. group can be generated by a 2: finite set. that if ff is a subgroup e H. this is true because there exists x^G X If f. €. = ±1. = Therefore /flr i G S and and e„^^ = -..2: If ^ is a subgroup of G and XcH. We must prove (ii) S¥'0. by induction. e. . But in the additive group of rationals a~Ms —a. Hence gp({l}) the whole group. page 55. xy~^ G H. where the multiplication table is m = 3? Recall that 1 2 1 2 1 2 S = gp{{l}) = S. G Z. 2/. Hd S.G X.

4.S. 82. = ^(e. . page 73. Thus T = S. generated 77 : t: z-»2 + 1 {z ¥= <»). Perform the isometries on the figure. hence contains a2. ^^({1}) differences of 1. Find gp{{l}). We H contains H = S3. 0.) (Hint: To see what is happening. 1) : (see Section 3..^^ rj.1] FUNDAMENTALS 99 Problems 4. and » -> 00^ where e = ±1 and n is any integer. and T 3 {85. 87 respectively.11. ^2 ^ ^ implies t~^ = t. 81}. Note that the inverses of 82. Since tGT assert that T is a subgroup. 82S7 = 8782 = 81 G T. n a positive integer. a^^^ ^^ z-* ez +n for z t^ «. then t^t^ = 85 G T. Hence gp{{l}) con- n times tains all negative integers. the additive group of integers. Hence gp{{l}) contains all positive integers. 82. Find the subgroup of M. for the effect of 87 and SjS2 is the same on three points not on a single straight line and this is sufficient by Lemma 3. It is easy to prove SiSg = Sy. The elements of gp{{2}) are either of the form 2" or 2"". since 81S2 = 87. it contains r^ = tjo-x and t^ = r^a^. Thus contains all the elements of S3. 4. What is S'p({l})? Solution: gp{{l}) D1 + 1 + 1+---+1 n times (w-1). 1). Solution: Exactly as in the last problem.Sec.3. the group of Mobius transformations by « -> z -> — z (z ¥• «). gpiW) contains 1 • l"' = 1 + (-1) = 0. page 71. <t^* = 02'. We H Let implies T= {85. Sj. Hence T D gpis^. This is a difficult problem. cut out a square from a piece of cardboard and label the four vertices. Also. Determine the subgroup Solution: H of S3 generated by a^ and tj of Section 3.7. If ti = t^. As 85 is the identity. «. Sj}).5a. But Sd T. 4. 81. gp{{l}) contains l-i + l-i+---+l-i = -1 + n times (-1) + • • • + (-1) (n ^ 1). «> page 78). refer to Problem 3. Sj leaves G and / fixed.5a. Then T is a subgroup of the symmetry group of the square.15. 1) and t = a(l. use the multiplication table for S3 shown in page 57. Find the subgroup of the multiplicative group of rationals generated by Solution: 2""i {2}.12. 1. t^t^ G 2" if 85 is either t^ or t^. 4. page 57.16. by Lemma 4. Thus gp({l}) = Z. 0.) Solution: Let fffn. Sj. 82 leaves and / fixed.39(ii). Finally. We tit^^GT. 1).) Solution: all vertices fixed. 81}. s^. Since no other elements can arise as sums or gp({l}} ^ Q- 4.3a. 4. All we must check is that ti. Therefore we need only consider the following cases: s^s^ = S2S1 = 87 G T\ SiSj = s^s^ = 82 S T. all we must check is that t^ti&T for t^jt^^T. 85 leaves Hence we require S = gpiis^. (Hard. and this must contain Sy. s{) .14. 0. T : «> -> «= (In the notation of Section 3. i) = ct(— I.^) be the mapping defined by In other words. 0. = ^. = Z.13. Let G=Q the additive group of rationals. 87. and so H H Determine the subgroup of the symmetry group of a square generated by those isometries that leave two vertices fixed. Let G = Z. 87 are 82.

then m a"»a" = (a"i)<-'"''(a~i)<""^ = (a-i)<-™ + ~''> = (a. If m.a. all to (ii) (iii) m—O.n are both positive.l) for the product of hoping thus to satisfy (i-. is a""" {Jt. = (32 + m)8 -8m - ^-a^.„ ^j. s-pCv. Hence for any arbitrary integer difficulty...i)'' ~ "(-n. TO is negative. again by running through the possible cases {4. Also.T) = 2. by checking the various possibilities m > —n. (a-")" = _ = (a»')(-i'(-"' (j(-m)-(-n) (by our previous remarks) a vtvx Hence (. We • • claim of the form o-j^ ^j . 5) G 2. zr • t = 2 + re ci^^ and zt-^ n = z—n so a(„^. Our idea is to extend the exponent notation in a sensible way to zero and negative exponents. Now if it were true that aPa/^ = a"*. for any n positive integer re. of the group of Mobius transformations to conclude that need only show that <r(„_.s). e 2.„ S^z = z.4d. Now to be true if w m = —n (i) where j_g_ n> 0. j. the identity. t).4. Thus we have defined a™ to be the product of 1 if m a's —m m > 0. each of which is the product of to a's.^) is proved.2) holds when n .r). t) <i(„. (a*")" is the product n elements. w>0 = (a-'»)«-"' a™" as WW < = ((a-")-')-" If now % is negative.-i)-<™+»> If = a"+" If m and n are nonpositive. Then 2(T(„. any integer. namely putting a" = 1. c..1) holds. Thus D 2. gm+n -go-i^ py^ ^m if = (a«)-i. again the result is easily verified. I i. = (e2 + n) (i(_a„^a) = ^^2 ^-a^.s. e gp(ii. 0.e. n positive. but this presents no Also. See Section 4. = and we conclude that a-Jg.100 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP.Sm. belongs to gpi-n. + reS . re. then to < we find a^a" = = a'"+". m + n — ^g j^yg^. = a(„5_a„_. n any integer. we oT^'. 5 = ±1.i) to be satisfied. If both and n are negative. (Note that as we are dealing with groups. e = ±1}. n are positive. seen in the previous section that we often are forced to consider the product of e. and t consists of all (t.l) is true if m. we must have Note that (a")~» = (a"')" = a-".l).g. page 39). To show 2 is a subgroup. i. ^x m m • when and n are arbitrary integers. But d So we need only show that 2 is a subgroup 2 D gp(ri.1a. it is not necessary V m to indicate in which order the multiplication is performed. 4 We c will = ±1. Let 2 show that the subgroup generated by = {or(„^) n any integer.s. Note that 17 = a(o__i) and r = "d belongs to 2.r^^. (We must check what hapand e pens to re <».-i) ^ S'pI''''') = ±1. m — —n and a'"(a-»)<~"> to > —n. <7~^' g.. a~^'s if (i.) It is convenient to introduce the notation a™ for the product of a's.2) Another result which holds for exponents (a")" = We already know that {4. cr-J_. then multiplication by a" leaves a™ unchanged. m < 0. and n <0. We would naturally like the law . Hence we have only one choice in extending the exponent notation and retaining the law (i. a^-a" = a'"+» (Section 2.) t).4. (a™)" of If = ((a-i)-")" = = (a-i)-™" as -to > 0. Because we want (4. If both are nonnegative. Hence (a™)" is the product of tow a's. Exponents We have m a's (to > 0). Any t^'- element of 2 is 1. > 0. Then a*" a" is the product of m a's followed by n a's. . since ^. Now zt~i = z— gp(v. a a. and n. j. S^z + Sm-Sm = <T(„.„ ™ « /.-1.

Thus a group H is cyclic if we can find an element x G H such that H = gp{{x}). compositions of the same The result of performing 0. Solution: 22 = 2 • 2 = 4 and 2-3 = (2-i)3 = (i)3 = 1 4. <. CYCLIC GROUPS Fundamentals of cyclic groups If gp{X) = H. So we begin by considering groups which can be generated by a single element. 4.2) ma = = + m)a becomes n{ma) {nm)a In other words. i. Such a group is called abelian. i. and the inverse of a by —a. Find <fi. 4^ a. after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. where t is as defined in Problem 4.16. We denote the binary composition by + in this case. of taking a V + a + n • • • + a.Sec.2. Thus 1-4 = (-1) + (-1) + (-1) + (-1) = -4. the additive group of rationals. But additive notation is most often used for a group in which the order of the composition of two elements is irrelevant. a = i ^ ^ j. Solution: <7^ = I and so ct^ z= „. Also l"* means (l~i)*. translation takes place according to the following dictionary: Multiplicative notation Additive notation ah 1 a + —a na 6 a~^ a" It is immaterial which notation one uses. Solution: t" = <'(„.+). We will usually write gp{x) instead of gp{{x}). l-ioi-ioi-ioi-i where o is the binary operation under discussion. n> element. .e. Hence 1* = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3.e.16.20. The other is the additive notation. page 29). One is the multiplicative notation we have employed up until now. 4. Solution: In the additive group of rationals the binary operation is the usual addition. {n The law (i-.i).19. h in the group. The identity is denoted by zero..e. See Problem 4. Then 1^ means lolol where ° is the binary operation in Q. we say H is generated by X. a good plan is to investigate the simpler groups first. 2~^ where 2 S Q*.17. Find 2^. To get an understanding of groups.l) becomes na + while the law (4. 1—* where 1 £ Q.2] CYCLIC GROUPS 101 In the study of groups there are two main notations for the binary operation.an = element of S4. Problems 4. the multiplicative group of nonzero rationals. Find 1^.18. in which a + h = h + a for all a. J we denote by na. or commutative (Section 2. i. Now l""i = — 1 in (Q. Find t". 4. We call such groups cyclic.

.. 2 .x^. Hence k = k-^0. H H m . The x' cannot be distinct for all integers i. then a = a.m-l) it is Then is one-to-one onto H. .. . 4 Lemma gp{x) = {t\ t^x". m—1 m m 1 m—2 m—1 m m 1 2 m m H = gv{<J^ is cyclic Then 1 3 4..102 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS 4."" is equal to a...x^-^ and suppose these are distinct but that x' = x" for some k<l. Hence there exist cyclic groups of order m for each w > 0.''.*"-!).x. {y\ y\ .. any two elements of a cyclic group.. a.x^. a& = a.^" | e {x}. power of x that is .. Therefore S= as stated. 0} n> 0} {x^^ ( • • • x^" I £. We will show that {l. And now we ask order w? another question: are there two essentially different cyclic groups of Rephrasing the question.6: Let G= gp(x). Consider .5: Let G be cyclic of order m generated by the element x. Proof: gp{z) = = (ajji a. « > 5 r I ^0 I = If a. . and .. that as a.x. Thus we have shown that cyclic Hence ah = 6a for groups are abelian. .).".. be each of order m. Furthermore.. = ±1."^ = a.''x'' = x-'+s 6a = x'x'' = a.. y""'^}. H= y' Let e:G^H x'e = {i-Q. we ask: are two cyclic groups of order m isomorphic? Lemma 4. 1 1 and so the elements i. . 6 {«' any integer} e fl'p(a. • • Cyclic groups are abelian. x. Then G = H. To prove an isomorphism we must show it is a homo- morphism. then this x'(a.."* is the least positive Then G = {x". k^O.'=)-i = a.'-'} is actually H. negative power of x lies in 5. Suppose now that ... every positive power of x is in S. 1. be defined by Proof: G= {x". a. . x^.'"'. We w> ? ask a simple question: do cyclic groups of order exist for all finite integers Yes Let us consider in the symmetric group Sm of degree the element ! m m <'„ — 1 2 .' = 1. H = gp{y) a. . 2 3. Consider x" = l.... 6 = x».l.. .4: [CHAP. Then we know that the elements of are of the form x" for various integers r. But = {x" r any integer).a^.. This is easy.<rJJ~' are distinct and of order m.. S= First notice H H \ Hence every HqS and so Thus we have proved Lemma 4.. x. . = 1..""*". .. ran integer). If assumed was not so.gp{x) and \H\ = (m < «>).m-ij Furthermore x"" and a. m = l-k<l x'- and a.'-" = 1. .. ^.a. But we = x" = 1. 2 2 . = ±1.

2] CYCLIC GROUPS 103 Now 0^i. we have proved Theorem 4. H = gp{y) both be infinite cyclic groups. and two such powers x"* and x" are equal if and only if m — n. (x"x'")S = (a. If X is of infinite order.'5) = i/V = y^+' = ?/™+'' = ^"'y' = r But e where Hence is ((a. the set of integers.8: Let x be of order w< «>. say. But this contradicts the condition that there exists no to such that a. (We therefore often talk about the cyclic group of order to. then we define the order of x as the order of gp{x). X". m. then x'" = 1 implies to = 0. Proof: Put r — qm + s where integer greater than for which x"* ^s < = 1."" = 1."+'")e = y"*"* and (x"e){x"'9) = y^y"" = 2/"+™. we say x is of finite order. Then O^i + j ^2{m-l) = 2m-2 and so i + j = em + r — r — TO — 1 and — or 1. As to is the first Problems 4. If x is of order m.™ = 1.""' = 1. then to divides r. The group is gp{i. Let G = gp{x). finite and infinite. Prove that the group of Problem Solution: 3. We now infinite cyclic ask the obvious question: groups isomorphic? are there any infinite cyclic groups and are two Consider the element a in the symmetric group Sz on Z. Then each element of G is uniquely of the form that Define and each element of is uniquely of the form i/". x'. while if a. then x"" = 1 and to is the first positive integer r for which x*" =1. .7: There exist cyclic groups of all orders. n an integer.) an element of a group G. H Collecting our results. page 53. then a.22. If x^ = x". As Z is infinite. Therefore 9 is an isomorphism and G and are isomorphic groups.^-"" = 1 and (-to) > 0. As Z(t" = 2 + n.(x')e = V (x'e)(a. Now we can easily prove that two infinite cyclic groups are isomorphic.Sec. n an integer. Prove that the additive group of integers Solution: is infinite cyclic. If X is that if X is Lemma 4. ct" \ g-p{<i) has an infinite number of such G = gp{x) = {x" n any integer}. defined by Za = Z + 1.H. ceding Lemma 4. it is infinite cyclic. elements and so Recall that a.™ = 1.j^m-l. Consequently if G is infinite." of x. Note of order to < oo.). Then a"* = H is an infinite cyclic group. Hence {x*-^')9 = (a. is cyclic of order m.5). and its order is m.')(a. Hence x"ex'"9 = (x''x™)^. If there exists an integer m > = 1. Z GZ . Hence the elements of G are simply the powers a. or the infinite cyclic group. n¥=l. If x*" = 1. Thus 6» is a homomorphism and. then a. 4. Z= 4. e is H (x")^ = I/". as it is one-to-one onto. it an isomorphism. s = 0.'))9 - {x^6){x'e). then G will consist of only a finite number of elements (see the remarks prefor which a.5. Furthermore. or sometimes the infinite cycle. a one-to-one onto mapping. to < <». there exists no m t^ For we have already shown that there can exist no to > for which a. Then 1 = x*" = x^^x' = Hence w divides r. Any two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic."" implies m = n. gp(l)."' = l for to < 0.21.™+'-)^ = {x'"'x')e .

divides —mr.28.Since G = gp(x) and the order of G is m.e. 6. 4.'""!'" where (x»)" = Since a"^ = 1 and G is of order r. Of course since a subgroup must contain the identity. then x'" = 2/~"» and 1 = (x'^y — y-mr_ Therefore s. the group of Mobius transformations. so (ab~^Y = a^{b^^Y — 1. To obtain all the subgroups of S3. Prove that {Z. Nevertheless method . But as has only r elements. If (xy)'^ = 1. the order of xy divides rs.+) and the subgroup of M.26. where we pointed out that a^ri ¥= tiOi.^) and G itself 4. least such positive integer. Then we check which subsets are subgroups. Now a6~i = x""" = 1 and so o Since G ab~^ = x^ m m = In S3. and (x^Y = 1. G 3 £rp(a. By Theorem {Z. i. we need prove But since «». ' b = (^ 1^1 ^ 3 ^\.3a.29. page 57. r divides w. m m m 4.»» +) is infinite cyclic. = z + n. then w. Similarly is the order of xy. Then 2/ o2 = 62 = i but a # 6. Solution: The distinct elements of gp(x^) are X..''^ — 1 and divides rs. of { M Solution: (i) a er.21 that implies n = m. page 57.24. Hence rs divides m. Hence S3 is not abelian. the order of y. 4. Thus the order of xy is rs. = « are isomorphic.7 all =07.3a. s must divide m. Show that if G= gp{x) and G is of finite order r and s is co-prime to r. then is survey of the subgroups of S3 shows that if i? is a subgroup of S3 and either cyclic of order 3 or cyclic of order 2 or cyclic of order 1.2 — . Since s does not divide r. generated by the mapping Solution: rj : z ^ z+1. all subgroups quite so crudely."« = 1 and n is the As r and s are co-prime. So if also divides rs.y are co-prime.x^ a. that ay is of order rs if r and Solution Note that since G is abelian. 4.x^.» is that srp(i)) ij» is infinite. (xy)" — x^y" for any integer n. 4 4. Show common prime divisors. Let x. Since (xyY^ = a. +). (iii) the map i. 4. a.b e G a" = 6" but a ¥= h. r divides ns. then a« = 6* (a. s Let G be abelian. gp(x^) = G. i. Hence a. Hence there are at least r distinct elements in gp{x^). H H ¥• S3. Thus gp{v) is infinite and so gpin) = (Z. is of order (iii) i.) See Section 3. is divisible by rs and we can show r divides m.104 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. Find the order defined by «v of (i) <t = —z. ¥= i and or2 = 1. But s and are co-prime. and so v is of order 2.25. divides r. Consider S3.23.27. x^y^ ~ 1. /I f 3\ /I 2 3\ q/fo o-* q)~'' Thus it Hence 4. <^ri = — «^.8."2/" = 1. (Hint. Find a group which Solution: is not abelian. have no G G be of orders r. 2 /I 2 3\ ) S S3. then gp{x^) = G. Find a group G and a nonzero integer n such that there are two elements a. Prove that a subgroup Solution: H of S3 is cyclic ii H ¥= S3. A there this is no need to go through the process of finding will suffice. ). m Solution: is abelian. 6 S G) that if G is a cyclic group of order a = b. !? is of order 2. s respectively. \&t ^ a = (^ ^2 ^ 1 ^^ 3/ .e. then for some r. by Lemma 4. (ii) ct2^ ff3 are not but = i. Show with implies < « and s is co-prime to m. = as we know from Problem 4. say r = gw. and list all the subsets of S3. we refer to the multiplication table for S3 in Section 3. (ii) <t = /I ( 2 ^ 4\ ) e S4. 4.

Let the form G= 9p({xi. a similar argument leads to a contradiction. . such that gp(mln) = Q. (Q.9: (i) Theorem be a subgroup of G = gp(x).i.Sec. = ±1) Since G is abelian..^~'.. then the number of distinct elements given by the distinct powers of (i. l/2n = q + r + q implies l/2n = rm/n. .a.. . +) is cyclic. ji < g «>. 4. and so G is finite. distinct ele- i- are l.S) is at a. 4. m and n integers Of course m ¥= Each element (¥= 0) of Q would (n # 0). (4. If the order of G is infinite. is abelian. Subgroups of cyclic groups tions. we might ask: (ii) Are subgroups of cyclic groups cyclic? Does there exist a subgroup of any given order? (iii) How many distinct subgroups of a cyclic group (less than or equal to the order of the group) are there? (iv) How many subgroups of a given order are there? We tackle each of these questions. . Thus the number of ments given by most fcifcg.e. +) is not cyclic.x„}). Now if a. there exists q = m/n. then be of the form q-¥ q+ + q with some • suitable choice of the positive integer r. i. we can rewrite g in the form g = «ji if • • /" if (yi.—q. or else of the form —q—q— • —q. If l/2w = —q—q—q—--. e.. then l\ and the order of = {1}.31. Prove that Solution: If (Q.2] CYCLIC GROUPS 105 4. . "collect" all occurrences of any « in a product.e. Prove that an abelian group generated by a Solution: finite number of elements of finite order is finite. then 1 — 2rm = 0. 1 = 2rm.5) is finite.xf. then S = gp{x'^) is Consequently there is a subgroup of order q for any q is that divides m.2 n. the equation 1 — 2rm = is not true. If the order of G is else < <x>. Therefore (Q.') = {1}. • • • > Y„ integers) in (i. I any positive integer dividing m. hence all. (i) Before beginning the study of a new section it is a good idea to list the natural quesIf we want to know something about the subgroups of cyclic groups. Then every element fir in G is of - xll G X. For if k^ is •>«n ^^^ ^H of the order of Kj. . +) is not cyclic. then Xf i.fc„. b. . is m/l.a. Q. we can always 1. .Xi. .2' • • finite order. 4.30. (iii) The number There is of distinct subgroups of G is the same as the number of distinct divisors of (iv) m= \G\ < °o. and suppose xll G {X. at most one subgroup of G of any given order for G finite.. is infinite or Let H H H= H (ii) H H m m H H Conversely if of order m/l. m are integers. 72. But But r and r terms in l/2n G Q.S) To see this we need only observe that g ^ = = Xi for s Xi < t the first expression for g. is cyclic and either Then where x' is the least positive power of x which lies in or flfp(a.

all the powers of x are distinct. aS a""'} = = m/l. = l^iCI. x"" e H. Clearly (a.106 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Proof: [CHAP. by Lemma 4.a''-^}.3b. 4 (i) If H ¥= {1}.. is positive. If the order of G is infinite. There— Hi. as desired.* I divides to. . we know they are cyclic and we know which cyclic subgroups appear. x'-ix^")-^ ^ x" GH Thus s But and a.. HdS = gp{x'^). of infinite cyclic groups we can easily prove there are an infinite number of subgroups.' is the least positive power of x that belongs to H. Then S= gpix^) - {l. Thus S is a subgroup of order q. . Let G be a cyclic group of We know {1} distinct divisors of p. q' < q. . If the order of G to < <». a. . is an infinite set of distinct elements of H. Hence the number of distinct subgroups of G is two. Then put Hi = gv{x^').5. H H# {1}. then m = ql + = a. But in going from one to two generators we lose control. and G from Theorem 4.'«' = 1 and Iq' < to. We will distinguish between them in Theorem 4.l>0.. so we can never hope for a simple account of two generator groups. contradicting the fact that a." = a. We know H H .24. = is (iii) . ^s G <l. (iv) If H and K are two subgroups of G with But \Hi\ i and j. Hn.g.. Then. writing a = x\ we have H = gp{a) = {a". Let a" l\in. Hence I = k. H„. . \Hj\ = m/lj.')' G S. \H\ = \K\. We know in the case of finite cyclic groups what the distinct subgroups In the case are. Thus H is infinite. — and so r = gt {x") = (a. — m/U. Problems 4.'' G H." Put m/l = q and a. Are there any more subgroups? By (i) any subgroup be generated by a. |fl^| gf and so (ii) x'. and hence and so a. Hence S is = 1 H. It has been shown that every countable group is a subgroup of a two generator group. .a. Now one of a.9 that the number of subgroups of G is the same as the number of which are p and 1.lnhe the distinct divisors of to. there exists «" ^ 1 G i7.'"a.gpix^'). Hence we can talk meaningfully about the smallest positive x"" Clearly. hoping that similar powerful conclusions can be obtained.')" = 1. using the concept of index which will be introduced in Section 4. . . for some therefore i = / and (iii) = Tn/k.""+^ s. . then H and K are Hi and Hj of part Since \H\ above.™ is the least positive power of x which is 1). and —n G H. Then s = 0. Hence and w = Zg. as is the least positive power of x that lies in H. .' where I is a positive integer dividing to. H2. as the least positive power of a which is 1 (for if a"' = 1. e. . A subgroup H of a order a prime p. if Now = a..' a. h.^'. H = Hi = Hj — K. The reader might naturally be led to consider now groups generated by two elements. Solution: group G Prove that is G ¥= G and called proper it has no proper subgroups. . then S is a subgroup of G of order q.37. say. the number of proper subgroups is zero. then a. . a. then r ^ ql + s. These are n distinct subgroups of G (because their orders are |Hi| of G will have to different). Thus the subgroups of G are simply Hi. 0^ s power <l. . ii = J^ and The reader will perceive that our knowledge of the cyclic groups is in some ways quite comprehensive. page 126.. Suppose G i?.' n. that every subgroup of a two generator group is a two generator group. As i? is a subgroup. . As itself are two distinct subgroups. and q is the least positive integer for which this occurs. . Consequently if we start out with a positive integer q which divides to and we put I = m/q. fore Let h.' = a.

We can also see how a group G is built up from one of its and the group constructed from the cosets of H. But this is a proper subgroup. and has only one subgroup of any given 4JS a. and Section 3. Let G be a group with no proper subgroups.g-^h^ e S. If is a finite cyclic subgroup of G which contains both = S.x^. equal to G since a. Hence G is cyclic of prime order or else possibly infinite cyclic. If h^e = h^e. Consider S3. G subgroup by Lemma 4. defined the group / of isometries of the plane and the isometry group of a given figure S in E. of Section 3. 4.5. Try the group Solution: Let rf. G . order. 00 -> 00. then g-^h^g = g-^h^ff. e is an onto map. is an isomorphism of onto S.3. defined by of G. H 4. Let g~^hig. S ¥= 0. by Theorem 4. is What 73. since g-^hg. Cosets are important for other reasons: (i) With cosets we can perform useful counting arguments for finite groups. If G is cyclic of order mn. say G = = gp(x^) is a subgroup not equal to {1}. (ii) Cosets of a subgroup sometimes enable us to construct a new group from an subgroups old. Hence G is cyclic..3] COSETS 107 4. . Then gp{v) is of order 2. = S. 4. Hence = |S|.38. page we E h We . (Hard. ask: which eleSuppose a Gl — h.x-^. Prove that the only groups which have no proper subgroups are the cyclic groups of order p and the group consisting of the identity alone. a prime. Let g & G. Then (g-^h^gHg-^h^g)-^ because he = g-^higg-ih-^g = g-HKh^i)g e S is a subgroup implies hih^^ G H.) and S.1.n¥. of Find a group which is of infinite order but has a subgroup of Mobius transformations. Hence h^ = h^ and so e is one-to-one onto.x-^.4c. and not gp(x) = {. and s G S implies sa G S. We need only check that » is a homomorphism to conclude the proof: H = : h^eh^e = g~^hig . COSETS Introduction to the idea of coset In this section we propose a natural question which introduces the idea of a coset.}. {Hint. . Hence G can only be cyclic of order p. the natural question we ask? In Section 3. Thus S is a subgroup. H H K and S are both of finite order. Solution: Let g ^ G. Prove that s: he = g-^hg. g ¥= 1.x^. prove that H \ H H H K Solution: Since H ¥- 0.x'^. .40. by Theorem 4. S H. page 77. m. then But. Since g ^ S. H containing and S. S = G as ¥= {1}. But .g-^hig = g^^hih^g = {h^Ji^e Thus H and S are isomorphic.39. Z-* 1/z. Prove that the set S = {g~^hg h S H] is a subgroup -* S. Find a group with two distinct subgroups both of the same order. but M is infinite.9. (iii) The fundamental idea of a homomorphism can be re-interpreted in terms of the idea of a group constructed from H cosets.9.4e. page 67.41. Pre-multiply by g and post-multiply by g~^ g{g~^hig)g~^ — g{g~^h^)g-'^. t<T G S implies t G S. then. If X is a finite cyclic subgroup |H| since they are isomorphic. G has a subgroup of order m. Solution : \Hint.Sec.] ^^* ^' " (2 1 3) ' "^^ " (1 3 2) "^^^^ '*'^^"'^' " '^^^^'^' " ^- 4. Then S = gp{g) is a has no proper subgroups. Let // be a subgroup of G. Recall that an isometry <t of £" belongs to Is if for each tGE. Af.) finite order.

Conversely /^ct if G t G h). H HnHa = 4. a^} = Ha. i. 4 ments 6 of I are such that Sd = Scrl In the case where S is an equilateral triangle we know that Sa is a congruent equilateral triangle by Lemma 3.108 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. a right coset is written Problems 4. This means <j> gE We have of course 9 = ^<r. a*} jFiT in and Ha.a^. Thus the distinct cosets of a right coset. i. then {t<t| S9 = 9 of E for which S9 . we may put our deduction in isometry 9 of E satisfying S9 . Now there exists an s G S such proof that ta-s9. we would expect 9(r~^ to be any— 9<j~^. Hence x9 = {{x9)a-^)(T = t<7 = s9 and so x9 = s9. Find all right cosets of be the cyclic group of order 4 generated by {a}. inG to be a subset of the form gH — {x\ x = gh.42. = s9o = (ta)c = and x<l> G S. h G H} for some g in G. G S to complete the Suppose now that x that ^ G h. h G H}.6. Let H be the trivial subgroup of a group G. a^} is {a^.e. G are = {1. We define H}. Ha = = {a. since it is a product of isometries of E. i. and prove that the union of these cosets is G. If 9 and o. We must show that a. then 9^"^ = <j> conversely. H - {1}. We have thus shown that every the form in the set of isometries Iga. Therefore for each s G t S. We will show that ^ is thing but I.a^ {a^. and Sa. G. x{9<t-^) = t. isometries of E associated with the subgroup Is of I Such a subset /gtr of the group / of all More generally we have the following is called a right coset of Is in 7. Thus the cosets are the sets consisting of single elements of G.a. and HuHa = {\.Sa.43.a^) G. S<j)(j ~ Sa. H + g. Hw^ = {a^.S<r lies I^a. page 71.e. Then a right coset of 7f in G is a subset of the form Hg = {x\ x = hg. a left coset of H hG Note that a coset the left of 77. If we write I^a = G I^a. To do so observe that ^ is an isometry of the plane E.<j><t for some ^ G 7s. This means that consists of all the isometries Definition: Let G be a group and 77 a subgroup of G. Suppose x<i> = tGS. 77 + flr + is used to denote the binary = {x\ x = h + g.Is. Let G H Solution: H-l = Ha^ = H= - {l. . Determine the distinct right cosets of H in G. Of course. As ^ is one-to-one. Hg = {Ig} = {g}. Let G. is a right or left coset according as the element g is on the right or In the case where the group G operation. H in = gp(aP). Hence a. Show that two cosets are either equal or else have no elements in common. x = s. 0.e. Solution: If g G G. a^ = H. then 9 . is written additively. Now S9 — Sa implies that for each s &S there is a t &S such that s9 = ta. So the question we are asking is this: which other elements 9 oi I send the equilateral triangle S onto the equilateral triangle Sal and a related? If 9 i. Let an element of Is. Let S9 = How are 9 were equal to a.were widely different. a} is a right coset. G S.

H of a finite group G Let the distinct cosets of i? in .^ \Hgn\ (^. Solution: Let X 6 GB and & A{BC). Cosets form a partition.geG. Hgi = {ai. page 57. . We use this fact in proving that cosets are useful for counting arguments. Ha2 {<Ti. .BC implies d = &c.B. Prove that A(BC) = {AB)C. = = ad where a(6c) a&A (ii) = (ab)c and d & BC. Hence c = h'-''h"b = h"'b.h" G H.. (ii) H(/sr) = {Hf)g. '}• The cosets of K are Ki = {c2> Ti)= K and These are Ktj all the cosets of H in S3. and is not included here.44. + \Hgi\ + \Hg2\ • • • + . Let A. i. The examples above point to the following: H Theorem 4. h'" G H. Problem 4. Hg^.. Show that /H = Hf implies f'^H = /f/-i. (i. Lagrange's Tiieorem In the problems above it is clear that any two right (or left) cosets are either disjoint or inG is G. 4. . and (iii) follow immediately. cTj. H since the product of H belongs \ to H. Thus Ha = Hb and any two cosets are either disjoint or identical. (f-^f)H = {f-mf in and H= (f-m)f = {(f-m)f)f--^ = f-m.10. We recall exactly the same and that the union of all the right (or left) cosets oi that a family of subsets of a set G is a partition of G if they are disjoint and their union is G.(BC). then. we define and y S F}. Therefore A{BC) A = 4. Similarly (AB)C C A.45. T3}. then (i) (Jg)H = f(gH). In Section 4. h'. (i) is the case where Let G be a group with a subset H. . Hi = H. = . hi G H Hb c Ha.r . Hence conclude that if X e f..-4) . = H.. But d€. there h"b. C be subsets of a group G. where S (AB)C and so A{BC)Q(AB)C. = gpira) in Sg with the notation of Section 3. Then g^h'a = two elements of are two cosets of in G and that Ha n Hb ¥.3a follows we mentioned 4. T3). hence {g} a... Hgn. (iii) (/H)fir = /(Hfr).) For if g GG. e.3a. Solution: fH = Hf. (The proof for G H easy to show that each element of G occurs in at least one right coset. left cosets is similar Suppose now that exists g Ha and Hb G HanHb. If X' and F are subsets of G.g. Since these form a / . Find the right cosets of = gp(ai) in S3? the right cosets of H What are K Solution: H= K= 4. Note that we have used the "associative law" proved b..46. i. then c & C. .Sec.. (i).^. = {tj. a. this a subgroup of G. Therefore as hh"'b Ha ^ {ha\hGH} = Similarly {h{h"'b) h G H} c Hb = hib. the order of G is the sum of the number of elements in in (i) If G is H Theorem Proof: 4.e. B= and C = (AB)C. group G.10: Let form a partition H be a subgroup of a of H in G is H Proof: since 1 It is in G Then the right (left) cosets of i? in G G. the union of all the right (left) cosets of itself and any pair of distinct cosets has empty intersection. \G\ G be Hgi. t2. Hence f~HfH) Thus H/-1 = f-HHf). then g G Hg and !• g = g.3] COSETS 109 4. since of finite order and are disjoint.45. from Theorem the cosets of i? in G each coset. {/}.e. XY = is {g \ g = xy.11 (Lagrange's Theorem): The order of a subgroup divides the order of G.0. Tj). X H a subset of G. partition of G.

6. then G is cyclic.c. 4 = hg is a oneWe will show that the mapping dg-. gp(g) = divides the prime |G|.^). c. as H cG and and G have the same number of elements. Thus If G= {1}. If hig — h^g. a(c. Let g qm. Theorem 4. Prove that Solution: if G is a group of prime order.11 tells us there is no subgroup of order 3. : H in G be called the index of H in G. 6. But 11. nothing to prove. in the opposite order to which Corollary If G is a finite group. b)}. the only possibility if g ¥would follow that 7 divides IA5I. Now ff(a. \gv{g)\ divides \G\. = gp{{v}) where v Give the right and left cosets of of Mobius transformations.12 is of order 7. since or s-™ = 1 implies that the order of g is that the order of g is 7. the group d) G M.C. there is H H H 4.d). a. finite group and g an element of is G of order m.c)} by the rule for multiplication which obtained in Problem 3.c. then. we conclude with "Hence n=[G:H]. H -* Hg defined by = \Hg\.. m divides \G\ and so = be of order m. c. |H| = |G| since the only divisors of order. c. As m= 7 and it Now by Corollary 4.13: of g is the order of gv{9) which a subgroup of G. then (i) fir (ii) D4 has no subgroup of order 3. : Proof: In the proof of Theorem n is the number of cosets of H in G. 1. b. Hence m divides Corollary If G is of finite order n. d. 6. i. Hence £?'°i = g""" = (5"*)" = 1 gG Let the number of right cosets of it by [G:H]. page 77.14: in G". d). Therefore 9g is one-to-one and onto and \H\ = \Hg\. as is easily checked.11. Then m divides Proof: The order 4. then Ha{a. by Theorem 4. 11 divides IS7I. Proof: Every element of by the preceding corollary. But m= \gpig)\.110 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS is IHg]"! [CHAP. Hence \G\ = n\H\ by (^. page 79. \G\ = • [G H]. (iii) if Sf e A5 Solution: (i) \S^\ = 7! = 7 • 6 • 5 • 4 • 3 • 2 = 7 • 5 • 32 • 24. c. v<r{a.46. d)H = {a{a. in the It H were a subgroup of S^ of order 11. Problems 4.e.5a.b. its \G\ Hence is a subgroup of G. Thus for each i. and g &G. As \H\ # 1. Show and that: g'' = t. = G. 4. \G\. then multiplying by fl'"' on the right we conclude that hi = hi and so hiOg = h^Og implies hi = hi. Section 3.d) = {i ' <r(a. (iii) If = then either ff = divides m. c.12: Let G be a \G\.d).49.11 i. i fif is i 4.] there is no 11. . d. H \H\ Denote G Note that [G H] is read as "the index of and H appear in [G:H].. Since \H\ [G:H]. Hence g . = 1. a(6. Definition: G must be of finite order. Thus we know what the right and left cosets are in terms of a.b. 8. 1. Hence is 8.e.a. \H\ = \Hgi\. If 1 ^ ff e G.11.47. a prime. \G\ then g" = 1. Clearly Og is onto by the definition of right mapping and hence coset.d. no subgroup of order ID4I = g'' Since 3 does not divide 1. we have \G\ = \G\ = n\H\ . Theorem there (ii) 4.11. H = "(0. 0) is an element of M.b.i. are 1 and |G|. Then.d)} is - {<r(o. 4. by prime decomposition of [S. What to-one onto |fl^| M Corollary 4.". Solution: If <7(a. which is not true.48. S^ has no subgroup of order 11. b. Then by Theorem 4. and the result follows.

d.c. 0. 1) ¥. if is H in G to aH — Ha. . But the left coset containing <r{a. <] 4. d = 0. if Definition: for subgroup fi of a group G is normal (also called invariant) in G all g GG and all hGH. c.b. 1. h). the right cosets are just the elements of G. Prove that A„ Solution: S„ for each positive integer n. Note that we used Let a e A„. fore every right coset of H in G is If every left coset is a right coset.3] COSETS 111 c.3a cosets we gave in and (iii) reasons for the importance of some cosets. But we have assumed that there is some right coset which is the same as aH. Similarly every left coset of a right coset of in G. a. Proposition 4. d. h = g~^hg. d. 0. Hence it must be Ha. In Section 4. g~^hg = h. for some all each h G H. and so aH — Ha. for since gh = hg and hence multiplying by g~^ on the left. Since T~^a and t are odd. h. and hence T~'^a is odd. Problems 4. H is normal (ii) in G if and only if Hg . We write H < G and read it normal subgroup of G". In other words if every left coset of H in G is a right coset.„. a^^ha — hi. 6.u{l. This completes the proof. Hence h ah G all aGG. In Problem 4. a. 1). d.49 the right coset containing a(a. Let the set of all the right cosets of in G.51. Then ii g G G and h S H. A as: g'^hgGH "H is a (equiva- By lently. their product T~i<rr is even. the only right coset containing a is Ha. t~i<7t S Is € Lemma page 62. if a = & = c = 1. H any subgroup of G. . T~i T~^aT e A„? Now t is either odd or even. c) ¥a{c. Let a gG. G A„ and so 3.50. then for GH.g. aH and assuming x'^hx G H for all x G G and all h GH. Proof: Ha = aH for all aGG. then cr(l. Then if h & H. d) contains (t(c. aH contains a. as does Ha.d we can ensure that <T{b a. a.Sec.16. then t~i is also odd. 4. Sometimes no. If r is odd. We discussed left and right cosets of a subgroup H in G. T S„.16: aH = Ha for all aGG if and only if a'^ha G H for all hGH and Conversely aGG. If t is even. are they the same ? Sometimes yes. c. c). b).43. Therefl^ in G is a left coset of in G. Normal subgroups of G. We have proved above that {Ha a G G} \ H H H a~^ha If Ha = aH for G H for each if Hence Ha C aH. Prove that every subgroup of an abelian group Solution: is a normal subgroup. Hence t~1o't e A„. then for every a e H we must have aH = Ha. g^^hg S H. ha = ahi for some hiG H. Each gives rise to a partition How do these partitions compare ? In particular. Thus H is a normal subgroup of G. then ah = ah{a~^a) = {{a~^y^ha~^)a G Ha. Accordingly HaDaH and aH = Ha. H We ask: when do the right and left cosets of a subgroup H in a group G coincide? Suppose every left coset of H is also a right coset of H in G. The we had in mind are those arising from normal subgroups. Since the right cosets form a partition. Let G be abelian and G is abelian. ha = ahi. 1. for a G A. Thus we have Proposition 4. the left cosets can similarly be shown to be just the elements of G. With a suitable choice of a.2. Ha = aH.gH for all g GG g-'Hg = H). then t and A„. In Problem 4.15: A necessary and sufficient condition for the left cosets of provide the same partition as the right is that for each a G G. Proposition 4. Thus the left and right cosets of in G do not coincide. e. hi belonging to H. d) also contains a{b.

then g~^yg is also of order w.54.yi] where x^ = g~^xg (consequently a. Again G' turns out to be normal in G. N{A) appear in the problems below. These facts will be if A is a subgroup of G. = g-Hci---Ck)g = g-^e^gg-^c^ dj is • • • g-^c^g - did2 • d^ = g~^Cig. briefly. let A be a subset of a group G. say. If G is Proceeding along somewhat different 1. Hence m divides r. if A is a subgroup of G.112 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Let that [CHAP. C{A). we define the center of G. then - g-^x-^gg-^y~^gg-^xgg-^yg = = x^'^y^'^x-^y^ = [xi. A is normal in N{A). If G a group. Then by Theorem 4. But we have just shown that a commutator. centralizers. C(A) is a subgroup of G (see problems below). Prove that G' Solution: is normal in G. a group and x. A is normal The normalizer of A in G is defined by and An = nA} N{A) is a subgroup of G and. Therefore a commutator is a commutator.53. Since i? <1 G. The centralizer C{A) of A (in G) is defined by all C{A) = {c\ cGG and for a G A. Hence if hGG'. ca = ac} in 2. g~^yg SH. The details concerning the In Chapter 5 Problems 4. and g G G.i/. N{A) = {n\ nGG proved in the problems below. 4. . C{A) (see problems below). In particular. denoted {z\ z by Z{G).-> = g^^x~^g) and j/i g~^yg.y] for the commutator a.y] is a commutator.9(iv). G (see problems below). = zg) Z{G) turns out to be a normal subgroup of 2. Hence X <1 G. Prove Solution: Note that if y is of order m. gz to be GG and for all g &G. then g'^hg G G'. The subgroup of G generated by all commutators is called the commutator subgroup (also called the derived group) of G and is denoted by G'. We often write [x. lines. G'. 4 4. — g~^V^g = H d. we will use the concepts groups Z{G). normalizers We 1. So z-^ = y-^x'^yx = [y. Furthermore. every element h of G' is a product Ci Now • • • g-ihg where d. gpig'^yg) = X. If /i is a commutator. (g'^yg)"^ K = gp{y). (Hard.y &G. Commutator subgroups. and the order of g~'^yg is w. = x-^y-^xy = z. g~^kg G K for any k G G. H be K Let <1 a finite cyclic subgroup of G. more a commutator. any element h of G' is a product of commutators and their inverses.~ii/">a. Let if be a proper subgroup of H. Prove that the inverse of a commutator Solution: [x.52.) H <i G. Therefore gp{g~^yg) is a subgroup of of order m. We h must show that g-^hg if g GG and h G G'. A'^(A) If A is an abelian subgroup. and let G. g~^hgGG'. since l and (g~^ygY = l implies g^^y^g = 1 and therefore y^ — 1. then x~^y~^xy is called the commutator of x and y or. and as an inverse of c^ of commutators. we have just introduced.x]. A is normal in G if and only if N{A) = G. say — x~^y~^xy. will is now introduce some subgroups which are normal.

for each n. Prove that Solution: 1 if G is any group. is a subgroup of G. Find f. 1.3] COSETS G abelian 113 4. ti.23. 4. i.y] = x'^y-^xy = Then G' is the subgroup of G generated by 1. Consequently Z(G) # 0. 1) M 4. Hence show that S3 = Ag.0.58. page 63).g.56. Therefore G = Ar(A). A< C(A).ag.Sec. Accordingly A < C(A). since 1 e N(A). gA = Ag. if A is an abelian subgroup of G. say.» G iV(A) implies fg'^ G subgroup.59.^2 belongs to C(A).e. then g^g^g-^) {ggi)g-^ = gi(gg~^) = diff^^^ since gg2 = g2ff implies g-^g-gg-^. Solution: We ments use the table of Section 3. 4. t2 and T3. Show that if A <l is of G. as we readily check by using the multiplication table for S3. then since A < . If g e G and S 2'(G). 4.y G G. Show that if A is a subgroup Solution: Ar(A) 0.] M is infinite. page 77. fir-las' = a G A. Solution: e C(A) and so C(A) ¥. Clearly. S G and all Hence g-^hg e Z(G) for all = /i fiffe fl^ /i 4. gz S C(A). D] = (t(1. then each o G A ^1. Hence titj = (72 G N N and or| = CTi G N. -w. then A3 the result. Show 1 that C(A) is a subgroup of G and. Thus Z{G) is normal in G. (fg-^}A = f(g-iA) = /(Afl--!) = (fA)g~i = (A/)5r-i = A(fg-i). e Z(G). If we can show that all commutators belong to a matter of trying all possibilities. Clearly {i} and S3 are both normal subgroups of S3. then £f2a = affa and hence ^°^ affifl-a"' = ffi^A'a"' = S'iS'2"^" ^'^'^ ^^ ffiff^^ ^ C(A) if a^a"' = fl'2'''*' i-^. [x.55. If A is a subgroup and N(A) = G. Solution: We use the notation and multiplication table in page 57. page 57. 4. Similarly T3 G A^. Since the commutator subgroup of = (1. ga . xy = yx). . a(l. If 9-1.V(A). then A ^ G a subset of G. Hence g G Ar(A) G c ]V(A). 0. A c N(A) and A < iV(A). If A is an abelian subgroup. = S3'. iV(A). [Hint. that the commutator subgroup of subgroup generated by a commutator. If A is a subgroup and A < G.e. T-'r-iTiTg = TiTariTj = cti. Hence x(x-'y-^xy) = x and y(y-^xy) = yx.60. 02 e Z{G) and g&G. Find an in- Solution: [a(2. e.y] = x'^y-'^xy . It = hg and so ^ = g-^hg. 1) = a. 1). as a" contains fl'p(a). Therefore iV(A) is a subgroup of G. then in x-'^x particular any commutator [x. Now gp(a) is infinite cyclic. and G' = 1. Now ii g & C(A). 4. 0.gGN(A). Thus G is abelian. then follows that Z{G) is a subgroup of G. i. Z{G) is a normal subgroup of G. Using the results of Problems 4.ffa"^ ^ <^(^)S C(A). it is infinite. Therefore C(A) is a subgroup of G. Now if G' . Show that : is if and only if G' = {1}. since Ig = g\ for all g&G. 0. The elements of order 2 in S3 are. 0. This is Thus every element of A3 is a commutator of eleProblem 3. Show finite cyclic of Section 3.3a. Hence oi- - T-it-»rii = I.57. G is abelian and that x. then N(A) if and only if N{A) = G. As a. Let gA = Ag and /A = A/ implies Hence /. Show that every element in A3 is a commutator of elements in S3. and so it follows in this way that N= S3. Suppose for example that a normal subgroup of S3 contains tj. and a € A. There are no normal subgroups of S3 containing elements of order 2 except S3.5a. t^'ct^^ticti = ti<t2Ti<ti = a^a^ = 02- r-i<T-iTi<T2 "i^z in S3 (A3 is listed in '•jffiTiCTa = = A3. all normal subgroups of S3. If g^. tj = t~'.45 and 4. then for each a G A. and y commute (i. then for each £f G G.61. e Z(G).1. -1.46. if A is a and so A < G. 0.e.{1}. xy = xy. then iT]r'''i<^i = <'2''i<'i = r2 & N. Suppose Solution = 1.

Thus aibiGNab. G an associative groupoid. For example. Accordingly S3 has precisely three distinct normal subgroups. If and g&G. of The mapping onto G/N. Naibi or Nab ? What we must show is that the product of two cosets is uniquely defined by the formula NaNb = Nab when N < G. t-^oiti = ti<titi = 02 B {i. v : G -* G/N defined by gv — Ng is a homo- morphism First. Thus e. This definition of multiBut it is conceivable that if Na = Nai and Nb = Nbi. NffiNg^ and {giv){g2v) — . then if A^ contains elements of order 2.63. N= have shown that Therefore if N ¥= {1}. 4. for NaNa-^ . or 3 in S3). Nl = N is an identity.3a we mentioned that the concept of a coset sometimes gives rise to a group._. < G. for Na Nl = N{a •!) = Na and N-Na — N{1 a) = Na. g^S B) a^b^ where aiG A and Now S'iS'2 ~ = '^i^'i^a «i''302 (where 63 aia'^ajftga^* ab.Nab. . and H so WnX H H K X is normal in G. or "G factor N". page 55. as 1 = I'le AB.114 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. ama~^ G N and hence IGN. Thus G/2V is a group. and as c E. Accordingly. Let us denote by G/N (read as "G over N". where Since the cosets form a partition.K are normal subgroups of G.15. This occurs when. Since N < G.A. If H. then AB = Solution: {x \ X = ab. and only when. n Define a product of two cosets plication depends on a and b. Since (g^g^v = N{g^g^) . 4 a normal subgroup of S3. Theorem Proof: 4. then ai = na for some and 61 = mb for some m G N.~^e. then is a subgroup of G. If gi.62. Thus G/N with this binary operation is a groupoid.02} is a normal subgroup of S3.N(aa-^) = N while Na-^Na = Nia-^a) = N. where b e B} AB ¥' bi&B. each element Na has an inverse.<ti. 0. In such case. N 4. In fact {1. or "the factor group of G by N") the set of right cosets of N in G. If Nai — Na and Nbi = Nb. the group is normal. = (Iia2""'(a2"*)-»63(a2"') = where a-a-fl. what would we take for the "product" of the two cosets. it follows that Naibi = Nab. say. But this is just what we ai&i l wanted to prove. new Let G be a group and N <i G. that Naibi ¥. (g^g^v = {g^v){g2v) and hence v is a homomorphism.g2&AB. Na and Nb to be the coset Nab. _.Ng^g^. if iV Is We S3. "2 g^ = a^b^. Factor groups In Section 4. and g~^cg e as c G and HnK g-^cg GHnK. and group of G. Solution: We subgroups cGHnK K < G. AB is ae A. Now aj and aj = af are the only elements of S3 of order 3. Next. refer the reader to Problem 3. G/N is • • Clearly v is a mapping of G onto G/N. EN = namb — n{ama~^)ab = lab — n(ama'^). is Thus g^g'^ & AB and AB is a sub- Show that the intersection of two normal subgroups a normal subgroup. Is it an associative groupoid? {{Na){Nb)){Nc) = {Nab)Nc = = N{ab)c = Na{bc) (as G is associative) {Na){Nbc) = {Na){{Nb){Nc)) and so G/N is an associative groupoid. then must contain elements of order 3 (there are only elements of order 1. We turn G/N into a groupoid by defining a binary operation as follows. then g^^cg €. in which we proved that the intersection of two is a subgroup. then -1 a subgroup of G.01. b = aafega^"' eB as BOG. crj}. Show that if A is a subgroup of G and B < G. 2. .17: G/N is a group.

we use additive notation. q G Q. Choose q & Q {q ¥= 0). is of the Since an integer is E either odd or even. these are all the cosets. The multiplication table is is'-i ffg} and A3 As ^STl A3T1 A 3^-1 A3 4. Let e be an isomorphism from G to H. Then the images of G' under * are of the form Cj* is G''*? • inverses. Thus S3/S3 consists of these Hence the cosets of S3/S3 are A3 = A31 = {i. Thus ZIE is cyclic of Hence the result. so «q # 0. T2. and so gp(. e takes Z to the identity of Q. It is this fact that we will utilize to prove that QIZ is not isomorphic to Q.56. Then -^ — e^Q is a monomorphism into H. <ri. Solution: Prom Problem ^^sTi 4. a commutator. E + Q + 1)}) consists of all the even integers. . = {ti.{{E = ZIE. Suppose it were and that QIZ -» Q was such an isomorphism.67. z&Z.) Q is the additive group of rationals? {Hint. 4. E -\-l 2. JE7 is a normal subgroup of Z and Z/E makes sense. Is QIZ s Q.64. Prove that Solution: if G= H. Prove that ZIE Solution: = C^. where E is the set of even integers and C2 is the cyclic group of order 2. the elements of G/N are of the form N + g. oi all the odd. Now Z + r is oi finite order n. n. for nq ¥= if q ¥= and n ¥= 0. two cosets.3a. it follows that nq € Z. Problems 4. As Z form is abelian. namely 0. On the other hand no element other than of Q is of finite order. then G' = H' and Z{G) s Z(H). say. where ments of Q/Z. G'-ir then c* {ae)~Hb0)~^aebe = [ae. 1S3 = A3.be] Thus the e^^ are commutators and so c H'.66. then there exists an element Z + r e of QIZ such that (Z + r)e = q. as we remarked at the end of Section 4. • • As the • c^. Note that in the case where G is a group whose binary operation is +.65. since e is What Cj is inverse of a commutator The elements of G' are products of commutators and their is a commutator.Sec. T3}. : 4. Find Sg/Sg. Since Z is the identity of QIZ and e is an isomorphism. both one-to-one and a homomorphism. Then {Z+q) + {Z + q)+ in all + + q) = Z n terms and therefore Z + q is oi finite order in QIZ. 6] = a~i6~io6. Our definition of the product of two cosets is written as the sum: {N + gi) + {N + g2) = N + {gi + g^). hence nq = 0. 4. each element of G' is of the form Cj c^*. A coset of E -\-z. Instead of using the multiplicative notation for G/N. As q (Z — min for some integers m. Thus every element of QIZ is of finite order. Examine the order of the ele- Solution: A coset of Z in Q is of the form Z + q. This contradiction proves that there exists no isomorphism of QIZ onto Q.3] COSETS called the natural 115 V is homomorphism of G onto its factor group G/N. Then {n(Z + r))$ — nq and now n(Z + r) = Z. But q ¥= 0. gp({(E + 1)}) order contains E+\ and {E + 1) + {E + V) = E. where each • • If c = [a.

{l}ai = {l}a2. Let x e Z(H).yege . there exists 9^.y & A.Therefore G'* = H' and consequently G' = H'. i. Accordingly gp(Hg) — GIH and so G/H is cyclic of order 2.69. If g-'^h^gGH. For then generated by the commutators. But this contradicts the assumption HnHg = 0. contains the element xyx~^y^^ • yx = xy. gy = Hence y e Z(G). so v is one-to-one. Solution: (i) A' x-^y~'^xy the subgroup generated by the commutators x-^y-^xy.~ij/-i G G'. y are any elements of G.'i2]. G. then k = hi or k = h^g {h^ e H). and hence belongs to G' and H< 0. Hence zeh = zege = (zg)e = (gz)e = geze = hzs and so Z(G)^QZ{H). Hence n G N. Therefore (G'x)(G'y) = {G'y)(G'x) and G/G' is abelian. If N N contains the subgroup GIN is xy = yxn where abelian and x. Show that G. . hence G'xy = G'2/a.This means that the product of 3. (ii) Let G'x and G'y be two elements of GIG'. Show by considering a suitable non-normal subgroup be defined as on page 114 without ambiguity. G'. Then G'xG'y . page 57. we obtain 4. so that g~^h2g = h'g {h' G H) and thus gr-i/ig = A'. To show i. Ht2 would be Ht^t^. As A is abelian. we are through. A' = {!}. — -^"i '^ ^. {xy)N = xNyN = yNxN — {yx)N. If fe S G. (iii) We need only show that contains every commutator. Ha^ = {<ti. and we need only show that it maps onto Z{H) to prove Z{G) = Z(H). Hence [f/i.e. Wi} = {a2i- Then of course Oj = ttg. Show that if H is of index 2 in Let h thus to H. h^ are images under *. it is one-to-one.ffj* = ['ii. Hence g=:h2h~^GH. The 4. which is G' by definition. Hence k-^hk = h^^hhi G H or = g-^h^^hhig = g~^h2g where h^GH. The two cosets oi in G are f/ and Hi/ for some g € H. Then {gy)e = geye . then Solution: if H H< G is a subgroup of G containing and GIH is cyclic of order 2. For each there exists ^ £ G with ge = h. 4 To show G'* = H'. As e is one-to- heH is fl^ yg.116 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. in dealing with = gpiri) = {I. g^e = h^. (i) If A is abelian show that A/A' = A. But G'xy contains xy. Therefore g-^hgh-^ • h H Now g'~^hgh~^ is = g-^hg GH and where a commutator. Since any product of 1 and its inverse is again 1.(yg)e..92 such that g^e = h^. there exists 2/ G G with 2/» = «: Let S G. we need only show that all possible commutators [h^. is (ii) (iii) Show Show that G/G' abelian. that H < G. the product of Ht^ and cosets is not uniquely defined.3a. Now (x-^)'^(y~^)'-^x-^y~^ = ajj/a.G'xy while G'yG'x = G'yx. Thus we are forced to conclude that fe-iJifc G H for every hG H and every k G G. Let v be the natural homomorphism of A to is A/A'.tJ. As 9 is onto. that G/N abelian implies N 2 G'. Then is a monomorphism of Z{G) into H. Solution: H of S3 that the product of two cosets cannot use the notation of Section 3. x. then H< G. We Let us take H Ha2 the symmetric group S3 of degree = {a2. one.70.In page 114 However. Let z S Z(G). G = HuHg HnHg = k~^hk Let hGH. Let = 6i|z(c). and every element of Z{H) an image of an element of Z{G). Suppose a^v = a2v. Multiplying on the left by j/-i and then by x~^.68. Otherwise g~^h^GHg.t3} = Ht^ while we defined the product of the coset Ha^ and Ha^ as Ha^o^ — H. V is an isomorphism we need only show that i-e. Thus c is an isomorphism. As e is onto. — y-^x-^xy = y^^ly = 1 and A' is the subgroup generated by 1. result follows.e. now jy is of index 2. and so G'j/a. If G and consider g~^hg.T2i — Hr^. H 4.

g26. Thus 17 is Ng2. 4. now that 9 is a homomorphism of G into a group H. since (—1) • (-1) = 1. 2Z is the set of even integers. We will show that Ker6i will Theorem 4. Thus Ngi and Ng2 have in common and. a homomorphism? {gx9g2e)-n = {{gig2)e)r. = N{gig2) = NgiNgz = {gie)r. must show that (9~'ng)e = (ge)-\ne){g9) = {ge)-n{ge) = {ge)-\g6) 1 Hence g^^ng G exist y^ N and iV is a normal subgroup of G.:ge^Ng defines an isomorphism of Gd onto G/N. Let e be the homomorphism of Z into the multiplicative group of nonzero rational numbers defined by a. = ng2 where nGN. is 1. so Ker e + 1 (Ker + 1) + (Ker e + 1) = Kerff. Then ngi . z G Z}.e = 1 if a. Finally.7. and xe = — 1 if a. If gi. so ^ 0. It is conceivable that there rj is not a mapping as For if not. If Proof: First we will show that AT^ is a subgroup. Ker e + 1}. let N. is even.{g29)rj and so 77 is a homomorphism. \ (Z. Now gig^'^ G N. Ge is also cyclic of order 2. Therefore G/(Ker e) and Ge are isomorphic by Theorem 4. Hence gWz^ G N and g2 with giO = gfi gfi as the right cosets form a partition.(g\e){g26)~^ = 1 as gxO = g2e.92^ = and so gig-^ G N. this will hold if {g-^ng)e = 1. where 2Z = {x x = 2z. for {gig2^)0 .Ng2l it is not uniquely defined.fif2 for some one-to-one and hence is an isomorphism. the empty set. also called the First Isomorphism Theorem): e:G-*H is a homomorphism of a group G into a group H. {9ie){g^'e) = igie)ig2e)-' G N. then N = Ker 9 is a normal subgroup of G. Check that the kernel of the natural homomorphism of the additive group of integers Z/2Z is 2Z. = 1. and g29 ~ {ngi)9 — n9gi9 = l'gi9 = gi9. gO = 1). But that it is N nGN We = a subgroup of G. i.e. We have already established in Theorem 4. Consequently 1.71. = {g \ g &G.17 that corresponding to every factor group G/N there What about the converse? Suppose is a homomorphism v G -* G/N such that Gv = G/N. hence Ker9 + 1 is of order 2 and G/(Ker e) is cyclic of order 2.4 a. g2 (9. . Ker e = {x\ xe generates G/(Ker«). HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS Homomorphisms and factor groups: The homomorphism theorem We now consider the connection between homomorphisms and factor groups. Ngi Is it = Ng2.1 = then 1 is To prove g-^ng G Also IGN. then Ngi = nGN. The identity of Z/2Z Consequently z e Ker c if and only if 2Z + z = 2Z and hence if and only if is z the coset 2Z. Problems 4. Thus Ker f = 2Z. rj: Next we must show that fifi g9 ^ Ng defines a mapping. is a well defined mapping.4] HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS 117 4. +) onto Solution: The natural homomorphism v is defined by zp — 2Z + z. -1}. We ask: is Ngi .72. Thus iV and g gG. one-to-one? If {gi9)T) = {g29)rj. Solution: {x\ X is even} and G/(Ker e) = {Ker e.Sec.18 (Homomorphism Theorem. page 103. Ge = gp{{—l}) and. = 1} = We have fl 4. Now Ge = {1. a normal subgroup of G. is odd. S 2Z. We ask: is there a normal subgroup N of G such that G/N = Ge1 Let us define the : kernel of 9 (denoted Ker6i) by Ker6' do the trick. Find the kernel of e and examine the claim G/(Ker e) = Ge. and r.

Igji- = = (Kera)g2.b«c. | I A typical coset is (Ker «)«(. {—q)(r.0' »«<! SO 9 is a homomorphism. Since the inverse of a square is also a square.Therefore (Kera)gi follows that Q*/(Ker <r) = Q*a. k and hence the tj g~^Sig - g-'^r^gg-^Tig = (g-^ig)^ G. Since — <i r? for some rj.~q}.bc+J« = "ac. : Solution: Then and (»«„ bW. We assert that each is a square. x is positive} Let be the mapping of Q*/(Ker(7) into Q*a that takes (Ker a)q -> qa is {q. and it Thus if gj ^ g2> 9i — ~Q2. G S. = {x \x\ e Q*} = {x \ = \xy\ — \x\ \y\ = = 1} = {1.d)» 6 any real the identity mapping. d = c(«^ + + aa. Solution: (r is a homomorphism.b real numbers. bc+d' ^i'l^® ««„_{.d«) = «a. Solution i.-1}.O' (<^a. + b = Kc. (j = = = ^"i. then ' • • . the subgroup generated by the squares of the elements of G. elements of the form gg = g^. . Verify the homomorphism theorem directly in this case. I = l} 3/ = V = J/0-. Hence {aj a„(.i to ac.b {«(. Hence is q^a = q2<r. and so the only other "representation" for the coset (Kera)g Hence the other possibility for c as far as (Ker <7)g is concerned is that ((Ker a)q)i' (— g)(T = \q\ — qa. . ^ (J bc I any real number} {«c. one-to-one 4. \ (xa)(ya).^: x -* ax + b.o is a homomorphism of G into G. .b»)i<^c. Let H be cyclic of order p.76. 1 ^ +d ^ I any real number} ttc.o = «ac. Let a. Then x a product s-fi^ s^ of elements of G each of which is a square or the inverse of a square.o- 4. What is the kernel of this homomorphism? Solution: is a homomorphism of G onto a cyclic Let the G = gp(x) and let n = pm. Let a be the homomorphism of Q*. Prove that the map * ao. the multiplicative group of nonzero rationals into Q* defined by xa = \x\.118 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. Prove that if G is cyclic of order n and p divides n. x G R. Since Now (Ker a)q = (Keri7)(— g). is a normal subgroup of G. Thus S 4. x E Q*. We define e to be mapping ^ .eKerfl.73.o a any nonzero real number}.e. Verify that if G is any group.74. The image of e = {ao. we have a^^ff = ajo as a^^ = number} = Ker». If («a.e. Find the kernel and the image of this homomorphism and exhibit the isomorphism described in the homomorphism theorem.d = «oe. Note that '') <*• c.b«c. then there group of order p. we may assume each Si. ^ . a =f^ 0. s^. [.e any real number} is The isomorphism 17 between G/{Ker e) and Ge as given by the homomorphism theorem the one that takes the coset (Ker e)a^. a.o«c. „ H = gp(y). = But i- [(Ker ir)gi' (Ker (7)92]'' = = ((Ker a)giq'2)'' = kiggl = then 19111921 ((KerCT)gi)j''((Ker(T)q'2)»' K is a homomorphism. are squares as asserted and g~^xg S S. is a square. g-^xg where tj = g-Higg-^s^g tj g-^s^g - tit^-'-t^ Sj = g~^Sig. Find the kernel and image of a. is Let S denote the subgroup generated by the squares of the elements of G. 4 4. we have that ir i. since (xy)a Ker<T Q*<T = {x\ xa {« a. Let G be the group of mappings of the real line R onto itself of the form aa.75.b ~* <*a. Thus is a well defined mapping of G/Kera into Q*<t. If g S G. I^il Is » one-to-one? If (Ker a)qip — (Ker 0)92". = aa.

.6 that the elements a.) : is G'cZ(G). We — have («*«')« = («* +'-'")» where = if +j ~ Then {x'Z')e = x' yi + i-^ri yiyiy-en Since the order of j/ divides n. i + j — n~l while Now « = 1 and j be less than n.a] = g-^[f.: J Sec. (xy)e Furthermore. the a homomor- Solution: Observe that [fg. If = 1.a] = \ 4. jr and a in a given group. IGl divides IGl.a] [fg. If xe — ye.a. — i — n — 1.80.a]g = [f. Prove that the mapping 9 a. The homomorphism theorem states that R + /(Ker e) = iZ+s = R.a] for any /. Prove that the mapping e g -* [g. .+) and (B + . [g. Suppose ffiv = g^v. G/{1} = G.'. (x-'ry)e — e^+w = e^ew = (xe)(ye) ex-y = 1^ from which x — y = 4.a] = g-^f~^a-^fga. then \Ge\ divides \G\. then e^ = e» and and x = y. -> group of positive real numbers. By the homomorphism theorem. Prove that Solution: if e : G -* K is a homomorphism and |G| < ». 4. if To y see this observe that if x is Moreover. so 9 is one-to-one.77.a] G'qZ(G). What What is the image? Using the homomorphism theorem. 4. then [f. = logi„(xy) = logioa. g~^(f''^a.Hence v is one-to-one and thus an isomorphism.a]. x'^". Thus Ker e = C(gp{a)). + a. log do = Then any element of R. J/' Hence (x'x')e = 2/'2/^ = (x*0){x'e) and so 1. for if y is any positive real number. By Lagrange's theorem. all we must show that ft+/{l} s JJ + We can indeed show this in general: if G is any group.g-^a-^ga) = — = g-if-ia-^f{agg-^a-^)ga g-^f-^a-ifga = [fg. [f.a]g{9. 9~'^[f. = R.a] phism of G into G. Let r be the natural homomorphism of <? onto G/{1}.4] HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS as 119 e is well defined we established in let if i i Lemma n. Kerff = is {a. : e* defines an isomorphism of (R. i. {l}fl'i = {l}fl'2.+) onto (R* . I logiox = 0. Thus e is an isomorphism between {R. Then {gi} = {g^ and consequently gi — g^.79.a]eZ{G) and g-'^[f.+).a]. — i — w— = Since a.* | p divides i} = {x". |Ker»| . WhatisKers? (Diflicult. Let a be a fixed element of G. Kertf = {g g G G}. .]g~ig = [f. Let (R'^ . Then we need only show that n is one-to-one.a]{g. The kernel of 9 is the set of all = 1 if and only if p divides i. phism. . oj^^-Dp} flrp(xP) 4. G/(Ker Therefore \Ge\ e) s ' Ge. = y and hence R+e = R. Suppose center of G.'). are all e the dis- tinct elements of G.~^fa')g(. logic?/ = x9 + ye and so 9 is a homomorphism. •).'fl = y* and Kere = {a.78. IQ^e = log 10" any real number. 1. the centralizer in G of gp{a).a\ On the other hand. Prove that [fg. IKer g\ divides the order of G. Is e onto? Yes. +). then 10^ e fl+. the additive is the kernel of el Prove that the mapping of i2 + group of real numbers defined by e x ^ logjoX. •) be the multiplicative group of positive real numbers. the equation e^ = y has a solution x G R.e. G K+} = {1} We assert that 10": R'^e x. Solution $ is certainly a mapping of jR+ into R. is a homomor- such that x'9 = .a]g[g. Therefore Hence (fg)e = fege and e is a homomorphism of G into G. prove that {R+. is a homomorphism.')^{R. : into {R. 4. Accordingly R+ = «+/{!} = R and so jB+ = R. As Kere = {1}. the multiplicative Solution: and so 9 is a homomorphism. j/"«" = 1. is . To do this we exhibit the isomorphism.

