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Shaum´s Group Theory)

Shaum´s Group Theory)

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Sections

  • Preview of Chapter 1
  • 1.1 SETS
  • 1.2 CARTESIAN PRODUCTS
  • 1.3 MAPPINGS
  • 1.4 COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS
  • 1.5 BINARY OPERATIONS
  • A look back at Chapter 1
  • Preview of Chapter 2
  • 2.1 GROUPOIDS
  • 2.2 COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS
  • 2^ IDENTITIES AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS
  • 2.4 SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT
  • 2.5 HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM
  • A look back at Chapter 2
  • Preview of Chapter 3
  • 3.1 GROUPS
  • 3.2 SUBGROUPS
  • 3.3 THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS
  • 3.4 GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES
  • 3.5 THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS
  • 3.6 SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE
  • A look back at Chapter 3
  • Preview of Chapter 4
  • 4.1 FUNDAMENTALS
  • 4^ CYCLIC GROUPS
  • 4JS COSETS
  • 4.4 HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS
  • A look back at Chapter 4
  • Preview of Chapter 5
  • 5.1 THE SYLOW THEOREMS
  • 5.2 THEORY OF p-GROUPS
  • 5.3 DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER
  • 5.4 SOLVABLE GROUPS
  • Sec. 5.5] COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS 163
  • 5.5 COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
  • A look back at Chapter 5
  • Preview of Chapter 6
  • 6.1 PRELIMINARIES
  • 6.3 FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS
  • 6.4 DIVISIBLE GROUPS
  • A look back at Chapter 6
  • Preview of Chapter 7
  • 7.1 CAYLEY'S THEOREM
  • 7.2 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS
  • 7.3 DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS
  • 7.4 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS
  • 7.5 FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM
  • 7.6 APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS
  • 7.7 EXTENSIONS
  • 7.8 THE TRANSFER
  • A look back at Chapter 7
  • Preview of Chapter 8
  • 8.1 ELEMENTARY NOTIONS
  • 8.2 PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS
  • Sec. 8.3] THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE 259
  • 8.3 THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE
  • 8.4 PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS
  • A look back at Chapter 8
  • INDEX
  • Symbols and Notations

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iHAUM'S
OUTLINE
SERIES

THEORY and PROBLEMS
of

GROUP
THEORY
by
B.

BAUMSLAG and

B.

CHANDLER

including

600
problems
Complefely Solved
in

Detail

SCHAUM'S OUTLINE

SERIES

McGRAW-HlLL BOOK COMPANY

1 .'^

SCHAVM'S OVTLIISE OF

THEORY

AIVD
OF

PROBLEMS

GROrP THEORY

BY

BENJAMIN BAUMSLAG, Ph.D. BRUCE CHANDLER, Ph.D.
Department of Mathematics

New York

University

SCHAVM'S OUTLIBTE SERIES
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY
New
York,
St. Louis,

San Francisco, Toronto, Sydney

Copyright © 1968 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
prior written permission of the publisher.

04124

34567890 MHUN

8 2

10

6 9

Typography by Signs and Symbols,

Inc.,

New

York, N. Y.

Preface
The study of groups arose early in the nineteenth century in connection with the solution of equations. Originally a group was a set of permutations with the property that the combination of any two permutations again belongs to the set. Subsequently this definition was generalized to the concept of an abstract group, which was defined to be a set, not necessarily of permutations, together with a method of combining its elements that is subject to a few simple laws.
The theory of abstract groups plays an important part in present day mathematics and science. Groups arise in a bewildering number of apparently unconnected subjects. Thus they appear in crystallography and quantum mechanics, in geometry and topology, in analysis and algebra, in physics, chemistry and even in biology.

One of the most important intuitive ideas in mathematics and science is symmetry. Groups can describe symmetry; indeed many of the groups that arose in mathematics and science were encountered in the study of symmetry. This explains to some extent why groups arise so frequently.
in connection with other disciplines, the study of groups is in Currently there is vigorous research in the subject, and it attracts the energies and imagination of a great many mathematicians.
itself exciting.

Although groups arose

designed for a first course in group theory. It is mainly intended for year graduate students. It is complete in itself and can be used for self-study or as a text for a formal course. Moreover, it could with advantage be used as a supplement to courses in group theory and modern algebra. Little prior knowledge is assumed. The reader should know the beginnings of elementary numbet theory, a summary of which appears in Appendix A. An acquaintance with complex numbers is needed for some problems. In short, a knowledge of high school mathematics should be a sufficient prerequisite, and highly motivated and bright high school students will be able to understand much of this book.
is

This book

college

and

first

The aim of this book is to make the study of group theory easier. Each chapter begins with a preview and ends with a summary, so that the reader may see the ideas as a whole. Each main idea appears in a section of its own, is motivated, is explained in great detail, and is made concrete by solved problems.
Chapter 1 presents the rudiments of set theory and the concept of binary operation, which are fundamental to the whole subject. Chapter 2, on groupoids, further explores the concept of binary operation. In most courses on group theory the concept of groupoid is usually treated briefly if at all. We have chosen to treat it more fully for the following reasons: (a) A thorough understanding of binary compositions is thereby obtained, (b) The important ideas of homomorphism, isomorphism and Cayley's theorem occur both in the chapter on groupoids and in the chapters on groups, and the repetition ensures familiarity.
Chapter 3 shows that the concept of group is natural by producing a large number of examples of groups that arise in different fields. Here are discussed groups of real and complex numbers, the symmetric groups, symmetry groups, dihedral groups, the group of Mobius transformations, automorphism groups of groupoids and fields, groups of matrices, and the full linear group. Chapter 4 is concerned with the homomorphism theorems and cyclic groups. The concept of homomorphism is fundamental, and thus the theorems of this chapter are indispensable for further study.

finite groups. The Sylow theorems are proved, the concept of external introduced, and groups up to order 15 are classified. The chapter concludes with the Jordan-Holder theorem and a proof that most alternating groups are simple.

Chapter 5

is

on

direct product

is

finitely

Chapter 6 is on abelian groups. Two important classes of abelian groups are treated: generated and divisible groups. Undergraduates will probably find their needs are met by the material through Section 6.3. Graduate students will certainly want to
continue.

Chapter 7 is on permutational representations and extensions. Chapter 8 is on free groups and presentations. Those who would like to study the theory of groups more deeply will find a guide to the literature at the end of the book.
Chapters 1-4 must be read in order, although, if desired, only the first three sections of Chapter 3 need be read at first (the other sections of Chapter 3 may be studied when they are needed). The order of reading Chapters 5-8 can be varied, although part of Chapter 7 is required for the last sections of Chapter 8.

The reader need not work all the solved problems; he should decide for himself how much practice he needs. Some of the problems are designed to clarify the immediately preceding text, and the reader will find that the solutions may overcome some of his
advisable to attempt the problems before reading their solutions. The numerous supplementary problems, some of which are very difficult, serve as a review of the material of each chapter.
obstacles.

On

the whole, however,

it is

thank Prof. Gilbert Baumslag for giving us access to several chapters of unpublished notes and for many useful suggestions. We thank Sister Weiss for reading two chapters of an early draft, Harold Brown for much helpful advice, Henry Hayden for typographical arrangement and art work, and Louise Baggot for the typing. Finally we express our appreciation to Daniel Schaum and Nicola Monti for their unfailing editorial

We

cooperation.

B.
B.

Baumslag Chandler

June 1968

Fields of complex numbers. Two points determine an isometry.5 COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS BINARY OPERATIONS a. 1. Linear transformations. d. 11 b.1 26 26 b.5 THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS a. Isometries are products of reflections. Properties of and semigroups. Equivalence relations. translations and rotations. b. a. Types of 17 mappings.2 CARTESIAN PRODUCTS a. 3.4 1. 54 56 c. d. and isoepimorphisms. nating groups. c.6 SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE a. monomorphism. Equality of groupoids. Mx 47 A Chapter look back at Chapter 2 B GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Preview of Chapter 3 3.1 50 GROUPS Definition. Symmetry groups. b. The alter- 3.2 2. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS 1 Preview of Chapter 1. c. The order in a product. Notation for a mapping. The semigroup of mappings d. b. b. 64 3. The dihedral groups. 2 X 2 matrices. c. 77 Defining the group. Automorphisms of groupoids. Union and intersection. c. d. 40 homomorphism. e. The division notation. Vector spaces. 30 Inverses in a groupoid.3 IDENTITIES a. Uniqueness of inverses. b. 6 c. Definition.5 HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM a. AutomorThe full linear e. A look back at Chapter 3 91 . The multiplication 1 A Chapter look back at Chapter 24 2 GROUPOIDS Preview of Chapter 2 2. Even and odd permutations.CONTENTS Page Chapter 1 SETS.4 SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT a. 29 2. 2. 83 3. 1. Epimorphism.1 1 1 SETS a. f. The order of A„. d. c. e. b. 1. b. Definition. phisms of group.3 SUBGROUPS THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS The symmetric group on X. Isometries of the plane. Definition of a groupoid. Partitions and equivalence relations. b. 50 Examples of groups of numbers. d.2 3. Definition of a b. Basic notions.4 GROUPS OP ISOMETRIES Isometrics of the line. Definition of mapping. GROUPOIDS a. Formal definition of mapping. b. fields. 33 of a set into itself.3 MAPPINGS a. a. morphism. Naming and isomorphisms. 19 table. COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS The identity of a groupoid. 2.

4. AND STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS Tentative classifications: torsion. Fundamentals of cyclic groups. Statements of the Sylow theorems. Proofs of the Sylow theorems. Exponents. Decomposition theorem for 211 A look back at Chapter 6 .3 COSETS Introduction to the idea of coset. subgroup. 163 A Chapter look back at Chapter 5 174 S ABELIAN GROUPS Preview of Chapter 6 6. Groups of small order: orders 12 15. normalizers. Homomorphisms of cyclic groups.5 COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS The Jordan-Holder theorem. a. c. a. c. Cosets form a partition. d. 5. of abelian groups. a. Correspondence theorem. and even and odd permutations. c. 143 5. b. 158 b. The center of a p-group.2 THEORY OF p-GROUPS a. p-Prufer Divisible subgroups. a. solvable groups. Direct products of groups. divisible groups.1 130 130 THE SYLOW THEOREMS a.3 a. The type of a finitely generated abelian group. e. b. 5. 6.1 Page 94 94 FUNDAMENTALS a. 178 The 6. The subgroup isomorphism theorem. c. b. Fundamental theorem d. groups of finitely generated abelian groups. and 5. c. The importance of p-groups The upper central series. d. Preliminary remarks. Factor groups. More about subgroups. b. 188 The torsion Independence 196 6. a. n — 5. Groups of small order: orders p and 2p. b. Transpositions. homomorphic property of direct sums and free abelian groups.1 177 PRELIMINARIES Additive notation and finite direct sums. Definition of solvable groups. Groups of small order: orders 8 and 9. and rank. d. 117 Homomorphisms and A Chapter look back at Chapter 4 127 5 FINITE GROUPS 5 Preview of Chapter 5. b.4 SOLVABLE GROUPS a.2 CYCLIC GROUPS a. Commutator subgroups. d. Proof of Jordan-Holder theorem. 107 4. Priifer groups.3 DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER a. Normal subgroups. c. FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS Lemmas for finitely generated free abelian groups. groups. 139 in finite groups. b. b. Structure of torsion groups. c. Infinite direct sums. c. Lagrange's theorem. torsion-free.4 HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS factor groups: The homomorphism theorem. Two lemmas used in the proof of the Sylow theorems. c. b. b. Factor of a factor theorem. centralizers.CONTENTS Chapter 4 (SOMORPHISM THEOREMS Preview of Chapter 4 4.4 Sub205 DIVISIBLE GROUPS a. 101 4. and alternative definition for. b. and mixed. e. d. The simplicity of A„. Cycles and products of cycles.2 SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF ABELIAN GROUPS. Subgroups of cyclic groups. c. b. Properties of.

Frobenius' theorem. 7. c. The splitting extension.4 7. Proof that t d.. Another proof of Cayley's theorem. 232 b. Definition. d. 7. f. b. Homomorphisms of free groups. Existence of free groups. b. a.6 APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS a. Cayley's theorem and examples of groups.4 THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS Plan of the proof. b. c.4. Subg-roups of finite index.2 PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS a. 240 t is THE TRANSFER a. b. General extension. 227 7. Proof that of the choice of transversal. is independent A Chapter look back at Chapter 7 243 8 FREE 8. Definition of a free group.CONTENTS Chapter 7 PERMUTATION AL REPRESENTATIONS Preview of Chapter 7. 259 260 A Appendix look back at Chapter 8 266 A B NUMBER THEORY . Subgroups of finite index.. a. 7. c. 245 8. An analysis of splitting extensions. 7 CAYLEY'S THEOREM a. Intersection of finitely generated subgroups. b. 269 Appendix A GUIDE TO THE Lil LITERATURE INDEX 270 274 SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 278 . c. The proof of the subgroup theorem.1 GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS 245 Preview of Chapter 8 ELEMENTARY NOTIONS a.2 7. Marshall Hall's theorem. The kernel of a coset representation. 7. Length of an element. h.3 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS. b. d. Remarks about the proof of Theorem One consequence of Theorem 7. 8. Schreier transversals.3 8. A look at the elements a^^. 216 217 Degree of a representation. a homomorphism. 218 222 7.5 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM a.7 EXTENSIONS a.5.8 Direct product. Alternative description of a free group. Definitions.1 Page 214 214 b. A theorem of Schur. c. e. d. Faithful representations. 253 Illustrations of presentations. d.

.

1.. or the set of all those elements X such that a. The main object of this chapter is to define precisely the notion of a binary operation. an element of S" or "s belongs to S". It s is not an element of S.. SETS Basic notions is Set the set. 1. u. to (T here is the property of illustrate: {a.. the set of real numbers. Addition essentially involves two numbers. —1 € P. In dealing with sets it is advantageous to abbreviate the phrase "the set whose elements are" by using braces. In particular. a. G.. is a real number. The elements s By G S we mean . B. We shall the set of positive integers the set of the set the set the set all 1. is a real number. 2. being a real number. 3. 0. 1.2} for the set whose elements are 1 and 2 and similarly we write {—1. Thus we write {x x has the property T} for the set of all those elements X which have the property 'P. a. Welding them together gives rise to an explicit definition of a binary operation. the objects being the numbers. 2 GP. 1. for example. Another important idea is that of equivalence relation. We introduce the important ideas of cartesian product and mapping. For example. The objects in a set are termed the elements of denote sets by capital Latin letters. T. } for the set whose elements are —1. . The reader will also pick up much useful notation.. 2. . For example. A set is a collection of objects. while the addition of three more numbers is repeated addition of two numbers. . for example. A variation of this notation is useful to describe a set in terms of a property which singles out its elements. for the addition of a single number or is meaningless.) Notice that we read {a. . t. is a real number} as the set of all those elements x which have the property that a. N (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) by Z of rational numbers by Q of real numbers by R of complex numbers by C.. Thus. is a real number} is R. of a set will usually be denoted "s is by small Latin letters such as s.. Preview of Chapter 1 Mappings and Binary Operations 1 This chapter begins with a few remarks about sets. the real numbers form a set.chapter Sets.1 a. The concept of binary operation is required to define the concept of group. by P by (ii) the set of nonnegative integers integers 0. The real numbers have an operation called addition. denote (i) synonymous with Usually we collection. we write {1. which is a generalization of the idea of equality. 2. \ | | . Here "iP stands for some "understandable" property. 0. etc. Because addition involves two numbers it is called a binary operation. 2. we write s ^ S and read this as "s is not an element of S" or "s does not belong to S" or "s is not in S"..

1) the point A. and 2 G an element in S.b] = {x\ x &R and a — x — h). Rather it can be interpreted as the set of coordinates of the Euclidean plane.y) and {xi. and write S=T.2 SETS.3} = (2. (a.We write R'^ = {p\ p = {x. In coordinate geometry (0.2}. 4} QcR RoC {2}. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. We can use the notion of subset to give a criterion for the equality of 1.y) with x. {a. In (0. where the distance between {x.yi) is defined by \/{x — xi)^ + {y — V\Y. (a.y E R}.1. 6} (iii) {a} C {a. True. a ^ h (iv) {2. (i) (ii) If {2} is a subset of {2}. since yfi is (ii) (iii) (v) (vi) True False True. 1 We (i) can now introduce some useful notation. for example. h) If a (a. Having defined the Euclidean plane it is easy to define. for False. Solution: (i) True. We will say (a. b}. 6) is not the same as {b. If every element of the set S is also an element of the set T. z ¥= a and z ¥= h (vi) feP (ix) (\/^)2ep not a rational number. h) = (c. we say S is a subset of T and We say that two express this briefly by writing ScT. 1.a) if a¥'b. h are any two elements of a set. S c S. 3} = {3. (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) PcQ Z <zQ (ix) (x) = {3. then the dosed interval by [a. b}.2. h] is defined (iii) B This idea enables us to define the Euclidean plane as {p\ p = {x. QCQ {3. y) + y^ ~ r^}. and (1. [a. Thus {2. if every element of S belongs T and every element of T belongs to S. circles and discs. The only element of {2} (ii) Any element in S is is 2.3} = {3. 0) denotes the origin. a. then the open interval = {x\ X E. 0) the point B. if a.y G R}. b) is called an ordered pair because the order of a and b matters. . y) G R^ and G R^ and (v) The x^ disc with radius r and center at the origin is defined {p\ {x. general. is defined by (ii) Again if a and 6 are real numbers and a <h.4} z (v) 5ep ^ {a. (a.3. a. S is any set.R and a <x <h}. Thus sets. R^ is not the Euclidean plane we normally think of. b. True (ix) (V^)^ = -1 and -1 since -1 S P. 6} (vii) (viii) (ii) (iii) 3e{2.2. sets to S and T are equal. S belongs to Proof: every element of SqT T and T CS expresses in symbols "every element of belongs to S". (iv) A circle with radius r and center at the origin is defined by by {p\ p p = = {x. d) if and only if a = c and b — d. 6) and b are real numbers and a <b. Checli the truth of the following assertions. Problems Are the following statements true? (i) 2 e {2} (iv) a g {a. c} an integer. c. 3. y) where x.1: Proposition Set S is equal to set and only SqT and TqS. PcN and PgN. h) is called the ordered pair formed from a and h. b. V^eQ (\/=l)2G2 T and 1. is Solution: (i) True False (iv) False (vii) (viii) False. ScT T if means ScT if but S^T.

Then SnT={2}. Repeating the definition. For example. and x ^ 0} but f € N. Similarly it [S. . . True.2 ss 1}. . is said to be the smallest set containing the sets S.v G R and fi = —1} real and x^ S P} real Solution: (i) {x\ (ii) False.2. G P. we define SuTU C7U T and U and to be the set whose elements are the elements that belong to at least one of the sets S. the union of S and . a.3. This notion of intersection can be generalized to any number of sets in the same way that the notion of union was generalized from two to any number. 1.2} and {3. Then the union of S and T.U •.Sec. .3} and 2S{3. To be precise. But V-i ^ R implies R ¥= C. as the only element in A^ which is not in P is zero. a.U. Here the possibility arises that there are no elements of S which belong also to T. To illustrate. Any a rational number but not all rational numbers are positive integers. the intersection of sets S. For if a e c R. True. . ScSUT and TcSUT.6}. .2}U{3.. 5}. • • . True. b.5. we may consider ••• SnT . False. Conse- (iv) €{2. denoted by = P. xGN | xGN Union and intersection S and T be sets.{x\ and x^ ^ 1}. False.2. .2 ^ i_ i^ a. .6} ={1. False. But 6 G {a. then and x^ ^ 1. x^ G P implies x ¥= 0. 3. which we denote by 0. 6} and 6 € {a}. positive integer is (v) True. {1. G A^ and a.1] SETS True. Notice that SnT can be thought of as the largest subset of S which is also a subset of T.T. b Q. Therefore the sets are equal. with no elements.4}U{5. . Indeed it follows from the definition of SuT that any set containing both S and T contains SU T. For if x & P. For example. written SUT and read "S union T". The and read as "S intersection T". Thus xe. so we say SU T is the smallest set containing S and T. The property that x ~ u + iv where u.6}U the common part or intersection of S and T.. SuTuUU If . . intersection is S and T are sets.T.T. • • .} ^ {o. where 6 # and a. Thus {1..2.5.5. then a = a + Ot G C. Again we shall agree to the convention that the empty set is a subset of every set. suppose S= {1. rational number is defined as the set of all numbers of the form a/b where a. 1.b & Z. .4} are disjoint.3) U {2. True. where u. Are (i) the following statements true? Z — {x\ X {x\ {x\ X {x\ {x\ X {a. Hence a. . Similarly SnTnUn is the largest subset of S which is contained in T and in U and in . But G Z. written SnTnUn -. a. > 0} has no negative elements. Let . (ix) Q = 3. . . All rational numbers are real numbers but B ¥= Q.U.4}. and x > 0} and x^ 0} alb.b e Z} and x^^ 1} u + iv. . .T.3. A f S {x and a. .} is any set of sets.U. True. (1. Two sets are termed disjoint if they have an empty intersection.. is real | x GQ b ¥= (iv) (y) (vi) and a. Clearly. to C7. 2 3 (iii) a S {a. I is (ii) N = Q = P = C = Z = False. SnT is the set of those elements which belong simultaneously to S and to T. then x ¥= 0.v e. b}. to r. 6}. Hence the sets are not equal. b. We shall agree to the convention that there is a set. is defined as the set whose elements are either in S or in T (or in both S and T). (iii) True. xeQ = = is (iii) (iv) xGN (v) (vi) a.3} and 7= {2. R and ? = —1 is the defining property for complex numbers.. is the set of all those elements which belong simultaneously to S. and are the only elements of {3. c.6} and PU{0} = N. . (x) True. Now if X G N and a. a is the only element of {a} and quently {a. . (vi) (vii) (viii) All integers are rational numbers. G {a.

. 6) U {a} U {b}. b) U {a} U {6}.} If (iv) (v) = Z a<h. (ii) True.2.1).e} (ii) U {1. a. So x G r-(r-S).4} {1.(a. h) = {a) u {&}. h] n {a. a. is the only element in the intersection [a.-\-yi ^ 72}.. e} = {1.1. 6> If a<x <h.2. (iii) {. Thus the disc C boundary U without its boundary.) Let X e [a.g. . /} n {g. {g.S = {x\ X GT and x^S} and Thus that if r= {1. (iii) True.4} = S3 If o. The equality follows from Proposition x^ + y^^ 1. a and 1. the difference between T and S. 3 e {1.2}. h\ . 6].} If = {0} (iv) a < 6.{a. {p\ p = (x. Therefore x and x GS.2}.-2..1) T-(T-S) = S by showing that right side of equation {1. 6 (iv) a and 6 are the only elements of 6 are the only elements of n {a. /}.4...1) is contained in the left side of equation {1. either x G (a. or a.2} {a. f.4} U {e. Check that the following statements are correct: (i) {1.. then and x^ + y'^ = 7^ implies p G boundary.5..1) by virtue of Proposition 1.4} -{1. prove equation (1.-2. x-h. x G {a}.1.4} -{1. is the disc of radius 7 itself. the right side of equation {1.3.3. Now for G {6}. disc without its boundary. U {a) U {6}. 6] and is the only element in {0}.2. 6] . the union of the circle I = {p\ P = (x.2. x^ + of radius 7 and the disc of radius 7 y^<l^ without Solution: (iv) its boundary. If 1. x^ + y^ < 7^ implies p G disc p = {x.-1. xGS. ft.e.. Suppose — S. e.6.h) (iii) {. then [a. 6).} = {. by T .j. then T-S= {3. Proposition 1.he.2} n {1. 6].0} n {0.-1.1) right side of equation (1. So the left side is contained in the X right side and we have proved equation {1. b}.3} (ii) n {e. correct: Check that the following statements are (i) (ii) {1.2. 7^.1.4} = {1.3. — {T — S). To do xGT xGT xGT ^T GT Problems 1. b) = {a.. The {o. . 6} and G {a) u {6}. Solution (i) False. g. a .2. Furthermore. h} = then where a.h) U {a} U {6} C [a.4} {a. (In other words. 6] C (a...4} but 3 three sets « {1.3. 1 If S qT we define T — S. 6).2.1) We and c C left side of equation (1 . {a}u{6}.1) TdS.2 + j/2 = 72} U {p p = {x. Therefore [a. e}. y) £ R^.3.3.a. a. yp. a. {a./} U {ff.2. Then clearly but x^T-S.4} S- {1. any x Hence (v) then x G (a. then [a. For any sets T and S such (1.3.1) left side of equation (1. y) e R^. Then and The reverse inclusion is obtained similarly. and in each case a^ x-h.2. Check the following statements: (i) {1.e.1) this suppose x G S.2. h} have no elements in common. in other words. h are distinct. If x.1.y) G R^. The reverse inclusion can be checked similarly.3.a or By definition.fi. a. 6 (iii) G B and a < 6. [a.2.R. since True. 6 G B. {e. i.4 SETS.1 then implies the sets are equal.4}. y) is any element of the disc.2} = {3.^ {a) or x& {6} respectively.0} U {0. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. we have x S (a.

G [/. If If If res.1. then x & S or xGTnU. ScSnS a. The equality follows from Proposition 1. Consequently £ TuS and SuT = a. a. if a. Similarly (Snr)n ?7 c Sn(rn t/). S c T and U is any set.Gf7. it follows that by Proposition 1. G S and x ^S which is impossible. € by definition. T. and the equality follows.1] SETS T and U are any three sets. In particular. Hence a. Prove the following statements: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) S C r and U is any set. and conse- then a. If k G Tn I/. Hence SuTuU Q Su(TuU). a. SuTU [7. ThereFrom a. But x&S x&SnS. Then a. or x e. is is therefore an eleestablished in the (iii) By X the definition of union.7. Using and x above. Hence Su(ru 17) C or a. Su0 = S. Thus SnTcS. by (iii).GSu(rnC/). Sn0 = 0. SuU qTuU. G T it follows that a. SnS Q S. TuS (ii) the definition of union of sets. then x e Hence by Proposition 1. as x^U. If xGS x&U. TnS C SnT. T. For. G (Su T) n (Su U). S. (Su T) n (Su U) c and X a. Thus S-{S-S) = S-0 and clearly S - = S. T cS if and only if S = TuS. which in turn implies x^T and a: G t7. So x&S Part (ii) implies xGS e. If a.8. xGSu{TuU). x&S or x G T. If S C r and T c t/. a. If a. we S and of have S C TuS. same manner. Similarly if xGTuS. Solution: (i) Let a.GSuf7. Consea. then (S-r)ur = S. a. If S.GruJ7. G [/. then SnU cTn U. then SuU cTuU. ScSu0 By (iv). then. S S. then S qU.GSu(ruC7).1. and consequently x G (Su T) n (Su U). x €. Now. x G SuU and. Sn(7'U (xii) J7) is established in a similar manner. If a. By Sn(rn C7) = (Sn r)n Su(rn [/) = (Sur)n(Su t/) S-S = S . S SnT.GSu0. (xiii) S-S = from (xii). by the definition of intersection. for a. Now. GS Thus then xGT since ScT.G(Snr) and. a. or a. a.. Therefore Su0 c S. Thus GS T or a. allows us to write (v) TnS QS. a. using Hence follows. in particular. quently xGSuTuU. Thus Hence SuScS or and the equality (viii) By (iv). The reverse inclusion. If a. xGSuU. Then quently xeTuU. (vi) (vii) Sn0 C 0. as before. prove the following: (viii) 5 1. . Hence S —S must be empty. If eS TuU. 1. But we know that is a subset of any set and. SLIT contains (i) all elements of also (iv) GSUT xGSnT and S implies QSuT. TuScSuT.(S .S) = S Solution: (i) Let SuTcTuS. 1. GS Su(rnC7) C (Sur)n(Sul7).U Sec.GS and fore Sn{TnU) c{SnT)nU. ment of rnS and SnT C TnS. implies xeSuT. x G S and x G T. (iii). (xi) e Sn(TnU) implies xGS and xe(TnU). S c r if and only if SnT = S. ScSuS. xG(SnT)nU. The (x) result follows. then G S or G T x&TorU. If S—S contains an element then a. (i) sur=rus SnT=Tr\S S SnS = s Sli(TuV) = (li) (iii) (ix) SuTuU (iv) cSuT SnTQS and S and cTuS c S (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) TnS (v) (vi) (vii) Su0=S Sn0 = SuS = S xGSdT.1. G S. If x^SuTuU. (ix) Let xSSu{TuU). hence arGSuT. xGSuS implies implies x&S. C Sn0. then xGT G U.

then a. 1). If x G S.5)} If If any one of the each Si sets Si. (2. 2).y) of real R^ hy R. (5.1). {1. But Hence xGT and S C T. (vi) TcS xGT xG 1.2).4). .2. S2. the first member of each pair always belonging to S and the second member always belonging to T. s„) with (si G Si. thus R X R is defined as the set of all numbers x and y. Proposition S = SnT.Sn < 00) as the set of all %-tuples (si. We term the cartesian product of S and T. xGSnT implies x G T. S„ = = S. . x G T. .Sn = Sn• For example. Assume S = TuS. and since T qU.7(iv). .7(iii) we have SqTuS. Sn ) iff Si = Si .. First. It is worth pointing out that. .xGS. then As S Q T. Either or x € T. . then we shall interpret Si X S2 x is denoted by S". (2.2. s« . two elements of are equal iff (if and only if) they are identical. S2. e S . Problem (v) The equality implies any element a. (1. . R x R. If either S = SxT SxT SxT One {n defines similarly the cartesian product Si x . t). is defined to be the set of all ordered pairs of elements (s.T) c S. the cartesian product of two sets.4). 1 (ii) xGSnU and implies xGS if xGU. 1).T and we also have {S-T)uT. (2.3. (5. 1). .1a) consists of all pairs {x. • • • x Sn to be 0. £ S„.(S-r)ur. 3). then a: £ (S . .2. x G S. T- {1. then x G TuS implies that x G S. . 5)} {(1. Problems 1. It (v). 5}. (2. To show Sc(S-T)uT.3. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS and [CHAP. i. The reverse inclusion SnTcS is true by 1. follows from the definition that (S . Verify the following statements: (ii) (iii) SX r = rXS = SX r # {(1. .1. this in turn implies (iv) assume SnT = By S. By Problem 1. (2. . Thus Sc. then xGTuS and. sGS.3. S2. For example. 5). y) with T: X G R and There is y G a natural extension of this notation to any two sets. since S-TuS. S2 x Si . (1.t).3). (3. Consequently TuScS. . S and SxT For example. (1. . Secondly. (2. Therefore SnV x€iTnU x G.2 a. (5. The equality follows by Proposition 1. .2} = {p\ p^{s. .3} = {(1. (S-T)uT cSuT. (2. just as in R^. we also have x G T. 5). If x ^ T. (1.U.5). S2 = S2 . and -we have {S-T)UTcS.. t) = (s'.1a). • • • x Sn of the n S2GS2. 3}. then Si x S2 x ••• x Sn 0. circles (see Section 1. that (iii) S Q T means Hence S C U.2). (1. (1.e.2} X {2.3. these are subsets of R^.5). (1. (1. in elementary analytic lines.SETS.1). . we interpret S x T as 0. Thus TuS = S. . CARTESIAN PRODUCTS Definition The plane R^ shall also denote (see Section 1.3)} In words. s„) = sz .5} = {(1. 3)} TXS . . let xGS.2. 2. then Therefore S Q SnT. t') if and or T = 0. tGT} X {1. (2. (si. 2). sets Si. We often are geometry one investigates interested in certain subsets of SxT. Q TnU. .2. in S belongs to SnT. On the other hand if we assume T Q S.1. 1. (2. . If x G T. (s. xGT and so xGSnT. ellipses and other figures in the plane. As with . . (3.T) U T. If x G T. 5).9. Using (i) above. But by implies S = TuS. let S Q T. 1). 4). {1. 1). We ordered pairs (x. Hence T Q S. S2. only if s = s' and t = t'. Let (i) S= (1. .4).3} X {4.

then (^3. . (a. then (3/. there is at least one element (x. x) S S^. then (x. x) e S^. x) (h) (c) (iii) Prove that J/) G I B. (i) If A= {p\ p = (x.x)GA.j/) (x.10. Hence SxT^ TxS. 1) and y & S. S= SxT=T2=TxS. z) G when is (2/. (x. we have S X T = S X U. U = follows from S X U = 0. 5) X T) X S. (i) Clearly these are the only ordered pairs {x. by virtue of our assumption S ¥= 0. X e Sx T and G ?7. Prove: If (x. Prove: [/ G i22 X i22.1. r # and U ^ 0. Let and (such elements exist since S ¥' and T ¥. T. y) e S2 means x if Clearly T=U or 2/ 1. a) G y. S X T. p if = that (x. Hence x G S.1). y) oi (S X T) X S has x G S X T and y ^ (1.t) e SxT for any s G S. A similar argument gives U C T.2] CARTESIAN PRODUCTS S2 7 (iv) (v) ^ r2 (S2 = S X S and (SxTjXS ¥. Therefore T and S Q T. U is empty. If T = 0. y) with x with e S and y e. let tGT. T or U is empty.0). Notice that VqR^xR^. (s.y)&A. a. y) G y. (i) (ii) (iii) T and 1/ be any three sets. by the definition of the cartesian product of any set and the empty set. x ^ i/}. then S X 17 would not be empty. S = 0. a) G V. 1). prove that: (a) (6) (ii) (x. But (x. then (a. To prove the converse. <) G S X [/ means t G 17. as = TxS.t)SSxT and. 1) S.z)GA. Conversely. 3) and (ii). since « S. let SxT = SxU and S ¥(if S = we have nothing to prove).5)€SX{TXS). for if U^0. 1. Sxr^SxC/ iff either T . t) G S x [/. for x cannot be both an element of S and an element of S X T. If T # 0.0.T. Let (a) (6) (c) A = (x. T.SX(TXS) T^ ^ TX T) Solution. {x. P) G y. x) if ^A {p for every x if S P. Let (ct) B = Show If (x. If S 7^ 0. Prove the following: S X r = r X S ifF either S = T or at least one of the two If (x. Hence T Q U. Then {s. /3) G y and (. a) be the points of the plane J?2 on or above axis and let L be the points below the X axis. Let S. may also assume S ¥and T ¥-. find (5. (x. G B for every x G P. 3) € (v) An element (x. S = T. 1. But ((1. using Proposition 1.2/)GA and {y. y) e S2. (iv) {SXT)XU = SX(TXU) iff at least one of the sets S. T ^ and U ¥must be false and so either S.U or S = 0. Conversely. (s. (iS X T) x 17 = = S x (r X t7). Therefore the assumption that S ¥. assume {S X T) X U = Sx{TxU). (iv) Let the Put {a) (6) (c) X V=muL2. that t S S and s e. e (S (iv) G S2 but (3. and we conclude T = U. all 2/) B. from the definition of T X S. T. Solution (i) T implies and S = or T = jZ) implies. then (x. x) G B? (x.z) If C7 e A. or T = 0. then (a.at (3.z)GA. S = 0. Thus ((1. 1) S T X S and (5.j/)eA and I (y. z) G B. t) e T x S. then Sxr = and SXI7=0. y) xG T € (iii) Looking. (a.: Sec. If If If (a. This is a contradiction.) {p p = eA for x G Z2 G Z. Then {s. = = TxS. then («. assume S X T = T X S. (x. It follows. y) G V.y) GP2 and x < y) (recall that P is the set of positive integers). (d) y?^i22xi22. y) in (S X T) X U. is empty.8. these are the only ordered pairs (i) {x.z) & A. !/) G B and if (y. then {y. as SxT ^ SXU. we fz. Therefore = whenever S . (ii) As in (i). Thus both T # and T = give r = C7. and. conclude. SxT SxT TxS tGT sGS We SxT qS We (ii) (iii) (iv) S S and ?/ S S. with x - 3/ divisible by 3}.T or U is empty. y) must also be an element of S X (T X U).0. G P2. Hence {y.11. If either S. But (s.

2/) G A means x — y = 3q for some integer q. y G L. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. x) (x. if for any pair of elements x. we have {x. (/3. If . Equivalence relations Similarity of triangles is an example of an equivalence relation. but (a.x = 0. Continuing in this vein. p G L. so {t. iflF ^ G 2/ - z respectively. G A means x — y is divisible by 3. If t is a triangle. xRy. t) and (t. since x is not less than x. Consequently (x. x X (ii) < since x. Therefore (a. p & U since .y & X either x is related to 2/ by B (written xRy and read "x is related to y by R") or not. €A for every x implies e P.y and and.x) G A. 2) S A implies y < z. G m or (a. <y. Hence (s. x) G A. t) G S. 1 Solution: (i) (a) (b) {x. u) S S. triangles. x) & B. (ii) and (iii) above hold also if "similar" is replaced by "congruent".8. (x. t (i) and u are any triangles. G Z7 (a) (a. {x. Now x <y and By definition of set A. t) G S iflf s is similar to t. y)&B. and (y.e. Let us consider again the notion of similarity of triangles. v)&A z. then yRx. . but not both. z) G A means y — z — 3r for a. If (s. Thus s and u are similar. i. y. then xRz. Therefore y — x is divisible by 3 and {y. since f/nl/ = 0. u) G S. (a. a) then {a. z) e B. and zero is divisible by 3. This means that if s. x — y = 3q where q is some integer.lO(ii). Let T be the set of all Let S be the subset of T x r defined by (s.y) G C/2uL2 = V. y G C7. objection to this definition of equivalence relation is that "relation on X" is vaguely We shall therefore define the idea of equivalence relation by means of sets and subsets. Hence (x.y. y) G L2.8) g V. t.y G or L. by definition of set B. we have (a. It follows that x - z a. s) G S. then R is termed an equivalence relation in X if: (i) (ii) If (iii) for all x G X. (a. t is similar to itself.8 cannot be an element of both and L. some integer r.y8)GL2 and by Problem {p. Another example of an equivalence relation is congruence of triangles since (i). p e U or a. y - x. and hence (a.z€i P. z) G A. 2/.8 SETS. and (y. But x y (iii) (a) (6) For any (x. discarding our informal approach. Now implies p. Gy V U (d) Let a G 17 and y8 G L. x) y < z imply (a) (6) X (c) e B. a) G 1/2 or If (y8. » . b. t) e S. implies either a.a)&m or e L2. y) G f72. y) (2/. the follow^ing three conditions hold: s is similar to s. X for P. (c) G Z. If xRy and yRz. then t is t is similar to s. Consequently. all a. then a. Then (a. (c) (a. /3)Gy y) (/3. (x. Similarly if y8. (iii) and similar to u. and if (y. Thus X — z = (x — 2/) + (2/ — z) = a 3^ + 3r = 3{q + r) Hence l. a) («. = For if {x. &B and z) S B imply x . x) eB and y — X iff x = y. and so X (iv) —z is divisible by 3 and (x. we have the following . p) or a G L. a) a G i?2_ which means G C/2uL2 = y. p) e R^ X R^. Now 3/) y — x = -(x-y) = -3q = 3{-q). Hence a) G V. xRx One defined. then s is similar to u.y8)Gy.a) (6) G £2 X J?2 G L2. and implies (a. if X is any non-empty set and ^ is a "relation on X". (ii) If s is similar to If s is similar to t.e. it is clear that {t. then s and t are similar and t and u are similar. i. Similarly if (s. z) e A. x ~ (y.

4}. Partitions and equivalence relations Suppose y by R. 3).) (reflexive property). symmetric and transitive properties hold. as (x. all x E Z a. (2. as we y. 4). Here additional notation. then all R is the equivalence relation i. (3. 4. (3. (transitive property). {x. 3). x) ^A for all x.3.4} are i2-related to 1. y) G R we shall say x is iJ-related to y.2}. IRl.11 for equivalence relations. 4}.z)€:R. let If (x. 2. then {y.1). A subset of will be called an R-class or R-block if it is the iZ-class or /2-block of some element x G X.5} and {1. 2R = [2]. and BR = 4R = IR Thus the iJ-classes here are simply {1.2. (1. (1.2) in the elements of {1. We Z= {1.z)GR Problem 1.3. consider the equivalence relation R given by (1. 1R3.Sec. so V is an equivalence fi2.4).3. we Note that we have used a notation that fits in with the notation of Section 1.4) ^R. {1.2) Then it is easy to check that R satisfies the three necessary conditions for it to be an equivalence relation. G i? (symmetric property). 5} are An X X X X {1}. position of equivalence relation in is intimately connected with a partition of X. 3.3.3. we define xR= {y\ y and {x.2b where informally introduced an equivalence relation. (i) {x. x) (ii) (iii) If If (x. know (x. This subset xR is called the R-class of x. we need some Let R be an equivalence relation in a set X. y) & B and reflexive. {2}. y) G R for e R. (1. c.1)} (1. {3. or the R-block of x. {2.y) gR}.2. B occurs only if (iii) A is an equivalence relation in Z^ as properties hold.. 1R4: This suggests a means of getting a partition of a set X.2] CARTESIAN PRODUCTS Let 9 Definition: be a non-empty set and let R he a subset of X^. (4. {4. To illustrate these terms. 4).y)GR and {y. 2) G B.3). If x G X.1).3.2. y) G R.5} If not a partition of {1. i.4. xR is thus a certain subset of X. Notice that these iZ-classes constitute a partition of {1. Examine Problem Solution: (i) 1. Thus though (1. Ac ^2 and the symmetric and transitive (iv) yc in i22 X i?2 and the reflexive.12. or the R-equivalence class of x. but 2i24 is an incorrect assertion since (2.5}. In order to explain. (3. (2. 3. (ii) A B x is is not an equivalence relation in P. then {x.2). x) G. if R is an equivalence relation in X. (4.3.4}.4} and {2}.4}. More generally. To illustrate let and R = {(1. {5} is On the other hand {1.e. 1) g B. or x is related to sometimes write xRy. GX X li2 = {1.4. 1. 2).2. {y. Examples of partitions of {1. {2}. a decominto disjoint subsets of such that every element of belongs to some subset. Now SRA since (3.3}. we have the following . (4.e. = not an equivalence relation in P. Then R is called an if the following conditions are equivalence (or an equivalence relation) in X X satisfied. 4) G R.4} (x.

3). means {x.2A are Consequently the only fi-blocks. Let {x. a. (2. As R is an equivalence.s). for if {l. . then {y. Then (ii) xRnx'Rv^^. (d) 3E. 0A. y) is any one of the four. (c) 2E. z) e E. Suppose x ¥. z) £ E.1A. z). (3.1).3}. (2. x) G A. z) e E. (1. then {x'.3). y) where x ¥= y. This means. (1. and hence by the transitive property applied to {x.u)) G S^ with ru = st}. p- x-y divisible by 3}.2). (b) IE. (Recall that Z is the set of = {p\ p = {(r. (y. i.x)eA. we verify (i). (3. x = 2-Sq. by the transitive property. z) = (2. When x = y. then xR = X G xR for every x e X.2: Let Z be a non-empty set and (i) R be an equivalence relation in X. Solution: (1) The reflexive property holds. we find {x. y) G E and {y. x) e E for all xSS. (0.y.14. a. When x = y. 2-x = Zq and so x = 2-Sq.2). S is also transitive. But (x. if Thus the J?-classes constitute disjoint.2}. 2). tinct /2-classes are a partition of X. we have {x. 2) and {x.x). or 2 by 3. There are only four.x)e. for (i) guarantees that diswhile (ii) shows that every element of X i2-classes. If (x. z) G R. x'R. that A satisfies the three conditions of an are: is divisible OA = 1 — 1 G zy. (1. Hence {x.y) = (y. (2. 1). y) G Z^ with {p\ find the K-equivalence classes. 1). {x.e. y) G R. hence for if G (3) 2A = {2-Zq\ q&Z}. 2). Let in 1. 0AulAu2A = 1. (2. Hence x'R = xR as required.3g.0). 0). so is (y. namely (0. x') G R imply. is divisible by 3. 1 Z. y) = (1. This completes the proof of Theorem Problems 1. To show that E is symmetric. 7.0) or (3. y) G R and (x'. x') G R.10 SETS. 3). Simz) & E ilarly if (x.z)eE. page The i2-equivalance classes if (0. Let E . x') and {x'. 1).1)} is an equivalence relation in S= (ii) {0. lA.2.1. x lA = {l-3g| gGZ}. 1 Theorem 1. 1).y)&E implies (y.E. Then (a. is divisible (2. (2.0}. 3). {x. x) l-x = Zq and hence x = l-Zq. Suppose xRnx'R ¥. it follows from the symmetric property that {y. hence (2. (1) (2) Problem l.e. z) S E. 0) or (2. Clearly if («. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS let [CHAP. (1. Prove that A is an equivalence relation Solution: It was shown {3? g in equivalence relation. The reverse inequality follows by a similar argument. Thus (x.ll(iii). x) G R means x G xR.3). we have proved x'R c xR. i.3g. j/) can be (0. x') G R.. 2) respectively. let us examine all pairs (a. Observe that OE = 2E and IE = 3E.. Then there is an element y G xR which lies also in x'R. {t. (6) IE = {1. x).0). that z G xR.) Let Z* be the set of nonzero integers and let S == Z X Z*. (a) Find the S-equivalence blocks OE. 0). Therefore for any (x. z) = (0.a.2. (2.)GA. Now if z e x'R.13. y) G R and (y.15. (1. (ii) is trivial since (x. since (0.0.2). (3. (x. (3. 3g) G If A.2). 2-x .y) = {0. z) e E and is transitive. for «) G A. Also. (i) Prove that E = {(0. for any integer can be written as 3q. (d) SE = {3. Since z was any element of x'R. (c) 2E = {2. by the very definition of xR. {x. = -x by 3. it can be shown that (x. all integers. The verification of 1. appears in at least one of the Proof: First.3}. A- Z and (x.y)eE and (y. z) G R. Prove that E is an equivalence relation in S. 0) or (0. 3) e E. (1.1}. ^ (ii) (a) OE = {0. 0) or (3. If = l-Zq. (0.

z) efi(„ (x. Hence X must be infinite.b ^(a.s)BS implies ({r. 6). We exhibit an infinite number of equivalences in X as follows: For a finite each pair a. —1} and to each odd element in Z the unique element —1 in {1. S. {y.x) {a.w)) G E. Hence ((f w). 6) respectively. (x. a) or (b. (r.w)) G E.x).b).3 MAPPINGS Definition of a.b)- relation. 2A}.-1}. 1. 6). thus a assigns to each even element in Z. a) implies (x. y) G S X S.bGX i2(o. Therefore since X is infinite.s). which contradicts our hypothesis.z) = (b.b) G B.b) satisfies R^a. (6. (x.y) = (a. s). i2(o. To prove that the three conditions of an equivalence definition of fi(a. What is Z/A Problem 1. The symmetric property of E is established by noticing {{r.w) S S^.19. Then rw = sf and tw = vu. a) or ix. (Hard.b) or (b.s). In less detailed terms a assigns to each element in Z a unique element in (1. Thus rw — sv and so ((r.bi- Finally.a) or (a. the set of all integers.x) means {x. Now (x. y) G S and But then (x. Hence E is transitive.b) = infinite number of ^(c. Prove that S X S Solution: is an equivalence relation SXS is reflexive since (x.3] MAPPINGS 11 Solution £7 is reflexive. define 2/) = {p| P = e X^. 1. and rw = st. (r. a). in S. we («. Thus S X S is 1. we first notice G R^a. . Thirdly. Since m ^ 0.y) and (y. But rw = st can be rewritten as ts = wr.14? Solution: Z/A = {OA. m)) S £7 and {{t. Therefore when X is finite there are at most a finite number of equivalences in X. Such an assignment is termed a mapping from Z into {1. if (x. a ¥= b.s).y) can only be (a. then x and y G S G SxS. in which case (y. s)) e JB7.j/) .w)) € E means {r. Prove that a set Solution: X is infinite if and only if there are infinitely many equivalences in X. (t. b) implies (y. 1.)• R(o. assume X is infinite. {{r.x). namely X/R.z) G R^^.b) or (x. {y. in 1. then there are at most number of distinct subsets of X^.y) = (b. notice that (x.b). z) = (a. {r. by the very Secondly. z) GS imply an equivalence relation on S.18.z) — d.b} a.b) is symmetric since (x.b).y) = (a. or x G means (x.-1}. To show E is transitive.s)) S S^. which are both elements of fi(a. ?/) (b.) Assume there are an infinite number of equivalences in X. If {x.b^ for all xGX.-1} or a map .13? Solution: S/E = {0E. r = — and rw = = —tw = —vu = sv. (v. mapping Assign to each even integer the value 1. S S X S for all x & S. hence (x. a) or (a. and since rs = sr. y and then (x. the unique element +1 in the set {1.u). {t. If X is finite. What is S/E in Problem 1.16. and to each odd integer the value —1. by definition of SX S.z) G Rca. x) and.s)) G E.x) G R(a.y) = (x. Let us give the name a to this assignment. y and z G {y.y) = (a.Furthermore.d}.b") is an equivalence. Therefore E is an equivalence relation. we can find an each of which gives a distinct set iZ(a. let ((r. {v. lA. where either x = y.s) and {t..d) if and only if different pairs {x. Conversely. Hence SxS is symmetric. x) x. Problems 1.z) = = = (6.Sec.y) = then {x. {x.b)Similarly.17.s).a)} Now each R(a.b).b) = {c. {y. for {r. z) S S X S and S X S is transitive.To see this. The division notation it We in a set find useful to introduce a notation for the i?-classes of an equivalence relation R X.1E}.

Is every element of element in S? element in S under a? Is every element of T the image of more than one Give preimages of 1 and 4. 3a = 5. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. 2. Suppose a (i) : P -» P 1 is defined by re a: n-* n^ for a a : all (ii) re re -* w+ for all all (iii) : -> 2re for eP we P re S P (iv) a a : Ji -^ 1 for re all n e for P re (v) : 1 -^ 2. T = {1. 5a = 6.. we write a: s^t and read this as "a sends s into t". 5. (v) (a) (6) (c) 2a = 1. 1 from Z into {1. sa = t. so not every element of P an image. We call Sa the range of Problems 1. 3}. (ii) Write down a mapping of S into T. 4. More generally. Hence 1. It is convenient to have a number of notations for the image of an element s in S under a mapping a: S^T. 1 has no preimage. 5 has no preimage. 2a = 4. Only 4 is an image of more has preimages 1 and 3.-1}. 5a. 1 has every element of P as a preimage and no other element of P has a preimage. (b) P an image of some element of P How many preimages does 1 have in Solution: (1) in (i)-(v)? How (iv)? in (v)? a preimage (under a) of 2. By Sa we mean {sa j s S S). 26a = 27.. 26 are the The only element of P which has no preimage is 1. (iv) (a) (6) (c) 2a = 1. There no preimage of of 6 or 27. Afofe: In (i)-(v) In each case determine: of (a) 2a. 6. Sa = 9. We call S the domain and T the codomain of a. y. find it We useful to provide further notation and definitions. e. 1. 2a = 4. 2a = 5. is 5a = 25. 5. Solution: (i) (ii) For example. for 1 has no preimage. 5a = 1. a S -> T defined by la = 1. the mapping a is defined by describing its "action" on every element of P has a unique P. or even a{s) for the image of s under a. a preimage of 2. we shall express this fact more briefly by writing a:S^T. if S and T are any two non-empty sets. . 27. 2a = 4. and 4 . la = 12 = 1. a mapping or a map from S into T is an assignment of a unique element of T to each element of S. thus we shall write For the most part we use the first notation. If a assigns to s in S : If t e r and a.20. than Not every element of T is an image. 5. 5. Let (i) S= {1. T an image of some Let a:S^T be defined by la = 4. we call s a preimage of t. 6a = 7. . has no preimage. Suppose that a: S-* T. 6a = 1. 5a = 1. (c) Is every element many preimages (under a) does 2 have in (v)? (a) (6) (c) 2a = 4. Note that each element of element assigned to it. For example. Not every element 1 is 1 required preimages. -^ 1 all e P. 6 2 has one preimage. 6a. 4. 5a = 10. 5. 5}. If a is a mapping from -S into T.g. namely 1 ment of P not equal to and 7 have no preimages. 27 has no preimage. 6a = 12. For the most part we shall denote mappings by lower case Greek letters such as a.. re > 1 above. We call t the image of s (under «) if a s -* i. preimages. In fact any ele1 has an infinite number of preimages. 3a = 4. 6a = 36. 2. la = 2. p. the element t in T. 3 is the preimage of is 6.21. 5a = 6. (ii) (a) (6) (c) (iii) (a) (6) (c) P is an image. Sff or s". 2a = 3. 6 and 27 have no preimages. 4a = 5. this is read "a is a mapping from S into T". 2 is not an image. 1. 2. 1 is a preimage of 2. 6a = 1. 1 and 2 are the only elements of P which have is mapped onto 1.12 SETS. in (i). one element in S.

3a = 6. . . i has no preimage: for (v) ix (i) i = implies 27 x = —— € P. . (ii). Similarly (iv) is not a mapping. and. = 1 implies 1 = 1.2 a: x a: X a: -> ix -^ + 1 (ii) a: X-* 2x a: + 27 where z . Solution: (a) and (ii) define mappings since every x G P has a unique image. -» a. (iv) (v) i. For example. T — T'. 16.5. is called a mapping of S into T if (s. assignment. (vii)? (i). the same codomain.8. then = x and thus x S P. so that each x has three different images. We will now remedy this.2b is valuable.2b we introduced the concept of equivalence relation in X.3a. It is In the old Consider the subset of SxT consisting of the pairs (s. ("^"^ x^ logjo (a) (6) Do of these descriptions really define mappings of Is every element in C a preimage of some element of P P into in C? (vi). We also write t = sa. (ii) 2a.6. definition the elements of S were assigned unique elements of T. .. 4a = 4.4}. let S— {1. .} Sec. 1/3 = 4.6}. In (vi) 1 has no preimage because IX —1. 4.1. (v) j In (i). 2} {2. U= : easy to see the relationship between the old definition and the new. S is called the domain and T the codomain of a. two mappings are equal if and only if they have the same domain. a word that is used in many different ways. r = {4. and (vii). t) where t is assigned to s. A A subset a of S X r ti. and the same "action" on each element of S. What (i) is Pa in each of the cases in Problem 1. 1. for every element s & S. In other words. 213 = 5.4. Pa = Pa = {1} {1. being confident that if necessary could justify our arguments using the definition of a mapping in terms of a subset. Suppose a: S ^ T and (S: S' -^ T'.3. After all. 4^8 = 5.e. Formal definition of comparison with Section 1.3] MAPPINGS P -* 13 1.8 if and only if S = S'. Let a:S^T be defined by 1« = 4.22. .}. for example.20? Solution: (ii) (iii) = Pa — Pa Pa is the set of squares {1. b. (v). 3j8 = 6. but as we felt uneasy about it. Suppose a: (i) C is defined by {v) a : a.2. If a is a mapping of S into T (written briefly as a: S^T) and (s. let /8 S -» T be defined by Then a¥' 13 since 4a ^ 4:/3. either 2 or —2 could be taken as 4a. (iii) does not define a mapping. In Section 1. we c. 5. x^ implies (vii) x if = yfi^ P. In the sequel we will use the definition of Section 1. + 27 10* I + X-i gives x = 1 + t g P.. it depends upon an English word. a. -: logjo x —1. t) G a. ix _^ i +1 cc . we call t the image of s under a and write « s -* t. mapping The reader may ask whether our definition of mapping is precise. 9. since there are three complex cube roots of x — 1. Types of mappings We have talked of mappings without defining what is meant by the equality of two mappings. The two conditions of the new definition are satisfied by this subset. : . 2a = 5. i. sa = sa'. . (iii) (iv) a: x^ z x^z all where z SC 6 C is is such that z^ z^ such that — = (vi) x. {2. 3. ^2) e a occurs only if and for each s GS there exists an element (s. (v). ti) and (s. Then we define a = .}. 4. we redefined it in terms of a subset of X^.^ ix .23. t) G a. Here too we feel uneasy about our definition of mapping and so we shall redefine it in terms of sets. all the even integers. (ii). (vi) (i) and (6) (vii) define mappings. .

(read a restricted to S') and is called the restriction of a to S'.21(ii) is hot onto.22 is onto by the solution already given to these problems. Macmillan.e. MacLane.21. Clearly Problems 1. in this case we call a an onto mapping. for if na = n'a. None. If S is infinite this definition no longer makes sense unless one takes from all the sets which match S a single fixed set which we then term \S\.2 = x'"^ m 2ix [v). in (ii). since none of them is onto.22 a matching.25.e.) is None of the mappings defined Problems 1. Then we define a mapping f rom <S" into T by simply restricting the domain of a to S'.20 and 1. Problem 1. All the mappings defined in Problem 1. in (ii).P^Z a is be defined by na = -n for all n e P. x = x'. Which of the mappings defined in Problems 1. : s ^ Sa for all s G S' Problems 1. for example.24. To be quite We require one further definition. Suppose a: S^T explicit. A Survey of Modern Algebra. 1 we say a important to distinguish certain types of mappings. a:P-*C. distinct elements have distinct images in T (under a matches S with T or « is a bijeetion Finally. a Hence we need only compare the mappings in each exercise. (c) matchings? Solution: (a) None of the mappings defined in Problems 1. = x'a implies ix + \~ix' + l or x = x'. (ii). {•n)xa = x'a or (iii) a. Then is a mapping from S onto T (notice that into has now been replaced by onto) if every element in T has at least one preimage in S.20(i).: : 14 SETS.22 are equal? Problem 1. xa - x'a gives logio^ = logio x' = y x'. i. BirkhoflT and S. Thus suppose a: S^ T. and Problem 1. na = ma gives n-|-l=m+l or n = m. : S -> T. (i). If S is finite and a matches T. tFor more 1953. Is a onto? One-to-one? A matching? Solution neither onto nor a matching. a is one-to-one. Important results are that the set of rational numbers is enumerable if and the set of real numbers is not+. A set which matches P is called enumerable.x' &V. (6) one-to-one. na = ma implies 2n = 2to or n = m. in (vii). a. xa = x'a implies 2a. countable.20-1. the cardinality of S+. . Let a-. since x.22 are (a) onto. and suppose S' c <S. or countably infinite.21(ii) for in is not one-to-one since la = 3a. 1. The mapping defined in Problem 1.20-1. 1. = 2ix' = x'. G.20-1. + 27 = means and tx+J.22. 1. this mapping is denoted by a^g. It is GT = On of -S the other hand we say a is one-to-one if sa a). if for every t there is at least one element s G S for which Sa = t.20 features a:P-^P. We denote the number of elements in a set S by |S|. details see. : 'IS' S'-^T is defined by a^.22 are one-to-one: and (iii) define one-to-one mappings: = to.26. then —n = —n' and hence n = n'. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. then we say S and T have the same number of elements. Which mappings Solution in Problems 1. a is we say a is a matching of S and T or that both onto and one-to-one. since 1 has no preimage. (Note that in and (iv) are not mappings. Two sets are termed equipotent or of the same cardinality if there exists a matching of the one with the other. and in (iii). (6) Problems and so w for in (i). since there is xa = x'a means 2x'-f27 or x = x'. The mapping a in Problem 1.20(iv) and (v) do not define one-to-one mappings. tx — 1 hence (c) _ 1^+1 —1 = 10« = ta. i. = s'a implies s s'. then n^ = nfi only one positive square root of an element in P. since 1 has no preimage. xa and. if na = ma.' a. ^jj.

Prove: . (i) bijections: a: C -^ R defined by a: a defined by a: (ii) a.8 = 4. a^ defined by las — 2 and 2a3 = 1.. tn —1 = respectively. 5 -* 4. has no preimage. (2a). 5 -» 4. . Onto? Solution: The mapping equality holds [a. integer can be expressed in precisely one of the following forms: 3.Sec. (3a)y = 5y = 4. 5. then TOj. for when we once choose an image for 1 there are only two possible images for 2. 2. and let Let p and y be the mappings from T into U given by 1. 4. = 3y8 = 4. 2 may have any of 3 images. 1. a is For. 1. For example. + 2.3] MAPPINGS 15 1. 4 -> 4.. .b']. is a fixed positive integer. . (la)y. if {a. 3}.2} into itself? From how many of these mappings are one-to-one? Onto? Solution: {1. 3} into itself.31.30. integers. How many mappings are there from {1. Let S = {1. 4k + .b} a = {a'. . a:S^T /8 : be defined by a : 3 -^ 4. As 1 3 has no preimage. P. . + r where .b) a (a. b) on the real line and Is a one-to-one? let T be the set of closed intervals a.2. we proceed as follows: 1 may have any of three images under such a mapping. one-to-one. (a) (6) a If onto m — 1}.. = —1 € . 7n Let Ml «iW2 QiWi + ri and n2 — 1 have preimages = 92™ + '"2' Then 9192™^ 0. giving 3 X 3 X 3 = 27 possible mappings of {1.. 2 or 3.e. 6}. Therefore a is not onto and hence n'. Suppose n — qm m + 1.b] = [a'. (3a)y8. (2a)y = 3y = 4. and then the image of 3 is uniquely determined. = b'. ^2 ^re any two (n-^n^a — (n-^an2a)a. 2. 4k.3} into itself? In each case. 2} into itself. r e {0. . Every integer n can be written uniquely in the form . 4k then + is 4k . letting r^rj = qstn we obtain (wiW2)« = ''s (»'i''2)'>' — (wia'K2«)«- Check which of the following mappings are onto.28. a2 = 1 and 2a2 = 1. na — n'a means - — = or 2n'n +n = 2n'n + hence n = n'. b). is r where the remainder r every m = 4. Also a is not one-to-one. if an element of the set {0. i. namely: aj defined by laj = 1 and 2q!i = 2. . 3 -* 4.. rr ^ 2n' + 1 2n + l Thus each image has a unique preimage and a is one-to-one. 4 -> 6.b') a then [a.m — 1} be defined by na = r. because is not a bisection. (3a). be the set of open intervals Define by {a. 5}. is — 0. Let a Z -» {0.8 = 3/3 = 4. : . 1. Then 3 can be sent into 1. .27. Only a^ and ag are one-to-one and onto. = (qim + n){q2Vi + rg) = + rg. b] iff one-to-one and onto. . for any o.29. 1. Let S [a. y : 1 -^ 3. 1. ^ Compute Solution: (la)y8 (la)/3. . But this therefore one-to-one. + 'i92™ + ^29i«i + = *'i»'2 (9i92™ + »-i92 + ^'agO'w + ^^2 Now 1. 6 e i?. T = {3. .8 = 5. m — 1}. .. 1 -> 1 or 1 -> 2 or 1 -> 3.b]. Also. 1.Z-^P a: + ib-^a^+b^ n -^ n^ + 1 (iii) P^Q is defined by a: n-^ ——r a^+ b^ Solution : (i) a Hence a (ii) neither onto nor one-to-one. a neither onto nor a bijection. since la = 2 and —la (iii) = 2. 3 5. There are 3X2X1 = 6 possible one-to-one and onto mappings. . 2 -^ 3.3} into itself. 1. 1. There are four mappings of {1. (la)y = 3y = 4. not a bijection.m— 1}. defined by la2 To find the number of mappings of {1. {0. . (2a)j8.2. Solution: (a) (h) a is onto because =: 0.b]. a^ defined by la4 = 2 and 2a4 = 2. since ^ —x-r 71 = 1 implies n. (3a)y. . 2 or 3. and —la = la = 1. . (2a)y. b a = a' and has a preimage {a. a is also onto since a closed interval 1. if n = qm. So we have in all 3 X 3 possibilities for the actions of mappings on 1 and 2. U = {4. either 1.S^T is = [a.

2. verify that S matches a: s -* s S. We define. prove that S is infinite if and only if there are infinitely many mappings into S.33. for each se. I 1. Then there is a useful alternative ^ 3. . y:x^x-l. e 1. Secondly.S -^ S by a^: x -^ s for all x £ S.16 SETS. if s G S. For if ta = s and ts = s'. Solution: S matches is T.S. S = 5 -* 9. . 7. since a is a mapping. We now t show a T. that S is finite and \S\ = n. Now t has a preimage s e S under a. 5. 6 -^ 10. 6. then S is infinite. a is one-to-one. and we assumed S to be infinite. which implies u^ = 1*2 since sa has a unique image under p. Thirdly. using this notation. 4.l)a)p = of —^ (3 = —^ + _ 1 i _i_ o = ^ = ^~ _i_ • «|P is '^ ^ mapping of P into Q. for — s'. so that sa = s'a implies s = s'. Hence S is infinite. for sa S U. ^ following a: we list the elements of S on one line (in any order) and on the each element of S its image under a. Let a be the mapping of 4 -^ 7.37. then there is a mapping a: S t ^T which is is one-to-one and onto. let S be infinite. because ta = t'a = s implies Sa = t and sa = t'. ' -^^ Prove that X is any element of Q. In the first place.T^U be matchings.) Solution: Let a:S-*T and p-.36. Solution: Hence a Define the mapping is a matching. Thus the image of an element under a is unique. Let G T. 1. 2 ^ 4. p : x ^ x + 1. the mapping a^'. Then a:S^U. then by definition of a. Thus sa = {sa)P =^ tp = u. This contradicts our assumption that there is an infinite number of such mappings. s. If S is any non-empty set.34.^ is a a^^. mapping Z into Q. 1. Conversely. Let if a. which in turn implies. Now each of the n elements can be mapped onto at most n images. 9. 3. 8. t = t'. y be the mappings of Q Q defined by a: x^-^ . 10} 4. a is also sa = s'a implies (sa)p = is'a)p.32. and if sa = u^ and sa = M2 then {sa)P — u^ and {sa)p = M2. p. 1 1. prove that S matches U. a^p ¥= a^^ since the domain of a^p not the same as the domain of 1. a. {qis Therefore we have found an infinite number of mappings of S into S. 5 is one-to-one. defined by sa = (sa)p. If of S S is a non-empty set. But a is one-to-one. Solution: First we show that if there are infinitely many mappings of S into S. sa = t and s'a = t. 10 -^ 5. Hence every element of S has a preimage under a and a is onto. enclosing the entire description in parentheses as follows. for if M e C7 then there is a t 6 T such that tp = u. 7 -» 1. prove that T matches S. s e S} is an infinite set since as = «s' if and only if s = s'. so that sa = s'a and s onto. "ip i ^ "iz ^ Solution: ({xy)a)li = • {(x . If S matches If T. a is a mapping of S into U. then ((xy)a)li = x + 1 = —— What is a^p ? a^^. 9 into itself given by a : 1 {1. is a matching. then sa = t for some t G T. on the contrary. a is clearly one-to-one and onto. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS into [CHAP. (Hard.35. Assume. 5 is a mapping. a: S -^ S by for each s S S. way of describing line we place under 123466789 34579 10 1345 10 Describe the following mappings of S into S. 8 -> 3. 3 -* 5. The image under a defined to be for some is a matching. ta = s. By definition of a. Define a: of t T -^S as follows. If S matches T and if T matches U. But a and /3 are one-to-one. Then there an sG S such that sa = t. Hence there are at most m" different mappings of S into S.

4] COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS 1 -» 2. 6 (iii) j8 10 1/3 7^ is Y since = 2 and ly 1/8 = 2(3 It is 2.5}.8 5^6 Then l(aoj8) = = = = 3/3 5/3 = 6 6 2(ao/3) = Hence ao/3: {1. 3^8. U = {6. hence we Let i2 a: P-* C be defined by na = in + 1 and let = — 1. we can compute {sa)p. for all s in S \& (Some authors use exactly the opposite order. . 6 -^ 3. 7 -> 4.4 COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS Definition This suggests Let a: S-^T. "composing the mappings a and ^". so that their a°p let our p o a. Hence {a° p)°a = a° {jS ° a). 4-^9. 4 -» 2. More precisely we define a op. 10 -» 5 (li) y:1-*6.4. of tremendous importance. only necessary to find a repetition on the bottom row. e. 2-* 5.2} ^ {6. 5 -» 2.: : .g. 4-»7. = = It is (v) y is 1. Problems 1. 9 -^ 4. to decide Use these descriptions Solution 1 (i) whether (iii) p = y. 2 has no preimage.39. 2^6 is This notion of the composition of two mappings give the following drill problems. not onto. (v) y is onto. (a°/3) °a. 1.) For example. Com- . 2 2 2 7 3 2 3 8 4 2 4 9 5 6 7 8 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 10 5 2 1 (ii) 2 5 3 6 1 4 7 1 10 1 6. and Then n(a (/3 in^ + 1 a° p: P -^P n{a ° while ° fi) = {na)p — {in + l)/8 = n^. 2 17 (i) /3 : ^ 2. /3°a. 8 ^ 4. defining a mapping of S into U by performing a and p in succession on each of the elements in S. and Q:°(/3°a) p C -* P map n G P : be defined by to? p: a a ° + ib 13 <> ^b^. p: a^ ^a-2. /3:3^6. T - {3. (iv) /? is one-to-one. i. 3 ^ 2.6-*1. . S = and let {1. 2. Hence a° p ¥= p°a.7^1.7} a:S^T. (iv) /3 not one-to-one. only necessary to compare the bottom rows.2}.7} is defined by aop: l-»6. Because Sa £ T. What Let do aOyS. a"! where Why is p ¥= Solution n&P. e. Sec.g. Are these mappings equal? Compute {a° p)°a. Now n{{a ° p) ° a) — (n{a ° p))a = n^a = = (na){p ° a) = {(in + V)P)a = n^a — in^ + 1. 9^1. 2-^7. Let a:Q-*Q be defined by a: a^a^ + 2 and let P Q -^ Q be defined by pute a° p. (la)/3 (2a). .T^lJ. It is only necessary to check whether all the integers 1. . 5^10. p-.e. the composition of a with p (in this order) as a mapping of S into JJ defined by s{a °P) = {sa)p. 10^1.38. p T : -* U be defined by a: 1^3. ° a)) 1. 10 appear in the bottom row. 8->l. a°{p° a). p°a: C -* C.

g. it follows that p = p'. Is a onto? (Hard. a need not be onto. Hence /3 is onto. and let a' S -^ T be defined by la' = t' and 2a' = t. As a ° j8 is onto. e. (T ¥=0) is onto iff for every set U and every pair of mappings Prove that a: S and p': T ->U such that a°p .40. Hence {sa)p = {sa')p. let a: S-*T be defined by la = t t. then /3 is onto. (Aa - 2)2 1. and 13: T ^ U by 1/8 = 2. Then we can find U. (Hard. Now a° p — a' ° p. so that = 82- Hence a is is one-to-one.^ /I 2 3 14 ! ? 5/123451/ (ii) '""' /I 4 .3) = (sa)y8 = tt and so: is a preimage of u under p.8 = 1. and. i.. 2/3 T = P 1. e.) e S. Therefore we have a contradiction and a must be equal to a'. (Hard.) S and every pair of map- a° p First assume that for every set S and every pair of mappings a: S ^ T and a' S -^ T.U^V. then (a o j8) s{{a°p)°y) o (s{a° j3))y = ((sa)/3)y and s(ao(/3°y)) = (sa)(/3oy) = ((sa)/?)y. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. 112345/125341 (Hi) '"*' 3 4 4 5 Solution (i) ('i I) .. = a' ° p implies a = a'. S= 1 {1}.t' such that tp = t'p = (« ^ t') and 2a = t'.44.1)2 + 2. 1.. let S = {!}. it follows that p = p'. Consequently y = a o (/3 ° y).1. Employing the notation of Problem ^. p is not necessarily and by la = 1. = one-to-one. [7 = {1}. Solution If s y.. . = Prove that (a ° ° y = a° (/3 o y).2)a = + 2. Let aGQ. Sjo: = 820: implies Sj {sia)p = {S2a)p S2a ° . Say a is not onto. To prove the converse. one-to-one but p Define not one-to-one. la' o p = (la')p = t' p = u. a: S->T Prove that p pings a: Solution T -* U S ^ T and ¥= </)) S -> T. S2 G S and But a° p let s^a is = S2a.8. la°/8 (la)y8 = tp = tp = But a ¥= a'. of 1. Prove that (Hard. sa — sa'.43. Clearly a° 13^13° a.2 = la2 . p-. a(/3 ° a) = (a^)a = (|a . So there exists s & S such that sa ¥= sa'. one-to-one. Prove that Solution if a: S -^ T and p T ^ U and : a = /3 is onto. « o /? is onto but a is not. a° p = a' ° p means that s{a ° P) = s(«' ° p). we can find a preimage of u under a° /3.(a(a° p))a . As p is one-to-one. Furthermore.8 is one-to-one.) Solution if a: S^ T. {1. by definition of a ° y8. 2}. then a is one-to-one. uG : u. s(a! o /3) = u.T-^U.^ ' ' /I 2 2 3 2 3 1 4 5 4 3 5\ /I 2 2 2 3 4 5 5\ /I 2 4 2 3 5 4 3 5\ /I 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 5 5 4/ 5\ Vl 4 3 3/ 5\ ^2 /I 1/ 5\ ^1 / 1 .: : 18 SETS. Is /3 one-to-one? Let «!« ° y8 Si. Let S = {1. Under this hypothesis suppose p is not one-to-one. and t^ is an element of T which has no . T = {1. 1.42.24135/ ! r! VS ! 2 ! 5 ! 4 f^ 1/ (lll'l^ 4 l/ ^2 3 5 /3) /I (iv) '"'' V2 2 5 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 1 1.e. since : GT = u. compute the following: . 1. let p be one-to-one. : T ^ V by : 1/3 = and {T a' : = is 1. (Hard. Let a: S-* T.a°p'. Let s & S be a preimage M under a° fS. Thus s(a! ° .g. Say we can find a set S and a pair of mappings a and a' of S into T such that a° p — a ° p and a ¥= a'. Note then that {a° li)°a = a o (/3 ° a). 1 Solution: a{a ° p) = (aa)/3 = {a^ + 2)/3 = A(a2 + 2) .45.2)a = (i(i2 .37. and 2a' ° p = (2a')P = Hence the assumption that p is not one-to-one is false and p must be one-to-one..) Let u & U. a([a°p)°a) .41.l)a (lo2-l)2 + 2 and a{a°{li°a)) = (aa)(/3°a) = (a^ + Z)l3°a = ((a2 + 2)/3)a = ((|(a2 + 2) . 2aop = (2a)y8 = t'p = u. Define a: S-*T by la = 1.. a° p one-to-one if and only if for every set — a' ° p implies a = a'. p : T^ U and a°.) Solution: ^T p : T -> U Let us assume that for every set U and every pair of mappings p and p' of T into U such that a° p = a° p'. 2} a o y8 is and U= {1}.2}.(^a^ .

p and /?'. is called a binary operation in S. We sometimes refer to s-t or st as the product of s and t. sa°p = (sa)p = 1 and sa° p' = {sa)p' = 1. j) -^ j (iv) ^ i + j + i^ Solution : In (i).Sec. For every pair of integers (m. Now if s&S. (iv) PXP-*P : (i.n) G Z xZ is denoted by + n. (iii) .2) ^ 1 h. s + t or sxt. (iv) and (v) define mappings from P X P into P. Here we have a contradiction because we chose t^p ¥' t^p' . BINARY OPERATIONS Definition The idea of a binary operation is illustrated which may be analyzed in the following way. s + t and s x Ms simply the image of (s. t/3' = Conversely. (ii) : {i. st. in (ii). 2} and define the mappings /3 and p' of T into U as follows: tji = X for all t ?^ tj in T and tiyS = 2. We therefore conclude P = P'. f)/3 (the image of (s. and in (iii). where S is any non-empty set. (i. 1. j) -* i^. The following problems will help to plicative.p' means there is a tj S T such that *iy3 # ti. j) S P. make the various notations clear. (iii) : -^ ix (regular multiplication of integers). s-t. So a is a binary operation in P.5 a.g. -^2i+ (v) PXP ^ P by a : j)^i + j + (i. a is clearly a mapping from P X P into P. j) j) G P. Hence they define binary operations in P. Furthermore. since a is onto.5] BINARY OPERATIONS a. 1.2) -^ 1 -2 = -1 gP. We may ZxZ into Z where m SxS These notations suppress the binary operation /3. S't. j) {i.46. We shall sometimes write instead of (s. n) there is therefore think of addition as being a brief the image of {m. assume a is onto and we can find a set U and two mappings. j) (ii) : -* i +i —j (iii) a a : : {i. (ii) and do not define binary operations in P because not every element in P X P has an image in P: e. P ¥. {i.j) 1. j) ^i-^ j a : (i. Which of the following are binary operations (i) in P (throughout (v) e P^) ? a a : (i. (i) a: a: a: a: a: PXP ^ P P XP P P X P -* P -* defined by a defined by a defined by a defined by a defined : (i. of T" into U such that a°p = a°p' and P ¥. t) under the given mapping associated a unique integer description of a mapping ot m + n. j) e P X P.47.. Problems 1. j) + j. j) -» i {i. But a ° y8 = a° p' implies (sa)p = (sa)/3' or tiP = tiP'. e P X P. confusion. so there is danger of However. preimage under all t Let 1 U— e r. a: (1. 1. Incidentally. since sa # ij. where Sj. where {i. j) -* i (i. st.2 = | g P. Any mapping /3 ot into S. the notations s t and st are termed multiand the notation s + 1 is termed additive. We stress that in all these cases the meaning of the various expressions sot. {i. we will work with binary operations and the various notations so frequently that the reader will become familiar with the pitfalls. • +t sxt s The notation s o Ms called the circle notation. and s + t as the sum of s and t. we read ^ of Sx S into S.P'. Thus a must be onto. we can find s S S such that sa = i. j) {i. t) under (3) one of sot. Hence a° 13 — a° p' and /3 t^ y8'.8'. j) e P. 19 for {1. j where {i. by the usual operation of addition in Z. Sot s • as "ess circle tee" as "ess dot tee" or "ess times tee" i st as "ess tee" or "ess times tee" as "ess plus tee" as "ess times tee". a: (1. Convince yourself that the following mappings are binary operations in P. This contradicts the assumption that a° p = tt° p' implies p = /?'.

-6).ce Q*. 3)^3.50. j) ^ i+ 27} 1. If If a -^ b (ii) (iii) (a-.y') B R^. ((l.2)a. a: defined by S -* S and p S : -> (a.y + y'). (1.2)->l. y). 1) -* 2.S. (1. then s{a ° p) = {sa)p ^ S defined by = ip — 2 and 1.49. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS i [CHAP.yy'). then b then 6 = c. 3) -* 2. Check whether the following statements hold for all a.2. 3) (2.) o is a binary operation since two points determine a unique line and each line has a unique midpoint. y) (ii) + — [x'.y)'(x'. is a binary operation in X. 2) -> 3. (i) (i.20 SETS.8 = = (1. ((i. (2. (iii) No.3)/?)^. j) e Z^. 2)a. Check that the following are binary operations (i) in the plane R^. 1. are two mappings of spo a = (sp)a = 2a = 1.. {a. Interpret the following (abbreviated) definitions of binary operations in Z. (2.y)°{x'. V) ° (*'» y') (x'. midpoint of the line joining (^.8 for (2. ((1.1)^3. 3)/3).2)->3. (iii) (x. (1. ((1.j)^(t a : (ii) + . (1. Hence a° P ^ P ° a. 3)/3 (1. a # . jR2. 1) -* 1. and p S : into S.y). 2. {xx'. y) e R^ to the point ix. (3. R^. 3)a = (1. j)^i. Let (i) (ii) S = {1. {i. (x. 1.)2 {i. 3} and let a and p be the following binary operations (2.l)/3. Let Q* be the set of nonzero rational numbers. (iii) a: (i. (2.l)a-l. (i) a H- 6 = 6 -=- a.y) (x.y').y') = {x.52. 3)^8 (1. (1. 2/) = where 2/ (x. page 15). 3/') = (x — x'. l)a = 2 and = (l. (3.'. define if {x. (2. 3)a)a = (1. {(a-^b)-^c)-. (iii) = p ° a for all elements p S Xl Solution : (i) |Z| = 27 (see Problem 1.l)a. (ii)-(v) are binary operations because each has a unique image by virtue of the fact that addition. . is again a mapping of a binary operation. l)/3. 2/') S (Notice here Solution: (i) how we have abbreviated the definitions of the binary operations considered.j)^ii a : X j (vi) (i. p) S & is X^.(x'.2)^1. — = (x + x'. a.y) ¥= (x'.3)^2. 2)^8. If {. where arbitrary elements of Z. (2. (x'. 2/). (i) and j denote i° j i (ii) = {i + i)^ +j = i—j— (iii) i°j ij = i i-k-j (v) j (vi) 1X3= i' j V t {ix j) (iv) = — ix = + 27 j Solution: Throughout.x. 1) -^ 3. 1 1. 1) ^ 8. y') e e.y') (a. (3.1) -*1. multiplication and subtraction are binary operations in R.l). 3)a)a. jR^.51. 3)a = 2. P)t!- = a° p. l)a.3)^2. y') G B^ where where where (x. 2/'). j) (ix j) (iv) a: j) -* i ^i + — j i (v) a: (i. (ii) Compute (iii) Compute : ((l. the point (x.b.(x'. (iv) -rib-i-c).- — a -(6 (c^d)).j = a : (i. (2. l)y8 = 3. Is a = pi ((l. (3. x'2/ + j/'). {x'.l)/3.c — a d (v) 6 -^ a — = a c ^ -i- c. 2/) ° (x'. Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (2. 2. For example. (3.y') (x.(2. Make sense of the remark that division (denoted as usual by -^) is a binary operation in Q*. (iv) (a. (2. 2/') (v) (x. S^ = S 1 for all s€.y).l)/3 ((l. S into S. 2) -* 2. (x'. (3.3} \X\. 3) in S: (1.3)a.8 = l. (1. -^3.30.y). 3)/3 = = of 2. 2)^. (ii) The composition of mappings Therefore ir:X^^X.48. ((1.l)a = (l. if a: S defined by sa sp .y').l)a. and let X be the set of all mappings S into S. (1. 3)a = 2. ^ 3. 2) -* 1.2 for all s e S. Compute a° p Verify that the composition Is o of mappings a. 3) -* 1 p: (i) (1. y') = = {x + x'. Let S= a : {1.

If a°b = a°c and a ¥= —1. 6. «°6 = °+ ^-"'""^ ^ . l°0 = (c) f # ao(6°c) since 6 (ao6)oc for some a. = 2° -£ = 2. Therefore 6 + a6 = c + ac. y) o (x'. yx'x" — yy'y" + xy'x" + xy"x') {x. 3 # -=- 3 2 -^ 2.y')o{x".y)o(x'x" . 6 a + 6 + a6 = c.x. (loO)oO = ^oO = A and lo(OoO) = loO = (ii) J.55.y')Ax". Prove that if a # —1. {x{x'x" {{x. R. Let (i) o be the binary operation in J? defined by a°b = a+ b + ab. c G Q. y") {{xx' — yy')x" — {yx' + xy')y". e.54.g. y) ° (x'. (c) a°6=^!-t-^ 3 Determine which of the above binary operations satisfy (a o 6) o c = o o (6 o c) for all a.yy' = = — {x. For all a. y") . since -r- a ¥= 0. 2-2 + 4 = 4 and 2° (0° 2) = 2° (0-2 + 0) (oo6)oc ^ ao(6oc) for some a. y') o (x. 1. Hence -^ if -^ is w/x G Q* and y/z&Q* where w. then a°h = a°c For all iff b = c. e. (ii) (2 h. a True. -1. Let all (i) o be the binary operation in R^ defined by (x. then (i) is w/x 2 a binary operation in Q*. „ a (6) + - + 0. False. 6 SQ (2o0)o2 = (2 — + 0)o2 = 2o2 = e.y'y") . —+— o a b = b a = b°a . Verify that for (x.6c) = a-\-b + c-\-bc-\-ab-\-ac + abc a°b = a + b + ab = b + a + ba = b ° a If 6 = c. Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) + b + ab)°c = a + b + ab + c + {a+ b + ab)c = a + b + c + bc + ab + ac + abc a°{b°c) = ao{b + c+bc) — a + 6 + c + 6c + a(6 + c4. Let ° be the binary operation in (a) Q defined by (b) aob = a-b + ab. y) ° {(x'. = {x.y")) = = — = = (xx' yx' + xy') = (x'x . y')) ° (x" y") . y) ~ yy'.Sec. for -^ y/z = wz/xy S Q*. y) o (x'. — c ^ a implies ab — ca.y) (ii) {(x.y)°(x'. yx' + xy') o («".y). 6. V aob¥=b°a a°6 = . y') = (xx' — yy'.b e. ^ 2) -^ 2) -^ 2 = 1 and 1 h.b. 6.53.y')o(x. y')) ° (x".g.y") 1. e. y) o (x'.1) ((1 (iii) (iv) True. y{x'x" . yx'x" + xy'x" + xx'y" — yy'y") {xx' .5] BINARY OPERATIONS 21 Solution: Division integers. Hence b = c.y{y'x" + y"x'). then a o 6 = a o c for any a. c = b.y'y. a°b = b°a. 1. y'x + x'y) = (x'.y'y") + x{y'x" + y"x')) {xx'x" — xy'y" — yy'x" — yy"x'. 6(1 + a) = c(l + a) and. False. y') ° (x".cGR.g.y. a + e + ac.(x'. {yx' + xy')x" + {xx' — yy')y") {xx'x" — yy'x" — yx'y" — xy'y".y)o{{x'. False.(-2) -4 = 0. cGQ.y")&Rh = (x'. {a°b) o c = a° {b° c). = a ^ e implies ac = ab and.g. 6.z are a mapping of Q* X Q* -* Q*. (loO)oO = ^oO = ^ and 1°(0°0) = e.(2 (2 ^ 2)) = |. Solution: (i) (a) (6) {aob)°c¥' ao(boc) for some a. c S Q (i) (ii) a ° 6 = 6 o a for all a. (a) /.y)o{x'. 1°0 = 1 and 0°1 a = . = 1. y') ((«.y'))o{x". as a ¥= 0. y")) Solution: (i) (ii) (x. since a ¥= (oofe)oc = (a then —1. -^ & (v) b -^ a = 1 and 2 -h (1 ^ 2) = 2 ^ | = 4.ceQ. yx' + xy').g. Verify that: (ii) (iii) a.y') (x.g. e.y'y" y'x" + y"x') .6 = + 3 I' 6 + + 6a = 6oa /\ (c) o°6 = I.

(3. (iii) y : (1. {i. /x (3. j) e S^. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP. (2. (2. (3.2. we put {i. looks like the usual multiThus when we talk about a it There is a reverse procedure to the one described above. 3} and let /i be the binary operation in S defined by ^: (1. 2) -^ 1.3)^0 Then there is a natural {i. (1.3}. 3) ^ ^ 2. j)ti way We simply define We to be the entry in the (1. (1.1)^1. A table of this kind is termed a multiplication table because calls fi plication tables. 2) -3. 3) -» 3. (2.3)^2. More generally. Solution: 12 2 3 3 3 1 12 1 1 (ii) 3 1 1 12 13 3 2 1 3 2 1 (i) 12 12 1 1 1 (iii) 3 1 1 1 11 . multiplication /j. 2) -> 2.1)^2. (2.1)-1. 3) 1. shall usually define multiplications in a finite set by means of such Problems 1. One often in a set S. (3. that ft is a binary operation in S.56. 3) ^ = 1. j)p 1 for all (i. 2) -> 3.2. (3. (3. To explain this procedure. = 3. 1) -^ 2. (3.j)th square.e. -3.3}.3)^ 2. y)/i.' Write down the multiplication tables for the following binary operations in S (i) = {1. 3)/^ = 3 in the square that is the intersection of the row facing 2 (on the left) and the column below 3 (on the top). So far we have introduced a number of definitions and notations and familiarized ourThe object of this section is to introduce a "table" as a convenient way of either defining a binary operation in a finite set S or tabulating the effect of a binary operation in a set S. i)th place in the table. (3. For example. 1) ^ 1. out with a table For example. ^ 3. (3.2)ft = 3 tables. 1) ^ 3. = 1.22 SETS. (2. in the {i. 2. The multiplication table selves with them.1)^1 of associating with this table a binary operation /x in {1. 2) -» 3. 3) -^1.2)^1. 2) -^ 1. 2) -> 1. we mean a multiplication in S. 1 b. (2. (2. 1) -* 3. (ii) : S2 -^ S defined by (i. the intersection of the ith row (the row labelled or faced by i) and the ith column (the column labelled by j).2) (2. (1. i. 3) -2 Then a table which sums up this description of is 112 2 3 2 3 12 13 3 3 2 We put the number (2. (3. 3) a /3 : (1. (1. 1) -* 1. (1. 1) -* 2. suppose we start 112 2 3 2 3 3 2 13 (2. suppose S = {1. (2. (1.

using circle notation. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 = 1.. i)/3 as (i.4}? 12 1 3 4 3 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 Solution: The table does not give a binary operation in {1.3}? 23 1. write i. = = 1.:. 1. 1. 1. Problem 3 + 1 = j (. additive notation. i. 4 and j = 1.58(iii): = 1. etc. 2. 4.4). 3. 3. (i = 1.ZA). 3. 2. {i. 3. 4 and .4} defined 1 1 by the following tables. 4 + 4 = 1.57. (j 2. 4 +4 = 3. 2.58(iii): j (j 1.3. 3}. (3. (3. Problem 4. 3. 3-4 = 4-3 = Problem 2.Sec. 4). = l. 4). 2. also does not define a binary operation in {1. 1) ^ .2) (iii) (t. 2.58(i): 1 +3 = 1. 2 3 = 3 «2 = 1. 4). 3. -> 3. 4). 4 (c) Problem 1. and / 3.) ^i (. 3o4 = 4o3 = 1. 3) ^ 2. (4. (i. 3. 2. (2. = 2. 4). 2. j) (4. 2. 2. (2.e.4).4). (2. 3} since (1.e. 3-3 = 4.3. write i. 4o4 = 3. 3. (2. 4) ^ 1. i) ^. 1. 2 1 = y (/ = = 2-4 = 1.3. = 1. 4). 3. because (1.4}. = = 304 = 403 = 1. ^i {i= 1. 2. 3.4). 4). 3. (3. i + j. 2. 2. 3. Solution: (a) Problem 1. . • 2 = 4. (2.2. (2.2. 1 °i 2. 3. 4) -^ 2.. (4. = 1. 4).3 = Problem 2.3)^2.4 = 4. 4). 3 + 4 = 4 + 3 = 2. 2o2 = 3.2. 2 • 3 = 2 3 • 2 = 3 4. 1.4). (4. 3) -^ 4. 4). 2. 2) -* 1. 2. 1.58(i): 1°i = i (i 2. j)/3 as t ° /. • 1. 2-2 = 2 3. 2. 2 o 2 = 4. 3 + 3 = 4. Problem 1.58(ii): 4. 2) -^ 4.2)^3. 4). 2.e. 3." o 1 = i (. 4. 3) -^ 4 € {1. 4). 2) -^ 4.58(ii): 1 + i = i and i + 1 = i (i = 1. 3. (. Write down explicitly the binary operations in {1. 4).5] BINARY OPERATIONS in {1. .59. j (j = = 2. have The table no images.4)->l. 2-4 = 4-2 = i'j i 4-4 = 1. 1) ^ 3.3.58. write j)p as j. (ii) (1. (j.58. 3 • 3 = 1. (3. 3.3)^1. 4) ^ (4.4 = 4. (4. • 3 = • 2 = 1. 2 + 2 = 4. = = (i i (.2. 2. 3. 2 3 4 1 2 2 4 1 3 3 1 4 4 3 2 1 2 3 3 4 1 1 1 1111 2 3 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 (iii) 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 (ii) 4 2 (i) 3 4 4 4 Solution: (i) (I. 4 and i = 1.58(ii): !•} = - j and 3. 3 +4 = +i = i 4 + 3 = = 1. 1. (2.' = 1. 2. Problem 1. Rewrite the three binary operations in Problem (a) (6) (c) 1.58(iii): i + j = i (t = 1. 1.4)^3. Does the following table define a binary operation In {1. 2. 4 and j = 1.58(i): !•} - j 3. (3.3.2.4)-»2. 3) ^ 1. 2 + 2 = 3. (i i • 1 = i (j = 1. i • multiplicative notation. 2) ^ 1. 3. 4). 2o3 = = 3o2 = 3o3 = 303 = l. 2 + 4 = 4 + 2 = 3. 3) -* 4. (3. 204 = 402 = i (i 404 = j Problem (6) ioj 1. 2. 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 = + 2 = 2 + 4 = 1. (3. 4o2 = 2o4 = jo\ 3.

(v) 2. What wrong with B 1. Find SinSaO ••• nS„ and 1. The sets Sj (i = 1. 7).2.. If E and is F are equivalence relations on S. (6.67. XnB (v)ZnCcA. of these sets take the place = C.}} and B = {-3.a)GE. and {n n = 3 + 4g for q G Z}. for any sets S.68.4}. a) G E. Let r P be the set of positive integers and S = + w = s + t} is an equivalence relation on S.62.s). of X if (i) X — C = 0. If (a. (t. Supplementary Problems SETS 1.66. A = E= (ii) {—3. SiUS'2U---uS„. 3. 0. -1. Show that E= {p\ p = {{r. In Chapter 2 we begin to place restrictions on binary operations. {n\ n = 2 + 4q | 1. D = {-4. If P is E= {(a. Find an example of a subset E of P^ which is . transitive property. P^. Let 3}.24 SETS. G S^ and Find the E-class determined by 1. of a single integer. Find | and n odd}. -1..2. 1 A look back at Chapter 1 began with a few remarks about sets. O = {« nG Z F={m| nGZ and w divisible by 4}. —q} for each q G Z. OnF.. {1.0. (iii) if the equivalence classes are (ii) if every equivalence class consists {q. show that reflexive and transitive but not symmetric. n= l + 4q for q e Z}.63..5}.a)GE implies (a. (vi) OnT. 0}. (ii) EuT. B = {-4. T and W. 1. (iv) TuF.-1. But by the and transitive Therefore £7 is also reflexive. 6) i (a..65. Without some specialization we can say very little. F = 0. 1.. Zu(BnD) = A? if Prove ScT if and only (TnC)uS = Tn(CuS) for every set C.3}}. (ii) EuF a. (iii) TnFnEnO. MAPPINGS AND BINARY OPERATIONS [CHAP.-2. 1.n equivalence relation on S? 1. {a. (iv) XqB and X is not a subset of E.-4. {-5. T = {n\ nG Z and n divisible by (i)EnT.5}. C = {-5. Prove Let Sn{TuU) = {SnT)D{SnU). is (i) EnF. (a) the set of positive integers. products. —2.1. is a non-empty subset of S^ which has the symmetric the following argument: properties. relation. . 1. then by the symmetric property. 6) G pa and a divides 6} is (6) (c) not reflexive. -2.71. Find AuB and AnB.61.w)) (4. We then introduced the idea of cartesian This led to the idea of an equivalence relation on a set. CARTESIAN PRODUCTS Prove S X (TuW) = (SxT)u(SxW) 1. —1. if any. Which.69. (vi) 1. on Z: (i) if qeZ}. followed by the definition of a binary operation. We In this book we are mainly concerned with binary operations in sets.60.4}.. .70. . n) are such that Sj C Sj+i (i = 1. . Then the notion of a mapping was defined. .4. the equivalence classes of F are {n\ n = Aq for for g S Z}.-3.2. {1. (iii) X C C but X is not a subset of A. Find the equivalence {n\ E. and E = {n\ nG Z and n even}.b)GE and (b. b) S E. Find an example of a subset E of P^ which is both symmetric and transitive but reflexive and symmetric but not transitive. Given A = {-3.3. At this stage the reader may wonder what one could possibly say about binary operations in a set.64.-3. w-1).3.

X ^ sin X.x.81. for any subset of S. 1. If A and B are any subsets of S. and (iii) y: x -^ tan x are one-to-one mappings of S onto T. 1] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 25 MAPPINGS 1. f^-. f^:x-^^. Define a: E -* E by na — n for all n&E. giving in each case the domain and codomain of each mapping defined. F.^ = ^.. and (iii) A CB implies AaQBa.CHAP. 1} that fi-. COMPOSITION OF MAPPINGS 1. p and y as the composition of two mappings. Show a° p is an onto mapping.78.80.73. How many different binary operations can be defined on a set of 3 elements? 1. ./3. Secondly. find an appropriate subset in each case. First.x-^—^. i. and (iii) y : x -> ^/l-x^ define mappings of non-empty subsets of the real numbers R into R. . show: (AnB)acAanPa.76. . i. and r is the number of distinct primes dividing x f-l (iii) y: X -* \ [ 1 if X < ifx = if X > (iv) S : x -> sin2 x + cos^ x 1.e.82. (ii) Let S be a subset of a set T. write a. p : T p -> U is onto. Let S be a set and gf the set of all subsets of S. p' of P into P such that : 1. y define /3 : : mappings Let of R into Rt and n even}.x^-—-. and onto implies a is onto. 2. 6) of jB - {0. Which of the mappings a. Prove a ° /3 is one-to-one. of mappings /j (i = 1.S of the preceding problem are equal? 1.e. < .8 {n\ nG P for all by «[e = 2w « and = Z?. Suppose a « = (ii) a mapping of a set S into a set T and. Show (i) that the following define mappings of Z into Z. Find an infinite number of mappings a'. is x ^ 1 . is W Wa (i) {t\ t^T and sa for (AuP)a = AaUBo:.{0.74. Show that intersection and 1.77. . /?. (ii) Find subsets S(^0) and T(^0) of the real numbers i2 such that the mappings (i) a x -* cos x. Given a:S-*T X -» sin (x^).x-^^^^.83. BINARY OPERATIONS 1. a a: T -^W. Ixj ' ' = yxl\x\ if cc y^ \ ' ' \-x if a. Suppose a: S ^ T is onto and 1. (ii) ^.79. E = M. f^-. (i) a : (ii) /? : x -^ sin (sin (x)). some s&W). . Show composition of mappings a binary operation on F and write a multiplication table for the operation.y. X „ ^ f if _ jxl l^l = or 1 \ [(—I)'' if # or 1.. Do a. and p E -^ E w S £. Consider the by: set. a: X ^ \ \x\ is the absolute value of x. is one-to-one and : T^ U is one-to-one. 1. 1} into R defined for each x /g : G ft .x-^x. 1. Prove: (i) a one-to-one implies a is one-to-one.. f^-. gf = {A | A C S}.72. union define binary operations on gf.75.

{1.chapter 2 Groupoids Preview of Chapter 2 In this chapter we define a set G together with 1. binary We shall mostly use a multiplicative notation write g-k G= 13 3 2 211 2 3 • Then the pair (G. gs for In order of increasing specialization gi {gi ° fl'2) = ° ga in G. and a binary operation when dealing with groupoids. addition (+) and multiplication (X). define a group we need the concepts of identity and inverse. Homomorphism is a more general concept than isomorphism. and group. 1-2 = 3. h)ti. Repeating this definition in general terms. f^) is a groupoid. introduce the semigroup Mx of mappings of that. Z has two binary operations. etc. We X Mx is other important concepts we deal with are homomorphism and isomorphism.92 » gs) A groupoid with set all gi. each semigroup is contained in some Mx. Two 2.hGG. There is an isomorphism between two groupoids if they are essentially the same but for the names of their elements. there is a fixed binary operation o to be a groupoid. As an example. g.) [j. ° (. . gi. then 1-1 = 1. the two together constitute a groupoid.2.1 a. consisting of a non-empty set G.3} and let /x be the in our consideration of binary operation. To ideas./x. The set Z is one thing. 2-2 = 26 1. let operation in G defined by the following table. As we remarked without making The at the end of Chapter restrictions. semigroup. a binary operation in Z is another. and operation o Such a groupoid is is we have the concepts of groupoid. Consider the set Z Definition: A groupoid is a pair (G. Suppose we use multiplicative notation . Thus we This notation has been used in Chapter 1 or simply gh for {g. G said to be associative called a semigroup. GROUPOIDS Definition of a groupoid of integers. 3-2 = 2. little one can say about binary operations first restriction is if that of associativity. but for the names of the elements. called the carrier. in G. Hence we discuss these The importance of into X.

2)f. followed by tracing 4This type of groupoid {L.h)ix.C. If we have already been given a binary operation the groupoid (G. /*). a°b defines a unique rational number a + h + ab. By a path we mean any line which can be traced out by a pencil without raising the point from the paper.) or (G.l)ix employed 2.e. 2. 2)/i = 2. is defined by aa° /3 = (aa)p. and is once again a mapping of {1. 2. Let S where makes be the set of all mappings of {1. +). Suppose now that (G. the composition of a and /?. For example. defined by a°b — a + Then (Q.C. °) is then a groupoid.2} and let n be the binary operation in G defined as follows: (2. then a: {1. •). it is entirely in R^ — C). i.. we write goh instead of {g. 0) of the coordinate system. 3}. shall we Simh)ix.o) to refer to the groupoid (G. it is understood that we in G. The composition sense.gxh respectively for {g. o) is a groupoid. 2.Sec. 2°2 = 2 (G. (1. ilarly we write (G. Example Let G = {1. (G. let . 3} ^{1. then l^ • I2 is the loop obtained by first tracing out l^. Let L be the set of all such loops in R'^ . 27 These products look bizarre unless we version of {l. 1)m = 1. (G. 2ol = i. 2. a loop in R'^ — C.1] GROUPOIDS recall that the notation 3. = 2 If we use the circle notation. We term any path beginning and ending at 0. 3} into {1. I and m are loops in R^ . °) is a groupoid. 3} Therefore a° p. . a G {1. ix) is a groupoid. •) is of considerable importance in modern topology. 1: sometimes write (G. 2)ix (1. 3}. Example 4: Let B2 be the plane. we have 1. because for every pair of rational numbers a and h. 3} ^ {1. /j. the rational numbers. the unshaded area in the diagram. is a shorthand = l. Example be the binary operation in Q." where G is a set. °) is indeed a groupoid. (1. l^ e L. ° is interpreted as the usual composition of mappings.2. 2. If we use the circle notation for /j. which does not meet any point of C (i.g + h. 3} and /? : {1. 2. use the expression "the groupoid G. (S.e. Then there is a natural binary operation in L which we denote by • thus if l^. let there be a cartesian coordinate system in R^ and C be the disc of radius 1 with center at the point (2. 3} into itself. 2. and that we have been talking about i^.= l.C.2)m = (2./x).2)m = etc. Consider the region R^ . x) if we employ g'h. for if a. (2. 1)m = 1. j3 G S. 1°1 = The pair Example 2: lo2 = 2. Further. Let b o + ah. (3. Then (S.2.

Is {Z. the set of rational numbers with the usual binary operation of division. for if a # 6. U) groupoids? Both intersection n and union U are binary operations on T. Are (T. 2 3 « Z. and the image of each 1-5 element is the same under both mappings.3 equal? No. 4} and i°j = l for i and J elements of S. o) is not . for the intersection or union of two subsets of S is again a unique subset of S.aX b. ° in (i) Therefore (Z. Solution: The groupoids in (i) are clearly the same. °) is a grou poid in (ii) through (v). o) is a groupoid since a groupoid. a°b ¥. 6 (iii) (F. X). too are the groupoids in (ii). The multiplication integer. and (Z. Therefore + is a binary operation in F and (F. +) is a groupoid. o) where a°b . a^b€Z (i) a.a for all a and (Z. for " is if clearly a binary operation in S. Problems 2. Are any two Solution: of the groupoids in Problems 2. —) is a. — ). aG R. — ) and (Z.4. b e Z. n) and {T. (v) a ° 6 = ^/a+b .1. Therefore - is not a binary (iv) because a is not defined for any aS Q e. 2. 6 £ Z. n) and (T.2. (Z. (iii) aob-a-b-ab. the set of integers with the usual binary operation of division. a + /3 is clearly a unique mapping of R into R and hence is an element in F. Remember. (ii) a°b = {a+ 6)2. 3.2. X) where a X 6 = & for all a and 6 in Z. U) are groupoids. (ii) {Z. +) is not the groupoid with F as the carrier and the composition of mappings as the binary operation. the real numbers. Thus (T.o) {Z.: 28 GROUPOIDS Example [CHAP. 2. Equality of groupoids groupoids are equal if and only if they have the same carriers and the same binary operation. b)ii b. the set of positive integers with the usual subtraction as binary operation. So the same as (Z. Notice that {F. a. -^). -V) is is a-b^P -^ all e F.5. where S = {1. elements a. We define the mapping a + p R -^ R by a{a + p) — aa + ap. {Z. does not define a binary operation in Z since y/a + b is not always an Let S be any non-empty set and T the set of Solution all subsets of S. Solution: All but (i) define a binary operation in Z. (ii) (iii) (F. into R. b. +) and (Z. Solution: (i) (S. ). then a—b for is a unique element of Z. where (a. (iv) (v) {Q. m). -^) is not a groupoid operation in Q. 6 in Z. — ) is not a groupoid since operation in P. 2 5: Consider two Let F be the set of all mappings of R. — the set of integers with the usual subtraction of integers as binary operation. °) a (iv) a o 6 = groupoid if o is defined as o 6 = a? 0. : Problems 2.p & F. Therefore division 2. In (iii) (Z. a binary operation was defined as a mapping and two mappings are equal if and only if they have the same domain and codomain. °). Thus the groupoids described in Examples Two are all different.g. Are the following groupoids? (i) (S. and hence -^ -^ is not a binary (v) not a groupoid since not a binary operation in Z. Which (i) of the following pairs define equal groupoids? (ii) (iii) =a+ (Z.1-2. (Z.3. +). (Q. for all a. where a^b = a—b.

is also For the most part we shall use the multiplicative notation for a groupoid {G. Of course it is not clear that there are non-commutative groupoids. •) Similarly if (Z.2) + 5 = b + a and for all {a + h)-\. G 2 = 2 not a semigroup. groupoids which are definitely not commutative. 2.3) in an arbitrary groupoid {G. i_ we must examine i i not commutative. If the groupoid is commutative we will use the additive notation instead of the multiplicative notation. 2. and a groupoid satisfying {2. 2. (d) = ioi = 2°(1°1) = 2°1 = l°(2ol) = ioi = lo(lo2) = lo2 = lo(loi) 2.1) {2. Definition of commutative and associative groupoids +) be the groupoid of integers under the usual operation of addition. We term a groupoid satisfying {2. so o 2 = 1 but 2 o (1 o 2) = (2 o 1) = 2.6) a.c = a-^{h + c) a. and similarly it is not clear that there are nonassociative groupoids. i. is Furthermore. so G G is not commutative. The order of a groupoid (G.c G Z.e.b.o) is a groupoid.e. (G. is the groupoid of integers under multiplication. Similarly the analog of {2.5) commutative or abelian. non-associative. Let G = {1. The analog of {2. and fi. 3 and 5 are commutative and which are associative? Solution The groupoid of Example To (a) (6) (c) 1 is shovir (G.^) and simply talk about the groupoid G. in the integers./x) is infinite if \G\ is infinite.Sec. a Then {2. e. Which of the groupoids in Examples 1. G and is denoted by |G[.o) is aob — boa for all {2. /x) is the number of elements in is finite.{h-c) a. o) is {2.2 COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS Let (Z.b. = ioi = (2ol)°l = loi = (lo2)ol = 2oi = (lol)o2 = lo2 = (loi)oi i {g) {h) = 2o(lo2) = 2o2 = lo(2o2) = io2 = 2o(2oi) = 2oi 2o(2o2) = 2o2 = i. = 2ol = (2 ol) 02 = 102 = (lo2)°2 = 2°2 = (2o2)ol l 2 2 2 2 2. (2o2)o2 = 2o2 = . since 1 o 2 = 2 and 2 the following 8 cases: (e) (/) o 1 = i.1) and {2. a • 6 = = b ' a {2.2) and {aob)oc = ao{boc) for all a.g.nite if \G\ Problems 2. 2.2} and let o be the following binary operation in G: 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 Then i.c a.c G Z.c G G.6. o) is associative i^ 1. (2 o 1) o Observe that lo2 = 1 but 2°! = 2.6) associative or a semigroup. (G.A) and for all {a-b). but is associative.4) in (G. since we are accustomed to addition as a commutative binary operation.b GG.5) {2. Thus a semigroup is an associative groupoid.2] COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS 29 2.3) {2. We settle the issue now.b.

. °) is clearly a commutative groupoid. Show that the set Q* of nonzero rational numbers with binary operation the usual division of rational numbers. ^ "^ (i - i) = i) ^ i).c. Construct an example of a commutative groupoid of order Solution: 3. In Example 2 the set S of all mappings of {1. Therefore division is a binary operation in Q*. 2/3 = 1 and 3/3 = 1. IDENTITIES AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS The identity of a groupoid e in Let G be a groupoid written multiplicatively. Let S= {a. there are an To show that : as follows. into itself contains 27 elements.g. a o (6 o c) = a o (6 + c + 6c) = (a + (6 + c + 6c)) + a(6 + c + 6c) = a + 6 + c + 6c + a6 + ac + a6c and (ao6)oc = (a+6 + a6)°c = a+6 + a6 + c + (a + 6 + a6)c = a+6 + a6 + c + ac+6c + a6c. 3. f = I ^ 6 = (i ^ |--^i = 2#| and in = i-|) Problems nor associative (e.8.pe. The groupoid in Example 3 is both commutative and associative. c} and the binary operation a a a b c o be defined by the multiplication table 6 6 c c a c c a (S. 2. since there is an infinite number of nonzero rational numbers. °) is not finite as In Example mappings of R r^iGR and ipj 5 the set into F is infinite. Also. Notice the pj are not all the elements of F. 2^ a. 6.g. 2a = 3 and 3a = 2. f "^ | = |^ is ^ unique element in Q* /^T^O is 6. +) is also a semigroup. number of rational numbers.8. In Example 5 the groupoid (F. +) + a). (S. Since the binary composition of mappings is an associative binary operation (Problem 1. different elements in F. 2. Let pj iJ -* Clearly p^ = pj iff i = j.41. Using the associative and commutative properties of addition and multiplication in the rationals. However. for a{{a + P) + y) = a{a + p) + ay = aa + y) = a{a + (/3 + y)) (here we use the associativity of addition in R). (here we 2.7 and 2. Which of the groupoids in Examples 1-3. division neither commutative i 2. we construct an infinite number be defined by rpi = r for all fi (i = 1. page 18). is a groupoid. since addition and multiplication are commutative binary operations in Q.7 the groupoid has only three elements and is therefore .8 = 1/3 = 2. then la ° ^ = (la). (Q.F and aG R binary operation in R). An element element of G if eg ^ ge = g G is called an identity . Hence a° p ¥= 13° a. R = 0.9. Is it commutative? Is it associative? Solution: If I and since I are any two elements of Q*.30 GROUPOIDS The groupoid is [CHAP. (a/3 + ay) = aa + a(P + a(a + p) = aa + ap = ap + aa = is commutative because use the fact that aa. . °) is an associative groupoid. by 1^ = 2. for if a is defined by la = 1. and so In Example of 3.8 are finite? Solution: The groupoid of Example 1 is clearly finite of order 3. then a. a.2. Q* is not finite. ap G R and addition is a commutative {F.3} is finite.d#oy (e. 5 2. and p defined we a(p see a o (6 o c) = (a o 6) o c.7. In Problem 2. 2 of Example 2 is not commutative. In Problem 2.) Therefore we have found an infinite number of infinite F is not finite finite. 1/3 ° a = (l/3)a = 2a = 3. a°h = a + h + ah = h + a + ba — b°a.

Sec. 3. The groupoid with carrier and multiplication table 1 (a) 1 1 (6) 1 1 2 (c) 1 2 1 2 (d) 1 1 2 1 2 Solution: (i) 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 (Z. e = e'. ee' = e'. +) has the identity element e 0.e. (ii) If this groupoid particular. (e. 2. Theorem 2. For example in the multiplicative groupoid Z of integers. It is instructive to we 2. less natural example is the groupoid {1. Hence there is no identity element. . we shall for the most part reserve the symbol 1 for the identity element. 3-2 = 2 = 2-3.3. 3-3 = 3 = 3-3 identity element. 2. h)ix. numbers under multiplication. j G {1.3] IDENTITIES AND INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS 31 for every g &G.1 in a different notation.bi)(l -f Oi) = a+ + the identity element of the group- i) (v) Only (d) has an identity element. since +z = z+ = z for all z e. Z. 1. In other words if e and e' are identity elements of G. But 1-4-2 = 1/2^2. {1. In = e and so e = 1. e')fx = e'. The identity mapping defined by ji = j. 3. then e^q = q for all 9 in the groupoid. Hence {e. 2. But e' is also an identity element reformulate the proof of Theorem 2. (a 4. Then as e is an identity element. 2} under the composition of mappings. e')fi . is Proof: of G. (ii) (iii) of nonzero rational of complex all numbers under division. Recall ^ that a complex number is any number of the form since a+bi where a. 6 G fi and Oai (iv) = V-i. 4}. is old since i(<i o = (ja)i = ja = (ji)a = i(i o „). 1 is an identity element.10. Since e ee' Hence = e an identity element of G. 4} into itself (iv) (v) The groupoid of mappings of {1. and because the image of any element under the mapping is unique. One might ask vs^hether or not a groupoid can have more than one The following theorem settles this question.1 + (K is the identity element of this groupoid. Thus revert to the notation (G. and so e = e'. 06i2 + bi = a + bi = {1 + Oi){a + bi). it has precisely one identity element. (iii) -=- e had an identity element e. namely 1. then e = e'. b. Problem Which (i) of the following groupoids have identity elements? (Z. But e' is also an identity element.^ Suppose e and e' are identity elements. Inverses in a groupoid If we use multiplicative notation for groupoids.1: If a groupoid G has an identity element.3} with multiplication table given by A 1 2 3 1 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 The element 3 is an identity element of G since 3-1 = 1 = 1. The groupoid The groupoid The groupoid +) under the usual operation of addition./x) and instead of the multiplicative notation gh we write (g.2.

2 and 3. cb Example 7: be the groupoid of mappings of {1. one talks about inverses. 3t = 2.g G G) if gh ^ Clearly if 1 = hg h. let 12 2 3 111 114 2 3 3 4 4 4 element in G. 3cr = 1. integer z has an additive inverse. its own inverse. b is an inverse of c.3. the determining factor being 2x| = l = |x2. In general if G is any groupoid with an identity 1. Here 1 is the identity • • • • Problems 2. as inspection of the table shows.c} be the groupoid with multiplication table a a b h h c c a b c a Then a be is = a = is and a Furthermore. then g is an inverse of Examples follow. Notice that in this groupoid. = 3t = 2. for example. b. Moreover. so that c is an inverse of b. (iii) All nonzero elements in the groupoid of complex a a + bi {a and b not both zero) is 1 numbers under multiplication have any element in the groupoid. is an inverse of a because Let I G defined la o T = (U)t = i. h is an inverse of 6: g. {1. namely —z. 3} into itself. 2or = 3. a. thus 2 has two inverses. then bi bi inverses. b and c have no other inverses.10 which have identity elements. and aa = a = aa. Example Let G= {a.4} be the groupoid with multiplication table For example.2. Then r e G. 2 In the multiplicative groupoid of nonzero rational numbers. 2(T o T = — {2a)T i. i is the inverse of 2. inverses in groupoids are not always unique. -{a+bi) bi = 1 = (a+bi)- bV (0 + Oi) has no in- verse.10(iv)). Then the identity mapping by ji. 2t = 1. 2. we term h an inverse of g {h. defined by It = 3.32 GROUPOIDS [CHAP. 2. 2 2 = 1 = 2 • 2 and 2 3 = 1 = 3 • 2. Consider the groupoids in Problem 2. since + Oi)(a + bi) = (0 + . 2t = 1. ra G— Unlike identities. 4 is not an inverse of 2 even though 2-4 = 1. = j {) = 1. 3) is the identity element of the groupoid (see Problem 2. Scr o r = (3<t)t = It = 3 which implies ar = Similarly. Now let <7 e G be defined by la = 2. the groupoids have inverses? Solution: (i) What elements in each of Any i. for z + (— z) = = (— z) + z. The definition of an inverse requires both 2 4 and 4 2 to equal 1. a bi a is + bi \a + a — — 1 bi 62 62 62' an element in the groupoid and (0 a O-i). the identity element of G.e.11.

thus ca = a and cct = 6. li g G G has an inverse. we obtain —1 + a. = = a. If a ^ —1. page 27).2: Let G be a semigroup with an identity element 1. i. Now a° X — a + X + ax. +) in Example 5 and show that every element has an inverse. -*>*-> 2. since It o (T = (1t)ct ~ CU7 = 1.c. if h and h' are inverses of g. so that x must satisfy the equation a + x + ax = 0. -r a = 0. there is no x such that a°x = 0. °) where a^b = a + b + ab (see Example 3. We define the mapping a which will be an inverse of r. thus if a = —1. To find an inverse for an element aG Q. 2.aa + (— (oa)) = = aa implies a + /3 = a. 2t ° a = b<T = 2. commutative. If a = —1. We therefore define an inverse p for the mapping a by a/S = -{aa). 3. It is tempting to employ the notation used vsrhen dealing with real numbers and write g~^ for an inverse of g. +). Find the identity of the groupoid Solution: (F. 3. 2. +a a = so that ir'. 4}. For aa = + aa = aa + aa = a{a + a) for all a & R implies a + a = a = a + a. (v) Both 1 and 2 have inverses since 1 • 1 = 1 = 1 • 1 and 2 • 2 = 1 = 2 • 2.b. If /3 is an inverse of a.e. Since (Q.is an inverse of t. 2. 2. 3.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT Only mappings t 33 (iv) which are one-to-one and onto have inverses. ct {a. Proof: h = — = = = hi h(gh') (since hi (gh' ^ h for all is h G G) g) = = 1. Solution: is the identity of {Q. Hence we have a contradiction. 2. Hence a + l3 = u = l3 + a and /3 is an inverse of a. As {a.= 3 and d<r = 4.Sec. defined by roo = for all r G R.13. — +a ~T a .d are the elements of {1. d} = is a mapping of {1. ba° t — 2t = b. 2.e. the equa- tion a + X + ax 1 = ^ o can be solved. of {1.3b. a G R. Thus aa + afl = or — (oa) = a/3. 3. 2. Co. a and 6 {a ¥= b) in {1. Say t is a one-to-one mapping itself. a° t = If t is not one-to-one then there are at least two elements. But a(a + P) = aa + ap and aa = 0. Now if o. The mapping aa a: R -^ a{a + a) = + aa = aa + R = 2. giving x = — i. then a(T ° cr) = a and 6(t o o-) = 6 or (aT)(r = ca = a and (6t)<7 = cct = 6. defined by It = a. since h is an inverse of g) . Furthermore. i. 4}. 3t o <t = ca = 3. b. However. — a. since -{aa) is a unique element of R. the associative law on a groupoid prohibits this as we see from Theorem 2. c. since Qoa — O + a + Oa = o and a°0 = a + + Oa = a. ar — c and 6t = c. vi^here a. by T. then h — h'. 2. thus a ° 1. i. her = 2.2. 2t = b. by aa — 1. Consequently if p is an inverse of a.3. The trouble with this notation is that in a groupoid an element may have more than one inverse. Now au t = It = a. since h' an inverse of (hg)h' Ih' h' (by associativity) {hg 1. SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT Uniqueness of inverses Suppose G is a groupoid with an identity 1 and suppose h is the inverse ot g: gh = l — hg. What Find the identity of the groupoid elements have inverses? (Q. cct o t = 3t = c. except —1. 1 have inverses.12. 4}.oa. = — 1 = 0. 4}. °) is is an inverse of a. we must find an x G Q such that aoa. as we have already seen in Section 2. c. then a + 13 = a and a(a + /?) = a<o for all a G R. d} is {1. the image of a G jB under /3 must be the negative of the image of a under a. Hence all elements of Q. But under a mapping each element has a unique image. c. 3. /? is a mapping of R into R. St = c and 4t = d. and 4t ° a = d<r = 4. 4} which are mapped onto the same element. 6. 4} onto {1. °). So t has no inverse. T°a — We must also show a t = i. {F.4 a.4} onto I. a{a + 13) = aa + af3 . it has precisely one. Hence {1. +) is a commutative groupoid. 3. dtr ° T = 4t = d. is the identity of (F.

e. 2. c are equal to 2 and the other and 2 • 3 = 2 = 3 • 2. the identity element of G. 6 or c is 4. and binary operation o defined by a+b — ab.34 GROUPOIDS Theorem [CHAP. G. we find that for ° 1 a = the and that a = 1 has no inverse. is a unique rational number. Now if a.b. = = 1. The followis equal to 2 or 3. o) ? Which elements of the groupoid have inverses? Let G Solution: Notice a+ b — ab in (Q. °). 1234 1 1234 3 2 (6) 2 4 2 4 3 2 1 4 4 4 4 2 (a) 3 4 12 14 12 3 3 4 1234 1111 2 (c) 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 3 4 4 2 3 1 4 4 Which of the groupoids are semigroups? Which have an identity? Which elements have inverses? Solution: (a.b G. if c = 1. Therefore we need only check the products when a.c + abc Hence (Q. Since 4^ = 4 = 9-4 for any g e. 3. G. b. The binary operations on G given by the following tables make G into a groupoid. °) is to that in since Problem aoO = a + — aO = a and a # 2. Is the groupoid (Q. The Using an analysis similar r a-\ identity of (Q. (Notice the reversed order. namely h~^g~^. iigh)h-')g-' = {g(hh~'))g-' (S'l)fi'"' = 99~ Similarly. so that (Q. therefore no element has an inverse. G has no identity element. (ab)c = a = a{bc) Associativity follows from the fact that ab = a for all a. we must check associativity. we must show a{bc) = (ab)c for every a. e are any elements (aob)°c = (a+b — ab)°c = a + b — ab + = a+b + c — ab — ac— bc + abc — = ao(b a c — — {a + b — ab)c — be) and a°(b°c) + c — be) = + 6 + c — 6c — a a. Note that if g and h have inverses. c in G. a{bc) is clearly equal to (ab)c.2 entitles us to denote the inverse of an element g in a semigroup. (6) The only elements which have inverses are and these inverses The identity.6 -\- b -k- c — be a{To \. written hy g~^.c&G. 2. 4}.c — a. 2. o) is a groupoid. 2 multiplicatively. the set of rational numbers.e. {ab)X . are unique. 6 or c is 1. then {ab)c = 4 = a(bc) because 2 • 2 = 4 ing calculations take care of the remaining cases: 3(3 2(3 1 is • 3) 3) = = 3 2 • 1 1 = 3 2 • • = = = 1 • 3 3 = = (3 (2 • 3)3 3(2 3(3 • 3) = 3 3 • 2 2 2 2 = 2 • 3 = (3 • 2)3 2 • • 3)3 • 2) = • = (1-2) 1 = (3-3)2 3. b and c have values 2 or 3.g. b. {h~'g-'){gh) Problems 2. i. then gh has an inverse. is a semigroup. 2.o) a semigroup? Is there an identity element in (Q. °) + o — Oa = inverse of a is a. Notice that when either a. then (ab)c = 4 = a(bc) if either a. To check that a-\ is the inverse of a. Let G= {1. associative law does not hold. (c) G is a semigroup. aob — be the groupoid with carrier Q.) (gh){h-'g-') For. 1 is the and 1. Notice that the inverses are unique even though G is not a semigroup.15. .14. If two of the three elements a. hence for any a. 3 and 4 have inverses.) In order to see that in this case G is a semigroup.12.ab = a(bl). since 4(2 • 3) = 4 • 4 = 1 and (4 • 2)3 = 2 • 3 = 4. b.

°). Solution: (i) The composition of mappings is an associative binary operation (see Problem 1.2. Our problem then — 1 an integer? Let ^^3-j. This is clearly impossible. the inverse of an element a(# a 1) G Z would be "" ^ "-"^ S Z.peG and o 6 F.1) and O — a — 2. since the arguassociativity depended only upon the associativity and commutativity of addition multiplication in Q. a. c and that Solution be three elements in a semigroup this inverse is (c~i6~i)a~i. For example.13. the integers.0 G Q. Let G be the mappings of P. Then a = r(a. Furthermore. as the carrier for the groupoids in Problem 2. Let a. But a & G. b. Prove that a(bc) has an inverse We need only verify that {a(6c)}{(c-i6-i)a-i} = a{(6c)[(c-i6-i)a-i]} = a{[(6c)(c-i6-i)]a-i} = a{la-i} = aa-i = 1 and similarly that {(c-i6-i)a-i}{a(bc)} = 1 to prove the result. If Q is replaced by Z. If a were an identity element in G and if p e G. are the solutions the same? (Hard. However. If a = 0. =0 is an integer.ja + ip = j/3. a H a—1 — a / a \ ) \a— 1/ - a . and so r ^ 2. {Q.o . Then a = r(a.: 1 o Sec.18. Page 18). The same is true for the proof that is the with identity of (Z. (6) Now assume a ^ 0. is: for which integers # a 1 is a ~— ct 2. Therefore (Q. These laws also hold in Z. hence ja = 0.= r. . — 1) =s 2(a . The mapping defined by i°i = j for all j e P is the identity of G. Thus and 2 are the only elements with inverses. -{ —a(a — 1) —^ o— ^^ — = Similarly. a P -> P and. °) has no identity element.). then j{a + P) . Then r must be positive.41.i)t = I JT (ii) - (. then 6°! = 1 and eoO = 0. — 6 + ab) °c — a— b — c+(a~b + ab)c = a~b + all — c ac — bc abe values of a.19.6 into we showed R is : 2. Thus (G. 2. The argument here is similar. —— r ° a = 0. for if Te. (0 ° 0) o 1 = o — 1 = 1. then a + p — p.°) a semigroup? Is there an identity element in (Q. and = e°0 = e — + implies e = 0. Hence o ^ 2(a — 1) and thus . Thus G is a semigroup.15. °) has no identity element.1).o) ment for the and o defined as in Problem 2.) In Problem 2. Is the groupoid (Q. These two expressions are not the same for 2. (a) Assume first that a > 1. °) is not a semigroup. ° 1 = —1 while ° (0 o 1) = Hence (Q. then = 2 is an integer. then /(i t) = (.°)l Which elements of the groupoid have inverses? Solution: (Q. Thus if j e P. into P.17. this is a contradiction. (Compare with Problem 2. But eol = e — 1 + 6 = 1 implies 2e = 2 or e = 1. Clearly r = 1 is impossible.) Solution: (Z.2.16. for if e were an identity. (ii) the addition of mappings. then 1 a ^_.V)i = i(T o . an integer. If a = 2. where a + /3 is defined by a{a + p) — aa + aji. 2. the positive integers. °) is clearly a groupoid. +) has no identity. which have inverses. Therefore a = 2.15 is a semigroup with an identity. b and c.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT a r a—1 35 a ° = a . r must be positive and . Determine whether G is a semigroup with an identity element if the binary operation in P is (i) the composition of mappings. Then G with the binary operation of composition of mappings is a semigroup. Let G be the groupoid with carrier Q and binary operation ° defined by a°b = a—b + ab. If a < 0. since 1. that the addition of mappings in the set F of all mappings of R an associative binary operation.G. a o (6 o c) = = ao (6 — c + 6c) = a — (b —c+ + ab be) + a(b —c+ be) — a — b + c— ab bc + + ab — ac + + abc and (a o 6) o c (a. Note our use of the associative law. which is impossible. since € P.

Theorem Proof: 2.p)y — yy — x by the definition of y. Suppose fx.3: X is any non-empty Mx Mx a semigroup with an identity element.y)p) Since x is Thus (juy)p any element of X. such that i/p = a. i.e. i.4: An element in Mx has an inverse if and only if it is one-to-one and onto. is We shall use the multiplicative notation Mx is a semigroup with an identity. SO that 1 would have two disi. We repeat the definition of the composition of mappings in this special case. To conclude we show y is the inverse of p.2. . Let jn. we define xy-y where y is that of which is the preimage of x under p. which X GX X Since p is onto. Let x G = (a. observe that as p is onto there certainly is at least one element y is the unique element But p is one-to-one. y S Mx. /i or simply ixy. We characterize these elements in the following theorem. instead of If o y./x)y)p = {x{i. Moreover. = i^iyp).(yp) = one-to-one. We now show set. The subset of those elements which have inverses is very important. p G Mx and let x G X. let X X -* be defined by xi = x for all x{ifji) = (Xt)/i = i Xfn. and so Mx {ixy)p and iU. 2(t = 1. distinct elements have distinct images. Then using the definition of composition of 3:idyp)) mappings. for if ay — we have = It = l(CTy) = (lor)y — ly and 2 = 2t = 2(ory) = (2cr)y = ly. p x.(py) To prove the converse. ^p = x.p)y = ic(py) = xi - and (i/p)y — 3/(py) = 2/ Therefore. = (a. then a has no inverse. xl = a. theorem = for complete. = (Xix)i = X{fii) tp. is y. 3} and G Mx is defined by la = 1. Then x = iViAiyi^) = ((^i")y)M = (2/(/^y))^ = (^')m = yi^ = and so yp = i.36 GROUPOIDS The semigroup of [CHAP. tinct Mx consisting of Theorem Proof: (a. then p is onto.(yp) have the same effect on every element of X.4 is complete. We define ft o y to be the mapping of X into X given by A particularly important semigroup into itself.e. as follows: if one-to-one and onto. X For is if x GX.: X ^ X and y: X -* X. The proof of the a 1 Not every element in Mx necessarily has an inverse. — x. will be element xGX. /x. and so py = t. mappings of a set into itself is the set Mx of all mappings of a given non-emptywhere the binary operation is composition of mappings.t all p G Mx. such that Vix. Suppose p has an inverse is a preimage of and xy GX y. then (a.y))p = x{{ii. is a semigroup. 3<7 = 1. To check that the definition of y is meaningful. Then if ^ G Mx.fx)(yp) = ((a. all 2. y. in other words. p Define is one-to-one. For 2/' if — y\i. we assume p shown to be an inverse of p. Then a. We begin by proving a semigroup. 2 b. since y is a mapping. i. if X = {1. images under y.e. For example. hence is an identity element of Mx. each x ^{y\>) GX must have a preimage y GX. xp = j/p implies x is — y. = then x = XiJ. Thus identity element. y.. So y and xp = y. /x. Thus y is the inverse of p and the proof of Theorem 2.. = is p. set X x{tx o y) = {xix)y for all x G X /x • It is clear that o is a binary operation in Mx. i: To show that Mx has an xGX.y)p which contradicts the assumption that y is a mapping.

a„\ ^^jj (..^.22. 1. 5a 5a 5a 3a 3a (iii) = = 4a 4a 4. when a is 1<7 (ii) la la = = = 1.qju^^jj^ ^i\ ^^g elements of and under each element will top row X X appear as its we see unique image under from the example above.g.. e^6 e -* (iii) a-> d -* b. = 1 and . dj}. defined by (i) X= 4ct {1. "'''"^' 2. c -^ c.. {1}.. e}. 5.. b. b -* a.21.\ a^J ^^e the only elements of M.. d. 2. . Write out the multiplication tables of the three semigroups in Problem 2. {a. .. . namely That is. there is a convenient way of denoting any G Mx. 3. 1.a„}. 6 ^ a. (ii) The following are the elements /I of M^^_ 2) { -. 2\ I ' /I { 2\ 1 ' /I ( 2\ /I 2 1 I o i)'( . Notation for a mapping When a X is finite.. „. ^Hl (i) ej (l ij <"') (654321 /I 2 3 4 5 6 (6) The mappings defined by a a -> 6.21(i) and (ii). (ii) X= 1 {1. «) its 2. -* a. image under <j a. a. 6<r = = = 6 1 1 6a 6a (6) What .j> namely ' i : ^ o 1. are represented by the following? /a d d \b Solution: a /a \a b e c d c e\ bJ ^ d /a \e b c d b e a c a /I <"^ 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 2 6\ /I (") 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6\ . (a) Write the element a in Mx. in the notation introduced above. a 2. say X— {ai. 2. 5. c. Ml \»i <H\ 12/ /a. (i) (ii) The identity of M. e. therefore the /^» ^2 as . (iii) Z= {oj. 2(t = 1. e -> e (ii) 6-»e.. X — e\ e . . 1. = 2. is i = /I ( 2 ... 3ct = 5. 2}.^. 3. d-»c.. a. d -» d..J Sec. a. we place below each element ai 1<t of X 2 1 (i X= {1. 2a 2a 2a = = = 4.2. = = = 6. . Problems 2. 2. e -* c.3} and a G Z is defined by = 1 1.4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT 37 c. 6. <t. = 2. .20.\ V«i «i/ \«2 «i/ J W a. = 1. Solution: (i) There is only one element in M. if 3<r = then is represented by 3' 1 2 Notice that every element of has a unique image under an element a in Mx. c-*d. 1. 6}. 4. the identity mapping. Exhibit all elements of M^ when (i) X= . e. elements of b c c M^. All elements of X need not appear in the bottom row.\ /a.

2. Now lcr2<'2 — then JCT3 = ^ ^ {!> 2}. Sa. For example. Now column consists of is taken to 1 by a^.25. /I 2 n \ contains all elements of X once and only {1.2. ii<^2)''2 — ^"2 — 1 ^nd 2^2 2o'2CT2 — and so ^(73(72 = = 1. i and 02 are the only elements which have inverses. Solution: ( 2 . (T3 3 -> 3. Hence a~i 2 -^ 1. 2. ji . "^^ = "4' <T2. Using the result of Problem 2.m which have inverses are 2 2 3\ 12 1 "4 3/ 3\ 1/ "^"^13 _ /I 2 _ /I 3\ 27 3\ "^""(^213 _ /I "^""13 2 2 3 1 _ /I 2 3 2 3 . first Since i is the identity. and if cr S M. hence aj^^ (202)02 — ^"2 — 2.2. As <T is a one-to-one and onto mapping it has. Therefore a is one-to-one. Hence {la. . <T2<r2 a^. if ct . . In the notation of Problem 2. . List all elements of M.j g^j which have inverses. Thus <'3<'2 = ''l- 2.i2) which have inverses. . then each element in X has a unique image under a.22. naj once.26.2 "'^"(312/ 2.24. a^ 1 ff-i 3 -» 3. 2 2 Let "1 "2 and ffs Then the multiplication 2 "z t'S table is 2 "2 ( "1 "1 "1 "1 "2 "3 I "1 "3 <'3 "2 "2 "3 "1 "3 The multiplication Affj 2} 3 is calculated as follows.n} and a G Mx. . Let X= {1. What are the inverses of the elements in Problem 2. find all representations of elements of Solution : Problem 2. 2} takes every element to 2. a ' = ai. viz. and only once.21 (ii). Since = 1. for if j & X it must be one of the elements in the bottom row and j is then an image of the element of X appearing above it in the representation..Tg. by Theorem 2.. Similarly aa^ = so the last and each element of {1.m. we note a^ takes 1^2. = 1. But then cg is its own inverse. ' ( ) 2. 2a.Show that a has an inverse if and only if the bottom row in /I the representation of a given on page 37.. we have /I I 2\ ) /I ( and 2\ 1 *^ *"® only elements of M. . n „ \ ) > ^ 2a „ contains every element of X once no} = has an inverse then a is one-to-one and onto. List all elements of M.. i leaves every element of ja^ unchanged.^2\ ' "with bottom / row containing 1 and 2.23 shows us that we must M. hence the row and first column are easily written down.38 GROUPOIDS 1 [CHAP.23. thus aa^ = ai- Hence the second column still consists of CTj.^^} which have inverses. .4. to find the inverse of ag. then k(aai) = (k<j)ai = 1.4. By Theorem 2..4 explains how to find the inverse of a mapping which is one-to-one and onto. Solution : The possible representations of elements of 1 M^^^.} and the bottom row of \la 2a . Similarly : : : .25? Solution: Theorem 2. an inverse.. hence <J~' = 05.j a^. so (Tjcra = ^3. We and 2 must 1 is calculate ai<72. a is also onto. Conversely if the bottom row of the representation has all the elements of X once and only once. . namely the entry under that particular element. taken to 2 by ctj. hence ct2<'^2 — '• ^^ CTgcrj.

0. As a second illustration consider ((aia2)a3)a4. As is its own inverse. = (ai(a2a3))a4 = ai{{a2a3)ai) = 01(02(0304)) In general.Sec. . . . and Vi is the product of Os+i. {aia2){azai). . then a"* o" = 0*"+" since a"" o" is simply the product of 4. . . Hence a ° /? has the inverse I3^^°a~^. By the associative law for the three elements (oi.a„.ar)(ar+i. So we ask: if a. if we are given the order of a product. ai. . . a2. Is ° the usual composition of mappings. It follows from Theorem 2. .a„. 02 sec. . we have Let S be a semigroup and ai. {aia2){asai) = ai{a2{a3ai)). ai and as together (in this order): {aia2)a3 and ai{a2a3). . The order in a product There is one way in which the associative law makes it easier to work in a semigroup than in a non-associative groupoid. 02. . . vu Suppose u is the product of the elements Oi. Now x = uv and y . the answer is yes. does a°^? Note that (a ° /3) ° (/3-i oa-i) = ao(^o^-i) Off-i = aoioa-i = I.. ai{{ai<as)ai) some of these products give rise to different elements of S.aT) and (ar+i. .Or) while vi = (tts+i. Theorem 2. The point of the associative law is that these products coincide. Similarly.Os). Prove that the subset of elements of the usual compositions of mappings. . Hence the result follows. ond Proof: are equal.. Then any two products of 01. By the associative law.Os)(os+i.o„)). However. a useful abbreviation for such a product is o*". . {ai{a^z))ai. v and some Ui..uivi for some u. . o„ in this order.5: let . .5 that in a semigroup. ((aia2)a3)a4. (o"")" = a""". S S. (as+i. /3) ^ a ° /3 a mapping of S X S ^ S"! If ao p e S. Let x and y be these two different products. while ui is the product of oi.. Here we have. as.a„.a«). i 1 d.On). then u = (oi. . as G S. .Os)(as+i. without brackets. prohibits this. . so does S. last. If n is a second positive integer. . It is conceivable that {{aia2)az)a4.02. Suppose S is a semigroup and let ai. . . we have x = y. since n is the first integer for which there exist two unequal products of the same elements. Assume We may assume .4] SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY ELEMENT 39 2. Without loss of generality we may suppose that s^r. . . as desired. when .as){(as+i. . Solution: Mx which have inverses is a semigroup with identity under Let S be the elements of Mx which have inverses. a binary operation in SI In other words. contradicting the assumption that not all possible products are equal. that not all possible products of Oi. we write ^•a a for the product of o's. There are two ways in which one can multiply ai. . the associative law. . .27. 13 have inverses. Hence x = uv = {(oi. . On coincide. . In fact all of the products equal the first. and V the product of the elements Or+i..aT)(Or+i. . As Mx satisfies the associative law. Or . 02. a^. ai together (in this order) in the following five ways: ai{a2iazai)). . 2. for the product of oi.. Suppose now ai. If s = r then u = Ui and v = Vi.. . For example. . .a„) while y = uiVi = (oi. .a„ e S. if is any positive integer.. . . hence the second product coincides with the first.n . the bracketing is immaterial.Or)}(or+i. . . To see this consider first {aia2){azai). Thus we write simply 0102. and On the contrary. a„ in that order that n is the first integer for which two different products give rise to different elements. m m • • m o's. at G S. Then we can multiply ai. az. which of course involves products of only three elements. If s < r. . the Oi appears first in each product. . . . is (a. Hence S is a semigroup. . .

R-^R by 6 is an a.: ng & H by t^: g ^ ng where m is a fixed even integer.2/) = logioa. and let defined by a: g -^2g of even integers under the usual multiplication. g^gi^G.: 40 GROUPOIDS [CHAP.G^H such that (^-T") = gi6g29 for all gi. t„ is a mapping of G into H.+) and (H.30. + logiot/. 2ffiff2 <r is a mapping. For each n. Find a homomorphism of (G. of G be the semigroup of integers under the usual addition of integers and even integers under the usual addition.+) be the semigroups of Problem 2. Usually groupoids are written in multiplicative notation. •) into {H. be the Let G be the semigroup of integers under the usual multiplication of integers. HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Definition of a homomorphism homomorphism of one groupoid into another. e is clearly 0^. Let {R. Verify that the mapping e: 9 ^2g for all ff G Gf is a homomorphism of G into H. t„ is a homomorphism because for any G^H .28..7) is often expressed as: "6 preserves multiplication.Hence {9192)" ^ (gi<')iff2<') g^. •) is a mapping {gig2)B The definition then takes the e. Then g^e + QiB = 29^ preserves multiplication and is a homomorphism.p) is a mapping H which satisfies the condition {{9u92)<x)e = {gi9. for if for all ^^g^di. (H. Let First let e : H be the semigroup G -* H defined by a Solution: mapping. 2. Since 2g is a unique integer. The formal definition we will give an example. then 1^ = 3. form: A homomorphism of (G. Before we give the formal definition of a Let {R. the semigroup with binary operation given by the 3^ = 3.28. Definition: A e: homomorphism from a groupoid G-* {G. hence {xy)e = xO + yO.2. is not equal to e. Let us define a mapping e. (ffifTzV = ^.nd gy<jg^<j ^2g^g2 = But a is not a homomorphism. g% in G. 92 e G. Is a: semigroup for all g G G a homomorphism of G into Ht G^H H Solution: As then in the preceding problem." Problems 2. Therefore* 2. {2.+) into Solution Define since Tj. 2 For example.6i = logioa.29. g^ in G. is example of a homomorphism. Let we must check to see if e is a mapping. +) which Let (G.3} following table. 12 2 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 12 12 3 2.5 a.92^ G. 2^ = is 3.a) into a groupoid {H. Recall that logio(a. •) be the groupoid of positive real numbers with the binary operation of ordinary multiplication. if S = {1. even integer n and ng is unique. = 2{gi + g^) = (gx + 92)6.+) be the groupoid of real numbers with binary operation the usual addition inside R.g29)p for all gi. + ig^.

(%! (tox homomorphism.2/n (if n ^ 0) and 2/n g G. for Solution: Let Hence a 2. 3 ^ ^ c ^ 6. .: Sec. 2 -* 6. But when n ¥^ 2. 3}.33.+) and {H. 2 1 a. (ii) a: n-* 2v?. Solution: V is clearly H : be the semigroup G^H defined by a mapping. Let G be the semigroup of positive integers P under the usual addition. 3}. Let gi. • 2(i- 2. 2 and 3 is b.a) and by the multiplication tables 2. ^c 3 ^ a 3 ^ 6 3 1 -* 6.r^^ 9. H= {{a. o. ^ a. Let all G g and H be is & G. lff2<r • — ab = a and (1 2)ff = 2a = b. Thus TOja + nja y= (»ii + n2)<T and hence a is not a (»ii + TC2)<' =1. 2. 2 1 ^ ^ c. (d) luStr = be = a and (1 3)<t = 3a = c. a is not a homomorphism. q an integer. 2. G and H as in Problem 2.34. 3 -* 6 & 1 -> c.g2 ^ G. a is not a homomorphism. 92 ^ G> then (ffi + g2)<' = and gi<r + g^a = + = 0. (e) a is a homomorphism since the image of 1. Show that the mapping ri gtl = 29 for all g G G is a homomorphism. 1 -» a. Hence + ti2)<' ^ Wi<7 + ii2<r. so that (yV = b for any j G {1. Let of (i) G be the semigroup of positive G into G are homomorphisms: <r : integers under the usual addition.35. and let of positive integers P under the usual multiplication. (c) l(r2CT = ab = a and (1 2)ff = b. q&G. (iii) a: w -» 1. Then (ffi + ^2)') = 2 91 + B2 2®'2 ' = givg2V- Hence 1. Notice r„ is an onto mapping if n = 2. + g2<' = gf + gl Is the mapping homomorphi sm ? G into i?. a is not a homomorphism. Therefore there is an infinite number of different homomorphisms between (<?.31. t„ is not onto since 2 has no preimage under t. a is not a homomorphism. n^a + n^ = 1 + 1 = 2. is not a homomorphism. since U ¥= It^ if n # 2. Determine which mappings m -» 2n -t- 1. 2)a = (1 if) lo2a = ca = c and (1 • 2)a = 2a <r • • i.b. a Solution: If *'i. 2.gi S a of g^a (3.p) be the groupoids with binary operations a and ^ defined 3 3 1 12 1 a c b c 2 3 1 a 5 b ff : 2 3 2 3 6 c c a b 2 Which (a) (6) (c) of the following a. as in Problem 2. TOja + n^ = 2wf + 2«2Then n^a + ^2(7 ^ (wj + n2)<'> and so a is not a homomorphism.g-i^G implies (ffi + sr2)'-n = '^(ffi + ^2) = ^S'l + «S'2 = S'l^n + fl'2Tn.28. 2 2 -^ 6. is gi. 2.2. (6) la2a = aa = c and — a. Then (srj + ffz)" = (9'i + S'2P = gl + gl+2gig2 and not a homomorphism for (g^ + g^)/! ¥' g^a + g^ for all gi.5] HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM 41 9i. G^H defined by a-g^g^. = a. Verify that the mapping a: not a homomorphism.g^SG. 3 Solution We (o) use a to indicate the mapping in each case.+). mappings are homomorphisms? (d) (e) (/) 1 ^ ^ 2 -» 6. For if qr^ — 2. Hence <r is a homomorphism. then nq = 2 or q. is a homomorphism. because any element in H is of the form 2q. and so a is not a homomorphism.32.c}. and qT2 = 2q.28. Let G = ({1. (Wi + re2)a = 2(Wi + 712)^ = 2Wi + 2w2 + 4tciW2. defined by ga — for all g e G. Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) + m2)(T = 2(wi + W2) + 1 and Wja + n^a = 2wi + 1 + 2n2 + 1 = 2(mi + rig) + 2. and iaja = bb = b.

implies. ff. Hence (ii) an isomorphism. (. = gyfi be an isomorphism and let gi. i. i is a one-to-one epimorphism. &G a monomorphism when n ¥= Q. g2a = /i2.42 GROUPOIDS Epimorphism. 2. then we say are isomorphic.Then Note that (firiff2)a = Qrag^a = /ii?i2. so it is g is = 2/n T„ is one-to-one since gr^ = g'T„ implies ng = ng' and so g = g'. there exists g and n = ±2. for if g G G. Solution : Let . Put hp = g. and H = K.36. ji : Let h e H. A homomorphism of groupoid G into groupoid H may be an onto mapping.38. we must show that y is a homomorphism. 2 b.9i£f2)y : : = 9u ^2^ = 92a: G ^ H and a homomorphism. K. there exists hG such that hp = k. A homomorphism of a groupoid G into a groupoid H may be both onto and one-to-one. which Finally. If there is G and Problems 2. = g for all fir G G.e. /ij S H.. and there exists g G G such that ga = h. (iii) if G = H (Hard.. 2. Secondly. Then (since » is onto). Let y = ayS. First. or G is isomorphic to H.e. into the carrier of is called a isomorphism if 6 is both an epimorphism and a monomorphism. (See Section a 6 maps the carrier of G onto the carrier of 1. g^a = fir2«. and addition as the binary operation. Now one. Then we define a mapping one-to-one and onto. We give these three types of homomorphisms special names. for if g^y . G^ K. and as p is one-to-one. Note that is = h. In other words " = " (ii) if G = H.. then an equivalence relation. then Aj/Ja = /i2/8a and so h^ = /i2/3 H by definition.gn ^^ the (distinct) elements of G. and so G = G.) 9 is called monomorphism H. A homomorphism of a groupoid G into a groupoid H may be a one-to-one mapping. Hence G s K.. a-G^H As yS a is be an isomorphism. for if and hp = g onto G. 9 be a homomorphism of a groupoid called G into a groupoid H. Thus t±2 are isomorphisms and t„ # 0. monomorphism. 7 G ^ K. for the definition of Ge. Next y is one-to-one. so gia/}) = hp = k.Hence (h^h^fi = ^1^2 = KPh2P- H H . g^e. and isomorphism Three special types of homomorphism arise naturally. Then 6 is H. Show that G cannot be isomorphic to H. [CHAP. Hence t±2 are the only epimorphisms. 9i6.) Let r. an epimorphism if Ge = H. i. y is onto. page 12. monomorphism or epimorphism? Solution: If H w one. tq is not one-tosuch that gr^ = ng = 2. Let t„ for n an even integer be the homomorphism (Problem 2. Let /ij. e:G^H . Definition: Let 1. if ^ is a one-to-one mapping of the carrier of G 3. G^G it is be the mapping defined by gi.3a.. Also j8 one-to- Finally is hiP (iii) -* K be isomorphisms. are distinct (since 9 is one-to-one) and are all the elements of n. H = G. 3. 9 is one-to-one and onto. Prove that if G. g^ = £'2= ((fl'ifl'2)«)y8 = (S'i«fl'2«)i8 = {Sia)p{g2a)p = gi(ap)g2{ap) = gagij. the even integers with Let G be the groupoid of integers with addition as binary operation. H an isomorphism from groupoid G onto the groupoid H. there exists a unique g G h/Sa H -* G as follows: Let G such that ga = is h. If t„ is onto. since a is one-to-one. G and H are finite groupoids and \G\ ¥' \H\.giy. 1. because if k e. We shall prove that y is an Let fi isomorphism. Suppose fifja = hi. Thus there exists no isomorphism e: G-^ H. then Solution: (i) if are groupoids. When is t„ an isomorphism. 2. and write G = H. ga = hG hi/3 = h^P. then: (i) G= is G.37. U 2. which contradicts \G\ # 1H|. Hence \H\ .30) defined by gr^ = ng. for g G G. {g\a)P = (fi'2«)y8. Then not a monomorphism.

with m.39.25. Solution: a a a b c c c d d c baa e : a d d These two groupoids are not isomorphic. n integers and m. Suppose re = rq for r = n. o G (Z. then rq . {n+ l)e = ne + le = nq + q = {n + l)q. Hence a is not one-to-one. re = r(l9). a is not an isomorphism. Let {Z. w t^ 0. If 9 = 0.43.0. Thus there is no isomorphism between the two groupoids.40. Thus e is not an epimorphism and there is no isomorphism. -I-) be any homomorphism. : not onto.j? ^Mj.l/2n and so r = l/2m.^} a = b.42.{1.37. ff is Has l/2n a pre-image? 2. Therefore.3} and so Af. page 37).j then the order of M. o) + b + ab)a — — (o : (Z. -^) -> (Q*. for if = ba implies —a = —b and Is Mjj. {1. °) = (Z. the subset of elements in M^j . = —a for aG Z.5] HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Is the 43 2. Now — (Z. •) be a homomorphism between the nonzero rationals under division and the nonzero rationals under multiplication. Thus la = (1 ^ l)a = la • la and so la = ±1._2_3j Solution: l^wl = i and \M {1.) Solution: (a) of the No. namely -> c. Now q = le = (0 + l)e = Qe + le = Os + q and so Oe . If r were an integer such that re = l/2n.o) = a*b = (Z.j 2} 2. Now ±1 = la = (2 -V 2)a = 2a2a and so 2a = ±1. *) a + + b + — ab be the groupoid with binary operation * defined by (Z. °) and (— a)(T = a. a \// : vJ- 2.21. *). Let a (Q*. Now 1 = 1 -M. 2. • (®®^ Problem 2. 2. b -> d and a ^ d. We shall show by induction on r that re = rq for all r G N. then — r e N. : (6) (c) Let e {Z.) Is the groupoid of nonzero rational numbers under division isomorphic to the groupoid of nonzero rational numbers under multiplication? Is the (c) semigroup of integers under the usual addition isomorphic to the semigroup of rational e numbers under the usual addition? (Hint: Show that under any homomorphism integers under addition into the rationals under addition. Prove that the mapping e a + ib numbers under addition with itself. (a o b)a — (— a)(— 6) = —(a + 6 -f. Because if the integers were isomorphic to the reals.j^M(j_.2} not iso- ^ ^ . is not an isomorphism.Sec. Now e is not an isomorphism.2} I ~^ j. (a) of nonzero real (6) semigroup of integers under the usual addition isomorphic to the multiplicative groupoid numbers? {Hint: The integers and the reals are not equipotent. Hence re = rq for all r G Z. 2. Similarly. But 1/2'm is not an integer. Give an example of two groupoids of order two which are not isomorphic.*)? a b ab Solution: (a Let a (Z. In particular. 2. From Problem |Af. since there are only two one-to-one mappings. a = — a * — 5 = (—a) + is clearly (—6) Hence aa <r is a homomorphism. re = rq. then —a G Therefore a is one-to-one and a mapping. If g = m/n. : -^ a — ib is an isomorphism from the groupoid C of complex .3) which have is Thus is less morphic to M. for (ao)^ = a>// — d while a^axi^ = dd = c.4L Is Mj. °) be the groupoid with binary operation ° defined by a°b = and Is let (Z. for (ab)e = ae = c while aebe = cd = d. If r G Z and r is negative. +) -^ (Q.2. then l/2n G Q.ah). M^^y cannot be isomorphic to Mjj inverses has 6 elements. Consider r = n + 1. b -^ c. 3a = ±1. *). by Problem 2. (Z. Hence re = rq for all r G N. Then since = (r + -r)e = re + {-r)e = re + (-r)q. by induction. Let le = q. the isomorphism between them would constitute a matching and hence the reals and the integers would be equipotent. *) -l- 6 -1- a6) be defined by aa and aa * fea a is onto.

{l'g)9 = ge = h identity. and thus there 2.: 44 GROUPOIDS Solution e is [CHAP. •) into {R. not onto.45.&!> epimorphism. Therefore 9 is a monomorphism but not an epimorphism nor an isomorphism. As ^ is that gO = h. for if x e («! -I- ib{)e = (ttj + ib2)e C. 6 if Theorem 2. if / is an inverse of g in G. since — tfig and hence a^ = and = (a2 Finally e is [(ai a homomorphism. Is the homomorphism e of the complex numbers groupoid C of complex numbers under the usual multiplication of groupoid of real numbers under the usual multiplication defined by 9 : a + ib -^ ]a. * is a Thus e is • • • . to the groupoid H. If aa = be.6: Let (a) be an epimorphism from the groupoid G is to the groupoid Then G is a groupoid with an identity if 1. Hence e is not onto.e. Also 6i fl is 62- one-to-one. so is H. Properties of epimorphisms We will show in this section that if 6 is an epimorphism from the groupoid G H. i. = f9-ge which means f9 is the inverse of ge in .ib)e = (—a — ib)e. Then h = and 19 -h IS is = 16 'g9 = /. for it is always the case that \x\ — 0. fl' Proof: (a) Let hGH.+ b^ an epimorphism or monomorphism? Solution: It is well known that if x^iX^ are two complex numbers.6162)^ + 6162 (6ia2 + ^2^1)'^ = = Then exists - + + »(6i«2+ i62)| 62«i)l ](ai-|-ibi)(a2 (x^x^e — Xytx^e and so 9 is so 9 is not one-to-one. then logjo a = logio b and hence a = b. Let oid e : •) be the groupoid P under the usual multiplication of positive integers and {R. so H and 1^ is H. then H shares some of the properties of G. As in Section 2.ia. c. then fe is the identity of an inverse of if G is commutative. (b) (c) Furthermore ge in H. so is H. Since there is no integer such that logjo X = —1.44. Is the mapping B of (P. 2 onto. for + i6i) + to the (02 + 162)] 9 = (ffli + 02) - tCfti + 62) = (»! + i6i)9 + + ^^2)* 2. implies a^ — ibi Now = a^ (a + i{—b))e = a + ib = ttj x. an epimorphism. + ibj = + y/a?. +) the groupunder the usual addition of real numbers. R Solution homomorphism. G is a semigroup. is a homomorphism. 6 is onto and we can find an element h-19 = in h-ie = ge-ie = (g-i)e = ge G such = h 19-h. ¥) defined by a -» login o. no x such that Finally e xe = —1. monomorphism or isomorphism? (P.5a. x = a + ib. Therefore ge-fe = {gf)e ^19 = H. 1 Thus the identity of H and H is a groupoid with an Then gf = {fg)e Now suppose g GG has an inverse = fg. On the other hand (a -1.2l = l^^i! \^2\- The calcula- tions are |ai + i6i||a2 + i62l = V(a? + 6?)(a| + 6|) V'(aia2 [aiOa . We shall prove 16 is the identity of H. = logjo 1 < logio 2 < logjo 3 < a monomorphism. then |a.

To see this we will show that the G constructed from G above by renaming is isomorphic with G. F suitably renamed. Thus isomorphism gets rid of the on simply renaming. we can form a new groupoid G by renaming the elements of G. g'. As before. Thus F becomes a groupoid with respect to the binary operation o . and G is iso- morphic with G. This is a proper renaming since f = g means that f9 = g9.e. But we shall choose / to be f9. then we define multiplication of elements of Ghy fog -h. = ge-g'd = {g'g')e = {g' - g)e — h and g'6 = = g'O-gd = h'h Hence and so (c) To Let g"e H is commutative as claimed. p and have multiplication table a Let G consist of the elements /3 P a What we have done is to call the elements of G by different names. the image of g under is the new name of g. Since Then we can is find = h".5] HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Suppose Because 45 (6) G is 6 is onto. Also {fg)e . If fg = h.g' G G for which gO hh' To this end let h. g'9 = h' and have. Thus for each g G G we take a new element g.e.h. f = g. So we have not used the same name twice. and multiplication table 1 a 1 a We a. define a new groupoid G by relabeling the elements of G. elements 1 and a. But fdoge = fog = h. G H. h'. we Let G be the groupoid with binary operation • . Considering groupoids to be the same if they are We isomorphic overcomes this snag. f. show H is a semigroup. i.h where fg = h.. In general if G is any groupoid. 9 is one-to-one onto. we can find g. ensuring only that fy^g if f ¥= g. by definition of the multiplication of G. G such that ge . cannot be distinguished either as regards their elements or the way they multiply. Let us as before renarne each element f GF. don't use the_ same name twice. g. Suppose F and G are two isomorphic groupoids. h' h'. To explain why. as required. 2. It is easy to prove that G is a groupoid with this multiplication. Naming and isomorphisms In our study of groupoids we will take isomorphic groupoids to be essentially the same. if fg = h we define / o g to be Ti. g" G {hh')h" = = {ge'g'6)g"e {9{g'9"))e = [{gg')9]g"e = {{gg')g")e = fl'e[(fl''fl'")e] = ge{g'e-g"9) = h{h'h") d. Sec. G associative we that multiplication is associative in H. we must prove h. h" G H. and that 9 is an isomorphism between F and G. We show H is commutative. Hence {fg)0 = feoge. as one and only one g corresponds to each g. i. We must find a one-to-one onto homomorphism e. Define gO = g. commutative. Then we will apply our renaming process to show that G and F. and." beginning with an example. are not interested in distinguishing between groupoids which differ only because their elements have different names. difficulty of obtaining a new groupoid We look at the problem from another point of view. will describe a "naming process. as 9 is one-to-one.

As an illustration of the proof. s)[i. For this reason we do not distinguish between groupoids that are isomorphic. in fact. let This completes the proof of Theorem (oi. Now P^P^.46 GROUPOIDS [CHAP. Mg is the semigroup of all mappings of the set S into itself. if 1 the identity of S. If /1/2 = /a. Thus a groupoid isomorphic with a groupoid F is indistinguishable from a suitable renaming of F as far as the elements and the way they multiply are concerned. {ss')9 a monomorphism... Secondly we must show is that 9 is one-to-one.. tti Now a2 ai a2 Ua aa ai 9a^ as a2 a2 as a^9 P'^2 "2^ 0.7.. since 6 is The product /1/2 in G is a homomorphism. p.. particular.2 aa as The mapping 9 is defined by ^ is a monomorphism. We shall show that is a homomorphism. as} 2. product of X and s in S./2 are also elements of G. two elements F is the same element as the product /1/2 inside G. then s p^ p^. = {xs)p^. (The semigroup <S is an abbreviation for the semigroup (S. Then there is into M^. which says that an morphic copy of any semigroup S is contained in some Mx. 2 compare with G? F has the same elements as G. First Let 9 : S-^ Mg we have to check that be defined by s9 = p^. 6. ing multiplication table: S= be the semigroup given by the followas «3 Oj 0-2 Oi ai 0-2 a^ ttj aa ttg as (Xi ag Notice that ai is the identity element of Ui tti S and tti that a2 S is a semigroup. therefore fiOfzO = in (f if 2)0 — faO = /a. Then /i was previously called /i. — (xs)s' — Xp^^. {ss')9 = (aspjpj. Suppose Ip^ s9 = ' s'9.e. s' G S. = p. S^ S It is clear be defined by xp^ = xs. Here xs i.e.. But then — 1 s = = 1 • = p.7: Let S be a semigroup with identity.s' • and so s — s' and a monomorphism. this is true for all x G S. then we defined /i o /a = /g...) (Cayley's Theorem): a monomorphism of S Proof: Let s G S and let p/. Mx and semigroups iso- The importance of Mx is explained by the following theorem. with binary operation the composition of mappings. ^ is Ip^ = Ip^. In = 1 s' . /x) where ^u is a binary operation. xp^p^.. is the into S. Let s. x that p^ is a mapping of ^ is G S S. Paj' - Paj' '^3'^ - P03 It can be checked directly that . a^. = Hence = s9s'9. if X G S. and s9s'9 = As p^p. Hence the product /10/2 fiO. p^ e M^. and fi was called /2. /2 A= = /2^.. Theorem 2. {x. does How F Now of /i. i. But do these elements multiply the same way? Suppose /i and /a are two elements of F.

6. 1} by fi-. Is (G.{0. f^:x-^-. If e is one-to-one and onto.5. {fofj} (i) fi- x ^ rr^—.CHAP. (ii)(Gi. and • is the usual multiplication of complex numbers. i .52. be + d).b G R*.—i}.°). S and an isomorphic copy were the same.°).y/^. Suppose Gy = and that o is Determine which of the following are groupoids: (v)(Gi. 2] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 47 Let Se = {se\ s G S} where is the monomorphism of Theorem 2. In Section 2.49. 6) • (c.A. a) -* {G. tive or Define the binary operation -on an associative groupoid? G = RXR as (a.49.°).2.x-^-^. be a homomorphism if [(gi. a groupoid while {H. A look back at Chapter 2 We We We defined a groupoid. Let /i.50. 3. f^-.x^l-x.4. GROUPOIDS Let G = Show {1. Thus we see that in a rough way every semigroup with identity appears in some Mx. p) to [(910. 2. G fi - {0.5d we pointed out that. 4. g2)a]e = it an isomorphism of (G. {fvfz'fa} o) is Prove a"^ = {/i. a groupoid? For which n is ((?„. —1}. (iv)(Gi. 2. Is (G. i = 1. H COMMUTATIVE AND ASSOCIATIVE GROUPOIDS 2. Prove (R*. we called Supplementary Problems 2..47.6. with the usual 2. •) a commuta- . the composition of mappings.x-^x. associative groupoid (called a semigroup). o) is not a groupoid (o is the composition of mappings). d) = (oc. (iii)(Gi.51. multiplication of integers.o).3. 2. •). Let R* be the set of nonzero real numbers. 2. but for naming. and commutative groupoid. are the mappings defined in Problem 2. (vi) (G5. Let F= (F.^. Hint: \a\ \b\ = \ab\. fs'-x^—^. •) is a groupoid when G = {l. We proved Cayley's theorem.48. be the set G of mappings of R. then S ^ S0 and hence Ms contains an isomorphic copy of S.46. o) is an associative groupoid but not a commutative groupoid. showed that defined a in a groupoid the identity is unique.i. (Gi. 5.°). f^-.7. •) a groupoid if • is the usual multiplication of integers? 2. while inverses are unique in a semigroup. Suppose G„ is the set of all integers divisible by the integer n. 6. mapping : {G. that each semigroup has an isomorphic copy in Mx for some suitable X. Hence the importance of Mx.926)]^./3)./e) where /.°). 1} into R defined for each a. Define the binary operation o on K* by aob = \a\ b for a.-l.a) onto (G. that (G.

54. INVERSES IN GROUPOIDS 2. Show that (R. Z}.{(\. with the binary operation of (G. Define a*6 = \/a2 +P for all a. Show that the subsets and F respectively. p & G define ° a' p = «°P . c. 1) | H H 2.65. p & G = {a\ a: Z ^ Z}. Find the inverses of the elements of Show that (G. Let {a\ a a mapping position of mappings.V-l. let a X ^ be the mapping defined by x{a X p) = xa'xp G Z and is the usual multiplication of integers. a. ba' + db'.peG. Let G = {a a: R-^ R}. i . Is (G. maximum 6GB . SEMIGROUPS WITH AN IDENTITY 2. c G Z}. 0. . \ •) a groupoid. *). p ^ G define the mapping a* fi = a° ji — fi°a where ° is the usual composition of mappings and x{a ° 13 — /} ° a) = x{a ° P) ~ x{/3 ° a) for all x G R. d') = (aa' + cb'. •). *) is a groupoid. Define a elements have inverses? X .64.-l. is a semigroup with an identity. Is (0. 2.56.60. For a semigroup with an identity? a. Which of the groupoids in Problems 2.48 GROUPOIDS The binary operation a on [CHAP. X) have an identity? What the rational numbers}.a) is commutative but not associative.i. 2 2. where G= {l. (i) (G. Let B+ be the set of is all non-negative real numbers.56. for all a. + on fi by a + 6 = the minimum of a and & (a. Suppose we define a binary operation 2. X) a groupoid? Does it have an identity? What elements have inverses? For • 2. Let G = {/i.-|-) have an identity? What elements have inverses? and 6. -i). have inverses? 2. What is the identity of (G.PGG.55 has no identity. Q (G. 2./s. 0. c. Find an identity in (i2 + . b. 0. Let G = {(a. • Define (a. 2.8 as in the preceding problem.53. 2.55.A.°). 0. c'. Show that (G.62. For a./e} of Problem 2. d) (a'.6 = the + Does (i2 + .63./3 e G. (Hard. 0. (-1. Which elements of (G. b'.b. *) ? Find an infinite number of elements which have inverses. be' + dd') and .58 and 2. -1)} a semigroup with an identity. +) is both associative and commutative. What elements have inverses? X where all a. 6eK + iVoF+b^ 2. Does 2. Prove that G with the binary operation ° of composition of mappings.59. 2.3. *) is neither associative nor commutative./s.d€.57. ae' + cd' . Prove: (iii) {a* fi) *a = a* {/} * a) (ii) (G.c. 6 G R). Show that (R.x-^ — (xp) for all xGR. composition of is mappmgs and x (ii) a° P + P°a ~ o x(a ~^ P) + ^~2 — x(p ° a) P°« where « is „ x e R.49.55. and • the usual multiplication of com- plex numbers.b)-*\a — b\ for a. Let G = {a I a: Z^ Q. c. (iii) ^) • a = a • (/3 • a) for all a. 6.°) of {1. the positive square root). Find the inverse of each element in (G. let a° p be the usual com- .67.59 are commutative and which are associative? 2.h & R.57.58. d) \ a. •) is H FG= {(1./z.66. the groupoid of Problem 2. •) is commutative but not associative. (iv) a * /3 = (— /3) * a where — /3 is the element of G defined by —p-. For a. Let (G.) I 2. are semigroups with an identity.61. (G.*). td ^ d Prove: (a • the usual /\ (i) try (G.4.5} into {1. Let G be the set in Problem 2. •) restricted to and F. 1). *) be the groupoid of Problem 2.2}}. of a Define the following binary operation + in i2 + the non-negative real numbers: a -I.2. R is defined by «: {a.

CHAP.2. = {1. Suppose G = {a\ a: Z Z}. o) where F = {/j. (H.3. 0.) : ^ . 1) c e Z} is the groupoid defined in Problem 2. Show that there is no homomorphism of (G.65.4. /4. what elements have inverses? 2. define the mapping a X ^8 by n(a X p) = na "np Is {G. /a. Show that the usual multiplication of integers. HOMOMORPHISMS OF GROUPOIDS AND CAYLEY'S THEOREM Let H = {(1. Can the groupoid is (G.72. where G = {1. identity? If so. A.55 be a homomorphic image of the groupoid (Mr. (See Theorem 2. X) a semigroup with an where n S {1. U F = {(1. prove the two groupoids are isomorphic.74.68. o) into (F. 0. +) the groupoid of integers 2. 2] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS : 49 2.69.66 and under addition. p e G = {a\ a {1. °) defined by *:«-*« is not a homomorphism.6.49 are isomorphic? 2.70. in H 2.5} and • the usual multiplication of integers. c.66.-1} {/i. /e) be the groupoid of Problem 2.58 and ° the usual composition of mappings. 5} ^ {1. 0. X) -> (G. 2. page 44. 0. -1)} be the groupoid defined isomorphic to the groupoid (G. —1} and is •) • is Problem 2.) 2..4. Which Let of the groupoids of Problem 2.') the groupoid with the usual multiplication of integers. /a. f^} and ° the usual composiand • G= H tion of mappings. (Hard. -1}}. I {Z.73. Find all possible homomorphisms of G into H. 3. (-1. *) of Problem 2. 0. the usual composition of mappings? °) where o 2. /s.71. X the binary operation defined in Problem 2. Show that * (G. 1). For a.

is called a group if there exists an identity element (usually denoted by) . \S\. Define a binary operation in S.1. often denoted by a"^ The inverse is unique by Theorem page 33. Verify that the groupoid Verify that the groupoid (-S. define a group we shall follow the pattern: Define a set S (?^ P). is called the order of the group. (Compare Section 2. •) contains an identity element. The object of this chapter is to show that the concept of a group is natural. 3. (6 • c = c) •) Thus (i) and (ii) are the conditions for (S.1 GROUPS As we remarked in the preview. II. in other c • 1 is = a = .2.b. The most important concepts of this chapter are group and subgroup. will exhibit groups of infinite and finite order. for all „ ^ aGS 2. The number page 29. there is an element b GS a'b = I.e. Recall that the identity (ii) unique by Theorem page 31. •) a semigroup. a Definition semigroup with an identity in which every element repeat the definition in more detail: has an inverse Definition: is termed a group.) 50 . Whenever we I. is associative. i. 1 • a j. 1 G S.2. i. 1 = o*a T This element b 2. (S. (iii) every element such that aGS is has an inverse in S.) We of elements of S. This is done by providing illustrations of groups which arise in various branches of mathematics. to be a semigroup with identity. for every choice of the elements a. V. together with a binary operation in S c. -. Verify that every element of S has an inverse. III. (See following examples and problems.c {a'b) ' E a • S. is IV. set iS We A (i) non-empty words.chapter 3 Groups and Subgroups Preview of Chapter 3 We define a group as a semigroup with an identity in which every element has an inverse.e.

e Q*.b. +) has an identity element. Thus (Z. If z G Q*. Example 3: The additive group of complex numbers. m. i^ = {x\ X = a + ib where x j^ + iO = -1. =n= +n for every n€.e. +) referred to as the additive group of integers. then —o has the property a + {—a) = = (— o) + a. a ' — = ^ = —'a a ^ Example 5: The multiplicative group of nonzero complex numbers. •). This group is very similar to that in Example 4. 6. then (a • 6) • c = 1 a • (6 • c) V. III. shall go through the usual Let C* be the set of all nonzero complex numbers. is a unique ele- l + i*0 = l G C* and it is clearly an identity in (C*. I. rationale. Let • II. III. III. be the binary operation of addition in /. Let Let Q be the set of rational numbers.cG Q. is Thus we have shown that the groupoid (Z. We five stages in setting up and describing the group.e. I. c 1 is clearly an identity in the groupoid (Q*. Thus and a.b £ R} C* Recall that II. IV. Example 2: a group. = (— n) + n —n is an inverse of n in {Z. V. so is an identity element for (Q. o+0 = If If o = + <i for every a (a in & Q. a. then a + Q b) + c = a + (b + c). then —n in Z has the property n + (— n) = i. Let Let Z + be the set of integers. V. so is 1/a and a Thus every element of Q* has an inverse. Z. be the binary operation of multiplication. +). +) is a semigroup. 3.Sec. •). The rational number If o. . II. IV. Let Q* be the set of nonzero rational numbers. We This define multiplication of complex (a is numbers as (ac follows: + ib){c + id) = ment III. II. If nG Z. +). {l + vi) + n = I + {m + n) i. The description of Example 4: this group is left to the reader. S Q. the usual multiplication of rational numbers. This group is usually The additive group of I. + be the binary operation of addition in Q. IV. n are integers.1] GROUPS of 51 Examples groups of numbers 1: Example The additive group of integers. in a binary operation in C* since C* (not both ac — bd and ad + be can be — bd) + i(ad + 6c) (ac — 6d) + i(ad + 6c) zero). {Z. I.e. M+ If I. i. The multiplicative group of nonzero rationale.

There is no q GQ such that q°0 = Hence (S. sociativity of addition in Z. b in Z"! Solutions (i) identity element is the integer integer z in Z such that z°5 = 5°z 1. Multiplication of rational numbers if q'l = !• q — q for is all associative q • and every element in (iv) S has an inverse.bd) + i{bc + ad)]{e + if) = [{ac .: . We have to check the existence of inverses. S be the set of real numbers of the form a Show that S becomes + 6\/2 where a.df) + + if)] = [{a a(de + cf)] It follows from these two computations that {a id){e + ib){c + id)]{e + if) Thus suppose a + and so ib V. (iii) is q G S. . this group the multiplicative Problems 3. c + id.(be + ad)/] + i[(bc + ad)e + a the other hand. then — G S and — • 9 q o = 1 = — q S— (/) since g S 2.b{de + cf)] + i[b{ce . (ii) Again the {S. (— r) = and addition an associative binary operation onS. a = 2ai implies —a — 2(— a^). thus addition is a binary operation on S. (v) (S. If a G S. and • is a binary operation onS. 3.3. for \/2 a G S.2. Let S be the set of even integers. be any two elements in S.bd)e . 3 Suppose + ib. [CHAP. "' C" + 62 '„2 + " \{a 62y V- + ib) -> ' = - 1 - = - (a VU- + ib) -> 1 ^^^^+1:2 '(. (S. Is (S. o) is is not a group.b G Q and are not simultaneously a group under the usual multiplication of real numbers.2+62 Thus we have proved (C*. (S. °) is not a group because there no identity element in S. 3. (a {ac - bd)f] On + ib)[{c + id){e + if)] = = + ib)[{c + (a + ib)[{ce .°) a (i) group if (ii) (iii) S—Z S— Q S = {g S = {« j and and I ° is the ° is the usual multiplication of integers? usual multiplication in q z Q? (iv) G Q and zG Z and q > 0} and • is the usual multiplication of rational numbers? = yf2} and o is the usual multiplication m Z1 (v) (vi) S —R S=Z The and and ° is the usual addition of real numbers? o is defined by a ° 6 = for all a. Then [{a + ib){c + id)](e + if) = [{ac .°) is not a group. a group. Let zero. °) is not a group because 5 GZ 1. Show that S is a group under addition of integers. •) identity is the number 1. °) is and r (vi) + a group. •) is a group and we term group of nonzero complex numbers.. not both a and 6 are zero. then —a £ S since Hence a has an inverse in S. e + if G C*. Solution: Let a — 2(ii and 6 = 26i in S.df) . 52 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS IV. but there is no — 1. Hence a^ + 6^ ^ G C*. then e Moreover. as o + (—a) — {—a) + a = 0. a + b = 2(ai + 61) is a unique element Associativity of addition in S follows from the as= 2-0 is an identity element in S. ¥' Therefore (S.df) + i{de + cf)] [a{ce . Clearly S # hence 1 is an identity.1. r + — + r — r = (— r) +r for all is r G S.

thus 1/a G S and 1/a is the inverse of . a+ bV^ S S.m. (a + 6V2 )(c + dV2 + 0\/2). where both Sj and Sg could be or 1. 3. 6-v/2 ..^fli a2 — 6v— + 562 ^2 + 552 ^ S ^2 + 5^2 and so .V2 > Vi leads in a similar way to a and a°{b°c) = {a°b)°c. Hence a Similarly ° (b ° c) o c — = a a + + b b b + + c c c — — tjjWi where where is or 1 or 2 or 1 or 2 (aob) v^m V2 is Now because — a.b & Q and are not both simultaneously zero.1] GROUPS 53 Solution: (0 = {ae + 2bd) + (cb + ad)\f2 If neither a + 6^2 nor c + rfV2 is zero. Show that S becomes a group under the usual multiplication of complex numbers. + f. Multiplying la—by by/2. If a& S. {C the set of complex numbers) be the set of all roth roots of unity. °) is a group of order m. hence the product of two elements of is S belongs to S. If aG then = 1/a™ = 1.o(6oc)<m and a 77J — — {aob)° a < m. Thus (m vi = 0. true for multiplication of real numbers. since it is true for complex numbers in a. is e*2'rT/m^ t = 1. an mth root of unity and hence ab G S. 1 = 1 ^ + 0v2 is an identity for 1 S. Thus S is a group. Solution: {a + b^/—E){c + d^/^) = {ac — 5bd) + + {be + ad) \/— 5 .) S S. and cannot be zero 1 if its factors are S.™ e'™ a. 1.2. Hence the product of elements in S belongs to S.. Solution: Recall that a complex number x Since is an »ith root of unity m 1 • distinct roots of unity. The associativity of multiplication in follows from associativity of multi- plication of complex numbers. S becomes a group m of order m. . a°{b°c) < 0. is then ab uniquely defined. 6 G S.. then a o 6 is Note that a°6 5i is or 1. a. Let S qC positive integer. true. this contradicts contradiction. + + c — {v2 + l)»i = — a+ b + c — tj^m < But — + b + c — vgm —m 3. a + a („2 we obtain 6\/2 6 _ '^-bV^ "^ a ^2 a+ Hence bV2 - 262 _ 262 _ 262) . so 1 is S. ) . not zero. (Hard.5. 1. . The associativity holds because it is a+ 3. So 6oc = 6 + c — Sitn where Then a° (b° c) = a+ b + e — {Si+ b^m i..4. i. then their product cannot be zero.^ G S. + 6 — Sm where 6 is or a ° (6 o c) = o + (6 o c) .)™ ab = 1 and that there are exactly = cos + i sin «.e. (a6)™ — a^b'" = an identity. we get 1 a a. . is also.S^'m where = a uniquely defined and belongs to yS.6. a° (tu — a) = — a)° a — vi and the above equation implies that a°(b°c). Associativity (l/o. 2. G S. where is a fixed Prove that under the usual multiplication of complex numbers.b 1. Let m be any fixed positive integer and a. 3. = 1 + 0^/^ is an identity for 6/^ certainly an inverse for o b^/—5 Multiplying top and bottom by a — 6\/— 5 . to — 1). If a. Define a binary operation in S by = a+6 if a+ b < m — a°b — Prove that Solution If a.o6 let S = {0. so is an identity. 1 a = a • = a.Sec. if a. viz. . Suppose vi>-n2' then a ° (b°c) 7)2 is at least + 1. if . byjt Let S be the set of complex numbers of the form o + 6\/— 5 where a. for any 82 is or 1. Hence vi — V2. then m ~ a & S and V2 hence w — a is an inverse to a. a°0 = 0°a = a. 6 r a+b = m + r. r<m (S. general.

Describe one way of making S Solution Use as binary operation the usual multiplication of complex numbers. the multiplication table is 1 2 1 2 1 2 If m ~ 4. (a) associativity. of course. uniquely defined. 1/a G S and is the inverse of a. If a.7. Write the multiplication table for the group of Problem Solution : If 3. Hence the table defines a group. 1 acts as an identity. m = 3.8. be a group with binary operation is a binary operation in restricted to if the operation • • H . and let fl^ be a non-empty subset of G. identity. 6 G S and a is an mth root of unity.2 SUBGROUPS Let (G. we see that associativity holds. To check (a) (b) (c) we have • the following possible questions: Does 1 • (1 1) equal (l-l)-l? (1 • (e) (/) Does 2 Does 2 Does 2 • (1 (1 • 1) equal equal equal equal (2-l)-l? (2'l)-2? (2 Does 1-(1'2) equal 1) • 2? • • 2) 2) 1) Does l'(2'l) equal (1-2) -1? Does l'(2'2) equal (l'2)-2? all (g) (h) • (2 (2 • -2) -2? (d) Does 2 • • (2-2) -1? Checking (6) these products. 3 3. Associativity holds for multiplication of complex numbers. The inverse of 1 is the inverse of 2 is 2. then ab is an mwth root of unity because (a6)™" = a'""6'"" = 1 G S and acts as an (a"*)" (6")™ = l"!™ = 1. 3. The following table defines a binary operation.54 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Let [CHAP. S qC : (C the set of complex numbers) be the set of into a group. 1. all roots of unity. Hence a6 G iS and is. the multiplication table is 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3. •) Definition Then we say H is a subgroup of G H which makes H into a group. b an wth root of unity. Is the resultant 1 groupoid a group? 2 2 1 1 1 2 Solution: We (a) need to check only associativity. (6) existence of identity and inverse. 3.5 with m= 3 and m = 4.9. Thus S is a group with respect to the usual multiplication of complex numbers.

+ (-6) = a — bGPI No. the multiplicative group of nonzero complex numbers? Solution: Q* 3. +). Therefore {H. Is Q* a subgroup of the group of real numbers of the form a taneously zero.12. Is Q'*.hGHnK. of G. then clearly H satisfies conditions and above. Hence a subgroup of (C.1: Let (G. •). for if a G Q. and the inverse accordance with Lemma 3. identity g.Sec. 3. 6 G Q. Similarly. then there exists a G H. QqC. b not simul- Solution: Q* ¥= 0. 3 GZ- {0}. then HnK and HnK is a subgroup of G. +). is a. as defined in the multiplication table 2oO = a binary operation in H. as above. Thus y/i-i G H IGHnK But then H contains hh~^ = 1. G H. 6 Z CQ. | by/2 a.15.14. If g.2] SUBGROUPS 55 is For example. if G Z. we ask in negative. Hence aa-' = 1 G H. is G is the group with it is m=4 o of Problem 3. 1 G K. but 3 has no inverse in Z. G Q* implies ab"^ is a nonzero rational. 3. Also. 0°2 = 2eif. b G H. 3.11. and 2o2 = 0G/f. then a + (-6) = a-bGQ.b GQ and not both zero}. and if a = 1 and 6 = 2. Lemma 3. ¥= 0. H H H H The following lemma facilitates proving a subset of a group is a subgroup.+) be the additive group of rationals. {0} a Is Z— 1 subgroup of (Q*. 1 G H. there is an element h G H.1. the multiplicative group of nonzero rational numbers? Solution: is the identity. •) be a group. Ii a 6 Q*. Also. If a. in If H satisfies these conditions. Clearly P ^ and PqQ. +).ab G H. for G. under multiplication? + byf2 . then a = a + 0^/2 e {a+ Thus Q* C {a+b\2 a. Problems 3.b & Q and a. i. and a. then the subset H= {0. •). Thus is an associative binary operation on H.{0}. Prove that the intersection of two subgroups Solution: 1 H and if of a group (3 is a subgroup. the additive group of complex numbers? Solution: Q# Q 3. a = a + OiGC. 6 G Q and not both 0}. if a subgroup of G. Hence Q* is a subgroup. as it is true in G. is & group because: the operation o restricted to is an associative binary operation (since the operation in G is associative).').b e P. +} then the binary operation is +. inverse of every element of is an element of H. Associativity is true • H H H. 6 \ a. and every element in has an inverse in H.13. 6 G Q* implies ab~^ is a nonzero rational. gh-^GK. It is.heH for as is not empty. Thus Q* is a subgroup of (C*. and so Z is a subgroup of {Q. whether a + (—6) = a — 6 G Z. is 0. since a # 0. 2GH. a. ¥= 0. 0. •). If a. then a — 6 is If Clearly is Z^ 0. restricted to H. Is Q a subgroup of (C.be of 6 —6. OoO = OeH. the HnK ?^ 0. a.10.e. a. iQ*. Solution Is Z a subgroup of Q? Is P a subgroup of Q? (Q. then ab^^ G H Proof: eration. a subgroup of (C*. is in H.9.b G implies a(b"i)-i . . and the (i) H Conversely (ii) if ^ is a group with respect to • . Hence and and gh-^GH. Therefore Z- {0} is not a subgroup of 3. if jfif For ^ then 16-1 = 5-1 ^ ^ then is a group with respect to the binary op0. •) is a subgroup. So. if b G Hence a. Let (Q. (i) Then a subset and (ii) ^ of G if is a subgroup of G iff H^^ H a. 2} For when the operation in G. for P does not contain negative numbers. the identity.

Let a G Sx. that x = v. But U = {0.3. Since a is one-to-one and onto. S„ is called the can be one of n elements. 3 3.can be calculated as follows. is IV. If xiar) = y{(TT). called the symmetric group in the usual five steps. By Theorem 2. (Sx. a permutation. We set Sx of all describe this group Sx the set of all matchings of the non-empty set (see Section 2. page 36). Sx C Mx XL and t. then = by the definition of the xa is composition of mappings. Clearly.56 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS By considering the group of Problem 3. as la and 2a have been chosen and a must be one-to-one. = {0. (tt the only elements in Mx which have inverses are those which are one-to-one onto mappings. then we define .4b. i. arises from the on X. 2o.4. we can find x" G X such that x"t = x. This in also one-to-one. 4} 3. this means. page 36. since composition of mappings associative. If <t G S„.2. 3}u{0.. that <jr — ya. for short.2. so 2cr ^ la. m= 6. so we can as T is onto. The proof that Sx is a group is complete. Theorem <t = = t t(t means is We will call an element of Sx a permutation of X.2 elements. ••• •2-1 = «! \Sn\ =n ! The elements of S3.3. Solution: [CHAP.3} and {0.4} are subgroups is easily verified. But = x". are . Consequently find X' G X such that x'a If T <r <t X'(o-t) = (x'o-)t = X"t (x(t)t = X {y(j)T and hence <7t is onto.x^x is is in Sx and is an identity element of Sx. as la has been 3a can be one of n .5 with not necessarily a subgroup.n]. Clearly the identity mapping r. we conclude that there are U n - n-{n-l){n-2) elements of Sn.7t to be the composition of the mappings of X with itself. Therefore Thus composition of mappings is a binary operation in Sx. or.) V. .4 inverse. Suppose x G X. then Here we must verify that ar is a matching is also onto. for example. X with itself. G Sx.2. so 3a is not equal to 2a or la.3 THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS The symmetric group on X a. Therefore o is not a binary operation in U.16.2. •) a semigroup. in Mx. page 36. Continuing in this way. A very important group one-to-one mappings of X onto X. Now. \Sn\ is X- {1. t is one-to-one. The groupoid (Theorem 2. show that the union of two subgroups is is That {0. Let X be any non-empty set. 2. . since a is one-to-one. since turn implies.e. Therefore t G Sx and r is the required inverse of a. one of 1 elements. III. implies a has an an inverse of t.4} not a subgroup as 3 ° 4 = 1 g C/. I. is CT. we write Sx = Sn. . t. then chosen and a must be one-to-one. In the particular case where symmetric group of degree n.

As an example. Proceeding in this way. Next.17. determine 2a~^ = 1. a-i. iaP)-i.). we think as follows: 1 -* 2 (in a. 3 3 3 1 12 3 3 12 12 3 13 2 12 3 2 3 1 2 12 3 13 find the multiplication a^r^. ¥= TjtTj. so that Problems 3. and (/3a)-l if 12 2 3 3 6 4 5 3 5 6 and 4 4 2 1 Solution aP = 12 3 5 x(aa~'^) 5 6 6 4 Pa 1 = 12 3 4 5 6 13 5 6 2 4 12 3 4 5 6 2 6 4 13 5 Now we la = 2.4c. 3. we obtain so we must have '1 and hence a~i must carry xa to «. Pa. namely Thus 3 1 12 3 2 The multiplication table for Ss is t "i "1 <'2 Tl Tl '•2 '•2 T3 ^3 I "2 I ^2 '"3 "1 "2 Ti "1 "2 i '"I "1 "1 n i ^1 ^2 "1 n '"2 ^3 Tl ^2 ^2 T3 'l "2 I "1 "2 I '3 '3 "2 "1 CTjTj The reader should check some of the entries.612543/ . 6a = 1. Put 2 beneath 2 to get 12 3 2 1.3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS 57 12 12 12 2 3 table. we calculate 12 l<TjTj 3 3orjTj 12 2Tj 3tj Itj 3 1 2<r. 2-^3 3 (in r^) Write down 12 3 2-^3 (in (Tj).Tj 3 2 To do this calculation mentally. Hence S^ is not commutative. Calculate aP. p-i. To we must compute the products. To find a~i.: Sec. la-i = 6. since 2 3 4 5 6N . Note that <TjTj = r^ and Tj(rj = Tg. we note that = x which X is taken onto 1. page 37. 3^2 (in t^). Here we are using the notation of Section 2. 3 Only one other number can appear.

58 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS An easy method of calculating the answer mechanically follows.y&R.19. Is the subset R= {i. From Since again in R.) Solution: R R is ¥= 0. To 6 find P"'^. ctj. Hence a subgroup of 53.20.(l 5 2 6 3 6\ 4 • . 3 Take 12 2 3 3 6 4 5 5 6 1 4 Interchange the rows. and Sj and exhibit multiplication tables for these groups. 2 3 6 3 5 4 4 5 1 12 6 Rearrange the columns so that the top row reads 12 3 3 4 5 6. 3.18. The multiplication table for S2 is t /3 p t . Verify that a{l3y) - {aP)y where 4 4 5 5 12 3 12 3 Solution: 12 3 2 3 3 4 5 4 12 4 3 3 4 5 15 3 15 4 2 4 2 5 5 2 M)y 12 13 3 4 5 5 12 4 3 4 5 2 4 15 3 2 4 12 3 13 «(i8y) 12 3 12 4 5 5 4 12 13 4 2 5 5 4 12 3 13 4 5 5 3. [CHAP. page 57.. 02} a subgroup of 1S3? (For this notation see above. 1 is a multiplication table for Si. Find all elements of S. the product of any two elements in R is <r~* = 1T2 and (t~i = cti. interchange the rows to obtain /I 3 2 5 3 2 5 4 6 \l and rearrange to get 4 ^"' /12345 . '12 This method is 4 5 6 . ^^"^ («^^"' 3 2 =415362 /I 23456 3. There are two ele- 2\ ments in 82'- 1 and J /8 = /I { 2\ ^ ) • .612543^ conceptually the same as the first. '1- Solution Si contains one element 1 i .. the multiplication table of S3. /12345 = (e 4 1 6\ 5 • . it follows that xy^^ & R for any x.

Sec. THE SYMMETRIC GROUP OF DEGREE 1 4 Tg rs ffi <Jl a2 "2 0-3 0^3 CT4 £r5 CTg ffy tJg (Tg Tj T2 T3 T3 "^4 T4 T4 «1 l-l T5 Tg i-s Tj '7 a2 «2 ^8 «3 «3 T7 «4 «4 l^S <*5 «6 t »1 "3 I "4 i-e •^S ^6 ^2 CT7 "S •'9 ri '2 's "I '"1 «5 "5 "8 T5 <'l "2 '3 1 «2 "8 «5 ''e T4 «1 Tl T-e "5 ''S rs a7 «3 •r? "9 ^8 "4 '•s "6 T2 «6 i-s "2 "2 "3 "4 "5 ( "l "4 •^3 «3 T? / «6 T5 T-S U «1 Te "1 '4 ^"2 «5 "5 '•s "8 T2 "S CT4 «2 •'S "9 ^8 T-? "3 "4 "5 "1 "2 ^1 «2 «4 "2 «3 "9 t "6 "9 T3 «1 "^l «4 «1 '"2 (77 «6 "3 •^1 •'4 «3 (77 ''g i^e '•8 «3 "8 «4 ''s «2 T-g ''I "6 T7 (77 "5 T\ "l "2 U •'I «5 '4 'e «2 T5 <'8 I <^4 «6 T7 "8 «1 ^2 t T8 T6 "9 T3 "3 l"! «4 "2 Tg 0-4 "3 <'8 (77 "e "6 "7 t ^4 «1 "5 ^•4 "3 fg ''s «5 "4 T5 "2 "6 «6 «5 '•3 T8 ^•3 T6 "5 «1 ''2 «6 "5 «1 T8 1-3 '7 Tl "3 T8 (74 «2 ^2 "4 T\ "2 ^2 '5 O'S "8 "9 1-1 «2 ^2 «5 i-s «3 T8 «1 "1 "2 «6 1-4 «4 '"5 "9 I 0-7 re T7 u «4 ^7 "8 "2 ^2 re I «6 <f5 "'I "6 ^•4 "3 T-l <'9 (77 <'8 «2 I "5 "2 1-8 ''e <'l "3 "8 ^5 Tl <f5 «3 ^z T6 'l <'9 ^1 "4 "I «3 <^9 "'7 «2 ''a TS •^3 T2 t ^6 "5 ^•4 "1 <74 "6 <77 "6 <*5 «4 «6 (77 «5 «4 "3 '2 T2 TS Te «2 <'3 T7 T6 rs 'l <»3 Tl "5 I "2 "& "3 "9 "4 "6 T2 TS «1 <'6 «5 0f7 T7 Tl "4 "4 "1 "5 '7 T3 <'8 '"s T4 I n "s t •^e «S «3 <'4 «2 «8 «1 ^1 T4 T5 •^6 T4 ^5 i-e «1 "5 "3 "2 "5 TS i-s T6 ^2 t^S <^3 "^ <'7 <'4 «2 "1 U '7 i-e «4 "7 "9 ^8 T2 «6 "1 «2 "4 "8 Tl '7 (72 "5 «3 "1 "9 t^e «6 "7 <*3 «2 "3 "4 «3 "1 T3 '•2 "2 "8 '2 <'4 TS Tl '"4 "3 «4 •'9 «5 O'l "3 «2 «1 Ti '7 "6 "4 '"T ^"7 «6 (T4 '"S «S •'g "6 <'2 T4 "8 "3 CT4 T5 CT5 "5 '•3 7-8 I «1 «4 '7 t '"8 '"8 1-1 "6 T4 T5 0-7 ^4 "5 t'2 T6 ffe "2 <*5 t '"7 «2 t "7 T5 TS 1 "3 0'8 «1 «1 ^3 "9 1-2 Tj "5 's '2 "6 "^S "1 «3 "7 «2 «4 «4 «1 •^S '"6 «2 «3 «4 "5 «6 «2 «3 04 «5 «e "5 ^1 «5 "4 "6 "8 ^2 "2 •^8 "1 ^6 l-l <'9 "3 «6 «2 "3 ''G "6 «1 T8 T6 "2 TS l-l '•4 n '4 •'s «4 «3 "3 <f9 "8 "2 '"3 "6 CT4 '7 •^6 ''I (77 «6 CT7 "5 "1 "9 «1 t'4 '•4 •^S T3 '"2 ^5 "S '7 ^3 Tg "5 "6 "6 "9 "3 <'3 "2 (77 T7 7-5 •^8 "5 T6 1"4 ( «2 <T7 T? '"5 "1 '"4 "4 «5 "8 «2 "1 "2 Ta T2 Tl t 'l * 1-6 '•8 "2 «! ''S «4 "3 "4 "X "6 "8 T2 . Find the elements of Solution 2 ' 3 (Tg = - = = = = = = 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 TS '1 2 2 3 4 3 1 4 1 1 2 1 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 3 :) CTy (a 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 ^2 "1 G /I 3 4 3 1 I) '\ 2.21. 59 3.3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS S4. "8 G /I - 1 2 2 3 1 4 2 1 4 1 3 3 1 2 4 4 3 4 '"e 3 4 as 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 1 (72 (s (2 4 3 1 2 1 4 2 1 3 3 4 1 "3 = = 2 3 CTg 2 4 "4 4 (l 1 2 :) Tl G G G 3 2 3 2. 3. 4 1 3 3 1 2 4 «5 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 4 3 2 3 1 3 4 3 2 4 2 4 1"8 2 3 "4 G G 4 2 3 :) T"2 2 1 4 4 «6 "h = 3 2 4 2 1 3 2 :) 3 3 2 4 1 2 4 We give the multiplication table for future reference.

let us call a Sn even (or an even permutation) -Ho- 2(7 — Ict 3(7 — we 1<7 3<t — 2(7 G — lc7 no' — 2g n^ 2-1 On 2(7 3-1 call 3(7 3-2 a 3(7 nW(7 _ 1 w-2 n(7 — (n — 1)<7 _ w-(»-l) the other hand. ) • Then 2 1 1' 2(7 — 1(7 3<T — Iff — 2<r 2-1 If r 3^n^ 3-2 3 — ~ 2- — 2 1' 3- 1 — 3 3-2 = 1 - ( 3 i ! 2 ? 1 . the product becomes the product of factors ±1 and hence is itself ±1. As cr is a permutation. ±{l'<T — m'<j) numera- Thus regrouping the factors in the numerator. 8 is 5. Note that distinct factors k-i. If Km.1.. m = m'. Therefore every permutation of Sn is either even or odd. Corresponding to each factor k — im the denominator. We are interested in a special subgroup of S„. . there exist unique integers I. ma = i. To begin with. . is even or odd. 4. 1. n n<T .e. 3 b. 6. usually denoted by An. the number of inversions. — m<T).k'-i' in the in the denominator give rise to distinct associated factors tor. 60 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Even and odd permutations [CHAP.1 . _^ = ±1. If we of integers. m such that 1<t = k. quotient ^~ '^ or ^^ ~ f'' is thus ±1. U l> m. consider S3. This subgroup An is obtained from Sn by singling out certain elements. we call the number of integers in the row smaller than the Thus for example the number of inversions in the first integer. . The the numerator. row 7. There is an easy way of determining whether a permutation a is even or odd. we have k = k' and i = ±{l(T i'. the factor hj-m<T = k-i appears in the factor m(j-l(T = -{k-i) appears in the numerator... then 1^ 2r - It 3t - It 3t . 2. S„ odd (or an odd permutation) if n(7 — 1(7 — 1(7 — 2(7 — 1(7 ' — 2(7 _ — (n — 1)(7 2-1 The 3-1 3-2 odd is n-1 n-2 »-(n-l) _ _ " definition of even or written more briefly as IS (7 even i<fc K —I ?- (7 is odd if 1 1 -Y = —1 i. 3. We shall show that an element in S„ is either even or odd. For if 1 = 1'. we will find a factor in the numerator which is either k-i or —{k-i). the alternating group of degree n. 3-2 G 2-3 1-3 1 2-1 3-1 3-2 if is even and t is More generally.2t 2-1 We say <r 3-1 odd. Let a = 3<T f „ « -. We will use this concept of inversion to find out if a given are given a row permutation '1 1(7 2 2a . .

3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS 61 To do as this we must calculate Tl (-^ —^ ) . shall show that the set of even permutations forms a subgroup of ¥= S„. . (i . In the denominator we always have positive numbers. k — iL —i _ ~ _ T-r i<k k —i —i 2. Let this total be /. 2 is 2. > i for which > fca. Much of the calculation is redundant we have proved that the result is always 1 or -1.1) . So a. Problem 3. Let An be the set of even permutations in S„. tion I Then A„ fc 0. c. But this is the number of inversions in the u row The total number of negative factors is the number of inversions in la. The alternating groups We 1. . (v) Even. and hence a is even. since the identity permuta- G A„: Tl i<fc ki . (iv) Odd. So-.22. The number of inversions in 3.is even or odd according as / is even or odd. 2(7. . n^ + the number of inversions in {n . . For fixed i and varying k.Sec. . In the numerator a negative number ka . Is a (i) even or odd? '12 3 (iv) (ii) (V) (iii) a = Solution: (i) Number of inversions in 2 14 14 3 3 : 1 : 4 3 : 1 Total number a is of inversions 2 Hence (ii) even.na. Odd.i<j arises if in > ka. then TT *<" kjar) k — {(ar) —i — JJot) —i _ TT (fco-)T — (to)T *<fc ka — ia TT kjar) ^ i<k k _ ~ ja ~ i<j "TT fcg — to ^<k k — i ku ka (3. .. the number of negative factors that arise is the number of A.1)<7. 3. . 2 is 0.71(7 + the number of inversions in 2(r. 5 3 2 4 1 3 2 4 1 Number of inversions in = 4 = = = 2 1 1 2 4 1 4 1 Total number of <r inversions 8 Hence (iii) is even.. na. and negative if / is odd. + l)a. 1. . Example 6: Is a = even or odd? in 1. ia. If <T and t G Sn. The product of I negative numbers is positive if / is even. We must only determine the sign. The number of inversions Thus the total number of inversions is 2..

2: from {3.2).21. 1. there exists. (iv) Accordingly aT~^ if G An. Corresponding to each of the factors A —~ in the that right-hand side of {3.1) we therefore obtain Yl i<fc fc((TT) . An is aa"^ = t is even.2). (Po-)t p<T — — (g(r)T qa If _ " q. Hence {3. r- and the (equal) factor -1 / q^ ~ ?"^" _ p^ < q. It I — — niT m _ ~ — — niT appears on the left-hand side of {qa-)T {3.2) To do this we will show that each of the factors -^j-^ — - corresponds to one and only one of the factors ^^-^ —v^ . From 4\ 1/ the list of elements of Si given in Problem 3.3) and the rules for multiplying +1 and -1.2). q such If p > q. As an illustration let us find the multiplication table for A4. It is called the alternating group of degree n. unique integers p.i{(rT) —i k _ "»<' Yl ^^""^^ l — m .t G A„. p < then a factor It I qa — (Po-)t — pa _ ~ {P(t)t p<j — — (g(r)T q(T m . since therefore a subgroup of Sn. We \ associate with the factor ^^"^" _ if ^ P the (equal) ~ ^^")" if p<T—q(T p>q. ~ n ^^ — k »<fc ^^ {3 3) i It follows 3. since a is & permutation. then ct~^ is even too.62 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP. that we have of is Lemma The product (i) two even permutations two odd permutations even (ii) is even is is (iii) an odd permutation and an even permutation an even permutation and an odd permutation odd odd. 3 We will prove that rr (fco-)T fco- — {i(j)T — iff _ rr m<i It I — mr —m {3.2) corresponds in this way to one and only one of the (equal) factors of the left-hand side of {3. From {3.21 we determine that the even permutations are 1 2 3 4\ ""^ 1234/ 1 _ ~ /I 2 1 3 4\ \2 /I (yl 4 3 3/ 4\ ^^ ^ /I ~ 1^3 2 2 2 2 3 ^/l ^-^ 2 1 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 1 ~ \4 2 3 4\ ^1 3 1 4 2 12/ 3 _ ~ ^ ~ 2 3 4 3 2 2/ 4\ "* _ ~ ^ /I (^4 4\ _/l ^^"1^2 2 3 2 3/ 4\ 4321/ The 3.2) holds. Thus if <t. 4\ /I 2 4 /I 1^2 2 3 ^ ^' /I ^^ [1 3) ^' 431/ \3 124 3 multiplication table is easily written down from the multiplication table of Problem .2). appears on the left-hand side of factor (^"^" {3. then a factor Vff — I and qa = m. cr is even. It is easy to see that each of the factors of the right-hand side of {3.

. and a multiplication table for A3 is "2 I The elements .<'s. Aj = Sj. 2r = 1.Sec. . There is only one element in S^ namely i ^ = L) is . S„ must contain a permutation which interchanges 1 and 2 and leaves everything = 2. . (iii) A3. (ii) Aj.24. ..e. By Problem 3.. are the "1 "2 i "1 "1 "2 i "2 "2 "1 3. = 25 .) Solution: we look at the multiplication table for A4.. since r is an odd permutation. 8) \J " . (For notation see page 62. IS <Xj. Write out a multiplication table for Solution: (i) (i) Aj.3a).<'s} is a subgroup of A4. and therefore A„ ¥. and ijTj 2 where ' = L ^j is a multiplication table S3 contains six elements (see example in Section 3. Notice Aj the same group as /I 2 (ii) S2 = ^^ 1 " 1 2\ " I /I ' * 2 " 1 H 1 1 / 1 " 1 2 " \ 2/'V2 : is 2 .u^&S implies see that the product of any two elements in »-i (7 = a. 3. i. Hence A„ = S„ implies n = 1. and it is an even permutation. o.S„. o^ and a.. 3. It is clear that Hence S is a subgroup of A4.23. Prove A„ Solution: else fixed = > S„ implies n - 1. Ir .j2. Sj.n). permutations. we S again in S. Show If that the set S= {i.. --.25.23(i). r € A„. Hence a multiplication table for A 1 is [Tj. an even permutation and 2 is 1 an odd permuta- tion.3] THE SYMMETRIC AND ALTERNATING GROUPS i 63 "2 CT2 "5 ''o ('g ^1 ^2 •^2 T3 ^4 '4 -^5 7-6 Tj 7-8 t I ''S •^1 ^3 •^6 Ts 'e '3 r? ^2 7-8 "2 "S "2 "5 f^s c ''S "5 "2 ^4 "^7 Tl n ^1 T5 '4 "8 "5 i-s t '"S I^S ^2 ^7 TS '7 7-6 "8 Tl <'2 t i-s ''e n 7-6 T4 '7 ^•2 '"a '"1 U T2 T4 TS T7 T6 ^"2 t "2 ''S "s ^5 7"3 '2 ^3 rs ^"2 ^6 ^7 '"1 I Ti i-s ''S "s ^"4 "2 "8 76 '2 1"3 •'S 's U I t "2 ^2 ^8 l^l U T5 ^4 's •^4 •^8 ^"7 ^2 <f5 •^3 "% "5 "'2 •^8 ^1 '"S "s ^"7 7-6 I Te ^•7 ^•6 '7 ^6 '1 ^2 T3 '2 T4 •'S T-8 '"I ^2 "8 '2 t ^5 7-4 "5 I l-T '"S ''2 ^4 'a "5 T3 'l 7-8 's '8 T5 l-fi "8 "5 "2 I 77 Problems 3. . If 71 1. . and ir = i (i = S. Therefore A2 = 2 I for (iii) A 2..a-i e S because a.

64 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS The order of [CHAP. 3. .. Check to see whether \A^\ U= 2.1)t _ _ Then (5. then o) Indeed = («')'' every odd permutation is listed in {3.. and |S„| = n\ Therefore k = n !/2. the number of odd permutations But every permutation of is also k. then = e. and 2!/2 and 3!/2 and 4!/2 = = = 1.23. . e.(tt-') = (. a G Sr is termed an isometry if and only if d{a. t: ^ 2. We think of the elements of R arranged as points on the real line..b GR it is clear of a— b. Then if a.4 a. 3. Since the identity mapping G I{R). there are exactly the same number of each. .3c. Solution: IA2I = 1 by Problem by Problem 3.26. . for if « is odd. moreover. £fcT all odd. Let I(R) be the set of all elements of Sr which preserve distance.^) n-(w-l) £^ be the even permutations elements of A„). and the number of odd and even permutations is 2fc. and An is of order n Ml. the symmetric group on R. an element set will be called isometries of R. 3. 4) agrees with Theorem 3. Thus there are precisely the same number of even permutations as odd ones.T)T-l = c-Itt"') = e.3: If n is any positive > 1. I{R) ¥= 0. GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES Isometries of the line We begin with certain subgroups of Sr.bGR. C^T. b) — d{aa.. We define what we mean by the distance between a and b. ba) i for every pair of elements a.2. 3-^3 n-^n We claim t is odd because 2t - It ' 3t 2-1 Now are let tj. = . we have proved integer Theorem Problem 3. Putting our results together. the group of isometries of R. then S„ is of order n \. namely the absolute We denote the distance between a and b by d{a. value. An Suppose that n We now -PC*- count the elements of A„. \a-b\. Consequently..23. IA3I IA4I = = 3 12 by Section 12. Let t be the following element 1^2. S„ is either even or odd. The elements of this To put this definition more explicitly.e. 3 d.t)t-' = (e. It Wt - (w 3-2 fjT. 1. as k is the number of even permutations. b). since t^ = t.A). £2 3 - It 1 ' 3t-2t Wt(i.. as a subgroup of Sr in the follow- ing way. Notice that this means there are at least as many odd permutations as even ones. Since <ot is even by Lemma 3. 3. the set of real numbers. = . if e^T — c^t. 3. 3. n-1 . 2^1. a group I{R).3.

g.T Oct G I{R) have the same effect on two distinct real numbers a and b. ¥= x'.e. a is an isometry. an isometry? Solution: No.x' + 2) = = \x — x'\ and + 2) .Sr. i. a — t. But a is a permutation. 6) as CT is an isometry. then a = t.e. since d{xa. for x \n\. — a. for (iv) x ¥= x'. since d{x. G R. b) = cr-> d(ao-"S &o-"') which and precisely what we need. i. Suppose a. (In the following.'| = d{x.Sec. ca + ct aa = ba. We conclude that ca = ct and.3) = |3 - = 2 and d{la. x') |(x d(xa. aa = +{ct Therefore Ca Ct aa — ot = 0. Considered as a group in own right. - a.T G I{R). Solution: (i) First note that a G Sr.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 65 2. x') 3.x'a) (iii) — a is not an isometry. b. We claim <7-» G 7(72). contrary to the hypothesis that a and b are distinct real numbers. b(<Tr-i)) = d((a<7)r-i.(a. since d(x. x' = 0. x'a). lemma gives us a method of determining whether the two isometries are Lemma 3.')| 2. x') d(xa. — ar and ba = br.4: If a. Proof: Let c be any element of R. (ii) x G R.b (T G I{R). ba) = d(a.) 7^ 1 a: -» a. ct is an isometry. then t~' G J{R) d(a(<7T->).x'a) (ii) <r = + 2. Then Then of course a'^ ftcr-i) G Sr. d{x. n an integer or —1. d{xa. ar) — = ±(ct — ar) — ar) implies |ct — ar] — = Assume cct = Ct. b) its Thus I{R) CTT~> G /(i2) is called and /(/?) is a subgroup of the group of isometries of R. since d{x d{x. d(x. (iii) a : x -> x^. Is a (1) an isometry? a.g. = 2(b<T). 3. Suppose pose a. (&(7)t-») . -x') = a a. Thus G I{R).x') d{xa. = d(a<T. = — (Ct — ar) = — Ct + ttr.3a) = d{2.' + 2)| = \x-x'\ is not an isometry. (iv) a : x -^ —x. x') = 1 and d{xa.3) = 1. |n(a. sup- d(a(7-S = d{(a<7-i)(r.nx') = = d{xa. e. d(c. ca contrary to our assumption.a) Then = d{c<T. a: x -> nx. is Hence d{a. (b<r-»)<T) = d(a. e. To see this. ca ¥• ct. x'a) G Sr and = d(-x. Hence 2a<j = 25<r and a(T — i. since c is any element in i2.28. Set la = 2. Ca Similarly. for all x GR excepting 1 and 2. = \x a. Since a<7 = ar. = \x a. x') ¥= — x'\ and = d(nx. 2a = 1 and = 1| a. Consequently a = b.2-x'2| = 2.a \-x - {-x')\ = \-x + x'\ = Is a |a. x'a). + 2.27. Problems 3. x') ¥= — x'\ and = d(x2. x'a) so that. Ca + Ct = 2(a<T) .x'^) = |a. x' = \ implies d(x. Two points determine an isometry The following the same. since d(l.aa) = — — |co- and hence ca aa — a(r| = (i(cT.x'a) so that.e.

: r^ r(/xT) TjT ilarly — rjb. CT* is clearly an isometry. U) = \a. Using (i). and Tar^^ = Tar^^. a& Q (vi) The set of mappings of (v) but with a S Q". Then ct* and a agree on and 1. y) e R^. y + a — b) = (x.y + a)T-.7i(jGZ whenever nGZ}. Z) is a subgroup of /.ltr| = d(0. = a.^ is = . Thus if n is an — t~\ = n{ar~^) G Z.yi). (iii) This follows by arguing as in It is (ii). Clearly ctt~^ + (/ b) is : Therefore G{I: Z) and — rjb — r and sim±1. a ^^ 0.y)TaT^t.)r r{aT~^) + i?(a = {rjr + b)ix = — 6).2/i)i"a. there exists {x — a. Determine whether the following groups. Iff — 1 and a CT Oct = a. = — iT rjr +a where where rijfj.) c = = 1 or —1 + b »? 1 or —1 r){rir e-q Let jj. aS^ Q (v) The set of all mappings of the plane R^ of the form /"a • (^) y) ~* (*'*^> "-y) with a ¥= Q.- We show first that r^ {x. for if {x. G I{R).y) G R^. t.e. Then = r. a subgroup of 8^2 and so (ii) it constitutes a group.y)Ta-i. ~ Ta-h since {x. Hence a Let <t G I(R) and let - l<r = ±1 or l<r = a ± 1 (i) Itr r (ii) = a + 1 and Oct = a. and q{a — b)GZ. is a matching of R^ -* R^. Or = 6. ax with a 7^ 0. = {x + a — b. fx for (€?. (i) sets of mappings. y)Ta = Ii {x. Hence = a r GR to ct == ct*. = tr + Oct where « is either 1 or -1. then = {xi. Solution: (i) a permutation of R^.29. a&R Notice that t^ (ii) is defined for each real number The The The set of all t^ with set of all t„ with set of all a&Z. U) = d{a. = {x + a. the real line is if ra — r + a. y) -» {x + a. y + a) a. Let a. d{0(r. (iv) a permutation of R.y) is («i. y). fia/ay — (mo)"'.rG(I:Z). Now lemma it is possible to describe the elements of I{R). 3 Qa = a. with (x. The set of all t^ is not empty. of I{R) defined ct by mapping r G R to Hence = a*.Now a'oA'^' — Hence the set of all /t„. We come now to an interesting subset of / = I{R) which we will prove Let {I:Z) = {. If inverted about the origin and then moved a units to the right.. are The set of all mappings of the plane of the form To : (x. Hence r„ is a one-to-one onto mapping and so t„ is a permutation of R"^. Also. Then Thus if and ra Let ct* be the agree on and member 1.66 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Using this [CHAP. Let ct* be the member of I{R) defined by mapping + a. easy to verify that each /j. Problem 3. i. which it clearly does. it "moves" the real line a units to the right. we need only consider whether t„t^i = T^-t. 1) = 1. with composition as the binary operation. real (iv) mappings of numbers of the form X -^ Ha'. constitutes a subgroup of the group of all t^a/bAaMi/b permutations of R and itself forms a group. rcr Geometrically. is Oct = —r + a. belongs to the given set. Let a and b must be integers.y)TaT^^ — Thus the set of all Xa is {x.T\aGl. a (iii) G Q. y — a)Tn = {x. ct* —r + a. a 6 Q. The effects of a and t are ra vt a subgroup. T_„ = T-i.. Hence integer.y — a)GR2 and (x — a.