M of Mobius transformations 11 is a homomorphic image of the group = H ( ) a. and so H^ gy. Theorem 4. The preimage H of any subgroup S of K i?. ad — be — 1 Find the kernel of the homomorphism. then ffS is a normal in K. /a I c\ j n = (r(a.82 below. G. M Thus and a /I is a homomorphism. and this is indeed a subgroup of G. then he = s G S. Cj. Kernel d) /'="i(„ 3. Therefore ^ 0\ /-I 0' " '"' -0 l/'V -1 b. Therefore hi G and H. 1) 0. H . \bi . then H <i G.) the preimage of a subgroup S of K. Cg. 0.c. = (t(1.K. Ker9 cH. 0. ^2) . d) CT(a. page 80. Hence gh~^ G G. 62.46. Correspondence Theorem. We generalize this result in the following theorem.49. gS. Further- more. He G is onto iiT. Thus = H \ H . it follows that {gh~^)6 G S. ad—bc = /x 1} mapping TA -^ M hy 3. Since Ker« = {x\ xe = \] and 1 G S. Choose hi G Hi such that = Hi.81. (the identity of and only if a = d = 1 and = c = or = d = —1 and 6 = c = by Problem page 80.d) a. ) "{O'x. If H is normal in G. hi9 = s. d). and S <\ K implies {g~^hg)9 G S. b. If fl^ is a subgroup of G. then (g-^hg)e = (ge)-^(he){ge). b.)/'( dj \b2 dj ( .e. Let h G H. a subgroup of G containing Ker e. bi. {gh-^)9 = g9ih9)-K As and is. then the {g g preimage of S is Ker9.120 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Show that the group [CHAP. we must show that H <1 G.b.d complex numbers. we showed \ M We define the = fi: {a{a. using the results of Problem «1 page 79. and S contains the identity the empty set. c. Factor of a factor theorem Let 0:G-^K be a homomorphism of subgroup of JT. be a subgroup of G? We know that if S = {1}. j /i = 6 (T(a. We will show that = {g ge G S}. Also. 4 4. then Hi = H. subgroup of gd G S and he G S.d complex numbers. Furthermore if Hi is any other subgroup of G containing Ker d such that HiO = S. Now hence Hi C ff On the other hand if h G H. gO S}. {g \ Since 16 is the identity of K. the set &G. then H = IG^ g6 G S}.b. 6. Then hhi^ GKerdcHi and so /i G /^i and HcHi. = ( biC2 + d^d2) .c. a.heH. Proof: of . Then g-^hg G H and so H < G. (See Problem 4. If S <1 K. g G G. c. Clearly is a mapping. c. Let ff 1 be a subgroup of G containing Ker d and suppose Hie = S. the reverse of this procedure? What about \ Would i. Let Ai G Hi. ge G K. di)a(a2.c.b. CiWttg C2 \6ia2 + di62 + Ci62> 6iC2 byd-i + did2/ a'iC2 = — a(aja2 + djb2> + Ci(Z2. i/'( M) '1 if jf' t)ecause . H H If S he <l Now Hi jK". if g. then Ai^ G S. Solution: In Problem 3.19 (Correspondence Theorem): Let 6:G-^K be a homomorphism of G onto K.48.

Thus we have shown that all the cosets i. Consider x = gg^^. Let H = {g gv GL). are the distinct cosets of .e. and if L O G/N. then = Qigr^GH. Also.4] HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS 4. be the distinct cosets of S an onto homomorphism. so that ggr^ g H.shkr^ = s. GG . oo.gnot G such that giO = fe. then what is {G/N)/{M/N)^ The next theorem tells us that this is isomorphic to a single factor group. Because Ker by the correspondence theorem above. by the homomorphism theorem.82-4. be an onto homomorphism. \ H^N- Now if HiDN theorem that Hi and Hi/N = H/N. This means that g G Hgi. H Proof: Let Ski. . We ask. Now the elements of M/N are all the cosets Nm. H < G. where fcj e K. . Skn. in K. 4.5).Sec. a factor G by one of its normal subgroups. H Let S be a subgroup of K of Then is of index n in G. then M<i G and : G/M ^ {G/N)/{M/N) : Proof: Let v G ^ G/N be the natural homomorphism of G ^ G/N.4. Suppose that Hgi which iSfej = S/Cj and = i Hgj.x6 = gOigiOy^ . from (. If L <] G/N. Hv consists of all cosets Nh.e. element of {i. But in mGM. if iV <l G and G/N is a group containing a normal subgroup M/N. It follows that (4. and since v is onto G/N and p is onto {G/N)/ {M/N). . Consequently gg^^ is in the preimage of S. Let be the preimage of S. M^N. Hv = L.5) in are distinct. then H <i G. L be a subgroup of G/N. Therefore G/Ker (vp) = {G/N)/{M/N). Then gO G K and so g9 G Sh for some integer i. note that here {M/N){Ng) is a coset of the normal subgroup M/N in {G/N). may then Hiv = L. there are elements gi. vp is onto {G/N)/{M/N). Since v:g-^ Ng. As is . Hence H/N = Hv = L.21: aid of the Let N <\ G.) (Problems 4. . Then we can write L = H/N subgroup of G containing N. Thus we have Corollary 4. an element in the group {G/N)/{M/N). with S. H/N where Hi and H are subgroups of G containing N. fifv = Ng and {Ng)p = {M/N){Ng). . s Let g gG. .5) Hgi. where i? is a If Hi/N = Hi = H. We claim that (-4. We have thus shown that every G G is a member of one of the cosets in the cosets of /f in G. factor group.20: 121 Corollary Let 6: index n G^ K < . Then is a homomorphism of G -* {G/N)/ {M/N). Put = vp.. Theorem 4. hGH. Hence giOigjO)'^ G S. be studied before reading Theorem 4. . i. also called the Third Isomorphism Theorem): group G/N there is a normal subgroup M/N. H/N makes sense and consists of all the cosets Nh. Let p G/N -^ {G/N)/{M/N) be the natural homomorphism of G/N -* {G/N)/{M/N).89 below The reader may very well wonder what happens when we take a factor group of a For example. i. The identity of {G/N)/ {M/N) is {M/N). what is the kernel of vp? It will be all g such that gvp = {M/N)Ng = M/N. Hgn H ?'. Hence gO = sk. hki^GS. It then follows by the correspondence = H.e. Sfe. If g GG. hGH. in G. then Let Proof: Let v be the natural homomorphism of G ^ G/N.5) consists of all Of course we can always reformulate results about homomorphisms with the homomorphism theorem as results about factor groups.22 If in the factor (Factor of a Factor Theorem.22. Then by the correspondence theorem H is a subgroup of G. .

122

ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS

[CHAP. 4

Ng G M/N, i.e. Ng = Nm for some m G M. Hence g = nm where n G N. But D N. Therefore g G and so Ker vp C M. Note that if m G M, m{vp) = {M/N)Nin = M/N. Then Ker vp = M. Thus as a kernel of a homomorphism is normal in G and G/M = {G/N)/(M/N), which is the required result.
that case

M

M

M

Problems
4.82.

Prove that if » subgroup of K.
Solution:

:

It

G -* K is a homomorphism of G onto H < G, prove that He < K.
¥=

K, and

H

is

a subgroup of G, then

He

is

a

Since le

S He, He

0.

If

x^,

x^

G He,

x^

=

hyO,

x^

=

h^e

t<yi

some

h^, Aj

S H.

Then

where
fir

Hence He is a subgroup of K. If now H <3 G, then g~^hg G H for all any element of K, say fe, is of the form ge for some g & G; and any element of Hfi is of the form Afl. Is (ge)~^hege e. Het Yes, because {ge)-^(he)g$ = (g'-^hg)e and as g-^hgG H, (ge)-Hhe)ge G He. Thus He < H.
/i

= h]h2^^H.
all

e G and

h&H. Now

4.83.

Let

Let K = ^^(6) be cyclic of order 2. Then e G -^ K is a homomorphism of G onto K. (Take this as a fact.) Find all the subgroups of K and all their preimages. Check that the assertions of Theorem 4.19 and Corollary 4.20 hold. (See Problem 3.42, page 77, for the multiplication table.)

G = D^ —
by
a^e

{ai, ag, as,
1,

(T4,

T, T(72, TCTg, ro'4}.

:

defined

=

(ra^e

h, i

=

1,2, 3, 4,

Solution:

The subgroups of
G2
(a)
(6)
(c)

K are Ky- K
K2 —
{g
\

and K^

=
e

{!}.
a2.
<'i>

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the preimage of K,

=

{g\ ge

&K) -

G.

=

the preimage of

ge

=

1}

=

{tri,

"ii-

Gj,

G2 are subgroups of
in

G

containing Ker

=

G2.

Kj and K2 are normal

K, and Gj and G2 are normal in G.
G2.

The subgroups of G containing Ker 9 are Gi and where 1 — i, — 2. I = i
7'

We

note then that

Gj9

=

Gj9

implies

(d)

Xj

is

of index 1 in K.

Gj
<r2>

is

of index 1 in G.

K^

is

of index 2 in K.
''<'4)'

G^

is of

index 2 in G,

its

cosets being

Gx

=

{ai,

"S) "4}

and TG2

=

{r, tct2>

'''<'3'

Thus

(a), (6), (c)

and

(d)

agree with Theorem 4.19 and Corollary 4.20.

4.84.

Let

G =

gp{a)

be cyclic of order 12 and
. .

let

defined

by a^e = b\ i = 0,1,2, fact.) Find all the subgroups of 4.19 and Corollary 4.20 hold.
Solution:

.,11.

Then
all

K

and

be be cyclic of order 4. Let e G -* a homomorphism of G onto K. (Take this as their preimages. Check that the assertions of Theorem
:

K = gp{b)

K

e is

{x\

The subgroups of K are Xi = X, K^ = xe€:K} = G. G2 = the preimage of K2

{1, b^},

=
a^

{x\

09 = 6 that G2
(a)
(6)
(c)

#
=

62^

hence

a

S

G2.

o^e

=

b^,

so

e

(j^.

Kg = {1}. Gj = the preimage of K^ = Clearly 1 G Gj. xe = 1 or xe = b^}. Continuing in this fashion we conclude

{l,a^,a*,a^,a»,a^<>}.
all

Finally,

Gg

=

the preimage of
9

X3 =

{a;

|

a;9

=

1}

=

{l,a.*,a»}.

Gi,

G2 and G3 are

subgroups of
in K,

G

containing Ker

=

G3.
in

Xi,

X2 and K3 are normal

and

Gi,

G2 and G3 are normal

G

(trivially, as

G

is abelian).

The subgroups of G containing the kernel of e are those containing a*. Hence the subgroups of G containing Ker e are Gj, Gj and G3. Note GjS = Gj« implies i = i (1 - i i - 3).

(d)

Xi is of index 1 in X. Gi is of index 1 in G. Xg is of index 2 in X, its cosets being X2 = {1, 62} and X26 = {6, 53}. Gj is of index 2 in G, its cosets being G2 = {1, a\ a*, a^, a», fti"}, and G^a = {a, a3, a^, a', a^, a"}. X3 is of index 4 in X. G3 is of index 4 in G, the distinct cosets being G3 = {1. aS a»}, G^a = {a, a\ a^}, G^a^ = {a^ a^ aW}, Ggd^ = {a^, a'', a"}.
Thus
(a), (6), (c)

and

(d)

agree with Theorem 4.19 and Corollary

4.20.

Sec. 4.4]

HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS
:

123

4.85.

Let e G -* K be an onto homomorphism. subgroups of index 2 and 5 and 10.
Solution :
of

Let

K

be cyclic of order

10.

Prove that

G

has normal

= gp(k). Then the subgroups K^ = {1}, K^ - gp{k^), Kg = gp(k^) are normal subgroups of index 10, 5 and 2 respectively. Consequently their preimages, by Theorem 4.19 and Corollary 4.20, are normal of index 10, 5 and 2 respectively. Hence the result.
Let

K

K

4.86.

Let
of

N <\ G and suppose G/N is cyclic of order 6. Let G/N = G/N and express them in the form of Corollary 4.21. (Hard.)

gp{Nx).

Find

all

the subgroups

Solution:

Let G/N -= K. Let K^ = {AT}, K^ = {N, Nx^, K^ = {N, Nx^, Nx*} and K^ = K. These are the subgroups of K. To find the corresponding subgroups of Corollary 4.21 we let v. G -^ GIN be the natural homomorphism, i.e. gv - Ng. Then let G^ be the preimage of Ki, i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
all

Gi

Gz G3
G4

= = = =

{g\

{g
{g

\

\

{g\

= N} = {g\ Ng = N} = {g\ g^N} = AT = N or g - Nx^} = {g Ng = N or Ng = Nx^ = NuNx^ gv = N or gv = Nx^ or gv = Nx*} = NuNx^uNx* gvGK} = G. Then G/iV = Xj for t = 1, 2, 3, 4.
g,'

gv

\

4.87.

Use the correspondence theorem to prove that if i/ is a subgroup of G containing G' group of G), then H <i G (i.e. prove Problem 4.69 by another method).
Solution:

(the derived

Let v. G -^ G/G' be Any subgroup of G/G'

the natural homomorphism; then v is onto. G/G' is abelian by Problem 4.68. therefore normal, and thus Hv = S, say, is normal in G/G'. By the correspondence theorem, is the preimage of S. Hence using the correspondence theorem once more, is normal in G.
is

H

H

4.88.

Let Hhe a subgroup of index h in G. Let of index n in X if D Ker tf.

H

e

:

G

-^

K

be a homomorphism onto K.

Prove that

He

is

Solution:

from Corollary

only necessary to prove that S - He is of finite index in K, for then the result follows 4.20. If Hg^, ..., Hg^ are the cosets of in G, then we claim that {Sig^e), ..., S(g^e)} is the set of all the cosets of S in K. We need only show that if k e K, then k G SigiS) for some i = l, .. .,n. As 9 is onto, there is a g such that ge = k. Let g = hgi. Then k - ge = heigiS) e S(gie). The result now follows from Corollary 4.20.
It is

H

GG
.

Alternatively

Then

(srj»)(fl'j9)-'

preimage of S.

we can show that Sig^e), .,S(g^e) are all distinct. Suppose S(ffifi) = (g^~^)e S S. Hence giQ^^ &H as H, by the correspondence theorem, Accordingly i - j and the index of S in K is n.
.

S(ff^s).
is

=

the

4.89.

H

Let G be a group and let he a normal subgroup of G. Suppose further that L and are subgroups of G/N. Then show that we can write L in the form H/N, and in the form K/N, where and K are subgroups of G containing N. Show also that if LqM, qK; and ii L <i < K Show that if and [M L] = « < », then [K:H]=n.

N

LqM

H

M

M

M.H

:

Solution:

This

is

and^

H

M = K/N

- {g\ gvGL} and K = {g\ gvGM}. Hence if I-cM, H (ZK follows immediately. Now if L < M, we consider the homomorphism $ K ^ K/N defined by ke = fee for all S Jf i.e. e = v,KClearly Ke = K/N and the preimage of L is H, the preimage of M is K. We can then conclude from the correspondence theorem that H < K.
:

just an application of Corollary 4.21 to Corollary 4.20 and Theorem 4.19. follows from Corollary 4.21. If v is the natural homomorphism,

That

L = H/N

we

recall that

fc

,

4.90.

Let

G=

Di.

Let

M = {ai,<rs,Ta3,T}, N = {cri.as}.
explicitly

Then accept

G/N and M/N. Find {G/N)/(M/N)
Solution:

N<G

and

M<

G.

and check that

words, check agreement with the factor of a factor theorem.

isomorphic to G/M. (Use table on page 77.)
it is

Consider In other

G/N
A4 -

consists of the cosets

(t(72)A'^

-

{t(72, r(74}.

Now

M = {<,i,a3,Tff3,r},

Ai =

N =

{ai,a3},

A^ = a^N = U2,<rd, A^
hence

= tN =
elements

{r,r<7s},

M/N

consists

of the

A^Ag.

124

ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS

[CHAP. 4

MIN <
(M/N)

in (GIN).

GIN. Therefore we can talk of (GIN)I(M/N). The elements of this group are the cosets of These cosets are B^ = (MIN)A^ = {^i, A3} and Bg = (MIN)A2 = {AyA^.A^A^} =
(A3A2, for example,
is

{A2,A^}.

plication in the

group (GIN)I(MIN)

calculated as follows: A3A2 = (riV)(<r2^) = ('"<'2)^ is calculated in the usual way for cosets, e.g.,

=

^4-)

Multi-

B2B2
as

A2A2 =

(aaiVXtrjiV)

= {MIN)A2(MIN)A2 = {MIN){A2A2) = {MIN)Ai = = a^N = N = Ai. It is clear then that (GIM)I{MIN) =
GIM
is.

B^
{Bj, B2}
is

the cyclic
03, rag, t}

group of order 2 generated by B2-

Now

let

us decide what

The elements of
C2C2 = Ma^Ma^, (GIN)I(MIN).

and C2 = Ma2 group of order

=
2.

{<t2,

^4, Ta4, TCTg}-

As

GIM are the cosets - M03 = M, GIM =

Cj

=

M=

{<ti,

{Cj, C2}

is

the cyclic

Therefore

GIM =

4.91.

= gp{a^), N - gp(a^). Consider GIN Let G be the cyclic group of order 12, say G = gp{a). Let and MIN. Find (GIN)I(MIN) explicitly and check that it is isomorphic to GIM. In other words, check agreement with the factor of a factor theorem. (Difficult.)
Solution:

M

GIN
Na3

Aj = AT = {l,a«}, Aj = N^a = {a,a''), A3 = Na^ = {a^,a»}, A4 = consists of the cosets = {a3, a9}, Ag = iVa* = {a*, ai"}, Ag = Na^ = {a^, a"}. Now M = {1, a2, a*, a«, a^, aio}. Hence MIN consists of the elements Aj, A3 and Ag. MIN < GIN,
this

and we can talk of (GIN) I {MIN). The elements of
cosets are

group are the cosets of

MIN

in

GIN.

These

Bi
Multiplication
is

= {MIN)Ai =
B2B2

{Ai,A3,A5}

and

B^

= (MIN)A2 =
(M/2V)(A2A2)

{A2,A4,A6}

calculated in the usual way,

= {MIN)A2(MIN)A2 =

Now
order

the product of
2.

Ag and A2
Bi.
It is

B2B2 = iMIN)As =

is also the product of cosets. clear then that (GIN)I(MIN)

As Aj = Na, A^A^ = Na^ -

A3.

Hence

=

{B^, B^}

=

gp(B2)

is

a cyclic group of

Now
Clearly

let

us decide what Ci

GIM

is.

The elements of GIM are the
C2

cosets

=

M

=

{1, a2,

aS

a6, a8, aiO}
2.

GIM =

gpifii)

is cyclic

of order

= Ma = {a, aS, 0.=, a^ a**, a"} and Hence GIM = (GIM)I{MIN).
i^i+i(G)
is

4.92.

Let

G

{AH

be any group. Let Pi,(G) be all possible nonisomorphic factor groups of G. Let In the particular case that G possible factor groups of the groups in Fi(G)}.
00

=

cyclic of

order

25, find all

nonisomorphic groups in

KJ

Fi{G),

i.e.

Fi(G)uF2(G) Vi

.

(Hard.)

Solution:
It is sufficient to

G F^iG). But then consider Fi(G). For if L&F2(G), L = MIN where Thus L is a factor of a factor group. Hence by the factor of a GIK, by definition of F^iG). factor theorem it is isomorphic to a factor group of G. We must therefore find the number of factor groups of G. All subgroups of G are known. G has unique subgroups of orders 1,2,22,23,2* and 25 by Theorem 4.9, page 105. The factor groups

M

M

=

will therefore
if

G=

be of orders 25, 2<, 23, 2^, 2 and 1. In each case the factor groups will be gp{a) and iV is a subgroup of G, gp{Na) = GIN. Hence the result.

cyclic.

For

The subgroup isomorphism theorem In the homomorphism theorem we were able to say that the image of a homomorphism 9:G-*K was essentially a factor group of G. What can we say about the effect of 6 on subgroups? Let Hh%& subgroup of G. Let Bi = d^a, i-e. ^1 is the mapping of i? to K deThen 61 is a homomorphism of H^K, and so HOi = He ^ fined by h9i = he, hG H. H/{KerOi). Now if Ker^ = N= {x\ xGG, x9 = 1}, then Ker^i = {x\xGH and So He = Hdi^H/{HnN). On the other hand, we know H9 is x0i = xe = l} = HnN. a subset of GB and G0 = G/N. Our question is: what has H/{HnN) got to do with G/NI It must be isomorphic to some subgroup of GIN. But which? This is what the subgroup isomorphism theorem is
c.

about.

Sec. 4.4]

HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS
4.23

125

Theorem

(Subgroup Isomorphism Theorem, also called the Second Isomorphism Theorem): Let N <i G and let H he a subgroup of G. Then <i H, HN is a subgroup of G, and

HnN

H/{HnN) = HN/N

hGH, nG N}) Proof: If nGHnN and hGH, then h~^nh G N nGH. Therefore k-^nhGHnN and HnN < H.
(HN =
{hn\

as

N<

G,

and

h'^nhGH
Xz

as

HN is a subgroup, for
xix^^

it is

not empty; and

if

xi, X2

G HN,

then Xi

=

hiiti,

=

hiTii

and

=

hinin^^h^^

=

hirizhi^

hikz^h^nahz^
as

hui
G.

where nz-nmz^ GN, hJii^-hGH and and HiV is a subgroup of G.
:

hinJii^^mGN

N <\

Hence

ajiaja"^

G

ifiV

Let ^ ff -» HWA^ be defined by ft^ = iV/t. Then ^ is clearly onto, i.e. H<i> = HN/N. Also is a homomorphism: (hih2)<j> = N{hih2) = NhiNhz = /ii^fe^. By the homomorphism theorem, H4,^H/{Ker<i,). Ker<i> = {x\ x G H, x,j> = 1} ^ {x\ x G H, Nx = N}. If Nx = N, then Ix =:= a; G iV; and if xGN, Nx = N. Therefore Ker ^ = {a; xGH, xGN) == HnN.
</>
|

Hence

HN/N ^ H/{HnN).
Let Q* be the multiplicative group of rationals. Let = {1, —1}. Let be the subgroup generated ii)- Find HN, HN/N and thereby verify the assertion of the subgroup isomorphism theorem

Problems
4.93.

N

H

by

that

HN/N s H/HnN.

Solution:

The elements of

H are

all

of the form {^Y, r various integers.
hn,

HN
A
X
coset of

=

{x\ x

=

hGH, n&N} =

HN/N

is

of the

form
is

=

= h or x = -h, h e H} = {x\ X = ±{^y for all integers r} Nx = {1, ~l}x = {x, -z} where x G HN. Now
{x\ x

±(^)^ Hence each coset

of the

form {(^)^ -(\y).

Since N{\)

N {^)

N(^)

G HN, if = N{^y and
a;

e Ar(^)r^ each coset of HN/N is a power of N(^). Thus £'p({A^(^)}) = HiVW; and € iV for r¥'0, HN/N is the infinite cyclic group. i^y Now HnN = {x\ x = {^y for some r and x = ±1} = {1}. Hence H/(HnN) = H. But infinite cyclic. Thus we have verified that H/(HnN) = HN/N.
(i)*"

since

H

is

4.94.

Let<r=^
Solution:

*^j

and

H = gp{{a}).
is

Prove that

HA„M„

is cyclic of

order

2.

HA„/A„ = H/{HnAJ. Now

a

HnA„ =
of order

{*}.

Therefore

HAJA„ = ff/{,} ^ ff.

an odd permutation, hence a € A„. Also H = {<r, i}, so But is cyclic of order 2. Thus «A„M„ is cyclic

H

2.

4.95.

Let a group

G

contain two normal subgroups
if

HM/M = HN/N
Solution:

M

and N.

Let

H

be a subgroup of G.

Prove that

Hnilf

:=

HniV.

By

the

HN/N = HM/M
4.96.

subgroup isomorphism theorem, by Problem 4.8, page 97.

HM/M = H/HnM = H/HnN = HN/N.

Hence

If in the preceding

H/{HnN) has
Solution:

problem we know that G/M has every element of order a power of every element a power of 2.

2,

show that

H/{H nN)= H/(H n M) =

HM/M q G/M.

Hence the

result.

1

126

ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS
Let

[CHAP.

4

4.97.

H

and

K

be subgroups of G,

N

<i

G and

HN

= KN.

Prove that

H/(HnN) = K/(KnN).
97,

Solution :

H/(Hr\N) =

HN/N = KN/N = K/{KnN).

Then by Problem

4.8,

page

H/{HnN) = K/{KnN).

4.98.

Let Gd GiD {1} and Gj O G. Suppose G/Gi and Gj are abelian and H is any subgroup of G. Prove that there exists a subgroup H^ of H such that Hi <1 H, and ///Hi and Hi are abelian.
(Hard.)

Solution :

Let Hi = HnGi. Then by the subgroup isomorphism theorem. Hi <1 H, and H/H^ = HGi/Gi. But HGi/Gj C G/Gi and G/Gi is abelian. Therefore H/H^ is abelian. As Hi c Gi and Gi is abelian,

we
Let

conclude that

Hi

is

abelian.

4.99.

{1}. Let Gi < G, G2 < Gi, and suppose G/G^, GJG^ and G^ are abelian. Prove any subgroup, then it has subgroups Hi and Hj such that Hi <1 H, Hj <1 Hi and H/Hi, H1/H2 and Hj are abelian. (Hard.)

GD
if

that

H

Gi 2 G2 2
is

Solution:

Let H,

= HnGi.

Then, as

in

Problem

4.95,

H^ <

H

and H/Hi

is abelian.

Now Hi as a subgroup of Gi. As G2 <3 Gi, by the subgroup isomorphism theorem HinG2 <] Hi and Hi/iHinG^) = H1G2/G2 C Gi/Gj. Since G1/G2 is abelian, so is HiKH^r^Gi). Consequently we put H2 = H^nGiconsider

Finally as

H2 C G2 and G2

is

abelian, so

is

H2 and

the result follows.

Homomorphisms of cyclic groups We return now to study cyclic groups. In Section 4.2b we could state that in a finite cyclic group there was at most one subgroup of any given order. An analogy for the infinite cyclic group would have been awkward to formulate without the concept of index which we
d.

have had at our disposal since Section

4.3a.

Recall that a subgroup oi a. group G is of index « in G if there are exactly n distinct in G. In the case of finite cyclic groups we have proved that there is one right cosets of dividing \G\. Since [G:H] = \G\/m, there is one of any order and only one subgroup and only one subgroup of any given index dividing the order of G. This gives the clue to

H

H

H

m

Theorem

4.24:

There

is

one and only one subgroup of any given

finite

index n

>

in

the infinite cyclic group.

Proof: Let G = gp{x) where G is infinite cyclic. Let Hn = gp{x''). Then Hn = {a;"'.,HnX"-'^ are all distinct and are all the cosets Hence the cosets Hn,HnX, all integers r}. of Hn in G. Hence Hn is of index n.
. .

Next if £r is a subgroup of index n, we already know that H positive power x"^ G H (Theorem 4.9, page 105), and this means Hence r = n and Hr — H„. This concludes the proof. r.
find all

is

H = Hr.

generated by the smallest But Hr is of index

With our knowledge homomorphisms
4.25:

of cyclic groups of cyclic groups.

it is

easy to apply the homomorphism theorem to

Theorem

Let
if

6*

be a homomorphism of a cyclic group G.

Then Ge

is

cyclic;

and

|G|

<

=0,

\Ge\ divides \G\.
if

Furthermore
is

H

is

any

cyclic

group such that

\H\ divides \G\,

there

a homomorphism of
If

G

onto H.
there
is

G

is infinite cyclic,

a

homomorphism

of

G

onto any cyclic

group.
Proof:
If

G=

gp{x), then

G=
I

{x''\

all

integers r}, and

Gd =

[x^'e

all r}

=

{(xoy

\

all r)

=

gpixO)

[G G„] = w if G„ = £rp(a. Finally. We will see later on that it also enables us to find more quickly the groups of a given order. prove 6^ = ^ (Hard. Prove that if a and 6 are elements of a group G and if a-^b^a = ha. then. the cyclic groups. As G„ <1 G. hence it is cyclic. obtained Lagrange's theorem which states that the order of a subgroup divides the order of a finite group.102. 127 Thus Ge If \G\ < «>.103.if. Suppose that Prove G and are not isomorphic. then 6 = a. namelv H The factor of a factor theorem tells us that a factor group of a factor group G/N is just a factor group of G of the form G/M. |G| = rm. Thus G has as homomorphic image any cyclic group of order n. H H G cannot be generated by two elements but that H can. and we know whether any group G has as homomorphic image a given cyclic group. If G is infinite . Hence G/N . Suppose H is cyclic. Then A^ = {l. \N\ = r. cyclic Furthermore the sub- introduced the concept of coset. G/N makes sense and is of order m. Prove Sx = Sx u y if and only is infinite. as Theorem 4. G/Gn is of order w. groups of cyclic groups are again cyclic. 4. .24. Because G is abelian. namely as The subgroup isomorphism theorem tells subgroup iy of G in a factor group G/N is of looking at H/{HnN). H = gviv).) 4. But G is cyclic and consequently so is G/N. If a^ = 1 and a-^h^a = b^. normal subgroup. Suppose a and 6 are elements of a group G.. n> 0.CHAP.").100. if 4. Supplementary Problems FUNDAMENTALS 4. This enables us to eliminate certain groups as possible subgroups of a given group.'")'-i}. we know that they have as homomorphic images only cyclic groups. prove a = 1 = b.S: X be a non-empty set and let Y= {y} be disjoint from X. and is a homomorphic image of G. and the order m of H divides the order of G = gpix). The cosets form a partition of the group.G-^K a unique subgroup of G itself. Hence then by the homomorphism theorem 09 = \Ge\ = |G|/|A^| (see Lagrange's theorem) and G/N for some \Ge\ divides \G\. We know that there are cyclic groups of all orders. Suppose a and 6 are elements of a group G. N of G. the correspondence theorem associates with each subgroup of the image of a homomorphism e. normal subgroup Say. But G/Gn is the homomorphic image of a cyclic group. m.101. ^ cyclic. savir we in the proof of : A look back at Chapter 4 In this chapter we have thoroughly investigated the simplest class of groups. Let A^ = gpix^). Obviously it also has the infinite cyclic group as a homomorphic image. If a-^b^a = b^ and b-^^b = a^. (Very hard. (a. 4. This gives rise to a new way factor groups (see the homomorphism theorem).x'-. we know their subgroups.) Suppose G and are groups. 4] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS is cyclic. and N is of index .104. We have also this fact Using we Next we have introduced the idea of a homomorphisms. us that the subgroup corresponding to a given isomorphic to a factor group of itself. Let .

{(0. Prove that if A^ is a subgroup of G such that G/N = G. subgroup (# 0) of Q is infinite cyclic.b. Let e: g -^ Z be defined by j e — a+ Prove that a homomorphism of g onto the additive group of integers and find its kernel. not a cyclic group. where l). Prove that every two-generator COSETS 4. Let g = If"" ] a. Let 4.74. let e : G It H is -> F be a homomorphism. G is a group with respect to this composition. Let G be a cyclic group. (k. 4. prove that Let ce e. Let Af = {(0.c.72. be defined by = ad — be.111.109.113. « c Prove that g forms a group with respect to the operation + defined by *\ . Let G=ZXZ (fc. Consider ff/(Ker a) and prove that in accordance with the homomorphism theorem it is isomorphic with the additive group of integers. Show that M< G and that G/M is infinite cyclic. 4. Let e: g - i ("' * ad — be 9i 0. Let C be a cyclic subgroup of G. and let g be an element of G. be the group of Problem 3. HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS 4.115. .{m... let and N(g-^Hg) the normalizer of g-^Hg. Let G G/N 4. Let Let of e : Hg ^ g-^H is a matching of the right cosets of 4.dGz\-.. any subgroup of C. d real numbers { V with operation matrix multiplication. • G1UG2U 4. c. page 91.114. G be a group and C for all c&C. Prove that H in G with the left cosets of H in G. then g-^N(H)g . Prove that if N{H) is the Let G be a group. q) q e. 4. is infinite cyclic. G2.107. Q}. H and K be subgroups of a group D G. page 91. Prove . 6) G W}. 4 CYCLIC GROUPS 4.l+n) Prove that not cyclic. prove that he G H for all h & H. Let is isomorphic with the additive group of rationals. the nonzero real numbers.117.116.105. 4..128 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. Show that \ N and N Let W be the group of Problem 3. Let Q be the additive group of rationals with respect to addition.N(g-^Hg).. /«! \ci &i\ _ /a + oi ci 6 dj /a ( di) \c + d. Let ] e ^c d g-* R*. Let Let N= {(0.l)o(m. then N= {1}.2. d + 61 + di 8 is b\ .z) | Prove that N< D N< G and D/N 4. H be a subgroup of G. Let Gj. a. • is be subgroups of a group G. page 91. ..n) G G.112.77.110. 4.. Prove that # is a homo- \c dJ and find its kernel..106. 6) | (0. g'^Hg normalizer of H H {g-^hg\ hGH}. where Z is the set of integers. (Hard. Gji^Gj+i for i = l.108.n) Define a binary operation ° in G by G is = (k + m. Prove that be the group of Problem 3.) If GjCGj+i. b. is infinite cyclic. a coset of K is a coset HnK. morphism from g onto the that g/{KeT e) = R* multiplicative group of nonzero real numbers in accordance with the homomorphism theorem. Show that a coset of H intersection zGZ}. be a subgroup of G.

4.. Suppose G/N has a factor group which Prove that G has a normal subgroup of index n for each positive integer n.2. iV D M. Let N. Let G be a group and N a normal subgroup of G. Suppose that = HiOH^^ dH„ where [Hj: jffj + i] = i + 1. Suppose GIN is cyclic and \NIM\ = 2. 4. . N is infinite 4. Let H be a subgroup of G. -1} be the mapping Prove that a. Let M and JV be normal subgroups of G with MdN. 9 is a homomorphism of G into the group {1. Prove that HM/M = HN/N. G with normal subgroups Ai' and M.119. Let defined by be any subgroup of S„. prove that the even permutations of G form a normal subgroup of G.e = 1 if k is an even permutation and xe = — 1 if a.. Nd M.120. Let cyclic. n- 1.. 4.122. 4. has a sequence of sub. Prove that i • • • Gi+ 1] = i + 1. Let G be a finite the orders of group with normal subgroups M and N. is an odd permutation. for groups 2 G„ such that [Gj G has a sequence of subgroups G = Gj D G2 3 H= i : GIN H = 1. Suppose that M and H and those of N and H are co-prime. the symmetric group of degree n. Find a group abelian. be a group and a normal subgroup of G. .123. G/N cyclic. N/M cyclic but G/M not . M be normal subgroups of G.124. 4] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS G : 129 4. = 1. is abelian.%. Using the homomorphism theorem.118. . Prove that GIM 4.-1} with operation multiplication of integers. Let 8 G -» {1.1.CHAP. .121. G Prove that G/N is finite if G/M and M/N are finite.

The Jordan-Holder theorem shows that in a sense a group is built from simple groups in only one way.1 every finite group has a Sylow p-subgroup. The resultant group is called the direct product of G and H.e. ambitious plan for studying finite groups is to find all simple groups. for n^5. Solvable groups are used in Galois theory to determine whether an equation is solvable in terms of nth roots. and \H\ is the highest power of p that divides \G\.e. and p"" the highest power of p dividing the order of G. We prove two other theorems of Sylow concerning subgroups of prime power order and then examine groups of prime power order. The concept order 15. if where then F = (see Problem 5. A simple condition enables us to conclude that a group is a direct product.1 below). ensures the existence of subgroups of prime power order. Sylow theorems. Suppose is a subgroup of G of order a power of a prime p. In the following p will denote a prime. As yet the task of finding all simple groups is far from complete. p a prime. Then there is a subgroup of G of order p". page 109) tells us that the order of a subgroup divides the order of a finite group. H H In general a group of order a power of the prime p is called a p-group. By Theorem 5. An 5.4).1 (First Sylow Theorem): Let G be a finite group. Conversely one might ask: if G is a finite group and n\ \G\. i. The following important theorem. Then is called a Sylow p-subgroup of G.g. groups without proper normal subgroups. i. We conclude the chapter by exhibiting a class of simple groups. is there always a subgroup of order nl The answer to this question is no: Ai is of order 12 but has no subgroup of order 6 (see Problem 5. namely A„. H 130 .11. group H H qF qG A F Sylow p-subis a p-group. help us to In this chapter we find all groups up to We study a class of groups called solvable groups. e. we define a binary operation on the cartesian product of G and H. One result is that groups of prime power order always have non-trivial centers. Theorem 5. In order to construct a new group from any two groups G and H. of direct product together with general theorems about subgroups. however. and then see how groups are built from simple groups. of a group G is a maximal p-group in G. THE SYLOW THEOREMS Statements of the Sylow Theorems Lagrange's theorem (Theorem 4.chapter 5 Finite Preview of Chapter 5 Groups The most important result of this chapter is a theorem of Sylow which guarantees the existence of subgroups of prime power order. the classify finite groups.1 a.

Hir\H2= {!}. The number Sylow p-subgroups of G is congruent to 1 modulo p and Sp (Sp is congruent to 1 modulo p if Sp = 1 + kp for some integer A. by Theorem 5. then gp{ab) = Hi. a. ffj. Similarly G has one and only one subgroup of order 5. gp(ab) = H2. Hence ab = b' (i = 0.l 3/ ^« _ - U /I 3 3 4 1/ _ /I - 2 1 3 2 U 4/ "^"12143 _ /I 2 4 . are = 2 and The elements 2 3\ 12 1 3/ 3\ ''^ _ " _ /I 2 1 3\ \3 /I 2/ 3\ ^2 _ - /I (^3 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 1/ ^^"(^13 is 2/ ^'^ _ /I ~ \2 3 3 The order l-Sgl 2 and the order of any Sylow 3-subgroup is 3. of S3 given in Section 3.) Before proving the Sylow theorems. Show that the alternating group A4 has no subgroup of order 6. We 2 1 repeat them here for convenience: 3 3 3 1 2 3 12 1 3 3 4\ 4/ 4\ /I '^ 2 2 2 3 4\ /I 4\ /I "^ 2 4 2 3 3 1 4 V3 4 3 1 1/ 4\ V4 /I '"' 2/ 4\ Vs 2 4 1 2 _ ' /I 2 3 13 1 _ "^ /I 3 2 3 4 3 2 2/ 4\ V4 2 2 3/ 4\ ^« V2 4/ 4\ V^ 2 4 ^^ - i. page 110). 1.1. 5 or 15. is contained if g-^Sg Two = subgroups S and T of a group T.3 implies that there are S3 = l + 3fe subgroups of order 3 and ss] \G\. so it is the only Sylow 3-subgroup of S3. page '" 62.48. Solution: The elements of A^ were given 1 in Section 3. xj.3c. G has at least one subgroup of order 3 and at least one of order 5. = T2 = T^ = i. There are no other Sylow 2-subgroups of S3 because a^ — a^. because an element ^1 cannot have order 3 and 5 simultaneously. Theorem 5. h^. 5. Now Theorem 5. If \G\ = 15 then. If the order of ab is 3. 6*} the subgroup of order 5. 131 As an for p we 1 find the Sylow j^-subgroups of the symmetric group S3 on {1. there is a g &G such that Theorem 5. 3.2 (Second Sylow Theorem): If if is in a a subgroup of a finite group Sylow p-subgroup of G.3}. Therefore the order of ab is 15 and G is the cyclic group of order 15 generated by ab. since H\ is unique. T3} are all subgroups of order 2 and therefore.Sec. Therefore G has one and only one subgroup of order 3. 1 or 2) and & = a*"' which is impossible.2. since so the sets {t.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS illustration 3. is one and only one group of order 15.1. Let Hi = {1. We look at the order of ab in G which must be either 1. a^} be the subgroup of order 3 and H2 = {1. a\ — a^ implies S3 has no other elements of order 2. {i. Recall g-^Sg = {g'^sg s | G e are called conjugate S}. then B. for HinH2= {1}. we will use them to show that. h^.. b. page 57.3 (Third Sylow Theorem): Any two Sylow Sp of distinct divides \G\. If the order of ab is 1. <j^ is the only subgroup of order three in S3. {hrj and {t.3a. 3 or 4) and a = 6*-i which is impossible. In this case ab = a* {i = 0. These subgroups must be cyclic (Problem 4. there Further applications of the Sylow theorems are given Section 5. up to isomorphism. G and H is a p-group. by definition. 2. But (l + 3fe)| 15 implies k = 0. then ab = l and a = 6-» which is impossible. in the problems below and in Problems 5. p-subgroups of a finite group G are conjugate. If the order of ab is 5. Sylow 2-subgroups of S3. of any Sylow 2-subgroup Iijow Tf = 6 = 2-3.3.

p' \P\ p'^m. such that q |G1. To show a is also one-to-one. then \g-^Hg\ — \H\. If ff is a subset of a gfroup G and g G G. a^ and wg are of order 2. Hence — Q. Hence P — {'. A similar argument shows a^ and wg € i?. The sets {i. . (75. so it contains a subgroup of order 3. To prove g~^Hg is a subgroup.1. Hence the elements of order 2 are ag. 5. Hence a is a matching and \g-iHg\ = \H\. Hence H contains a a. To prove the converse let every element of G have order a power of p and assume the order of G is not a power of p. every element has order a power of p. But PcH = \H\. j.Because OiTi = T4 and T1O2. a is clearly an onto mapping. k e {2.8. as they include all the elements of 22 is the highest <rj^ 1 t. t^} are all subgroups of order 3. viz.4. order of a Sylow 3-subgroup is 3. must divide 12. . the order of A4. T4 = T3. These are all the possible Sylow 3-subgroups. The order of a Sylow 2-subgroup is 4. and these elements are in P. = Tg. then g~^Hg is also a Solution: Suppose that subgroup. 8.3: S3 = 1 -I. 8} and a? = for i — 2. P is the only possible Sylow 2-subgroup as there are only four elements having order dividing 4. and if A. Solution: We define a matching a:H-*g~^Hg by a:h-*g--^hg for hGH. Similarly g~^hig = g~^fi2g implies hi — h2. T5. {i. by Theorem 5.. q '^ p. i. H must also contain an element of order 2. ag.Tj}.H. This contradicts the assumption that all elements have order a power of p. From Lemma 3.h2&H) if and only if fi'-'ftifl' jr-ifejjsr. Now aja^ = where i.3. Hence \G\ = p*" for some r — 0. H .2. order 3. Sg does not divide 12. ti. Then there is some prime q. g~^Hg is therefore a |G| is 5. of order . 5. 5 6. page 55. If |G| = p'' then. So q and hence the order of g is not a power of p. then \H\ . and so P . a\=^ a\ — a\ = so a^. as every element of G must have order dividing the order of the group.. a Sylow p-subgroup of G if it is a subgroup. ti. Thus 0-2 £ /f. t t and \P\ = p*-. But by the first Sylow theorem. . Tg. This means that H does not contain subgroups of order 2. observe (g~^hig)(g-ih2g)~'^ — g~^hih-^g G g-^Hg.2.3. Consequently by Lagrange's theorem none of the t's can be elements of a Sylow 2-subgroup because they are all of order 3 (see Problem 5. Hence fc = 1 and there are exactly four Sylow 3-subgroups. rf = t2 S H. t — r. Therefore our initial assumption is invalid and A4 does not contain a subgroup of order 6. we must prove hi — h2 (hi.p^m (r ^ and p/w). H ] H . {1. t2. Solution: The elements of A^ are given in Problem 5. Prove that if H is a H = P. 5. . rg and Tg = T7.3A. Clearly fc 7^ (we already have four subgroups). Therefore tj G H for some i. where g~^Hg = {g~^hg \ h G H}. 5. if H contains (rg it also contains T4. Tj} and {1. Tg. "5 and "s.1) and 3 does not divide 4. say tj S fl^.1.1.1. which contradicts the assumption that \H\ — 6. If H is a Sylow p-subgroup of G. > 1.p^ But \g-^Hg\ = \H\ by Problem 5. .6. the order of £r is a nonzero power of q. say H contains 02. Let \G\ — p^m (r — 1 p-group such that P Solution: and qH cG. and the elements of order 3 are tj. By = r and Lagrange's theorem. By Lagrange's theorem. Sylow p-subgroup of G. This would mean H has at least 8 distinct elements. Find all Sylow p-subgroups of A^ for p = 2 and 3.5. p/ m) then and let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. t|}. since power of two dividing 12. by Theorem 5. Alternately we may use Theorem 5. "21 "5' "»} is a subgroup of A4 of order 4. contradicting Theorem 5. then 1. G has a subgroup of order a nonzero power of contains an element g ¥= 1. Hence g~'^Hg .= 132 FINITE GROUPS Suppose that A4 has a subgroup Also Tj is of order 3 for j = 1. Since p/w-. [CHAP. T7. 5. Now H is of order 6. Prove that a Solution: finite group G is a p-group if and only if every element of G has order a power of p. The o-g. 5.Then by multiplying on the left by g~^ and on the right by g we get g~^hig = g~^h2g. Let h^ = Aj. | Suppose \H\ = p'.1.

Thus there is only one subgroup of order q.9. {l.k.Sec. and so G is cyclic. page 112.G. since there is only one subgroup of order p. then G has one and only one subgroup of order p and either exactly p subgroups of order 2 or it has exactly one subgroup of order 2. .7 that H < G. If hk is of order p. p an odd prime. Since q > p.2fc = p and the number of Sylow 2-subgroups is either 1 or p. and k HnK = as as {1} H = = h-Hk-ihk)eH {h--^k-^h)k GK ¥= 1. hk = fe' for some i. There can only be four possibilities for 1 + kq as the expression of pq as a product of primes is unique: X + kq = q or 1 + kq — p or l + kq = pq or 1 -I.4 and Throughout in the proof of the Sylow theorems 5..kq. G has Solution: From Problem 5. It follows H are of order from Problem 5. so hk is of order pq. Again we have the possibilities 1 + fcp = 1. the Sylow p-subgroup of G is of order p. Two lemmas used Lemmas 5. will be essential. so 1 + fep = 1 or 1 + kp = q. 2. But {hk)" = hPkP as h and k commute..8. argument of the . By Theorem 5. . But then = {!}. |iSg| = 6 = 3' 2. Section 5.7. k¥^ 1). Because p is itself the highest power of p dividing \G\. then q^ \ + kp for any integer A. Again 1 4. Furthermore Solution: if where p and q primes and p < q. 5. If Also he. {1. g~^Hg is a p-subgroup. then g^^Ag . p or 2p.1c). 5. — A. We point out once more that if A is a non-empty subset of a group G and G G. then 1 -I. — i — p — 1.fep~i}.p. Therefore = {l. the symmetric group on cyclic group. As g does not divide 1 -f.fc9-i}^ K = last paragraph. C. q.8 we know G has one and only one Sylow p-subgroup. the order of hk is Similarly (/ifc)« = fe" ?^ 1. 1 + kq ¥= p and hence fe = 0.2fe. say H.3 G has s. If H< G. Thus there is precisely one subgroup of G of order p. The set {h\ h~^Ah the normalizer of A in and is written Nh{A). Show that if q = 1 + kp in Problem 5. Also 1 + kq divides pq. By Lagrange's {hk)p = h^ theorem. h G H} H . If [G\ = pq. As 2 does not divide 1 -I. \ Definition: Let A is called be a non-empty subset of a group G. But G has only one Sylow 5. Clearly p does not divide 1 + fcp. q or pq. Solution: Consider S3. i. and so G is cyclic.2fc = 1.. H Now hk is HnK 5. Solution: If g e.5. which contradicts gp(hk) is of order pq. B.6 will provide the tools for proving the Sylow theorems (see will etc. b.2fe = 1 or 1 -I. then Hence h~^k~^hk — 1 and h and k commute. Similarly gp(hk) is not of order q. then 133 5..k^. gp{hk) = K. 2. Thus hG K.h^. 1 + kp = q.0. p. so again there is only one subgroup K of order p. we note that an element of order l. G is not necessarily cyclic. 3}. The number of Sylow 2-subgroups of G is Sj = 1 + fe2 for some integer k. 1 + kp = p. K q and those of K are of order p. As usual we denote subsets of G by A. with fe . Instead of the . 3 = 1 + 1'2 and S3 is not a 5. h-^k-^hk <\ G.e.3d.10. then G G is has one and only one subgroup of order the cyclic group of order pq..8. = 1 + fcg Sylow g-subgroups of order q. If \G\ — 2p. & K (h H< G K< G as the nonunit elements of ¥= 1. flr A generalization of the concept of normalizer as defined in Section 4.q or pq. this section G be a fixed group and H a subgroup of G.{g^^ag a G A}. nor of order 1. or 1 + kp — pq as Sp divides |G|.h. Thus g~^Hg = H Sylow p-subgroup by Problem for all g G G and H < G. There are Sp = 1 + fep subgroups of order p. The last is not true by assumption.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS G has only one Sylow p-subgroup H. we are left with the possibilities that 1 + kq = p or 1 + kq = 1.fcg = 1.

so the proof is complete. C). AGqA. B is said to be an H-conjugate of A B for some hG H.a}. We will make a few observations about ~. . page 9). h~^AhGcA. Let a be defined by H a: N„{A)h^h-^Ah and only {h G H) that for hi. C= the set whose elements are 'B = {A. NH{A)hi (i) = NH{A)h2 hr^Ahi = hz^Ahi hi^Ahi = h2^Ah2. [H A7^h(A)]. We write cA — {A. Suppose that for each A G cA and each h GH. then hi G NH{A)h2. Hence \cA\= |^~1. subsets of G set would be is We let G be the cyclic group of order A— {\. etc. of the right cosets of NuiA) in onto the distinct fl'-conjugates of A. we need only define a one-to-one mapping.e. : H Proof: Since [H Nh{A)] is the number of distinct right cosets of Nh{A) in H. number of distinct subsets of G Lemma 5. To show that « is a one-to-one mapping.a^}. we must prove if if hz £ H.B G cA. An example of a set whose elements are and B. i. H Recall that equivalence class containing it is an equivalence is the A). When H ^ G. A Subsets of G are.. ^ Lemma 5. A ~ B ifi?is such that an fl'-con jugate of A (i. Since two right cosets are equal or disjoint. Recall that the distinct equivalence classes are disjoint and that their union is qA (Theorem 1. Then Ic^l = 2 \H:Nh(R)] .2c. a. page 10). For example.e. B. {a}.16 h~^Ah for the proof). Let '7^ be a set of representatives of the equivalence classes. then A and B are concalculating the jugate as defined in Section 5. 5 It is is is a subgroup of 4. H (Problem 5.2. Let If (ii) A^h(A)Ai = NH{A)h2. R G%. "B. It follows that cA is the disjoint union of the sets R~.B}. the number of the index of A^h(A) in H. denote such sets by script letters cA. Proposition 5. . Another such 6.e. Then A = hihz^Ahzhi^ = (kihr^y^Aih^hr^). n~^An = A a is by Hence NH{A)hi — NH{A)h2 implies hr^Ahi — h2^Ah2. Then ~ is an equivalence relation on cA (see Problem 5.1a. we conclude NH{A)hi = N„{A)h2. hi — nhz for some n G Nh{A). hi^Ahi because = {nh2)"'^Anh2 definition of = hz^n^^Anhi = h2^Ah2 Nh{A).e. A~ = XgA X~ A— By a set of representatives of the equivalence classes we mean a set % which contains one and only one element from each of the distinct equivalence classes.5: Let of be a set of subsets of G. . which follow because if relation on cA.6: Let cA {¥' 0) be a set of subsets of G. We define for A. clearly onto. (Note that if H = G. B— {a^. for example.a^}. Most of our arguments are concerned with sets whose elements are subsets of G.We are now in Re^ii. Let ~ denote the equivalence relation defined by A ~ S if S is an ^-conjugate of A.a.134 FINITE GROUPS easy to prove that Nh{A) [CHAP. a position to prove our main lemma.a^.4: If G is a finite group vi^ith subgroup is distinct H-conjugates of : A and non-empty subset A. Hence hzhr^ G NniA) and so /12 G NH{A)ht. if there exists an element h G — B). G= {l.) The next lemma gives us a formula for which are i?-conjugates of A. i. Thus hT^Ahi = h^^Ahi implies NH(A)hi = A^h(A)/i2. {X| and A (see Section 1. i. Ng{A) the normalizer of A as defined in Chapter Definition: Let if A and h-^Ah = B be non-empty subsets of G.11).

4. namely {2} itself. 5.2) (5. Let 'R. and the result follows from Lemma 5. i2 Note that as = {r}. Hence adding first the contribution made by all with i2nZ(G)?^0 in (5. Problems 5. Then \G\ = \Z{G)\ + 2 xg [G:Nc{R)] (We remind the reader that Z{G) — Proof: Clearly \cA\ {x\ = gx for all g G G}) — \G\.3d. Note that Ng{{z}) = G if zG Z{G). But R~ is R~ = {X\ X^h-'^Rh for some h the set of H-conjugates of R. Let ^ be the equivalence relation in cA when = G. be as in Lemma 5. Furthermore n"-i S H. Let P (?^ 0) be a subset of G. Solution: A^hI-A) is clearly a subset of G. and let '5^ be a set of representatives of the equivalence classes.8 takes the \G\ form = \Z{G)\ + 2 [G:C{R)] (5. Nh(A) implies ¥- 0. then Nu{A) is a subgroup of G. Let %* — {R\ RnZ{G) = ^. page 112.(A). hence mw S A^h(A). If A Is a non-empty subset and H a subgroup of a group G. the centralizer of R in G. nAn-^ = A. Then \^\ Let c^ = {flr-iPflr \ g gG}. by Lemma So 5.2) is called the class equation of G. i? and ~ = 2 [H:Nh{R)] = rG:iVG(P)] Proof: Clearly \cA\ is the number of G-conjugates of P.4. 5. then {z} G cA and the number of G-conjugates of {z} is one. rf^An = A . Accordingly A^h(-A) is a subgroup of G.Sec. Let nSNuiA). The Hence \c4\ & H) since number of such H-conjugates h^^Rh G cA for every hGH.n G Njj(A). Corollary = Keg.. or (M-i)-iAm~i = A. [H:N„{R)]. since leH and I'^Al =A implies lGNi. NaiR) = = = {g\ {g\ GG g GG g and g-'rg G R} and g~^rg = r} C{R) (For the definition of C{R). Corollary 5.1) If z G Z{G).) Hence Corollary 5.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS 135 Proof: We know from the remarks above that Reg. hence n~i G Afjj(A).8: Let cA = {A\ A is a subset of G and A has precisely one element). since H is a subgroup.n) = n~i(w-iAm)m = n~^A7i — A. (mn)~^A('m. see Section 4.6. Consequently {2} G for each z G Z{G). H RG%}.7: 2 [^:A^H(i2)]. as claimed. we obtain % Rg% \Z{G)\ and the result follows.. If m.1). hence \G\ = S Re% [G:NciR)] (5. is.11.

{A) and the equality follows.64.8 when G = S3. Fi~ = Fa. We use Proposition 5.F3.14. Using the equivalence relation ~ of the corollary.^6 = {ts}. Show that Solution : N[j(A) = NQ{A)nH for any non-empty subset A and subgroup H group G. Lemma 5.Fg} {Pi. the index of Nq{P) in G is 4. where H is a subgroup of G. 5 5. 5.Let ~ be as in Corollary 5. We must also show that [G A^g(^)] = 4.. Finally. G = H Sg and (using the notation of Section 3. Then Lemma 5. choose % = {Pg.4 by direct computation when = {. page 57) A = {tJ.66}.(A)] = 2.4. — i < 8}. : B is an H-conjugate of A. we choose one element from each of these equivalence classes. ^ 3. Prove Proposition Solution: 5. t~^{ti}t2 = {rg}. H 5. then n'^An = A and n £ H. "Jf* = {F2.F6} where P^ = U}. ~.= {h-^P^h {/i-iPa/i I \ h^H} = /le//} {Fi.{P^. Thus the number of H-conjugates A is 2.- 136 FINITE GROUPS Check Lemma 5.17.Fa). a6*.NciPd] = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 of a IS3I 5. tj}. a. Suppose = [H Nh(B)]. page 134. CT2} and A''g(F4) = {i.i)ff = g-^Bg = C.Now NuiP^) = {1. c^ (of Corollary 5. H= F2 = 68 = 1 and = the dihedral group of degree 8 (G see page 75. a^). r^}. b = = {6». F5.64} ^ NaiPi). CTi. PjOZiG) ~ except for j = 1. so A = 1~1A1 and thus A ~ A. Let that A. \A ~| is therefore the number of /^-conjugates of A. P3 = W. [H iVjj(A)] = [H Nh{B)]. It follows that hg G A ~ C. and so g-^Bg = C. Check Corollary (i2 5.3a.NaiP^)] + [G-. Use the notation of page 57.16. Consequently Fj ~ = {Fj}. Hence.8) = {Fi. To define "i^. Pi = (ti). By Lemma 5. 64. As /f is a subgroup of G. hGH H B~C. Hence ~ is an equivalence relation on cA. Solution: = qA of Corollary 5.4 requires that 2 = [H N„{A)].B [H:Nh{A)] Let be subsets of G. Solution: The H-conjugates of A are i-UtJi = {t^}. If A ~ B. F4 = {a66}. given P — {a} where and {1.= {Pai-Ps}. of : : 5. then n&H and m~iAm = A. F4 ~ = {P4. as B is an /f-conjugate of A. Let nGNuiA). \ G G} = {Pj. Let us take % . as required. Thus NG(A)nH qNi.P^. if A ~ B and and (M"'A(%) = sr-i(fe-iA. thus \a4\ — 4. = {'2}.15. e. contains the identity.P2.5. 5. Consequently N[j{A) cNQ(A)nH. [CHAP. and also the number of H-conjugates of B. But iV^CA) .g. with a = t.F4. F4}.7 is given by c^ = {g-^Pff g {a62}. Check Corollary Solution •P5 : 5.{x\ xGH and x-^Ax A} = {i}. -P4} where Fj = {a}. Hence [H Nt.6 claims that |o^| = 4 = [H Nh(Ps)] + [H NjiiP^}]. Hence [H N„{P3)] = [H N„iP2)] = 2 and the required equation of Corollary 5. the required number. Prove Solution: A ~=B or X = g~^Bg for some 9 e G}. : : cA = {X\X ~ g~^Ag . as required. As Z{G) ~ {(}.7 holds.12. As : : : : : NciP) = = = {x I a. Fg = {06*}.F5. then there is an element such that h~^Ah — B.F2.13. Fj. P^. But H qG. Fg}. {x\ X G G and x^iPx = F} E G and x~^ax — a} a64} {1. \Z{G)\ + [G-.7 when G = a"^i6a Dg.8. P^ = M. If nG Na(A)nH.Pi) = For '^ choose one representative from each of the equivalence classes. so that nGG and by definition nGNciA). Consequently (h~^)-'^B(h~^) ~ A and then there exist h. Therefore Now iVg(F2) = {i. ft-i.5.62.gGH such that h-^Ah = B and B ~ A.

If p/m. Consider G/N. the statement of each theorem. Thus if G is cyclic the theorem holds. Z(G) is an abelian group. We are now in a position to prove the Sylow theorems. By Proposition 5. G/H has an element g of order p. Then there is a subgroup of G of order p''. Now if p\m. is Proposition G is then G a finite abelian group and p has an element of order p. Proof: We will prove the proposition by induction on the order of G. Therefore by the induction assumption. . \G/H\ < \G\. for if \C{R)\ = \G\. a prime dividing the order of G. If |G| = 1.8. Z{G) has an element of Let iV be a cyclic subgroup of Z{G) generated by an element of order p. prove the theorem by induction on the order n of G. then g'^v = §"" = !. The First Sylow Theorem: be a finite group. has an element of order p.21. we have p/ ^ [G:C{R)].1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS 137 c. Therefore g"" has order p or If flr™ = 1. Consequently so does G. N < G. h of order m. page 110.9: a If weak form of the first Sylow theorem. so g" G H. As H is of order m. The proof is complete. confir™ = 1.9.Sec. is gG. page 110. by the induction assumption. If n is a prime. We have two possibilities: (i) p\c or (ii) p/c. since any subgroup of Z(G) is normal in G. hence n is not a prime. Therefore g"" is an element of G of order p. But \G\ = [G:CiR)]\C{R)\ by Corollary 4. {¥=1) is m H erated by H H I be the natural homomorphism of a group onto its factor group (see page 114) and g he a preimage of g under v. there nothing to prove. Now \C(R)\^\G\. Hence p'-\\C{R)\. As Corollary 4. Suppose h h. Thus by the induction assumption. 5.2b. Now (fl"')v = g" = the identity of G/H.2) of Corollary 5. Assume the proposition is true for all groups of order less than n. Then |G/iV| = n/p by Corollary 4. p/[G:C{R)]. and we may therefore assume G is not cyclic. the order of G. Clearly <n. there exists a subgroup of G such that H/N = H. page 135) - \Z{G)\ + 2 [G:C{R)] Therefore for at least one i? Since p jG| [ and p/c. Since g has order p this implies p divides m. Proofs of the Sylow theorems First we prove 5. that if G is cyclic there is a subgroup of order any integer that divides |G|. G/N has a subgroup H of order p''~^. = \H\ = \H\/\N\ = \H\/p. Since \H\ > 1. order p. \Z{G)\ = I c. then C{R) = G and RnZ(G) = R. Let be the cyclic group gena proper subgroup of G.14 to Lagrange's theorem. Let G Proof: We will theorem Suppose (i) is trivial. we conclude that \H\ = p\ Thus in this case. e "iil*.14. G has a subgroup of order p"". G is cyclic. For \G\ = 1 the Assume n> 1 and that the theorem is true for groups of order < n. Recall from Section 4. page 105.17. where n > 1. p |G|/|H|. As \G/H\ |G|/|fl^|. C{R) has a subgroup H of order p"". In either case we have found a subgroup H of order p". Hence by our induction assumption. The class equation for \G\ G is (see Equation (5. contrary to the assumption that Rr\Z{G)-0. since r||G|. page 121. form the factor group G/H (every subgroup of an abelian group is a normal subgroup so i? <1 G). p a prime and p'' the highest power of p dividing the order of G. For convenience we repeat Let V : G -> G/H Theorem 4. Suppose p c. p"--' By H (ii) Suppose p}' c. trary to our assumption. (gf™)" = (g")"" = 1.

where Sylow theorem. so that Nh{P)P is by the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem 4.5.H by for R G%.23.138 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. page 132. P'. is contained in P (ii) to P be any Sylow p^subgroup of G.10. Hence [G Ng(P)] is divisible HnR-H RG%. page 132). by Problem 5. and let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. NH{R)=^HnR for each RG%. page 132). 5 subgroup H of G. i. Hence P' . then H is con- H tained in a G-con jugate of P. for P cannot be a proper subgroup of any other p-subgroup of G (see Problem 5.3). G Proof: (i) is The number Sp of congruent to 1 modulo p. page 125) a subgroup of G and we Nh{P)P/P ^ NH(P)/NHiP)nP Consequently [A^h(P)P: P] = [Nh(P) A^H(P)nP].4. Thus [A^h(P) A^H(P)nP] is a power of p. We show N„{P)cPnH. a group of order a power of p. page have: 113). |iVH(P)P| is a power of p. Nh{P) is therefore a subgroup of P. all fl^ HnR ¥. Nh{P)CNg{P) and P <i Ng{P) (see Problem 5. This contradiction implies that for at least one But as R GcA. [A^h(P)P P] is therefore also a power of p and. The Third Sylow Theorem: (i) Any two Sylow (ii) p-subgroups of a (iii) finite jugate. as conjugation by an element of P sends P to itself.15 and Problem 4. By the second Sylow theorem. It will be used in the proof of the second 5. = Hence [H: [G A^g(P)] If R^% '^ HnR] (5. : as is divisible p. If H is a p-group. R is a.3) a p-group. Since any other Sylow p-subgroup is conjugate P and any conjugate of a Sylow ^-subgroup is a Sylow p-subgroup (Problem 5. we conclude NH{P)QHnP. G-conjugate of P. Nh{P)P is a p-group. as P is a 2?-group. Hence P = Nh{P)P. But P C Nh{P)P and P is a Sylow p-subgroup. But |P'| = |P|.7. The result follows. and i? then is a subgroup of G Nh{P) = HnP Proof: PHHcNuiP). so that p does not divide [G:A^g(P)]. As Nh{P) C H. P of order a power of a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Accordingly.60. as a some G-conjugate R of P.4 that Let Sp = [G : A^g(P)] But on putting P= H in Equation Sp {5. the right-hand side of equation (5. to c^ = [g~^Pg \ g G G} to conclude = S : [H:Nh{R)] = [G:Na{P)] By Lemma 5. But Nh(P) is a p-group. Proof: We apply Corollary \^\ 5. since it is a subgroup of the p-group H.3) is by p. we conclude by Lemma 5. : : : The Second Sylow Theorem: Let he a subgroup of a finite group G.R and P' is conjugate to P under G. and P' be two Sylow p-subgroups of G.e. distinct Sp | group G are G-conSylow 25-subgroups of |G|. Let 23-group. But P c A^g(P). page 135. we have [P: = ^ Pr\R] . p. The following gives a simple formula for the normalizer of a Sylow 2)-subgroup P in a \H\ is a power of p.3.10: Lemma If G is a finite group.

The Theory of Groups. By Corolfore by the induction assumption. In all PnRj^P.4. 1959.12: If G is a group of order p\ r—1.r-l) and \Hi\ = = 0. \G/N\ of order p''"^.2 a. R = P. \G\.. 1.) One reason why the study of p-groups (groups of order a power of p) is so important is that the structure of the Sylow p-subgroups of G partly determines the structure of G.2) = \ZiG)\ + 2 [G : C{R)] It follows immediately from the definition of C(R) and Z{G) that C{R) =G if and only if RcZ{G). there exists a subgroup = H. Z{G) ¥. Hence p\ RnZiG) = ^^'K* Since p \G\. for the only P-conjugate of P is P P is the only possible representative of its equivalence class.2^. then G has a normal subgroup A^ such that G/N and A^ are both cyclic. the center of G.21. page 121. Macmillan. Because the sum on the right side of (5. we can conclude that p \Z{G)\. Because p \Z(G)\. page 146. 5. 1. Therefore [P:PnR] is a power of p for all R G % except this one [P:PnR] = l. There<} G.3. In Section 5. Jr. then G has a normal subgroup of order p^~'^. THEORY OF p-GROUPS The importance of p-groups in finite groups Suppose that G is a finite group.2. = gp{g). The statement is clearly true for r = 1. H/N p"""^ and the proof is complete.Sec. page 135) (5.) In this section we shall determine some of the elementary properties of p-groups.2) is taken over all R such that [G: C{R)]. Hence Sp and so other cases. . (p will be a prime throughout this section. . Proposition 5. One instance is the following theorem: If G is a finite group whose Sylow p-subgroups are all cyclic. 5. The center of a p-group finite ?)-groups is A very important property of 5.11. Let = p"-^. since any subgroup of Z{G) is normal in G. p\[G: C{R)] for all R G %*.14 to Lagrange's theorem. Proof: The proof is by induction on r. Thus G <i G. SupBy Theorem 5. Consider G/N. Since Sp = [G NciP)]. Then \H\ = p'^'K Furthermore. r).. {1} and G is a finite p-group. has a normal subgroup of order N \ N H H N H Clearly we could repeat this argument until {1} we obtain a sequence of subgroups of G = Ho C . which means Z{G) ¥> {1}. . .. G/N has a normal subgroup and such that of G which contains lary 4. . and for = 1 + kp \G\ (iii) By : Corollary 4.2] THEORY OP p-GROUPS itself 139 Now for exactly one R&%.11: given by is Theorem If G v^ 1. . and because |G| = p'.i) where Hi <i Hi+i (i = 0. Sp I = [G: Ng(P)] |iVG(P)|. ^ \ \ Corollary 5.1a we saw that G has a Sylow p-subgroup for any prime p. (M. i?l C • • • C Hr-l C Hr = G p' (i {5.2). then Z{G).{!).9 implies Z(G) has an element g of order p. pose the corollary is true for all k <r where r > 1. Hall. not of order Proof: We make use of the class equation (equation \G\ (5. Theorem 9. b. one. again by Corollary 4.

140 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. so G/Z is cyclic. G. 1. 1.ceA} of elements of • A. (i.p^ group of integers modulo p^.1.11. c) and hence every element of G has an inverse. c + c' + c"..21. + 6". 5. 5 Problems 5. c')) (a".. Z ¥= {!}. 5. where p is a prime. is a group.0) = = (1.p group. A is an abelian G = be the set of all triples (a. 0) c) • {—a. Let — 1}. it follows that is G abelian. Solution: It is clear that \G\ a non-abelian group of order p^. 6. and let .j). —ft.0.1. Solution: Clearly G is of order p^. c) and so (0. 0)(0. 0. ft. c") b + ft' b' + b".b.ft'a") (a + a' + a". 1. (a. i&A.b'a" {a. c) • + 6')£t" = c + c' + c" Now (a. h'. 0.18. li Z = G. c) (a'. b. (a Define (a. Hence G abelian. 0.18. Prove that under the binary operation . p — 1}. 0). 0.a'. ft.6a') Prove that with respect to this binary operation. c)(a'. To prove that G h" c") . G is 6 + 6'.. c + c' . — c — ba) = G is = {—a. then \G/Z\ = p. .1.i') = + i'. Thus G a semigroup. c")) + a". b". ft. c)((a'. . Let A = {0. Let G be the set of all B be the additive pairs (i. Prove G is abelian if G/S is cyclic.' + o") • (a.0.0)(1. g = W-z. c) a. . . i G h such that every element of G/S is a power of = a>z' z' for a suitable choice of the integers and j. + 6' + 6". 5. c'){a".he. non-abelian. c)(a' c + ha')(a". i4 = {0.1. 6'. 6. c + c' + c" . (a. c' + c" . Our last task is to prove that Now (0. j G B. By Theorem 5.0)(0. Let A be the additive group of integers modulo . 6. (a. Let abelian. —c — ba)(a. Finally. Then we can find aS Then if g. .. 0) = (6 - b'a" - ft(a. 0) ^ (0. (1. 6". p.19.c) Then under addition modulo I p. —ft. {(a. B = {0.ba' . — (i l}. 0. c') = + a'.-1) and thus (1.i)'(i'. (0. 0) (0.0) (1. with z and in S. ft'. Prove that a group of order p^ Solution: is abelian (p a prime). ft.. G Z ¥^ G. 6. 0)(1.(6 + b')a") On the other hand. b.0. By Problem 5. Suppose G/S is cyclic. = = = = (a 4. We check that G is a semigroup. = • jfi.0). is G Suppose be of order p2 and let Z be the center of G. aS.1. Then a'z'aiz gh = akaiz' = aWzz' = a'a'z'z is = = hg Thus every pair of elements of G commute. 6.c) = (0. b'.0) is the unit element of G.i + r + n'p) G is a non-abelian group of order p^.20. 6 {a + + a' + a". Suppose Solution : G is a group with S a subgroup of the center Z{G).1. ft b{a' + a")) We check that c + c' + is c" - ba' which is true. we check c'- first the associative law: {(a.