B points of E. since the identity mapping is an isometry.?/)• By Theorem ~ MaMi/b — Now set of all /i. is called an isometry if for any A. Consequently d{AaT-\ Bar-') = d{Aa. . The interpretation of E as the Euclidean plane is not an essential part of our argument. 3.ax. 1.B) = the symmetric group on E. Consider the effect of t-"'.4 M„ is a one-to-one onto mapping and thus Mo is a permutation of R^.B'r) = d{A. page 36. Recall that if we interpret A and B as points of the Euclidean plane with coordinates (xa. Ma/b = = = = (».y)tiali-^ = {ax. there exist.y).Ba). the point A is on top of another point of E. say. d{A„. B). say Pi.C. then the formula for d{A. . Va) and {xb. Theorem 3.ay)n-i group of iSr2.Br-i) and T~' is an isometry. The set of all /i„ (vi) in this case forms a group. {xB. since {x. B on top of Q.y) and (x. Fig.ay)in. In the initial position suppose that A lies on top of P. .B. . For /iq maps all points onto the point (0. Let the points of E be denoted P. and by Theorem 2.B) d(AT-». S. then I'-al'-^^ (x. Isometries of the plane Let E be the set R^ = Rx R. and denote <j G Se. . . As t G Se. B' G E such that A'r = A. 0). Ri.y){iii/al^a) (. The isometry induced by a movement. and the points of S be denoted A.Q. B'r . Bt"^ = B\ Hence = d{A. A and If (xA. we can define an isometry induced by that movement. Vb) relative to a given cartesian coordinate system. Let us imagine that the Euclidean plane E is covered by an infinite rigid metal lamina If we move S so that it still covers E.B') since t is an isometry. we define the distance between B as \/(a. After the sheet S is moved. In the next four paragraphs we shall argue informally. Proof: I is not empty. the point Qi.tGI.Uo has no inverse. ABC > < -"^ — Metal lamina ~^_-_ ^^'*p Q (6) ABC » » • Q (a) R Initial position.' Sec.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 67 (v) The set of Ma >s not a group.yA) = + A. . as . . Then d{A'. Logically we do without it and work abstractly with the ordered pairs {x. ^^-Euclidean plane— R Pj Qj iij After a movement. We need to show only that <tt~^ G I whenever (t. C on top of i2. B . A'.B) = d{A. the only elements of Mjj2 which have an inverse are the one-to-one and onto mappings. Hence / is a subgroup of Se. B) is the ordinary distance between A and B. . = diA'r. . . Ba) and so aT~^ G I.R.a Ml/a M^' because («.. The set is non-empty. for each pair of points A.A - ccb)^ {va . "(f'^'l^^ )~ ^ -^ ^^'V^f^a/b- Hence the is a sub- c.5: The set / of all isometries of E forms a subgroup of Se. say. the point is on top of. If Ha is an element. .B) But At~^ = A'.B gE.. C is on top of. .4. 2/)(Mai"i/a) 2.B.yB) =B are two elements of E. . d{A.ysf it by d{A. .

Qi) = d{P. Let us choose a line in E and turn S over this line and back to E..' / Rotating about XY. As a simpliflcation describe formally these three types of isometries. For if P. Let us choose a line XY. We now we A translation t^^ is the mapping defined by can be shown that for each a. . this informal approach. B) — d{P. . Then we assert 6 is an isometry. describe only rotations about the origin and reflections about the axis OX. I' QR RiQi Pi (c) (a) (6) Final position. Q). A on top of P "7 Metal lamina . the line joining Xe be an isometry corresponding to a movement of S for and Ye. .^ is an isometry and that (t„ ^)~^ = t_^ .30 for details. B) = d{Pi. then we have d{A. '. Pi. Hence d{A. After S is moved. with. . 2 2. is parallel to XY. 3 Let e-.) It t_. 3. y)p^ = .S Knclidean plane - (a) Initial position. we now describe three particular isometries: Rotation about a point.31 for proof. Reflection in a line. and B on top of Qi. Q9 = Qi. Q). (See A counterclockwise rotation about the origin through an angle 9 „^ is the mapping p. shows why p is called a rotation through 9. in the initial position. The isometry obtained in this way is called the reflection in XY. defined by {x. . Rotate S about through an angle ir. Let O be any point of S. 3. say. / Initial position. Then 9 is called a translation. Qi) and so d{Pi.32 For each 9. p^ is an isometry and (pj-^ = p_. Fig. Then the isometry induced by this movement of S is called the rotation about O through an angle *. Fig. Problem 3.68 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP. A of S on top of P.) Problem . x sine . + y cos 9) 3. A reflection in line XY. (b) A rotation through an angle *.E^E be defined by Pe = Pi. Q are any two points of E. p u i. and B of S on top of Q. Let 9 which XeYe. (See Problem 3. {x cos 9 — y sm9.b. Re = Ri. A lies on top of. Using 1.

{x.8._b = ' 3. 2/a) and B= (xB.h)Ta.-b d{Ar„_^. then {x . can we find does there exist a solution to such that (x.a.(cos2 e and the second by and add to obtain e sin e) -|- + sin2 e) a.6). If {^'>y')ra. onto? In other words. cos 9 (3. then d(A.. so we must show that it is (x.Sec.b-r^a.6) by sin 2/(sin2 9 -I- and the second by cos cos2 e) and subtract the 9 from the y = — b cos 9 — a sin On substituting these values of x and y in (3. x = x' .b = (oj^. Br^^.j. Is T„_b an isometry? If - = a one-to-one onto mapping.x.'(cos2 e + + {—y cos sin2 0) sine y cos = Since cos^ 9 -(- + {—y' cos 9 sin 9 y' cos sin 9) sin^ 9 = 1. sm s + S Rt solve these equations for x and y using the same stratagem as above.b is = y/(xA - Xb)^ + (va .^. an isometry.-t- Solution First we must show that To_ ^.) Similarly.{x + a. This is a convenience which will simplify the statement of Theorem 3.5) j/' sin 9 sin e -\- cos 9 equation by cos a.6) is (The reader who knows that the condition for existence of a solution to can verify the existence of a solution to (3.T_a.(cos2 9 We multiply + sin2 e) = a cos 9 -(- 6 sin 9 or x = 9 a cos 9 -I- 6 sin 9 first Multiply the first equation of second to obtain (3. then . 9 p an isometry? If -4 = (a. (x\y').b) G R^l x cos 9 X for x.33).y — y sin y cos e = = a b i.b {x. y . y)a^ = {x.y) (x.31. Hence Tab ^ Sg. £ Se.3/)- Hence Tq (. ' = («.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 69 3. we find y ~ y'.h clearly implies i'^yVha.j/a) A = and B= (x^yy^).-b . (x.}. y')p implies x cos x Multiply the first — + y sin y cos e sin e — = x' cos a.y)Ta.y)p -{a. the second by cos Is it and subtracting the Similarly by multiplying the first equation of (3.' y' sin (5. Problems 3.) Finally.6) immediately. 3.) 9 Solution: We must show first that p is an element of S^.y) That is.e.VbV = + b)T-a. is —sin cos 9 sm ^ 0.y)GE.. y t_„ _bTo_b = and so (xab)"' = t _„__(.)"^ — '^-a. is onto. Show that p e is an isometry and that (p 6 )~i = p— . (Hard. the top equation by cos 9 and the bottom by sin 9 and add to obtain a.ys).5) by sin 9 and first from the second. {.30.y) and so T(. is readily seen to be an isometry and it is easy to show that = a^ (Problem Since i is the product of two reflections.b) for any (a. Define a reflection in OX to be the map a^ where {x. y)p — — + (x'. -y) {<ry)~^ This 3. it is easily seen that they satisfy the equation. Show that t^^ is an isometry and that (Ta. we call it a reflection.B) and To. Hence p is one-one.

e). Solution: If A = a. sin e + y cos 9)p 2/ fl sin e) cos (—9) — + (a.y) and e when =s tf - jr. If the one line Li has end point {a^. . Hence p p = p . sin e + = y cos e) sin (— «).2/B)> d(A<rj„Ba„) = VW^ «bP + (-J/A - (-2/b))' = d{A. 2/ sin 9. 62) ^ C*'.j/) = (ac'.(cos 9 sin 4' + sin 9 cos *) + 2/(cos 9 cos * — sin 9 sin *)) cos (9 + *)) sin (9 + *) + sin (9 + *). (a.Hence a^ is an isometry. cos » sin 9 + cos 9) sin *.33. 2/ — cos 9 — (a. Thus the rotations form a subgroup of /. Bp 6 ) — = \/[(«A COS e ^/{(xa — Va sin e) — {xg cos e sin — y^ sin e)]^ + [(^a sin e -\- Va cos e) — {xg sin e + yg cos 9)]^ . 0). y)pj.Vb) e^ + [(^a ~ «^b) sin 9 + (2/^ . sin e + y cos cos (—9)] cos^ i. as it is annoying to carry the minus sign. y) and (x. is an isometry and that and <r„ i. y)p p (x. if - e - lir.34. 2/)p ^ . and that the smallest angle between the (0..P are two rotations. hence the set of rotations is not empty. J/)p • Then if /i is ' the smallest angle between the lines Lj and L^. 2/). 3 .y'). Obviously {x. 2/ («.y). 2/ 2/ a.0).32. Solution: As we have shown in Problem 3. and the line Lg joining (x. Thus I. and p (p )"> is a rotation.I/a) B= (a. 61) = (a. y) and 3. (p p(„ . or — — Iv. Po.. (wa. so p p_ =1. cos e cos M = = 2-n- / -e = (x2 V(a. y)p p = = — = = (a. We remind the reader of the formula for calculating the angle between two lines meeting at the origin. Similarly p_ p equidistant from — Show that (0. b^) and the other Lg has end point (02.2 + ij2) cos e " = + 2/2)(a.y)p 2jr — 9 when it and 6 (0.Xb) cos e .y)ayay = {x. (x.2 + y^) it Hence 3.0). the rotation through zero degrees.70 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS d(Ap d [CHAP.(y^.y).v')ay implies (x. = = = (x cos e [(x COS ff —y — + sin 9. (x.And a^ is (x. /t = 9 if O^^s^tt.(x.(cos 9 cos 4' a. is the )~' = Put -0 = *. x sine sin 9) + cos * — 9) y cos e)p^ (a. tf) (a cos [a:(sin2 e — 2/ sin 9) sin (—9) y{sin^ 6 + e)] (a.—y)a^ = (a.—y)ay . Show that CTj. cos^ {x. y)p^) = d{{0. 2/)) = d((0. 62)' t^^n the cosine of the angle between L^ and L^ is given by aia2 + 6162 \/(a2+6f)(a|+6|) Put («!. (x cos (9 + *) — ((a.B. (a2. Solution: identity.j/g) cos ef and thus p is an isometry. for _ - preserves distance. 0) is {x. If p . and p. 2/ cos e — — y sin sin (a. y)p . Show that rotations about the origin form a subgroup of I. is line Lj joining (x. {x. {x. d((0.y)Oy = {%' .)• Is p (p )~i = p p^ a rotation? (x. a. * + sin 9 + cos 9) cos *)) sin 9 sin *) — 2^(sin 9 cos * + cos 9 sin *). 3.31. 0)p^. 0).B) and so 2 ffj. clearly onto.

Let three circles with centers A'. It Now A = is B= (1. Thus we have and so AABC is congruent to AA'B'C. C) = d{B.) We will prove in this section that all any three points not Lemma 3. d. B' and C" intersect in erality two points P and Q. If this is not so.e. Ca) = d{B. h from B'. they must be the same point. (Note. Similarly Dr is a distance a from A'.C which Let D be any point of E.y)Ta-c.> = 'a. Find an element of Sg that Solution : is is not an isometry. Solution: T'a. Hence ABC lies in a But we assumed this was not so. Let d{D. 3/ + 6)r_e. translations and rotations an isometry is determined uniquely by its action on on a straight line. C must lie on the same circles intersect in It is possible Two for Da and Dt to be these straight line. B). i We (Tj. from B' is 6. 0)a = (l. Therefore A'B'C is a straight line. We shall prove geometrically then that A. aA'B'C by Lemma 3. that there are isometries that are neither reflections.0). Isometries are products of reflections. But aAjPC is congruent to straight line.d) = {x. Let A' Then the distance of Da from A' is a.35. have the same effect on three points on a straight line. C) = c. hence A'B' lies on the perpendicular bisector of PQ.b'--c. B' = Ba = Br and = Ca = C two points at most. d{A'. This contradiction proves Lemma 3.6. But we shall show that as Da and Dt must lie on O3.A) = a.Dt. then a — r.y ^h . for both Da and Dr lie on the intersection of three circles: Oi with center A' and radius a. and c from C. Without loss of gen- we may assume that B' lies between A' and C.0) and (0. Show that the set of translations forms a subgroup of /. C).6: Let a d{A'.-d = {x-^ /. . -d = (a. Let A. that = 3. and O3 with center and radius c. Hence the set of reflections forms a subgroup of 1 and is of order 2.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES that the reflections about 71 3. C) = two triangles with corresponding sides equal.B) = h and d{D. Since we have shown <r""i. 3.1). (0. and from C is c. Geometrically it is possible to see that Da .y) except that (0. however.B. C) = A'.Sec. d(Aa. Solution: have only two elements. then Oi.36.0) and C= then = d(A. A'P = A'Q and B'P = B'Q. 0). two points. Oz with center B' and radius h. = Act = At.-d = + o.7. C' Ct. d{D.h-A and thus the set of translations forms a subgroup of 3.b''-c. B. = d{A. ''. This enables us to prove that every isometry is expressible as the product of a reflection. and d{B'. C).7: If a and t. we quickly verify that the two possible products of a reflection and the inverse of a reflection is again a reflection. Hence a not an isometry. B') G /. Let ctGSe be defined by easy to verify that a e Se- (x.y)a = if {x. Hence Oi and O2 determine two points.37. nor translations. d{A.C). a.b ('cd)"' (a. O2 and O3 have two points in common. a translation and a rotation. for there are only the two reflections and Oy. do not Proof: lie elements of /. B Ba = B' and Ca = Proof: C and C Then A'B'C be three noncollinear points in E.i-cb-d is easily verified as 2/)Ta. (1. A. rotations. Let A<j is a triangle congruent to ABC. Similarly B'C lies on the perpendicular bisector of PQ. Show OX form a subgroup of /. Lemma 3. 0)ct = 1 (0. C) = ^2 ¥- d{A.

(cos e (cos -61) (cos^ e - sin 9 (sin -6i). Let *= /x-a._b. 1) as shown in (0. Apply the translation which moves each point a distance d{A. E is first. of a translation. Intuitive proof: 1.-. 3. Hence B' is of the form (cos 6.) = d{A. C the effect of and <t* is the same (Lemma 3. Atj) parallel to the Then B'A is at an angle Aa and A. f>). 1) A= (a) (b) (0. Hence C is either as in Fig. 2 Fig. 0) = (1. 3 line joining $. sin ^)p_. We build * in three stages so that we bring (a) Aa to A. X . Ap_ — A.B) — d(A(TT_„. *. h). A. C= same three steps and use the same notation. 3 Theorem Every isometry of and a translation. rotation and reflection such that To check that <t* = t.Vb 3.] Then = Bo-T_„ _(.0) = B Also. A(jt_^ _^ Thus Suppose B' Acr = Then = A.8: [CHAP. Let o- S /. sin 5) for some angle 0. and a G 7. <t* = t by remark on the inverse of a product in Section 2. 0).-bP-^M- Since A. BaT_„.72 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS 3. B = (1. is at a distance 1 from A and a distance Then since t_„ _^ and p_^ are isometries. V2 from B. B and C are mapped to A. So we must find a ^ which is the product of a translation. cos 9 sin (-9) + sin 9 cos (-e)) + sin2 e. rotation and translation. e) with d'^ + e^ = 1. page 34. ~b = A.7). 2._i. (6) Ba to B. All we must check is that if B' = {d. Let B' Be say. B= (1. since t_^_^ and a are isometries. See Fig. Let A= Fig. using our -HP-XKr-a. B. Let Aa = (a.4. = *" f* Lemma f*P<. 0). in which case let ^ be the reflection in OX. B'). a rotation and a as a reflection. Let C = CorT_„_ _5 p_^. follow the (0.7. [This is a well known fact of coordinate geometry.^ /„ -bP-e -bP-6 Ac X O = Ao ^"'^-a. B and C by a^. expressible as the product of a reflection. we need only prove that for the three noncollinear points <T^ = L. C else C' = C. Formal proof: We (a. Our idea is first to find <t~* i Bai Aa Bar^a = B' / B P B= ^'""-a. so that AaT_ a. in which case let ft be the identity reflection. . 0). 0) product. since 1 = d{A. It is easy then to prove a is the product of a reflection. Hence. 1 Fig. Apply the rotation through an angle of —Q that takes B' onto B. a rotation We steps. present an intuitive proof The formal proof below follows exactly the same and C = (0. to OX and. (c) Ca to C.-bP-e = C' Fig. the equations cos $ = d and sin 9 = e can be solved for 0. must be a distance 1 from A. B' P-o (cos e. is of length 1.r and the theorem is true. or <r.

and a = *-» = e. is (TT-i implies st~^ e /s? We first prove r"* G Is. A B and \/2 from B. is not sufficiently precise for the needs of Chemistry and Physics. since <t satisfies If G /. and <rT_„__6p_^ is (0. G S and sorr"^ G S. But T_i. Put by Lemma Hence c^ = if t 3. 1) or (0. — . G S. we have ta and consequently aT~^ also satisfies G S.-1).7. ^ 1}. = (0. let Hence t~^ satisfies (ii). a figure is a subset of the Euclidean plane. 3. and t~* G Is.o moves (1. into S. Symmetry groups Given a figure in the Euclidean plane. (Clearly. Thus t~^ satisfies (i). be the identity if C = and ' be the reflection a^ = T— a. p — e^ " Then A<t^ = A.e. i.38. To show T-i also satisfies (ii).o G U. and only elements of S. since A<tt_„ _bP_^ = ix BaT_„__t. Find the orders of the symmetry group of (i) (ii) a' [E G \^ H 1 D \o 4l^_J I . Let (i). Now T-J = T_i. The set.39. (ii) implies GS since t~^ satisfies (ii). - G S. (J Gl forms a subgroup of /. {st-^)t s GS Then implies {tT-^)T = sGS.TG (ii) Is. C' Let A.) Proof: Is ^ 0. we talk about symmetry groups. b u.0) ^ S.9: Theorem Let S be any subset of the Euclidean plane. 3.^p. {<r I <r 6 / and for all s e S. of all such that (i) s gS implies sa G S and (ii) ta G S implies t G S. 5<t* = /xt^. the symmetry group of what we would normally call a non-symmetrical figure usually turns out to be of order 1. we shall define a group which we will call the symmetry group of the figure.0).p_. More generally. (ii). st"^ G S.. therefore. Hence ctt"' G Is and Is forms a subgroup of Problems 3. t Because t G h. Also.0) €S to (0. since a and t~^ are Therefore trr"' Furthermore. called the symmetry group of S. as the identity mapping of the Euclidean plane into itself If s is in Is.) (In other words.o. <tt-* G h. In Theorem we cannot drop Let S be the infinite half-line starting at (1. G h. Then tar'^ t sa S. Find a plane figure S such that U = does not form a subgroup of Solution: /. If a.9 e S} condition (ii). G S. S = {(a. an isometry.-1). it usually turns out that what one would normally think of as the more symmetrical figure has a symmetry group of greater order than the less symmetrical figure. denoted by h.p_^ is a distance 1 from let /. i. Hence U is not a subgroup. In comparing two figures. Then ti. Now we show in Is.e. (0.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 73 (c) C •i- = Co-i-_„ _(.Sec. plane.) 3. and Thus C<r* C= = C. is characterized by its mapping elements of S. tr-^ G S. we will be concerned with subsets of the Euclidean The word symmetry so instead of talking about symmetry. since t satisfies (i). = S. s G S. (An element of Is.1). Sa 3.0) | a..

Hsg = = - /. Since d(M. Therefore the line Gsis is one of the diagonals of S. = = = ^ L. which means F' must lie on F and hence E' on E. etc. namely G. Hsi = = — J. — = 2. A clockwise rotation about of 180°. Now A'B' must lie along AB. about O of 270°. be denoted by A'. 3 {Hint: Use Theorem 3. Is^ Gsi S5: H. Then mapping L" ^t"! Ig contains the following elements: (a) the identity of Kai (6) <72. HsJs is HJ HJ or or JH GsIs GsIs GsIs IG. Let (ii) S = UGH. I) = d{Gs.D'.8 it is easy to see intuitively that the image of the plane figure S will be the congruent figure A'B'C'D'E'F'. J. Let the images of A. H. the reflection in 1. IS5 = = clockwise rotation about O O of 90°. Then \Is\ — 8. then either and the only two points of KLM which are a . Hs. Accordingly I^ = {i} and is of order 1.E and F under <t e /. HsJs GI or IG GI or IG (4) is Since these represent eight distinct cases and each involves the movement of three points not in a straight line. I and H. Gs^ Sg-. Ise J. = = G. But if a rigid body is rotated.C'. Is2 G. clockwise rotation about of 0°. Hs^ = H. Gsg Sg-.B). HJ. M<'2 Ka2 Hence |/s| = ^' — Let a distance \/2^ apart are S Ig.7 at most one isometry could correspond to any one case. K. A useful intuitive approach for this problem is to cut a cardboard figure corresponding to each figure. for we have as members of /g: A A reflection in the diagonal GI. Hence |/s| = 8. I. as all other sides of S are either smaller or larger than d{A'. reflection in OY. Lai K. Is) = Vl Only two pairs of points of S are a distance ^2 apart. KLM.: 74 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP. s |/sl be greater than 8? Let S Ig. translated or reflected it retains the same shape. Gs2 S3: Hs2. G. (iii) Let S be the triangle (Tj. A A A A reflection in J. I. Gs^ S4: HS3 Isg = H. The isometries are obtained on moving each cardboard figure so that it lies on the drawn perimeter.D. Hsg G. J. since Theorem 3.B. label its vertices on both sides. Gsg s^.E' and F'. This means that at most the following possibilities arise: (1) (2) (3) GsIs is is is GI. By Theorem 3.B'. d{G. A clockwise rotation Gsg J. by Lemma 3. = I.C. That all of these are distinct is clear.L) = L and M.B') — d{A.8 states that every element of 7 is a product of a reflection..8 and argue intuitively. distinct points of S are mapped by 8 to distinct points. \J2 I.(72 KN. and draw its perimeter onto a sheet of paper. Isi = = /. Hsi = = J. OX. Similarly the line HsJs is a diagonal of S. HsJs HJ. H. But we have already exhibited eight elements of /g. Now Sj: |/s| is at least 8. Thus a must be the identity. Gsi S2. HsJs is is is JH JH. Is^ = G. Could . Isg = H.) Solution (i) Let S = ABCDEF. rotation and translation. = = = = G. As s is a permutation of S. reflection in the diagonal I.

The only points of S on the circumference of C are vertices.g.A(j) = d{0. 3. i. d{Oa. But Act is an element of S on the circumference of C. . Therefore |/s| = 2. Thus Act is a vertex. Proof: Since every point of S is within a distance r.. from the center 0. Then as K must be a distance 1 from both M and L.11: The center of a regular n-gon S is taken onto itself by any element of Is. Lemma 3. Hence the circle with radius r and center Oa is a circumscribing circle of S.. as there are points of S which are exactly a distance r from 0. from and L. The symmetry group can now of the regular K-gon is called the dihedral group of degree n. Oa = by Lemma 3. e. the effect of on the regular pentagon shown below.A„ (in a clockwise ^^-^ Let radians CT.Av) = d{0. The dihedral groups Let iS be a regular n-gon.. circle. Then as K must be a distance 1 from both Ma and Lit.e. Ka = K.12: If S is a regular n-gon and a G h. We call the center of the circumscribing circle of an n-gon 3. where r is the radius of the circumscribing circle C. there are points of Sa which are exactly a distance r from 0(r.10: lemma for granted. n> 2.7. calculate the orders of the dihedral groups. Hence Act is a distance r from O. be Ai. or (6) M f. then vertices of S are taken onto ver- tices of S by <r. But by the previous lemma there is only one circumscribing circle of S. any isometry of A We Lemma Lemma will take the following geometrical 3. say. Also.. l^j^n. vertices are taken to vertices.A). Ka = K. Thus Oa = O. Proof: If A is a vertex of S and is the center of S. Every regular n-gon can be circumscribed by one and only one its center. = A.11. 360 1) is rotate S about O \ in a clockwise direction through an angle ~ ' (= "^0'- / ^ CTj degrees j so that A^ct. But Sd = S. We Let the vertices of a regular n-gon S with center direction).. Hence |/sl . by Lemma 3. then every element of Sir is within a distance r from Oct. and <j is an isometry. La = M.Sec. and K is the only point of S which is a distance 1 from both L and M. L. We will show that in S. As an example. Ma = Lop = L. This will make it easy to determine the order of the symmetry group of a regular n-gon. n> 2.4] GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES (a) 75 Ma — M. one of the figures below. s^a .2.

Find D^ and Solution: its multiplication table. *"<^ A2T£r2T = '13<'2T = AlT == -^l. j ^ k. = and = a2r. implies t = <j^. .A^a) = d{A^.. . then there easily show . A^a is one of A^. so that on the regular pentagon is shown.k.A^. ^ A^<j^. tq. and so \h\ = 2w- So there are at . S the regular n-gon. Let D^ denote the dihedral group of degree n. implies least 2m possible elements of the dihedral group of degree n. and A^tr ti are also determust also be a vertex.a. But we can that there are no more than 2n. A^-r = A^.. ¥- <j^. As vertices are taken to vertices. i = 3. . 4. mined. since a^ as AiTtT2T = AiagT = ^2'^ = -^3.toj above. Thus there are at most 2n elements of 7^. . = to-^. the identity. Aj(j. Now tvit = a^. implies = But = a. are n possibilities for A^<t. j ¥. For certainly Thus a. Once A^a and A^a are determined. j as k. If then AjTo-^ = Aj(T^. T<7„ are all distinct. rCT2 = = ai"3. Note that aja^ = ffj + i if Also note that t~i = t and a(r — t^ctjt = ttoit. . . A^a has only two possibilities once A^a is determined as d{A^a. . The following diagram lowed by the rotation a^.76 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Let T [CHAP.40. Problems 3. Ttr. A. illustrates the effect on a regular pentagon of the reflection t fol- Z'^IOZ (A2r)ff3 (Air)(r3 The elements A^a. contrary to assumption. Finally. and tcts 0302 toji" the identity.A^. Hence there are at most two elements <r e /g which map A^a to A. . For if a G 7s.So CT3T cordingly the multiplication table is 1 is — j — 2. 3 The effect of t be the reflection about the line through Aj and O. A^t = A^. CTj. Ac- as follows: ^2 ''s n "1 T T Tffg 7'a2 TO'3 "2 "3 "1 T<T2 <f3 TIT2 TCT3 "2 "3 T T(r2 CT2 "l r TCT3 Tff2 "3 "2 T<r3 T(72 T "3 T T(T2 "1 ''3 <'2 rag T Ta2 »! <'3 "2 "1 Tffg T(r3 T "2 . The elements of Dg are the (Tj.

b. It can be shown (see Ford.e. We will. Show the {a.3.39(ii). then az + 6 = (c2 + d)alc and b — adic = and hence be — ad — 0. C4IT2 = oTj.d): az + z--^^:^ where If (i) a. b. ("i) {roztOi}- (Notation is same as It is Solution: gh~^ belongs only necessary to check in each case that the set is not empty and if g. Instead of inquiring (as we did in Section 3. Find D^. ctz. and A^a^^ = A2. Now <rj<j2 = Cj + i for 1 — j — 3. Since t<t2t and (T4 have the same effect on the three points Aj. h belong to the set. the comnumber z = x-\-iy corresponds to the point with coordinates (a. d are fixed complex numbers such that ad But (T(a.5] THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS that the following are subgroups of Dg: in the preceding problem. Notice that we have already found the elements of D4 in Problem 3. orientation.2T ^= A4. z<T is then: not defined is z = —d/c.7.4. and "^ mT = T'^2 TT(r4T = TCT2- It is now easy construct the table: 0^2 ^^3 TO3 "^^4 "1 a2 o's "4 T r(r2 T(f4 "2 ''2 (^s "4 "1 T<74 T Ta2 T TCT3 03 "3 "4 "1 a2 Ta3 r<74 T(T2 "4.b.4f. THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS Defining the group The complex numbers can be represented as points of the Euclidean plane E.. 4.40. "4 T "1 "2 <'3 Ta2 ^3 <'2 Ta^ T T T<r2 Ta3 T<r4 •'I "3 <'4 ra2 TCT2 TOg T<r4 T "4 <'l "2 "1 "S "2 T<T3 '•'^s T<r4 T Tff2 "3 <'4 Tff4 TCT4 T Tff2 Tffg "2 <'3 "4 "1 3. 2. d) is not always a mapping of if — bc¥=0. Accordingly the elements of D^ are ctj and tctj. (ii) {<ri. however. and aiaj = "j^i for all i and j.41. we inquire what are the permutations of E that preserve both angles and their orientation.AiT<T2T = Aj(T2T = A. j = 1.. 0. c. y). ctjt — ttoit. Also t~^ = t. A2 and A3.(a. 3.5 a. For suppose za = ale. Two preserve angles and their things can go wrong. Chelsea.c. L. t(T2t = a^ by Lemma 3. for the rotations and t for the reflection. R. 3. 3. and A3tct2''' — A^T = A2. agr = '^3 = ^4 Tffg. c^O. the sj^mmetry group of the square. It is easy to calculate gh-^ from the multiplication table of Problem 3. c.42. = . . A2CT4 = Aj. and to^t = <7j.4c) what are the permutations of E that preserve distance. A^a^r show To^r = Oi. j = 1. Furthermore A^a^ = A4. a\ = ag to^t = ~ '"I'' — {''o'2T)(T<r2'') = ''•4 = (T3.2.Sec. to the set. We = The following calculations implies "s^i facilitate the construction of a multiplication table for D4. E to E. i. and tto^t a^ = <T3a2 implies t<74t = Ta3a2T = (Ta3T)(TCT2''") = to ''2* Hence a2T = tto2t O"! = t(T4. as then the denominator becomes (ii) There no complex number that maps to a/c. the very condition we assumed did not hold.) (i) 77 3. A2T(T2T = A^(r2''' ~ A^T = Aj. Automorphic Functions.}. Vj. "s). plex . and Solution: its multiplication table. These are called conformal mappings. 1951) that the mappings . use the notation of Section 3.

45). Hence the product of an element of is a subgroup of S^. and the complex numbers. 1). 0. di) (T{a2. 0. z a(a. It is called the group of Mobius transformations. the symmetric group on E. and put °°<t = «>. 1. for we have both defined (—d/c)a and found an element to map to a/c. It is customary to write » for historical reasons. in order to However. b.3. define z<t = "^^ ——-r + ''' '' .7) -¥- (6) If c 7^ 0. ^ 2i 3i + + ~ 1 7 1 . 00 —a) = -a) d (-d) + b /(-a) a(a. Put ooor {—d/c)a — 00 = a/c we have no real problem. In (6) we neatly get rid of both difficulties (i) and (ii) above. Having had to add an extra element. The reader is cautioned that just as the symbol x can have different meanings (e. belongs to M. 63.). l 13 "26^ (iv) -l/3a = 3.c.-a) = -die = « . b. c.c. -a) (Problem 3. X is sometimes a number and sometimes an element of a group or a groupoid. 0.4c prove the a for various a. ^2) <T{ai. 0. 6.c. -a) = « Case (b) : (i) c ¥. so 00 has different meanings. by adding an extra element °o to E and forming Eu{'x>} = E we can overcome these difficulties. 0.43.c. M M First. and (iv) -1/3 under ct(2. c. Determine the image of Solutions (1) (i) i. for any complex number z. dz (Problem 3. C2. Ci. 3 seems as if we have been cheated in our efforts to argue analogously to Section 3. Our <7 idea is to extend utoEin order to patch up the difficulties (i) and (ii) above so that G Sjg. leaving most of the checking of details to the problems.-a) = «• a(-d. = ^(as. given ad — bc¥= 0.d) is given member of Sg (Problem Finally. (iii) «=. Cs. 6. (a) If c = 0. 0.b. b.b.0. is the inverse of <r(a. d) a{-d. etc. l 10 2(1 10* 1 (iii) «ff = 2/3 *'" 3(1 + 2i) + + 2i) + —a) 9 " 1 . Cs. d). 1) is the identity mapping and the inverse of an element in (denoted by i). b. = " a(-d.b. the inverse of by (r(-d. b. 3. We will show that a subgroup of -S^. e. (ii) 1 + 2t. Next. z gC.44.d) is a <T{a.d)a(-d. da) Note that <r(l. M M M Problems 3.44). d) <r(—d. c.: 78 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS It [CHAP.7). b. it is logically distinct.6. «> is any object outside E.c. Show that a(—d. put za = for z -die. d form a group. 62.b. 0. b. because not all the <t are permutations of E. In (a) is will denote the set of all mappings of E to E defined by (3. za(a. 63. Solution: Case (a) : c = 0. each of the (7(a. Thus for some choice of ag. (3. z = — d/c.g. we just let it map to Itself.46). The «> we introduce should not be confused with the <» in such expressions as lim -= 0. bi.

d) c.4. C2 = Then cti(T2 Cg aiC2 + Cid2 = 0. Note that — 63C3 = — (ajOj (ajdi + 62<'l)(^l<'2 + ^1^2) — (ajd. za-^ = ». then zai<T2 = (—d^lc^a^ = °° and. 0. Ac- cordingly we (a). Since o^a^ and ignore one of these cases. b.h. and so = . 63. Hence a{—d. b. We first show 2 = + —d^lcg 61 if and only if ztri = — d2/c2. — 6iCi)a2d2 — (61O2 + 62dl)(OlC2 + d^Ci) — 6iCi)&2C2 = (oidi — 6iCi)(a2d2 — 62^2) ^ Hence ^3 is it a Mobius transformation. —a) — Similarly we can show b. shall not consider Cj = by case (ii) analysis. Thus (A). # 0. d such that ad — bc ¥= 0. ^3) where a^ a^dg — 1102 + — 62''i> ^3 — ''2^1 is + b^d^. This obtains because if for all comthen z <» °o plex numbers zaitr2 = zo's. di) Ogrfs = ai. z = —d^lc^ "s- Now if implies = —dile^. b. Case (i) — 0. b. Cg. c.b.d) is an element of Sg.45. C3. hi. any mapping of a set into itself which has an inverse is a one-to-one onto mapping.) Solution: Let a(ai. ^2 + aiz + 61 C2 + 62 (OjOj (aiC2 -f d2Ci)z d» + 62''l)^ + + (<*2^1 + -I- ^2dl) Zor3 {^\e% did2) Thus except for ffg restrictions (A). a^a^ implies z = —d^c^.b. (C) are permutations. that <r{—d. Then za{(i. z¥= -djci ZCTi if if C2 ¥= 0. Cj ¥. can only be mapped to one element of in the following case possibilities: (i) E by 0^0^ and wg. 3. = i. e. and we can conclude (ii) — C2 v^ 0.—a) = bcz az ez + + h d i-d) + b azc «= + + bd be — — adz aez — bd — ad + b +d /[( {be — ad)z be — ad f az cz a{a. Ci. b. b. Prove also that &3C3 7^ 0. d) = i.c.Sec. c. we may and (D). <t(o2. Prove <j(a. ''a.0. ^^2) = d2<'i> •'("•s- 63. d) a(—d.b. &i. c. e. c. as z = = —d^h'^. By Theorem 2. C3 # —d^lc^ z ?«= -dg/ca (D) z ?* M ajZ CjZ then Zaia2 = + 6i + d. Solution: In Problem 3.d) a(—d. 62. d)~^. c. c. —a) = °o Hence <r{a. We = "3- have two C2 — 0. e. say (D). d) has an inverse. Cj.44 we have seen that each a{a. b.c. Thus z<rjjr2 = °° = ZCT3 in this case. Show that "(oi. 62> <'2> ^2) — "2' and ^(as.d) is one-to-one and onto. b.5] THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS 2 79 (ii) # —die or ».c. b. (B) and (C) do not restrict z. —a) = a{a. -aj(6iC2 z = —d^/e^ implies d2 "2 ai(— d3/c3) + d^d^i + a^c^di aiC26i Cgdi A Zffi zct] simple computation shows that z<rj = (ajZ + 6i)/di = —d^lc^. z. (Hint: This very much an endurance test. 3. di) cr(a2. ale and {ale) a{—d. —d^c^.46. Therefore (r{a.c. dg) = ag. page 36. z Now & if E Ci satisfies (A) (B) (C) ^ 0. b. 3. and so a{a. c^ = aiC2 + SJ^d ^3 61C2 + ^1^2. c. (B). d) G Sg for any choice of a. —a) o{a. there is nothing more to pi-ove.

49.d) d implies 0. If a = a(a. then z = — dg/cg. kcz — + + Denote a(ka.b. a 0. d) = a{ka. = —d^lc. a But —zr —=: VdVd ad-bc = 7— 1= —= = — ad-bc ^/Dy/D .b.c. b. for (ajz + bi)/(ciZ + dj) = —djc^ implies a^c^z + = — Cid22 — d2d2. as a^d^ — cja^ # implies d^ ¥. c ¥= 0. 0.d) = i iff a — d and 6 = c = 0. a) = I.d). as c k ¥= 0.0. all Furthermore. Thus for all possible choices of we have = za and hence a^ — a. fee ¥= 0. If (ii) C2 ^0. kd). (/3) ^ rfi 0. If z ¥= «> or z — d/c « (if c ¥= 0). d) = — c implies = a 0.^ and — z 02(— didi + 61C1) C2(0iCi — fflidi) =0. zai = = za. using the results of Problem 3. then z<Ti(r2 = + ooo-g = + a2/''2 '^1^2) while Zffg = (— di/ci)(aja2 + C162) (6i«2 — ai(— aid. a(a.c.47 above - we know = a( —=. b. c. 3 (b). =—=-.c. 3. = aiC2 + 01^2 = if and only if ajc-^ = Cg = e^d<i —d^/c^ c-i =<>. a(a.^.b.d) implies c = 0. m5 by » definition. Suppose ad Solution : If — be ¥= 0.kd) by kb . za^ = cz -j—r Then »a. d)\ ad—bc — ¥= 0.47. = 1 Oa(a. o's- C3 = 0.kc. xctiCT2 = '"<'2— " while ZCTg = 2 = —dje^. as Hence ctiCT2 = — dj/cj.kb. 0.. If 2 = —djci. Hence oia^ — ag. D= b ad — be c From Problem 1. = la(a. kc. (ii) Cj ^ 0. = d. Show that the set of all Mobius transformations = {a{a. C2 = Then Note also that z = —dje^.d) \ ad—bc — l). if # + c = 0. then. Solution: Let M d = {aia. c. Then ai/cj 7^ —djc^. Solution: kaz -. any element VdVdJ of M obis . that a by definition. Prove a(a. c. . b. cj ¥= 0.0. Hence we need consider only the possibility = 0. To treat the special cases worj = or —d/c (when Secondly. It (r(l. = <»ct2 = 02/02- _ (aia2 (aiC2 C\ + 62Ci)(— '^i/ci) + (02*1 + ^2^1) + d2Ci)(— dj/ci) + (61C2 + did2) <^%{~0'\d^ ~ C2(— ajdj + ^iCi) + 6iC]) _ <H Cg Finally 61C2 z if zai = —d^lc^. d) = a(a. 3. za-^a^.d) = I.<fi^ + d2Ci) = —djc^. \Vd VD —z: —zr . b.. Thus il? is the set of Mobius transformations.) + did2) From ajcx = —djc^ we have d2 za^ = {—0. then. 80 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Case (i) [CHAP. a 0). Hence a & M.-^lc^c.b.48.c.c.G. Therefore dg Cg ^^2 _ _ '^s C2 Cg 3. kb. 3. c. it follows that c^ ¥= 0. d) = a^ be a Mobius transformation and k a nonzero complex number. Again there are two possibilities: (i) c^ = 0. as Cg = aiC2 + d2Cj ¥= 0. — — a^ C2 Now ZCTj = Cg —d^/c^ = Oj/cj only if = and we need not consider If z this case. b.0. c. 0. 1}. b. Hence (aiC2 + Cid2)2 = — (61C2 + '^i'^2) and.1) =d = and — b — then. Let a{a.—T fed fee 5. = — (61C2 + d^d^l{a. b. then. 0. c. we then first assume = and = «> = <T. (a) Cg and. 6 Hence =° = '^a{a. Ci(6iC2 61C2 + did2 + 6. d) is any Mobius transformation. —zz ] viously a Mobius transformation. Therefore z.47. = — didj/^ida — —d^/c-^. b.—= c kc " S and e = = (—kd/kc)a. then b/d 1 • z = za{a. Show that a{a.

46 we found (T(ai.b = b'. c. then A has no inverse (see Problem 3. c and d are called the Two matrices are equal if and only if their entries are the entries of matrix (3.53(i)). numbers a. 2x2 In this section we will deiine the group of two by two matrices and indicate ship to the group of Mobius transformations. If D{A) - 0.bi. its relation- An array 'I I) (^*> of complex a two by two (2 x 2) matrix.B G M.52). The determinant = D{I) Furthermore if A E S'^. " ( w) = ( f' ^^ d') ^^^ °^^^ ^^ a^a'. For if A.5] THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS matrices 81 b. Problem 3.Ci. d is called same.53(ii)). ds) . we usually omit the adjective 2 x 2. -b _a D{A)I \d{A) is the inverse of A (see Problem 3. c. then A~'^ G £M since is in 31. c^c' and d = d'. of I then.8). i. d complex numbers. since c\(l dl\0 0\ ij _ ~ a + O [b + O + c\ + dj ^ (a [b c\ d) _ (1 \0 0\( a c \]\b d In order to determine which matrices have inverses. b. A calculation shows (Problem matrix an associative binary operation. I The matrix a b ~ { n i ) is the identity matrix.0. We define the product of two matrices as follows: a b c\/a' d)\b' is c'\ d'j _ ~ faa' \ba' + + cb' ac' be' db' + + cd' dd' 3. we define the determinant of the matrix It is If A = then ( .Sec. We call iM the group of rices over the complex numbers. ad — be is ¥= with the operation of matrix multiplication a group. 3. Therefore . b.51) The product of two matrices multiplication is clearly a matrix.&2. For in Mobius transformations and the group of 2 x 2 Problem 3.e. A = f M ^1 and D{A) ¥. D{AB) ¥- and AB G IM. easy to show D{A) D{B) ( = D{AB) for any two matrices A and B (see . &3. b.^2) = ^(as. (Since we will only deal with 2x2 matrices. 62. cs. Hence the identity / is 1[q \) D{A) D{A~^) = - 1 implies 2x2 mat- The relationship between the group of is matrices now evident.0. We claim that the set a b c d a.) a. as D{A) D{B) = D{AB).di)(T(a2.?l/ is a group. J J to be the complex number I>(A) = ad — bc. \^ d Id{A) / 1 -c D{A) . D{A~^) ¥.

j _ " \ba ds This does not mean the group of 2 x 2 matrices is identical with the group of Mobius transformations. B = ("' J). C = /"3 "3 f>3 "'). _ ~ cs = aiC2 + d2Ci. tti fei Ci \/a2 di/\&2 C2 \ /aia2 ^2/ \6ia2 + + C1&2 aiC2+Cid2\ hiC2 di62 + didi. Problems (ii) Find the inverse of M 2i\ (I _l) .„ /aa' (6a' + eb' + d6' + cd' + dd' . Show that matrix multiplication is an associative binary operation. = -1. if A. page 120.2a3+ C2*3 a2C3+<'2d3\ di/ybza^ + dibs bzCa + d^gJ ai(a2C3 hiia^c^ /ai(a^3 \ 6i(a2«3 + C263) + 61(6203 + dgfcg) + C263) + di(62a3 + d263) {AB)C + C2d3) + + c^^ + Ciib^e^ di(62<'3 + d^^ + d^d^) A check of entries shows = A(BC). d) = a{ka. bs = azbi + &2di. (c) ^ °V (d) ("^ ^ Solution: 8i (i) -3 + 2i (a) 20 2 (6) (c) 10 y \ ' c — (^ ^ c (d) a 6 Vd ' 14 (ii) + 3 3i 14 + + 3i (6) ^0 ( i\ (c) (a) -7 3i a (d) fl/a \ 1/d J 0/ 14 + 14 3i / 3. Prove D(A)D(B) Solution: = D(AB) = D(B)D(A).47 that a(o.81. Then (AB)C = 61 a-2 ^2 diJ\b2 dg CsX dg/ _ /aia2+ \6i02 C162 0-102+ Cid2\/ 13 6iC2 "3 + di62 + did2/\63 + Cid2)d3 + did2)d3 dg /(OlOj \ (61O2 + <. Solution: Let A = f' "'). 9^ 0. and da = biCz + didi. But L I ft f* \ ^j ^ I Tea Jcf* \ . The precise rela- two groups will be given in Problem 4. c\ for any two matrices A and B. ' ^"'^ . But by the def/as Ca inition of multiplication. kd) for any complex number tionship between the A. [j^^ j^^j e. For we have seen in Problem 3.52. W (J J). ac' 6c' /a ^«' „ / a' 6' c' \ ^ = U d)' ^ = d')- ^^^" ^^ = . 3 where - aiOz + 62C1. 3.g. c.i62)«3 + + di62)o3 + ("l«2 (biC2 + Cld2)63 + did2)bs («l'»2 {b^az + Ci62)<'3 + + dib2)c3 + (<»lC2 (61C2 - /"' \bi c.51.i 82 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS as [CHAP. kb. kc.\ /a. b.

<^. a one-to-one mapping . A cannot have an inverse. We mapping have discussed isometrics of plane of a groupoid is defined as follows. bd — db —be + da \D(A) (ii) D(A)j \ D{A) D(A) j -b ^D(A) rc:) D{A)i If A' is an inverse of A. .54. ^DiA) \' (ii) DiA). D{A) D(B) = D(B) D(A). If real numbers. Show (i) that the following sets of matrices are subgroups of the group c3/ of 2 X 2 matrices.b'c') = aa'dd' + bb'cc' . ASV. VO 1/ A-^ 1.b GG. Let of The corresponding one-to-one onto is Definition: G be a groupoid. '^)g%. d complex numbers.Sec. as -5_.adb'c' = (ao' + cb')(bc' + dd') . then D(A') D(A) = D(I) where / is the identity matrix. 6. ^_ % is and is a subgroup of ^M. e% A^(l dj \b 1)g% "3^ then.53.M and 7 G <P. 3. The inverse of ^ = (a A G'J'. % -U a b c a. Thus ? is a subgroup of . c complex numbers.bc)(a'd' . ad — 5c = 1 (iii) "^ - -{[^ j) o. SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE Automorphisms of groupoids figures.(6a' + db')(ac' + ed') = {ad bca'd' = D{AB) Because multiplication of complex numbers is commutative. c. / > Prove: (i) If D{A) ¥ 0. as it is H®"<=« A-i G "P if 1/d ) easily checked that "P is closed with respect to d) *^ ( o" products. ^ D{A)' D{A)' D(A)' D{A) easy to check that -^. d D(A) -I D(A) is the inverse of A. If D{A) = 0. Then an automorphism « of G G onto G such that (ab)a — oaba for all a. c.^M. (ii) VC. Hence X( is a subgroup of easy to check that K • is jD(7) = 1 implies closed with respect to products. ad ¥> Solution: (i) %Q^ are all and / = (. D(A) 1 D(A)\f^ b -b >. But D{I) and D(A) = 0. = 1 3. 3. 3. d d real numbers.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE D(A) D(B) 83 . ^_. Solution: a (i) d c\\ D(A) <^/l I ad— be —ac D(A) -\- ac \ \ D{A) a V.6 a. Let A = 'a I c\ ) be a matrix. ad — 6c t^ (ii) = b d a. . b. ' D(A) 1 . (iii) 'J'Q. as it is closed with respect to products. A has no inverse. Since zero times any number is zero.M D(A-i) and !»(/) = so ZGU Let (^^. as it is Then Z)(A) D(A-i) = = 1.

Note that xy = y. Find the automorphism group of Ag. The identity mapping is an automorphism.13: Theorem Proof: I. since a G Sg. Note that A^ = /. the identity mapping. Let a. IV. belongs to A.55. hence A^ 0. GG = and a'b' = by A We aut (G). J = i. Thus the multiplication table is a^. 92 ^ <?. The auto- 3.) Theorem 2. 6} and • is defined by the multiplication table a a b b a a b b a Solution: (a) I. a^A Let I be the identity mapping. the the identity mapping. If a e A. hence {bb)a ¥= {})a) • {Jod). Note that isometries preserve distance whereas automorphisms of groupoids preserve As the analog to Theorem 3.e. an automorphism of A3. and hence a subgroup of Sg. (For table of Ag see Problem 3. aj = a^.haga. Hence {ab)a-^ Thus is a group. 3 groupoid multiplication. a Now an automorphism of a group G is a one-to-one homomorphism of G onto G. •) is associative. gaha = V . The set A of all automorphisms of a groupoid symmetric group on G. If a. i. Hence {xy)a -yamorphism group therefore contains the two elements and a. i. = [a(aP)][b{a(i)] II. the image of an identity in G is an Identity in G' and the image of an inverse of g & G is an inverse of ga. Notice aa = i {xa)iya). a"^* makes sense. a binary operation in A. b'a = b. la = 1' (1 an identity of G and 1' an identity of G') and if gh = 1 = hg.b GG then (a6)(a/3) = {{ab)a)li is = [{aa){ba)]fi Thus the composition of mappings III. Therefore if Also <ria is either ag or ''i. But {bb)a = aa = b and baba = aa = a. V. a~^ be the inverse of «. Problems 3.e. i.5. G is a subgroup of Sg. 0-2^ = "v phisms. and A are automor- I A A I I A . page 44.b so that a'a = a. and so A contains an identity. page 67. a^l = O" checking the homomorphism property. let choose a'.56.«'i««'2« for a^ 9i. we have 3. Thus a is not an automorphism. Then {a'b')a = ab. Solution: G'. (A.e. is i.6. I. Let A = we see that / be the mapping lA = i. i.p GA and a. is the only automorphism for the only other possibility is the mapping a defined by aa = b and ba = a. showed that for any homomorphism a of a groupoid G into a groupoid a mapping of G into G' such that (ffiSTa)" . •) where G = {a. (6) Define a by aa = b and 6a = a.23(iii). 0^2. call A the automorphism group of the groupoid G and sometimes denote it Find the automorphism group of (a) (&) (G. b' GA (aa""')(6a~^).84 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS [CHAP. la = Hence there are at most two automorphisms of A3. as a is a one-to-one onto mapping.

Once 1. Now (Tip must be either a^ or (Tg. since = Hence there are two possible choices for Tip Tip. g^p^ g^Pa. p^ . p^ .4(c). then ip = ip 1.. P-2 Pri P^3 Po-l Pi Pct2 P-3 P-2 P-1 P<T2 Pa. Solution: Pa is clearly a mapping.3(a) to calculate the images under the automorphisms. 3. onto.. contradicts p a one-to-one mapping.Pb = Pab where G by Pa- 9 '* a^^ga. Hence is an automorphism.) Solution: Then Refer to the multiplication table of S3 given in Section Pt . that p„pb Per. We use the multiplication table of Section 3. Note that we have used the associative not a semigroup. p- are all I ffi ff2 ''1 ''2 '3 I (Tj (72 (72 Tj T2 '"1 Tg ''2 I 1 aj 02 <T2 Ti T2 T3 Pa2 I (Tl (T2 Tj ''S T2 '^2 T3 '"1 (Tl '3 I CT2 ''I 1 CTi '^1 '^2 ^S Tl 1 aj "'2 ^2 "1 ''1 '^2 '3 ''2 i (Tj CT2 ''1 ''2 '"3 C (Ti 02 T2 T3 ' ''l '3 1 (72 (Tl T2 Tl T3 If p were another automorphism.3(a). There- (9i92)Pa = «-~M9'ifi'2)a p. = {9Pa)Pb = (a-~^ 9a)pb h~^a-^gab = (ab)-^g(ah) = gpa and thus Pab = PaPb- 3. t2 or T3 for if for example. p^ . Also p„ If is fore Pa is one-to-one. If law.57. = = is giPa92Pa and so p. then a^p = = titi = but this cTip. g has as pre-image aga~^.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE G into 85 3. Now Tip must be one of tj. 3. Pi. But once a^p and Tip are known. By Problem 3. To find the multiplication table Pi we use the result of Problem 3. so that our argument would not apply to a groupoid which 9{PaPb) g & G. o~>£fiaa-i£r2a ffi = fif2. p . the = Ts and Tiff2 — T2 So this means that there are at most six possible automorphisms. ((r]<Ti)p = oipoip. for if g = G then a'^g^a = a~^g2a and hence G. Pi P<ri P-2 P-1 P-2 P-3 Per.57. (Hint: Use Problem 3. Hence there are 3 possible choices for effect of p on all the elements of S3 is known. a contradiction. P-1 P<^2 Pl P-2 "-3 P-l Pa-y Po-2 Pl PCTI P-3 P-l P-2 Pt. for if say a^p = ti. page 37. This problem is difficult. = Pab- Pt.57 to find six automorphisms.57.58. Define the mapping p^ of that Pa is an automorphism of G and that pa. then ip = (titi)p = (Tjai = (tj = i. Find the automorphism group of S3. automorphisms of S3. to denote the effect of these mappings. (tjp is known <tip<tip as <t2P = i. since '"i"! = a^. We use the notation of Section 2. P-1 Prs P-2 Pi P-2 P-1 Pt. is a homomorphism. Pl . is the usual multiplication of mappings. Prove p^pj. Let a be any element of a group G. prove that there are no other automorphisms. a^p is given.Sec. Pt.

field (The definition of bers. (a' + 6'i) . then a-h&C. denoted Let F be a field. +) is a subgroup of (C. numbers is a group under the usual binary operation of by (C. +). aa' (a -a') 66' . parts (a) and (&) of the definition of a field imply (F. 1 ~ 266' . 3. Definition: A (a) subset F of C IGF. and that C* = C — {0} is a group (C*. a'b ab' m ^ n Therefore (ii) F is a field.beZ}. If a. T rs^w .h & Q}.59.{0}. We are often interested in a subset of C that satisfies the same conditions.b GF and b -^ 0.h G C. Whenever a. This leads us to a field of ft complex numbers. for a subset of a group to be a subgroup.{0}. x). The same argument applies for Q. (F*. F* = F. In view of these remarks the definition of a field is equivalent to: 3. is a subgroup of (C*. plication. then a—h & R and ab~^ & R whenever 6^0. page 55. Problems 3. + (b - b')i G F . and.1. and if v^ 0. addition and multiNotice that if a. x) under the usual multiplication of complex numbers (see Example 5. . Of course the complex numbers themselves form a Recall that the set of complex addition. „ . Let a + 6\A2 and {a' a' + 6'\/2 be two elements in F. page 51). A Survey of Modern Algebra. C* = C- {0}. Birkhoflf can be extended to sets which are not contained in the complex numand MacLane. . Therefore. 3 b. 1 + iSF but (1 + i)-> = 1/2 - l/2i € F. 6 e J?. l + Oi= IGF.h & Q} F = {a+ hi a. x).) field. Show 1 that R and Q are fields of complex numbers. b G F. if (F. -I-). for example. is called a field of complex numbers if (h) (c) Whenever a. 1. (a+bi) . X) is a subgroup of (C*. since 1 +i# 0.86 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Fields of complex numbers [CHAP. i = \/^ \ \ Solution: (i) 1 = 1 + 0\/2 e F.) and (c) imply (F*. afe-i e C. Solution: e fi. then ab^^ GF. (a (a+bV2) and if + /^v b'yf2) = ««' - a') + {b — b')V2 G F a' + b'y/2 ^ . +) is a subgroup of (C. using Lemma 3. Macmillan.60. and parts (a. + a'h — ab' „ (iii) F is not a field. i^ is a field. Which (i) of the following sets are fields? | (ii) (iii) F = {a + 6v/2 a.14: Lemma A (1) (2) subset F of C is a field of complex numbers -I-). x) where F* = F. The complex numbers C have customarily two binary operations. See. if a' + b'i ¥> 0. i = yf^ F = {a+bi a. 1953. then also a-b gF. 0.

any automorphism of Q is an epimorphism of the Hence by Theorem 2. this true since the identity mapping i G A.{aa-'){ba-^) and {a + b)a~^ = aa-^ + ba-\ Thus a-^ e A as desired. the symmetric group on F. +). responding one-to-one onto mapping of a field is defined as follows. inverses are mapped onto inverses and the identity. If a G A.b GF. a a' + 6 =: + b' = Let «"' be the inverse of a. 1. Q* = Q .5b. Problems 3. then a claim a~^ a is onto. since na = n and -n is the additive inverse of n. then (a -I- b)(al3) = = {{a + &)«)/? = = and {aa + ba)p = {aa)p + {ba)j3 = a{ap) + b{ap) and for III.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE of fields 87 c. because of part (ii) of the definition. Then as we can find a'. +) is a group and (Q*. (A. Assume ka . Hence ra = r for all integers.{o}. G Sf We have proved that the automorphisms of a field form a group. 3. X). X) onto (Q.—n for all positive integers n. a is also an epimorphism of the group (Q*. Definition: The cor- A if (i) one-to-one mapping a of a field F onto itself is termed an automorphism (ii) + &)« = act + ha for all a. 1. But the automorphism Now (Q.— = — 1\ 1 1 —a — / n n n we see that if is — (n ?^ 0) is any n n The automorphism group . For additional pertinent remarks and references.b G F. . Furthermore.b GF. 1 by any automorohism of Q. Using mathematical induction integers n. of (Q. Hence by Theorem 2. X). a. group (Q. then and is \ J the only possible automorphism of Q.l3GA. (a Note that the automorphisms of fields preserve both the operations of addition and multiplication. The identity is is A is an identity element.6. 3. \a = 1. Let a. Collecting these m r_ (m--)a = ma— a = m. — is the inverse of r. is a group.6.ab){ap) {(ab)a)p [(aa){ba)](3 = [{aa)p][(ba)p] is = [aial3)][b{al3)] a. by the automorphism property of a. Thus mapping composition of mappings in a binary operation in A. Let a be an auotmorphism of Q.') a semigroup. +) is mapped onto 0. then all positive for ka + la = k + +) la = 1. X).15: The set A of automorphisms of a field F forms a subgroup of the sym- metric group Sf. Theorem Proof: I. Notice that X)is a groupoid (not a group. Therefore (—n)a . II. is mapped onto (Q. the automorphism of the field Q is also an epimorphism (see Section 2. Then ab = {a'b')a and {a' + b')a. is a group and. This group is extremely useful.k for some integer fc ^ 1. by definition. Therefore a of the identity mapping Q is of order one. conclude that na = n we show na = n Then (k + l)a = for all We positive integers n. Find the automorphism group of Q. is associative. 0. page 44. b' G F such that a = a'a. X) onto itself so that (±r)-ia facts = ±r — a = ±r — n for all posi- tive integers r.h &F. the multiplicative identity of (Q. since has no inverse) and. since composition of mappings V.4a. page 42) of groupoid {Q. page 158. all (.Sec. We G A and so a will have an inverse in A as desired.61. because element in Q. Oa = 0. {ah)a = {aa){ba) for all a. Automorphisms We have discussed isometries of the plane and automorphisms of groupoids. b = b'a. We must prove is A If ?^ 0. see Section 5. Consequently (a6)a-» = a'b' . Solution: We will use the fact that (Q. IV.

92) is a third force z computed by the Again it can be shown that z = (fi+gi.b e Q}.u : We shall consider vectors that involve fields other than F be any field. \/2aV2a = (^/2^)a-2a = 2. Similarly if / is any real number. + 6\/2 )(a' + b'yf2 )}a = = {aa' aa' (a + 266' + (a'6 + 6'a)V2 )a + 266' . The resultant written as 3x. The set of all 2-tuples {fufz) is called a vector space of dimension 2 over the field of real numbers (because we can multiply the 2-tuples by real numbers). has (a+b>/2)a + 6\/2 )a = aa + (b-\/2)a = = a+ 6\/2 in which {(a da two possible images under an automorphism of F. as we know it begins at 0. can talk of increasing the force x in magnitude by a factor 3. The sum of two forces x = (/i. . ji. fn) where /i e F. we define fx to be the force x increased in magnitude by a factor / and we can prove We is = (//i.88 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Find the automorphism group of Solution: [CHAP. 3. 3 3.(6 + b')^f2 ) ) and (a + + 6\/2 )a + (o' + 6'v/2 )a Hence {(a 6\/2 ) + (a' + 6'\/2 )}a = (a+ 6V2)a + (a' + 6'V2)a Thus a a: is an automorphism of F..gn) are two elements of V. ./„) (i. is an element of F. We shall assume for and act in the Euclidean plane E. F has two elements i and a+ 6\/2 ^ o — 6\/2 Notice aa = d.f2).6\/2 )(a' . parallelogram law.6'V2 + a') . so that (^2 a )2 = 2 or V2a = ±y/2.FxV^V by = e F. force /a. f^ + gi). It x ^ {fi. ).6 VI + (a' . Then V consists of the w-tuples a. Let V = F"" be the cartesian product (/i. the moment that all the forces act on a fixed point Any It is then possible to represent a force by its endpoint.. ja and y F X F -> y is ..(a'6 + b'a)y/2 ) and (a + 6\/2)a(a' + 6'V2)a: = = 6\/2 )(a' .e. The automorphism group of i. But that + 0\/2 = q. since q arguing as in Problem only then for any q S qa = q an element of Q. We write z = x + y. . say. Vector spaces In Physics we represent a force a.. by a straight line pointing in the direction the force acting and of length proportional to the magnitude of the force. / = (/i. There are two possibilities: (1) i.(a'6 + b'a)yf2 (o Hence Also.. .) (ii) Let If .. so a force can be represented by the is coordinates of its endpoint. and {gu a binary operation in V) and oi-.6'V2 aa' + 266' . /a) and 2/ .61. We (a in conclude Vs . case a is the identity automorphism is (2) {a which case we must check to see whether a an automorphism.//2). Any since 2 is rational number q Q. n copies of F. Hence + baV2 a = a+b(-^a). of relinquish our contact with the real world. (We must therefore the real numbers. we define . Now \/2 e F and (\/2^/2)a = 2a — 2.62. It a is an automorphism of F.(6 + 6')v^ . point of course can be represented by its coordinates. We (i) shall generalize the concept of We shall two dimensional physical forces in two ways: deal with arbitrary dimensions and not only 2 or 3. . F = {a + b\/2 | a. If a: a+ + 6V2 )a — a+ b{—y/2 then 6\/2 -> a — 6-\/2 .{gi. {(a+ + + 6'V2 )}a 6'\/2)}a = + 6\/2 )a(a' + 6'V2 )a {(o+6\/2) + (a' = = = = {(a o (a (a + a') + (6 + 6')V2 }a + a' . then Sx = (3/1.3/2).

.. Prove that (x if x. V can be represented uniquely in the form .. .. L„(V.ffn)- = 9i. be a vector space and {x a:V-^V. . . Linear transformations.. {ffu. . by fx. 0. of Prove that if ^i = (1. Then indeed x then is = Jf In x = giei + g2e2+---+g^e„. (x + y)-\-z + Sn) as = ((/i + addition is . .15.F) to contransformations of V.6] SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE {x. then every element x a.. .y&V and /GF (gi. . Solution: (i) (1 + 6. ff„) commutative in any field.g2)a For example.A) /((/l.. . . .13 and 3./„) = iffi. 0). . e^ = (0.F) CSv. . = /i^i + /2e2 + • • + /„e„ Solution: Suppose « = (/„.f2h + ^^«°' (/(/l.. = . y + y = y-^x and Solution: a. ./„ + On) {f. 7..//l) + {g2.hj. . 3. y and z + y) + If z = are elements of a vector space of dimension n. for all x. = . of V + 3 are called vectors. 0. . then X + x iy + z)... .Sec. 12) 3. . and z = {hi. Hence fi 9n and the representation . . . -/„). 1. Find (i) (1. (ii) Then « is of F said to be a linear transformation if (i) + y)a = let xa + yu {fx)a = /(ica).. 3). unique.gi) = = ifi. and and <« (/. Then ifiji) + {gug2)}a = {f2 + g2. + /^ej + . (0. 3. Prove that if V is a vector space of dimension under the operation /i.63. 2. y)ix 89 = (/i + gi. y)ix /t hy x + y. Let The full linear group F .64.ffn) We denote {x. /„) is (-/i.66. . 0). + 8) = • (7. 3) (6. a. 0... 8). 3. . (/>. . (/i + ffi.0) is the identity element. the vector space of dimension n over F. ...f„).x)./2)a) Note that linear transformations preserve both the additive and the multiplicative structures of V. -2. 4 • 3) = (24. First let us define L„(7. . e.. . (ffi. 0. .. /je. (ii) 4(6. Solution: n. 9.. -f^. 4 • (-2). 4 0. h = g^. e„ = (0. ./i). (/„ + flf„) + K) = x + {y + z) by associativity of addition.fi+gi) = = (//2. 2 + . 1). fi + Qi. is called the vector space of dimension n over the field F.0. the symmetric group of V.. -8. • • • + /„e„. then x + y - y + x = fifi) + /ii. /„)./2)}« = /(/2../2)a = (/2. inverse of The .)<o V together with The elements Problems 3. /g.. 11) (ii) (4 6.. .65. fn (fi. {{fuf2) (/i. Now we have the analog of sist of all one-to-one linear Theorems 3.. then the elements of V form an abelian group V is an abelian groupoid by the preceding problem. 7. clearly. — ifi..

/n = S'n by Problem 3. {fi^cc))r' - f{iXa)r') = f{x{ar')) and thus L^(F. Hence the effect of a is known once effect on the elements . Is it a linear is one-to-one onto.16: L [CHAP. /2 = S'2.i^).. uniquely determined by its effect on the elements Ci.F) fx^ and we ask whether a^~^ G L^{V.8-i = = = + 2/)a)/3-> = + (a.8 ((/a. Show is that if a is a linear transformation of V. e„_ia = e„ and e„a = ei? Solution: Yes. since {(/iSi + + frfin) + (SiCi + • • • + sr„6„)} a ^ = (/i + S'i)(eia) +•••+(/„ + Sr„)(e„a) -I (/l«l + /n«n)« + -I• (fi'l^'l "f + On^n)^ and {/(/i6i + • • + /„e„)}a = = (//i)(eia) • • -h (//„)(e„«) /{(/lei + • • • + /„e„)a} = = 3. . Is aGl/„(V..e.a) + • + /„(e„a) Then 3 is a linear transformation.66 each element of V is of the form x its = Aei + • • • + /„e„. have + 2/)a. (x We ((a. Show that 5: y -> V if a is any mapping of such that e^a = e^S. . • • •. Accordingly «-' + y)a^^. j = 1. r' ^ L^{V. = (fx)a~^. then there exists a linear transformation . as a pre-image. a vector space of dimension n. Hence a Thus aGZ-„(V.n. An arbitrary element /iCj + • • + /„e„ (/i^i +•••-!. Since a is onto. Problems 3. Solution: By Problem /i(eia)+ • • • 3.F).eJ^V.F) Ln{V.6„ is known. 3 Theorem Proof: Ln{V.()a)a"i = G LJV./„e„)a = (fl^iej +••-!- Sf„e„)a is one-to-one.8-i X{ap-') {Xa)l3-' (ya)^-' = + lj{ap-') and ifx)al3-' is = {{fx)a)r' S^. implies /i = S'i..e„ of Problem 3. .1/. .F). • • Define a:V^V by + • • • + /„e„) 5 = /i(e. . Thus G L„(F.66.66. (/a. Solution: Each element of V is uniquely of the form f^e^ (/iBi -I- • • • -I- f„e„. Of course x^ ask whether «"' GV {x^ e L^{V.F). and (a. F) as is a subgroup of Sv. .. ica""' -l-i/a~' = {x /(««-!) = ifx)a~K Also.F) if a is a linear transformation and e^a e^.a + 2/a).68. xa = +/„(e„a)..^ a. . «"' G i Hence Ln{V.y and f x^a = X and y^a = y.90 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS 3. if and so i. F) # 0. i^) a subgroup of LJF.F). .^ + j/Jo: = ic^a + i/ja = (a. eja eg. Also. preserves both addition and multiplication. If a G L^{V. there exists x^ and y^ such that = xa~^. then the effect of a . {ei. y^ — ya~^. Then ej.. . -I. Hence + y^ = + 2/Jaa:~> = {x + y)a-^ fx.j)a = /(iKjtt) = so a. 3. iF) is called the full linear group of dimension n. we transformation? Let x. G F... . .F).67.. All we must prove • • is that a has /2ei + /3e2+ • +/„e„_i + /ie„ is one-to-one and onto.69.

Prove that the group Let {a D of Problem 3. 3.a) \ ae.70. 3] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 91 A look back at Chapter 3 We have met many important groups. {{a. Let be a subgroup of G. When does G„ = Zl 3. + c. Let G„ = {a + i6 Vm a.79. Let n be any positive integer. Z the set of integers.n)e + z0. is G (of Problem 3. including groups of real and complex numbers.0) \ aSZ} and K= K= {(0. Z} where Z is the set of integers. 3. CHAP. 0) is a group.74 abelian? 3. G = ZxQ. the symmetric group S„. Groups thus arise in many different branches of mathematics.72 is not abelian.74) a group with respect to o? a group with respect to the operation • defined by (a. Prove that D is 3. G2. Let D be the group of Problem 3. Supplementary Problems GROUPS 3. d) ~ 3. Prove GinG2n • • is a subgroup of G.76. . Let W = ZXB. Prove that S(H) is a subgroup of G. Let n be any positive integer and let Prove that with respect to addition G„ G^ = {a + by/n is \ a.81. b) • (c.78. 2'=6 + d). (Hard. Define a group with respect to this operation o (a.71. 5) = (c.74.d) . We define where for each zG z^ . and the full linear group. .{a+ c. where Z is the set of integers and Q the set of rationals. .<£) = (a + c.2-':b + d). + c.75.73. Show that GjUGzU is a subgroup of Find a group G and two subgroups Gj and Gj of G such that GiUGg is not a subgroup of G. ^) {e\ e:Z^Z}.80. symmetry groups. b e. Determine whether are subgroups of G. Determine whether are subgroups of D. Let Gi. b) * (c.b)o(e. the automorphism groups of groupoids and fields. • • • • • • 3. Prove G is a group with respect to this operation * . (-lyb + d).77. 2=5 . a group and Gi c Gg c be subgroups of G. the dihedral groups. a group. Is the group of Problem 3.82.72. If Is we G define {a..72. Let G be G. and hence general theorems about groups can be useful in apparently unrelated topics. Let G be the group of Problem 3. H Let S{H) = {x \ x G G and xx & H}.beZ} where i = ^/^ and Z is the set of Is G„ a group with respect to addition? Is G„ a group with respect to multiplication of complex numbers? | integers. 3. 0) | oG Z} and {(0. Let {m B = + n. Prove that PT a multiplication on by (m.) W = SUBGROUPS 3.Z} 3. 3.(z. In subsequent chapters we will derive general theorems for groups. be subgroups of G.c?)? 3. Let D = ZxZ. q) \ q G Q} . d) = (a. H= H= {(a. Define {a. Let G be an abelian group.74. Z. e){n.

. Let (7 : Q) = {» 9 I G 7(72) and qe GQ for all q Q}. c'. \ S Sp and ze = for all z SP such that z> is n}. I9 = 1 or 19 = What Prove that is a subgroup of S5. S C}. where P is the set of positive integers.y & S^ and show that aa — Py — yp.2.83. {« G {1. 6). b.) . b = b'. finite number of « S Prove that Sp is a subgroup of Sp. Let S be the even integers subgroup of 3. Let a: Z^ Z be defined by za = z + 1 for all z&Z. (Hard. 3. Let a(a. Iff =: 1}.84.92. Prove that if |y| . Prove that K is not a subgroup of S5.92 GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS Let z).101.87.h.99.) let W — {x\ x — (m. {e e Let Sp = {e \ e & Sp and ze =^ z for all but a 3. H ¥.d) c : z-> or c = — c'. be as in Problem 3.95. Prove (7 : Q) is a subgroup of 7(72).) THE GROUP OF MOBIUS TRANSFORMATIONS 3. by 2wy = 2(n + 1). H = Prove that 3. then the only element m G Af . Prove that if M is the group of Mobius transformations. j/ = sin a. : Let G= Sp. Z. is a subgroup of W. Prove that if IXj = jFl. there is an isometry such that Se = then 7s = Is-. but a finite number of integers Prove that B' is a subgroup of C Prove Using the notation of the preceding problem.88. (2w + l)y = 2n + 1 Prove that a. 3. for which mn = nm 3. Let A.? 3.b. What is the symmetry group of the graph of circle. Prove that 3. S' is a congruent figure. 1» |A| = = 1}.96. B be sets with 1. z Let G = Sp. Prove (7 : S) is a I(R). Let n and r be positive integers. and is a subgroup of B'. (Hard. Prove that S^ x = ^3. — <r{a'. Find the symmetry group of the figure 8.86. Z and c S C}. i. se GS for all s G S}.85. S is any subspace of the plane and S'.100.c. Let C = {e = Let B' . .. Let jfiT H = {e I {tf I « G Sg. Let (2m + 1)/? = 2n + 3 for all integers n. Find the symmetry group of the figure W.K. c). p Z ^ Z be defined by 2tc/3 = 2n. where ttiG. all integers n. 3. = i. z» — z c for all C {a.93.2. 3 3.. (Hard. d') if and d = —d'. for all n& M is m. Let Let X be a set and e \ K = j/ ye = y for all are subgroups of 2/ G F}. Determine the symmetry group of the Prove that e if 3. (Hard.97. c. Let H = {e e e.90. and (I : S) - {e \ e G G I(R).) B \ e : Z | -^ a. b'.89.94.r} for all ie {1. = c'. [CHAP. 3.98. Prove that H and if & Sx and ye G Y for all thatXDH. = (0.d) a(a. Prove that H is a subgroup of A5 and find b its order. Y a proper subset of X. Let G„ = G = GiUGgU--. Let H = {e » I G A5. S^ and 3. = 9 e S5.) 3. Let y: Z -^ Z be defined for 3.{x\ x = (0.102.77. Sx and G F}.c. (Hard. P}.2 r} and » G SJ H {$ \ is a subgroup of S„ and find \H\. Sx = Sy GROUPS OF ISOMETRIES 3. c). d) be the Mobius transformation defined by only a'd' if a{a. 2}. d = d' Prove that a = —a'.e. 6 £ B}. — b'c' — 1. b = —6'.91. Let iff I H its order? Let 3. W SYMMETRIC GROUPS AND ALTERNATING GROUPS 3.. given ad — 6c = either a = a'. W 3. p.

. Let N be the set of Mobius transformations (r(a. d) with 6 = 0. Prove that AT is a subgroup of M. c. e.111. d are integers such that od — 6c = 1.0.0)} S = Prove that {a\ aeL„ + i(V..F). b.. Let = {a + ib^/l^\ a. N such that ss = m. of all Mobius transformations. (1. 3.106. 3. Let V be the vector space over the rationals of dimension n + 1.b rational numbers. then there exists s e. Let T/ be the set of all matrices I j .) 2 1 3 4 4 3/ ' ' a subgroup of S4. Find the automorphism group of K. Prove that the subset K of the symmetric group S4 defined by '1 ^ is 2 1 3 3 4\ /I ' 2 2 3 " 2 4/ Vl 4 4\ /I 3^' V2 (Hard.105. 3] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 93 3. Let (l.107.CHAP. Prove that the automorphism group of G is not of order 1. Find the set of all matrices such that /a \c b\/a 6\ _ dj\c d) " /I \0 1 SYMMETRIES OF AN ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE 3. Prove that if m&N {N defined as in Problem 3.108. Determine the automorphism group of F.103). . 3.. . b.104.F).0)a = S is a subgroup of L„ + i(y. whose automorphism groupoid is of order 1. where i = V^}. the group 3. Let G be a non-abelian group.F) and that S= L^(V. 3.. where a.109.0. Prove that the automorphism group of a finite group is finite. Verify that is a field under the usual operations of addition and multiplication of complex numbers..110. 3. . Find a finite groupoid G with \G\ > 2. F F 3.103.

page 44. 4. and each is a group. .chapter 4 Isomorphism Theorems Preview of Chapter 4 We say that two groups are isomorphic if they are isomorphic groupoids. The main concepts that arise are those of subgroups generated by a set. (a-^a)xi is = {a~^a)x2 or Xi = X2 The argument for solving ya = b yia = b and y2a = b. then He is a subgroup of K. page (4) Homomorphisms.heG. FUNDAMENTALS Preliminary remarks in We begin by reminding the reader of our previous results. in that order.1. (6) If of e-. Consequently we have the following. The inverse g. Hence the equation ax = b has a solution. monomorphisms and isomorphisms for groups are for groupoids. (1) (2) The identity is unique. is associative. page 40. {yia)a-^ ba~^ is a solution.6. page 45. Multiplying both sides of the equation on the left by a"*. then there exist unique elements X and y such that ax — b and ya = b.5d. in fact y — = yi 94 (2/2a)a-» = 2/2 .2. and normal subgroups. . cosets.) If Gr is a group. (Theorem 2.) 2.1: If a-^axi) = a~^{ax2). we have Theorem 4. Note that 6 maps the identity of G to the identity of G9 and that {g~^)e = {ge)-^ for each g in G. then yia = yza. g &G} For by Theorem 2. (See (7) Isomorphic groups are roughly the same except for the names of their elements. GO has an identity. and if i? is a subgroup G. Here we shall prove three theorems which provide a means of determining whether two groups are isomorphic.5. element has an inverse. if Multiplying both sides by a~^ on the right. Suppose axi = b and ax2 = b. by He is (5). then Ge = {x\ x^ go. Proof: We consider first the solution of the equation ax = b. (Section 2. Section 2. independent of the bracketing defined as they are 2. and if G is any group and The product (Theorem of n elements 39).G^K is a homomorphism from the group G to the group K. If we put x = a~^b. a group. A group is a semigroup which every element has an inverse. For 0|h is a homomorphism of H into K and. then axi = ax2. (5) and 6 any homomorphism of G into a groupoid. The contents of this chapter are indispensable for any further understanding of group theory. ai. . we get similar. then a(a~*6) = (aa~*)6 = b. page 31. We find a structure theorem for cyclic groups.1 a. (3) an element is unique (Theorem then {gh)'^ = h-^g'K of page is 33). Also. a and 6 are two elements of a group G.) The following theorem is useful.5. a„. .

-11 1 1 1 : -1 G: 1 -1 1 H -1 1 Solution: Let also a e-.2. How did we know which was the right mapping Examining the multiplication table for G. we will rename the elements of D^. it is obvious that 1 is the identity for G. If it is it will be an isomorphism.1. then 9 is a one-to-one onto mapping. Thus the choice for 9 was quite clear. we must check (i) (1-1)9 = lel9 (iii) (-1 • -1)9 = (-19)(-19) (ii) (-1-1)9 (i): = {-U)(U) (iv) (1--1)9 = (19) '(-19) l9 (i) to (iv) hold. i. = 1. —le ~ 1. = 0. The multiplication table then becomes Sj S2 S2 S3 S3 t tS2 tS2 tS3 Si t tss S2 S3 Sl tSg t tS2 S3 Sl S2 tS2 tea t t t tS2 t83 Sl S2 H tS2 tea tSg t S3 Sl H Sl tSg tS3 t tS2 82 S3 . page 58): 1 /8 i8 I Let 9 : S2 As it is -> G be defined by iS = 0. 4. is isomorphic to G. i. (Difficult. To avoid such ambiguities. where 3. We remarked that any homomorphism must map an identity to an identity. pe one-to-one and onto. is the identity for H. = 1 by the multiplication table. The multiplication table for S3 is on page 57. to choose? Of course 9 had to be some mapping of G to H. Then it can be checked that 9 is a homomorphism.1] FUNDAMENTALS 95 Problems 4. l9 - 19 0-0 = 0. refers to an element of S3 or to an element of ZJj. page 53. Prove S3 s D^ the dihedral group of degree w G is 3. (i) Hence (Thus for holds. that of D^ is in Problem 3. for example. Prove that Sz.Sec. ^2 = G. the group of Problem the symmetry group of the equilateral triangle. replacing a <r by an s and a t by a *. As we have used the same Greek symbols for S3 and O3.5. the symmetric group of degree 2. 4. Prove that the groups given by the following multiplication tables are isomorphic.G^H ffi homomorphism sible choices of be defined by le = 0.e.) Solution: The multiplication table for G is 1 1 1 while the multiplication table for S2 is (Problem 3.) Therefore 1-1 G = H. with = 2. page 76. we face the risk of not knowing whether a.20.e. We must check that (fififfz)* = Qi^g^e for all posand g^ in G.40.

Prove that solution. Prove that on F and if <pe e : F -* G and = identity <p:G^F are two homomorphisms such that are isomorphisms of mapping on G. T29 = isg. Similarly is one-to-one. As 9 must map to Sj.nd = : Tjax. tj. "1 <'2 is ^2 '3 \ S2 S2 \S3 S3 X tSs * X*S3 X*S2 tS2^v \ "i S2 <'2 X X \ t X X*S3 ^\*S2 S2 \S3 \si S3 Si \ \ * X \ X^ Sj t82 X X^Sg tSs X^s X^Sl S3 Si \S2 S2 ^\*S2 *S2 X t X \ X X \. for example. then 94. j = 1. Hence a is a homoChecking through this table. 4 TjSTje satisfies tjTj = i.ts2. o-ici = 02. is homomorphism. same in each square of the table.2. T39 = iS2 if is to Let lO = Sj.93 are elements of a g^xg^^ gz has a unique Solution: If we put X — the left and g:^'^g^~2 find gtxg2 = g3. (12 onto the elements Sg.96 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Note that an element j [CHAP. = 1. Hence x - y. . because T2 = elements of 1S3.3. then. \ \ fS2 \*S3 *S3 \ Si S2 \^S3 S3 \S2 S2 X *S2^\ \ \ \ Si \. and Tiff = t. If e is a bottom corner we place . We 026 try the following definition. then e and e<p = identity mapping F onto G and of G onto F respectively. we know T3 tiCT2 ^. ciB = Sg be an isomorphism.e)(a. Then we must have a To check whether this mapping is an isomorphism. the effect of e on trj.4. then xe<f> = i But e<p is the identity on F. among the elements t. As a mechanical procedure of doing this we use the following table. Hence these two entries should be the {<r. It e is an isomorphism from S3 to D3. S3.2. 9 is g^-e an onto mapping. = {TjTj)e = i (9 = Si. S3. Similarly F under e and 4. hence g is the image of an element of is an isomorphism. we must check whether this mapping homomorphism. In the top corner we place (aiaa)^. 4.r^e-a^e. So e If we know the effect of e on ctj.Also if we know we know the effect of 6 on all the So we have to experiment. since the effect of 9 on tj.3. Solution: e is one-to-one. an isomorphism.*S2 *S2 \S2 \si \s3 *S3\ X^*S2 ^3 \ S2 S3 \ \ tSg \ t t \83 S3 \ S2 Xsi Si iS2X *S3\ X \ \ \ calculated as follows: In the in the second row and third column. it maps ffj. If ffi«ifl'2 9\ g'^ on the right we have ^ fl-f Mfl'iiKi«'2)fl'2 = ~ fl'ia'2£'2 ' = ffs. then on multiplying by or a!i ^i (ffi»2^2)fl'2 ' - X2. then can only map the tj. we see that the entries in each The entry = morphism and as it is one-to-one onto.92. Thus = g.tss since these are the only non-identity elements of Dg which have the property that their squares are Sj.3. tSj or fSg. for if xe = S ye. if group G. Next so 6 is let g&G. then the equation gi. T^e A suitable mapping e S3-* Dg must satisfy ctxA = S2 or S3 while = — t. e is an isomorphism. F. (cr.e) square are equal.c2)e.

H # G. and X. then Gs X. i.'"-i. In fact the identity mapping of G onto G is an isomorphism. it follows that G and are not isomorphic.9.7. x^GX to represent the product of n elements chosen from or the set of inverses of the elements of X. .) 4.6. then G and H are not isomorphic. then G and H are not isomorphic. Then i?-i is an isomorphism from H to G.38. We will write x\^ x'^. then H= G. Since the order of is less than that of G. and so G. Then e<f> is an Prove that there are Solution: infinitely many groups. 4. then ff-i = h where h . and this implies n — m. G = H. Let g H= 4.) <'8'"7<'8 /l 2 4\ . no pair of these groups is 4.-'i n— l Q- 1 = ••• = as'ia. and x'". = x~'^ x'^K n— Proof: gh -I 1 I Similarly hg = — x\^ ^ x'^ x-'ri Ttn ^-H = 1 a.l.6 that if two finite groups are isomorphic.will mean the inverse of x.. Prove that S„ Solution: and only if n = m...8.^i 1 .a. (See Problem 2.21. where = ±1. page 42. t^} where 3 "^-[2145) (See Problem 3. Hence n — m implies S„ = S„. there is and H is infinite. = Xg = Xg = cr^. For example. Prove that Solution: if G= H. (See Problem 2. *3 X = ^4 = ^5 = ^6 = 1: -1. 11 = 1 . 4. S„ has order n\ and S^ has order m! Now if S„ = S^. or r^a^a^ or be convenient to have some general notation.5. So S„ and S„ have the same order. Consider the symmetric groups Si. G = K."'"-i---a.1 1 Sec. But this is not possible since G is 4. More about subgroups Let G= S^ and let X= {a^. Prove that Solution: If finite G is a finite group and H is an infinite group. they have order. page 42. s S^ if a one-to-one mapping from G onto H. Example li g = x\^ x'". .a. isomorphic. n! = m!. x^ = x^ = x^ = t„ then x\^ x\^ xl^ x\^ x^^ xl^ stands for a^r^ag-lr-lr-la-l. Suppose 9 is an isomorphism from G to and ^ an isomorphism from isomorphism from G to if. H H to X.38. if ^^ = c^ = 1.-'! 1. i. On the other hand every group G is isomorphic to itself. ^"^ ^^=(2314 i^ /l 2 3 4 ''f ''7~^'^8 *• It will Suppose we wish to refer to a product such as ^^r. Then by Problem 4. the We same H b.1] FUNDAMENTALS if 97 4. Prove that Solution: if G is a finite group and H is a subgroup of G. page 59. H observed in the solution of Problem 4. no two of which are isomorphic.6.) Prove that Solution: ii G = H and H= K. where x\ will mean x^.10. then there is a one-to-one mapping of S„ onto S^.S2.e. be an isomorphism from G onto H.e.

.1. xy~^ G H.G X. Now if X is "large enough". • • i.. {ajj' • • • a.e. in the multiplicative group of nonzero rationals the inverse of a. €^ — ±1. i e and x. G Z. Example What is ffp({l}) in the group of Problem 3. n a positive integer} of G? Lemma Let G be a group and let Z be a non-empty subset of G. Recall that as H H and G £f. Assume. Hence gp({l}) the whole group. prove the lemma by induction on n.. This proves the lemma. n a positive integer} is a subgroup of G.2: If ^ is a subgroup of G and XcH.e. where the multiplication table is m = 3? Recall that 1 2 1 2 1 2 S = gp{{l}) = S. Hence iCj* G if. — ±1. we call it a finitely generated group. page 53.3: {xl^ x^" I a.GX. *' = x^ 1 . n a positive integer} is a group.^" 1 ^i S {1}.x„^„ a subgroup of G.. We GH • H /yt/y* ^Ic "T ft •'"^fc 1 +l +1 _ ~ r'l /yi • • • •*'' X^k + 1 C iff Hence aj^' .. . Since x. then H Proof: a?!/ 2 [xl^ • ^1" I x. = ±1. Let n. page 55.1. e.5.98 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. that x = x^^ x^^ G for n = k. this is true because there exists x^G X If f. Let x^+jGZ. in this case a~^ has the meaning usually associated with it when a is a number. H D Z.X" • • • ^n" a positive integer} We is ask what happens is • not "large enough". then fg~^GS (Lemma 3. which we have denoted in this section by a~S is 1/a.g X is non-empty. G S means f = xl^ • = xl" (c.?^. reader that. by induction. if X is a subset of H and S — S a subgroup 4.y G H implies y-^ GH.= ±1) where x. x'" n *Ti x'' + m n where x„^j S is . that if ff is a subgroup e H. w.[' x. €. to a positive integer} is Now 1 e S and 2 G Also.1. we use the previous lemma to conclude H'dS.e„+„.J a. x^^ \ Let S = Then S Proof: (i) {a. i. i? X = H. e. page f. Then x^^ since a^j G H. But in the additive group of rationals a~Ms —a.. Hd S.g. We must prove (ii) S¥'0. We If a denote S by gp{X) and call <S the subgroup generated by X. as 55). 2/.xlW^GH -where £^^^ = ±1. We now generalize this and prove Lemma 4. I we may have €^= ±1. and w are elements of X. for example. = -r/^.gX. If 2/„. 1*2 = e S. We remind the . Ji = if {Xj* . fg- Hence g = "1 1 y~ y • • • "1 and x\+i n+1 • • <' •••<"2/. = ±1) and ^ flr = y'l • • • V^ ('?.^" G /T for all n. then We of G and x^. = Therefore /flr i G S and and e„^^ = -. x. that: If H is any subgroup containing X.gGS. x^ G H. ej = ±1. group can be generated by a 2: finite set. 4 x^x^^ proved in Lemma 3.

^) be the mapping defined by In other words. 4. 82.15. We tit^^GT. 0. Note that the inverses of 82. T : «> -> «= (In the notation of Section 3. Determine the subgroup Solution: H of S3 generated by a^ and tj of Section 3. ^^({1}) differences of 1. 0. 1). a^^^ ^^ z-* ez +n for z t^ «. Solution: Exactly as in the last problem.13. then t^t^ = 85 G T. If ti = t^. Since tGT assert that T is a subgroup. This is a difficult problem.) Solution: Let fffn. Hence gp{{l}) contains all positive integers. Let G=Q the additive group of rationals. i) = ct(— I. 1) : (see Section 3.) (Hint: To see what is happening. = ^. and so H H Determine the subgroup of the symmetry group of a square generated by those isometries that leave two vertices fixed. 87.11. Therefore we need only consider the following cases: s^s^ = S2S1 = 87 G T\ SiSj = s^s^ = 82 S T. page 71. gp{{l}) contains l-i + l-i+---+l-i = -1 + n times (-1) + • • • + (-1) (n ^ 1). gpiW) contains 1 • l"' = 1 + (-1) = 0. 81}. «> page 78). 81}. Also.3a. it contains r^ = tjo-x and t^ = r^a^. But Sd T.. 4. t^t^ G 2" if 85 is either t^ or t^. We H contains H = S3. 1) and t = a(l. ^2 ^ ^ implies t~^ = t. 4. and T 3 {85. We H Let implies T= {85. Hence T D gpis^.12. 1). Finally. the group of Mobius transformations by « -> z -> — z (z ¥• «).) Solution: all vertices fixed.7. Sj. Sj.16.5a. by Lemma 4. The elements of gp{{2}) are either of the form 2" or 2"". cut out a square from a piece of cardboard and label the four vertices. Find gp{{l}). s^.5a. As 85 is the identity. 85 leaves Hence we require S = gpiis^. 81. page 73. generated 77 : t: z-»2 + 1 {z ¥= <»). hence contains a2. <t^* = 02'. What is S'p({l})? Solution: gp{{l}) D1 + 1 + 1+---+1 n times (w-1). and » -> 00^ where e = ±1 and n is any integer. Perform the isometries on the figure.14. the additive group of integers.3. s{) . All we must check is that ti. 1. 87 are 82. and this must contain Sy. . 4. Sj}). Find the subgroup of the multiplicative group of rationals generated by Solution: 2""i {2}.S. 0.Sec. Hence gp{{l}) con- n times tains all negative integers. Thus T = S. since 81S2 = 87. = ^(e. Thus gp({l}) = Z. = Z. all we must check is that t^ti&T for t^jt^^T.39(ii). Sj leaves G and / fixed. page 57. n a positive integer. Let G = Z. for the effect of 87 and SjS2 is the same on three points not on a single straight line and this is sufficient by Lemma 3. 82 leaves and / fixed.^^ rj. use the multiplication table for S3 shown in page 57. Since no other elements can arise as sums or gp({l}} ^ Q- 4. «. Thus contains all the elements of S3. 82. refer to Problem 3.1] FUNDAMENTALS 99 Problems 4. 82S7 = 8782 = 81 G T. Then T is a subgroup of the symmetry group of the square. 4. Find the subgroup of M. 87 respectively. It is easy to prove SiSg = Sy. 0. (Hard.

Hence (a™)" is the product of tow a's. = (32 + m)8 -8m - ^-a^.n are both positive. Exponents We have m a's (to > 0).g. t). We would naturally like the law . 4 We c will = ±1. (Note that as we are dealing with groups. 5 = ±1.-i)-<™+»> If = a"+" If m and n are nonpositive..i) to be satisfied. Our idea is to extend the exponent notation in a sensible way to zero and negative exponents. S^z + Sm-Sm = <T(„. the identity.s. Now if it were true that aPa/^ = a"*. any integer. I i.„ ™ « /.-1. (a*")" is the product n elements. n are positive. w>0 = (a-'»)«-"' a™" as WW < = ((a-")-')-" If now % is negative.4d. seen in the previous section that we often are forced to consider the product of e.l). (a™)" of If = ((a-i)-")" = = (a-i)-™" as -to > 0. a^-a" = a'"+» (Section 2.4.T) = 2. t) <i(„. e 2. (We must check what hapand e pens to re <».l) is true if m. j.4.Sm. = and we conclude that a-Jg. a~^'s if (i. belongs to gpi-n. Also.2) Another result which holds for exponents (a")" = We already know that {4.. but this presents no Also.1) holds. then multiplication by a" leaves a™ unchanged. each of which is the product of to a's. zr • t = 2 + re ci^^ and zt-^ n = z—n so a(„^. then to < we find a^a" = = a'"+". To show 2 is a subgroup. ^x m m • when and n are arbitrary integers. of the group of Mobius transformations to conclude that need only show that <r(„_.r). all to (ii) (iii) m—O. e = ±1}. + reS . If both and n are negative. Hence for any arbitrary integer difficulty. Then a*" a" is the product of m a's followed by n a's. e gp(ii. If m. again by running through the possible cases {4.a. .-i) ^ S'pI''''') = ±1. 0. n positive. <7~^' g. i. again the result is easily verified. j. we oT^'.l) for the product of hoping thus to satisfy (i-.s. for any n positive integer re. > 0. re.100 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. namely putting a" = 1. We • • claim of the form o-j^ ^j . Now to be true if w m = —n (i) where j_g_ n> 0. Then 2(T(„. gm+n -go-i^ py^ ^m if = (a«)-i. Any t^'- element of 2 is 1. m + n — ^g j^yg^. But d So we need only show that 2 is a subgroup 2 D gp(ri.e. = a(„5_a„_. Now zt~i = z— gp(v. Because we want (4. Note that 17 = a(o__i) and r = "d belongs to 2. cr-J_. and n.s).i)'' ~ "(-n.2) holds when n .r^^. See Section 4.^) is proved..1a. then m a"»a" = (a"i)<-'"''(a~i)<""^ = (a-i)<-™ + ~''> = (a.) t).„ S^z = z. since ^.„ ^j. Thus we have defined a™ to be the product of 1 if m a's —m m > 0. a a. Hence we have only one choice in extending the exponent notation and retaining the law (i. TO is negative. it is not necessary V m to indicate in which order the multiplication is performed.) It is convenient to introduce the notation a™ for the product of a's. 5) G 2. is a""" {Jt. = (e2 + n) (i(_a„^a) = ^^2 ^-a^. m < 0. Let 2 show that the subgroup generated by = {or(„^) n any integer. If both are nonnegative. by checking the various possibilities m > —n. we must have Note that (a")~» = (a"')" = a-". s-pCv.. Thus D 2. page 39). n any integer. (a-")" = _ = (a»')(-i'(-"' (j(-m)-(-n) (by our previous remarks) a vtvx Hence (. c. and t consists of all (t. m — —n and a'"(a-»)<~"> to > —n. and n <0.

compositions of the same The result of performing 0.Sec.e. a = i ^ ^ j. i.2] CYCLIC GROUPS 101 In the study of groups there are two main notations for the binary operation.2. 2~^ where 2 S Q*. the multiplicative group of nonzero rationals. 4^ a.e. . Problems 4. or commutative (Section 2. Find 2^.17. But additive notation is most often used for a group in which the order of the composition of two elements is irrelevant. We will usually write gp{x) instead of gp{{x}). we say H is generated by X. {n The law (i-.i). Hence 1* = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3. We call such groups cyclic.19. Find <fi.20. Then 1^ means lolol where ° is the binary operation in Q.e. Solution: In the additive group of rationals the binary operation is the usual addition. n> element. We denote the binary composition by + in this case. 4. 1—* where 1 £ Q. Solution: 22 = 2 • 2 = 4 and 2-3 = (2-i)3 = (i)3 = 1 4. of taking a V + a + n • • • + a. after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. Such a group is called abelian.16.2) ma = = + m)a becomes n{ma) {nm)a In other words. l-ioi-ioi-ioi-i where o is the binary operation under discussion. J we denote by na. So we begin by considering groups which can be generated by a single element.16.an = element of S4. page 29). Find t". 4.18. Find 1^. h in the group. the additive group of rationals.+).l) becomes na + while the law (4. a good plan is to investigate the simpler groups first. i. Solution: t" = <'(„.. One is the multiplicative notation we have employed up until now. in which a + h = h + a for all a. Also l"* means (l~i)*. i. where t is as defined in Problem 4. The other is the additive notation. translation takes place according to the following dictionary: Multiplicative notation Additive notation ah 1 a + —a na 6 a~^ a" It is immaterial which notation one uses. See Problem 4. and the inverse of a by —a. Solution: <7^ = I and so ct^ z= „. Thus a group H is cyclic if we can find an element x G H such that H = gp{{x}). CYCLIC GROUPS Fundamentals of cyclic groups If gp{X) = H. <. Now l""i = — 1 in (Q. The identity is denoted by zero. 4. To get an understanding of groups. Thus 1-4 = (-1) + (-1) + (-1) + (-1) = -4.

. And now we ask order w? another question: are there two essentially different cyclic groups of Rephrasing the question. = ±1. Furthermore.'"'.". 4 Lemma gp{x) = {t\ t^x". we ask: are two cyclic groups of order m isomorphic? Lemma 4. .. 1 1 and so the elements i.5: Let G be cyclic of order m generated by the element x.. = 1. .x^.a^.. But = {x" r any integer).. then a = a. We w> ? ask a simple question: do cyclic groups of order exist for all finite integers Yes Let us consider in the symmetric group Sm of degree the element ! m m <'„ — 1 2 . ran integer). Thus we have shown that cyclic Hence ah = 6a for groups are abelian.. then this x'(a...'=)-i = a.l. Hence k = k-^0...4: [CHAP. m—1 m m 1 m—2 m—1 m m 1 2 m m H = gv{<J^ is cyclic Then 1 3 4.x^-^ and suppose these are distinct but that x' = x" for some k<l. . a.'-" = 1. y""'^}. = ±1. . Proof: gp{z) = = (ajji a. 1. Then we know that the elements of are of the form x" for various integers r.x.gp{x) and \H\ = (m < «>). negative power of x lies in 5.. and . ...x^.. k^O.. power of x that is .a..'-'} is actually H.m-l) it is Then is one-to-one onto H. any two elements of a cyclic group.''x'' = x-'+s 6a = x'x'' = a. ^...6: Let G= gp(x). m = l-k<l x'- and a... .m-ij Furthermore x"" and a. To prove an isomorphism we must show it is a homo- morphism. We will show that {l. 0} n> 0} {x^^ ( • • • x^" I £.""*". Therefore S= as stated.^" | e {x}. a& = a.. be defined by Proof: G= {x"."^ = a. 2 2 . Suppose now that . ..*"-!). Consider .. 6 {«' any integer} e fl'p(a.102 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS 4. 2 . be each of order m.' = 1. a. The x' cannot be distinct for all integers i. 2 3.''.x. « > 5 r I ^0 I = If a. S= First notice H H \ Hence every HqS and so Thus we have proved Lemma 4. x^. H= y' Let e:G^H x'e = {i-Q. This is easy. 6 = x». But we = x" = 1. that as a. x.."* is the least positive Then G = {x". x. If assumed was not so... • • Cyclic groups are abelian. {y\ y\ . . . Hence there exist cyclic groups of order m for each w > 0. H = gp{y) a."" is equal to a. H H m . every positive power of x is in S. Then G = H.<rJJ~' are distinct and of order m.). Consider x" = l.. .

H.')(a.™+'-)^ = {x'"'x')e . while if a. then a. n an integer.'))9 - {x^6){x'e). Z= 4. As to is the first Problems 4. as it is one-to-one onto. Any two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic. it is infinite cyclic. If x*" = 1. Then each element of G is uniquely of the form that Define and each element of is uniquely of the form i/". Then O^i + j ^2{m-l) = 2m-2 and so i + j = em + r — r — TO — 1 and — or 1."" = 1. n¥=l. ct" \ g-p{<i) has an infinite number of such G = gp{x) = {x" n any integer}. Prove that the additive group of integers Solution: is infinite cyclic. is cyclic of order m.Sec.(x')e = V (x'e)(a. then G will consist of only a finite number of elements (see the remarks prefor which a. Now we can easily prove that two infinite cyclic groups are isomorphic.8: Let x be of order w< «>. and two such powers x"* and x" are equal if and only if m — n. We now infinite cyclic ask the obvious question: groups isomorphic? are there any infinite cyclic groups and are two Consider the element a in the symmetric group Sz on Z. As Z(t" = 2 + n. X". Prove that the group of Problem Solution: 3. (x"x'")S = (a. then x"" = 1 and to is the first positive integer r for which x*" =1. Hence x"ex'"9 = (x''x™)^. a one-to-one onto mapping. Note of order to < oo. Then 1 = x*" = x^^x' = Hence w divides r. defined by Za = Z + 1. then we define the order of x as the order of gp{x). H Collecting our results. the set of integers.™ = 1. If X is of infinite order. page 53.) an element of a group G. Then a"* = H is an infinite cyclic group. say. As Z is infinite.7: There exist cyclic groups of all orders.™ = 1. . then x'" = 1 implies to = 0. we say x is of finite order. Therefore 9 is an isomorphism and G and are isomorphic groups. Hence the elements of G are simply the powers a. m. Consequently if G is infinite."" implies m = n. and its order is m. 4.5. If x is of order m. H = gp{y) both be infinite cyclic groups. to < <». If X is that if X is Lemma 4.2] CYCLIC GROUPS 103 Now 0^i. But this contradicts the condition that there exists no to such that a.22. (We therefore often talk about the cyclic group of order to. s = 0.^-"" = 1 and (-to) > 0. If x^ = x". it an isomorphism.""' = 1.21. e is H (x")^ = I/". Let G = gp{x). elements and so Recall that a.5).j^m-l. then a. n an integer. or the infinite cyclic group. there exists no m t^ For we have already shown that there can exist no to > for which a. then to divides r. ceding Lemma 4.). or sometimes the infinite cycle. Hence {x*-^')9 = (a.'5) = i/V = y^+' = ?/™+'' = ^"'y' = r But e where Hence is ((a. x'. Z GZ . Furthermore. The group is gp{i."' = l for to < 0. gp(l)." of x."+'")e = y"*"* and (x"e){x"'9) = y^y"" = 2/"+™. Thus 6» is a homomorphism and. Proof: Put r — qm + s where integer greater than for which x"* ^s < = 1. finite and infinite. If there exists an integer m > = 1. we have proved Theorem 4.

Consider S3. where we pointed out that a^ri ¥= tiOi. Solution: The distinct elements of gp(x^) are X. 4 4. Hence there are at least r distinct elements in gp{x^). then is survey of the subgroups of S3 shows that if i? is a subgroup of S3 and either cyclic of order 3 or cyclic of order 2 or cyclic of order 1. m m m 4.26. Prove that {Z. = « are isomorphic.x^. r divides ns. !? is of order 2. 4. r divides w. Show common prime divisors. ' b = (^ 1^1 ^ 3 ^\. ¥= i and or2 = 1.3a.e. Hence S3 is not abelian.''^ — 1 and divides rs. and list all the subsets of S3. (ii) <t = /I ( 2 ^ 4\ ) e S4. Find a group G and a nonzero integer n such that there are two elements a.25. A there this is no need to go through the process of finding will suffice. But s and are co-prime."« = 1 and n is the As r and s are co-prime. m Solution: is abelian.e.'""!'" where (x»)" = Since a"^ = 1 and G is of order r. so (ab~^Y = a^{b^^Y — 1. 4.»» +) is infinite cyclic.» is that srp(i)) ij» is infinite. then x'" = 2/~"» and 1 = (x'^y — y-mr_ Therefore s. Nevertheless method . least such positive integer. Hence a. By Theorem {Z. all subgroups quite so crudely. = as we know from Problem 4. Similarly is the order of xy.3a. the order of xy divides rs.29. 4. then for some r. 4.23. we refer to the multiplication table for S3 in Section 3. gp(x^) = G. Show that if G= gp{x) and G is of finite order r and s is co-prime to r. Hence rs divides m. and so v is of order 2. To obtain all the subgroups of S3. say r = gw. 4. Then we check which subsets are subgroups. the group of Mobius transformations.x^ a. by Lemma 4. x^y^ ~ 1. Since (xyY^ = a. But as has only r elements. /I f 3\ /I 2 3\ q/fo o-* q)~'' Thus it Hence 4. divides —mr. (ii) ct2^ ff3 are not but = i. divides r.24. then a« = 6* (a. Find a group which Solution: is not abelian. Now a6~i = x""" = 1 and so o Since G ab~^ = x^ m m = In S3. and (x^Y = 1.27.^) and G itself 4. we need prove But since «».. If (xy)'^ = 1. Thus the order of xy is rs. have no G G be of orders r.y are co-prime.b e G a" = 6" but a ¥= h. Show with implies < « and s is co-prime to m. s Let G be abelian. Since s does not divide r. the order of y. \&t ^ a = (^ ^2 ^ 1 ^^ 3/ . (Hint. s must divide m. page 57. 6.Since G = gp(x) and the order of G is m. H H ¥• S3. <^ri = — «^. G 3 £rp(a. So if also divides rs. is divisible by rs and we can show r divides m. then gp{x^) = G.104 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. Prove that a subgroup Solution: H of S3 is cyclic ii H ¥= S3. Of course since a subgroup must contain the identity. Then 2/ o2 = 62 = i but a # 6. of { M Solution: (i) a er.+) and the subgroup of M. (iii) the map i. 2 /I 2 3\ ) S S3.28. s respectively. i. i.2 — . (xy)" — x^y" for any integer n. generated by the mapping Solution: rj : z ^ z+1. Find the order defined by «v of (i) <t = —z. is of order (iii) i. then w.21 that implies n = m. Thus gp{v) is infinite and so gpin) = (Z.8. ).7 all =07. 6 S G) that if G is a cyclic group of order a = b. a. page 57.) See Section 3. that ay is of order rs if r and Solution Note that since G is abelian. Let x."2/" = 1. +). = z + n.

m and n integers Of course m ¥= Each element (¥= 0) of Q would (n # 0). 4. Prove that Solution: If (Q.—q. = ±1) Since G is abelian. .S) To see this we need only observe that g ^ = = Xi for s Xi < t the first expression for g. .. .31. then the number of distinct elements given by the distinct powers of (i. (Q. (i) Before beginning the study of a new section it is a good idea to list the natural quesIf we want to know something about the subgroups of cyclic groups. +) is not cyclic. then S = gp{x'^) is Consequently there is a subgroup of order q for any q is that divides m.e. is infinite or Let H H H= H (ii) H H m m H H Conversely if of order m/l.. e. we might ask: (ii) Are subgroups of cyclic groups cyclic? Does there exist a subgroup of any given order? (iii) How many distinct subgroups of a cyclic group (less than or equal to the order of the group) are there? (iv) How many subgroups of a given order are there? We tackle each of these questions.a. .30.2 n. i. 4.x„}). m are integers. and suppose xll G {X. a similar argument leads to a contradiction. 1 = 2rm. But But r and r terms in l/2n G Q. .e. 4. the equation 1 — 2rm = is not true.fc„. Subgroups of cyclic groups tions.^~'. +) is not cyclic. "collect" all occurrences of any « in a product. such that gp(mln) = Q. is abelian. If the order of G is infinite. and so G is finite. we can always 1. Prove that an abelian group generated by a Solution: finite number of elements of finite order is finite. Thus the number of ments given by most fcifcg..a. For if k^ is •>«n ^^^ ^H of the order of Kj. . +) is cyclic. Now if a. Q. or else of the form —q—q— • —q. is m/l.2] CYCLIC GROUPS 105 4.2' • • finite order. we can rewrite g in the form g = «ji if • • /" if (yi.S) is at a. there exists q = m/n. Then every element fir in G is of - xll G X. then be of the form q-¥ q+ + q with some • suitable choice of the positive integer r.') = {1}.i. If l/2w = —q—q—q—--. 72... . (4.xf. • • • > Y„ integers) in (i. b. then 1 — 2rm = 0. . l/2n = q + r + q implies l/2n = rm/n. (iii) The number There is of distinct subgroups of G is the same as the number of distinct divisors of (iv) m= \G\ < °o.Xi. I any positive integer dividing m. . then l\ and the order of = {1}.Sec. hence all. then Xf i. Let the form G= 9p({xi. is cyclic and either Then where x' is the least positive power of x which lies in or flfp(a.5) is finite. distinct ele- i- are l. Therefore (Q.9: (i) Theorem be a subgroup of G = gp(x). ji < g «>. If the order of G is else < <x>. at most one subgroup of G of any given order for G finite.

as desired. Hence I = k. Then s = 0." = a. 4 (i) If H ¥= {1}. As itself are two distinct subgroups.* I divides to. We will distinguish between them in Theorem 4. and G from Theorem 4..g. 0^ s power <l. fore Let h.106 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Proof: [CHAP.gpix^').. There— Hi.a''-^}. if Now = a. = l^iCI. Problems 4. Let a" l\in.')' G S. Hence we can talk meaningfully about the smallest positive x"" Clearly. We know in the case of finite cyclic groups what the distinct subgroups In the case are. . then H and K are Hi and Hj of part Since \H\ above. . . . the number of proper subgroups is zero. Consequently if we start out with a positive integer q which divides to and we put I = m/q. for some therefore i = / and (iii) = Tn/k. so we can never hope for a simple account of two generator groups. — and so r = gt {x") = (a. x'-ix^")-^ ^ x" GH Thus s But and a. Suppose G i?. If the order of G to < <». is positive. Hence S is = 1 H. The reader might naturally be led to consider now groups generated by two elements. e.l>0. H = Hi = Hj — K. q' < q. .24.™ is the least positive power of x which is 1). . and hence and so a.5. (iv) If H and K are two subgroups of G with But \Hi\ i and j.lnhe the distinct divisors of to.37. then a. It has been shown that every countable group is a subgroup of a two generator group. These are n distinct subgroups of G (because their orders are |Hi| of G will have to different). Hence and w = Zg. aS a""'} = = m/l. . Thus the subgroups of G are simply Hi. a.' is the least positive power of x that belongs to H. .. all the powers of x are distinct. . . If the order of G is infinite. by Lemma 4. writing a = x\ we have H = gp{a) = {a". . ii = J^ and The reader will perceive that our knowledge of the cyclic groups is in some ways quite comprehensive.. \Hj\ = m/lj. as is the least positive power of x that lies in H. hoping that similar powerful conclusions can be obtained. Hn. A subgroup H of a order a prime p. . As i? is a subgroup. of infinite cyclic groups we can easily prove there are an infinite number of subgroups. H„. We know H H . Are there any more subgroups? By (i) any subgroup be generated by a. and —n G H. say. there exists «" ^ 1 G i7. then S is a subgroup of G of order q. then r ^ ql + s. x"" e H. is an infinite set of distinct elements of H.')" = 1. HdS = gp{x'^). using the concept of index which will be introduced in Section 4. \H\ = \K\. we know they are cyclic and we know which cyclic subgroups appear.a.' a." Put m/l = q and a. Let G be a cyclic group of We know {1} distinct divisors of p.' where I is a positive integer dividing to.'' G H.' n. H H# {1}. and q is the least positive integer for which this occurs. Now one of a. H2. h. But in going from one to two generators we lose control. Clearly (a. |fl^| gf and so (ii) x'. Thus S is a subgroup of order q. .. ^s G <l.'"a. that every subgroup of a two generator group is a two generator group.' = a. Then S= gpix^) - {l. then m = ql + = a. .3b. Then. a. Then put Hi = gv{x^'). as the least positive power of a which is 1 (for if a"' = 1. Solution: group G Prove that is G ¥= G and called proper it has no proper subgroups. Thus H is infinite.9 that the number of subgroups of G is the same as the number of which are p and 1. Hence the number of distinct subgroups of G is two. — m/U.. contradicting the fact that a. .^'.'«' = 1 and Iq' < to. .""+^ s. page 126. = is (iii) .