This result could have been observed by noting that a group G satisfying g^ = 1 for all ff in G is abelian.2] THEORY OF p-GROUPS ((i.22. pb.(ge)" = ig'')e = Iff = 1. 2.c)2(a. b. The inverse of (1.6a) = (0. r + i" + i'i"P) + i' + i". To see this let g.1) = (0.hG G. we find (a. — 1) is an integer p - (a. 0. c)p = Therefore ^p{p 1. 26. } + y + n'p)(i". 6. this equality is readily verified.0). 0)^ = (0.23. 141 JW.21 satisfy gf = 1 (i. g" = 1 (i. (i To prove that the binary operation ji'p in we need check only that + a + j' + ji'p)i"p = j'i"p + }(i' + i")p -j + Thus G Since p^ — in B.6.e. 0)) if Let (a. 6. G is abelian. 5. Then Therefore h" . we have (1. 2c (3a. we can find g £G such that ge = . all & H. 6.c) (2a. -6a) In particular if a = 1. J") = (i + i + i".e. 6. 1)2 = (0. 1)" = (0. pc — ba — 2ba — .c)3 (a. 1)(0. pc = 0.l)6a = • • • — (p — l)6a) ~ -^^ But pa = 0. c)2 = (2a.24. Finally. p) f^ (0. 6. Prove that the group G in Problem p is odd. 6a since l + 26a + • • • + (p ^^^ 6a + 2+---+p — 1 = by p.0) = (1. (i. p6 — 0. 5.Sec. If p is odd.1 + p) and therefore G is non-abelian. Inductively.1)(1. if h G H. 2c . Prove that if G is a group such that has the same property. 3c . h" = 1 for Solution: ffP = h 1 for all g G G. }')ii". jip). G.j) is {-i. i.20 has the property that for all g e. j")) = = JW + i". (0. c) S G. (t. 36. j){ii'. ^"'*"''' (1. 6 = 1 and c = 0. not every element of order 5. Then (a. j + j' + j" + j'i"p + j(i' + i")p) G is associative.26o) By induction it follows that (a. p — 1 is even. 6. 26. 0. —1). 2c - 6a) Continuing. J')){i". then every homomorphic image H h.0)) for all g &G'>. c)" = (pa. 1. i + i' + j" + ji'p + U + j' + ji'p)i"p) (t (i. 0. c) 6a . Then as {gh)^ = 1. c)(a. c) = = = (2a.e. since (0.6a)(a. But as not abelian. 1) = (0. 0). is a group. If p is odd. Is this true if p = 2? Solution: 5. — l)ba — 0. c)2 = = (a. gh and so = G is (gh)-'^ = h-ig-i = h^h-ig^g-i is = hg 2. 6. (0. b. }") = + i'. 2). does the group G of Problem 5.1). (0. Thus not every element of G is of order 2. 26. 5. The identity element of G is (0. divisible If Hence ^p{p then ^p(p — 1). Thus we have (a.0)(0. Solution: No. 6. Let 9 be a homomorphism of G onto H.

once Zi has been defined and proved to be a normal subgroup of G. = 0.18. Notice that if Zi ¥. for p an odd prime. . then Z2 ¥. Let if Z Now \Z\ c. 1. By induction we can show that if Zi¥=G. Therefore G/Z would be cyclic and hence. Theorem Proof: If 5. Prove that a non-abelian group Solution G of order p3 has a center of order p (p a prime). Zi ¥' {1} by Theorem 5. = p2. Therefore G is not isomorphic toH.Zi/Zi. Z ¥= {1}. and Zi to be the center of G.23. Since every uniquely of the form H/Zi where is & subgroup of G containing Zi. p is an odd prime. Let G be the group defined in Problem 5. where a = t and b = agO . again by Theorem 5. It G ¥.G.{1} by Theorem not the identity. .11. then the groups in Problems 5. Notice that as the center of a group is a normal subgroup. Zo = (1). Zi C • • • C Zi is C Zi+i Since G is finite. there is nothing to prove. . then Zi ¥.11. We shall define a series {1} = Zo C Zi C • • • of subgroups Zo. be the center of G. Z2 = G.21 are not isomorphic. begin by defining Next we define Za.21. page 75. 5. D^ has . Thus \Z\ = p. 5 5. We H we define We number Our shall call a group G nilpotent if its upper central series ascends to G in a finite of steps. Also.26.27.20 and let H be the group defined in Problem 5. (0. Z t^ G since G is non-abelian. Therefore Z2/Z1 = G/Zi.28. G would be abelian. But if G = H.n contains two elements a and 6 such that a^ = uniquely expressible in the form 0*6' where 1^ t 6" = 1.19). Then by Problem 5.11. then Z2 = G. 5. then G/Z^ is of order p or p2. page 121).Zu Similarly if G ¥' Z2.21. 1)" ^ 1.20 and 5. we find G/Z^ is of order jj2 and hence abelian (Problem 5. . Problems 5.22. a contradiction. called the upper central series of G. objective in this section 5. = b~^ = 0. Z3 ¥= Zi.18).{1}. if g G G. Zk =G for some Therefore G nilpotent. Zj+i =5^ Zi and thus U Gis G/Zi 1 = Zo C k.: : 142 FINITE GROUPS Prove that Solution if [CHAP. it follows from Problem 5. i. the property that is it and every element of D„ . by Problem 5. In general.24 that hp = 1 for all hSH. But by Problem 5. Let I>„ be the dihedral group of order 2n. 1 a-^ba and j — l. subgroup of G/Zi is the center of G/Zi is of the form Z2/Z1 (we are using Corollary 4.. Zi+i/Zi to be the center of GIZi. (See Section 3.e. Z2 is a normal subgroup of G. of G. then \G/Z\ = p.11.21 it follows that Zi+i < G.21. By Corollary 4.13: is to prove is nilpotent. The upper Suppose central series is G a group.25. We look at G/Zi.4f. Zi. Prove that D„ Solution: is nilpotent if m is a power of 2. By Theorem 5. Z2IZ1 is a normal subgroup of GIZu Therefore by Corollary 4. the center of G/Zi = Za/Zi ¥. Prove that Solution: if a non-abelian group G is of order p3. gf = 1. Since G/Z^ is cyclic only if Zi = G (Problem 5. A finite p-group G {1}. So if Zi ^ G.

and K¥' {1} are finite groups. ki) • {h2ha. If element of G. {kik2)ka) {hi{h2ha).(l. fe) • • {ha. then clearly = b-' and (6^2 = 1^ om — is the only possible element in the center other than implies 6'' o"»— ab }.29.3 a. ki) • {h2. 2. 6 Z„_i Similarly Z2 consists of the powers of 6^ consists of the powers of b^. {ha. If 1 stands simulta- {hl){h. ka) with binary operation {ha. Let {hi. then {h-^.iA.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER Suppose n 143 Method 1. ki) {hi. as a direct check shows. ki). Zi = {1} in A4. =G and G is nilpotent. fe-i) is inverse. a^b'. define the internal direct product after Proposition HxK 5. let {hi. Now this . Then a 6^ is of order o"*~l 2. 2. 5. fci). Consequently Z^ . a-^(aibi)a not a^a-^b'a a^b-i. (/12.(fl'. kzka) [{h2. = 2"". k). |jD„| = some power of Hence we can apply Theorem 5. {h2.l)) . k'^) {hh'^.Sec. . ki).5) {hi.k) so that its (1.(l. then it is clear that \HXK\ = ¥. powers of 6^ and so G/Z^-^ . a group. What other elements can be in the center? a'b' the other hand. which is so. and thus Z„ ¥= A4 for every n. then Z^ If = b' i3„. 2.5) is A1A2 and A. DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER Direct products of groups all In Chapter 1 we defined the cartesian product K of two sets ordered pairs {h. We often refer to HxK We If H and K are finite groups. ks) G x K. a-^a'b')a = 62" i. k) an identity of HxK. because \H\\K\ H simple way of order 2 generated by g. Therefore is abelian. clearly 6^ So 6^ 6 Z^.fi'). Thus Z^ Method 5. 5. kk'^) = (1. Hence e Z^. 1). ka) = = = {hih2. For example.k){l.fl').l). with binary operaThe group groups H and K. fti = 12™"' But as o 6 On jjj^g this >» /^i. k){h''^. Then H {h2. fcife) {{hih2)hs. and so 6^™ commutes with Therefore 6 otherwise a commutes with every m= = 1. {ha.kik2) where {5. {1. tion (5. ki) ' H and K The set • respectively.13.5) is clearly a binary operation. i2"'~* . To HxK fcz)] • HxK is a group. 1) is = {h. plication of elements of as follows.e. for {h. h G and k G K. a S 2i. then HxK is neither isomorphic to H nor \HxK\¥= \H\ and \HxK\y^ \K\. Therefore the direct product gives us a constructing new finite groups. If and K are groups. = It is clear that if gHxK. .k) = {h. Hence oTn— _m— a-162 = (a-i6a)2 = (6-i)^ 6.l) {h. consists of the means \G/Z^-i\ = 4. The multiplica- tion defined in {5.{1} If to K. k2) = {hih2. Hence ^1 = ^2= • • . g ^i. let C2 be the cyclic group of C2XC2 = {(fl'. Hx K. Prove that A4 Solution: is not nilpotent.5) is called the external direct product of the as just the direct product. k) G Multiplication H K H xK.2 are the products in the groups see that [{hi. .oW— h^ commutes with a.19. ki{k2ka)) {hi. = . = . ka)] is therefore an associative binary operation on neously for the identity element of and of and {h. ki) Hx H and K as the set of HxK H H gHxK we can define a multi- and define {5.

l)(/i2"'. then .1) (9. so GcHK.1) (1.) of G can be written Clearly -fffi" C G. and the elements of H x K are of the unique form (h. Similarly H K a subgroup of G.14. g — hk for some hGH and kGK.1)}- as {h. the identity If ihul). hiGH and Suppose g = hiki and ^2 G K.l) = 6a Now Hnk^^ Any element (/i. 1) = {hih^'. The multiplication table for dxd (1. IC2 X C2I namely: = 4.l)\ {{l. 1)(1. k).1) (9.'i-)^H. Since G — HK. 144 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP.2fcr*=l. If we also have g = {hi.9) (9. Hence hi = h2 and fci = k2. then clearly hi = h and /ci = &. 9) iff. Furthermore.k).1) (9. and so A^'/ii = 1 and A.i) {9. 0*= {1.1) (9.k)\ hGH. g = hk where hGH and kGK.) G K. H = H. for we have shown that there is one and only one way of writing g in the form g = hk. We define the mapping a: G^ HxK by ga = (h.l)~\^ (/ii. To prove a is a homomorphism we must demonstrate that if gi = hiki and g2 — h2k2 are any two elements in G. and H HnK~ {1}. d to d x d. = h2k2 where hi.l)(l. Hence G = HK and Theorem 5. 1 the identity of 1 the identity of H} K} and if are subgroups of G.l) (1. the H HK G = HxK. a is a one-to£f We first show that any element gGG can be written uniquely in the form fci.6^&3| ^here 6^ = 1^ ^nd the group C2 X C2.l)(h2. one mapping. The mapping H onto H defined by h^{h. Hence C4 is not isomorphic C2 X C2 is called the Klein four group. 5 Now 4.l){l.A. or simply the four group.l) G H a& = (A.1) (1. Thus the expression is unique. let a~{h.l)}.1) (9.16: Let G be a group with subgroups and K such that — G.&.l) gH. kGK. Then every gGG can be written uniquely as a product hk where Proof: If hGH.K be as in Theorem {(1. hGH are isomorphic. Corollary 5.l). k). so we have (as we shall soon see) two non-isomorphic groups of order the cyclic group of order 4. Proof: since hih^'^ is = = {{h. element in g = {h. subgroup of G.9) (g.15: Let G = HxK and H.ff) ihg) Note that all the elements of x C2 are of order 2. /v is clearly and S = an isomorphism.9) (9.9) (fir.fc) (h. then Similarly K = and K Now >\.14: If G= HxK is the direct product of the groups H and K. Finally. kGK.^) {9 A) a.1) (h9) (1. k) is an expression for g as the product of an by an element in K. then (hi.. As a converse we have H Theorem Proof: 5.1) is a. 5. fci).K = k.A.14 follows.)(/i.9) (1.k) = (l.k) where g = hk G G. H is clearly non-empty. G= Hk ^n^ = {(l. A.{h2. a of a: Therefore i? is a subgroup of G. 9) a. then g = {h. then the H k ab = ba. and aGH G and bGK. 1)(1. sets Theorem 5. hiki — ^2^2 implies hs^hi^kikiK But ifnZ={l}. 9) (1. (1. Then elements of commute with those of K.

Ikn be the distinct cosets of I in K. that Now ft.Sec. and K. belong to H. because an element in Hi Accordingly. by Corollary 4. • • Thus Ikn K = and. /fe. .^2. But if G is a finite group and \HK\ = \G\. We claim now that HK = ft. . so kjkr^ G I -HnK. /Zci U 7fc2 U U n= |JK:|/|/| = \K\/\HnK\.k.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 145 Now Hence {hjc^hji^)cc = (\h^k^K)a = {Kh^. because hih = h2ki if and only if hi — h^. Consequently h'-^h-kjki^. Therefore \HK\ since = \H\ \K\ n\H\ \HnK\ n = \K\/\HnK\. then hk = (hl)kj = h'ki where for some Then hki = suppose for some integers i and j. For if h G H. h~^k-^hk G and K are normal in G.18.K G with HnK= H {1}. k G K.k^k^) = {h^.\{h^. since IcK. H2 must have order dividing 7 and ' be a group of order 28 and Hi and i?2 HinH2= {1}. that HK = G. But kjkT^Gl implies e /ft. we can conclude.17: Let G be a group with normal subgroups H and K. = Ikj h' G H. and G= 77.)a{h^k^)a a is a homomorphism and the if result follows.*. then ]K] _ Proof: m Let I .18: If HK. h% Thus HkinHkj = for i=7^y and |Hii:| = |Hft. and so and K commute elementwise. Since two cosets are either equal or disjoint. IGI. Let Iki.16 asserts G must equal HK. . Note that commute are normal subgroups of a group elementwise.16 can be stated as follows: Corollary 5. and HK^G. Hki U Hk2 U • • • U Hkn • For if hk G HK. .h'GH. = HnK.14. Ikj = Iku Hence ki = kj. illustrate the use of Proposition 5. We therefore prove the following proposition. and suppose HnK = {1}. G is a finite group with subgroups H . n / is a subgroup of G • and. 5. subgroups of also in G of orders 7 and 4 respectively. Then G^HxK. let To and G 4. h. page 110. since HK c G. H. It is useful to be able to count the number of elements in Proposition 5.i| + \Hk2\ + • • + \Hkn\ Now \Hki\ — \H\. and and K commute elementwise implies HnK Clearly H H Consequently Theorem 5.. Thus HK = HkiUHkiU j Hence UHkn. I an integer between 1 and n. The hypothesis of Theorem 5.k^) = i\k. then H and K h-^k-^hk Therefore = {h-^k-^h)k gK H = h-\k-^hk) G G- HK = {1}. HkinHki¥=0 for some as both h. 7 is a subgroup of K.

.n. (gi.k)-^ and only if ha = h'a .. Proposition 5.1) clearly the identity of G. But condition = 1 and If G is a group with subgroups and satisfying conditions the internal direct product of and K. and fi : K and K are groups.. g = hk.-. h G H. Hence HnK={l} and. By G is said to be Proposition 5.30 for {gi.18. is is clearly an associative binary operation in G. \H\ \K\ = \G\.. then (9i^. If HsH If and K = K.e. if Solution: a: H -> H K^K is are isomorphisms... Gi. Let G = Gi x G2 x x Gn be the cartesian product of n groups.. h&H. gn). gi. . HpK = If (1) and Since c G. G„. k£ K.146 FINITE GROUPS Using Proposition [CHAP. G. (9v gi.g2. . ---.19 below and Corollary 5. y a one-to-one mapping. . = 1^1 HK = by Proposition 5.gn){gi. H®K^HXK. since multiplication is associa.17. g'n) = G is (gig'i. g2 g„). by Corollary 5. 5 5. H. 9nffn) for (flTi. . then (1.1. then h = hi and k = ki). Therefore = l-'^^l = iUTTW^ or HnKllGl = \H\\K\ But \H\\K\^\G\ by hypothesis.. is . \HK\ = \H\ \K\l\Hr\K\ = \G\. (i) k G K. ..92.. Then = implies h=l and fc g 1.31. hi G H. kp). Problems 5.9~^. Define a multiplication in G by 92. for (ha. hk = kh for all and If h&H k&K H and (ii) every element g G G is a unique product of an element in and an element in K. We need only prove HnK= H {1} to fulfill the hypotheses of Suppose (ii) gGHnK. In Chapter 6 we will define the direct product of an infinite number of groups difProposition 5. . Define a multiplication in G by {91.. If 9 - (g^gz. g^gi) 5^..19: Let H (i) and K be subgroups of a group G. k'p) by y: {h. . i— 1. G2...9n) ^ G. we define HxK-^HxK {ha. G is then a group (see Problem below) called the (external) direct product of the groups Gi. . 92.-.16': Let G be a group with normal subgroups If either {i)HnK={l] = \G\ {u)HK^G. . G2..19. (i. of g in G. . = h-l = l'k Therefore g for some hGH HnK = and {1}. Let G = Gi X G2 X • • • X G„ be the cartesian product of n groups. (gi. kp) = (h'a. But then the hypotheses of Corollary 5.. g^gi. ki G K. and ii g = hiki. G^HxK.16 in the case of finite groups by Theorem Proof: (i) 5. - -.. .. ..gk) = finite . Theorem 5. ff„){gi. k G K. g^. «=i ferently.Gn (n^2).18. then H and K where G^HxK. 9n) ^ G- Show that a group..gn)&G. we can conclude are fulfilled and HK |^| \K\ implies. and we write G = K and (ii). then Proof: G^HxK.. Solution: The multiplication tive in each Gj. If 1 stands simultaneously for the identity of Gj. . • i9igi. The concept of direct product can easily be generalized to the direct product of a number of groups.16. g-igi ---. G^HxK. where H.30.g^^) the inverse 5. we can finite replace Theorem or 5.---.17 (ii) HK = G. We denote G by .15 will provide a link between the two definitions. H H®K. then \HK\ \G\. . then HXK y: = H X K. .2.

k') = (hh'. ha = h'a and To show y is a homomorphism. To see that these are the only possible groups of order p2. h)). h)^ = (1. Since subgroups of a given order are mapped onto subgroups of the same order by any isomorphism. X C^. namely gp{{l. Show that G= HxK and is an abelian group if and only if H and K S are both abelian groups. Accordingly. 5. C4 = gp(b). (6^. for any Since 0^2 is a cyclic group it has. these groups cannot be isomorphic. k) and so G is abelian. Hence k is divisible by nm. then (g'^.kk')y = ({hh')a.35. Since every isomorphism maps elements of order 2 onto elements of order 2. 1) and (1. Therefore no two of the groups are isomorphic. let {h. (g. But this implies hh' = h'h. C4 X C2 and Cg are also abelian. h) is nm. Thus we have exhibited three non-isomorphic abelian groups of order 8. since all cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic (Theorem 4. (6. 1)).k'k) = {h' . consider a .9. Cg where C„ is the cyclic group of order n and X4 the four Consider the groups C^ X K^.35). where Cp is the cyclic group of order p.k') G. if there are more elements of order 2 in one group than in another. Problem 5.k). Show that for any prime p there are exactly two non-isomorphic groups of order p^. | 5. 1) Conversely. Cg on the other hand has only one element of order 2.{h'. If (g. s. (h. k') {h. Consider the order of the element (g. page 140.19. Solution: is not isomorphic to C^XCg (where C„ is the cyclic group of order n). Show that Cs2 integer s > 1.e. by Theorem 4. 1) = Similarly we is abelian.33. 5. where g is the generator of Cj. h") = (1.k')]y = = {hh'. 5. the cyclic group of order rvm. m respectively and (n. Then [{h.32 implies C2 X K^. suppose G is abelian.k) • Letting (h. 5. are one-to-one mappings. a) and (1.kpk'^) (ka. — i — 7. one and only one subgroup of order But Cj X Cj has two subgroups of order s. If On and C^ are the cyclic groups of order n and C„ X Cm = C„m. A. We look at the set of elements of order 2 in each group.k/3)-(k'a. Solution: By Problem 5. k). - (h' . fe)2 = (1. namely g*. 1) for some k. the non-cyclic group of order 4.= 1. fe"™) = 1 and so the order is nm. Since the order of gr is n and the order of fe is w. and at least two elements of order 2. fc)2 = (c^. Cs2 cannot be isomorphic to Cj X Cg. fc Since a and = h' and = k'. We claim that the order of (g. Every element (?^ 1) of C2 X K4 is of order 2. fc^) = (1. fc)"*" = (fl^""*. g)) and gp({g. (h'.{kk')li) = {hah'a. i. Let h. for (c.k)-{h'. m) = 1.kk') = {h'h. On the other hand. and Cp X Cp. or (hh'. are two non-isomorphic groups of order p2 (Problem 5. As C2.k'l3) = (h. V)(h'. a).3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 147 and h fc/3 = k'p. 1) for any k G K^. because (ff*)^ ¥= 1 it i^ i. h' e H. Then if 1 is the identity of K. page 105.36.1). page 103). Now C4 X C2 has at least one element of order 4. h) in C„ X C^. and Cg = gp{g). (h'. 1). the cyclic group of order p^. group. 1) and so g^ = and V<.^) = (1. C„ X Cm = gp{{g. it is clear that y is an onto mapping.Sec. 1. {h.32. \)(h.34. Are any two of these groups isomorphic? Is any one non-abelian? Solution : d Let C2 = gp(a). K^ and Cg are abelian. then Solution: Say C„ = gp{g) and C„ = gp(h). 5. Hence H can show K is abelian. C4. k') & /3 fe/3 = fe'/3 if and only if H X K.7. Therefore C„X 0^^ = C„^. Solution: Suppose H K are abelian groups. m\ k and n k. Cp2. we know that any group of order p2 jg abelian.k)y(h\k')y Finally. 1) = (h'h. described above.

48. . using 5. G is abelian (Problem G = gp{a) X H. a group of order p2.hs) = ^3)* = ^3. Therefore * is one-to-one. by *: {(K. let ({h^. We will use Cn to denote the cyclic group of order n. xz . the only groups of order 2. ^2. (^1. page 103). x = (1.{g. Ki (Section . ^2). To show (^i X . Show (Hi X H2) XHs = Solution: H^XHzX H3. y and z.7. ^2. /13) and ((Aj. Notice that the multiplication table is symmetric in X. Let a^H. Such a subgroup exists by Corollary 5. gp(a) < G and gpia) XH^C^XC^ H< G. namely Ct and 5. 3. /isy* (''1^1. Therefore. is.3a we will find.firp(b) and gp(a) = flrp(b). clearly only one group of order 1. M* and so * is an isomorphism. [((Aj. and K4 to denote the four group. fc3)((Si. h^ and consequently = Sj. * is a homomorphism.h^) If ((Aj. H is p is a prime. ^2. Then (Cii^i.3a. 1). for h (¥-1) & gp(a)'nH .X H^XH^ * is and_fe3_eH3. h^). ^3) (Cii.X H^)xH^^ H. Thv^ there is one and only one group of order p. we p2 and. feg).37. then {hi. e iTj) X H^. by Problem Hence Cp. /l3)(Xi. Recall that K4 is defined to be C2 x C2.The multiplication table for K4 is 1 1 X X 1 y y z 1 z z X y X 1 y z z y X We note that xy ~ z. We refer to the notation of Section 5. /i2).^3^3) ((^1. Let us put 1 = (1.y and yz — x.36).12.148 FINITE GROUPS subgroup is [CHAP.h2.9). then z ab and we can write the multiplication table in the form 1 1 a a 1 b b ab ab b a 6 b ab 1 ab b a 1 ab ab a isomorphism. all groups of order less than 16. Aj e if^ = ((Ai.h^). h). up to isomorphism. X3) hs)M(hi. The order of a is either p or pK If the order of a is p2 q group generated by a. y ^3^3)* = M2). ^3) Clearly an onto mapping. But 5. 7. there is one and only one cyclic group of order p (see Theorem 4. ^2). g). as conclude G = CpX 5.19). y* b. p a prime. There up to There are precisely two non-isomorphic groups of order U. ^3)*. fej = h^ and ^ (h„h^. = (/ll. page 110). In particular. If p is a prime. Theorem 5. = = = M(^i. h^).16'.^2X2. Groups of small order: orders p and 2p As an application of the Sylow theorems and the theorems of Section 5. then gp(a)nH = {!). 5 H of order p = cyclic. If \gp(a)\ = p. since a cyclic if implies Also \gp(a)\\H\ in G.31.3a and Problem 5. any group of order p is cyclic (Problem 4. 5.h^) for /ii G H. 11 and 13 are cyclic. y . ^2). 1) and « = {9. since a group of prime order has no proper subgroups. /13 Define M> : (H. Up to isomorphism. If we put x = a and y = b.

where = Clearly.p — l). Thus by Problem 5.8) The mapping a:G-*G defined by a: a: a'-* d\ is b^b. = KubK. h. Hence a is well defined on the ba*. and either • • (i) exactly one subgroup H of order 2 H or (ii) precisely p subgroups of order 2. Therefore by Theorem 5. subgroup K of order p.2. {g^g^oc = [(bw)(ba')]a = {b'ba^-'a')a = (6'+'a''-'+')a = = h'd*hd* = {bW)a{ba% = g^ag^a (ii) h'^^d^-*-^' b^hd^-^a* Therefore any two groups of order 2p of type are isomorphic. <i G and — must have order dividing 2 and p and hence is the identity. fl'2 S G implies gi = b'a* and Using equations Qi — b^a'^ for some choice of j..Sec. a one-to-one and onto. As a: a'-^ a*. 6a^ .16'. so these groups are of order 2p for some prime Let G be a group of order 2p. . {g^g^a - [(bw)(a')]a = (6'a*+*)a = ^'«'^' = ^'«*^' = {b'a})a{a'-)a = = gyag^a and when s = 1. p and an element h of order 2 such that G . . a" = 1.p — l. . Hence all groups of order 2p having property (i) are isomorphic. . when s = 0. a.. a is also a homomorphism. ba'. .1} and i. ^ K implies a.. page 103. b consists of the distinct elements b. If ba' — a* — a'. Clearly \H\ \K\ and x K.7. a: ba^^ if hd* {i any integer) p divides i — j and hence d' = d'. ..p — 1). If G is of type then by our analysis it must be a cyclic group of order 2p.sG (0. First. . then a' a'. ."-^. . 5.. .8).. ba.1.10. By Theorem 4. has a subgroup K = gp{d) of order G = where for i (1. G has exactly one 29 T^ 2. Since K is Hence G the only subgroup of order p. . .3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 149 Next we show there are precisely two groups in each case of order 6. fta"-! {5. K H K H K H H (ii) Let 6^ K = gp{a) 1. for Consequently a is well defined on a'. Note that 6 = 2-3. for gi.0. cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic. by Problem 5. By Problem 5. (5. G 1.. {bd})^ = 1 and Id' = d'^-'b {5. . = a^ and so p divides i — j and . .34. a"-!. 133. page is a unique Sylow unique Sylow 2-group and Furthermore Hr\K= {1}. . then it is either of type (i) or (ii).1.6) Now if since i = S 0. Then. a is a mapping.1. ba* -*hd' {i = 0. . (i). (i) is a In this case the group G is a cyclic group of order 2p.a^ then . G is cyclic of order 2p. To see this notice that p-subgroup. .7) and {5. bd"-^} = 0.7. d' = is {5. 10 = 2 5 and 14 = 2 7. ..p — l.7) K and each element of G outside ba' K = Also (&aO^ = (ba}){ba}) = 1 implies (6a*)-» = (a')-'b-' = a^-^b Now if G is any group of order 2p. for any element common to <i G. we obtain. (ba^Y ba' = 1 and ba' = is a^-'b of order 2. Suppose G is of type (ii). But and K are cyclic groups of 2p = \G\. . arguing as above. t G {0. 10 or 14. p an odd prime. so.. G = order 2 and p respectively..hd. an isomorphism.1.

62. Let Then AB is a group Let gp{a). 5 So far we have shown that up to isomorphism there are at most two possible groups of order 2p. (As those equations determine the group up to isomorphism. Hence {aby = a^b^ = assume that there exists an element x of order 2 {x = b if & is of order 2 or else x^ab).a — ba. contrary to our assumption that = gp{a).9) Since G. As a^ is the only = 1. The isomorphism in case (ii) was shown by using the fact that the elements of such a group had to satisfy equations (5. B — gp(b). the cosets H. There are at least three non-isomorphic abelian groups of order 8: Cs. up to isomorphism.b G G and consequently GG ba be an element of order 4. Thus (ii) and (iv) = a2. we may element of of order 2. p a prfihe. = a%ab^ = a{abab)b = ab G is non-abelian. Therefore by Theorem 5. G has an element of order 4 and no elements of order 8.150 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. b^ is an element element a of order 4. So. b^ G H. all its non-identity elements are of order 2. let of order 2 and lies in (since the coset decomposition of G is HUbH). i = 6. G has no elements of order 4 or 8. c. we proved that each of the possible groups exists by exhibiting a group of each type. clearly are the only possibilities. b^ = a^. 10. then {aby = 1 for any a. page 114. or a^. and from Section 3.16'.16'. We have four possibilities for 6^: (i) b^ = a. It is worthwhile summarizing our method of finding all groups of order 2p. as it is of index 2 and put (Problem 4. If G has no element of order 8 but has an = gp(a).) After demonstrating the isomorphism. (ii)62 G= gp{b). G = C». they are usually called defining relations for the groups. (ii) b^ = a^. up to isomorphism. contrary to our Thus b~^ab = a" or ab = fta" {5. Since ^ Ci and = d. so is 6" %&. XnH={l}. Assume G is a non-abelian group of order 8. we know that for each n the order of the dihedral group D„ is 2n and I>„ is not cyclic for rt > 2 (it is not even abelian). we conclude G = C2 x C4.69. But from Theorem 4. If b is of order 4. If b^^ab some integer assumption. page 116). b be distinct elements of order 2 in G. by AB ^AxB and consequently AB = C2XC2. Let b G G-H. We first showed that if a group had order 2p it had to be isomorphic to one of two possible groups. and this would contradict [G: H]= 2. We show that if G is abelian it is isomorphic to one of these three groups.7) and (5. Also < G. But every element of G can be written as a*6 or a' for i. X H If a. C2 x and X K^ (see Problem 5. page 103. Let X =^ gp(x). Groups of small order: orders 8 and 9 Let G be a group of order 8. page 75. for each prime p. In particular there are exactly two non-isomorphic groups of order i.Hb^ would be distinct. Since ab ^ H. G is cyclic. exactly two groups of order 2p for each prime p^2: one a cyclic group and the other Dp. Let a GG H H (iii) &^ = a^. exactly three abelian groups of order 8.(C2XC2)xC2 = K4XC2. As a is of order 4. Thus b'^ab . Now AnB= {1} and |A| |B| = \AB\. Let cGG — AB and C = gp{c). Problem 4. There are therefore. This does not mean that there exist two non-isomorphic groups of order 2p. for if g is of order 8. we know that for each positive integer n there exists a cyclic group of order n. A= We conclude that there are. by Theorem 5.4f. contrary to our assumption. b'^abGH. Thus Gs. If (i) or (iii) occurs. since G — HiJHb.8). On the other hand if all elements of G are of order 2. H H H EG-H aV G^XxH. Hence ab = ba implies G is abelian. then ab . 14. d d If G has an element of order 8. or (iv) 6^ = 1. H< = a.33). they will be discussed in detail in Chapter 8. then CnAB =:{!}.7.Hb. Then G = HUHb for some b G G. for if not.

9). (i2 = 52^ db = bd^ from which we a a : is find a multiplication table for G which is identical to Table 5. Let K = gv{b). Hence b'^ab = a^. a?b. (iv)b2 = i. since a is of order 4. a^b. 6. which leads to and G = HK. b^ enough information to construct its multiplication table. ~1 Equation {5. i = 0. table defines a group. a. enable us to construct the following multiplication table. db. notice that the product of any two elements is again an element. the elements of G can be expressed as 1. Table 5. i.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 151 Since G = HuHb. 1 is an identity element. 3. Now (ii). If a group of this type actually exists. 0?.40. db^} with the elements satisfying the equations a* =1. b. the table defines a binary operation.1 also shows that a group of order 8 of this type actually does exist. This involves much calculation (the reader should check some of the calculations himself). a. is clearly an isomorphism. a^. a^b are the distinct elements of G.10). we have b~^ab G is abelian. G = {1. 5. then as in our argument above.1. a". . a^b. a?.1 1 tt3 a2 Table To calculate the products in the table. and every element has an inverse. a. ab = ba^ and b^ = a^ imply ba — a^b since a^b = a'^{ba^) = b^a^ = b{aV) = b If G is € gpid) another non-abelian group of order 8 with an element a of order 4 and an element such that h^ = d^. This group is called the Quaternion group and has the interesting property that all its subgroups are normal and yet it itself is not abelian (Problem 5. then equation (5. a^. for the To see this. H<G = so that H = a or As in b~^ab a implies ba = a^b {5. The only difficulty is checking that the binary operation is associative.Sec. ab. a". 1 = a^ and a^b a* = 1 provide us with a a2 a3 b ab ab a^b a^b 1 a o2 a2 aS b a^b a^b a a2 a3 1 ab a^b a^b b a3 1 a a2 a^b b ab a^b a3 1 a a^b b ab b aSfi a^b ab a^b a2 a a2 1 aS ab a^b ab a^b 6 a^b «» a a2 1 ab b a^b 1 a3 a a?b a^b a^b ab b a 5. we used the fact that ba. 2. ab.e. then HC^K={1) b~^ab G and. We now move on to a discussion of (iv).10) The elements b^ = 1 and a* 1. a^b.43). b. The mapping a: G-* G defined by a: a-> a and a*6 -> d%. a^. We shall give another description of this group in Problem 5.1 except that substituted for a and b for 6.

a^b and a?b. Therefore we have four possibilities: • (i) S2 S2 S2 = = = = 1 1 and and ss Sa = = = = 1 (ii) 4 1 (iii) 3 and Ss 3 and Ss (iv) S2 4 Notice that because the Sylow 2-subgroup has order 4 it must be isomorphic to Ct or Ki. Because 12 = 3 2^.1 has exactly one element a^ of order 2. three abelian and two Since 9 = 3^.2 has five elements of order 2: a^ b. Such a group exists. This group is isomorphic to the dihedral group Di.36 that there are two Ca. ab. whereas the group of Table 5.e. we know that a group G of order 12 has at least one Sylow 2-subgroup of order 2^ and at least one Sylow 3-subgroup of order 3. S2 = 1 + 2A. The two groups given in Tables 5. we must find all possible groups of order 12 and 15. and only two non-isomorphic groups of order namely Cg and Ca x d.152 FINITE GROUPS a a c2 [CHAP. 5. any non-abelian group of order 8 having property (iv) is isomorphic to G.1 and 5.) and Sz divides |G|. > 1 it is clear that 1 + 2A. there are five non-isomorphic groups of order 8. and when A. and the Sylow 3-subgroup must be isomorphic to Ca (Section 5. the group of symmetries of a square (see Problem 5.2 are not isomorphic because the group of Table 5. Groups of small order: orders 12 and 15 To complete our list of all groups up to order 15. The third Sylow theorem tells us that the number of Sylow 2-subgroups is congruent to one modulo 2 (i. does not divide 12. To summarize. = 1. for Table 5. for some integer A. = 0.2 also defines a group. S2 = 1. S2 = 3. treat each case separately. Thus we have shown that there are exactly two non-isomorphic non-abelian groups of order 8. We therefore have two possibilities: G has exactly one Sylow 2-subgroup or G has exactly three Sylow 2-subgroups. When A. We . we know by Problem 9. A similar argument shows that G has exactly one Sylow 3-subgroup or G has exactly four Sylow 3-subgroups.3b).2 As in part (ii). 5 1 a2 a3 b ab ab a^b (l26 aSft 1 a2 a3 b a% a^b a36 a a2 a3 1 ab 6 a3 1 a a2 a% flSfc a^b b ab a^b a3 1 a a26 b ab a2 6 a^b a& a26 1 aS a o2 ab a26 a26 b a36 a a2 1 a3 ab a^b 6 a36 a a2 1 a3 a36 a^b ab b a3 a 1 Table 5. If A.38). non-abelian.

are similar). Then c-''bc = ab and c-\ab)c = {c~^ac)(c-^bc) = bab = 6% = a. of G are Now 1. = Sa = = bV morphic (6) to Ci. gz G G implies gi = fiti and g2 = /2*2 for some /i. cab.a. ti G T.c^bc-^. (The other case. Moreover. Similarly c'^bc ^ b and c~%c ¥= 1. which implies a = cbc-K Now c'^bc y^ a. S3 = 4 and Sylow 2-subgroup isob^ 1. c^ab Using equations in (5. Therefore the elements 1. a^ = b^ = 1.x. Now as F and T are both abelian groups. plies F = {\.a^] where a* = 1.3 below. Hence gp{ba) contains a and b and thus coincides with G. for c^bc = a implies c'^bc = cbc^ or b. c^b. Then.y.) Let us.z} be the four group as given in Section 5. then G is abelian since gi. cb. ab. then every element of F commutes with every element of T. We have two possibilities for F: (a) F = Thus G = CiXC3 = Ci2 (by Problem 5. a. page 133).Sec.a^ and b-^ab ^ 1 so that b'^ab = a^ or ab = ba^. Then F < G and since a Sylow ?5-subgroup is a normal subgroup if it is unique (Problem 5. If 6-ia6 = a.c^} where = 1. contrary to assumption. is argued similarly.h'^) F <1 G. Thus &-'a6 G F. We may assume c-'^xc = y. We where (a) Let 1 imab 6a. abc = ca.3. put x = a. Consequently the equations assumption c-^fc for all f GF.18. Hence by Theorem 5.Qj^3 _ (6a)^6a = h^ba = a. Thus G = FT. Now by Suppose c'^xc ¥. as in Section 5. separately. page 131. There is therefore no non-abelian group of order 12 with S2 = 1. we can write down the multiplication table for G. 5. be = cab. for if subgroups are equal. c. c-^xc = z. c. = tf for all f GF and t GT.16'. ca. G is abelian any Ss two conjugate S2 = = 1. be the (unique) Sylow 2-subgroup and (a) (ii) Si-l and group.3b.x (the other cases c~^fc GF ac = cb. and T = {l. or (&) F = Ki.3b. c^a.34) or G = KtX Ca. and in part (a). These are the only abelian groups of order 12.h. \F\ \T\ = 12. |Fr| = |F| iTj/IFTiTI = |Fj |T| = |G|. We show that under these assumptions gpiba) = G. d abelian. Fr\T = (1} since any element in the intersection must have order dividing 3 and 4 and so must be the identity.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 153 (i) be the Sylow 2-subgroup and T the Sylow 3-subgroup of G. y = b and z = ab. c^ determine distinct cosets of c^. . Hence by Theorem 5. (baf = b{ab)a = = b2 gQ (j. Furthermore. In cases (ii) through (iv) we assume G is a non-abelian group. Therefore since a has order 4. Furthermore. But this implies contrary to our assumption. Let F= c^ {l. Then ac = cb. b. If ft = tf for all f G F and t GT. a contradiction. b . Let F T be a Sylow 3-subtreat each case There are two possibilities: F= d and (5) F = Ki. as c^ = c-» and c'^ = c. both these groups are Let F T< G. ab = ba {5. by Proposition 5.11). Then G is cyclic. Ss = 4. fi'iS'2 = /iii/2^2 = fitif-iU ~ g^gi Hence we that it is also assume if F is not the case that ft any Sylow 2-subgroup of G and T any Sylow 3-subgroup of G. c^ =1. F in G. b'^ab ¥. let F be any Sylow 2-subgroup of G and T any Sylow 3-subgroup of G. T= {l. Hence a = &.c. As F< G so that ¥= f for at least one f GF. fiGF and ti.c-^bc. page 145.11) hold in G.a^.7. Then FnT = {1} and. as shown Table 5. G^FxT.

12) assume a~^ca The distinct elements of 1. Sylow 3-subgroup. c. G a2. The associativity of the operation must also be checked. c^a = cac^ = ac^ = ac. c^a = ac. The equations which determine a multiplication table for this group are ca = ac'^. a^c. a^c^ and we obtain Table 5. a. that any group of order 12 with S2 = 3.154 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP.41 which is isomorphic to G. 5 1 1 1 c c c2 c2 a b b ab ab cab c^ab b ca ca c^a cb cab cab c^ab c^a c^a c26 c26 6 c^ab c^ab a ca c^a 1 cb C2b b c c C2 c c2 1 cb c^b a ca c^b c2 ab cab c2 C2 1 c a cab cb c ab ca c cb c^a a b a b cb c^ab c^a c26 ab 1 cab ca c^b ab 6 c a 1 ca c^ab c2 c% c^a 1 b ab ca cb ab ca cb a cab c cab c2 cb c^a C2 c^ab b I ab cb c^ab c^b c2 a ab 1 c^ab c^a b a b cab cb c2 ca c c2a cab c^a c^b cab c^a c^b ca e^ab c2 c^ab 1 c% a 1 ab cb c a c cab c^b ab b ca cab c ab ca cb c^ab c^b c^a c2 a ab cb c^ab c^ab a c^a 1 b cab ca Table 5. so that a group of this type exists. otherwise the group is abelian.3 By a similar argument to that used in the discussion of the non-abelian groups of order 8. c^.y. c2} (c^ = 1) F= {l. Table 5. ss = 1 and in which the Sylow 2-subgroups are cyclic of order 4. a^c^. and every element clearly has an inverse. Let F be a Sylow 2-subgroup and Again we have two possibilities: T— (a) {1.a. the identity is 1. by an argument similar to that used in the discussion of the nonabelian groups of order 8. being a unique Sylow 3-subgroup. any group of order 12 with S2 = 1 and S3 = 3 is isomorphic to G. but in Problem 5. We may # c. an even more tedious task than in the case of a group of order 8. ac^. have as yet not encountered an example of this We We type of group. The alternating group Ai is a group of this type (Problem 5.z} sK4. a* = 1 {5. Hence a~^ca = c^ and ca = ac^. is normal in G and so a~^ca G T. (iii) S2 = 3 and S3 = 1. (a) T. Again it can be checked that the table defines a group. conclude. Moreover.x. we show that there is a group of 2 by 2 matrices .3 defines a group: the table defines a binary operation. a^c.a^.a^} = be the Ct and {b)F={l. are then a^. is isomorphic to the group G defined in the table. c. ac.38). c^ = 1. Also.4 below.

S3 = 4. We claim that S= {l.x. a-» = a. G^SxH H b'^cb b-'cb = b or ab) such that h-^ch = c commute elementwise. Since distinct cyclic groups of order 3 intersect in the identity element. as in Section 5. S is 1. Hence b-'cb G S.z} and T={l. y = b and z .c\a. a contradiction. Since the intersection of a group of order 4 and a group of order 3 can only be the identity.3-2 a^c a?c^ aP-c^ rf. = b. Now [G:5^-2 implies S O G (by Problem 4. If on the other hand b~^cb = c^ let a~^ca = Then {ab)-^c{ab) = such that h = ab • b-\a-'ca)b in Hence there exists an element = 9'P(A). We leave to the reader We = c\ shall let now h h 'ch -c.ac^ and d'a = ac make this task easy). As b ^cb is an element of order 3.3/>2 a „2 a^c a^e^ ac^ a^c^ aflc ac a^c :2/. is isomorphic to Ds x type (Problem 5. (c^)-* = c. and ca = c^a implies c = a contradiction.ca. and on inspection we find every element in S has an inverse in S: c-i = c^.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER a^c a^c 155 a^c .2 a^c n?i*% %n% a^c ac a^c a^c"^ a? a^c ac a-^c ac a^c^ a2c2 a3c2 n/^rP ac^ a^c^ U'^C^ a^c a^c^ ac^ a^c Table {b) 5. c'a = a {i = 1 or 2) implies C . S3 = H ^ C2 We 1 S2 = 3. and b-^c'^b = = But S ^ D3 and isomorphic to K^. therefore conclude that any group G with S2 = ^ h^S F (i. c^a = ' ac.3b. Thus there . 5.16. and . S the^ask of checking that the product of any two elements in S is again in S {ca . Hence S is a subgroup of G.c.ab. so there cannot be another distinct Sylow 2-subgroup. The identity 1 is in S. 1 or 2) implies aGT. = 0. (iv) C2. without loss of generality. Then ca = ac\ Note that c^a = c{ca) = ciac^) = (ca)c^ = ac^c^ = ac By I. h^S.e.69. Since T <\ G. Sylow 2-subgroup IS of order 4. A IS But \G\ = 12.y. it follows that the number of distinct elements in the 4 3-Sylow subgroups and a single 2-Sylow subgroup is 12. it is either c or c^ as all other elements of are of order If 2.4 F={l.1. assumption. {ca) 1 = ca. for at least one f G F. choose an element hGF. the four Sylow 3-subgroups have together 9 distinct elements.Sec. that x-'cx = c\ Again. put x = a. f-^cf ^ c. non-abehan {ac = c^a is not equal to ca) and hence is isomorphic to Da since there is only one non-abelian group of order 6 (up to isomorphism). a contradiction. and so by Theorem 5.c^a) is a subgroup.c.38). we have f-'cfeT for all f e F. We may therefore assume. no group of type (iv). (c%)-i = c'^a. S and yonSf^"". page 116). \S\ = 6 for &a = & {i = i or 2.e.c^}. and Sylow 2-subgroup The dihedral group De is a group of this 3. Recall^ that <^^'c^c.Clearly SnH={l}. |^||ii|-|G|. 6 ic6 c.

(Such a group (iii) (a) with S2 = 3.14. Dg is the symmetry group of the hexagon and therefore has a subgroup of order 6. a group of order 8 isomorphic to the group given in Table 5.3c. 1).38. a^ and ag. The following table gives the number of non-isomorphic groups of order 1 through 15.41. (a. page 131. The reader Problems 5. (ii) The alternating group A4 is isomorphic to the group given in Table D^.2.1. (a. The abelian groups of order 12 are Ki X Cs C12. Since there are six such elements in Dg. namely a^. b)^ = Hence gp{{a. See Problem 5. page 63.2. As can be seen from the multiplication table for A4 given in Chapter 3. b).4f. Now the group of Table 5. (iii) The dihedral group De is isomorphic to X C2- Solution: (i) 1)4 is a non-abelian group of order 8 and as such is isomorphic to one of the groups given in check of Table 5.1 and 5.4 as this group has only one element of order 2. b)3 = (a.) with to S2 (b) = 3. b)4 = 6. Consider the element = (aP.4. and {a. 1). b (# 1) (a.1a).3. see Table 5. S3 = 1 is Ds X C2 which and the Sylow 2-subgroup ^^ K4.3. it cannot be isomorphic to the group of Table 5. Also. namely the rotation of 60° about the center. Hence A4 to the group given in Table 5. see Table 5. (Such a group is isomorphic to a group of 2 by 2 matrices given in Problem 5. 1 Order of group No. h) e Dg X Cg. ra is of order 2 as can be seen in the discussion of these groups in Chapter 3. (a. is not isomorphic to Dg X Cj. that A4 has no subgroup of order 6 and jDg is iso- A4 morphic to a Thus (iii) it must be isomorphic subgroup of D^ X C2 by Theorem 5. The only other possibility is that Dg X a= D3 X C^- 5. Thus including the abelian groups. We have shown in Problem 5. so that it could not be isomorphic to A4. there are five non-isomorphic groups of order 12. Show (i) that is The dihedral group D^ page 152.38.3 or 5. order 2. (a. we have seen that G 6 2 is cyclic (Section 5. Hence it is either isomorphic to the group of Table 5. Dg is of order 12. we have shown that there are up to isomorphism exactly three non-abelian groups of order 12. a reflection followed by a rotation is an element of order 2. of groups 2 1 3 1 4 2 5 1 7 1 8 5 9 10 2 11 1 12 5 13 1 14 2 15 1 1 2 Indeed there will agree that finding all groups of a given order is difficult.156 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP.3. A4 has exactly three elements of order 2. e Dg be of order 3 and (1. (Such a group isomorphic to De.4 or to D^ X C^ (see page 155).) = K^.2. They are the groups (ii) (6) with S2 = 1. Therefore D4 must be isomorphic to the group given A A in (ii) Table 5. Find a cyclic subgroup of order 6 in I>3 €2- Solution: Let a ((i2. 6)) is a cyclic subgroup of I>3 X C2 of order . Tables 5. is a non-abelian group of order 12. namely a^. page 75). b)5 G Cj. Sa — 4 and the Sylow 2-subgroup is isomorphic to A4. b). b)6 = (1.) is isomorphic and Clearly no two of these groups are isomorphic. 5.4 has only one element a^ of order 2. If G is of order 15. But D4 is the symmetry group of the square (Section 3. general method of determining how many non-isomorphic groups of a given is not even a order there can be. reflection t is of order 2 and if <7 is a rotation of 90°. and hence D^ cannot be isomorphic to the group of Table 5.39.1 shows that there is only one element of Section 5. So it is not the case that Dg ^ A4. S3 = 1 and the Sylow 2-subgroup = C4. and is not abelian. 5 To summarize.3. 1).

A^B^.40.A^B. for example. (identity matrix) - CI -:) B^A AB = = A^. as A. Solution: We ^' = ^' = A^ = find by direct calculation that {~l J^) (_i ~o) [^ B^ -i\ ^ i: (: 1 e2 "^ "] J ^\ :] ij te2 A2B A3B = — J) A^B^ = = c: ' -!) —ie B^ t) ie\ ie2 A^B^ ( V-ie2 (J AB = ie Z) AB^ ^ Let H = {A.A^B} = GQgp{A.(A-iBA)A2B = A^B^A^B = AHA-iBA)(A-iBA)AB . where i = ^/^ and e is a nonreal com- plex cube root of 3 (so. associative law.B) is a group of order 8 which is isomorphic to the quaternion group (Table 5. A^B = i /O -1\ (^ „j A3B = (^ _. To show G — gp{A. G = Clearly.AB. /i B^A VB and A^B = BA {/.B). as A. Because G has only one element of order 2. it cannot be isomorphic to the group of Table 5.B) is a group of order 12 which is isomorphic to the group given in Table 5.Bi.g. in particular.2.41. non-abelian.B^B^AB = BAB = AA-^BAB = AB^B = A is Also the inverse of.1 or Table 5..5b.AB. so G is either isomorphic to the group of Table 5. 5.B. By direct calculation we can show that G is closed under matrix multiplication. We claim H = gp{A.1 and e ^ 1).3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER i\ j 157 5.c — Sec. V""l • A. Hence the elements of G satisfy the associative law.g. Consider the matrices A — fQ I . A and B have nonzero determinants and thus are elements in the group of all 2X2 matrices with nonzero determinants (see Section 3.A^. first note that A-^A = BK Then.A^A^B.B).A^B. Clearly Hcgp{A. e.A^B. Solution: By direct calculation we find Let gp(A. We claim that G = {I. and B have nonzero determinants and thus are elements in the group of all 2X2 matrices with nonzero determinants.B). To check that Hence the elements of H satisfy the H is closed under matrix multiplication.A*. page 81).4. Furthermore every element of using B^A = AB we have (A3B)-i = B-iA-3 = B^A = AB all these details enables us to conclude that G is a group of order 8 and G = ffp{A.B. and B = / I IN \ where i = .A2fi.B). e^ .1. since BA.B}. Thus Checking is G AB # G is isomorphic to the quaternion group of Table 5.A^. Note that H is a subset of the 2X2 matrices with nonzero determinant. (A2B)(A3B) = A2(BA)A2B = A^AWA^B = AA^BAB = A^B^ = A G has an inverse in G. Show that gp(A. 5.AB^. Show that gp(A.B e H. for example.A3. To prove H = gp{A.AiB^. Consider the matrices A = (^ \ and B = (^ ^^j.A3B}. Note G is a subset of the group of 2 X 2 matrices with nonzero determinant. e.AB. (A^B) given by (A3B)-i = B^A = AA-iB^A = A(A-iBA)(A-iBA) = AB^B^ = AB & H .A2.2.1. (A2B)(A3B) = A2A. the equation BA = A^B simplifies the calculations.A. page 155. - CI -0 A3 = /O \-i /-i (^ -i A* = ( = J /.B) we need only show i? is a group.B). we need only show G is a group.B & G. page 151).

r-l. The only odd divisor of 48 is 3. Show page that 151. G is called a solvable group and (5. subnormal series {S. and X e G.li) the factors of {5..) is a subnormal series for G and Gi+i/Gi is simple.1i) is called a subnormal series of (for) G. G grp(s).r-l (see equation (54). then. then (5. If P is a group of order p" P has a series of subgroups Pi with {1} = Po where each Pi Let < Pi+i and [Pi+i: Pi] C Pi C = p for • • • C each = P integer i = Pr (5. check that the cyclic groups are normal in G. N Because a group is in its normalizer. Suppose 82 is a proper subgroup of H. page 138). H satisfies the equations BA = (I AB^.r.1.1S). 3.. then we showed that begin with an example. \HK\ = \H\ \K\/\HnK\ ^ 16 X 16/4 = 64.13) is a composition series for P. as a subgroup of index 2. these details enables us to conclude that is a group of order 12 and and c -* B is an isomorphism of the group of Table 5.e.) all subgroups of the quaternion group G are normal subgroups. (Very difficult.. 5. composition series for G.. A* = I the identity matrix).U) If each Gi < Gi+i for i = l. page 139). and are of order 16.1. HnK < G. This H H a^A. As |iV| divides 48 and \N\ ^ 32.. If {5. Then \HnK\ = 8. which contradicts our assumption that \G\ = 48.43.4 a. Solution: It is sufficient to 8 GS. Gi+i/Gi has no normal sub.13) is a solvable series for P. {G is given in Table 5. note that Pi+i/Pi We call the factor groups Gi/Gi+i of the is a cyclic group of order p and hence is simple. 0.) = This is sufficient to prove the result. for . If {5. . With i this definition.. As 82 \Hr\K\ 16. B^A = AB. G be a group and suppose {1} it has a series of subgroups = Go C Gi C • • • C Gr -- G (S. To see that (5.7.. aj-'sa.B).r-l. These are the exact counterparts of equations {5.13) is a subnormal series of P. Consequently the multiplication table for is obtained from that for the group of Table 5. Let and be two of the Sylow 2-subgroups.1..14. is normal in both = NoiHnK). If 1. \N\ = 48 and so By 1 Sg = = = + fc2 | H K HnK N I H K H K HcNdHnK) normal KcNdHnK). . Hence = G.H). we have HKcN. G has a Sylow 2-subgroup of order 16.14) is called a solvable series for G.158 FINITE GROUPS Checking [CHAP..) Solution: the first Sylow theorem.13) 0.2. then the Sylow 2-subgroup is unique and therefore normal (Problem 5..14) is said to be a groups other than Gi+i/Gt and the identity. by Proposition 5. B" = I. then {5. for i = 0. HnK.42. . hence 82 = 1 or 3. Using the multiplication table we can check that for x = a or 6 and any s € S. 5 all The mapping a: obtains because = gp(A. a subnormal series for G and [Gi+i: Gi] is some prime (dependent on i).4 and H. a' (We i leave this check to the reader. for if \HnK\ ^ 4. then x~^sx ^ ffp(s) implies x~'^sx G S. SOLVABLE GROUPS Definition of solvable groups To introduce our concepts we where p is will a prime.U) is = . i.3. By the third Sylow theorem. we have hetting and page 116). For if S is any subgroup.18. Accordingly we conclude that P is solvable and that {5. page 145. Thus \N\ ^ \HK\ = \H\ \K\/\HnK\ = 32. for every element of 0.. for some integer k and Sg 48. page 154. Show that a group G of order 48 has a normal subgroup # {1} or G.69. G is of the form a'b or for 5. Since both and (Problem 4.4 by renaming H 5. (5.

a„ of the polynomial. We remark that not all groups have a composition series but finite groups do (Section 5.15. page 153). page 156. + tto {5.3d. then Si has the solvable series {i} cSi and 2\ /I is therefore solvable. Now A4 is a group with a unique Sylow 2-subgroup F of order 4 and F ^ K^.5.6b. multiplicanumber of extraction of roots. that A4 has no subgroup of order 6. Then [S4 A4] = 2 and A4 <] S4 by Problem 4. 3. . Show is solvable. .69. tion and and a finite is and the operations addition. page 116. From the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra we know that an «th degree polynomial with complex coefficients has n complex roots.4] SOLVABLE GROUPS 159 We shall discuss composition series in greater detail in Section 5. ff2. Show that the symmetric group S„ is solvable for n= 1. : "« V2 Now 116. Solution: Si = {(}. subtraction.69. and Section 5. In the beginning of the 19th century.45. is solvable. Hence by Problem 4. Accordingly.5e we will prove that S„ is not solvable. being a four group. page 86. Solution: The alternating group A4 is a subgroup of order 12 in S4. '1 2' 1 S9 then = . H— H < S3. — cti ± V^i X = "" 4a2Cio a formula giving the roots of If the roots of f{x) can be obtained by such a formula. a-i. T3} where 3\ /I "' 1 2 2 1 3\ /I ^'^ 2 2 2 1 3 1 12 1 "' 3/ 3\ " ^3 /I 2^ 3\ ~ - V3 /I 2 3 2 3 3 3 ~ is \2 1/ "' ~ U 2. Let E be the smallest field containing F and the roots of f{x). By saying F is the smallest field we mean that if i? is a field containing the coefficients Oi.) In Section 5. A Survey of Modern Algebra. page c C S3 is a solvable series for S3. if re = 2. then FqH. 1-2.44. Historically. integers. then (5. We have seen in Problem 5. \1 2/'V2 {1} c S2 is a solvable series for S2 and so S2 Ti. ffj} Thus {1} a cyclic subgroup of S3. For example. division. coefficients Oj. [S3 H] = 2. has a normal subgroup K of order 2. The group g is called the Galois group of the polynomial f{x). F. : : . . is solvable. Also. the French mathematician E. since [H {t}] = 3 and [S3 fl] = 2. Our main concern in this section is the concept of solvable group. 5. <xi. page 131. that S4 {(. for a definition of field) of complex numbers containing the coefficients Oj of f{x). F <] A^ and [A4 F] = 3. (For details see Birkhoflf and MacLane.2. Galois proved (essentially) the following extraordinary theorem: An equation f(x) = is solvable by radicals if and only if the Galois group of f{x) is solvable. The formula sought was one which involved the coeflScients . solvable groups arose in the attempt to find a formula for the roots of an nth degree polynomial f{x) = anX" + an-ix""'^ + • • • + ttio. Let S3 = {(.1. Since F is a unique Sylow 2-subgroup. page 87). 1953. the four group (see Problem 5.15).15) in Oo. It turns out that not all equations of degree ^5 are solvable by radicals because the symmetric group S„ is not solvable for n^5. we say f{x) = is solvable by radicals. H : : and so S3 5.5a). Problems 5. Macmillan.38(ii). The automorphisms of E which map every element f G F onto itself is a subgroup g of the group of all automorphisms of E. terms of the . Now the set of automorphisms of E forms a group under the composition of mappings (see Theorem 3.Sec. Let F be the "smallest" field (see Section 3.

is solvable. Now N is also a solvable N where [Ki+i : Ki] is a = Ko C Ki C K2 C prime number (i = 1.20 and_4.21). Then G has a subnormal series with factors of cyclic. In contrast to Theorem 5. gp{a) cG The following theorem leads to an alternative definition of solvability. we obtain {1} = KoQKiQ--- qKiQHiQH2Q-is QH>c = G which is a solvable series for G. Pi a prime. and so. Therefore : . Since a cyclic group is abelian. solvable is groups An important property of solvable groups 5. assume G has a subnormal series {5.20. 5 {1} is K c F Q [P : A^ Q Si K] =^ 2. page 120. Hence G/gp{a) is solvable by our induction assumption. Assume that any abelian group of order less then n is solvable.17) Putting the series and {5. If p¥'n. the result holds trivially.17) together.22: G is a solvable group {1} and only if G is finite and has a subnormal series {5. Assume that any finite group which has a subnormal series of length less than n in which the factor groups of consecutive terms of the series are Then Kn-i has a abelian. .1.n—l).160 FINITE GROUPS c : [CHAP. then G is abelian since G = KJKo which is abelian by assumption. solvable group. G is solvable. . the four group Ki is cyclic. G is solvable. We prove that G is solvable by induction on n. and • • • QHk = G/N Corollaries 4.1-1). then \9P{a)\ < \G\ so that gp{a) is is solvable by the induction assumption. G has an element of order p. Note. Hi/N — Hi and N = Ho C <i m Q <Z Hk = G {5. N N KJN Corollary 5. Let G subnormal series of length n~l. < Hi+i. If p = n. {A^} G is such that N and G/N are solvable Let qHiQHzQ By — Pi. Then by Proposition 5. then {1} is a solvable series and G is therefore solvable in this case too.1. {1} . page 137. the length of the subnormal series If w = 1.. by Theorem 5. Let a be such an \ element. but Ki itself has a normal cyclic subgroup of order 2 which is cyclic and is not cyclic. be a subnormal series for G/N with the correspondence theorem (Theorem 4. if Theorem 5. since G is abelian. the solvable series of G is a series of type {5.20.2.16) {5. Hence by Corollary 5.21: If G is a finite abelian group. G is solvable. there are subgroups Hi in G such that Hi [Hi+i Hi] =-. Hence has a series Hi+i and [Hi+i: Hi] = Pi.18).9. .18) of length n. . Proof: We use induction on the order n of G. [A4 : F] = 3 and [S4 : A4] = 2. The proof complete. and alternative definition for. . Let G have subnormal series {5. .21.1). it is not always true that a group G has a property if both a normal subgroup and G/N have the property. abelian {i = 0.16) is a series of subgroups of G with Hi group. a subnormal series for S4. then G is also solvable. Suppose p n for some prime p. Conversely. a normal subgroup of G and \G/gp{a)\ < \G\. namely .. for example.[Hi+i: Hi] = Pt (i = 0. • c Ki = N {5. If \G\ = 2. Furthermore. prime order and hence be a solvable group.20: given in Theorem Proof: [Hi+ii Hi] If G is a finite group and iV O groups. S4 is a b.18) with Ki+JKi abelian. As [K {1}] = 2.19.18). {5.. Properties of.k.18) where Ki+i/K Proof: is = Ko Q Ki C Q Kn = G .

n 0.n — 2. (ii) HJ. We show that if K is a subgroup of ..w) a subnormal series with KnHi+JKnHi abelian.n-l) and that KnH„ = K. First we notice that KdHi — (Kr\Hi+i)nHi {i ^ 0. V : Consider the natural homomorphism G ^ G/N from Problem In particular let H. xy = yxd where d G Hi. . Using this 5. page 125) inside the group Hi+i with subgroup KnHi+i and normal subgroup Hi.4] SOLVABLE GROUPS Ko C Kl C . 4. ... subnormal series .)/{{KnHi+i)nHi) ^ {{K nHi+{)Hi)/Hi and Since {KnHi+i)nHi^ KnHi. this follows and Hi+i = G).1. we shall henceforth use it as our definition of solvability.18) with Ki+ JKi an abelian group (i = 0. Next we_assert that Hi+i/Hi is abelian. Since this formulation of solvability is more general. so that we have Hi - Hi so is {KnHi+i)Hi/Hi.20. .23: new definition we prove (i) Theorem Proof: (i) Let (ii) G if N <] G be a solvable group. 161 • • • C Kn-2 C Kn-1 is with Ki+i/Ki abelian for i = 0. Now N < v G. Then then GIN is solvable. Applying the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem 4.82. we conclude is G solvable. In the theory of infinite groups one usually defines a group G to be solvable if it has a By Theorem 5.22 tc — 1)..23.v. of G with Hi+i/Hi abelian G. = H. any subgroup of G is solvable and Let for i {1} = = HoQHxQ QHn = G be a subnormal series — l. Now Hi<Hi+i. we obtain (Kni?i+i)nHi < KnHi+i (KnHi+. Kn-i solvable. y = yv {x.1. {1} is = (KnHo) c (KnHi) c • c (KnHn) = K {s. Using Theorem 5. page 122 (with 9 = •'ihj+i Any subgroup of <S G is mapped by But onto a subgroup of G/N. . . .)/{KnHi) ^ {{K n Hi+i)Hi)/Hi But {KnHi+i)HiQHi+i. Now Hi+i/Hi is abelian by assumption is and hence Therefore (5. Let x = xv. Note that the infinite cyclic group is an example of a group that does not fit the old definition but does fit the new.y G Hi+i) be two elements of Hi+u Then since Hi+JHt is abelian. this is equivalent to our original definition for finite groups. Hence by the induction assumption. .1. . (5. Thus {xy)v = {xv){yv) = (yv){xv){dv) . 1. But G/Kn-t is abelian and hence solvable. 5.. it follows that KnHi<] KnHi+i and (KnHi+.Sec. and KnHi+i is a subgroup of Hi+i. We assert Hi Hi+i.^^ ^'''"* C\ and consequently K is Let G have subnormal series {1} = Ho C ifl C ^2 c • • • Q Hn ^ G where fl^i+i/Hi is abelian.19) a subnormal series for K with abelian factors K„ solvable.

1. Now that we have a definition of solvable group that applies to extend Theorem 5. 1 + Iq = p^. are solvable. which is absurd. We will show that this case does not arise by showing that G would contain too many elements. . in G such that H. cHk^ G/N be a subnormal series for G/N in which Hi+i/Hi abelian. however.k-l.7). and we conclude that case (ii) does not arise.. • • . then from Problem 5. = p^. We have assumed that G has g Sylow p-subgroups (of order p2) and p2 Sylow q-subgroups (of order q). But as q > p. Case (ii) . Therefore we have the subnormal series {1} H p < q. Thus {N} is a subnormal series of = Ho < Hi < <\ Hn = GIN G/N with abelian factors. page 133.20 to infinite groups.7.22. G is solvable. In the above calculations we have not counted the identity. Suppose. Hence the factors Hi+JHt are abelian. and it K is solvable. p2g then Sp = 1 + fcp divides p^q. If 1 + kp = 1. Therefore = Zo C Zi C • Q Ki ^ N = Ho Q Hi Q Thus G is solvable. we will If A^ <1 G i and G/N and . where p and q are distinct primes. Show that (Hard. then q > p. A^ are solvable groups. it is then G is abelian (Problem 5. < Hi+i {i = 0. page 140) and 5.19.7) only one Sylow g-subgroup abelian and G/K is abelian (Problem 5. ^. Hi+i/Hi = iHi+i/N)/{Hi/N) ^ Hi+i/Hi. and so 1 + ig = 1. {1} = Ko C Ki Q K2 C Q Ki = N Q Hk = G with Ki+i/Ki abelian for {1} is i = 0.1-1.1) = P^g . Also. page 121). As have a subnormal series _ .162 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. Thus we group is normal in G (Problem 5. G has p. a subnormal series whose factors are abelian. .24: infinite groups.46. pq or p^q. A^ has a series By Hi/N =_H. Hence G is solvable. Any two distinct subgroups of order q intersect in the identity. Hence is is K and (by Problem 5.. Again 1 + ig is not divisible by g. \G\ = pq q.p = 1 or g. G has at least 2 Sylow p-subgroups and hence there are at least p2 distinct elements in G of order p or p2. page 121. so in all G has at least p^g — p2 + p2 + 1 = p2g + 1 elements. then the Sylow p-subis of order p^. Now \G/H\ = abelian.) Solution: If If \G\ all groups G of order p^. Let X^ be a Sylow q-subgroup of G. there are subgroups H. then so is G. Problems 5.19).19). and Corollary 4. and so the prime factors of 1 + kp must be p or q.21.. Consequently xHiyiii = xyHi = is {xv)vHi = {yv){xv)dvHi = {yv){xv)Hi = yHixHi Therefore Hi+i/Hi abelian. The number of such Sylow g-subgroups is 1 + Iq. Clearly p does not divide 1 + kp. Also. one and only one subgroup H hence G/H is abelian. Theorem Proof: 5. By the factor of a factor theorem (Theorem 4. if of order order q. As is of H Q H Q G with abelian factors and so If \G\ G is solvable. ... . 5 But dv G Hi. Therefore 1 + A..^. p or p2. K< G.8. < G. Let is {N} =^ H0CH1QH2Q = 0. that 1 + kp = q.k). and so G/N is solvable.p^ distinct elements of order g in G. — H H H {1} Q H Q G with G/H abelian (\G/H\ — q) and H/{1} abelian. By Problem page 133. the only possibilities are 1 + ig = 1 or pK Case (i) : 1 + lq = and 1. is abelian (Problem 5. so there are pHq . \K\ follows that = G : q In this case there \G/K\ = p2.

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
that every nilpotent group
solvable.

163

5.47.

Show

is

Solution:

Consider the upper central series
{1}

=

Zo c 2i C ^2 C

•••

C Z„ = G
is

of G, a given nilpotent group. of course this implies Zj + i/Zi

Zj + j is defined
is

abelian.

by the fact that Zi+JZi Hence G is solvable.

the center of G/Zi and

5.48.

Prove that the converse of Problem 5.47
Solution:

is false,

i.e.

not

all

solvable groups are nilpotent.

The symmetric group Sg is solvable (Problem 5.44). A check of the multiplication table for S3 on page 57 shows that the center of S3 is just the identity {i}. But this implies that the upper central series for G never ascends to G. Thus S3 is not nilpotent.
Let G be any group and let G"' be defined for all positive integers i by G^i^ = group of G, and G"+i) = (G"')'. Prove that G is solvable if and only if G<n>
integer n.
Solution:

5.49.