But . H 4. a prime. prove that H \ H H H K Solution: Since H ¥- 0. and Section 3. by Theorem 4. and has only one subgroup of any given 4JS a.g-^h^ e S. Try the group Solution: Let rf. Then (g-^h^gHg-^h^g)-^ because he = g-^higg-ih-^g = g-HKh^i)g e S is a subgroup implies hih^^ G H. If h^e = h^e. . If X is a finite cyclic subgroup |H| since they are isomorphic.40. Find a group with two distinct subgroups both of the same order. H H K and S are both of finite order. .4e. Z-* 1/z. Prove that the only groups which have no proper subgroups are the cyclic groups of order p and the group consisting of the identity alone. G .}. ask: which eleSuppose a Gl — h.x-^. But this is a proper subgroup. order. Hence G is cyclic of prime order or else possibly infinite cyclic. {Hint. e is an onto map.Sec. G subgroup by Lemma 4. since g-^hg. and not gp(x) = {. Af. m. 00 -> 00. Prove that s: he = g-^hg. H containing and S. say G = = gp(x^) is a subgroup not equal to {1}. (iii) The fundamental idea of a homomorphism can be re-interpreted in terms of the idea of a group constructed from H cosets. Prove that the set S = {g~^hg h S H] is a subgroup -* S. COSETS Introduction to the idea of coset In this section we propose a natural question which introduces the idea of a coset.] ^^* ^' " (2 1 3) ' "^^ " (1 3 2) "^^^^ '*'^^"'^' " '^^^^'^' " ^- 4. S H. We can also see how a group G is built up from one of its and the group constructed from the cosets of H. Cosets are important for other reasons: (i) With cosets we can perform useful counting arguments for finite groups. Hence = |S|.9.39. of Find a group which is of infinite order but has a subgroup of Mobius transformations. but M is infinite. Let // be a subgroup of G. g ¥= 1.1. S ¥= 0. Pre-multiply by g and post-multiply by g~^ g{g~^hig)g~^ — g{g~^h^)g-'^. If is a finite cyclic subgroup of G which contains both = S.3] COSETS 107 4. = S.9. Let G be a group with no proper subgroups.) finite order. Solution : \Hint.n¥. We need only check that » is a homomorphism to conclude the proof: H = : h^eh^e = g~^hig . (ii) Cosets of a subgroup sometimes enable us to construct a new group from an subgroups old. page 77. Let g~^hig. Solution: Let g ^ G. t<T G S implies t G S.. Hence G is cyclic.4c.x'^. Thus S is a subgroup. Consider S3. defined by of G.x^. Then gp{v) is of order 2. the natural question we ask? In Section 3. page 67.5. defined the group / of isometries of the plane and the isometry group of a given figure S in E.3. then g-^h^g = g-^h^ff. (Hard. then But. of Section 3.41. Since g ^ S. If G is cyclic of order mn. equal to G since a. 4. Then S = gp{g) is a has no proper subgroups.g-^hig = g^^hih^g = {h^Ji^e Thus H and S are isomorphic. Recall that an isometry <t of £" belongs to Is if for each tGE. is an isomorphism of onto S. Hence h^ = h^ and so e is one-to-one onto. is What 73. Let g & G. . S = G as ¥= {1}.x-^. Hence G can only be cyclic of order p. and s G S implies sa G S.) and S.x^. then. G has a subgroup of order m. 4.38. page we E h We . by Theorem 4.

a^. is a right or left coset according as the element g is on the right or In the case where the group G operation. a*} jFiT in and Ha. This means that consists of all the isometries Definition: Let G be a group and 77 a subgroup of G. If 9 and o. G S to complete the Suppose now that x that ^ G h. G. i. and prove that the union of these cosets is G. So the question we are asking is this: which other elements 9 oi I send the equilateral triangle S onto the equilateral triangle Sal and a related? If 9 i. a right coset is written Problems 4. inG to be a subset of the form gH — {x\ x = gh. Let G H Solution: H-l = Ha^ = H= - {l. Conversely /^ct if G t G h). we would expect 9(r~^ to be any— 9<j~^. This means <j> gE We have of course 9 = ^<r. then 9 .43. Hg = {Ig} = {g}. then 9^"^ = <j> conversely. We have thus shown that every the form in the set of isometries Iga. Suppose x<i> = tGS. Hence a. Of course.a. Let G. S<j)(j ~ Sa.e. 4 ments 6 of I are such that Sd = Scrl In the case where S is an equilateral triangle we know that Sa is a congruent equilateral triangle by Lemma 3. is written additively. a^} is {a^. page 71. 77 + flr + is used to denote the binary = {x\ x = h + g. We will show that ^ is thing but I. Thus the distinct cosets of a right coset. As ^ is one-to-one. i. Hence x9 = {{x9)a-^)(T = t<7 = s9 and so x9 = s9. isometries of E associated with the subgroup Is of I Such a subset /gtr of the group / of all More generally we have the following is called a right coset of Is in 7.a^) G. If we write I^a = G I^a. h G H} for some g in G. G are = {1.S<r lies I^a.<j><t for some ^ G 7s. Then a right coset of 7f in G is a subset of the form Hg = {x\ x = hg. 0.108 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. a} is a right coset. Show that two cosets are either equal or else have no elements in common. Thus the cosets are the sets consisting of single elements of G. x{9<t-^) = t. i. H HnHa = 4. and Sa. G S. Hw^ = {a^. x = s.e.Is. To do so observe that ^ is an isometry of the plane E.e.6. Now there exists an s G S such proof that ta-s9. Let S9 = How are 9 were equal to a. Solution: If g G G.a^ {a^. . Ha = = {a. Determine the distinct right cosets of H in G. Let an element of Is.42. = s9o = (ta)c = and x<l> G S. h G H}. Now S9 — Sa implies that for each s &S there is a t &S such that s9 = ta. H + g. H in = gp(aP). Let H be the trivial subgroup of a group G. a^ = H. and HuHa = {\. a left coset of H hG Note that a coset the left of 77. a^} = Ha. Find all right cosets of be the cyclic group of order 4 generated by {a}.Sa. We must show that a. since it is a product of isometries of E. we may put our deduction in isometry 9 of E satisfying S9 . Therefore for each s G t S.were widely different. H - {1}. then {t<t| S9 = 9 of E for which S9 . We define H}.

Lagrange's Tiieorem In the problems above it is clear that any two right (or left) cosets are either disjoint or inG is G. Show that /H = Hf implies f'^H = /f/-i. T3}. then. + \Hgi\ + \Hg2\ • • • + .. (ii) H(/sr) = {Hf)g.(BC). Similarly (AB)C C A. B= and C = (AB)C.11 (Lagrange's Theorem): The order of a subgroup divides the order of G. Problem 4. Find the right cosets of = gp(ai) in S3? the right cosets of H What are K Solution: H= K= 4. We use this fact in proving that cosets are useful for counting arguments.. Solution: fH = Hf. there h"b. i. Solution: Let X 6 GB and & A{BC). H of a finite group G Let the distinct cosets of i? in . then (i) (Jg)H = f(gH). from Theorem the cosets of i? in G each coset. . and (iii) follow immediately. Cosets form a partition. Hence f~HfH) Thus H/-1 = f-HHf).r ..3a follows we mentioned 4.Sec.0. h'" G H.. and is not included here. Hg^.. Then g^h'a = two elements of are two cosets of in G and that Ha n Hb ¥.45. In Section 4. (f-^f)H = {f-mf in and H= (f-m)f = {(f-m)f)f--^ = f-m. Thus Ha = Hb and any two cosets are either disjoint or identical.geG. (i) is the case where Let G be a group with a subset H. (i. We recall exactly the same and that the union of all the right (or left) cosets oi that a family of subsets of a set G is a partition of G if they are disjoint and their union is G. hi G H Hb c Ha. t2. then g G Hg and !• g = g. Therefore as hh"'b Ha ^ {ha\hGH} = Similarly {h{h"'b) h G H} c Hb = hib. i. = H. . XY = is {g \ g = xy. hence {g} a. = {tj. X H a subset of G. where S (AB)C and so A{BC)Q(AB)C..44. group G.. The examples above point to the following: H Theorem 4.46. . Since these form a / .h" G H. this a subgroup of G. cTj. But d€. (i). since of finite order and are disjoint. Tj). we define and y S F}. T3).3] COSETS 109 4. '}• The cosets of K are Ki = {c2> Ti)= K and These are Ktj all the cosets of H in S3. h'.10: Let form a partition H be a subgroup of a of H in G is H Proof: since 1 It is in G Then the right (left) cosets of i? in G G. Hgi = {ai. a. H since the product of H belongs \ to H. the order of G is the sum of the number of elements in in (i) If G is H Theorem Proof: 4. Hence conclude that if X e f. Hi = H. Therefore A{BC) A = 4.^ \Hgn\ (^..e.10. 4. (The proof for G H easy to show that each element of G occurs in at least one right coset. = gpira) in Sg with the notation of Section 3. e. = = ad where a(6c) a&A (ii) = (ab)c and d & BC.3a. page 57.-4) . Hgn. Hence c = h'-''h"b = h"'b. Prove that A(BC) = {AB)C. Ha2 {<Ti. Let A.^.B. then c & C. If X' and F are subsets of G. {/}. .e.BC implies d = &c. . the union of all the right (left) cosets of itself and any pair of distinct cosets has empty intersection.) For if g GG. Note that we have used the "associative law" proved b.45. \G\ G be Hgi. = . (iii) (/H)fir = /(Hfr). left cosets is similar Suppose now that exists g Ha and Hb G HanHb.g. C be subsets of a group G. partition of G.

= gp{{v}) where v Give the right and left cosets of of Mobius transformations. 4. 4. = G. no subgroup of order ID4I = g'' Since 3 does not divide 1.b. Hence g .c. a(c. d. Hence m divides Corollary If G is of finite order n.d). b)}.13: of g is the order of gv{9) which a subgroup of G. b.5a.11. then multiplying by fl'"' on the right we conclude that hi = hi and so hiOg = h^Og implies hi = hi. a prime.e. d). Since \H\ [G:H]. . b. then G is cyclic. 0) is an element of M. \G\ then g" = 1. (iii) If = then either ff = divides m. then. i fif is i 4. page 79. Let g qm. finite group and g an element of is G of order m.11.] there is no 11. i. Thus we know what the right and left cosets are in terms of a.".c)} by the rule for multiplication which obtained in Problem 3. 4 = hg is a oneWe will show that the mapping dg-. 8. there is H H H 4. = 1. in the opposite order to which Corollary If G is a finite group. : Proof: In the proof of Theorem n is the number of cosets of H in G. As m= 7 and it Now by Corollary 4. \gv{g)\ divides \G\. by prime decomposition of [S. page 77. But m= \gpig)\. H = "(0. Thus for each i. |H| = |G| since the only divisors of order. are 1 and |G|. 1. 6. Hence £?'°i = g""" = (5"*)" = 1 gG Let the number of right cosets of it by [G:H]. Problems 4. c. Proof: Every element of by the preceding corollary.d. If hig — h^g. \G\.110 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS is IHg]"! [CHAP. (iii) if Sf e A5 Solution: (i) \S^\ = 7! = 7 • 6 • 5 • 4 • 3 • 2 = 7 • 5 • 32 • 24. in the It H were a subgroup of S^ of order 11. m divides \G\ and so = be of order m. nothing to prove. Prove that Solution: if G is a group of prime order.11 tells us there is no subgroup of order 3. which is not true.11 i. Therefore 9g is one-to-one and onto and \H\ = \Hg\. Hence is 8. gp(g) = divides the prime |G|. 6. Show and that: g'' = t. as H cG and and G have the same number of elements.49. then Ha{a. as is easily checked. Now ff(a.c.12: Let G be a \G\. Hence \G\ = n\H\ by (^. : H in G be called the index of H in G. \H\ = \Hgi\.. H -* Hg defined by = \Hg\. H \H\ Denote G Note that [G H] is read as "the index of and H appear in [G:H].e. we conclude with "Hence n=[G:H]. c. v<r{a. 1. S^ has no subgroup of order 11. 6. its \G\ Hence is a subgroup of G. As \H\ # 1. we have \G\ = \G\ = n\H\ . Then by Theorem 4.b. d)H = {a{a.11.b.C. d. Then m divides Proof: The order 4.a. Theorem there (ii) 4. c.^). a(6. c. a. 11 divides IS7I. Definition: G must be of finite order. Section 3.d)} is - {<r(o.14: in G". Then. since or s-™ = 1 implies that the order of g is that the order of g is 7.d). by Theorem 4.12 is of order 7.. then (i) fir (ii) D4 has no subgroup of order 3. Solution: If <7(a.48. and the result follows.i. the only possibility if g ¥would follow that 7 divides IA5I. and g &G. Clearly Og is onto by the definition of right mapping and hence coset. But 11.47.46.d) = {i ' <r(a. Theorem 4. c. What to-one onto |fl^| M Corollary 4. the group d) G M. If 1 ^ ff e G. \G\ = • [G H]. Thus If G= {1}.

Proof: Ha = aH for all aGG. then t~i is also odd. h. then t and A„. 4. The we had in mind are those arising from normal subgroups. We write H < G and read it normal subgroup of G". are they the same ? Sometimes yes. a. aH contains a. the only right coset containing a is Ha. Then ii g G G and h S H. .„.16.Sec. b). With a suitable choice of a. e. Normal subgroups of G. Sometimes no. We have proved above that {Ha a G G} \ H H H a~^ha If Ha = aH for G H for each if Hence Ha C aH. Therefl^ in G is a left coset of in G. In Problem 4. Similarly every left coset of a right coset of in G. and so aH — Ha. If r is odd.u{l. the left cosets can similarly be shown to be just the elements of G. d = 0. and hence T~'^a is odd. 6. t~i<7t S Is € Lemma page 62. 1). ha = ahi.49 the right coset containing a(a. Proposition 4. Let a gG. 1) ¥. a. Since T~^a and t are odd. T~i T~^aT e A„? Now t is either odd or even. for since gh = hg and hence multiplying by g~^ on the left. if is H in G to aH — Ha. Proposition 4.50.15: A necessary and sufficient condition for the left cosets of provide the same partition as the right is that for each a G G.16: aH = Ha for all aGG if and only if a'^ha G H for all hGH and Conversely aGG. d) contains (t(c. h).d we can ensure that <T{b a. g^^hg S H. c. then ah = ah{a~^a) = {{a~^y^ha~^)a G Ha. 0. d. aH and assuming x'^hx G H for all x G G and all h GH.2.43. H is normal (ii) in G if and only if Hg . Thus the left and right cosets of in G do not coincide. This completes the proof. g~^hg = h. d. Each gives rise to a partition How do these partitions compare ? In particular. their product T~i<rr is even. then for every a e H we must have aH = Ha.3a cosets we gave in and (iii) reasons for the importance of some cosets. H any subgroup of G. 1. Thus we have Proposition 4. Prove that every subgroup of an abelian group Solution: is a normal subgroup. h = g~^hg. d) also contains a{b. Let the set of all the right cosets of in G. c). <] 4. Accordingly HaDaH and aH = Ha. In other words if every left coset of H in G is a right coset. Thus H is a normal subgroup of G.g. Since the right cosets form a partition.b. for a G A. 0. G A„ and so 3. If t is even. . if a = & = c = 1. then for GH. Note that we used Let a e A„. c) ¥a{c. ha = ahi for some hiG H. Ha = aH. T S„. for some all each h G H. a. fore every right coset of H in G is If every left coset is a right coset. Let G be abelian and G is abelian. We discussed left and right cosets of a subgroup H in G.c. Prove that A„ Solution: S„ for each positive integer n. the right cosets are just the elements of G. if Definition: for subgroup fi of a group G is normal (also called invariant) in G all g GG and all hGH. Hence it must be Ha. H We ask: when do the right and left cosets of a subgroup H in a group G coincide? Suppose every left coset of H is also a right coset of H in G. 1. Problems 4. c. But the left coset containing <r{a.gH for all g GG g-'Hg = H). d. Hence t~1o't e A„. d. A as: g'^hgGH "H is a (equiva- By lently. In Section 4. But we have assumed that there is some right coset which is the same as aH. then cr(l.51. hi belonging to H. as does Ha.3] COSETS 111 c. Then if h & H. a^^ha — hi. Hence h ah G all aGG. In Problem 4.

Let if be a proper subgroup of H. a group and x. any element h of G' is a product of commutators and their inverses. If G is Proceeding along somewhat different 1. In particular.x]. gz to be GG and for all g &G. So z-^ = y-^x'^yx = [y. Hence if hGG'. (Hard. Then by Theorem 4. will is now introduce some subgroups which are normal. then - g-^x-^gg-^y~^gg-^xgg-^yg = = x^'^y^'^x-^y^ = [xi. Prove that G' Solution: is normal in G. then x~^y~^xy is called the commutator of x and y or. G'. — g~^V^g = H d.54. g~^hgGG'. Prove Solution: Note that if y is of order m.-> = g^^x~^g) and j/i g~^yg. lines. Furthermore. A is normal The normalizer of A in G is defined by and An = nA} N{A) is a subgroup of G and. But we have just shown that a commutator. briefly. = zg) Z{G) turns out to be a normal subgroup of 2.9(iv).) H <i G. we define the center of G. Again G' turns out to be normal in G. (g'^yg)"^ K = gp{y). N{A) = {n\ nGG proved in the problems below. The details concerning the In Chapter 5 Problems 4. Therefore a commutator is a commutator. let A be a subset of a group G. and as an inverse of c^ of commutators. If /i is a commutator.y] is a commutator. we will use the concepts groups Z{G). Hence m divides r. C{A). G (see problems below). These facts will be if A is a subgroup of G. then g'^hg G G'. Commutator subgroups. N{A) appear in the problems below. say. denoted {z\ z by Z{G). H be K Let <1 a finite cyclic subgroup of G.yi] where x^ = g~^xg (consequently a. more a commutator. g~^yg SH. We h must show that g-^hg if g GG and h G G'. every element h of G' is a product Ci Now • • • g-ihg where d. normalizers We 1. say — x~^y~^xy. C(A) is a subgroup of G (see problems below). 4 4. 4. = x-^y-^xy = z. We often write [x. Prove that the inverse of a commutator Solution: [x. A is normal in N{A).53. ca = ac} in 2. Since i? <1 G. .52.y] for the commutator a.~ii/">a. and the order of g~'^yg is w. If G a group. A'^(A) If A is an abelian subgroup.y &G. The centralizer C{A) of A (in G) is defined by all C{A) = {c\ cGG and for a G A. C{A) (see problems below). centralizers. A is normal in G if and only if N{A) = G.112 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Let that [CHAP. Hence X <1 G. gpig'^yg) = X. Therefore gp{g~^yg) is a subgroup of of order m. The subgroup of G generated by all commutators is called the commutator subgroup (also called the derived group) of G and is denoted by G'. and g G G. we have just introduced.i/. and let G. if A is a subgroup of G. then g~^yg is also of order w. g~^kg G K for any k G G. = g-Hci---Ck)g = g-^e^gg-^c^ dj is • • • g-^c^g - did2 • d^ = g~^Cig. since l and (g~^ygY = l implies g^^y^g = 1 and therefore y^ — 1.

Now gp(a) is infinite cyclic. If A is a subgroup and N(A) = G. Show that if A is a subgroup Solution: Ar(A) 0.ffa"^ ^ <^(^)S C(A). If 9-1. 0.5a.55. Now ii g & C(A). gz S C(A). A c N(A) and A < iV(A). S G and all Hence g-^hg e Z(G) for all = /i fiffe fl^ /i 4.] M is infinite. Hence g G Ar(A) G c ]V(A).y G G. Thus Z{G) is normal in G. A< C(A). It = hg and so ^ = g-^hg. then A ^ G a subset of G. then g^g^g-^) {ggi)g-^ = gi(gg~^) = diff^^^ since gg2 = g2ff implies g-^g-gg-^. then for each a G A. [x. for each n. then £f2a = affa and hence ^°^ affifl-a"' = ffi^A'a"' = S'iS'2"^" ^'^'^ ^^ ffiff^^ ^ C(A) if a^a"' = fl'2'''*' i-^. G is abelian and that x. then for each £f G G. Therefore G = Ar(A).Sec. Show that : is if and only if G' = {1}. e Z(G). As a. Therefore C(A) is a subgroup of G.61. 4.ag. 4. t^'ct^^ticti = ti<t2Ti<ti = a^a^ = 02- r-i<T-iTi<T2 "i^z in S3 (A3 is listed in '•jffiTiCTa = = A3. . Solution: e C(A) and so C(A) ¥. then each o G A ^1. T-'r-iTiTg = TiTariTj = cti. Show that every element in A3 is a commutator of elements in S3. since 1 e N(A).^2 belongs to C(A). as we readily check by using the multiplication table for S3. it is infinite. say.0.e. if A is an abelian subgroup of G. [Hint.46. as a" contains fl'p(a). 0. Clearly. i. xy = yx). then since A < . e.45 and 4.56. page 63). that the commutator subgroup of subgroup generated by a commutator. xy = xy. 02 e Z{G) and g&G. and y commute (i. ga . and so it follows in this way that N= S3. then in x-'^x particular any commutator [x.60. Find f. Hence titj = (72 G N N and or| = CTi G N. Show that if A <l is of G. Hence show that S3 = Ag. fir-las' = a G A. Since the commutator subgroup of = (1. 0.57. a(l. = S3'. Using the results of Problems 4. Similarly T3 G A^. and G' = 1. Hence oi- - T-it-»rii = I. Prove that Solution: 1 if G is any group. This is Thus every element of A3 is a commutator of eleProblem 3. If A is a subgroup and A < G. Hence x(x-'y-^xy) = x and y(y-^xy) = yx. D] = (t(1. 0. Consequently Z(G) # 0. Suppose for example that a normal subgroup of S3 contains tj. ti. 0. page 57. then iT]r'''i<^i = <'2''i<'i = r2 & N. 1) M 4.V(A). Show finite cyclic of Section 3. then follows that Z{G) is a subgroup of G. 1. -w. Suppose Solution = 1.» G iV(A) implies fg'^ G subgroup. Let gA = Ag and /A = A/ implies Hence /. Thus G is abelian. If g^.23. Clearly {i} and S3 are both normal subgroups of S3. Solution: We use the notation and multiplication table in page 57.y] = x'^y-'^xy . Show 1 that C(A) is a subgroup of G and.3a. then A3 the result. then N(A) if and only if N{A) = G. 4. page 77.gGN(A). Solution: We ments use the table of Section 3. -1. Now if G' . Z{G) is a normal subgroup of G.1. (fg-^}A = f(g-iA) = /(Afl--!) = (fA)g~i = (A/)5r-i = A(fg-i). There are no normal subgroups of S3 containing elements of order 2 except S3. iV(A).g. Find an in- Solution: [a(2. if A is a and so A < G. e Z(G).e. all normal subgroups of S3. 1) = a.3] COSETS G abelian 113 4. 4. gA = Ag.y] = x'^y-^xy = Then G' is the subgroup of G generated by 1. The elements of order 2 in S3 are. tj = t~'. If we can show that all commutators belong to a matter of trying all possibilities. since Ig = g\ for all g&G.58. and a € A. Therefore iV(A) is a subgroup of G.59.e. Accordingly A < C(A). If g e G and S 2'(G). is a subgroup of G.{1}. 1). 4. i. t2 and T3. If A is an abelian subgroup.

where b e B} AB ¥' bi&B. ama~^ G N and hence IGN. what would we take for the "product" of the two cosets. Show that if A is a subgroup of G and B < G. it follows that Naibi = Nab. then is a subgroup of G.~^e.N(aa-^) = N while Na-^Na = Nia-^a) = N. This definition of multiBut it is conceivable that if Na = Nai and Nb = Nbi. then ai = na for some and 61 = mb for some m G N. But this is just what we ai&i l wanted to prove. This occurs when. g^S B) a^b^ where aiG A and Now S'iS'2 ~ = '^i^'i^a «i''302 (where 63 aia'^ajftga^* ab.K are normal subgroups of G.A. that Naibi ¥. as 1 = I'le AB. Solution: We subgroups cGHnK K < G. Thus G/2V is a group. Accordingly.15. NffiNg^ and {giv){g2v) — . Nl = N is an identity.Ng^g^. Thus aibiGNab.01. then if A^ contains elements of order 2. then must contain elements of order 3 (there are only elements of order 1. for NaNa-^ .g2&AB. and as c E. Now aj and aj = af are the only elements of S3 of order 3. b = aafega^"' eB as BOG. Is it an associative groupoid? {{Na){Nb)){Nc) = {Nab)Nc = = N{ab)c = Na{bc) (as G is associative) {Na){Nbc) = {Na){{Nb){Nc)) and so G/N is an associative groupoid. and g~^cg e as c G and HnK g-^cg GHnK. G/N is • • Clearly v is a mapping of G onto G/N. Since (g^g^v = N{g^g^) . N= have shown that Therefore if N ¥= {1}.3a we mentioned that the concept of a coset sometimes gives rise to a group. = (Iia2""'(a2"*)-»63(a2"') = where a-a-fl. If H. then AB = Solution: {x \ X = ab. then -1 a subgroup of G. then g^^cg €. Theorem Proof: 4. the group is normal. 0.114 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. _. AB is ae A. In such case. Thus e.02} is a normal subgroup of S3. If gi. or "G factor N". G an associative groupoid.62. refer the reader to Problem 3. v : G -* G/N defined by gv — Ng is a homo- morphism First. and H so WnX H H K X is normal in G. 2. if iV Is We S3. Na and Nb to be the coset Nab. each element Na has an inverse. If Nai — Na and Nbi = Nb. < G. Since N < G. . of The mapping onto G/N. in which we proved that the intersection of two is a subgroup. We turn G/N into a groupoid by defining a binary operation as follows. t-^oiti = ti<titi = 02 B {i. N 4.17: G/N is a group. 4.63. crj}._. where Since the cosets form a partition. If and g&G.Nab. For example. Next. EN = namb — n{ama~^)ab = lab — n(ama'^). and group of G. . Naibi or Nab ? What we must show is that the product of two cosets is uniquely defined by the formula NaNb = Nab when N < G. 4 a normal subgroup of S3. Factor groups In Section 4. or 3 in S3). new Let G be a group and N <i G. page 55. is Thus g^g'^ & AB and AB is a sub- Show that the intersection of two normal subgroups a normal subgroup. say.<ti. for Na Nl = N{a •!) = Na and N-Na — N{1 a) = Na. n Define a product of two cosets plication depends on a and b. or "the factor group of G by N") the set of right cosets of N in G. Accordingly S3 has precisely three distinct normal subgroups. and only when. "2 g^ = a^b^. Let us denote by G/N (read as "G over N". Thus G/N with this binary operation is a groupoid. In fact {1. (g^g^v = {g^v){g2v) and hence v is a homomorphism.

65. we use additive notation. G'-ir then c* {ae)~Hb0)~^aebe = [ae. • • As the • c^. q G Q.3] COSETS called the natural 115 V is homomorphism of G onto its factor group G/N.56. Problems 4. E + Q + 1)}) consists of all the even integers.{{E = ZIE.Sec. both one-to-one and a homomorphism. E -\-l 2. A coset of E -\-z. Now Z + r is oi finite order n. the elements of G/N are of the form N + g. . gp({(E + 1)}) order contains E+\ and {E + 1) + {E + V) = E. Let e be an isomorphism from G to H. namely 0. As q (Z — min for some integers m. where each • • If c = [a. Solution: Prom Problem ^^sTi 4. Choose q & Q {q ¥= 0). 4.3a. 1S3 = A3. and so gp(. two cosets. T2. Then {n(Z + r))$ — nq and now n(Z + r) = Z. : 4. Our definition of the product of two cosets is written as the sum: {N + gi) + {N + g2) = N + {gi + g^). As Z form is abelian. Then the images of G' under * are of the form Cj* is G''*? • inverses. On the other hand no element other than of Q is of finite order. z&Z. Note that in the case where G is a group whose binary operation is +.66. 4. as we remarked at the end of Section 4. Is QIZ s Q.be] Thus the e^^ are commutators and so c H'. these are all the cosets. Then -^ — e^Q is a monomorphism into H. Since Z is the identity of QIZ and e is an isomorphism. it follows that nq € Z. Examine the order of the ele- Solution: A coset of Z in Q is of the form Z + q. Thus ZIE is cyclic of Hence the result. each element of G' is of the form Cj c^*. The multiplication table is is'-i ffg} and A3 As ^STl A3T1 A 3^-1 A3 4. say. T3}. then there exists an element Z + r e of QIZ such that (Z + r)e = q. hence nq = 0. Thus every element of QIZ is of finite order. n. since e is What Cj is inverse of a commutator The elements of G' are products of commutators and their is a commutator. where ments of Q/Z. Then {Z+q) + {Z + q)+ in all + + q) = Z n terms and therefore Z + q is oi finite order in QIZ. Thus S3/S3 consists of these Hence the cosets of S3/S3 are A3 = A31 = {i. JE7 is a normal subgroup of Z and Z/E makes sense.) Q is the additive group of rationals? {Hint. Prove that ZIE Solution: = C^. <ri. But q ¥= 0. where E is the set of even integers and C2 is the cyclic group of order 2. then G' = H' and Z{G) s Z(H). Instead of using the multiplicative notation for G/N. It is this fact that we will utilize to prove that QIZ is not isomorphic to Q. 6] = a~i6~io6. Prove that Solution: if G= H. for nq ¥= if q ¥= and n ¥= 0. a commutator.67. = {ti. Suppose it were and that QIZ -» Q was such an isomorphism. e takes Z to the identity of Q. oi all the odd. This contradiction proves that there exists no isomorphism of QIZ onto Q.64. Find Sg/Sg. is of the Since an integer is E either odd or even. so «q # 0.

69. Hence n G N. it is one-to-one. Thus we are forced to conclude that fe-iJifc G H for every hG H and every k G G. there exists 9^. we are through. Let v be the natural homomorphism of A to is A/A'. Therefore g-^hgh-^ • h H Now g'~^hgh~^ is = g-^hg GH and where a commutator. which is G' by definition.3a.This means that the product of 3. Since any product of 1 and its inverse is again 1. If N N contains the subgroup GIN is xy = yxn where abelian and x. Now (x-^)'^(y~^)'-^x-^y~^ = ajj/a. that G/N abelian implies N 2 G'.In page 114 However. one. Hence k-^hk = h^^hhi G H or = g-^h^^hhig = g~^h2g where h^GH. As e is one-to- heH is fl^ yg. Suppose a^v = a2v. Solution: (i) A' x-^y~'^xy the subgroup generated by the commutators x-^y-^xy. page 57.. Show by considering a suitable non-normal subgroup be defined as on page 114 without ambiguity.Therefore G'* = H' and consequently G' = H'. so that g~^h2g = h'g {h' G H) and thus gr-i/ig = A'. g^e = h^. Then {gy)e = geye . To show i. Let x e Z(H). For then generated by the commutators. — -^"i '^ ^.116 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. A' = {!}.e. then Solution: if H H< G is a subgroup of G containing and GIH is cyclic of order 2. so v is one-to-one. Solution: H of S3 that the product of two cosets cannot use the notation of Section 3. Otherwise g~^h^GHg. Hence g=:h2h~^GH. y are any elements of G. G'. But this contradicts the assumption HnHg = 0. Then is a monomorphism of Z{G) into H. contains the element xyx~^y^^ • yx = xy. We Let us take H Ha2 the symmetric group S3 of degree = {a2. the product of Ht^ and cosets is not uniquely defined.e. (i) If A is abelian show that A/A' = A. If G and consider g~^hg. Ha^ = {<ti. and we need only show that it maps onto Z{H) to prove Z{G) = Z(H). then H< G. Show that G. hence G'xy = G'2/a. But G'xy contains xy. As 9 is onto. As A is abelian. (ii) Let G'x and G'y be two elements of GIG'. and hence belongs to G' and H< 0. is (ii) (iii) Show Show that G/G' abelian. there exists 2/ G G with 2/» = «: Let S G. i.y & A.yege . result follows. in dealing with = gpiri) = {I. we obtain 4.68. Hence zeh = zege = (zg)e = (gz)e = geze = hzs and so Z(G)^QZ{H). V is an isomorphism we need only show that i-e. As e is onto. If g-'^h^gGH.70.92 such that g^e = h^.G'xy while G'yG'x = G'yx. If fe S G. — y-^x-^xy = y^^ly = 1 and A' is the subgroup generated by 1. G = HuHg HnHg = k~^hk Let hGH.~ij/-i G G'. we need only show that all possible commutators [h^. that H < G. now jy is of index 2. x. Thus c is an isomorphism.'i2]. . Then G'xG'y . (iii) We need only show that contains every commutator. The 4. G.(yg)e. Accordingly gp(Hg) — GIH and so G/H is cyclic of order 2. {l}ai = {l}a2.t3} = Ht^ while we defined the product of the coset Ha^ and Ha^ as Ha^o^ — H. The two cosets oi in G are f/ and Hi/ for some g € H.ffj* = ['ii. 4 To show G'* = H'.tJ. then k = hi or k = h^g {h^ e H). and every element of Z{H) an image of an element of Z{G). H 4. Let = 6i|z(c). h^ are images under *. Let z S Z(G). and so G'j/a. Show that if H is of index 2 in Let h thus to H. Ht2 would be Ht^t^. Multiplying on the left by j/-i and then by x~^. {xy)N = xNyN = yNxN — {yx)N. gy = Hence y e Z(G). Therefore (G'x)(G'y) = {G'y)(G'x) and G/G' is abelian.T2i — Hr^. Hence [f/i. Wi} = {a2i- Then of course Oj = ttg. For each there exists ^ £ G with ge = h.

We ask: is Ngi . where 2Z = {x x = 2z. Hence gWz^ G N and g2 with giO = gfi gfi as the right cosets form a partition. = 1. 2Z is the set of even integers. Thus Ker f = 2Z. 4. We will show that Ker6i will Theorem 4. But that it is N nGN We = a subgroup of G. \ (Z. If gi. S 2Z.:ge^Ng defines an isomorphism of Gd onto G/N. g26.4 a.71. It is conceivable that there rj is not a mapping as For if not. {9ie){g^'e) = igie)ig2e)-' G N. HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS Homomorphisms and factor groups: The homomorphism theorem We now consider the connection between homomorphisms and factor groups. Ker e = {x\ xe generates G/(Ker«).fif2 for some one-to-one and hence is an isomorphism. for {gig2^)0 . is a well defined mapping. +) onto Solution: The natural homomorphism v is defined by zp — 2Z + z. Ge = gp{{—l}) and. Solution: {x\ X is even} and G/(Ker e) = {Ker e.92^ = and so gig-^ G N. Problems 4. Now Ge = {1. one-to-one? If {gi9)T) = {g29)rj. now that 9 is a homomorphism of G into a group H. i.e. page 103. so Ker e + 1 (Ker + 1) + (Ker e + 1) = Kerff. Ker e + 1}.17 that corresponding to every factor group G/N there What about the converse? Suppose is a homomorphism v G -* G/N such that Gv = G/N. Thus 17 is Ng2. Find the kernel of e and examine the claim G/(Ker e) = Ge. is 1. must show that (9~'ng)e = (ge)-\ne){g9) = {ge)-n{ge) = {ge)-\g6) 1 Hence g^^ng G exist y^ N and iV is a normal subgroup of G. so ^ 0. If Proof: First we will show that AT^ is a subgroup. is even. = N{gig2) = NgiNgz = {gie)r.18 (Homomorphism Theorem.4] HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS 117 4. The identity of Z/2Z Consequently z e Ker c if and only if 2Z + z = 2Z and hence if and only if is z the coset 2Z. and r. also called the First Isomorphism Theorem): e:G-*H is a homomorphism of a group G into a group H. Consequently 1. this will hold if {g-^ng)e = 1.72. is odd.Ng2l it is not uniquely defined. Thus iV and g gG. rj: Next we must show that fifi g9 ^ Ng defines a mapping. let N. Let e be the homomorphism of Z into the multiplicative group of nonzero rational numbers defined by a. We ask: is there a normal subgroup N of G such that G/N = Ge1 Let us define the : kernel of 9 (denoted Ker6i) by Ker6' do the trick. = ng2 where nGN. = {g \ g &G. = 1} = We have fl 4. g2 (9.e = 1 if a. -1}. gO = 1). a homomorphism? {gx9g2e)-n = {{gig2)e)r.(g\e){g26)~^ = 1 as gxO = g2e.7.1 = then 1 is To prove g-^ng G Also IGN. We have already established in Theorem 4. Check that the kernel of the natural homomorphism of the additive group of integers Z/2Z is 2Z. Finally. Then ngi . z G Z}. and xe = — 1 if a. since (—1) • (-1) = 1. a normal subgroup of G. hence Ker9 + 1 is of order 2 and G/(Ker e) is cyclic of order 2. Therefore G/(Ker e) and Ge are isomorphic by Theorem 4. then N = Ker 9 is a normal subgroup of G. Ngi Is it = Ng2.{g29)rj and so 77 is a homomorphism.Sec. . and g29 ~ {ngi)9 — n9gi9 = l'gi9 = gi9. then Ngi = nGN. Thus Ngi and Ng2 have in common and. Now gig^'^ G N. Ge is also cyclic of order 2. the empty set.

a. ^ .b«c.b«c. = But i- [(Ker ir)gi' (Ker (7)92]'' = = ((Ker a)giq'2)'' = kiggl = then 19111921 ((KerCT)gi)j''((Ker(T)q'2)»' K is a homomorphism. bc+d' ^i'l^® ««„_{. Igji- = = (Kera)g2. . we have that ir i. I^il Is » one-to-one? If (Ker a)qip — (Ker 0)92". are squares as asserted and g~^xg S S. g-^xg where tj = g-Higg-^s^g tj g-^s^g - tit^-'-t^ Sj = g~^Sig. \ (xa)(ya).d = «oe. We assert that each is a square. one-to-one 4. then ' • • .e.0' »«<! SO 9 is a homomorphism. | I A typical coset is (Ker «)«(.eKerfl.b»)i<^c. Let H be cyclic of order p.-1}. is Let S denote the subgroup generated by the squares of the elements of G. Verify the homomorphism theorem directly in this case.o = «ac.b ~* <*a. G S. x G R. the subgroup generated by the squares of the elements of G.o is a homomorphism of G into G. Hence {aj a„(. k and hence the tj g~^Sig - g-'^r^gg-^Tig = (g-^ig)^ G.b real numbers. . We define e to be mapping ^ .^: x -* ax + b. d = c(«^ + + aa.d«) = «a. s^. we may assume each Si.o«c. : Solution: Then and (»«„ bW. Solution: (r is a homomorphism. is a normal subgroup of G. Thus S 4.Therefore (Kera)gi follows that Q*/(Ker <r) = Q*a. x is positive} Let be the mapping of Q*/(Ker(7) into Q*a that takes (Ker a)q -> qa is {q. then there group of order p. Prove that if G is cyclic of order n and p divides n.d)» 6 any real the identity mapping. The image of e = {ao. Verify that if G is any group. If («a. Find the kernel and the image of this homomorphism and exhibit the isomorphism described in the homomorphism theorem.75. What is the kernel of this homomorphism? Solution: is a homomorphism of G onto a cyclic Let the G = gp(x) and let n = pm.o a any nonzero real number}. Note that '') <*• c.e.O' (<^a. is a square. = {x \x\ e Q*} = {x \ = \xy\ — \x\ \y\ = = 1} = {1.i to ac. + b = Kc. since (xy)a Ker<T Q*<T = {x\ xa {« a. x E Q*. = aa. ^ (J bc I any real number} {«c. „ H = gp(y). Let a be the homomorphism of Q*. the multiplicative group of nonzero rationals into Q* defined by xa = \x\.bc+J« = "ac. I = l} 3/ = V = J/0-. Let a. If g S G. Since — <i r? for some rj. and so the only other "representation" for the coset (Kera)g Hence the other possibility for c as far as (Ker <7)g is concerned is that ((Ker a)q)i' (— g)(T = \q\ — qa. 1 ^ +d ^ I any real number} ttc. elements of the form gg = g^. (j = = = ^"i.74. and it Thus if gj ^ g2> 9i — ~Q2. Find the kernel and image of a.118 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP.e any real number} is The isomorphism 17 between G/{Ker e) and Ge as given by the homomorphism theorem the one that takes the coset (Ker e)a^. [.b {«(. Solution i. Let G be the group of mappings of the real line R onto itself of the form aa.73. Since the inverse of a square is also a square. 4 4. we have a^^ff = ajo as a^^ = number} = Ker».~q}.76. . Prove that the map * ao. {—q)(r. Then x a product s-fi^ s^ of elements of G each of which is a square or the inverse of a square. Thus is a well defined mapping of G/Kera into Q*<t. Since Now (Ker a)q = (Keri7)(— g). a =f^ 0. Hence is q^a = q2<r.o- 4.

G K+} = {1} We assert that 10": R'^e x. the centralizer in G of gp{a). are all e the dis- tinct elements of G. the multiplicative Solution: and so 9 is a homomorphism. = y and hence R+e = R. As Kere = {1}. Let r be the natural homomorphism of <? onto G/{1}. +).]g~ig = [f.a] [fg. -> group of positive real numbers. Kertf = {g g G G}. then \Ge\ divides \G\. Let a be a fixed element of G. if To y see this observe that if x is Moreover.4] HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS as 119 e is well defined we established in let if i i Lemma n. 9~'^[f.a]eZ{G) and g-'^[f. x'^".78. |Ker»| .e.a] phism of G into G.a] = g-^f~^a-^fga.a\ On the other hand. 1. WhatisKers? (Diflicult. 4.80. If xe — ye.6 that the elements a. the additive is the kernel of el Prove that the mapping of i2 + group of real numbers defined by e x ^ logjoX. By the homomorphism theorem. Kerff = is {a. . log do = Then any element of R. : e* defines an isomorphism of (R. We — have («*«')« = («* +'-'")» where = if +j ~ Then {x'Z')e = x' yi + i-^ri yiyiy-en Since the order of j/ divides n. If = 1. 4. I logiox = 0.a]g = [f. IGl divides IGl. then e^ = e» and and x = y. Solution $ is certainly a mapping of jR+ into R. . [f. is a homomorphism. •) be the multiplicative group of positive real numbers. : into {R. Suppose ffiv = g^v.a] = \ 4.a]{g.a] for any /.a] G'qZ(G). {l}fl'i = {l}fl'2. Prove that Solution: if e : G -* K is a homomorphism and |G| < ».) : is G'cZ(G).'fl = y* and Kere = {a. Therefore Hence (fg)e = fege and e is a homomorphism of G into G. (xy)e Furthermore. IKer g\ divides the order of G. G/(Ker Therefore \Ge\ e) s ' Ge. [g. Then we need only show that n is one-to-one.a]. •). — i — n — 1. To do this we exhibit the isomorphism.Hence v is one-to-one and thus an isomorphism. i + j — n~l while Now « = 1 and j be less than n.+) onto (R* . Is e onto? Yes. (x-'ry)e — e^+w = e^ew = (xe)(ye) ex-y = 1^ from which x — y = 4.77. Thus e is an isomorphism between {R. Thus Ker e = C(gp{a)). is a homomor- such that x'9 = . the a homomor- Solution: Observe that [fg. so 9 is one-to-one. phism. + a.~^fa')g(. Prove that the mapping e g -* [g.a.a]. .a] = g-^[f.'). then [f. What What is the image? Using the homomorphism theorem.')^{R. is . all we must show that ft+/{l} s JJ + We can indeed show this in general: if G is any group.* | p divides i} = {x". i.a]g{9. Then {gi} = {g^ and consequently gi — g^. then 10^ e fl+. the equation e^ = y has a solution x G R. g~^(f''^a. for if y is any positive real number. Let (R'^ . Prove that the mapping 9 a. Prove that [fg. oj^^-Dp} flrp(xP) 4..: J Sec.'. IQ^e = log 10" any real number. The homomorphism theorem states that R + /(Ker e) = iZ+s = R. = R. logic?/ = x9 + ye and so 9 is a homomorphism. G/{1} = G. 4.a]g[g.+) and (B + .79.+). prove that {R+. — i — w— = Since a. j/"«" = 1. The kernel of 9 is the set of all = 1 if and only if p divides i. Accordingly R+ = «+/{!} = R and so jB+ = R. Suppose center of G. J/' Hence (x'x')e = 2/'2/^ = (x*0){x'e) and so 1. jr and a in a given group.g-^a-^ga) = — = g-if-ia-^f{agg-^a-^)ga g-^f-^a-ifga = [fg. By Lagrange's theorem. = logi„(xy) = logioa.

the set &G. Thus = H \ H . ^2) . Therefore ^ 0\ /-I 0' " '"' -0 l/'V -1 b. and S contains the identity the empty set. 1) 0. Also. d) CT(a.c. and S <\ K implies {g~^hg)9 G S.82 below. Then g-^hg G H and so H < G. then the {g g preimage of S is Ker9. then Ai^ G S.b. Factor of a factor theorem Let 0:G-^K be a homomorphism of subgroup of JT. CiWttg C2 \6ia2 + di62 + Ci62> 6iC2 byd-i + did2/ a'iC2 = — a(aja2 + djb2> + Ci(Z2.46. bi. He G is onto iiT. then he = s G S. = (t(1. g G G. 4 4. Let ff 1 be a subgroup of G containing Ker d and suppose Hie = S. page 80. then H <i G. H . Cj. M Thus and a /I is a homomorphism.heH. (the identity of and only if a = d = 1 and = c = or = d = —1 and 6 = c = by Problem page 80. c. ge G K. Ker9 cH. it follows that {gh~^)6 G S.49. = ( biC2 + d^d2) . subgroup of gd G S and he G S. the reverse of this procedure? What about \ Would i.K. if g. Theorem 4. be a subgroup of G? We know that if S = {1}. ad — be — 1 Find the kernel of the homomorphism. Proof: of . a subgroup of G containing Ker e. j /i = 6 (T(a.48. If H is normal in G.c.d) a. Furthermore if Hi is any other subgroup of G containing Ker d such that HiO = S.e. (See Problem 4. gO S}. d). {g \ Since 16 is the identity of K. gS. c.19 (Correspondence Theorem): Let 6:G-^K be a homomorphism of G onto K.c. Kernel d) /'="i(„ 3. Therefore hi G and H. We generalize this result in the following theorem. using the results of Problem «1 page 79.d complex numbers. Hence gh~^ G G. Clearly is a mapping. then H = IG^ g6 G S}. M of Mobius transformations 11 is a homomorphic image of the group = H ( ) a. Cg. Let Ai G Hi. If S <1 K. then (g-^hg)e = (ge)-^(he){ge). /a I c\ j n = (r(a. G.b. then Hi = H. 6. and so H^ gy.)/'( dj \b2 dj ( . H H If S he <l Now Hi jK". \bi . b. hi9 = s. 0. Then hhi^ GKerdcHi and so /i G /^i and HcHi. Choose hi G Hi such that = Hi. ) "{O'x. If fl^ is a subgroup of G. Solution: In Problem 3. and this is indeed a subgroup of G.b. 0.) the preimage of a subgroup S of K. Now hence Hi C ff On the other hand if h G H. then ffS is a normal in K. Further- more. {gh-^)9 = g9ih9)-K As and is.d complex numbers. a. we showed \ M We define the = fi: {a{a. The preimage H of any subgroup S of K i?. c. di)a(a2. ad—bc = /x 1} mapping TA -^ M hy 3. b. 62.81. We will show that = {g ge G S}. i/'( M) '1 if jf' t)ecause . Let h G H. Since Ker« = {x\ xe = \] and 1 G S.120 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS Show that the group [CHAP. Correspondence Theorem. we must show that H <1 G.

Hv = L. Put = vp. in K. If L <] G/N. Therefore G/Ker (vp) = {G/N)/{M/N). GG .e. element of {i. H < G. M^N. \ H^N- Now if HiDN theorem that Hi and Hi/N = H/N. then what is {G/N)/{M/N)^ The next theorem tells us that this is isomorphic to a single factor group. and since v is onto G/N and p is onto {G/N)/ {M/N). hGH.x6 = gOigiOy^ .89 below The reader may very well wonder what happens when we take a factor group of a For example.5). a factor G by one of its normal subgroups.gnot G such that giO = fe.20: 121 Corollary Let 6: index n G^ K < . We ask. Let H = {g gv GL). H Proof: Let Ski. Hgn H ?'. We claim that (-4. Let p G/N -^ {G/N)/{M/N) be the natural homomorphism of G/N -* {G/N)/{M/N). are the distinct cosets of . We have thus shown that every G G is a member of one of the cosets in the cosets of /f in G. This means that g G Hgi.4. .e. may then Hiv = L. 4. Because Ker by the correspondence theorem above. Skn. Hence H/N = Hv = L. Thus we have shown that all the cosets i.) (Problems 4. It follows that (4.shkr^ = s. factor group. . s Let g gG. if iV <l G and G/N is a group containing a normal subgroup M/N. be an onto homomorphism. then = Qigr^GH.5) in are distinct. H/N where Hi and H are subgroups of G containing N. Let be the preimage of S. If g GG. Consider x = gg^^. Then is a homomorphism of G -* {G/N)/ {M/N). Then we can write L = H/N subgroup of G containing N. .5) consists of all Of course we can always reformulate results about homomorphisms with the homomorphism theorem as results about factor groups. Since v:g-^ Ng. there are elements gi. so that ggr^ g H. hGH. with S. . Hence giOigjO)'^ G S. Then by the correspondence theorem H is a subgroup of G. by the homomorphism theorem. H Let S be a subgroup of K of Then is of index n in G. note that here {M/N){Ng) is a coset of the normal subgroup M/N in {G/N). As is . then H <i G.22 If in the factor (Factor of a Factor Theorem. oo. where i? is a If Hi/N = Hi = H. Theorem 4. .22. then Let Proof: Let v be the natural homomorphism of G ^ G/N. Now the elements of M/N are all the cosets Nm. and if L O G/N.82-4. what is the kernel of vp? It will be all g such that gvp = {M/N)Ng = M/N. where fcj e K. vp is onto {G/N)/{M/N). i. The identity of {G/N)/ {M/N) is {M/N).5) Hgi. Then gO G K and so g9 G Sh for some integer i. hki^GS.. Sfe. . Thus we have Corollary 4. Hence gO = sk. also called the Third Isomorphism Theorem): group G/N there is a normal subgroup M/N.e.Sec. then M<i G and : G/M ^ {G/N)/{M/N) : Proof: Let v G ^ G/N be the natural homomorphism of G ^ G/N. fifv = Ng and {Ng)p = {M/N){Ng). L be a subgroup of G/N. in G. . Suppose that Hgi which iSfej = S/Cj and = i Hgj. But in mGM. an element in the group {G/N)/{M/N). i. Also.21: aid of the Let N <\ G. Consequently gg^^ is in the preimage of S. be the distinct cosets of S an onto homomorphism. be studied before reading Theorem 4. Hv consists of all cosets Nh. It then follows by the correspondence = H. from (.4] HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS 4. . H/N makes sense and consists of all the cosets Nh.

122

ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS

[CHAP. 4

Ng G M/N, i.e. Ng = Nm for some m G M. Hence g = nm where n G N. But D N. Therefore g G and so Ker vp C M. Note that if m G M, m{vp) = {M/N)Nin = M/N. Then Ker vp = M. Thus as a kernel of a homomorphism is normal in G and G/M = {G/N)/(M/N), which is the required result.
that case

M

M

M

Problems
4.82.

Prove that if » subgroup of K.
Solution:

:

It

G -* K is a homomorphism of G onto H < G, prove that He < K.
¥=

K, and

H

is

a subgroup of G, then

He

is

a

Since le

S He, He

0.

If

x^,

x^

G He,

x^

=

hyO,

x^

=

h^e

t<yi

some

h^, Aj

S H.

Then

where
fir

Hence He is a subgroup of K. If now H <3 G, then g~^hg G H for all any element of K, say fe, is of the form ge for some g & G; and any element of Hfi is of the form Afl. Is (ge)~^hege e. Het Yes, because {ge)-^(he)g$ = (g'-^hg)e and as g-^hgG H, (ge)-Hhe)ge G He. Thus He < H.
/i

= h]h2^^H.
all

e G and

h&H. Now

4.83.

Let

Let K = ^^(6) be cyclic of order 2. Then e G -^ K is a homomorphism of G onto K. (Take this as a fact.) Find all the subgroups of K and all their preimages. Check that the assertions of Theorem 4.19 and Corollary 4.20 hold. (See Problem 3.42, page 77, for the multiplication table.)

G = D^ —
by
a^e

{ai, ag, as,
1,

(T4,

T, T(72, TCTg, ro'4}.

:

defined

=

(ra^e

h, i

=

1,2, 3, 4,

Solution:

The subgroups of
G2
(a)
(6)
(c)

K are Ky- K
K2 —
{g
\

and K^

=
e

{!}.
a2.
<'i>

Gi

=

the preimage of K,

=

{g\ ge

&K) -

G.

=

the preimage of

ge

=

1}

=

{tri,

"ii-

Gj,

G2 are subgroups of
in

G

containing Ker

=

G2.

Kj and K2 are normal

K, and Gj and G2 are normal in G.
G2.

The subgroups of G containing Ker 9 are Gi and where 1 — i, — 2. I = i
7'

We

note then that

Gj9

=

Gj9

implies

(d)

Xj

is

of index 1 in K.

Gj
<r2>

is

of index 1 in G.

K^

is

of index 2 in K.
''<'4)'

G^

is of

index 2 in G,

its

cosets being

Gx

=

{ai,

"S) "4}

and TG2

=

{r, tct2>

'''<'3'

Thus

(a), (6), (c)

and

(d)

agree with Theorem 4.19 and Corollary 4.20.

4.84.

Let

G =

gp{a)

be cyclic of order 12 and
. .

let

defined

by a^e = b\ i = 0,1,2, fact.) Find all the subgroups of 4.19 and Corollary 4.20 hold.
Solution:

.,11.

Then
all

K

and

be be cyclic of order 4. Let e G -* a homomorphism of G onto K. (Take this as their preimages. Check that the assertions of Theorem
:

K = gp{b)

K

e is

{x\

The subgroups of K are Xi = X, K^ = xe€:K} = G. G2 = the preimage of K2

{1, b^},

=
a^

{x\

09 = 6 that G2
(a)
(6)
(c)

#
=

62^

hence

a

S

G2.

o^e

=

b^,

so

e

(j^.

Kg = {1}. Gj = the preimage of K^ = Clearly 1 G Gj. xe = 1 or xe = b^}. Continuing in this fashion we conclude

{l,a^,a*,a^,a»,a^<>}.
all

Finally,

Gg

=

the preimage of
9

X3 =

{a;

|

a;9

=

1}

=

{l,a.*,a»}.

Gi,

G2 and G3 are

subgroups of
in K,

G

containing Ker

=

G3.
in

Xi,

X2 and K3 are normal

and

Gi,

G2 and G3 are normal

G

(trivially, as

G

is abelian).

The subgroups of G containing the kernel of e are those containing a*. Hence the subgroups of G containing Ker e are Gj, Gj and G3. Note GjS = Gj« implies i = i (1 - i i - 3).

(d)

Xi is of index 1 in X. Gi is of index 1 in G. Xg is of index 2 in X, its cosets being X2 = {1, 62} and X26 = {6, 53}. Gj is of index 2 in G, its cosets being G2 = {1, a\ a*, a^, a», fti"}, and G^a = {a, a3, a^, a', a^, a"}. X3 is of index 4 in X. G3 is of index 4 in G, the distinct cosets being G3 = {1. aS a»}, G^a = {a, a\ a^}, G^a^ = {a^ a^ aW}, Ggd^ = {a^, a'', a"}.
Thus
(a), (6), (c)

and

(d)

agree with Theorem 4.19 and Corollary

4.20.

Sec. 4.4]

HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS
:

123

4.85.

Let e G -* K be an onto homomorphism. subgroups of index 2 and 5 and 10.
Solution :
of

Let

K

be cyclic of order

10.

Prove that

G

has normal

= gp(k). Then the subgroups K^ = {1}, K^ - gp{k^), Kg = gp(k^) are normal subgroups of index 10, 5 and 2 respectively. Consequently their preimages, by Theorem 4.19 and Corollary 4.20, are normal of index 10, 5 and 2 respectively. Hence the result.
Let

K

K

4.86.

Let
of

N <\ G and suppose G/N is cyclic of order 6. Let G/N = G/N and express them in the form of Corollary 4.21. (Hard.)

gp{Nx).

Find

all

the subgroups

Solution:

Let G/N -= K. Let K^ = {AT}, K^ = {N, Nx^, K^ = {N, Nx^, Nx*} and K^ = K. These are the subgroups of K. To find the corresponding subgroups of Corollary 4.21 we let v. G -^ GIN be the natural homomorphism, i.e. gv - Ng. Then let G^ be the preimage of Ki, i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
all

Gi

Gz G3
G4

= = = =

{g\

{g
{g

\

\

{g\

= N} = {g\ Ng = N} = {g\ g^N} = AT = N or g - Nx^} = {g Ng = N or Ng = Nx^ = NuNx^ gv = N or gv = Nx^ or gv = Nx*} = NuNx^uNx* gvGK} = G. Then G/iV = Xj for t = 1, 2, 3, 4.
g,'

gv

\

4.87.

Use the correspondence theorem to prove that if i/ is a subgroup of G containing G' group of G), then H <i G (i.e. prove Problem 4.69 by another method).
Solution:

(the derived

Let v. G -^ G/G' be Any subgroup of G/G'

the natural homomorphism; then v is onto. G/G' is abelian by Problem 4.68. therefore normal, and thus Hv = S, say, is normal in G/G'. By the correspondence theorem, is the preimage of S. Hence using the correspondence theorem once more, is normal in G.
is

H

H

4.88.

Let Hhe a subgroup of index h in G. Let of index n in X if D Ker tf.

H

e

:

G

-^

K

be a homomorphism onto K.

Prove that

He

is

Solution:

from Corollary

only necessary to prove that S - He is of finite index in K, for then the result follows 4.20. If Hg^, ..., Hg^ are the cosets of in G, then we claim that {Sig^e), ..., S(g^e)} is the set of all the cosets of S in K. We need only show that if k e K, then k G SigiS) for some i = l, .. .,n. As 9 is onto, there is a g such that ge = k. Let g = hgi. Then k - ge = heigiS) e S(gie). The result now follows from Corollary 4.20.
It is

H

GG
.

Alternatively

Then

(srj»)(fl'j9)-'

preimage of S.

we can show that Sig^e), .,S(g^e) are all distinct. Suppose S(ffifi) = (g^~^)e S S. Hence giQ^^ &H as H, by the correspondence theorem, Accordingly i - j and the index of S in K is n.
.

S(ff^s).
is

=

the

4.89.

H

Let G be a group and let he a normal subgroup of G. Suppose further that L and are subgroups of G/N. Then show that we can write L in the form H/N, and in the form K/N, where and K are subgroups of G containing N. Show also that if LqM, qK; and ii L <i < K Show that if and [M L] = « < », then [K:H]=n.

N

LqM

H

M

M

M.H

:

Solution:

This

is

and^

H

M = K/N

- {g\ gvGL} and K = {g\ gvGM}. Hence if I-cM, H (ZK follows immediately. Now if L < M, we consider the homomorphism $ K ^ K/N defined by ke = fee for all S Jf i.e. e = v,KClearly Ke = K/N and the preimage of L is H, the preimage of M is K. We can then conclude from the correspondence theorem that H < K.
:

just an application of Corollary 4.21 to Corollary 4.20 and Theorem 4.19. follows from Corollary 4.21. If v is the natural homomorphism,

That

L = H/N

we

recall that

fc

,

4.90.

Let

G=

Di.

Let

M = {ai,<rs,Ta3,T}, N = {cri.as}.
explicitly

Then accept

G/N and M/N. Find {G/N)/(M/N)
Solution:

N<G

and

M<

G.

and check that

words, check agreement with the factor of a factor theorem.

isomorphic to G/M. (Use table on page 77.)
it is

Consider In other

G/N
A4 -

consists of the cosets

(t(72)A'^

-

{t(72, r(74}.

Now

M = {<,i,a3,Tff3,r},

Ai =

N =

{ai,a3},

A^ = a^N = U2,<rd, A^
hence

= tN =
elements

{r,r<7s},

M/N

consists

of the

A^Ag.

124

ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS

[CHAP. 4

MIN <
(M/N)

in (GIN).

GIN. Therefore we can talk of (GIN)I(M/N). The elements of this group are the cosets of These cosets are B^ = (MIN)A^ = {^i, A3} and Bg = (MIN)A2 = {AyA^.A^A^} =
(A3A2, for example,
is

{A2,A^}.

plication in the

group (GIN)I(MIN)

calculated as follows: A3A2 = (riV)(<r2^) = ('"<'2)^ is calculated in the usual way for cosets, e.g.,

=

^4-)

Multi-

B2B2
as

A2A2 =

(aaiVXtrjiV)

= {MIN)A2(MIN)A2 = {MIN){A2A2) = {MIN)Ai = = a^N = N = Ai. It is clear then that (GIM)I{MIN) =
GIM
is.

B^
{Bj, B2}
is

the cyclic
03, rag, t}

group of order 2 generated by B2-

Now

let

us decide what

The elements of
C2C2 = Ma^Ma^, (GIN)I(MIN).

and C2 = Ma2 group of order

=
2.

{<t2,

^4, Ta4, TCTg}-

As

GIM are the cosets - M03 = M, GIM =

Cj

=

M=

{<ti,

{Cj, C2}

is

the cyclic

Therefore

GIM =

4.91.

= gp{a^), N - gp(a^). Consider GIN Let G be the cyclic group of order 12, say G = gp{a). Let and MIN. Find (GIN)I(MIN) explicitly and check that it is isomorphic to GIM. In other words, check agreement with the factor of a factor theorem. (Difficult.)
Solution:

M

GIN
Na3

Aj = AT = {l,a«}, Aj = N^a = {a,a''), A3 = Na^ = {a^,a»}, A4 = consists of the cosets = {a3, a9}, Ag = iVa* = {a*, ai"}, Ag = Na^ = {a^, a"}. Now M = {1, a2, a*, a«, a^, aio}. Hence MIN consists of the elements Aj, A3 and Ag. MIN < GIN,
this

and we can talk of (GIN) I {MIN). The elements of
cosets are

group are the cosets of

MIN

in

GIN.

These

Bi
Multiplication
is

= {MIN)Ai =
B2B2

{Ai,A3,A5}

and

B^

= (MIN)A2 =
(M/2V)(A2A2)

{A2,A4,A6}

calculated in the usual way,

= {MIN)A2(MIN)A2 =

Now
order

the product of
2.

Ag and A2
Bi.
It is

B2B2 = iMIN)As =

is also the product of cosets. clear then that (GIN)I(MIN)

As Aj = Na, A^A^ = Na^ -

A3.

Hence

=

{B^, B^}

=

gp(B2)

is

a cyclic group of

Now
Clearly

let

us decide what Ci

GIM

is.

The elements of GIM are the
C2

cosets

=

M

=

{1, a2,

aS

a6, a8, aiO}
2.

GIM =

gpifii)

is cyclic

of order

= Ma = {a, aS, 0.=, a^ a**, a"} and Hence GIM = (GIM)I{MIN).
i^i+i(G)
is

4.92.

Let

G

{AH

be any group. Let Pi,(G) be all possible nonisomorphic factor groups of G. Let In the particular case that G possible factor groups of the groups in Fi(G)}.
00

=

cyclic of

order

25, find all

nonisomorphic groups in

KJ

Fi{G),

i.e.

Fi(G)uF2(G) Vi

.

(Hard.)

Solution:
It is sufficient to

G F^iG). But then consider Fi(G). For if L&F2(G), L = MIN where Thus L is a factor of a factor group. Hence by the factor of a GIK, by definition of F^iG). factor theorem it is isomorphic to a factor group of G. We must therefore find the number of factor groups of G. All subgroups of G are known. G has unique subgroups of orders 1,2,22,23,2* and 25 by Theorem 4.9, page 105. The factor groups

M

M

=

will therefore
if

G=

be of orders 25, 2<, 23, 2^, 2 and 1. In each case the factor groups will be gp{a) and iV is a subgroup of G, gp{Na) = GIN. Hence the result.

cyclic.

For

The subgroup isomorphism theorem In the homomorphism theorem we were able to say that the image of a homomorphism 9:G-*K was essentially a factor group of G. What can we say about the effect of 6 on subgroups? Let Hh%& subgroup of G. Let Bi = d^a, i-e. ^1 is the mapping of i? to K deThen 61 is a homomorphism of H^K, and so HOi = He ^ fined by h9i = he, hG H. H/{KerOi). Now if Ker^ = N= {x\ xGG, x9 = 1}, then Ker^i = {x\xGH and So He = Hdi^H/{HnN). On the other hand, we know H9 is x0i = xe = l} = HnN. a subset of GB and G0 = G/N. Our question is: what has H/{HnN) got to do with G/NI It must be isomorphic to some subgroup of GIN. But which? This is what the subgroup isomorphism theorem is
c.

about.

Sec. 4.4]

HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS
4.23

125

Theorem

(Subgroup Isomorphism Theorem, also called the Second Isomorphism Theorem): Let N <i G and let H he a subgroup of G. Then <i H, HN is a subgroup of G, and

HnN

H/{HnN) = HN/N

hGH, nG N}) Proof: If nGHnN and hGH, then h~^nh G N nGH. Therefore k-^nhGHnN and HnN < H.
(HN =
{hn\

as

N<

G,

and

h'^nhGH
Xz

as

HN is a subgroup, for
xix^^

it is

not empty; and

if

xi, X2

G HN,

then Xi

=

hiiti,

=

hiTii

and

=

hinin^^h^^

=

hirizhi^

hikz^h^nahz^
as

hui
G.

where nz-nmz^ GN, hJii^-hGH and and HiV is a subgroup of G.
:

hinJii^^mGN

N <\

Hence

ajiaja"^

G

ifiV

Let ^ ff -» HWA^ be defined by ft^ = iV/t. Then ^ is clearly onto, i.e. H<i> = HN/N. Also is a homomorphism: (hih2)<j> = N{hih2) = NhiNhz = /ii^fe^. By the homomorphism theorem, H4,^H/{Ker<i,). Ker<i> = {x\ x G H, x,j> = 1} ^ {x\ x G H, Nx = N}. If Nx = N, then Ix =:= a; G iV; and if xGN, Nx = N. Therefore Ker ^ = {a; xGH, xGN) == HnN.
</>
|

Hence

HN/N ^ H/{HnN).
Let Q* be the multiplicative group of rationals. Let = {1, —1}. Let be the subgroup generated ii)- Find HN, HN/N and thereby verify the assertion of the subgroup isomorphism theorem

Problems
4.93.

N

H

by

that

HN/N s H/HnN.

Solution:

The elements of

H are

all

of the form {^Y, r various integers.
hn,

HN
A
X
coset of

=

{x\ x

=

hGH, n&N} =

HN/N

is

of the

form
is

=

= h or x = -h, h e H} = {x\ X = ±{^y for all integers r} Nx = {1, ~l}x = {x, -z} where x G HN. Now
{x\ x

±(^)^ Hence each coset

of the

form {(^)^ -(\y).

Since N{\)

N {^)

N(^)

G HN, if = N{^y and
a;

e Ar(^)r^ each coset of HN/N is a power of N(^). Thus £'p({A^(^)}) = HiVW; and € iV for r¥'0, HN/N is the infinite cyclic group. i^y Now HnN = {x\ x = {^y for some r and x = ±1} = {1}. Hence H/(HnN) = H. But infinite cyclic. Thus we have verified that H/(HnN) = HN/N.
(i)*"

since

H

is

4.94.

Let<r=^
Solution:

*^j

and

H = gp{{a}).
is

Prove that

HA„M„

is cyclic of

order

2.

HA„/A„ = H/{HnAJ. Now

a

HnA„ =
of order

{*}.

Therefore

HAJA„ = ff/{,} ^ ff.

an odd permutation, hence a € A„. Also H = {<r, i}, so But is cyclic of order 2. Thus «A„M„ is cyclic

H

2.

4.95.

Let a group

G

contain two normal subgroups
if

HM/M = HN/N
Solution:

M

and N.

Let

H

be a subgroup of G.

Prove that

Hnilf

:=

HniV.

By

the

HN/N = HM/M
4.96.

subgroup isomorphism theorem, by Problem 4.8, page 97.

HM/M = H/HnM = H/HnN = HN/N.

Hence

If in the preceding

H/{HnN) has
Solution:

problem we know that G/M has every element of order a power of every element a power of 2.

2,

show that

H/{H nN)= H/(H n M) =

HM/M q G/M.

Hence the

result.

1

126

ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS
Let

[CHAP.

4

4.97.

H

and

K

be subgroups of G,

N

<i

G and

HN

= KN.

Prove that

H/(HnN) = K/(KnN).
97,

Solution :

H/(Hr\N) =

HN/N = KN/N = K/{KnN).

Then by Problem

4.8,

page

H/{HnN) = K/{KnN).

4.98.

Let Gd GiD {1} and Gj O G. Suppose G/Gi and Gj are abelian and H is any subgroup of G. Prove that there exists a subgroup H^ of H such that Hi <1 H, and ///Hi and Hi are abelian.
(Hard.)

Solution :

Let Hi = HnGi. Then by the subgroup isomorphism theorem. Hi <1 H, and H/H^ = HGi/Gi. But HGi/Gj C G/Gi and G/Gi is abelian. Therefore H/H^ is abelian. As Hi c Gi and Gi is abelian,

we
Let

conclude that

Hi

is

abelian.

4.99.

{1}. Let Gi < G, G2 < Gi, and suppose G/G^, GJG^ and G^ are abelian. Prove any subgroup, then it has subgroups Hi and Hj such that Hi <1 H, Hj <1 Hi and H/Hi, H1/H2 and Hj are abelian. (Hard.)

GD
if

that

H

Gi 2 G2 2
is

Solution:

Let H,

= HnGi.

Then, as

in

Problem

4.95,

H^ <

H

and H/Hi

is abelian.

Now Hi as a subgroup of Gi. As G2 <3 Gi, by the subgroup isomorphism theorem HinG2 <] Hi and Hi/iHinG^) = H1G2/G2 C Gi/Gj. Since G1/G2 is abelian, so is HiKH^r^Gi). Consequently we put H2 = H^nGiconsider

Finally as

H2 C G2 and G2

is

abelian, so

is

H2 and

the result follows.

Homomorphisms of cyclic groups We return now to study cyclic groups. In Section 4.2b we could state that in a finite cyclic group there was at most one subgroup of any given order. An analogy for the infinite cyclic group would have been awkward to formulate without the concept of index which we
d.

have had at our disposal since Section

4.3a.

Recall that a subgroup oi a. group G is of index « in G if there are exactly n distinct in G. In the case of finite cyclic groups we have proved that there is one right cosets of dividing \G\. Since [G:H] = \G\/m, there is one of any order and only one subgroup and only one subgroup of any given index dividing the order of G. This gives the clue to

H

H

H

m

Theorem

4.24:

There

is

one and only one subgroup of any given

finite

index n

>

in

the infinite cyclic group.

Proof: Let G = gp{x) where G is infinite cyclic. Let Hn = gp{x''). Then Hn = {a;"'.,HnX"-'^ are all distinct and are all the cosets Hence the cosets Hn,HnX, all integers r}. of Hn in G. Hence Hn is of index n.
. .

Next if £r is a subgroup of index n, we already know that H positive power x"^ G H (Theorem 4.9, page 105), and this means Hence r = n and Hr — H„. This concludes the proof. r.
find all

is

H = Hr.

generated by the smallest But Hr is of index

With our knowledge homomorphisms
4.25:

of cyclic groups of cyclic groups.

it is

easy to apply the homomorphism theorem to

Theorem

Let
if

6*

be a homomorphism of a cyclic group G.

Then Ge

is

cyclic;

and

|G|

<

=0,

\Ge\ divides \G\.
if

Furthermore
is

H

is

any

cyclic

group such that

\H\ divides \G\,

there

a homomorphism of
If

G

onto H.
there
is

G

is infinite cyclic,

a

homomorphism

of

G

onto any cyclic

group.
Proof:
If

G=

gp{x), then

G=
I

{x''\

all

integers r}, and

Gd =

[x^'e

all r}

=

{(xoy

\

all r)

=

gpixO)

Supplementary Problems FUNDAMENTALS 4. prove 6^ = ^ (Hard. . savir we in the proof of : A look back at Chapter 4 In this chapter we have thoroughly investigated the simplest class of groups. As G„ <1 G. as Theorem 4. if 4. Prove that if a and 6 are elements of a group G and if a-^b^a = ha. (a. But G is cyclic and consequently so is G/N. hence it is cyclic.101. namelv H The factor of a factor theorem tells us that a factor group of a factor group G/N is just a factor group of G of the form G/M.G-^K a unique subgroup of G itself. namely as The subgroup isomorphism theorem tells subgroup iy of G in a factor group G/N is of looking at H/{HnN). If a-^b^a = b^ and b-^^b = a^. the correspondence theorem associates with each subgroup of the image of a homomorphism e. H = gviv). 4. This enables us to eliminate certain groups as possible subgroups of a given group.'")'-i}. Let A^ = gpix^). Suppose H is cyclic. |G| = rm. Thus G has as homomorphic image any cyclic group of order n. But G/Gn is the homomorphic image of a cyclic group. m.) 4. ^ cyclic. Then A^ = {l.104. and is a homomorphic image of G.. Hence G/N . us that the subgroup corresponding to a given isomorphic to a factor group of itself.if. we know that they have as homomorphic images only cyclic groups. We will see later on that it also enables us to find more quickly the groups of a given order.103. Hence then by the homomorphism theorem 09 = \Ge\ = |G|/|A^| (see Lagrange's theorem) and G/N for some \Ge\ divides \G\. 4] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS is cyclic. (Very hard. Obviously it also has the infinite cyclic group as a homomorphic image. If G is infinite . 4. cyclic Furthermore the sub- introduced the concept of coset. The cosets form a partition of the group. then. the cyclic groups. obtained Lagrange's theorem which states that the order of a subgroup divides the order of a finite group. then 6 = a. Because G is abelian. We know that there are cyclic groups of all orders. Suppose that Prove G and are not isomorphic. If a^ = 1 and a-^h^a = b^.").100. H H G cannot be generated by two elements but that H can. normal subgroup. normal subgroup Say. We have also this fact Using we Next we have introduced the idea of a homomorphisms. n> 0. 127 Thus Ge If \G\ < «>.S: X be a non-empty set and let Y= {y} be disjoint from X. Let . [G G„] = w if G„ = £rp(a. and N is of index .CHAP. Suppose a and 6 are elements of a group G. \N\ = r. G/Gn is of order w. and the order m of H divides the order of G = gpix). we know their subgroups. N of G.) Suppose G and are groups. Suppose a and 6 are elements of a group G. Finally. G/N makes sense and is of order m. and we know whether any group G has as homomorphic image a given cyclic group. prove a = 1 = b.102.24. Prove Sx = Sx u y if and only is infinite. This gives rise to a new way factor groups (see the homomorphism theorem). groups of cyclic groups are again cyclic.x'-.

Prove that be the group of Problem 3.c. Let is isomorphic with the additive group of rationals. Prove .113.. Let g = If"" ] a. q) q e.n) Define a binary operation ° in G by G is = (k + m. Prove that H in G with the left cosets of H in G.74. Prove that if N{H) is the Let G be a group. Consider ff/(Ker a) and prove that in accordance with the homomorphism theorem it is isomorphic with the additive group of integers. prove that he G H for all h & H. G is a group with respect to this composition. (Hard.106..114. page 91. Let Af = {(0.109.72. is infinite cyclic.112. let e : G It H is -> F be a homomorphism. HOMOMORPHISM THEOREMS 4. Show that a coset of H intersection zGZ}. Gji^Gj+i for i = l.77.105.128 ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS [CHAP. morphism from g onto the that g/{KeT e) = R* multiplicative group of nonzero real numbers in accordance with the homomorphism theorem. be a subgroup of G. Let Let N= {(0. 4.110..l)o(m. is infinite cyclic. d real numbers { V with operation matrix multiplication. Q}. Let e: g - i ("' * ad — be 9i 0. Let ] e ^c d g-* R*. page 91. Show that M< G and that G/M is infinite cyclic. subgroup (# 0) of Q is infinite cyclic.. page 91.115. prove that Let ce e.z) | Prove that N< D N< G and D/N 4.N(g-^Hg).. (k.108. 4. not a cyclic group.. Prove that if A^ is a subgroup of G such that G/N = G. Let G G/N 4. 4 CYCLIC GROUPS 4. a coset of K is a coset HnK. Let Q be the additive group of rationals with respect to addition. .. any subgroup of C. then N= {1}. and let g be an element of G. 4. Prove that every two-generator COSETS 4.111.107.{m. c. /«! \ci &i\ _ /a + oi ci 6 dj /a ( di) \c + d.l+n) Prove that not cyclic. • G1UG2U 4.2. then g-^N(H)g . b. Let C be a cyclic subgroup of G. 6) G W}. Prove that # is a homo- \c dJ and find its kernel. 4. where l). 4. let and N(g-^Hg) the normalizer of g-^Hg.117.{(0. G2. 6) | (0. be defined by = ad — be. Show that \ N and N Let W be the group of Problem 3. • is be subgroups of a group G. Let Let of e : Hg ^ g-^H is a matching of the right cosets of 4.dGz\-. Let G=ZXZ (fc. a.n) G G.. H and K be subgroups of a group D G. Let 4. . g'^Hg normalizer of H H {g-^hg\ hGH}. H be a subgroup of G. the nonzero real numbers.) If GjCGj+i. « c Prove that g forms a group with respect to the operation + defined by *\ .b.116. d + 61 + di 8 is b\ . be the group of Problem 3. Let e: g -^ Z be defined by j e — a+ Prove that a homomorphism of g onto the additive group of integers and find its kernel. G be a group and C for all c&C. where Z is the set of integers. Let G be a cyclic group. Let Gj.

Let G be a finite the orders of group with normal subgroups M and N. Nd M.%. 9 is a homomorphism of G into the group {1.120.122.121. N/M cyclic but G/M not . be a group and a normal subgroup of G. Let G be a group and N a normal subgroup of G. Suppose that = HiOH^^ dH„ where [Hj: jffj + i] = i + 1. Using the homomorphism theorem.1.-1} with operation multiplication of integers. iV D M. Let H be a subgroup of G. 4.e = 1 if k is an even permutation and xe = — 1 if a. .119.. Suppose G/N has a factor group which Prove that G has a normal subgroup of index n for each positive integer n. Suppose GIN is cyclic and \NIM\ = 2. Find a group abelian. Let 8 G -» {1. for groups 2 G„ such that [Gj G has a sequence of subgroups G = Gj D G2 3 H= i : GIN H = 1. 4] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS G : 129 4. Let M and JV be normal subgroups of G with MdN. 4. G Prove that G/N is finite if G/M and M/N are finite. is abelian. .118. Prove that GIM 4.124. Let N.2.123. Suppose that M and H and those of N and H are co-prime. n- 1.. . G with normal subgroups Ai' and M. is an odd permutation. Prove that HM/M = HN/N.CHAP. Let cyclic. -1} be the mapping Prove that a. = 1. prove that the even permutations of G form a normal subgroup of G.. G/N cyclic. has a sequence of sub. Prove that i • • • Gi+ 1] = i + 1. the symmetric group of degree n. N is infinite 4. Let defined by be any subgroup of S„. . 4. M be normal subgroups of G. 4.

p a prime. is there always a subgroup of order nl The answer to this question is no: Ai is of order 12 but has no subgroup of order 6 (see Problem 5. Then there is a subgroup of G of order p". and \H\ is the highest power of p that divides \G\. By Theorem 5.chapter 5 Finite Preview of Chapter 5 Groups The most important result of this chapter is a theorem of Sylow which guarantees the existence of subgroups of prime power order. Suppose is a subgroup of G of order a power of a prime p. The Jordan-Holder theorem shows that in a sense a group is built from simple groups in only one way. We conclude the chapter by exhibiting a class of simple groups.1 a. the classify finite groups. Then is called a Sylow p-subgroup of G. The concept order 15. One result is that groups of prime power order always have non-trivial centers. group H H qF qG A F Sylow p-subis a p-group. H H In general a group of order a power of the prime p is called a p-group.e.1 below). i. e.1 every finite group has a Sylow p-subgroup. ensures the existence of subgroups of prime power order. Conversely one might ask: if G is a finite group and n\ \G\. namely A„. page 109) tells us that the order of a subgroup divides the order of a finite group. THE SYLOW THEOREMS Statements of the Sylow Theorems Lagrange's theorem (Theorem 4. Solvable groups are used in Galois theory to determine whether an equation is solvable in terms of nth roots. We prove two other theorems of Sylow concerning subgroups of prime power order and then examine groups of prime power order. for n^5. and then see how groups are built from simple groups.e. As yet the task of finding all simple groups is far from complete. A simple condition enables us to conclude that a group is a direct product. Theorem 5. ambitious plan for studying finite groups is to find all simple groups. if where then F = (see Problem 5. The following important theorem. The resultant group is called the direct product of G and H. Sylow theorems. we define a binary operation on the cartesian product of G and H.11. In order to construct a new group from any two groups G and H. i. of a group G is a maximal p-group in G.g. In the following p will denote a prime. H 130 . groups without proper normal subgroups.1 (First Sylow Theorem): Let G be a finite group. however. and p"" the highest power of p dividing the order of G. An 5. of direct product together with general theorems about subgroups.4). help us to In this chapter we find all groups up to We study a class of groups called solvable groups.

But (l + 3fe)| 15 implies k = 0. If the order of ab is 1. by Theorem 5. 1. If the order of ab is 3. Hir\H2= {!}. Sylow 2-subgroups of S3. are = 2 and The elements 2 3\ 12 1 3/ 3\ ''^ _ " _ /I 2 1 3\ \3 /I 2/ 3\ ^2 _ - /I (^3 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 1/ ^^"(^13 is 2/ ^'^ _ /I ~ \2 3 3 The order l-Sgl 2 and the order of any Sylow 3-subgroup is 3. then gp{ab) = Hi.2. by definition. so it is the only Sylow 3-subgroup of S3. then B. a\ — a^ implies S3 has no other elements of order 2. of S3 given in Section 3. p-subgroups of a finite group G are conjugate. In this case ab = a* {i = 0. since so the sets {t. Similarly G has one and only one subgroup of order 5. The number Sylow p-subgroups of G is congruent to 1 modulo p and Sp (Sp is congruent to 1 modulo p if Sp = 1 + kp for some integer A. Solution: The elements of A^ were given 1 in Section 3. These subgroups must be cyclic (Problem 4. then ab = l and a = 6-» which is impossible.. b.1.l 3/ ^« _ - U /I 3 3 4 1/ _ /I - 2 1 3 2 U 4/ "^"12143 _ /I 2 4 . gp(ab) = H2.3. 3 or 4) and a = 6*-i which is impossible. <j^ is the only subgroup of order three in S3. {i. G and H is a p-group. page '" 62. There are no other Sylow 2-subgroups of S3 because a^ — a^.3}. of any Sylow 2-subgroup Iijow Tf = 6 = 2-3. h^. Therefore G has one and only one subgroup of order 3.48. Recall g-^Sg = {g'^sg s | G e are called conjugate S}. there Further applications of the Sylow theorems are given Section 5. since H\ is unique. for HinH2= {1}. 3. up to isomorphism. ffj.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS illustration 3. T3} are all subgroups of order 2 and therefore. Show that the alternating group A4 has no subgroup of order 6. 6*} the subgroup of order 5.3c.3a. a. = T2 = T^ = i. page 110). 1 or 2) and & = a*"' which is impossible. we will use them to show that. there is a g &G such that Theorem 5.3 implies that there are S3 = l + 3fe subgroups of order 3 and ss] \G\. If the order of ab is 5. page 57. Let Hi = {1. 131 As an for p we 1 find the Sylow j^-subgroups of the symmetric group S3 on {1. xj. G has at least one subgroup of order 3 and at least one of order 5.) Before proving the Sylow theorems. 2. Now Theorem 5. Hence ab = b' (i = 0. a^} be the subgroup of order 3 and H2 = {1.3 (Third Sylow Theorem): Any two Sylow Sp of distinct divides \G\.Sec. in the problems below and in Problems 5.2 (Second Sylow Theorem): If if is in a a subgroup of a finite group Sylow p-subgroup of G. Theorem 5. 5. 5 or 15. h^. because an element ^1 cannot have order 3 and 5 simultaneously. is one and only one group of order 15. We 2 1 repeat them here for convenience: 3 3 3 1 2 3 12 1 3 3 4\ 4/ 4\ /I '^ 2 2 2 3 4\ /I 4\ /I "^ 2 4 2 3 3 1 4 V3 4 3 1 1/ 4\ V4 /I '"' 2/ 4\ Vs 2 4 1 2 _ ' /I 2 3 13 1 _ "^ /I 3 2 3 4 3 2 2/ 4\ V4 2 2 3/ 4\ ^« V2 4/ 4\ V^ 2 4 ^^ - i.1. We look at the order of ab in G which must be either 1. is contained if g-^Sg Two = subgroups S and T of a group T. If \G\ = 15 then. Therefore the order of ab is 15 and G is the cyclic group of order 15 generated by ab. {hrj and {t.

say tj S fl^. the order of £r is a nonzero power of q. every element has order a power of p. To prove g~^Hg is a subgroup. Hence H contains a a. But by the first Sylow theorem.3: S3 = 1 -I.. viz.H. Sg does not divide 12. By = r and Lagrange's theorem. q '^ p.1) and 3 does not divide 4. g~^Hg is therefore a |G| is 5. page 55. a^ and wg are of order 2. Since p/w-. Now H is of order 6. p/ m) then and let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Similarly g~^hig = g~^fi2g implies hi — h2. H must also contain an element of order 2.6. 5. . Clearly fc 7^ (we already have four subgroups). must divide 12. Tg. t^} are all subgroups of order 3. Hence — Q. Find all Sylow p-subgroups of A^ for p = 2 and 3. and these elements are in P. "5 and "s. then \g-^Hg\ — \H\.3A.4. .2. Prove that if H is a H = P. Alternately we may use Theorem 5. H ] H . ag. then g~^Hg is also a Solution: Suppose that subgroup. P is the only possible Sylow 2-subgroup as there are only four elements having order dividing 4.p^m (r ^ and p/w). say H contains 02.. Tj} and {1. A similar argument shows a^ and wg € i?. and the elements of order 3 are tj.Tj}. To prove the converse let every element of G have order a power of p and assume the order of G is not a power of p. Hence a is a matching and \g-iHg\ = \H\. Tg. . Hence fc = 1 and there are exactly four Sylow 3-subgroups. rf = t2 S H. Now aja^ = where i. Solution: The elements of A^ are given in Problem 5. By Lagrange's theorem.h2&H) if and only if fi'-'ftifl' jr-ifejjsr.5. From Lemma 3. 8} and a? = for i — 2. If |G| = p'' then. p' \P\ p'^m. Consequently by Lagrange's theorem none of the t's can be elements of a Sylow 2-subgroup because they are all of order 3 (see Problem 5.3. Therefore tj G H for some i. so it contains a subgroup of order 3. Solution: We define a matching a:H-*g~^Hg by a:h-*g--^hg for hGH. then 1. The o-g. by Theorem 5. Hence P — {'. Let h^ = Aj. Sylow p-subgroup of G.1. The order of a Sylow 2-subgroup is 4. i. and if A. H . since power of two dividing 12. Then there is some prime q. {i. Let \G\ — p^m (r — 1 p-group such that P Solution: and qH cG. . "21 "5' "»} is a subgroup of A4 of order 4. 5 6. Thus 0-2 £ /f. Hence the elements of order 2 are ag. {1.1. This would mean H has at least 8 distinct elements. 5. If ff is a subset of a gfroup G and g G G. T5. The sets {i. (75.8. t t and \P\ = p*-.p^ But \g-^Hg\ = \H\ by Problem 5. t|}. = Tg. This contradicts the assumption that all elements have order a power of p. . If H is a Sylow p-subgroup of G. as they include all the elements of 22 is the highest <rj^ 1 t.= 132 FINITE GROUPS Suppose that A4 has a subgroup Also Tj is of order 3 for j = 1.3. the order of A4. 5. T7. where g~^Hg = {g~^hg \ h G H}.1. order of a Sylow 3-subgroup is 3.1. Hence \G\ = p*" for some r — 0. [CHAP. a Sylow p-subgroup of G if it is a subgroup. we must prove hi — h2 (hi. t2. and so P .Because OiTi = T4 and T1O2. But PcH = \H\. rg and Tg = T7. k e {2. 5. order 3. T4 = T3. > 1. which contradicts the assumption that \H\ — 6. a\=^ a\ — a\ = so a^. t — r. Prove that a Solution: finite group G is a p-group if and only if every element of G has order a power of p.1. 8. G has a subgroup of order a nonzero power of contains an element g ¥= 1. These are all the possible Sylow 3-subgroups.Then by multiplying on the left by g~^ and on the right by g we get g~^hig = g~^h2g. This means that H does not contain subgroups of order 2. ti. j. contradicting Theorem 5. To show a is also one-to-one. ti. Therefore our initial assumption is invalid and A4 does not contain a subgroup of order 6. such that q |G1. by Theorem 5. | Suppose \H\ = p'. So q and hence the order of g is not a power of p. 5. if H contains (rg it also contains T4. as every element of G must have order dividing the order of the group. of order .2. a is clearly an onto mapping. then \H\ . 5. Hence g~'^Hg . observe (g~^hig)(g-ih2g)~'^ — g~^hih-^g G g-^Hg.

then 1 -I. gp{hk) = K. As g does not divide 1 -f. we note that an element of order l.8 we know G has one and only one Sylow p-subgroup.e. since there is only one subgroup of order p. q. C. Thus g~^Hg = H Sylow p-subgroup by Problem for all g G G and H < G. 1 + kp = q.G. Thus hG K. 1 + kq ¥= p and hence fe = 0. so hk is of order pq.k. p. the order of hk is Similarly (/ifc)« = fe" ?^ 1. Two lemmas used Lemmas 5. Thus there is only one subgroup of order q. If hk is of order p. By Theorem 5.3d. h-^k-^hk <\ G. Furthermore Solution: if where p and q primes and p < q. K q and those of K are of order p. which contradicts gp(hk) is of order pq. If [G\ = pq.5.. Solution: If g e. G is not necessarily cyclic. = 1 + fcg Sylow g-subgroups of order q. p or 2p.q or pq. or 1 + kp — pq as Sp divides |G|. nor of order 1..2fe. g~^Hg is a p-subgroup. q or pq.10. 2. the Sylow p-subgroup of G is of order p. . then G has one and only one subgroup of order p and either exactly p subgroups of order 2 or it has exactly one subgroup of order 2. \ Definition: Let A is called be a non-empty subset of a group G.. and so G is cyclic. h G H} H . & K (h H< G K< G as the nonunit elements of ¥= 1.3 G has s. Also 1 + kq divides pq. |iSg| = 6 = 3' 2.k^. Section 5. the symmetric group on cyclic group. If Also he. — i — p — 1. Solution: Consider S3. Show that if q = 1 + kp in Problem 5. say H.fc9-i}^ K = last paragraph. 3 = 1 + 1'2 and S3 is not a 5.{g^^ag a G A}. The set {h\ h~^Ah the normalizer of A in and is written Nh{A). page 112.8. If \G\ — 2p.0.2fc = p and the number of Sylow 2-subgroups is either 1 or p.7. then g^^Ag .h^. Thus there is precisely one subgroup of G of order p.. H Now hk is HnK 5. 2. Similarly gp(hk) is not of order q. p an odd prime. k¥^ 1). and so G is cyclic. then 133 5.1c). — A.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS G has only one Sylow p-subgroup H. b. The number of Sylow 2-subgroups of G is Sj = 1 + fe2 for some integer k. hk = fe' for some i. 1 + kp = p.h. If H< G. then Hence h~^k~^hk — 1 and h and k commute. flr A generalization of the concept of normalizer as defined in Section 4.2fe = 1 or 1 -I.fep~i}. {1.4 and Throughout in the proof of the Sylow theorems 5. . so again there is only one subgroup K of order p. we are left with the possibilities that 1 + kq = p or 1 + kq = 1.p. It follows H are of order from Problem 5. will be essential. But {hk)" = hPkP as h and k commute.2fc = 1. then G G is has one and only one subgroup of order the cyclic group of order pq. 3}. G has Solution: From Problem 5. and k HnK = as as {1} H = = h-Hk-ihk)eH {h--^k-^h)k GK ¥= 1. argument of the . But then = {!}.8.6 will provide the tools for proving the Sylow theorems (see will etc. Again 1 4. Clearly p does not divide 1 + fcp. this section G be a fixed group and H a subgroup of G. Instead of the . {l.Sec. i. There can only be four possibilities for 1 + kq as the expression of pq as a product of primes is unique: X + kq = q or 1 + kq — p or l + kq = pq or 1 -I. Again we have the possibilities 1 + fcp = 1. As usual we denote subsets of G by A. with fe .fcg = 1. B. Because p is itself the highest power of p dividing \G\. As 2 does not divide 1 -I. By Lagrange's {hk)p = h^ theorem. 5. Since q > p.kq. Therefore = {l. The last is not true by assumption.9..7 that H < G. But G has only one Sylow 5. then q^ \ + kp for any integer A. There are Sp = 1 + fep subgroups of order p. 5. so 1 + fep = 1 or 1 + kp = q. We point out once more that if A is a non-empty subset of a group G and G G.

Thus hT^Ahi = h^^Ahi implies NH(A)hi = A^h(A)/i2.a}. Then A = hihz^Ahzhi^ = (kihr^y^Aih^hr^). ^ Lemma 5.2c. A ~ B ifi?is such that an fl'-con jugate of A (i. We write cA — {A. {a}. hi — nhz for some n G Nh{A).16 h~^Ah for the proof). we must prove if if hz £ H. Let If (ii) A^h(A)Ai = NH{A)h2. . etc.B G cA. An example of a set whose elements are and B. Hence \cA\= |^~1. a position to prove our main lemma. number of distinct subsets of G Lemma 5. We define for A. NH{A)hi (i) = NH{A)h2 hr^Ahi = hz^Ahi hi^Ahi = h2^Ah2. Let '7^ be a set of representatives of the equivalence classes. It follows that cA is the disjoint union of the sets R~. 5 It is is is a subgroup of 4. the number of the index of A^h(A) in H. A Subsets of G are.a^. B. : H Proof: Since [H Nh{A)] is the number of distinct right cosets of Nh{A) in H. G= {l. (Note that if H = G. Another such 6.134 FINITE GROUPS easy to prove that Nh{A) [CHAP. For example. Let ~ denote the equivalence relation defined by A ~ S if S is an ^-conjugate of A. B— {a^. so the proof is complete. for example. .) The next lemma gives us a formula for which are i?-conjugates of A. Then Ic^l = 2 \H:Nh(R)] .a^}. denote such sets by script letters cA. Proposition 5.e. Ng{A) the normalizer of A as defined in Chapter Definition: Let if A and h-^Ah = B be non-empty subsets of G.1a.e. i. H Recall that equivalence class containing it is an equivalence is the A). we need only define a one-to-one mapping. clearly onto. page 10). .5: Let of be a set of subsets of G. We will make a few observations about ~.e. R G%. "B. Let a be defined by H a: N„{A)h^h-^Ah and only {h G H) that for hi.a^}. To show that « is a one-to-one mapping.e. h~^AhGcA. H (Problem 5.B}. C= the set whose elements are 'B = {A. Then ~ is an equivalence relation on cA (see Problem 5.a. Most of our arguments are concerned with sets whose elements are subsets of G. which follow because if relation on cA. AGqA. Suppose that for each A G cA and each h GH. Since two right cosets are equal or disjoint. {X| and A (see Section 1. hi^Ahi because = {nh2)"'^Anh2 definition of = hz^n^^Anhi = h2^Ah2 Nh{A). [H A7^h(A)]. A~ = XgA X~ A— By a set of representatives of the equivalence classes we mean a set % which contains one and only one element from each of the distinct equivalence classes. of the right cosets of NuiA) in onto the distinct fl'-conjugates of A. B is said to be an H-conjugate of A B for some hG H.11). i. Recall that the distinct equivalence classes are disjoint and that their union is qA (Theorem 1.2. then A and B are concalculating the jugate as defined in Section 5. then hi G NH{A)h2.We are now in Re^ii.6: Let cA {¥' 0) be a set of subsets of G. if there exists an element h G — B). a. we conclude NH{A)hi = N„{A)h2.4: If G is a finite group vi^ith subgroup is distinct H-conjugates of : A and non-empty subset A. When H ^ G. C). page 9).. subsets of G set would be is We let G be the cyclic group of order A— {\. i. Hence hzhr^ G NniA) and so /12 G NH{A)ht. n~^An = A a is by Hence NH{A)hi — NH{A)h2 implies hr^Ahi — h2^Ah2.

hence \G\ = S Re% [G:NciR)] (5.(A). Hence adding first the contribution made by all with i2nZ(G)?^0 in (5. page 112. Corollary 5. as claimed. the centralizer of R in G. Let P (?^ 0) be a subset of G. rf^An = A . Let nSNuiA). then Nu{A) is a subgroup of G. Problems 5. be as in Lemma 5. Then \G\ = \Z{G)\ + 2 xg [G:Nc{R)] (We remind the reader that Z{G) — Proof: Clearly \cA\ {x\ = gx for all g G G}) — \G\. (mn)~^A('m. i2 Note that as = {r}. then {z} G cA and the number of G-conjugates of {z} is one. we obtain % Rg% \Z{G)\ and the result follows. But R~ is R~ = {X\ X^h-'^Rh for some h the set of H-conjugates of R. since H is a subgroup. [H:N„{R)].n) = n~i(w-iAm)m = n~^A7i — A. H RG%}. Nh(A) implies ¥- 0. or (M-i)-iAm~i = A.n G Njj(A).1). Let %* — {R\ RnZ{G) = ^. hence mw S A^h(A). and let '5^ be a set of representatives of the equivalence classes.. nAn-^ = A.Sec. since leH and I'^Al =A implies lGNi.2) is called the class equation of G. hence n~i G Afjj(A). see Section 4. Corollary = Keg. If m.11.) Hence Corollary 5. The Hence \c4\ & H) since number of such H-conjugates h^^Rh G cA for every hGH.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS 135 Proof: We know from the remarks above that Reg.4.3d..2) (5. Accordingly A^h(-A) is a subgroup of G.8: Let cA = {A\ A is a subset of G and A has precisely one element). by Lemma So 5. 5. namely {2} itself. NaiR) = = = {g\ {g\ GG g GG g and g-'rg G R} and g~^rg = r} C{R) (For the definition of C{R).6. Furthermore n"-i S H.4. Then \^\ Let c^ = {flr-iPflr \ g gG}. Note that Ng{{z}) = G if zG Z{G). 5. If A Is a non-empty subset and H a subgroup of a group G.1) If z G Z{G). i? and ~ = 2 [H:Nh{R)] = rG:iVG(P)] Proof: Clearly \cA\ is the number of G-conjugates of P. Solution: A^hI-A) is clearly a subset of G. is. Let ^ be the equivalence relation in cA when = G. Consequently {2} G for each z G Z{G). Let 'R.8 takes the \G\ form = \Z{G)\ + 2 [G:C{R)] (5.7: 2 [^:A^H(i2)]. and the result follows from Lemma 5.

Therefore Now iVg(F2) = {i. Hence ~ is an equivalence relation on cA.14. page 134. as B is an /f-conjugate of A. G = H Sg and (using the notation of Section 3. To define "i^. so that nGG and by definition nGNciA). H 5. the index of Nq{P) in G is 4. then n'^An = A and n £ H.F2. : : cA = {X\X ~ g~^Ag .= {Pai-Ps}.F3.7 when G = a"^i6a Dg.5. F4 ~ = {P4. given P — {a} where and {1.Fa). t~^{ti}t2 = {rg}.8 when G = S3. Consequently (h~^)-'^B(h~^) ~ A and then there exist h. with a = t. CT2} and A''g(F4) = {i.64} ^ NaiPi). then n&H and m~iAm = A.P^.4 by direct computation when = {. F5. But H qG. = {'2}. Check Corollary (i2 5. the required number.Now NuiP^) = {1. Prove Proposition Solution: 5. Hence. where H is a subgroup of G.B [H:Nh{A)] Let be subsets of G.= {h-^P^h {/i-iPa/i I \ h^H} = /le//} {Fi.8. we choose one element from each of these equivalence classes.P2. choose % = {Pg. We use Proposition 5. As /f is a subgroup of G. [CHAP.7 is given by c^ = {g-^Pff g {a62}. Using the equivalence relation ~ of the corollary. Show that Solution : N[j(A) = NQ{A)nH for any non-empty subset A and subgroup H group G. H= F2 = 68 = 1 and = the dihedral group of degree 8 (G see page 75.{x\ xGH and x-^Ax A} = {i}.6 claims that |o^| = 4 = [H Nh(Ps)] + [H NjiiP^}]. as required. By Lemma 5. a.8) = {Fi. ^ 3. P^.Pi) = For '^ choose one representative from each of the equivalence classes.NaiP^)] + [G-. of : : 5. tj}.F6} where P^ = U}. a6*.3a. ft-i. Thus NG(A)nH qNi. Consequently N[j{A) cNQ(A)nH. c^ (of Corollary 5. Consequently Fj ~ = {Fj}. and also the number of H-conjugates of B. 5. Fg = {06*}. r^}. thus \a4\ — 4.gGH such that h-^Ah = B and B ~ A. 64. Pi = (ti).Fg} {Pi. Fi~ = Fa. page 57) A = {tJ. 5. We must also show that [G A^g(^)] = 4. b = = {6».12.4. 5 5. -P4} where Fj = {a}.i)ff = g-^Bg = C. Let nGNuiA). As Z{G) ~ {(}. P3 = W.NciPd] = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 of a IS3I 5. e. Suppose = [H Nh(B)].{P^.F5. Hence [H N„{P3)] = [H N„iP2)] = 2 and the required equation of Corollary 5. Fj. Use the notation of page 57. Let us take % . If A ~ B. It follows that hg G A ~ C. ~. Finally. so A = 1~1A1 and thus A ~ A. Prove Solution: A ~=B or X = g~^Bg for some 9 e G}.13.^6 = {ts}. Lemma 5. Fg}. as required. Let that A. CTi.16. F4 = {a66}. Solution: = qA of Corollary 5. : B is an H-conjugate of A. P^ = M. \ G G} = {Pj. Thus the number of H-conjugates A is 2. \A ~| is therefore the number of /^-conjugates of A.4 requires that 2 = [H N„{A)].17. — i < 8}.F4.- 136 FINITE GROUPS Check Lemma 5. and so g-^Bg = C. then there is an element such that h~^Ah — B.Let ~ be as in Corollary 5.64. "Jf* = {F2.15. Check Corollary Solution •P5 : 5. If nG Na(A)nH. hGH H B~C.g. PjOZiG) ~ except for j = 1.62. F4}.. As : : : : : NciP) = = = {x I a. Hence [H Nt.66}. {x\ X G G and x^iPx = F} E G and x~^ax — a} a64} {1. \Z{G)\ + [G-. Then Lemma 5. But iV^CA) . contains the identity.5. [H iVjj(A)] = [H Nh{B)].{A) and the equality follows. a^). Solution: The H-conjugates of A are i-UtJi = {t^}. if A ~ B and and (M"'A(%) = sr-i(fe-iA.(A)] = 2.7 holds.