G',

the derived for some

=

{1}

Let G<«>

=

{!}.

Then
{1}

=

G<»>
is

c

•••

C

G(i>

C G

is

a subnormal series for

G

and G^VG^'+i'

abelian.

Hence

G

is solvable.

Now

let

G

be solvable.

Then there
{!)

exists a

subnormal series

= H, Q

Q Ho = G

with HJHi^i abelian.

By Problem

4.68,

that HiDG(^\ i = 1,2, assertion is true for i
G^r)

page 116, Hj/Hf+i abelian implies H^ + l^H'^. We prove, by induction on i, .,r. For i=l this is true since H^dHo — G' = G'^^^. Suppose our = n, i.e. H„dG(">. Then H^D (G(n>)' = Gf"+i'. But H^+^dH^, so
. .

H„+i2G("+i'. Therefore

H^-DG'^i^

for all i

In particular then,

{1}

= H^ 3

Gf^*"'-

Accordingly,

=

{1}

and the result follows.

5.5
a.

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
The Jordan-Holder Theorem
In Section 5.4a we introduced the idea of a composition series for a finite group G. that a series of subgroups of G
(1)

We recall

=

Go

C Gi C

•••

Q Gk = G
. .

{5.20)

is a composition series for G if Gi <] Gi+i for i = 0, 1, and Gi+i/Gi is simple, i.e. ., fc — 1 has precisely two different normal subgroups. This latter statement carries with it the implication that Gi^^Gi+i for i — 0,...,k — l.

We

observe

see this is

The easiest way to first that every finite group G has a composition series. by induction on the order, |G|, of G. If \G\ = 1, then G has precisely one
{1}

composition series:

=

Go

= G
less

Suppose then that
series.

|G| 7^ 1

and that every group of order
{1}

than

\G\

has a composition

Now

if

G

is

simple, then

=

Go

c

Gi

= G

is

N

the only composition series for G. If ¥- {1}, j^G. We may suppose that

G

N

N

M<

G and

M

y^

G, then

|M|

^
=^

\N\.

By

not simple, let 2\/^ be a normal subgroup of G, the largest normal subgroup of G, that is, if induction, has a composition series
is
is

N

{1}

No Q Ni C

Q

Ni

=

N

164

FINITE GROUPS
claim that
{1}

[CHAP.

5

We
is

=

A^o

C

iVi

C

Q

Ni

Q G

a composition series for G and note that to prove this we need only show that G/Ni is But if G/Ni is not simple, it has a non-trivial normal subgroup. By the corollary to the correspondence theorem this subgroup is of the form K/Ni where Z is a normal subgroup of G. But as if D Ni, this means that \K\ > \Ni\ which contradicts the choice of A^j. Therefore every finite group has a composition series.
simple.

This proof does not suggest that if a group has two composition series then they are Surprisingly they are. In order to explain this relationship we associate with the composition series (5.20) two notions. First we term k the length of the series. Second we call the factor groups Gi+i/G, the composition factors of the series (5.20). The relationship between composition series is given by
related.

Theorem

5.25

(Jordan-Holder)

:

Every finite group G has at least one composition The lengths of all composition series for G are
Finally
if

series.

equal.

{1}

=

Go

C

C Gu = G C H„ = G

and

{1}

= Ho C

are a pair of composition series for G, then their respective composition factors can be paired off in such a way that paired factors are isomorphic.

We

have already proved the
5.25

Theorem
such that
for
i

we

first statement of Theorem 5.25. Before illustrating restate its last assertion as follows: There is a permutation tt of {1, &}
. . .

,

=

0,

.

.

.,k

— l.

Gi+l/Gj

=

H(i+l)T!-/H(i+l-jTT-l

Example

1:

Suppose that S3
^^^

is

the symmetric group on {1,2,3}.
'1

Then the
2
1
S'^

series

2 2

3\

/I

2 3

-

'\1

3/' V2

3\ /l ly" V3

2

is

3

and

a composition series for S^. Notice that the composition factors are of orders This is actually the only composition series for S3, since 2.
1
1

2 2

3\

/I
'

2
3
is

3\

/I

2
1

3

3/

V2

1/' VS

2

is

the only normal subgroup of S3 which

neither S3 nor the identity subgroup.

Problem
5.50.

tion of
(n

Let w be a positive integer. What relevance does the Jordan-Holder theorem have to the f actorizan into a product of primes? (Hint: Let G be the additive group of integers modulo n

>

1).)

Solution:

Let

{1}

=

Go c

<?i

c

•••

c G, = G
.

be a composition series for G. Each composition factor Gi^i/Gi (i ~ 0, is simple. As .,1 — 1) Gj is abelian, each factor Gi+^/Gi is abelian. Hence if Gi+JGi has any proper subgroup, it would not be simple. So Gi + i/Gi has no proper subgroups. In particular it has no cyclic proper subgroups, so it must be cyclic of order a prime. The number I is therefore the total number of primes (allowing for repetitions) dividing n. By Theorem 5.25, I is uniquely determined. So, as we well know, the total number of prime divisors of n is a constant. Moreover, the uniqueness of the composition factors (asserted in Theorem 5.25) simply means that these prime divisors themselves are unique. Putting these two facts together gives the well-known fact that every integer n > 1 can be written uniquely as a product of primes, if the order in which it is written is disregarded.
.

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
2:

165

Example

Let Sn be the symmetric group on n
{1}
is

lettei-s,

w —

5.

Then

C A„ C S„

a composition series for S„.
5.34).

Theorem
is

But A„

<

For we shall show that A„ is simple (in Section 5.5e, S„ and SJA^ is cyclic of order two. Hence this series

indeed a composition series.

b.

Proof of Jordan-Holder theorem

Suppose

G

is

a

finite

group and suppose
1

= =

Go
i?o

Q C

Gi
i?i

Q C

and

1

Q Gk = G C //i = G

{5.21)
{5.22)

are two composition series for G. We have to prove that k = l and that the composition factors Gi+i/Gi of {5.21) can be paired off w^ith the composition factors Hi+JHi ai {5.22) so that paired composition factors are isomorphic.

clear.

The proof is by induction on the order \G\ of G. If \G\ - 1, then both assertions are Thus vsre assume that \G\ > 1 and that the theorem holds for all groups of order less than |G|. It is useful to observe that if fc = 1, then G is simple. Hence 1 = 1 also, and
again the desired conclusion holds. hence l> 1).

So we assume, in addition to

\G\

>

1,

that

A;

>

1

(and

There are two cases to consider: Gk-i Case
1:

=

Hi-i and

Gk-i^ Hi-u

Gk-i

= Hi-u
1

It is

then clear that
1

= Go C

Q
Hi-i

Gk-i

{5.23)

and

= Ho C

C

=

Gk-i

{5.2A)

are composition series for Gk~i. But |Gfc-i| < |G|. Hence by our induction assumption, the composition series {5.23) and {5.24) have the same length, i.e. k—l = l—l, and so k = l. Furthermore the composition factors of {5.23) can be paired with the composition factors of {5.24) so that paired factors are isomorphic. But the composition factors of Similarly the composition factors of {5.22) {5.21) are those of {5.23) together with G/Gk-u are those of {5.24) together with G/Gk-u Thus it is clear then that the composition factors of {5.21) can be paired off with the composition factors of {5 £2) so that paired factors are isomorphic. This concludes the proof of Case 1.

Case

2:

Gk-i

^ Hi-u

Our method of proof is to produce a composition series, {5.26), which has isomorphic composition factors to those of {5.21) (by Case 1) and a composition series, {5.27), which has isomorphic composition factors to those of {5.22) (by Case 1). We will then show that {5.26) and {5.27) have isomorphic factors and this will be sufficient to prove the result.
First we will show that Gk-iHi-i = G. Observe that both Gk-i and Hi-i are normal subgroups of G, and so Gk-iHi-i is also a normal subgroup of G. Obviously Gk-iHi-i contains Gfc-i properly, so Gk-iHi-i/Gk-i is a non-trivial normal subgroup of G/Gk-i by the correspondence theorem. But G/Gk-i is simple, so Gk-iHi-i/Gk-i = G/Gk-u This means that

Gk-iHi-,

= G
G.

{5.25)

We now

put

F=

Gk-inHi-i and note that
{1}

F

<\

Let

=

Fo C

Q Fm = F

be a composition series for F.

Then we claim that

166

FINITE GROUPS

[CHAP.

5

{1}

= Fo C =

C Fm Q
• •

Gfc-i

C G c G

(5.26) (5,27)

^^^

{1}

n

C

C Fm C

Hi-i

are both composition series for G. The only facts that need be verified are that G^-i/F. and ^i-i/n. are simple. Now Fr.^ G^-,C^Hi-^ and by G = G,-^Ht-i. Therefore by (5.;25), the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem
4.23,

page

125),

G/Gk-i

=

Gk-iHi-i/Gk-i
Gk-iHi-i/Hi-i

and similarly
G/Hi-i

_

«
=
it

H,-J(Hi-inGk-i)
Gk-i/{Hi-ir\Gk-i)

= Hi-JFm = Gk-i/Fm

(5 28) '
^
'

=

(5.29)

Since both G/G^-^ and G/^,-i are simple,
simple.

follows that Hi-JF,n and G,-,/F„ are also both

Let us compare the composition series (5.21) and (5.26). By Case 1 it follows that they have the same length and their composition factors can be paired off so that paired

are isomorphic. Similarly for the composition series (5.22) and (5.27). Let us now compare the composition series (5.26) and (5.27). They obviously have the same length, + 2. Thus the series (5.21) and (5.22) have the same length. What are the composition factors of the series (5.26) and (5.27)1 The composition factors of (5.26) are

factors

m

FJF,,
while those of (5.27) are

...,

F™/Fm-i, Gk-ilFm, G/Gk-i

FJFo,

...,

Fm/Fm~l, Hi-i/F,n, G/Hi-i

(5.28), Hi-JF,. ^ G/G^-f, and by (5.29), G^-JFm ^ G/Hi-^. Thus the composition factors of (5.26) and (5.27) can be paired off so that paired factors are isomorphic. It follows that the composition factors of (5.21) and (5.22) can be paired off so that paired factors are isomorphic, since the factors of (5.21) can be so paired off with those of (5.26) and the factors of (5.22) can similarly be paired off with those of This completes the proof (5.27). of the Jordan-Holder theorem.

Now by

From the Jordan-Holder theorem we know that the length of a composition series and factors are uniquely determined for the group. This suggests the following scheme for studying groups which have a composition series. First, find the structure of all groups with composition series of length 1. These are all the simple groups. Assuming now that
its

we know

all

position series of length

about groups with a composition series of length n + 1. Let
{1}

n, let

G

be a group with com-

=

Go

C

Gi

c

•••

c G„ c

G„+i

= G

be a composition series for G. If F is a group with a normal subgroup A^ and F/N = H, we say that F is an extension of by H. In this language then, G is an extension of a group with a composition series of length n, viz. G„, by a simple group. Hence what we must know is how the structure of a group which is an extension of one group by another is determined.

N

In the next few sections we shall prove that if 5, A„ is simple. The groups A„ are not all the simple groups and indeed there is no classification of simple groups as yet. This is one of the basic problems of finite group theory.

n>

The question of how a group G is built from and if G is an extension of considered in Chapter 7. Here too our knowledge is far from complete.

H

Z

H by K,

is

Problem
5.51.

If

two groups have the same composition factors, are they isomorphic?
No.

Solution:

There

is

same composition

a cyclic group G of order 6 and a non-abelian factors, but they are not isomorphic.

group

H of

order

6.

They have the

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS

167

c.

Cycles and products of cycles

We

begin with an example of a

new

notation.

Let us consider
6' 3^

Se.

Let

6

G Sb

be

defined by

12 12
effect of 9 is to take
6 is called

3 5

4 6

5

4

Note that the
1,

2 unaltered.

a cycle.

3-»5, 5->4, 4-»6 and 6^3, and to leave the elements We denote it by (3, 5, 4, 6).

More
{ai, a2,
. . .

generally,
,

dm)

consider S„. If ai,...,am are distinct integers in (1,2, ...,n}, stands for the permutation that maps each integer in {1,2,...,%} —
itself,

(ai,

.

.

.

,

dm] to

and maps
ai -* a2, a2-^a3,

...,

am-i^am, am-*ai

We call

such a permutation a cycle of length m. denote the identity element. A cycle of length 2

As a convention take a
is

cycle of length 1 to

called a transposition.

The inverse of the

cycle a

=

(ai,

.

.

.

,

Om)

is

the cycle p

(a™, Om-i,

.

.

. ,

02, ai),

since

a.{ap)

=

{axx)p

=

ttj^jjS

=
a^p

a.

it

i^-m

while
If
y

a^ap
{1, 2,

=

{a^a)p

^

=

a„

e

...,«}

-

(tti,

.

.

.

,

ttm},

j{aP)

=

{ja)P

=

jp

=

j

Hence

aj8

=

i.

Similarly pa

=

t.

It is clear that not every

permutation

is

a cycle.

Nor

is

the product of two cycles
j

necessarily a cycle; for example, in S4,

(1,2)(3,4)

=

f

which

is

not a cycle.

An

obvious question is: can we express every element of Sn as a product of cycles? following theorem answers this question.

The

Theorem

5.26:

(Cycles
i.e. if

Every element of S„ can be written as the product of disjoint cycles. (ai, .,am) and (&i, ftk) are disjoint if the Oi and 6j are distinct,
. . .

.

.

,

(ai,

.

.

.

,

Om}

n

(bi,

.

.

. ,

bk}

=
n}

0.)
is fixed

Proof:

Let
Itt

-k

G

S„.

We say that

i

e

{1,

.

.

.

,

by x

if

iV

= i, and we

say

it is

moved

if

#

i.

We
If
IT

shall argue by induction on the number of integers moved by the permutation -k. moves none of the integers {1,2, .,«}, then w is the identity permutation. But then
. .

K

=

(1),

as the 1-cycles are

all

the identity permutation.

Hence we have a basis for induction. So let tt ¥= i and suppose that every element of Sn which moves fewer integers than tt, can be written as the product of disjoint cycles. Now suppose a^G {1, .,n} and that a^wj^a^. Let us define a^,ag, by a^^a^^r,
.
.

.

.

.

a^ for some (As the images of w belong to (1,2, ...,n), the terms of the sequence a^, a^, cannot all be different.) We shall prove, using the minimality of m, that i=l. Suppose to the contrary that i¥=l. Then a^ = a^_^l^ and a^^r = a^ = a._j7r. As TT is a one-to-one mapping, o,^_^ = a^. But this contradicts the choice of the integer m. Hence i — 1 and a^-n- = a^. We consider now the cycle {a^, .,a„) and note that > 1. Let
'^a

%'^>

•>

<3Ss

=
.

«s-i'^'

^t ^

156

the

first

integer such that

a^-rr

=

integer

i

with

l^i<m.
.

.

.

.

m

T

=

(ai,

.

.

.,am)

^TT

d. .. a^) and we have proved that n tt = (a.r = a^.. 10 11 12 5 6 ai. h^ir . and . = .--. 12).. 11 12 10 we may 5 6 take 1 for Then ai = 1.11)(6. . We need only find the disjoint by choosing a^ such that a^ir ¥= a^. &^ distinct. and then taking the cycle (a^. . a^. . . ... 7. .- Hence r. Hence the result. .a„ are chosen as in the proof of the theorem a^Tv = a^ and a^. . a. (ttj. 11)(6. 9. . We assert (tti. Corollary 5. a. This is precisely what we showed in the proof of Theorem 5. bj. . (i. . an}.. < ik) . So .4)(5.28: Proof: Every cycle is a product of transpositions. a^} . au) For it if a is an integer not in unchanged. V h -n-. .27: If tt G a2 S^ and a^..3.a^ [CHAP..e. .7. i Clearly = ^i. Then we choose . t.. jr = j. .r = Tjj...8. a4 = 4.. „ „ .. for . and find the cycle (6^..2. . . .. For example.^j {aj. . 8. It follows that T moves fewer integers than Therefore inductively r can be written as the product of disjoint cycles. .. 4 unchanged. . Ti^. . . 2.. .aj and so jr = j{a^. but each element can also be expressed as the product of transpositions. which do not involve any of the integers ^ . .. = !.a^. .1. TT G This corollary provides us with a method of computing the decomposition of an element Sn into the product of disjoint cycles. involves an a. . . Let . m. as 123456789 Since Itt ¥.«. . .. = (aO = i. as) (ai. 3.aj-^n = jir^j. a„)rij • Tj^ and is actually a cycle..ajr a^. a2. a^}. . . Proposition 5.9.. . a J. then 77 = . .{a^. Applying the same technique to t. h^ G {1. 5 T is fixed. = and Not only is every element of S„ a product of cycles. say i ¥.12) cycles a. ..„ distinct). since a.\ n^ or T = If TT T = .(TjT2 ' ' 'i) = a*'-.. let us write 342 18 79 as the product of disjoint cycles.. .- m = 4. . . In practice it is not necessary to use the corollary rigorously. = . Otherwise has been expressed as the product of disjoint cycles. both the left-hand side and the right-hand side leave . (ai... Hence TT = (1.A4)^j /l 2 4 4 8 7 7 9 8 9 10 11 12 5 11 12 10 6 Here the second factor t on the right is obtained from w by letting it leave 1. Now be those if T. a^TT = a^.TT. as can be seen from the following proposition.a^ are distinct. we find r = (5. a^)= a„. .. I. . . a^) where . . while = a.b^. TT = (ttj.. a. Hence j g {a^. Hence by the 2 3 3 corollary. = 2.26. for while a^{a^.. . . where h^ -¥. and so on. 2. ..n} b^ — . ttk) = {at..r where ar Proo/: an if a g {a^.aj-'n = a^_^7^ = a.1. and the aj.2. Also if jG{l. = aj7r. a2){ai.. Ti^ (ii<i2< a^. as = 3... ... as = 1.. n\7 then ^ j implies jTT ^ n for if j G {a^.168 FINITE GROUPS a permutation that leaves a^. &J with b^_^_^ = b^7^. and letting it act as tt does on the remaining integers. (i.. = a.

= 2.52 as products of disjoint Solution: cycles.54 as the product of transpositions.ak) = at+i while ai{ai. If ia # i. 2. as) {ai.12.2). 3.3. and so (i. Since = 4. 2. 12a = 9. 7a = 14. = = 6/3 2. 5. 11) (1. Problems 5. 5). 5). In Se compute Solution a = (1. 5a = 10.55. as a product of transpositions unique? Solution: Is the expression of an element of S„ a = = if (1.2.. a = aia2 • • • a^ is the . ttk) = ai while • • • afc(ai. . = ia. 10)(7. 6/3 = 6.14. 4). .9)(5..52. 10a = 5. 5. We note that la 1/3 = 5. If ia = i. 2)(1. 2 6 (l. 2. and then a and /3 commute. Hence prove that disjoint cycles commute.8 = 5.2. 6a = 6. a2){ai. Hence a /3 = (1.4.ai)(ai. ^ e S„ i/3. 14a = 13. n}.3. 4a = 1. (i|8)a = are such that ia ¥' i implies both (ia)^ = ia and t/3 = i. 5 6 4 .11) 5. ai+2) • • • («i.5) = 4a 2(2.4)-i 1/3 = = (4. 6. 2.5] COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS then 169 If i ¥. 8)(3.10)(7. Oi+i) • • • (ai. 2a = 4. Express a of Problem 5. ip ¥= i implies Solution: Let then ia/S i e {1.2. then a = (aia2 • a„)(l. 3a 13a = 11. \4 1 '12 3 4 d „ 5 5 ^ o i 6 ^ 6 5. 2a 5 = 3. . 11) expression of a as a product of transpositions. then P does not move either i or ia. Hence /? = . 9a = 3.3. 2. 8a = 1. 3a 5j8 = = 4. 3. 5. 8)(3. . 02) (tti. = 1. 3/3 = and 2/3 = 1.56. 1. Hence a = 6. aic) ai+i(ai.3. = i/3 while . 6)(3.2.54. = = = i/3 if i/3 if iyS ia 2 #i =i ia ¥= i Hence a^ = ^a.9)(5.53. . . Hence a = l^ \5 /I 2 3 „ 3 4 1 . ai{ai. 12)(3. then (i/3)a i'(a/3) = (ia)y3 = ia while i(. 4a = 8.6. 3. 2)(1. Express a and ^ of Problem 5.aic) = ai+i If i = k. = 3.k. 5) and /? = (1. ak) = = ai(ai. 13)(7. ttfc) = aic(ai.2.8)(3.4. 9)(5. /I 5. and so if3 = i and (ia)^ ip. la to = = I (1(1. 2.2)(1.8 = 3. 2 4 3 6 4 8 5 6 7 8 1 9 3 10 11 5 7 12 13 14\ 9 Write « = (^3 10 12 14 11 13 j ^' ^"^^ P''"''^"* °^ ''^"j"'"* *=y'^^'- Solution: la = 2.1).3. 4)(1. 2) Thus the expression as a product of transpositions is not unique. 6a = 12.4. 4. 14. . . p moves i and 5.. 11a = 7.4)(2.4))(2. Thus a and ^ commute.Sec. 10)(7.2.8a) = (i/3)a = ia. implies o moves i and ia and hence Similarly if ip ¥= i. 3. is another expression of a as a product of transpositions. 1)(2.5) = 5a /3 5. a^) = is ai Thus the effect of the left-hand side and the right-hand side the same. 12. then afc(ai. If a. and so the permuta- tions are equal. = (1. 5a = 2. 13. . + 1 if i = 2. •A-s (1. = 4. 3j8 Then 4/3 (4. 14)(7.4)-i(2.13.2) • • = 1.8)a = ip. = (1. . Now if a and /3 are disjoint cycles.

170

FINITE GROUPS
Find the order of the cycle (a^
Solution:
If we write Oj, a circle, as shown on the right, it is clear that , a„ in a = («!, moves each Oj one place clockwise, a^ moves each aj two places , o„) further, and in general a^ moves each Oj /-places further. Hence a'" moves each Of w-places further, i.e. «»" moves each Oj back to itself. To put this more formally, define a„+i = a,, a^ + g = ag a^+„ = a„. We will prove by induction on j that for ^ j ^ m, a' maps Cj to aj + i = l, 2, ...,to. For
. . .
.

[CHAP.

5

5.57.

..., a„).

(Hard.)

.

.

,-,

j = r, consider j = r+1 ~ m. Then = aj + r+i by the action of a. If i + r = m, a^a = i + r>m, then »i = »m+i = + r = aj + ^-m and i + r~m< m (as 1 — i — m and r<m). Hence 0; + ,^ = Oj + r-m" = a. + r-m + = "i + r+iIn particular, a™ = On the other hand, aja* = aj + j # aj for 1 — s < m. Therefore rn is
/
0,

=

a^

=

I

and the result

is true.
i

If the result is true for
aj + ^a
ttj i

ttja'^+i

=

(ajaOo:

+ r«If «i + r+ia.i

=

W

+ r < m,

c.

the smallest power of a that yields the identity. d.

Accordingly

m

is

the order of

a.

Transpositions, and even and odd permutations

In this section we will produce another way of deciding whether a permutation is even or odd. (See the definition in Section 3.3b, page 60.) By Proposition 5.28 and Theorem 5.26 every permutation is the product of transpositions. However, this decomposition is not unique (Problem 5.56). What we shall show is that a permutation tt is a product of an even number of transpositions if ^ is even, and the product of an odd number of transpositions if TT is odd.

Our
(1, 2) is

first

task

is

to

show that any transposition
64).

is

odd.

We

odd (Section 3.3d, page
5.29:

We
.

will use the following
.

have already noted that lemma.

Lemma

Let

6

e

Sn and

let (ai,

.,am) be a cycle.
..

Then
. .

e~^ {ai,

.,am)9

=

{aiO,
Oi,

.,am9)

Proof:

Let

a;

e

(1,2,

.

.

.,n}.
.

If
.

x

=

(uO

for

some

xe'^{au

-,0^)9

— = =

ai99~^{ai,
ai(ai,
. .

.

.

.,am)9

.,am)9
if
1 7^ i

ai+i9
ai9

TO

=
If
a;

ii

m
X

9^ ttiO

for some

ai,

x0~^

g

(ai,

.

.

.,am}.
. .

Then

xe-^{ai,

.,am)9

=

{xe-^)e

=

Thus 9-\ai,

.

.

.,0^)9

=

{ai9,

.

.

.,am9).

Theorem

5.30:

All transpositions are odd. If 6 is an even permutation and is written as the product of transpositions, the number of transpositions is even. If 9 is odd and is written as the product of transpositions, the number of transpositions is odd.
(1, 2) is

Proof: Let (a, h) be any transposition. We know that mutation such that Id = a, 26 = b. Then, by Lemma 5.29,
(a, 6)

odd.

Let

9

be any per-

=

9-^(1,2)9

If 9 is even, 9'^^ is even, 9-^(1,2) is odd, e is odd, 9-^ is odd, 9~^{1,2) is even,

and so 9-^(1,2)0 is odd (Lemma 3.2, page 62). If and hence 9~^{l,2)e is odd (again by Lemma 3.2).

Therefore

(a, b) is

odd.

be a permutation and let 3.2, 9 is even if and only if This proves the theorem.
let ^

Now

ocj^

Then by Lemma

m is

a^ be the product of transpositions. even, while 9 is odd if and only if to is odd.

-

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS

171

Problems
5.58.

Determine whether a and p oi Problem 5.52 are odd or even, using Theorem
Solution:
a

5.30.

=

(1, 5, 2, 3, 4)

=
is

(1, 5)(1, 2)(1, 3)(1, 4).

Since a

is

expressed as the product of an even number

of transpositions, a

even.
(1,4)(1,3)(1,5)(1,2),

P = (1,4,3,5,2) =
5.59.

and

so

p

is

even.

Determine whether a of Problem 5.54
Solution:

is

even by using Theorem

5.30.

a

= =

(1,2,4,8)(3,6,12,9)(5,10)(7,14,13,11)
{(1, 2)(1, 4)(1, 8)}{(3, 6)(3, 12)(3, 9)}{(5, 10)}{(7, 14)(7, 13)(7, 11)}
is

Thus a

even.

5.60.

Determine whether
Solution:
("i.
• •

(ctj,

.

.

. ,

a„)

is

even or odd.

>
.

o-m)
.

("i. 0'2)iO'i< "•s)

(«i.

«m).

SO

(oj, is

Thus
Let

(a.j,

.

,

a^n) is

even or odd according as

m

a^) is the product of odd or even.
.

.

.

,

jn

—1

transpositions.

5.61.

(»!

Om), (6i, ...,6„,)

be

;wo cycles of S„.

Prove that there exists

9

G S„

such that

e-Hai,...,a„)e
Solution:

=

(6i,

...,6J.

Let

a

be defined by:
aj»
if

(1) (2)

=
. .

6j

for

t

=

1,

.

.

,to;

{ci,...,c„_„} {6,, 6„), put
. ,

=

{l,2,...,n}-{oi,...,a„i}

and

if

{di,

.

.

.,d„_„}

=

{1,2,

.

.

.,w}

Cjfl

=

d;

for

i

=

1,

.

.

.,n-m.
(&i.

Then

e

e S„ and by Lemma
a group, the set of

5.29,

fl-i(ai,

-.Om)"

=

•.6m)the conjugaey class containing x.

5.62.

If

G

is

all

elenents conjugate to

a;

is called

Write down the conjugaey classes of S4 using cycle notation. (Hard.)
Solution:
class containing an element e is the set of all conjugates of e. Our first task express each element of S4 as the product of disjoint cycles, and then to take all distinct conjugates of each element. We obtain the following classes:
is to
(i)

The conjugaey

{(1)}.

(As

(1)

=

(,

there are n) other conjugates of

(1)).

(ii)

What

conjugates of (1,2) are there? We S„, l9,2e run through all distinct pairs taining (1,2) is

know that e~H\,2)e = (le,2fl). As 9 runs through (a, 6). As (0,6) = (6, a), the conjugaey class con-

f(l,2), (1,3), (1,4), (2,3), (2,4), (3,4)}
(iii)

What

conjugates of

(1, 2, 3) a:-e

there?

As

»-»(l,2, 3)9
(1, 2, 3) is

=

(l9,2fl,39),

we

will get all possible

3-cycles.

Hence the conjugaey

class containing

{(1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 3, 2), (1, 3, 4), (1, 4, 2), (1, 4, 3), (2, 3, 4), (2, 4, 3)}
(iv)

What
As

is

the conjugaey class ontaining (1,2)(3, 4)?
tf-i(l,2)(J,4)e

=

»-i(l,2)e»-i(3,4)9

=

(1», 2tf)(3», 49)

runs through S„, we will obtain the product of all pairs of disjoint cycles. We recall that disjoint cycles commute; for example, (1,2)(3, 4) = (3,4)(1,2). Thus the distinct elements in the required conjugaey class Ere
e

{(1,2)(3,4), (1,3)(2,4), (1,4)(2,3)}
(v)

What

is

4-cycles.

the conjugaey class containing (1,2,3,4)? Hence the required oonjugacy class will be

Again we

see that

we

shall obtain all

{(1, 2, 3, 4), (1,2, 4, 3), (1, 3, 2, 4), (1, 3, 4, 2), (1, 4, 2, 3), (1, 4, 3, 2)}

172

FINITE GROUPS

[CHAP.

5

simplicity of An, n — 5. In this section we aim to prove that A„ is simple for n - 5. What we must do is to show that if <l A„ and = A„. Although the proof involves much calculation, ^ {i}, then the ideas are easy.
e.

The

H

H

H

Lemma

5.31:

Every element of A„

is

the product of 3-cycles,
(e, ai){e, a'i){e, ai)

n^ 5.
e, ax,

Proof:

Every transposition

(ai, ai)

=

where

ai are distinct.

Now

every element of A„ is the product of an even number of transpositions, and therefore the product of products of pairs of transpositions. So it is enough to prove that a product of two transpositions is a product of 3-cycles. Consider (ai, a2)(bi, b2). We may assume that the four integers ai,a2, &i, &2 are distinct, for otherwise (ai, a2)(bi, 62) is either the identity or is itself a 3-cycle. As w — 5, there exists an integer e such that \ — e — n and 0-1, 0.2, hi, b2, e are all distinct. Hence
{ai,a2){bi,b2)

= =
Let

{e,ai){e,a2){e,ai){e,bi){e,b2){e,bi)
{(e, ai)(e,a2)){(e,ai)(e, 6i)){(e, &2)(e, 61)}

=

(e,ai,ao)(e,ai, 6i)(e, 62, bi)

Lemma

5.32:

HO

A„.

If

H contains
if x, y, z

a 3-cycle, then

H- An.
{1, 2, ...
,

Proof: Let (a, b, c) element of S„ that sends

e H. Then

are distinct elements of

n} and

6 is

an

page 170.

If 9

from

ft,

b, c

as

atox.btoy and c to z, we have 0~\a, b, c)9 = (x, y, z) by Lemma 5.29, is even, (x, y,z) G H as H < An. If 6 is odd, then there exists e, f distinct n ^ 5. Therefore * = (e, f)e is even.
<ir-'{a,b,c)<ir

= —

d-^e,f){a,b,c){e,f)e
0~'^(a,b,c)d

=

(x,y,z)

Hence by normality,

{x,y,z)

e H. Thus
If

H = An.
Lemma
5.33:

H contains

all

3-cycles of S„;

and by

Lemma

5.31,

Let H <\ H = An.

A„.

H contains
£
e);

the product of two disjoint transpositions, then
there exists
e

Proof:

Let a
fts,

(ai, ft2)(a3, 04)

H.

from

fti,

a2,

a4.

Let

$

=

(ai,

ftz,

Since n — then 6 G An.

5,

e

{1,

.

.

.

,

»}

distinct

O'^aO

=

(a2, e)(a3, a4)

a'^e^^aO

— =

(ai,a2){az,ai){a2,e){az,a4)
(fti,

a2)(a2, e)

=

(ai, e,a2)

Thus

H contains a 3-cycle,
5.34:

and the

result follows

from Lemma

5.32.

Theorem
Proof:
.

A„

is

simple for

to

— 5.
• • •

Let < A^, ¥- {l}. Then there exists aGH, a^' i. Let a = a^ are disjoint cycles. We may suppose without loss of generality that a^ A; — 1, as the are arranged so that the length of a. — length of a.^j for i = 1,
ffj,
. . ,
.

H

H

a^.

where
.
.

a^, a^,

.,a^

.

.

,

.

.

.,a^

commute by Problem
Case
1:

5.55,

page 169.
Also

Suppose ttj = (ttj, .,aj with m > 3. Let a= {a^,a^,a^. Clearly <jGA^. commutes with a^,...,a^, as they move different integers. As a~^ G A^ and P = a-^a-^aa G H. Note that
. .

<t

H <]

A^,

ff-laff

=
• • •

(a^,

ftg, ftj,

a^,

.

.

.

,

ftja^

«fc

and so

^ = = = =

«-i

^-^(a^,

ftg,

a,, a^, ...,

aja^

a^

«r'K,a3,aj,ft^, ...,aj
(»™' ttm-l'
• •

'

*l)(«2' «3'

^V

%'' O-J

(ai>a2'«4)

Since P

GH,

the result follows from

Lemma

5.32.

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS

173

Case
a

2:

=

Suppose (a^, ttg, a J

m = 3,
G
A„.

and a^ is also a 3-cycle. Then H contains

Let

a^^

{a^, a^, a^)

and

a^

=

{a^,a^,a^).

Let

Thus

H contains
a~^(T~^a<T

=

a~^a~^

a~^{<j~^a^cr){(T~^a2a)a^

a^

and the
Case
3:

result follows

from Case

1.

Suppose

m=3

and
«^

a^,...,af. are transpositions.
(fl^i> <^2'

Let

a^

(a^,a^,a^.

Then

— =

'^3)"l"2

"fc('*l' '^2'
• • •

*^3)"l"2

"ic

{%'

<^2'

«3)^«?«l

«f

=

(«!' «2' «3)^

=

(«!'

<^3' ^^2)

and the
Case
or

result follows

from Lemma

5.32.

4:
all

Suppose

the

«.

=

(a^,

fflg,

a^).

Then

H

are of length contains

2.

Then

m

is

even, and

a^

-

{a^,a2), a^

=

(ttg.aj.

Put

a-W =
Thus
/r contains

(aj,a3)(a^,a2)a3a^

•••a^

a-^aaa'^

=

(aj,aj(a2,ag)

and the

result follows
5.35:

by

Lemma

5.33.
is

Corollary
Proof:
position

The symmetric group S„

not solvable for n

^ 5.

page 165).

{c} C A„ c S„ is a composition series of S„ for n ^ 5 (Example 2, By the Jordan-Holder theorem this is, up to isomorphism, the only possible comseries. Now |A„| - n !/2, which is even for « ^ 4. Hence [A„ {i}] is not a prime.

An O S„ and

:

But

if

any subnormal

series of S„ with factors of
is

prime order existed,

it

would be a com-

position series.

Therefore S„

not solvable.

Problems
5.63.

Prove that
Solution:

if

G = A„, n^

5,

then the derived group G' of

G

is

G.

If

G'

We know that G' < = {i}, G is abelian.

G.

Hence G' = G or else G' - {1} as G is simple by Theorem But A„ is not abelian for n — 5; for example,

5.34.

(1,2.3)(3,4.5)

=
=

/I

V2
but Therefore G'

2 4
2

3
1

4
5

5 3 5
1

6 6 6 6

... ...

« M n n

/I

(3,4,6)(1,2,3)

=

V2
G.

3

3 4

4
5

... ...

5.64.

If

G^A„

and n

^

5,

prove that Z(G)

=

U}.

Solution:

As Z(G)
Z{G)
¥-

<]

G,

Z(G)

=G

or

Z(G)

=

U}.

As Z{G)

is

abelian but

G

is

not (see Problem 5.63),

G.

174

FINITE GROUPS
Without using Theorem
Solution:

[CHAP.

5

5.65.

5.34,

prove that G'

- G = A^

for

rt

-

5,

where

G =

S„.

as G'
5.66.

We use Lemma 5.33. Let a = (2,3,4), c = < G, the result follows from Lemma 5.33.

(1,2,3).

/?

=

a-ia-^aa

=

(1,4)(2,3)

S

G'.

Hence

Are any of Aj, Aj, ^3,44 simple?
Solution:

Both Ai and Ag are of order 1, so they are not simple. A3 is of order 3, so A3 is cyclic of prime order and therefore simple since groups of prime order are simple. Finally A4 is of order 12. We have already seen that a group of order 12 is solvable. Indeed we saw in Problem 6.45 that its composition factors have orders 3, 2, 2 respectively. Hence A4 is not simple.
5.67.

Prove that S„ has no non-trivial element
Solution:

in its center for

n —

3.

(Hard.)

Let a
Let
ai

G

S„, a 7^
. .
.

1.

Let a
If

Then a-^fia = (aia,a.^a) = (a^.ag) ¥- fi. Hence ((ii,a2)Then a-^fia = {a^a, a^, a^a) = (a2, fti, 6) where 6 = a^a and 6 is an integer different from a^ and a^. No matter what h is, a-^Pa ^ p since a^P = dg but a^a-^Pa = a^. Hencp a € Z(SJ. Thus no non-trivial element of S„ belongs to Z{SJ.
(«!,
,

=

a^).

m

= ai ^ 3,

a^ be the decomposition of a into disjoint non-identity cycles.
j8

let

=

a

Z(Sn).

If

m = 2,

let

fi

=

(a^, a^, 03).

5.68.

Prove that A„, S„ and
Solution:

{1}

are the only normal subgroups of S„ for n

-

5.

(Hard.)

Let

H<
e^

S„.

Then
If
{i},

by Theorem
If

5.34.

A„nH =

i.

HnA„ < A„. Hence A„nH = A„ or else A„nH = {i}, as A„ is simple A^nH = A„, then A„cH. If H ¥- A„, as A„ is of index 2 in S„, H = S„. suppose H # {i}. U e G H and # # e is odd. As 92 jg even, e2e/^nA„
i,

and as «t is even, t = 9-1 = e. Hence H consists of only two elements, and e. As iS„ has no center (Problem 5.67), there exists m ^ S„ such that /j-iffp ¥- e. But ytt-iff/t e fl^, as = {1,9}, this is impossible. This contradicts < S„; and since ¥^ {1}. the assumption that

and so

Let t

€ H,
1

x ?^

t.

Then

t is odd,

H

H

H

5.69.

Prove that
Solution:

S'^

= A„
is

for

n^5.
A„ d S^ (Problem
by Problem
5.68.
4.68(iii),

As SJA„

abelian (cyclic of order 2 in fact),

page

116).

As S„

is

not abelian, S;

¥- {i}.

But S^

<

S„.

Hence

S;!

= A„

Alternatively,

S^DA^ = A„

by Problem 5.63 or

5.65.

A look back at

Chapter

5.

In this chapter we proved the three Sylow theorems. The first gives the existence of Sylow p-subgroups; the second states that a subgroup of prime power order is a subset of one of the Sylow p-subgroups; and the third states that all the Sylow p-subgroups are
conjugate.

The proofs of the Sylow theorems used a standard technique of finite group theory: induction on the order of the group. It is also worth noting our counting arguments, e.g. in the proof of the class equation.
Using the
center.
class equation

Then we proved

we proved that a group of prime power order has a non-trivial as a consequence that a group of order p*" (where p is a prime)

has a normal subgroup of order p'-K By repeatedly taking the center of factor groups, we defined the upper central series of a group. A group is nilpotent if a term of the upper central series is the group itself.

Next we gave a method of constructing a group from the cartesian product of two given H and K. This group had isomorphic copies H,k of H and K respectively which satisfied HK = G and Reversing this analysis we showed that if a group {1}. G had normal subgroups H and K with HK = G and {1], then G = H x K. Using this result and the Sylow theorems, we classified groups of orders 1, 2, 15 up to
groups

HnK=

HnK=

.

.

.

,

isomorphism.

80. Prove that if G is nilpotent and G/G' is cyclic. We next considered composition series (subnormal series with simple factors) and proved that every finite group has a composition series. G). equation (5.e. Prove that the normalizer of a Sylow p-subgroup coincides with Let |G| = Ji and \H] then there are precisely Examine Nq(H).78. Find an example of a group G with a normal subgroup N such that G/N and N are nilpotent but G is not. m where 1 i? is a n/m — elements in subgroup of G. 5. Define the multiplication . G H be a proper subgroup of G. Supplementary Problems SYLOW THEOREMS 5. 5] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 175 Then we ability of equations. a Sylow 2-subgroup normal? 5.64} be the set of integers modulo 65. Prove that the Sylow 17-subgroup Prove that the Sylow 13-subgroup Let is normal in a group of order 255 normal in a g:roup of order 2 5 = • 3 • 5 • 17.75. 62) = («i + «2.77. In our final section we proved that the groups A„ for n — 5 are simple. 6i)(a2. 1} be the set of integers modulo 2. be the set of all pairs (a. So we chose a criterion involving showed that subsubnormal series with abelian factors for our definition of solvability.74.71. 1. .72. page 135) for the group in in Problem 5. Use Problem 5. .2. G which are not in any conjugate of H. a& A and b G B. 5. This led to a method of determining whether a permutation was even or odd.79. If Hng-^Hg = {1} for all gGG-H.2).72.76.CHAP. 5. Prove that G is a group of order 2 5 • 13 with respect to this multiplication. Show Let that every subgroup of index p in a finite p-group be a finite p-group and is a normal subgroup. Verify the class equation (i.) its own normalizer. (-l)°26i • + 62) for Is (ai.81. To do this we needed to express permutations as products of disjoint cycles.70. bj). we concluded that S„ is not solvable for n — 5. 5. B = {0. A— G and {0. groups and factor groups of solvable groups were solvable. so called because they led to a criterion for the solvnoted that our first definition involving a subnormal series with We factors of prime order did not extend to infinite groups. and an extension of a solvable We group by a solvable group was solvable. As a consequence of the fact that An is simple. (ai. (a. 5.. (G' is the derived group of 5. 5. where p is a prime — 5.b). defined solvable groups. 62) ^ G. In the Jordan-Holder theorem we showed that a composition series has a unique length and unique factors up to isomorphism. 5.79 to show that elements of co-prime order commute in a nilpotent group. Prove that the Sylow p-subgroup Is this true when p = 3? is always normal a group of order 4p. 5. = {1}. . is • 13. then G' Show that Nq(H) ¥= H.73. (Hint: THEORY OF p-GROUPS 5.

Let ^ — SP ( [ _^ n)'(l n))' Show that \G\ ~ 8. In Problem 5. Show that there is no simple group of order p^m. page 161.95.92. G(i) 3 G(2) 3 Prove that a group G is D G(i) D nilpotent if and only if G(„) = {1} for some positive integer n. Show that. q. COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS 5. 5. Prove that a finite nilpotent group groups and some other subgroup. Show that G is nilpotent.89. Prove that a group of order 4p. Prove that a group of order pqr is solvable when p. 5. Find the lovsrer central series for Dg" for positive integers n.88. Show that the direct product of two nilpotent groups is a nilpotent group.43. where p is a prime and m is < p.24. Find a composition series for the quaternion group. Employ the results of Problem 5.90.94.) < 60.91. SOLVABLE GROUPS 5. r are primes and r > pq. is isomorphic to a direct product of any one of its Sylow p-sub- 5. Consider 5. page 158.82 for the definition of lower central series. See Problem 5.99.93. \ = • • • • 5. {Hint.83.49.85. 5. Find the composition factors of a finite p-group. x] is called the lower central series of G. Show that i)„ is isomorphic to G = gp f ( n) ' (^ -ij) ^^^""^ ^ = e2m/n 5. Which group of order 8 is isomorphic 5. Prove S„ is all 3-cycles not solvable for of S„.82.97. 5. Suppose G is a finite group with all its Sylow p-subgroups normal. without using the fact that A„ simple. 5. The sequence of subgroups gp({[g.84. 5.176 FINITE GROUPS Let [CHAP. page 162. 5. except for difficult groups of prime order. Use this fact to give alternate proofs of Theorems 5. (See Problem 5. and 5. there are no simple groups of order case occurs for order 36. we showed that a group G is solvable if and only if G'"' = {1} for some integer n.70 to prove that a group of order 255 is isomorphic to a direct product of its Sylow 17-subgroup and another of its subgroups.87. 5 5. Show that Z)„ is solvable for all positive integers n. Show that the direct product of two solvable groups is solvable. {Hint. p a prime.) w— 5. 5. is solvable.86.98. 5. Thereby show that a group of order 255 is cyclic. A . page 163. G(i) = G and G(j+i) g G G^^ and x S G}).96.) DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 5.23.

We call direct sums of infinite cyclic groups free abelian groups. i.h GG. It is customary to use " +" for the binary operation in abelian groups. 177 . We will begin this chapter with a preliminary section in which we restate some of our results and defini- tions in additive notation. groups every element of which is of order a power of the prime p. g'h = h-g.e. then A is a direct sum of p-Priifer groups and groups isomorphic to the additive group of rationals.chapter 6 Abelian Groups Preview of Chapter 6 A group G with binary operation • is abelian if. The additive group of €Q Note. i. abelian group G which has every element of finite order can be expressed as a direct sum of 2)-groups. in other words. show that every finitely generated abelian group is a direct sum of cyclic groups.e. We express this by saying that Q is / divisible. then there exists Q has the property that if g E Q and n is any nonzero such that nf — g. In abelian groups it is customary to talk about "direct sum" instead of "direct product". Direct sums satisfy an important homomorphism property which gives rise to the important fact that every abelian group is a homomorphic image of a free abelian group. This which we call the type of the abelian group. The p-Prufer groups are also divisible. Note that these are not the only divisible groups. This theorem is of great importance set of integers. Any reader who would like a briefer account of abelian groups may refer to Sections 6. completely classifies finitely generated abelian groups. rationals integer. X Furthermore we associate a set of integers to each finitely generated abelian group.1c and 6. two finitely generated abelian groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the same type. for all g. in many branches of mathematics. An then consider classifying abelian groups according to the orders of their elements.g. We obtain the pleasing result that if A is any divisible abelian group. 6.3. the additive group of reals is also divisible. We At {a) this point we have (6) three types of abelian groups: the cyclic groups. The rest of the chapter is devoted to showing that many abelian groups are direct sums of these groups. every finitely generated abelian group is the direct sum of cyclic groups. the additive group Q of rationals.1a. (c) the p-Priifer groups. We note that the direct sum of abelian groups is again abelian. An important p-group that we shall introduce here is the p-Prufer group. We Recall that a group G is finitely generated if it contains a finite subset with G = gp{X). e. One of the concepts which we will reformulate additively and generalize is the concept of "direct product" considered in Chapter 5. This will bring him quickly to the fundamental theorem of abelian groups.

a G G. Chapter .Gn if = gi+ +gn we write where giG Gi. such that a identity element is often termed the zero of G. is is written as g — h. in additive terminology.) Note that. In terms of additive notation an abelian group is a non-empty set G together with a binary operation + such that (i) {a + b) + c = a + {b + c) = b for all a. as all groups studied here are abelian. Here we are interested in extending the concept of direct sum from two subgroups to a finite number of subgroups.. • If w= we write tig an abelian group and is a subgroup. H H Definition: An abelian group each g GG G is said to be the direct sum of its subgroups Gi. is. . can be expressed uniquely in the form g .19. Instead of talking of multiplication of cosets. 6 6. aGG Standard abbreviations are as follows: (i) g If + (—h) n is 0. (Warning: Some authors write for G/H. Instead of writing J¥ ® if. The element -a is often termed the negative of a. write ng for —g+---+—g {—n times). Thus the sum of two cosets gi + H and g2 + H is. {gi + H) + {g2 + H) = {gi+g2) + G ^ talk of the factor G-H H tion. i = 1. . a coset is simply a set of the form g + H. (ii) a+b +a + = a for all (iii) There exists an identity element. and H and K are subgroups of G.1 PRELIMINARIES Here we will practice expressing our ideas in additive notation. The following table is useful in "translating" multiplicative notation into additive notaa and b are elements of a group G. we write It G = @ K.) n = 2 we 5. and we will use additive notation throughout. G= d® • • • © Gn or G= If i=l i: Gi. falls away.cG G. a. • • (ii) a positive integer If for If n < we we write ng for g + + g {n times). Multiplicative ab a-i 1 a" a6-i HK aH a+ Additive a+b —a na a— b H+K H In Section 5. page 146. .n. we defined the internal direct product of two groups and Now. Additive notation and finite direct sums In this chapter all groups will be abelian.b.. called a direct summand of G. by definition. In this case. page 146. then automatically H < G and we may group G/H. H K.3a. obtain the same definition of internal direct product that we gave in (The condition (i) of Proposition 5. we talk of addition of cosets.178 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. we speak of a direct sum rather than a direct product. . H®K. The (iv) is Corresponding to each there exists an element b such that a + 6 = 0. . in additive notation. This b unique and is denoted by —a. denoted by 0.

.gn) of subgroup of G. and also with gi= = and gj = x. who i In Section 6. G„ and H is the direct sum Section 6. 0. then g = gi+ + gn is with flfj G Gi. Hence gt - g* for which arises: if Gi. Gi then © • • • e G„. .. Then there . . It is clear £f2.. • = (gn-g*) = identical..n. Then (gi. Then ^ Gi is simply 2 ^'i- . does there exist a group G the direct sum of isomorphic copies of the groups Gi? This question is answered in the following theorem. . The . G„. Then = (gi-g*i)+ By our i = l. . = with gi flTl + • • • + if . let 1. firj. . . • • • . direct . .K) of Problem . then G^H.. . that every element G is uniquely of the form {gi.H„ and Gi = Hi for . 0) + (0. The question is . . .. Gi . argument . . G GiHGj and with gi= • • • gj+t~ = gf„ Note that • = gi-i = = flfi-i = flfi+i = gi . . fifn e Gj for i = l. .30.15). . holds only gi . 0. .j.gn) + (hi.hn) eG.n. .. i-l. • • • • = gi+ = gn = and + Qn The following theorem provides a simple direct criterion for determining when a group is the sum of its subgroups. If (gi. then GiOGj X = (0} for i ¥. . But this contradicts the definition of direct sum. .gn + K). G is = l. can be expressed as the sum of elements from the subgroups Gi. .. G7 as shorthand for Gi. We need only show that this expression unique. .. define {gi. • page 146. . . . . . be the cartesian product Gi x G2 x = {gi + hi. . . Here we will use additive notation. Let G . . An important result which we will prove in . . exists a group G which is the sum of isomorphic copies of Gi. . G„. .1b we will define the concept of an indexed family Gi.Sec. Suppose also that an equation . .. if G = H®K and H = L®M. and Gi • • • ^ Gi for i= . .. . . 0.1: . . G„ be abelian groups.n) and Gi. . Furthermore. . G= ^ 0. . . .G„ be subgroups of a group G and suppose each element of G Let Gi.1b may take I — n i G 7. 0) + • • • + (0. . closely the . . . .Then G Proof: If is the direct sum of the subgroups Gi.. i if . . . Theorem 6. g„). ..n.. the direct . For otherwise if a. . . . Suppose g is = g* + • +gt ••' another such expression. so we will be x Gn. G = Gi © © G„ and the result follows. .1c states that of Hi. = j (0. The proof follows . Theorem 6. 0. Hence sum of Gi.2: Let Gi. g GG. G„ are abelian groups.1] PRELIMINARIES 179 If a.n. 6. 0. = g2= • • • = gn-^. then G = L®M®K (see Problem 6. . .x. G„. Gi is a . 5.. 0.. n components Then G is a group. Proof: brief.. .n and the two expressions for g are hypothesis. -ygn) and (hi.1c without reading Section 6. . reader {1. studies Section 6. 0) flfi | G Gi L . Gn. ... +ign-gt) (gi-gt) = {gz-gl) = .

X= {x}.3. Since gp(X) is the smallest subgroup of G containing X. Prove that H + K is a subgroup of G. to say that 6. Then m— 0.Hence the expression of an element in the both H and if. It follows from the definition of that XqH. each ff in G is a homomorphism. Prove that the negative of a Solution (a + 6 is —a — 6.g & H H. Let G = H and K be subgroups of G. Let H be This a subset of an abelian group G. by Problem {g + h)g = a homomorphism means that (g n(g + h) = ng + nh = ge + he. • • When 6. Let n be an integer and Solution G an abelian group. Prove that Solution: if G is abelian and ig H a subgroup of G. Let G be any abelian group and let XqG Z}. . for (ri. for all in additive notation. n{g + h) = + nh when n = 0. If M > 0.k'GK).hGG.1.SjGZ and H • H ¥= H . k.) H + if 7^ (3 If HnK = {0} and Solution: since both — k') e H + K since H and if hi + ki = h2 + fcj where hi. So we have to prove that if u. Prove that implies f —g G is H is 3. ^i — ^2. A ria. then (f G/H is abelian.4. prove that G ~ H ® K. Ti G 2. and so gp(X) = H. n — —m.hG G.h'eH.6. we may assume that m(g + h) = mg + Keeping + h) = (m+Viig + h) = m(g + h) + (g + h) — mg + mh + g + h = mg + g + mh + h = (m + 1)^ + (m + l)h = ng + nh Finally if n < 0.„ e X.7. Then H is a.i+ clearly = +r„x„ and k fe = SiJ/j + • • • • + Sp2/p r„x„ belong to (-Sj)yi subgroup of G.: : : 180 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. it follows that G = H ® K. a. the set of all multiples of x. (X¥' 0). -y = fe' + fc' fej . then gp(X) is.2. But if iCi.1). (k u-vGH + K. Furthermore Inductively + nh = + — 0. Hence gp(X) D H. Thus m-i. — k^ belongs to = ^2. ng If n = 0. (^.j/^GZ). 6. &2 G K. = (h-h') + are subgroups of G. Since G = H + K. for w > 0. — k^. + 6) + {-a -b) = = = (a + b) + [(-a) + (-b)] = + (6 + {-a))] + (-6) = [{a + (-a)) + b] + (-6) = [a is + b) + (-a)] + (-6) + {{-a) + b)] + (-6) (0 + 6) + (-6) = 6 + (-6) = [{a [a 6. a subgroup of if and only f.1) = {rx r & Let H • be the right-hand side of • • (6.4.1. then h- - r^xi + • • + + + • • + (-Sp)^/^ S a subgroup of G. by 1. XiG X} (6. G Z. 6 Problems 6. Moreover if Kj. Solution exactly the same argument as in Lemma page 55. by (6. .5. If HnK = {0} and if we consider two expres- and if y^ 0.i Now M = + fc. ng then n{g + h) — Thus ng + nh. (H + K={h + k\h&H and fee K}. 9 is g. But. definition. Solution Prove that the mapping e which sends g to ng for Now. TiX^ + Thus H • is H . Prove that if g.v e H + K. let w = m + this in mind. (g (f + H) + + H) = + g) + H = (g + f) + H = + H) + G (f + H) if 6. and so n{g + h) := m(— (g + h)) = m((—g) + {—h)) = m{—g) + m{—h) — ng -V nh n{g 6. Let n be any integer and G an abelian group. r2X2 Prove that gp{X) In particular then gp{x) Solution: = {v\ \ y = nxi + + • • + r„x„. then x = h^ — h^.1). h^&H and k^. Therefore x = and form h + k is unique. then (h. then + r„a:„ G 9P(X) for every choice of r. n(g + h) = mh. we have then g'p(X) C H. + h)9 = ge + he 6. sions H ¥. H + K.

is Clearly = {0}. xGng + H. 2' Solution: (i) Let g be of order 2'3s. b such that am + bn — 1. HdA that A + But. Solution: If a —6 is of p. If is finite. page 125). Solution: (H G = H + K. Hence (Bn/y). Consider x G SnH. (Br\H). by the definition of S. Let GIH = gp(g + H) where ne Z. Hence G = S + H. Thus the order of a. of order a power of p since the least common multiple of two powers of a prime p is a power Hence S is a subgroup. x = ng + h for some nGZ and hGH. as AqH. since (m. If g G G. Then. (BnH) = H.7.10. Then by the + K)/H s K/{KnH). (i) say proved. Hence g G A + B and we conclude that G = A B. divides the least common multiple I of and n. Thus 71 = and so SnH = {0}. Let G=A ®B and let H be a subgroup containing A. Let G be abelian and let a G G be of order m. What we must prove then b the is form a+ 6 where a GA and 6GB. page 132). Now if g G G. If x G G. Prove that GIH = K. then the set S of elements of G of order a power of a fixed prime p is a subgroup. But and aSA = h~a. Let (i) G be an abelian group of order 36. by Problem 6.11. of order m. Now (ii) since ng^ = n(am)g a{nm)g = and similarly mg2 = 0. let I = qm = rn for some integers q and + = 0. 6. Therefore. Similarly g2 G B. Let H@K. the set of all elements of order a power of 2 is the Sylow 2-subgroup A. (am)g + {bn)g = g^ + g^. A + (BnH) = and h^ a+b h-aGH.23. AnB A+B ® Q . and so G/H = X as required. n{g jr 6. Prove that H= A© and If /i. Solution A © As every element of G is uniquely of (BnH). there is precisely one Sylow p-subgroup of G. SG Show that the order ot a 6. Let H and suppose that G/H is infinite cyclic. r.10. G/H = {0}. G then S is the power of p. G = S ® H and H is a direct summand of G. Thus bGBnH HdBdH. Prove that H is a direct summand of G. b e S H. g = gi + g^ where g^ is of order dividing 4 and g2 is of order dividing 9. then. For if P is any subgroup of G of order a Pq S. and so g^ G A. Solution: for some g G G and let S — gp{g). So every Sylow p-subgroup of G is contained in S. for each prime p. so -A B. As x G H. 6. By the preceding problem. every Sylow p-subgroup of G must coincide with S. a and 6 are of order a power of p. Deduce that a finite abelian group has one Sylow p-subgroup for each prime p dividing \G\. Sylow p-subgroup of G.1] PRELIMINARIES G have a subgroup 181 6. Hence H = 6 HcA + where A®(Br\H).e. Then i(a + b) = la + 6. +b m Solution Since both lb m = qma + mb = G= and n divide I.13.8.9. So. Put a. Now subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem HnK = 4. But + H is of infinite order in G/H. Since the order of a Sylow p-subgroup is the maximal power of p dividing the order of G. by Problem 6. by (i). + 6 divides I.12. then —6 is of order a power of p. n) = 1. Prove that if G is an abelian group. Prove that: 9. i. then g (ii) G=A Q — gi + g2 where the order of gi divides 4 and the order of ^2 divides B where A is the Sylow 2-subgroup and B is the Sylow 3-subgroup of G. S itself is of order a power of p (Problem 5. there exist integers Hence bn)g g — — {am = 0.: Sec. Then x = ng + H) = ng + H = H. B. 6. Thus.6. = + m and 3« = n.

| ® 6..e. &' distinct elements of / and no gi is zero. Thus C = R 1.A2. h = l+m b. Infinite direct sums (See Note on page 177. We write G = "^ Gi.j Gl..14. k. i. fin/ = {0}. gk-i + + gi for example. gk. hence the uniqueness of the expression is understood to be without regard to the order of the elements gi. We are already familiar with such a device. is then called a family of indexed sets. As h = l + m = li + mj. is called an indexed family. H. there is sum of its subgroups Gi. e L.g. and Usually we will use the definition of Section 6. gi G Gi and X g2 ^2 G Gj But this contradicts the definition of direct . For ii x G GiHGj and X ¥-0.15. Solution : Let ber} fl = i^ {a + iO -1). ib) belongs to R + I. it is is also the direct We note that if G is ^ Gt and i. i GI. . if a+ib&C. 6 6. But where I S L and m G M. Show that the group C of complex numbers is with respect to addition the direct sum of the subgroup consisting of all the reals and the subgroup consisting of all the pure imaginary numbers. if / is an arbitrary set we shall denote by Ai. . A collection of labeled sets Ai. i S /. sum to apply to the direct sum of an infinite Definition: An abelian group G is said to be the direct for each of the g gG. iei If / is finite. . I. We will denote the image of i by Xi. and let / = {0 + i6 6 an arbitrary real numclearly i2 and / are subgroups of C. I = Zj and m = m.1a whenever I is finite. Now if g = li + mi + k^ with Z. let e. then x expressible as X = = gi where where sum. gk where G Gj. . g ¥=0. we have labeled with I = Z. Note that as G is abelian. %¥- j. gi+ •• + gk = gk + . Xi = id. The . 2'. We number generalize our definition of direct of subgroups. Prove that G =L Q M ® K. . -I- I (here = Then a -1- tb = (o -h iO) (0 4- a an arbitrary real number}. above definition conversely. j = 1. Then g = h + k = h^ + k-^ and consequently h = h^ and k = ki. put li + m^ = h^e. e. and. such a collection of labeled sets. Hence the result.) It is convenient to label the subsets of a set with the elements of a second set. Let G= H®K and H = L®M. then GiflGj = {0}. Solution: Every element g oi G can be expressed in the form g = h + k where he H and k G K. iG I.I-^X be an onto mapping.182 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. . . in labeling a collection of sets Ai. More formally. Then 9 is said to be an indexing with the elements of I of the set X. + . In general.1a. i G. easy to see that a group which is the direct sum in the sense of the sum in the sense of the definition of Section 6. . . X collection Xi. m^GM and k^ e K. with . Hence g = l + m + k.gi+ 1'. . if a unique expression (but for order) for g • form g gj .

Then i{9 + 4. Note that Gi is a subgroup of G. let V. Hence +^ + maps all but gG. = This means that i9 = 9. it. Note that Next. then To see that j. + ^3) = = H. Then G = ^Gi. .) = i9 + i4 = i9 + {-{i9)) = = Thus 9 + = and is the inverse of G. does there exist a group the groups Gi? This question is if G.<f> GG^ and = for every j Gl. G is associative. G Gij be such that It is clear = ii9. 9 GG^. : G.^G G. be defined by 9v^ -i9. so that G is abelian. v^ is a mapping of G. .1 is the following: Theorem 6. and 0v. 2'. then 9i i9 is 9 = 9i+ +dk where each 9i belongs to one of the subgroups Gj. For if ^j. Now we prove that if Gi= {e\ 9 GG and j9 is the zero of Gj for all j in / with perhaps the exception of i9}.^ i{<\>^ + (<>2 + . .\J Gi. 6.4> G G^ and * = 9 + ^. then for all = + i9 = + i9 = i9 so that + O = 9.^3 G G. <!> Tj <j> j. 6.. .^3)) + . not the zero of Gi for only a finite number of elements of /. i{r) + 9) Finally.f>^) + <i>^^ 7. Again. Next. The mapping i ^ G Gi f or alH in / is the identity of G. by id = a and je = if j^-i. = gi+ where Qj e Gy holds if and only ii gi + Ok = 92= = • • • • 9k = 0. G.= 0. Finally we show that G = ^ 9i. define *= + ^ by 6 <i> i* = i9 +t</). for if 9. For if 9 GG. .. iG I is an indexed family of the direct sum of isomorphic copies of answered in the following theorem: G which Theorem 6. j ^i and so 9 But j9 = Next we prove v.1a. then Gi = Gi. .^^ i{<l. G Gi^ be such that 12^2 - 128. We a 9 assert that First.U Gi and finite number <j) + tt> — +e of the elements of I onto zero elements. We already noted that G is abelian. we omit is it.1': Let of iGl be subgroups of the abelian group G.1. ^v.^3). -^ 9. into i<j>.. and i9 is 9 the zero element of Gi for all but a finite number 6 of iGlV. Proof: Let G = -lo] 9: I -^ . that if e GG.Sec.<i.3: Let Gi. Then 9 G G. . as in Section 6. = a. i$ G Gi for If all i G I. say ii. for if 9. if G is a group. ii9i 9 GG. As the proof is similar to that of Theorem 6.* = y^ = . 6. and if i G I. Vj -> G. G . Suppose each element can be expressed as the sum of elements of the subgroups Gu Suppose .GG. if 9GG.^ + (^^ + . Clearly <j)v^. define 4>:i-^ -{i9).j) is one-to-one. We need to show If . that . ^^. i G I be an indexed family of abelian groups. : 4. Then there exists an abelian group G which is the direct sum of groups isomorphic to Gi. i in I. is onto.. Let . <j>. then on putting ^ = 9~^ we note that if j ¥^i. v^ is a homomorphism.!. + Hence (. and so Vj IS one-to-one and onto. ir] rj (i i-q. . j G I.<j>G G. Thus * e dj. Gi. the question arises: abelian groups. Let aGG^ and define (9:/-*.k' are distinct elements of I and that the equation also that if 1'.1] INFINITE DIRECT SUMS 183 The analog of Theorem Gi. . then + <j) is clearly a mapping of / into .u G. suppose Therefore v^ defines an isomorphism. 9kG Gt^ be such that ik9k — ik9.

k.2'. + . . Suppose that is G = gpi u of its Gj ) and that Gj. the ordered pair can be thought of as a mapping from {1. .G-^G be defined by — (I9. . Let Gi = gp(ir*). 20) = 2e ev + 20) + <t>v 6. ir^. 6. Hence show that the two groups obtained are isomorphic. The image of 1 gives the entry image of 2 gives the entry in the second position. 2'. we can conclude existence of direct is The sums We H G=H 6.. 1 ^ j ^ k.k' are distinct elements of j'l = = j'iOi + = -q Then for i'9j .) Problem 6. (Section 6. . Solution: An G ev in the first position. {B For if -irv + 4. that some 9i is not zero. Let G = Gi X G2 and let 7 be the group as constructed in Theorem 6.1c).k' are distinct) from which Oj for every = 1 Thus G = ^Gi iei (Remark: products.)v - = » + 0.17. and we will use it repeatedly.. Prove that G = where P is the set of positive integers. if possible.18.. . —gi — 0. 7/ is of the form -{-Ok /. . the zero of G. 6 = Oi+ +di. I. . Solution: We where need only show that if = 9i+ gi + 9k /. Solution: Clearly each element of G is of the form ffj groups Gj. 16) for any b G G. . +6^) = (since l'. / \ ie..3 with = {1. e Gj. Then v is clearly a one-to-one S^ and onto mapping..2}.184 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. say 9i -ffi ¥= 0. i Vi6I / GjC\ gpl U Gj I = {0} for each j G /. But 9i —g^GGy. Also »• is a homomorphism. b-2. additive group of the real numbers generated by the numbers n-. Compare the construction of a direct product involving cartesian products with the construction involving mappings by showing that an ordered pair can be thought of as a mapping. 1'. 92 say. .16. Hence = ~ ~ 9k — Slid the result follows.. . Then we need only show that + + ff^ where = gi+ + g„ • • each • • • belongs to one of the fir^ implies that 9i = g2 — " = ' . i 2 G p V is not the root of any polynomial with integer coefficients. = (Iff. Prove that G the direct sum subgroups S 7.2}. i = 1.. Let v. note the important result that: given Gi = Hi for each i G I.I is ) By hypothesis then. . Use the fact that <?i Let .. 2'. Problems Let G be an abelian group with subgroups G^.2.k' are distinct elements of then 9i = 91 = = 92+ = ffk = Then 9k Suppose.17 shows how the mappings of this proof link up with cartesian a very powerful result. Let G be the subgroup of the TT be the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. = 6i+ G Gy and . then if G is the direct sum of its subgroups Gi and is the direct sum of its subgroups Hi. . 29) + (l0. = (1*. Now where Oj suppose that r^. G2.. . and ^ 92+ • + gk ^ 9P{ U Gj Vie.2*) = (1» + 10. and 1'.