Therefore by the induction assumption.9: a If weak form of the first Sylow theorem. p |G|/|H|. For convenience we repeat Let V : G -> G/H Theorem 4. The class equation for \G\ G is (see Equation (5. p"--' By H (ii) Suppose p}' c. Thus by the induction assumption.Sec. As \G/H\ |G|/|fl^|. is gG. Then |G/iV| = n/p by Corollary 4.9. trary to our assumption. confir™ = 1. we conclude that \H\ = p\ Thus in this case. page 110. Thus if G is cyclic the theorem holds. If p/m. G/N has a subgroup H of order p''~^. Now if p\m. that if G is cyclic there is a subgroup of order any integer that divides |G|. 5. Consequently so does G. we have p/ ^ [G:C{R)]. Z{G) has an element of Let iV be a cyclic subgroup of Z{G) generated by an element of order p. . If |G| = 1.2b. Then there is a subgroup of G of order p''. since any subgroup of Z(G) is normal in G. hence n is not a prime. G has a subgroup of order p"". By Proposition 5. then C{R) = G and RnZ(G) = R. C{R) has a subgroup H of order p"". Let be the cyclic group gena proper subgroup of G. Consider G/N. e "iil*. form the factor group G/H (every subgroup of an abelian group is a normal subgroup so i? <1 G). {¥=1) is m H erated by H H I be the natural homomorphism of a group onto its factor group (see page 114) and g he a preimage of g under v. order p. by the induction assumption. Proof: We will prove the proposition by induction on the order of G. Suppose h h. page 110. Now \C(R)\^\G\. there exists a subgroup of G such that H/N = H.1] THE SYLOW THEOREMS 137 c. Recall from Section 4. Let G Proof: We will theorem Suppose (i) is trivial. contrary to the assumption that Rr\Z{G)-0. G/H has an element g of order p. then g'^v = §"" = !. p a prime and p'' the highest power of p dividing the order of G. But \G\ = [G:CiR)]\C{R)\ by Corollary 4. the statement of each theorem. Hence by our induction assumption. Suppose p c. We have two possibilities: (i) p\c or (ii) p/c. there nothing to prove. N < G. Proofs of the Sylow theorems First we prove 5. for if \C{R)\ = \G\. p/[G:C{R)]. Since g has order p this implies p divides m. (gf™)" = (g")"" = 1. and we may therefore assume G is not cyclic. \Z{G)\ = I c. has an element of order p. Z(G) is an abelian group. page 121. page 105. Therefore g"" has order p or If flr™ = 1. prove the theorem by induction on the order n of G. In either case we have found a subgroup H of order p". G is cyclic. Now (fl"')v = g" = the identity of G/H. so g" G H. page 135) - \Z{G)\ + 2 [G:C{R)] Therefore for at least one i? Since p jG| [ and p/c. For \G\ = 1 the Assume n> 1 and that the theorem is true for groups of order < n. \G/H\ < \G\.14 to Lagrange's theorem. If n is a prime. Hence p'-\\C{R)\.21. since r||G|.2) of Corollary 5. The First Sylow Theorem: be a finite group. is Proposition G is then G a finite abelian group and p has an element of order p. As H is of order m.8. Clearly <n. a prime dividing the order of G.17.14. = \H\ = \H\/\N\ = \H\/p. As Corollary 4. Assume the proposition is true for all groups of order less than n. We are now in a position to prove the Sylow theorems. where n > 1. The proof is complete. Since \H\ > 1. h of order m. Therefore g"" is an element of G of order p. the order of G.

page 135. By the second Sylow theorem. : as is divisible p. We show N„{P)cPnH. Since any other Sylow p-subgroup is conjugate P and any conjugate of a Sylow ^-subgroup is a Sylow p-subgroup (Problem 5. p. is contained in P (ii) to P be any Sylow p^subgroup of G. as a some G-conjugate R of P. R is a. i. Hence P' . Thus [A^h(P) A^H(P)nP] is a power of p. where Sylow theorem. If H is a p-group. then H is con- H tained in a G-con jugate of P.10. the right-hand side of equation (5. we have [P: = ^ Pr\R] . and let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. and P' be two Sylow p-subgroups of G. Proof: We apply Corollary \^\ 5. G-conjugate of P. But P C Nh{P)P and P is a Sylow p-subgroup. But P c A^g(P).H by for R G%. Nh{P) is therefore a subgroup of P. page have: 113). for P cannot be a proper subgroup of any other p-subgroup of G (see Problem 5. [A^h(P)P P] is therefore also a power of p and. Nh{P)P is a p-group.3) is by p. But |P'| = |P|. But Nh(P) is a p-group. page 132.3. so that Nh{P)P is by the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem 4.15 and Problem 4.3). page 132).138 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. Let 23-group. |iVH(P)P| is a power of p. to c^ = [g~^Pg \ g G G} to conclude = S : [H:Nh{R)] = [G:Na{P)] By Lemma 5. P'. The result follows.4.23.7.R and P' is conjugate to P under G.5. page 132). NH{R)=^HnR for each RG%. Accordingly. It will be used in the proof of the second 5. 5 subgroup H of G.4 that Let Sp = [G : A^g(P)] But on putting P= H in Equation Sp {5. = Hence [H: [G A^g(P)] If R^% '^ HnR] (5. As Nh{P) C H. The Third Sylow Theorem: (i) Any two Sylow (ii) p-subgroups of a (iii) finite jugate. The following gives a simple formula for the normalizer of a Sylow 2)-subgroup P in a \H\ is a power of p. G Proof: (i) is The number Sp of congruent to 1 modulo p. page 125) a subgroup of G and we Nh{P)P/P ^ NH(P)/NHiP)nP Consequently [A^h(P)P: P] = [Nh(P) A^H(P)nP]. we conclude NH{P)QHnP. as conjugation by an element of P sends P to itself.3) a p-group. and i? then is a subgroup of G Nh{P) = HnP Proof: PHHcNuiP). Hence P = Nh{P)P. all fl^ HnR ¥. distinct Sp | group G are G-conSylow 25-subgroups of |G|. we conclude by Lemma 5. as P is a 2?-group. a group of order a power of p.e.10: Lemma If G is a finite group. This contradiction implies that for at least one But as R GcA.60. Hence [G Ng(P)] is divisible HnR-H RG%. by Problem 5. since it is a subgroup of the p-group H. Nh{P)CNg{P) and P <i Ng{P) (see Problem 5. P of order a power of a Sylow p-subgroup of G. : : : The Second Sylow Theorem: Let he a subgroup of a finite group G. so that p does not divide [G:A^g(P)].

then G has a normal subgroup A^ such that G/N and A^ are both cyclic. not of order Proof: We make use of the class equation (equation \G\ (5.21.2] THEORY OP p-GROUPS itself 139 Now for exactly one R&%.. Hence p\ RnZiG) = ^^'K* Since p \G\. Hall.2^. . . \G\. again by Corollary 4. r). page 146.4. i?l C • • • C Hr-l C Hr = G p' (i {5. Jr.3. Because the sum on the right side of (5. SupBy Theorem 5.) In this section we shall determine some of the elementary properties of p-groups. One instance is the following theorem: If G is a finite group whose Sylow p-subgroups are all cyclic. .. There<} G. By Corolfore by the induction assumption.i) where Hi <i Hi+i (i = 0. we can conclude that p \Z{G)\. R = P.2) is taken over all R such that [G: C{R)]. pose the corollary is true for all k <r where r > 1. 5. Hence Sp and so other cases. 1. Then \H\ = p'^'K Furthermore. In all PnRj^P.12: If G is a group of order p\ r—1. The statement is clearly true for r = 1. (p will be a prime throughout this section.11: given by is Theorem If G v^ 1. page 121. {1} and G is a finite p-group. In Section 5. = gp{g). Macmillan. one. Let = p"-^. Because p \Z(G)\. there exists a subgroup = H. which means Z{G) ¥> {1}.2 a. has a normal subgroup of order N \ N H H N H Clearly we could repeat this argument until {1} we obtain a sequence of subgroups of G = Ho C . and for = 1 + kp \G\ (iii) By : Corollary 4.r-l) and \Hi\ = = 0. Proof: The proof is by induction on r.2) = \ZiG)\ + 2 [G : C{R)] It follows immediately from the definition of C(R) and Z{G) that C{R) =G if and only if RcZ{G). for the only P-conjugate of P is P P is the only possible representative of its equivalence class. 1959. (M.2).11. Thus G <i G.2. .. \G/N\ of order p''"^. since any subgroup of Z{G) is normal in G. Since Sp = [G NciP)]. the center of G. page 135) (5. 5. then G has a normal subgroup of order p^~'^. Z{G) ¥.14 to Lagrange's theorem.{!). Theorem 9. 1. ^ \ \ Corollary 5. . b. Proposition 5.) One reason why the study of p-groups (groups of order a power of p) is so important is that the structure of the Sylow p-subgroups of G partly determines the structure of G.1a we saw that G has a Sylow p-subgroup for any prime p. and because |G| = p'.Sec. G/N has a normal subgroup and such that of G which contains lary 4. The Theory of Groups.9 implies Z(G) has an element g of order p. Sp I = [G: Ng(P)] |iVG(P)|. p\[G: C{R)] for all R G %*. Therefore [P:PnR] is a power of p for all R G % except this one [P:PnR] = l. THEORY OF p-GROUPS The importance of p-groups in finite groups Suppose that G is a finite group. The center of a p-group finite ?)-groups is A very important property of 5. Consider G/N. then Z{G). . H/N p"""^ and the proof is complete.

c + c' + c". ft. c")) + a". Z ¥= {!}. p — 1}.-1) and thus (1. b. ft b{a' + a")) We check that c + c' + is c" - ba' which is true.p group. 6'. B = {0.140 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. p.. 0.18. + 6".. 0. 6. .1. b". Solution: It is clear that \G\ a non-abelian group of order p^. c) (a'.a'.i + r + n'p) G is a non-abelian group of order p^. . 1.0) is the unit element of G. c'){a".c) Then under addition modulo I p. = = = = (a 4. .11. Let G be the set of all B be the additive pairs (i.1.0.18.1. 6. b. 6.0. c)(a' c + ha')(a". 0) (0. h'. i4 = {0.0) = = (1.b. ft. 6 {a + + a' + a". non-abelian. By Problem 5. . Then we can find aS Then if g. (a Define (a. — c — ba) = G is = {—a. —ft. (1. By Theorem 5. 0. c)((a'. Solution: Clearly G is of order p^. 0). g = W-z.p^ group of integers modulo p^. 0) ^ (0. then \G/Z\ = p. Hence G abelian. .. c + c' + c" .ceA} of elements of • A.c) = (0. c) and hence every element of G has an inverse. b'. 1. (a. (a. Suppose Solution : G is a group with S a subgroup of the center Z{G). 5. Let A = {0. li Z = G. c')) (a". G Z ¥^ G.i)'(i'.(6 + b')a") On the other hand. aS. (a. 6. + 6' + 6". Let A be the additive group of integers modulo . Finally. 0. we check c'- first the associative law: {(a.b'a" {a. Our last task is to prove that Now (0. and let . 0) c) • {—a. i&A.0) (1. Then a'z'aiz gh = akaiz' = aWzz' = a'a'z'z is = = hg Thus every pair of elements of G commute. c) • + 6')£t" = c + c' + c" Now (a.20. 5. — (i l}. ft... is a group.ba' .he. G is 6 + 6'. 0.21. We check that G is a semigroup.1. Thus G a semigroup. is G Suppose be of order p2 and let Z be the center of G. (i. {(a. Prove that a group of order p^ Solution: is abelian (p a prime). it follows that is G abelian.6a') Prove that with respect to this binary operation.0)(0. ft. Let — 1}.1.i') = + i'. —ft. = • jfi.j). c' + c" . j G B. so G/Z is cyclic.0)(1. Prove that under the binary operation . 5. ft'. —c — ba)(a. 5 Problems 5. To prove that G h" c") . 0)(0. i G h such that every element of G/S is a power of = a>z' z' for a suitable choice of the integers and j. Let abelian. c') = + a'. Prove G is abelian if G/S is cyclic. 0) = (6 - b'a" - ft(a. 6". c) and so (0. where p is a prime. (0. 1. Suppose G/S is cyclic. 0)(1.1.' + o") • (a. c) a.ft'a") (a + a' + a". c)(a'. c + c' .0).0. 6. A is an abelian G = be the set of all triples (a. with z and in S. c") b + ft' b' + b".19. G.

g" = 1 (i. j + j' + j" + j'i"p + j(i' + i")p) G is associative. (i. 2).1)(1. we can find g £G such that ge = . c) = = = (2a. To see this let g. 26.Sec.6a) = (0. h" = 1 for Solution: ffP = h 1 for all g G G. 3c . 0.0). (0. If p is odd. 141 JW.22.21 satisfy gf = 1 (i. Then Therefore h" . this equality is readily verified. p — 1 is even. we find (a. c) 6a . Then as {gh)^ = 1. 6.26o) By induction it follows that (a.(ge)" = ig'')e = Iff = 1.c)3 (a. 1) = (0. since (0. 1)(0. (t.20 has the property that for all g e. all & H. pb. (i To prove that the binary operation ji'p in we need check only that + a + j' + ji'p)i"p = j'i"p + }(i' + i")p -j + Thus G Since p^ — in B. The identity element of G is (0.hG G.e. 6. b. not every element of order 5. 0)^ = (0. 36. i + i' + j" + ji'p + U + j' + ji'p)i"p) (t (i. }')ii".0)(0. G. 5. then every homomorphic image H h. This result could have been observed by noting that a group G satisfying g^ = 1 for all ff in G is abelian. -6a) In particular if a = 1.24. Inductively.e. 1. Solution: No. Thus we have (a. 2c . Finally. gh and so = G is (gh)-'^ = h-ig-i = h^h-ig^g-i is = hg 2. —1). ^"'*"''' (1.j) is {-i.e. 2c (3a. 6 = 1 and c = 0. pc — ba — 2ba — . 0)) if Let (a. 6. J')){i". 2c - 6a) Continuing. 0. c)2 = = (a. jip). Let 9 be a homomorphism of G onto H. 6.0)) for all g &G'>. 0).0) = (1. Prove that if G is a group such that has the same property. r + i" + i'i"P) + i' + i". 26. (0. Is this true if p = 2? Solution: 5. j){ii'. c)" = (pa. 1)2 = (0. 5.1 + p) and therefore G is non-abelian.1) = (0. if h G H. G is abelian. J") = (i + i + i". Thus not every element of G is of order 2. p6 — 0.2] THEORY OF p-GROUPS ((i. c)p = Therefore ^p{p 1. Then (a. j")) = = JW + i". 5. }") = + i'.6a)(a. c)2 = (2a. divisible If Hence ^p{p then ^p(p — 1).c) (2a. (0. c) S G. p) f^ (0. But as not abelian. does the group G of Problem 5. 6a since l + 26a + • • • + (p ^^^ 6a + 2+---+p — 1 = by p. we have (1.1). 6. c)(a. b. 2. pc = 0. 6.6. — 1) is an integer p - (a.c)2(a. is a group. Prove that the group G in Problem p is odd. 1)" = (0.23. 0. — l)ba — 0. The inverse of (1. 6. 26. If p is odd. 6.l)6a = • • • — (p — l)6a) ~ -^^ But pa = 0. i. } + y + n'p)(i".

. 5 5. gf = 1. page 75. By Theorem 5. of G. the property that is it and every element of D„ . . A finite p-group G {1}.Zu Similarly if G ¥' Z2. We H we define We number Our shall call a group G nilpotent if its upper central series ascends to G in a finite of steps. 5. Let if Z Now \Z\ c.11. Let I>„ be the dihedral group of order 2n. then the groups in Problems 5. (0. p is an odd prime. Zi ¥' {1} by Theorem 5. there is nothing to prove.28.27.25. Also. we find G/Z^ is of order jj2 and hence abelian (Problem 5.11. Problems 5. then Z2 = G. Therefore G/Z would be cyclic and hence.Zi/Zi.13: is to prove is nilpotent. called the upper central series of G.11. 5. Z2IZ1 is a normal subgroup of GIZu Therefore by Corollary 4.21 it follows that Zi+i < G. Therefore G is not isomorphic toH. The upper Suppose central series is G a group.20 and 5. a contradiction. We look at G/Zi. page 121). Z3 ¥= Zi. begin by defining Next we define Za.18). Zo = (1). Z2 = G.21.26. By Corollary 4.G.21 are not isomorphic. By induction we can show that if Zi¥=G. But by Problem 5. Prove that a non-abelian group Solution G of order p3 has a center of order p (p a prime). subgroup of G/Zi is the center of G/Zi is of the form Z2/Z1 (we are using Corollary 4.20 and let H be the group defined in Problem 5. be the center of G. then Z2 ¥.e. Zi+i/Zi to be the center of GIZi. . Zj+i =5^ Zi and thus U Gis G/Zi 1 = Zo C k.24 that hp = 1 for all hSH. Thus \Z\ = p. Theorem Proof: If 5.21. Z t^ G since G is non-abelian. = p2. for p an odd prime. where a = t and b = agO . It G ¥. by Problem 5. Zk =G for some Therefore G nilpotent.: : 142 FINITE GROUPS Prove that Solution if [CHAP. So if Zi ^ G. But if G = H.18.21. 1. then Zi ¥. Since every uniquely of the form H/Zi where is & subgroup of G containing Zi. and Zi to be the center of G. (See Section 3. then G/Z^ is of order p or p2. Zi.19). again by Theorem 5. Prove that Solution: if a non-abelian group G is of order p3. 1)" ^ 1. it follows from Problem 5. Let G be the group defined in Problem 5. once Zi has been defined and proved to be a normal subgroup of G. objective in this section 5.4f. Then by Problem 5. G would be abelian. Notice that as the center of a group is a normal subgroup.11. Notice that if Zi ¥. i. . Since G/Z^ is cyclic only if Zi = G (Problem 5. D^ has . = b~^ = 0. Zi C • • • C Zi is C Zi+i Since G is finite. We shall define a series {1} = Zo C Zi C • • • of subgroups Zo. Therefore Z2/Z1 = G/Zi. then \G/Z\ = p. Z2 is a normal subgroup of G. the center of G/Zi = Za/Zi ¥.{1} by Theorem not the identity.n contains two elements a and 6 such that a^ = uniquely expressible in the form 0*6' where 1^ t 6" = 1. 1 a-^ba and j — l. if g G G. Z ¥= {1}. = 0.23. Prove that D„ Solution: is nilpotent if m is a power of 2.. In general.22.{1}.

3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER Suppose n 143 Method 1. plication of elements of as follows.l)) . Let {hi. 5. {ha. a-^(aibi)a not a^a-^b'a a^b-i. with binary operaThe group groups H and K. Thus Z^ Method 5. fe) • • {ha. consists of the means \G/Z^-i\ = 4. k2) = {hih2. What other elements can be in the center? a'b' the other hand. Zi = {1} in A4. If element of G. = . . ka) with binary operation {ha. 2. a-^a'b')a = 62" i. |jD„| = some power of Hence we can apply Theorem 5. and K¥' {1} are finite groups. ki) Hx H and K as the set of HxK H H gHxK we can define a multi- and define {5.iA. then it is clear that \HXK\ = ¥.(fl'.kik2) where {5. Then a 6^ is of order o"*~l 2. i2"'~* .2 are the products in the groups see that [{hi. then {h-^. = 2"". Hx K.13. h G and k G K. For example. then clearly = b-' and (6^2 = 1^ om — is the only possible element in the center other than implies 6'' o"»— ab }. ki) ' H and K The set • respectively.fi'). . Now this .3 a.l) {h. a group. (/12. {1. for {h. a^b'. Therefore is abelian. Hence oTn— _m— a-162 = (a-i6a)2 = (6-i)^ 6.e. 6 Z„_i Similarly Z2 consists of the powers of 6^ consists of the powers of b^. =G and G is nilpotent. kk'^) = (1.oW— h^ commutes with a. k) an identity of HxK. If 1 stands simulta- {hl){h.5) is called the external direct product of the as just the direct product.k){l. = It is clear that if gHxK. ki) {hi. tion (5. fti = 12™"' But as o 6 On jjj^g this >» /^i. ki). {ha. 2. = .5) is A1A2 and A. a S 2i. g ^i. Therefore the direct product gives us a constructing new finite groups. Prove that A4 Solution: is not nilpotent. then HxK is neither isomorphic to H nor \HxK\¥= \H\ and \HxK\y^ \K\. To HxK fcz)] • HxK is a group.l).5) is clearly a binary operation.5) {hi. k'^) {hh'^. because \H\\K\ H simple way of order 2 generated by g. let C2 be the cyclic group of C2XC2 = {(fl'.(l. . fcife) {{hih2)hs. 2. powers of 6^ and so G/Z^-^ . {kik2)ka) {hi{h2ha).{1} If to K. Hence e Z^. which is so. 5. and thus Z„ ¥= A4 for every n. ks) G x K.19. k) G Multiplication H K H xK. ka)] is therefore an associative binary operation on neously for the identity element of and of and {h.fl'). Consequently Z^ . clearly 6^ So 6^ 6 Z^. fci). define the internal direct product after Proposition HxK 5. ki{k2ka)) {hi. ki) • {h2ha. DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER Direct products of groups all In Chapter 1 we defined the cartesian product K of two sets ordered pairs {h. ki). Hence ^1 = ^2= • • . as a direct check shows.k) = {h.29. and so 6^™ commutes with Therefore 6 otherwise a commutes with every m= = 1. Then H {h2. let {hi. The multiplica- tion defined in {5. We often refer to HxK We If H and K are finite groups. fe-i) is inverse. ka) = = = {hih2. 1) is = {h.(l. If and K are groups. ki) • {h2. kzka) [{h2.Sec. k). 1). then Z^ If = b' i3„.k) so that its (1. k){h''^. {h2.

a of a: Therefore i? is a subgroup of G.l){l. 1 the identity of 1 the identity of H} K} and if are subgroups of G.9) (1. 9) a.K = k.l)(l.fc) (h.&.1) (h9) (1. 5 Now 4.16: Let G be a group with subgroups and K such that — G. Hence G = HK and Theorem 5. 0*= {1. The mapping H onto H defined by h^{h. then (hi. and H HnK~ {1}. = h2k2 where hi.K be as in Theorem {(1.l) = 6a Now Hnk^^ Any element (/i. Proof: since hih^'^ is = = {{h. subgroup of G.14 follows. fci).1) (9.2fcr*=l. 1)(1.1) is a.A. then g = {h.k) where g = hk G G. so we have (as we shall soon see) two non-isomorphic groups of order the cyclic group of order 4.^) {9 A) a. d to d x d. so GcHK.A.6^&3| ^here 6^ = 1^ ^nd the group C2 X C2.14: If G= HxK is the direct product of the groups H and K.k) = (l. kGK. then clearly hi = h and /ci = &. Hence hi = h2 and fci = k2. To prove a is a homomorphism we must demonstrate that if gi = hiki and g2 — h2k2 are any two elements in G. As a converse we have H Theorem Proof: 5.l) (1.l) gH.ff) ihg) Note that all the elements of x C2 are of order 2.) of G can be written Clearly -fffi" C G.1) (9. 144 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP.1) (9. for we have shown that there is one and only one way of writing g in the form g = hk.i) {9. or simply the four group. g = hk where hGH and kGK. Hence C4 is not isomorphic C2 X C2 is called the Klein four group.l)(h2. 5. then . k). Similarly H K a subgroup of G.15: Let G = HxK and H.14. k).k).. If we also have g = {hi. sets Theorem 5.1)}- as {h. H is clearly non-empty. a is a one-to£f We first show that any element gGG can be written uniquely in the form fci.9) (g.l). kGK.9) (fir.)(/i. hiki — ^2^2 implies hs^hi^kikiK But ifnZ={l}.l)~\^ (/ii. G= Hk ^n^ = {(l.l)}. H = H.l) G H a& = (A. then the H k ab = ba. and aGH G and bGK. g — hk for some hGH and kGK. let a~{h. Finally.1) (1. IC2 X C2I namely: = 4.1) (9.1) (9. 9) iff. l)(/i2"'. A. one mapping.{h2. hGH are isomorphic. 1) = {hih^'. hiGH and Suppose g = hiki and ^2 G K. the H HK G = HxK. k) is an expression for g as the product of an by an element in K. 9) (1. We define the mapping a: G^ HxK by ga = (h.1) (1.9) (9. and so A^'/ii = 1 and A.k)\ hGH. Corollary 5. Since G — HK.'i-)^H. Then every gGG can be written uniquely as a product hk where Proof: If hGH. element in g = {h. the identity If ihul).) G K. Then elements of commute with those of K. then Similarly K = and K Now >\. Furthermore. 1)(1. Thus the expression is unique. and the elements of H x K are of the unique form (h. The multiplication table for dxd (1. (1. /v is clearly and S = an isomorphism.l)\ {{l.9) (9.

Consequently h'-^h-kjki^. and K.)a{h^k^)a a is a homomorphism and the if result follows. . IGI.*. so kjkr^ G I -HnK.k. h~^k-^hk G and K are normal in G. G is a finite group with subgroups H . let To and G 4.k^k^) = {h^. because hih = h2ki if and only if hi — h^. subgroups of also in G of orders 7 and 4 respectively. Let Iki.^2. 7 is a subgroup of K. I an integer between 1 and n. because an element in Hi Accordingly. then ]K] _ Proof: m Let I . since IcK.\{h^. 5. that Now ft. Note that commute are normal subgroups of a group elementwise.i| + \Hk2\ + • • + \Hkn\ Now \Hki\ — \H\. The hypothesis of Theorem 5. h. and suppose HnK = {1}. We claim now that HK = ft. • • Thus Ikn K = and. since HK c G.K G with HnK= H {1}. Then G^HxK. k G K. It is useful to be able to count the number of elements in Proposition 5. We therefore prove the following proposition. belong to H. = HnK. = Ikj h' G H. by Corollary 4. Therefore \HK\ since = \H\ \K\ n\H\ \HnK\ n = \K\/\HnK\. But if G is a finite group and \HK\ = \G\. /Zci U 7fc2 U U n= |JK:|/|/| = \K\/\HnK\. HkinHki¥=0 for some as both h. H2 must have order dividing 7 and ' be a group of order 28 and Hi and i?2 HinH2= {1}. /fe. and HK^G. . . n / is a subgroup of G • and. then H and K h-^k-^hk Therefore = {h-^k-^h)k gK H = h-\k-^hk) G G- HK = {1}. that HK = G.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 145 Now Hence {hjc^hji^)cc = (\h^k^K)a = {Kh^. we can conclude. h% Thus HkinHkj = for i=7^y and |Hii:| = |Hft. and and K commute elementwise implies HnK Clearly H H Consequently Theorem 5. illustrate the use of Proposition 5.k^) = i\k.h'GH. Hki U Hk2 U • • • U Hkn • For if hk G HK. and G= 77. H.18: If HK.16 can be stated as follows: Corollary 5. page 110. For if h G H.Sec. Ikj = Iku Hence ki = kj. Thus HK = HkiUHkiU j Hence UHkn. .. But kjkT^Gl implies e /ft. then hk = (hl)kj = h'ki where for some Then hki = suppose for some integers i and j.17: Let G be a group with normal subgroups H and K. Ikn be the distinct cosets of I in K. and so and K commute elementwise.16 asserts G must equal HK.14.18. Since two cosets are either equal or disjoint.

(i. g^gi. g-igi ---. g^. \HK\ = \H\ \K\l\Hr\K\ = \G\. 9n) ^ G- Show that a group.. where H. h&H. G is then a group (see Problem below) called the (external) direct product of the groups Gi. Then = implies h=l and fc g 1. g'n) = G is (gig'i.16.31. . But condition = 1 and If G is a group with subgroups and satisfying conditions the internal direct product of and K.. . 92.. ... In Chapter 6 we will define the direct product of an infinite number of groups difProposition 5.15 will provide a link between the two definitions. H®K^HXK. Theorem 5..g^^) the inverse 5. y a one-to-one mapping..19. (9v gi. .19: Let H (i) and K be subgroups of a group G. .k)-^ and only if ha = h'a .. . We denote G by . Therefore = l-'^^l = iUTTW^ or HnKllGl = \H\\K\ But \H\\K\^\G\ by hypothesis. If HsH If and K = K.16 in the case of finite groups by Theorem Proof: (i) 5. is is clearly an associative binary operation in G. then (9i^. (i) k G K. Define a multiplication in G by {91. ki G K. g^gi) 5^. . By G is said to be Proposition 5.-..92. . H H®K.146 FINITE GROUPS Using Proposition [CHAP. hk = kh for all and If h&H k&K H and (ii) every element g G G is a unique product of an element in and an element in K. kp) = (h'a. then Proof: G^HxK. But then the hypotheses of Corollary 5. then h = hi and k = ki).2. Let G = Gi x G2 x x Gn be the cartesian product of n groups. then H and K where G^HxK. i— 1. = h-l = l'k Therefore g for some hGH HnK = and {1}. h G H.. «=i ferently.. then HXK y: = H X K. Define a multiplication in G by 92.. H.---. If 1 stands simultaneously for the identity of Gj. . .17. We need only prove HnK= H {1} to fulfill the hypotheses of Suppose (ii) gGHnK. • i9igi. for (ha. then \HK\ \G\..17 (ii) HK = G. .19 below and Corollary 5. hi G H. gn). is . ff„){gi. = 1^1 HK = by Proposition 5. G.gk) = finite .1. (gi.e. we can finite replace Theorem or 5. kp). and we write G = K and (ii). k£ K. by Corollary 5.-.gn)&G. Solution: The multiplication tive in each Gj.18. . g = hk..g2. since multiplication is associa. G2.. k'p) by y: {h. - -. G^HxK. 9nffn) for (flTi.18.1) clearly the identity of G.. if Solution: a: H -> H K^K is are isomorphisms. g2 g„).30.30 for {gi. HpK = If (1) and Since c G.. G^HxK. The concept of direct product can easily be generalized to the direct product of a number of groups. Proposition 5. Problems 5.. we can conclude are fulfilled and HK |^| \K\ implies. 5 5.. k G K. . Gi. \H\ \K\ = \G\.9n) ^ G.. and ii g = hiki. we define HxK-^HxK {ha. . (gi. then (1.9~^. G„.16': Let G be a group with normal subgroups If either {i)HnK={l] = \G\ {u)HK^G.n. Hence HnK={l} and. If 9 - (g^gz. G2.Gn (n^2).gn){gi. Let G = Gi X G2 X • • • X G„ be the cartesian product of n groups. . and fi : K and K are groups. ---.. gi. of g in G.

Then [{h. and at least two elements of order 2. Let h.e. K^ and Cg are abelian. fe"™) = 1 and so the order is nm. fc)2 = (c^. m) = 1. i. k') & /3 fe/3 = fe'/3 if and only if H X K. page 105. (h.k). k) and so G is abelian. 1).33. Therefore no two of the groups are isomorphic. namely gp{{l.34. a) and (1. C4 = gp(b). h)^ = (1.k') = (hh'.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 147 and h fc/3 = k'p. ha = h'a and To show y is a homomorphism.{kk')li) = {hah'a.k) • Letting (h.k') G. Show that G= HxK and is an abelian group if and only if H and K S are both abelian groups. fc)"*" = (fl^""*. fe)2 = (1. Solution: By Problem 5. the non-cyclic group of order 4. 1)). because (ff*)^ ¥= 1 it i^ i. (g. V)(h'. a). A. 5. C4. the cyclic group of order p^.1). s. one and only one subgroup of order But Cj X Cj has two subgroups of order s. g)) and gp({g. 1) and so g^ = and V<. C„ X Cm = gp{{g.k'l3) = (h. To see that these are the only possible groups of order p2. by Theorem 4.kk') = {h'h. 1. X C^. We look at the set of elements of order 2 in each group. it is clear that y is an onto mapping. Hence H can show K is abelian.35. 1) = Similarly we is abelian. Solution: is not isomorphic to C^XCg (where C„ is the cyclic group of order n). h) is nm. group. if there are more elements of order 2 in one group than in another.Sec. — i — 7. described above. Since the order of gr is n and the order of fe is w. Show that for any prime p there are exactly two non-isomorphic groups of order p^. for any Since 0^2 is a cyclic group it has.{h'. But this implies hh' = h'h.9. | 5. m\ k and n k. the cyclic group of order rvm.36. Show that Cs2 integer s > 1. (6. fc Since a and = h' and = k'. Cp2. Hence k is divisible by nm.7.32. If (g.35). Now C4 X C2 has at least one element of order 4. let {h. 5. Since every isomorphism maps elements of order 2 onto elements of order 2. Accordingly. Then if 1 is the identity of K. and Cp X Cp. Since subgroups of a given order are mapped onto subgroups of the same order by any isomorphism. and Cg = gp{g). h") = (1. where Cp is the cyclic group of order p. namely g*. page 103).32 implies C2 X K^. or (hh'.k'k) = {h' .k)-{h'. On the other hand. Thus we have exhibited three non-isomorphic abelian groups of order 8. are one-to-one mappings. If On and C^ are the cyclic groups of order n and C„ X Cm = C„m.^) = (1. consider a . k') {h. Problem 5. C4 X C2 and Cg are also abelian. we know that any group of order p2 jg abelian. fc^) = (1. - (h' . Solution: Suppose H K are abelian groups. (h'. Are any two of these groups isomorphic? Is any one non-abelian? Solution : d Let C2 = gp(a). suppose G is abelian. Consider the order of the element (g. 1) and (1. where g is the generator of Cj. {h. 1) for any k G K^.k)y(h\k')y Finally.k')]y = = {hh'. Cs2 cannot be isomorphic to Cj X Cg. Cg on the other hand has only one element of order 2. 1) Conversely. 1) = (h'h. h)). 5. Cg where C„ is the cyclic group of order n and X4 the four Consider the groups C^ X K^. \)(h. h) in C„ X C^. k). (6^. for (c.19.kk')y = ({hh')a. Therefore C„X 0^^ = C„^.k/3)-(k'a. since all cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic (Theorem 4. (h'. m respectively and (n.kpk'^) (ka. page 140. As C2. these groups cannot be isomorphic. are two non-isomorphic groups of order p2 (Problem 5. 5. Every element (?^ 1) of C2 X K4 is of order 2. 1) for some k. h' e H. then Solution: Say C„ = gp{g) and C„ = gp(h). then (g'^. We claim that the order of (g. 5.= 1.

h^). fej = h^ and ^ (h„h^. Let us put 1 = (1. there is one and only one cyclic group of order p (see Theorem 4. If we put x = a and y = b. as conclude G = CpX 5. p a prime.h^) for /ii G H. /13) and ((Aj. * is a homomorphism. ^2. We will use Cn to denote the cyclic group of order n. e iTj) X H^. gp(a) < G and gpia) XH^C^XC^ H< G. h^). Notice that the multiplication table is symmetric in X. g). . fc3)((Si. y . up to isomorphism. X3) hs)M(hi. [((Aj. x = (1. 1).y and yz — x.h^) If ((Aj. y and z. 5 H of order p = cyclic. /13 Define M> : (H.12. Such a subgroup exists by Corollary 5.^2X2. Therefore * is one-to-one. Therefore. If p is a prime. 7.148 FINITE GROUPS subgroup is [CHAP.X H^XH^ * is and_fe3_eH3. Groups of small order: orders p and 2p As an application of the Sylow theorems and the theorems of Section 5. since a group of prime order has no proper subgroups.48. using 5. = (/ll.31. h^ and consequently = Sj. Thv^ there is one and only one group of order p. In particular. ^2). h). and K4 to denote the four group.19). namely Ct and 5. = = = M(^i. Let a^H. a group of order p2. If \gp(a)\ = p.{g.The multiplication table for K4 is 1 1 X X 1 y y z 1 z z X y X 1 y z z y X We note that xy ~ z. But 5.9). (^1. Ki (Section . Show (Hi X H2) XHs = Solution: H^XHzX H3. is. then {hi. Up to isomorphism. To show (^i X . y ^3^3)* = M2). ^3) (Cii. G is abelian (Problem G = gp{a) X H. clearly only one group of order 1. ^2. since a cyclic if implies Also \gp(a)\\H\ in G. Theorem 5. 5. ^2.h^). ^2).firp(b) and gp(a) = flrp(b).37. /l3)(Xi. page 103). The order of a is either p or pK If the order of a is p2 q group generated by a. /i2).36). ^2). We refer to the notation of Section 5. page 110). xz . feg). any group of order p is cyclic (Problem 4. all groups of order less than 16.hs) = ^3)* = ^3. 3.X H^)xH^^ H. M* and so * is an isomorphism. the only groups of order 2.h2. Then (Cii^i.^3^3) ((^1. then z ab and we can write the multiplication table in the form 1 1 a a 1 b b ab ab b a 6 b ab 1 ab b a 1 ab ab a isomorphism. by *: {(K. 11 and 13 are cyclic. 1) and « = {9. Recall that K4 is defined to be C2 x C2. by Problem Hence Cp. y* b. for h (¥-1) & gp(a)'nH . let ({h^. H is p is a prime. then gp(a)nH = {!). we p2 and.3a and Problem 5. ^3) Clearly an onto mapping. Aj e if^ = ((Ai.3a. /isy* (''1^1. There up to There are precisely two non-isomorphic groups of order U.3a we will find.16'.7. ^3)*.

16'. First.8) The mapping a:G-*G defined by a: a: a'-* d\ is b^b. Thus by Problem 5. ba* -*hd' {i = 0. (5. K H K H K H H (ii) Let 6^ K = gp{a) 1. = a^ and so p divides i — j and .sG (0. . subgroup K of order p. a is also a homomorphism.hd. G has exactly one 29 T^ 2. so. Note that 6 = 2-3. . (i) is a In this case the group G is a cyclic group of order 2p. fta"-! {5. a.1. G is cyclic of order 2p. cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic.Sec.a^ then . . p an odd prime.8). by Problem 5. for Consequently a is well defined on a'. ^ K implies a. (ba^Y ba' = 1 and ba' = is a^-'b of order 2.. . when s = 0. G 1. 10 = 2 5 and 14 = 2 7. {g^g^a - [(bw)(a')]a = (6'a*+*)a = ^'«'^' = ^'«*^' = {b'a})a{a'-)a = = gyag^a and when s = 1. . where = Clearly. (i). {g^g^oc = [(bw)(ba')]a = {b'ba^-'a')a = (6'+'a''-'+')a = = h'd*hd* = {bW)a{ba% = g^ag^a (ii) h'^^d^-*-^' b^hd^-^a* Therefore any two groups of order 2p of type are isomorphic.. . By Theorem 4. Since K is Hence G the only subgroup of order p.. we obtain. Clearly \H\ \K\ and x K. p and an element h of order 2 such that G . G = order 2 and p respectively.2. As a: a'-^ a*.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 149 Next we show there are precisely two groups in each case of order 6. 10 or 14. b consists of the distinct elements b."-^. ba.1. Therefore by Theorem 5. h.p — 1).7) and {5. Suppose G is of type (ii).p — l. If ba' — a* — a'.10.7.. But and K are cyclic groups of 2p = \G\. . 5. To see this notice that p-subgroup. {bd})^ = 1 and Id' = d'^-'b {5. fl'2 S G implies gi = b'a* and Using equations Qi — b^a'^ for some choice of j. . page 103. page is a unique Sylow unique Sylow 2-group and Furthermore Hr\K= {1}.. . Then..p — l.7. If G is of type then by our analysis it must be a cyclic group of order 2p. . then a' a'. t G {0.1. By Problem 5. .1} and i..6) Now if since i = S 0. for any element common to <i G. so these groups are of order 2p for some prime Let G be a group of order 2p. . an isomorphism. . . a"-!. . 133. = KubK. and either • • (i) exactly one subgroup H of order 2 H or (ii) precisely p subgroups of order 2. .7) K and each element of G outside ba' K = Also (&aO^ = (ba}){ba}) = 1 implies (6a*)-» = (a')-'b-' = a^-^b Now if G is any group of order 2p. ba'. a is a mapping. . a one-to-one and onto. d' = is {5. then it is either of type (i) or (ii). has a subgroup K = gp{d) of order G = where for i (1.0.p — l). Hence a is well defined on the ba*. arguing as above... a" = 1. 6a^ . bd"-^} = 0. . for gi. . Hence all groups of order 2p having property (i) are isomorphic. <i G and — must have order dividing 2 and p and hence is the identity.1..34. a: ba^^ if hd* {i any integer) p divides i — j and hence d' = d'.

14. Let X =^ gp(x). We have four possibilities for 6^: (i) b^ = a. then CnAB =:{!}. by AB ^AxB and consequently AB = C2XC2. In particular there are exactly two non-isomorphic groups of order i. This does not mean that there exist two non-isomorphic groups of order 2p. G has no elements of order 4 or 8. Thus Gs. for if not. all its non-identity elements are of order 2. Thus (ii) and (iv) = a2. There are at least three non-isomorphic abelian groups of order 8: Cs. G is cyclic. contrary to our Thus b~^ab = a" or ab = fta" {5. Then G = HUHb for some b G G. 5 So far we have shown that up to isomorphism there are at most two possible groups of order 2p. But from Theorem 4.4f. H< = a. As a^ is the only = 1. for each prime p. (As those equations determine the group up to isomorphism. up to isomorphism. or (iv) 6^ = 1. (ii)62 G= gp{b).7) and (5. As a is of order 4. Also < G. = a%ab^ = a{abab)b = ab G is non-abelian. We first showed that if a group had order 2p it had to be isomorphic to one of two possible groups. Assume G is a non-abelian group of order 8. we conclude G = C2 x C4. H H H EG-H aV G^XxH. But every element of G can be written as a*6 or a' for i. If b^^ab some integer assumption. i = 6. exactly three abelian groups of order 8. so is 6" %&. The isomorphism in case (ii) was shown by using the fact that the elements of such a group had to satisfy equations (5. and this would contradict [G: H]= 2. G has an element of order 4 and no elements of order 8. Groups of small order: orders 8 and 9 Let G be a group of order 8. b be distinct elements of order 2 in G. then ab .7. page 103. let of order 2 and lies in (since the coset decomposition of G is HUbH). It is worthwhile summarizing our method of finding all groups of order 2p. page 75. On the other hand if all elements of G are of order 2. b^ G H. Problem 4. So. they are usually called defining relations for the groups. c. since G — HiJHb. (ii) b^ = a^. by Theorem 5. Let b G G-H. G = C». as it is of index 2 and put (Problem 4. we know that for each positive integer n there exists a cyclic group of order n. b^ is an element element a of order 4. we may element of of order 2.16'. contrary to our assumption. C2 x and X K^ (see Problem 5.150 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. b^ = a^.69.33). page 114. Let Then AB is a group Let gp{a). Hence {aby = a^b^ = assume that there exists an element x of order 2 {x = b if & is of order 2 or else x^ab). for if g is of order 8. Since ^ Ci and = d. 10. X H If a. exactly two groups of order 2p for each prime p^2: one a cyclic group and the other Dp.8). B — gp(b). Therefore by Theorem 5.16'. contrary to our assumption that = gp{a). XnH={l}. up to isomorphism. Let cGG — AB and C = gp{c).Hb. b'^abGH. d d If G has an element of order 8.b G G and consequently GG ba be an element of order 4. Hence ab = ba implies G is abelian. If b is of order 4. or a^. we know that for each n the order of the dihedral group D„ is 2n and I>„ is not cyclic for rt > 2 (it is not even abelian). they will be discussed in detail in Chapter 8. If G has no element of order 8 but has an = gp(a).62. clearly are the only possibilities.) After demonstrating the isomorphism. page 116).Hb^ would be distinct. Thus b'^ab . Now AnB= {1} and |A| |B| = \AB\. A= We conclude that there are. There are therefore. If (i) or (iii) occurs. and from Section 3.a — ba. the cosets H. p a prfihe. we proved that each of the possible groups exists by exhibiting a group of each type. Since ab ^ H. We show that if G is abelian it is isomorphic to one of these three groups. Let a GG H H (iii) &^ = a^. then {aby = 1 for any a.9) Since G.(C2XC2)xC2 = K4XC2.

1 except that substituted for a and b for 6. b. enable us to construct the following multiplication table. If a group of this type actually exists. i = 0. This group is called the Quaternion group and has the interesting property that all its subgroups are normal and yet it itself is not abelian (Problem 5.10) The elements b^ = 1 and a* 1. a^b. a. We now move on to a discussion of (iv). a". a.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 151 Since G = HuHb. H<G = so that H = a or As in b~^ab a implies ba = a^b {5. we have b~^ab G is abelian. The only difficulty is checking that the binary operation is associative. a^.9).1 also shows that a group of order 8 of this type actually does exist. a^. b^ enough information to construct its multiplication table. Let K = gv{b). which leads to and G = HK. since a is of order 4. a?b. and every element has an inverse. 5. a". (iv)b2 = i. a^b. notice that the product of any two elements is again an element. G = {1.1. the table defines a binary operation. We shall give another description of this group in Problem 5. then equation (5. Table 5. 1 = a^ and a^b a* = 1 provide us with a a2 a3 b ab ab a^b a^b 1 a o2 a2 aS b a^b a^b a a2 a3 1 ab a^b a^b b a3 1 a a2 a^b b ab a^b a3 1 a a^b b ab b aSfi a^b ab a^b a2 a a2 1 aS ab a^b ab a^b 6 a^b «» a a2 1 ab b a^b 1 a3 a a?b a^b a^b ab b a 5.e. ~1 Equation {5. ab. then as in our argument above.40. Hence b'^ab = a^. 2. 0?. This involves much calculation (the reader should check some of the calculations himself). i. . 3. a^. a?. a^b. 6. a^b are the distinct elements of G.Sec. db^} with the elements satisfying the equations a* =1. db. 1 is an identity element. for the To see this. The mapping a: G-* G defined by a: a-> a and a*6 -> d%. ab = ba^ and b^ = a^ imply ba — a^b since a^b = a'^{ba^) = b^a^ = b{aV) = b If G is € gpid) another non-abelian group of order 8 with an element a of order 4 and an element such that h^ = d^. is clearly an isomorphism. Now (ii). (i2 = 52^ db = bd^ from which we a a : is find a multiplication table for G which is identical to Table 5. table defines a group. we used the fact that ba.10). a. ab.1 1 tt3 a2 Table To calculate the products in the table. the elements of G can be expressed as 1. then HC^K={1) b~^ab G and.43). b.

A similar argument shows that G has exactly one Sylow 3-subgroup or G has exactly four Sylow 3-subgroups. any non-abelian group of order 8 having property (iv) is isomorphic to G. 5. we know that a group G of order 12 has at least one Sylow 2-subgroup of order 2^ and at least one Sylow 3-subgroup of order 3. To summarize. we know by Problem 9. ab. Such a group exists. This group is isomorphic to the dihedral group Di. and when A. Thus we have shown that there are exactly two non-isomorphic non-abelian groups of order 8. three abelian and two Since 9 = 3^.2 are not isomorphic because the group of Table 5. The two groups given in Tables 5. and the Sylow 3-subgroup must be isomorphic to Ca (Section 5. a^b and a?b. Therefore we have four possibilities: • (i) S2 S2 S2 = = = = 1 1 and and ss Sa = = = = 1 (ii) 4 1 (iii) 3 and Ss 3 and Ss (iv) S2 4 Notice that because the Sylow 2-subgroup has order 4 it must be isomorphic to Ct or Ki.2 also defines a group. We . = 1.1 has exactly one element a^ of order 2. Because 12 = 3 2^.36 that there are two Ca.1 and 5. and only two non-isomorphic groups of order namely Cg and Ca x d. Groups of small order: orders 12 and 15 To complete our list of all groups up to order 15.2 As in part (ii). > 1 it is clear that 1 + 2A.2 has five elements of order 2: a^ b. We therefore have two possibilities: G has exactly one Sylow 2-subgroup or G has exactly three Sylow 2-subgroups. S2 = 3. the group of symmetries of a square (see Problem 5. whereas the group of Table 5. S2 = 1. we must find all possible groups of order 12 and 15. for Table 5. When A.152 FINITE GROUPS a a c2 [CHAP. for some integer A. there are five non-isomorphic groups of order 8. non-abelian. The third Sylow theorem tells us that the number of Sylow 2-subgroups is congruent to one modulo 2 (i. treat each case separately. If A.38). 5 1 a2 a3 b ab ab a^b (l26 aSft 1 a2 a3 b a% a^b a36 a a2 a3 1 ab 6 a3 1 a a2 a% flSfc a^b b ab a^b a3 1 a a26 b ab a2 6 a^b a& a26 1 aS a o2 ab a26 a26 b a36 a a2 1 a3 ab a^b 6 a36 a a2 1 a3 a36 a^b ab b a3 a 1 Table 5. S2 = 1 + 2A.e.) and Sz divides |G|. does not divide 12.3b). = 0.

a. Now by Suppose c'^xc ¥. (The other case. We may assume c-'^xc = y. F in G. let F be any Sylow 2-subgroup of G and T any Sylow 3-subgroup of G. Let F= c^ {l. or (&) F = Ki. and in part (a). G^FxT. y = b and z = ab. page 145.11) hold in G. cab.3b. Ss = 4. gz G G implies gi = fiti and g2 = /2*2 for some /i.Qj^3 _ (6a)^6a = h^ba = a. Then FnT = {1} and. c^ab Using equations in (5. Hence by Theorem 5. (baf = b{ab)a = = b2 gQ (j. both these groups are Let F T< G. of G are Now 1. which implies a = cbc-K Now c'^bc y^ a. Hence by Theorem 5. In cases (ii) through (iv) we assume G is a non-abelian group.18. Then ac = cb. c^b.a^] where a* = 1. If ft = tf for all f G F and t GT. Moreover. Therefore since a has order 4. There is therefore no non-abelian group of order 12 with S2 = 1.3. plies F = {\. is argued similarly. c.h'^) F <1 G. But this implies contrary to our assumption. Similarly c'^bc ^ b and c~%c ¥= 1. Therefore the elements 1. then every element of F commutes with every element of T. for c^bc = a implies c'^bc = cbc^ or b.16'. separately. Thus &-'a6 G F. fi'iS'2 = /iii/2^2 = fitif-iU ~ g^gi Hence we that it is also assume if F is not the case that ft any Sylow 2-subgroup of G and T any Sylow 3-subgroup of G.z} be the four group as given in Section 5. . Furthermore. c. 5. b . Hence gp{ba) contains a and b and thus coincides with G. b'^ab ¥. Consequently the equations assumption c-^fc for all f GF. for if subgroups are equal. Thus G = FT. T= {l. = tf for all f GF and t GT. as in Section 5. These are the only abelian groups of order 12. Furthermore. ca. b.a^ and b-^ab ^ 1 so that b'^ab = a^ or ab = ba^. We have two possibilities for F: (a) F = Thus G = CiXC3 = Ci2 (by Problem 5. c^ determine distinct cosets of c^.c^} where = 1. = Sa = = bV morphic (6) to Ci. cb. page 133). are similar).y.h. put x = a.c-^bc. be the (unique) Sylow 2-subgroup and (a) (ii) Si-l and group. ab = ba {5.3 below. Now as F and T are both abelian groups. Then F < G and since a Sylow ?5-subgroup is a normal subgroup if it is unique (Problem 5. We show that under these assumptions gpiba) = G.34) or G = KtX Ca.7. then G is abelian since gi. Hence a = &.x (the other cases c~^fc GF ac = cb. S3 = 4 and Sylow 2-subgroup isob^ 1. and T = {l.3b.c. as shown Table 5. Then c-''bc = ab and c-\ab)c = {c~^ac)(c-^bc) = bab = 6% = a.x. by Proposition 5. we can write down the multiplication table for G. c^a. contrary to assumption.Sec. abc = ca. be = cab. a.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 153 (i) be the Sylow 2-subgroup and T the Sylow 3-subgroup of G. If 6-ia6 = a. ti G T.c^bc-^. c^ =1. G is abelian any Ss two conjugate S2 = = 1. a contradiction. Fr\T = (1} since any element in the intersection must have order dividing 3 and 4 and so must be the identity. page 131. as c^ = c-» and c'^ = c.) Let us. We where (a) Let 1 imab 6a. Then. \F\ \T\ = 12. ab.a^. Then G is cyclic. c-^xc = z. |Fr| = |F| iTj/IFTiTI = |Fj |T| = |G|. fiGF and ti. As F< G so that ¥= f for at least one f GF. a^ = b^ = 1. Let F T be a Sylow 3-subtreat each case There are two possibilities: F= d and (5) F = Ki.11). d abelian.

The equations which determine a multiplication table for this group are ca = ac'^. G a2. c^. that any group of order 12 with S2 = 3. is isomorphic to the group G defined in the table. Also. are then a^. ss = 1 and in which the Sylow 2-subgroups are cyclic of order 4.154 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. c^ = 1. (a) T. any group of order 12 with S2 = 1 and S3 = 3 is isomorphic to G. conclude. is normal in G and so a~^ca G T. and every element clearly has an inverse. Let F be a Sylow 2-subgroup and Again we have two possibilities: T— (a) {1. c.41 which is isomorphic to G. 5 1 1 1 c c c2 c2 a b b ab ab cab c^ab b ca ca c^a cb cab cab c^ab c^a c^a c26 c26 6 c^ab c^ab a ca c^a 1 cb C2b b c c C2 c c2 1 cb c^b a ca c^b c2 ab cab c2 C2 1 c a cab cb c ab ca c cb c^a a b a b cb c^ab c^a c26 ab 1 cab ca c^b ab 6 c a 1 ca c^ab c2 c% c^a 1 b ab ca cb ab ca cb a cab c cab c2 cb c^a C2 c^ab b I ab cb c^ab c^b c2 a ab 1 c^ab c^a b a b cab cb c2 ca c c2a cab c^a c^b cab c^a c^b ca e^ab c2 c^ab 1 c% a 1 ab cb c a c cab c^b ab b ca cab c ab ca cb c^ab c^b c^a c2 a ab cb c^ab c^ab a c^a 1 b cab ca Table 5. Moreover. by an argument similar to that used in the discussion of the nonabelian groups of order 8. a^c^. being a unique Sylow 3-subgroup.3 By a similar argument to that used in the discussion of the non-abelian groups of order 8. a^c^ and we obtain Table 5. We may # c. c^a = cac^ = ac^ = ac.3 defines a group: the table defines a binary operation.38). a^c. so that a group of this type exists. otherwise the group is abelian. a* = 1 {5. The associativity of the operation must also be checked. we show that there is a group of 2 by 2 matrices . c^a = ac. a^c. The alternating group Ai is a group of this type (Problem 5.a^} = be the Ct and {b)F={l.z} sK4. but in Problem 5.a.a^. Table 5. Sylow 3-subgroup. ac. a. Hence a~^ca = c^ and ca = ac^. (iii) S2 = 3 and S3 = 1.4 below. Again it can be checked that the table defines a group. have as yet not encountered an example of this We We type of group. c. ac^. c2} (c^ = 1) F= {l. the identity is 1.y. an even more tedious task than in the case of a group of order 8.x.12) assume a~^ca The distinct elements of 1.

and so by Theorem 5. h^S. that x-'cx = c\ Again. Then ca = ac\ Note that c^a = c{ca) = ciac^) = (ca)c^ = ac^c^ = ac By I. it is either c or c^ as all other elements of are of order If 2. Since the intersection of a group of order 4 and a group of order 3 can only be the identity. Since T <\ G.3-2 a^c a?c^ aP-c^ rf. G^SxH H b'^cb b-'cb = b or ab) such that h-^ch = c commute elementwise.ab. S3 = 4. The identity 1 is in S.Sec. we have f-'cfeT for all f e F. so there cannot be another distinct Sylow 2-subgroup. As b ^cb is an element of order 3. If on the other hand b~^cb = c^ let a~^ca = Then {ab)-^c{ab) = such that h = ab • b-\a-'ca)b in Hence there exists an element = 9'P(A).4 F={l.z} and T={l. non-abehan {ac = c^a is not equal to ca) and hence is isomorphic to Da since there is only one non-abelian group of order 6 (up to isomorphism). choose an element hGF. therefore conclude that any group G with S2 = ^ h^S F (i. and .69.38). and ca = c^a implies c = a contradiction. and on inspection we find every element in S has an inverse in S: c-i = c^. and b-^c'^b = = But S ^ D3 and isomorphic to K^. A IS But \G\ = 12. = 0.16. 5.1. (c%)-i = c'^a.c.y. put x = a. {ca) 1 = ca. Hence b-'cb G S.c^}. S the^ask of checking that the product of any two elements in S is again in S {ca . \S\ = 6 for &a = & {i = i or 2.ca. as in Section 5. is isomorphic to Ds x type (Problem 5. assumption.c\a. Since distinct cyclic groups of order 3 intersect in the identity element. 6 ic6 c.Clearly SnH={l}.x. for at least one f G F.e.2 a^c n?i*% %n% a^c ac a^c a^c"^ a? a^c ac a-^c ac a^c^ a2c2 a3c2 n/^rP ac^ a^c^ U'^C^ a^c a^c^ ac^ a^c Table {b) 5. y = b and z . Recall^ that <^^'c^c.c^a) is a subgroup. S is 1. We claim that S= {l. f-^cf ^ c. without loss of generality.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER a^c a^c 155 a^c .c.ac^ and d'a = ac make this task easy). 1 or 2) implies aGT. a-» = a.3b. a contradiction. (iv) C2. We may therefore assume. page 116). and Sylow 2-subgroup The dihedral group De is a group of this 3.e. it follows that the number of distinct elements in the 4 3-Sylow subgroups and a single 2-Sylow subgroup is 12. the four Sylow 3-subgroups have together 9 distinct elements. |^||ii|-|G|. c'a = a {i = 1 or 2) implies C . Thus there . (c^)-* = c. Sylow 2-subgroup IS of order 4. Hence S is a subgroup of G. a contradiction. We leave to the reader We = c\ shall let now h h 'ch -c. Now [G:5^-2 implies S O G (by Problem 4.3/>2 a „2 a^c a^e^ ac^ a^c^ aflc ac a^c :2/. = b. S3 = H ^ C2 We 1 S2 = 3. S and yonSf^"". c^a = ' ac. no group of type (iv).

S3 = 1 is Ds X C2 which and the Sylow 2-subgroup ^^ K4. (a. So it is not the case that Dg ^ A4. See Problem 5.4 or to D^ X C^ (see page 155). see Table 5.1 shows that there is only one element of Section 5. As can be seen from the multiplication table for A4 given in Chapter 3. 5.4. there are five non-isomorphic groups of order 12. Therefore D4 must be isomorphic to the group given A A in (ii) Table 5. namely the rotation of 60° about the center. 5 To summarize. b (# 1) (a. that A4 has no subgroup of order 6 and jDg is iso- A4 morphic to a Thus (iii) it must be isomorphic subgroup of D^ X C2 by Theorem 5. (Such a group (iii) (a) with S2 = 3. (iii) The dihedral group De is isomorphic to X C2- Solution: (i) 1)4 is a non-abelian group of order 8 and as such is isomorphic to one of the groups given in check of Table 5.3 or 5. page 131. reflection t is of order 2 and if <7 is a rotation of 90°.3. They are the groups (ii) (6) with S2 = 1. is not isomorphic to Dg X Cj.3c. Dg is of order 12.39. The following table gives the number of non-isomorphic groups of order 1 through 15. e Dg be of order 3 and (1. (a. b)^ = Hence gp{{a. a^ and ag.3.38. Thus including the abelian groups. 1).156 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP.2.2. page 63.1a). b)4 = 6.4 as this group has only one element of order 2. namely a^. If G is of order 15. Now the group of Table 5. The only other possibility is that Dg X a= D3 X C^- 5.38. a group of order 8 isomorphic to the group given in Table 5. page 75). A4 has exactly three elements of order 2. of groups 2 1 3 1 4 2 5 1 7 1 8 5 9 10 2 11 1 12 5 13 1 14 2 15 1 1 2 Indeed there will agree that finding all groups of a given order is difficult. b)6 = (1. 1). 6)) is a cyclic subgroup of I>3 X C2 of order . The reader Problems 5.4f. a reflection followed by a rotation is an element of order 2. namely a^. b)5 G Cj. We have shown in Problem 5. S3 = 1 and the Sylow 2-subgroup = C4. see Table 5.1. (ii) The alternating group A4 is isomorphic to the group given in Table D^. Sa — 4 and the Sylow 2-subgroup is isomorphic to A4.3. 1 Order of group No.4 has only one element a^ of order 2. (Such a group is isomorphic to a group of 2 by 2 matrices given in Problem 5.) with to S2 (b) = 3. The abelian groups of order 12 are Ki X Cs C12. and {a. we have shown that there are up to isomorphism exactly three non-abelian groups of order 12. (a. b)3 = (a. Consider the element = (aP. so that it could not be isomorphic to A4. Also. h) e Dg X Cg. and is not abelian. Hence A4 to the group given in Table 5.) is isomorphic and Clearly no two of these groups are isomorphic. and hence D^ cannot be isomorphic to the group of Table 5. it cannot be isomorphic to the group of Table 5. Find a cyclic subgroup of order 6 in I>3 €2- Solution: Let a ((i2. Since there are six such elements in Dg.2. But D4 is the symmetry group of the square (Section 3.3. is a non-abelian group of order 12.) = K^. Hence it is either isomorphic to the group of Table 5. general method of determining how many non-isomorphic groups of a given is not even a order there can be.41. b).1 and 5. ra is of order 2 as can be seen in the discussion of these groups in Chapter 3. order 2. (a. b). 1). (Such a group isomorphic to De. Dg is the symmetry group of the hexagon and therefore has a subgroup of order 6. we have seen that G 6 2 is cyclic (Section 5. Show (i) that is The dihedral group D^ page 152. Tables 5.14.

We claim that G = {I. (A2B)(A3B) = A2(BA)A2B = A^AWA^B = AA^BAB = A^B^ = A G has an inverse in G.B) is a group of order 8 which is isomorphic to the quaternion group (Table 5. non-abelian. Clearly Hcgp{A. (A^B) given by (A3B)-i = B^A = AA-iB^A = A(A-iBA)(A-iBA) = AB^B^ = AB & H .5b. Show that gp(A. Consider the matrices A = (^ \ and B = (^ ^^j. Solution: We ^' = ^' = A^ = find by direct calculation that {~l J^) (_i ~o) [^ B^ -i\ ^ i: (: 1 e2 "^ "] J ^\ :] ij te2 A2B A3B = — J) A^B^ = = c: ' -!) —ie B^ t) ie\ ie2 A^B^ ( V-ie2 (J AB = ie Z) AB^ ^ Let H = {A. Show that gp(A. Because G has only one element of order 2. Note that H is a subset of the 2X2 matrices with nonzero determinant. first note that A-^A = BK Then. Thus Checking is G AB # G is isomorphic to the quaternion group of Table 5. as A.B) we need only show i? is a group. where i = ^/^ and e is a nonreal com- plex cube root of 3 (so. To show G — gp{A. Note G is a subset of the group of 2 X 2 matrices with nonzero determinant.B. for example.A^. G = Clearly.B}.A^B.B).g. and B have nonzero determinants and thus are elements in the group of all 2X2 matrices with nonzero determinants.AB^.2. page 151).B.1. we need only show G is a group.A*.1 and e ^ 1).A^B. so G is either isomorphic to the group of Table 5. - CI -0 A3 = /O \-i /-i (^ -i A* = ( = J /.B) is a group of order 12 which is isomorphic to the group given in Table 5. V""l • A. 5.B & G. Solution: By direct calculation we find Let gp(A. page 155. We claim H = gp{A.4.B). By direct calculation we can show that G is closed under matrix multiplication. it cannot be isomorphic to the group of Table 5.A^B. e. Furthermore every element of using B^A = AB we have (A3B)-i = B-iA-3 = B^A = AB all these details enables us to conclude that G is a group of order 8 and G = ffp{A.A2. /i B^A VB and A^B = BA {/.A2fi.A^A^B. A^B = i /O -1\ (^ „j A3B = (^ _. in particular. Hence the elements of G satisfy the associative law.g.AB. since BA.A.B). and B = / I IN \ where i = . A and B have nonzero determinants and thus are elements in the group of all 2X2 matrices with nonzero determinants (see Section 3.A^B} = GQgp{A.A^. 5.41. associative law. for example. the equation BA = A^B simplifies the calculations.B).A3.A3B}.B e H. page 81). e.AB.Bi.3] DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER i\ j 157 5.c — Sec.A^B^.B^B^AB = BAB = AA-^BAB = AB^B = A is Also the inverse of.(A-iBA)A2B = A^B^A^B = AHA-iBA)(A-iBA)AB .B). as A.1.2.AB. To check that Hence the elements of H satisfy the H is closed under matrix multiplication. (A2B)(A3B) = A2A..AiB^. Consider the matrices A — fQ I . (identity matrix) - CI -:) B^A AB = = A^.40.1 or Table 5. e^ . To prove H = gp{A.

we have HKcN. for . page 138). If 1. then. which contradicts our assumption that \G\ = 48. G be a group and suppose {1} it has a series of subgroups = Go C Gi C • • • C Gr -- G (S. for every element of 0.14) is said to be a groups other than Gi+i/Gt and the identity.13) is a solvable series for P.) is a subnormal series for G and Gi+i/Gi is simple. N Because a group is in its normalizer. \N\ = 48 and so By 1 Sg = = = + fc2 | H K HnK N I H K H K HcNdHnK) normal KcNdHnK). page 154. Suppose 82 is a proper subgroup of H. Gi+i/Gi has no normal sub. G grp(s).1. Since both and (Problem 4.2.1.. (5.r-l (see equation (54).43. Using the multiplication table we can check that for x = a or 6 and any s € S. If {5. for some integer k and Sg 48.H).) = This is sufficient to prove the result.B). 3. B^A = AB.r. Hence = G. B" = I. Consequently the multiplication table for is obtained from that for the group of Table 5.. Thus \N\ ^ \HK\ = \H\ \K\/\HnK\ = 32.. page 145.e. by Proposition 5. A* = I the identity matrix)..1i) is called a subnormal series of (for) G.) all subgroups of the quaternion group G are normal subgroups. for i = 0. SOLVABLE GROUPS Definition of solvable groups To introduce our concepts we where p is will a prime. . The only odd divisor of 48 is 3. . these details enables us to conclude that is a group of order 12 and and c -* B is an isomorphism of the group of Table 5. For if S is any subgroup. {G is given in Table 5.4 and H.r-l. Solution: It is sufficient to 8 GS. With i this definition. and X e G.U) If each Gi < Gi+i for i = l. As 82 \Hr\K\ 16.1. G is of the form a'b or for 5.. aj-'sa. As |iV| divides 48 and \N\ ^ 32. 5. and are of order 16.4 by renaming H 5. we have hetting and page 116).) Solution: the first Sylow theorem. Accordingly we conclude that P is solvable and that {5. for if \HnK\ ^ 4. This H H a^A. By the third Sylow theorem. HnK < G..1S). 5 all The mapping a: obtains because = gp(A.13) is a subnormal series of P.18. note that Pi+i/Pi We call the factor groups Gi/Gi+i of the is a cyclic group of order p and hence is simple. \HK\ = \H\ \K\/\HnK\ ^ 16 X 16/4 = 64. a subnormal series for G and [Gi+i: Gi] is some prime (dependent on i).li) the factors of {5. .. hence 82 = 1 or 3..13) is a composition series for P. These are the exact counterparts of equations {5. as a subgroup of index 2. then x~^sx ^ ffp(s) implies x~'^sx G S. then we showed that begin with an example.. Show page that 151.158 FINITE GROUPS Checking [CHAP. Then \HnK\ = 8.13) 0.U) is = .3. If {5. check that the cyclic groups are normal in G. is normal in both = NoiHnK).14) is called a solvable series for G. page 139). then (5. then the Sylow 2-subgroup is unique and therefore normal (Problem 5.14. H satisfies the equations BA = (I AB^.42. a' (We i leave this check to the reader. subnormal series {S. Show that a group G of order 48 has a normal subgroup # {1} or G. (Very difficult.. To see that (5. i. HnK. G is called a solvable group and (5.69.7.r-l. If P is a group of order p" P has a series of subgroups Pi with {1} = Po where each Pi Let < Pi+i and [Pi+i: Pi] C Pi C = p for • • • C each = P integer i = Pr (5. then {5.. composition series for G.4 a. G has a Sylow 2-subgroup of order 16. Let and be two of the Sylow 2-subgroups. 0.

we say f{x) = is solvable by radicals.6b. + tto {5. A Survey of Modern Algebra. — cti ± V^i X = "" 4a2Cio a formula giving the roots of If the roots of f{x) can be obtained by such a formula. that A4 has no subgroup of order 6. integers. H : : and so S3 5. (For details see Birkhoflf and MacLane. Macmillan. For example. The formula sought was one which involved the coeflScients . a„ of the polynomial.15. From the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra we know that an «th degree polynomial with complex coefficients has n complex roots. Our main concern in this section is the concept of solvable group. 1-2. . page 87). <xi. .) In Section 5. Hence by Problem 4. if re = 2. Let S3 = {(. Galois proved (essentially) the following extraordinary theorem: An equation f(x) = is solvable by radicals if and only if the Galois group of f{x) is solvable. ffj} Thus {1} a cyclic subgroup of S3. Then [S4 A4] = 2 and A4 <] S4 by Problem 4. By saying F is the smallest field we mean that if i? is a field containing the coefficients Oi. for a definition of field) of complex numbers containing the coefficients Oj of f{x). H— H < S3. F <] A^ and [A4 F] = 3. Solution: Si = {(}. In the beginning of the 19th century.4] SOLVABLE GROUPS 159 We shall discuss composition series in greater detail in Section 5.15) in Oo. F. that S4 {(. since [H {t}] = 3 and [S3 fl] = 2.1. page 116. 5. The group g is called the Galois group of the polynomial f{x). . then Si has the solvable series {i} cSi and 2\ /I is therefore solvable. page 131. The automorphisms of E which map every element f G F onto itself is a subgroup g of the group of all automorphisms of E. has a normal subgroup K of order 2. and Section 5. [S3 H] = 2. \1 2/'V2 {1} c S2 is a solvable series for S2 and so S2 Ti.69. 1953. Now the set of automorphisms of E forms a group under the composition of mappings (see Theorem 3. 3. Accordingly. We have seen in Problem 5.5. It turns out that not all equations of degree ^5 are solvable by radicals because the symmetric group S„ is not solvable for n^5.45. then FqH.15). then (5. Now A4 is a group with a unique Sylow 2-subgroup F of order 4 and F ^ K^. the French mathematician E.69. Let E be the smallest field containing F and the roots of f{x). We remark that not all groups have a composition series but finite groups do (Section 5.2. : "« V2 Now 116. the four group (see Problem 5. terms of the .5e we will prove that S„ is not solvable. Since F is a unique Sylow 2-subgroup. is solvable. page 86. Show is solvable. tion and and a finite is and the operations addition. solvable groups arose in the attempt to find a formula for the roots of an nth degree polynomial f{x) = anX" + an-ix""'^ + • • • + ttio. Show that the symmetric group S„ is solvable for n= 1. T3} where 3\ /I "' 1 2 2 1 3\ /I ^'^ 2 2 2 1 3 1 12 1 "' 3/ 3\ " ^3 /I 2^ 3\ ~ - V3 /I 2 3 2 3 3 3 ~ is \2 1/ "' ~ U 2. Problems 5.5a). page 153). is solvable. multiplicanumber of extraction of roots. subtraction. Historically. page c C S3 is a solvable series for S3. page 156. Solution: The alternating group A4 is a subgroup of order 12 in S4.38(ii).3d. being a four group. a-i. : : . Let F be the "smallest" field (see Section 3. Also.44.Sec. coefficients Oj. ff2. '1 2' 1 S9 then = . division.

If \G\ = 2. for example. G is solvable. prime order and hence be a solvable group. namely .n—l). Since a cyclic group is abelian. Suppose p n for some prime p. Then G has a subnormal series with factors of cyclic.17) Putting the series and {5.16) {5.20. then G is abelian since G = KJKo which is abelian by assumption.1. Then by Proposition 5. Furthermore. In contrast to Theorem 5. • c Ki = N {5. the length of the subnormal series If w = 1. Let G subnormal series of length n~l.160 FINITE GROUPS c : [CHAP.[Hi+i: Hi] = Pt (i = 0. S4 is a b. . 5 {1} is K c F Q [P : A^ Q Si K] =^ 2. by Theorem 5. and alternative definition for. < Hi+i. page 120.. Now N is also a solvable N where [Ki+i : Ki] is a = Ko C Ki C K2 C prime number (i = 1. . Therefore : .2. If p = n. the solvable series of G is a series of type {5. Pi a prime. it is not always true that a group G has a property if both a normal subgroup and G/N have the property. {A^} G is such that N and G/N are solvable Let qHiQHzQ By — Pi. Properties of. there are subgroups Hi in G such that Hi [Hi+i Hi] =-. abelian {i = 0. .17) together. . page 137.1.1-1). . solvable group. Note.20 and_4.k.. Let G have subnormal series {5. Hi/N — Hi and N = Ho C <i m Q <Z Hk = G {5. As [K {1}] = 2. G is solvable. {1} . If p¥'n.21.18). the result holds trivially. then \9P{a)\ < \G\ so that gp{a) is is solvable by the induction assumption. gp{a) cG The following theorem leads to an alternative definition of solvability. Assume that any finite group which has a subnormal series of length less than n in which the factor groups of consecutive terms of the series are Then Kn-i has a abelian.20.1). Conversely. solvable is groups An important property of solvable groups 5.16) is a series of subgroups of G with Hi group.18) where Ki+i/K Proof: is = Ko Q Ki C Q Kn = G .18) with Ki+JKi abelian. be a subnormal series for G/N with the correspondence theorem (Theorem 4. but Ki itself has a normal cyclic subgroup of order 2 which is cyclic and is not cyclic. Proof: We use induction on the order n of G.. G has an element of order p. Assume that any abelian group of order less then n is solvable. and so. we obtain {1} = KoQKiQ--- qKiQHiQH2Q-is QH>c = G which is a solvable series for G.18) of length n.21). a normal subgroup of G and \G/gp{a)\ < \G\. the four group Ki is cyclic. and • • • QHk = G/N Corollaries 4. [A4 : F] = 3 and [S4 : A4] = 2. We prove that G is solvable by induction on n.19.20: given in Theorem Proof: [Hi+ii Hi] If G is a finite group and iV O groups. N N KJN Corollary 5. if Theorem 5. Let a be such an \ element. then G is also solvable.9.21: If G is a finite abelian group. since G is abelian.22: G is a solvable group {1} and only if G is finite and has a subnormal series {5. then {1} is a solvable series and G is therefore solvable in this case too. G is solvable. {5. is solvable. Hence by Corollary 5. Hence has a series Hi+i and [Hi+i: Hi] = Pi. . a subnormal series for S4.18). assume G has a subnormal series {5. The proof complete. Hence G/gp{a) is solvable by our induction assumption.

(5.1. Let x = xv. We assert Hi Hi+i.n 0. page 122 (with 9 = •'ihj+i Any subgroup of <S G is mapped by But onto a subgroup of G/N. .. But G/Kn-t is abelian and hence solvable. subnormal series .w) a subnormal series with KnHi+JKnHi abelian.n — 2. . Thus {xy)v = {xv){yv) = (yv){xv){dv) . (ii) HJ. Now N < v G.1. Next we_assert that Hi+i/Hi is abelian. xy = yxd where d G Hi.19) a subnormal series for K with abelian factors K„ solvable. any subgroup of G is solvable and Let for i {1} = = HoQHxQ QHn = G be a subnormal series — l.23. it follows that KnHi<] KnHi+i and (KnHi+. . 4. . Now Hi+i/Hi is abelian by assumption is and hence Therefore (5. Then then GIN is solvable.^^ ^'''"* C\ and consequently K is Let G have subnormal series {1} = Ho C ifl C ^2 c • • • Q Hn ^ G where fl^i+i/Hi is abelian..82.. We show that if K is a subgroup of . page 125) inside the group Hi+i with subgroup KnHi+i and normal subgroup Hi..23: new definition we prove (i) Theorem Proof: (i) Let (ii) G if N <] G be a solvable group.)/{{KnHi+i)nHi) ^ {{K nHi+{)Hi)/Hi and Since {KnHi+i)nHi^ KnHi. Note that the infinite cyclic group is an example of a group that does not fit the old definition but does fit the new. 161 • • • C Kn-2 C Kn-1 is with Ki+i/Ki abelian for i = 0. First we notice that KdHi — (Kr\Hi+i)nHi {i ^ 0.20. = H. . Now Hi<Hi+i.1.18) with Ki+ JKi an abelian group (i = 0. . we obtain (Kni?i+i)nHi < KnHi+i (KnHi+. V : Consider the natural homomorphism G ^ G/N from Problem In particular let H. so that we have Hi - Hi so is {KnHi+i)Hi/Hi. this follows and Hi+i = G).y G Hi+i) be two elements of Hi+u Then since Hi+JHt is abelian. Hence by the induction assumption. . {1} is = (KnHo) c (KnHi) c • c (KnHn) = K {s.. y = yv {x. 1.22 tc — 1). In the theory of infinite groups one usually defines a group G to be solvable if it has a By Theorem 5. we shall henceforth use it as our definition of solvability. Kn-i solvable.n-l) and that KnH„ = K. Using this 5.Sec. Using Theorem 5. of G with Hi+i/Hi abelian G. 5.)/{KnHi) ^ {{K n Hi+i)Hi)/Hi But {KnHi+i)HiQHi+i.v. we conclude is G solvable. and KnHi+i is a subgroup of Hi+i. this is equivalent to our original definition for finite groups.4] SOLVABLE GROUPS Ko C Kl C . . Applying the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem 4. Since this formulation of solvability is more general.

19). Also.. then from Problem 5.21. . • • . Also.19). in G such that H. As have a subnormal series _ . we will If A^ <1 G i and G/N and . that 1 + kp = q. Again 1 + ig is not divisible by g. the only possibilities are 1 + ig = 1 or pK Case (i) : 1 + lq = and 1. page 121. A^ are solvable groups. Thus we group is normal in G (Problem 5. 1. page 140) and 5. and so the prime factors of 1 + kp must be p or q.. = p^. and Corollary 4. is abelian (Problem 5.19. — H H H {1} Q H Q G with G/H abelian (\G/H\ — q) and H/{1} abelian.20 to infinite groups. . Hence the factors Hi+JHt are abelian. are solvable.1) = P^g . it is then G is abelian (Problem 5. pq or p^q.) Solution: If If \G\ all groups G of order p^. G has p. < Hi+i {i = 0. ^. 1 + Iq = p^. then the Sylow p-subis of order p^.^. Show that (Hard.7). G is solvable. Therefore 1 + A. so in all G has at least p^g — p2 + p2 + 1 = p2g + 1 elements.. Let X^ be a Sylow q-subgroup of G. .162 FINITE GROUPS [CHAP. Consequently xHiyiii = xyHi = is {xv)vHi = {yv){xv)dvHi = {yv){xv)Hi = yHixHi Therefore Hi+i/Hi abelian. \G\ = pq q. page 121). page 133. Hi+i/Hi = iHi+i/N)/{Hi/N) ^ Hi+i/Hi.46. Any two distinct subgroups of order q intersect in the identity. By Problem page 133. where p and q are distinct primes. then q > p. Let is {N} =^ H0CH1QH2Q = 0.24: infinite groups. A^ has a series By Hi/N =_H.. As is of H Q H Q G with abelian factors and so If \G\ G is solvable.p^ distinct elements of order g in G.7. Theorem Proof: 5. Hence G is solvable. and we conclude that case (ii) does not arise. But as q > p. which is absurd.22. Therefore = Zo C Zi C • Q Ki ^ N = Ho Q Hi Q Thus G is solvable. Problems 5. Case (ii) .p = 1 or g. there are subgroups H. p2g then Sp = 1 + fcp divides p^q. \K\ follows that = G : q In this case there \G/K\ = p2. In the above calculations we have not counted the identity. Thus {N} is a subnormal series of = Ho < Hi < <\ Hn = GIN G/N with abelian factors. We have assumed that G has g Sylow p-subgroups (of order p2) and p2 Sylow q-subgroups (of order q). The number of such Sylow g-subgroups is 1 + Iq. Now that we have a definition of solvable group that applies to extend Theorem 5. Clearly p does not divide 1 + kp. so there are pHq . K< G.7) only one Sylow g-subgroup abelian and G/K is abelian (Problem 5. If 1 + kp = 1. Hence is is K and (by Problem 5. and it K is solvable. one and only one subgroup H hence G/H is abelian. 5 But dv G Hi. and so G/N is solvable. then so is G.1-1. cHk^ G/N be a subnormal series for G/N in which Hi+i/Hi abelian. and so 1 + ig = 1. p or p2. G has at least 2 Sylow p-subgroups and hence there are at least p2 distinct elements in G of order p or p2. a subnormal series whose factors are abelian.. {1} = Ko C Ki Q K2 C Q Ki = N Q Hk = G with Ki+i/Ki abelian for {1} is i = 0. We will show that this case does not arise by showing that G would contain too many elements. . however. Therefore we have the subnormal series {1} H p < q.. < G.k). Now \G/H\ = abelian.8. Suppose. if of order order q. By the factor of a factor theorem (Theorem 4.k-l.

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
that every nilpotent group
solvable.

163

5.47.

Show

is

Solution:

Consider the upper central series
{1}

=

Zo c 2i C ^2 C

•••

C Z„ = G
is

of G, a given nilpotent group. of course this implies Zj + i/Zi

Zj + j is defined
is

abelian.

by the fact that Zi+JZi Hence G is solvable.

the center of G/Zi and

5.48.

Prove that the converse of Problem 5.47
Solution:

is false,

i.e.

not

all

solvable groups are nilpotent.

The symmetric group Sg is solvable (Problem 5.44). A check of the multiplication table for S3 on page 57 shows that the center of S3 is just the identity {i}. But this implies that the upper central series for G never ascends to G. Thus S3 is not nilpotent.
Let G be any group and let G"' be defined for all positive integers i by G^i^ = group of G, and G"+i) = (G"')'. Prove that G is solvable if and only if G<n>
integer n.
Solution:

5.49.

G',

the derived for some

=

{1}

Let G<«>

=

{!}.

Then
{1}

=

G<»>
is

c

•••

C

G(i>

C G

is

a subnormal series for

G

and G^VG^'+i'

abelian.

Hence

G

is solvable.

Now

let

G

be solvable.

Then there
{!)

exists a

subnormal series

= H, Q

Q Ho = G

with HJHi^i abelian.

By Problem

4.68,

that HiDG(^\ i = 1,2, assertion is true for i
G^r)

page 116, Hj/Hf+i abelian implies H^ + l^H'^. We prove, by induction on i, .,r. For i=l this is true since H^dHo — G' = G'^^^. Suppose our = n, i.e. H„dG(">. Then H^D (G(n>)' = Gf"+i'. But H^+^dH^, so
. .

H„+i2G("+i'. Therefore

H^-DG'^i^

for all i

In particular then,

{1}

= H^ 3

Gf^*"'-

Accordingly,

=

{1}

and the result follows.

5.5
a.

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
The Jordan-Holder Theorem
In Section 5.4a we introduced the idea of a composition series for a finite group G. that a series of subgroups of G
(1)

We recall

=

Go

C Gi C

•••

Q Gk = G
. .

{5.20)

is a composition series for G if Gi <] Gi+i for i = 0, 1, and Gi+i/Gi is simple, i.e. ., fc — 1 has precisely two different normal subgroups. This latter statement carries with it the implication that Gi^^Gi+i for i — 0,...,k — l.

We

observe

see this is

The easiest way to first that every finite group G has a composition series. by induction on the order, |G|, of G. If \G\ = 1, then G has precisely one
{1}

composition series:

=

Go

= G
less

Suppose then that
series.

|G| 7^ 1

and that every group of order
{1}

than

\G\

has a composition

Now

if

G

is

simple, then

=

Go

c

Gi

= G

is

N

the only composition series for G. If ¥- {1}, j^G. We may suppose that

G

N

N

M<

G and

M

y^

G, then

|M|

^
=^

\N\.

By

not simple, let 2\/^ be a normal subgroup of G, the largest normal subgroup of G, that is, if induction, has a composition series
is
is

N

{1}

No Q Ni C

Q

Ni

=

N

164

FINITE GROUPS
claim that
{1}

[CHAP.

5

We
is

=

A^o

C

iVi

C

Q

Ni

Q G

a composition series for G and note that to prove this we need only show that G/Ni is But if G/Ni is not simple, it has a non-trivial normal subgroup. By the corollary to the correspondence theorem this subgroup is of the form K/Ni where Z is a normal subgroup of G. But as if D Ni, this means that \K\ > \Ni\ which contradicts the choice of A^j. Therefore every finite group has a composition series.
simple.

This proof does not suggest that if a group has two composition series then they are Surprisingly they are. In order to explain this relationship we associate with the composition series (5.20) two notions. First we term k the length of the series. Second we call the factor groups Gi+i/G, the composition factors of the series (5.20). The relationship between composition series is given by
related.

Theorem

5.25

(Jordan-Holder)

:

Every finite group G has at least one composition The lengths of all composition series for G are
Finally
if

series.

equal.

{1}

=

Go

C

C Gu = G C H„ = G

and

{1}

= Ho C

are a pair of composition series for G, then their respective composition factors can be paired off in such a way that paired factors are isomorphic.

We

have already proved the
5.25

Theorem
such that
for
i

we

first statement of Theorem 5.25. Before illustrating restate its last assertion as follows: There is a permutation tt of {1, &}
. . .

,

=

0,

.

.

.,k

— l.

Gi+l/Gj

=

H(i+l)T!-/H(i+l-jTT-l

Example

1:

Suppose that S3
^^^

is

the symmetric group on {1,2,3}.
'1

Then the
2
1
S'^

series

2 2

3\

/I

2 3

-

'\1

3/' V2

3\ /l ly" V3

2

is

3

and

a composition series for S^. Notice that the composition factors are of orders This is actually the only composition series for S3, since 2.
1
1

2 2

3\

/I
'

2
3
is

3\

/I

2
1

3

3/

V2

1/' VS

2

is

the only normal subgroup of S3 which

neither S3 nor the identity subgroup.

Problem
5.50.

tion of
(n

Let w be a positive integer. What relevance does the Jordan-Holder theorem have to the f actorizan into a product of primes? (Hint: Let G be the additive group of integers modulo n

>

1).)

Solution:

Let

{1}

=

Go c

<?i

c

•••

c G, = G
.

be a composition series for G. Each composition factor Gi^i/Gi (i ~ 0, is simple. As .,1 — 1) Gj is abelian, each factor Gi+^/Gi is abelian. Hence if Gi+JGi has any proper subgroup, it would not be simple. So Gi + i/Gi has no proper subgroups. In particular it has no cyclic proper subgroups, so it must be cyclic of order a prime. The number I is therefore the total number of primes (allowing for repetitions) dividing n. By Theorem 5.25, I is uniquely determined. So, as we well know, the total number of prime divisors of n is a constant. Moreover, the uniqueness of the composition factors (asserted in Theorem 5.25) simply means that these prime divisors themselves are unique. Putting these two facts together gives the well-known fact that every integer n > 1 can be written uniquely as a product of primes, if the order in which it is written is disregarded.
.

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS
2:

165

Example

Let Sn be the symmetric group on n
{1}
is

lettei-s,

w —

5.

Then

C A„ C S„

a composition series for S„.
5.34).

Theorem
is

But A„

<

For we shall show that A„ is simple (in Section 5.5e, S„ and SJA^ is cyclic of order two. Hence this series

indeed a composition series.

b.

Proof of Jordan-Holder theorem

Suppose

G

is

a

finite

group and suppose
1

= =

Go
i?o

Q C

Gi
i?i

Q C

and

1

Q Gk = G C //i = G

{5.21)
{5.22)

are two composition series for G. We have to prove that k = l and that the composition factors Gi+i/Gi of {5.21) can be paired off w^ith the composition factors Hi+JHi ai {5.22) so that paired composition factors are isomorphic.

clear.

The proof is by induction on the order \G\ of G. If \G\ - 1, then both assertions are Thus vsre assume that \G\ > 1 and that the theorem holds for all groups of order less than |G|. It is useful to observe that if fc = 1, then G is simple. Hence 1 = 1 also, and
again the desired conclusion holds. hence l> 1).

So we assume, in addition to

\G\

>

1,

that

A;

>

1

(and

There are two cases to consider: Gk-i Case
1:

=

Hi-i and

Gk-i^ Hi-u

Gk-i

= Hi-u
1

It is

then clear that
1

= Go C

Q
Hi-i

Gk-i

{5.23)

and

= Ho C

C

=

Gk-i

{5.2A)

are composition series for Gk~i. But |Gfc-i| < |G|. Hence by our induction assumption, the composition series {5.23) and {5.24) have the same length, i.e. k—l = l—l, and so k = l. Furthermore the composition factors of {5.23) can be paired with the composition factors of {5.24) so that paired factors are isomorphic. But the composition factors of Similarly the composition factors of {5.22) {5.21) are those of {5.23) together with G/Gk-u are those of {5.24) together with G/Gk-u Thus it is clear then that the composition factors of {5.21) can be paired off with the composition factors of {5 £2) so that paired factors are isomorphic. This concludes the proof of Case 1.

Case

2:

Gk-i

^ Hi-u

Our method of proof is to produce a composition series, {5.26), which has isomorphic composition factors to those of {5.21) (by Case 1) and a composition series, {5.27), which has isomorphic composition factors to those of {5.22) (by Case 1). We will then show that {5.26) and {5.27) have isomorphic factors and this will be sufficient to prove the result.
First we will show that Gk-iHi-i = G. Observe that both Gk-i and Hi-i are normal subgroups of G, and so Gk-iHi-i is also a normal subgroup of G. Obviously Gk-iHi-i contains Gfc-i properly, so Gk-iHi-i/Gk-i is a non-trivial normal subgroup of G/Gk-i by the correspondence theorem. But G/Gk-i is simple, so Gk-iHi-i/Gk-i = G/Gk-u This means that

Gk-iHi-,

= G
G.

{5.25)

We now

put

F=

Gk-inHi-i and note that
{1}

F

<\

Let

=

Fo C

Q Fm = F

be a composition series for F.

Then we claim that

166

FINITE GROUPS

[CHAP.

5

{1}

= Fo C =

C Fm Q
• •

Gfc-i

C G c G

(5.26) (5,27)

^^^

{1}

n

C

C Fm C

Hi-i

are both composition series for G. The only facts that need be verified are that G^-i/F. and ^i-i/n. are simple. Now Fr.^ G^-,C^Hi-^ and by G = G,-^Ht-i. Therefore by (5.;25), the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem
4.23,

page

125),

G/Gk-i

=

Gk-iHi-i/Gk-i
Gk-iHi-i/Hi-i

and similarly
G/Hi-i

_

«
=
it

H,-J(Hi-inGk-i)
Gk-i/{Hi-ir\Gk-i)

= Hi-JFm = Gk-i/Fm

(5 28) '
^
'

=

(5.29)

Since both G/G^-^ and G/^,-i are simple,
simple.

follows that Hi-JF,n and G,-,/F„ are also both

Let us compare the composition series (5.21) and (5.26). By Case 1 it follows that they have the same length and their composition factors can be paired off so that paired

are isomorphic. Similarly for the composition series (5.22) and (5.27). Let us now compare the composition series (5.26) and (5.27). They obviously have the same length, + 2. Thus the series (5.21) and (5.22) have the same length. What are the composition factors of the series (5.26) and (5.27)1 The composition factors of (5.26) are

factors

m

FJF,,
while those of (5.27) are

...,

F™/Fm-i, Gk-ilFm, G/Gk-i

FJFo,

...,

Fm/Fm~l, Hi-i/F,n, G/Hi-i

(5.28), Hi-JF,. ^ G/G^-f, and by (5.29), G^-JFm ^ G/Hi-^. Thus the composition factors of (5.26) and (5.27) can be paired off so that paired factors are isomorphic. It follows that the composition factors of (5.21) and (5.22) can be paired off so that paired factors are isomorphic, since the factors of (5.21) can be so paired off with those of (5.26) and the factors of (5.22) can similarly be paired off with those of This completes the proof (5.27). of the Jordan-Holder theorem.

Now by

From the Jordan-Holder theorem we know that the length of a composition series and factors are uniquely determined for the group. This suggests the following scheme for studying groups which have a composition series. First, find the structure of all groups with composition series of length 1. These are all the simple groups. Assuming now that
its

we know

all

position series of length

about groups with a composition series of length n + 1. Let
{1}

n, let

G

be a group with com-

=

Go

C

Gi

c

•••

c G„ c

G„+i

= G

be a composition series for G. If F is a group with a normal subgroup A^ and F/N = H, we say that F is an extension of by H. In this language then, G is an extension of a group with a composition series of length n, viz. G„, by a simple group. Hence what we must know is how the structure of a group which is an extension of one group by another is determined.

N

In the next few sections we shall prove that if 5, A„ is simple. The groups A„ are not all the simple groups and indeed there is no classification of simple groups as yet. This is one of the basic problems of finite group theory.

n>

The question of how a group G is built from and if G is an extension of considered in Chapter 7. Here too our knowledge is far from complete.

H

Z

H by K,

is

Problem
5.51.

If

two groups have the same composition factors, are they isomorphic?
No.

Solution:

There

is

same composition

a cyclic group G of order 6 and a non-abelian factors, but they are not isomorphic.

group

H of

order

6.

They have the

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS

167

c.

Cycles and products of cycles

We

begin with an example of a

new

notation.

Let us consider
6' 3^

Se.

Let

6

G Sb

be

defined by

12 12
effect of 9 is to take
6 is called

3 5

4 6

5

4

Note that the
1,

2 unaltered.

a cycle.

3-»5, 5->4, 4-»6 and 6^3, and to leave the elements We denote it by (3, 5, 4, 6).

More
{ai, a2,
. . .

generally,
,

dm)

consider S„. If ai,...,am are distinct integers in (1,2, ...,n}, stands for the permutation that maps each integer in {1,2,...,%} —
itself,

(ai,

.

.

.

,

dm] to

and maps
ai -* a2, a2-^a3,

...,

am-i^am, am-*ai

We call

such a permutation a cycle of length m. denote the identity element. A cycle of length 2

As a convention take a
is

cycle of length 1 to

called a transposition.

The inverse of the

cycle a

=

(ai,

.

.

.

,

Om)

is

the cycle p

(a™, Om-i,

.

.

. ,

02, ai),

since

a.{ap)

=

{axx)p

=

ttj^jjS

=
a^p

a.

it

i^-m

while
If
y

a^ap
{1, 2,

=

{a^a)p

^

=

a„

e

...,«}

-

(tti,

.

.

.

,

ttm},

j{aP)

=

{ja)P

=

jp

=

j

Hence

aj8

=

i.

Similarly pa

=

t.

It is clear that not every

permutation

is

a cycle.

Nor

is

the product of two cycles
j

necessarily a cycle; for example, in S4,

(1,2)(3,4)

=

f

which

is

not a cycle.

An

obvious question is: can we express every element of Sn as a product of cycles? following theorem answers this question.

The

Theorem

5.26:

(Cycles
i.e. if

Every element of S„ can be written as the product of disjoint cycles. (ai, .,am) and (&i, ftk) are disjoint if the Oi and 6j are distinct,
. . .

.

.

,

(ai,

.

.

.

,

Om}

n

(bi,

.

.

. ,

bk}

=
n}

0.)
is fixed

Proof:

Let
Itt

-k

G

S„.

We say that

i

e

{1,

.

.

.

,

by x

if

iV

= i, and we

say

it is

moved

if

#

i.

We
If
IT

shall argue by induction on the number of integers moved by the permutation -k. moves none of the integers {1,2, .,«}, then w is the identity permutation. But then
. .

K

=

(1),

as the 1-cycles are

all

the identity permutation.

Hence we have a basis for induction. So let tt ¥= i and suppose that every element of Sn which moves fewer integers than tt, can be written as the product of disjoint cycles. Now suppose a^G {1, .,n} and that a^wj^a^. Let us define a^,ag, by a^^a^^r,
.
.

.

.

.

a^ for some (As the images of w belong to (1,2, ...,n), the terms of the sequence a^, a^, cannot all be different.) We shall prove, using the minimality of m, that i=l. Suppose to the contrary that i¥=l. Then a^ = a^_^l^ and a^^r = a^ = a._j7r. As TT is a one-to-one mapping, o,^_^ = a^. But this contradicts the choice of the integer m. Hence i — 1 and a^-n- = a^. We consider now the cycle {a^, .,a„) and note that > 1. Let
'^a

%'^>

•>

<3Ss

=
.

«s-i'^'

^t ^

156

the

first

integer such that

a^-rr

=

integer

i

with

l^i<m.
.

.

.

.

m

T

=

(ai,

.

.

.,am)

^TT

a^ [CHAP. .. . .168 FINITE GROUPS a permutation that leaves a^. .. Ti^ (ii<i2< a^.... (ai. . . Hence TT = (1. .. = a. as = 3.a^. = aj7r. a^TT = a^. a^}. a^} .28: Proof: Every cycle is a product of transpositions.. V h -n-.aj-^n = jir^j. n\7 then ^ j implies jTT ^ n for if j G {a^...- m = 4.27: If tt G a2 S^ and a^. a J. Applying the same technique to t. say i ¥. . . Ti^. We assert (tti.9. . a.3. .aj-'n = a^_^7^ = a. a. h^ir .b^. 9. 7. 11 12 10 we may 5 6 take 1 for Then ai = 1. and the aj. .\ n^ or T = If TT T = .. as = 1. we find r = (5. &^ distinct.. Then we choose . a^) and we have proved that n tt = (a. . Hence j g {a^. We need only find the disjoint by choosing a^ such that a^ir ¥= a^. .. ttk) = {at.. 2. 3. 12).1. but each element can also be expressed as the product of transpositions. 8. . while = a... . jr = j.. Corollary 5.r where ar Proo/: an if a g {a^. . . and find the cycle (6^. .. .a„ are chosen as in the proof of the theorem a^Tv = a^ and a^.--.. au) For it if a is an integer not in unchanged. Otherwise has been expressed as the product of disjoint cycles. . bj.12) cycles a. TT G This corollary provides us with a method of computing the decomposition of an element Sn into the product of disjoint cycles.4)(5. 11)(6.r = a^. = !.«. It follows that T moves fewer integers than Therefore inductively r can be written as the product of disjoint cycles. for .. = .^j {aj. . (i. a„)rij • Tj^ and is actually a cycle. . „ „ .. for while a^{a^...26.8. Hence the result.. . .. I. .11)(6.„ distinct). and so on. < ik) .. . and letting it act as tt does on the remaining integers. In practice it is not necessary to use the corollary rigorously. This is precisely what we showed in the proof of Theorem 5. let us write 342 18 79 as the product of disjoint cycles.1.2..r = Tjj. as) (ai. . .{a^.. 4 unchanged. as 123456789 Since Itt ¥. a^) where . Now be those if T... an}. a2. both the left-hand side and the right-hand side leave . . . 10 11 12 5 6 ai. . = 2. . . . a^. 5 T is fixed..a^ are distinct.2.. So . .... and .A4)^j /l 2 4 4 8 7 7 9 8 9 10 11 12 5 11 12 10 6 Here the second factor t on the right is obtained from w by letting it leave 1. Hence by the 2 3 3 corollary.. . .- Hence r.7. a4 = 4. since a. (i. Let .. then 77 = .. a.. h^ G {1. a^)= a„.(TjT2 ' ' 'i) = a*'-. 2. (ttj. .aj and so jr = j{a^. &J with b^_^_^ = b^7^. TT = (ttj. . = . .d. which do not involve any of the integers ^ .ajr a^. Proposition 5. . = and Not only is every element of S„ a product of cycles. . Also if jG{l. = (aO = i. and then taking the cycle (a^. involves an a.n} b^ — . .TT. i Clearly = ^i. For example. . where h^ -¥. m. a2){ai. t.e. . as can be seen from the following proposition.

2a = 4.2. then (i/3)a i'(a/3) = (ia)y3 = ia while i(. 9a = 3. .5) = 4a 2(2.2.2.11) 5. 11) (1. and so if3 = i and (ia)^ ip. 5.Sec.3. 4a = 1. 3a 5j8 = = 4.3. = = = i/3 if i/3 if iyS ia 2 #i =i ia ¥= i Hence a^ = ^a. 10a = 5. 13)(7.8 = 5.4. •A-s (1. 7a = 14. 11a = 7. Hence a /3 = (1.2. = = 6/3 2. then afc(ai. 5).4)-i 1/3 = = (4. 3/3 = and 2/3 = 1.k. ai{ai. 14a = 13. 4a = 8.2). 2 4 3 6 4 8 5 6 7 8 1 9 3 10 11 5 7 12 13 14\ 9 Write « = (^3 10 12 14 11 13 j ^' ^"^^ P''"''^"* °^ ''^"j"'"* *=y'^^'- Solution: la = 2. In Se compute Solution a = (1. 5a = 10. ttfc) = aic(ai. 6/3 = 6. and so the permuta- tions are equal.12.ak) = at+i while ai{ai. 5a = 2. 6a = 6. 2 6 (l. \4 1 '12 3 4 d „ 5 5 ^ o i 6 ^ 6 5. and so (i. = (1.6. ai+2) • • • («i.52 as products of disjoint Solution: cycles. aic) ai+i(ai. . (i|8)a = are such that ia ¥' i implies both (ia)^ = ia and t/3 = i.52. 2. is another expression of a as a product of transpositions. 3a 13a = 11. . 4)(1. n}. 5 6 4 . 10)(7. ttk) = ai while • • • afc(ai. If a. + 1 if i = 2. 2) Thus the expression as a product of transpositions is not unique. 4.3.5) = 5a /3 5. . 6a = 12. 12. 2)(1. . as) {ai.1). = (1. 5.8a) = (i/3)a = ia. Hence a = l^ \5 /I 2 3 „ 3 4 1 . and then a and /3 commute.9)(5. Express a and ^ of Problem 5. . 12)(3.. 12a = 9.5] COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS then 169 If i ¥. 2.. = 2. We note that la 1/3 = 5.8)(3. 8)(3. a2){ai. ak) = = ai(ai.4. 14)(7.4)-i(2. 2)(1. Hence /? = . Express a of Problem 5.2. 4). p moves i and 5. . = 1. 1. 5.2)(1.4))(2.55. = 4.aic) = ai+i If i = k. 2. 13.54. Thus a and ^ commute. 14. Since = 4.3. 3.3. 1)(2. then P does not move either i or ia. implies o moves i and ia and hence Similarly if ip ¥= i. 6. ip ¥= i implies Solution: Let then ia/S i e {1.4. Oi+i) • • • (ai. 3j8 Then 4/3 (4. a = aia2 • • • a^ is the . 02) (tti.13.10)(7.14. /I 5. 2. 3. 9)(5. 6)(3.54 as the product of transpositions. 8)(3..56. Hence prove that disjoint cycles commute. 3. 2.2. If ia = i. 11) expression of a as a product of transpositions. 5). Now if a and /3 are disjoint cycles. ^ e S„ i/3.9)(5. Hence a = 6. a^) = is ai Thus the effect of the left-hand side and the right-hand side the same. 10)(7. 8a = 1. 2. la to = = I (1(1.4)(2. as a product of transpositions unique? Solution: Is the expression of an element of S„ a = = if (1. 2a 5 = 3. Problems 5.ai)(ai.8)a = ip. . If ia # i. = ia. = 3. then a = (aia2 • a„)(l. . = i/3 while . 3.2) • • = 1. . 5) and /? = (1.53.8 = 3.

170

FINITE GROUPS
Find the order of the cycle (a^
Solution:
If we write Oj, a circle, as shown on the right, it is clear that , a„ in a = («!, moves each Oj one place clockwise, a^ moves each aj two places , o„) further, and in general a^ moves each Oj /-places further. Hence a'" moves each Of w-places further, i.e. «»" moves each Oj back to itself. To put this more formally, define a„+i = a,, a^ + g = ag a^+„ = a„. We will prove by induction on j that for ^ j ^ m, a' maps Cj to aj + i = l, 2, ...,to. For
. . .
.

[CHAP.

5

5.57.

..., a„).

(Hard.)

.

.

,-,

j = r, consider j = r+1 ~ m. Then = aj + r+i by the action of a. If i + r = m, a^a = i + r>m, then »i = »m+i = + r = aj + ^-m and i + r~m< m (as 1 — i — m and r<m). Hence 0; + ,^ = Oj + r-m" = a. + r-m + = "i + r+iIn particular, a™ = On the other hand, aja* = aj + j # aj for 1 — s < m. Therefore rn is
/
0,

=

a^

=

I

and the result

is true.
i

If the result is true for
aj + ^a
ttj i

ttja'^+i

=

(ajaOo:

+ r«If «i + r+ia.i

=

W

+ r < m,

c.

the smallest power of a that yields the identity. d.

Accordingly

m

is

the order of

a.

Transpositions, and even and odd permutations

In this section we will produce another way of deciding whether a permutation is even or odd. (See the definition in Section 3.3b, page 60.) By Proposition 5.28 and Theorem 5.26 every permutation is the product of transpositions. However, this decomposition is not unique (Problem 5.56). What we shall show is that a permutation tt is a product of an even number of transpositions if ^ is even, and the product of an odd number of transpositions if TT is odd.

Our
(1, 2) is

first

task

is

to

show that any transposition
64).

is

odd.

We

odd (Section 3.3d, page
5.29:

We
.

will use the following
.

have already noted that lemma.

Lemma

Let

6

e

Sn and

let (ai,

.,am) be a cycle.
..

Then
. .

e~^ {ai,

.,am)9

=

{aiO,
Oi,

.,am9)

Proof:

Let

a;

e

(1,2,

.

.

.,n}.
.

If
.

x

=

(uO

for

some

xe'^{au

-,0^)9

— = =

ai99~^{ai,
ai(ai,
. .

.

.

.,am)9

.,am)9
if
1 7^ i

ai+i9
ai9

TO

=
If
a;

ii

m
X

9^ ttiO

for some

ai,

x0~^

g

(ai,

.

.

.,am}.
. .

Then

xe-^{ai,

.,am)9

=

{xe-^)e

=

Thus 9-\ai,

.

.

.,0^)9

=

{ai9,

.

.

.,am9).

Theorem

5.30:

All transpositions are odd. If 6 is an even permutation and is written as the product of transpositions, the number of transpositions is even. If 9 is odd and is written as the product of transpositions, the number of transpositions is odd.
(1, 2) is

Proof: Let (a, h) be any transposition. We know that mutation such that Id = a, 26 = b. Then, by Lemma 5.29,
(a, 6)

odd.

Let

9

be any per-

=

9-^(1,2)9

If 9 is even, 9'^^ is even, 9-^(1,2) is odd, e is odd, 9-^ is odd, 9~^{1,2) is even,

and so 9-^(1,2)0 is odd (Lemma 3.2, page 62). If and hence 9~^{l,2)e is odd (again by Lemma 3.2).

Therefore

(a, b) is

odd.

be a permutation and let 3.2, 9 is even if and only if This proves the theorem.
let ^

Now

ocj^

Then by Lemma

m is

a^ be the product of transpositions. even, while 9 is odd if and only if to is odd.

-

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS

171

Problems
5.58.

Determine whether a and p oi Problem 5.52 are odd or even, using Theorem
Solution:
a

5.30.

=

(1, 5, 2, 3, 4)

=
is

(1, 5)(1, 2)(1, 3)(1, 4).

Since a

is

expressed as the product of an even number

of transpositions, a

even.
(1,4)(1,3)(1,5)(1,2),

P = (1,4,3,5,2) =
5.59.

and

so

p

is

even.

Determine whether a of Problem 5.54
Solution:

is

even by using Theorem

5.30.

a

= =

(1,2,4,8)(3,6,12,9)(5,10)(7,14,13,11)
{(1, 2)(1, 4)(1, 8)}{(3, 6)(3, 12)(3, 9)}{(5, 10)}{(7, 14)(7, 13)(7, 11)}
is

Thus a

even.

5.60.

Determine whether
Solution:
("i.
• •

(ctj,

.

.

. ,

a„)

is

even or odd.

>
.

o-m)
.

("i. 0'2)iO'i< "•s)

(«i.

«m).

SO

(oj, is

Thus
Let

(a.j,

.

,

a^n) is

even or odd according as

m

a^) is the product of odd or even.
.

.

.

,

jn

—1

transpositions.

5.61.

(»!

Om), (6i, ...,6„,)

be

;wo cycles of S„.

Prove that there exists

9

G S„

such that

e-Hai,...,a„)e
Solution:

=

(6i,

...,6J.

Let

a

be defined by:
aj»
if

(1) (2)

=
. .

6j

for

t

=

1,

.

.

,to;

{ci,...,c„_„} {6,, 6„), put
. ,

=

{l,2,...,n}-{oi,...,a„i}

and

if

{di,

.

.

.,d„_„}

=

{1,2,

.

.

.,w}

Cjfl

=

d;

for

i

=

1,

.

.

.,n-m.
(&i.

Then

e

e S„ and by Lemma
a group, the set of

5.29,

fl-i(ai,

-.Om)"

=

•.6m)the conjugaey class containing x.

5.62.

If

G

is

all

elenents conjugate to

a;

is called

Write down the conjugaey classes of S4 using cycle notation. (Hard.)
Solution:
class containing an element e is the set of all conjugates of e. Our first task express each element of S4 as the product of disjoint cycles, and then to take all distinct conjugates of each element. We obtain the following classes:
is to
(i)

The conjugaey

{(1)}.

(As

(1)

=

(,

there are n) other conjugates of

(1)).

(ii)

What

conjugates of (1,2) are there? We S„, l9,2e run through all distinct pairs taining (1,2) is

know that e~H\,2)e = (le,2fl). As 9 runs through (a, 6). As (0,6) = (6, a), the conjugaey class con-

f(l,2), (1,3), (1,4), (2,3), (2,4), (3,4)}
(iii)

What

conjugates of

(1, 2, 3) a:-e

there?

As

»-»(l,2, 3)9
(1, 2, 3) is

=

(l9,2fl,39),

we

will get all possible

3-cycles.

Hence the conjugaey

class containing

{(1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 4), (1, 3, 2), (1, 3, 4), (1, 4, 2), (1, 4, 3), (2, 3, 4), (2, 4, 3)}
(iv)

What
As

is

the conjugaey class ontaining (1,2)(3, 4)?
tf-i(l,2)(J,4)e

=

»-i(l,2)e»-i(3,4)9

=

(1», 2tf)(3», 49)

runs through S„, we will obtain the product of all pairs of disjoint cycles. We recall that disjoint cycles commute; for example, (1,2)(3, 4) = (3,4)(1,2). Thus the distinct elements in the required conjugaey class Ere
e

{(1,2)(3,4), (1,3)(2,4), (1,4)(2,3)}
(v)

What

is

4-cycles.

the conjugaey class containing (1,2,3,4)? Hence the required oonjugacy class will be

Again we

see that

we

shall obtain all

{(1, 2, 3, 4), (1,2, 4, 3), (1, 3, 2, 4), (1, 3, 4, 2), (1, 4, 2, 3), (1, 4, 3, 2)}

172

FINITE GROUPS

[CHAP.

5

simplicity of An, n — 5. In this section we aim to prove that A„ is simple for n - 5. What we must do is to show that if <l A„ and = A„. Although the proof involves much calculation, ^ {i}, then the ideas are easy.
e.

The

H

H

H

Lemma

5.31:

Every element of A„

is

the product of 3-cycles,
(e, ai){e, a'i){e, ai)

n^ 5.
e, ax,

Proof:

Every transposition

(ai, ai)

=

where

ai are distinct.

Now

every element of A„ is the product of an even number of transpositions, and therefore the product of products of pairs of transpositions. So it is enough to prove that a product of two transpositions is a product of 3-cycles. Consider (ai, a2)(bi, b2). We may assume that the four integers ai,a2, &i, &2 are distinct, for otherwise (ai, a2)(bi, 62) is either the identity or is itself a 3-cycle. As w — 5, there exists an integer e such that \ — e — n and 0-1, 0.2, hi, b2, e are all distinct. Hence
{ai,a2){bi,b2)

= =
Let

{e,ai){e,a2){e,ai){e,bi){e,b2){e,bi)
{(e, ai)(e,a2)){(e,ai)(e, 6i)){(e, &2)(e, 61)}

=

(e,ai,ao)(e,ai, 6i)(e, 62, bi)

Lemma

5.32:

HO

A„.

If

H contains
if x, y, z

a 3-cycle, then

H- An.
{1, 2, ...
,

Proof: Let (a, b, c) element of S„ that sends

e H. Then

are distinct elements of

n} and

6 is

an

page 170.

If 9

from

ft,

b, c

as

atox.btoy and c to z, we have 0~\a, b, c)9 = (x, y, z) by Lemma 5.29, is even, (x, y,z) G H as H < An. If 6 is odd, then there exists e, f distinct n ^ 5. Therefore * = (e, f)e is even.
<ir-'{a,b,c)<ir

= —

d-^e,f){a,b,c){e,f)e
0~'^(a,b,c)d

=

(x,y,z)

Hence by normality,

{x,y,z)

e H. Thus
If

H = An.
Lemma
5.33:

H contains

all

3-cycles of S„;

and by

Lemma

5.31,

Let H <\ H = An.

A„.

H contains
£
e);

the product of two disjoint transpositions, then
there exists
e

Proof:

Let a
fts,

(ai, ft2)(a3, 04)

H.

from

fti,

a2,

a4.

Let

$

=

(ai,

ftz,

Since n — then 6 G An.

5,

e

{1,

.

.

.

,

»}

distinct

O'^aO

=

(a2, e)(a3, a4)

a'^e^^aO

— =

(ai,a2){az,ai){a2,e){az,a4)
(fti,

a2)(a2, e)

=

(ai, e,a2)

Thus

H contains a 3-cycle,
5.34:

and the

result follows

from Lemma

5.32.

Theorem
Proof:
.

A„

is

simple for

to

— 5.
• • •

Let < A^, ¥- {l}. Then there exists aGH, a^' i. Let a = a^ are disjoint cycles. We may suppose without loss of generality that a^ A; — 1, as the are arranged so that the length of a. — length of a.^j for i = 1,
ffj,
. . ,
.

H

H

a^.

where
.
.

a^, a^,

.,a^

.

.

,

.

.

.,a^

commute by Problem
Case
1:

5.55,

page 169.
Also

Suppose ttj = (ttj, .,aj with m > 3. Let a= {a^,a^,a^. Clearly <jGA^. commutes with a^,...,a^, as they move different integers. As a~^ G A^ and P = a-^a-^aa G H. Note that
. .

<t

H <]

A^,

ff-laff

=
• • •

(a^,

ftg, ftj,

a^,

.

.

.

,

ftja^

«fc

and so

^ = = = =

«-i

^-^(a^,

ftg,

a,, a^, ...,

aja^

a^

«r'K,a3,aj,ft^, ...,aj
(»™' ttm-l'
• •

'

*l)(«2' «3'

^V

%'' O-J

(ai>a2'«4)

Since P

GH,

the result follows from

Lemma

5.32.

Sec. 5.5]

COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS

173

Case
a

2:

=

Suppose (a^, ttg, a J

m = 3,
G
A„.

and a^ is also a 3-cycle. Then H contains

Let

a^^

{a^, a^, a^)

and

a^

=

{a^,a^,a^).

Let

Thus

H contains
a~^(T~^a<T

=

a~^a~^

a~^{<j~^a^cr){(T~^a2a)a^

a^

and the
Case
3:

result follows

from Case

1.

Suppose

m=3

and
«^

a^,...,af. are transpositions.
(fl^i> <^2'

Let

a^

(a^,a^,a^.

Then

— =

'^3)"l"2

"fc('*l' '^2'
• • •

*^3)"l"2

"ic

{%'

<^2'

«3)^«?«l

«f

=

(«!' «2' «3)^

=

(«!'

<^3' ^^2)

and the
Case
or

result follows

from Lemma

5.32.

4:
all

Suppose

the

«.

=

(a^,

fflg,

a^).

Then

H

are of length contains

2.

Then

m

is

even, and

a^

-

{a^,a2), a^

=

(ttg.aj.

Put

a-W =
Thus
/r contains

(aj,a3)(a^,a2)a3a^

•••a^

a-^aaa'^

=

(aj,aj(a2,ag)

and the

result follows
5.35:

by

Lemma

5.33.
is

Corollary
Proof:
position

The symmetric group S„

not solvable for n

^ 5.

page 165).

{c} C A„ c S„ is a composition series of S„ for n ^ 5 (Example 2, By the Jordan-Holder theorem this is, up to isomorphism, the only possible comseries. Now |A„| - n !/2, which is even for « ^ 4. Hence [A„ {i}] is not a prime.

An O S„ and

:

But

if

any subnormal

series of S„ with factors of
is

prime order existed,

it

would be a com-

position series.

Therefore S„

not solvable.

Problems
5.63.

Prove that
Solution:

if

G = A„, n^

5,

then the derived group G' of

G

is

G.

If

G'

We know that G' < = {i}, G is abelian.

G.

Hence G' = G or else G' - {1} as G is simple by Theorem But A„ is not abelian for n — 5; for example,

5.34.

(1,2.3)(3,4.5)

=
=

/I

V2
but Therefore G'

2 4
2

3
1

4
5

5 3 5
1

6 6 6 6

... ...

« M n n

/I

(3,4,6)(1,2,3)

=

V2
G.

3

3 4

4
5

... ...

5.64.

If

G^A„

and n

^

5,

prove that Z(G)

=

U}.

Solution:

As Z(G)
Z{G)
¥-

<]

G,

Z(G)

=G

or

Z(G)

=

U}.

As Z{G)

is

abelian but

G

is

not (see Problem 5.63),

G.

174

FINITE GROUPS
Without using Theorem
Solution:

[CHAP.

5

5.65.

5.34,

prove that G'

- G = A^

for

rt

-

5,

where

G =

S„.

as G'
5.66.

We use Lemma 5.33. Let a = (2,3,4), c = < G, the result follows from Lemma 5.33.

(1,2,3).

/?

=

a-ia-^aa

=

(1,4)(2,3)

S

G'.

Hence

Are any of Aj, Aj, ^3,44 simple?
Solution:

Both Ai and Ag are of order 1, so they are not simple. A3 is of order 3, so A3 is cyclic of prime order and therefore simple since groups of prime order are simple. Finally A4 is of order 12. We have already seen that a group of order 12 is solvable. Indeed we saw in Problem 6.45 that its composition factors have orders 3, 2, 2 respectively. Hence A4 is not simple.
5.67.

Prove that S„ has no non-trivial element
Solution:

in its center for

n —

3.

(Hard.)

Let a
Let
ai

G

S„, a 7^
. .
.

1.

Let a
If

Then a-^fia = (aia,a.^a) = (a^.ag) ¥- fi. Hence ((ii,a2)Then a-^fia = {a^a, a^, a^a) = (a2, fti, 6) where 6 = a^a and 6 is an integer different from a^ and a^. No matter what h is, a-^Pa ^ p since a^P = dg but a^a-^Pa = a^. Hencp a € Z(SJ. Thus no non-trivial element of S„ belongs to Z{SJ.
(«!,
,

=

a^).

m

= ai ^ 3,

a^ be the decomposition of a into disjoint non-identity cycles.
j8

let

=

a

Z(Sn).

If

m = 2,

let

fi

=

(a^, a^, 03).

5.68.

Prove that A„, S„ and
Solution:

{1}

are the only normal subgroups of S„ for n

-

5.

(Hard.)

Let

H<
e^

S„.

Then
If
{i},

by Theorem
If

5.34.

A„nH =

i.

HnA„ < A„. Hence A„nH = A„ or else A„nH = {i}, as A„ is simple A^nH = A„, then A„cH. If H ¥- A„, as A„ is of index 2 in S„, H = S„. suppose H # {i}. U e G H and # # e is odd. As 92 jg even, e2e/^nA„
i,

and as «t is even, t = 9-1 = e. Hence H consists of only two elements, and e. As iS„ has no center (Problem 5.67), there exists m ^ S„ such that /j-iffp ¥- e. But ytt-iff/t e fl^, as = {1,9}, this is impossible. This contradicts < S„; and since ¥^ {1}. the assumption that

and so

Let t

€ H,
1

x ?^

t.

Then

t is odd,

H

H

H

5.69.

Prove that
Solution:

S'^

= A„
is

for

n^5.
A„ d S^ (Problem
by Problem
5.68.
4.68(iii),

As SJA„

abelian (cyclic of order 2 in fact),

page

116).

As S„

is

not abelian, S;

¥- {i}.

But S^

<

S„.

Hence

S;!

= A„

Alternatively,

S^DA^ = A„

by Problem 5.63 or

5.65.

A look back at

Chapter

5.

In this chapter we proved the three Sylow theorems. The first gives the existence of Sylow p-subgroups; the second states that a subgroup of prime power order is a subset of one of the Sylow p-subgroups; and the third states that all the Sylow p-subgroups are
conjugate.

The proofs of the Sylow theorems used a standard technique of finite group theory: induction on the order of the group. It is also worth noting our counting arguments, e.g. in the proof of the class equation.
Using the
center.
class equation

Then we proved

we proved that a group of prime power order has a non-trivial as a consequence that a group of order p*" (where p is a prime)

has a normal subgroup of order p'-K By repeatedly taking the center of factor groups, we defined the upper central series of a group. A group is nilpotent if a term of the upper central series is the group itself.

Next we gave a method of constructing a group from the cartesian product of two given H and K. This group had isomorphic copies H,k of H and K respectively which satisfied HK = G and Reversing this analysis we showed that if a group {1}. G had normal subgroups H and K with HK = G and {1], then G = H x K. Using this result and the Sylow theorems, we classified groups of orders 1, 2, 15 up to
groups

HnK=

HnK=

.

.

.

,

isomorphism.

72. a& A and b G B. (a. This led to a method of determining whether a permutation was even or odd.. Prove that G is a group of order 2 5 • 13 with respect to this multiplication.76.78. We next considered composition series (subnormal series with simple factors) and proved that every finite group has a composition series. and an extension of a solvable We group by a solvable group was solvable. (Hint: THEORY OF p-GROUPS 5.80. 62) ^ G.72.64} be the set of integers modulo 65. G which are not in any conjugate of H. .79 to show that elements of co-prime order commute in a nilpotent group. In our final section we proved that the groups A„ for n — 5 are simple. Supplementary Problems SYLOW THEOREMS 5.71. 5.75. . a Sylow 2-subgroup normal? 5.) its own normalizer. 5. If Hng-^Hg = {1} for all gGG-H.e. B = {0.79. we concluded that S„ is not solvable for n — 5. 1} be the set of integers modulo 2. where p is a prime — 5. G H be a proper subgroup of G. G). Prove that the Sylow 17-subgroup Prove that the Sylow 13-subgroup Let is normal in a group of order 255 normal in a g:roup of order 2 5 = • 3 • 5 • 17. A— G and {0. Use Problem 5. Prove that the normalizer of a Sylow p-subgroup coincides with Let |G| = Ji and \H] then there are precisely Examine Nq(H). 5. To do this we needed to express permutations as products of disjoint cycles. 5. As a consequence of the fact that An is simple. 5. 5. 1. 5. page 135) for the group in in Problem 5. defined solvable groups. 62) = («i + «2. be the set of all pairs (a.b). 5] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 175 Then we ability of equations. m where 1 i? is a n/m — elements in subgroup of G.73. 5.81. is • 13.74. Prove that the Sylow p-subgroup Is this true when p = 3? is always normal a group of order 4p. Show Let that every subgroup of index p in a finite p-group be a finite p-group and is a normal subgroup. then G' Show that Nq(H) ¥= H. . In the Jordan-Holder theorem we showed that a composition series has a unique length and unique factors up to isomorphism. equation (5. (ai. bj). so called because they led to a criterion for the solvnoted that our first definition involving a subnormal series with We factors of prime order did not extend to infinite groups. Find an example of a group G with a normal subgroup N such that G/N and N are nilpotent but G is not.77. = {1}.70. (G' is the derived group of 5. Verify the class equation (i. Define the multiplication . groups and factor groups of solvable groups were solvable.CHAP. So we chose a criterion involving showed that subsubnormal series with abelian factors for our definition of solvability. (-l)°26i • + 62) for Is (ai. 6i)(a2.2).2. Prove that if G is nilpotent and G/G' is cyclic.

is isomorphic to a direct product of any one of its Sylow p-sub- 5. Employ the results of Problem 5. Show that Z)„ is solvable for all positive integers n. A . r are primes and r > pq. Prove that a group of order 4p.85. page 161. 5. Use this fact to give alternate proofs of Theorems 5.94.84.82. Prove that a group of order pqr is solvable when p. See Problem 5. Consider 5.70 to prove that a group of order 255 is isomorphic to a direct product of its Sylow 17-subgroup and another of its subgroups. Show that the direct product of two solvable groups is solvable.99. x] is called the lower central series of G. Find the composition factors of a finite p-group. without using the fact that A„ simple.87. \ = • • • • 5. Find a composition series for the quaternion group. {Hint. 5. Show that the direct product of two nilpotent groups is a nilpotent group.91. where p is a prime and m is < p. and 5.90. (See Problem 5. Suppose G is a finite group with all its Sylow p-subgroups normal.176 FINITE GROUPS Let [CHAP. Show that there is no simple group of order p^m. Show that G is nilpotent.96.23.98. Prove that a finite nilpotent group groups and some other subgroup. Which group of order 8 is isomorphic 5. 5. 5. q.) DIRECT PRODUCTS AND GROUPS OF LOW ORDER 5.92. there are no simple groups of order case occurs for order 36. 5. Thereby show that a group of order 255 is cyclic. page 163. 5. is solvable.) < 60. Show that i)„ is isomorphic to G = gp f ( n) ' (^ -ij) ^^^""^ ^ = e2m/n 5. The sequence of subgroups gp({[g.89.83.86. 5. Let ^ — SP ( [ _^ n)'(l n))' Show that \G\ ~ 8. {Hint. COMPOSITION SERIES AND SIMPLE GROUPS 5. SOLVABLE GROUPS 5. Prove S„ is all 3-cycles not solvable for of S„.82 for the definition of lower central series. page 162. 5. p a prime.97.88. G(i) 3 G(2) 3 Prove that a group G is D G(i) D nilpotent if and only if G(„) = {1} for some positive integer n. G(i) = G and G(j+i) g G G^^ and x S G}).49. Show that. page 158.95.93. 5. except for difficult groups of prime order. 5 5. In Problem 5.43.) w— 5.24. we showed that a group G is solvable if and only if G'"' = {1} for some integer n. Find the lovsrer central series for Dg" for positive integers n.

g. This theorem is of great importance set of integers. An important p-group that we shall introduce here is the p-Prufer group. We will begin this chapter with a preliminary section in which we restate some of our results and defini- tions in additive notation. The rest of the chapter is devoted to showing that many abelian groups are direct sums of these groups. We express this by saying that Q is / divisible. every finitely generated abelian group is the direct sum of cyclic groups. in many branches of mathematics. We call direct sums of infinite cyclic groups free abelian groups. 177 . for all g. We obtain the pleasing result that if A is any divisible abelian group. The p-Prufer groups are also divisible.3. This will bring him quickly to the fundamental theorem of abelian groups. (c) the p-Priifer groups. An then consider classifying abelian groups according to the orders of their elements.1a. show that every finitely generated abelian group is a direct sum of cyclic groups.e. We note that the direct sum of abelian groups is again abelian. g'h = h-g. The additive group of €Q Note.chapter 6 Abelian Groups Preview of Chapter 6 A group G with binary operation • is abelian if. It is customary to use " +" for the binary operation in abelian groups. We At {a) this point we have (6) three types of abelian groups: the cyclic groups.h GG. two finitely generated abelian groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the same type. the additive group Q of rationals. We Recall that a group G is finitely generated if it contains a finite subset with G = gp{X). X Furthermore we associate a set of integers to each finitely generated abelian group.e. in other words. rationals integer. In abelian groups it is customary to talk about "direct sum" instead of "direct product". One of the concepts which we will reformulate additively and generalize is the concept of "direct product" considered in Chapter 5. Direct sums satisfy an important homomorphism property which gives rise to the important fact that every abelian group is a homomorphic image of a free abelian group. e. groups every element of which is of order a power of the prime p. i. then A is a direct sum of p-Priifer groups and groups isomorphic to the additive group of rationals. Any reader who would like a briefer account of abelian groups may refer to Sections 6. This which we call the type of the abelian group. Note that these are not the only divisible groups. completely classifies finitely generated abelian groups. i. the additive group of reals is also divisible. abelian group G which has every element of finite order can be expressed as a direct sum of 2)-groups.1c and 6. then there exists Q has the property that if g E Q and n is any nonzero such that nf — g. 6.

and we will use additive notation throughout. called a direct summand of G.19. • If w= we write tig an abelian group and is a subgroup.cG G.3a. and H and K are subgroups of G. in additive notation. is. The (iv) is Corresponding to each there exists an element b such that a + 6 = 0. The following table is useful in "translating" multiplicative notation into additive notaa and b are elements of a group G. . then automatically H < G and we may group G/H. i = 1. Multiplicative ab a-i 1 a" a6-i HK aH a+ Additive a+b —a na a— b H+K H In Section 5. page 146. In terms of additive notation an abelian group is a non-empty set G together with a binary operation + such that (i) {a + b) + c = a + {b + c) = b for all a. we speak of a direct sum rather than a direct product. obtain the same definition of internal direct product that we gave in (The condition (i) of Proposition 5. such that a identity element is often termed the zero of G. in additive terminology.. can be expressed uniquely in the form g . by definition. aGG Standard abbreviations are as follows: (i) g If + (—h) n is 0. . as all groups studied here are abelian. Chapter .1 PRELIMINARIES Here we will practice expressing our ideas in additive notation. we talk of addition of cosets. Thus the sum of two cosets gi + H and g2 + H is. . Instead of writing J¥ ® if. G= d® • • • © Gn or G= If i=l i: Gi. 6 6.) Note that. Additive notation and finite direct sums In this chapter all groups will be abelian.) n = 2 we 5. we defined the internal direct product of two groups and Now. falls away. {gi + H) + {g2 + H) = {gi+g2) + G ^ talk of the factor G-H H tion. is is written as g — h. H H Definition: An abelian group each g GG G is said to be the direct sum of its subgroups Gi.178 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP.n. This b unique and is denoted by —a. .Gn if = gi+ +gn we write where giG Gi. Here we are interested in extending the concept of direct sum from two subgroups to a finite number of subgroups. (Warning: Some authors write for G/H. . denoted by 0. a. H K. (ii) a+b +a + = a for all (iii) There exists an identity element. page 146. H®K. we write It G = @ K. • • (ii) a positive integer If for If n < we we write ng for g + + g {n times).. The element -a is often termed the negative of a.b. a G G. In this case. a coset is simply a set of the form g + H. write ng for —g+---+—g {—n times). Instead of talking of multiplication of cosets.

. Gi is a . then G^H. . . G= ^ 0. Furthermore. . .. .2: Let Gi..1b we will define the concept of an indexed family Gi. argument .G„ be subgroups of a group G and suppose each element of G Let Gi.... Then = (gi-g*i)+ By our i = l.15). Suppose also that an equation . . .K) of Problem . exists a group G which is the sum of isomorphic copies of Gi. G„ and H is the direct sum Section 6. . closely the . +ign-gt) (gi-gt) = {gz-gl) = .. . . . . Here we will use additive notation.. . . • • • .hn) eG. . . g GG. . If (gi. 0) + (0. then G = L®M®K (see Problem 6. Theorem 6.. . G„. • page 146. But this contradicts the definition of direct sum. The question is . . .n. .n. G GiHGj and with gi= • • • gj+t~ = gf„ Note that • = gi-i = = flfi-i = flfi+i = gi .. .n and the two expressions for g are hypothesis. -ygn) and (hi. Gn.Sec. . that every element G is uniquely of the form {gi.gn) of subgroup of G. .. . Then ^ Gi is simply 2 ^'i- . i-l.1b may take I — n i G 7. G„. . g„). = g2= • • • = gn-^.. • = (gn-g*) = identical. . . . . Proof: brief. 0. does there exist a group G the direct sum of isomorphic copies of the groups Gi? This question is answered in the following theorem. An important result which we will prove in . firj.j.. . if G = H®K and H = L®M. . .gn) + (hi. then g = gi+ + gn is with flfj G Gi. .H„ and Gi = Hi for . The proof follows . Then (gi. Gi then © • • • e G„. We need only show that this expression unique. = j (0. let 1. . and also with gi= = and gj = x.1] PRELIMINARIES 179 If a.1c without reading Section 6.. The . ..1c states that of Hi. Hence sum of Gi. define {gi.. . .30. . = with gi flTl + • • • + if .n. G7 as shorthand for Gi. then GiOGj X = (0} for i ¥. G = Gi © © G„ and the result follows..x. 0. G„ are abelian groups. studies Section 6.. .gn + K). Hence gt - g* for which arises: if Gi. be the cartesian product Gi x G2 x = {gi + hi. holds only gi . 6. the direct . i if . Let G . and Gi • • • ^ Gi for i= . .. 0. . . so we will be x Gn.Then G Proof: If is the direct sum of the subgroups Gi.. . . . fifn e Gj for i = l.n. 0) flfi | G Gi L . Theorem 6. 5. . n components Then G is a group. . . Suppose g is = g* + • +gt ••' another such expression. G is = l. Then there . . . can be expressed as the sum of elements from the subgroups Gi. 0) + • • • + (0. direct . who i In Section 6. . reader {1. • • • • = gi+ = gn = and + Qn The following theorem provides a simple direct criterion for determining when a group is the sum of its subgroups. Gi . It is clear £f2.n) and Gi. G„ be abelian groups.1: . . . . 0. . For otherwise if a. G„. 0. 0.

Thus m-i. and so n{g + h) := m(— (g + h)) = m((—g) + {—h)) = m{—g) + m{—h) — ng -V nh n{g 6. definition. Furthermore Inductively + nh = + — 0. Prove that if g. . 9 is g. (g (f + H) + + H) = + g) + H = (g + f) + H = + H) + G (f + H) if 6.3. But. • • When 6. for all in additive notation. to say that 6. a subgroup of if and only f.i Now M = + fc. a.4. G Z. Let H be This a subset of an abelian group G.1) = {rx r & Let H • be the right-hand side of • • (6. then (h. we may assume that m(g + h) = mg + Keeping + h) = (m+Viig + h) = m(g + h) + (g + h) — mg + mh + g + h = mg + g + mh + h = (m + 1)^ + (m + l)h = ng + nh Finally if n < 0.Hence the expression of an element in the both H and if.4.) H + if 7^ (3 If HnK = {0} and Solution: since both — k') e H + K since H and if hi + ki = h2 + fcj where hi. -y = fe' + fc' fej .1. each ff in G is a homomorphism. 6. n(g + h) = mh. then + r„a:„ G 9P(X) for every choice of r. h^&H and k^. X= {x}. for w > 0. A ria. — k^. Hence gp(X) D H. + 6) + {-a -b) = = = (a + b) + [(-a) + (-b)] = + (6 + {-a))] + (-6) = [{a + (-a)) + b] + (-6) = [a is + b) + (-a)] + (-6) + {{-a) + b)] + (-6) (0 + 6) + (-6) = 6 + (-6) = [{a [a 6. by Problem {g + h)g = a homomorphism means that (g n(g + h) = ng + nh = ge + he. H + K.2. it follows that G = H ® K. Prove that implies f —g G is H is 3. then (f G/H is abelian. (k u-vGH + K. ng If n = 0. Ti G 2.j/^GZ). ^i — ^2. + h)9 = ge + he 6.h'eH. Let n be any integer and G an abelian group.1). k. Solution exactly the same argument as in Lemma page 55. Prove that H + K is a subgroup of G. (X¥' 0). Let n be an integer and Solution G an abelian group. for (ri. let w = m + this in mind. then gp(X) is.g & H H. we have then g'p(X) C H.v e H + K. Solution Prove that the mapping e which sends g to ng for Now. Let G be any abelian group and let XqG Z}. n — —m. Then m— 0. by 1. XiG X} (6. . ng then n{g + h) — Thus ng + nh. Let G = H and K be subgroups of G. then x = h^ — h^.i+ clearly = +r„x„ and k fe = SiJ/j + • • • • + Sp2/p r„x„ belong to (-Sj)yi subgroup of G. the set of all multiples of x.1.1). = (h-h') + are subgroups of G. (H + K={h + k\h&H and fee K}. sions H ¥.hGG. by (6. Therefore x = and form h + k is unique.7. and so gp(X) = H. 6 Problems 6. (^. If HnK = {0} and if we consider two expres- and if y^ 0. — k^ belongs to = ^2. So we have to prove that if u. TiX^ + Thus H • is H .: : : 180 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP.k'GK).6.SjGZ and H • H ¥= H . then h- - r^xi + • • + + + • • + (-Sp)^/^ S a subgroup of G. n{g + h) = + nh when n = 0. Then H is a. Prove that Solution: if G is abelian and ig H a subgroup of G. &2 G K. But if iCi. Prove that the negative of a Solution (a + 6 is —a — 6. It follows from the definition of that XqH. Since G = H + K. r2X2 Prove that gp{X) In particular then gp{x) Solution: = {v\ \ y = nxi + + • • + r„x„. prove that G ~ H ® K. Moreover if Kj.5.hG G. Since gp(X) is the smallest subgroup of G containing X. If M > 0.„ e X.

xGng + H. G then S is the power of p. + 6 divides I. Let GIH = gp(g + H) where ne Z. Then x = ng + H) = ng + H = H. Let G=A ®B and let H be a subgroup containing A. i. (am)g + {bn)g = g^ + g^. What we must prove then b the is form a+ 6 where a GA and 6GB. page 125). then g (ii) G=A Q — gi + g2 where the order of gi divides 4 and the order of ^2 divides B where A is the Sylow 2-subgroup and B is the Sylow 3-subgroup of G. Similarly g2 G B.1] PRELIMINARIES G have a subgroup 181 6. Hence G = S + H. there exist integers Hence bn)g g — — {am = 0.9. Then i(a + b) = la + 6. 6. is Clearly = {0}. (i) say proved. let I = qm = rn for some integers q and + = 0. so -A B. divides the least common multiple I of and n. Let H and suppose that G/H is infinite cyclic.8. Solution: (H G = H + K. By the preceding problem. by the definition of S. by Problem 6. Let H@K. G/H = {0}. Prove that GIH = K. Solution: If a —6 is of p. a and 6 are of order a power of p.7.6. by Problem 6.11. Thus bGBnH HdBdH. 6. 6. every Sylow p-subgroup of G must coincide with S. A + (BnH) = and h^ a+b h-aGH. Let (i) G be an abelian group of order 36. But + H is of infinite order in G/H. by (i). the set of all elements of order a power of 2 is the Sylow 2-subgroup A. since (m. B.10. n) = 1. If is finite. As x G H. Then. of order a power of p since the least common multiple of two powers of a prime p is a power Hence S is a subgroup.e. Hence g G A + B and we conclude that G = A B. +b m Solution Since both lb m = qma + mb = G= and n divide I.: Sec. n{g jr 6. x = ng + h for some nGZ and hGH. (BnH) = H. and so G/H = X as required. Now if g G G. = + m and 3« = n. Thus. SG Show that the order ot a 6. Now (ii) since ng^ = n(am)g a{nm)g = and similarly mg2 = 0. Solution A © As every element of G is uniquely of (BnH). for each prime p. Prove that H is a direct summand of G. Solution: for some g G G and let S — gp{g). page 132). then —6 is of order a power of p. For if P is any subgroup of G of order a Pq S. Thus 71 = and so SnH = {0}. then the set S of elements of G of order a power of a fixed prime p is a subgroup. and so g^ G A. Deduce that a finite abelian group has one Sylow p-subgroup for each prime p dividing \G\. Now subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem HnK = 4. If x G G. g = gi + g^ where g^ is of order dividing 4 and g2 is of order dividing 9. b e S H. then. HdA that A + But.23. If g G G. b such that am + bn — 1. Consider x G SnH. Since the order of a Sylow p-subgroup is the maximal power of p dividing the order of G. Prove that: 9. as AqH. AnB A+B ® Q . Therefore. Let G be abelian and let a G G be of order m.10. Hence (Bn/y). Hence H = 6 HcA + where A®(Br\H). r. So. Then by the + K)/H s K/{KnH). But and aSA = h~a.12. S itself is of order a power of p (Problem 5. G = S ® H and H is a direct summand of G.13. Sylow p-subgroup of G. there is precisely one Sylow p-subgroup of G. Prove that H= A© and If /i. Prove that if G is an abelian group. of order m. 2' Solution: (i) Let g be of order 2'3s. (Br\H). So every Sylow p-subgroup of G is contained in S. Put a. Thus the order of a.

) It is convenient to label the subsets of a set with the elements of a second set. i G. . For ii x G GiHGj and X ¥-0. Show that the group C of complex numbers is with respect to addition the direct sum of the subgroup consisting of all the reals and the subgroup consisting of all the pure imaginary numbers. I = Zj and m = m. with . Then g = h + k = h^ + k-^ and consequently h = h^ and k = ki. we have labeled with I = Z. m^GM and k^ e K. ib) belongs to R + I. . there is sum of its subgroups Gi. if a+ib&C. j = 1. As h = l + m = li + mj. . . Then 9 is said to be an indexing with the elements of I of the set X. i S /. We number generalize our definition of direct of subgroups. More formally.182 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. such a collection of labeled sets. iG I. Now if g = li + mi + k^ with Z. if / is an arbitrary set we shall denote by Ai.. e L. Solution: Every element g oi G can be expressed in the form g = h + k where he H and k G K. &' distinct elements of / and no gi is zero. gk where G Gj. I.. Hence the result. Infinite direct sums (See Note on page 177. fin/ = {0}. | ® 6. In general. 2'. We will denote the image of i by Xi.g. -I- I (here = Then a -1- tb = (o -h iO) (0 4- a an arbitrary real number}. Prove that G =L Q M ® K. g ¥=0.1a. then x expressible as X = = gi where where sum. . . let e.e. k. put li + m^ = h^e.14.1a whenever I is finite. Hence g = l + m + k. Thus C = R 1. iei If / is finite. Let G= H®K and H = L®M. and. i GI. X collection Xi. We write G = "^ Gi. A collection of labeled sets Ai. hence the uniqueness of the expression is understood to be without regard to the order of the elements gi. 6 6. But where I S L and m G M. Solution : Let ber} fl = i^ {a + iO -1). sum to apply to the direct sum of an infinite Definition: An abelian group G is said to be the direct for each of the g gG. We are already familiar with such a device. in labeling a collection of sets Ai.A2. gk. and let / = {0 + i6 6 an arbitrary real numclearly i2 and / are subgroups of C. gi G Gi and X g2 ^2 G Gj But this contradicts the definition of direct . easy to see that a group which is the direct sum in the sense of the sum in the sense of the definition of Section 6.15. gi+ •• + gk = gk + . The . . + . gk-i + + gi for example. %¥- j. Xi = id. H. Note that as G is abelian. .I-^X be an onto mapping. .gi+ 1'.j Gl. is then called a family of indexed sets. then GiflGj = {0}. e. i. it is is also the direct We note that if G is ^ Gt and i. is called an indexed family. above definition conversely. and Usually we will use the definition of Section 6. if a unique expression (but for order) for g • form g gj . h = l+m b. .

Then G = ^Gi. . . + ^3) = = H. v^ is a homomorphism.j) is one-to-one. if 9GG. i in I. that .= 0. i$ G Gi for If all i G I. G Gi^ be such that 12^2 - 128. 9 GG^.* = y^ = .1a.!. We a 9 assert that First. if G is a group. then To see that j. let V. For if 9 GG. say ii. 2'.1': Let of iGl be subgroups of the abelian group G. <!> Tj <j> j. by id = a and je = if j^-i.^3)) + . G . : 4.^ i{<\>^ + (<>2 + .1.^ + (^^ + . .3: Let Gi.^^ i{<l. Let .^G G. and so Vj IS one-to-one and onto. i{r) + 9) Finally. We need to show If . Then i{9 + 4.\J Gi.<f> GG^ and = for every j Gl. For if ^j. Let aGG^ and define (9:/-*. ir] rj (i i-q. j G I. . Then 9 G G. Suppose each element can be expressed as the sum of elements of the subgroups Gu Suppose . then on putting ^ = 9~^ we note that if j ¥^i.u G.1] INFINITE DIRECT SUMS 183 The analog of Theorem Gi. Gi. Next. Thus * e dj.^3). .. does there exist a group the groups Gi? This question is if G. iG I is an indexed family of the direct sum of isomorphic copies of answered in the following theorem: G which Theorem 6.^3 G G. We already noted that G is abelian. and if i G I. suppose Therefore v^ defines an isomorphism. = a. . G. 6.1 is the following: Theorem 6. ^^.f>^) + <i>^^ 7..<j>G G. Note that Next. define 4>:i-^ -{i9). 6. as in Section 6. = gi+ where Qj e Gy holds if and only ii gi + Ok = 92= = • • • • 9k = 0. G is associative. j ^i and so 9 But j9 = Next we prove v. the question arises: abelian groups. not the zero of Gi for only a finite number of elements of /. + Hence (. define *= + ^ by 6 <i> i* = i9 +t</). Clearly <j)v^. then + <j) is clearly a mapping of / into . i G I be an indexed family of abelian groups. -^ 9. <j>. and i9 is 9 the zero element of Gi for all but a finite number 6 of iGlV. that if e GG.. G Gij be such that It is clear = ii9. then 9i i9 is 9 = 9i+ +dk where each 9i belongs to one of the subgroups Gj. for if 9. it. Hence +^ + maps all but gG. and 0v. As the proof is similar to that of Theorem 6. 9kG Gt^ be such that ik9k — ik9. 6. : G. v^ is a mapping of G. is onto. then for all = + i9 = + i9 = i9 so that + O = 9. for if 9..) = i9 + i4 = i9 + {-{i9)) = = Thus 9 + = and is the inverse of G. The mapping i ^ G Gi f or alH in / is the identity of G. . Then there exists an abelian group G which is the direct sum of groups isomorphic to Gi.Sec. be defined by 9v^ -i9.U Gi and finite number <j) + tt> — +e of the elements of I onto zero elements. = This means that i9 = 9. into i<j>.k' are distinct elements of I and that the equation also that if 1'.4> G G^ and * = 9 + ^.<i. Proof: Let G = -lo] 9: I -^ . ^v. so that G is abelian. we omit is it.GG. Now we prove that if Gi= {e\ 9 GG and j9 is the zero of Gj for all j in / with perhaps the exception of i9}. . Note that Gi is a subgroup of G. Again. then Gi = Gi. Finally we show that G = ^ 9i. . Vj -> G. ii9i 9 GG.

. ir^. we can conclude existence of direct is The sums We H G=H 6. 1'. 2'. But 9i —g^GGy. {B For if -irv + 4.17. . Suppose that is G = gpi u of its Gj ) and that Gj. —gi — 0.. Let G be the subgroup of the TT be the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. that some 9i is not zero. . if possible. 16) for any b G G... the ordered pair can be thought of as a mapping from {1. = 6i+ G Gy and . i = 1.I is ) By hypothesis then. . 2'. i Vi6I / GjC\ gpl U Gj I = {0} for each j G /. Now where Oj suppose that r^. Compare the construction of a direct product involving cartesian products with the construction involving mappings by showing that an ordered pair can be thought of as a mapping. . Then v is clearly a one-to-one S^ and onto mapping. Problems Let G be an abelian group with subgroups G^. Use the fact that <?i Let .2'. 20) = 2e ev + 20) + <t>v 6.17 shows how the mappings of this proof link up with cartesian a very powerful result. b-2.2. 29) + (l0. + .2}. . Solution: We where need only show that if = 9i+ gi + 9k /. = (1*. Hence show that the two groups obtained are isomorphic. 1 ^ j ^ k.1c). G2. . and 1'. and we will use it repeatedly. note the important result that: given Gi = Hi for each i G I.k' are distinct) from which Oj for every = 1 Thus G = ^Gi iei (Remark: products.2}. Then we need only show that + + ff^ where = gi+ + g„ • • each • • • belongs to one of the fir^ implies that 9i = g2 — " = ' . I.3 with = {1. 92 say. e Gj. the zero of G... = (Iff. Solution: Clearly each element of G is of the form ffj groups Gj.k' are distinct elements of then 9i = 91 = = 92+ = ffk = Then 9k Suppose. Also »• is a homomorphism. Let Gi = gp(ir*). say 9i -ffi ¥= 0. Let G = Gi X G2 and let 7 be the group as constructed in Theorem 6.k' are distinct elements of j'l = = j'iOi + = -q Then for i'9j . +6^) = (since l'. / \ ie. 6 = Oi+ +di. .)v - = » + 0. .16.) Problem 6. Solution: An G ev in the first position. .18. i 2 G p V is not the root of any polynomial with integer coefficients.. 6. (Section 6. 7/ is of the form -{-Ok /. The image of 1 gives the entry image of 2 gives the entry in the second position.184 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP..2*) = (1» + 10. and ^ 92+ • + gk ^ 9P{ U Gj Vie.. k. .G-^G be defined by — (I9. then if G is the direct sum of its subgroups Gi and is the direct sum of its subgroups Hi. Prove that G the direct sum subgroups S 7. .. Let v. . Prove that G = where P is the set of positive integers. additive group of the real numbers generated by the numbers n-. Hence = ~ ~ 9k — Slid the result follows.

then there exists a homomorphism or that Q BiG^H is = Bi. and Hi. Now fifj = Zjtt'' where G Z and Zj = l Then = If not all + 22'^^' + • • + Z„!r"' are zero. . ... c. 2). Hence the result.5 and (2) the concept of a free abelian group.Sec. is there between G and H"! S of A A+B A® B). If G is the direct sum its subgroups the direct sum of its subgroups G.4: Let G= A® B and and into let H = ^. This follows from Theorem 6. n' distinct elethen g — 9i+ + gn where g) belongs to the subgroup Gy with 1'. i G of I.Gi-^H a |Gj homomorphism of Gi to H. Define gl-ae + b4>. let be infinite cyclic and any abelian group. contrary to the statement in the problem. If g GG.w' distinct Z. Note that if gfi = Oj + b. ^ib A into H B H respectively. . and let H be a group which contains isomorphic copies A and Suppose that H = (but not necessarily that H = any. G. gO = giBy + • + g„e„' is = hi + • + 0. e A and biGB (i = 1. Oi. + 9^)^ = + &. be homomorphisms of Then there exists a homomorphism C-. To begin with. ^' — 4>- In exactly the same is way we can prove that if G = ^ Gi 9i. 6. now apply Theorem 6. 185 ffn Zj S n. . is an isomorphism. Let 6. This theorem when applied to particular cases leads also to important results: (1) Theorem 6. Thus Proof: exists a • .4 when each G..4 there homomorphism B:G-* H such that B \Gi = Bi for each i G I. .4.}. a^9 (a^ + b^<j> + a^e + a^e + = ia~ + b^)C + ^ \b {a^ + b^)C = g^^ + g^C homomorphism as £.) + (a.2. such that ^. where hi G Hi' Since {0}. uniquely defined and so is a mapping of G to H. then G ^ H. shall often say that 6 extends the mappings such that an extension of the mappings We use this result to prove: 6. then ((s {a^ {9. we have the direct sum of its subgroups Hi. .)K = + b^)^ = b^4> {(a^ + a^) + + a^e {b^ + b. It turns out that is a homomorphic image of G. . if and B What connection. H Theorem 6.G^H £.^ = <A- is Proof: If g gG. we need only show that its kernel is trivial since 9 is clearly onto. since H hj = gjBy and 0j. 17 is the root of a polynomial with integer coefficients. will We C = gp{c) H H . (6j + b. and if for each iGl. The homomorphic property Let of direct sums and free abelian groups G = A® B respectively. It is readily seen that this does define a homomorphism. Then by Theorem 6. then there exists a homomorphism 9: C -^ The homosuch that B ^c) = 4>morphism B is simply defined by putting (rc)B = r(c<j>) for each r G Z.^l' elements of {1. with 1'. Then g9 = only if each hj = 0.5: Theorem Let G. b GB. ments of 7. ^ Hi. fu. To prove 6 is an isomorphism. is infinite cyclic. then g = a + b uniquely where a G A. FREE ABELIAN GROUPS = where the t </. . 4.))C b^<j> = = Hence C is the required + a^)e + + b^4. where a. Note that if ^ is a mapping of {c} into H.1] HOMOMORPHISMS OF DIRECT SUMS. be any group. . We Bi. H is Let Bi: Gi^ Hi be an isomorphism for all i G I. gj — and g = Thus Ker9 = and so G^H. 2'.

then there exists a iGl. Finally gp{Gi \iGl) = and .) Let (We know such a direct sum Then can xiB — hi.respectively. any abelian group. . H . r' of / and Qi. Gi = H is 0- gv{ci). a free abelian group freely generated by a set the direct sum of its subgroups G. • G G. Finally are distinct elements we show that G is the direct sum of its subgroups Gj. Since {ge*)<t. then ge* = g'e* implies that (gO*)<!>* = ig'd*)<j>*. 6 Now where 0*ix let each Gi be infinite cyclic.' 186 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP..where V.7: infinite cyclic groups a free abelian group. . We Conversely have shown that the direct sum of we have the following 6. If .2) H + = • + gr&* = 0. Gr. Note that each Gi . . {ge*)<l>* = = [ni{xve*) ni{hi'<i)) + • • • • + nr'CiCr'^*)]^* = {nihi' + • • + nr{hr'4>) = UiXf + • • • + + nrhr')^. O. For if g. . we have g . .4 that there exists a homomorphism e*: '^Gi-^H which agrees with 6^ on Gu So we have the ^ required result.X-^H be the mapping defined by homomorphism 6* of G into H. and so 9*<i>* is the identity is This implies that 6* = Hi. Then g = Actually ^* and 6* are inverse isomorphisms. a free abelian group. gi+ follows that giQ* a contradiction as so G = 2Gi. is To this proved by showing that G is isomorphic to a direct end let be the direct sum of its subgroups Hi. : = ' Corollary 6. g' G G..6.. sum of in- H H = ie S^i / where Hi — gpQii) exists by Theorem be extended to a is an infinite cyclic group generated by hi.gr are nonzero elements of Gr. Furthermore if h G H. is infinite cyclic for all i G I.3. Hence '^' • • But then. '^Gi^ I U e. we know from the remark above that there exists a homomorphism (9i Gi -* i? such that Ci6ii = Cid.* = g and {g'e*)ci>* = g'.x any abelian group. Accordingly. the other hand <^ : the mapping [hi\ i H is the direct sum of the infinite cyclic groups Hi. | i 6* : e /}. a one-to-one mapping of G onto H. . Hence it follows by Theorem 6.6: The direct sum G — '^Gi satisfies the following condition: exists for every mapping 6: X-* H. If G is X— then G is Proof: finite cyclic This theorem groups. ]^ Hi.g'. it +gr = giO* {6. H any abelian group. a homomor- A (i) group G which gp{X). Theorem {Xi\ iGl}. since 0* is an isomorphism 1'. Thus 0* is one-to-one and onto.* + WriCr' = g • • • mapping on G. suppose g niXv + + nrXr. we have G. . = gpixi) and each G. Thus by Corollary G 1} X defined by h^ = Xi can be extended to a homomorphism -^ ^* of H into G. there exists a homomorphism basis e*:G^H is called such that e* = is e. by the definition of 6. contains a subset X such that G= (ii) for every mapping 9: X -^ H. On 6. a free abelian group. then h = (hc[>*)e*. does not hold. G said to be freely generated by X and X is called a is forG.. is infinite cyclic. . as [6.r' G I and ni.nr G Z. Similarly </)*5* is the identity mapping on H. .X^H H such that IG For. 2'. then if .2) G Hv and giB* ¥' 0. . corresponding to each Gi. and Gi^* . • • . To see this.. there phism 9*:G^H such that 0*^^ = e. Let Z = homomorphism (c.

Let E denote the set of even positive integers.1] HOMOMORPHISMS OF DIRECT SUMS. generated by = {x^Xj}. .. Solution: 3.23. ]Z| the form WjXj + + w„x„. where each G.4). 3 for choices is 3-3 3 = 3". G„ be subgroups of G and suppose G = Gi Each expression of the form 9i + g2 + + gn> where . (Such an isomorphism apply Theorem 6.22. FREE ABELIAN GROUPS 6. and each G. exists. H X X H Solution Let z. S Z and • • = Xj n. mn\ I and we conclude mn = I.n) = 1. i G I. Consequently I is divisible by the order of a and the 6. 6. and gp{Xi). : © as A g-a&K. if g&A®K let K = Ker 9 and let e AnK.24. then l(a +6) = la + lh — d implies 0.a = and a: (i © A group G is said to be of exponent w if x £ G implies »ix = and n is the smallest positive integer with this property. is infinite cyclic. \gp(h)\ = n and {m. The result follows. Q such a homomorphism exists. Let G be freely generated by a finite set X.20. Now by the theorem on free abelian groups we know that G = G^® G„.a for some Thus and G = A K. Let G be the direct sum of cyclic groups G^ of order 2 where i £ P. so that G = gp{a+b). Prove that if G is any group of exponent n and 9 is a xi and xa respectively. where tw. Thus there is a homomorphism 9* G such that : H^® H^^ and 9* |„2 = 92. ® ff. Conversely.) Suppose that and only if there exists a homomorphism Use K = Ker e. Since (m.9i 92 : Hi = = il2 a. is of order gives rise to unique elements total of G.i9. Then x = x0. If \gp(a)\ = m. 6. 6. where 6. Also consider g 9 of G to onto A — ge prove Solution: on B G = A B. by Theorem 6. (Hint. The result • • •® follows. Solution: We la = lb = order of show that G = gp(a + 6).19. by the definition of a direct sum. e A + i?. H H | Solution: Let 9i Gj -> G2i for all Gj are cyclic of order 2.4. . . since all the . (B G^. = ffp(xj). K. Similarly there is a homomorphism satisfying X292 = X29.K) = a&A. is an arbitrary group whose elements are gi. w) = 1. is then as we have seen. Then = gp(Gi i & E) is clearly a proper subgroup of G. Let Gj. Then each element of G is uniquely of the form ffi + + ff^ where Si S Gj. Then the identity homomorphism on A and the trivial homomorphism extend to a homomorphism e G ^ A which satisfies the required conditions (Theorem 6. But we know from the theory of infinite cyclic groups that ffj = m^x^ uniquely. Hence |G| = 3". then G = gp(a) © gp{b) is cyclic of order mm. ^Tj.ae = a. Hence AnK = {0} and so gp{A. There are 3 different possible choices for g^. Let be the direct sum of two cyclic groups of order n. ^G = 9i and Hj = gp(x2).21. • G Gj.) : iGP We be an isomorphism. Put mapping of into G. G Ker 9. ^ = is free abelian and the mapping fi'?'(^') 2 Xi-* Qi extends to a homomorphism of F onto G.8: 187 Corollary Proof: infinite d : Every abelian group is the homomorphic image of some free abelian group. Then {g . If I is the order of a + 6. Now letting g e G. etc. i G I. ge . Solution: Let G. Prove that A lA is a direct is summand of G if such that e ff the identity on A. 6. Hence the number of possible 6. the set of positive integers.a)e = ge . Prove that every element of G is uniquely of G X. If G cyclic. since x 9 u = identity on A. But xe = 0. Prove that ^ G. gp{xi) There is a homomorphism e^: H^-^ G satisfying for gp(zie) is cyclic and is of order dividing n. then there exists a homomorphism 9* of into G such that 9* |x = 9. Problems 6. Find |G| G is the direct sum of n cyclic groups of order 3.Sec. 9* IH.5 to obtain the result.

and as the elements of (aut (A))* commute with the elements of (aut (B))*.) represent corresponding automorphisms of G. We assert that C has elements of infinite order and also elements that -1 is of finite order. Prove that aut (G) (hard) and hence compute |aut(G)|. rationals. 6 6. to avoid confusion. so if aa = a^. we have has every element but the identity of of finite order. Hence the poschecked. G is between a rough classification of abelian groups and. G is a group in which every element other than the identity is of infinite order. in which every element is of finite order. If G is a group element (not equal to be a torsion group. Solution: identity on B. Similarly e\s induces an automorphism 85 o^ B. It is then easy to see that the three groups are not isomorphic. then a can be used to form an element of aut(G) by letting it act as the (Theorem 6. Each of these groups is not isomorphic One way is to examine the orders of the to the others. These three concepts provide us with to the identity) of finite order. »>S = ». (aut (G) is the automorphism group of 83). 3) = 1. sibilities are r = 1. Note that If e aut (A). an isomorphism of aut (A) into a subgroup of aut (G). (r. Q (ii) Q/Z has every element (iii) C has elements of finite order and elements of infinite order. 2. continue to use the multiThus n{r + Z) = nr + Z = plicative notation for C.5. torsion-free. jaut {G)\ = 6 X 20 = 120.188 ABELIAN GROUPS Let G aut (A) [CHAP. 4. 6. =A ®B © aut a where page (fi) A is cyclic of order 3^ and B is cyclic of order 5^. 5. as we have seen above.4 states that a extends to a homomorphism.2 SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF ABELIAN GROUPS. Accordingly.n are two integers. 7. Thus aut (G) (aut (A))* aut (G) = ® (aut(B))* and. distinguish If G is Q. C. and mixed a. Q. (a+b)a*l3* - {aa+b)l3* = aa + hp = p* (a+6)/3*a* from which a*p* = p*a*. p* to is one-to-one and onto. The mapping P -* P* subgroup of aut (G). the identity automorphism. the multiplicative group of complex numbers. Similarly |aut (B)| = 20. For if r G Q. + Z = Z. We must check that it Similarly for elements /? of aut (B). aut (A) © aut (B) A = To compute |aut(G)| we must compute |aut(A)| and |aut(B)l. we have (aut (A))* + (aut (B))* (aut (A))* © (aut (B))*. Recall that the identity of C is 1. Note that (-1)^ = 1 implies infinite of order 2 and 3-^ = 1 if and only if r = 0. r = m/n where m.) = G (see Section 3. We use the symbols a*. Hence -1 is of finite order and 3 is of m order. page 144. the additive group of Q/Z the factor group of the additive group of the rationals by the integers. as can be Thus |aut (A)l = 6. Let a e aut (A) and let gp{a). a must take a onto an element of order 9. As (aut (A))* n (aut (B))* = {i}.16.6a. Each of these gives rise to an automorphism of A. 8. 8^^ induces an automorphism Sa on ^> foi" ^9 must go into a subgroup of order 9 and by Sylow's theorem there is only one subgroup of order 9 (as G is abelian). Now every element of Q except element of Q/Z is of finite order. Note that a* = p* implies a* — = i. by Theorem 5. If G has both an element of infinite order and an said to be mixed. Now let 9 S aut (G). Then The mapping « -^ a* is is an isomorphism of aut (B) into a (a+6)«*9B from which = = (ae + b)eB = ae + be = (a +6)9 by Theorem 6. AND STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS Tentative classifications: torsion. G is said said to be torsion-free. infinite order. but how would we prove that? Consider the following three examples of abelian groups: is of infinite order and every elements of the groups. Let us. . Q/Z and C.25. (i) Summarizing.

shown Since to . 3. This would provide the following program for investigating abelian groups: (1) (2) Investigate torsion-free groups. 6.Sec. torsion group. Since -J^ +^ is of order Q/Z and G are not 6. This means g e^ H. Prove that Q/Z and G. Theorem Proof: T{G) is a subgroup of G (termed the torsion subgroup of G). but it does lead as we show Let T{G) be the set of all elements of in the following 6. a-bG T{G) and T{G) a subgroup of G.2] SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION. b. .b GG be of order m. Now consider = T{G). Therefore the only element of finite order in G/T{G) is m Assume g + T{G) is of finite order n. G and Q/Z are not isomorphic. i. hence g T{G). Investigate (3) how they may be put together to form mixed groups. In this section we consider the question of whether it would not be possible to split a mixed group into a torsion-free group and a torsion group. Then g is of finite order and g e T(G). are G is easily of Problem 6. As T{G) consists of all the elements of G of such that m{ng) = 0. Then T{G) is a subgroup of G. n respectively. The torsion subgroup In Section 6. then H contains g G be of finite order. STRUCTURE OP TORSION GROUPS 189 Problems 6. follows that finite order.2a free. there exists T{G).bG T{G).28. Problems 6. the torsion subgroup of G is contained in H. G/T{G) is torsion-free.e.29. is the zero Thus G/T{G) torsion-free.26. Then g + is of finite order in G/H. Then mn{a — Thus T{G) if b) = mna — mnb = is — = a. Solution: Let G = (Pl is 2 I (?t- li g & G. it is easy to prove that every nonzero element of isomorphic. Solution: sum of groups Gj (iGZ) where each Gj is cyclic are Following the method of Problem is 6. to be too difficult to accomplish completely. It + T{G) = G/T{G).9: G of finite order. Let G be the direct sum of torsion groups. Prove that Q/Z and G.^ +^ have every element of order some power of 3 by following the method is of order 4 in Q/Z. the direct not isomorphic.26. Since G/H is torsion-free.26. Solution: H a subgroup of G such that G/H is torsion-free.27. i. then Vn)9 = (Pl Pn)«l + • + (Pl Pn)*ti = + • • • + = of order 2. Let fl^ in +H = H H. the direct not isomorphic. If the order of Xj is Pj. Solution: sum of groups Gj {i G Z) where each Gj is cyclic of order 3'.e. G of order 2. Prove that if G is a group and the torsion subgroup of G. 6. g = Xi+ • • + x^ • • for some integer n and Xj belongs to some Gy. Prove that G is a. Investigate torsion groups. to Such a program is found some significant results. and so every element of finite order in G is contained in H. Let a. n{g + T{G)) = ng + ng G T{G). torsion we introduced a tentative classification of abelian groups into torsion- and mixed groups.

) In this section we show that a torsion group is built out of j3-groups. then of G. Thus we have proved that is H H TnH TnH TnH 6.190 ABELIAN GROUPS Is the set consisting of [CHAP. Solution R/Z where R is the group of real numbers under addition and Z is Suppose r + Z is of finite order (r G R).pl") — !. page 132. Conversely \a the torsion subgroup of H. . .32. It follows that g — aqg + bp^'^g. bp'^g is of order q.e. the Gp. Since q is less then the order of g. order. and of all elements of infinite order of a group automatically a subgroup? Solution: No. • . Prove that if T is the torsion subgroup of G. order 2. H H 6. and so nr G Z. Thus the study of torsion groups becomes essentially the study of is called A group G is of G of order a power of p-groups. we may assume inductively Thus every element that bp'^g is the sum of elements belonging to Gp„_i. and so aqg G Gp^. Since G is Suppose G is mixed and mixed.. and so the torsion subgroup of is contained consists of elements of finite order. Then for some nonzero integer n. . However (h+k) + (—h) @ K = gp {k) = fc is is of of finite 6. where Q is the subgroup of rational numbers. . Thus we have proved that Q/Z = T(RIZ). subgroup TnH is the torsion subgroup of any given H Solution: If ae is of finite order. it follows that the order of G is a power of p. c. contradicting the choice of g'. Solution G constitutes a = {h\ h G G and h is either or of infinite order}. . Find the torsion subgroup of the subgroup of integers. . and Now h + k and —h are both of infinite order. positive integers.n G Z and n ¥= 0. in the torsion subgroup of H. So n{a + Z) = n(m/n + Z) - n{mln) +Z = m+Z = Z Hence a + Z is of finite order and Q/Z c T(R/Z).Gpi. subgroups Gp. Hence G is not mixed. On the other hand. Then if n is the set of all primes. G is generated by the of G can be expressed as the sum of elements belonging to Suppose that g GG and is of • . Structure of torsion groups. ^ Proof: We let the reader show that each Gp is a subgroup of G. Theorem 6. This means that r is a rational number. Thus T(R/Z) C Q/Z. i. if a + Z G Q/Z. r„ order pI^pI^ p'^. For example. and so contained in TnH..33. Prufer groups a p-group or a p-primary group for some prime p if every element (If G is finite.10: G be any torsion group and let Gp = {g\ g has order a power of any prime. Hence a e TnH.6. Now aqg is of order p^". Now g' — g is of infinite or an order so that (g' — g) &H. The definition of p-group given here thus coincides with that of Chapter 5 when the p-group is finite. But as is a subgroup. p Gp G = pen Let p}.30.Gp„_2. n(r + Z) — Z.Pn distinct primes and ri. then a& T. Therefore g' is element of infinite order. Let Q "= P^ then (q. Pu . . p. then a = m/n n{r where m. (g' — g) + g = g' & H. then G is either a torsion-free group or a torsion group. 6 6. see Problem 5. Thus there exist integers a and pI^Sj^ b such that aq + 6p[" = 1. But + Z) = nr + Z. Prove that if the set consisting of and the elements of infinite order of a group subgroup. let G = H K where H = gp (h) is infinite cyclic. we have g & G of infinite order and sr'(^ 0) S G of finite order. .31.

for if r is any prime other than = {0}. Q/Z = pen 2 (Q/Z)v 6. STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS that 191 To show Pi.35. is a p-group. . constitute a large class of abelian groups.34. . Clearly {Q/Z)pDC^ and {Q/Z)pC The We now have at our disposal cyclic groups of all orders. ¥.10 to prove that an abelian the direct sum group of order pq. as we shall prove. Then by Theorem 6. page 137. since {Q/Z)p = {m/p" + Z\ y *"' for variC^. G= "^ Gp. Use Theorem is 6. Problems 6. Show that a direct sum of p-groups is again a p-group. Then and p.+i. Solution: be of order pq. the additive group of rationals. For n = 1 it is certainly true. gi^ d we have is £f2 of order and pi ^^ p„+i.fir„. Thus the order . we have the result. Hence r divides pq. 6.9. Since G. Hence pi Now Vl+^gi similarly for gi. Let g el. = = • • = G= pen 2 Gp. Let q. the additive group of rationals modulo the Q/Z is clearly a torsion group. i.. clude that implies . Gg # {0} by Proposition 5. These. is n' of a power of p. Solution: Let ffi G = ^2^G.{0}.. G . and the p-Prufer groups. and We and proceed by induction on n. |Gp| divides pq. integers. pen we must prove that gi gi+ • .2] SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION.4 (Q/^)p is called the p-Priifer group (also called a fcrowp o/ tj/pe p»). 2' e p Gj. as the only group of prime order is cyclic. are of order a power of p.p„ are distinct primes) occurs only for = g2= = • • • + gn = = gn — (where 0.{0}. Note that G^ ¥. Let p'' be the maximum order and so G is a p-group. pqg = 0. together with all their direct sums. Hence.e.10. it follows that Similarly |Gqi = q.. \Gp\ = p or q.+g^ Then p'-g where each of the = 0.. ous integers r and result follows. G ® p or Gr 6. |Gpl = p. we have Pn+i9i = PUi92 = as gi gfi ••• = vU^gn = some power of = 0. Qi G Gp. = = {x +Z \ X +Z I of order a power of p} and = — {x {m/p'' +Z for various integers r m + Z p^x S < p"""!} \ Z} By the theorem. where p and q are different primes.Sec. consider gi+ let s'n+i • • + gn+i be of order pj. of a cyclic group of order p and a cyclic group of order q. which is not the case. If true for n. Why does G^ = {0}? If g e G„ then. G G. g^ g^+. m< p'-i}. . As the elements of Gj. Note that the p-Priifer group {Q/Z)p = U Cr where =s C^ = gpiVp'' + Z). Let us apply this theorem to Q/Z.+ifl'i+ •• +PUi9n = By the inductive hypothesis. In Section the p-Priifer groups vs^ill be fundamental. (Q/Z)j. called the fi'n also 5r„+i = Arguing and we con- The subgroups Gv are Example 1: p-components of G. .. where each G.Gp G^. as G is of order pq. Then sr^. 1'.

= mi m^. In other words.nrVr {Vi G Y). Theorem 6. . it torsion-free and {xi\ i X G Suppose X- independent. and integers we can find integers Since Y is dependent on -I. Then g — m/p^ + Z where + Z. . . .3) implies wi is an inThen if 1} and xi ¥. subset . Let G= 2 Gj where G. Then Put r. mnx G fl'p(W).37. in a group G is dependent on a subset Z of G for nx + . . • • • are the primes in ascending order of magnitude. Let k — rpH where p and I are co-prime. m= + 1 it is clear that w g m. . since G is torsion-free. nx = n^yi -tni.&«} is another subset of G such that A is of G.. X XcG W X .. for i ¥' j. Solution: G is Let pj be a prime different from p. Therefore Let g €. on the subset Observe also that if G is if every element of Y is dependent on X.m. Thus d. P2 be a p-Priifer group for any prime p. . for each integer fe # such that kh = g. and consequently clearly m«i2/i G gp{W) for i = 1. r. . set. if An niXi element -I• a.11: . is a cyclic group of order p. • • • . to Let H Prove that G is not isomorphic H. there exist integers zai z. Then the Pjth component Gp^ ¥' {0} but Hp^ — {0}. and let h^ = 'm. 6 6. is X dependent follows readily that gp (X) — is 2 ffPi^i)- I We need one further definition. .0. . As I and p'"^" are co-prime. X of G is called independent if whenever xi. then for some integer « ^ 0. such that mti/i G s(p(W) for t = 1...Xn . there exist integers a and 6 such that al+bp^-^^ = 1..x-. . B = {bi. . For . Now ai depends on B means that such that z¥'0. .. . • -h nrXr = some choice of Xi. mnx ¥' 0. • • • W . Exchange Theorem. then equation (6. Furthermore. dependent on is dependent on Y and Y is dependent on T^. (We shall call a group with this property divisible. . Note that n2= G =nr=0. For if a.Zn Proof: We will use induction on m. The main result that we shall now prove is called the Steinitz .36./p''+^ hi = ((ii-|-bp'. Then kh — pHh = pHah-i p^h^ = 00 6. . . z„bn + zibi + = . G is an element h G Solution: G and each element g & G there exists a p-Priifer group. Y and then X is dependent on W. m • • • .. G Z. be an abelian group.nr are integers such that -I-I- niXi nrXr — (6.3) = if - UrXr is - 0. . Then of B and \C\=n. and Pi. .+ s)fei = alhi + = bp'' + ^hi = g alh^ Put h~ahi.0™} be an independent subset be torsion-free and let A = (ai.) — m < p''.. Then p^hi = g. are distinct elements of X and then niXi G A ni. nr. n and nj G Z and nx ¥. not isomorphic to H. x is dependent We say Y CG is if there is an integer n with nx^O and nx € gp{X).192 ABBLIAN GROUPS Show that if [CHAP. G. mr =^ mi ^ 0.Xr G X. . Thus every element of X depends on W.. and if torsion-free with subsets X. Independence and rank We Let introduce here an important concept in abelian group theory. the concept of rank. Suppose and B depends on A U C where C is a subset dependent on B. Let G n^m .

. Zi¥=0. .. . Hence we can without ambiguity (ii) define the set S to be rank of a torsion-free abelian group G which has a finite maximal independent \S\.. . If [Tl is finite. . Let T be any other finite maximal independent set.1}. Or) U D. and consider the case m = r + 1. m-r. .2}.2] SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION. then rank of F = \Y\. that Zi-Z2= =Zs = 0. By the Steinitz exchange theorem.yi. where 'P. . this chain ends at An. As a consequence of these remarks we If F is free abelian with a finite set of free generators X.Sec. depends on {aj. di. Let C So some Zi the elements ai. largest element of A. UD . then \X\ = \Y\. D— . . \T\ ^ |S|.D}. . "^ • . DdB. D= {0. .. Clearly A„ is Continuing in this way we As ? has only a finite number a maximal element. . C are as in (a). B= {1. result holds for n^r. . But {Or+i} depends on B and depends on {ai. Ur+i are not independent. Then by our remarks above. . B. Finally and \C\ = \D\ .1. we consider the following examples: have as yet not proved that do so We we need (a) Let '=P={A. Zs such that Thus we can find integers y^O. Hence B depends on {ai} U (B - {6i}).. then they have equal ranks. Hence the rank of F is \X\. . Similarly C and A are maximal elements. Now DcB .zi. whereas Let = {A. if possible. Now there is no search for some concept replacing that of a largest element. then is a maximal independent set of F (see Problem 6. . obtain a result concerning free abelian groups. no element other than itself contains it. Similarly if F is also freely generated by a finite set Y. Also by the same theorem. DdC and DdD. with C= B.2). for have a largest element. .3}.3}. For we choose any element T that contains Ai properly.. . depends on Since B is clear that {ai.41 below). we shall say G is of if infinite rank. .{bi}. We B (c) is not. CcB \C\ = (n-r) — 1 = n— (r + l) = n— as desired.yiai + = ¥.e. . Hence |r| = |X|..yr. . Then E is called a maximal element. then B depends on (ai. say.. . a result called Zorn's lemma. If there it • an element of "tP that contains A2 properly. STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS 193 and thus for some integer the result holds for i. Ai C A2 C • • • • • A3. . Before stating the lemma. Suppose now that G. of elements. Then yor+i. Thus m = 1. Note that although E is not a largest element. .B. and E = {1. C= (0..ar}UD.E}.0. then Su {g} is not an independent set. We <?? (6) inquire: it does T* Clearly "P does.Or} UD where Or} U D. then it is clear that Ai of 'P. {ai. we call it Az. .C.B. . Then depends on B.12: If i?' is a group freely generated by two finite sets X and Y. . yttr+i = yitti + • • + yrUr • + zidi + • • • + Zsds. . Thus D is a largest element. l^i^n. To all abelian groups have maximal independent sets. we call C Ai C get a chain of elements of 'P. and so inductively B and |D| = n-r.ar+i} U C.C.ds • • &D + yrttr implies that Suppose. Let us (i) call a subset S of a torsion-free abelian group G a maximal independent set if it S is independent and g G G and g ^ S. . Then it {di}. {ar+i} depends on (ai. If G does not have a finite maximal independent set S. It is easy to see that G and H are isomorphic groups. \S\ ^ |r|. If there is an element of is ? has maximal elements.ar} . and the proof of Steinitz's theorem is complete. a torsion-free abelian group.. .2. . 6. ttr+i} U C. where A= {0. one that contains all the elements of DdA. . . . .1. {tti. B depends on (oi.2. Thus we have X Corollary 6. has a maximal independent set S that is finite. . i.ar} Next we assume that the by the inductive hypothesis. .

38. or (2) Let C be a subset of T with the property that Y qX. y ¥= Q. j.2)(m2/m2) = Q is 1. that '? has a maximal element and this is precisely the maximal independent set required. then G has an infinite Find the rank of the additive group Solution: If nii/ni Q of rationals. . So U is independent and U G'P. i For example. Thus gp(.. which says that an element from each set may be chosen from a collection of sets. Clearly pos- U CG. X. Hence the result follows. i& either Xv c X^C/ G Xv. and Ttn^n^. Show that the p-Priifer group has no independent set consisting of two elements. Let if 'P = {Ai\ has no maximal element. TiUi =7^ 0. U2 G Xi. 2' are elements of or X^' C Xv. (1) establishes a criterion for determining vs^hether a set of sets has a What one needs is some condition for handling an ascending sequence (d).71} for n all sets "P of sets have maximal elements.. Let *' I = {X\XqG and X an independent Let Q be any chain in ?. Is Z7 an independent set? sible to find distinct elements Ui. The proof of Zorn's lemma can be derived from the axiom of choice (see Problem 6.But this is a contradiction.39. Solution: y be elements of G. n^ integers. x ¥= 0. n^. . This means that r„ such that it is TiUl + 1 + ui TnUn — with at least one 1. . C/ set. .y & C^. it follows that gp(y) 2 gp(x).2. but X^Ai+i. Then C is called a chain in ? (in {d) above. y are not independent. a p-Prufer group. (see Example . if G is of infinite rank. for the notation C^).194 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. page 191. namely the axiom of choice. (to2Wi)('»Ii/mi) m. .1. T of sets such as the Ai in To state the criterion set in "P if We define A to be a maximal we need some definitions. Then x.) Consequently X = ry for some integer < r < order of y. = VJ XiGT. Then = Ai for some i. we merely reverse the roles of x and y. (If i — j. 6 (d) On "P A„= the other hand. Problems 6. . Let C = {^i ^ -^l- To apply Zorn's lemma we must show that If not. Thus {—r)y + !• x = and x. will not prove Zorn's Using Zorn's lemma we prove Theorem Proof: 6. lemma. Thus Ui. mi. We conclude. then + (— mxn. not {0. <J> ZCF We We are now for every chain a position to state Zorn's lemma: Let ^U ^ Z is an element of ?. XdA implies if X ^ A. Zorn's lemma maximal element. say. Since V^^^g is of order p'. . = U Xi. . for some r 1. Then G has a maximal independent set}.. Thus every set of two elements is dependent. then X G P. . and X c Ai+i.iinG U U • • • is a dependent set. let = l.Y G £> then either ? itself is a chain). For X GV. since every element of C is independent. .13 we conclude that maximal independent subset.where 1'. Let X.x) ~ gpip^g) and gp{y) — gpip'g) for some i. the positive integers}. C be a set of sets. . element of £• Continuing the argument in some Xi G C. If i — j. . Suppose that has a maximal element. We take it as an axiom. gp(p''~*g) = gp{x). As Then since C is a chain. U2 both belong to some tt™ all belong to this way we find that Mi. Let C^ = gp(g) and let gp(x) be of order p'. are elements of Q.13: Let 'P G be any abelian group. using Zorn's lemma.^.42 for a sketch of the proof). . We could assume a more innocent sounding axiom instead. and integers ri. Accordingly the rank of 6. for each X e <P. Then C •X 6 in "? in ?. From Theorem 6.

Sec. 6.2]

SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION. STRUCTURE OF TORSION GROUPS
if H and K are torsion-free m + n. (Difficult.)

195

6.40.

is

Prove that of rank
Let
• • •

groups of

finite

rank

m and n respectively,
.,fc„
if
r

then

G=

H®K
ele-

Solution:
fej,
.
.

.,ft.„

ments of K. Then the

+

s„&„

=

0,

be a set of independent elements of H, and fcj, For h^, k^, fc„ is independent. set Aj then , , ,
.
.

.

a set of independent

.

. ,

rx/ij

+

-I-

r„h,n

+

^I'^'i

+

rihi

+
,

+
,

r,„h^

=

-Sjfci

s„A;„

But

HnK =

{0},

and so
rj/ij

+•••-!- r^h^
. .

=
ki,
.

-Sifej
.

-

=

s„k„

= =
. . . ,

Thus, by the independence of
ri

hi,

.,

h^ and

., fc„,

=
.

r2

=
. . .

=

*•„

=
.
. .

Sj

=

S2

=

s„

h^, fcj, that {h^, not independent, there exist integers
.

Now suppose that {h^, h & H and k S K such

.,

, .

.

not maximal; say, there exists an element h + k where Since {/ij, A;„, fc + k} is independent. /!„, /i} is ., h^, k^, tj, f„, t not all zero such that
fc„} is
, , . . ,

tihi

+ •• +
.

tjin

+

th

=

Q
tj,
. . .

If
is

(

=
Next,

we have a
Hence
{fc, fej,
• • • . .
.

contradiction to {h^,
t
,

.

.,

h^} being independent, as then at least one of

,

t^

nonzero.

#

0.

A;„}

is

not independent,

i.e.

sk

+ Sjfej +

+ s„k„ =
stihi
-I-

0.

• •

Hence arguing as above,
-I-

there exist s, Sj, ...,s„, not all zero, such that it follows that s ?^ 0. Thus
-\• • •

=
is

But as st ¥= 0, {hi, ^2, a maximal independent
.

+ + ts„k^ tsiki a(th + tyhi + + t^h^ + t(sk + s^ki + + s„fc„) = h^, ki k„,h + k} is not independent. Thus {hi, h^, set and rank H @ K = m + n.
stjji^
-{-

st(h

fe)

-t-

,

.

.

.,

h^,

fcj,

.

.

. ,

fe„}

6.41.

(a) (&)

If

F

is

free abelian with a finite set of free generators X, prove that the rank of

F

is

\X\.

Prove that

F
.

cannot be generated by fewer than

\X\ elements.

Solution:
(a)

Let

XWe

{xi,

.

.,»„}.

By Theorem

6.7,

page 186,

G =

gp{xi)

®

gvix^)

®

® ®
• • •

gpix„)
1.

proceed by induction on n. For n = 1, G is infinite cyclic, and the rank of G is clearly If true for n = r, suppose n = r+ 1. Then gp{xi) gpix^) is of rank r, and G the direct sum of a torsion-free group of rank r and a group of rank 1. By Problem 6.40, G thus of rank r + 1, and the result follows by induction for all n.

©

is is

(6)

Let

G—

gp(gi,

.

.

.,g^).

(Theorem

6.11), as

X

is

X is an independent set. Then by the Steinitz exchange theorem dependent on {gi, Thus we obtain the result. .,gr}, n — r.
. .

6.42.

Let
to
(a)

^ be

a set and

f

a collection of subsets of X.

Suppose that

if

A G

"P,

all

subsets of

A

belong

"P.

Prove that a; S A. X

if

AG

'P

is

not a maximal element,

there exists a set

A* = {A,x}

G'J>

with

(6)

Assume that A*

= A if A is maximal, otherwise that A* has been defined equal to {A,x} with as stated in (a). Let C be a chain in T". Suppose that if Cj, t G /, is a family of elements in C, then U ' CiGC- Suppose also that if A G C, A* G C- Prove that V has a maximal ^ ' element.
^A
If

Solution:
(a)

AGf
a;

is

exists
(6)

G B — A.

not maximal, there exists a set B G T' such that Since {A, x} is a subset of B, {A,x} G 'P.

B ¥= A

and

BdA.

Hence there

Let

Af

= U C. Then cec

M G C,
it

and

so

M* G

C-

But

element of C; in particular, maximal element of f.

contains M*.

Therefore

M* 2 M. M — M*

However,

M

contains every

and we conclude that

M

is

a

In assuming that A* can be defined we used implicitly the axiom of choice. lemma requires converting the theorem into this problem. For details see P. R. Halmos, Naive Set Theory, Van Nostrand, 1960.

Remarks.

(1)

(2)

The proof

of Zorn's

196

ABELIAN GROUPS
Let
that

[CHAP.

6

6.43.

G
is

be an arbitrary non-abelian group. Prove that G has a maximal abelian subgroup not properly contained in an abelian subgroup of G).

(i.e.

one

Solution:

We

subgroups of G.

use multiplicative notation for G since Let C be a chain in V and let

it is

t7

c and if ff belongs to XiS C and h to Xa e C, then as either Zj c X2 or X2 c X^, it follows that g, h belong to some element X of C- Hence ffh'^ S X as Z is a subgroup, and gh-^ G U. Also, gh = hg as X is an abelian subgroup of G. Consequently U is abelian. Hence V G 'J>. By Zorn's lemma, '?' has a maximal element M, say. If is the maximal abelian group sought.

g,heU

= U xe

not abelian. Let X. Then [7

<? is

be the set of all abelian a subgroup of G. For if

6.3
a.

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS
Lemmas
for finitely generated free abelian groups

In Section 6.3b we will show that all finitely generated abelian groups are direct sums of cyclic groups. We will do this by using a lemma (Lemma 6.15) about subgroups of free
abelian groups.

The

relationship between

groups
groups.

is

easily obtained

by noting that

all

Lemma 6.15 and finitely generated abelian abelian groups are factor groups of free abelian
be the direct sum of
. . . ,

Lemma

6.14:

Let
If

&i

G ~ gp{ai) © = fti + r2a2 +

©

9P{an)

infinite cyclic groups.

+ rndn, where r2, G = gp{bi) © gp{a2) ©
gp(au
.

r„ are

any

integers, then

©

gp{an)

Proof: As gp{bi,a2, are any integers, then
implies
all Si

.

.

.,an)

=
S161

.

.,a„)

=
+

G,
Snttn

we must

only

show that

if Si,

.

.

.,s„

+

S2a2

+

=
terms,

{64)

are

0.

Substituting &i

=

ai

+ rza2+ -\-rr,a.n into {6.U) and collecting Siai + (S2 + Sir^ai + + (sn + Sir„)a„ =

• •

we

obtain

As G =
Thus
Si

(ai}

©

©
=

{an},
Si

=

S2 4- SiTi

=
is

=

Sn

+

SiTn

=

= Si—

Sn

=

and the proof

complete.
. . .

The next lemma
free abelian group
6.1c).

is

G

is

a crucial one. We recall that a basis Ci, a set of elements such that G = gp{ci)

,

Cn
• •

©

for a finitely generated gp{cn) (see Section

©

Lemma

6.15:

Let
that

G

of G.

be free abelian, the direct sum of n cyclic groups. Let fl^ be a subgroup Then there exists a basis ci, .,Un such Cn of G and integers ui,
. . .

,

.

.

H = gp{uiCi, U2C2,
a, b, c to

.

.

.

,

VmCn)-

denote basis elements of G, h, k, I to denote elements of H, We prove the result by induction on n. For re = 1, G is cyclic and the result is a consequence of Theorem 4.9, page 105. Assume the result is true for free abelian groups of rank less than n where re > 1. Let G be free abelian of rank re. ¥= (0}. = {0}, we may take an arbitrary basis Ci, ., c„ We assume also that For if = Un = 0. — gp(uiCi, ., m„c„) where ui = for G. Then
Proof:
t,

We

use

q, r, s,

u, V to denote integers.

H

H

.

.

H

.

.

To every basis we associate an integer, called its size {with respect to H). Let {ai, ., a„} be a basis for G and let q be the smallest nonnegative integer such that there exists h G
. .

H

h

=

qai

+

q2a2

+

+
.

qna„,
.

q2,

.

.

.,qn integers

{6.5)

Then q

is

termed the
(ai,
.
.

size of the basis {ai, a2,

.,

an}.
i.e. if [bi,
.
.

Assume

..On} is a basis of smallest size,

.,

b„} is a basis of G,

then the

size of {&i, ...,&„} is not less

than

q.

Sec. 6.3]

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS

197

algorithm,

Let h be as in equation (6.5). if qi is not divisible by

We
q,
qi

show that q
• • •

divides

q2,

...,qn.

From

the division

But

if

we put

bi

=

Ci,

bz

= nq + s, where < Si < q. Hence + QnOn + Siat + h = q{ai + Tiat) + = aa, b„ = a„, we obtain a basis by Lemma & = ai + nai,
• •

.

.

.

,

.

.

.

,

Furthermore assumption. Thus
6.14.

this basis is of smaller size than the size of {ai,
Si

.

.

.,

an},

contrary to our

=

and q divides
h

q-i

for

i

=
• •

2,

.

.

.,n.

Let

q-i

=

nq.

Then

=

^(ai

+ ratta +

+ r„an)
{ci, «£,
. .

Let

ci

=

ffli

+ r2a2 +

+ TnOr,.

Then, by

Lemma 6.14, = qci
/i

.,

a„} is a basis for G.

Also
(6.6)

If

fc

= —

titti

+

O^v
of
q,

<q, then
V
0.

i

=

fc

+ tnttn e H, - wfe G H
I

it

follows that
i;

U

is divisible

by

q.

For

if

has

as its coefficient of au

As v <

q',

ii = mq + 1; with by the minimality

Therefore

=

k

,

— uh G
,

.

gp{a2,
this
l

.

.

.

,

a„)
if

Hence

I

fi'?>(a2,

.

.

.,(in)r\H

L,

say.

From
fc

we

conclude that

k

G H,

then
{6.7)

= uh +

where IGL.

By
that

the inductive hypothesis there exist a basis
is
.

C2,

.

.

.

,

c„

and integers
.,UnCn.

Uz,

.

L

generated by
.

W2C2,

.

.

.

,

WnC„.

Hence by

((?.7)

every element of
. .

H

.,Un such belongs to
.

gp{h,UiC2,

.,M„Cn).

On

the other hand,

H

contains h,U2C2,
.

Thus

H =
Put
Ui

gp{h, U2C2,

.

.

,

UnCn)

=

q.

By

(6.6),

H
Also,
Ci,
.
. .

-

gp{UiCi, U2C2,

.

.

.

,

UnCn)

,

c„ is

a basis for G.

Hence the

result follows.
its

Note that if any m is negative, we can replace d by can assume that the tii are nonnegative.

inverse —cu

In this manner

we

Lemma

6.16:

N

Suppose G = A®B. Let Ai,Bi be subgroups with = Ai + Bi. Then G/N = AMi i?/5i.
: :

AiCA, BiCB and

Proo/: Let K = AMi © B/Bi, and let e A -* A/Ai and ^ B ^ B/Bi be the natural homomorphisms. 9, extend to a homomorphism -^ of G into K. Then Ker ^ D Ker d = Ai and Ker * D Ker <^ = Bi. Thus Ker*DAi + Bi. Now let ajSKerst^. Then a; = a + b, aGA.bsB. x-^ = (a + Ai) + (b+Bi) and this is the identity element only if a G Ai and bGBu Hence ccGAi + Bi, and so Ker^ = Ai+Bi. By the homomorphism theorem (Theorem 4.18, page 117) G/N = K and the result follows.
<j)

Corollary 6.17:

.,it„c„) .,c„. Let H = gp{uiCi, be free abelian with basis Ci, Then G/H is the direct sum of where ui, .,Un are nonnegative integers. and ul = «> if ., u'n, where ul = Vd if Ui^^O cyclic groups of orders ui,

Let

G

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Ui

=

0.

Proof: The result follows by repeated application of Lemma\6.16.

b.

Fundamental theorem

of abelian
is called

groups

The following theorem

the fundamental theorem of abelian groups.

Theorem

6.18:

Let

G

finite

number

be a finitely generated abelian group. of cyclic groups.

Then G

is

the direct

sum

of a

198

ABELIAN GROUPS
Proop.

[CHAP. 6

G = F/H where F

Lemma
integers

6.15,

F has

a basis

ci,

Ui, .. .,u„.

We now
G

a finitely generated free abelian group (Section 6.1c). By c„ such that = gp(uiCi, ., v^Cn) for some nonnegative apply Corollary 6.17 to conclude that G = F/H is the direct
is
. .

. ,

H

.

.

sum

of cyclic groups.
6.19:

Corollary

If

is finitely

generated,

it is

the direct

sum

of a finite

number

of infinite

cyclic

groups and cyclic groups of prime power order.

sum

Proof: It is only necessary to show that a cyclic group of composite order is the direct of cyclic groups of prime power order. This we have already done in Problem 6.19,
6.20:

page 187.
Corollary
If

G

is

a group with no elements of
is

finite

order and

G

is finitely

generated,

then
Proof:

G

free abelian.

G

is

the direct

infinite cyclic as

G

sum of a finite number of cyclic groups each of which must be has no elements of finite order. Thus the result follows.

Problems
6.44.

Prove that every
Solution

finitely

generated torsion group

is finite.

By the fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups, if G is finitely generated it is the direct sum of a finite number of cyclic groups. If G is a torsion group, then it is the direct sum of a finite number of finite cyclic groups. Hence G is finite. (Compare with Problem 4.31, page 105.)
00

6.45.

Let

G =

2 Gj i=l

where G^

is

a

cyclic

group of order 2 for

i

=

1, 2,

.

.

.

.

Prove that

G

is

not

finitely generated.

Solution:

Every element in G is of finite order, for if g{f^ 1) G G, ff = ffi + g2+ + ffn, 9i^ G^j, (i' 6 Z), and 2g = 2gi+ + 2g„ - + + = 0. Thus G is a torsion group. If G were finitely generated, G would be finite by the preceding problem. But G is clearly infinite. Therefore G cannot
• •

be finitely generated.

c.

The type

of a finitely generated abelian

group

we proved that a finitely generated abelian group is a direct sum of However, such a decomposition is not unique: first, the direct summands are not unique (see Problem 6.46 below); moreover, the number of direct summands can vary (see Problem 6.19, page 187).
In Section 6.3b
cyclic groups.

say that two decompositions are of the same kind if they have the same number of each order. For example, two decompositions of a group into the direct sum of three cyclic groups of order 4 and two cyclic groups of infinite order are said to be of the same kind. A concrete example of two decompositions of the same kind is given in
of

We

summands

Problem

6.46.

into the direct

As we remarked in Corollary 6.19, every finitely generated group can be decomposed sum of a finite number of cyclic groups of prime power or else infinite order.
Our aim
is

to prove

Theorem

6.21:

Any two decompositions of a group G into the direct sum of a ber of cyclic groups which are either of prime power order {¥finite order, are of the same kind.

finite

num-

1) or of in-

Proof:

We shall

infinite cyclic groups,

of fixed prime p, general case.

separate the proof into four cases: (1) both decompositions involve only (2) both decompositions involve only cyclic groups of order a power (3) both decompositions involve no infinite cyclic groups, and (4) the

Sec. 6.3]

FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS

199

Case

1.
.A.

G =
j


i

• ®h
1,
. .

=Ii®

• ®h
k

where h, h for

=1,

.

.

.,k and

=

.,1

respectively, are infinite cyclic groups.

From Corollary 6.12, page 193, proceed as in Problem 6.52.)
Case
2.

we

conclude that

=

l.

(Alternatively

we may

We shall
Lemma
h G

Both decompositions involve only cyclic groups of order a power of a fixed prime p. write for any integer n, nG = {ng g &G]. If G is a group, nG is a subgroup (Problem 6.53). To prove case 2 we will need the following lemma.
\

6.22:

Let

G=

A® B.

If

k

is

any

integer, then

nG =

nA® nB.

Proof: As nADnB G such that nh — g.

cAnB =
Let h

{0},

= a + b,

gp{nA,nB) — nA® nB. If g ^ nG, there exists a E A and b G B. Then g = nh = na + nb.

Accordingly
Corollary

Proof:
follows.

nG QnA ® nB Q nG and so nG = nA ® nB. 6.23: Let G = Ai © A^. Let n be an integer. Then nG = nAi ® ® nAu We apply Lemma 6.22 to one direct summand at a time. Then
• • •

the result

Corollary

6.24:

Let

G

be expressed as the direct
is

sum

l^i^r. Then pG
of order p*~*

expressible as the direct

of ki cyclic groups of order p\ sum of fci cyclic groups

where 2

— i ^ r.
if

is cyclic

Proof: This is an immediate consequence of Corollary 6.23 and the fact that of order p\ pA is cyclic of order p^~'^. Hence the corollary follows.

A

We
G.
If

are
\G\

now in a position = lorp, then the

to

prove case

2.

We

proceed by induction on the order of
If the result is

result is immediate.

assumed true for

all

groups of order less than n that satisfy the conditions of case 2. then let \G\ - n. Suppose G is expressed as the direct sum of h cyclic groups of order p^ for l^i^r, and also as h cyclic groups of order p^ for l^j^s. Then pG is expressible (by Corollary 6.24) as the direct sum of A;; cyclic groups of order p*"' for 2^i^r on the one hand, and as the direct sum of h cyclic groups of order p*-i for 2 ^ i ^ s on the other. As \pG\ < \G\, it follows by the induction assumption that r = s and h = U for 2^i^r. Now we must still prove that fci = h. But |Gj = p'^^ip^)''^" (p'')''' - p^^(p^)^ (p*")'', and so h = ki. Thus we have proved both decompositions are of the same kind, as

• •

required.

Case

3. is

G

expressed in two ways as the direct

sum

of a finite

number

of cyclic groups of

prime power order.

We have dealt with the case where only one prime is involved. We proceed by induction on the number of primes involved. Let p be one of the primes involved. Let Ai, .,Am be all the direct summands of order a power of p in the one decomposition, Bi, .,Bn the other direct summands involved, so that
. . .

.

Putting

A = Ai ©
.
. .

G = Ai © ••• © Am © Si © © Am and B =: Bi © © B„,

• •

•••
it

©

J?n

follows that

G = A®B.

Let Xi,

,

Xfc be
. .

composition, Yi,

the direct summands of order a power of p in the second de.,Yi the remaining direct summands, so that
all

G = Xi ® ® Xk ® Y, ® ® Yi Put X = Xx® •• ®Xh,Y = Yi® ®Yi. Then G = X®Y. We and B = Y.

claim that

A=X

9. 6. = Fi® ® • Fn = Fi® ®Fi same kind. say sum • • of cyclic groups of prime power order or of G = /i © • • • © /„ © Fi © • © F„ = /i © • • © Tfc © Pi © • • • © ^.a+ 6}.55). • • • F^G page 185). [CHAP. F £fi is cyclic of order 2. . Pi . /i 1.. where pi. As g 6. . B = {0. iP'^ls) is (The definition of type differs slightly from book to book.47. Problems 6. Hence the two decompositions are of the same kind and the result follows.54).a+b. Also put Also CnD = fi {0}. 6 xGX is and yGY. page 189). Let T{G) be the set of all elements of finite order (see Theorem 6. of cyclic groups of orders p[^. If <j>: is an isomorphism. then they are isomorphic they have the same type.fk. g. and Bi® ®B„ and Yi © © Yi on the other. Usually it is applied only to p-groups. Then C = {0. are primes. Theorem Proof: 6. — P2—---—Pk. We can now give a criterion for the isomorphism of two finitely generated abelian groups. = g*' and p^ < and that of G is (ff i. it follows that F and G have the same type. . G = C ® D. is (/i. . find the type oi F ® G. Let infinite G be expressed as the direct order in two ways. then = At.25: If F and G if and only are two finitely generated groups. Find B. Thus T{G) S. if G = Akj. f2 = pl^.a+b + b = a}. .21 the type of G is uniquely defined. © • • • © /m • • is the direct sum 7i of k infinite cyclic groups. • • Similarly XcA • the order of any power of p.56). . . and s infinite cyclic groups. . If the gfj type of . B = Y. This completes the proof of the theorem. . • • • • © • • • • • • • Case 4. then the ordered fc + 1-tuple {p[^. are of the same kind.) By Theorem 6..a}. f) = qr'i. induction hypothesis. Let where G = A ®B where A and B are cyclic of order C and D are cyclic of order 2 and C ¥= A and C 2. © Ak<l> (Problem 6. g) where = p[^. . Therefore we have proved that © 72 © • • • © /m © Fi © • © Then k = m hy Fn and 7i ffi/a © © 7fc © Fi © • © Fi are of the same kind. If a finitely generated group G is the direct . C and D such that G= C® D ¥= Solution: Let Then C + D A = {0. . . if F and G have the same type they are clearly isomorphic (Theorem 6. Solution: We have Pi — p^— • • • — Pk < 9i — • • • — Qi- Hence the type of F" ©G is (A. © Let F-Ai®---®Ak. fk. . called the type of G.6}. By Prob- lem case • • • 6.Pk are primes. rj^n+i . sum . Now of order a Hence g By a similar argument Thus Ai® ®Am-=Xi® ®Xk and Bi © B„ = Yi © By the Yi. •. and so AcX. • • GX.fk = v'^. Thus D = B. . Put C = {0. where luh are infinite cyclic groups and Fj. .Fj are groups of prime power order. ri.9v->Suf + g) . Ai © © Am and Xi © Z^ on the one hand. where the Pj and .ypl" posi- tive integers with if Pi = Pi+i.. Then g = x + y where nonzero element of Y is coprime to p.. y = (Problem and we conclude that A = X. .11. g.46. 6.200 ABELIAN GROUPS Let g&A. Then T{G) is the direct sum of the direct summands of finite order in both cases (Problem 6.b.56. . n . Hence by case Also G/TiG) ^h® • Fi® • • • ® Fm and Fi® ®Fi are of the ®Im^Ii® ®Tk (by Problem • page • • 181). As Ai<j> Conversely. andso C + D = G.5.. q^.

• • \G\ = p'-lp''2 p'k = p'-i+'+'-fc we conclude that ri+ • • • +rj^ = m.. 0). 0).2Xk). type of F © H is (6i.. . (22. the direct Then by Corollary 6. is B are nontrivial subgroups of G.. . Express F. 6fc+„. c 2G. 0). by considering the direct sum of cyclic groups of order 2. . h).. nG.. Thus there are precisely 3 groups of order 8. = Thus I = fc. . then the and that of G is {gi. Solution: is sum of fe gp(xi) © •• ® gpix^). .hi. f). Thus \G/H\ = 2''. fc nG G is a subgroup of G where w is a given integer.g) while that of where ai. 2. But gp(g) aGA. the type of G is (p". Hence by Theorem 6.p''fc. G cannot be expressed as a direct sum of more than one non- trivial gfroup. and . If the is {h^.e. f + ff) . Hence its type will be of ..52. Prove. H G = H. (2) by using Theorem 6.50. than p"-i. For two abelian groups to be isomorphic we are the same and Accordingly the types of G and require that (by Theorem 6. / + /i) where bj. If F.a^ + is fi. where p is a prime.. The possible types of a group of order 32 are (32. 0). 6.3] FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS G and 201 6..g GG. and so nG is a subgroup. h-nf..25) their types are the same. Clearly + n(2xk) e H. is not expressible as the direct sum of nontrivial subgroups by the following two methods: (1) directly.r^ are positive integers and • • • - '"2 - • • - Solution: A group of order p™ has all its elements of order a power of p. Similarly there are 2 non-isomorphic groups of order 25. (2) of order less Then g -a + h. i. 0) with the form (p''i.fk.21. that if G is the direct infinite cyclic groups and also the direct sum of I infinite cyclic groups. 0).21.9i. is {/i f^. ff have a contradiction. 6. i . As p^-iff = of order p". Solution: (1) Suppose G= A©B where A. and = G and is B. while . Compare the ease with which we solve this problem with the effort required to find groups (non-abelian as well as abelian) of order 8 which we have considered in Chapter 5. H . Then 2g = ri(2xi) + Let G = H = gp{2xi.49. Prove that the number of groups of order p™ is equal w = rj + + r^ where ri... . H are finitely generated abelian groups. Hence h-k=^ n(f-g)& nG. Clearly 6 |A] - p"-i and \S\^pn-i as |G|=p".Since G is of order p™. 6.9i.h^.K in some order. . 2.17..r^. ri-Vz. from which 2G C H. all the 6. Let p be any prime and to the »-i let number of '•fc- ways of writing m be any integer. -. so there are 2 non-isomorphic groups of order 9. Also if g ^ G. -'Si in some order. Prove that Solution: If /i. Solution: G and .p'2. The possible types of a group of order 2^ are (2^. 3. Thus H . a group of order 32 and a group of order 52. 0) and (3. 6. Prove that a cyclic group of order p". order 2^. Thus we € Since direct G is cyclic summands of order p«. k = ng where f. Find up Solution: to isomorphism all abelian groups of order 1800..53. gp(g).51.. . type of F typeof the F©Gis {Ui.u^ + i.. then k = I. €. . . 2. . 2.Sec.6fc + „ is fu -yfk.. if G is the direct sum of infinite cyclic groups. (2. H I Now |G/2G| by a similar argument we conclude that 2'. So an abelian group of order 1800 is a direct sum of a group of Observe that 1800 = 233252. G/H ... only one of the is nonzero. Then the total number of non-isomorphic groups of order 1800 is 3 X 2 X 2 = 12..2G..48. Let G = p"->o + p"-i6 = 0. as direct sums of cyclic groups of prime power and infinite orders..Let sum of k cyclic groups of order g = nxi -!-••+ rfcCBfc.. show that F®G = F®H H implies that G= H.

26. .. . .7^ respectively. We begin with Theorem Proof: Ml. . the result follows.. a2 — 0. + • • • -I- (Ofc . it is isomorphic to some factor group of a finitely generated free abelian group G. . mx = my = 0. This in turn implies that the order of x divides m and the order of y divides m. and ^-. fe belongs to Ker 0. X is of infinite order. say. g is of finite order r. Thus we have the result. is finitely generated and therefore so is H/N. . If ui. . .F„ respectively./„ are elements of Fj. • • • © F„ . say ^ GIN.57. Then l(x + y) = Ix + ly . If g e T(G).u„ such that H= G and integers gp{uiCi. The subgroups of GIN are of the form H/N where is a subgroup of G. As • • • By definition of the direct sum. .A^ respectively. Since x is of infinite order. . G = Let xGX. . and un-i • • • = Mi+2 = gp{UiCi. oj + j/ is of infinite order..) Hence the result. . an isomorphism. = 0. • . «£ = a. . Solution: (1) Let I = km of the orders of x and y. there exists such that f<l> = g. . H of G is free abelian c„ of By Lemma page 196.F^G is an isomorphism. . . X®Y. © © +/^ where ij i„ . . .2. there exist a basis ..54. and A.. .56. belong to Ai. . Let = © .27: Let A be a finitely generated abelian group. 6 6. But by the uniqueness of such = 0. UnCn) = gp{UiCi) © © gp{UiCi) (See Problem 6. a^j = Therefore each element of expressible in the form + • -f- a^<p in one and only one way. . .afc)^ = Since ^ is Let fc = Oi — oi + • • • + Ofc — ttfc. then m(x + y) = mx + my = Q implies mx = and my = 0. = j. . then /GF o.I„ are torsion-free. where each Ij Prove that Fi is torsion-free and each F.202 ABELIAN GROUPS Let [CHAP. 4. . . finite.a[)4. d.VmCn). 6. ft = 0. .a^4> where aj. then G = Aj^ • © • • • • • © A^<p..af^<p. Consequently every subgroup of A is finitely generated... . G finite order. Solution: We must show that every element of G is uniquely of the form a^s + -I. Subgroups of finitely generated abelian groups The purpose of this section is to decide which groups (up to isomorphism) can appear as subgroups of finitely generated abelian groups. Oj ttx • • — «! = o^. + +j. (2) if be an abelian group. Corollary 6.15. A H A H . . Now if g & G. Let G = /i T(G) be the set of • • © © /^ © Fi e all • © F„ T{G) elements of finite order. . . If i^ = Ai © • • © A^. . By Theorem 6.. 6.Ui are nonzero..0. rg = rii + ri2+ + ri^ + rf^ + + rf^ = • • • . m (2) If X is of infinite order and m{x + y) expressions in direct sums._ * • • • • • • • • • • But (di . of rank less than or equal to n. F„. Then every subgroup of A is finitely Proof: As is a finitely generated abelian group. generated. m 6. Prove that (1) if x and y are of then the order oi x + y is the least common multiple (1cm) of the orders of x and y. y&Y..26: Let G be free abelian of rank n. Solution: Clearly r(G) D F.55. . we have = i^^ = - = i„ rf„ = sr = Q. Thus G Fj © • • • © F„ and 6. + Ofc and so ff = aj^ + / = Oj -IIf a^s + -H a^. it follows that ••• =: Wi = W2 = rim iy = rfi • Since I^.2 = • • • = ttjj — Oij = G is = ttj.^ + /j + are elements of /j.!) = a[<i> + + al<t>. . . Now if = order of x + y. Then any subgroup ci. g.. By so that ttj^ the uniqueness of expression of direct sums.. then mx + my = 0.

p^^. Hence 1 or p. r2 ri . then k^m. i. p'i-^Ci ® ® p'n-'Cn is the other hand every element (^ 0) of Accordingly. i If the type of H is {p\ .Ii are infinite cyclic groups and the Fi. «. 6. H Now its \pG\ < \G\. 4. Clearly p" — 1 =^ p™ — 1 and consequently n^m. p" — l.. 1 H We Lemma first require a lemma. Now has type (p'l. > p. and H . We can therefore assume the result holds by induction for pG and subgroup pH.26.) Since {H + T{G))/T{G)cG/T{G). Fp = {/ / e F and of order a power of p}. We proceed by induction on = assume \G\ . H = h® ®h®Fi® H ®Fl Ii. |G|. Theorem Proof: Let G be a group with type Let H be any subgroup.27) and so is Hp. but rm*+i— 1. Now GIT{G) ®I. and so the number of elements of order p in is.0). we experience a minor notational inconvenience.. Similarly.3] FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS 203 From Theorem this corollary finitely subgroups of we see that only finitely generated abelian groups can occur as generated abelian groups.p'>n-i-i. . However. .Sec. rm*+i(p'i~S . positions for G and H are H H m Proof: Let G = where the order.?>''""'. It follows as before ^h® Again let G be finitely generated and a subgroup of G. p^n. pG is of type this point .30: H is of order p. page 189).11. Then the number of elements of order p G = 9p{Ci) and the order of Ci Proof: Let G = Ci © © C„ where each is of order p.e. as a subgroup of a finitely generated abelian group. . Thus the rank of GIT(G) is m.&o H— {0} number (p'Sp''^. T-m' > 1 and.p'"'"*~^ 0). page 125). . {H + T{G))/T{G) is free abelian of rank less than m.29. then n — m If \G\ and < Si — = 1. the 6. • — — . where • X GG d is p^K If • • U Hence H = On of order p. the number of elements of order p in G is. page 181. is p" — 1. As = rm . At pG is . Clearly Gp D Hp. • • — m ^ if r™ > • • 1. 0). Of course a finitely generated p-group is finite (Problem 6. . But ^h® {H + T{G))IT{G) ^ H/HnT{G) ^ HIT[H) by the subgroup isomorphism theorem (Theorem that H/T{H) ®h. (Recall that if F is any abelian group and p a prime.. then pG is of type (p''^"'. the respective sets of elements of finite order (Theorem 6. Thus k^m.9.29: Let in G is have type p" — 1. . and x = Uci + + t„Cn where U G Z. . (See the remarks following Theorem 6. Define m* otherwise define m* to be an integer such that r-m* > 1.28: Let G be a finitely generated group and a subgroup of G.p''"'. page 192. Let G and be expressed as direct sums of infinite cyclic groups and cyclic groups of prime power order. by Lemma 6. 6. p\ 0). Therefore we need additional notation. 0).n by Problem 6. • (p'l. the set of all elements of elements of order p in . by Lemma 6.11. the result holds for groups of order less than |Gj. p™ — 1. is finitely generated (Corollary 6. then p"*'^ divides the elements of order p are a subset of H.29. G n. 0). If for example r™ > 1.n®Fi® ®Fn.Fi are cyclic groups of prime power Let T{G) and T(H) be the torsion subgroups of G and respectively. . . 6..1. by Theorem 6. Thus we are led to inquire what groups can occur as subgroups of finitely generated p-groups. ..44).. if m* ¥ m.. .p''". if rm — 1 and rm-i > 1. the result is trivial. 0).) Gp. Then T(H) = HriT{G). of type (p'^i~S . . If the number of infinite cyclic groups in these decomand k respectively.23. as \H\ = p". . ... h® ®I.