Gi-^H a |Gj homomorphism of Gi to H. 185 ffn Zj S n.^ = <A- is Proof: If g gG. and Hi.4: Let G= A® B and and into let H = ^. 17 is the root of a polynomial with integer coefficients. The homomorphic property Let of direct sums and free abelian groups G = A® B respectively. ^ Hi. b GB. then G ^ H. such that ^. . Note that if ^ is a mapping of {c} into H.. a^9 (a^ + b^<j> + a^e + a^e + = ia~ + b^)C + ^ \b {a^ + b^)C = g^^ + g^C homomorphism as £. then there exists a homomorphism or that Q BiG^H is = Bi. Define gl-ae + b4>. (6j + b. and if for each iGl. H Theorem 6. we need only show that its kernel is trivial since 9 is clearly onto. 6. . be any group. . where a. To prove 6 is an isomorphism.2. 2'. is infinite cyclic. . ments of 7. contrary to the statement in the problem. ^' — 4>- In exactly the same is way we can prove that if G = ^ Gi 9i.1] HOMOMORPHISMS OF DIRECT SUMS. fu. is an isomorphism. Hence the result.^l' elements of {1.. It is readily seen that this does define a homomorphism. . . shall often say that 6 extends the mappings such that an extension of the mappings We use this result to prove: 6. gO = giBy + • + g„e„' is = hi + • + 0.4 when each G. Let 6. This follows from Theorem 6. we have the direct sum of its subgroups Hi. 4. Now fifj = Zjtt'' where G Z and Zj = l Then = If not all + 22'^^' + • • + Z„!r"' are zero. then ((s {a^ {9.5: Theorem Let G.)K = + b^)^ = b^4> {(a^ + a^) + + a^e {b^ + b. if and B What connection. n' distinct elethen g — 9i+ + gn where g) belongs to the subgroup Gy with 1'. c.. . Note that if gfi = Oj + b. gj — and g = Thus Ker9 = and so G^H. If g GG. then g = a + b uniquely where a G A.) + (a.4 there homomorphism B:G-* H such that B \Gi = Bi for each i G I. will We C = gp{c) H H . ^ib A into H B H respectively.G^H £.Sec. e A and biGB (i = 1. Oi. Then g9 = only if each hj = 0. is there between G and H"! S of A A+B A® B). 2). . Thus Proof: exists a • .w' distinct Z. It turns out that is a homomorphic image of G. then there exists a homomorphism 9: C -^ The homosuch that B ^c) = 4>morphism B is simply defined by putting (rc)B = r(c<j>) for each r G Z. let be infinite cyclic and any abelian group. where hi G Hi' Since {0}. since H hj = gjBy and 0j.4. Then by Theorem 6. G.))C b^<j> = = Hence C is the required + a^)e + + b^4. H is Let Bi: Gi^ Hi be an isomorphism for all i G I. i G of I. uniquely defined and so is a mapping of G to H. and let H be a group which contains isomorphic copies A and Suppose that H = (but not necessarily that H = any. + 9^)^ = + &. We Bi. This theorem when applied to particular cases leads also to important results: (1) Theorem 6. be homomorphisms of Then there exists a homomorphism C-.}. FREE ABELIAN GROUPS = where the t </. .5 and (2) the concept of a free abelian group. with 1'. now apply Theorem 6. To begin with. If G is the direct sum its subgroups the direct sum of its subgroups G.

a one-to-one mapping of G onto H. then if . On 6.. gi+ follows that giQ* a contradiction as so G = 2Gi.' 186 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP.respectively. Hence '^' • • But then. contains a subset X such that G= (ii) for every mapping 9: X -^ H. .. . then ge* = g'e* implies that (gO*)<!>* = ig'd*)<j>*.nr G Z.6: The direct sum G — '^Gi satisfies the following condition: exists for every mapping 6: X-* H.6. Theorem {Xi\ iGl}. Finally gp{Gi \iGl) = and . r' of / and Qi. Since {ge*)<t. is To this proved by showing that G is isomorphic to a direct end let be the direct sum of its subgroups Hi. and so 9*<i>* is the identity is This implies that 6* = Hi. Similarly </)*5* is the identity mapping on H. by the definition of 6. If G is X— then G is Proof: finite cyclic This theorem groups.where V. we have g . Let Z = homomorphism (c. is infinite cyclic.gr are nonzero elements of Gr. then h = (hc[>*)e*. Finally are distinct elements we show that G is the direct sum of its subgroups Gj. • G G. 6 Now where 0*ix let each Gi be infinite cyclic. '^Gi^ I U e. a free abelian group freely generated by a set the direct sum of its subgroups G. Thus 0* is one-to-one and onto. suppose g niXv + + nrXr. Thus by Corollary G 1} X defined by h^ = Xi can be extended to a homomorphism -^ ^* of H into G.r' G I and ni. then there exists a iGl. .. {ge*)<l>* = = [ni{xve*) ni{hi'<i)) + • • • • + nr'CiCr'^*)]^* = {nihi' + • • + nr{hr'4>) = UiXf + • • • + + nrhr')^. 2'. O. since 0* is an isomorphism 1'. Gi = H is 0- gv{ci). Hence it follows by Theorem 6. as [6. If . . G said to be freely generated by X and X is called a is forG. H .X-^H be the mapping defined by homomorphism 6* of G into H. Furthermore if h G H. : = ' Corollary 6. For if g. a free abelian group.) Let (We know such a direct sum Then can xiB — hi. ]^ Hi. there phism 9*:G^H such that 0*^^ = e. sum of in- H H = ie S^i / where Hi — gpQii) exists by Theorem be extended to a is an infinite cyclic group generated by hi. . . To see this.3.* = g and {g'e*)ci>* = g'.. Accordingly. | i 6* : e /}.. a free abelian group. a homomor- A (i) group G which gp{X). it +gr = giO* {6. does not hold.2) G Hv and giB* ¥' 0. H any abelian group.* + WriCr' = g • • • mapping on G. any abelian group. Then g = Actually ^* and 6* are inverse isomorphisms. and Gi^* . the other hand <^ : the mapping [hi\ i H is the direct sum of the infinite cyclic groups Hi. = gpixi) and each G. is infinite cyclic for all i G I. .X^H H such that IG For.7: infinite cyclic groups a free abelian group. we know from the remark above that there exists a homomorphism (9i Gi -* i? such that Ci6ii = Cid.2) H + = • + gr&* = 0.x any abelian group.4 that there exists a homomorphism e*: '^Gi-^H which agrees with 6^ on Gu So we have the ^ required result. g' G G. we have G. . Gr. corresponding to each Gi. . We Conversely have shown that the direct sum of we have the following 6. . • • .g'. there exists a homomorphism basis e*:G^H is called such that e* = is e. Note that each Gi .

. gp{xi) There is a homomorphism e^: H^-^ G satisfying for gp(zie) is cyclic and is of order dividing n.8: 187 Corollary Proof: infinite d : Every abelian group is the homomorphic image of some free abelian group. is an arbitrary group whose elements are gi. 3 for choices is 3-3 3 = 3". Prove that A lA is a direct is summand of G if such that e ff the identity on A. Also consider g 9 of G to onto A — ge prove Solution: on B G = A B. 9* IH. Now letting g e G.a = and a: (i © A group G is said to be of exponent w if x £ G implies »ix = and n is the smallest positive integer with this property. and gp{Xi). Thus there is a homomorphism 9* G such that : H^® H^^ and 9* |„2 = 92. Let be the direct sum of two cyclic groups of order n. But xe = 0. Then {g . Then the identity homomorphism on A and the trivial homomorphism extend to a homomorphism e G ^ A which satisfies the required conditions (Theorem 6. S Z and • • = Xj n. ge . • G Gj. If I is the order of a + 6.a)e = ge .19. Put mapping of into G. Hence the number of possible 6. Hence AnK = {0} and so gp{A. \gp(h)\ = n and {m.ae = a.1] HOMOMORPHISMS OF DIRECT SUMS. Let G be freely generated by a finite set X. Now by the theorem on free abelian groups we know that G = G^® G„. 6. ® ff. 6. generated by = {x^Xj}.a for some Thus and G = A K. the set of positive integers. Problems 6. FREE ABELIAN GROUPS 6. K. But we know from the theory of infinite cyclic groups that ffj = m^x^ uniquely. and each G.23. Solution: We la = lb = order of show that G = gp(a + 6). Let Gj. then there exists a homomorphism 9* of into G such that 9* |x = 9. (B G^. i G I.K) = a&A. where tw. The result • • •® follows. Let E denote the set of even positive integers. is infinite cyclic.) Suppose that and only if there exists a homomorphism Use K = Ker e. Solution: 3. is of order gives rise to unique elements total of G.i9. Then = gp(Gi i & E) is clearly a proper subgroup of G. If \gp(a)\ = m. G„ be subgroups of G and suppose G = Gi Each expression of the form 9i + g2 + + gn> where . then G = gp(a) © gp{b) is cyclic of order mm. The result follows. where each G. if g&A®K let K = Ker 9 and let e AnK.Sec. : © as A g-a&K. .21. since x 9 u = identity on A. Q such a homomorphism exists.4. exists. so that G = gp{a+b). Then x = x0. There are 3 different possible choices for g^. Prove that every element of G is uniquely of G X.4).9i 92 : Hi = = il2 a.) : iGP We be an isomorphism. e A + i?. 6. then l(a +6) = la + lh — d implies 0.24. 6.5 to obtain the result. Solution: Let G. = ffp(xj).22. Prove that ^ G. w) = 1. Since (m. H H | Solution: Let 9i Gj -> G2i for all Gj are cyclic of order 2. Then each element of G is uniquely of the form ffi + + ff^ where Si S Gj. is then as we have seen. (Hint. Find |G| G is the direct sum of n cyclic groups of order 3. Prove that if G is any group of exponent n and 9 is a xi and xa respectively. H X X H Solution Let z.. by Theorem 6. If G cyclic.n) = 1. by the definition of a direct sum. i G I. Hence |G| = 3". since all the . ^ = is free abelian and the mapping fi'?'(^') 2 Xi-* Qi extends to a homomorphism of F onto G. ]Z| the form WjXj + + w„x„. G Ker 9.20. . etc. mn\ I and we conclude mn = I. Consequently I is divisible by the order of a and the 6. ^Tj. where 6. ^G = 9i and Hj = gp(x2). Let G be the direct sum of cyclic groups G^ of order 2 where i £ P. Conversely. Similarly there is a homomorphism satisfying X292 = X29. (Such an isomorphism apply Theorem 6.

If G is a group element (not equal to be a torsion group. the multiplicative group of complex numbers. =A ®B © aut a where page (fi) A is cyclic of order 3^ and B is cyclic of order 5^. G is between a rough classification of abelian groups and. page 144. the identity automorphism. but how would we prove that? Consider the following three examples of abelian groups: is of infinite order and every elements of the groups. Recall that the identity of C is 1.) represent corresponding automorphisms of G. Note that a* = p* implies a* — = i. torsion-free. For if r G Q. by Theorem 5.n are two integers. Note that If e aut (A). It is then easy to see that the three groups are not isomorphic. r = m/n where m. and as the elements of (aut (A))* commute with the elements of (aut (B))*. We assert that C has elements of infinite order and also elements that -1 is of finite order. p* to is one-to-one and onto. These three concepts provide us with to the identity) of finite order. The mapping P -* P* subgroup of aut (G). Accordingly. Each of these groups is not isomorphic One way is to examine the orders of the to the others. 3) = 1. Hence -1 is of finite order and 3 is of m order. (aut (G) is the automorphism group of 83). AND STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS Tentative classifications: torsion. Solution: identity on B. to avoid confusion. As (aut (A))* n (aut (B))* = {i}. Prove that aut (G) (hard) and hence compute |aut(G)|. continue to use the multiThus n{r + Z) = nr + Z = plicative notation for C. then a can be used to form an element of aut(G) by letting it act as the (Theorem 6. infinite order. sibilities are r = 1. rationals. Now let 9 S aut (G). Note that (-1)^ = 1 implies infinite of order 2 and 3-^ = 1 if and only if r = 0. the additive group of Q/Z the factor group of the additive group of the rationals by the integers. If G has both an element of infinite order and an said to be mixed. jaut {G)\ = 6 X 20 = 120.4 states that a extends to a homomorphism. 2. 6 6. Similarly e\s induces an automorphism 85 o^ B. Hence the poschecked.25.2 SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF ABELIAN GROUPS. C.6a. Q/Z and C.188 ABELIAN GROUPS Let G aut (A) [CHAP. + Z = Z.5. 4. Thus aut (G) (aut (A))* aut (G) = ® (aut(B))* and. we have has every element but the identity of of finite order. distinguish If G is Q. Then The mapping « -^ a* is is an isomorphism of aut (B) into a (a+6)«*9B from which = = (ae + b)eB = ae + be = (a +6)9 by Theorem 6. Now every element of Q except element of Q/Z is of finite order. we have (aut (A))* + (aut (B))* (aut (A))* © (aut (B))*. 8^^ induces an automorphism Sa on ^> foi" ^9 must go into a subgroup of order 9 and by Sylow's theorem there is only one subgroup of order 9 (as G is abelian). 8. as can be Thus |aut (A)l = 6.16. and mixed a. 5. as we have seen above. 6. aut (A) © aut (B) A = To compute |aut(G)| we must compute |aut(A)| and |aut(B)l. a must take a onto an element of order 9. (r. G is a group in which every element other than the identity is of infinite order. We use the symbols a*. (i) Summarizing. Let a e aut (A) and let gp{a). Each of these gives rise to an automorphism of A.) = G (see Section 3. Similarly |aut (B)| = 20. Q. so if aa = a^. We must check that it Similarly for elements /? of aut (B). G is said said to be torsion-free. (a+b)a*l3* - {aa+b)l3* = aa + hp = p* (a+6)/3*a* from which a*p* = p*a*. Let us. Q (ii) Q/Z has every element (iii) C has elements of finite order and elements of infinite order. »>S = ». 7. an isomorphism of aut (A) into a subgroup of aut (G). in which every element is of finite order. .

It + T{G) = G/T{G). Therefore the only element of finite order in G/T{G) is m Assume g + T{G) is of finite order n. Prove that Q/Z and G. hence g T{G). G of order 2. to be too difficult to accomplish completely.e. Since -J^ +^ is of order Q/Z and G are not 6. This would provide the following program for investigating abelian groups: (1) (2) Investigate torsion-free groups.9: G of finite order. Then mn{a — Thus T{G) if b) = mna — mnb = is — = a. the direct not isomorphic. Prove that if G is a group and the torsion subgroup of G. is the zero Thus G/T{G) torsion-free. The torsion subgroup In Section 6.^ +^ have every element of order some power of 3 by following the method is of order 4 in Q/Z.26. are G is easily of Problem 6. In this section we consider the question of whether it would not be possible to split a mixed group into a torsion-free group and a torsion group. Then T{G) is a subgroup of G. Prove that Q/Z and G. Theorem Proof: T{G) is a subgroup of G (termed the torsion subgroup of G). the torsion subgroup of G is contained in H. Solution: sum of groups Gj (iGZ) where each Gj is cyclic are Following the method of Problem is 6. As T{G) consists of all the elements of G of such that m{ng) = 0.Sec. it is easy to prove that every nonzero element of isomorphic. and so every element of finite order in G is contained in H. G and Q/Z are not isomorphic. there exists T{G). 3. Now consider = T{G).e. then Vn)9 = (Pl Pn)«l + • + (Pl Pn)*ti = + • • • + = of order 2. This means g e^ H. torsion we introduced a tentative classification of abelian groups into torsion- and mixed groups. Investigate torsion groups.29. a-bG T{G) and T{G) a subgroup of G. shown Since to . i. n respectively. Investigate (3) how they may be put together to form mixed groups. .28. Let G be the direct sum of torsion groups. Solution: Let G = (Pl is 2 I (?t- li g & G. Prove that G is a. 6. If the order of Xj is Pj. follows that finite order.2] SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION.bG T{G). to Such a program is found some significant results.26. Solution: H a subgroup of G such that G/H is torsion-free. i. STRUCTURE OP TORSION GROUPS 189 Problems 6.26. the direct not isomorphic. Problems 6. torsion group. Then g + is of finite order in G/H. G/T{G) is torsion-free. Then g is of finite order and g e T(G). but it does lead as we show Let T{G) be the set of all elements of in the following 6. g = Xi+ • • + x^ • • for some integer n and Xj belongs to some Gy.2a free.b GG be of order m. then H contains g G be of finite order. Let fl^ in +H = H H. 6. Solution: sum of groups Gj {i G Z) where each Gj is cyclic of order 3'. Let a. b. Since G/H is torsion-free. n{g + T{G)) = ng + ng G T{G).27.

order. Solution R/Z where R is the group of real numbers under addition and Z is Suppose r + Z is of finite order (r G R). bp'^g is of order q. Conversely \a the torsion subgroup of H. Thus we have proved that Q/Z = T(RIZ). Prove that if the set consisting of and the elements of infinite order of a group subgroup. subgroups Gp. . let G = H K where H = gp (h) is infinite cyclic. The definition of p-group given here thus coincides with that of Chapter 5 when the p-group is finite. Prove that if T is the torsion subgroup of G. p Gp G = pen Let p}. Thus T(R/Z) C Q/Z. the Gp. . then G is either a torsion-free group or a torsion group. if a + Z G Q/Z.n G Z and n ¥= 0. For example. and so nr G Z. Hence a e TnH. . On the other hand. .6. • .) In this section we show that a torsion group is built out of j3-groups. r„ order pI^pI^ p'^. H H 6. we may assume inductively Thus every element that bp'^g is the sum of elements belonging to Gp„_i. i. subgroup TnH is the torsion subgroup of any given H Solution: If ae is of finite order. and of all elements of infinite order of a group automatically a subgroup? Solution: No. then a& T.30. Find the torsion subgroup of the subgroup of integers. Now aqg is of order p^". It follows that g — aqg + bp^'^g.Gpi. and so the torsion subgroup of is contained consists of elements of finite order. Prufer groups a p-group or a p-primary group for some prime p if every element (If G is finite. So n{a + Z) = n(m/n + Z) - n{mln) +Z = m+Z = Z Hence a + Z is of finite order and Q/Z c T(R/Z). ^ Proof: We let the reader show that each Gp is a subgroup of G. page 132.Pn distinct primes and ri. in the torsion subgroup of H.10: G be any torsion group and let Gp = {g\ g has order a power of any prime. However (h+k) + (—h) @ K = gp {k) = fc is is of of finite 6. where Q is the subgroup of rational numbers. Theorem 6.33. Structure of torsion groups. order 2. 6 6. Then if n is the set of all primes.32. we have g & G of infinite order and sr'(^ 0) S G of finite order. contradicting the choice of g'. But + Z) = nr + Z.Gp„_2. Thus we have proved that is H H TnH TnH TnH 6. Since q is less then the order of g.e. c. positive integers. and so contained in TnH. see Problem 5. then of G. Then for some nonzero integer n. and Now h + k and —h are both of infinite order. p. . then a = m/n n{r where m.. G is generated by the of G can be expressed as the sum of elements belonging to Suppose that g GG and is of • . This means that r is a rational number. and so aqg G Gp^. But as is a subgroup.190 ABELIAN GROUPS Is the set consisting of [CHAP. Hence G is not mixed. it follows that the order of G is a power of p. Solution G constitutes a = {h\ h G G and h is either or of infinite order}. . Now g' — g is of infinite or an order so that (g' — g) &H.pl") — !.. Therefore g' is element of infinite order.31. Pu . Thus there exist integers a and pI^Sj^ b such that aq + 6p[" = 1. (g' — g) + g = g' & H. . Thus the study of torsion groups becomes essentially the study of is called A group G is of G of order a power of p-groups. . n(r + Z) — Z. Since G is Suppose G is mixed and mixed. Let Q "= P^ then (q.

e. and We and proceed by induction on n. where each G. Thus the order .Sec.+ifl'i+ •• +PUi9n = By the inductive hypothesis.2] SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION. Clearly {Q/Z)pDC^ and {Q/Z)pC The We now have at our disposal cyclic groups of all orders. |Gp| divides pq. If true for n. as we shall prove. of a cyclic group of order p and a cyclic group of order q. Gg # {0} by Proposition 5. ous integers r and result follows. and the p-Prufer groups.34. ¥. In Section the p-Priifer groups vs^ill be fundamental. the additive group of rationals. integers. Let g el. as the only group of prime order is cyclic. we have Pn+i9i = PUi92 = as gi gfi ••• = vU^gn = some power of = 0. = = • • = G= pen 2 Gp. (Q/Z)j.4 (Q/^)p is called the p-Priifer group (also called a fcrowp o/ tj/pe p»). Then and p. Let q. These..+g^ Then p'-g where each of the = 0..{0}. As the elements of Gj. STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS that 191 To show Pi. G G. Qi G Gp. For n = 1 it is certainly true. Use Theorem is 6. 1'. Hence..35. is n' of a power of p. pqg = 0. where p and q are different primes. which is not the case. . Since G. m< p'-i}. 2' e p Gj. gi^ d we have is £f2 of order and pi ^^ p„+i..{0}. G= "^ Gp. Solution: be of order pq. Problems 6. 6..10 to prove that an abelian the direct sum group of order pq. . Then sr^. Note that the p-Priifer group {Q/Z)p = U Cr where =s C^ = gpiVp'' + Z). Hence pi Now Vl+^gi similarly for gi. pen we must prove that gi gi+ • . Q/Z = pen 2 (Q/Z)v 6. consider gi+ let s'n+i • • + gn+i be of order pj. Solution: Let ffi G = ^2^G. as G is of order pq.p„ are distinct primes) occurs only for = g2= = • • • + gn = = gn — (where 0. Let p'' be the maximum order and so G is a p-group. . is a p-group. g^ g^+. clude that implies .fir„. page 137. for if r is any prime other than = {0}. it follows that Similarly |Gqi = q. constitute a large class of abelian groups. .+i. are of order a power of p. Show that a direct sum of p-groups is again a p-group. since {Q/Z)p = {m/p" + Z\ y *"' for variC^.9. G . |Gpl = p. = = {x +Z \ X +Z I of order a power of p} and = — {x {m/p'' +Z for various integers r m + Z p^x S < p"""!} \ Z} By the theorem. Note that G^ ¥. called the fi'n also 5r„+i = Arguing and we con- The subgroups Gv are Example 1: p-components of G. i. Hence r divides pq. Then by Theorem 6. Let us apply this theorem to Q/Z. the additive group of rationals modulo the Q/Z is clearly a torsion group.10.Gp G^. we have the result. \Gp\ = p or q. together with all their direct sums. Why does G^ = {0}? If g e G„ then. G ® p or Gr 6.

r. . not isomorphic to H. Note that n2= G =nr=0.37.nr are integers such that -I-I- niXi nrXr — (6.Zn Proof: We will use induction on m. set.. z„bn + zibi + = . and Pi.. if An niXi element -I• a. then for some integer « ^ 0. . for i ¥' j.3) implies wi is an inThen if 1} and xi ¥. • -h nrXr = some choice of Xi. = mi m^. Then Put r.Xn . Exchange Theorem. G. subset .. Theorem 6.+ s)fei = alhi + = bp'' + ^hi = g alh^ Put h~ahi. and if torsion-free with subsets X. are distinct elements of X and then niXi G A ni. Thus every element of X depends on W.0. The main result that we shall now prove is called the Steinitz . Then kh — pHh = pHah-i p^h^ = 00 6.3) = if - UrXr is - 0. For if a.. such that mti/i G s(p(W) for t = 1. and integers we can find integers Since Y is dependent on -I. G Z. Thus d.m.11: . and consequently clearly m«i2/i G gp{W) for i = 1. Now ai depends on B means that such that z¥'0. the concept of rank. is X dependent follows readily that gp (X) — is 2 ffPi^i)- I We need one further definition... mnx ¥' 0. . . • • • . . P2 be a p-Priifer group for any prime p.x-. x is dependent We say Y CG is if there is an integer n with nx^O and nx € gp{X). nr.Xr G X. Furthermore. nx = n^yi -tni. Then the Pjth component Gp^ ¥' {0} but Hp^ — {0}. 6 6. Solution: G is Let pj be a prime different from p. Then p^hi = g. . ./p''+^ hi = ((ii-|-bp'. there exist integers zai z. . . • • • W . In other words. on the subset Observe also that if G is if every element of Y is dependent on X. since G is torsion-free. Let G n^m . . . .) — m < p''. (We shall call a group with this property divisible. .. .. be an abelian group. For . dependent on is dependent on Y and Y is dependent on T^.0™} be an independent subset be torsion-free and let A = (ai. . X XcG W X . Y and then X is dependent on W.&«} is another subset of G such that A is of G. G is an element h G Solution: G and each element g & G there exists a p-Priifer group. Suppose and B depends on A U C where C is a subset dependent on B. is a cyclic group of order p. • • • are the primes in ascending order of magnitude.nrVr {Vi G Y). As I and p'"^" are co-prime. and let h^ = 'm. . . m • • • . there exist integers a and 6 such that al+bp^-^^ = 1. for each integer fe # such that kh = g. X of G is called independent if whenever xi. n and nj G Z and nx ¥. Then g — m/p^ + Z where + Z. in a group G is dependent on a subset Z of G for nx + . Then of B and \C\=n. Let G= 2 Gj where G. . . to Let H Prove that G is not isomorphic H. B = {bi.36. then equation (6.. mnx G fl'p(W). it torsion-free and {xi\ i X G Suppose X- independent. Independence and rank We Let introduce here an important concept in abelian group theory. mr =^ mi ^ 0. Let k — rpH where p and I are co-prime.192 ABBLIAN GROUPS Show that if [CHAP. . Therefore Let g €. m= + 1 it is clear that w g m.

Then yor+i. . Now there is no search for some concept replacing that of a largest element.. l^i^n. Thus D is a largest element.e. a torsion-free abelian group. . . Clearly A„ is Continuing in this way we As ? has only a finite number a maximal element. .. depends on {aj. .. C are as in (a).2}. B depends on (oi..1}. DdC and DdD.ds • • &D + yrttr implies that Suppose. and consider the case m = r + 1.3}.yiai + = ¥. It is easy to see that G and H are isomorphic groups. whereas Let = {A. .D}. {tti. Then by our remarks above. Then depends on B.yr. Note that although E is not a largest element. B. then Su {g} is not an independent set. i. then \X\ = \Y\. and E = {1. If G does not have a finite maximal independent set S. . then it is clear that Ai of 'P.. if possible. \T\ ^ |S|. where A= {0. . Let us (i) call a subset S of a torsion-free abelian group G a maximal independent set if it S is independent and g G G and g ^ S. To all abelian groups have maximal independent sets. Then it {di}. {ai. . Hence B depends on {ai} U (B - {6i}). . As a consequence of these remarks we If F is free abelian with a finite set of free generators X. .E}. depends on Since B is clear that {ai.. result holds for n^r.C. ttr+i} U C. one that contains all the elements of DdA. We <?? (6) inquire: it does T* Clearly "P does.. . then B depends on (ai. . UD . B= {1. and so inductively B and |D| = n-r.C.zi. with C= B.yi. no element other than itself contains it. yttr+i = yitti + • • + yrUr • + zidi + • • • + Zsds. Similarly C and A are maximal elements. If [Tl is finite. Also by the same theorem.. Then E is called a maximal element. Hence we can without ambiguity (ii) define the set S to be rank of a torsion-free abelian group G which has a finite maximal independent \S\. CcB \C\ = (n-r) — 1 = n— (r + l) = n— as desired. Let C So some Zi the elements ai.B. "^ • . Thus we have X Corollary 6. . . . obtain a result concerning free abelian groups. di. Suppose now that G. we call C Ai C get a chain of elements of 'P. . DdB. Hence |r| = |X|. Hence the rank of F is \X\. we consider the following examples: have as yet not proved that do so We we need (a) Let '=P={A. . .1. . . .B. that Zi-Z2= =Zs = 0. of elements. D= {0. then they have equal ranks. Zi¥=0. Or) U D. where 'P. . If there it • an element of "tP that contains A2 properly. and the proof of Steinitz's theorem is complete.ar+i} U C. this chain ends at An.2. If there is an element of is ? has maximal elements. D— . Now DcB . For we choose any element T that contains Ai properly. But {Or+i} depends on B and depends on {ai.. for have a largest element. has a maximal independent set S that is finite. Ur+i are not independent. Let T be any other finite maximal independent set. . Finally and \C\ = \D\ .ar} Next we assume that the by the inductive hypothesis.ar} . . By the Steinitz exchange theorem.2. . . .{bi}. 6.3}. .1. Ai C A2 C • • • • • A3. . STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS 193 and thus for some integer the result holds for i. Before stating the lemma.2] SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION. Zs such that Thus we can find integers y^O.2). .0. . a result called Zorn's lemma. C= (0. . .41 below). . we shall say G is of if infinite rank. We B (c) is not. . then rank of F = \Y\. {ar+i} depends on (ai. we call it Az.12: If i?' is a group freely generated by two finite sets X and Y. then is a maximal independent set of F (see Problem 6. \S\ ^ |r|.Or} UD where Or} U D. largest element of A.ar}UD. Similarly if F is also freely generated by a finite set Y. Thus m = 1. say. m-r.Sec.

71} for n all sets "P of sets have maximal elements. Zorn's lemma maximal element.But this is a contradiction.Y G £> then either ? itself is a chain). let = l.2)(m2/m2) = Q is 1. Solution: y be elements of G. Thus {—r)y + !• x = and x.2.1. n^ integers.13 we conclude that maximal independent subset. are elements of Q. (to2Wi)('»Ii/mi) m. we merely reverse the roles of x and y. T of sets such as the Ai in To state the criterion set in "P if We define A to be a maximal we need some definitions. lemma. using Zorn's lemma. Then G has a maximal independent set}. y are not independent. . or (2) Let C be a subset of T with the property that Y qX. and Ttn^n^. 6 (d) On "P A„= the other hand. . . if G is of infinite rank.) Consequently X = ry for some integer < r < order of y. namely the axiom of choice. Let X. . will not prove Zorn's Using Zorn's lemma we prove Theorem Proof: 6. Then C is called a chain in ? (in {d) above. U2 both belong to some tt™ all belong to this way we find that Mi.x) ~ gpip^g) and gp{y) — gpip'g) for some i. then G has an infinite Find the rank of the additive group Solution: If nii/ni Q of rationals. which says that an element from each set may be chosen from a collection of sets. mi. Let *' I = {X\XqG and X an independent Let Q be any chain in ?. . for each X e <P. element of £• Continuing the argument in some Xi G C. (1) establishes a criterion for determining vs^hether a set of sets has a What one needs is some condition for handling an ascending sequence (d). C be a set of sets. From Theorem 6. = U Xi. since every element of C is independent. . We take it as an axiom.y & C^. . . Thus Ui.iinG U U • • • is a dependent set. not {0. XdA implies if X ^ A. We could assume a more innocent sounding axiom instead. This means that r„ such that it is TiUl + 1 + ui TnUn — with at least one 1. i& either Xv c X^C/ G Xv.where 1'. Thus every set of two elements is dependent. then + (— mxn.^. it follows that gp(y) 2 gp(x).42 for a sketch of the proof). Clearly pos- U CG. Let C^ = gp(g) and let gp(x) be of order p'.194 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP.. y ¥= Q. and X c Ai+i.39. for the notation C^). gp(p''~*g) = gp{x). page 191. (see Example . Hence the result follows. then X G P. Thus gp(.38. Since V^^^g is of order p'. TiUi =7^ 0. . . . C/ set. j. say. Let if 'P = {Ai\ has no maximal element. So U is independent and U G'P. i For example. If i — j.. 2' are elements of or X^' C Xv. for some r 1. Accordingly the rank of 6. We conclude. The proof of Zorn's lemma can be derived from the axiom of choice (see Problem 6. that '? has a maximal element and this is precisely the maximal independent set required. <J> ZCF We We are now for every chain a position to state Zorn's lemma: Let ^U ^ Z is an element of ?. = VJ XiGT. Then x. Let C = {^i ^ -^l- To apply Zorn's lemma we must show that If not. n^. Show that the p-Priifer group has no independent set consisting of two elements. Then = Ai for some i.13: Let 'P G be any abelian group. Then C •X 6 in "? in ?. As Then since C is a chain. but X^Ai+i. . . Suppose that has a maximal element. and integers ri. the positive integers}. (If i — j. For X GV. Is Z7 an independent set? sible to find distinct elements Ui. U2 G Xi. X. a p-Prufer group. x ¥= 0.. Problems 6.

Sec. 6.2]

SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION. STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS
if H and K are torsion-free m + n. (Difficult.)

195

6.40.

is

Prove that of rank
Let
• • •

groups of

finite

rank

m and n respectively,
.,fc„
if
r

then

G=

H®K
ele-

Solution:
fej,
.
.

.,ft.„

ments of K. Then the

+

s„&„

=

0,

be a set of independent elements of H, and fcj, For h^, k^, fc„ is independent. set Aj then , , ,
.
.

.

a set of independent

.

. ,

rx/ij

+

-I-

r„h,n

+

^I'^'i

+

rihi

+
,

+
,

r,„h^

=

-Sjfci

s„A;„

But

HnK =

{0},

and so
rj/ij

+•••-!- r^h^
. .

=
ki,
.

-Sifej
.

-

=

s„k„

= =
. . . ,

Thus, by the independence of
ri

hi,

.,

h^ and

., fc„,

=
.

r2

=
. . .

=

*•„

=
.
. .

Sj

=

S2

=

s„

h^, fcj, that {h^, not independent, there exist integers
.

Now suppose that {h^, h & H and k S K such

.,

, .

.

not maximal; say, there exists an element h + k where Since {/ij, A;„, fc + k} is independent. /!„, /i} is ., h^, k^, tj, f„, t not all zero such that
fc„} is
, , . . ,

tihi

+ •• +
.

tjin

+

th

=

Q
tj,
. . .

If
is

(

=
Next,

we have a
Hence
{fc, fej,
• • • . .
.

contradiction to {h^,
t
,

.

.,

h^} being independent, as then at least one of

,

t^

nonzero.

#

0.

A;„}

is

not independent,

i.e.

sk

+ Sjfej +

+ s„k„ =
stihi
-I-

0.

• •

Hence arguing as above,
-I-

there exist s, Sj, ...,s„, not all zero, such that it follows that s ?^ 0. Thus
-\• • •

=
is

But as st ¥= 0, {hi, ^2, a maximal independent
.

+ + ts„k^ tsiki a(th + tyhi + + t^h^ + t(sk + s^ki + + s„fc„) = h^, ki k„,h + k} is not independent. Thus {hi, h^, set and rank H @ K = m + n.
stjji^
-{-

st(h

fe)

-t-

,

.

.

.,

h^,

fcj,

.

.

. ,

fe„}

6.41.

(a) (&)

If

F

is

free abelian with a finite set of free generators X, prove that the rank of

F

is

\X\.

Prove that

F
.

cannot be generated by fewer than

\X\ elements.

Solution:
(a)

Let

XWe

{xi,

.

.,»„}.

By Theorem

6.7,

page 186,

G =

gp{xi)

®

gvix^)

®

® ®
• • •

gpix„)
1.

proceed by induction on n. For n = 1, G is infinite cyclic, and the rank of G is clearly If true for n = r, suppose n = r+ 1. Then gp{xi) gpix^) is of rank r, and G the direct sum of a torsion-free group of rank r and a group of rank 1. By Problem 6.40, G thus of rank r + 1, and the result follows by induction for all n.

©

is is

(6)

Let

G—

gp(gi,

.

.

.,g^).

(Theorem

6.11), as

X

is

X is an independent set. Then by the Steinitz exchange theorem dependent on {gi, Thus we obtain the result. .,gr}, n — r.
. .

6.42.

Let
to
(a)

^ be

a set and

f

a collection of subsets of X.

Suppose that

if

A G

"P,

all

subsets of

A

belong

"P.

Prove that a; S A. X

if

AG

'P

is

not a maximal element,

there exists a set

A* = {A,x}

G'J>

with

(6)

Assume that A*

= A if A is maximal, otherwise that A* has been defined equal to {A,x} with as stated in (a). Let C be a chain in T". Suppose that if Cj, t G /, is a family of elements in C, then U ' CiGC- Suppose also that if A G C, A* G C- Prove that V has a maximal ^ ' element.
^A
If

Solution:
(a)

AGf
a;

is

exists
(6)

G B — A.

not maximal, there exists a set B G T' such that Since {A, x} is a subset of B, {A,x} G 'P.

B ¥= A

and

BdA.

Hence there

Let

Af

= U C. Then cec

M G C,
it

and

so

M* G

C-

But

element of C; in particular, maximal element of f.

contains M*.

Therefore

M* 2 M. M — M*

However,

M

contains every

and we conclude that

M

is

a

In assuming that A* can be defined we used implicitly the axiom of choice. lemma requires converting the theorem into this problem. For details see P. R. Halmos, Naive Set Theory, Van Nostrand, 1960.

Remarks.

(1)

(2)

The proof

of Zorn's

196

ABELIAN GROUPS
Let
that

[CHAP.

6

6.43.

G
is

be an arbitrary non-abelian group. Prove that G has a maximal abelian subgroup not properly contained in an abelian subgroup of G).

(i.e.

one

Solution:

We

subgroups of G.

use multiplicative notation for G since Let C be a chain in V and let

it is

t7

c and if ff belongs to XiS C and h to Xa e C, then as either Zj c X2 or X2 c X^, it follows that g, h belong to some element X of C- Hence ffh'^ S X as Z is a subgroup, and gh-^ G U. Also, gh = hg as X is an abelian subgroup of G. Consequently U is abelian. Hence V G 'J>. By Zorn's lemma, '?' has a maximal element M, say. If is the maximal abelian group sought.

g,heU

= U xe

not abelian. Let X. Then [7

<? is

be the set of all abelian a subgroup of G. For if

6.3
a.

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS
Lemmas
for finitely generated free abelian groups

In Section 6.3b we will show that all finitely generated abelian groups are direct sums of cyclic groups. We will do this by using a lemma (Lemma 6.15) about subgroups of free
abelian groups.

The

relationship between

groups
groups.

is

easily obtained

by noting that

all

Lemma 6.15 and finitely generated abelian abelian groups are factor groups of free abelian
be the direct sum of
. . . ,

Lemma

6.14:

Let
If

&i

G ~ gp{ai) © = fti + r2a2 +

©

9P{an)

infinite cyclic groups.

+ rndn, where r2, G = gp{bi) © gp{a2) ©
gp(au
.

r„ are

any

integers, then

©

gp{an)

Proof: As gp{bi,a2, are any integers, then
implies
all Si

.

.

.,an)

=
S161

.

.,a„)

=
+

G,
Snttn

we must

only

show that

if Si,

.

.

.,s„

+

S2a2

+

=
terms,

{64)

are

0.

Substituting &i

=

ai

+ rza2+ -\-rr,a.n into {6.U) and collecting Siai + (S2 + Sir^ai + + (sn + Sir„)a„ =

• •

we

obtain

As G =
Thus
Si

(ai}

©

©
=

{an},
Si

=

S2 4- SiTi

=
is

=

Sn

+

SiTn

=

= Si—

Sn

=

and the proof

complete.
. . .

The next lemma
free abelian group
6.1c).

is

G

is

a crucial one. We recall that a basis Ci, a set of elements such that G = gp{ci)

,

Cn
• •

©

for a finitely generated gp{cn) (see Section

©

Lemma

6.15:

Let
that

G

of G.

be free abelian, the direct sum of n cyclic groups. Let fl^ be a subgroup Then there exists a basis ci, .,Un such Cn of G and integers ui,
. . .

,

.

.

H = gp{uiCi, U2C2,
a, b, c to

.

.

.

,

VmCn)-

denote basis elements of G, h, k, I to denote elements of H, We prove the result by induction on n. For re = 1, G is cyclic and the result is a consequence of Theorem 4.9, page 105. Assume the result is true for free abelian groups of rank less than n where re > 1. Let G be free abelian of rank re. ¥= (0}. = {0}, we may take an arbitrary basis Ci, ., c„ We assume also that For if = Un = 0. — gp(uiCi, ., m„c„) where ui = for G. Then
Proof:
t,

We

use

q, r, s,

u, V to denote integers.

H

H

.

.

H

.

.

To every basis we associate an integer, called its size {with respect to H). Let {ai, ., a„} be a basis for G and let q be the smallest nonnegative integer such that there exists h G
. .

H

h

=

qai

+

q2a2

+

+
.

qna„,
.

q2,

.

.

.,qn integers

{6.5)

Then q

is

termed the
(ai,
.
.

size of the basis {ai, a2,

.,

an}.
i.e. if [bi,
.
.

Assume

..On} is a basis of smallest size,

.,

b„} is a basis of G,

then the

size of {&i, ...,&„} is not less

than

q.

Sec. 6.3]

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS

197

algorithm,

Let h be as in equation (6.5). if qi is not divisible by

We
q,
qi

show that q
• • •

divides

q2,

...,qn.

From

the division

But

if

we put

bi

=

Ci,

bz

= nq + s, where < Si < q. Hence + QnOn + Siat + h = q{ai + Tiat) + = aa, b„ = a„, we obtain a basis by Lemma & = ai + nai,
• •

.

.

.

,

.

.

.

,

Furthermore assumption. Thus
6.14.

this basis is of smaller size than the size of {ai,
Si

.

.

.,

an},

contrary to our

=

and q divides
h

q-i

for

i

=
• •

2,

.

.

.,n.

Let

q-i

=

nq.

Then

=

^(ai

+ ratta +

+ r„an)
{ci, «£,
. .

Let

ci

=

ffli

+ r2a2 +

+ TnOr,.

Then, by

Lemma 6.14, = qci
/i

.,

a„} is a basis for G.

Also
(6.6)

If

fc

= —

titti

+

O^v
of
q,

<q, then
V
0.

i

=

fc

+ tnttn e H, - wfe G H
I

it

follows that
i;

U

is divisible

by

q.

For

if

has

as its coefficient of au

As v <

q',

ii = mq + 1; with by the minimality

Therefore

=

k

,

— uh G
,

.

gp{a2,
this
l

.

.

.

,

a„)
if

Hence

I

fi'?>(a2,

.

.

.,(in)r\H

L,

say.

From
fc

we

conclude that

k

G H,

then
{6.7)

= uh +

where IGL.

By
that

the inductive hypothesis there exist a basis
is
.

C2,

.

.

.

,

c„

and integers
.,UnCn.

Uz,

.

L

generated by
.

W2C2,

.

.

.

,

WnC„.

Hence by

((?.7)

every element of
. .

H

.,Un such belongs to
.

gp{h,UiC2,

.,M„Cn).

On

the other hand,

H

contains h,U2C2,
.

Thus

H =
Put
Ui

gp{h, U2C2,

.

.

,

UnCn)

=

q.

By

(6.6),

H
Also,
Ci,
.
. .

-

gp{UiCi, U2C2,

.

.

.

,

UnCn)

,

c„ is

a basis for G.

Hence the

result follows.
its

Note that if any m is negative, we can replace d by can assume that the tii are nonnegative.

inverse —cu

In this manner

we

Lemma

6.16:

N

Suppose G = A®B. Let Ai,Bi be subgroups with = Ai + Bi. Then G/N = AMi i?/5i.
: :

AiCA, BiCB and

Proo/: Let K = AMi © B/Bi, and let e A -* A/Ai and ^ B ^ B/Bi be the natural homomorphisms. 9, extend to a homomorphism -^ of G into K. Then Ker ^ D Ker d = Ai and Ker * D Ker <^ = Bi. Thus Ker*DAi + Bi. Now let ajSKerst^. Then a; = a + b, aGA.bsB. x-^ = (a + Ai) + (b+Bi) and this is the identity element only if a G Ai and bGBu Hence ccGAi + Bi, and so Ker^ = Ai+Bi. By the homomorphism theorem (Theorem 4.18, page 117) G/N = K and the result follows.
<j)

Corollary 6.17:

.,it„c„) .,c„. Let H = gp{uiCi, be free abelian with basis Ci, Then G/H is the direct sum of where ui, .,Un are nonnegative integers. and ul = «> if ., u'n, where ul = Vd if Ui^^O cyclic groups of orders ui,

Let

G

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Ui

=

0.

Proof: The result follows by repeated application of Lemma\6.16.

b.

Fundamental theorem

of abelian
is called

groups

The following theorem

the fundamental theorem of abelian groups.

Theorem

6.18:

Let

G

finite

number

be a finitely generated abelian group. of cyclic groups.

Then G

is

the direct

sum

of a

198

ABELIAN GROUPS
Proop.

[CHAP. 6

G = F/H where F

Lemma
integers

6.15,

F has

a basis

ci,

Ui, .. .,u„.

We now
G

a finitely generated free abelian group (Section 6.1c). By c„ such that = gp(uiCi, ., v^Cn) for some nonnegative apply Corollary 6.17 to conclude that G = F/H is the direct
is
. .

. ,

H

.

.

sum

of cyclic groups.
6.19:

Corollary

If

is finitely

generated,

it is

the direct

sum

of a finite

number

of infinite

cyclic

groups and cyclic groups of prime power order.

sum

Proof: It is only necessary to show that a cyclic group of composite order is the direct of cyclic groups of prime power order. This we have already done in Problem 6.19,
6.20:

page 187.
Corollary
If

G

is

a group with no elements of
is

finite

order and

G

is finitely

generated,

then
Proof:

G

free abelian.

G

is

the direct

infinite cyclic as

G

sum of a finite number of cyclic groups each of which must be has no elements of finite order. Thus the result follows.

Problems
6.44.

Prove that every
Solution

finitely

generated torsion group

is finite.

By the fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups, if G is finitely generated it is the direct sum of a finite number of cyclic groups. If G is a torsion group, then it is the direct sum of a finite number of finite cyclic groups. Hence G is finite. (Compare with Problem 4.31, page 105.)
00

6.45.

Let

G =

2 Gj i=l

where G^

is

a

cyclic

group of order 2 for

i

=

1, 2,

.

.

.

.

Prove that

G

is

not

finitely generated.

Solution:

Every element in G is of finite order, for if g{f^ 1) G G, ff = ffi + g2+ + ffn, 9i^ G^j, (i' 6 Z), and 2g = 2gi+ + 2g„ - + + = 0. Thus G is a torsion group. If G were finitely generated, G would be finite by the preceding problem. But G is clearly infinite. Therefore G cannot
• •

be finitely generated.

c.

The type

of a finitely generated abelian

group

we proved that a finitely generated abelian group is a direct sum of However, such a decomposition is not unique: first, the direct summands are not unique (see Problem 6.46 below); moreover, the number of direct summands can vary (see Problem 6.19, page 187).
In Section 6.3b
cyclic groups.

say that two decompositions are of the same kind if they have the same number of each order. For example, two decompositions of a group into the direct sum of three cyclic groups of order 4 and two cyclic groups of infinite order are said to be of the same kind. A concrete example of two decompositions of the same kind is given in
of

We

summands

Problem

6.46.

into the direct

As we remarked in Corollary 6.19, every finitely generated group can be decomposed sum of a finite number of cyclic groups of prime power or else infinite order.
Our aim
is

to prove

Theorem

6.21:

Any two decompositions of a group G into the direct sum of a ber of cyclic groups which are either of prime power order {¥finite order, are of the same kind.

finite

num-

1) or of in-

Proof:

We shall

infinite cyclic groups,

of fixed prime p, general case.

separate the proof into four cases: (1) both decompositions involve only (2) both decompositions involve only cyclic groups of order a power (3) both decompositions involve no infinite cyclic groups, and (4) the

Sec. 6.3]

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS

199

Case

1.
.A.

G =
j


i

• ®h
1,
. .

=Ii®

• ®h
k

where h, h for

=1,

.

.

.,k and

=

.,1

respectively, are infinite cyclic groups.

From Corollary 6.12, page 193, proceed as in Problem 6.52.)
Case
2.

we

conclude that

=

l.

(Alternatively

we may

We shall
Lemma
h G

Both decompositions involve only cyclic groups of order a power of a fixed prime p. write for any integer n, nG = {ng g &G]. If G is a group, nG is a subgroup (Problem 6.53). To prove case 2 we will need the following lemma.
\

6.22:

Let

G=

A® B.

If

k

is

any

integer, then

nG =

nA® nB.

Proof: As nADnB G such that nh — g.

cAnB =
Let h

{0},

= a + b,

gp{nA,nB) — nA® nB. If g ^ nG, there exists a E A and b G B. Then g = nh = na + nb.

Accordingly
Corollary

Proof:
follows.

nG QnA ® nB Q nG and so nG = nA ® nB. 6.23: Let G = Ai © A^. Let n be an integer. Then nG = nAi ® ® nAu We apply Lemma 6.22 to one direct summand at a time. Then
• • •

the result

Corollary

6.24:

Let

G

be expressed as the direct
is

sum

l^i^r. Then pG
of order p*~*

expressible as the direct

of ki cyclic groups of order p\ sum of fci cyclic groups

where 2

— i ^ r.
if

is cyclic

Proof: This is an immediate consequence of Corollary 6.23 and the fact that of order p\ pA is cyclic of order p^~'^. Hence the corollary follows.

A

We
G.
If

are
\G\

now in a position = lorp, then the

to

prove case

2.

We

proceed by induction on the order of
If the result is

result is immediate.

assumed true for

all

groups of order less than n that satisfy the conditions of case 2. then let \G\ - n. Suppose G is expressed as the direct sum of h cyclic groups of order p^ for l^i^r, and also as h cyclic groups of order p^ for l^j^s. Then pG is expressible (by Corollary 6.24) as the direct sum of A;; cyclic groups of order p*"' for 2^i^r on the one hand, and as the direct sum of h cyclic groups of order p*-i for 2 ^ i ^ s on the other. As \pG\ < \G\, it follows by the induction assumption that r = s and h = U for 2^i^r. Now we must still prove that fci = h. But |Gj = p'^^ip^)''^" (p'')''' - p^^(p^)^ (p*")'', and so h = ki. Thus we have proved both decompositions are of the same kind, as

• •

required.

Case

3. is

G

expressed in two ways as the direct

sum

of a finite

number

of cyclic groups of

prime power order.

We have dealt with the case where only one prime is involved. We proceed by induction on the number of primes involved. Let p be one of the primes involved. Let Ai, .,Am be all the direct summands of order a power of p in the one decomposition, Bi, .,Bn the other direct summands involved, so that
. . .

.

Putting

A = Ai ©
.
. .

G = Ai © ••• © Am © Si © © Am and B =: Bi © © B„,

• •

•••
it

©

J?n

follows that

G = A®B.

Let Xi,

,

Xfc be
. .

composition, Yi,

the direct summands of order a power of p in the second de.,Yi the remaining direct summands, so that
all

G = Xi ® ® Xk ® Y, ® ® Yi Put X = Xx® •• ®Xh,Y = Yi® ®Yi. Then G = X®Y. We and B = Y.

claim that

A=X

g) where = p[^. /i 1.25: If F and G if and only are two finitely generated groups. Therefore we have proved that © 72 © • • • © /m © Fi © • © Then k = m hy Fn and 7i ffi/a © © 7fc © Fi © • © Fi are of the same kind. By Prob- lem case • • • 6.9. Hence the two decompositions are of the same kind and the result follows. Put C = {0.5. B = {0. © Let F-Ai®---®Ak. . andso C + D = G. g. where pi. Then C = {0. n . 6. .. . Find B. iP'^ls) is (The definition of type differs slightly from book to book. of cyclic groups of orders p[^. are of the same kind. Problems 6. • • GX. [CHAP.. Hence by case Also G/TiG) ^h® • Fi® • • • ® Fm and Fi® ®Fi are of the ®Im^Ii® ®Tk (by Problem • page • • 181). Let where G = A ®B where A and B are cyclic of order C and D are cyclic of order 2 and C ¥= A and C 2.fk. •. 6. Theorem Proof: 6. .200 ABELIAN GROUPS Let g&A. Pi . sum .46. ri. page 189). If <j>: is an isomorphism. Let infinite G be expressed as the direct order in two ways. Now of order a Hence g By a similar argument Thus Ai® ®Am-=Xi® ®Xk and Bi © B„ = Yi © By the Yi. then they are isomorphic they have the same type. . Ai © © Am and Xi © Z^ on the one hand.. Then T{G) is the direct sum of the direct summands of finite order in both cases (Problem 6. . = g*' and p^ < and that of G is (ff i. This completes the proof of the theorem. Solution: We have Pi — p^— • • • — Pk < 9i — • • • — Qi- Hence the type of F" ©G is (A. • • Similarly XcA • the order of any power of p. . . .56). . then the ordered fc + 1-tuple {p[^. f2 = pl^.47.a}. say sum • • of cyclic groups of prime power order or of G = /i © • • • © /„ © Fi © • © F„ = /i © • • © Tfc © Pi © • • • © ^. f) = qr'i. are primes. If the gfj type of . = Fi® ® • Fn = Fi® ®Fi same kind. As Ai<j> Conversely. where the Pj and . — P2—---—Pk. 6 xGX is and yGY. B = Y. We can now give a criterion for the isomorphism of two finitely generated abelian groups.fk = v'^. • • • F^G page 185). if F and G have the same type they are clearly isomorphic (Theorem 6.11.b. © Ak<l> (Problem 6.ypl" posi- tive integers with if Pi = Pi+i. Thus D = B.) By Theorem 6. y = (Problem and we conclude that A = X. and s infinite cyclic groups. .56. induction hypothesis. rj^n+i . if G = Akj. Thus T{G) S. If a finitely generated group G is the direct . and so AcX. G = C ® D.Pk are primes. • • • • © • • • • • • • Case 4. Let T{G) be the set of all elements of finite order (see Theorem 6. .a+b + b = a}. fk.21 the type of G is uniquely defined. .6}. . Then g = x + y where nonzero element of Y is coprime to p.. called the type of G. As g 6. .54). C and D such that G= C® D ¥= Solution: Let Then C + D A = {0. q^. Also put Also CnD = fi {0}. find the type oi F ® G. g. .Fj are groups of prime power order. then = At.. it follows that F and G have the same type.55). where luh are infinite cyclic groups and Fj.9v->Suf + g) . © • • • © /m • • is the direct sum 7i of k infinite cyclic groups. and Bi® ®B„ and Yi © © Yi on the other.a+ 6}. F £fi is cyclic of order 2. Usually it is applied only to p-groups.a+b. is (/i. .

. .3] FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS G and 201 6.. 0). . where p is a prime. if G is the direct sum of infinite cyclic groups. . 0). So an abelian group of order 1800 is a direct sum of a group of Observe that 1800 = 233252. Solution: (1) Suppose G= A©B where A.17.. If the is {h^.. type of F © H is (6i. ff have a contradiction. k = ng where f. is B are nontrivial subgroups of G..Since G is of order p™. 0).48.. fc nG G is a subgroup of G where w is a given integer. 2. (2) of order less Then g -a + h. G/H . H G = H.9i.2G. €.fk.51. Solution: is sum of fe gp(xi) © •• ® gpix^). then the and that of G is {gi. and = G and is B. H are finitely generated abelian groups. Thus \G/H\ = 2''.2Xk). 0) and (3. The possible types of a group of order 2^ are (2^. Thus H . order 2^. Prove that a cyclic group of order p". But gp(g) aGA.. show that F®G = F®H H implies that G= H.u^ + i. If F. Clearly + n(2xk) e H. (22. .r^ are positive integers and • • • - '"2 - • • - Solution: A group of order p™ has all its elements of order a power of p. i . -.. by considering the direct sum of cyclic groups of order 2. f + ff) .. that if G is the direct infinite cyclic groups and also the direct sum of I infinite cyclic groups.hi. Then the total number of non-isomorphic groups of order 1800 is 3 X 2 X 2 = 12. all the 6.52. and . from which 2G C H. nG. For two abelian groups to be isomorphic we are the same and Accordingly the types of G and require that (by Theorem 6. 3. H I Now |G/2G| by a similar argument we conclude that 2'. 6fc+„..a^ + is fi. . Compare the ease with which we solve this problem with the effort required to find groups (non-abelian as well as abelian) of order 8 which we have considered in Chapter 5. . and so nG is a subgroup.. .. Prove that the number of groups of order p™ is equal w = rj + + r^ where ri.. 6. 0) with the form (p''i. G cannot be expressed as a direct sum of more than one non- trivial gfroup.r^.g) while that of where ai.21. Let p be any prime and to the »-i let number of '•fc- ways of writing m be any integer. H .9i. Express F..h^.p'2. Prove that Solution: If /i.53. is {/i f^. the direct Then by Corollary 6.50. 2. h-nf. 6. as direct sums of cyclic groups of prime power and infinite orders. f). i. 6. than p"-i. Solution: G and . (2. 0).Sec. then k = I. Hence h-k=^ n(f-g)& nG. • • \G\ = p'-lp''2 p'k = p'-i+'+'-fc we conclude that ri+ • • • +rj^ = m. Hence by Theorem 6. = Thus I = fc. (2) by using Theorem 6. the type of G is (p".. Find up Solution: to isomorphism all abelian groups of order 1800.6fc + „ is fu -yfk. Similarly there are 2 non-isomorphic groups of order 25.25) their types are the same. .. 2. is not expressible as the direct sum of nontrivial subgroups by the following two methods: (1) directly.e..49.21. . ri-Vz. Hence its type will be of . 2. Clearly 6 |A] - p"-i and \S\^pn-i as |G|=p". -'Si in some order. c 2G.. h).. 0). Thus there are precisely 3 groups of order 8. Also if g ^ G. a group of order 32 and a group of order 52. 6. Prove.. while . . Let G = p"->o + p"-i6 = 0. The possible types of a group of order 32 are (32. type of F typeof the F©Gis {Ui.Let sum of k cyclic groups of order g = nxi -!-••+ rfcCBfc. Thus we € Since direct G is cyclic summands of order p«. As p^-iff = of order p".g GG.K in some order..p''fc. so there are 2 non-isomorphic groups of order 9.. Then 2g = ri(2xi) + Let G = H = gp{2xi. only one of the is nonzero. gp(g). . / + /i) where bj.

/„ are elements of Fj.. . the result follows. Now if = order of x + y.^ + /j + are elements of /j._ * • • • • • • • • • • But (di . .. . + • • • -I- (Ofc .F^G is an isomorphism. . Consequently every subgroup of A is finitely generated.57. + +j.15. This in turn implies that the order of x divides m and the order of y divides m. and un-i • • • = Mi+2 = gp{UiCi. oj + j/ is of infinite order.2. . then mx + my = 0. Prove that (1) if x and y are of then the order oi x + y is the least common multiple (1cm) of the orders of x and y. . If ui.. By Theorem 6. of rank less than or equal to n.A^ respectively. Since x is of infinite order. + Ofc and so ff = aj^ + / = Oj -IIf a^s + -H a^. .. Let G = /i T(G) be the set of • • © © /^ © Fi e all • © F„ T{G) elements of finite order.202 ABELIAN GROUPS Let [CHAP. 6.. «£ = a. Oj ttx • • — «! = o^. Corollary 6.. The subgroups of GIN are of the form H/N where is a subgroup of G. Solution: Clearly r(G) D F.56. m (2) If X is of infinite order and m{x + y) expressions in direct sums.0. X is of infinite order. Let = © . UnCn) = gp{UiCi) © © gp{UiCi) (See Problem 6. . . F„. . .Ui are nonzero. a^j = Therefore each element of expressible in the form + • -f- a^<p in one and only one way.. there exists such that f<l> = g.a[)4. . then /GF o.2 = • • • = ttjj — Oij = G is = ttj. generated. . . g is of finite order r. a2 — 0. finite. . fe belongs to Ker 0. it is isomorphic to some factor group of a finitely generated free abelian group G. it follows that ••• =: Wi = W2 = rim iy = rfi • Since I^.afc)^ = Since ^ is Let fc = Oi — oi + • • • + Ofc — ttfc.VmCn). where each Ij Prove that Fi is torsion-free and each F. Then every subgroup of A is finitely Proof: As is a finitely generated abelian group. . belong to Ai. By so that ttj^ the uniqueness of expression of direct sums.F„ respectively. an isomorphism. is finitely generated and therefore so is H/N. 6 6. we have = i^^ = - = i„ rf„ = sr = Q. .. . and A. . But by the uniqueness of such = 0.26: Let G be free abelian of rank n. .) Hence the result. rg = rii + ri2+ + ri^ + rf^ + + rf^ = • • • . .a^4> where aj. A H A H .. d. G finite order.u„ such that H= G and integers gp{uiCi. say ^ GIN. . Thus we have the result. 6. We begin with Theorem Proof: Ml.. y&Y. Solution: We must show that every element of G is uniquely of the form a^s + -I.. • . Subgroups of finitely generated abelian groups The purpose of this section is to decide which groups (up to isomorphism) can appear as subgroups of finitely generated abelian groups.af^<p. H of G is free abelian c„ of By Lemma page 196. • • • © F„ . Now if g & G. . © © +/^ where ij i„ . ft = 0. . As • • • By definition of the direct sum. there exist a basis . . = j. Then any subgroup ci. . 4. . G = Let xGX. then G = Aj^ • © • • • • • © A^<p. . .54.I„ are torsion-free. Then l(x + y) = Ix + ly .26. . If g e T(G).. say. (2) if be an abelian group. .7^ respectively. then m(x + y) = mx + my = Q implies mx = and my = 0. and ^-. Solution: (1) Let I = km of the orders of x and y. . . mx = my = 0. g.!) = a[<i> + + al<t>. = 0. m 6. X®Y..27: Let A be a finitely generated abelian group. If i^ = Ai © • • © A^.55. . Thus G Fj © • • • © F„ and 6.

the number of elements of order p in G is.11.) Gp. the 6.27) and so is Hp. . the result holds for groups of order less than |Gj. p\ 0). 0). • — — . r2 ri .44). H = h® ®h®Fi® H ®Fl Ii. 1 H We Lemma first require a lemma. {H + T{G))/T{G) is free abelian of rank less than m. At pG is .11..26. the result is trivial..29: Let in G is have type p" — 1. > p.0). Fp = {/ / e F and of order a power of p}. If the number of infinite cyclic groups in these decomand k respectively. Then T(H) = HriT{G). But ^h® {H + T{G))IT{G) ^ H/HnT{G) ^ HIT[H) by the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem that H/T{H) ®h.) Since {H + T{G))/T{G)cG/T{G). Now GIT{G) ®I.. Thus k^m. the set of all elements of elements of order p in . Clearly p" — 1 =^ p™ — 1 and consequently n^m. is finitely generated (Corollary 6. Let G and be expressed as direct sums of infinite cyclic groups and cyclic groups of prime power order.1.23. page 192. However. (Recall that if F is any abelian group and p a prime. T-m' > 1 and. Thus we are led to inquire what groups can occur as subgroups of finitely generated p-groups. . Theorem Proof: Let G be a group with type Let H be any subgroup. . . We can therefore assume the result holds by induction for pG and subgroup pH. It follows as before ^h® Again let G be finitely generated and a subgroup of G. As = rm . i.. • (p'l.9.. positions for G and H are H H m Proof: Let G = where the order. p^^. Define m* otherwise define m* to be an integer such that r-m* > 1. we experience a minor notational inconvenience. .p'"'"*~^ 0).p''". .n by Problem 6. i If the type of H is {p\ . h® ®I... Then the number of elements of order p G = 9p{Ci) and the order of Ci Proof: Let G = Ci © © C„ where each is of order p. then pG is of type (p''^"'. pG is of type this point .. p'i-^Ci ® ® p'n-'Cn is the other hand every element (^ 0) of Accordingly. Therefore we need additional notation. Hence 1 or p. then k^m.29. as a subgroup of a finitely generated abelian group. G n. and H .Fi are cyclic groups of prime power Let T{G) and T(H) be the torsion subgroups of G and respectively. .?>''""'.&o H— {0} number (p'Sp''^. 0). by Lemma 6. and x = Uci + + t„Cn where U G Z. . by Lemma 6. • • — m ^ if r™ > • • 1. |G|. . p" — l.p''"'. 0). 6.e.p'>n-i-i. if m* ¥ m. Clearly Gp D Hp.. . as \H\ = p". Thus the rank of GIT(G) is m. and so the number of elements of order p in is. page 189). «. 6. . by Theorem 6. rm*+i(p'i~S . 4. Of course a finitely generated p-group is finite (Problem 6.29. p^n.28: Let G be a finitely generated group and a subgroup of G.3] FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS 203 From Theorem this corollary finitely subgroups of we see that only finitely generated abelian groups can occur as generated abelian groups. p™ — 1. if rm — 1 and rm-i > 1. Similarly. Now has type (p'l. is p" — 1. page 125). . where • X GG d is p^K If • • U Hence H = On of order p. 0). page 181. H Now its \pG\ < \G\. the respective sets of elements of finite order (Theorem 6. 6.n®Fi® ®Fn. . We proceed by induction on = assume \G\ . . but rm*+i— 1. of type (p'^i~S .30: H is of order p. then n — m If \G\ and < Si — = 1.Sec. If for example r™ > 1.Ii are infinite cyclic groups and the Fi. (See the remarks following Theorem 6. then p"*'^ divides the elements of order p are a subset of H.

72. . (33. i Show v that u.) It can be shown (Problems 6. Pi-i^Pi . . (See Problem 6. and Pjy^Pj^i Put p = Pi.. .. G = AiQ •• ® Am ffi ?! ffi Now each Aj has 6.p''J. This is a con- Theorem (6) (c) (d) No. Sn* paragraph above. 3. 1). A direct contradiction to Theorem 6. 7. . (6) (3. and the result Ai@ • • • ® Aj® • ® • @ ® • • • © © • • • ® follows. {0}=AnB3CnD. .30 it is easy to determine. (the identity is common to all) of order p. H^ is of type (7^.p*". . 0) whereas 6. Let G have type -.204 ABELIAN GROUPS Similarly.P^"... of type (3..28 and 6. 7..D be subgroups of A. 6.. Let G 1 be of type (p^.p^\ . As 6. as required. Pi Suppose that for some i — j = Pi+i= •• =Pj. as any nonzero element of finite order from R is of order coprime to that of p.. Hence each of them contributes p 1 distinct elements in all there are (p l)(p + 1) = p^ 1 elements — — — of order p. . 0) by Problem 6. m). 3^. = Bi ffi • • • ® B„ © ® H • • ® /„ then a subgroup of G of type . Give an infinite number of examples of an abelian p-group that contains exactly p order p. 0). 73... the result follows immediately.57.. 5^. v) where n —m and — S( — rj for 1 — ~ n and — • • • Solution: Let tion of infinite cyclic groups./„ are a subgroup Bf of order p —i— /i n. Let (a) G be of type (3^. .B (This can obviously be generalized to the direct Solution: sum {0}. . .61. Therefore we know the types of homomorphic images of finite abelian groups. . With Theorems 6. 1). ® /« where Aj is cyclic '. the possible types of subgroups of G. .n. Then Gp 3 Aj Aj.) C + D = C ®D. 5. Clearly G — R where A^ is of order p''k for i — k — j. 5^. G has subgroups of type (p'l. . of order p^. By • repeated applica- Problem Bi+ •• +B„ + Ii+ This is • +I„ (p'l. Solution: (a) No.60. v). Compare G3 and H3 as in (a). . 3*.28. . Show that the type of Gp Solution: Decompose G into the direct sum of infinite cyclic groups and groups of prime power order. s). Determine whether (c) G has a subgroup (d) (3. 0). is Problems 6.58. 1). n* If Tn 1 ^ m* -1 Thus and Si =^ Vi sifor i 1 ^ nn* ¥. p*"*~* 0). + i = Arguing as in the otherwise define n* to be an integer such that pH is of type ip^^~\ . 3. If Tn'+i — Sn'+i. . . let us define n* [CHAP. we have CnD = Thus C + D = C@D. 3. . Yes. respectively.30. On the other hand.62-65) that every factor group of a finite abelian group G isomorphic to a subgroup of G.+i = • = s„ - 1.58. . Let G= A©B and let C. > 1 but s„. Thus Gp = Aj Aj.p'"'. Solution: If +1 subgroups of G is a group with p +1 subgroups of order p.59. (p^i. then s„. 7. 6. and 1 /i. — l. 1 for i = l.p*".n* • • n* = n. knowing the type of a given finitely generated abelian group G. 7.n.. Show that of any number of groups. Hence ..57. — s„.60. Then by the inductive hypothesis we have 1. No. as then G7 tradiction to is of type (73. . Gp C Aj Aj. 6 =n if s„ > 1. 6. is (. and R is the direct sum of the cyclic groups which are not of order a power of this prime p in the given decomposition of • G. l^.. . 2).

6.9.| < \G\. a subgroup of Gp. B) = GIN. 6. Let to G be a finite group. Then any are cyclic groups of order a power of p. say G = S'p(ci) gp(Cn)follows immediately. then are divisible. .u) where m is a nonnegative integer. For hi. = r{a+b) = bi where b^G B and r is an integer. Then G/AT = (Gp/iV) G= by Lemma 6. Clearly gp{(i-^ b) + B = G and the Hence 6i = and x a.62.gi+ + gk = g . nhk = gk. Then r is divisible by the power of p which is the = 0. where i = 1. 6. suppose that • ® • © If g = 0. Solution: ii g G G and g is of order p. Let |G| = r and let AT be a subthere is nothing to prove. and iV C Gp.hk such that nhi = gi. c„). by the preceding problem. the result follows. N= {0}. a..p2. where (rj. G I. without loss of generality. . . true. = c[ + d. then 2 G^i is divisible. G = gp(c) flrp(pc) © = B page 197). .p'v. Thus ra = 0.4 a. . By Problem gp(c) 6. . p^icj 0. G/Nf. 6. page 137. Put riCi = w^ — W2— • • • • • cf. Prove by induction on \G\ that if iV is a subgroup of G. 6... The Assume the result li is true for all group of G. Since gp(a)nB = {0}. DIVISIBLE GROUPS p-Prufer groups. So there exist . Let G be a finite p-group. rjp'^iCj ^ and Then g = p"'i(cj + d) where d G gp(c2 is less = np icj + + r^p "Cm — w„.29 a p-group with jy^ — l distinct elements of order p contains p^ summands which . Suppose G = gp(a) of order less than or equal to the order of Solution: If a. where jr G ^p(c). Let group of G. Let N^ = gp(na). Then (G/Nq)/(N/No) = G/N. If N is not of order a prime. Divisible subgroups group G is said to be divisible if for each integer n¥= and each element g there exists h such that nh = g. the order of d # than or equal to the order of Cj. G/N = G and Gp®E N ®E H® N H@ H N result follows. i Gi. Then n{hi H +hk) . As ¥' G.16. result follows. . Prove that G/N is isomorphic to a sub- By Problem 6. Then G/N Thus gp(pc. Solution: groups of order less than r. group of p and thus exactly p + 1 subgroups of order p. G/N isomorphic a subgroup of G. say. be integers..rj. .64. Both the additive group of rationals and p-Priifer groups are divisible in this sense (Problem 6. since otherwise = Nq which is not |G/iV(.63.c{) = gp(ci). As g is of order p and Clearly gp(. order of Consequently rb — 0. where Gp is the p-component of G. the result J. we obtain G = Since g © gp(c2.4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 205 By Lemma 6. . .62. A &G any &G If the groups Gi. Solution: N = gp{g) be of order p. Let G be a finite p-group.65. If is of order a prime p. there is an element no of of order a prime p by Proposition 5. Let Gf be a p-group. 6. if . subgroup of G. Prove that G = gp(a +h) ® B where 6 GB is G gp(a +b)nB. g — gi+ • • +gk.16.66 below). © a.p) = 1. Thus \H\ < \G\ and by induction it has a subgroup K such that K = H/N^ s G/iV. B. = {gp(c)/N) ©B is (Lemma 6. Now Gp/iV s H. then ra — b^ — rb. has exactly p^— 1 elements of order type (p*^!. c„) G gp (c). on putting e . . n¥=0 is integer and g G 2^ . Hence G/N = E and E i& a. Prove that a cyclic direct summand of G. Otherwise. has a subgroup H/iVo = G/N. g appears as an element of • G is the direct sum of cyclic groups. But clearly gp{c)IN.63. Let 1 .Sec.