0). Then Gp 3 Aj Aj. 3.. 72. No. (33.. This is a con- Theorem (6) (c) (d) No.61. . 7.. . . 6. s). {0}=AnB3CnD. . As 6. (p^i. Clearly G — R where A^ is of order p''k for i — k — j. — l.. Yes.. of type (3.60. .28. Let (a) G be of type (3^.30.57. 6. A direct contradiction to Theorem 6. .59. (the identity is common to all) of order p. . 73. On the other hand. . . .p*". — s„. of order p^. Solution: (a) No. 6 =n if s„ > 1. 7. Gp C Aj Aj. Determine whether (c) G has a subgroup (d) (3. Show that of any number of groups.p''J. (6) (3. is (. Therefore we know the types of homomorphic images of finite abelian groups. and 1 /i. Then by the inductive hypothesis we have 1. and the result Ai@ • • • ® Aj® • ® • @ ® • • • © © • • • ® follows. . G = AiQ •• ® Am ffi ?! ffi Now each Aj has 6.n. 0).D be subgroups of A.62-65) that every factor group of a finite abelian group G isomorphic to a subgroup of G. n* If Tn 1 ^ m* -1 Thus and Si =^ Vi sifor i 1 ^ nn* ¥. ® /« where Aj is cyclic '. 5^. Let G= A©B and let C. 3^. 3*. let us define n* [CHAP.204 ABELIAN GROUPS Similarly.57. and R is the direct sum of the cyclic groups which are not of order a power of this prime p in the given decomposition of • G.. 1 for i = l. m). Pi-i^Pi . as required. 1).+i = • = s„ - 1.) It can be shown (Problems 6. Sn* paragraph above. .n. then s„. l^... respectively. Compare G3 and H3 as in (a). knowing the type of a given finitely generated abelian group G. Let G 1 be of type (p^.. is Problems 6.58. Show that the type of Gp Solution: Decompose G into the direct sum of infinite cyclic groups and groups of prime power order. and Pjy^Pj^i Put p = Pi...30 it is easy to determine. the result follows immediately. 0) whereas 6. 1). . 0) by Problem 6. we have CnD = Thus C + D = C@D. as then G7 tradiction to is of type (73.) C + D = C ®D.58. 5^. 1)./„ are a subgroup Bf of order p —i— /i n. . Give an infinite number of examples of an abelian p-group that contains exactly p order p. (See Problem 6. + i = Arguing as in the otherwise define n* to be an integer such that pH is of type ip^^~\ . v). 7. 3. . 2).. G has subgroups of type (p'l. .P^". 6.p*". = Bi ffi • • • ® B„ © ® H • • ® /„ then a subgroup of G of type . > 1 but s„. With Theorems 6. . If Tn'+i — Sn'+i. 7. Solution: If +1 subgroups of G is a group with p +1 subgroups of order p.B (This can obviously be generalized to the direct Solution: sum {0}. By • repeated applica- Problem Bi+ •• +B„ + Ii+ This is • +I„ (p'l. 5. 3.p^\ . H^ is of type (7^. v) where n —m and — S( — rj for 1 — ~ n and — • • • Solution: Let tion of infinite cyclic groups.60. as any nonzero element of finite order from R is of order coprime to that of p. Hence each of them contributes p 1 distinct elements in all there are (p l)(p + 1) = p^ 1 elements — — — of order p. . Thus Gp = Aj Aj. Hence . the possible types of subgroups of G.p'"'. . i Show v that u. .n* • • n* = n. p*"*~* 0). Pi Suppose that for some i — j = Pi+i= •• =Pj. .28 and 6. Let G have type -...

then ra — b^ — rb. Let |G| = r and let AT be a subthere is nothing to prove. . Let N^ = gp(na). 6. For hi. If is of order a prime p. . Prove that G = gp(a +h) ® B where 6 GB is G gp(a +b)nB. Let 1 .rj. g appears as an element of • G is the direct sum of cyclic groups.63.gi+ + gk = g . there is an element no of of order a prime p by Proposition 5. nhk = gk. Let Gf be a p-group. . . on putting e .4 a. without loss of generality. c„). G/N isomorphic a subgroup of G. B. Clearly gp{(i-^ b) + B = G and the Hence 6i = and x a. 6. where jr G ^p(c).| < \G\. we obtain G = Since g © gp(c2. If N is not of order a prime. G = gp(c) flrp(pc) © = B page 197). a.. Otherwise.66 below). the result follows. G/N = G and Gp®E N ®E H® N H@ H N result follows. . Then n{hi H +hk) . order of Consequently rb — 0. true. a subgroup of Gp. Hence G/N = E and E i& a. rjp'^iCj ^ and Then g = p"'i(cj + d) where d G gp(c2 is less = np icj + + r^p "Cm — w„.62. By Problem gp(c) 6. the result J.Sec.62. and iV C Gp. Solution: ii g G G and g is of order p. G/Nf. Let to G be a finite group. then are divisible. c„) G gp (c).4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 205 By Lemma 6. g — gi+ • • +gk. DIVISIBLE GROUPS p-Prufer groups. n¥=0 is integer and g G 2^ . = c[ + d. G I. Prove that a cyclic direct summand of G. the order of d # than or equal to the order of Cj. page 137. where (rj. Thus ra = 0. since otherwise = Nq which is not |G/iV(.. But clearly gp{c)IN. . = {gp(c)/N) ©B is (Lemma 6. subgroup of G. As g is of order p and Clearly gp(. where Gp is the p-component of G.16. Prove that G/N is isomorphic to a sub- By Problem 6. then 2 G^i is divisible. Since gp(a)nB = {0}. . 6. . So there exist . 6. group of p and thus exactly p + 1 subgroups of order p. Prove by induction on \G\ that if iV is a subgroup of G. .9. Both the additive group of rationals and p-Priifer groups are divisible in this sense (Problem 6. Thus \H\ < \G\ and by induction it has a subgroup K such that K = H/N^ s G/iV. A &G any &G If the groups Gi. Solution: N = gp{g) be of order p.p2. Then G/AT = (Gp/iV) G= by Lemma 6.29 a p-group with jy^ — l distinct elements of order p contains p^ summands which . p^icj 0. © a. by the preceding problem. The Assume the result li is true for all group of G. say G = S'p(ci) gp(Cn)follows immediately..64. 6. = r{a+b) = bi where b^G B and r is an integer. be integers. As ¥' G. Let G be a finite p-group. Let group of G. has exactly p^— 1 elements of order type (p*^!. Then (G/Nq)/(N/No) = G/N. .p'v..u) where m is a nonnegative integer. Then G/N Thus gp(pc. Then r is divisible by the power of p which is the = 0.hk such that nhi = gi. 6. result follows. has a subgroup H/iVo = G/N. suppose that • ® • © If g = 0. Now Gp/iV s H. if .p) = 1. Solution: groups of order less than r. where i = 1. Put riCi = w^ — W2— • • • • • cf. say. N= {0}. Then any are cyclic groups of order a power of p. i Gi. Divisible subgroups group G is said to be divisible if for each integer n¥= and each element g there exists h such that nh = g. Suppose G = gp(a) of order less than or equal to the order of Solution: If a.63.c{) = gp(ci).65. B) = GIN. .16. Let G be a finite p-group.

page 181) G/H is divisible. Then there G such that G = D® K. It follows that p^'-'Cr = c^.hG G.32: Let of G contain a divisible subgroup D. a subgroup of G. 2. therefore conclude that m/p^ Thus m = np"-" + kp"" n/p' from 61 +Z - + Z. must prove that The snag is this: It an = gp(Cr) and that pcr+i = Cr for r = 1. then g. The following Itself. a divisible subgroup exists a is subgroup K a direct summand. Then mcr = np'-^Cr from which {m-np'-'')Cr = As Cr is of order p"". 6 It follows that direct tionals are also divisible.2 Then G is isomorphic to the • • • p-Priif er group. for some integer k. Cr . Proof: We accomplish this proof by Zorn's lemma. result is not only the main tool in Section 6. we remark divisible that a homomorphic image of a divisible pose G is positive integer. If g. In the future we will call any group isomorphic to {Q/Z)p a p-Priifer group. Proof: We may suppose that Define is 6. a so that g {g = scr.. Next we need the following theorem which classifies p-Priifer groups. h - tcr. Let G be a group which is the union of an ascending sequence of subgroups Ci C G2 C where Cr is cyclic of order p"" for r = 1. r = {sCr sip"" G Z} = I \ a positive integer and {sCr I (scr)6 = {0} sip'' + Z = Z} s divisible by 2?''} = Thus the result follows. Assume without loss of generality that r ^ s. with s.hGCr for some integer Then + h)B = ({s + t)Cr)e = + t)lp' + Z = {sip- + Z) + {t/p^ + Z) = g9 + he Finally is one-to-one as Ker e = {g\ge^Z} — {sCr s an integer.) Can we apply Zorn's lemma to <?? Suppose {Li\iG 1} is a chain in <P. (Our idea is to pick a maximal subgroup K which meets D in {0}. Let "P be the collection of all subgroups L of G such that LnD = {0}. Thus is a Next we show that r.tGZ. i. We are however not even certain that 5 is a mapping.e. Theorem 6. Similarly K H is divisible. we remark that if G = is /? e and G is divisible.31 (Main Theorem on p-Priifer Groups): Let p be a prime.4b. . To prove First this w^e need several facts. Let g + Then there exists g' G G such that ng' is and ^ group g. is gO - m/p"- +Z or is g9 - n/p' + Zl We will show that m/p' + Z = n/p' + Z. We shovs^ of the additive group of rathat in fact this exhausts all divisible groups. but is also of interest in Theorem 6. (9 : g = mcr and if also g = nc^. since a homomorphic image of a divisible group. H G G/H = For supG) and let w be a Accordingly n{g' + H) = is divisible. mapping. Then D + and we need only show that D + K = G which will turn out to be true because of the maximality of K.67 for the details). (see Problem G -* (Q/Z)^ by (mcr)d . m .206 ABELIAN GROUPS sums of p-Prufer groups and copies [CHAP.11. Is U Lj in "?? We require K=^D®K . We isomorphism. thus proving that Q is uniquely defined.m/p" + Z for all integers m. {s homomorphism.np"-^ = kp" We is 6/ which m/p^-np-' + k. so also are and K. (g e g + H. and so H ^ G/K K Secondly (Problem 6.

Hence r{pc) — c„ for some integer r. Put a. Then since Lk is Lfc L. Ci since cyclic groups have only one subgroup of any given order. g.w-l}. to prove that a p-Priifer group is divisible.c^. + kGD. Then pc„ + i = c„ and it is possible to choose the elements c^jC^. Therefore Dr\Ki. then nx€:{K + D). Solution: First Let Ci we shall prove that if G satisfies (1) and c C2 C be a sequence of subgroups • • (2).i + A.... Suppose wx = k + d.gp(c). . . . If nx + kGD.e. r and p are coprime.h^ U Lk D Lj or g-hG ULu Now Therefore g.68.1. g-hG (0). Problems 6. = c.. so without loss of generality as- a subgroup of G.i..hG U Li Lj D L^. a. (ii) a subgroup of G. where n is an integer and k is an element of But KC^D^{0]. i.+ i = c. g-he Lk. thus proving the theorem. is the only possibility. Now x^K.) there is a cyclic subgroup of G of order p* for every i = 1. 6. which satisfies Dniir= Thus Suppose now that D + Kj^G. Thus gpirc) = C„+i. contrary D= U i=l 00 Ci is a p-Priifer group (Theorem 6.ti — Ci. is the direct Accordingly. c„+i = re. Therefore Kir\D — {0}. G — sum D a p-Priifer group. Put Ki = fl'p(a..i = wx — wdi = k + d — d = k. andall .. it is • of G where a p-Priifer group. A p-group G is a p-Prufer group if and only if it has the following two properties: every proper subgroup of G is cyclic. Notice that Xi€ K but wxi G K. Then GI{D®K) is nonzero. G¥' D®K. so is But as QIZ = pen 2 (Q/^)o. assumption. . page 192. r G {0. (2) . Assume by and = gp{.4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 207 (i) Dn\J^U= U Li is (i) is {0}. 2 induction that Prove that we can choose elements c^ such that C.{0} implies Li. r = 1. ..{0}. . i = 1.32. .31. K.. It follows then that wx for < r < w.1. If we put Ki = gv{K.. each Cj is a cyclic group of order p'. it consists of all elements of the form nx + fc. by Theorem 6. (1) (Hard. As Q is divisible. Part true because (ii) Dn U^Li that if ¥.. for r = l. Now put . . D. . 6. but Suppose that x + {K®D) is of order w. Suppose the contrary. G G. To prove implies g sume that we must show G and h G Lk. x). Then gp{x + (K® D)) is a subgroup of GI{K ® D) of finite order. we must have r = 0. But K is maximal.31). Then gp{pc) is a cyclic group of order p" and.n. gp (pc) = C„. So "? has a maximal element..i = a.36. Hence it is divisible and of is G has a subgroup which to the hypothesis. as required. So Since xi + (D®K) = x + (D® K). we can find diG D so that wdi — d.^ then {0} for some Lj. However. . and kGK. U^Li and (ii) holds. So to = follows also. Then wa.. 6. We prove first that GI{D ® X) is a torsion group.w-l. say K. then D® K = rxi + {D®K) = r{xt + {D ® K)) G D and thus k-d. is false. If the sequence is infinite. . Use a proof Solution : different from that of Problem QIZ. G=D two ®K cyclic p-groups.c„ have been chosen with Let C„+i . So fc = Thus we have proved that GI{K © D) is a torsion group. if K # {0}. — di. Either D Lj. Let G and pCf+i Solution: be as defined in Theorem 6. DnL. As c„ is of order p".Sec. . .67. G G such that gp{x + {D@ K)) is of infinite order in G/{D ® K). Let a. Then we can find a. This contradicts the maximality of K. I r = 0.66. and hence is not cyclic. 2. This contradiction shows that our original For if rxi A. fc Gii:} Weclaimthat KinD=^{0}.. JRT). g K © D. Then GK® rx^K®D Ki = {ra. . Since D is divisible. summand of a divisible group is divisible. each (QIZ)^ is itself divisible. = gp{c^ pc. since every direct 6..

Suppose p"" = \H\ — \K\ = p«.) 1.21). Hence z^c^ — = Z2Cj. Let C„ = srp(a). the result is true. Z2 below defines a mapping of is G to Q. Show all that if is the subgroup of the multiplicative group of the complex = Q/Z. Since Cj is infinite cyclic. If there exists such an integer n. let be a (2). then let xGH. it is sufiicient to show that Ker e = {0}. say H^. . We Hence / = and e is an isomorphism. tains a subgroup of order \K\. | 2 2 6. Suppose / have that / = zcj for some integers z and i.72. as there is one and only one subgroup of order p' in a cyclic p-group of order exceeding p^.i integers. Now ?/„ is the union of cyclic groups of order p'. each Cj cyclic of order p». .e. . a homomorphism? Let f.68. i Suppose Zi(jl/il)Cj = Z2Cj. If it is the direct sum of two or more cyclic groups. = (Q/Z)^. as QIZ = (QIZ)^ (by Theorem 6. As a finitely generated abelian group. K are subgroups of G. Uj. n. as G is the union of cyclic subgroups.10).b) is cyclic of order p*" where m — re + l. Now both H^ and K are contained in some cyclic subgroup of G. page 190. Let x . say. then either H^ K or Kd H. page 185. Clearly. . H ¥= x^ H m H H 6. it is not cyclic (Theorem 6.208 ABELIAN GROUPS • • • [CHAP. Thus gp{a. 6. follows that Ge O an onto mapping. Zi(jl/i\) 00 what we have Is 9 just shown. p-Priifer group satisfies condition {Z}. To prove that e is well defined. Finally. Prove that G is isomorphic to the additive group of rationals.m/p'' + Z where is an — 1. i. Then by Theorem 6.b) contains a cyclic subgroup of order pn+i containing C„. contrary to the hypothesis. Clearly gp(x) = gp{l/p'' + Z). Assume both H and K are proper subgroups. Then and K are both finite cyclic groups. Solution: If one ot H or K is G. Define uniquely defined.71. = Cj. to show that such that fe z = 0. Show that the additive group of rationals groups. 6 Suppose now that Cx C C2 c c C„ is a sequence of subgroups. = 0. The result follows. gp(a. We may + g = (z^ + 22)^11 as well suppose that f. the wth roots of unity. li. then Cj = (j!/i!)cj. Since Cjff = Qi = gp (1/il). Therefore H D K. QIZ a C/ by "^ " Theorem 6. Z2. (Z1 f & G.. Next we note that the subgroup of {Q/Z)p. and i. . &: As for condition (1).b) is cyclic. Thus. then U numbers consisting of V Solution: 11= t^p by Theorem 6. Solution: Let Q z/il denote the additive group of rationals and let 00 Qj = fl'p(l/i!). .g U Qj '~^ = = But this is 9 is Q. 2.70. Then + g)8 - + Z2)— and fe + g9 = —+ ^1 ^2 -77 = (Z1 + Z2) — 1 Thus is 9 is a homomorphism.QlZ\. Show that if G is a p-Prufer group and H. where ZiCj We shall prove that We must prove that e «!. Zi(}\/il)Cj = it z^Cj implies that Zi{j\/H) = «£.5. Then fe = z/i\ =0 only if the result follows. and there exists no subgroup C„+i2C„ where C„+i is of order p"+i. But Cj is cyclic of order p'. we must show that Zi/i\ = Z2/JI. and as G is a p-group. integer between 1 and p' l/p"" +Z Thus H ior r^ H is cyclic as required. Then Q„+i3Q„ and n=l KJ Qn = Q the additive group of rationals. If there is no integer n for which = <. g = (f z^Ci. But then gp{a.Ci for some integer i. + Z.. 2. it is the direct sum of cyclic groups. But then it follows that H^ — K.gE. .h). Let for G I = be an ascending union of infinite cyclic groups Cj such that Cj = gp{ci) and (i+ l)ci+i (Hard. H 6. p € n namely J7p is the union of Cj = gp ({x k is a p*th root of unity}). Consider gp(a. Hence Hence / = ZjCj.31. We know that there exists a subgroup B = gp(b) of order p" + i. Then H conby Problem 6.10. If — j. Solution: is the union of an ascending sequence of infinite cyclic Let Q„ = 00 ffp(l/?i!). i = 1. then Q gp{\lp« + Z). Qj+iDQj and («Cj)ff = i=l U Qi z = & QZ.69.

). •••) is an ascending union of cyclic groups of Accordingly by Theorem 6. . Now for any integer g G such that ng = t. We put Cs = gp{ri. there exists an element order. where C1 + C2+ +Cn — IjSj. divisible Let G be divisible and let T be the torsion subgroup of G. let a direct sum of copies of the additive group S be a maximal independent set (Theorem 6. S2. and hence g GT. there is ScC. then there is a nonzero multiple of x which is also a multiple of s. namely ki is a consequence of As fcci + + kcn = is a nonzero integer. . . T C = is gp{Cs It \ s & S) is divisible. so is g.SU{d} an independent subset of by the maximality of S. Thus T = C. A divisible subgroup is a direct F)/T.s.s. | sGS For each s G S we and positive integer . .32). + c„ = 0. Theorem Proof: 6. D ¥- (0).9. F is itself torsion-free by Theorem 6. By Theorem 6. As we remarked multiple of kcj Sj. that iisi + contradiction it above.j = Cj. and so dGD G is a direct summand Since of order p. there exists a nonzero multiple fej of each Cj which is then a kn. Cj¥-0 .s. as F is a direct flr F^{T® divisible. . G F such that {i + l)ri+i. hence F is summand (Theorem 6.72 that Cs is isomorphic to the additive group of rational numbers. Sn are independent. on substituting for the elements kCj the elements From this +lnSn = 0.13. Note that if x GCs. 6.2.. We show that F is end i. i. follows that the Cs generate the direct sum 0.C2.4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 209 b. Since gp{ci. s„ 1. Let that T is a divisible p-group and to prove S be a maximal independent • the set of elements of T of order at most p. such that exists a nonzero integer k.<^2.s) C cyclic of order p*+S Cs = gp{ci.^ for i = 1. . ..e. (This is true for shall define a .13). actually the direct . Moreover. sum of these subgroups Cs as s ranges over S. Then of T. Since t is of finite n and element t G T. any two nonzero rational numbers. It is sufficient then to assume that r is a direct sum of p-Priifer groups. Clearly gp{Ci_^)Ggp{c2.. P is clearly a subgroup. Decomposition theorem for divisible groups The results of Section 6. To this subgroup Gs of F. . Let n. • • • . . group..s = n.10. then F=C (6) is a direct sum of copies of the rationals. It follows then from Problem 6.s. . Cs is a p-Priifer order p\ one for each i = 1. say. If D^ {0}. of rationals. Hence there Ij — IjSj. This is a contradiction as S is a maximal independent set. the set Su{d} is definitely larger than S since d ^ S {d does not even lie in C) and SU{d} is independent. we must have D= {0} .s. Ci. Thus T is itself divisible. x ¥. (5) pcj+i. -C®D. F. page 194). page 189. = s.s = s. .31. inductively as follows: (a) pci. (a) We now consider F and T separately. F = C®D. n). . P an element of larger then S.2.. i.s) is This is possible since T is divisible. • • • • we find therefore.32). suppose that Si. . where Cj G Cs^.) We claim that F is To prove this.s z = 1. are distinct elements of S and that C1 + C2+ • • (j = .4a enable us to deduce the following decomposition theorem for divisible groups. ^ Cs Hence C is a direct summand Clearly let d G D (d ^ 0). as s ¥= 0. P be GS .2.33: A group is the direct sum of p-Priifer groups and copies of the additive group of rationals.32. T.e. C = gp{Cs\ sGS) ^ ses is divisible. so also are the summands Tp. .Sec. So But C is divisible since each summand Cs (Theorem 6. But the elements Si. First of all r = pen 2 ^p by Theorem 6. so G = T © F. Since T is divisible. Let define For each s subset of P (Theorem 6. Since Tr\{F]^0. summand. For a given there exists by the divisibility of F an element n+i.0.

Since each p-Priifer group is infinite. This is Q 6. If nG = G for all such n. it must be the direct sum of an infinite number But then the subgroup generated by all but one of the must be infinite.s^. (This theorem is not proved in this text. divisible subgroups Solution: (a) Let i seS. Let G be an infinite group whose proper subgroups are all finite.74.e. . se C2 • • X Cs.76. Now be we choose one copy of the rationals Qj for each iei. G must in fact be a p-Priifer group. contains N.. Solution (a) A free abelian group i^ is a direct sum of infinite cyclic groups Q (i G /): F = and * 2 let Cj. Thus of a divisible group is divisible. unless ci = ca = • • • =0 6.. of the theorem is complete. G is the cyclic groups.. that there exists a divisible group D containing F. for + arrive at a dependent relation between Si. and (6) every abelian group is isomorphic to a subgroup of a divisible group.„) = s Hence S is divisible.210 ABELIAN GROUPS It [CHAP. c„ = = . m. . If s^. then G is the direct sum of p-Priifer groups and copies of the additive group of rationals. if H is any group such that H^G. Prove that (a) every free abelian group is isomorphic to a subgroup of a divisible abelian group.) Solution: nG for all positive integers n. Let \ K = 2 Q ie / d* ^ chosen in each Q^ Qi IS divisible. a proper subgroup of G for some n.s„ are distinct s elements of (a) we + + where d G Cs. nG = {0}. then G is a direct sum of cyclic groups (of finite order). and so Now we have proved 6. .. Suppose G has the property that Prove that G is divisible. (h) F is clearly isomorphic to gp({di i G /}). Prove that G is a p-Priifer group by using the theorem which states: if G is a group such that for some integer n ¥= 0. But « The 2 ^ ^ Qi is divisible since each result follows. there exist G where each Aj belongs to a divisible subgroup Hj of G fcj G «j such that zki = hi. in (a) G = F/N D/N for some free abelian group F and some subgroup N. Therefore G is divisible. and so mnG = direct sum of finite of cyclic groups Cj. (Problem l. + + • • • + fc„ G S + • • • + A. Consider the subgroups divisible. then. i . . D = G®T. say..78). As S 3 ffj for each and z(ki /.73. 6 remains only to prove that ci C = S and above. If G is any group. Then if s = fci h^ Thus z^O + hz-^ fca h h„ is any integer. As G is infinite. contradiction proves the result. G.75. . Now D/N is divisible since a homomorphic image of a divisible group is divisible. and so G is If on the other hand nG {0}. n. Thus the result follows. (a) Let G be any group and Prove that S is divisible. then nG is a finite group of order Using the theorem quoted in the statement of the problem. As all the proper subgroups of G are finite and the additive group of rationals has an infinite cyclic group as a proper subgroup. of H. The proof Problems 6. then G is a direct summand Solution: G is summand a subgroup of some divisible group D by Problem 6. let S be the subgroup generated by all the divisible subgroups of G (6) Prove that G is the direct sum of a divisible group and a group which has no other than the identity subgroup {0}. Hence D contains as a subgroup F/N. i. But every direct 6. similarly to =c s„. . only p-Priifer groups are involved. .73.

An The application of Zorn's lemma proves every group has a maximal independent subset. .32) to find that we can apply our direct summand theorem for divisible subgroups G = S ® T. nG ¥= G. -^ ng Hence e is a homomorphism of G onto nG. (As G is torsion-free. H H is of rank 1 as H H H H H not G. then Cj = C2 = • • i. there is always a group which is the direct sum of groups isomorphic to each of the groups Ai. highest order. = c„ = 0. Direct sums of groups were discussed. "less than" the type of the group. 1/2*.1/8.) 0.77. But is and 1/2*+ 1 € fifp(z/2*). in the additive group of rais free abelian. generated by 1/2. Since yriyS^ v^ 0. Given a family Aj (i G 7) of groups. In the fundamental theorem of abelian groups. 6. . we may assume that Ci =/= p'-ic. . (cj Cj. (Theorem 6. It was proved that if G is a torsion group. Suppose that nG = G for all positive integers n.n. Say Thus we obtain Assume As pi-i Cj is the order of of order p'. prove that if Cj + • • + c„ = 0. Ker e = {g\ ng = 0} — {0} as G is is an isomorphism...33. .. i = 1. The torsion group T{G) of a group G was defined. Then c„ is immaterial. Solution: (a) Consider the subgroup tionals. the type of a subgroup of a group was shown to be. + • • • + c„) = m^Si + m^Si -!-••+ m„s„ an independent set. 6. it is the direct sum This led to the definition of the p-Prufer group as the p-component of QIZ. So if = gp{z/2^) for some inteis not infinite cyclic. of its p-components. rank of a group was defined and proved an invariant of the group by the Steinitz exchange theorem. roughly speaking. . Finally..78. • Solution: Ci is of the contrary. and it was shovra that G/T{G) is tor- sion-free.e. page 194). finitely generated abelian groups were shown to be expressible as the direct sum of cyclic groups. every proper subgroup of which free abelian. it Q is of rank 1 (Problem 6. must be infinite cyclic.2. = mjSj where m^ is an integer.38. for if it were. Then G is divisible and is the direct sum of copies of the additive group of rationals. we have a contradiction to the fact that S is A look back at Chapter 6 This chapter was mainly concerned with the structure of divisible and finitely generated abelian groups.4] DIVISIBLE GROUPS 211 (6) Since S is divisible. and . Direct sums of infinite cyclic groups are all the free abelian groups. and nG is But by (a) above. G will have a non-free subgroup. But then 1/2'+ 1 S . (b) This is obvious since 1/3 € H. 6.Sec. Two finitely generated abelian groups were shown to be isomorphic if and only if they have the same type. . . Now e : g torsion-free. no p-Prufer group is involved. . . the result follows. An important fact is that every abelian group is a homomorphic image of a free abelian group. (a) (6) Prove that the additive group of rationals Let is (? Q has a proper subgroup which is is not free abelian. . 1/4. Prom this it follows that if two groups are direct sums of isomorphic subgroups. Thus for some w # free abelian. Any homomorphism of the direct summands of a group extends to a homomorphism of the whole group. Prove the result stated at the end of the proof of Theorem 6. Prove that G free abelian. and so G is free abelian. they are isomorphic. We have only to prove that gers 2 and i. As T contains no divisible subgroup other than {0}. be a torsion-free group.

H) Z is with the operation defined by an abelian group.79. Let the order of a plus the order of h be n.90. Suppose every element of G is of order less than some fixed integer n and there are elements of order n in G. prove G is abelian. Prove that if G/N is free abelian. Prove that (a) <3i is a subgroup {pg of G. prove that Horn (Z. pg denote the group of rotations of the plane (see Section 3. G be an abelian group.88.82.86. {Hint: Use the preceding problem and free abelian groups. a&G.79. Prove by 6. If A is an abelian group and the group of integers under addition. Any divisible subgroup of a group is also a direct summand. 6. Let G we may use Let "^ + Pg = pg ^^ 2Trm/n radians where m. Show that Kom (G. induction on n that a 4. Thus the rotation p^ followed by rotation pg is is = I » = 1 % m % 6. + ^) = g<f> + g'^ (1) is (l) for all g e G.84. show that a factor group of G is not necessarily a direct of cyclic subgroups. 6. page 68). and ga^ g for all g {¥-\)& G.H).) that G is a finite group. Prove that the elements of order n generate G.) Let N he a normal subgroup of G.212 ABELIAN GROUPS [CHAP. 6 Divisible groups were discussed. Suppose that G is Show 6.83.6 is of order the least common multiple of the orders of a and 6.81. a is of order 2.89. If the mapping o ^ a-i. n are integers. If G is a finite group. show that aut (G) = Tl aut (Gp).4c. a e aut (G).87. is an automorphism of the group G. Prove that the group of rationals under addition If is not the direct sum of cyclic groups. Let a. 6.80. * e Horn (G. an abelian group 6. 6 be elements of an abelian group. A) = A. Denote the set of all homomorphism of an abelian group If 0. is the direct sum of cyclic subgroups. As G additive notation. Prove the first Sylow theorem. where jr is the set of all primes. we define ^ + * by g{4> G into an abelian group H by Hom(G. page 130. Let . denotes the p component of for any prime 9 = 2irm/p'" radians where p. Any group which is the union of cyclic groups of order a power of p turns out to be a p-Prufer group. This led to the proof that every divisible group is the direct sum of isomorphic copies of the additive group of rationals and p-Priifer groups. 6. an abelian group. for abelian groups using the p-components. (6) every element of has finite order. H). Supplementary Problems DIRECT SUMS AND FREE ABELIAN GROUPS 6. n > 0}. TORSION GROUP AND RANK 6. N is a direct summand. G sum 6. 6.85. then "^p = {pg and r are integers} and %p = the p-Priifer group. {Hint: First prove G = {g-Hga) g G G} and then use Problem \ 6. (c) if %j.

91 to find suitable elements a. n # 0. G is a nondivisible abelian group. n-1. Find the type of the additive group of integers modulo m for G any integer m > 0. . Let G be a finitely generated abelian group. and (6) the torsion subgroup of an abelian group is a pure subgroup.94. p.b ^ G such that the order of a divides the order of 6. A &H 6. 6. is the direct sum of isomorphic copies of 6. Prove that all the subgroups of a group in which every element has square-free order is pure.) • • • • © ® © • • © . Prove that if g + G/A. Prove that the additive group of the real numbers the additive group of rationals. {Hint: Use the fundamental theorem and then first look and Vj divides Vj+i for t = 1 at the highest power of each different prime in the decomposition.97. Let G be a non-cyclic p. Prove that G is cyclic. then there is an h' such that nh' — h. G is the direct sum 6. B a divisible p-group.) 6. there = g + A and the order of g is equal to the order of ff + A. w). (a) Let G = Hom(A. then lowing theorem (not proved in this book): direct G has a subgroup of prime index.98. .104. {Hint: Use Problem 6.. then G = /j . Suppose that for each divisor of order d. 6. Cj is a finite cyclic group of order Dj (i = 1.92. is the sum of cyclic groups. Prove that (a) a direct summand of an abelian group is a pure subgrroup.) 6.81) where B is a torsion-free divisible group.96. Show If that a divisible abelian group has no subgroup of finite index. finite abelian group. Prove that A is finite.91. Prove that the automorphism group of a finite non-cyclic abelian group G is non-abelian. «. .B) the direct (see Problem 6. d of G there are at most d ele- 6.103. Prove that the automorphism group of a finitely generated abelian group there is at most one infinite cyclic summand in a cyclic decomposition of G.99. G DIVISIBLE GROUPS 6.100. 6] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS 213 FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM FOR FINITELY GENERATED ABELIAN GROUPS 6. Let H be a G gS such that g pure subgroup of an abelian group G. AG is an element +A . if Prove that G (6) is sum of copies of the additive group of rationals. Prove by induction on the number of generators of that every subgroup of G is finitely generated.102.95.CHAP. is finite if and only if 6. . is C„ where /„ ffi Cj Prove that if G is a finitely generated abelian group. Let G be a in ments G finite abelian group.n). 6. Show that has a subgroup of type (p. subgroup H of an abelian group A is a pure subgroup of A if whenever na = h & H for some o e A. /. 0) for some prime 6.101. Let G be as in (a) but with of p-Priifer groups. Then look at the mappings a^: a'b' -> a»+'5t.. {Hint: Use the folAn abelian group G for which nG = {0}. an infinite cyclic group (j = 1.93. aj a'6* -» o«'6-* and as: a»6* -» atft" where s and t ^ are integers.

e. defines a homomorphism of a This homomorphism is called the transfer. To prove that a subgroup of Sg. The second main division of this chapter appears in Section 7. by gp: where x^ xg (xGG) p defines The definition of p is unambiguous. We examine G to see how it is built up from H and K. In the first we generalize Cayley's theorem. gp GG Thus the image of flr in G under p is. an isomorphism. (2) The number of subgroups of fixed finite index in G is finite. then every homomorphism of G onto G is an automorphism. (ii) (iii) p is p is a homomorphism. (3) If the subgroups of finite index of G intersect in the identity. Proof: Let G be a group. 214 . We repeat the proof here for the case of groups alone.hG.1 (Cayley) : Every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. H Our use it third division.e. a group generated by a finite number of elements: (1) A subgroup of finite index in G is itself finitely generated. The most general case is complicated and we restrict ourselves to a special extension called "the splitting extension. show that a group G Section 7. every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. The consequences of this theorem are important. in 7. &G. As consequences of this generalization we prove the following theorems for G.chapter 7 Permutational Representations Preview of Chapter 7 There are three main divisions of this chapter. CAYLEY'S THEOREM Another proof of Cayley's theorem We saw in Chapter 2 that every groupoid is isomorphic to a groupoid of mappings.1 a. used in Chapter 5. also i. g." Reversing our analysis. that every group is isomorphic to a permutation group. In particular. Let p be the the following mapping of G into G: mapping which assigns x to each element fl' in G X-* xg for each definition. We call a group G an extension of _a group H hy a. we are able to build a group G that is the splitting extension of a given group hy a given group K. G. — gp • hp.8. then (gh)p p is one-to-one. We with center of finite index has finite derived group. its which begins group into one of to abelian subgroups. Theorem 7. A particular example of a splitting extension is the direct product.7. group K if there is a normal subgroup H of G such that G/H = K and H = H. we have to check that: (i) an isomorphism of G onto gp is a permutation of G for every g if i.

Sec. so that gp is itself a mapping of G to G. Thus we must prove gp so gp is onto. then xg = yg. g = Suppose gp = Therefore h. a"-i o«-i . {Note: In the proof of Cayley's theorem p is a mapping of G into Sc. Pi -^P2. 3-*3 1^1.. -> 1 Clearly p (ii) one-to-one. ^ a"~i ap : a". 1 and a.5. Ps -* P2.1. P4 PS^PS. i. 2.1] CAYLEY'S THEOREM deal first with 215 is a one-to-one mapping of G onto G. Let 4. . we find x = y. 3^3 1^3. 2-»l. P2-*P5. P2 -* Pi. 'P • 1. 2^2. € G. Then G consists of two elements. P5-*Pl. n. G be cyclic of order 102). Let p be as in Theorem 7. . Describe in detail the isomorphisms given by Cayley's theorem for (i) a cyclic group of order (ii) a cyclic group of order n (n — 3). Secondly we prove (ii). Pi^Ps. Pe^Pi Pi Pi P2 ^ Ps. a a -» a and ap is the is op : 1 -> a. Pe-^Ps between worth checking = {PiPj)p for some and } and 6. 2-»3. remains to prove g (iii). -* 1 l-»a2. P3-*Pi. For x G G. x{{gh)p) = x{gh) = {xg)h = (x{gp)){hp) = x(gphp) Since {gh)p and gphp have precisely the same effect on every element of G. Problem 7. where a^ = 1 and Ip is the mapping mapping given by Ip : 1 ^ 1. 2-* 3. 1 -^ a. Suppose a. (Pip)(pjp) P5^P4. then {xg~^){gp) = {xg~^)g = x and We (i). p is one-to-one. a = a • 1. Caution and patience are required to avoid confusion in some of our subsequent equations. Then G consists of n elements l.. say (see Lemma page Then Ip : 1-^1. Pa-^Pe. 3} consists of the P2 Vz 1^1. P6^P4 Pi ^Ps.. Ps^Pe. i P6^P2 1 Pi^Pe.e. Pi ^PS. P2^Pi. Pe-^Ps ^ Ps.) b. {gh)p the definition of equality of mappings). Ps -* Pi. 3-»l Pi Pi Ps l->2. 2-* 2. Let 1 • a G = be cyclic of order 2.o. 3^1 l-*3. as ap ¥= Ip. a^. 2-»l. 7. ^Pi. Pi P5^P2. kp. p is then one-to-one. multiplying by we prove gp is a mapping of G onto G. a"-2 permutations (iii) The symmetric group on the Pi set {1. Pe -* 3^2 Then PlP P2P Pi Pap PiP Psp Pep It is Pu Ps -* Ps.e. (iii) the symmetric group on three letters. P2 -^ P2. . So. P2 -^ Ps. It = if gphp (by 1 is the identity element of G. ^ Pi. -* Ps Ps- Pi ^Pi. a-* a. PS^PS. Solution: (i) 2. one frequently comes across interesting groups (see Chapter 3). g~^ on the right. Historically many important groups arose in precisely this way. 3^2 1^2. i. P6-*P6 ^P6.1. ^ P2.a"~i. Next If x{gp) = viffp). If one demands that a permutation group satisfy further conditions. = l(gp) = l{hp) = h. Cayley's theorem and examples of groups Cayley's theorem tells us that there is an isomorphic image of every group among the permutation groups of suitably chosen sets.

Z all g and h in G.3}.. distinct since they act differently on 0. not .. jn^jn+l. . Oa^ = 2. Hence the mapping 1 -> is 1.±1. ...«"-!} is a cyclic of G into r defined by a-* a. Let a be the . a.. . = /m i and {i.. a. difficult to Oa"-i = n—1. are all is of order n. Then the mapping n: a-* a. 3}. . This is the identity isomorphism. then permutational representation of G on G. for G is itself a permutation group on {1. .±1. . . we say that a mapping of G into the symmetric group on some set is a permutational representation of G if fi.„"-! If . G be the cyclic group of — 1. (n-l)a = in blocks of n. and let Problem 7. Let i denote the identity permutation. Note that a It is cyclically permutes the integers taken see that a Oa^ = 3. X is called a per- So if p is the isomorphism provided by Cayley's theorem for the group G. actually an isomorphism since both G and r are cyclic of order two.. a^. (iv) Suppose m is a positive integer and that G is the cyclic group of order n. .) In particular = 1. 3}.2. Let p G be as in the solution to as a permutation group (ii) There is another representation of the symmetric group G on {1. .. 0. ..«"-!} X=Z jn the integers defined by .. a^.1) -^ jn {j = 0. 2. . is any integer.. . . 1.. 2i+1^2i for = 0.216 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. p is a Repeating the definition of a permutational representation of a group G in detail. 2. a"-l->an-l an isomorphism and therefore a permutational representation of G. First of This means that the permutations i... order 2 and let be the set of permutation of X defined by X i all integers a: 2i-^2i+l.... (iii) Let . la 2. Thus a sends an even integer to the succeeding odd integer and an odd integer to the preceding even integer.1(iii).a. all. G So /4 is a permutational representation. The permutational representation provided by Cayley's theorem is called the right-regular representation (the adjective right is used because the representation is obtained by multiplication on the right). ja" = j..... 7 7. .2 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Definition of a permutational representation A homomorphism of a group G into the symmetric group on the set mutational representation of G on X. la = at = a Now 1 I suppose is consists of the elements 1 and a. So a« group r of order n.. = jn + (n . . . Then p itself is a representation of on six elements. Then t and a together constitute a subgroup r of the symmetric group on since X a — I..a2. jn+ we have Oa 1 -> + 2. the most natural one. G = Let a be the permutation of a: {l. for Example 1: (i) G be the symmetric group on {1.

Let X = {1. If ge the identity permutation of X.B. Another representation of choosing a different homomorobserve that if /» is a homomorphism of G into the symmetric group Sx.3] DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS (v) 217 Suppose that G is the dihedral group of degree metries of the square 4. 2-*3. = n — G involves Now aj: l-*2. mappings U. i for t = Thus the 1 -> a -» aj jtt2 : 1 - i. 3^2 1. To see this let from which (gh)T phism. DEGREE OF A REPRESENTATION AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATIONS Degree of a representation Definition: The degree of a permutational representation on X (more as a representation) is the number of elements in X. x{gh)e = xjgf^ = x(gh) = (xg)h = (a. since a? I. Hence there are representations of finite groups which are of infinite degree. page 71. (iii) This representation is of infinite degree. 2-»2. 3}.C. (iv) This representation This representation is of infinite degree. There are actually 3 of them. Then if x€. then yg G SxSx be defined by ge = y^. 3-*3 aj: l-*3. g = i.2. and so 9 is a permutational representation of G. G. of different degrees. 3}. (gh)r = I and i where is is clearly a representation. Find a representation of degree 3 for a cyclic group of order Solution: 2.2. (ii) is Notice that in (i) and (ii) we have two representations of the same group. If we {A. g. 2^1. By Lemma 3. we need subgroups of Sx of order 2. Note also that G/t must be a subgroup.T) = (grXhr). (v) is Problems 7. Hence Ker e = {i} and e is actually an isomorphism. a -> I as usual the identity permutation. is This representation This representation of degree of degree 6. t elements g. g takes each vertex of ABCD to a Ag. 2: briefly referred to Example We (i) inspect Example l(i)-(v). So in deciding on a choice of Ii = T li. is one-to-one. 7. aj}. say G = {1. {i. a -* oj /jg : 1 -> a ^ ag are representations of G on X.yg)yh = a.D} and y^ by xjg = xg for all xGX. define e Since g X- Let e: G^ page 75. Cg and Dg are distinct vertices. = i.3. G is the group of sym- A D Let g vertex. 3. of degree 4.h in G we choose.a^}.7. then either or G/j is of order 2.(ygyfc) = x(ge)(he) Thus is (gh)e = gehe. Then {i. 2. then fr leaves every vertex of ABCD un- changed.hGG. 3^1 ag: 1-»1. First of all there is the rather trivial representation T : 1 -» I.Sec. But by Lemma 3. 2. ag} are /Ji : subgroups of Sx of order two. namely the symmetric group on {1. 7. Let G possible representations of be the cyclic group of order 2. Then there are several G on X.3 a. i For no matter which {gT){h. Bg. .12. Notice that here G is cyclic of order 2.X. a).

3. . faithful? p is faithful. «!. 2 -> 3. a a ^ «!. (i) in Example 1. is faithful. page 216. (iii) n /4 is faithful.4 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS Suppose that cosets Definition: G is ofHinG a group and that i? is a subgroup of G. However fi^. 7. > 5 5. 7. 9 -» 10. .. a. a^.. all The upshot of these considerations is that we have produced 4 representations of G of degree 3. Faithful representations Definition: A representation is termed faithful if it is one-to-one. fi^. (v) The representation 7. as we shall see later. Problems 7.2 7 -^ 8. Inspect the representations of Solution : (a) (6) (a) Problem 7. 5 -* 1. -> 4. /is are faithful. respectively. Let G be cyclic of order 5.5. follows from a direct calculation that both aj and «£ are of order Ti Then = {i. 7 The proof that there are precisely three subgroups of order 2 follows from an inspection of the subgroups of Sx. i. 2 -* 3. 02.. .2. b. Then we can find a eG such that {1. Let X = and let {1. f or i G= 15} {1. ttj. 10 -> 6 aa It : 1 ^ 2.3 for faithfulness.. aP-. . Then the right {7. . a*} are subgroups of order 5 of Sx and Sy 01-. . 1 -» 1 ~* 1. . /i2 : t. t is not one-to-one. 5 ^ 1.10} 4.e. ^ a2.1) . a?. T Hi is not faithful since a¥' /i2 1 and ar = 1. . . a*}. aj. Find representations of degree 10 and 15 respectively of the Solution: cyclic group of order 5.Since we have no real need for such proof here. a*} Tj = {i. so this representation is also faithful. 8 -^ 9. Y = ^ aj : 1 -^ 2. 6 -* 7. Thus . Are the representations Solution.218 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP.4. al. are Hxu Hx2. 4 ^ 5. J 3. Notice that (i) provide examples of faithful representations of the same group which are of different degrees. 3 3 ^ 4 -* 5. (iv) is faithful. we leave the details to the reader.2 and (6) Problem 7. and are both faithful. a'^ -* al a^ and are both representations of G. (ii) The and (ii) identity isomorphism is one-to-one. Both faithful and non-faithful representations are useful. a* ^ The first is of degree 10 and the second is of degree 15.

Thus a permutation.yy^ {x. a^}. H— We where {1. g^ G G. 7.3) we find {x{g^n)){g^^) x{{g^g2)7^) = x{g^g^) = xg^g^ = = x{{g^7r){g^n)) Hence {g^g^-R = {g ^Tz){g ^tv) tt as claimed. . then (l. Here we will show how to obtain a permutational representation of G using the cosets {7. if G is cyclic of order 4. Suppose x G X. we prove y^ is one-to-one. To prove we show that if g\.xg ^g = xg-^g = y^ is x Hence every element of X is an image. from which x = y.4] PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS of the identity element alone. and if group of order ^ of G. The aim of the discussion in this section is to prove that this mapping tt is a permutational representation of G on X.e. For example.X". the result of first performing the mapping (flfjTr) and then {g^-^).y G X). then xg^^ G X and xy^ 3:9 Vg . But Hgi = Hg\. say G = {l.Sec. then = gTgi- For gTgi is the representative of the coset Hgigz. let us choose a complete system of representatives of Hg of in G. Note that -n- is X To prove {g-^g^T^ = {g{'^){g2'^) we must show that {S-iQ^-^ is a permutation of X.) If x GX. Finally we prove xgg-^ onto. assigns to ff in G the mapping y^. as a coset representation of G (with respect to H). i. with 1 the representative of H. transversal of H in G.a} is a right transversal of in G. a? = 1. Since two right cosets are either identical or disjoint.e. We call such a set the right cosets To X H X X a right g. . so that gv the permutation of defined by {7. g^ is e G. is then simply the set of chosen representatives. with 1 the representative of H.a. while g\g2 the representa- tive of the coset Hg^gi. (Note that (firj7r)(s'2'r) is the product of two mappings. Notice that if h G H. and so Hg^2 = Hgig2 = Thus g7g2 {7. g2 GG First {7. Then xg -yg. and note that 1 — 1. then {7. then {g^g^Tv . We now define a mapping tt of G into Sx. Of course In a sense tt is independent of the choice of the transversal X Problem 7. -n We (see shall refer to depends on H. Given a right transversal X of H in G. y^ is defined by x^xg {x&X) this {7.10). and so xgg-'^ — ygg^K Using {7.3) We use Assume that Vg is prove that the mapping a permutation.1) is 219 simply an enumeration of the elements of G. it follows that Hg — Hg because g G Hg. the effect of the mapping {g^g^-n is the same as the effect of the mapping {g^Tr){g^-?r).2). using {7. In other words. if g^. If H consists H= describe our representation.3) to HgTgl = gigi y^ is for all gi.1) which coincides with the regular representation when {1}.a} H take X= With each element flr in G we associate a y^: mapping y^ of X into X. we denote the representative of the coset Hg by Thus g is an element of . i. a^. we select in each coset Hg an element which we term the representative of the coset. We have only to verify that it is a homomorphism. then hg = g since Hg = Hg = Hhg = Hhd.{g^TT){g^TT). a^) is a sub{l.2) first In f act Yg Sigz is a permutation of X.3). a = a. a? = a. we find = xgg~^ — x = x and si mila rly ygg"^ = y. G and X.

<^. with elements 1. and (5) the Solution (a) : The dihedral group table: D— {l. Choose right transversals for (a) the center Z in the dihedral group D of degree center Z in the quaternion group of order 8 (see Table 5.di. ds.a5} Z in Jl. 7 Problems 7. Za^.6. a4. This can be checked by verifying that 0-2 commutes with every element of D (and no element other than 1 and 02 has this property). (Here cti G is Finally Z.1. (fib -^ dg. d^ -> a^. Za^.a4. Za^ are the cosets of Z in G. ab -^ as.1.ai.2 «! a-5 (17 tti ttg ^2 dg 1 ag ae a. while (x. page 151). £14. The cosets oi Z in Jl are multiplication table. agi "7" is given by the fol- dl d2 d2 dg 1 dg dg 1 d4 d4 as as dg d7 d4 dl dg dg a? d4 dy a^ d4 1 1 dl dl dg dg 1 as d2 dg d4 a2 dg d4 as dg dj dg a^ d2 dg 1 as dg dg dl 0. «i. 05. as} a right transversal of Z in G. Thus is Z.2 1 »1 a^ a^ as Og as O'S «! ag a? 1 a^ a^ a^ Ctg 05 ttg «3 1 0. Za^. a^} is most easily described by a^ "5 O-g its multiplication 1 1 dj a^ ^2 Og a^ ttg a^ 04 ^5 Kg a^ ag a<j di ay 04 "1 «1 «2 «3 1 1 aj 04 as 0. ag. One has only to check this from the multiplication table. d^b -» a^. a^ -* 03. ^ 4.j «5 ag tti a? 0-2 ai 1 «5 a4 Ctg CC2 «! of corresponds to a rotation of 90°. This again can be checked directly from the X = a right transversal of {I.) The center Z given by 2 = {1. Za^. a. ctg. (6) The quaternion group of order lowing multiplication table: 1 ^ 8. a2> as.a. 02. Thus ^ = is {l. we have the following correspondence: 1 -> 1.i. Za^. 5. .^ corresponds to a reflection.) The center Z ot Jl is given by 2: = {1. a4. a -> di.2 as 1 d7 d4 as dg dg a^ as dg a-.220 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. as dg da dl 1 d4 as dg 1 dj dg dl dy d4 dl d2 (Comparing with Table 6 -^ d4. da}.

Oi. Og}. Og -> ttg : 1 -> tti. 2. a4 -* 04. (14. OgT tte"" : -> 04.8. 04 -^ 05. 04 -* 05. X. For any x €. -* 1 7. on. 1. a^.) Solution: F and G are isomorphic as permutation groups. ai -> a4. ^ Is. -^ dj. X Itt : 1 -> 1. Za\ =Z= Z\. 1 -> ai.Sec. -> aj. Its elements are 4>i = [ ) and <f>2 = { ) • Con- now the permutation group Sj„^j essentially the . «! -> 04.^ = Z'ctg. Here we give only the result which the reader is urged to check. Og -> 1 etg -^ ctj ctg ai -> ag. 04 -^ Oi. ag^a4 "5-* 15 05 -^«5 Similarly the other permutations are Itt: ttgn: 1^1. Prove that if (Hard. (xa){{fif2)9) First we show that it is a = = (x(fif2))a = {(xfi)f2)a (by the definition of composition of mappings) ((a'/i)a)(/2 9) = ((««)(/i»))(/2e) = (*«)((/ie)(/2 9)) .6(a) with respect to Z. 7. 04 -> 04. a^ -> ag. a4 -^ 04. a^. «! «5-*a4 l-*a4. 1--1. 2 -» 6 and 9 : 0^ -> *j. Consider the permutation group S^j sider 01. 04-^1. l-^tti. s^j = [" ) • *i ^""^ *2 and 02 are will make Let this idea of "essentially the same except for the elements they act same" precise. -^ oj. a^).4 -^- 1.aj. and Finally 0^07 = : a^ since Z(a^a^) = and so a5(aiw) = Therefore diTT l^ai. Now work out a coset representation we must find the X OiOi = 1 since so a4(Ojj7) = ctg. Then 1 • di = a^. aj ^ 1. ag -> 04 Og -» ffij : 1 -> 04. 1 -> dg. l^a4.8 provides the isomorphism. : (In this problem a : 1 -* a.6(b) Find a coset representation of with respect to Z. aj ^ 1. and so l(ayv) = a^. a. D of Problem 7. Give a definition which Solution: that a: F be a permutation group on a set X and let G be a permutation group on a set Y. We say F and G are isomorphic as permutation groups if there exists a one-to-one onto correspondence X -*Y and an onto mapping e F -* G such that for all x in X and / S F.9. is It is instructive to check directly that this mapping r {1. di-^l. homomorphism. The » of the solution of Problem 7. permutations of X that v assigns to each element of D. detail the permutation a^ir. a^. Oi -» ttj 04 0.4] PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS ON COSETS (a) 221 7. O4 -> Oi. aj -* aj. We will calculate in = {l.7. ttg. a^ -» Og. ttg -> -> ffg ttg a^ : ttl -> Oi. 1 -* (I4. and (6) ^ of Problem Solution: (a) We Thus tt using the right transversal X given in Problem 7. 7. 02 ~* *2-) 7. a homomorphism of D into the per- mutation group on (6) Again we must find the permutations that ir assigns to each element of ^. 1] -^ ii. -> 1. . Its elements are *i = ( j . o^ = 204.f2&F. a^7T\ (i47r '. using the set = {1. ai-*l. 04 a^ OyTT : 1 -> ag. Og}. then they are isomorphic as groups. 1 -* 1. (xf)a = (xa){fe). di ajjT a^lT dsn(l45r : ^ Oi. ctj since Za4aj = a^. «i -* 14.6. ag-*l Og-^ai ffig-*! «4 ~* : 1^«5. Za. The argument follows closely that of (a) above. and so a^{a^!^) = 1. 05^ ai a^ir: agTT CtyTT : l^ag. 04 -> 04. Let f^.

are permutations. that if G is a simple group and ful. the right transversal of the kernel of it. it Then the kernel i. Next we must show that Thus is is one-to-one. If x G X. is faithful if the only normal subgroup of G which is contained in ¥= G. 7. by definition. This means that K is contained in H. tt is automatically faithThis implies. then air = i. The object now is Let G be a group and H a subgroup of G. 7 a mapping onto Y.2: is of a if group G with respect to a subgroup We know Theorem H {1}. we define a: Xi^ X^ by sending Xi G Xj to X2 S X2 if Hxi — Hx2. Solution (Hard. 2. Nn = {l}.e. a is then a one-to-one correspondence.222 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Since a is [CHAP. Hxg' H(xa}g Hence (xa)y follows. giT2 — ! We need only verify that (x^)a = {xa)~i for each at G X. X = 1. Let Zj be a transversal for in G and jt. H tt G with respect to H. : jtfxfi' = = li{xp) = = H({xlS)a) fl^((a. then A^ cKerTr. then is contained in H. the of onto itself. ff Hence as {f if2)6 (Xa)(f2e). Prove that Gti-i and Gn-2 are isomorphic as permutation groups. as the To complete the proof of the kernel of the homomorphism is a normal subgroup of G. and so xax~^ Thus xa = x which means x{aiT) G H. H X K x = a. Hence a-n xax~^ GN.e. then Hxa = Hxax~^x Since N is normal. Suppose that a G N. we must show that K is the largest normal subgroup of G contained in H.e. Let g-iri = /?.(c7r) = M. f 16/29 = (/i«)(/29). Let G be any group and a subgroup of G. then i.. Let be a coset representation of yes — ever faithful? to find the kernel of tt.) H H Since X^ and X^ contain one and only one element in each coset of H in G. To do this it is sufficient to prove that if N is any normal subgroup of G contained in H. then if x G X. In particular on putting and xGX. Of course K. Before proving Theorem 7. xa ranges over Y. Hence e is an isomorphism. This observation has been useful in the theory of finite groups. i = 1. H H Proof: Let if X be is prove that identity If K mapping First we in G from which tt was defined. i. of G contained in H. We define Gtti -* Gjr2 by (gTri)ii — gir^. Accordingly = X for all x G X t iV cK as required.It is easy to check that ^u is a mapping.Thus 9 is a homomorphism. /J.a)y) Also. . i.5 a. For then. Suppose that /]» = /29. if of tt is the largest normal subgroup N<G and HdN. x/j = xf2 from which /i /2. 1 -n-.10.e. aGK = 0. = (»/?)« as they are elements of X2 that belong to the same coset. But iV is contained in H. Now by definition of y8 and a.2. FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM The kernel Is of a coset representation tt a coset representation that the answer 7. the corresponding coset representation. and (/i9)(/29) it follows that as x ranges over X. Hxg. Hence a&H. theorem. the set of all elements g of G such that g-rr = i. for example. — and Hxa — Hx. The result 7. (xa)(fie) = (xfi)a = = (Xf2)a Since a one-to-one. -n- should be noted that from this theorem it follows that is the identity subgroup. the only normal subgroups of G are G and the identity subgroup.

-> 1. _» CT b. a^. Let (a) — {'. I ~* T.2. a -> i. a transversal and the associated coset representation.: . P -n- H Z Let If a. H H Solution: (a) A right transversal of i/ in 7.12. ( (^ CT. Since G = HuHaUHor^. and so v is not faithful. T ~^ i Clearly Ker i.2 ^ „2 ^ . c^ -^ ct^ It tion of follows immediately that n.3412. t}. a^. T -* T TTT'. i~^T. ff2 (Tiff)!?- 1 0-. . 2 -^ 1.2^ (. cr^} and (6) Then the elements of G are i.^ = (. o^t. a. Let G be the alternating group of degree 4 and let H be the 3 1 subgroup consisting of the permutations a ^2 2 1 3 4\ /I 2 4 4\ n ' 2 3 3 2 r 1^ 4 sj' \3 2) [a Find an associated coset representation of Solution: ^ . G X and g G G.^ : [ (t2. denote the right regular representation of G. aV TjTT : I (T^. -> T {(j'^t)it '.2. 2 -» 3. a2 -^ ff2 . 2 3 4\ ^^ /I 4\ ^3 /I 2 3 3 2 ^. (rg(T)jr : i ff. Our idea is to express p in terms of tt. every coset representation has kernel precisely H.r = {i}. <7 ^ _» <r2^ 5. r) is given by iTT : I -* -* -* I. 2 3 Is this representation faithful? /I '•.. Then Ker tt = by Theorem 7. since the only element is I. X mapped to the identity permuta- 7.2^ a^jT : I -» a2. Finally we list the permutations gtr with g in G: It follows H H «r CTir : I ^ -> -» -* -* I.ct2}. Find also the kernels 9V{^) of both representations. CT -» CT. ot.r-^l i air <T^3r : I t.£r Of course xg need not X. In each case find a coset representation of G with respect to H. immediately that a right transversal of in G is X = {i.' H = (4 ij- T^- ^^ -^ = 2 4 consists of the elements coset representation. a. The coset representaassociated with the right transversal {i. So fl^ is normal in G. 2. _» j^ ^ _> j. 3 -» 1. Let G : : 3 -> 3. The associated I ^ I. ^gj. a (T (t2ct). be the symmetric group on {1. permutational representation v is H7 : X is a right transversal of H in „2 _» g. 7. a^ -* <r2 ^^ . <r cr. a CT ^ -> a^. Let v be the associated It is easy to check directly that is normal in G. a -^ a.7- : i (T. Notice that t~i<7t — a~'^ = <fl. a^}. CT ^ I.11. (.2 : 1 I.2 CT (t2<''^)tt : I -* a^. Sec. -» "* -» a (T ^ -> t.*^ 3 1 / ' 4\ (2143.5] FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM 223 Problems 7. o^ ct2 ^ -^ -> a^ J t^tt : i -> -» i. jT Hence by Theorem tion G is {i. T T -* T (<rr)7r : -* r. j^ a2 -> ff (•rsCT^).is faithful. r -* i : t I. (5) Let X={(. G. t}. t. -> ct^. a^ -» a (ct^tJtt : i -» ct. <r. = — gpia) — {i. . -» CT^. Let a 1 -* 2. a.^ . ^ -» a (. (T a^ -» ^2 a^ -> a^ ct2 i : i CT.(t. a ^ a. (tjct2)^ : ( ^ (. Frobenius' theorem Let be a subgroup of G. . G with respect to H. Hence the kernel of . 3}. and let t 1 ^ 2. lie we have x(gp) in = a.= {i.

Then (hax.lax.h{x{gp)) = hux.g{x{g-)).)).gx(gTr) {7. = then {ax.x) is Thus g<7 is a mapping of HxX onto HxX. x{g7r)) let g eG Proof: The proof is an adaptation of the discussion of the last few paragraphs. we compute gagX. Finally h'ax.g . Let of G as a group of pera faithful representation and X) defined by (the cartesian product of is Ha Z H {h. x') and therefore we find x = x' and ha^.S) Thus (fif<T)(fl'A) = ge {7-9) . know. But gX is also onto since permutation of HxX.g.x)ga)gX = (hax.x)ga = {hax.e.x) = {h. It remains to verify that ga This means that one-to-one.5) Now {hx){gp) any element of G can be expressed in the form hx for h . that xg belongs to the same coset as xg. x'{g-n)) then Since {h. for a.x'). i. x')g(T. {h.224 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. For each TT be the coset representation with respect to which is defined as the permutation g-Tr gives rise to a permutation gX of H HxX *°"'*'^^' {h. = Suppose {h.g = Hence ga is a permutation of HxX. Sup- {hax. First with right-transversal X. Let G be a group and H in G. Hence xg = axg where Now a is clearly dependent on x and g.g of H) and what happens to x (it goes to x{g-K)).g from which h-h' and {h.g. x) — {h'ax'.x)ga HxX.g.g x{g-n). however. x{g-. if g xg GG.g.6) This equation suggests that the effect of gp on an element hx of G can be explained by what happens to h (it goes to the element hax. e H) For each gGG define is {h. pose that {h.xGX) {7.hxg .5). and we denote it by Ux.x{g. x)gX = {hax. x) GHxX.x){g\) = {h.4) x(gp) or = ax. (hx){gp) & H and x G X. it follows from x{gTr) = proved that gX is one-to-one. = x'.g we have xg = ttx.7) Note that gX is a permutation of H xX.g.a ax.g.x){gd) = {hax. Then there mutations of HxX be a right transversal of subgroup of G. x)g<T = (fe'. We express this formally in the following theorem which is due Theorem 7. Therefore = (hax. x) We verify that ga a permutation of {hax. 7 We a€: H.T)) g^r is a permutation of X.l.x'){gX) {h'. Hence we have is Clearly gX then a Now as we saw in {7. {heH. For if {h.x){gagx) = {{h.x){gX) = = {h'.g.3: (essentially) to Frobenius.gxg (7. Substituting ux. x'{gTr) g-rr is that x onto X.x) = {h'. x{g7r)) (T'.g){x{g^)) {7.

92(a. «(«ia2)) = {hax. i.g2{xa^) {7.17) and (r. g^ of H x X. x){g^eg^B) = x)g^e)g^e = = {hax.xX. but it can be shown that in a sense this dependence does not matter.13) - Applying {7. with x that g^ g^ = l(sr^p) = ai.3 a Frohenius representation {with respect Of course 6 depends on X as well.g^axa^. g6 is a permutation of HxX. we must show that To accomplish this we use equations {7.iS) are equal.) To facilitate where g is an element of G.x)ge = {hax. {7.10) we introduce the following notation: two permutations. ^ is one-to-one.e. x)g^B = from which Using equation (7.g^g^.8). 1).xa) {7. {7.i4) equal to the right-hand side of {7.9i92(^"3) {7-17) Also from(7. It {h.Sec. the right-hand sides of {7. Then for all pairs (/i. {g ^7r){g ^tt) «\<^2 — {g^g^-n "3 so that {7. Assume g^e = g^B. (xa. we must show that the right-hand side of (7.15) is To prove that 9 is a homomorphism.)6 (Note that the left-hand side of {7.a3) This means {xg^)g2 = ax.g^axcc^. follows and therefore ^ is a homomorphism.9) Equations and {7. (A.11) j'ield {h. and in particular.10) G G.19) = 1.5] FROBENIUS' VARIATION OF CAYLEY'S THEOREM 225 As both ga and g\ are permutations Let g^.a^axai.9i(a.g.g^.g^.gj(l(fifj7r)). ^«^ {^-H) On the other hand. we have {hax. 7.12).18) Since a^CPjSr^) = {xg^)g2.12) twice and {{h. x) = (1.)a2) {hdx. if {h. IS) once.3. x)&B.i5).9. Thus {7. This completes the proof of Theorem We to H).g^axa^.g^axoiyg^.7r) = \{g^^) {7. ai^^^ = a^.^^ and l(sr. We must show that {9M9S = i9.6) and obtain X{9i92) = a:i:. we see that = l(flrjp) = ai.g^. we have (hax.x){g^g^e = xa^ {7.5) and {7. {7. Thus 7.15).g^ClCM) Using {7. {X9i)92 = («x.10) is the product of the proof of {7.))fir2 = ax. {h.19) we conclude = g^.16) x)fif2(9 only remains to show that & is one-to-one.g2i{Xa^)a2) = a:c.12) Note that as tt is a homomorphism. again on using {7. .5) sr. Xa^)g^e {h. {7.ff.gia:r«j. call the homomorphisnn 6 of Theorem 7.

T2<r. As an illustration of the procedure we calculate Ot.12. A right transversal of H in G is X— {i. aO (h.a^) i) G H) G H) & H) (h 7.0^(Ka2). a) a2) (h (ft (<rr)9: (ft. x) {hGH. a. i). a) ^ (ft. (A. i(<T77-)) = (h(T.a^. r3CT2 H= ti.gxg to calculate ax.tr2T ff = a2 — = = I "t. (h (ft G H) G H) aH re : -^ (ft.t) (/i. {h. a = i.13. the subgroup H Solution Here and G {1. ^ (hr.a^) ^ (ftr. r) (fe. In particular. x) -* {h. The results. t) G H) e H) tB (aT)e (ft. ct^} a right transversal of above. T20-2. .o-2T = = = 1 <72 <T We use the definition of e given in the statement of Theorem 7. »f a. c). T3. 0.o.T). 2. (ft.a). . ct2. a^) -^ (ftr.T).3. xG X) (h (ft.a2 — = = L Ot.T)-^(/l..a^). i) ^ (ha. consists of I. Similar calculations lead a.0-2 ra to = a-. -* (ha. -^ (h. Solution: (o) {1. (ft. a. (aMtf: ^ (ftr.i)^(h.T)-*(/ur2. r}. sc) ^ (ft. (6) 'where (ffijr2 ^ G). (h. i). Describe in detail a Frobenius representation for the symmetric group on groups given in Problem 7. <T^. The Frobenius (ft. rj.i) (ft.i "t.. „) -> (ftr.: 226 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. (A. 7 Problems 7.11(a). Describe in detail the Frobenius representations for the alternating group of degree 4 relative to given in Problem 7. a.. a) (ft.GH) (h (h.14. ^ (ftr. f= t. = r.. T -* I We and can now calculate the effect of go for each g in G.. a^). (ft. The effect of tt on given in the solution of Problem 7. 1) (ft. (h. (ft. ar.t ttT. Let e be the faithful rep- G are a. i) G H) (ffisr2)*> One could check that 9 is a homomorphism by inspecting (gie)(g2f) and The above description of e immediately shows that S is one-to-one. The Frobenius representa- tion e is then described as follows: . Tjff.o- or a2 «T.a)-*(h. t). -» (A(r2.o-. (h. a^r We o^T use the formula xg ax. <T^) ae: (h. -^ (ftr. (ft.1 a. a) : (ft. xG X) (h. Now we have to — t and ar. a) -* (ftr.r) -> (A(r2. T. Tj(72. . ''('"r)) = C^"^. are HT TTT £r is = CTjT = = (a2)jr : I -^ I. 1) (ft.a = tot — a^. Here H— {1.g. t) is resentation of G on H X X described = = {i. T2. . t) for all h €. 3} relative to the sub- The set X- {i. T -* r = {aT)-!r (cx^T)Tr : I -> T.a^)^(h.<) (ftSH) (ft.)^(ha. Note that l = i.O-T ^2 a aT.<)^(ft. x) (hen. a right transversal of then given by :fl : H in G. (h. — := t «< . H in G. 4) t) -> {ha.i)ae = (fcaj_o. e is representation X. tj}. a). is given by X= {i. Since tw = a^r. TgCr. 0. a^ = i. Ti. a^. repeated here for convenience.11(a) and (b). <t2). H We list the effect of the permutations ffff for the elements of G. of = t.T at jO-T a.o. The elements of (. (ft. (ft. a)..i) (h.T)ae = (/lo^. t) -^ (/Kr2.ard.

(h.l{a^a^)){tS---{tJ) = Oi.n. cr) {h.<. . 1. 9 = si' • si" Theorem Proof: |S| 7. 0. {h. (h. .TT (tj) — a^..^.Xj) of H in G. • GX where x G X. Suppose H is a subgroup of finite index in G.l)m = Hence ^ = i.3.i)-^(h. (fe. If h&H.*„. i = HxX (see Theorem 7.h = fe so that we have (1..<r). By repeated applications of the definition of the action of gO in {a. -* (hrz.a^).c).)^{hrj..).^. i) & H) & H) & H) G H) G H) S H) (h (h (h (h (h (h (h. then h = t^ t^. (h. a^) (hra.... . x) -* (h. APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS Subgroups of shall give 4.. (h.o^) i) (h..a)^{hT2.a^). is very useful.)-^(hT3. . = «:>•••<" i (. (h.. Let S be a finite set of generators of G.) -* {hr^. i) „e: <fie: (h. tg ••• aioj.a^).t we have number Since a^. .a).a). Let e be a Frobenius representation of G with respect to H given in Theorem 7. h with s^. Put t. {h. . then ft = 1 and ai. . a^) -^ (h. «„_!. . n. x e X) {h. a) 7. {h. l{a^. (h. a'') (Jlr^. S H) & H) G H) {Tso)e: (T3(T2)ff: {h.ai).la. . a^) TgU : (h. a^) (h.=±1) . (h.4 (O.a^G S^. x). a^) -^ (h. the of such elements is at most 2mj.i.i)-*(hri. (h..s^G S i. if there there are elements such that for each g = ±1) such that and integers e^. H is finitely generated.i)m = {i. .a).3) we have {l.. Schreier) : A subgroup of finite index in a finitely generated group is finitely generated.a)->{hr2. Sec. o^) -* {hr^.. a) {JiT^.. . ff2). finite index we Frobenius' representation. <).-a^) for each expressed h as the product of elements of the form . m.. o) r^e: (r2<r)e: -» (/lT2. (h.. homomorphism. is a finite .)-*{hTi. o^) (/iri. i).^) (h. a^) {T20^)e : ^ (hT2.<r^). 1). = sl\ = 1.. i) -^ (/1T3. .a^) -^ {hri. Here one application of this representation. 7.o^) ^ ^ ^ ^ (hTi. . c) (h {h {h.i)-^{h. subset Sj.a)^(/lT3. a). Notice that j < «> by assumption. e„ (e^ S (# 0) of G EG . although only a variation of Cayley's. . But h can be written as with = .a)^(h.a)-*{hri. . a) ^ ^ ^ (hri. l){he) = {h. Since 6I is a {i. with x^ the identity. (fc..c)-^{hT2. (h.s^GS.a).i){tMh&) Let t.). a) (h&H) {h Tie: (ria)9: (Tia^)e: (h. 1 —i — n. .<r^). tibial.6] APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS (h. a) (hri. Choose a right transversal X — {x^. and t = s-^ where s GS This means that As = j and |S| = m. a) {h.... (h G H) (h. (A.)..^a. (h.a)^(h. {h.}{t^e)---{tj) = ia.. a^) -^ {JlT^. s^. 227 i9 : (h&H. |Z| In other words ttx. Let G be a finitely generated group.i). . First we recall a definition given in Chapter Definition: A group G is finitely generated if it can be generated by a finite set. {h.a^) -^ (hr^. . i) ^ (hra.e. (h. .6 a.i)^(hT3.^.

x €lX The number of these elements is jm. without the assumption that \X\ and \S\ are finite. Let G be the symmetric group of degree 3 and let of generators of described above. in G is Clearly G can be generated by a and t.s. \H\ = 3. . then 'D G and is not of index 2 as initially assumed.6a we have actually proved that S. xg{xg)-^ Therefore the elements that a.g = ff.s. Let y O'x. Let G be any group and let H he a subgroup of G of index two elements. where s&S. ax.11(a). then a^. 1.e. Now a subgroup of index 2 in any group is = {i.e. We recall that if g denotes the representative of the coset Hg.16. then H can be generated by three elements. Thus every element of G can be written in the form he or h (he H). with t = = = s or t = s-^.4 j in G.i(ii)-» generate =^ xs~^s {7. 7.r.a — T(r(fa)~^ = = TaT~^ T^ = I a^ a^^T = ttr.g is defined by xff We = O-x. page 264. H a I H H X H Off.c = lc(Tc)-l = CC-l = j. Theorem 7.s-^ is the inverse of ay.3). To do so observe that we have proved that the elements ax.s Thus H is actually generated by the elements a^. x €l X. Moreover. A right transversal of = {t. then ys x and = xs~^sx-^ = ys(ys)-^ = ay. H is generated by ax. t}.15.13.l)j elements. Thus if is of index 2 in G. page 224). If both c and d are in H. is normal in G.<j.t generate H. ai. c} is a right transversal of in G. s and &S.- = aa~^ = = Tf~^ 0. This means that {1.T ~ is TT{ff)~^ = Thus we find that i.228 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Remarks about the proof of [CHAP. have actually proved that if G can be generated by m elements and H is of index then H can be generated by 2jm elements.) i. <r. a. H H H be a subgroup of index 2 in G. where x is an element of a right transversal X of H in G.s'^ = xP^^. (In fact one can lower this bound and prove that H can be generated by 1 + (to . Then the cosets of in G are and He. Therefore G is generated by the elements H H H H H H »l. Prove that if G can be generated by Suppose that G is a group generated by c and d and that is a subgroup of index 2 in G. a^ and a^^^.gXg (equation (74). s E: Note that in Section 7.s. 7 b. Find the set Solution: use the description of G in Problem 7. Hence since this is the only subgroup of order 3 in G. Note = xs~^s = X X by equation page 219. Solution : 2. This means that ax. a^ generate H. For a proof of this result see Theorem 8. it is not difficult to reduce this number to jm. Without loss of generality we may suppose that c ^ H. Of course H actually generated by a alone. Problems 7.d Hence H is generated by the three elements a^^^. and so is generated by We normal. a^}. Cfc. However. ae.

b}. Find a set of generators for 2V in terms of a and generated by Na and G/N is (Hard. c.. a^ and oba^i.19. b. with « aba~i.b^. ba-^ S N. with Then generators of H H are the a^^^ (« ^X and In case (2).aba-\a^). Prove that if a group G of index 2 can be generated of index 2 which contains a subgroup by two elements. c}. The generators of X .6] APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS 229 7. Since either c = generators in terms of a and b thereby obtaining a set of genor c= b. then every subgroup of Solution: Let H be generated by gp(b. Then the elements a^-^j. . (2) g-pCa. Thus H is {l. Using (^. be H. and so Hj is a subgroup of a The generators of i/g are ab. Hence show Solution: Let (1) H be a subgroup of index 2 in G. {. b^ + z and b" are generators for Hg.a. (3) gp{ab. c. Hence ab. Thus N is generated G o. = a'a{a'a)-^ = aMa''^')~^ = 1 If a> s = c. Thus Hj can be generated by two elements. b') jg cyclic generated by c. as it cyclic group. oba-i = b*" and a^ = b^ for some integers r and ba = H^ Thus H = H^.a-^ca. say.) H is cyclic.b^) = Hj. Since We have (7. c}. a. = . is The generators of Hg are a.18 the possible subgroups of index 2 are (1) = (2) gpia. b. a^. s.gi) we conclude that ab. bab-i. But ffpCb"".. . If = {l. aP-ca~^.a^ba-^a^) 7.aba-i. b).20) (7. Put c are the elements Clearly gp{a. b€ H.} are a set of generators for AT. s S S). . In case (1) a^H. .) Solution: It is clear is b. all possible subgroups of index 2.Sec.b^-^. Find generators for has at most three subgroups of index 2. ff is the cyclic group generated by them would actually be equal to G. we can restate this set of erators of G of the desired kind. = a' and and s - a. b}. . gen- 7. proceeding as in (1) X= {1. (Hard. Take X= {1.s . b. iV contains b and and let Find a A^ set of generators for be a normal subgroup of G of index 3 with in terms of a. and S = Then aca"! and a^.^. aca-^. G/N = gp(Na).20)...bab-^. a2ba-i(a6) and a^ are generators for Hg. From Problem 7.17.a±2. b2). s G S) If X a.20. put (JVa)" for some integer w. G X and s e S. b. bab-^ and b2. So the possible subgroups of index 2 are: (1) gp(b. a^ba~^. so Hg is generated by two elements and the proof is complete. (3) gpiab. b^ is and bab"!. (3) Then we may have a^H. b and e.a^ba~i. a^H. Ox.a^) b and suppose that H^.1.a=ti.c} and X= by {l. X. ab = e H. It follows that G= gp(a. G Let G be generated by a and b.a^) Clearly b ^ H^ or H^. But sfp(bs + 2. b^) is cyclic generated by c. a'ciaJc)''^ = a'ca-' Hence the elements ba"^ aca~^. c) = G. such that G/N Let G be generated by a and 6 and suppose that iV is a normal subgroup of G infinite cyclic. Nb = c = b. H is generated by {a. bab-i = (ba)b-i = a-ib'— i from generated by a. say.. On the other hand if b e N. . 7. then since in G. as then each of b. a}.a} take generated by X= c and S = {a. Suppose N Solution: Choose erate AT. a^ba'^ and a^.a2}.2i) = a-^b^ and a2 = b^ (7.} is a right transversal of that = fta""". In case (3). c) c. b^ H. (2) a€H. S= {a. Let G = gp{a. N b^N N Oj-s = xs{xs)~^ {x €.18. generated by c. 7. We therefore take S = {a.

as g ^ K. . To prove this. since it is the composition Note also that if H and K are two subgroups of index j and H ¥= K.. of finite index j in a finitely generated group This theorem may where n<oo.230 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Marshall Hall's theorem [CHAP. e(g-jTj ^ e and hence 1*. . Then the number of subgroups of G .4). for \G\ = \G9\ = |G/Ker6i| and hence Ker9= {1}. Then P9 = P. .5: The number of subgroups finite. such that e G Sx„ moves e or leaves it fixed according as to whether 94. One consequence Let of Theorem 7. tells us that for a special class of Theorem 7. . Let 7r„ be the coset representation of G with respect to the transversal X^ (see Section 7. but as P has an element of order p. then 9 = all • • • '^l' S = -1' ^j e • • {1. if P is a p-Priifer group (see Section 6. . This completes the proof of the theorem. is it possible to have a homomorphism 9 of G onto G with 6 not an isomorphism? For example. d. The second application of permutational representations is due to Marshall Hall. such that a^<i> = a^9 for i = l.. . 9 are homo. Then every homomorphism of G onto G is an automorphism. 7 c. x G P. Accordingly 1*„ = 1. then cj> = 9.. the finitely generated group G choose a right transversal Z^ (we emphasize that X„ contains the identity of G).. is finite. . Then eignjj) = e for e{g7r^) = eg = e as g G H (see Section 7. is a homomorphism of G into S. It follows that 9 is an isomorphism. Thus *„ ^ ^^ if ^ ^ •^ : Note that *^ = -n-j. 9 is not an isomorphism. moves 1 or leaves it fixed (see Problems 7. ¥. be the symmetric group on 1.^^ of two homomorphisms. For each subgroup of index j in . If G is not finite.5 6 a homomorphism of G onto G.22 below). Let G finite <f> . is Theorem 7.1. page 191). Proof: Let S. . let P ^ P be defined by x9 = px. then *„ ¥. we shall write the identity (for this proof alone) as e. : ^^ G-* S. . On the other hand. Since |Z„| = j. .21 and 7. a^. -* S. If ^. ^ = 9. I. &H ^K We have therefore found that the number of subgroups of index j in G is certainly not greater than the number of homomorphisms of G into S.6 (A. Mal'cev): be any finitely generated group whose subgroups of index have intersection 1.4).2c.j. This is where the fact that G is finitely generated comes in.*^. of index j Suppose be restated as follows: Let G be a group which is generated by ai. H homomorphism of G into Sx^^. &G. Thus we have e e X^.^ Sxj. it is easy to prove that there exists an isomorphism 4. n. a„ j is a fixed positive integer. G be a finite group and 6I : In the following theorem we prove a result which groups every onto homomorphism is an isomorphism. . This means that the number of homomorphisms of G into S is finite since the number of possible images of the generators of G is finite (at most (j !)"). morphisms of observe that if G g into S. . . Then tt^ is a . For suppose G is generated by Cj.n} and <j> g4> = iai^<j>)^ • • (tti^^)'" = (ttij^)'' • {ai^9)'" = fi-e Since and ^ agree on every element of G. . for there exists an element g but g (or vice versa). To avoid confusion between the number 1 and the identity of G.

. so is HCiK. G ^ and so the number of subgroups of index of index j in G.18. Prove that * in . . Solution: Kg.n}). X2} -^ {1. 7. general there exists an isomorphism n between S^^ ^nd ^i^ — ^j' t*^™ *(*i") — } (Use Problems 7. Prove that there exists an isomorphism Kjfl /i between S^^ ^ 1 and S2 such that page 221.2\ Xja = j. j and = Xj. Problems 7. by Corollary 4. If a coset of H e HgnKg if H is of index n and K is of index m. .« = «.e. . X and a coset of K have an element g in common. im define a permutation effect.. Lk page 117. Thus fi permutation of {x^.20. /i provide an isomorphism is the required isomorphism...2. Therefore HnK is of finite index in G if both H and K are.2.7t} be defined by XiS ».9. Solution: Let a : {xi.. . then the two cosets are Hg and and only if x — hg — kg. Thus xGHgnKg if and only if xG(HnK)g.. and is an automorphism.- Sec.»„}-» {1. . this intersection is 1. . In particular Let MJK. . then the number of subgroups of G of index j is finite.8 and i 7. Sn is a perclear then that /i is onto S„.8 and 7. the number of subgroups be these subgroups of index j in GIK..Mk are k distinct subgroups of index j in G. Mi's are simply a rearrangement of the Li..6] APPLICATIONS TO FINITELY GENERATED GROUPS 231 is of be the kernel of ^ and let L be any subgroup of finite index in G..) } *id S„ such that if Solution: Let to be the a : {ajj. .. 2.8 _ and 7. i. If coset of jBT. .. . But hg = kg if and only if A = A.9. ..„}. Then HgnKg (Hf\K)g and the two cosets meet in a coset of HnK. Hence prove that H and H intersects a coset of K either in the K are of finite index in G. So intersection of the subgroups of finite index.». . It is of permutation groups.21. .23. j = 1. Then . for any coset (HnK)g = HgnKg and so is the intersection of a coset of H by a coset of K.1 } e S^x .22. Accordingly ^ is one-to-one. mutation of {1. then i{eii) = j.. MJK L D K This means that every subgroup of finite index contains K.) if e G S^^. Hence K is contained in the By hypothesis. by Theorem 4. K = 1. page 121. . 2} be defined by a. and hence a. If S G S^^ ^ . Thus the Ml. for some h G H and k & K. G4. j if = Xj (as 9 is a 7. . . <j> This theorem is important in current research in group theory.. . at most nm cosets can be found as intersections of a H with a coset of Furthermore these are all the cosets oi HnK. Z/2..9) (X 2^ 1 /i V*2 V2 Then a. hsHnK. (Hint: see Problems 7. isomorphism Problems and therefore is an isomor- phism with the required 7. L\. Therefore every Li is an Mi and so contains K. define e/iSS^ mapping that sends i^ . Let these subgroups be K L = Now. Let /i be defined by '«! aJi _ /I \1 x^) 2\ 2/' (see /«! X2\ ^1/ 7. j in ^ GIK GIK is precisely k. If L Proof: Let index j. Prove that if H and K are subgroups a coset of of G. then each coset of if empty set or in HnK.

We will explain in Section 7. Therefore If g G is some coset of easy to see that this expresin G. the isomorphism of H onto K. K is of finite index by repeated application of Problem 7. G/M is Suppose the not isomorphic with G/N. ({> H Z H G. x~^gx e Mg^. are n distinct subgroups of index j. Hence they must be all the subgroups of . 7. if G/H onto K. 7 7. It sion for g is unique. {Ng){fig) = Me is the identity of G/N. 7. It is convenient to generalize this concept and to say that G is an extension of with by K if G has a subgroup = and G/H s K. Now h is uniquely determined by g and x. for some i. Prove that G = H. a set of elements of be a left transversal of containing one and only one element from each left coset of i? in G with 1 G X. (Hard. EXTENSIONS General extension Suppose G is a group with a normal subgroup and that G/H = K.g because here we are dealing with left instead of right cosets. G is an extension of by K.x correspond to the elements Ux. Then if 9 ^ G. i.5.x instead of ax.26.) Hence MjOMan nM„ = K is a normal subgroup of G. x-'^gx G x-'^M^x. Let in G. say the H gx for some h = yh G H. It is our aim to investigate how a group is built as an extension of one group by another. Let and be unequal normal subgroups of a finitely generated group G. This contradiction yields the required result.25. Prove that N M MdN.. 7. Then jiS is a homomorphism of G/N onto itself. intersection of the subgroups of finite index in G/N is the identity. x-^M„x index j (perhaps in a different order). H H H H H H morphism G In this section let G be a fixed group and be an isoa normal subgroup of G. Prove that the intersection of G is a normal subgroup of finite index.) all subgroups Solution: By Theorem . . Let of G/H onto K.6.e. x-^MzX. X = {Xk\ kGK} . . 90 is an isomorphism.232 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Let [CHAP.5b. Let e : G -^ and H and G H be two groups and suppose that G satisfies the conditions of Theorem -^ G be epimorphisms. Let H Solution: 90 9 '^ "^t is an epimorphism of G to itself and so by Theorem 7. we denote h by nig. g(8<i>) 7^ 1 and thus ge ¥= 1.g introduced in Section 7. Solution: Let e G/M -* G/N be such an isomorphism. it finite number of subgroups.^ = In particular then. G has only a }. For if g e G. M„ . Now if is easy to prove that x-'^Mx = iW is also of index j. of index j. <f>: 7. Thus (7. x-^M„x. M^. gH by Xk (gH).6. easy to verify that /< is an epimorphism. But . Therefore 6 is one-to-one and e is an isomorphism of GtoH. Thus x'^gx G K and so K < G.. : : It is M 7. M is any subgroup of index of M are Mgi.x mg.6. iiS is an isomorphism.23. .Mgj. iBx-^g^x. x-^MiX. . x G X. . implies that g G x-'^Mxx~^giX = Mx-^g^x. Let /i G/N -* G/M be defined by Ng -^ Mg. is a one-to-one mapping of the set of left Therefore we can unambiguously denote the representative of the coset k. (If the cosets M • • . Theorem 7. using the terminology introduced in Chapter 5..22) gx = ymg. the cosets of are Mx-^g^x. g = xh for some x €:X and some h G H. . say. . . for \i g & K and x&G..7c the minor reason why we use left cosets here. With this notation. (We use mg.24. . then gx belongs to coset yH where y GX.. Let g GG. then . G of index j in be finitely generated with a subgroup of index j. xx = 1.Mx-^gjX.) The elements Note that cosets of <f>. By — N. Now if g G Thus fie is not an isomorphism.x.7 a. Then.

Since transversal for <] jG| =6. (The effect of ka is to map h to h''. Problems 7. k G H & We suppress the x's and write mk. The right-hand-side of (7. then Xkh-Xk'h' = Xkk'nik. the rep- resentative of the coset XkXwH a.ic' where k. k') G under this mapping m. ffs). and the mappings and a an extension G of hy K.x. while ra sends a^ to ct2i "2 t° ''i ^^^ "3 *° "3- .. Let G group of order above. 2. as can be easily checked.{Xk'H)4> {7. (See A.) Indeed and a determine G up to isomorphism (see Problem 7.k' KxK KxK GK .k' to denote the image of {k.fc' Then.for ajkajfc' mX|^.. G. let us turn to the elements h^. Thus.26.x. H (7. let H— {<ri. = [{XkH)(xk'H)}4> is Xkw. namely the mapping which sends an element fe in I? to the element h In a way then the group G is made up of two mappings: It specting appears from equation is determined by the {7. To express the product two elements Xkh and follows: • Xk-h' as the product of an element of X by an element of H.k' in H as the images of a function m of two variables (coming from K) with values in H. where we use mk.Sec. ta is the identity mapping of H onto H. mk.7] EXTENSIONS 233 Notice that as {XkXk'H)cj. G/H Then is of order 2 and thus a cyclic group of order Then. m K m H The Theory of Groups. t} be a left H in G. where mx^. Kurosh. If we add enough conditions to these mappings. page 75.k'h!' h' {7.4f H .. For each k we have a mapping. 2 A) looks less complicated if we introduce the ocr for hxr. A. for details. Solution: be the dihedral group of degree 3. a mapping a of K into a set of mappings a mapping of H into H. we proceed as Xkh'Xk'h' — XkXr Xk' hXk'h' = Xkk'tnk.k' = aJkk-mk. G H. Continuing with this analysis. by forming xj hxk'.25) G of i? by X that we have been inand by the images li of the elements h obtained by conjugation by the x^. Vol. (1) (2) m from KxK into H. one can reverse the procedure we have been outlining and construct from H. In other words.fca:.7c).22) = kk' where k. of H into H. find the mappings -m and a introduced Using the notation of Section 3. G is an extension of a cyclic group of order 3 by a cyclic 2. a^. Hirsch. G. k' G K. = ixkH)4. from k k we have fc = Xkk'm.k'Xk' hXk'h' {7.x^. After choosing a suitable left transversal.k'GK. ka say.25) that the extension mk.23) Every element gr in G can be written uniquely in the form Xkh where Xk of & X. we may think of m as a mapping from the cartesian product into H. One may conveniently think of the elements mk.kXk' hxk'h' notation h!" So Xkr € X and Xk^ hxr & H since fl" is a normal subgroup of G. will II. translated by K.e. 2 A) Observe that mk.k.) We (in not tackle the general problem but we will consider only a particular case Section 7. 1960. i. h G H. Let {i.X|^. Chelsea. 7.27).

both extensions of H by K.fc. x' .7a. and let y be such that x~^H = yH.h' — (x. then mx. x' in X.03}. and so X is a subgroup of is a subgroup (Theorem 4. h&H. Consider the particular case where nix. Since < G. <*l — "^3' "J = 1 . H XH distinct cosets of H and so xy — \. a be the mappings obtained above. h G H.fe h')a = {Xkrm^. G Solution: The elements of G are uniquely of the form x^h. Accordingly X. and it follows that if we define mg. Solution: D of order 8 is a splitting extension of a cyclic group of order 4 by We then H is cyclic of use the multiplication table for order 4 since Oj D = given in Problem 7. But every element of G x G X. Let m. Now group of G. G is an extension of with any complement of H. G : (Xkhx^'h')0 - h' (aJfcfc'Wfc.. the product of two elements in X is again in X. G be two groups. since two distinct elements of belong to distinct cosets of H. GX xy = Ivfix. The splitting extension Suppose G is as in Section 7. is mx. we can choose any complement of is a subG. G is said to as a transversal for if G splits over ff. Hence XH = G.-. page 125).x as in Section 7.x' = 1 for all x.6(a).y G H However G. Note that X H in Z X If G splits over H and X is a complement of H.^h)e(x^'h')s G= G.y where mx. By examining equation (7. we have 1 G Z. In other words. if G splits G/H is isomorphic convenient to introduce the following definition. then G = G. It is H by X. we consider the product of two elements of G. HnX = X is called a complement of H.01. Let 02' H = {1. To prove » is a homomorphism.22) xx' — x" i. X H are subgroups of G with XH = G. m and a.x' = 1 for all G X.e. Furthermore. page 220.k^^-h(k'a)h' = x^hx^. where x^eX. that is. of the form xh.28.k'h(k'oi)h')e = x^^.27. Let x G X. Let e G -^ G be defined by (xy}i)e = XiJi. Let X.234 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS Let G. 7 7.. Since distinct elements of X lie in in G and 1 G H. Assume that H is actually a subgroup of both and G.h. We say that a group G is a of G isomorphic to Hi splitting extension of Hi by Xi if there exists a normal subgroup ^ Xu such that G splits over and G/H H H Problems 7.G respectively.X.ni^^^'hik'aW — Thus x^k'rn. Then # is a one-to-one onto mapping. = 1. we have XnH split = {1} Since and over H. then xy £ H. b. then G/H = HX/H ^ X/HnX ^ X over //. while the elements of are uniquely of the form x^. Thus x has an inverse in X. where ic^e. Prove that if m = m and a = a. X {1} and H< H G.7a with as transversal.23. X be transversals of H in G. Prove that the dihedral group a cyclic group of order 2. [CHAP.02.

Then of order 2 with complement a splitting extension of a subgroup = {l. the direct product From this it again follows that E is abelian. then x-^hx = h.17. Since h ^ 1.29. that J?f is a splitting extension of by X. Prove that the quaternion group of order 8 but is not a splitting extension. page 131. Thus the 5. a^H hGH are disjoint. then x is of order 4.19. Since X is of order 4. or by noting that H is of index 2 in D. if possible. x ¥= a^. is abelian. Solution: is a splitting Let E stand for either the dihedral group of order 8 or the quaternion group of order 8. Now suppose e~^he ¥= \. But neither the dihedral group of order 8 nor the quaternion group of order 8 Hence we have a contradiction to the assumption that either of these groups is a If splitting extension of the type described. a contradiction. Then ^/K is of order 2 and hence Therefore contains the commutator subgroup of J^ by Problem 4. page 158). In particular if x&X. Since a^ € H. X is abelian (see Problem 5. normal subgroup of G. K K contains a2 since _ _] -1 Now we must check that if x is any element except 1 and 02 of ^. B is H H X & Now suppose e. Then the subgroup X is of order 2. This implies JK is abelian. f = x"h" x'x"h'h" (x'.x" ex. and is Then is of order 4 and therefore of index 2. Alternate proof: If j?{ is a splitting extension of a subgroup of order 4 by a subgroup of <] ^. page 116. K J{/K is cyclic Now suppose JH splits over any subgroup K of order 4. It follows. 7. the quaternion group of order 8 given in Problem 7. as there are 8 elements in D = Hua^H Finally or Hua^H. a^}. is an extension of a group of order 4 by a group of order Solution We use the multiplication table for ^. h'. page 220.f&E\ e then = x'h'. Therefore <i Jl. X is of order 4 since x ¥= 1.30. then Kr\X = {1} and (Problem 5. Therefore. it follows that the cosets H. This can be done directly. This is a contradiction and K so the desired result follows.h" SH) abelian. Now E = XH. say X = {1. Suppose is a of order 4.31.7] EXTENSIONS 235 Moreover H is a normal subgroup of G. which is a contradiction. Is the alternating group of degree 4 a splitting extension of a group of order 6 by a group of order 2? Solution: By Problem 6. . page 145. then e-^heGH. First let group of and so abelian. it follows that E = XxH. K Thus K is a normal subof order 2. page 140). ^ ^.43. since X < E (as X is of index 2). X H ^ is a splitting extension of H by X of order 2 and 4 respectively. H< E &nd and by Corollary 5. D = {1} XH HnX a splitting extension of = So Z) is H by X as required. the alternating group of degree 4 does not contain a subgroup of order result follows.68. But every subgroup of the quaternion group is normal order 2. K X K X K 7. This can be verified either by direct calculation.16'. If e&E. Thus e-i/ie = /i for all e&E.: Sec. follows that J( is an extension of by J(/K. using the multiplication table for J?f. by Theorem 5. 2. 04 = 1 and so X is a subgroup of D. So the subgroup X is not of order 2. Prove that neither the dihedral group of order 8 nor the quaternion group of order 8 extension of a group of order 2 by a group of order 4.h}. x). thus producing 7.6(b).1. But as we saw above. that Jl = X X. In particular. Now letting that if d e D and X = {1. Alternate proof: HnX = of {1}. it K = gpia^). page 146. checking then rf-ifed G H. 7. then Recall that every element of ef H commutes with every element of X and that X is = x"x'h"h' = x'h''x"h" = x"h"x'h' = fe Thus E is abelian. Clearly an extension of a group of order 4 by a group of order 2. Suppose now.

starting with the data (a). and (c). then a h^h^ {hGH) is itself a homomorphism of into the group of automorphisms of H.7b. Then we observed that the elements of G were uniquely expressible in the form Xkh with kGK. We were given an such that G = and implicit isomorphism of G/H with and we denoted the element in which corresponds to A. Then {7. h G H {7. h)\ kGK. let us take an arbitrary element hGH — and apply the automorphism {kk')a to h: h[{kk')a] = = = = Xkk'hXkk{Xk'^ = {XkXk')''^h{XkXk') since Xkk' XkXk' hy {7. An analysis of splitting extensions G is a splitting extension of hy with complement X.x.7(a).= 1 for all Consequently each element g G G is uniquely expressible in the form Section 7.) We have only to prove that K {kk')a = kak'a {7. g = Xkh where k & K.27) and equation {7.27) Xk^ )h{XkXk') = Xk-^xZ^ hXk)Xk' Xk'^ [h{ka)]Xk' = [h{ka)]{k'a) h[{ka){k'a)] by the definition of the product of two automorphisms {kk')a Thus we have = {ka){k'a) We now What replace A"' by h{k'a) in {7. 7 c. The way in which elements of G are multiplied was then computed by making use of the existence of a homomorphism aof into the automorphism group of and by applying {7. hGH.29) To verify {7. splitting extension of H by K. and m:r.29). All we have to do is to reverse the process To be precise. {7.[1}.30) Xkh'Xk-h' is = Xkk' h{k'a)h' arrived at? We started from a group G which splits over H.27) becomes {7. (This explains why we used a left transversal in Section 7.e. Therefore we may suspect that if we are given the situation we have <}> Then we chose a subgroup X of G XH XnH K X H K (a) a group H. we let K and H. a of Indeed this the case.27). if <G page 85. Suppose now that we may Z H H K Then by x. namely so that the mapping a be a homomorphism.25) becomes Xkhxk'h' = Xuk'h!"'h' For each is kGK the mapping h^h^ {h G H) 3. Finally we remark that the automorphism we let a be the mapping which assigns to each element kGK ka: of H. use as a transversal for in G. (b) i. x' G X.26) {7.57. . be the cartesian product of G = KxH = {{k. G we have described. for H and h'' = Xk' hxk imply. hGH} . in iT by xu.28) that the an automorphism of H. (6) (c) a homomorphism create a is then we can Z into the automorphism group of H.30). by Problem mapping h-^h" {hGH) is an automorphism of H.236 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. a group K.

Therefore There exists an identity the identity of (1.31) is associative: {{k. We note first that {7. h). .. 1) is (1...h")) = = {k._.h') = {kk'. [h{k'k")a][h'{k"a)h"]) By (c) above. [{h{k'a)){k"a)][h'{k"a)h"]) The {7.h{k'a)h') {7.30) {7. [h{{k'a){k"a))][h'{k"a)h"]) {{kk')k". To prove this.Sec. claim that . h) and {7. i(fc 'a)) '.7] EXTENSIONS define a binary operation in 237 We G according to the formula (k.h) since ka is an automorphism of H. .31) {7.h){l. let G G.30) and {7..h") {{kk')k".h){{k'. The reader will note the strong similarity between and by K.31).h) (A.31) obtain Before verifying that G is H Xfchxic'h' = Tikk'h{k' a)h' This equation resembles equation {7.r){k.33). h{ka)). 7.l{ka)h) = = {k. h'{k"a)h") {k{k'k").1) (1.h){k-\h-\k-^a)) Similarly = = (1. that the left-hand 1 in (1.h) = = {k. {[h{k'a)h']{k"a))h") {{kk')k".30) even more closely than {7.h){k'.h).[h{k--'a)][h-\k-^a)]) = (l. 1).h'){k". a is a homomorphism. Let Xk and define ka by h(fca) = (1. We is the inverse of {k. We have thus verified that h~^{k~^a)) is the inverse of {k. defined (ii) The binary operation by {7.l) {k. h (fc .32) Now we work out {k.h){k'. Then {l. h) G G.31) even more evident.h){{k'. of course.h'){k". Finally we must check that every element of G has an inverse. Thus {k. we simply observe that {k. Similarly {k. To check that an identity. similarity of equations {7."'. and so {k'k")a — k'a • k"a. h).33) {k.h){k'k". 1) is K while the right-hand 1 of the identity of H.31) does.h")) = = {k{k'k").32) an associative operation. Then from {7.h{la)l) 1 of f? to itself. {[{h{k'a)){k"a)][h'{k"a)]}h") {7. Let {k.-»a)) an automorphism of H. {k.(M-i)(A. and so maps the {k.h')){k".h{k'a)h'){k".31) is (iii) associative law immediately yields the equality of {7. we will make the a group and a splitting extension of = {k.h") = = = {kk'. and so leaves H identically fixed. in G: (1. We will now (i) prove that G is a group and that it is a splitting extension of H by K.h) since la is the identity (iv) automorphism of H.h){k-\h-\k-^a)) since k~^a is = {l.1) {k-\h-'{k-'a)){k.31) defines a binary operation in G. 1) is Notice. 1) and h = (1. . Thus {7..

since (k. Next we verify that G = is a splitting extension of H by K. this.h)~\k. data (a).1)} and G = as we saw earlier.h')(ik.h'(ka)){l. Solution: Recall that if we are given (a) a group H.l)il.238 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS (i).h^} into its inverse is The mapping which sends each element of an abelian group So if ri : H^H an automorphism is this automorphism. (6) a group K.h. h& H) and define a binary operation in G by {k. then K.h)GH H belongs to H. Thus g~\l. the cyclic group of order 3. h) {k B K.h) = (k. Now if is H H by K (the cyclic H So in the case at hand. H = (check this).h)) l)-i(l. 1) = Since (k. 1) k G K} easy to prove that H and K are subgroups h -^ (1. [CHAP. Consider the set G of all the pairs (fe. l)-i = {k-\ 1). (c) a homomorphism a of Z into the automorphism group of H.l)il. we have group of order 2). then we can construct a group from this data as follows. 1) are isomorphisms of H onto H and K onto K respectively. observe g again that if g gG.h) = (fc. then g-\l. h'{ka)). then = (k. h)\hGH} and K = k -» {{k.l){l.h')g since the_product of elements of = {l.h)) [il.h)-\l. KH Consequently we have iiT. h') G H. (b) and (c) a splitting extension G of ting extension of by K.h) If (1. h)(k'.h) {ik. Now to prove that 5 is a normal subgroup of G. Hence H is normal in G as claimed.h))-\l.h'){ik. l)(l. . of To accomplish \ put H Then it is {(1./i). We need need to know more about the automorgenerated by h. {l. we have (A. Clearly Hr\K= {(1.32.h'){k.l){l. G and that h) and {k. This means in the first place that we phism group of H. h'){k.. emphasize the importance of the above discussion and the related problems which Problems 7.h-'){l. h(k'a)h') Then G becomes a group which is a splitting extension of the group (the cyclic group of order 3) and the group the homomorphism a. h') = (kk'. We follow.h')g = = {k. 7 (ii). Construct a non-abelian group of order 6 as a splitting extension of a group of order 3 by a group of order 2. H H with complement Therefore constructed from the G is a split- The group G that we have constructed is called the splitting extension of H by K via a. (iii) and (iv) above establish in every detail the proof that G is a group. = (1.l)-^]{l.

H K H .h(ka)\) (fe. then hr is of order 10. Let G be the splitting extenby via a. 7. Then Gj. = H K H K H K 7. Solution: gp{hj) be cyclic of order 84 and K^ = gp(k^ cyclic of order 2. To see how some of the elements of ot hy K H K onto gp(v)..2. Construct two non-isomorphic non-abelian groups of order 168. of order 2. 1. 1)(A.Let G combine. and so 1) ^ h). 4. Now both Gj and G2 are non-abelian since \Zi\ = 2. which are extensions of a cyclic group of order 10 by a group of order Solution: The solution of this H gp(h) of order 10. - h^ (i Let t| Tj be the automorphisms defined by the possibilities listed above = 1. sion of H H H H X 7. 1). Thus G is non-abelian and an extension of H by K. 1. = (1. and accordingly we can take a to be the isomorphism of via a. . the splitting extension of H^ by K^. the center Z2 of Gj consists of (1. all possible groups of order 30 3. l(M'i) = (1. namely the mapping t which sends every order 777.i)(fc. into the automorphism group of H. Now Tj — 1.1). So the only possible homomorphism a of a cyclic group of order 3 into the automorphism group of is the one which sends every element of onto the identity automorphism. Therefore Gj and G2 are not isomorphic.7] EXTENSIONS = and so gp(v) is cyclic of order 2. The possibilities for hr . = . Then G is the required group. namely the one which sends fe to t. i. /t|') and is therefore (. hr . (1. Let Hi = morphism of Ki : and K2 Now we construct a second group = gpikz) to be cyclic of order usual.Moreover if G^ and G2 are morphic groups. h^.l) = (k^. hr are therefore = problem requires knowledge of the automorphism group ot the cyclic group If t is an automorphism of H.^2^).35.2i8 = Let G2 be the splitting extension of H2 by K2 via /?. K= Then (k.36. (fc|. 2. mapping . i the 0. of order 2 7. let G be the splitting extension {1. K). 239 Now 7j2 I.Sec. Solution: Form via the homomorphism taking = gpik) of order 2 a splitting extension of a cyclic group of order 111 by a group fe to the automorphism which sends every element of into its inverse. (A:|.. To produce one such group. hr . the cyclic group on fe.33. Now is (fc. Then. they have isomorphic centers.1. = _ K!. The center Zj of Gj is of order 2. of order 168. k}. h) = (A. Construct cyclic iso- 7. h^) which can be easily checked by direct calculation. Then element of to its inverse. 3). Let a be the homointo the automorphism group of H^ defined by fcja iCi^h^ '...A2) (fe. thus none of the automorphisms of is of order 3.e. consisting of (1.2.h){k. The resultant splitting extension oi hy is then abelian (indeed it is isomorphic to the cyclic group of order 30). Thus the groups K and gp(v) are isomorphic. is of order 168. let has an automorphism t of order 2. 1) and (1. 2 of order 4. So there is a homomorphism a of K.42 defined by h2^h2\ = = = Let j8 be the homomorphism of K2 onto gpir) defined by fc'2/3 T'. as the reader may check by direct calculation. Construct a non-abelian group of order 222 by using splitting extensions. l)(fc. t\ = 1. } 0. Here we take H2 = fl'p(^2) to be of order 42 As H2 has an automorphism t: of order 2.34.3 Thus A. 1^2! = ^. Are there non-abelian groups Solution : X 777? be cyclic of There are non-abelian groups of order 2 X 777.

Direct product Consider the special case of a splitting extension G of a group by a group K via « in which a takes K onto the identity group of automorphisms of H. Xngix^)"^ that gr GA since. h) hG H] _and K = {{k. a)ik. Suppose G is special homomorphism G into A. {1}. Ker r = — gp(k) be of order p. Here we will examine one application of the transfer and briefly mention another (at the end of Section 7. Xi. It is easy to check that r is also onto. 1)(1. Recall that if g GG. 1) k G K]. First let m and n (a'"5")7- = amjm + n m~ m' + qp. The obvious usefulness of this construction is that we do not require any knojwledge of the automorphism group of to construct the direct product. a H homomorphism H H \ \ H 7. Hence t is of order p. Solution: (Hard. Construct a non-abelian group of order p3 for each prime p by using splitting extensions.3a. choose a right transversal X of G in A. but {k. then G is the internal direct product of its subgroups and K.Xn be the elements of X. We claim that Let an automorphism of H of order p. say.37.n) This mapping t is the homomorphism of G into A mentioned above. and so t is one-to-one. then g is the element of X in the coset Ag. The transfer is a of G into A. Q ^ s <p Let t: a^b^ -» arfes + r. simply the external direct product of and K. We will not pursue this concept of direct product here any further. The mapping a k' -^^ t' is an isomorphism. Then we form Now let the splitting extension oi hy via a. We repeat an abelian subgroup of G of finite index n. In this case G consists of the pairs {h. k') = {hh'. Therefore \X\ = n. gr It is clear - Xig{xTgy^ • X2g{x^)~^ to the 1. a6). again in the sense of Chapter 5. as Xig and x^ belong same coset of A. n — n' (a'nb")T . . The use of such transfer homomorphisms has been important in the theory of finite groups.. Xig{x^)-^ GA {i= . page 143. a). k) (h G H. k G K) with binary operation given by (h. We will show that t be any integers. G is non-abelian since : K H K (1.a. There are two items to be verified: (1) t is a homomorphism and (2) t is independent of the choice of the transversal X. — n' < p. which form a of generators of H. 1) = (/c. so that t-p acts as the identity on a and 6. Let Xi.. in the terminology of Section 5. it is called the transfer of G into A. This gives a group G of order p^. we define a mapping t of G into A by To define the transfer t of is that A .m' < p.8d). . . 7 7. So G is.240 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP.. then if g GG. k){h'. . THE TRANSFER Definition a group with an abelian subgroup A of finite index. H be the direct product of a cyclic group gp(a) of Each element H of order p with a cyclic group gp(h) of order is uniquely of the form a^h^ with is 0-r<p. Thus t is an Note that otP = ahf . Notice that if ff = {(1.) Let p. observe that Clearly set automorphism. . kk'). a) = (A.8 a. d. Then + sp where 6™' + "' = = a"' a'"6"''b"' = a^h^h^ = a^jm + n To verify that t is a homomorphism.