(9 : g = mcr and if also g = nc^. Cr . a divisible subgroup exists a is subgroup K a direct summand.hGCr for some integer Then + h)B = ({s + t)Cr)e = + t)lp' + Z = {sip- + Z) + {t/p^ + Z) = g9 + he Finally is one-to-one as Ker e = {g\ge^Z} — {sCr s an integer. but is also of interest in Theorem 6. therefore conclude that m/p^ Thus m = np"-" + kp"" n/p' from 61 +Z - + Z.e. We isomorphism. (see Problem G -* (Q/Z)^ by (mcr)d . Similarly K H is divisible.np"-^ = kp" We is 6/ which m/p^-np-' + k.m/p" + Z for all integers m. Let "P be the collection of all subgroups L of G such that LnD = {0}.31 (Main Theorem on p-Priifer Groups): Let p be a prime. h - tcr. thus proving that Q is uniquely defined. and so H ^ G/K K Secondly (Problem 6. Then there G such that G = D® K. The following Itself. Proof: We may suppose that Define is 6. Let G be a group which is the union of an ascending sequence of subgroups Ci C G2 C where Cr is cyclic of order p"" for r = 1. Proof: We accomplish this proof by Zorn's lemma. 2. with s. . is gO - m/p"- +Z or is g9 - n/p' + Zl We will show that m/p' + Z = n/p' + Z. a so that g {g = scr.32: Let of G contain a divisible subgroup D.2 Then G is isomorphic to the • • • p-Priif er group.206 ABELIAN GROUPS sums of p-Prufer groups and copies [CHAP. result is not only the main tool in Section 6. Thus is a Next we show that r. We shovs^ of the additive group of rathat in fact this exhausts all divisible groups.hG G.67 for the details). H G G/H = For supG) and let w be a Accordingly n{g' + H) = is divisible.. Theorem 6. a subgroup of G. To prove First this w^e need several facts. {s homomorphism. It follows that p^'-'Cr = c^. so also are and K. In the future we will call any group isomorphic to {Q/Z)p a p-Priifer group. must prove that The snag is this: It an = gp(Cr) and that pcr+i = Cr for r = 1.4b. then g.) Can we apply Zorn's lemma to <?? Suppose {Li\iG 1} is a chain in <P. 6 It follows that direct tionals are also divisible.tGZ. If g. r = {sCr sip"" G Z} = I \ a positive integer and {sCr I (scr)6 = {0} sip'' + Z = Z} s divisible by 2?''} = Thus the result follows. i. page 181) G/H is divisible. we remark that if G = is /? e and G is divisible. Is U Lj in "?? We require K=^D®K . (g e g + H. Assume without loss of generality that r ^ s. m . we remark divisible that a homomorphic image of a divisible pose G is positive integer. Then mcr = np'-^Cr from which {m-np'-'')Cr = As Cr is of order p"". Let g + Then there exists g' G G such that ng' is and ^ group g. (Our idea is to pick a maximal subgroup K which meets D in {0}. Then D + and we need only show that D + K = G which will turn out to be true because of the maximality of K. mapping. for some integer k. Next we need the following theorem which classifies p-Priifer groups. since a homomorphic image of a divisible group. We are however not even certain that 5 is a mapping.11.

contrary D= U i=l 00 Ci is a p-Priifer group (Theorem 6. We prove first that GI{D ® X) is a torsion group. However. each (QIZ)^ is itself divisible. Then gp{x + (K® D)) is a subgroup of GI{K ® D) of finite order.i = a.i + A. Assume by and = gp{. G=D two ®K cyclic p-groups. we can find diG D so that wdi — d. Suppose the contrary. Let G and pCf+i Solution: be as defined in Theorem 6. Problems 6. which satisfies Dniir= Thus Suppose now that D + Kj^G.i. This contradicts the maximality of K. g-hG (0). gp (pc) = C„.. x). Then since Lk is Lfc L. Either D Lj. to prove that a p-Priifer group is divisible.w-l}... So Since xi + (D®K) = x + (D® K).. . r = 1.e.) there is a cyclic subgroup of G of order p* for every i = 1. But K is maximal. if K # {0}.hG U Li Lj D L^. .{0}. we must have r = 0. As c„ is of order p". Put a. Then wa. Notice that Xi€ K but wxi G K. as required. c„+i = re. where n is an integer and k is an element of But KC^D^{0].i = wx — wdi = k + d — d = k. G¥' D®K. . and kGK. is the only possibility. (1) (Hard. summand of a divisible group is divisible. . 6. r and p are coprime. U^Li and (ii) holds. andall . r G {0. so is But as QIZ = pen 2 (Q/^)o.w-l. (ii) a subgroup of G. G G such that gp{x + {D@ K)) is of infinite order in G/{D ® K).66.. As Q is divisible. since every direct 6. 6. = c. (2) .n. . — di.. To prove implies g sume that we must show G and h G Lk. So to = follows also. . Therefore Kir\D — {0}. by Theorem 6.^ then {0} for some Lj.4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 207 (i) Dn\J^U= U Li is (i) is {0}. Then GK® rx^K®D Ki = {ra.32. but Suppose that x + {K®D) is of order w. = gp{c^ pc. Hence it is divisible and of is G has a subgroup which to the hypothesis. Use a proof Solution : different from that of Problem QIZ. Then pc„ + i = c„ and it is possible to choose the elements c^jC^. Let a... . then D® K = rxi + {D®K) = r{xt + {D ® K)) G D and thus k-d.68. it consists of all elements of the form nx + fc. So "? has a maximal element.36. . Part true because (ii) Dn U^Li that if ¥..1. It follows then that wx for < r < w.+ i = c.. a. JRT).67.gp(c). Then GI{D®K) is nonzero.31). Solution: First Let Ci we shall prove that if G satisfies (1) and c C2 C be a sequence of subgroups • • (2).31. Therefore Dr\Ki. is false. G G. I r = 0. assumption.. g K © D. and hence is not cyclic. each Cj is a cyclic group of order p'. page 192. . for r = l.c^. A p-group G is a p-Prufer group if and only if it has the following two properties: every proper subgroup of G is cyclic. i = 1. If we put Ki = gv{K. G — sum D a p-Priifer group. is the direct Accordingly. Hence r{pc) — c„ for some integer r. Then we can find a. it is • of G where a p-Priifer group. + kGD. Then gp{pc) is a cyclic group of order p" and. 2 induction that Prove that we can choose elements c^ such that C.ti — Ci. K.Sec. Since D is divisible. . thus proving the theorem.. Suppose wx = k + d.h^ U Lk D Lj or g-hG ULu Now Therefore g.{0} implies Li. Ci since cyclic groups have only one subgroup of any given order. Put Ki = fl'p(a. g-he Lk. 6.. . Thus gpirc) = C„+i. . DnL. So fc = Thus we have proved that GI{K © D) is a torsion group. If the sequence is infinite. fc Gii:} Weclaimthat KinD=^{0}. so without loss of generality as- a subgroup of G. D.. i. say K.. This contradiction shows that our original For if rxi A. 2.c„ have been chosen with Let C„+i . . If nx + kGD.1. Now x^K. g. Now put . then nx€:{K + D). .

say. Finally. Since Cj is infinite cyclic. = Cj. then either H^ K or Kd H. the result is true. . We Hence / = and e is an isomorphism. Therefore H D K. Hence z^c^ — = Z2Cj. Then Q„+i3Q„ and n=l KJ Qn = Q the additive group of rationals. The result follows. Assume both H and K are proper subgroups. But Cj is cyclic of order p'.g U Qj '~^ = = But this is 9 is Q. &: As for condition (1).70. Suppose / have that / = zcj for some integers z and i. p € n namely J7p is the union of Cj = gp ({x k is a p*th root of unity}). Thus gp{a. Clearly. follows that Ge O an onto mapping.69. . the wth roots of unity. then let xGH. .Ci for some integer i. page 185. Then fe = z/i\ =0 only if the result follows. li.10).5. Show that the additive group of rationals groups. then Cj = (j!/i!)cj. Show that if G is a p-Prufer group and H. Qj+iDQj and («Cj)ff = i=l U Qi z = & QZ.m/p'' + Z where is an — 1.208 ABELIAN GROUPS • • • [CHAP. gp(a. + Z. Zi(jl/i\) 00 what we have Is 9 just shown. Since Cjff = Qi = gp (1/il). To prove that e is well defined.) 1. to show that such that fe z = 0. 2. We may + g = (z^ + 22)^11 as well suppose that f.68. H ¥= x^ H m H H 6. But then gp{a. If there exists such an integer n. 6.b) is cyclic. Then and K are both finite cyclic groups. a homomorphism? Let f.10. i = 1.31.e. it is not cyclic (Theorem 6. Then + g)8 - + Z2)— and fe + g9 = —+ ^1 ^2 -77 = (Z1 + Z2) — 1 Thus is 9 is a homomorphism. g = (f z^Ci. then Q gp{\lp« + Z). But then it follows that H^ — K. Then by Theorem 6. K are subgroups of G.gE. QIZ a C/ by "^ " Theorem 6. Z2. 6 Suppose now that Cx C C2 c c C„ is a sequence of subgroups. integer between 1 and p' l/p"" +Z Thus H ior r^ H is cyclic as required. We know that there exists a subgroup B = gp(b) of order p" + i. as QIZ = (QIZ)^ (by Theorem 6.. Solution: If one ot H or K is G. (Z1 f & G. and i. Suppose p"" = \H\ — \K\ = p«. and as G is a p-group.71. . = (Q/Z)^. If there is no integer n for which = <. i Suppose Zi(jl/il)Cj = Z2Cj. Next we note that the subgroup of {Q/Z)p. Solution: is the union of an ascending sequence of infinite cyclic Let Q„ = 00 ffp(l/?i!). Show all that if is the subgroup of the multiplicative group of the complex = Q/Z. Z2 below defines a mapping of is G to Q.21). where ZiCj We shall prove that We must prove that e «!. say H^. As a finitely generated abelian group. . tains a subgroup of order \K\. Hence Hence / = ZjCj. If — j.b) contains a cyclic subgroup of order pn+i containing C„. | 2 2 6. H 6. Let C„ = srp(a). If it is the direct sum of two or more cyclic groups.. each Cj cyclic of order p». n. i. . let be a (2). Now both H^ and K are contained in some cyclic subgroup of G. we must show that Zi/i\ = Z2/JI. Zi(}\/il)Cj = it z^Cj implies that Zi{j\/H) = «£. page 190. Solution: Let Q z/il denote the additive group of rationals and let 00 Qj = fl'p(l/i!). . contrary to the hypothesis. as there is one and only one subgroup of order p' in a cyclic p-group of order exceeding p^.b) is cyclic of order p*" where m — re + l. Clearly gp(x) = gp{l/p'' + Z). Consider gp(a. it is sufiicient to show that Ker e = {0}. then U numbers consisting of V Solution: 11= t^p by Theorem 6. and there exists no subgroup C„+i2C„ where C„+i is of order p"+i. it is the direct sum of cyclic groups. as G is the union of cyclic subgroups. Uj. 2.72.h). p-Priifer group satisfies condition {Z}.i integers. Prove that G is isomorphic to the additive group of rationals. Let x . Now ?/„ is the union of cyclic groups of order p'. Thus. Let for G I = be an ascending union of infinite cyclic groups Cj such that Cj = gp{ci) and (i+ l)ci+i (Hard. = 0.QlZ\. Then H conby Problem 6. Define uniquely defined.

To this subgroup Gs of F. page 194). Let that T is a divisible p-group and to prove S be a maximal independent • the set of elements of T of order at most p. .32). Decomposition theorem for divisible groups The results of Section 6.32). T C = is gp{Cs It \ s & S) is divisible. . actually the direct . . s„ 1. say.e.13).10. (This is true for shall define a . . such that exists a nonzero integer k. Thus T = C. Clearly gp{Ci_^)Ggp{c2. hence F is summand (Theorem 6.Sec.. suppose that Si. as F is a direct flr F^{T® divisible.2.72 that Cs is isomorphic to the additive group of rational numbers.SU{d} an independent subset of by the maximality of S. C = gp{Cs\ sGS) ^ ses is divisible. We show that F is end i. i. A divisible subgroup is a direct F)/T. F. x ¥. F is itself torsion-free by Theorem 6. Theorem Proof: 6. | sGS For each s G S we and positive integer . n)..s. • • • .13. on substituting for the elements kCj the elements From this +lnSn = 0. P is clearly a subgroup. •••) is an ascending union of cyclic groups of Accordingly by Theorem 6. . Cs is a p-Priifer order p\ one for each i = 1.s.^ for i = 1. (a) We now consider F and T separately.s) is This is possible since T is divisible. as s ¥= 0.s z = 1.s. First of all r = pen 2 ^p by Theorem 6. page 189. By Theorem 6. + c„ = 0. If D^ {0}..s. T. . Thus T is itself divisible.s = n. Since Tr\{F]^0. any two nonzero rational numbers. As we remarked multiple of kcj Sj. Then of T.4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 209 b.j = Cj. . Since gp{ci. -C®D. where Cj G Cs^.s) C cyclic of order p*+S Cs = gp{ci. that iisi + contradiction it above. Now for any integer g G such that ng = t. Hence there Ij — IjSj. . 6. Note that if x GCs. then there is a nonzero multiple of x which is also a multiple of s. (5) pcj+i. group. Cj¥-0 . Let n. and so dGD G is a direct summand Since of order p. . we must have D= {0} . • • • • we find therefore. It is sufficient then to assume that r is a direct sum of p-Priifer groups.s = s. there is ScC.e.) We claim that F is To prove this. are distinct elements of S and that C1 + C2+ • • (j = . G F such that {i + l)ri+i.31. follows that the Cs generate the direct sum 0. Since T is divisible.).0.32.. = s.2. But the elements Si.C2. sum of these subgroups Cs as s ranges over S. This is a contradiction as S is a maximal independent set. so G = T © F. where C1 + C2+ +Cn — IjSj. D ¥- (0).<^2. Ci. We put Cs = gp{ri. so also are the summands Tp. of rationals. there exists a nonzero multiple fej of each Cj which is then a kn. . Let define For each s subset of P (Theorem 6. ^ Cs Hence C is a direct summand Clearly let d G D (d ^ 0).s. namely ki is a consequence of As fcci + + kcn = is a nonzero integer. the set Su{d} is definitely larger than S since d ^ S {d does not even lie in C) and SU{d} is independent. So But C is divisible since each summand Cs (Theorem 6. It follows then from Problem 6.33: A group is the direct sum of p-Priifer groups and copies of the additive group of rationals. Sn are independent. P be GS . divisible Let G be divisible and let T be the torsion subgroup of G.. Moreover. . and hence g GT. F = C®D. i. . then F=C (6) is a direct sum of copies of the rationals.2. Since t is of finite n and element t G T. summand.4a enable us to deduce the following decomposition theorem for divisible groups. so is g. . inductively as follows: (a) pci. For a given there exists by the divisibility of F an element n+i. . there exists an element order. S2. let a direct sum of copies of the additive group S be a maximal independent set (Theorem 6.9. P an element of larger then S.

Suppose G has the property that Prove that G is divisible. Thus the result follows. Then if s = fci h^ Thus z^O + hz-^ fca h h„ is any integer. then G is a direct summand Solution: G is summand a subgroup of some divisible group D by Problem 6. 6 remains only to prove that ci C = S and above. (Problem l. + + • • • + fc„ G S + • • • + A. . As G is infinite..s^. for + arrive at a dependent relation between Si. . of the theorem is complete. n. then.) Solution: nG for all positive integers n. If nG = G for all such n. nG = {0}. Now D/N is divisible since a homomorphic image of a divisible group is divisible. of H. similarly to =c s„.. If G is any group.210 ABELIAN GROUPS It [CHAP. D = G®T. But every direct 6. Let \ K = 2 Q ie / d* ^ chosen in each Q^ Qi IS divisible. then nG is a finite group of order Using the theorem quoted in the statement of the problem.78). .74. G is the cyclic groups. Thus of a divisible group is divisible. divisible subgroups Solution: (a) Let i seS. Prove that G is a p-Priifer group by using the theorem which states: if G is a group such that for some integer n ¥= 0.s„ are distinct s elements of (a) we + + where d G Cs.73. . if H is any group such that H^G. (h) F is clearly isomorphic to gp({di i G /}). and (6) every abelian group is isomorphic to a subgroup of a divisible group. unless ci = ca = • • • =0 6. G must in fact be a p-Priifer group. Now be we choose one copy of the rationals Qj for each iei. and so Now we have proved 6. . let S be the subgroup generated by all the divisible subgroups of G (6) Prove that G is the direct sum of a divisible group and a group which has no other than the identity subgroup {0}. and so G is If on the other hand nG {0}.76. (This theorem is not proved in this text. in (a) G = F/N D/N for some free abelian group F and some subgroup N. and so mnG = direct sum of finite of cyclic groups Cj. As S 3 ffj for each and z(ki /. Therefore G is divisible... As all the proper subgroups of G are finite and the additive group of rationals has an infinite cyclic group as a proper subgroup. i. . then G is the direct sum of p-Priifer groups and copies of the additive group of rationals. Let G be an infinite group whose proper subgroups are all finite. Since each p-Priifer group is infinite. Hence D contains as a subgroup F/N. Prove that (a) every free abelian group is isomorphic to a subgroup of a divisible abelian group. then G is a direct sum of cyclic groups (of finite order). contains N. Solution (a) A free abelian group i^ is a direct sum of infinite cyclic groups Q (i G /): F = and * 2 let Cj.„) = s Hence S is divisible. i . contradiction proves the result. c„ = = . say.75. (a) Let G be any group and Prove that S is divisible. The proof Problems 6. se C2 • • X Cs. G. there exist G where each Aj belongs to a divisible subgroup Hj of G fcj G «j such that zki = hi. This is Q 6. that there exists a divisible group D containing F. . m. only p-Priifer groups are involved. Consider the subgroups divisible. it must be the direct sum of an infinite number But then the subgroup generated by all but one of the must be infinite..73. If s^. a proper subgroup of G for some n.e. But « The 2 ^ ^ Qi is divisible since each result follows.

. . • Solution: Ci is of the contrary. Ker e = {g\ ng = 0} — {0} as G is is an isomorphism. and it was shovra that G/T{G) is tor- sion-free. So if = gp{z/2^) for some inteis not infinite cyclic. "less than" the type of the group.. (As G is torsion-free. every proper subgroup of which free abelian.2.33. But is and 1/2*+ 1 € fifp(z/2*).4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 211 (6) Since S is divisible. Thus for some w # free abelian. 6. generated by 1/2. they are isomorphic. 6. Direct sums of infinite cyclic groups are all the free abelian groups. Since yriyS^ v^ 0. Any homomorphism of the direct summands of a group extends to a homomorphism of the whole group. In the fundamental theorem of abelian groups. But then 1/2'+ 1 S . . Now e : g torsion-free. ..32) to find that we can apply our direct summand theorem for divisible subgroups G = S ® T. the result follows. nG ¥= G. H H is of rank 1 as H H H H H not G. roughly speaking. rank of a group was defined and proved an invariant of the group by the Steinitz exchange theorem. in the additive group of rais free abelian. = c„ = 0. i = 1. then Cj = C2 = • • i.. Prove that G free abelian.77. . . and .. it is the direct sum This led to the definition of the p-Prufer group as the p-component of QIZ. It was proved that if G is a torsion group. (a) (6) Prove that the additive group of rationals Let is (? Q has a proper subgroup which is is not free abelian. there is always a group which is the direct sum of groups isomorphic to each of the groups Ai.) 0. we have a contradiction to the fact that S is A look back at Chapter 6 This chapter was mainly concerned with the structure of divisible and finitely generated abelian groups. .38. . it Q is of rank 1 (Problem 6. highest order. Direct sums of groups were discussed. The torsion group T{G) of a group G was defined. 6. We have only to prove that gers 2 and i. = mjSj where m^ is an integer. we may assume that Ci =/= p'-ic.1/8. prove that if Cj + • • + c„ = 0. Then c„ is immaterial. the type of a subgroup of a group was shown to be. -^ ng Hence e is a homomorphism of G onto nG. Two finitely generated abelian groups were shown to be isomorphic if and only if they have the same type. Suppose that nG = G for all positive integers n. Solution: (a) Consider the subgroup tionals. (cj Cj.Sec. be a torsion-free group. page 194). and so G is free abelian. Finally. G will have a non-free subgroup. for if it were. . Say Thus we obtain Assume As pi-i Cj is the order of of order p'. Given a family Aj (i G 7) of groups. and nG is But by (a) above. must be infinite cyclic. . Then G is divisible and is the direct sum of copies of the additive group of rationals.e.n. + • • • + c„) = m^Si + m^Si -!-••+ m„s„ an independent set. As T contains no divisible subgroup other than {0}. finitely generated abelian groups were shown to be expressible as the direct sum of cyclic groups. 1/2*. no p-Prufer group is involved. 1/4. (b) This is obvious since 1/3 € H. Prove the result stated at the end of the proof of Theorem 6. An important fact is that every abelian group is a homomorphic image of a free abelian group. An The application of Zorn's lemma proves every group has a maximal independent subset. (Theorem 6. of its p-components. Prom this it follows that if two groups are direct sums of isomorphic subgroups.78.

87. for abelian groups using the p-components. is an automorphism of the group G. A) = A. Any divisible subgroup of a group is also a direct summand. Prove that the group of rationals under addition If is not the direct sum of cyclic groups.85.81. Denote the set of all homomorphism of an abelian group If 0.86. where jr is the set of all primes. Prove that (a) <3i is a subgroup {pg of G. a is of order 2. + ^) = g<f> + g'^ (1) is (l) for all g e G. an abelian group 6. Let a.4c. Let G we may use Let "^ + Pg = pg ^^ 2Trm/n radians where m. Prove that if G/N is free abelian. and ga^ g for all g {¥-\)& G. As G additive notation.79. Show that Kom (G. is the direct sum of cyclic subgroups. prove that Horn (Z. 6.79. {Hint: First prove G = {g-Hga) g G G} and then use Problem \ 6. If A is an abelian group and the group of integers under addition. n > 0}. page 130. pg denote the group of rotations of the plane (see Section 3.89. 6. G sum 6. prove G is abelian.) Let N he a normal subgroup of G. Prove the first Sylow theorem. (6) every element of has finite order. then "^p = {pg and r are integers} and %p = the p-Priifer group.H) Z is with the operation defined by an abelian group. {Hint: Use the preceding problem and free abelian groups.83. 6 Divisible groups were discussed. H). denotes the p component of for any prime 9 = 2irm/p'" radians where p.84.90. Let . If G is a finite group.82. Suppose every element of G is of order less than some fixed integer n and there are elements of order n in G. 6.212 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. Prove by 6. Prove that the elements of order n generate G. G be an abelian group. Let the order of a plus the order of h be n. (c) if %j. 6 be elements of an abelian group. * e Horn (G.80. Supplementary Problems DIRECT SUMS AND FREE ABELIAN GROUPS 6. page 68).88. Suppose that G is Show 6.) that G is a finite group. we define ^ + * by g{4> G into an abelian group H by Hom(G. N is a direct summand. a&G. an abelian group.6 is of order the least common multiple of the orders of a and 6. 6. Any group which is the union of cyclic groups of order a power of p turns out to be a p-Prufer group. show that aut (G) = Tl aut (Gp). induction on n that a 4. a e aut (G).H). TORSION GROUP AND RANK 6. Thus the rotation p^ followed by rotation pg is is = I » = 1 % m % 6. n are integers. This led to the proof that every divisible group is the direct sum of isomorphic copies of the additive group of rationals and p-Priifer groups. show that a factor group of G is not necessarily a direct of cyclic subgroups. 6. If the mapping o ^ a-i.

91 to find suitable elements a. then G = /j . n-1.81) where B is a torsion-free divisible group. Prove that (a) a direct summand of an abelian group is a pure subgrroup. {Hint: Use Problem 6. aj a'6* -» o«'6-* and as: a»6* -» atft" where s and t ^ are integers. . G is the direct sum 6.97. {Hint: Use the fundamental theorem and then first look and Vj divides Vj+i for t = 1 at the highest power of each different prime in the decomposition. 6] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 213 FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM FOR FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS 6. «. (a) Let G = Hom(A. AG is an element +A . 0) for some prime 6. Prove that the automorphism group of a finitely generated abelian group there is at most one infinite cyclic summand in a cyclic decomposition of G. is the direct sum of isomorphic copies of 6. Find the type of the additive group of integers modulo m for G any integer m > 0.95. Show If that a divisible abelian group has no subgroup of finite index. finite abelian group. w). subgroup H of an abelian group A is a pure subgroup of A if whenever na = h & H for some o e A.104.96.) 6. an infinite cyclic group (j = 1.. Prove that G is cyclic. is C„ where /„ ffi Cj Prove that if G is a finitely generated abelian group. Cj is a finite cyclic group of order Dj (i = 1. and (6) the torsion subgroup of an abelian group is a pure subgroup. 6. Let G be a in ments G finite abelian group. 6.98.93. if Prove that G (6) is sum of copies of the additive group of rationals.n). Prove that A is finite. Let G be as in (a) but with of p-Priifer groups. 6. G is a nondivisible abelian group.CHAP. Show that has a subgroup of type (p. A &H 6.91.94. Let H be a G gS such that g pure subgroup of an abelian group G. n # 0. Prove that all the subgroups of a group in which every element has square-free order is pure.) • • • • © ® © • • © . Let G be a non-cyclic p.101. there = g + A and the order of g is equal to the order of ff + A. Prove that if g + G/A. d of G there are at most d ele- 6.b ^ G such that the order of a divides the order of 6. . then lowing theorem (not proved in this book): direct G has a subgroup of prime index.102. is finite if and only if 6. . Then look at the mappings a^: a'b' -> a»+'5t.103. then there is an h' such that nh' — h. Prove that the automorphism group of a finite non-cyclic abelian group G is non-abelian. Suppose that for each divisor of order d. Let G be a finitely generated abelian group. /.100. is the sum of cyclic groups. G DIVISIBLE GROUPS 6. {Hint: Use the folAn abelian group G for which nG = {0}.92.99.. . p.) 6. B a divisible p-group.B) the direct (see Problem 6. Prove by induction on the number of generators of that every subgroup of G is finitely generated. Prove that the additive group of the real numbers the additive group of rationals.

hG. — gp • hp. Theorem 7. then every homomorphism of G onto G is an automorphism. CAYLEY'S THEOREM Another proof of Cayley's theorem We saw in Chapter 2 that every groupoid is isomorphic to a groupoid of mappings. H Our use it third division. A particular example of a splitting extension is the direct product. g. then (gh)p p is one-to-one.e. also i. &G. Let p be the the following mapping of G into G: mapping which assigns x to each element fl' in G X-* xg for each definition. In particular. 214 . that every group is isomorphic to a permutation group. show that a group G Section 7.e. We with center of finite index has finite derived group. Proof: Let G be a group. As consequences of this generalization we prove the following theorems for G. group K if there is a normal subgroup H of G such that G/H = K and H = H. The most general case is complicated and we restrict ourselves to a special extension called "the splitting extension. G. we are able to build a group G that is the splitting extension of a given group hy a given group K.7. The consequences of this theorem are important. gp GG Thus the image of flr in G under p is. We repeat the proof here for the case of groups alone. we have to check that: (i) an isomorphism of G onto gp is a permutation of G for every g if i. every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. its which begins group into one of to abelian subgroups. by gp: where x^ xg (xGG) p defines The definition of p is unambiguous. We examine G to see how it is built up from H and K." Reversing our analysis. an isomorphism. (ii) (iii) p is p is a homomorphism. In the first we generalize Cayley's theorem. We call a group G an extension of _a group H hy a. The second main division of this chapter appears in Section 7.chapter 7 Permutational Representations Preview of Chapter 7 There are three main divisions of this chapter.1 (Cayley) : Every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. defines a homomorphism of a This homomorphism is called the transfer. a group generated by a finite number of elements: (1) A subgroup of finite index in G is itself finitely generated.1 a. used in Chapter 5. (2) The number of subgroups of fixed finite index in G is finite. To prove that a subgroup of Sg. (3) If the subgroups of finite index of G intersect in the identity.8. in 7.

p is one-to-one. 3^2 1^2. say (see Lemma page Then Ip : 1-^1. (iii) the symmetric group on three letters. Pe-^Ps between worth checking = {PiPj)p for some and } and 6. 2^2. ^ P2. 2. . 3^3 1^3. i P6^P2 1 Pi^Pe. 7. P2^Pi. as ap ¥= Ip. Pe -* 3^2 Then PlP P2P Pi Pap PiP Psp Pep It is Pu Ps -* Ps. Pi ^PS. 2-»l.. -* 1 l-»a2. Ps^Pe. i. a = a • 1.e.Sec. 1 and a. 'P • 1. Describe in detail the isomorphisms given by Cayley's theorem for (i) a cyclic group of order (ii) a cyclic group of order n (n — 3). P4 PS^PS..1. If one demands that a permutation group satisfy further conditions. Ps -* Pi. Solution: (i) 2. 2-»l. a"-i o«-i . (Pip)(pjp) P5^P4.5. 3^1 l-*3. Ps -* P2. . we find x = y. {gh)p the definition of equality of mappings). So. = l(gp) = l{hp) = h. then xg = yg. Pi P5^P2. a-* a. Pi^Ps. Thus we must prove gp so gp is onto. 2-* 3. where a^ = 1 and Ip is the mapping mapping given by Ip : 1 ^ 1. Pe^Pi Pi Pi P2 ^ Ps. kp. Let 4. g = Suppose gp = Therefore h. Caution and patience are required to avoid confusion in some of our subsequent equations. Cayley's theorem and examples of groups Cayley's theorem tells us that there is an isomorphic image of every group among the permutation groups of suitably chosen sets. P2 -^ Ps. a"-2 permutations (iii) The symmetric group on the Pi set {1. Then G consists of n elements l. g~^ on the right. ^Pi. {Note: In the proof of Cayley's theorem p is a mapping of G into Sc.e. . p is then one-to-one. multiplying by we prove gp is a mapping of G onto G. Problem 7. Pe-^Ps ^ Ps. Next If x{gp) = viffp). x{{gh)p) = x{gh) = {xg)h = (x{gp)){hp) = x(gphp) Since {gh)p and gphp have precisely the same effect on every element of G. 3-*3 1^1. then {xg~^){gp) = {xg~^)g = x and We (i). ^ a"~i ap : a". so that gp is itself a mapping of G to G. Let 1 • a G = be cyclic of order 2.1. Let p be as in Theorem 7. PS^PS. i. -> 1 Clearly p (ii) one-to-one.o. 2-* 2. a^. one frequently comes across interesting groups (see Chapter 3). P2 -^ P2. 1 -^ a. P2 -* Pi. Then G consists of two elements. Historically many important groups arose in precisely this way. Secondly we prove (ii). n. -* Ps Ps- Pi ^Pi.a"~i.. It = if gphp (by 1 is the identity element of G.1] CAYLEY'S THEOREM deal first with 215 is a one-to-one mapping of G onto G. P5-*Pl. For x G G.) b. G be cyclic of order 102). Pi -^P2. P3-*Pi. a a -» a and ap is the is op : 1 -> a. Suppose a. P2-*P5. € G. ^ Pi. 2-»3. P6^P4 Pi ^Ps. Pa-^Pe. 3-»l Pi Pi Ps l->2. P6-*P6 ^P6. remains to prove g (iii). 3} consists of the P2 Vz 1^1.

Let p G be as in the solution to as a permutation group (ii) There is another representation of the symmetric group G on {1. Z all g and h in G. distinct since they act differently on 0. Note that a It is cyclically permutes the integers taken see that a Oa^ = 3. . (n-l)a = in blocks of n. G So /4 is a permutational representation. 2.. are all is of order n. for G is itself a permutation group on {1.216 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. order 2 and let be the set of permutation of X defined by X i all integers a: 2i-^2i+l. we say that a mapping of G into the symmetric group on some set is a permutational representation of G if fi. . ja" = j. . .„"-! If . then permutational representation of G on G. difficult to Oa"-i = n—1. not . Hence the mapping 1 -> is 1. .. actually an isomorphism since both G and r are cyclic of order two..... Let a be the .«"-!} X=Z jn the integers defined by . . .... jn+ we have Oa 1 -> + 2. . Then p itself is a representation of on six elements. 0. a. a"-l->an-l an isomorphism and therefore a permutational representation of G. Oa^ = 2.. p is a Repeating the definition of a permutational representation of a group G in detail.. a.a2. la = at = a Now 1 I suppose is consists of the elements 1 and a. Let i denote the identity permutation. Thus a sends an even integer to the succeeding odd integer and an odd integer to the preceding even integer. Then the mapping n: a-* a. for Example 1: (i) G be the symmetric group on {1.±1. This is the identity isomorphism...a.1) -^ jn {j = 0.. G = Let a be the permutation of a: {l.. la 2...3}. First of This means that the permutations i. So a« group r of order n.. and let Problem 7. 1. 3}.1(iii).) In particular = 1. is any integer.«"-!} is a cyclic of G into r defined by a-* a... . . G be the cyclic group of — 1.2 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Definition of a permutational representation A homomorphism of a group G into the symmetric group on the set mutational representation of G on X. jn^jn+l. . 3}. X is called a per- So if p is the isomorphism provided by Cayley's theorem for the group G. The permutational representation provided by Cayley's theorem is called the right-regular representation (the adjective right is used because the representation is obtained by multiplication on the right). (iii) Let . (iv) Suppose m is a positive integer and that G is the cyclic group of order n.±1. 2i+1^2i for = 0. 7 7.. 2.. a^. a^. . all.2. . . the most natural one. . . = jn + (n .. Then t and a together constitute a subgroup r of the symmetric group on since X a — I. = /m i and {i.

3}. (v) is Problems 7.2. Let X = {1.2. 2. But by Lemma 3.h in G we choose. g takes each vertex of ABCD to a Ag. Notice that here G is cyclic of order 2. (iv) This representation This representation is of infinite degree. To see this let from which (gh)T phism. So in deciding on a choice of Ii = T li. = n — G involves Now aj: l-*2. page 71.a^}. 7. mappings U. x{gh)e = xjgf^ = x(gh) = (xg)h = (a.12. a).Sec.C.D} and y^ by xjg = xg for all xGX. 3^1 ag: 1-»1.T) = (grXhr).yg)yh = a. If ge the identity permutation of X. 3^2 1.3. i For no matter which {gT){h. g = i. g. 2-»2. 7. Cg and Dg are distinct vertices. (ii) is Notice that in (i) and (ii) we have two representations of the same group. then either or G/j is of order 2. of different degrees.(ygyfc) = x(ge)(he) Thus is (gh)e = gehe. Hence Ker e = {i} and e is actually an isomorphism. Let G possible representations of be the cyclic group of order 2. t elements g. (iii) This representation is of infinite degree. G. G is the group of sym- A D Let g vertex.3 a. then yg G SxSx be defined by ge = y^. say G = {1. is This representation This representation of degree of degree 6. Then there are several G on X. then fr leaves every vertex of ABCD un- changed. and so 9 is a permutational representation of G. 2-*3.7. Hence there are representations of finite groups which are of infinite degree. i for t = Thus the 1 -> a -» aj jtt2 : 1 - i. 3}. 3-*3 aj: l-*3. . a -* oj /jg : 1 -> a ^ ag are representations of G on X.B. {i. 2.X. aj}. Find a representation of degree 3 for a cyclic group of order Solution: 2. Then {i. 3. By Lemma 3. Then if x€. of degree 4.hGG. Note also that G/t must be a subgroup. 2^1. Bg. There are actually 3 of them. First of all there is the rather trivial representation T : 1 -» I.3] DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS (v) 217 Suppose that G is the dihedral group of degree metries of the square 4. define e Since g X- Let e: G^ page 75. namely the symmetric group on {1. = i. Another representation of choosing a different homomorobserve that if /» is a homomorphism of G into the symmetric group Sx. 2: briefly referred to Example We (i) inspect Example l(i)-(v). (gh)r = I and i where is is clearly a representation. ag} are /Ji : subgroups of Sx of order two. a -> I as usual the identity permutation. we need subgroups of Sx of order 2. If we {A. is one-to-one. since a? I. DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS Degree of a representation Definition: The degree of a permutational representation on X (more as a representation) is the number of elements in X.

(ii) The and (ii) identity isomorphism is one-to-one. 2 -> 3. faithful? p is faithful. aP-. a^. (i) in Example 1. /i2 : t. is faithful. 1 -» 1 ~* 1. 10 -> 6 aa It : 1 ^ 2. . f or i G= 15} {1.e. Let G be cyclic of order 5. aj. Let X = and let {1. 4 ^ 5. 8 -^ 9.4 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS Suppose that cosets Definition: G is ofHinG a group and that i? is a subgroup of G.3 for faithfulness. «!. 7 The proof that there are precisely three subgroups of order 2 follows from an inspection of the subgroups of Sx. (v) The representation 7. However fi^. . Thus . . 9 -» 10. ttj. and are both faithful.2 and (6) Problem 7. a* ^ The first is of degree 10 and the second is of degree 15.2 7 -^ 8. fi^. T Hi is not faithful since a¥' /i2 1 and ar = 1..10} 4. i. respectively. ^ a2. -> 4. . a a ^ «!.3. page 216. b. (iv) is faithful. . a'^ -* al a^ and are both representations of G. . Inspect the representations of Solution : (a) (6) (a) Problem 7. 6 -* 7. a*}. Faithful representations Definition: A representation is termed faithful if it is one-to-one.4. J 3. 3 3 ^ 4 -* 5. all The upshot of these considerations is that we have produced 4 representations of G of degree 3. a*} are subgroups of order 5 of Sx and Sy 01-. 7. Both faithful and non-faithful representations are useful.218 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. a*} Tj = {i. > 5 5. follows from a direct calculation that both aj and «£ are of order Ti Then = {i. . a. 7.. /is are faithful. as we shall see later.2. t is not one-to-one.5. Y = ^ aj : 1 -^ 2. are Hxu Hx2. . Find representations of degree 10 and 15 respectively of the Solution: cyclic group of order 5.. we leave the details to the reader. Problems 7. . Are the representations Solution. 5 ^ 1. Then we can find a eG such that {1. a?. 02.1) .Since we have no real need for such proof here. (iii) n /4 is faithful. Notice that (i) provide examples of faithful representations of the same group which are of different degrees. al. so this representation is also faithful. 5 -* 1. Then the right {7.. 2 -* 3.

{g^TT){g^TT). we select in each coset Hg an element which we term the representative of the coset.Sec. (Note that (firj7r)(s'2'r) is the product of two mappings. using {7.yy^ {x. the result of first performing the mapping (flfjTr) and then {g^-^).4] PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS of the identity element alone. then hg = g since Hg = Hg = Hhg = Hhd.a. Finally we prove xgg-^ onto. Then xg -yg. If H consists H= describe our representation. if g^. We now define a mapping tt of G into Sx. a? = 1.a} H take X= With each element flr in G we associate a y^: mapping y^ of X into X. In other words. then {g^g^Tv . and so Hg^2 = Hgig2 = Thus g7g2 {7.e. To prove we show that if g\. let us choose a complete system of representatives of Hg of in G. Note that -n- is X To prove {g-^g^T^ = {g{'^){g2'^) we must show that {S-iQ^-^ is a permutation of X. But Hgi = Hg\. as a coset representation of G (with respect to H). assigns to ff in G the mapping y^. The aim of the discussion in this section is to prove that this mapping tt is a permutational representation of G on X.10). . a^) is a sub{l. We call such a set the right cosets To X H X X a right g. transversal of H in G. we denote the representative of the coset Hg by Thus g is an element of .a} is a right transversal of in G. while g\g2 the representa- tive of the coset Hg^gi. .y G X). is then simply the set of chosen representatives. a = a.X". Notice that if h G H. a? = a.xg ^g = xg-^g = y^ is x Hence every element of X is an image.1) is 219 simply an enumeration of the elements of G. a^}. it follows that Hg — Hg because g G Hg.3) We use Assume that Vg is prove that the mapping a permutation. -n We (see shall refer to depends on H. i. g2 GG First {7. y^ is defined by x^xg {x&X) this {7. For example. G and X. if G is cyclic of order 4.2). and if group of order ^ of G. then xg^^ G X and xy^ 3:9 Vg . Here we will show how to obtain a permutational representation of G using the cosets {7. Suppose x G X. We have only to verify that it is a homomorphism. then = gTgi- For gTgi is the representative of the coset Hgigz. then {7.1) which coincides with the regular representation when {1}. with 1 the representative of H. g^ is e G. H— We where {1. g^ G G. 7.2) first In f act Yg Sigz is a permutation of X. a^.e. and so xgg-'^ — ygg^K Using {7. from which x = y. Thus a permutation. Of course In a sense tt is independent of the choice of the transversal X Problem 7. say G = {l. Given a right transversal X of H in G. we prove y^ is one-to-one. i. we find = xgg~^ — x = x and si mila rly ygg"^ = y. and note that 1 — 1.3). the effect of the mapping {g^g^-n is the same as the effect of the mapping {g^Tr){g^-?r). with 1 the representative of H.) If x GX. so that gv the permutation of defined by {7. then (l. Since two right cosets are either identical or disjoint.3) to HgTgl = gigi y^ is for all gi.3) we find {x{g^n)){g^^) x{{g^g2)7^) = x{g^g^) = xg^g^ = = x{{g^7r){g^n)) Hence {g^g^-R = {g ^Tz){g ^tv) tt as claimed.

Za^. Za^ are the cosets of Z in G.^ corresponds to a reflection. One has only to check this from the multiplication table. (Here cti G is Finally Z.6. ds. Za^. Za^. a4. This again can be checked directly from the X = a right transversal of {I.ai. ab -^ as. as dg da dl 1 d4 as dg 1 dj dg dl dy d4 dl d2 (Comparing with Table 6 -^ d4. 5.a.220 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP.1. a^ -* 03. Za^. «i. (fib -^ dg.2 as 1 d7 d4 as dg dg a^ as dg a-. ctg.a4.j «5 ag tti a? 0-2 ai 1 «5 a4 Ctg CC2 «! of corresponds to a rotation of 90°. 05. agi "7" is given by the fol- dl d2 d2 dg 1 dg dg 1 d4 d4 as as dg d7 d4 dl dg dg a? d4 dy a^ d4 1 1 dl dl dg dg 1 as d2 dg d4 a2 dg d4 as dg dj dg a^ d2 dg 1 as dg dg dl 0. This can be checked by verifying that 0-2 commutes with every element of D (and no element other than 1 and 02 has this property). as} a right transversal of Z in G. Choose right transversals for (a) the center Z in the dihedral group D of degree center Z in the quaternion group of order 8 (see Table 5.) The center Z ot Jl is given by 2: = {1. with elements 1. a -> di. a^} is most easily described by a^ "5 O-g its multiplication 1 1 dj a^ ^2 Og a^ ttg a^ 04 ^5 Kg a^ ag a<j di ay 04 "1 «1 «2 «3 1 1 aj 04 as 0. a. £14. a2> as. 7 Problems 7. Za^. ^ 4. . a4.) The center Z given by 2 = {1. d^b -» a^.<^. da}. we have the following correspondence: 1 -> 1.2 1 »1 a^ a^ as Og as O'S «! ag a? 1 a^ a^ a^ Ctg 05 ttg «3 1 0.di. and (5) the Solution (a) : The dihedral group table: D— {l. Thus ^ = is {l.1. page 151). The cosets oi Z in Jl are multiplication table. d^ -> a^.2 «! a-5 (17 tti ttg ^2 dg 1 ag ae a. while (x.i. 02. (6) The quaternion group of order lowing multiplication table: 1 ^ 8. ag. Thus is Z.a5} Z in Jl.

6. homomorphism. ^ Is. Consider the permutation group S^j sider 01. 04 -* 05. ai -> a4.9. using the set = {1. Og -> ttg : 1 -> tti. 1 -* 1. Give a definition which Solution: that a: F be a permutation group on a set X and let G be a permutation group on a set Y. (xf)a = (xa){fe). 02 ~* *2-) 7.8 provides the isomorphism. detail the permutation a^ir. For any x €. 2 -» 6 and 9 : 0^ -> *j.) Solution: F and G are isomorphic as permutation groups. o^ = 204. 04 -^ Oi. ag -> 04 Og -» ffij : 1 -> 04. is It is instructive to check directly that this mapping r {1.^ = Z'ctg. . Og}. 04 -^ 05. «! -> 04. l^a4. a^ -> ag. -> 1. di ajjT a^lT dsn(l45r : ^ Oi. ttg. Its elements are 4>i = [ ) and <f>2 = { ) • Con- now the permutation group Sj„^j essentially the .6(a) with respect to Z. Now work out a coset representation we must find the X OiOi = 1 since so a4(Ojj7) = ctg. and so a^{a^!^) = 1. 1. aj -* aj. then they are isomorphic as groups.Sec.8.4] PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS (a) 221 7. 04 a^ OyTT : 1 -> ag. Og}. 04-^1. The » of the solution of Problem 7. ag-*l Og-^ai ffig-*! «4 ~* : 1^«5.6(b) Find a coset representation of with respect to Z. -^ dj. Za. -^ oj. 1] -^ ii. -> aj. on. 7. s^j = [" ) • *i ^""^ *2 and 02 are will make Let this idea of "essentially the same except for the elements they act same" precise. a^. We will calculate in = {l. a. Let f^. ctj since Za4aj = a^. a homomorphism of D into the per- mutation group on (6) Again we must find the permutations that ir assigns to each element of ^. a4 -* 04. aj ^ 1.aj. l-^tti. 05^ ai a^ir: agTT CtyTT : l^ag. X. Og -> 1 etg -^ ctj ctg ai -> ag.4 -^- 1. O4 -> Oi. aj ^ 1. Oi -» ttj 04 0. The argument follows closely that of (a) above. and so l(ayv) = a^. 04 -> 04. a^ -» Og. : (In this problem a : 1 -* a. (xa){{fif2)9) First we show that it is a = = (x(fif2))a = {(xfi)f2)a (by the definition of composition of mappings) ((a'/i)a)(/2 9) = ((««)(/i»))(/2e) = (*«)((/ie)(/2 9)) . We say F and G are isomorphic as permutation groups if there exists a one-to-one onto correspondence X -*Y and an onto mapping e F -* G such that for all x in X and / S F. 1 -> ai. Here we give only the result which the reader is urged to check. «i -* 14. «! «5-*a4 l-*a4. Then 1 • di = a^. OgT tte"" : -> 04. 1--1. a^. Prove that if (Hard. permutations of X that v assigns to each element of D. a4 -^ 04. and (6) ^ of Problem Solution: (a) We Thus tt using the right transversal X given in Problem 7. -* 1 7. and Finally 0^07 = : a^ since Z(a^a^) = and so a5(aiw) = Therefore diTT l^ai. Oi. a^). Za\ =Z= Z\. di-^l. 2. Its elements are *i = ( j . 04 -> 04. a^7T\ (i47r '. (14.7. 7. X Itt : 1 -> 1. 1 -> dg. ai-*l. ttg -> -> ffg ttg a^ : ttl -> Oi. ag^a4 "5-* 15 05 -^«5 Similarly the other permutations are Itt: ttgn: 1^1. 1 -* (I4. D of Problem 7.f2&F. a^.

that if G is a simple group and ful. the right transversal of the kernel of it. Hxg.e. aGK = 0. Hence e is an isomorphism. a is then a one-to-one correspondence. H X K x = a. then A^ cKerTr. the of onto itself.10. -n- should be noted that from this theorem it follows that is the identity subgroup.e. H tt G with respect to H. 7. Hence a&H. .e. = (»/?)« as they are elements of X2 that belong to the same coset. i. Let g-iri = /?. Suppose that a G N.5 a. if of tt is the largest normal subgroup N<G and HdN. then if x G X. tt is automatically faithThis implies. H H Proof: Let if X be is prove that identity If K mapping First we in G from which tt was defined. are permutations. Solution (Hard. Let G be any group and a subgroup of G. FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM The kernel Is of a coset representation tt a coset representation that the answer 7. Let Zj be a transversal for in G and jt. it Then the kernel i. f 16/29 = (/i«)(/29). i = 1. i. /J.2: is of a if group G with respect to a subgroup We know Theorem H {1}. This observation has been useful in the theory of finite groups. is faithful if the only normal subgroup of G which is contained in ¥= G. ff Hence as {f if2)6 (Xa)(f2e). Prove that Gti-i and Gn-2 are isomorphic as permutation groups. We define Gtti -* Gjr2 by (gTri)ii — gir^. giT2 — ! We need only verify that (x^)a = {xa)~i for each at G X. then i. To do this it is sufficient to prove that if N is any normal subgroup of G contained in H. 2. then is contained in H. x/j = xf2 from which /i /2. and so xax~^ Thus xa = x which means x{aiT) G H. If x G X. For then. Of course K. the corresponding coset representation.(c7r) = M.It is easy to check that ^u is a mapping.e. the only normal subgroups of G are G and the identity subgroup. This means that K is contained in H. for example. 7 a mapping onto Y. as the To complete the proof of the kernel of the homomorphism is a normal subgroup of G. theorem. Accordingly = X for all x G X t iV cK as required.222 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Since a is [CHAP. then Hxa = Hxax~^x Since N is normal. Let be a coset representation of yes — ever faithful? to find the kernel of tt. of G contained in H. Nn = {l}. we must show that K is the largest normal subgroup of G contained in H. (xa)(fie) = (xfi)a = = (Xf2)a Since a one-to-one. and (/i9)(/29) it follows that as x ranges over X.Thus 9 is a homomorphism. The object now is Let G be a group and H a subgroup of G.2. The result 7.) H H Since X^ and X^ contain one and only one element in each coset of H in G. In particular on putting and xGX. — and Hxa — Hx. Before proving Theorem 7. the set of all elements g of G such that g-rr = i. then air = i.. Hence a-n xax~^ GN. Next we must show that Thus is is one-to-one. 1 -n-. : jtfxfi' = = li{xp) = = H({xlS)a) fl^((a. Hxg' H(xa}g Hence (xa)y follows.a)y) Also. But iV is contained in H. we define a: Xi^ X^ by sending Xi G Xj to X2 S X2 if Hxi — Hx2. by definition. xa ranges over Y. X = 1. Now by definition of y8 and a. Suppose that /]» = /29.

The coset representaassociated with the right transversal {i. Our idea is to express p in terms of tt. Let a 1 -* 2. 7. a. -> T {(j'^t)it '. every coset representation has kernel precisely H. permutational representation v is H7 : X is a right transversal of H in „2 _» g. CT ^ I.2 CT (t2<''^)tt : I -* a^. _» CT b. ^gj. I ~* T. t. lie we have x(gp) in = a. denote the right regular representation of G. ot. Let G be the alternating group of degree 4 and let H be the 3 1 subgroup consisting of the permutations a ^2 2 1 3 4\ /I 2 4 4\ n ' 2 3 3 2 r 1^ 4 sj' \3 2) [a Find an associated coset representation of Solution: ^ .^ .5] FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM 223 Problems 7. a^.3412.r = {i}. T -* T TTT'. a. = — gpia) — {i. <r cr..r-^l i air <T^3r : I t. Frobenius' theorem Let be a subgroup of G. -» CT^. -> 1. j^ a2 -> ff (•rsCT^). t}. jT Hence by Theorem tion G is {i.11. . (. a^ -» a (ct^tJtt : i -» ct. a^}. i~^T.7- : i (T. r) is given by iTT : I -* -* -* I. a -^ a. -» "* -» a (T ^ -> t. . The associated I ^ I.2.ct2}. G with respect to H. o^t.= {i. 2. 3 -» 1.' H = (4 ij- T^- ^^ -^ = 2 4 consists of the elements coset representation. a^. <7 ^ _» <r2^ 5. a ^ a.*^ 3 1 / ' 4\ (2143. and let t 1 ^ 2.2^ (.: . P -n- H Z Let If a. <r.2. Since G = HuHaUHor^. Let v be the associated It is easy to check directly that is normal in G. . c^ -^ ct^ It tion of follows immediately that n. 2 3 Is this representation faithful? /I '•.2 : 1 I. In each case find a coset representation of G with respect to H. 3}. a CT ^ -> a^. 2 3 4\ ^^ /I 4\ ^3 /I 2 3 3 2 ^. since the only element is I. ( (^ CT. Let (a) — {'.^ : [ (t2. T ~^ i Clearly Ker i. So fl^ is normal in G. Finally we list the permutations gtr with g in G: It follows H H «r CTir : I ^ -> -» -* -* I. 2 -» 3. Let G : : 3 -> 3. be the symmetric group on {1. a. a^ -* <r2 ^^ . (5) Let X={(. and so v is not faithful. G.is faithful. a transversal and the associated coset representation.2^ a^jT : I -» a2. t}. CT -» CT. (tjct2)^ : ( ^ (. (T a^ -» ^2 a^ -> a^ ct2 i : i CT. Sec. _» j^ ^ _> j. aV TjTT : I (T^. a -> i. r -* i : t I. T T -* T (<rr)7r : -* r. 2 -^ 1.12. a (T (t2ct). Hence the kernel of . Notice that t~i<7t — a~'^ = <fl. (rg(T)jr : i ff. G X and g G G.^ = (. o^ ct2 ^ -^ -> a^ J t^tt : i -> -» i. X mapped to the identity permuta- 7.£r Of course xg need not X.(t. cr^} and (6) Then the elements of G are i. H H Solution: (a) A right transversal of i/ in 7. Find also the kernels 9V{^) of both representations. Then Ker tt = by Theorem 7. a2 -^ ff2 . ^ -» a (.2 ^ „2 ^ . immediately that a right transversal of in G is X = {i. ff2 (Tiff)!?- 1 0-. -> ct^.

7) Note that gX is a permutation of H xX.x)ga)gX = (hax. 7 We a€: H. But gX is also onto since permutation of HxX. x'{g-n)) then Since {h. (hx){gp) & H and x G X. x)g<T = (fe'.x){gd) = {hax. x{g-.x) is Thus g<7 is a mapping of HxX onto HxX.g.lax. i. Substituting ux.4) x(gp) or = ax. however. x) We verify that ga a permutation of {hax. = x'.xGX) {7. that xg belongs to the same coset as xg.x){gX) = = {h'.x) = {h. x{g7r)) let g eG Proof: The proof is an adaptation of the discussion of the last few paragraphs.g.5).x){g\) = {h.x)ga HxX.g{x{g-)). Therefore = (hax. First with right-transversal X. x') and therefore we find x = x' and ha^. = Suppose {h.g. it follows from x{gTr) = proved that gX is one-to-one. know. x) — {h'ax'.g){x{g^)) {7. Let G be a group and H in G. Then (hax. It remains to verify that ga This means that one-to-one.S) Thus (fif<T)(fl'A) = ge {7-9) .gx(gTr) {7. For each TT be the coset representation with respect to which is defined as the permutation g-Tr gives rise to a permutation gX of H HxX *°"'*'^^' {h.g . pose that {h.a ax.hxg .224 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP.g of H) and what happens to x (it goes to x{g-K)). x)gX = {hax. and we denote it by Ux. x{g7r)) (T'.g = Hence ga is a permutation of HxX. Let of G as a group of pera faithful representation and X) defined by (the cartesian product of is Ha Z H {h. if g xg GG. x')g(T. Then there mutations of HxX be a right transversal of subgroup of G.x) = {h'.5) Now {hx){gp) any element of G can be expressed in the form hx for h .6) This equation suggests that the effect of gp on an element hx of G can be explained by what happens to h (it goes to the element hax. = then {ax.gxg (7.)). Hence xg = axg where Now a is clearly dependent on x and g.g. e H) For each gGG define is {h.e. we compute gagX.h{x{gp)) = hux.g.T)) g^r is a permutation of X. We express this formally in the following theorem which is due Theorem 7. {h.g we have xg = ttx.x').g x{g-n). x) GHxX.x{g. for a. x'{gTr) g-rr is that x onto X. For if {h.g from which h-h' and {h. Hence we have is Clearly gX then a Now as we saw in {7.3: (essentially) to Frobenius.g.x)ga = {hax.x'){gX) {h'. {heH.g.l. Sup- {hax.x){gagx) = {{h. Finally h'ax.

we must show that To accomplish this we use equations {7.x)ge = {hax. {7.a^axai.^^ and l(sr. g6 is a permutation of HxX. x)&B. Assume g^e = g^B.gj(l(fifj7r)).))fir2 = ax.g^.6) and obtain X{9i92) = a:i:. with x that g^ g^ = l(sr^p) = ai.17) and (r.8).3 a Frohenius representation {with respect Of course 6 depends on X as well. x) = (1.g2i{Xa^)a2) = a:c.19) = 1.18) Since a^CPjSr^) = {xg^)g2.92(a. {7. IS) once. follows and therefore ^ is a homomorphism.9i92(^"3) {7-17) Also from(7.iS) are equal.3. (A. we see that = l(flrjp) = ai. we have (hax. Thus 7.10) is the product of the proof of {7. 7.5) and {7. {7.5] FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM 225 As both ga and g\ are permutations Let g^. It {h. «(«ia2)) = {hax.xX. .g. {h. {X9i)92 = («x. the right-hand sides of {7. 1). but it can be shown that in a sense this dependence does not matter.g^axa^.19) we conclude = g^.)a2) {hdx.g^axa^.7r) = \{g^^) {7. call the homomorphisnn 6 of Theorem 7.12) Note that as tt is a homomorphism.13) - Applying {7.g^g^.e. x){g^eg^B) = x)g^e)g^e = = {hax.15). we have {hax. and in particular. This completes the proof of Theorem We to H).g2{xa^) {7. i. x)g^B = from which Using equation (7.10) we introduce the following notation: two permutations.10) G G. Thus {7.xa) {7.)6 (Note that the left-hand side of {7.gia:r«j.9i(a. {7. (xa. g^ of H x X.i5).x){g^g^e = xa^ {7.a3) This means {xg^)g2 = ax.g^.15) is To prove that 9 is a homomorphism.g^.Sec. Xa^)g^e {h.9.g^ClCM) Using {7. ai^^^ = a^. if {h.ff.) To facilitate where g is an element of G. ^«^ {^-H) On the other hand. {g ^7r){g ^tt) «\<^2 — {g^g^-n "3 so that {7.11) j'ield {h.12). again on using {7. Then for all pairs (/i. We must show that {9M9S = i9. ^ is one-to-one.5) sr. we must show that the right-hand side of (7.9) Equations and {7.16) x)fif2(9 only remains to show that & is one-to-one.i4) equal to the right-hand side of {7.g^axcc^.12) twice and {{h.g^axoiyg^.

a.11(a). As an illustration of the procedure we calculate Ot. ^ (ftr. — := t «< . Similar calculations lead a. t) is resentation of G on H X X described = = {i. -* (ha. T.ard. Solution: (o) {1. T2. Here H— {1. 1) (ft. the subgroup H Solution Here and G {1.11(a) and (b).: 226 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. xG X) (h (ft. a) (ft.a^) ^ (ftr. Let e be the faithful rep- G are a. 0. »f a. (ft. . a = i. i) G H) (ffisr2)*> One could check that 9 is a homomorphism by inspecting (gie)(g2f) and The above description of e immediately shows that S is one-to-one. a.o. 3} relative to the sub- The set X- {i. T3.a^)^(h. sc) ^ (ft. -^ (ftr. Ti. e is representation X. 0. Since tw = a^r.0^(Ka2). The elements of (. H in G. 7 Problems 7. (ft. a right transversal of then given by :fl : H in G. i).a^) i) G H) G H) & H) (h 7. xG X) (h. (ft. The results.1 a.a^).. rj. t) for all h €. (aMtf: ^ (ftr.T)-*(/ur2. a^) -^ (ftr. „) -> (ftr. (ft. TgCr. The Frobenius representa- tion e is then described as follows: .<) (ftSH) (ft. f= t.o. Note that l = i. (6) 'where (ffijr2 ^ G). a^ = i. (ft. -^ (h.i) (ft.tr2T ff = a2 — = = I "t. repeated here for convenience. r}.)^(ha. <t2).a)...T)-^(/l. The effect of tt on given in the solution of Problem 7. (A.13. a^. a. a) -* (ftr.i)ae = (fcaj_o. are HT TTT £r is = CTjT = = (a2)jr : I -^ I. Now we have to — t and ar.t ttT.3. (h (ft G H) G H) aH re : -^ (ft. aO (h. x) {hGH. x) -* {h.. Describe in detail a Frobenius representation for the symmetric group on groups given in Problem 7. T -* I We and can now calculate the effect of go for each g in G.o- or a2 «T. ''('"r)) = C^"^. 4) t) -> {ha. {h. (h.r) -> (A(r2.T at jO-T a. (h. . <T^.o-2T = = = 1 <72 <T We use the definition of e given in the statement of Theorem 7.i)^(h. Tj(72. = r.14. a) : (ft. i(<T77-)) = (h(T. (h. a^). T2<r. a) ^ (ft.<)^(ft. t) G H) e H) tB (aT)e (ft. ^ (hr. (ft.i) (h. -» (A(r2.T). t). t) -^ (/Kr2. i) ^ (ha. a) a2) (h (ft (<rr)9: (ft. a). c). . H We list the effect of the permutations ffff for the elements of G.gxg to calculate ax..O-T ^2 a aT. 1) (ft. a).T).12. . Describe in detail the Frobenius representations for the alternating group of degree 4 relative to given in Problem 7.a2 — = = L Ot. T -* r = {aT)-!r (cx^T)Tr : I -> T.. a^r We o^T use the formula xg ax. ct^} a right transversal of above.T)ae = (/lo^. r) (fe. r3CT2 H= ti. (A. x) (hen. i). tj}. T20-2. ct2.a = tot — a^. (ft. is given by X= {i.o-. In particular. ar.a)-*(h. (h. consists of I. of = t.0-2 ra to = a-. <T^) ae: (h.GH) (h (h.a^.t) (/i. Tjff. The Frobenius (ft.i "t. 2.g. A right transversal of H in G is X— {i.

. i) ^ (hra. . (h.c)..^. a^) -^ (h.i){tMh&) Let t.^) (h. (fe.o^) i) (h. is a finite . .a)^(/lT3.a^G S^. finite index we Frobenius' representation.Xj) of H in G. i) „e: <fie: (h. then h = t^ t^. although only a variation of Cayley's.}{t^e)---{tj) = ia.).). 227 i9 : (h&H.a)^(h.6 a. a) 7. First we recall a definition given in Chapter Definition: A group G is finitely generated if it can be generated by a finite set. . «„_!. Let S be a finite set of generators of G. n. ff2).o^) ^ ^ ^ ^ (hTi. a^) {T20^)e : ^ (hT2.) -* {hr^..a)-*{hri.a)^{hT2. . o^) -* {hr^. But h can be written as with = . Let G be a finitely generated group. (h.6] APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS (h. {h. Notice that j < «> by assumption. i) & H) & H) & H) G H) G H) S H) (h (h (h (h (h (h (h.h = fe so that we have (1. a^) (hra. h with s^. • GX where x G X. with x^ the identity.. (fc.a).i)^(hT3. . 9 = si' • si" Theorem Proof: |S| 7.<r^).. if there there are elements such that for each g = ±1) such that and integers e^. 1.<r). tg ••• aioj. Choose a right transversal X — {x^.a^) -^ {hri. |Z| In other words ttx.).-a^) for each expressed h as the product of elements of the form . . a'') (Jlr^.l)m = Hence ^ = i... cr) {h. (h.i). a^) TgU : (h.i)-^(h. l){he) = {h. a). (h. i = HxX (see Theorem 7. . then ft = 1 and ai.n. x e X) {h.i)-^{h... (A. the of such elements is at most 2mj. <). x).s^G S i. By repeated applications of the definition of the action of gO in {a. (h. (h. a^) -^ {JlT^. i) -^ (/1T3..t we have number Since a^.a)->{hr2.^. H is finitely generated. {h.3) we have {l. .ai).. Here one application of this representation. tibial. c) (h {h {h.i)-*(hri. homomorphism. .e. . Schreier) : A subgroup of finite index in a finitely generated group is finitely generated.a^) -^ (hr^.l{a^a^)){tS---{tJ) = Oi. a) ^ ^ ^ (hri. a^) -^ (h.a^). Sec.)^{hrj.<r^). s^... S H) & H) G H) {Tso)e: (T3(T2)ff: {h.)-^(hT3. o) r^e: (r2<r)e: -» (/lT2. Suppose H is a subgroup of finite index in G.a)^(h. subset Sj.=±1) . . is very useful. -* (hrz.. l{a^... . a) (hri.TT (tj) — a^. . a) {h. (h.i. . (h.a). APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS Subgroups of shall give 4.*„.^a. Since 6I is a {i.a^). Let e be a Frobenius representation of G with respect to H given in Theorem 7. 0. a) {JiT^. o^) (/iri. {h.3.a^). (h. a) (h&H) {h Tie: (ria)9: (Tia^)e: (h.i)m = {i. (h.. {h. . = «:>•••<" i (. (h..a).<.. a^) (h. (h G H) (h.)-*{hTi.4 (O. . .c)-^{hT2. m. = sl\ = 1.s^GS.la. {h. (h..a). e„ (e^ S (# 0) of G EG . Put t.. .. 1 —i — n. If h&H. 7. and t = s-^ where s GS This means that As = j and |S| = m. 1). . x) -* (h. i).^.

Without loss of generality we may suppose that c ^ H. \H\ = 3. Thus if is of index 2 in G. Thus every element of G can be written in the form he or h (he H).<j.d Hence H is generated by the three elements a^^^.t generate H. with t = = = s or t = s-^. ax. H a I H H X H Off. . (In fact one can lower this bound and prove that H can be generated by 1 + (to . Find the set Solution: use the description of G in Problem 7. Let y O'x. s and &S.l)j elements. This means that {1. page 264. where x is an element of a right transversal X of H in G. Theorem 7. have actually proved that if G can be generated by m elements and H is of index then H can be generated by 2jm elements.- = aa~^ = = Tf~^ 0.6a we have actually proved that S. page 224). then a^. ae. x €l X.g is defined by xff We = O-x.e. Moreover. Hence since this is the only subgroup of order 3 in G.16. where s&S. Then the cosets of in G are and He.i(ii)-» generate =^ xs~^s {7. in G is Clearly G can be generated by a and t.3).s'^ = xP^^.a — T(r(fa)~^ = = TaT~^ T^ = I a^ a^^T = ttr. This means that ax. Problems 7. t}. then H can be generated by three elements. H H H be a subgroup of index 2 in G. Solution : 2. Prove that if G can be generated by Suppose that G is a group generated by c and d and that is a subgroup of index 2 in G. a^}. 7. s E: Note that in Section 7. A right transversal of = {t.gXg (equation (74).r.) i.13. then 'D G and is not of index 2 as initially assumed.T ~ is TT{ff)~^ = Thus we find that i. c} is a right transversal of in G.15. Note = xs~^s = X X by equation page 219.11(a).228 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Remarks about the proof of [CHAP. To do so observe that we have proved that the elements ax. We recall that if g denotes the representative of the coset Hg.c = lc(Tc)-l = CC-l = j. a. For a proof of this result see Theorem 8. a^ and a^^^.s.s. Of course H actually generated by a alone. If both c and d are in H. is normal in G. without the assumption that \X\ and \S\ are finite.s. Let G be any group and let H he a subgroup of G of index two elements. However. xg{xg)-^ Therefore the elements that a. then ys x and = xs~^sx-^ = ys(ys)-^ = ay. 7 b.4 j in G.s-^ is the inverse of ay. Cfc. Now a subgroup of index 2 in any group is = {i. and so is generated by We normal.g = ff. x €lX The number of these elements is jm.e. Therefore G is generated by the elements H H H H H H »l. H is generated by ax. it is not difficult to reduce this number to jm. <r. 1. ai.s Thus H is actually generated by the elements a^. a^ generate H. Let G be the symmetric group of degree 3 and let of generators of described above.

be H. a^ and oba^i. Thus H is {l. = . (3) gp{ab. Since We have (7. c. From Problem 7. . But ffpCb"". with « aba~i. ab = e H. c) = G. It follows that G= gp(a. a^ba'^ and a^. a^H. Hence ab.b^) = Hj. b}. . Take X= {1.20. b^ H. In case (3).a=ti. (Hard. c) c. say.. bab-^ and b2.b^. b^ is and bab"!. . Find generators for has at most three subgroups of index 2. = a'a{a'a)-^ = aMa''^')~^ = 1 If a> s = c. (2) g-pCa.a^ba-^a^) 7.} is a right transversal of that = fta""". b€ H. In case (1) a^H. . Then the elements a^-^j. N b^N N Oj-s = xs{xs)~^ {x €. gen- 7.a2}. a}. c}. s.. Prove that if a group G of index 2 can be generated of index 2 which contains a subgroup by two elements. b}.) H is cyclic.a.a±2.^.a-^ca.. Find a set of generators for 2V in terms of a and generated by Na and G/N is (Hard.aba-i.a} take generated by X= c and S = {a. ff is the cyclic group generated by them would actually be equal to G. iV contains b and and let Find a A^ set of generators for be a normal subgroup of G of index 3 with in terms of a. Since either c = generators in terms of a and b thereby obtaining a set of genor c= b.Sec. Suppose N Solution: Choose erate AT. a'ciaJc)''^ = a'ca-' Hence the elements ba"^ aca~^. as then each of b. generated by c. b2). G Let G be generated by a and b. b. 7.a^) b and suppose that H^. H is generated by {a. and S = Then aca"! and a^. oba-i = b*" and a^ = b^ for some integers r and ba = H^ Thus H = H^. aca-^. Let G = gp{a.6] APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS 229 7. = a' and and s - a. Put c are the elements Clearly gp{a.. X. If = {l.20) (7.) Solution: It is clear is b. with Then generators of H H are the a^^^ (« ^X and In case (2). b. s S S). b^ + z and b" are generators for Hg. (3) gpiab. (3) Then we may have a^H. then since in G. We therefore take S = {a.19. . b and e. ba-^ S N. G/N = gp(Na). bab-i = (ba)b-i = a-ib'— i from generated by a. then every subgroup of Solution: Let H be generated by gp(b.17.1. say. s G S) If X a.18. c. b. all possible subgroups of index 2. b^) is cyclic generated by c. so Hg is generated by two elements and the proof is complete. a^.b^-^. b. Hence show Solution: Let (1) H be a subgroup of index 2 in G. {. is The generators of Hg are a. we can restate this set of erators of G of the desired kind. Thus Hj can be generated by two elements.a^ba~i. proceeding as in (1) X= {1.s . put (JVa)" for some integer w.bab-^. The generators of X . Nb = c = b. (2) a€H. Using (^.gi) we conclude that ab. a. b') jg cyclic generated by c. On the other hand if b e N. and so Hj is a subgroup of a The generators of i/g are ab.a^) Clearly b ^ H^ or H^. c}. 7. But sfp(bs + 2. . such that G/N Let G be generated by a and 6 and suppose that iV is a normal subgroup of G infinite cyclic. a2ba-i(a6) and a^ are generators for Hg. a^ba~^. bab-i.aba-\a^).20). G X and s e S. So the possible subgroups of index 2 are: (1) gp(b.c} and X= by {l. as it cyclic group. Ox.} are a set of generators for AT.2i) = a-^b^ and a2 = b^ (7. S= {a.. b). aP-ca~^.18 the possible subgroups of index 2 are (1) = (2) gpia. Thus N is generated G o.

we shall write the identity (for this proof alone) as e. This is where the fact that G is finitely generated comes in.. 9 are homo. Mal'cev): be any finitely generated group whose subgroups of index have intersection 1. the finitely generated group G choose a right transversal Z^ (we emphasize that X„ contains the identity of G). x G P. .. n. . . . let P ^ P be defined by x9 = px. for there exists an element g but g (or vice versa). Then every homomorphism of G onto G is an automorphism. . For suppose G is generated by Cj.2c. is it possible to have a homomorphism 9 of G onto G with 6 not an isomorphism? For example. d. is a homomorphism of G into S. be the symmetric group on 1. then 9 = all • • • '^l' S = -1' ^j e • • {1. . : ^^ G-* S. For each subgroup of index j in . . H homomorphism of G into Sx^^. Then P9 = P. then *„ ¥. then cj> = 9.6 (A. Then tt^ is a . morphisms of observe that if G g into S. is Theorem 7. . G be a finite group and 6I : In the following theorem we prove a result which groups every onto homomorphism is an isomorphism. page 191). Thus *„ ^ ^^ if ^ ^ •^ : Note that *^ = -n-j. Then the number of subgroups of G . tells us that for a special class of Theorem 7. of finite index j in a finitely generated group This theorem may where n<oo.22 below). if P is a p-Priifer group (see Section 6. The second application of permutational representations is due to Marshall Hall. but as P has an element of order p.j. .^ Sxj. Since |Z„| = j. since it is the composition Note also that if H and K are two subgroups of index j and H ¥= K. . Let G finite <f> .*^. This completes the proof of the theorem.. as g ^ K. such that a^<i> = a^9 for i = l. for \G\ = \G9\ = |G/Ker6i| and hence Ker9= {1}. &H ^K We have therefore found that the number of subgroups of index j in G is certainly not greater than the number of homomorphisms of G into S. &G. . If ^. such that e G Sx„ moves e or leaves it fixed according as to whether 94.4).5: The number of subgroups finite. Proof: Let S. 7 c. It follows that 9 is an isomorphism.21 and 7. ^ = 9. This means that the number of homomorphisms of G into S is finite since the number of possible images of the generators of G is finite (at most (j !)"). 9 is not an isomorphism. e(g-jTj ^ e and hence 1*. -* S. I. . Thus we have e e X^. One consequence Let of Theorem 7. it is easy to prove that there exists an isomorphism 4. If G is not finite. of index j Suppose be restated as follows: Let G be a group which is generated by ai.^^ of two homomorphisms.. ¥. Let 7r„ be the coset representation of G with respect to the transversal X^ (see Section 7. . moves 1 or leaves it fixed (see Problems 7.230 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Marshall Hall's theorem [CHAP. a„ j is a fixed positive integer. To prove this.5 6 a homomorphism of G onto G. is finite. Then eignjj) = e for e{g7r^) = eg = e as g G H (see Section 7. a^.4). .1. On the other hand. Accordingly 1*„ = 1.n} and <j> g4> = iai^<j>)^ • • (tti^^)'" = (ttij^)'' • {ai^9)'" = fi-e Since and ^ agree on every element of G. To avoid confusion between the number 1 and the identity of G.

- Sec.Mk are k distinct subgroups of index j in G.9. . Prove that there exists an isomorphism Kjfl /i between S^^ ^ 1 and S2 such that page 221. and is an automorphism. Then .. So intersection of the subgroups of finite index.22.. . Thus xGHgnKg if and only if xG(HnK)g. . <j> This theorem is important in current research in group theory. K = 1. define e/iSS^ mapping that sends i^ ... L\. Lk page 117.1 } e S^x .« = «. . . .20. .. Prove that * in . Therefore HnK is of finite index in G if both H and K are. X and a coset of K have an element g in common. .18.».) } *id S„ such that if Solution: Let to be the a : {ajj. so is HCiK. mutation of {1. Sn is a perclear then that /i is onto S„.2\ Xja = j. the number of subgroups be these subgroups of index j in GIK. Mi's are simply a rearrangement of the Li. 2} be defined by a. then the two cosets are Hg and and only if x — hg — kg. /i provide an isomorphism is the required isomorphism. by Theorem 4. Then HgnKg (Hf\K)g and the two cosets meet in a coset of HnK.. isomorphism Problems and therefore is an isomor- phism with the required 7.»„}-» {1. MJK L D K This means that every subgroup of finite index contains K.8 _ and 7. In particular Let MJK. If a coset of H e HgnKg if H is of index n and K is of index m. . G4. 7. general there exists an isomorphism n between S^^ ^nd ^i^ — ^j' t*^™ *(*i") — } (Use Problems 7. by Corollary 4. then the number of subgroups of G of index j is finite. . for any coset (HnK)g = HgnKg and so is the intersection of a coset of H by a coset of K. Accordingly ^ is one-to-one. It is of permutation groups. j if = Xj (as 9 is a 7.) if e G S^^. then i{eii) = j. this intersection is 1. Solution: Kg. Z/2. .. If S G S^^ ^ . If L Proof: Let index j. If coset of jBT.. Therefore every Li is an Mi and so contains K..n}). But hg = kg if and only if A = A. j and = Xj. .9) (X 2^ 1 /i V*2 V2 Then a.. for some h G H and k & K.8 and 7. 2.8 and i 7. and hence a.2. . Problems 7. (Hint: see Problems 7. .e. im define a permutation effect. page 121. Thus fi permutation of {x^. then each coset of if empty set or in HnK. Hence prove that H and H intersects a coset of K either in the K are of finite index in G. at most nm cosets can be found as intersections of a H with a coset of Furthermore these are all the cosets oi HnK..9.. Thus the Ml.. X2} -^ {1.2. .„}. Solution: Let a : {xi. j = 1.. Prove that if H and K are subgroups a coset of of G. G ^ and so the number of subgroups of index of index j in G.. .21. Hence K is contained in the By hypothesis. Let /i be defined by '«! aJi _ /I \1 x^) 2\ 2/' (see /«! X2\ ^1/ 7. i. Let these subgroups be K L = Now.23. .7t} be defined by XiS ». j in ^ GIK GIK is precisely k. hsHnK.6] APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS 231 is of be the kernel of ^ and let L be any subgroup of finite index in G.

^ = In particular then. the cosets of are Mx-^g^x. 90 is an isomorphism. (If the cosets M • • .7c the minor reason why we use left cosets here.g because here we are dealing with left instead of right cosets. Hence they must be all the subgroups of . . K is of finite index by repeated application of Problem 7. implies that g G x-'^Mxx~^giX = Mx-^g^x.. 7. 7. It is our aim to investigate how a group is built as an extension of one group by another. {Ng){fig) = Me is the identity of G/N. Let and be unequal normal subgroups of a finitely generated group G. gH by Xk (gH).) all subgroups Solution: By Theorem . Solution: Let e G/M -* G/N be such an isomorphism. if G/H onto K. it finite number of subgroups.Mgj.) The elements Note that cosets of <f>. : : It is M 7. It is convenient to generalize this concept and to say that G is an extension of with by K if G has a subgroup = and G/H s K. . x-^M„x. . Therefore If g G is some coset of easy to see that this expresin G. g(8<i>) 7^ 1 and thus ge ¥= 1. x-^MzX. Prove that G = H. With this notation. By — N. say.x instead of ax.e. For if g e G.25.g introduced in Section 7. is a one-to-one mapping of the set of left Therefore we can unambiguously denote the representative of the coset k. 7 7.. It sion for g is unique. Let /i G/N -* G/M be defined by Ng -^ Mg. x-^M„x index j (perhaps in a different order). Let e : G -^ and H and G H be two groups and suppose that G satisfies the conditions of Theorem -^ G be epimorphisms.x correspond to the elements Ux. a set of elements of be a left transversal of containing one and only one element from each left coset of i? in G with 1 G X.26. the isomorphism of H onto K. Let of G/H onto K. are n distinct subgroups of index j. G has only a }. Now if g G Thus fie is not an isomorphism.6.. of index j. we denote h by nig. Thus x'^gx G K and so K < G. g = xh for some x €:X and some h G H.24. say the H gx for some h = yh G H. . Then jiS is a homomorphism of G/N onto itself.23.5. H H H H H H morphism G In this section let G be a fixed group and be an isoa normal subgroup of G. Then. M„ . x-^MiX.Mx-^gjX. Prove that the intersection of G is a normal subgroup of finite index. . easy to verify that /< is an epimorphism. xx = 1.x. M is any subgroup of index of M are Mgi. then gx belongs to coset yH where y GX. This contradiction yields the required result. Now h is uniquely determined by g and x. <f>: 7. Let in G. using the terminology introduced in Chapter 5.7 a. for \i g & K and x&G. iiS is an isomorphism. x-'^gx G x-'^M^x. G/M is Suppose the not isomorphic with G/N. Then if 9 ^ G. Prove that N M MdN. . Thus (7. M^.x mg.22) gx = ymg. for some i.. . Let H Solution: 90 9 '^ "^t is an epimorphism of G to itself and so by Theorem 7. i. G is an extension of by K. EXTENSIONS General extension Suppose G is a group with a normal subgroup and that G/H = K. (We use mg.6. X = {Xk\ kGK} . Now if is easy to prove that x-'^Mx = iW is also of index j. . x G X. iBx-^g^x. Let g GG. intersection of the subgroups of finite index in G/N is the identity. x~^gx e Mg^.5b. (Hard. Theorem 7. We will explain in Section 7. Therefore 6 is one-to-one and e is an isomorphism of GtoH. then . ({> H Z H G. But . G of index j in be finitely generated with a subgroup of index j.. . 7.232 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Let [CHAP.6.) Hence MjOMan nM„ = K is a normal subgroup of G.

X|^.k'Xk' hXk'h' {7. the rep- resentative of the coset XkXwH a.kXk' hxk'h' notation h!" So Xkr € X and Xk^ hxr & H since fl" is a normal subgroup of G. ta is the identity mapping of H onto H. Since transversal for <] jG| =6. a mapping a of K into a set of mappings a mapping of H into H. A.k'h!' h' {7.x. If we add enough conditions to these mappings.k.4f H . In other words. Vol. will II. then Xkh-Xk'h' = Xkk'nik. To express the product two elements Xkh and follows: • Xk-h' as the product of an element of X by an element of H. of H into H.k' in H as the images of a function m of two variables (coming from K) with values in H.25) G of i? by X that we have been inand by the images li of the elements h obtained by conjugation by the x^.Sec. as can be easily checked. Hirsch. 1960. let us turn to the elements h^. Thus.7c). G.k'GK. k') G under this mapping m. for details. (The effect of ka is to map h to h''.ic' where k. Kurosh.for ajkajfc' mX|^. from k k we have fc = Xkk'm. Continuing with this analysis. while ra sends a^ to ct2i "2 t° ''i ^^^ "3 *° "3- . a^. (See A.) Indeed and a determine G up to isomorphism (see Problem 7.k' = aJkk-mk.23) Every element gr in G can be written uniquely in the form Xkh where Xk of & X. G H. 7.. one can reverse the procedure we have been outlining and construct from H. G. For each k we have a mapping. 2 A) looks less complicated if we introduce the ocr for hxr. mk. ka say. find the mappings -m and a introduced Using the notation of Section 3.x. Chelsea. we may think of m as a mapping from the cartesian product into H. we proceed as Xkh'Xk'h' — XkXr Xk' hXk'h' = Xkk'tnk. H (7.. Let G group of order above. let H— {<ri. namely the mapping which sends an element fe in I? to the element h In a way then the group G is made up of two mappings: It specting appears from equation is determined by the {7. The right-hand-side of (7. 2 A) Observe that mk. and the mappings and a an extension G of hy K. page 75. k' G K. = [{XkH)(xk'H)}4> is Xkw. where mx^. Problems 7.22) = kk' where k..x^.) We (in not tackle the general problem but we will consider only a particular case Section 7. t} be a left H in G.k' KxK KxK GK . by forming xj hxk'. 2. After choosing a suitable left transversal. Solution: be the dihedral group of degree 3. (1) (2) m from KxK into H. One may conveniently think of the elements mk.fca:.27). h G H.25) that the extension mk.fc' Then. ffs). translated by K.7] EXTENSIONS 233 Notice that as {XkXk'H)cj. m K m H The Theory of Groups. G/H Then is of order 2 and thus a cyclic group of order Then. Let {i. = ixkH)4. i.e. where we use mk. G is an extension of a cyclic group of order 3 by a cyclic 2. k G H & We suppress the x's and write mk.k' to denote the image of {k.26.{Xk'H)4> {7.

Prove that if m = m and a = a. then xy £ H. But every element of G x G X. Now group of G. GX xy = Ivfix.23. if G splits G/H is isomorphic convenient to introduce the following definition. we consider the product of two elements of G. Let X. and it follows that if we define mg. while the elements of are uniquely of the form x^. G is an extension of with any complement of H. To prove » is a homomorphism.01. the product of two elements in X is again in X. x' in X. G Solution: The elements of G are uniquely of the form x^h. = 1.e..-. 7 7. page 220. x' . of the form xh. we can choose any complement of is a subG.fc. is mx. HnX = X is called a complement of H.fe h')a = {Xkrm^. <*l — "^3' "J = 1 . then mx. It is H by X. since two distinct elements of belong to distinct cosets of H.y G H However G. Let m.x as in Section 7. that is. Assume that H is actually a subgroup of both and G. Note that X H in Z X If G splits over H and X is a complement of H.7a.ni^^^'hik'aW — Thus x^k'rn. Consider the particular case where nix. By examining equation (7. Let e G -^ G be defined by (xy}i)e = XiJi. where x^eX.234 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Let G. where ic^e. Furthermore.. [CHAP. X H are subgroups of G with XH = G. H XH distinct cosets of H and so xy — \. we have 1 G Z.h. Let x G X. In other words. Thus x has an inverse in X.h' — (x.k^^-h(k'a)h' = x^hx^. both extensions of H by K. Solution: D of order 8 is a splitting extension of a cyclic group of order 4 by We then H is cyclic of use the multiplication table for order 4 since Oj D = given in Problem 7.03}. G is said to as a transversal for if G splits over ff. page 125). We say that a group G is a of G isomorphic to Hi splitting extension of Hi by Xi if there exists a normal subgroup ^ Xu such that G splits over and G/H H H Problems 7.22) xx' — x" i. then G = G.x' = 1 for all G X. X be transversals of H in G. G : (Xkhx^'h')0 - h' (aJfcfc'Wfc.6(a).02. h G H.k'h(k'oi)h')e = x^^. Since < G.^h)e(x^'h')s G= G. b. Prove that the dihedral group a cyclic group of order 2. Accordingly X. The splitting extension Suppose G is as in Section 7. Since distinct elements of X lie in in G and 1 G H.28. Let 02' H = {1. X {1} and H< H G. Hence XH = G. m and a. we have XnH split = {1} Since and over H. and so X is a subgroup of is a subgroup (Theorem 4.7a with as transversal. and let y be such that x~^H = yH. G be two groups.x' = 1 for all x.27. h&H. Then # is a one-to-one onto mapping. a be the mappings obtained above. then G/H = HX/H ^ X/HnX ^ X over //.G respectively.y where mx.X.

If e&E.16'. It follows. But every subgroup of the quaternion group is normal order 2. Since X is of order 4. by Theorem 5. Is the alternating group of degree 4 a splitting extension of a group of order 6 by a group of order 2? Solution: By Problem 6. that Jl = X X. checking then rf-ifed G H. and is Then is of order 4 and therefore of index 2. the alternating group of degree 4 does not contain a subgroup of order result follows. Since h ^ 1. a contradiction. . x ¥= a^.6(b). In particular.h}. Solution: is a splitting Let E stand for either the dihedral group of order 8 or the quaternion group of order 8. X H ^ is a splitting extension of H by X of order 2 and 4 respectively. page 116. page 220. which is a contradiction. Prove that neither the dihedral group of order 8 nor the quaternion group of order 8 extension of a group of order 2 by a group of order 4. that J?f is a splitting extension of by X. K J{/K is cyclic Now suppose JH splits over any subgroup K of order 4. Suppose now. This is a contradiction and K so the desired result follows. 7. page 146. Then the subgroup X is of order 2. H< E &nd and by Corollary 5. it follows that E = XxH. Prove that the quaternion group of order 8 but is not a splitting extension. page 131. Now letting that if d e D and X = {1. is an extension of a group of order 4 by a group of order Solution We use the multiplication table for ^. X is abelian (see Problem 5.1.f&E\ e then = x'h'. In particular if x&X. page 158).43. First let group of and so abelian. it follows that the cosets H. This can be verified either by direct calculation. K K contains a2 since _ _] -1 Now we must check that if x is any element except 1 and 02 of ^. normal subgroup of G. This can be done directly. K Thus K is a normal subof order 2. 04 = 1 and so X is a subgroup of D. Therefore. But as we saw above. Clearly an extension of a group of order 4 by a group of order 2. Suppose is a of order 4. X is of order 4 since x ¥= 1. or by noting that H is of index 2 in D. B is H H X & Now suppose e. Thus e-i/ie = /i for all e&E. then Recall that every element of ef H commutes with every element of X and that X is = x"x'h"h' = x'h''x"h" = x"h"x'h' = fe Thus E is abelian. say X = {1. follows that J( is an extension of by J(/K. as there are 8 elements in D = Hua^H Finally or Hua^H. the quaternion group of order 8 given in Problem 7. it K = gpia^). if possible. But neither the dihedral group of order 8 nor the quaternion group of order 8 Hence we have a contradiction to the assumption that either of these groups is a If splitting extension of the type described. ^ ^. So the subgroup X is not of order 2. Alternate proof: HnX = of {1}. then x is of order 4. K X K X K 7. a^H hGH are disjoint.: Sec. Since a^ € H. using the multiplication table for J?f. This implies JK is abelian. f = x"h" x'x"h'h" (x'.19.68. a^}. Then ^/K is of order 2 and hence Therefore contains the commutator subgroup of J^ by Problem 4. 2. then x-^hx = h.17. D = {1} XH HnX a splitting extension of = So Z) is H by X as required.h" SH) abelian.x" ex. Thus the 5. page 145. Then of order 2 with complement a splitting extension of a subgroup = {l. Alternate proof: If j?{ is a splitting extension of a subgroup of order 4 by a subgroup of <] ^. Therefore <i Jl.29. page 140). is abelian. Now suppose e~^he ¥= \. thus producing 7. then Kr\X = {1} and (Problem 5. 7.30. then e-^heGH. the direct product From this it again follows that E is abelian.31. Now E = XH. x). since X < E (as X is of index 2).7] EXTENSIONS 235 Moreover H is a normal subgroup of G. h'.

All we have to do is to reverse the process To be precise. a group K. let us take an arbitrary element hGH — and apply the automorphism {kk')a to h: h[{kk')a] = = = = Xkk'hXkk{Xk'^ = {XkXk')''^h{XkXk') since Xkk' XkXk' hy {7. and m:r.27). hGH} . Therefore we may suspect that if we are given the situation we have <}> Then we chose a subgroup X of G XH XnH K X H K (a) a group H. in iT by xu.e.7(a).30). The way in which elements of G are multiplied was then computed by making use of the existence of a homomorphism aof into the automorphism group of and by applying {7. then a h^h^ {hGH) is itself a homomorphism of into the group of automorphisms of H. namely so that the mapping a be a homomorphism.28) that the an automorphism of H. Then {7. splitting extension of H by K. Suppose now that we may Z H H K Then by x. we let K and H. {7.) We have only to prove that K {kk')a = kak'a {7. use as a transversal for in G. and (c).27) becomes {7. h G H {7. g = Xkh where k & K.[1}. Finally we remark that the automorphism we let a be the mapping which assigns to each element kGK ka: of H. a of Indeed this the case. An analysis of splitting extensions G is a splitting extension of hy with complement X.29) To verify {7.29).57. by Problem mapping h-^h" {hGH) is an automorphism of H. starting with the data (a).x. x' G X.236 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. for H and h'' = Xk' hxk imply.25) becomes Xkhxk'h' = Xuk'h!"'h' For each is kGK the mapping h^h^ {h G H) 3. .= 1 for all Consequently each element g G G is uniquely expressible in the form Section 7. (b) i. G we have described. 7 c. be the cartesian product of G = KxH = {{k.30) Xkh'Xk-h' is = Xkk' h{k'a)h' arrived at? We started from a group G which splits over H. h)\ kGK. We were given an such that G = and implicit isomorphism of G/H with and we denoted the element in which corresponds to A. hGH.7b. (6) (c) a homomorphism create a is then we can Z into the automorphism group of H. Then we observed that the elements of G were uniquely expressible in the form Xkh with kGK.27) and equation {7.26) {7. (This explains why we used a left transversal in Section 7. if <G page 85.27) Xk^ )h{XkXk') = Xk-^xZ^ hXk)Xk' Xk'^ [h{ka)]Xk' = [h{ka)]{k'a) h[{ka){k'a)] by the definition of the product of two automorphisms {kk')a Thus we have = {ka){k'a) We now What replace A"' by h{k'a) in {7.

{k. we simply observe that {k.h){k'.31) does.31) defines a binary operation in G.h') = {kk'.h){k-\h-\k-^a)) since k~^a is = {l.h) (A.31) obtain Before verifying that G is H Xfchxic'h' = Tikk'h{k' a)h' This equation resembles equation {7.h")) = = {k.h){l.r){k.31). claim that .h){k'. 1) is (1. . h) G G.30) {7.h'){k".h) since la is the identity (iv) automorphism of H. 1) is Notice. 1). of course. similarity of equations {7. in G: (1.(M-i)(A.h) since ka is an automorphism of H.h{k'a)h'){k".h){k-\h-\k-^a)) Similarly = = (1.. Finally we must check that every element of G has an inverse.30) even more closely than {7. Therefore There exists an identity the identity of (1. We is the inverse of {k. 1) and h = (1. a is a homomorphism. We note first that {7.h){k'k". and so {k'k")a — k'a • k"a..31) {7.h") {{kk')k". {[h{k'a)h']{k"a))h") {{kk')k". i(fc 'a)) '. h (fc .31) is associative: {{k.7] EXTENSIONS define a binary operation in 237 We G according to the formula (k.l) {k. .30) and {7.. h). Similarly {k.h")) = = {k{k'k"). Let Xk and define ka by h(fca) = (1. To prove this.h'){k".l{ka)h) = = {k. We have thus verified that h~^{k~^a)) is the inverse of {k.32) Now we work out {k. Let {k. Then from {7. . {[{h{k'a)){k"a)][h'{k"a)]}h") {7.32) an associative operation.h) = = {k. h) and {7.31) is (iii) associative law immediately yields the equality of {7.Sec.1) {k-\h-'{k-'a)){k. h{ka)). let G G. Then {l. we will make the a group and a splitting extension of = {k.31) even more evident. We will now (i) prove that G is a group and that it is a splitting extension of H by K. defined (ii) The binary operation by {7.. and so leaves H identically fixed.h){{k'.h") = = = {kk'.33) {k.h){{k'. The reader will note the strong similarity between and by K.h{la)l) 1 of f? to itself.h')){k". that the left-hand 1 in (1. Thus {k.h{k'a)h') {7.h). 1) is K while the right-hand 1 of the identity of H. h'{k"a)h") {k{k'k")._. h). Thus {7. [{h{k'a)){k"a)][h'{k"a)h"]) The {7.. 7.-»a)) an automorphism of H. To check that an identity. [h{k'k")a][h'{k"a)h"]) By (c) above."'.[h{k--'a)][h-\k-^a)]) = (l.33). and so maps the {k. [h{{k'a){k"a))][h'{k"a)h"]) {{kk')k".1) (1.

(b) and (c) a splitting extension G of ting extension of by K. since (k. h)\hGH} and K = k -» {{k..h)~\k. h'){k.h'){k.l){l. Now if is H H by K (the cyclic H So in the case at hand. then g-\l.1)} and G = as we saw earlier. emphasize the importance of the above discussion and the related problems which Problems 7.h^} into its inverse is The mapping which sends each element of an abelian group So if ri : H^H an automorphism is this automorphism. = (1. We follow.h)) [il.h-'){l.238 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS (i). G and that h) and {k. H = (check this). (6) a group K. we have (A.h')g since the_product of elements of = {l. then = (k./i). Construct a non-abelian group of order 6 as a splitting extension of a group of order 3 by a group of order 2. (iii) and (iv) above establish in every detail the proof that G is a group. then we can construct a group from this data as follows. h)(k'. data (a). 1) = Since (k.h))-\l.h'(ka)){l. KH Consequently we have iiT.h')(ik.l)-^]{l. of To accomplish \ put H Then it is {(1. Consider the set G of all the pairs (fe. l)-i = {k-\ 1).h)GH H belongs to H. h& H) and define a binary operation in G by {k. h') G H.l){l. then K. this. {l.h) = (fc.h) = (k. 1) k G K} easy to prove that H and K are subgroups h -^ (1. We need need to know more about the automorgenerated by h. observe g again that if g gG. Now to prove that 5 is a normal subgroup of G.l)il. the cyclic group of order 3. H H with complement Therefore constructed from the G is a split- The group G that we have constructed is called the splitting extension of H by K via a. [CHAP.32. h'{ka)). Thus g~\l. .h)) l)-i(l. 1) are isomorphisms of H onto H and K onto K respectively. h(k'a)h') Then G becomes a group which is a splitting extension of the group (the cyclic group of order 3) and the group the homomorphism a. Solution: Recall that if we are given (a) a group H.h)-\l.l)il.h) If (1. h') = (kk'. (c) a homomorphism a of Z into the automorphism group of H. This means in the first place that we phism group of H. Clearly Hr\K= {(1. Hence H is normal in G as claimed. Next we verify that G = is a splitting extension of H by K. 7 (ii).h'){ik.h) {ik.h')g = = {k.h. l)(l. we have group of order 2). h) {k B K.

l(M'i) = (1. sion of H H H H X 7.i)(fc. 239 Now 7j2 I.. the splitting extension of H^ by K^. 3). then hr is of order 10.3 Thus A. Here we take H2 = fl'p(^2) to be of order 42 As H2 has an automorphism t: of order 2. as the reader may check by direct calculation.h(ka)\) (fe. is of order 168. and accordingly we can take a to be the isomorphism of via a. mapping . Let Hi = morphism of Ki : and K2 Now we construct a second group = gpikz) to be cyclic of order usual.2. all possible groups of order 30 3. The center Zj of Gj is of order 2. Solution: Form via the homomorphism taking = gpik) of order 2 a splitting extension of a cyclic group of order 111 by a group fe to the automorphism which sends every element of into its inverse. hr are therefore = problem requires knowledge of the automorphism group ot the cyclic group If t is an automorphism of H.Moreover if G^ and G2 are morphic groups.42 defined by h2^h2\ = = = Let j8 be the homomorphism of K2 onto gpir) defined by fc'2/3 T'.1. 1. i. 1) and (1. 2. 1^2! = ^. namely the mapping t which sends every order 777. thus none of the automorphisms of is of order 3. To produce one such group. Let G be the splitting extenby via a. /t|') and is therefore (. 2 of order 4. hr . Now both Gj and G2 are non-abelian since \Zi\ = 2. Construct a non-abelian group of order 222 by using splitting extensions.Sec. Let a be the homointo the automorphism group of H^ defined by fcja iCi^h^ '. consisting of (1. To see how some of the elements of ot hy K H K onto gp(v).33. 1)(A. and so 1) ^ h). } 0. l)(fc. of order 168. 1.2i8 = Let G2 be the splitting extension of H2 by K2 via /?.e. Thus G is non-abelian and an extension of H by K. i the 0.7] EXTENSIONS = and so gp(v) is cyclic of order 2. = . The resultant splitting extension oi hy is then abelian (indeed it is isomorphic to the cyclic group of order 30). . So there is a homomorphism a of K. = H K H K H K 7. Then. h) = (A. (A:|.Let G combine. Construct two non-isomorphic non-abelian groups of order 168.1). - h^ (i Let t| Tj be the automorphisms defined by the possibilities listed above = 1. the center Z2 of Gj consists of (1.34. Therefore Gj and G2 are not isomorphic. into the automorphism group of H. namely the one which sends fe to t. K). let has an automorphism t of order 2. Construct cyclic iso- 7. So the only possible homomorphism a of a cyclic group of order 3 into the automorphism group of is the one which sends every element of onto the identity automorphism. Then G is the required group.. (1. Then Gj. k}. 4. Now is (fc. h^) which can be easily checked by direct calculation. K= Then (k. 1). Are there non-abelian groups Solution : X 777? be cyclic of There are non-abelian groups of order 2 X 777.36..^2^)..2. the cyclic group on fe. Thus the groups K and gp(v) are isomorphic. of order 2 7. of order 2.l) = (k^. which are extensions of a cyclic group of order 10 by a group of order Solution: The solution of this H gp(h) of order 10. Solution: gp{hj) be cyclic of order 84 and K^ = gp(k^ cyclic of order 2. they have isomorphic centers. Now Tj — 1. h^. Then element of to its inverse.h){k. (fc|. = (1.A2) (fe.35. hr . The possibilities for hr . t\ = 1. H K H . = _ K!. 7. let G be the splitting extension {1.

. The obvious usefulness of this construction is that we do not require any knojwledge of the automorphism group of to construct the direct product.. Q ^ s <p Let t: a^b^ -» arfes + r. Suppose G is special homomorphism G into A.) Let p. so that t-p acts as the identity on a and 6. So G is. ... Solution: (Hard. In this case G consists of the pairs {h. and so t is one-to-one. 1) k G K]. It is easy to check that r is also onto. Ker r = — gp(k) be of order p. observe that Clearly set automorphism. The use of such transfer homomorphisms has been important in the theory of finite groups. a) = (A. Construct a non-abelian group of order p3 for each prime p by using splitting extensions. Thus t is an Note that otP = ahf . page 143. then G is the internal direct product of its subgroups and K. we define a mapping t of G into A by To define the transfer t of is that A . Hence t is of order p. We will not pursue this concept of direct product here any further. gr It is clear - Xig{xTgy^ • X2g{x^)~^ to the 1. Therefore \X\ = n. This gives a group G of order p^. THE TRANSFER Definition a group with an abelian subgroup A of finite index. Notice that if ff = {(1. Here we will examine one application of the transfer and briefly mention another (at the end of Section 7. 7 7. We will show that t be any integers. 1) = (/c.Xn be the elements of X. Let Xi.3a. in the terminology of Section 5. then if g GG. We repeat an abelian subgroup of G of finite index n.a.37. simply the external direct product of and K. Then we form Now let the splitting extension oi hy via a. which form a of generators of H. 1)(1. . k') = {hh'. a6). Xi. {1}. G is non-abelian since : K H K (1.m' < p. We claim that Let an automorphism of H of order p. — n' < p. say.8 a. Direct product Consider the special case of a splitting extension G of a group by a group K via « in which a takes K onto the identity group of automorphisms of H. a)ik. it is called the transfer of G into A. Recall that if g GG. as Xig and x^ belong same coset of A. kk').240 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. choose a right transversal X of G in A. h) hG H] _and K = {{k. There are two items to be verified: (1) t is a homomorphism and (2) t is independent of the choice of the transversal X. d. H be the direct product of a cyclic group gp(a) of Each element H of order p with a cyclic group gp(h) of order is uniquely of the form a^h^ with is 0-r<p. . k G K) with binary operation given by (h. . Xig{x^)-^ GA {i= . but {k. The transfer is a of G into A.n) This mapping t is the homomorphism of G into A mentioned above. then g is the element of X in the coset Ag. First let m and n (a'"5")7- = amjm + n m~ m' + qp. The mapping a k' -^^ t' is an isomorphism.8d). k) (h G H. n — n' (a'nb")T . Xngix^)"^ that gr GA since. a). a H homomorphism H H \ \ H 7. Then + sp where 6™' + "' = = a"' a'"6"''b"' = a^h^h^ = a^jm + n To verify that t is a homomorphism. k){h'. again in the sense of Chapter 5.

Sec. h in G. . the order of such a product is immaterial. where g. . they must So we can rewrite (gh)T in the form = [xig{xW)-^' X2g{x^)~'' • Xng{x^T^] . Xk+ig — Xk + i Xn-m+ig (Note that k gr — Xn-m + 2. X2. we can assume that X xig = X2. x^h{x^h)'^] But observe that is Xi^x^ {i-l. .3i. i. . . Xn-m.. X]t-ig = Xk.„9r(^)-i x^h{x^h)-^) lies in Now every one of the elements commute.h GG: • = = {xigh(xigh)-') {x^ghixigh)-^) {Xngh{Xngh) ') {Xigh{xWh)-^) • {X2gh(x^)-'') {xngh(x^y') (since x^ = Wh • • • • by (7.-l-2g — Xn—m + is 3. . Thus xlgh{x^h)~' • x^h{x^h)-' from equation x::gh{x^y^ = Xihixjiy • Xihixji)-' Xnh{xJi)-' = Then for it hr.. Thus t is a homomorphism. Since A is abelian.^ ^^. . Xu-ig — Xn. page 167).. X2g{x^)~'^ where n the index of A in G. after relabeling the elements of can be written as a product of disjoint cycles (Theorem 5. This means that xlgh{xlgh)-^ • xWh{x^h)-^ x^h{x^h)"^ simply consists of the n elements Xihixjiy {i = l.n) multiplied together in some order. c... Xng — Xn-m+l + l+ • • +m = n.. Proof that a homomorphism We {gh)T compute (gh)T. Proof that t is independent of the choice of transversal t is We now prove that independent of the choice of the transversal X. X2g = xz. of the product • The proof depends on an analysis fifT = xig{x^)~^ is X2g{x^y^ Xng{x^y^ where again 7.) that igh)T = {gr){hT) all g. since A is abelian. Xk+2g = Xk+3.3).) Then = {xig(xW)~^ Xkg{x^)~^) ' (Xk+ig{xk+ig)"^ • Xk+2g{xk+2g)'~'^ * Xk+ig{xk+igy^) • • • • {Xn-m+igiXn-m+ig)"'^ Xn-m + 2g{Xn-ra + 2g)~'^ Xn{gX^)~^) — {xigx^^ • • X2gx3^ • Xkgx^^) {xk + xgxk+2 Xk+2gxki3 • Xk + igxk ' ) • • • • {Xn-m + igXn-m + 2 Xn-m + 2gXn-m + 3 X„gXn-m+l) . [xTgh{xWh)-^ • x^hiWgh)-'' . . by definition follows {7. Now every permutation of a finite So. . 7.26...Xn} =X is mapping Xi^ x^ a right transversal of A in G. page 219) = ixig(xW)-' -xTghixigh)-^) • ix2gim)~' • ' xlgh{x^h)-^) (a.4a that the set {xi. . {gh)T Xig{x^)~\ x^{xjgh)-^ A. Xk + i-i — x\ = Xk + . We recall from Section a permutation of X....4a).n) a permutation of X (Section 7.8] THE TRANSFER t is 241 b. if necessary. x^g Xk+ig = Xk+2. .

} index in a group G and be two left transversals of let X= in A G. .x„}. is of finite index.36) lie But yi = (kXi.7: now able to prove Let A be an abelian subgroup of . we now prove the following important theorem of Schur. Now if g G G.y2.. then iyn-m+ig"'yn-m+i) .Xn-m+ig"'Xn-m^i = ai{xigHi^)ai^ = Xig^xr^ = au+i{xk + ig^xlli)a^\i = Xk+ig'-Xkli yn-nH-lX"'yn-m+l = an-m+l{Xn-m + ig"'Xn-m+l)(K-m + l = Xn-m+ ig'"x'ii-m+ Thus it follows from (7. x. = iyig^Vi^) • ivk+ig^ylii) {7. Similarly.35) A in G and let gr = is Xig^X^^ • Xh-ng^xZll Xn-m + ig'^Xn-m + l But Xig^xZ^ e A and A the center of G.35) x.. h denotes the element of X in the coset Ah and h denotes element of Y in the coset Ah.36) and the above remarks that gT = g7. finite {xi. xig''x~^ So = g\ x.g^xT'_ = {x. Xk+ig^Xkli = .35) that if g EG. in the abelian and we know that the elements xigHi\x}.. ..g{Xig)~^ which belong to A. . Then T — T We may assume on suitably reordering Y that = OiXi (Oi e A) = X. since it is the product of factors x..n.g^xlU. This lemma establishes that the transfer homomorphism t is independent of the choice of transversal. Furthermore 9r let t and 7 be mappings of • G into A defined respectively by = xig{xlg)-^ X29{x^)-'^ a. then by equation {7. Theorem 7. . 7 and thus Note that = {x^g^xT') {x^^. Let X = {xi. Then the derived group T Proof: Suppose \G/A\ ...8: Let G be a group whose center G' of G is finite.x„} be a transversal of be the transfer of G into A. Using the transfer. This means that and £f7 • the 2/i m fl'~ = Vi follows therefore as in equation {7. if h E G.. We Lemma are 7..) (x„-„ + i^"a..i„+i) {7.i e A. d.35).. Xn-m^ix'-Xn'-m.1 242 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS gr [CHAP. x„-m+ig'"x'^-m+i = g"" . Accordingly we may speak of the transfer of G into A.. A .g^x^^l. Therefore Vig^Vi^ Vk+ig^ylli . . A theorem of Schur I.X2.'^{xig''x~^)xi = g^ Similarly. .+ig^xllu subgroup A. .g{xlg)-^) • {x^gixTg)-') {x^g{x^)-') G A. {7.„flf(^)-i (where g G G) Proof: Now It if ^ = yig{y^gy y^giy^y ynQiyTg)-' (where gGG) where... .y. Y= {yi. . . then Ayj = AajXj = Axj = AaJigr = AoiXiflr = Ayig.

68. namely that every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. The proof is not too complicated. X the number of subgroups of fixed finite index in a finitely generated group is finite. we have g-^h-^gh = xr^a'^x^^b-^axibxi = xT^xr^XiXja-^ab'^b = x^-^xf^XiXj is finitely This means that there are at most n^ distinct commutators in G. Permutational representations were roughly classified. If g. Then generated. (3) if G a finitely generated group whose subgroups of finite index have only the identity subgroup in common. Since gr = g" for every g G'nA have every element of the kernel has finite order. We end our discussion of the transfer by mentioning that if all the Sylow subgroups of finite group G are cyclic. analysis of extensions was specialized to splitting extensions. GIK page 116. generated since it is of finite index in a finitely generated group This completes the proof of Schur's theorem. for each gGG. In particular we called a homomorphism of a group G into the symmetric group on a set a permutational representation of G (on X).44. Then abelian. then G is metacyclic (i.2a. i. page 198). This theorem can be proved by using the transfer.hG G.Sec Y 8] THE TRANSFER 243 Thus. a subgroup of A and is therefore abeUan. where we provided a method and K.bGA. We of called a group G such that This because of our discussion of both coset representations and Frobenius' theorem. We explained an important permutational representation of a group G called a coset representaThis representation allowed us to provide a variation of Cayley's theorem due to tion. where K is the kernel of t. so is G'A/A. an (2) is automorphism. worth noting one fact that emerged in this proof: the transfer into the center is simply the mapping that takes each element g to g" where n is the index of the center in G. Assuming this true for the We will finite order. Xu Xj e X. page 117. page 139. G an extension of a group H by A: if there is a normal subgroup H G/H = K and H^H. of constructing a splitting extension of two groups Finally we defined a special kind of homomorphism of a group into an abelian subgroup. This completes the proof of Schur's theorem but for the verification that G'nA is finitely generated. G' itself is finite if G'nA is finite. page 125. Reference to a proof may be found in Section 5. then every homomorphism of G onto itself is also one-to-one. Thus G' is also finite. then since A is the center of G. Frobenius. however. it follows that G'nA is finite (Problem 6.4. it is lengthy and will not be given here. Finally Therefore G' G'nA is finitely (Theorem It is 7. t is Now Theorem as G/A is finite. where a. Since G'/G'DA is finite.23. An analysis of this situation was made simpler _ H . A look back at Chapter 7 We re-proved Cayley's theorem. an extension of a cyclic group by a cyclic a group).e. called the transfer. We then used the transfer to prove that the derived group of a group whose center is of finite index is finite. Then we used Frobenius' theorem and the coset representation to prove three theorems: (1) a subgroup of finite index in a finitely generated group is finitely generated. The ideas that arose from Cayley's theorem were generalized.18. We g accomplish this by showing first that G' is finitely = axi and h = bxj. G'A/A ^ G'/G'nA {7-37) G G. qt - fir". It follows that the elements of show that G'nA is finitely generated. generated since it is generated by commutators. Notice that the image of G under is by Theorem 4. This means that G'/G'nA is also finite since by 4.e. page 227). But by Problem 4. moment. this implies G' qK.

(2) a„a„ = a„ + „. 69. ftj.50.55.52.42. FROBENIUS THEOREM 7. 7.39. . Prove that of A is an abelian subgroup G into 1. G is a finitely |G'| generated group.54. Give a permutation representation of A„ of degree 2«.45. Then use the fact that the automorphism are subgroups of G such that Gj is not finitely generated. if is G G 7. . < / <». a. Prove that .g^ are the generators of G. (Hint: Use Problem 7. Construct a non-abelian group which an extension of an infinite cyclic Prove that is a non-abelian group with an infinite cyclic normal subgroup of index 2. Find a faithful representation of GxH is on n +m letters if GcS„.52) and suppose every subgroup of G is Prove that if is a subgroup of G such that H/N = G for some normal sub= {1}. finite if group is finite.. MAL'CEV'S THEOREM. 7 Supplementary Problems PERMUTATION REPRESENTATIONS. -. EXTENSIONS 7. Prove that an infinite group with a subgroup of finite index is not simple. generated residually finite group (defined in Problem 7.) Prove that G2CG3. G is a group and Gj. N = gp{a) 7. • • 7.O'i.48.Gg. ftp.. i.40. ^i. .38.a-o. 7. . G which be a residually finite group (defined in Problem 7. Find a proper subgroup of W a^. 7.44. N H N 7. the representation provided by the Frobenius theorem. .43. .. then uGj is a subgroup of ¥. . Prove that an extension of a residually finite group by a finite group is residually finite.47.49. G2..51. (Hint: Use Problem 7. 3 splits. every element of which has only a finite number of conjugates. (Hint: Use Marshall (Hard.56. . element of G' is of finite order. .41. 7.47 by the infinite cyclic group C = gp{c) via the c to Prove that W a non-abelian group.) is A group 7. For each integer n define a mapping «„ of D by putting oq:„ = where 6j = ». If b = = . group of a 7. then the transfer of G center Z has order co-prime to its index. I ^ Hint: n C(ffi) = Z(G) if g^. COSET REPRESENTATIONS. . G^ ^ G3. group by a group of order 2. Construct a non-abelian group of order Construct five non-isomorphic groups of order 5^ Let X 3. Prove that W/W is infinite cyclic. . a-^i + 6_i. Prove that into A sends 7. 7. (Hard. 6_i. then Let G finitely generated.) TRANSFER. define a + D is an abelian group under the operation of addition of sequences. G is a group in which every element has only a finite number of conjugates. Prove that jk = k modulo n. then a splitting extension of an infinite cyclic group by a group of order 2.) . Prove that there are precisely three non-isomorphic extensions of an of order 2. 7. cyclic extension of a finitely Let G N Let = a'= Prove that a is residually finite. D consists of the sequences a = {aieZ). infinite cyclic group by a group 7. .46. .57. • . a coset representation of D„ using C„ as the subgroup. where j is co-prime to n and 6™ (where j and k are integers). (2) (3) 7. He S^. . 7. O'-i._„. .e. (3) A = {ai\ i e Z} is an infinite cyclic group generated by aj. is isomorphic to W. Let mapping that sends which is W be the splitting extension of D of Problem 7. D be the set of infinite sequences of integers... said to be residually finite if the intersection of all its normal subgroups of finite index is the identity.53. 7. G1CG2..) 7. then the transfer G into Z onto.58.) Prove that every . Prove that 7. Find the representation of Z)„ onto itself given by Cayley's theorem. 6_i. .57. if G is a finite group whose if is of finite index in a simple group G..55. Prove that an extension of a cyclic group of even order by a group of order 36. (1) a„ is an automorphism of D. + 60. Prove that b~^ab — <P.244 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP.. and G/N = gp(bN). (Hard. .) group of G.52) Hall's theorem. "i + ^i. . MARSHALL HALL'S THEOREM. Let Z)„ be the dihedral explicitly (1) ^oup of order 2w and let C„ be its cyclic normal subgroup of order n. . (Hint: The preceding problem gives a clue. fe . be a cyclic extension of a cyclic group of order n by a cyclic group of order m. .

¥=—(. for reduced X-product are reduced product {X being understood) and reduced {x. It is = tj^ for G X and i = 1. ELEMENTARY NOTIONS Definition of a free group Recall that if G is a group and X (¥•0) a. 8. .. they are said to be identical if w = w. then u G R. . •x^^GR for — n — 1. Suppose k = n.e.chapter 8 Free Groups Preview of Chapter 8 and Presentations begin with a property of the infinite cyclic group and generalize this property to define free groups. If Assume then that any product If ^t is not a reduced product. where e^ = ±l and x^ e X.y. u is a reduced product in X.GX. ±1.) X= = {w\w = lorw = a reduced product in X}. implies t. yxyxx~^ and x~^yxyy'^ are not reduced products.^' fc 245 . x^ — y^ and are said to be different if they are not identical. Proof: = ±1. we introduce the concept of a reduced product: • same element of G. = ±1. there u-x[^ x^^ is a reduced product in X. dundancy. If Clearly R Q gp{X). Lemma 8.er=±l] e. = x.e. of the form x\^ X A if product Xi' • • • x'x.. • e^ = . if To avoid rex^^ but they give rise to the same element of G. then xy. i. Synonyms product in X. This provides a new way of describing a group.. Let {w\w = lorw — a reduced product in X} = R. subset of G. is said to be a reduced X-product x. Let and x''^yyxy~^ are reduced products.y}. m. xy. as a factor group of a free group. then xy and xx'^xy are different products For example. then Two products r^^ a. x~^yxyx~^ (Examples of reduced products are easily given. If k = 1. i. u G gp(X). Such a description of a group is called a presentation..^" can give rise to the easy to see that two different products of the form xl^ = {x. However.1 a. . a.. x^ and y\^ • • • i/^" are two products with x^. then u = x\^ x'^ where x^G X and We proceed to show that u G R. y}. gp{X) If x\^ = {xl^---xl^\x. We ask questions similar to those we asked in Chapter 4 concerning cyclic groups: We (1) (2) Do free groups exist? (3) (4) When are two free groups isomorphic ? What are the homomorphisms of free groups ? What are the subgroups of free groups ? In answering (3) we will learn that every group is a homomorphic image of a free group.. and so u G R.1: gp{X) c.

z. exists ajj'ajjVV to obtain Consider in {x} are of now the two infinite cyclic group generated by the element x'' x.1. xz In fact any three different reduced products in {x. Problems 8. (i) group and G is said to be freely generated by the set XcG if X ^ 0. AUyn and Bacon. even if we replace {yz)^^ by its equivalent z~ij/~i to get xyzz-'^y'^. y. 1965. Thus different reduced {a. from which u = lGR. More generally we have the following definition: r is where we know that m m A set. z}.""" a positive integer. then u = x^x'i. G is a free group freely generated by X. Rotman. (3) x.246 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS an integer [CHAP. two adjacent inverse factors). This process of expressing an element as a reduced on X. two different reduced X-products define (ii) two different nonunit elements of G. If G is by the fact that we know exactly whether two Z-products are often called a free set of generators of G.) Similarly g equal. the empty gp{X)^G.^^ and e. y. If » = 2. From what has been said about the infinite cyclic group. It also follows from (ii) that 1 ^X. with y-^ = x. (2) x. All we need to express each of the products in reduced product form. = -e. this.) G is said to be freely generated by {x}. be freely generated by the set xyz{yz)-^ a reduced product? Is xyy~^z~^yx equal to xz~^yzz^^xl (d) Express (c) x2y3(jf3^2-)-iy-3 and {xzy)~^xzy^ as reduced products.e. there exist x and both elements of X. i/}. By the inductive hypothesis. xy. z} are distinct elements of G.^^. Are the products f — xyx~^y~^xxx~^y''^y^ and g = xyy^y^ equal? We convert / to a reduced product by deleting inverse pairs (i.. If the reduced products are distinct the elements are not equal. The Theory of Groups. = x. = {x. = -c^. x-^ ^ X. However. (b) No. But then x and y-^ are two different reduced Z-products which are equal. J. 8 i such that x. though in the form x^ x^. J. e. A set X of generators of G satisfying A group G is free if it is the identity group also said to be free facilitated equal. • • . y. possesses a free set of generators. they are not The fact that we can determine in a finite number of steps whether or not two elements are equal is often expressed by saying that the word problem is decidable for free groups. Notice that it follows from (ii) that if x G X. (This is by no means the usual situation.}-products give rise to different elements. we have yyyy = yy. x^. For if not. where x^ = x^ and c. (The interested reader may find more details in. Thus gp{X)cR and accordingly gp{X) ^ R. then the study of G is (ii) is or if it to do is Z-product can be carried out in a finite number steps. let F be freely generated by {a. To illustrate. because it is not written in the required x^ x^ form. x^. Let (b) G X Is Solution: (a) (1) X. u then belongs to R. (a) Write down three distinct elements of G. For example in a cyclic group of order 2 generated by y. since it involves (j/z)-*. then we can delete m as a product involving n-2 elements of X. if and n are integers. y. Suppose n>2. The reduced products kinds: X • X — or x~^x~^ • • X"' = a.g. is not a reduced product because of the inverse pair zz~'^. Thus / = xyx ^y ^x{xx ^){y ^y)y^ — xyx~''^y^'^xy^ = xyx~^y^^xyy = xyy. x™ = x" implies that = n. Hence as / and g are equal to different reduced products..

} freely generates . x^ Now — «'.3. then . Hence if the direct product of two infinite cyclic groups is free. is freely generated for t by n. Generalize Problem 8. . We have only to prove that two different reduced Xj-products define different elements of F^. it is infinite cyclic. Hence positive integers implies r = s. X X 8. But this implies that G finite x.1] ELEMENTARY NOTIONS Yes.Sec. Hence the result follows immediately. not abelian. for on expressing each as a reduced product 247 (c) we get xz~^yx. Prove that Solution: if G is a free group. 8. F . . Let y has an element & X. {xi.. it is clear that zy we must have zy and yz are two different reduced products. . its center consists (Hard.2 by showing that if F^ = gp(xi. Thus ffp({a. then G is not Solution: so There exist two distinct elements xy ¥= yx. . cyclic where r and and the result follows. where X contains at least two elements.2 we proved infinite cyclic group.y'^y^ = y is 8.5. But we have proved in Problem 8. Let z be expressed as a reduced product Consider yz = yx^^ • • »„ This is a reduced X-product. X with \X\ — 2 has no center (i. then x^^ • x^y is zy = <i •••<"_-. 8.e. consider 9p({x}). Suppose x-x 8 are G is freely generated by X. = yz. On the other hand zy If = x^^ x^v a reduced product and so clearly zy ¥ yz as yz begins as a reduced product with y but zy begins with x^ ¥= y.> and again the center. By definition. . {a. G ¥= {1}. .7. In Problem 8. 8. y ¥= z '^ 1 x^. i.21. Now xy and yx are two different reduced products.3 which contains at least two that a free group is not abelian if it is freely generated by a set elements. .. . . Kj}. Therefore this contradicts the assumption that But as z is in G has a center. This some set follows immediately either from the uniqueness of the type of an abelian group (Theorem 6. . ajj) = 1. (d) x^yHy^x^)-^y-^ (xzy)-^xzy^ = = x^y^'x-^y-^y-^ y-^-'^x-'^xzy^ = xxyyyx-^x-^y-^y-^y~^y-'^y~^y^'^ = y-H'Hy^ . x^¥=y~^. .6. If x E. = Kji • • a. X. 2. then the infinite cyclic group a subgroup of G. with r a positive integer. so zy ¥= yz. Prove that a Solution: group G is not free if G # {!}. 8. X^ generates Fi. is y of X. Prove that abelian. . This is — X''. every free group has as a subgroup the if G is free it must have the infinite cyclic group as a subgroup. If «„" = y~^ then for re > 1 (for otherwise Xj = 2/ contrary to the choice of y). .4.}) is infinite and is infinite X a cyclic group.e.2. Consequently that except for the identity. The direct product of two infinite cyclic groups is not a free group. Solution: Put Xj = {xi.„} with n > 1. Prove that a free group freely generated by of the identity element).».i. 8. it is freely generated by = {x}. «. This is absurd. if G is freely generated by X.) Solution: Suppose « G J*.. is a reduced product in X. . in its center. . page 197) or directly. Solution: The direct product of two infinite cyclic groups is abelian. But a free abelian group of rank two is not cyclic. . But a reduced X'j-product is obviously also a reduced Z-product and two different reduced X-products define different elements of F.

We can assume without loss of generality that ar^" ^ y^^. If on the other hand F is since this is entailed by the definition of a given freely generated by X. . There exists a free group freely generated Proof: Since every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group of some natural to look for a suitable subgroup of some symmetric group in order to find a free group of rank n.248 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS [CHAP. For example. To show F is freely generated by X we must show that two different reduced products in X are not equal and are not the identity. and Solution: (i) The length of 1 is taken to be is 4. and only one way as a reduced product to this free set of generators to be 0.^" # y"^. We is 5. (ii) xzyz-'^. Let x[^ <" and y\^ = ±1. Of course. follows then that xl^ 1.3: Do free groups exist? Up to now we have tacitly assumed that Let n be any positive integer. Existence of free groups is: An obvious question they do. =. it is . Suppose they are equal.^Ti> = 2/l"L~l^ we can delete them. products. and so follows that F is freely generated by X. f^l. Determine the length of (i) 1.z}. Alternative description of a free group Suppose F is freely generated by a set X. page 261).) (ii) The length of xzyz~^ The length of / is (iii) calculated by expressing it first in reduced form. 0...9.y}. a. (This is just the convention mentioned earlier..y^ G X) be two different reduced y"^ (where c. c. xl"i/^"L-i are two different reduced products'! Since yvrn and <" = xl^ x^n^y^h. 8 b.. if is Length of an element.2: A (a) group F is freely generated by a set X ¥. it follows that yy. But we cannot continue <"y-'''" • • • indefinitely this as Xji x'^ and y]^ It y"^ are assumed to be different reduced products. / = x~'^yx~'^yyxxxz~^ Hence the length of / is 9. the empty set. a. because x^y^x ' = xxyyx~^ A very useful technique in arguments involving free groups is to prove results by induction on the length of elements (see.±1.8. do (a) and (b) hold? group freely generated by a set X. and (6) no reduced Z-product is equal to the identity element.y. set. But by j/f » is a reduced product equal to it (6) it is not Hence we have a contradiction. by a set of n elements. Proof: Assume first (a) and (b) above. Problem 8.^"_-i and i/]' for if <" == 1/^™. it can be expressed X F in one define the length of f with respect to be n. then the length of x^y^x^' xl' x'-. Lemma 8. • • • xl' 1 xl"-^ n— = y1' -^ 1 w""*-! i'm — 1 If again • • • a. Theorem 8.0. for example. Let (iii) F / = be freely generated by x-'^yxx^^y^x^z~^. and x^. Lemma 8. that is. way So we may as- sume 1. If feF. if and only if gp{X) = F. The length of the identity is defined conventionally freely generated by J^ = {x. X= {x.

. where 9. T (Problem 8. . . Then By the definition of the product of permutations. i. rm)ei . .9). Let (rj. . Moreover 9i6-i = = O-iOi where Thus each Or is a permutation of T i (Theorem page 36).') = tj ((0)^.. i).^1- )(V or •••^^„™') £^1' = ((o. . we cannot prove this more general theorem here. . It is clear that L is a well-defined the identity permutation of 2.e... . ... (0)/ we have ••^^™". ordered 2-tuples of integers. mapping of T into T. .r„. ..rm — 1. .r„..2) € T and (0.. r„_i then (r^. 8.. . . .(ri. prove similarly that there exist free groups freely generated by Since we have not introduced cardinal numbers. 2.. nonzero integers with n + n+iT^O for i = l.. then + c^ ^ ^ -6^2'. .) We prove that freely generates G. The reader who has a knowledge of cardinal numbers may read the account in J. define rm) (i) now for each £ T we define (ri.6n] T such X freely generates gp{X). . thereby completing the proof of the theorem. r™. .. and so ^f ' = (r + l)'. where sense to talk of gp{X). . We compute = e±i.Sec. . . Prove that Solution: ffiff-j = i and ff-j^j — i. .. -2) € T. .0„}. .^ii')VHV Therefore Now if 1' = 2'. i) if if r™ (ii) (n. J. 1965. .1] EXISTENCE OF FREE GROUPS is 249 Our plan as follows: we that shall introduce a set T consisting of certain ordered 1-tuples of integers. of permutations of and so on. The elements of T are the ordered m-tuples (ri. does not belong to T.. integer i = ±1...e. . then choose a set X= {6i.. Suppose first that r^ (ri.. . .rjffi9_i = ..2. Rotman's The Theory of Groups. and i are as defined above. . . Allyn and Bacon. If .^l'..rm-i) ^ -i. . Oi e St. . . . It is possible to Note: sets of arbitrary cardinality. it makes Let G = gp{X). then (ri.„) Now if r„_i = —{—i) = i.m' e (1. Thus (0. .to (1.. Let then e^. rm) with ri = and r^. .9..2'.r„) G T. . Problems 8. It follows in this way that (0)/ = (0. . . e^ + e^^j^O). . . . 1. We . Since such an element # — (— Therefore . .n} and = ±1) the effect of / be any reduced Z-product (so if r' on (0).4.rv^Qi Oi is - (ri. r™ = — i.r. ¥= —i. Z X We have only to verify that every reduced X-product f is not i.t)9_j = (rj. .„m') ^ (0) Thus / ¥- 1 since it does not leave (0) fixed. 1. .) is of the form (r^. ... . Now er^ = O-i. This completes the proof of the theorem... = {fi^i. . ra. — 3) e T but We (ri. . ^ ^l- 9^' (where 1'. —i).±n a permutation di of T as follows.. (As St is a group and XcSt. .i. .

Y).12)... we have the following result for free groups..^ into a group H.10. If is freely generated by Y. ix..11 below) that if a group G is generated by a set X. (ri. Define tQ = {xi6p{Xie)'^ and 1^= 1 (the latter 1 being the identity of H). . (n. H H d. Consider conversely what would happen if we had a map ^ of . ¥. because each element of G is a product of elements and inverses of elements from .. reduced product. If Assume it is true for all positive integers n n. {Xi-iep~'{xi+20p^^ -}.rm-i)e-i = (rj. ^ is called an extension of d. r„) Thus 6ii-i leaves all elements of T unchanged and hence Sjff-i = i. r. then be distinct.3 except that we define ffj for all nonzero i and put The mapping p: Y ^ Z+ the positive integers.-Cj^. then a homomorphism is uniquely determined by its effect on X. If this is a reduced product then fe {xiep {XnOf" by definition.X'. Similarly ff_j9i = is i. let H. .9p {xiop /-y'l ... x. H Theorem 8. . . = x.^. Let F H H Proof: Any nonunit element of / F is uniquely expressible as a reduced X-product = x\i x^" where x^ &X. To conclude the proof we must H .yy)e = {x^ef (Xnepiyief {y„. this is true by the <k and consider f = xl^ • definition of • «„" when n= k.4: be a be any group. 92. . .^t-l/). integers We F= . . 8. Could we find a homomorphism of the whole group G into whose effect on X was the same as that of 9? In general the answer is no (see Problem 8. shall To do this we show that if / = x[^ • • ^'n where x^eX and €. .^ = ±1. 250 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS (fu [CHAP. x^^ • x^^ is a reduced product. and let be freely generated by a set X. •••}• (9{)p = i is a one-to-one onto mapping. proceed exactly as in the proof of Theorem 8. .r„_i. . . = ±1. then whether or not 0. = ±1.. Homomorphisms of free groups Now it is a fact (see Problem 8.1. they must = gp(... — = i) . e^ = ±1 and x^ = x. prove that ^ is a homomorphism.S + 2 . 8 .r™) and so rJOiB^-^ = (rj. (Xne)" (XnOp = {XiOp {XiOfiXi^ief^^ {Xi0p = If it is not a e^= —e^_^y = — by our inductive hypothesis. (xndp q-^n\0 Therefore (Xnep y]' = {x{^ x^(c^x^^)x:^ €^ • • <")^ = fO then So if / = xl' • • <" and g = x':y\^ y^. . defined by {»i. {fg)d = a {xl^ ._^^ implies t. However. . Then there exists a homomorphism 6 of F into mapping of X into such that 6 agrees with 6 on X. for as none of the Sj have the same effect on (0).9f^ = Hence is [{xiop {xndpWiyxep (y^ef"'] = foge homomorphism and the theorem follows. (cBn0)'" Clearly ^ is a mapping of F into agreeing with 6 on X. then there exists an integer i such that x._^_^ and Consequently.A. y^ G X. Prove that there exists a free group freely generated by a set Y such that there a one-to-one mapping Solution: of Y onto the positive integers.

. Then G is a homomorphic image of some free group. by xB — y. 8. = ±1. .x„}. 6 maps a. {xi.y„}.. For this reason we have chosen only to consider the finitely generated case. then one of the integers n and m is odd and the other even.. it contains gp(yi. e G -* with 9 : H and a map e: X -* H. But as F9 contains yi. Define a map from {Xi. G = ffpiix}).e. To check that e is a homomorphism. Now 6 maps cb" ^ a"."* 9 is a while the other is 1. n."9a. Check directly that it is a homomorphism. . . a subgroup of H which contains gp{y) and hence G'e=H. if n and m are both even. Solution : Let F be free on X where \X\ = n!. Proof: Let G .13. There exists a free group F be finitely generated by a set (t/i. .. Its elements are uniquely of the form n an integer..1] HOMOMORPHISMS OP FREE GROUPS 8. and so = 8. If The free group on a single generator is infinite cyclic.Sec. a group — e.". Therefore Fe = G. there exists a finite set Y such that gp{Y) = G). if both are odd. being the image of : H group. free group. +m The kerne] oi a = (x^^ all | integers r}. say n = 2r + l. by . a}. But G?. ." to a. n is odd. then a." + '"9 is a if is odd.11. Now a." + "» 9. Then g — = x^^ x^ where x^^X and ix^Sif" e. and find its kernel. Note: The same result applies whether G is finitely generated or not. from the knowledge of the properties of a free group we may achieve some understanding of other groups. Hence 9 is a homomorphism.12. and so G is a homomorphic image of a . Then by Theorem 8. Put X = {x} and let 2. : H H Solution: a. Let $1 and $2 be homomorphisms of G ^ H. Let e X ^ S„ map each element of X onto a distinct element of S„. By Theorem 8. this is clearly impossible. li n + m is even.. Let be the cyclic group of order 2. Our last theorem reveals the importance of free groups.4 there exists a homomorphism 6 of F into G which agrees with 9 on each Xu We know that F9 is a subgroup of G. Find an example of a group there exists no Solution: G homomorphism generated by a set X. If n is even.n." 9. Let G= gp(X) and suppose e^ = 92ix- Prove that Solution: Let g &G. or they are both odd. such that xe = y. then either n and m are both even. Find a free group that has as a homomorphic image S„. 8. say.5: 251 Corollary G be any finitely generated group (i. Vn."9x"' 9 = a. must be finite. consider whether (a!"x'") 9 = ». say = {1. to prove the more general result we must use some of the ideas involving cardinal numbers. Describe the effect of this homomorphism on e all elements of F. . Hence a.14. n any given positive integer. The map X -^ a gives rise to a homomorphism of F -^ H. : . . Since H is infinite. . Let F be freely generated by {«}. If m + m is odd. Hence 9 maps sc" -^ 1. and 991 {xiOiP effect = (x^e^P (x^e^f" ffj = e^- gB2 Thus »! and $2 have the same on the elements of G. As every group is a homomorphic image of a free group. However. . Suppose there exists a homomorphism e G^H.yn) — G.'"9 = 1 • 1 = 1. a.4 there is a homomorphism 9 of i'' onto S„ that agrees with 9. such that H . Problems 8. 8. . as one of a. say n = 2r. . Let freely generated . a" = 1.. Let Define e G : be cyclic of order X^H Then G a finite e is = gp({y}) be infinite cyclic. a. and is 1 if w + m is even."9a.'" 9 = <x ' a = 1. .Xn} to G by XiO = yi for i = 1. .

where \X^\ = n. X x s" where is |Z|=m+1.15. . . x Then there homomorphism F onto G put xe = x.„ be the elements of X. Then 9 be the extension of identity mapping on F. G (since G = gp({c. Hence F has a subgroup of index m. Let F be freely generated by X.17. Hence F' cKer e. Fe = F. Let X = X^uid) we have shown gp(. G Solution: Let as e : F be freely generated by before.4. Thus only the elements of F' belong to Ker 9. Let to F cyclic be a free group with free generating set {a. Let C^ be the cyclic group of order m generated F be freely generated by Z = {x^.. 8. and i/j. and 1X| = |F| < «. Then there exists a homon. 8. 8. Clearly • • Then we must show that {x„»f^ this reduced product (x\^ • <")» 9 is = (x^ep and as F is freely generated by X and an isomorphism. /2] = /rV^Vi/z where /i. not the identity of G.4. by Theorem 8. F' is generated by the set of all commutators. a homomorphism of F onto the derived group of F. Solution: is F with G. Now a commutator is of the form [/i. 8. the number of cosets of Ker e in F is m.18. prove that F = G. 8 8. Now every element of F that does not belong to F' is of the form a''b^e where not both r and s are zero and e G F'. 8. Then. has a subgroup m for each positive integer m.20. Define a homomorphism Since Fe contains Y. Let F be freely generated by X.Vn the elements of Y. of index Prove that a free group freely generated by n elements. Let e be an isomorphism of generated by Xe. so it is sufficient to show that each commutator belongs to Ker «. d})). . page Since |C„| homomorphism property. (Theorem 8. as F/F' is abelian and aF'. be the direct product of two infinite takes a to c and 6 to d extends Prove that the kernel of this homomorphism Let G Solution: First we show that if S is the homomorphism F -* G for which ae = c. X -^ G be defined as follows: exists a G X. 8. . n any positive integer. as G is abelian. onto G. . put xe — 1. the identity. Let Ki. . . an epimorphism of F onto itself. page 247.n. b}. The map which is F'. Let F be freely generated by spondence. by an element morphism 9 of F (Theorem 4. Hence by the homomorphism theorem onto C^ for which XiO = a. = F. by Xi$ = y^ where i = 1. Therefore Ker e = F'.19. . Solution: X and G freely generated by F. 9 is the identity on G. Then [/I'/d* — [/i*'/2*] =^1. .252 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Prove that a group freely generated by [CHAP. Under e such an element goes onto cM^ and Crf^ — i only if both r and s are 0.. If e : X -^ Y is a one-to-one corre- is Let » be the homomorphism of F into G which is an extension of e. using Theorem 8.) Let If x = a. Prove that G is freely Let {x^ef^ (Xjfif^ be a reduced product in Xe. . Solution: We will exploit the a. g-F-^F Hence e is a. ..7. say./2 G F. (Problem 8.18. F/Ker ^ e ~ r = C^ = m. the result follows. F freely generated by is n elements. then F' C Ker e. he = d.4. x„}..) Clearly e Let <p: Y -> X be the mapping such that e<f> is the identity mapping on X and ^e is the is the identity on F and to G ^ H. where n w + 1 elements has as a homomorphic image a group any given positive integer and G is a subgroup of F. . Let It follows readily that 9 is an isomorphism of F with G.Xj) If =G of freely generated by X^..16. ¥= a. i= 1 Let 117). groups generated by c and d respectively. bF' generate it.4 to find Use Theorem Solution: Let F be a subset of F such that gp{Y) an epimorphism of F onto itself.