.. since A is abelian. X2g{x^)~'^ where n the index of A in G. c.. . by definition follows {7. Thus xlgh{x^h)~' • x^h{x^h)-' from equation x::gh{x^y^ = Xihixjiy • Xihixji)-' Xnh{xJi)-' = Then for it hr.. x^g Xk+ig = Xk+2. they must So we can rewrite (gh)T in the form = [xig{xW)-^' X2g{x^)~'' • Xng{x^T^] . we can assume that X xig = X2. . Xng — Xn-m+l + l+ • • +m = n. . . 7. where g.^ ^^. Xu-ig — Xn. h in G.h GG: • = = {xigh(xigh)-') {x^ghixigh)-^) {Xngh{Xngh) ') {Xigh{xWh)-^) • {X2gh(x^)-'') {xngh(x^y') (since x^ = Wh • • • • by (7.4a that the set {xi. . Since A is abelian. {gh)T Xig{x^)~\ x^{xjgh)-^ A. X2g = xz. . the order of such a product is immaterial. i. . page 167). Proof that a homomorphism We {gh)T compute (gh)T. [xTgh{xWh)-^ • x^hiWgh)-'' . X]t-ig = Xk.. Xk+ig — Xk + i Xn-m+ig (Note that k gr — Xn-m + 2. . x^h{x^h)'^] But observe that is Xi^x^ {i-l.-l-2g — Xn—m + is 3.. of the product • The proof depends on an analysis fifT = xig{x^)~^ is X2g{x^y^ Xng{x^y^ where again 7. Xk+2g = Xk+3.Xn} =X is mapping Xi^ x^ a right transversal of A in G..) Then = {xig(xW)~^ Xkg{x^)~^) ' (Xk+ig{xk+ig)"^ • Xk+2g{xk+2g)'~'^ * Xk+ig{xk+igy^) • • • • {Xn-m+igiXn-m+ig)"'^ Xn-m + 2g{Xn-ra + 2g)~'^ Xn{gX^)~^) — {xigx^^ • • X2gx3^ • Xkgx^^) {xk + xgxk+2 Xk+2gxki3 • Xk + igxk ' ) • • • • {Xn-m + igXn-m + 2 Xn-m + 2gXn-m + 3 X„gXn-m+l) .4a). We recall from Section a permutation of X. page 219) = ixig(xW)-' -xTghixigh)-^) • ix2gim)~' • ' xlgh{x^h)-^) (a.8] THE TRANSFER t is 241 b. Xn-m.. if necessary. Now every permutation of a finite So. .3i.) that igh)T = {gr){hT) all g. Thus t is a homomorphism. Xk + i-i — x\ = Xk + . .n) a permutation of X (Section 7. after relabeling the elements of can be written as a product of disjoint cycles (Theorem 5. .3).n) multiplied together in some order.... X2.Sec.„9r(^)-i x^h{x^h)-^) lies in Now every one of the elements commute.26. This means that xlgh{xlgh)-^ • xWh{x^h)-^ x^h{x^h)"^ simply consists of the n elements Xihixjiy {i = l. Proof that t is independent of the choice of transversal t is We now prove that independent of the choice of the transversal X.

in the abelian and we know that the elements xigHi\x}. This lemma establishes that the transfer homomorphism t is independent of the choice of transversal. Now if g G G.35) x. since it is the product of factors x..X2. Using the transfer.. Theorem 7.x„}.7: now able to prove Let A be an abelian subgroup of .g{Xig)~^ which belong to A. if h E G. d.35) A in G and let gr = is Xig^X^^ • Xh-ng^xZll Xn-m + ig'^Xn-m + l But Xig^xZ^ e A and A the center of G. .Xn-m+ig"'Xn-m^i = ai{xigHi^)ai^ = Xig^xr^ = au+i{xk + ig^xlli)a^\i = Xk+ig'-Xkli yn-nH-lX"'yn-m+l = an-m+l{Xn-m + ig"'Xn-m+l)(K-m + l = Xn-m+ ig'"x'ii-m+ Thus it follows from (7. . 7 and thus Note that = {x^g^xT') {x^^. finite {xi.y2. .. Let X = {xi. . This means that and £f7 • the 2/i m fl'~ = Vi follows therefore as in equation {7. we now prove the following important theorem of Schur. Y= {yi. x.i e A.35) that if g EG. . Therefore Vig^Vi^ Vk+ig^ylli .g^xlU. is of finite index. Then the derived group T Proof: Suppose \G/A\ . .i„+i) {7.36) lie But yi = (kXi. . Accordingly we may speak of the transfer of G into A.x„} be a transversal of be the transfer of G into A. Xn-m^ix'-Xn'-m..35). {7.8: Let G be a group whose center G' of G is finite.. Then T — T We may assume on suitably reordering Y that = OiXi (Oi e A) = X. . . A . .n.... = iyig^Vi^) • ivk+ig^ylii) {7. then iyn-m+ig"'yn-m+i) .g^xT'_ = {x.y. xig''x~^ So = g\ x.. We Lemma are 7.g^x^^l. x„-m+ig'"x'^-m+i = g"" ..„flf(^)-i (where g G G) Proof: Now It if ^ = yig{y^gy y^giy^y ynQiyTg)-' (where gGG) where.36) and the above remarks that gT = g7.g{xlg)-^) • {x^gixTg)-') {x^g{x^)-') G A.} index in a group G and be two left transversals of let X= in A G. then by equation {7. h denotes the element of X in the coset Ah and h denotes element of Y in the coset Ah.+ig^xllu subgroup A. A theorem of Schur I... Xk+ig^Xkli = .. Furthermore 9r let t and 7 be mappings of • G into A defined respectively by = xig{xlg)-^ X29{x^)-'^ a..) (x„-„ + i^"a. then Ayj = AajXj = Axj = AaJigr = AoiXiflr = Ayig.'^{xig''x~^)xi = g^ Similarly.1 242 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS gr [CHAP. Similarly.

Then generated. But by Problem 4. moment.bGA. This theorem can be proved by using the transfer. We then used the transfer to prove that the derived group of a group whose center is of finite index is finite.68. Frobenius. where we provided a method and K.e. If g. page 117. The proof is not too complicated. We g accomplish this by showing first that G' is finitely = axi and h = bxj.4. Then we used Frobenius' theorem and the coset representation to prove three theorems: (1) a subgroup of finite index in a finitely generated group is finitely generated. it is lengthy and will not be given here. page 125. for each gGG. a subgroup of A and is therefore abeUan. worth noting one fact that emerged in this proof: the transfer into the center is simply the mapping that takes each element g to g" where n is the index of the center in G. where a. X the number of subgroups of fixed finite index in a finitely generated group is finite. Since G'/G'DA is finite. page 139. an (2) is automorphism. generated since it is of finite index in a finitely generated group This completes the proof of Schur's theorem. In particular we called a homomorphism of a group G into the symmetric group on a set a permutational representation of G (on X). qt - fir". The ideas that arose from Cayley's theorem were generalized. We end our discussion of the transfer by mentioning that if all the Sylow subgroups of finite group G are cyclic.hG G. it follows that G'nA is finite (Problem 6. analysis of extensions was specialized to splitting extensions. then G is metacyclic (i. Reference to a proof may be found in Section 5.18. then every homomorphism of G onto itself is also one-to-one. Xu Xj e X. A look back at Chapter 7 We re-proved Cayley's theorem. page 227). This means that G'/G'nA is also finite since by 4. Finally Therefore G' G'nA is finitely (Theorem It is 7. This completes the proof of Schur's theorem but for the verification that G'nA is finitely generated. generated since it is generated by commutators. where K is the kernel of t.2a.44. (3) if G a finitely generated group whose subgroups of finite index have only the identity subgroup in common. We of called a group G such that This because of our discussion of both coset representations and Frobenius' theorem. i. called the transfer. an extension of a cyclic group by a cyclic a group).23. Then abelian. Notice that the image of G under is by Theorem 4. G an extension of a group H by A: if there is a normal subgroup H G/H = K and H^H. of constructing a splitting extension of two groups Finally we defined a special kind of homomorphism of a group into an abelian subgroup. Permutational representations were roughly classified. GIK page 116. Thus G' is also finite. then since A is the center of G. so is G'A/A. we have g-^h-^gh = xr^a'^x^^b-^axibxi = xT^xr^XiXja-^ab'^b = x^-^xf^XiXj is finitely This means that there are at most n^ distinct commutators in G.e.Sec Y 8] THE TRANSFER 243 Thus. Since gr = g" for every g G'nA have every element of the kernel has finite order. page 198). however. It follows that the elements of show that G'nA is finitely generated. G' itself is finite if G'nA is finite. G'A/A ^ G'/G'nA {7-37) G G. t is Now Theorem as G/A is finite. this implies G' qK. namely that every group is isomorphic to a group of permutations. An analysis of this situation was made simpler _ H . We explained an important permutational representation of a group G called a coset representaThis representation allowed us to provide a variation of Cayley's theorem due to tion. Assuming this true for the We will finite order.

O'-i. and G/N = gp(bN). I ^ Hint: n C(ffi) = Z(G) if g^. .38.) Prove that G2CG3. For each integer n define a mapping «„ of D by putting oq:„ = where 6j = ».49.52) and suppose every subgroup of G is Prove that if is a subgroup of G such that H/N = G for some normal sub= {1}. 3 splits.43. be a cyclic extension of a cyclic group of order n by a cyclic group of order m. 6_i.47.40. Construct a non-abelian group which an extension of an infinite cyclic Prove that is a non-abelian group with an infinite cyclic normal subgroup of index 2.57.a-o. Let mapping that sends which is W be the splitting extension of D of Problem 7. .42. D consists of the sequences a = {aieZ). N = gp{a) 7. (Hint: The preceding problem gives a clue. (Hard. . .52) Hall's theorem. G is a group and Gj..57. (1) a„ is an automorphism of D.53. if G is a finite group whose if is of finite index in a simple group G. then a splitting extension of an infinite cyclic group by a group of order 2. then Let G finitely generated. G is a finitely |G'| generated group.47 by the infinite cyclic group C = gp{c) via the c to Prove that W a non-abelian group. group by a group of order 2. generated residually finite group (defined in Problem 7. Find a proper subgroup of W a^.45. is isomorphic to W. (2) a„a„ = a„ + „.. then uGj is a subgroup of ¥. . 7. (3) A = {ai\ i e Z} is an infinite cyclic group generated by aj. .55.. G which be a residually finite group (defined in Problem 7.._„. (Hint: Use Problem 7. EXTENSIONS 7. . (2) (3) 7.) 7. said to be residually finite if the intersection of all its normal subgroups of finite index is the identity. MAL'CEV'S THEOREM. D be the set of infinite sequences of integers. (Hard. Give a permutation representation of A„ of degree 2«. < / <». . fe .. group of a 7. Prove that an extension of a residually finite group by a finite group is residually finite.39. cyclic extension of a finitely Let G N Let = a'= Prove that a is residually finite. (Hint: Use Marshall (Hard. every element of which has only a finite number of conjugates. 6_i.g^ are the generators of G. N H N 7. Let Z)„ be the dihedral explicitly (1) ^oup of order 2w and let C„ be its cyclic normal subgroup of order n.50. Prove that into A sends 7. Prove that an infinite group with a subgroup of finite index is not simple.52.) group of G.55. . -. finite if group is finite. 69. 7. Then use the fact that the automorphism are subgroups of G such that Gj is not finitely generated. Find a faithful representation of GxH is on n +m letters if GcS„. Find the representation of Z)„ onto itself given by Cayley's theorem. 7. a-^i + 6_i. G^ ^ G3. . Prove that W/W is infinite cyclic. . ^i.e. ftp. (Hint: Use Problem 7.48. the representation provided by the Frobenius theorem. ftj.46. . Prove that of A is an abelian subgroup G into 1.58. • • 7. . Prove that there are precisely three non-isomorphic extensions of an of order 2. . a coset representation of D„ using C„ as the subgroup. Prove that an extension of a cyclic group of even order by a group of order 36.) Prove that every . Prove that jk = k modulo n. He S^. then the transfer G into Z onto.. 7. MARSHALL HALL'S THEOREM. + 60.. FROBENIUS THEOREM 7.Gg. . . 7.54. 7 Supplementary Problems PERMUTATION REPRESENTATIONS.56.) TRANSFER. . element of G' is of finite order. G is a group in which every element has only a finite number of conjugates. 7. a. define a + D is an abelian group under the operation of addition of sequences..O'i.) is A group 7.. COSET REPRESENTATIONS. 7. if is G G 7.41. where j is co-prime to n and 6™ (where j and k are integers). G2. • . .) . then the transfer of G center Z has order co-prime to its index. Prove that 7. G1CG2.44. infinite cyclic group by a group 7. 7.51. Construct a non-abelian group of order Construct five non-isomorphic groups of order 5^ Let X 3. If b = = . Prove that b~^ab — <P.244 PERMUTATIONAL REPRESENTATIONS [CHAP. i. "i + ^i. . . Prove that .

y}. If Assume then that any product If ^t is not a reduced product. is said to be a reduced X-product x. . then xy and xx'^xy are different products For example. then Two products r^^ a. If k = 1. there u-x[^ x^^ is a reduced product in X. Let and x''^yyxy~^ are reduced products.. = x. m. .GX. i.1 a. of the form x\^ X A if product Xi' • • • x'x. . x^ — y^ and are said to be different if they are not identical. gp{X) If x\^ = {xl^---xl^\x. i. x^ and y\^ • • • i/^" are two products with x^.. and so u G R. Suppose k = n. then xy.1: gp{X) c. Synonyms product in X.¥=—(. implies t. ±1. It is = tj^ for G X and i = 1.y. for reduced X-product are reduced product {X being understood) and reduced {x. ELEMENTARY NOTIONS Definition of a free group Recall that if G is a group and X (¥•0) a.y}.) X= = {w\w = lorw = a reduced product in X}. then u = x\^ x'^ where x^G X and We proceed to show that u G R. xy.er=±l] e. they are said to be identical if w = w. if To avoid rex^^ but they give rise to the same element of G. If Clearly R Q gp{X). u is a reduced product in X. = ±1. a. then u G R. Proof: = ±1. • e^ = . This provides a new way of describing a group.chapter 8 Free Groups Preview of Chapter 8 and Presentations begin with a property of the infinite cyclic group and generalize this property to define free groups. subset of G.. x~^yxyx~^ (Examples of reduced products are easily given..e. dundancy. u G gp(X).^" can give rise to the easy to see that two different products of the form xl^ = {x. However. We ask questions similar to those we asked in Chapter 4 concerning cyclic groups: We (1) (2) Do free groups exist? (3) (4) When are two free groups isomorphic ? What are the homomorphisms of free groups ? What are the subgroups of free groups ? In answering (3) we will learn that every group is a homomorphic image of a free group. Lemma 8. 8. Such a description of a group is called a presentation. where e^ = ±l and x^ e X. we introduce the concept of a reduced product: • same element of G..e. yxyxx~^ and x~^yxyy'^ are not reduced products. •x^^GR for — n — 1. as a factor group of a free group.. Let {w\w = lorw — a reduced product in X} = R.^' fc 245 .

then we can delete m as a product involving n-2 elements of X. from which u = lGR. Hence as / and g are equal to different reduced products. (The interested reader may find more details in. z. = {x.. we have yyyy = yy. with y-^ = x. If the reduced products are distinct the elements are not equal.246 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS an integer [CHAP. The Theory of Groups. To illustrate. Thus different reduced {a. Notice that it follows from (ii) that if x G X. xz In fact any three different reduced products in {x. 1965. y. However. since it involves (j/z)-*. = x. More generally we have the following definition: r is where we know that m m A set. (i) group and G is said to be freely generated by the set XcG if X ^ 0. J. Suppose n>2. Problems 8. 8 i such that x. exists ajj'ajjVV to obtain Consider in {x} are of now the two infinite cyclic group generated by the element x'' x. e.1. Thus / = xyx ^y ^x{xx ^){y ^y)y^ — xyx~''^y^'^xy^ = xyx~^y^^xyy = xyy. If G is by the fact that we know exactly whether two Z-products are often called a free set of generators of G. (2) x. even if we replace {yz)^^ by its equivalent z~ij/~i to get xyzz-'^y'^. If » = 2. x-^ ^ X.) G is said to be freely generated by {x}. then the study of G is (ii) is or if it to do is Z-product can be carried out in a finite number steps. this. The reduced products kinds: X • X — or x~^x~^ • • X"' = a. two different reduced X-products define (ii) two different nonunit elements of G.^^. J.e. is not a reduced product because of the inverse pair zz~'^. y. (This is by no means the usual situation..^^ and e. where x^ = x^ and c.""" a positive integer. G is a free group freely generated by X. z} are distinct elements of G. Let (b) G X Is Solution: (a) (1) X. (a) Write down three distinct elements of G. though in the form x^ x^. y. A set X of generators of G satisfying A group G is free if it is the identity group also said to be free facilitated equal. there exist x and both elements of X. because it is not written in the required x^ x^ form. This process of expressing an element as a reduced on X. = -c^. xy. For example in a cyclic group of order 2 generated by y. possesses a free set of generators. i/}. From what has been said about the infinite cyclic group. But then x and y-^ are two different reduced Z-products which are equal.}-products give rise to different elements. two adjacent inverse factors). Thus gp{X)cR and accordingly gp{X) ^ R. It also follows from (ii) that 1 ^X. (b) No. Rotman. By the inductive hypothesis. • • . AUyn and Bacon. the empty gp{X)^G. y. let F be freely generated by {a. if and n are integers. z}. then u = x^x'i. = -e. be freely generated by the set xyz{yz)-^ a reduced product? Is xyy~^z~^yx equal to xz~^yzz^^xl (d) Express (c) x2y3(jf3^2-)-iy-3 and {xzy)~^xzy^ as reduced products. x^. Are the products f — xyx~^y~^xxx~^y''^y^ and g = xyy^y^ equal? We convert / to a reduced product by deleting inverse pairs (i. u then belongs to R. All we need to express each of the products in reduced product form.) Similarly g equal.g. For if not. x™ = x" implies that = n. (3) x. x^. they are not The fact that we can determine in a finite number of steps whether or not two elements are equal is often expressed by saying that the word problem is decidable for free groups.

8. Solution: The direct product of two infinite cyclic groups is abelian. 8. . Thus ffp({a.e. for on expressing each as a reduced product 247 (c) we get xz~^yx.„} with n > 1. i. where X contains at least two elements. X X 8.. We have only to prove that two different reduced Xj-products define different elements of F^. In Problem 8. x^ Now — «'. if G is freely generated by X. .} freely generates . .3. every free group has as a subgroup the if G is free it must have the infinite cyclic group as a subgroup. is a reduced product in X. consider 9p({x}). This some set follows immediately either from the uniqueness of the type of an abelian group (Theorem 6.7. Therefore this contradicts the assumption that But as z is in G has a center. . But a reduced X'j-product is obviously also a reduced Z-product and two different reduced X-products define different elements of F.y'^y^ = y is 8.i. Prove that a free group freely generated by of the identity element). . it is infinite cyclic. By definition. Consequently that except for the identity. . cyclic where r and and the result follows. x^¥=y~^. But a free abelian group of rank two is not cyclic. Let y has an element & X. .Sec. then G is not Solution: so There exist two distinct elements xy ¥= yx.. (d) x^yHy^x^)-^y-^ (xzy)-^xzy^ = = x^y^'x-^y-^y-^ y-^-'^x-'^xzy^ = xxyyyx-^x-^y-^y-^y~^y-'^y~^y^'^ = y-H'Hy^ . {xi. X^ generates Fi. Hence positive integers implies r = s. Generalize Problem 8. . F . = yz.».2 by showing that if F^ = gp(xi. But this implies that G finite x. .1] ELEMENTARY NOTIONS Yes. it is clear that zy we must have zy and yz are two different reduced products.) Solution: Suppose « G J*. X with \X\ — 2 has no center (i. 8.21. If x E.6.e. Hence the result follows immediately. {a. But we have proved in Problem 8. Prove that abelian. Kj}. ajj) = 1. Now xy and yx are two different reduced products. its center consists (Hard. . «. Prove that a Solution: group G is not free if G # {!}. page 197) or directly.> and again the center. 8. y ¥= z '^ 1 x^. is freely generated for t by n.4. Let z be expressed as a reduced product Consider yz = yx^^ • • »„ This is a reduced X-product. so zy ¥= yz.. Solution: Put Xj = {xi. The direct product of two infinite cyclic groups is not a free group. = Kji • • a. . G ¥= {1}. X. 8. . then the infinite cyclic group a subgroup of G. . not abelian. Suppose x-x 8 are G is freely generated by X.3 which contains at least two that a free group is not abelian if it is freely generated by a set elements. . Prove that Solution: if G is a free group. it is freely generated by = {x}.5. with r a positive integer.2. This is — X''. 2. Hence if the direct product of two infinite cyclic groups is free. . then . then x^^ • x^y is zy = <i •••<"_-.2 we proved infinite cyclic group. is y of X. This is absurd. . If «„" = y~^ then for re > 1 (for otherwise Xj = 2/ contrary to the choice of y). On the other hand zy If = x^^ x^v a reduced product and so clearly zy ¥ yz as yz begins as a reduced product with y but zy begins with x^ ¥= y. in its center.}) is infinite and is infinite X a cyclic group.

that is.. then the length of x^y^x^' xl' x'-.2: A (a) group F is freely generated by a set X ¥. 8 b. We can assume without loss of generality that ar^" ^ y^^.8. xl"i/^"L-i are two different reduced products'! Since yvrn and <" = xl^ x^n^y^h. products. / = x~'^yx~'^yyxxxz~^ Hence the length of / is 9.^"_-i and i/]' for if <" == 1/^™. If feF.y. follows then that xl^ 1. it follows that yy.3: Do free groups exist? Up to now we have tacitly assumed that Let n be any positive integer. Of course.0.y}. page 261). by a set of n elements.248 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS [CHAP. • • • xl' 1 xl"-^ n— = y1' -^ 1 w""*-! i'm — 1 If again • • • a. If on the other hand F is since this is entailed by the definition of a given freely generated by X. Lemma 8. Let x[^ <" and y\^ = ±1. Lemma 8. (This is just the convention mentioned earlier. f^l.^Ti> = 2/l"L~l^ we can delete them. But by j/f » is a reduced product equal to it (6) it is not Hence we have a contradiction. set. . because x^y^x ' = xxyyx~^ A very useful technique in arguments involving free groups is to prove results by induction on the length of elements (see.^" # y"^.. Determine the length of (i) 1. We is 5. it can be expressed X F in one define the length of f with respect to be n. Suppose they are equal. it is . The length of the identity is defined conventionally freely generated by J^ = {x. Let (iii) F / = be freely generated by x-'^yxx^^y^x^z~^. Theorem 8. and so follows that F is freely generated by X. if and only if gp{X) = F.y^ G X) be two different reduced y"^ (where c.. the empty set. way So we may as- sume 1.. for example. and x^.z}. and Solution: (i) The length of 1 is taken to be is 4. if is Length of an element. Existence of free groups is: An obvious question they do. Alternative description of a free group Suppose F is freely generated by a set X. For example. a. X= {x. (ii) xzyz-'^. and (6) no reduced Z-product is equal to the identity element. There exists a free group freely generated Proof: Since every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group of some natural to look for a suitable subgroup of some symmetric group in order to find a free group of rank n.9. But we cannot continue <"y-'''" • • • indefinitely this as Xji x'^ and y]^ It y"^ are assumed to be different reduced products. 0.) (ii) The length of xzyz~^ The length of / is (iii) calculated by expressing it first in reduced form.±1. a. Proof: Assume first (a) and (b) above. =. do (a) and (b) hold? group freely generated by a set X. and only one way as a reduced product to this free set of generators to be 0. Problem 8. To show F is freely generated by X we must show that two different reduced products in X are not equal and are not the identity. c.

Z X We have only to verify that every reduced X-product f is not i... . . r™ = — i. Let then e^. ^ ^l- 9^' (where 1'.m' e (1. rm) with ri = and r^. —i).rv^Qi Oi is - (ri. of permutations of and so on... Suppose first that r^ (ri.rjffi9_i = .. . 2.. then (ri.„) Now if r„_i = —{—i) = i.. . and so ^f ' = (r + l)'.(ri. Moreover 9i6-i = = O-iOi where Thus each Or is a permutation of T i (Theorem page 36). . Prove that Solution: ffiff-j = i and ff-j^j — i. where 9.r. then choose a set X= {6i.t)9_j = (rj. define rm) (i) now for each £ T we define (ri. .) is of the form (r^.±n a permutation di of T as follows. ..e. i. prove similarly that there exist free groups freely generated by Since we have not introduced cardinal numbers. r„_i then (r^.. .0„}. mapping of T into T. . we cannot prove this more general theorem here. It is possible to Note: sets of arbitrary cardinality. (0)/ we have ••^^™". . i) if if r™ (ii) (n. . If .. .n} and = ±1) the effect of / be any reduced Z-product (so if r' on (0).. 1965. . integer i = ±1. . . ..r„) G T. . Then By the definition of the product of permutations. . -2) € T. = {fi^i. Now er^ = O-i. Since such an element # — (— Therefore .4. 1. Thus (0.^1- )(V or •••^^„™') £^1' = ((o. Let (rj.9. nonzero integers with n + n+iT^O for i = l. .. .. Problems 8. . .) We prove that freely generates G. . .. . thereby completing the proof of the theorem. This completes the proof of the theorem.to (1.. . . .1] EXISTENCE OF FREE GROUPS is 249 Our plan as follows: we that shall introduce a set T consisting of certain ordered 1-tuples of integers. . . — 3) e T but We (ri.2) € T and (0.. ¥= —i. . . e^ + e^^j^O).rm-i) ^ -i..Sec. We ..2. J.2'.rm — 1. . ra. . . i). The elements of T are the ordered m-tuples (ri. . r™. where sense to talk of gp{X). The reader who has a knowledge of cardinal numbers may read the account in J. . T (Problem 8.„m') ^ (0) Thus / ¥- 1 since it does not leave (0) fixed. it makes Let G = gp{X). . . ..^ii')VHV Therefore Now if 1' = 2'. 8..') = tj ((0)^. and i are as defined above. 1. . . Rotman's The Theory of Groups. It is clear that L is a well-defined the identity permutation of 2.i.9). rm)ei . .^l'.. . . .r„. It follows in this way that (0)/ = (0.e. . . (As St is a group and XcSt...6n] T such X freely generates gp{X).. Allyn and Bacon. Oi e St.. then + c^ ^ ^ -6^2'.r„. ordered 2-tuples of integers. We compute = e±i. . does not belong to T.. ..

{Xi-iep~'{xi+20p^^ -}._^^ implies t. .rm-i)e-i = (rj. . Define tQ = {xi6p{Xie)'^ and 1^= 1 (the latter 1 being the identity of H). prove that ^ is a homomorphism. If this is a reduced product then fe {xiep {XnOf" by definition. Prove that there exists a free group freely generated by a set Y such that there a one-to-one mapping Solution: of Y onto the positive integers.10. r. (ri. Homomorphisms of free groups Now it is a fact (see Problem 8.^ into a group H. {fg)d = a {xl^ .9p {xiop /-y'l .r™) and so rJOiB^-^ = (rj. they must = gp(. (n. = ±1.^... . because each element of G is a product of elements and inverses of elements from . for as none of the Sj have the same effect on (0). However.. . defined by {»i. this is true by the <k and consider f = xl^ • definition of • «„" when n= k. integers We F= . . then there exists an integer i such that x. x.^t-l/).11 below) that if a group G is generated by a set X. . x^^ • x^^ is a reduced product. 92. Similarly ff_j9i = is i. . If is freely generated by Y. Consider conversely what would happen if we had a map ^ of . y^ G X. let H. = x. Let F H H Proof: Any nonunit element of / F is uniquely expressible as a reduced X-product = x\i x^" where x^ &X. To conclude the proof we must H . (Xne)" (XnOp = {XiOp {XiOfiXi^ief^^ {Xi0p = If it is not a e^= —e^_^y = — by our inductive hypothesis. Then there exists a homomorphism 6 of F into mapping of X into such that 6 agrees with 6 on X. .. we have the following result for free groups. then whether or not 0. •••}• (9{)p = i is a one-to-one onto mapping.A. . . . Could we find a homomorphism of the whole group G into whose effect on X was the same as that of 9? In general the answer is no (see Problem 8. reduced product.. then a homomorphism is uniquely determined by its effect on X. r„) Thus 6ii-i leaves all elements of T unchanged and hence Sjff-i = i.. = ±1..9f^ = Hence is [{xiop {xndpWiyxep (y^ef"'] = foge homomorphism and the theorem follows.S + 2 . 250 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS (fu [CHAP. — = i) . (cBn0)'" Clearly ^ is a mapping of F into agreeing with 6 on X. shall To do this we show that if / = x[^ • • ^'n where x^eX and €.3 except that we define ffj for all nonzero i and put The mapping p: Y ^ Z+ the positive integers. ix.12). proceed exactly as in the proof of Theorem 8. ^ is called an extension of d. (xndp q-^n\0 Therefore (Xnep y]' = {x{^ x^(c^x^^)x:^ €^ • • <")^ = fO then So if / = xl' • • <" and g = x':y\^ y^.-Cj^. e^ = ±1 and x^ = x. then be distinct. and let be freely generated by a set X.1._^_^ and Consequently.4: be a be any group. .X'... H H d. 8.yy)e = {x^ef (Xnepiyief {y„. ¥. 8 .r„_i..Y). If Assume it is true for all positive integers n n. . H Theorem 8.^ = ±1.

4 there exists a homomorphism 6 of F into G which agrees with 9 on each Xu We know that F9 is a subgroup of G. and is 1 if w + m is even. For this reason we have chosen only to consider the finitely generated case.11. Let G= gp(X) and suppose e^ = 92ix- Prove that Solution: Let g &G. Describe the effect of this homomorphism on e all elements of F. Our last theorem reveals the importance of free groups.. Let freely generated .5: 251 Corollary G be any finitely generated group (i. = ±1. Vn. say n = 2r + l. then a. But G?. 8. and 991 {xiOiP effect = (x^e^P (x^e^f" ffj = e^- gB2 Thus »! and $2 have the same on the elements of G. then either n and m are both even. such that H . If The free group on a single generator is infinite cyclic. .. Define a map from {Xi. being the image of : H group. . 8.yn) — G. By Theorem 8. Suppose there exists a homomorphism e G^H. Now 6 maps cb" ^ a". Let be the cyclic group of order 2. if n and m are both even.n. But as F9 contains yi. e G -* with 9 : H and a map e: X -* H. Then g — = x^^ x^ where x^^X and ix^Sif" e. a subgroup of H which contains gp{y) and hence G'e=H.'" 9 = <x ' a = 1." 9. ."9x"' 9 = a. Let e X ^ S„ map each element of X onto a distinct element of S„.x„}. and so G is a homomorphic image of a . Then G is a homomorphic image of some free group. Solution : Let F be free on X where \X\ = n!. . . Let $1 and $2 be homomorphisms of G ^ H.". To check that e is a homomorphism. as one of a. from the knowledge of the properties of a free group we may achieve some understanding of other groups. and so = 8.13. Hence 9 is a homomorphism. Put X = {x} and let 2. say. +m The kerne] oi a = (x^^ all | integers r}.Sec. Then by Theorem 8. However." + '"9 is a if is odd. this is clearly impossible. If m + m is odd.. free group.. a group — e."9a."* 9 is a while the other is 1. Since H is infinite.12. or they are both odd. if both are odd. {xi. : . such that xe = y. and find its kernel. it contains gp(yi. say n = 2r. n is odd.'"9 = 1 • 1 = 1. must be finite. There exists a free group F be finitely generated by a set (t/i. Hence 9 maps sc" -^ 1."9a. Therefore Fe = G. there exists a finite set Y such that gp{Y) = G). Problems 8.1] HOMOMORPHISMS OP FREE GROUPS 8." + "» 9.. a}. n any given positive integer. Note: The same result applies whether G is finitely generated or not. 6 maps a. . : H H Solution: a. to prove the more general result we must use some of the ideas involving cardinal numbers.. Let F be freely generated by {«}. a. then one of the integers n and m is odd and the other even. Proof: Let G . by xB — y. The map X -^ a gives rise to a homomorphism of F -^ H. Find an example of a group there exists no Solution: G homomorphism generated by a set X.Xn} to G by XiO = yi for i = 1. . Now a. .y„}. . Let Define e G : be cyclic of order X^H Then G a finite e is = gp({y}) be infinite cyclic." to a. As every group is a homomorphic image of a free group. n. G = ffpiix}). . Its elements are uniquely of the form n an integer. If n is even. . consider whether (a!"x'") 9 = ». a.14. . Check directly that it is a homomorphism. by .e. Hence a. . 8.4 there is a homomorphism 9 of i'' onto S„ that agrees with 9. . a" = 1. Find a free group that has as a homomorphic image S„. li n + m is even. say = {1.

8. groups generated by c and d respectively. say. and 1X| = |F| < «. Therefore Ker e = F'.4. Let F be freely generated by spondence. .4. b}. Let to F cyclic be a free group with free generating set {a..n. an epimorphism of F onto itself. Then there exists a homon. G Solution: Let as e : F be freely generated by before. . i= 1 Let 117). 8 8. If e : X -^ Y is a one-to-one corre- is Let » be the homomorphism of F into G which is an extension of e.20. .252 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Prove that a group freely generated by [CHAP. X x s" where is |Z|=m+1. . Solution: X and G freely generated by F. as G is abelian.7. Let It follows readily that 9 is an isomorphism of F with G.Vn the elements of Y. a homomorphism of F onto the derived group of F. . d})). Prove that G is freely Let {x^ef^ (Xjfif^ be a reduced product in Xe. 8. using Theorem 8. . prove that F = G. n any positive integer. 8. put xe — 1. X -^ G be defined as follows: exists a G X. not the identity of G. 8. g-F-^F Hence e is a. by Xi$ = y^ where i = 1.17.„ be the elements of X. Hence by the homomorphism theorem onto C^ for which XiO = a. Then 9 be the extension of identity mapping on F. (Theorem 8.. . where n w + 1 elements has as a homomorphic image a group any given positive integer and G is a subgroup of F. Let C^ be the cyclic group of order m generated F be freely generated by Z = {x^. Hence F has a subgroup of index m. he = d. Let X = X^uid) we have shown gp(. the number of cosets of Ker e in F is m.18.18. Fe = F. x Then there homomorphism F onto G put xe = x. Define a homomorphism Since Fe contains Y. (Problem 8. as F/F' is abelian and aF'. page 247. Under e such an element goes onto cM^ and Crf^ — i only if both r and s are 0. where \X^\ = n.4 to find Use Theorem Solution: Let F be a subset of F such that gp{Y) an epimorphism of F onto itself. .19. and i/j. F/Ker ^ e ~ r = C^ = m. The map which is F'. 8. Now a commutator is of the form [/i. so it is sufficient to show that each commutator belongs to Ker «. F' is generated by the set of all commutators. ./2 G F. onto G.15. . by Theorem 8.. then F' C Ker e. the identity. ¥= a. Let F be freely generated by X. page Since |C„| homomorphism property. = F. G (since G = gp({c. Let e be an isomorphism of generated by Xe. Thus only the elements of F' belong to Ker 9. . has a subgroup m for each positive integer m. Hence F' cKer e. 9 is the identity on G.4. Let F be freely generated by X. bF' generate it. the result follows.16..Xj) If =G of freely generated by X^.) Clearly e Let <p: Y -> X be the mapping such that e<f> is the identity mapping on X and ^e is the is the identity on F and to G ^ H. Then. x„}. 8.. F freely generated by is n elements. . be the direct product of two infinite takes a to c and 6 to d extends Prove that the kernel of this homomorphism Let G Solution: First we show that if S is the homomorphism F -* G for which ae = c. /2] = /rV^Vi/z where /i. Then [/I'/d* — [/i*'/2*] =^1.) Let If x = a. Now every element of F that does not belong to F' is of the form a''b^e where not both r and s are zero and e G F'. Let Ki. by an element morphism 9 of F (Theorem 4. of index Prove that a free group freely generated by n elements. Solution: We will exploit the a. Clearly • • Then we must show that {x„»f^ this reduced product (x\^ • <")» 9 is = (x^ep and as F is freely generated by X and an isomorphism. Solution: is F with G.

N is Then contained in {K is a normal subgroup / can be expressed in the form K / == /i^i where /j is a reduced {a. But {a.Sec. the other hand. i.19 using the isomorphism 8. Now gives rise to an isomorphism 4. which means fe ¥.^'' ajji x^" is a generates G. This idea of a presentation is especially important in topology and analysis where groups arise in just this way.R) and an isomorphism 6 between \X. • The product a. An Introduction to Knot Theory. ?/} freely 1. First we shall prove that = N.21. a. suppose f e. such a homomorphism e exists by Theorem 8. c generate F. R) where is a free set of generators of a a subset of F. and a group G is termed finitely presented if it has a finite presenta- A Not all groups are finitely generated (a necessary prerequisite for being finitely presented) and not all finitely generated groups are finitely presented. Thus the normal closure of S is often called the normal subgroup generated by S. Instead of completing the proof this way we could refer to Problem 8. Theorem Observe that (aK)v fe (the page 117).4) that if F is freely generated by X. K=N containing On first observe that as ce = 1. So fiB^l. be = y and (Since is free on a. Let e be the homomorphism of onto G defined by ae = x. Now F/iV. Clearly the normal closure of S is a normal subgroup of G containing S..R) by \X.e. Then we shall prove that aN and bN freely generate FIN. the intercontaining c. Thus if we find K=N N is contained as desired. 6iV}-product. then the normal closure of S defined to be the intersection of all normal subgroups of G containing S.R\ and G. . 6A^ generate (y^Nf'<. Prove that F/N is freely generated by aN and N bN. presentation iX. H. Finally a presentation of a group G consists.) F F Let be the normal subgroup generated by c. Let be freely generated by a.is a reduced {aAT. the normal subgroup generated by c. We tf want to prove that bN and aN and bN v cA^ generate freely generate F/N.4. Solution: be free on x. section of all normal subgroups of (Hard. 2/}-product. So aN. of F/K with G.2] PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS 253 8. c.2 a. 6. by definition.R) is finite if F N both tion.R) is F/N where Z the normal subgroup of generated by i?. For a more detailed discussion of these notions the reader may consult R. • • x and {bK)v ((2/iiV)'i • • y so that • {y^Nf'')v • • • = xji • • x^f^ where (j/jAT)^ = Xj S {a. X and R are finite. 1963. This fact will enable us to "present" a given group in terms of a free group.. Thus is aiji # reduced {«.e. then for every group every mapping 6 of into G there is a homomorphism of F into G which extends 9. which agrees with 6 on X. H. 6}-product and Wi G N. If S is any subset of a group. F. It is easy to prove that the normal is closure of S is gp{g-^sg \ g GG and s G S) (see Problem 8.1 and so f which implies is contained in N. Fox. aN and Suppose (y^Nf^ i. b.22 below). We G and X First we need a definition.18. G F c0 = F K K To see that c). f ^ K a reduced {a.2/}-product. f ^ N. Since c2V = iV. b. i.R\. the mapping defined by (fK)v = homomorphism theorem. in K. PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS Definitions have shown (Theorem 8. of a presentation iX. Consequently and the proof complete. c. 8. Crowell and R.) Let be the kernel of e. = y}. Hence as we observed earlier that K ^ K.e. The group of the presentation {X. A is presentation is is free group F and R defined to be a pair {X. we usually denote the group of a presentation {X. fe But then = /i9 and /iS is f^N. y.. Let 1. as the "groups of certain presentations". F/N. Blaisdell.

The reader attempt to prove this before we do so in a more general case. [ai. &}. to illustrate the definitions of Section 8. since a^b^GN. The presentations (i) and (iii) are The obvious question Clearly the group of is: what are the groups is of these presentations? (i) a group of order 1. however. = {b-'K){b'K) = K Hence is contained in K and so we have proved (i = 2. To see this suppose G is an infinite cyclic group generated by g. Let be the normal subgroup genprove that is the normal subgroup generated by ab. [a. = L. a^N = 6-W since a^b^ G N. First of following (i) suppose F is a free group freely generated by Z= {a. [a. b]}\ is free abelian of rank 2. Let F be freely generated by ai. . aN -b-'^N).b. To infinite this end let H be the free abelian group of rank n.b}) ({a. . aj]N that [atN. a„.254 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Illustrations of presentations [CHAP. ajN] F are of the form [oj. .h) into G defined by gK N ae = fir. Thus it follows that a^N = a'aN = b-^aN = &-W. So if L is the kernel of 6. say. l^i^j^ n. we don't need this fact here. n. Therefore FIN is also infinite cyclic since. LdN. As .b}. we have KcN. In fact FIN is infinite.b}. . Let Ai' C Ker 0. Then the i{a. . .{a.b]}) are patently presentations (by the very definition). Then What about (ii)? Well. {[a. Clearly e is onto and (a&)e = 1. but the presentation (ii) is not. aj]6> = [aiO. We shall prove that . Thus Finally write {a. Oj]. 8 b. .b]) for ({«. Now observe that aK = b~^K. 1. [a. hi. a2. (ii) {a^b% a^b\ a*b\ .). Indeed we would like to ling 6""W from both sides yields aN = 6"W. FIL is infinite cyclic.b. but that K = N.b]\ for \{a. \a. . . FIN is cyclic.) N may we we come to (iii). ajd] = [K hj] = Hence N be the normal subgroup generated by the [Ci. Furthermore generated by a252. . i Then H the direct product of [ot.2a. But as FIL = G.. erated by ab. a„. (Actually. a.b]\ free abelian of rank is 2). This implies that aW . Since ab G N.b.4). is the normal subgroup are interested in F/N where a^N = b-'^N.F^H by = K Now [Oi.a*b*. Instead of using our set-theoretic notation which encloses the elements of a given set in braces ( }. we shall omit the braces in writing presentations.a«b*. . Let 6 be the mapping of {a. the elements / of f — ar a^c r where . At this point we simplify our notation. . We shall work some examples all.] where l^i^ j ^n\ is is free abelian of rank n (from which it follows that \a.b]}). as we have already noted. the generators atN of ' • • FIN commute. {[a. be = g-'' Let ^ be the homomorphism of F into G defined by 6 (Theorem 8.{[a. Note = = N.b}. We define a e-. .b]}\. a. CancelHence ab G N. we N N K a'b'K = (a'K)i¥K) .&}. I ai. {[a.b}. etc. b}.] cyclic groups generated by ai9 = 1.}) (iii) {{a. We have. Therefore FIN is cyclic (because aN and bN clearly generate FIN. 3. finite. In fact |{a. . c xr GN Clearly homomorphism G Ker 9.

." In other words. Xn and let 9 be the isomorphism defined by .yn+iF' are dependent.n . Note that as A^ is F/N is abelian.. . If we use some phrase such as "let us calculate modulo A^.. Then 1 = {y.. [Xi.i/n+i G Y. Xj] with 1 — i — j^n) together with is a presentation of A. . group of rank n every n + .. a free group. exist integers nii. = Uj {j = l. a free abelian group on ai. rj ¥= 0. yiF'. 8.e. ai (i = = l. page 193). . so N f9 = hl^ = Ker 9.6: Theorem Corollary Let F Then F/F' 8. Then (xi. . Let F be Suppose |X| X and Y both freely generate F.e. Let F be free on aii.9p {yr. + l). define the rank of F to be this common number. Note that free groups of the same rank are isomorphic (Problem 8. A simple Let G be a group and a normal subgroup of G. Hence there {yiF'f i. . such that 1 elements are dependent.an. . . .2/2. . .. . Now in a free abelian .mn+i. . . . But as = F' and we therefore conclude that F/F' is free abelian N of rank n. N C F'.yn+i) and yGY . is \Y\ {n < «>).20). Hence mi = W2 = Thus |r| < 00 and the corollary has been proved. . free abelian of rank \Y\. • • • = yru+i = 0. what we really mean is "let M/N be a subgroup of G/N. A^ D F'. . In some of the following problems we will often be dealing with factor groups. we know that F/F' is a free abelian group of rank n=\X]. If |X| is finite. It follows from this corollary that if F is a finitely generated free group.. Thus generated as a normal subgroup by commutators. i.. then every pair of sets which freely generate F have the same number of elements.. then so 8. .. (See Problem 8. fey^ It follows that is / Hence as g Ker 9.. We We results (XiF')9 we now can easily give a presentation of A. Let A be the free abelian group on .) N M . .. Consequently \X\ = |y| since the rank of an abelian group is unique (see Section 6. we must remember that we are talking of a factor group and instead of writing the cosets. Now as one of Therefore F/N the free abelian group of rank n.2] PRESENTATIONS OP GROUPS / 255 and the if Ti g iV.a„+i and let 9 be the homomorphism of yi9 F to A defined by . a contradiction. not all zero.7: be a free group freely generated by a set of n elements is a free abelian group of rank n. • • • aZl\^ . {Vn^iF'p*' = F' eti.. To do this.. .Xn. ¥-0. We shall mean by g = h that Ng = Nh. If we say let be a subgroup of G. . suppose 1/1.9p'' = a^i But A is free abelian on ai.. again by Theorem 8. . with the have. we will simply write the coset representative. is . Proof: If By Theorem then F/F' \Y\< CO.6 and = \Y\.e. y9 = 1 if y € {Vu The kernel K of 9 contains F' since F/K is abelian..^. [ffli. the number of elements in any set which freely generates F.6. ffli. . . hi". . and cB = 1.an+i.2d. at least one of the 1. We state this fact as 8." then by G we mean the factor group G/N. n). It remains only to prove that \Y\ cannot be infinite. I i. Sec. an. ttj] with 1 — i — j ^n\ is the free abelian group of rank n. convention makes the arguments simpler to follow.24 for an example.

25. b] . cyclic group of order 2. = Ker e (Problem 8. Thus F/N is the direct product of two cyclic groups of It follows that order 2. b^ and [a. [a. . b^. = gpia") is the normal subgroup generated by The free group F on a is infinite cyclic and Therefore F/N = G is cyclic of order n (Theorem 4. Let K be the normal subgroup generated by ab.p<r. Thus \F/N\ — \A\\B\ — 2 • 2 = 4. then H and K and let [G: H]= n< '^ and [G : K] — n. Hence Ker e 2 N. Find a presentation for Let p S3. 6]| is the direct N 8. . We are interested in F/N where Let us calculate modulo A^.23). Indeed we would like to prove that 2V is the normal subgroup generated by ab. p<r2 and 1. 8 Problems 8. 3.. Prove that Solution: A^ product of two cyclic groups of order 2. b]. 7i. Although it has not been stated. Hence gpia^) is the normal subgroup generated by a^. . Since F/N is generated by Na and Nb. for heH. . This means as we are calculating modulo K that a'6' (^ K (i = 2.N. Let be the normal subgroup generated by a^. Also calculate modulo N convention K Solution: is the normal subgroup generated by a^b^. be a group with subgroups = K. Now we calculate modulo K. Furthermore a^ = fe-s since a^b^ = 1. is the cyclic group of order n (again with Solution: a".22.. a^\. Cancelling 6-2 from both sides yields a = ft-i.). Thus it follows that a^ = a^a — b-'^a = b-^.a"|. using the modulo — N.{N. Hence # 8. As A is a normal subgroup of F/N. : H = Hxi. Also AT is a normal subgroup of G.9. \a.. = = K.Na} and B .Xa. Let G= |a. Thus G is cyclic of order 2. As [G K] then h&Kxi for some integer i. b] e A^. Clearly Ker e contains a^. Prove that H Solution Let Xi = 1 and let the distinct cosets of i? in G be follows that Xxi.28. Now It gp{a^) is normal in F since F is abelian. HnXa. Since a^b^ = 1. b* and [a. AB is a subgroup of F/N which contains both Na and A^'b. that the normal closure of a subset R (¥= 0) of G is gp{{g~^i'g \ g S G and Solution: Clearly N = gp({g~^rg g & G and r S R}) is a subgroup of G containing R. Finally any normal subgroup containing R must contain A''. page 105). On the other hand there is a homomorphism e of F onto the direct product of two cyclic groups of order 2..Nb}.) = (^ V2 ^ 1 ^) and a = (^ ^ ^V Then a^ = (^ \3 ^ 1 3/ \2 S 1) are six distinct elements and hence the whole of ^) 2/ So p. b]. Thus the result \ follows.). a^ S3.b.24. a^b^. show e R}). = . it is therefore abelian.. In F/N. Let A . Rewrite the first part of the argument of presentation (ii). Nb] — N[a.group. N 8. since [a. (Hard. a^.: 256 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS [CHAP. a and 6 are (as usual) free generators of a free group F. Prove that G is cyclic of order 2. • As H'D K. Let if G HdK. Also (Ara)2 = AT and (Arb)^ = N. Therefore we have proved that K = N.27. As we are calculating modulo N. . 8. If r G is a . and so ab — 1. where n freely generated by a). and so a*6* = 6-*6« = 1 (i = 2.Hx„. Solution: The free group F generated by a is infinite cyclic.. a'^b*. we have K cN.. Since ab e A^. If 1. is any positive integer. Now . can be easily seen that gp{a)/gp{a^) is the F Prove that G = |a. <r. Na and A^b commute as [Na. 8. 8. . N . uKx^.{N. 3.23. i it i = 1 and h S Kx^ — K. a^ = b~^. this means that ab G JV. page 254. a = ft-i. It follows that AB = F/N. . . and stop after proving introduced above. .. .XiKj.Hx2.„ are distinct. If i ¥= 1. Accordingly H qK K and thus H G = Kx^uKx^U since HnHa.26.

30. where e = 0. 8. the normal subgroup generated by a^.a~^bab. Also = 1 and a^ = 1. Modulo AT. o-ifto = 6-». o|. The elements of (l'6« (e We shall show that \F/N\ — 2n. Og. follows that - But ' |F/Ker9|=6 and iV c Ker 9. and the center of S.. for example. For then G9^. contains both a and of F are M{1. page 114. Thus Ker e^D N. o-'ftobl is isomorphic to the dihedral group of order 2n. (a-i6o6)e = T-Wa = of 9. 02^{1.a2 and let G = |a.1. Let follows from Problem 4..a2.e. aj~*a2°-i'^2~^lF generated by a^ o|. be the dihedral group of order 2n. If we can show that We Let (compare Problem 8. Now F is generated by 01. . calculate Moreover since 9 is the normal subgroup of F generated by onto. Oj.02. Also Ker 9„ D {a2. complete. Therefore G = FIN has each £)„ as a homomorphic image (D„ = (F/Ar)/(Ker eJN)). Then G is the symmetry group of the regular n-gon S page 75). O2. Prove that Solution: |a. ar'ajaiag*^. is any vertex of S. 1. we would have a contradiction.Sec. Since ttg — 1. under the isomorphism page 117). N= and a~^bab.4f. Let e be the homomorphism of the free group F. 1. 6. . Then -2 -' --1^20.7/w. then the proof follows. Then N C Ker e. Therefore the elements = 0.If t is the reflection about A^O. F really stands for — 2n. . a subgroup of F by Problem 4. M F. .28) modulo N.i. K. then from which 0. we know such a homomorphism exists). w— 1 (see Section 3.) Solution: Let F be the free group on o and 6 and let 9„ be a homomorphism of F onto D„ (as £>„ is a two generator group (see. 6"e = 1 and Let G (see Section 3. a-i6afel (This group is called the infinite dihedral group. say.23). this will establish that <i \F/K\=2n and M = gp(h). Theorem 8. We see that Oj = 1 and so a^^ = dj.18.. Thus the 8. Then 6. Now we a~^a2aia^^ M Oi <1 F. 6. 6.2] PRESENTATIONS OP GROUPS 1 257 2 3\/l 2 Syi p2 2 3\ _ /I 2 3 = and hope that they Let cti* 1 holds. 6»> o^ jn and a~^hah lie in the kernel K Then A?. and so Ker 9 = iV (Problem 8. a|.62. . ctj. This contradiction proves that G is of infinite order. KdN. Thus the elements of F are {1. (r-i(T = I Thus a2.62. = pp(a2). Prove that Hint: G= Show |a. and let « F : Furthermore -> let N S3 be defined by — p and 0. Oj}. Problem 8.23. then t^ = i. It 02> and modulo N.29). is contained in X. Put / =<r2. i. a^} is a subgroup of F and as it contains ^{1. page 114. ^ S3 4. (f> : OjAT OjiV -> a (by the homomorphism theorem. 1 and 8 = 0. . a^^ = a|. 1. o-ifiofi}. Recall that ^2 rotates S in a clockwise direction through an angle of 2. 6".29. But Ge^^ — D^ is of order 2k. Then a?e — 1. o^. that M{1. If G were finite of order k.29 = a.M-1) FIN. <*i} — F. as a homomorphic image of a group of order /c is of order — fc.4f and note that a* = ctj for 1 — i — n). . 6^. « =: 0. onto G defined by ae = t and he = a. 6. This implies |F/Ar| Since we are is proof calculating modulo N. is infinite. Moreover every element of G can be written in the form r^a*.02-^1 -> p. 6"-i. that each dihedral group Z?„ is a homomorphic image of G. . It follows that 172 is of order n. As it K=N M are 1. We use only these equations will give rise to a presentation for S3. OjOi. o^. F/K = G. where A.201 = OjOg. 0} = Thus Af{l. a|ai calculate 1 = M (although It we do not know \F/N\ if they are distinct). Since by Problem 8.. F be the normal subgroup of be the free group on ai. freely generated by a and h. 0} is F..

j — n) together with 9 Solution: is a presentation of G.««.23 that e : N af^N = Ker 0.33. . Hence MdN contains x^y^(y^)~^ = x^. Then («(«. 8 8. Thus -» mapping x^ is indeed an isomorphism (Theorem 4. G/G' is free abelian of rank n. n < «o Nd M.. Therefore Ker D AT.„.1d we proved that every finitely generated group We will use this fact to prove that every finitely generated 8... where x^uy G words {i. .. generated group has a presentation. ajajtt^^^jj where 1 — i. by a product involving only positive exponents. 0^. a^. . is a factor group of a free group. a„.^ and their inverses is equal. it follows by Problem 8.j) = Xi. . and x^ and y"^.N) together with the isomorphism /j.» )^ = a^ia^j^tu) = 1 and so Ker0 includes djajd^j.41(b). . xV. I .j^n\ to G defined by {a^N)e = x^. aja.j where l—i.„. N be the normal subgroup of F generated by a^aja'^^J. . page 195. group with elements 1 = a.32. respectively by x^j/^ and y^. modulo A''. to an »[. Let be the homomorphism of F onto G such that agrees with 9 on X and let N — Ker0. modulo N. and e be the homomorphism from Let G . If G can be generated by M — 1 elements.2 a.j^ n). Since ajftjAT = a(ij-)N. 8. a. Since |F/Ker <f. In Section 8. y^\ - I*. Thus and M — N. Show (tti.31. It follows that |F/Ar| =s N n = 1G| a^ip Now let be the homomorphism from F to G defined by = Xj (for 1 —i— n). generated. .\ = n (< «) the and \F/N\ - n. to some Now every product of a's in which there are no negative exponents is equal. Then (X. modulo XiXj A^. Let F be the free group freely generated by «!. Then by Theorem 8. .: fN ^ f<f> is a presentation of G. Therefore every product of the a^ involving both positive and negative exponents can be replaced. Accordingly every product of the a.34. 8. Let X be chosen so that X freely generates a free group F and. Prove that Solution : \x. so that there is a mapping s of X onto one of the finite sets of generators for G.j) is an integer between 1 and n). and so Ojaj = ttj modulo N. . as normal subgroups. But djaj =: o-i = X(2_i) = Xj. page 117). Solution : Let G be free of rank n. Thus modulo A'^ This means that ai e and so a^^ = a-j modulo N. Suppose XiXj — x^j-. furthermore. Let G be an arbitrary group. then scja^ = a.258 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Prove that every Solution: finitely [CHAP.(j. y\ We have a free group F freely generated by x and y and two normal subgroups T>! and = M. be a finite {xi. (1 — i. j/2}. V\ x^.. We must prove M N Since N contains x^y^ and y^.i. that . But this contradicts Problem 6.18. a.6. if Xj"' = Xj. it M D {x^. group has a presentation. But M D {x^y^ since Show that a free group of rank cannot be generated by ?i — 1 elements.. G/G' can be generated by m — 1 elements.x„} (in other O]. y..ja^*.

) Let F Y= {a~^ba. Thus Y freely generates H.1)'.ffc ejc + 1 = Cfc. H = 0.-a-i6a '0-36(13 = a-^b-^a-^b-^a^ba^^ba^ is / # 1..1. we see that a free group freely generated by two elements has a subgroup which is freely generated by infinitely many elements.b} ends in 6 "a"'.a-^ba2. b}.e. ei = 1. So in order to give the reader a chance to become accustomed to the ideas involved.).a'^^ba^ a''^ba~^b~^a^ba~^ba^ it as a reduced product in {a. Similar arguments will help to prove in general that a subgroup of a free group is free. Solution In : Example Y let such that 2/i> • • Y -jJ/ti 2/1. 2/32/^*3/12/2. 3' = 1 We will prove and 4' = 2. eg = 1 and e^ = 1. group Example 1: be the free group freely generated by two elements a and 6. then 1' = 3. . . and.. prove the existence of free groups freely generated by any finite number of elements. Clearly that / when expressed as a 8. . .) Proof: Let a-'ba^ . the number of 2/i's that go into a given reduced product /) is that / when expressed as a reduced product in {a. . which it does. The inductive assumption of the preceding example reduced product should end in ba^. = 1/4 (i . e^ v^ "ffc + i. for example. 8. Y = {Vil i = 0. erated by that a free group freely generated by two elements has a subset If n is any positive integer is freely generated by Y. Problems 8. z does not end in ft-i if efc = 1 or. 2/^' = zb^a^ where z is a re- duced product in a and 5 such that zb^'^a^' is a reduced product (i. (For example.implies ej ¥. Say f = y^' Vn". yy • 2/1' • • 2/k- ends in b ^a^' when ex. Cj i- that / ^ 1 by induction on n. if ep. This theorem is one of the more difficult in this book. Consider any F-reduced product. Our inductive hypothesis (on n. Consider the set = gp{Y) is freely generated by Y.Since e^ and e^ + j are the numbers 1 or —1.a-i6a. b} and / ends in + i„(fc + i)'_ If however fc' # (fc -h 1)'. i. 1 is infinite we have proved and H = gp{Y) .n' are positive integers.3] THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE 259 8. Then pressed as a reduced product in {a. Given the existence of a free group freely generated by two elements. 2/n. Then gpdvi l^e n distinct elements of Y. ends in &''"'"' tions f ¥= 1. Verify both the inductive assumption of the preceding example and that / / ^ 1 where = 2/2" ^2/3" '2/12/12/3 Solution: / = a-26-ia2.3 THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS: AN EXAMPLE The object is of the next sections of this chapter is to prove that every subgroup of a free a free group.— + 2' = 4. — —1. ^2 = -1. then. 2/n}) is easily shown to be freely gen. z does not end in 6).) n = 1 this is certainly true. as asserted.35.Sec. If now fc' = (fe -I. this last expression is a reduced product in then {a. the last expression a*^''"'"*' . If it is true for n = k.}.(i-3fe-i(i3. we first v^ork an example. as / is a reduced product. .b].. . Since k' — (k + 1)' 7^ 0. where . showing that H is freely generated by Y. (Thus Show that .Thus there exist free groups of rank n for each positive integer n. let « = fc + 1.36. (Given. .2.}.1. ffc = ^k + 1- Thus Since j. . and yy — j/cj + d. where V. is a reduced product and so / expressed It follows therefore that in both situaas a reduced product.e. If ends in ba^. ij/j2/2 3/32/4 = = a~^ba^ ' a~'^b''^a* • a^^ba.

PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS Plan of the proof The subgroup theorem for as follows.b~^a~^ and so / ends in 6~ia~2 as reqviired. 1} Let Y = Then we (i) {a^r.26. If (A. e^ Then by our inductive hypothesis yy If {k + !)' = ! y^' ends in b. ^ shall prove that H is actually freely generated steps in the proof: by Y provided X is chosen ap- propriately. Hence / # 1 and Y freely generates gp(Y). GS. If (k+l)'-2 and 6^ + j = 1. If now (k + 1)' = 1.37. Thus / ends in a^ as required. then / ends in b-^a-^a^b = b-^ab. while n' = k. + i — 1 and / ends in ba^h. + i = —1 and / ends in • • • If now (A. Thus there are two main Choose X appropriately. 2. . a^b} and let y^ = aba^. + 1)' = 1 / ends in b~^a~^aba^ = 6~ia~i6a3^ gud so / ends in a^ as required. that = xs{xs)~^ G X. (i'e{l. and so / ends in 6 as required. fe-ia-i. free groups (due to J. our inductive hypothesis 2/1' yr ends in b-^a-^. ti that if n then / ends in 6 c„ then / ends in a>. Suppose that F is freely generated by S. then the nonunit elements ttx.s We know {x from Section 7.6b. 6-ia-i'a-3&-ia-i = b-ia-*b~^a~^ Hence / ends in &-%-! as required.s \ X G X. then / ends in a^ • 0. k' = L e^ (a) Then by the inductive hypothesis yy y^ ends in a^. 1. X is any right transversal of H in F. F F generated by aba^ and a^b is Let Y= - {aha^.if e„ = = 1 and ends in 6-ia-2 1 if and ends c„ in 6-%-i = + -1. For w = 1 this is certainly true. If (k + 1)' = 2. Consider a reduced Y-product / = vr Vnif 1. /is the unique element of X in the coset s a^. If {k+iy = 2 and + i = — 1. + i = —1. and so / ends in 6 as required. If c^ + j = —1. + 1)' = 1. e*) ffc = ~1.2}) Then if j' (i + 1)' implies e^ # -fj+i- We e„ will show by induction on if = -1.s Hf) generate H.) Solution [CHAP. • — 1.8: Every subgroup i? of a free group F is free. then as / is a reduced product e^. then / ends in ba-^b-^a-^ and / ends in 6"^%-! as required.4 a. page 228. then + !)' = ! and + i Thus we have proved by induction that any reduced product always ends and 6"ia"2. (Hard. then as / is a reduced product e^. 8 8. 6 8. for f G F. If it is true for (i) n = we must proceed case by case in proving it true for k \. (ii) Prove that Y freely generates H.j + i = 1 and / ends in a^ ' aba^ = aaaabaaa. If (A. If (fc + 1)' = 2 and e^ + i = 1. then as / is a reduced product ej. then / ends in a^-h-^a-^ and so / ends in 1. 6^+1 = -!. (6) ek~—l. s G S) (where. then a reduced product we must have c. Nielsen and 0. • = as / is 6~ia~2 as required. 2/2 = a^b. If (fc + 1)' == 1 and e^ + i = —1. and so / ends in 6 as required. Then by and ej. and / ends in baba^ and so / ends in a^ as required. then / ends in b^ia~i • b~^a~^ and so / ends in b~ia""2 ^s required.-i as required. ej. ejc = + i = 1.: 260 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS Let be freely generated by a and 6. then / ends in 6-ia-2 • a-sft-ia-i = ft-ia-sft-ia-i^ and so / ends in 6-ia. Thus / ends in b~^a-^.Then by the inductive hypothesis j/j^ y^' ends in 6-%"!. in one of cfi. (ii) k' (a) = 2. If (fc + 1)' = 2. Prove that the subgroup of freely generated by aba^ and a^ft. Schreier) may be stated Theorem if 8.

s X for H in F. excluding bibz 1.2 a-n-i is of length n — 1.s and their inverses interact.9: Suppose that of F. b.„ be an element in Hf of length n. We shall call the elements 1. a-iaz. We choose now representatives for the cosets of length n. Consider a = xs{xs)~^ . by our induction assumption. Schreier transversals Suppose that Every element x X (ic is ^ 1) in F.. where F is freely generated by a set a transversal for in may be expressed uniquely as a reduced S-product H -S. We choose 1 to be the repre- sentative of H.. aia2 • an initial segments of x.4] PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS 261 Step (ii) of the proof will be broken into two parts: the first part requires a careful look at the elements ax.s nonunit element Suppose that we have chosen a right Schreier transversal ax. Proof: We n but no element the cosets of First if H say that a right coset Hf is of length n if there is an element in Hf of length of length less than n. X Hf is of length 0. termed the . 61&2 • • bm In the same which we know have already been chosen as representatives. then 1 G Hf and so Hf = H. Suppose that and that for each coset of length less than n. Let Hfhe a. suitable representatives for all the cosets of length n. c.s where x G X and s G S: ax. . X is a right Schreier transversal. We shall choose inductively using the lengths of in F. ai. bman to be the representative of the coset HaiOi bman.s and the second involves looking at the way in which products of these ax. The initial seg- . Now • • n> • • • • • • • • • • H{bib2 bman) • = {Hbibi • bm)an = {HaiUz • • • an-i)an = • Haiaz • an We select 6162 •• 6162 • ments of • bmOn. a^-i has already been chosen. The main result of this section is the following. 8. i^ is a free group freely generated by S and that Then we can always find a right Schreier transversal H is a subgroup X for H in F. to complete the choice of a right Schreier transversal for H in F.Sec. Thus the coset Ha^a^ On-i G a„-i is of length at most n — \ (since a^az HaiUz This means that the representative of HaiUz an-i). Definition: A it right transversal X is called a right Schreier transversal if every initial segment of an element Notice that follows that if in X is also in X. . in this way. representatives have already been chosen so that every initial segment of a representative is again a representative. way we select We have therefore verified the induction hypothesis and so we are able. are 61. X X = aiaz • ttn (n — l) n is where a. On. Suppose this representative is bibi bm. . is an element of S or the inverse of an element of S. The element aia. . Lemma 8. Recall that length of x and that the length of 1 is 0. coset of length n and let o-ias a. then 1 & X. A look at the elements a^.

s is ai aksbf^ br\ For if with bi~\ But as every initial segment of an element of belongs to X.s I x G X. we utilize equation (7.2. • where Ui or its inverse belongs Thus we may write ajcs)"' to S. be a. x = di • and s == it. page 248). and conclude that tti ttkS = 6i • • • 6. page 219. • a^ a. and s. Corollary 8. x = y and f = s. w & S. this will A. then € = y. ttx. c-xl We need — bi bis~^a^^ • = fti"^ -1. either ai akS G or bi 6. Then • side a reduced product.^ 262 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS for a.s -¥- 1} it suffices generates H. .tGS. which is a contradiction. to . • . Cmit' ^ -X". Then we have the following if a^c.s = • CmWdn^ • di^ • • • where the right-hand side is a reduced product and both Ci Cm and di are elements of X and both ci CmW and di dnW~^ lie outside X.s = aia2 • • aks{aia2 Let i where the right-hand side is a reduced S-product with bi or bi~^ G S. = then £ = 1. • • • O-x. UkS and 6i bis-^ are not elements of X.s Lemma Let £ = 1 or -1..t = Ci • Cmwe"' Ci • • • ef Ci with the right-hand sides reduced products.s¥=l implies x does not end in s"" and xs does not end in s. For suppose aiUkSG X.±1 and dx. Then ^ Ci 1. d. subgroup of Y = [ax.s-> G X. then t = —1. 77 ±1. Corollary 8. s G S. . It remains only to prove that Y freely generates H. tti. Cm G X and • • (i) if if (ii) w G S. Note we have proved ax. then ai akS = ai UkS and so a^."^ Proof: It follows immediately from the preceding argument. The proof of the subgroup theorem F. • x. x = Ci • • Cm and s dn = w.11: Suppose e. • bis-\bi biS~')-' = 1 follows that the reduced S-product for a^c. = • • 1. Then H is a. = ai be interpreted as • • [CHAP. . = l.s = Ci • CmWdn and aJJ.10: w"' G S}.12: Let £ = ±1.1.3). We asse rt that ai • • • • = From this it 6i • • bis-\bi &iS-i)-> = &i • . • • and Cm G X but Proof: It follows from Corollary 8. • • • • d„ • Proof: The only note that for the case « lemma is an immediate consequence of the preceding remarks. Suppose again that i^ is a free group freely generated by S and that Choose a right Schreier transversal X for H in F. not.11. di^ If a^..1. 8 Now let the reduced S-product We will allow = 0. whereas if bi biS'^ G X.yGX. For this prove that any reduced Y-product is not the identity (Lemma 8. s cancels either with ak or X X Let W = {w\w GS or 8.s = Ci is • • • CmWdn ' ' • • • di Ci where the right-hand ci CmW ^ X.

rank of H. di But this is contrary to Lemma 8. Sj..e. . of Lemma ci • • • G X but Ci • • c^w ^ X {w G CkWdT^ dr* then «ij..s^ ax^. Sr and let Schreier transversal for a subgroup of index n. ..sj ax^.Wm = wi and xi^j does not end in Sj. let a^ = number of x^G for which aij. . Let g = a^i J Sr G S) be a reduced Y-product. . Consequently Wm ¥. x^. Then (1) and (2) are mutually exclusive. page 228. the nonunit ax. By line 13. TC and j = 1. or sr\ j = 1. then ei CmV is an initial segment of dT^ei di and hence an element of X. The number of such elements of the ax^. the case r = 1 being of course proved in Lemma 8. Therefore g ^1. • • • • • • GW • X • • • • • • If the result is assumed true for r — 8.r.. • • • X .10 with • • 1 C/c and ax~_\_sr-i ^^ expressed as Ci in the «/''". r elements is generated n in a free group. runs through Thus the {x-> xW:.. . Clearly a. We shall now find the rank of a subgroup of index To find the rank of the subgroup we use the result of Section 8. .WmGW) is a reduced product. . ends in s.10. Similarly wdr^ dr^ is not removed as a result of deleting inverse pairs in the product Thus wdr^ dr^ei e-m. form . We • • • • • • • • • • • • • • wdi^ • • dT^ei • • emvf~^ • • • A"^ = w vf~^ • fi^ • • • when expressed g ends • as a reduced product • • • • by deleting inverse pairs (the between w and v represent the factors df' in w vf^^ the result follows. = number of for which x.s^ = XiSif^i)'^ ¥^1 as Sj fixed j. X • • • . Xi — l be a H eta. We will show that g ends in vf~'^ em E. Consider the elements .Sj WmSY^ (where Wi. x G X. . . .4] PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS • 263 a^'' J ei r. . Consider the product Wdi di ei CmVfn • fi can convert it into a reduced product by successively deleting inverse pairs. If ei emV is removed as a result of deleting inverse pairs in the product df' CmV. . . number of x^ such that xW. • • di^ei em left after deleting inverse pairs). .r) conclude a. Let and be expressed in the form of Lemma 8. = number of x^ that end in s. = 1.10. Therefore (1) and (2) are mutually exclusive. we proved that a subgroup of index « in a group generated by by nr elements.. = 1.s freely generate the subgroup. . are unit elements. a^ _.s^ = 1. and /f' e. As Xi is in the Schreier transversal X.4d. . . is a permutation. Subgroups of finite index In Section 7. .r. Thus xWj — w\. wi Wm Wm also belong to the Schreier transversal. — {xi. X . s — XiSj\XxSj) i = 1. Xi We show that = wi--• . 8.. As x^ runs through X.sj W). • • • • • Note that if neither Xi ends in sj^ nor ^isj ends in remains when a^j. • • • • • • " ends in wdi~^ di^. {xi. ends in sf^ plus the number of x^ for which xJ'. is the number of elements in which end in s^ We . ends in s. Suppose that Xi ends in sr^. If m = i and wdf^ e^v = 1.' . or sr^. then o^^. page 219). .Sec. with j — 1.Xr&X and Si. . . i.. . Consequently and the inductive assertion follows. every element of ends in some s.12. page 262: If Xi ends in sr'^ then then If x^j ends in Sj. of ax^. +a^ — n — 1.Sj =1 is Oj + +a^ = number of elements of that end in s. • • . (for otherwise wi WmSj^ is not a reduced product).6b.10 as ei emvf~^ /^"S where v induction on /^^ by but ei e^v ^ X.s^ is expressed as a reduced product.Sj is nr. So the total number (i. But except for x^ — 1. alizlsr-i = (^^-^ ^"'' '^^^^^^'^y ^o dT^ei the assumption that g isa reduced Y-product. . or sf^ Hence a^+ For X x^G X X X .Xn} with Let F be freely generated by Si. To find the we wish (1) (2) to determine how many .. .e. then by Corollary 8.

a^^. "•xV..4d. y G R and F/R = gp{xR} Prove that the group R/R' is freely generated as an abelian group by the elements a. Thus the subgroup rank 2(r H — 1) + 1. Find a set of free generators for F'. and If j = I. Solution: The method elements ci^n_g = of Section 8.1. \ X= Now as (_xR')(xi^x-'^R'){xR')-'^ = a."j/x~"i2'.6. is x''yx~"R' in the center of F/R'.." n G Z} gives for the free generators of R the argument similar to Theorem 8.Sr . Let F is infinite cyclic.s..264 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS 1 unit [CHAP. x^y^xy~^x~^~^ for integers r and all 8. Prove that H^ K. be a free group on generators x and y. where n G Z.''2/s. and (2) is a set of coset representatives..13. .. for i = 2. H and K are free of the same rank. Solution: By Theorem 8. page 255). ••. Thus H is of 8. .39. Then — 1) + be freely generated by Sj Let s^. Let F be a free group of rank r and H and K subgroups of index n. and we have proved Theorem 8. H is a free group of rank Problems 8. H Solution: We %. R/R' is {a. Sj Let F H but 8.s- = SiSj{s^j)-i = = SiSjS~i s? if j j ¥= 1 (for then SiSj-ei/si) = • . H he a subgroup of index n. = ISjClSj)""' = as Sj e H implies Now i^ = 0. Then to show that is a Schreier transversal we need only belong to the same coset of F' only if r = r^. Find a set of free generators for by using the method of Section Verify that the number of free generators agrees with the number given by Theorem 8.13.4d with a. .13: Let i^ be a free group of rank r and let 1."j/x~". 1 (as sf=l) and SiSjS"'.13.r.Sj tti. . = lSj(is^)-i. 8. . Solution: s integers}. If j ¥= 1. Thus they are isomorphic. 8 Thus there are exactly n — elements among n{r the ai:. Now if Then the nonunit elements among a^^. Then prove that for no integer n. Let F be freely generated by x and y.40. (i = l.SiS^f '. Suppose that R < F.I/ = xrysy{xrys + l)-l = 1 all Thus a integers set of free generators for F' axe the elements s ¥= Q. «sj. 1. is freely generated by sf. s = s^."+i3/a!-("+"fi' # x^yx'^R' xnyx—^R' does not belong to the center of F/R'.»•) freely generate Sj H. G f/ .38.6 (which deals only with free abelian with basis x^yx~^R' for all integers n. which agrees with Theorem 8.^. . The free generators of F' are the elements a r s and a^r„s which are nonunit.Si) for the Schreier transversal. .x — ^^y^x{x^y^x)-^ = x''y^x{x^ + ^y^)-i — x^y^xy-^x-"^-^ ¥= 1 ior s ¥• On the other hand.s- choose {l. "xV. the derived group of F.41.S2. Now Let X— {x^y^ \ r and X show that (1) a.^l. be a subgroup of Index 2 such that s^ S H. By an nG free groups of finite rank). Z. ie'ij/^i Z . Both (1) and (2) follow easily on using the fact that FIF' is free abelian with basis xF' yF' (by Theorem 8..

Proof: has only a finite number of double-ended cosets. As X does not end in s~^ Hx is double-ended. Km. H„.s ¥. To simplify we H K However. H X and s G S). H K .4d that every element of H ended in the form wdr^ df' where wdf' di^ is either s{xs)~^ or s~ix~S where ax. Then if Hx is double-ended.s = xs{xs)~^ ¥. if all the elements of C end in a. in Example Therefore we freely generated by a and 6. A coset which is not single-ended is called The following lemma is crucial: Lemma 8. are subgroups of finite rank of a free group F. as we have seen of infinite rank. . K).1. Put S = {a. Intersection of finitely generated subgroups We Hr\K if not. in hx.14. the number of initial segments is finite. x is an initial segment of di di (otherwise tvdi di is an initial segment of x and hence in X). i — 1.14. may 1. a free group of rank 2 has a subgroup as well assume that F is free of rank 2. . say Ki.) the problem we note that we may assume that F is finitely generated.) But if C contains for example the elements ababab and a6~S then C is not single-ended. Also and the intersection of a single-ended coset of with any coset of is single-ended (and vice versa). Let F be We say that a coset C is single-ended product has the same last factor. it df* and di follows that if x cancels completely. there exists an element h in • • • • • • • GH • • such that some wdf' diW^ € X. of course. and Hi. di^ and di diw~^ € X although di Let X G rank. and j = 1. • • • • • • • • • • • • - • Let X G X. page 231).s ¥. there are an infinite 8. Now s~' appears in the reduced product for xss~^ (line 13. Then only a finite number of the elements ax. 8..15: The intersection of two subgroups H and K of finite rank is again of finite rank. is prove here that if also a subgroup of H and K finite rank. instead of F. .n are among the cosets HiCiKj.. double-ended. It follows that as the number of di di that appear is finite. (We might have for instance baaa G C. Thus the double-ended cosets of .1. . of infinite rank.1.s(«s)~^ G H. a.. C is said to be single-ended. number of x such that ax. HnK has at most mn double-ended cosets and accordingly . (line Now number Theorem as there are an infinite of double-ended cosets. By Lemma 8. . A is of finite rank if Proof: (1) Choose a Schreier transversal be of finite X for H in F. . If ax. page 262). which is certainly finitely generated (as and are).14: subgroup H of the group freely generated by a and b and only if it has a finite number of double-ended cosets.m. Therefore HnK is of finite rank by Lemma 8. then (This result is due to Howson. x cancels completely. and thus the number of double-ended cosets is finite. Sec. Let H be 13. H HnK H K K . HDK . The coset Hx contains x and {xs{xs)~^)''^x = xss~^.. if every element of C when expressed as a reduced For example.s ^ 1 (where But we proved in Section 8. page 259. . Now the cosets of are intersections of cosets of (Problem 7. For could consider gv{H. As h ends • • • • (2) it follows that x does not end in s"^ page 262) and.b}.23.4] PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS 265 f. say . has only a finite number of double-ended cosets. Thus we concluded that all the elements of H end in the form wdf' df^ where there are only a finite number of wdf^ diG X.

. The important notion of rank of a free group then arose naturally.a^ha-^. PRESENTATIONS OF GROUPS 8.b. Prove that if G = \xi. finite rank has only a finite number of elements of length —n for any 8. G = \xi. . Find elements u.. We next discussed presentations of groups. Let e x ^ a. . ••!. .x^. 8.a and 8.X2. additive group of rationals. Xi. then N' < F. the rank of a subgroup of finite index was calculated.43. Supplementary Problems ELEMENTARY NOTIONS 8. As a We defined free groups was X H F H H X consequence every group is a homomorphic image of a free group. Verify that F/N' is a splitting extension of N/N' by an infinite cyclic group. then G is isomorphic .y. . The existence of free groups established and homomorphisms of free groups investigated... [a.49.a. Prove that if p is a prime and to the p-Prufer group.d\. .30.). Using the notation of the preceding problem show that if N' is the derived group of N. . {Hint: Let i^ be the free group freely generated by X and y. then G splits over N.72. Let G = 2.a-^ha.X2.) : 8. Let G = \x. Prove that the group G = \a..) 8. Prove G is the direct product of two free groups each of rank 8. («+ l)a:i+i = *i.42. Finally we proved that the intersection of two subgroups of finite rank in a free group is of finite rank. a-^ba . Construct an isomorphic copy of F/N' directly as an extension of a free abelian group by an infinite cyclic group. Also it is abelian.45.aha-^. Prove that a free group of fixed integer n. 8.46. Prove that if N< G and GIN is free.48.[b. The main result was that if F Is a free group freely generated by X.44.f+ia.c].266 FREE GROUPS AND PRESENTATIONS [CHAP. Let f be a free group freely generated by a and 6.[b. . {Hint: Note that G has the additive group of rationals as homomorphic image. Let a^^ba^. Then show G' ¥= {1} by mapping G into a suitable factor group.rS . . Suppose F is freely generated by a and 6.d]\.47.51.b^l is not free. .c]. page 257.h. . . Show that G is infinite. . then G is isomorphic to the . Using this.[a.F so that u¥. (Hint: Prove that G/G' is cyclic.e.d.) . 8 A look back at Chapter 8 and gave an alternative definition. 8. So if G is free it must be free cyclic. i. then for every group and every mapping e oi into there is a homomorphism ^ of into which coincides on with 0. Use Problem 6. N N = gp{. 2x2 = a. Prove < F and verify that F splits over N. .x^x-^.|.50.v e.y^\. y -* ab be a homomorphism onto the group of Problem 8. We discussed and proved the subgroup theorem for free groups. •••.b. \a. page 208.

z then the elements 8.CHAP. x^y^z^. freely generate a PROOF OF THE SUBGROUP THEOREM Show that if a™ = 6" where a and 6 8. subgroup of F. .53.58. Consider G/G' which is free abelian of infinite rank.52.41. {Hint: Let G = UF. (Note that F/P^ is the Klein 4-group.56.55.R be as in Problem 8. Let F. Prove 8. a free group of rank greater than 1. xyz. . x*y*z*.) is 8.. Obtain a contradiction by showing that G/G' • is of finite rank. Prove F is free by comparing it with a free group of rank 2. Prove that there is no sequence of subgroups Fj C Fg C Fj v^ Fj+i and rank of F. Find generators for F^ where F is a free group of rank two and F^ = gp(x^ a. y. = 2.57.. are elements of a free group (mn ¥= 0). (Hard.«„.59.54. \ e F). What the group \xi. . normal subgroups of G. x^y^z^. Then G is a free group of infinite rank. cyclic group. x^. .. Let F be a group which can be generated by two elements with a free subgroup of rank 3 which of index two. Let that N and M be nonidentity NnM j^ {1}. of F with Let F be a free group. page 264. Xi^j"']? THE SUBGROUP THEOREM FOR FREE GROUPS Prove that if F is free on x. 8] SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS is 267 8. .. then a and 6 generate a 8. Prove that F/R' has no element other than 1 in its center.) 8.) 8.

.

b). — r < b. 1966. A Survey of Modern Algebra. S. I.. i. 3. An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. Given integers a and b. b). (a. b are integers. We write the greatest common divisor of a and b as (a. (6) (c) Upsensky. b) = pa + qb is 6. If a. G. The definitions of greatest common divisor of two numbers a and b (the largest integer which divides both a and b) and lowest common multiple of a and b (the smallest integer divisible by both a and 6). The fundamental theorem of arithmetic which says every integer and only one way (ignoring order) as the product of primes. If (a. expressible in one 7. and H. The definition of a prime.Appendix A Number Theory In this book we assume the reader knows the following: 1. 1939. the lowest common multiple of a and 6 as l. b) = 1. A. for which read as "a does not divide b". Heaslet. The notation a )( b is 2. McGraw-Hill. an integer not equal to 1 which is divisible only by 1 and itself. and M. we use the notation a | b. The reader who does not know (a) this material can consult Niven. 1953. Wiley. and S.. Birkhoff. there exist integers p and q such that (a.m. 269 ..e. Also some of the simpler properties such as a = & and x = y implies a + x = b + y and ax = by. Macmillan. then a and b are said to be co-prime. V. MacLane. then there exist an integer q and an integer r such that a = bq + r where 4. Elementary Number Theory. The meaning of a divides b. Zuckerman.c. a ^ b modulo n means a — & is divisible by n. J. 5.

The study of groupoids arose in part from a desire to understand more clearly the The theory of groupoids can be subdivided into systems which satisfy various "natural" conditions. [21]. 1 of sets was established by G. [16]. which category). Cantor in the last quarter of the 19th century central notion in his work is that of cardinality . [43]). It was hoped that much of geometry could be handled by associating a group with each geometrical object. in the order of complexity. and [14]). [11]. Finally we refer the reader to the study of groups with a topology: [41]. [46]. [42]. [17]. groups and quasi-groups. To some extent this aspect of group theory has been discussed in the section on isometry groups (see also [10].Appendix B A Note: Guide to the Literature on pages 272 and 273. loops. Thus. Useful books in algebra are [47] and [23]. In the study of sets a number of paradoxes arose ([4] and [5]). This leads to the idea of a transfinite number. crystallography [12] and chemistry omnipresence of groups is part of the reason for its importance. analysis and geometry. [13]. [19]. [15]. Chapter [1]. the study of groups has been carried forward for its own sake (see e. Numbers in brackets refer to the bibliography General Books which contain much of the material of this text (and frequently more) are. initially Groups arose Groups arise also in quantum physics. Chapter 3 It is clear from this chapter that groups arise in a great many mathematical disciplines. [15]. 270 .two sets have the same cardinality if there is a one-to-one mapping from the one onto the other. for example. [16]. by Lawvere.g. and much of Cantor's work was devoted to developing these transfinite The theory A numbers (see [2] and [3]). Two major references are [8] and [9]. [22]. [20]. Recently a different approach to the foundations of mathematics has been originated is based on the notion of category [44] (see [7] for the axioms of a Chapter 2 axioms for group theory. [5] and [6]). from 19th century algebra. and for knot theory see [40]. For the applications to topology see [37] and [39]. [18]. among the various classes of groupoids one has semigroups. This made it desirable to put set theory on a firm axiomatic footing. This In addition. Such axiomatic approaches have led to a number of interesting developments ([4].

a finite group of odd order is solvable [45].g. [34]. There has also been an attempt to prove theorems about classes of groups that are quite close to abelian groups. see e. Much groups of small order has not been too successful. with multiplication modulo n. [43]. There are other types of representation. topology. Factor rings can be defined and very similar theorems algebraic concepts. viz. Feit and J. e. such as rings. [17] and [28] for a discussion of this classification problem. i. there is not really any further informaIf tion available except perhaps for finding the automorphism group of a cyclic group. A more comprehensive result is that of Kulikov [16]. of the theorems of abelian groups extend to wider classes of algebraic structures. There are a great number of important theorems of this kind.g. e. then the automorphism group of G is the group of integers co-prime to n. One can define homomorphisms for other is basic. As we have dealt exhaustively with cyclic groups. prompted by algebraic group homomorphisms [26]. Thus for example we have the theorem of Lagrange: The order of a subfinite group of a finite group divides the order of the group. Our proof we do There are also other criteria for deciding if an abelian group is a direct sum of cyclic groups.APPENDIX Chapter 4 B] A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE 271 Chapter 4 is concerned mainly with cyclic groups and homomorphisms. obtained [23]. This classification is by no means complete. The most important of these is the representation of finite groups as natural generalization of the 2x2 matrices we have matrices constitute a (These discussed in Chapter 3. Excellent sources for abelian groups appear in [16] and [31]. more encyclopedic ac- Chapter 7 The aim of this chapter is to show how representing groups as permutation groups leads to information about the groups themselves. i.) The reader might consult [33].g. has been done on more complex interaction Chapter 5 of this chapter is "arithmetical" in content. but much progress has been made (see [29]). This is due to the extraordinary complexity of these groups. not have a definite procedure for finding a basis. e. solvable and nilpotent groups Some ([17]. [19]).) of Some work. embodying various generalizations of the Sylow theorems A very important result of a slightly different kind is the remarkable (see [27]. Thompson. G is cyclic of order n. Chapter 6 of the fundamental theorem of abelian groups is nonconstructive.g. if every element is of bounded order [81]. theorem of W. e. [24]. variants for countable torsion groups are subtler and appear in Ulm's theorem ([31]. The reader might consult [21]. (Indeed. a count appears in [32]. it deals with the order of a group.g. [25]. nxw nxn . Such procedures exist. once the group theoretic ones are known. One of the main aims of this study is the classification of finite simple groups. modules over rings ([31]). The inIn this chapter we found invariants for finitely generated abelian groups.e. [30]. [17]).e. it is routine The concept of homomorphism to obtain the others. The classification of Today the study of finite groups has proceeded at an extraordinary pace. matrices. [32]).

Preston. Introduction to Metamathematics. Hersh. is really motivated by Cayley's theorem. is of great importance. deal in finite group theory. P. etc. 1915. C.. [17]). which is. 1952. "Non-Cantorian Set Theory". the definition of free group is analogous to the definition of free abelian group (Chapter 6).. A also regard a free group as being the free product of infinite cyclic groups. A Survey of Binary Systems.... There are even further generalizations and we can speak of the free group in a variety. roughly speaking. Theory of Sets (translated from the 2nd German edition by F. G. Van Nostrand. Axiomatic Set Theory. S.4. Abelian Categories. One of the advantages of the method we used in Chapter 8 is that it extends readily to provide generators and defining relations for subgroups of a group of a presentation [36]. All this is connected with the word problem. An from one presentation to another is There are many proofs of the subgroup theorem. where a variety is a collection of groups satisfying certain conditions. An Introduction to the Theory of Functors. Numbers (translated by Kamke. Freyd. detailed account appears in [35]. One can The Groups occur frequently as presentations. including topological ones (e.g. free products and presentations of groups appear in for presentations. The word problem is unsolvable in general (see [15]). B. [37]). [4] Kleene.. of [35]).. there is not even a general and effective procedure for deciding whether the group of any given presentation is of order 1. P.e. [8] Bruck. H. More properties [36]. Halmos. R. American. Chapter 8 Our proof of the existence of free groups a glance at the usual proof will reveal [16]. to say An important concept which enables us to change that of Tietze transformations [36]. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] P. Naive Set Theory. [36]). P. [17]. Bagemihl). Jourdain). P. 1958. Indeed. 1960. and R.272 A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE [APPENDIX B In infinite group theory the permutational representation of Frobenius has led to significant progress (§2 of Chapter 2. free product of two groups is a way of putting the groups together in. This is unfortunate as it is always difficult what the group of a presentation is or what its properties are. "The Algebraic Theory of Semigroups". the freest way ([16]. 1964. important one is by Nielsen transformations ([16]. 7. roughly speaking. and G. Scientific [5] Cohen. the property of being able to extend a mapping of the free generators to a homomorphism of the free group. See also [38] of free groups. [9] Clifford. C. H. 1960. i. The transfer has been used a great formation is [27]. Springer. as The property of Theorem 8. A. Van Nostrand. Mathematical Surveys American Mathematical Society.. A good source of in- See also [17]. B. December 1967. Van Nostrand. J. it is often used as the definition of a free group. [6] [7] Suppes. Dover. 1961. [2] [3] Cantor. E. . R. to determine in a finite number of steps if two products in the generators of a given presentation are equal. 1950. With this approach. Indeed. Harper and Row. E. Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Open Court.

Symmetry. Northcott. 1964. An Introduction to Homological Algebra. H. Pacific Journal of Mathematics. P. 1965.. 1956. Feit. 1966. "Arithmetical and Normal Structure of Finite Groups. [19] [20] [21] [22] Schenkman. Springer-Verlag. Macmillan.. K.. MacLane. [45] and J. Introduction Birkhoff.. Group Theory and its Application to Physical Problems. Allyn and Bacon.. American Mathematical Society. A Survey of Modern Algebra.... Crowell. 1949. Cambridge U.. Academic Press. 1958. Chelsea.. L. pp.. Combinatorial Group Theory: Terms of Generators and Relations. H. 19G3. Geometry and the Imagination. . 1968. Group Theory.. Herstein. Harcourt.APPENDIX [10] [11] B] A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE 273 Weyl. O. Cohen. U. Editor. Blaisdell. Chelsea. Introduction M. Springer. I. 1967. P. Holden Day. Huppert. Generators and Relators for Discrete Groups. Carter. Topics in Algebra.. W. Huppert. S. The Theory of Groups. I. Davis and M. F. 1957.. The Theory of Groups: An Introduction. Geometry and Group Theory. [28] [29] and J. 1959.. M. H. O. Infinite Groups. E. 1965. Cohn-Vossen. Seniour. [44] Lawvere.. 1952. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] Wallace. W. 1963. J. A. 1966. M. Interscience.. Springer-Verlag. 1966. Chelsea. and S. Universal Algebra. Group Theory. M. H. 1964. and W. 1965. 1967. translated by P. Wielandt. Princeton University Press. Endliche Gruppen. 1957. 1963. Modem Algebra. B. pp. G.. Cohn. (translated by K..... Harper and Row." 1960 Institute on Finite Groups. D. 1965. Abelian Groups. Representation Theory Curtiss. Jr. Dover. H.. Akademiai Kiado. 1953. 1967. Hall... 3.. no. 1954. Burrow. W. Rotman. Interscience. Ungar. 1962. W. 1959. [12] [13] Hammermesh. P. Interscience. A. 1965. Coxeter. [23] [24] [25] [26] Van der Waerden. Pontriagin. Jr. and I. M.. Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras. Jr. Scott. Burnside. [27] Wielandt. M.. W. 1953. Fox. [35] [36] Neumann. Academic Press. Topological Groups. Theory of Groups of Finite Order. Gordon and Breach. C. An Introduction to Algebraic Topology. Hall.. 773-1029. 1964. M. Macmillan. Presentations of Groups in [37] [38] Algebraic Topology. Fuchs. Introduction to Knot Theory.. Addison-Wesley. Kurosh. vol. Springer-Verlag. Ginn. and S. to Modern Algebra and Matrix Theory. 3. Hirsch). "Simple Groups and Simple Lie Algebras". P.. Varieties of Groups. 193-240. 1962. L. H. Macmillan. The Theory of Groups. [46] [47] Lederman.. A. F. W. The Groups of Order 2" {n ^ 6). "Solvability of groups of odd order". "The Category of Categories as a Foundation for Mathematics". Solitar. Zassenhaus. B. H. 1955. Massey. Chelsea. Chemical Applications of Yale. A. Cambridge U. of Michigan Press. S. April 1965... R. and B.. Thompson. 1957. 1960. Sperner. Nemenyi. P. An Introduction... L. Lie Groups.. H. and E.. W. 1965. Oliver and Boyd. Pergamon. G. to the Theory of Finite Groups. [31] [32] [33] [34] Kaplansky. 1960. Moser. Finite Permutation Groups. 1962. 1964. Magnus. Brace. Haussner)... Journal of the Society. Hall. R. M. Hilbert. A. G. (translated by F. W. J. B. The Theory of Groups. Proceedings of the Conference on Categorical Algebra. Prentice-Hall. Reiner. La Jolla. S. Blum). Cotton. of Finite Groups. London Mathematical (translated by [30] Schreier. Van Nostrand. and R. H.. D. W. Karass and D. J. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Symmetry..

free abelian groups. 1 order of. 12. 164 if ah = ha. 134 274 . 135 equivalence. 197 subgroups of. 206 primary = p-group. 197 Bijection. 227 Finitely presented. 167 Cyclic group. 101 Ascending central series Associative groupoid. 204 Finitely generated group. 87 of group = of groupoid. 202 factor groups of. 86 Finitely generated abelian groups. 14 Carrier. 26 Dihedral group. 205. 3 Commutative groupoid. 75 infinite. 205. 194 Circle. 234 Component. 29 Additive notation. 29 = upper central series. H-. 42 Equivalence relation. Degree of permutational representation. 87 inner. 6 Cayley's theorem. 219 representative. 85 of field. 190 rank of. 185 free groups. p-. 158. 13 Epimorphism. 182 Fields of complex numbers. 121 Factors of a subnormal series. 19 Block.e. 232-234 splitting. 144. Table 5. 62 simplicity. 19. 112 Commute: a and h commute Complement. 214 Center. 9 Element. 219 Countable. 98. 171 Conjugate. 182 Divisible group. 250 Factor groups. 152 Dimension of vector space. 143 internal. 17 series. 112 Chain. 131 Conjugates. 192 Derived subgroup. 186 of type p" = p-Priifer group. subgroups. 120 Coset. 46. 83 Basis of free abelian group. 103 R-. 193 Abelian groupoid. 163 269 Conjugacy classes. 14 Countably infinite. 185. 142 Automorphism. product of elements in the set belong to the set. 186 Basis theorem = fundamental theorem for finitely generated abelian groups. 114 Factor of a factor theorem (third isomorphism theorem). group. 209 Cartesian product. 191 Composition Composition Composition Congruence. finite. 172 Correspondence theorem. 253 Four group. equation. 14 Binary operation. 112 Centralizer of a subset. 257 of degree 4. 112 Commutator subgroup. 146 Direct summand. 4 Different products. 250 Extension property. 178 infinite.INDEX Abelian group. 158 Faithful representation. 29 Commutator. Codomain. 112 Difference of sets. 178 Alternating group. 9 Cardinality. 2 Class. of maps. 196 free.2. 8 Extension of groups. 197. 143 external. 178 Direct sums. 253 Finite presentation. R-. 191. 245 = mapping p„. 177-212 divisible. 14 Cycles. 209 finitely generated.9 Closed with respect to multiplication. 217 Dependent. 84. 265 representation. i. factors. 108 double-ended. 218 Family of indexed sets. 89 Direct product. 234-238 Extension of mapping to homomorphism. 148 Common part.

190 Priifer groups. 29 table of. 131 (cont. 147 = Mobius 2p. 114 definition of. independent. 186. 32 free. 261 Inner automorphism (see Automorphism. 90 Fundamental theorem of arithmetic. 246 isometry. 115 length of an element. of group. 144. of a group. 148 p2. 90 matrices. 142 Inverse pairs. 248 Linear fractional transformation transformation. 60 Isometries.INDEX Free abelian group. 156 Isomorphism theorems. 50 = if and only if Group. 234. of normal subgroups. 158. 29 equality of. of line. 67 Isomorphism. 112 extension. 193 Free group. natural. 77 Linear group. 81 mixed. 269 Fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups. 197. 177-212 alternating. 77 nilpotent. 29 associative. 62 automorphism. 90 cycle. 50 derived. 116 Indexed family. 151 simple. of a groupoid. 101 Image. 186 rank of.150 Mal'cev's theorem. 29 identity. 149 8. 3 Least common multiple = lowest common multiple. 109 Largest set. 260 subgroups of finite index. = p-group. 238 finitely generated. 55 Invariant subgroup = normal subgroup. 148-156 Hamiltonian group = quaternion group. 94 of a groupoid. 83 commutative. 3 Intersection. 191 quaternion. 30 infinite. 197 Galois group. 255 subgroups. 56 table. first. Lagrange's theorem. 112 cyclic. 142 Homomorphism. 94 of groupoid. primary. 111 Invariants of finitely generated abelian group type of abelian group. 159 Generators. 164 Kernel. 148 commutative. 117 Klein four group. 42 number of groups of given order. 246 Free set of generators. 125 third. 29 117 second. 22 Groups of order P. 224 Full linear group. 13 Independence. 164 167 element in free group. 192 Index of a subgroup. 225 Frobenius' theorem. 264 Free on a set. 110 Index 2. 64 of plane. of subgroups. 246 Frobenius' representation. 245 isomorphism Identity. 29 commutator. 246 intersections of finitely generated subgroups.) Groups of small order. 248 rank of. 246 Inversion. 30 Iff of a group.) Intersection. 269 Length of. 12. 265 275 Groups of order 12. 121 Jordan-Holder theorem. 182 Initial segments. 26 abelian. free set of. 230 . 151 Higher central series = upper central series. 67 linear. 22 torsion. 188 torsion-free. 163 symmetric. 98. 246 Greatest common divisor. 246 Freely generated. 28 finite. 64. 125 subgroup. 269 Homomorphism. 29 order. abelian. 188 Mobius transformations. 188 Groupoid. composition series. 117 Identical products. 182 Indexing set. 200 = 227 Inverse. 40 (first Homomorphism theorem theorem). 152-156 15.

190 p-primary group = p-group. 14 Operation. 188 193 Range. 11. equality. 158 = upper central series. 188 Permutation. 19 Rotation. 2 Multiplication table. 219 Representatives of the equivalence classes. 131 definition. 253 group of a. 216 Representative of a coset. group. 161 by radicals. 60 = symmetric group. 9 i2-class. 14 codomain. 68. 17 definition. 216 right-regular. 114 restriction of. 14 Matrices. 261 Schur's theorem. 60 subnormal. 142 Normal closure. bijection. 253 Odd permutation. 158. 14 onto. 9 ascending central. 158. 253 finitely presented.4 276 INDEX or mapping. 111 Reflexive property. 191 main theorem. composition. 158 solvable. 125 normal. 81 Matrices. 260 Order of a group. 60 One-to-one mapping. 68. groups of. 158 Set. 194 Metacyclic. 1 group odd. 253 of a group. 163. 253 Simple group. 14 one-to-one. 216 degree of. 13 identical. 242 Semigroup. commutator. Maximal independent Maximal set. 245 Reflection. 81 set. binary. 190 p-Priifer group. 151 Quotient group = factor group. 2 Partition. 193 free group. 12. 56 Permutational representation. 50 of a groupoid. 217 Frobenius. 14 of subsets of a group. 1 Onto mapping. 120 Presentation. 103 Schreier transversal. 115 Negative. 238 Steinitz exchange theorem. 12. group of type = Priifer group. 56 even. 12 Rank. 191 Periodic = torsion group. 139. 9 Mobius transformations. 69 Natural homomorphism. 69 Schreier's subgroup theorem. cartesian. 253 Normal subgroup. 22 Reduced product. free abelian group. 13 domain. 9 Representation. 13 different. 206 Preimage. 54 derived. 112. 159 series. 77 Monomorphism. 234 Splitting extension. 234. 158 word problem. 111 = Primary component = p-component. 142 p". 245 245 matching. 134 Right-regular representation. 111 isomorphism theorem (second isomorphism theorem). 192 Subgroup. 109 Proper subgroup. 245 Products. 172 Smallest set. 253 finite. 29 of an element. 216 Normal subgroup generated by a Normalizer. set. 106 Priifer group. 191 y-component. 246 Split. 225 permutational. 178 Nielsen-Schreier theorem. 191 Quaternions = Hamiltonian groups. 112 conjugate. 6 direct. 13 composition. Map Product. 191 . 193 iE-block. 112 generated by a invariant. 217 p-group. Ordered pair. 42 Multiplication in a set. 243 Mixed group. 133 set. 29 Series. 143 reduced. coset. 260 Nilpotent group. 12. 14 Matching. 255 torsion-free abelian group. 3 Solvable. 98 normal subgroup. 219 degree of.

2 series. 158 subgroup generated by. 240 Transitive property. 89 Word problem. infinite. 189 Torsion-free group. 30 central series. 59 of degree 5 or more. 56 of degree 4. 126 theorem for free groups. multiplication.) 277 Symmetry groups of an algebraic structure. 109 178 finite. 219 Sehreier. 106 Sylow. 142 Vector space of dimension n. 73 Union. 158 factors of. 172 Torsion group. 89 Vector sum. 3 Unit element Upper = identity element. 9 Translation. 261 Type of a finitely generated abelian group. 9 Symmetry groups. 89 Sylow subgroup. 116 proper. 131 Symmetric group. 194 .INDEX Subgroup (cont. 130 second and third. first. 98 product of. 130 theorem for cyclic groups. 105. 130 Sylow's theorems. 68. 22 Three-cycle. direct. 200 Sum of vectors. definition. Sum. 189 Subnormal Subset. 178 182 Table. 260 torsion. 172 Symmetric property. 83 of index 2. 178 Zorn's lemma. 167 Transversal. 246 Zero element. 188 subgroup. 69 Transposition. 188 Transfer.

189 Elements of S and their inverses. 112 278 . 48 Euclidean plane. 73 Group of isometries of R that move Klein four group.g Automorphism group of G. 117 L^(y. 67 I(R) Is (/ : Z) Group of isometries of R.Symbols and Notations Symbols aut (G) o-x. 61 C C* C(A) C„ Complex numbers. 84 xg(xg)-^. 89 233 '^x^. 233 Isometries of plane. 51 Centralizer of A. M ^M Mx Group of Mobius transformations. 131 Symmetric group of degree n. 112 Cyclic group of order n. 20 Real numbers. 66 K^ Ker e Lc. 232 Integers. 36 Nonnegative integers. 1 R R^ R^ 5^ •Jl* Nonnegative real numbers. (a.. «»fc. 1 A in H. 64 Symmetry group of S.2. 262 is the empty set. F) m. 98 Conjugation by a. 76 D„ gp(X) h^ / Subgroup generated by X.^. 2 Set of representatives of the equivalence classes. 81 Semigroup of mappings of X to X. 135 i2-class Sp iS„ Number Sx T(G) W x^ Coset representative.2A A„ Alternating group of degree n. 78 Group of 2 X 2 matrices over complex numbers. 269 Full linear group of dimension n.fc' Lowest common multiple of a and h. 6) Kernel of 9. 148 integers to integers. 133 P Q Q* Positive integers. 1 Z Z(G) Center of G. g. 148 Dihedral group of degree n. 134 Representatives whose intersection with the center iJ-equivalence class.x^.m. 9 of distinct Sylow p-subgroups. 1 Nonzero rationals. 112 1 N N(A) Nii{A) Normalizer of Rationals. 56 Symmetry group on X. 56 Torsion subgroup of G. Normalizer of A. 1 Nonzero complex numbers.

d) Mobius transformation. 269 H< G G' Index of H in G. 69 Natural homomorphism. 14 Gp p-component of G. 1 Is not in. 2 Hg Right coset. 109 Ordered pair. 178 Image of s a. 8 9. 240 Translation. 6 Cartesian product of HXK Sm times. 3 GIN G over N. b. [a. 19 \X:R\ t J Group of a presentation. 167 Direct sum of H and K.y\ Commutator of x and Commutator subgroup y. 2 2 Gj Finite direct sum. 219 p Pe Mapping that sends x to xg. 2. 108 Closed interval. 114 IT "m Mapping that sends g Set of all primes. XY [G:H] Product of two subsets of a group. 37 } Set. 3 A~ Difference of sets. also over R. xR R-c\ass of X. 111 c c u n Is a subset. divisor of 269 Inverse of the element g. • «m) Cycle of length m. 42 Set defined by a property. 34 Congruent. does not belong to. 112 ( . 100 > Open interval. 68 n Notations Is in. 182. also Greatest common amon divisor.SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 279 Greek Symbols Mapping that sends x e -> xg. 14 a° P S°t' 8-t Composition of mappings. 1 = a"* Isomorphic. 12 a. 112 Is a proper subset. 146 xRy X is related to y hy R.b Transfer. 253 8+t St Image under a binary composition. 26 (a. 114 X («1. 254 8X (a. 3 Intersection.b) Identity of a groupoid. c. 214 ». a to the power m. 11 n = • . Direct product. 4 Equivalence class containing A. b]) Groupoid 1 G with binary operation n. 2 \«. 219 Presentation. 178 Mapping from S 8a. b. 134 X S" Cartesian product. 269 . 143 Internal direct product. 225 Identity mapping. 77 Reflection. 2 of G. 112 Union. under 12 12 Gi Infinite direct sum. also Commutator. 190 -> fg. 17. Frobenius representation. 6 n i External direct product.R) Transversal element in same coset as g. 110 H is normal in G. also Image under a binary composition. belongs to. S". G. 114 Equivalence relation by conjugation. 1 . a(8) into T. 11. 146 l X/R Set of /2-classes. 36. 19 Type of a group. 253 Presentation. 219 T i-a. 190 Priifer group. 31 Greatest a and common b. 134 Empty set. Sa \s\ Range of see also 179 Number of elements of S. 191 «|S' Restriction of a to S'. 1 { { < I Notation for a mapping. 200 S (X. 56 Rotation through angle 68 a{a. 2.

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