Finally a presentation of a group G consists.4. First we shall prove that = N.21. We G and X First we need a definition. = y}. PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS Definitions have shown (Theorem 8. such a homomorphism e exists by Theorem 8. Prove that F/N is freely generated by aN and N bN. of a presentation iX. N is Then contained in {K is a normal subgroup / can be expressed in the form K / == /i^i where /j is a reduced {a.R) and an isomorphism 6 between \X. by definition. 2/}-product. H.1 and so f which implies is contained in N. b. c generate F. c.R) is finite if F N both tion. Thus if we find K=N N is contained as desired.is a reduced {aAT. 1963. X and R are finite. A is presentation is is free group F and R defined to be a pair {X. But {a. 6A^ generate (y^Nf'<. Hence as we observed earlier that K ^ K. An Introduction to Knot Theory.2] PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS 253 8. 6.e. Thus the normal closure of S is often called the normal subgroup generated by S.R\ and G. section of all normal subgroups of (Hard. aN and Suppose (y^Nf^ i.R) by \X. fe But then = /i9 and /iS is f^N. the other hand. Now F/iV. then the normal closure of S defined to be the intersection of all normal subgroups of G containing S. Consequently and the proof complete.) F F Let be the normal subgroup generated by c. Instead of completing the proof this way we could refer to Problem 8. . Blaisdell. Theorem Observe that (aK)v fe (the page 117)..e. y. of F/K with G. Thus is aiji # reduced {«.2/}-product. We tf want to prove that bN and aN and bN v cA^ generate freely generate F/N. F. Solution: be free on x. Since c2V = iV. F/N. • The product a. presentation iX.2 a. 6}-product and Wi G N. ?/} freely 1. This fact will enable us to "present" a given group in terms of a free group. and a group G is termed finitely presented if it has a finite presenta- A Not all groups are finitely generated (a necessary prerequisite for being finitely presented) and not all finitely generated groups are finitely presented. the normal subgroup generated by c. K=N containing On first observe that as ce = 1. a.e. 8. c.^'' ajji x^" is a generates G. The group of the presentation {X. For a more detailed discussion of these notions the reader may consult R.22 below). Fox. It is easy to prove that the normal is closure of S is gp{g-^sg \ g GG and s G S) (see Problem 8. the intercontaining c. Let e be the homomorphism of onto G defined by ae = x.R) is F/N where Z the normal subgroup of generated by i?. in K. b. Let 1. Then we shall prove that aN and bN freely generate FIN. R) where is a free set of generators of a a subset of F. be = y and (Since is free on a. Clearly the normal closure of S is a normal subgroup of G containing S.18. This idea of a presentation is especially important in topology and analysis where groups arise in just this way.. i. Now gives rise to an isomorphism 4.) Let be the kernel of e. G F c0 = F K K To see that c). f ^ K a reduced {a.Sec. H. So fiB^l.19 using the isomorphism 8. 6iV}-product. • • x and {bK)v ((2/iiV)'i • • y so that • {y^Nf'')v • • • = xji • • x^f^ where (j/jAT)^ = Xj S {a. If S is any subset of a group. which agrees with 6 on X. then for every group every mapping 6 of into G there is a homomorphism of F into G which extends 9.. which means fe ¥. i.4) that if F is freely generated by X. as the "groups of certain presentations".R\. we usually denote the group of a presentation {X. f ^ N. So aN. the mapping defined by (fK)v = homomorphism theorem. suppose f e. Crowell and R. Let be freely generated by a.

FIN is cyclic. Since ab G N. .a«b*. As . We shall prove that . Now observe that aK = b~^K. but the presentation (ii) is not. the elements / of f — ar a^c r where . Instead of using our set-theoretic notation which encloses the elements of a given set in braces ( }.{a. . Thus Finally write {a. [a. But as FIL = G. finite.b]\ free abelian of rank is 2). To infinite this end let H be the free abelian group of rank n. We define a e-. a„. ajN] F are of the form [oj. {[a. . 3.b. We shall work some examples all. Clearly e is onto and (a&)e = 1.b. be = g-'' Let ^ be the homomorphism of F into G defined by 6 (Theorem 8. (Actually. the generators atN of ' • • FIN commute. LdN. . . This implies that aW . b}.b}. Let 6 be the mapping of {a. = {b-'K){b'K) = K Hence is contained in K and so we have proved (i = 2. \a. we don't need this fact here. Then the i{a.{[a.2a. i Then H the direct product of [ot. aj]6> = [aiO. To see this suppose G is an infinite cyclic group generated by g. . (ii) {a^b% a^b\ a*b\ .] cyclic groups generated by ai9 = 1. Therefore FIN is cyclic (because aN and bN clearly generate FIN.b]\ for \{a. hi. ajd] = [K hj] = Hence N be the normal subgroup generated by the [Ci.. since a^b^GN. {[a. c xr GN Clearly homomorphism G Ker 9.&}. etc. {[a. Thus it follows that a^N = a'aN = b-^aN = &-W.}) (iii) {{a.b}. is the normal subgroup are interested in F/N where a^N = b-'^N. Let Ai' C Ker 0. [ai.b.b]}). . aj]N that [atN. . At this point we simplify our notation. We have. but that K = N. 1. I ai. Note = = N. as we have already noted. In fact |{a. b]}\ is free abelian of rank 2.b}.b}) ({a. The reader attempt to prove this before we do so in a more general case. [a.b]) for ({«.254 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Illustrations of presentations [CHAP. erated by ab. Then What about (ii)? Well. a„.) N may we we come to (iii). [a. So if L is the kernel of 6. = L. a.b]}\. . we shall omit the braces in writing presentations. Let F be freely generated by ai.] where l^i^ j ^n\ is is free abelian of rank n (from which it follows that \a. . The presentations (i) and (iii) are The obvious question Clearly the group of is: what are the groups is of these presentations? (i) a group of order 1. . aN -b-'^N).4). . First of following (i) suppose F is a free group freely generated by Z= {a. Oj].). say.b]}) are patently presentations (by the very definition). Let be the normal subgroup genprove that is the normal subgroup generated by ab.a*b*.b}. however. a2. Indeed we would like to ling 6""W from both sides yields aN = 6"W.h) into G defined by gK N ae = fir. we N N K a'b'K = (a'K)i¥K) . a^N = 6-W since a^b^ G N. &}. Furthermore generated by a252. we have KcN. FIL is infinite cyclic. CancelHence ab G N. In fact FIN is infinite. Therefore FIN is also infinite cyclic since. 8 b. a. to illustrate the definitions of Section 8. n.F^H by = K Now [Oi. . . l^i^j^ n.

Note that as A^ is F/N is abelian. Xn and let 9 be the isomorphism defined by .. is \Y\ {n < «>). . so N f9 = hl^ = Ker 9. If we say let be a subgroup of G.. not all zero.24 for an example.. A^ D F'. . . . the number of elements in any set which freely generates F. page 193). at least one of the 1. with the have.. is .2/2. a free group. . and cB = 1. Then (xi. Sec. .^. we know that F/F' is a free abelian group of rank n=\X]. rj ¥= 0. Xj] with 1 — i — j^n) together with is a presentation of A..6: Theorem Corollary Let F Then F/F' 8. 8. A simple Let G be a group and a normal subgroup of G.. = Uj {j = l. Hence mi = W2 = Thus |r| < 00 and the corollary has been proved. suppose 1/1. . {Vn^iF'p*' = F' eti. • • • = yru+i = 0. . We We results (XiF')9 we now can easily give a presentation of A. .9p'' = a^i But A is free abelian on ai. what we really mean is "let M/N be a subgroup of G/N. . again by Theorem 8. .2d. .. It follows from this corollary that if F is a finitely generated free group. convention makes the arguments simpler to follow. define the rank of F to be this common number. Let A be the free abelian group on .mn+i.7: be a free group freely generated by a set of n elements is a free abelian group of rank n. we must remember that we are talking of a factor group and instead of writing the cosets. (See Problem 8.. . Then 1 = {y.e. then so 8. But as = F' and we therefore conclude that F/F' is free abelian N of rank n. [ffli.n . a contradiction. [Xi. We shall mean by g = h that Ng = Nh. hi". ttj] with 1 — i — j ^n\ is the free abelian group of rank n. such that 1 elements are dependent. To do this. i. We state this fact as 8. ai (i = = l.2] PRESENTATIONS OP GROUPS / 255 and the if Ti g iV." then by G we mean the factor group G/N. • • • aZl\^ . ffli.) N M . . .6.Xn. then every pair of sets which freely generate F have the same number of elements. .. a free abelian group on ai..9p {yr. .an..a„+i and let 9 be the homomorphism of yi9 F to A defined by .yn+iF' are dependent. Now as one of Therefore F/N the free abelian group of rank n. Now in a free abelian .20).. . free abelian of rank \Y\. I i. It remains only to prove that \Y\ cannot be infinite.. we will simply write the coset representative. Let F be Suppose |X| X and Y both freely generate F. group of rank n every n + . an. In some of the following problems we will often be dealing with factor groups. exist integers nii.yn+i) and yGY . Note that free groups of the same rank are isomorphic (Problem 8. If we use some phrase such as "let us calculate modulo A^. .e.. If |X| is finite. yiF'. Consequently \X\ = |y| since the rank of an abelian group is unique (see Section 6. ¥-0. Let F be free on aii.6 and = \Y\. Thus generated as a normal subgroup by commutators... n). N C F'.i/n+i G Y. fey^ It follows that is / Hence as g Ker 9.an+i. Hence there {yiF'f i. + l). . . . Proof: If By Theorem then F/F' \Y\< CO. . y9 = 1 if y € {Vu The kernel K of 9 contains F' since F/K is abelian." In other words.e. .

= = K. Since ab e A^. Thus the result \ follows. <r. . Furthermore a^ = fe-s since a^b^ = 1. Hence # 8. using the modulo — N. a^ = b~^.. b^ and [a. a'^b*.23. Let if G HdK. i it i = 1 and h S Kx^ — K.: 256 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS [CHAP. and stop after proving introduced above. page 105). show e R}). This means as we are calculating modulo K that a'6' (^ K (i = 2.Hx„. uKx^. b]. Accordingly H qK K and thus H G = Kx^uKx^U since HnHa.„ are distinct. Also AT is a normal subgroup of G. [a. and so ab — 1.Hx2. .Xa. 8 Problems 8. this means that ab G JV...group. b]. Therefore we have proved that K = N. p<r2 and 1. Solution: The free group F generated by a is infinite cyclic. N 8. 3.). Although it has not been stated. = . be a group with subgroups = K. Since F/N is generated by Na and Nb. 8. . 6]| is the direct N 8. Prove that Solution: A^ product of two cyclic groups of order 2.) = (^ V2 ^ 1 ^) and a = (^ ^ ^V Then a^ = (^ \3 ^ 1 3/ \2 S 1) are six distinct elements and hence the whole of ^) 2/ So p. that the normal closure of a subset R (¥= 0) of G is gp{{g~^i'g \ g S G and Solution: Clearly N = gp({g~^rg g & G and r S R}) is a subgroup of G containing R. for heH. b] e A^. . If r G is a .27. Nb] — N[a. can be easily seen that gp{a)/gp{a^) is the F Prove that G = |a. Since a^b^ = 1. As [G K] then h&Kxi for some integer i. (Hard. Thus \F/N\ — \A\\B\ — 2 • 2 = 4. .XiKj.22. Find a presentation for Let p S3.24.26. a = ft-i. a^b^. Rewrite the first part of the argument of presentation (ii).{N. 3.. page 254.. where n freely generated by a).p<r.23). Clearly Ker e contains a^. If i ¥= 1. Thus F/N is the direct product of two cyclic groups of It follows that order 2. then H and K and let [G: H]= n< '^ and [G : K] — n. cyclic group of order 2. As we are calculating modulo N.N. • As H'D K. .b. a^ S3. Hence Ker e 2 N.Na} and B . \a. Prove that H Solution Let Xi = 1 and let the distinct cosets of i? in G be follows that Xxi. Also (Ara)2 = AT and (Arb)^ = N.a"|. b^. Hence gpia^) is the normal subgroup generated by a^. . Thus G is cyclic of order 2. Now we calculate modulo K. HnXa.Nb}. and so a*6* = 6-*6« = 1 (i = 2. Let A . N . b* and [a.9. is the cyclic group of order n (again with Solution: a". 7i. We are interested in F/N where Let us calculate modulo A^. Na and A^b commute as [Na.28. Let G= |a. Thus it follows that a^ = a^a — b-'^a = b-^. It follows that AB = F/N. since [a. 8. Now It gp{a^) is normal in F since F is abelian. it is therefore abelian. we have K cN. On the other hand there is a homomorphism e of F onto the direct product of two cyclic groups of order 2. 8. If 1. Also calculate modulo N convention K Solution: is the normal subgroup generated by a^b^. Cancelling 6-2 from both sides yields a = ft-i. is any positive integer.. Finally any normal subgroup containing R must contain A''.{N. In F/N. Let be the normal subgroup generated by a^. = gpia") is the normal subgroup generated by The free group F on a is infinite cyclic and Therefore F/N = G is cyclic of order n (Theorem 4. b] . As A is a normal subgroup of F/N.. a and 6 are (as usual) free generators of a free group F. . Indeed we would like to prove that 2V is the normal subgroup generated by ab. . AB is a subgroup of F/N which contains both Na and A^'b..). Now . Let K be the normal subgroup generated by ab. Prove that G is cyclic of order 2.25. = Ker e (Problem 8. . a^\. : H = Hxi. a^.

is contained in X. o^. o-ifto = 6-». 6. Thus the 8. If G were finite of order k. K. and the center of S.23).29 = a. Problem 8. Moreover every element of G can be written in the form r^a*. we know such a homomorphism exists). . is any vertex of S.30. (f> : OjAT OjiV -> a (by the homomorphism theorem. o-ifiofi}.If t is the reflection about A^O. (a-i6o6)e = T-Wa = of 9. Theorem 8. a|. Since by Problem 8.. o-'ftobl is isomorphic to the dihedral group of order 2n. 0} = Thus Af{l.. It 02> and modulo N.i. ctj. a|ai calculate 1 = M (although It we do not know \F/N\ if they are distinct)..62. then from which 0.7/w. 6.Sec.e. and so Ker 9 = iV (Problem 8. OjOi. Oj}. this will establish that <i \F/K\=2n and M = gp(h). Modulo AT. KdN. a^^ = a|. 6". 6"-i..a2 and let G = |a. Now we a~^a2aia^^ M Oi <1 F. . then t^ = i. 1. We see that Oj = 1 and so a^^ = dj. i. Oj. . F/K = G. w— 1 (see Section 3. This contradiction proves that G is of infinite order. . 0} is F. that each dihedral group Z?„ is a homomorphic image of G. . Now F is generated by 01. complete.02-^1 -> p. . page 114. 6. a subgroup of F by Problem 4. Therefore G = FIN has each £)„ as a homomorphic image (D„ = (F/Ar)/(Ker eJN)).201 = OjOg. where e = 0. freely generated by a and h. 6"e = 1 and Let G (see Section 3. contains both a and of F are M{1. under the isomorphism page 117). 02^{1. for example. where A. o|. and let « F : Furthermore -> let N S3 be defined by — p and 0. the normal subgroup generated by a^. Then N C Ker e.62. 6. a^} is a subgroup of F and as it contains ^{1. This implies |F/Ar| Since we are is proof calculating modulo N. O2. ^ S3 4. We use only these equations will give rise to a presentation for S3. Then 6. The elements of (l'6« (e We shall show that \F/N\ — 2n.a2.29). Then a?e — 1. Let e be the homomorphism of the free group F. Since ttg — 1. It follows that 172 is of order n. follows that - But ' |F/Ker9|=6 and iV c Ker 9. If we can show that We Let (compare Problem 8. be the dihedral group of order 2n. Also = 1 and a^ = 1. = pp(a2). M F.28) modulo N.4f. <*i} — F. say. N= and a~^bab. we would have a contradiction. Let follows from Problem 4. calculate Moreover since 9 is the normal subgroup of F generated by onto. that M{1. Thus Ker e^D N. Then G is the symmetry group of the regular n-gon S page 75). 6^.a~^bab. 1 and 8 = 0.18.02. F really stands for — 2n. as a homomorphic image of a group of order /c is of order — fc. Prove that Hint: G= Show |a. . 1. 6»> o^ jn and a~^hah lie in the kernel K Then A?. aj~*a2°-i'^2~^lF generated by a^ o|. Then -2 -' --1^20. For then G9^.2] PRESENTATIONS OP GROUPS 1 257 2 3\/l 2 Syi p2 2 3\ _ /I 2 3 = and hope that they Let cti* 1 holds.M-1) FIN.1. ar'ajaiag*^.4f and note that a* = ctj for 1 — i — n). then the proof follows. Prove that Solution: |a. Thus the elements of F are {1. « =: 0. Put / =<r2. (r-i(T = I Thus a2.29. a-i6afel (This group is called the infinite dihedral group. Therefore the elements = 0. 1. is infinite. page 114. o^. F be the normal subgroup of be the free group on ai.23. But Ge^^ — D^ is of order 2k.) Solution: Let F be the free group on o and 6 and let 9„ be a homomorphism of F onto D„ (as £>„ is a two generator group (see. Also Ker 9„ D {a2. .. 8. Recall that ^2 rotates S in a clockwise direction through an angle of 2. As it K=N M are 1. onto G defined by ae = t and he = a. Og.

is a factor group of a free group. as normal subgroups.32. I . In Section 8. Then by Theorem 8. Hence MdN contains x^y^(y^)~^ = x^. aja. Let G be an arbitrary group. Then («(«.34.: fN ^ f<f> is a presentation of G. furthermore.(j.. then scja^ = a. n < «o Nd M. Thus and M — N. 8 8. G/G' can be generated by m — 1 elements. Show (tti. Thus modulo A'^ This means that ai e and so a^^ = a-j modulo N. . j/2}. y^\ - I*. it M D {x^.^ and their inverses is equal. But djaj =: o-i = X(2_i) = Xj. a. that . .18.6.i.N) together with the isomorphism /j. a^. We must prove M N Since N contains x^y^ and y^. modulo N. 8.31. Thus -» mapping x^ is indeed an isomorphism (Theorem 4. group with elements 1 = a.41(b). respectively by x^j/^ and y^. Since |F/Ker <f. Prove that Solution : \x. 8.„. where x^uy G words {i. Let be the homomorphism of F onto G such that agrees with 9 on X and let N — Ker0. V\ x^. Let F be the free group freely generated by «!.1d we proved that every finitely generated group We will use this fact to prove that every finitely generated 8. It follows that |F/Ar| =s N n = 1G| a^ip Now let be the homomorphism from F to G defined by = Xj (for 1 —i— n). a.33. and so Ojaj = ttj modulo N. a„. y. .««.j) is an integer between 1 and n). ... 0^. by a product involving only positive exponents. it follows by Problem 8.\ = n (< «) the and \F/N\ - n.2 a. Let X be chosen so that X freely generates a free group F and. generated group has a presentation. xV.j) = Xi.„. (1 — i. so that there is a mapping s of X onto one of the finite sets of generators for G. But M D {x^y^ since Show that a free group of rank cannot be generated by ?i — 1 elements. if Xj"' = Xj. But this contradicts Problem 6.j where l—i. . to some Now every product of a's in which there are no negative exponents is equal. Accordingly every product of the a. . be a finite {xi. G/G' is free abelian of rank n.258 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Prove that every Solution: finitely [CHAP. modulo A''. Solution : Let G be free of rank n. Suppose XiXj — x^j-.» )^ = a^ia^j^tu) = 1 and so Ker0 includes djajd^j. generated.. y\ We have a free group F freely generated by x and y and two normal subgroups T>! and = M. modulo XiXj A^. N be the normal subgroup of F generated by a^aja'^^J. Since ajftjAT = a(ij-)N.. If G can be generated by M — 1 elements. Therefore every product of the a^ involving both positive and negative exponents can be replaced.. page 195. . j — n) together with 9 Solution: is a presentation of G.23 that e : N af^N = Ker 0. Then (X.j^n\ to G defined by {a^N)e = x^. Therefore Ker D AT.j^ n). group has a presentation. to an »[. and e be the homomorphism from Let G .ja^*. page 117).. and x^ and y"^.x„} (in other O]. . ajajtt^^^jj where 1 — i. .

Our inductive hypothesis (on n. 8. then. This theorem is one of the more difficult in this book. we see that a free group freely generated by two elements has a subgroup which is freely generated by infinitely many elements.implies ej ¥. b}. if ep. z does not end in ft-i if efc = 1 or.ffc ejc + 1 = Cfc. .Sec. . 2/32/^*3/12/2.a'^^ba^ a''^ba~^b~^a^ba~^ba^ it as a reduced product in {a.. . ffc = ^k + 1- Thus Since j. So in order to give the reader a chance to become accustomed to the ideas involved.}. e^ v^ "ffc + i.— + 2' = 4. Given the existence of a free group freely generated by two elements. the last expression a*^''"'"*' . let « = fc + 1. 2/^' = zb^a^ where z is a re- duced product in a and 5 such that zb^'^a^' is a reduced product (i. . ends in &''"'"' tions f ¥= 1. eg = 1 and e^ = 1. as / is a reduced product. H = 0. (Thus Show that . Cj i- that / ^ 1 by induction on n. the number of 2/i's that go into a given reduced product /) is that / when expressed as a reduced product in {a.e.) Let F Y= {a~^ba. ij/j2/2 3/32/4 = = a~^ba^ ' a~'^b''^a* • a^^ba.3] THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE 259 8.Since e^ and e^ + j are the numbers 1 or —1.1.Thus there exist free groups of rank n for each positive integer n.e. . and yy — j/cj + d. and. prove the existence of free groups freely generated by any finite number of elements.-a-i6a '0-36(13 = a-^b-^a-^b-^a^ba^^ba^ is / # 1. 2/n}) is easily shown to be freely gen. ei = 1. The inductive assumption of the preceding example reduced product should end in ba^. . Say f = y^' Vn".n' are positive integers. as asserted. is a reduced product and so / expressed It follows therefore that in both situaas a reduced product.(i-3fe-i(i3.) Proof: Let a-'ba^ .) n = 1 this is certainly true. where V. (For example. i.a-^ba2. Then pressed as a reduced product in {a. which it does. If it is true for n = k. Since k' — (k + 1)' 7^ 0. 1 is infinite we have proved and H = gp{Y) . If now fc' = (fe -I. ^2 = -1. this last expression is a reduced product in then {a. we first v^ork an example. where .. z does not end in 6). 2/n. Consider any F-reduced product. Similar arguments will help to prove in general that a subgroup of a free group is free.1.36. yy • 2/1' • • 2/k- ends in b ^a^' when ex.. Clearly that / when expressed as a 8. If ends in ba^.3 THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE The object is of the next sections of this chapter is to prove that every subgroup of a free a free group. erated by that a free group freely generated by two elements has a subset If n is any positive integer is freely generated by Y. Problems 8.b} ends in 6 "a"'.35. Thus Y freely generates H. (Given. then 1' = 3.2. Y = {Vil i = 0.b]. Solution In : Example Y let such that 2/i> • • Y -jJ/ti 2/1. showing that H is freely generated by Y. Consider the set = gp{Y) is freely generated by Y. Verify both the inductive assumption of the preceding example and that / / ^ 1 where = 2/2" ^2/3" '2/12/12/3 Solution: / = a-26-ia2. for example.a-i6a. group Example 1: be the free group freely generated by two elements a and 6. — —1. Then gpdvi l^e n distinct elements of Y. = 1/4 (i . 3' = 1 We will prove and 4' = 2.}.). .1)'. b} and / ends in + i„(fc + i)'_ If however fc' # (fc -h 1)'. . .

page 228. then / ends in b-^a-^a^b = b-^ab. then as / is a reduced product e^. then a reduced product we must have c.s Hf) generate H. Nielsen and 0. X is any right transversal of H in F. our inductive hypothesis 2/1' yr ends in b-^a-^. 6-ia-i'a-3&-ia-i = b-ia-*b~^a~^ Hence / ends in &-%-! as required. then as / is a reduced product ej. If (k + 1)' = 2. + i — 1 and / ends in ba^h. • = as / is 6~ia~2 as required. ^ shall prove that H is actually freely generated steps in the proof: by Y provided X is chosen ap- propriately. in one of cfi. and so / ends in 6 as required.26. and / ends in baba^ and so / ends in a^ as required. + 1)' = 1 / ends in b~^a~^aba^ = 6~ia~i6a3^ gud so / ends in a^ as required. then / ends in b^ia~i • b~^a~^ and so / ends in b~ia""2 ^s required. 6^+1 = -!. free groups (due to J. ejc = + i = 1. If (fc + 1)' == 1 and e^ + i = —1. (ii) Prove that Y freely generates H. 2. e^ Then by our inductive hypothesis yy If {k + !)' = ! y^' ends in b. Then by and ej. If {k+iy = 2 and + i = — 1. (Hard. (6) ek~—l. Prove that the subgroup of freely generated by aba^ and a^ft.37. then as / is a reduced product e^.j + i = 1 and / ends in a^ ' aba^ = aaaabaaa. 8 8. 2/2 = a^b.-i as required. and so / ends in 6 as required. Thus there are two main Choose X appropriately.4 a. ej.2}) Then if j' (i + 1)' implies e^ # -fj+i- We e„ will show by induction on if = -1. If (fc + 1)' = 2 and e^ + i = 1. 1} Let Y = Then we (i) {a^r. PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS Plan of the proof The subgroup theorem for as follows.6b. If (A. F F generated by aba^ and a^b is Let Y= - {aha^. If (A. then / ends in a^-h-^a-^ and so / ends in 1. (i'e{l. and so / ends in 6 as required. then / ends in a^ • 0.) Solution [CHAP. fe-ia-i. If now (k + 1)' = 1. 6 8. for f G F. + i = —1. . • — 1. Schreier) may be stated Theorem if 8. then / ends in 6-ia-2 • a-sft-ia-i = ft-ia-sft-ia-i^ and so / ends in 6-ia. If (k+l)'-2 and 6^ + j = 1. s G S) (where. then the nonunit elements ttx.s We know {x from Section 7. + i = —1 and / ends in • • • If now (A. For w = 1 this is certainly true.b~^a~^ and so / ends in 6~ia~2 as reqviired.Then by the inductive hypothesis j/j^ y^' ends in 6-%"!. then / ends in ba-^b-^a-^ and / ends in 6"^%-! as required. Suppose that F is freely generated by S. If c^ + j = —1. Hence / # 1 and Y freely generates gp(Y).: 260 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Let be freely generated by a and 6. If it is true for (i) n = we must proceed case by case in proving it true for k \. Consider a reduced Y-product / = vr Vnif 1. k' = L e^ (a) Then by the inductive hypothesis yy y^ ends in a^. Thus / ends in a^ as required. GS. 1. ti that if n then / ends in 6 c„ then / ends in a>.8: Every subgroup i? of a free group F is free. Thus / ends in b~^a-^. e*) ffc = ~1. then + !)' = ! and + i Thus we have proved by induction that any reduced product always ends and 6"ia"2. If (fc + 1)' = 2.if e„ = = 1 and ends in 6-ia-2 1 if and ends c„ in 6-%-i = + -1. (ii) k' (a) = 2. while n' = k. + 1)' = 1. /is the unique element of X in the coset s a^.s \ X G X. a^b} and let y^ = aba^. that = xs{xs)~^ G X.

. then 1 & X. way we select We have therefore verified the induction hypothesis and so we are able.Sec.9: Suppose that of F. bman to be the representative of the coset HaiOi bman. is an element of S or the inverse of an element of S. We shall choose inductively using the lengths of in F. X Hf is of length 0. The initial seg- . The element aia. c. ai.s nonunit element Suppose that we have chosen a right Schreier transversal ax.s and their inverses interact. in this way. We shall call the elements 1. Schreier transversals Suppose that Every element x X (ic is ^ 1) in F.. Recall that length of x and that the length of 1 is 0. . suitable representatives for all the cosets of length n. excluding bibz 1. Suppose that and that for each coset of length less than n. Definition: A it right transversal X is called a right Schreier transversal if every initial segment of an element Notice that follows that if in X is also in X. i^ is a free group freely generated by S and that Then we can always find a right Schreier transversal H is a subgroup X for H in F. where F is freely generated by a set a transversal for in may be expressed uniquely as a reduced S-product H -S. b. then 1 G Hf and so Hf = H. Now • • n> • • • • • • • • • • H{bib2 bman) • = {Hbibi • bm)an = {HaiUz • • • an-i)an = • Haiaz • an We select 6162 •• 6162 • ments of • bmOn. 61&2 • • bm In the same which we know have already been chosen as representatives. a-iaz.s where x G X and s G S: ax. A look at the elements a^. termed the . are 61. 8. . Consider a = xs{xs)~^ . representatives have already been chosen so that every initial segment of a representative is again a representative. aia2 • an initial segments of x. to complete the choice of a right Schreier transversal for H in F.. X is a right Schreier transversal.4] PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS 261 Step (ii) of the proof will be broken into two parts: the first part requires a careful look at the elements ax. Proof: We n but no element the cosets of First if H say that a right coset Hf is of length n if there is an element in Hf of length of length less than n.2 a-n-i is of length n — 1. Let Hfhe a. The main result of this section is the following.s X for H in F.„ be an element in Hf of length n. We choose 1 to be the repre- sentative of H. Lemma 8. coset of length n and let o-ias a. Suppose this representative is bibi bm. a^-i has already been chosen. We choose now representatives for the cosets of length n. X X = aiaz • ttn (n — l) n is where a. .s and the second involves looking at the way in which products of these ax. On. by our induction assumption. Thus the coset Ha^a^ On-i G a„-i is of length at most n — \ (since a^az HaiUz This means that the representative of HaiUz an-i).

s -¥- 1} it suffices generates H. = l.1. = ai be interpreted as • • [CHAP."^ Proof: It follows immediately from the preceding argument. • .s = Ci is • • • CmWdn ' ' • • • di Ci where the right-hand ci CmW ^ X. . • • and Cm G X but Proof: It follows from Corollary 8.s is ai aksbf^ br\ For if with bi~\ But as every initial segment of an element of belongs to X.s Lemma Let £ = 1 or -1.s = Ci • CmWdn and aJJ. 8 Now let the reduced S-product We will allow = 0.11. • • • O-x. d. this will A. not. page 219.10: w"' G S}.yGX. . which is a contradiction. Cmit' ^ -X". It remains only to prove that Y freely generates H. • bis-\bi biS~')-' = 1 follows that the reduced S-product for a^c. either ai akS G or bi 6. Cm G X and • • (i) if if (ii) w G S. For this prove that any reduced Y-product is not the identity (Lemma 8. page 248). then t = —1.s = aia2 • • aks{aia2 Let i where the right-hand side is a reduced S-product with bi or bi~^ G S.^ 262 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS for a. . be a. subgroup of Y = [ax.3). we utilize equation (7. ttx. s G S. di^ If a^. Then H is a. then ai akS = ai UkS and so a^. s cancels either with ak or X X Let W = {w\w GS or 8. Then we have the following if a^c. whereas if bi biS'^ G X. = then £ = 1.s-> G X.t = Ci • Cmwe"' Ci • • • ef Ci with the right-hand sides reduced products. Then ^ Ci 1. The proof of the subgroup theorem F. We asse rt that ai • • • • = From this it 6i • • bis-\bi &iS-i)-> = &i • . then € = y. x = Ci • • Cm and s dn = w.2. x = di • and s == it. • where Ui or its inverse belongs Thus we may write ajcs)"' to S. = • • 1. to . • • • • d„ • Proof: The only note that for the case « lemma is an immediate consequence of the preceding remarks. w & S. For suppose aiUkSG X..s¥=l implies x does not end in s"" and xs does not end in s. x = y and f = s.±1 and dx. Corollary 8.11: Suppose e. • a^ a. UkS and 6i bis-^ are not elements of X.1. Corollary 8. • x. Suppose again that i^ is a free group freely generated by S and that Choose a right Schreier transversal X for H in F. Note we have proved ax.. c-xl We need — bi bis~^a^^ • = fti"^ -1. Then • side a reduced product.s I x G X. and s.tGS.s = • CmWdn^ • di^ • • • where the right-hand side is a reduced product and both Ci Cm and di are elements of X and both ci CmW and di dnW~^ lie outside X. tti.12: Let £ = ±1. and conclude that tti ttkS = 6i • • • 6. 77 ±1.

e.s^ = 1. . of ax^. . If ei emV is removed as a result of deleting inverse pairs in the product df' CmV. is the number of elements in which end in s^ We .. .4] PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS • 263 a^'' J ei r. As x^ runs through X.sj ax^.. Therefore (1) and (2) are mutually exclusive. . = 1.. s — XiSj\XxSj) i = 1.10. page 228. . • • .r) conclude a.s freely generate the subgroup. . x^. = 1. We will show that g ends in vf~'^ em E.' .Sj =1 is Oj + +a^ = number of elements of that end in s. . rank of H. with j — 1. ends in sf^ plus the number of x^ for which xJ'. and /f' e.. Then (1) and (2) are mutually exclusive. We • • • • • • • • • • • • • • wdi^ • • dT^ei • • emvf~^ • • • A"^ = w vf~^ • fi^ • • • when expressed g ends • as a reduced product • • • • by deleting inverse pairs (the between w and v represent the factors df' in w vf^^ the result follows. {xi. Sr and let Schreier transversal for a subgroup of index n.r. r elements is generated n in a free group. • • di^ei em left after deleting inverse pairs). page 219).s^ = XiSif^i)'^ ¥^1 as Sj fixed j. . number of x^ such that xW.e. Consequently Wm ¥.4d. = number of for which x. • • • • • Note that if neither Xi ends in sj^ nor ^isj ends in remains when a^j.10. — {xi.. i.Xn} with Let F be freely generated by Si. If m = i and wdf^ e^v = 1. . Clearly a.. . then by Corollary 8.. To find the we wish (1) (2) to determine how many .s^ is expressed as a reduced product. page 262: If Xi ends in sr'^ then then If x^j ends in Sj. runs through Thus the {x-> xW:. Suppose that Xi ends in sr^. we proved that a subgroup of index « in a group generated by by nr elements. (for otherwise wi WmSj^ is not a reduced product). . or sr^. then ei CmV is an initial segment of dT^ei di and hence an element of X. is a permutation. form .6b. . x G X.10 with • • 1 C/c and ax~_\_sr-i ^^ expressed as Ci in the «/''". But except for x^ — 1. By line 13. 8. . The number of such elements of the ax^. TC and j = 1. . .WmGW) is a reduced product. di But this is contrary to Lemma 8. So the total number (i. alizlsr-i = (^^-^ ^"'' '^^^^^^'^y ^o dT^ei the assumption that g isa reduced Y-product.Wm = wi and xi^j does not end in Sj. Consequently and the inductive assertion follows.10 as ei emvf~^ /^"S where v induction on /^^ by but ei e^v ^ X. Subgroups of finite index In Section 7.. Xi — l be a H eta. a^ _. the nonunit ax. .Xr&X and Si. • • • • • • " ends in wdi~^ di^. ends in s. Therefore g ^1. wi Wm Wm also belong to the Schreier transversal. of Lemma ci • • • G X but Ci • • c^w ^ X {w G CkWdT^ dr* then «ij. Similarly wdr^ dr^ is not removed as a result of deleting inverse pairs in the product Thus wdr^ dr^ei e-m. . . or sf^ Hence a^+ For X x^G X X X . . are unit elements. every element of ends in some s. then o^^. Consider the elements . • • • • • • GW • X • • • • • • If the result is assumed true for r — 8.Sec. .Sj is nr. +a^ — n — 1.. Let and be expressed in the form of Lemma 8.r. . Sj. ends in s. • • • X . We shall now find the rank of a subgroup of index To find the rank of the subgroup we use the result of Section 8. Let g = a^i J Sr G S) be a reduced Y-product.s^ ax^. .sj W). . the case r = 1 being of course proved in Lemma 8. Consider the product Wdi di ei CmVfn • fi can convert it into a reduced product by successively deleting inverse pairs. . X .Sj WmSY^ (where Wi. let a^ = number of x^G for which aij. Thus xWj — w\. Xi We show that = wi--• . or sr\ j = 1. X • • • .12. = number of x^ that end in s. As Xi is in the Schreier transversal X.

y G R and F/R = gp{xR} Prove that the group R/R' is freely generated as an abelian group by the elements a.6. «sj. H Solution: We %.13: Let i^ be a free group of rank r and let 1.. Then to show that is a Schreier transversal we need only belong to the same coset of F' only if r = r^.^. page 255). Suppose that R < F. be a subgroup of Index 2 such that s^ S H. ••. (i = l. H he a subgroup of index n. Z.. a^^.»•) freely generate Sj H.s. s = s^. If j ¥= 1.''2/s. for i = 2. Find a set of free generators for by using the method of Section Verify that the number of free generators agrees with the number given by Theorem 8.4d.6 (which deals only with free abelian with basis x^yx~^R' for all integers n. Solution: s integers}.13.r. Thus H is of 8. Let F be freely generated by x and y."j/x~". The free generators of F' are the elements a r s and a^r„s which are nonunit.I/ = xrysy{xrys + l)-l = 1 all Thus a integers set of free generators for F' axe the elements s ¥= Q.Sj tti. 1. G f/ . . H and K are free of the same rank. which agrees with Theorem 8. Both (1) and (2) follow easily on using the fact that FIF' is free abelian with basis xF' yF' (by Theorem 8. R/R' is {a.s- = SiSj{s^j)-i = = SiSjS~i s? if j j ¥= 1 (for then SiSj-ei/si) = • . Let F is infinite cyclic. the derived group of F. Find a set of free generators for F'. Then prove that for no integer n.. . By an nG free groups of finite rank). = lSj(is^)-i. Now if Then the nonunit elements among a^^. 1 (as sf=l) and SiSjS"'.4d with a. . Sj Let F H but 8.13.. .Sr .SiS^f '. H is a free group of rank Problems 8.x — ^^y^x{x^y^x)-^ = x''y^x{x^ + ^y^)-i — x^y^xy-^x-"^-^ ¥= 1 ior s ¥• On the other hand. "•xV. be a free group on generators x and y. .. Now Let X— {x^y^ \ r and X show that (1) a.39. Solution: The method elements ci^n_g = of Section 8.. Then — 1) + be freely generated by Sj Let s^.1.s- choose {l.^l. \ X= Now as (_xR')(xi^x-'^R'){xR')-'^ = a.S2. 8.40. is x''yx~"R' in the center of F/R'.264 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS 1 unit [CHAP." n G Z} gives for the free generators of R the argument similar to Theorem 8."+i3/a!-("+"fi' # x^yx'^R' xnyx—^R' does not belong to the center of F/R'. = ISjClSj)""' = as Sj e H implies Now i^ = 0. and we have proved Theorem 8.38. where n G Z. Prove that H^ K. Thus the subgroup rank 2(r H — 1) + 1. . x^y^xy~^x~^~^ for integers r and all 8. Thus they are isomorphic.41. "xV."j/x~"i2'. and (2) is a set of coset representatives.Si) for the Schreier transversal. 8 Thus there are exactly n — elements among n{r the ai:. is freely generated by sf. Solution: By Theorem 8. ie'ij/^i Z . Let F be a free group of rank r and H and K subgroups of index n.13. and If j = I. .

may 1.) the problem we note that we may assume that F is finitely generated..14: subgroup H of the group freely generated by a and b and only if it has a finite number of double-ended cosets.b}.s = xs{xs)~^ ¥. . say Ki. .s ¥. di^ and di diw~^ € X although di Let X G rank. Intersection of finitely generated subgroups We Hr\K if not. (line Now number Theorem as there are an infinite of double-ended cosets.15: The intersection of two subgroups H and K of finite rank is again of finite rank. then (This result is due to Howson.. page 231). H K . K). The coset Hx contains x and {xs{xs)~^)''^x = xss~^. Let H be 13. instead of F. HDK .s ¥. of course. . Thus the double-ended cosets of .. and Hi. . It follows that as the number of di di that appear is finite. Put S = {a. H X and s G S).m. A coset which is not single-ended is called The following lemma is crucial: Lemma 8. As h ends • • • • (2) it follows that x does not end in s"^ page 262) and. Now the cosets of are intersections of cosets of (Problem 7. Also and the intersection of a single-ended coset of with any coset of is single-ended (and vice versa). x cancels completely. and j = 1. Therefore HnK is of finite rank by Lemma 8. which is certainly finitely generated (as and are).) But if C contains for example the elements ababab and a6~S then C is not single-ended. double-ended. if all the elements of C end in a. C is said to be single-ended. If ax. As X does not end in s~^ Hx is double-ended.4] PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS 265 f. has only a finite number of double-ended cosets. x is an initial segment of di di (otherwise tvdi di is an initial segment of x and hence in X).s ^ 1 (where But we proved in Section 8. (We might have for instance baaa G C. Now s~' appears in the reduced product for xss~^ (line 13. i — 1.14. if every element of C when expressed as a reduced For example. Proof: has only a finite number of double-ended cosets.23. there are an infinite 8. say . Thus we concluded that all the elements of H end in the form wdf' df^ where there are only a finite number of wdf^ diG X.s(«s)~^ G H. By Lemma 8.. 8. Let F be We say that a coset C is single-ended product has the same last factor.4d that every element of H ended in the form wdr^ df' where wdf' di^ is either s{xs)~^ or s~ix~S where ax. a. A is of finite rank if Proof: (1) Choose a Schreier transversal be of finite X for H in F. For could consider gv{H. are subgroups of finite rank of a free group F. Then only a finite number of the elements ax. Km. and thus the number of double-ended cosets is finite.1. H HnK H K K .1. . . is prove here that if also a subgroup of H and K finite rank.1. HnK has at most mn double-ended cosets and accordingly . Sec. Then if Hx is double-ended.14. there exists an element h in • • • • • • • GH • • such that some wdf' diW^ € X.n are among the cosets HiCiKj. To simplify we H K However. H„. as we have seen of infinite rank. • • • • • • • • • • • • - • Let X G X. of infinite rank. page 262). in Example Therefore we freely generated by a and 6. the number of initial segments is finite. a free group of rank 2 has a subgroup as well assume that F is free of rank 2. in hx. . number of x such that ax. it df* and di follows that if x cancels completely. page 259.

We discussed and proved the subgroup theorem for free groups. N N = gp{. .f+ia.F so that u¥.. {Hint: Let i^ be the free group freely generated by X and y.51.). then G splits over N. Construct an isomorphic copy of F/N' directly as an extension of a free abelian group by an infinite cyclic group. G = \xi. Prove that the group G = \a. then N' < F.[a.a. Let G = \x. The main result was that if F Is a free group freely generated by X. the rank of a subgroup of finite index was calculated. 8. page 208. Prove that if N< G and GIN is free. .b. ••!. then G is isomorphic .47. Suppose F is freely generated by a and 6. . . •••.X2. Prove that a free group of fixed integer n. \a. Let e x ^ a. Prove that if G = \xi.) : 8. Xi. 8 A look back at Chapter 8 and gave an alternative definition.c]. page 257. So if G is free it must be free cyclic. ..b^l is not free. Using the notation of the preceding problem show that if N' is the derived group of N. 8.y.aha-^. («+ l)a:i+i = *i. additive group of rationals. .30. . i.46.72.[b. . . Also it is abelian.42. Supplementary Problems ELEMENTARY NOTIONS 8.[b.|.) 8.e.a-^ha. (Hint: Prove that G/G' is cyclic. . Prove G is the direct product of two free groups each of rank 8.v e. As a We defined free groups was X H F H H X consequence every group is a homomorphic image of a free group.d.44. Prove that if p is a prime and to the p-Prufer group.h. Show that G is infinite. . The existence of free groups established and homomorphisms of free groups investigated. .) . Using this. PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS 8. y -* ab be a homomorphism onto the group of Problem 8.x^. {Hint: Note that G has the additive group of rationals as homomorphic image.43.y^\.rS .b. Then show G' ¥= {1} by mapping G into a suitable factor group.x^x-^.d\.48.d]\.a^ha-^.49. . a-^ba .. then for every group and every mapping e oi into there is a homomorphism ^ of into which coincides on with 0. Find elements u. Verify that F/N' is a splitting extension of N/N' by an infinite cyclic group. [a.45.266 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS [CHAP.50. then G is isomorphic to the .c]. 8. 2x2 = a. Let f be a free group freely generated by a and 6.a and 8. Finally we proved that the intersection of two subgroups of finite rank in a free group is of finite rank.X2. Use Problem 6. finite rank has only a finite number of elements of length —n for any 8. Let a^^ba^. .. Prove < F and verify that F splits over N. Let G = 2. We next discussed presentations of groups. The important notion of rank of a free group then arose naturally.

Let that N and M be nonidentity NnM j^ {1}. . x^. are elements of a free group (mn ¥= 0).55.. x^y^z^.. y. {Hint: Let G = UF. of F with Let F be a free group.. = 2.R be as in Problem 8. x*y*z*. freely generate a PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM Show that if a™ = 6" where a and 6 8.58. Then G is a free group of infinite rank.) is 8. . Xi^j"']? THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS Prove that if F is free on x.) 8.) 8. (Note that F/P^ is the Klein 4-group. Find generators for F^ where F is a free group of rank two and F^ = gp(x^ a. subgroup of F.57. \ e F). Prove that F/R' has no element other than 1 in its center.59. Let F. page 264.«„.56.54. What the group \xi. Prove that there is no sequence of subgroups Fj C Fg C Fj v^ Fj+i and rank of F. Obtain a contradiction by showing that G/G' • is of finite rank.. then a and 6 generate a 8. . normal subgroups of G.CHAP. xyz. .41. Prove 8. z then the elements 8. Let F be a group which can be generated by two elements with a free subgroup of rank 3 which of index two.52. cyclic group. a free group of rank greater than 1. x^y^z^. 8] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS is 267 8.53. . (Hard. Consider G/G' which is free abelian of infinite rank. Prove F is free by comparing it with a free group of rank 2.

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5. Wiley. an integer not equal to 1 which is divisible only by 1 and itself. 269 . b). A. we use the notation a | b. i. there exist integers p and q such that (a. I. the lowest common multiple of a and 6 as l. then a and b are said to be co-prime. The reader who does not know (a) this material can consult Niven. The definition of a prime. McGraw-Hill. S. An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. The notation a )( b is 2. (a. (6) (c) Upsensky. for which read as "a does not divide b". The definitions of greatest common divisor of two numbers a and b (the largest integer which divides both a and b) and lowest common multiple of a and b (the smallest integer divisible by both a and 6).m. If (a. and M.c. and S. 1939. V. b) = 1. expressible in one 7. J.. — r < b. a ^ b modulo n means a — & is divisible by n. b) = pa + qb is 6. then there exist an integer q and an integer r such that a = bq + r where 4. Also some of the simpler properties such as a = & and x = y implies a + x = b + y and ax = by. MacLane. 3. Given integers a and b.Appendix A Number Theory In this book we assume the reader knows the following: 1.. G. b). 1966. Elementary Number Theory. The meaning of a divides b. and H. b are integers. 1953. We write the greatest common divisor of a and b as (a. Zuckerman. A Survey of Modern Algebra. Heaslet.. If a. Macmillan. The fundamental theorem of arithmetic which says every integer and only one way (ignoring order) as the product of primes.e. Birkhoff.

Thus. Chapter 3 It is clear from this chapter that groups arise in a great many mathematical disciplines. groups and quasi-groups. Chapter [1]. Finally we refer the reader to the study of groups with a topology: [41]. [15]. Useful books in algebra are [47] and [23]. which category). [46]. among the various classes of groupoids one has semigroups. crystallography [12] and chemistry omnipresence of groups is part of the reason for its importance. [16]. [20]. the study of groups has been carried forward for its own sake (see e. Recently a different approach to the foundations of mathematics has been originated is based on the notion of category [44] (see [7] for the axioms of a Chapter 2 axioms for group theory. [5] and [6]). Cantor in the last quarter of the 19th century central notion in his work is that of cardinality . [16]. [13]. [18].Appendix B A Note: Guide to the Literature on pages 272 and 273. To some extent this aspect of group theory has been discussed in the section on isometry groups (see also [10]. 1 of sets was established by G. and much of Cantor's work was devoted to developing these transfinite The theory A numbers (see [2] and [3]). In the study of sets a number of paradoxes arose ([4] and [5]). For the applications to topology see [37] and [39]. Numbers in brackets refer to the bibliography General Books which contain much of the material of this text (and frequently more) are. from 19th century algebra. [22]. for example. [42]. This made it desirable to put set theory on a firm axiomatic footing. analysis and geometry. 270 . [21]. It was hoped that much of geometry could be handled by associating a group with each geometrical object. and [14]). Such axiomatic approaches have led to a number of interesting developments ([4]. and for knot theory see [40].two sets have the same cardinality if there is a one-to-one mapping from the one onto the other. by Lawvere.g. Two major references are [8] and [9]. The study of groupoids arose in part from a desire to understand more clearly the The theory of groupoids can be subdivided into systems which satisfy various "natural" conditions. in the order of complexity. loops. This leads to the idea of a transfinite number. initially Groups arose Groups arise also in quantum physics. This In addition. [17]. [15]. [43]). [19]. [11].

) of Some work. [19]). [17] and [28] for a discussion of this classification problem. e. prompted by algebraic group homomorphisms [26]. matrices. i.) The reader might consult [33]. Such procedures exist.e. e. This is due to the extraordinary complexity of these groups. once the group theoretic ones are known. One can define homomorphisms for other is basic. solvable and nilpotent groups Some ([17]. if every element is of bounded order [81]. a finite group of odd order is solvable [45]. The classification of Today the study of finite groups has proceeded at an extraordinary pace. a count appears in [32].g. there is not really any further informaIf tion available except perhaps for finding the automorphism group of a cyclic group. Thompson.g. embodying various generalizations of the Sylow theorems A very important result of a slightly different kind is the remarkable (see [27]. e. such as rings.g. The inIn this chapter we found invariants for finitely generated abelian groups. Our proof we do There are also other criteria for deciding if an abelian group is a direct sum of cyclic groups. with multiplication modulo n. There are other types of representation. it deals with the order of a group.APPENDIX Chapter 4 B] A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE 271 Chapter 4 is concerned mainly with cyclic groups and homomorphisms. [34]. The most important of these is the representation of finite groups as natural generalization of the 2x2 matrices we have matrices constitute a (These discussed in Chapter 3. not have a definite procedure for finding a basis. The reader might consult [21]. [17]). Feit and J. (Indeed. nxw nxn . As we have dealt exhaustively with cyclic groups. One of the main aims of this study is the classification of finite simple groups. e. A more comprehensive result is that of Kulikov [16]. then the automorphism group of G is the group of integers co-prime to n. [43].g. This classification is by no means complete. but much progress has been made (see [29]). There has also been an attempt to prove theorems about classes of groups that are quite close to abelian groups. [32]). [24]. see e. Chapter 6 of the fundamental theorem of abelian groups is nonconstructive. [25]. i. [30]. viz. has been done on more complex interaction Chapter 5 of this chapter is "arithmetical" in content. Factor rings can be defined and very similar theorems algebraic concepts. obtained [23].e.g. more encyclopedic ac- Chapter 7 The aim of this chapter is to show how representing groups as permutation groups leads to information about the groups themselves. G is cyclic of order n. Much groups of small order has not been too successful. it is routine The concept of homomorphism to obtain the others. Thus for example we have the theorem of Lagrange: The order of a subfinite group of a finite group divides the order of the group. theorem of W. topology. There are a great number of important theorems of this kind. of the theorems of abelian groups extend to wider classes of algebraic structures. Excellent sources for abelian groups appear in [16] and [31]. variants for countable torsion groups are subtler and appear in Ulm's theorem ([31]. modules over rings ([31]).

[4] Kleene. Dover. Introduction to Metamathematics. C. Chapter 8 Our proof of the existence of free groups a glance at the usual proof will reveal [16].e. R. Indeed. 1950. S. Indeed. and R. There are even further generalizations and we can speak of the free group in a variety. Abelian Categories.. Van Nostrand. important one is by Nielsen transformations ([16]. and G. the property of being able to extend a mapping of the free generators to a homomorphism of the free group. . to determine in a finite number of steps if two products in the generators of a given presentation are equal. where a variety is a collection of groups satisfying certain conditions. 1960. Springer. [8] Bruck. Van Nostrand. An from one presentation to another is There are many proofs of the subgroup theorem. roughly speaking.272 A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE [APPENDIX B In infinite group theory the permutational representation of Frobenius has led to significant progress (§2 of Chapter 2. 1960. there is not even a general and effective procedure for deciding whether the group of any given presentation is of order 1. 7. One can The Groups occur frequently as presentations. to say An important concept which enables us to change that of Tietze transformations [36]. A good source of in- See also [17]. [2] [3] Cantor. Theory of Sets (translated from the 2nd German edition by F. Halmos. 1915. [6] [7] Suppes. An Introduction to the Theory of Functors. including topological ones (e. "Non-Cantorian Set Theory". A also regard a free group as being the free product of infinite cyclic groups.. R. Freyd. as The property of Theorem 8. B. Axiomatic Set Theory. etc. [17]. Scientific [5] Cohen. is of great importance. P. C. Numbers (translated by Kamke. detailed account appears in [35]. Harper and Row. P. All this is connected with the word problem. H. 1964. G. free product of two groups is a way of putting the groups together in. The transfer has been used a great formation is [27]. J.. P. i. Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Open Court. free products and presentations of groups appear in for presentations. With this approach. deal in finite group theory. December 1967. A. Naive Set Theory. Hersh. Mathematical Surveys American Mathematical Society. B. A Survey of Binary Systems. [37]). E. which is. 1961. [36]). Bagemihl). the freest way ([16]. "The Algebraic Theory of Semigroups". E.. More properties [36]. American. Jourdain). P. it is often used as the definition of a free group. is really motivated by Cayley's theorem.. [17]). The word problem is unsolvable in general (see [15]). H. of [35]). See also [38] of free groups...4. the definition of free group is analogous to the definition of free abelian group (Chapter 6). This is unfortunate as it is always difficult what the group of a presentation is or what its properties are. 1958..g. [9] Clifford. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] P. Van Nostrand. roughly speaking. 1952. One of the advantages of the method we used in Chapter 8 is that it extends readily to provide generators and defining relations for subgroups of a group of a presentation [36]. Preston.

W. H. An Introduction. An Introduction to Homological Algebra. Reiner. 1965. Holden Day. Hall. Springer-Verlag. 1967. Jr. M. Crowell. 193-240. G. H. Burrow. I. Springer-Verlag. M. U. P. The Theory of Groups.. M.... Chelsea. Davis and M. [27] Wielandt. B. R. vol. S. G. W. Macmillan. 1954. Van Nostrand. Hall. Rotman. Zassenhaus. G. 1957. 773-1029. O. Thompson. 1967. Cambridge U.. [45] and J. Addison-Wesley. [12] [13] Hammermesh. Introduction M. Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras. 1966. London Mathematical (translated by [30] Schreier. "Arithmetical and Normal Structure of Finite Groups.. S. of Michigan Press. [28] [29] and J. Oliver and Boyd.. The Groups of Order 2" {n ^ 6). Geometry and the Imagination. Harper and Row. The Theory of Groups. M. Hilbert.. L. Interscience. 1965. Pontriagin. 1962. Seniour. H.. P. Nemenyi. Macmillan. L. Geometry and Group Theory. and I. American Mathematical Society. Fox. 1962. 1959. E. Cohn. H. A. I... and R. Group Theory and its Application to Physical Problems. Topological Groups. Group Theory. Coxeter. 1949. W.. pp. Prentice-Hall. B. La Jolla. D. H.. R. Endliche Gruppen.. 1966. W. K. 1964. Carter. 1964. 1955. Introduction Birkhoff. Interscience. MacLane. (translated by F. Solitar. Blum). Jr. 1965.. Universal Algebra. Northcott. Sperner. Symmetry. Wielandt. A. The Theory of Groups. 3. P. Magnus. Varieties of Groups. A Survey of Modern Algebra. 1964. Chelsea. 1957.. pp. Abelian Groups. Pacific Journal of Mathematics. Macmillan. 1959. P. J. M. Academic Press. to the Theory of Finite Groups. Scott.. Lie Groups. 1960. W. Ginn. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Symmetry. W. Kurosh. J.. Chelsea. J. Ungar. 1968. Editor. and S. Brace. A.. . H. D. 1966. H. Huppert. Huppert. and E.. Presentations of Groups in [37] [38] Algebraic Topology. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] Wallace. W.. and W. Topics in Algebra. Finite Permutation Groups. Herstein. "Solvability of groups of odd order".. L. 1962.... Karass and D. P. Dover. Springer. Pergamon. Theory of Groups of Finite Order. 1963. 1953.. Fuchs. Feit. The Theory of Groups: An Introduction.. Allyn and Bacon. O.. H.. Jr. no.. translated by P. F. [46] [47] Lederman. 19G3. Chelsea. H. Blaisdell. 1956. Hall. "The Category of Categories as a Foundation for Mathematics". Springer-Verlag. Harcourt. C. [23] [24] [25] [26] Van der Waerden. Cohen. Modem Algebra. M.. [44] Lawvere.. A. "Simple Groups and Simple Lie Algebras". 1963. Combinatorial Group Theory: Terms of Generators and Relations. to Modern Algebra and Matrix Theory. Hirsch). Cohn-Vossen. April 1965. and B. 1958. 1960. Haussner)... 1952. [31] [32] [33] [34] Kaplansky. Interscience. Gordon and Breach.. Proceedings of the Conference on Categorical Algebra... Moser. An Introduction to Algebraic Topology. 1957. Infinite Groups. Representation Theory Curtiss. Journal of the Society. F. S. B. Group Theory. 1967. 3. Introduction to Knot Theory.. Akademiai Kiado. M." 1960 Institute on Finite Groups.... and S. Academic Press. Cotton. W. 1965. Chemical Applications of Yale. Massey.APPENDIX [10] [11] B] A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE 273 Weyl. W. of Finite Groups. 1953. Burnside.. Generators and Relators for Discrete Groups. [35] [36] Neumann. Cambridge U. Princeton University Press. 1965.. 1964. [19] [20] [21] [22] Schenkman. (translated by K. 1965. A.

free abelian groups. 112 Commute: a and h commute Complement. 191. 197. 14 Cycles. Codomain. 182 Fields of complex numbers. 250 Factor groups. 205. 12. 171 Conjugate. 164 if ah = ha. 232-234 splitting. 196 free. 190 rank of. 178 Alternating group. 218 Family of indexed sets. 19. 245 = mapping p„. 186 of type p" = p-Priifer group. 227 Finitely presented. 87 of group = of groupoid. 17 series. 103 R-. 86 Finitely generated abelian groups. 146 Direct summand. 194 Circle. 83 Basis of free abelian group. 9 Element. Degree of permutational representation. p-. Table 5.2. 112 Centralizer of a subset. 19 Block. i.e. finite. 177-212 divisible. 26 Dihedral group. 205. 167 Cyclic group. subgroups. 46. of maps. 185 free groups. 2 Class. 191 Composition Composition Composition Congruence. 152 Dimension of vector space. 193 Abelian groupoid. 14 Carrier. 14 Countably infinite. 178 infinite. 135 equivalence. 163 269 Conjugacy classes. 209 finitely generated. R-. 197 Bijection. 234-238 Extension of mapping to homomorphism.9 Closed with respect to multiplication. 186 Basis theorem = fundamental theorem for finitely generated abelian groups. 265 representation. H-. 172 Correspondence theorem. product of elements in the set belong to the set. 219 representative. 214 Center. 1 order of. 234 Component. 131 Conjugates. 87 inner. 253 Finite presentation. 85 of field. 112 Commutator subgroup. 3 Commutative groupoid. 148 Common part. factors. 202 factor groups of. 185. 192 Derived subgroup. 84. 29 Commutator. 219 Countable. 13 Epimorphism. 75 infinite. 143 internal. 8 Extension of groups. 250 Extension property. 143 external. 89 Direct product. 158. 204 Finitely generated group. 6 Cayley's theorem. 134 274 . 182 Divisible group. group. 42 Equivalence relation. 257 of degree 4. 142 Automorphism. 29 Additive notation. 178 Direct sums. 98. 112 Chain. 206 primary = p-group. 14 Binary operation. 217 Dependent. 112 Difference of sets.INDEX Abelian group. 209 Cartesian product. 158 Faithful representation. 101 Ascending central series Associative groupoid. 4 Different products. equation. 253 Four group. 121 Factors of a subnormal series. 9 Cardinality. 144. 29 = upper central series. 120 Coset. 108 double-ended. 62 simplicity. 114 Factor of a factor theorem (third isomorphism theorem). 197 subgroups of.

30 Iff of a group. 147 = Mobius 2p. 158. 191 quaternion. 77 Linear group. 149 8. 121 Jordan-Holder theorem. 50 derived. 98. 3 Intersection. 182 Indexing set. 188 Mobius transformations. 64 of plane. 246 isometry. 234. 22 torsion. 260 subgroups of finite index. free set of. abelian. natural. 164 Kernel. 246 Frobenius' representation. 246 intersections of finitely generated subgroups. = p-group. 83 commutative. 64. 29 associative. 245 isomorphism Identity. 28 finite. independent. 62 automorphism. 246 Free set of generators. 188 Groupoid. of line. 144. 264 Free on a set. first. 148 commutative. 156 Isomorphism theorems. 112 cyclic. 94 of a groupoid. 197. 246 Inversion. 224 Full linear group. 188 torsion-free. 90 matrices. Lagrange's theorem. 117 Klein four group.) Groups of small order. 32 free. 112 extension. 29 identity. 29 commutator. 261 Inner automorphism (see Automorphism. 90 Fundamental theorem of arithmetic. 12. 164 167 element in free group.150 Mal'cev's theorem. 90 cycle. 131 (cont. 81 mixed. 30 infinite. 186. 148-156 Hamiltonian group = quaternion group. 94 of groupoid. 110 Index 2. 60 Isometries. 148 p2. of normal subgroups. 269 Length of. 29 equality of. 29 order. 200 = 227 Inverse. of subgroups. 151 simple. 265 275 Groups of order 12. 142 Homomorphism. 42 number of groups of given order. 151 Higher central series = upper central series. 117 Identical products. 26 abelian. 230 . 152-156 15. 116 Indexed family. 182 Initial segments. 55 Invariant subgroup = normal subgroup. 29 table of. primary. of a groupoid. 238 finitely generated.) Intersection. 3 Least common multiple = lowest common multiple. 163 symmetric. 13 Independence. composition series. 114 definition of. 77 nilpotent. 255 subgroups. 109 Largest set. 142 Inverse pairs.INDEX Free abelian group. of group. 40 (first Homomorphism theorem theorem). 177-212 alternating. 190 Priifer groups. 192 Index of a subgroup. 29 117 second. of a group. 246 Freely generated. 246 Greatest common divisor. 197 Galois group. 193 Free group. 56 table. 186 rank of. 125 subgroup. 50 = if and only if Group. 248 rank of. 248 Linear fractional transformation transformation. 67 Isomorphism. 115 length of an element. 22 Groups of order P. 125 third. 225 Frobenius' theorem. 67 linear. 101 Image. 159 Generators. 269 Fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups. 111 Invariants of finitely generated abelian group type of abelian group. 269 Homomorphism.

225 permutational. 246 Split. 114 restriction of. 193 free group. 19 Rotation. 29 Series. 3 Solvable. 68. 81 Matrices. 188 193 Range. 158 word problem. 142 p". 68. 191 . Map Product. 143 reduced. 106 Priifer group. 253 Normal subgroup. composition. 219 Representatives of the equivalence classes. 245 Products. 193 iE-block. 191 Quaternions = Hamiltonian groups. 190 p-Priifer group. 12. 50 of a groupoid. 81 set. 172 Smallest set. 13 identical. 56 Permutational representation. equality. 158 = upper central series. 139. 60 subnormal. 13 different. 111 = Primary component = p-component. 190 p-primary group = p-group. 112 generated by a invariant. 112 conjugate. 54 derived. binary. 125 normal. 42 Multiplication in a set. 242 Semigroup. 131 definition. 6 direct. 219 degree of. 142 Normal closure. 14 onto. 216 degree of. free abelian group. 217 Frobenius. bijection. cartesian. 69 Schreier's subgroup theorem. 60 One-to-one mapping. 69 Natural homomorphism. 161 by radicals. 9 Mobius transformations. 109 Proper subgroup. 216 right-regular. 98 normal subgroup. commutator. 191 Periodic = torsion group. 158 solvable. 29 of an element. 253 of a group. 158. 253 finite. 115 Negative. 158. 163. 159 series. 253 Simple group. 238 Steinitz exchange theorem. 13 composition. 260 Order of a group. 191 y-component. group of type = Priifer group. 14 Matching. 56 even. 191 main theorem. 188 Permutation. 134 Right-regular representation. 14 one-to-one. 1 Onto mapping. 17 definition. 255 torsion-free abelian group. 9 Representation.4 276 INDEX or mapping. 111 Reflexive property. coset. 1 group odd. 12. 217 p-group. 111 isomorphism theorem (second isomorphism theorem). 2 Partition. 9 ascending central. 178 Nielsen-Schreier theorem. 192 Subgroup. 77 Monomorphism. 22 Reduced product. 14 codomain. 14 of subsets of a group. 13 domain. 11. 12. Maximal independent Maximal set. 120 Presentation. 151 Quotient group = factor group. 216 Normal subgroup generated by a Normalizer. 112. 133 set. 206 Preimage. set. 253 finitely presented. 2 Multiplication table. 253 group of a. 158 Set. 245 Reflection. 12 Rank. 103 Schreier transversal. 14 Operation. 60 = symmetric group. 260 Nilpotent group. 253 Odd permutation. 9 i2-class. 234 Splitting extension. 245 245 matching. 243 Mixed group. group. Ordered pair. 14 Matrices. 261 Schur's theorem. 216 Representative of a coset. 194 Metacyclic. groups of. 234.

142 Vector space of dimension n. 69 Transposition. 194 . 158 subgroup generated by. 178 Zorn's lemma. 240 Transitive property. 126 theorem for free groups. 260 torsion. Sum. 130 second and third. 9 Translation.) 277 Symmetry groups of an algebraic structure.INDEX Subgroup (cont. 158 factors of. multiplication. first. 9 Symmetry groups. infinite. 2 series. 172 Symmetric property. 261 Type of a finitely generated abelian group. 68. 167 Transversal. 130 theorem for cyclic groups. 172 Torsion group. 105. 178 182 Table. direct. definition. 109 178 finite. 98 product of. 56 of degree 4. 130 Sylow's theorems. 131 Symmetric group. 30 central series. 22 Three-cycle. 3 Unit element Upper = identity element. 59 of degree 5 or more. 200 Sum of vectors. 188 subgroup. 116 proper. 73 Union. 83 of index 2. 246 Zero element. 89 Vector sum. 189 Torsion-free group. 188 Transfer. 106 Sylow. 219 Sehreier. 89 Word problem. 89 Sylow subgroup. 189 Subnormal Subset.

g Automorphism group of G. 64 Symmetry group of S. 61 C C* C(A) C„ Complex numbers. «»fc. 56 Torsion subgroup of G. 56 Symmetry group on X.m. 73 Group of isometries of R that move Klein four group. 133 P Q Q* Positive integers. 1 Nonzero complex numbers.2. 232 Integers. 89 233 '^x^. 51 Centralizer of A. 112 Cyclic group of order n. 76 D„ gp(X) h^ / Subgroup generated by X. 36 Nonnegative integers. (a. 117 L^(y. 66 K^ Ker e Lc. 1 Z Z(G) Center of G.2A A„ Alternating group of degree n. 112 1 N N(A) Nii{A) Normalizer of Rationals.. 131 Symmetric group of degree n. 135 i2-class Sp iS„ Number Sx T(G) W x^ Coset representative.x^. 189 Elements of S and their inverses. 269 Full linear group of dimension n. 148 integers to integers. 1 R R^ R^ 5^ •Jl* Nonnegative real numbers. M ^M Mx Group of Mobius transformations. 9 of distinct Sylow p-subgroups. 98 Conjugation by a. g. Normalizer of A. 2 Set of representatives of the equivalence classes. 148 Dihedral group of degree n. 20 Real numbers.fc' Lowest common multiple of a and h. 112 278 . 67 I(R) Is (/ : Z) Group of isometries of R. 81 Semigroup of mappings of X to X. F) m. 134 Representatives whose intersection with the center iJ-equivalence class. 48 Euclidean plane. 84 xg(xg)-^.Symbols and Notations Symbols aut (G) o-x. 78 Group of 2 X 2 matrices over complex numbers.^. 1 Nonzero rationals. 262 is the empty set. 233 Isometries of plane. 1 A in H. 6) Kernel of 9.

42 Set defined by a property. 219 p Pe Mapping that sends x to xg. 8 9.SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 279 Greek Symbols Mapping that sends x e -> xg. 6 Cartesian product of HXK Sm times. b. 110 H is normal in G. 219 T i-a. 191 «|S' Restriction of a to S'. a(8) into T. 2 of G. 2. 2. also Greatest common amon divisor. 114 X («1. 68 n Notations Is in. 69 Natural homomorphism. 3 A~ Difference of sets. 11 n = • . belongs to. also over R. xR R-c\ass of X. 253 Presentation. S". 26 (a. 77 Reflection. 112 Is a proper subset. b. 111 c c u n Is a subset. 100 > Open interval.y\ Commutator of x and Commutator subgroup y. 11. XY [G:H] Product of two subsets of a group. 56 Rotation through angle 68 a{a. 34 Congruent. 240 Translation. 114 Equivalence relation by conjugation. 225 Identity mapping. 1 . 37 } Set. 178 Mapping from S 8a. 178 Image of s a. 112 Union. 134 X S" Cartesian product. 4 Equivalence class containing A. 167 Direct sum of H and K. a to the power m. 1 Is not in.b Transfer.b) Identity of a groupoid. 114 IT "m Mapping that sends g Set of all primes. 146 l X/R Set of /2-classes. 14 Gp p-component of G. c. G. 182. 3 GIN G over N. under 12 12 Gi Infinite direct sum. 269 H< G G' Index of H in G. 14 a° P S°t' 8-t Composition of mappings. 17. 2 2 Gj Finite direct sum. 146 xRy X is related to y hy R. 2 \«. 190 -> fg. • «m) Cycle of length m. Sa \s\ Range of see also 179 Number of elements of S. 190 Priifer group.R) Transversal element in same coset as g. 200 S (X. 19 Type of a group. divisor of 269 Inverse of the element g. 109 Ordered pair. 2 Hg Right coset. 1 { { < I Notation for a mapping. 3 Intersection. 19 \X:R\ t J Group of a presentation. 36. Direct product. 6 n i External direct product. does not belong to. 253 8+t St Image under a binary composition. 12 a. 219 Presentation. d) Mobius transformation. 108 Closed interval. 269 . also Commutator. 31 Greatest a and common b. 1 = a"* Isomorphic. Frobenius representation. b]) Groupoid 1 G with binary operation n. [a. 214 ». 134 Empty set. 143 Internal direct product. also Image under a binary composition. 112 ( . 254 8X (a.

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