Lily de Silva (M.A., Ph.D.

, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka) Originally Published by the Vipassana Research Institute, now available as a free e-text. "2008 edition" from E.M. ( [PUBLICATION DATA: This version of the text was extensively re-formatted in Vientiane, Lao P.D.R., in 2005, then completed and released to the public in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, People's Republic of China, in the last months of 2007. The revisions are, for the most part, limited to layout and aesthetics (out of deference to the author). However, the addition of Khmer and Burmese script to the glossary (alongside the Roman text) is my own doing, and therefore is provided as a separate file. The source used to create this e-text was adapted from the Vietnamese edition: --Eisel Mazard]

Pāli Primer ☸


The present participle, masculine and neuter genders. Conjugation of Verbs Present Tense, Active. Conjugation of Verbs Present Tense, Active Voice, continued The Further Tense The Optative / Potential Mood The Imperative Mood The Past Tense Declension of feminine nouns ending in -ā. The Past Participle Declension of feminine nouns ending in -i and ī. The Present Participle, feminine gender. The Future Passive Participle. The Causative. Declension of feminine nouns ending in -u. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -i. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -ī. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -u and -ū. Declension of agent nouns and nouns indicating relationships. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -i and -u. Declension of adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu. Declension of personal pronouns. Declension of personal pronouns, relative, demonstrative and interrogative. List of Pāli Verbs. [List of] Pāli Vocabulary (other than verbs). Glossary [Full listing in alphabetic order, with Burmese & Khmer script, available as a separate file from:]

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

16b 18a 19a 21a 22a 23a 24a 25b 26b 28b 29b 31a 32a 33a 34a 35b 36b 37b 39b 41a 42b 43b 47



Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a. Nominative case, singular and plural. Present, third, singular and plural verbs. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Accusative case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Instrumental case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Ablative case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Dative case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Genitive case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Locative case, singular and plural. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a, continued. Vocative case, singular and plural. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a. The Gerund / Absolutive. The Infinitive.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2b 3b 4b 5b 7a 9a 10b 12a 14a 15b
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Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa. Homage to the Blessed One, the Worthy One, The Fully Self-enlightened One. PRONUNCIATION 1) The Alphabet: Pāli is not known to have a special script of its own. In countries where Pāli is studied, the scripts used in those countries are used to write Pāli: in India the Nāgarī, in Sri Lanka the Sinhalese, in Burma the Burmese and in Thailand the Kamboja script. The Pali Text Society, London, uses the Roman script and now it has gained international currency. The Pāli alphabet consists of 41 letters 8 vowels and 33 consonants. Vowels: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o Consonants: Gutturals: k, kh, g, gh, ɲ Palatals: c, ch, j, jh, ñ Cerebrals: ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ Dentals: t, th, d, dh, n Labials: p, ph, b, bh, m Miscellaneous: y, r, l, v, s, h, ḷ, ŋ The vowels a, i, u are short; ā, ī, ū are long; e, o are of middle length. They are pronounced short before double consonants, e.g. mettā, khetta, koṭṭha, sotthi; and long before single consonants, e.g. deva, senā, loka, odana. 2) Pronunciation a is pronounced like u in cut ā is pronounced like a in father i is pronounced like i in mill ī is pronounced like ee in bee u is pronounced like u in put ū is pronounced like oo in cool k is pronounced like k in kite g is pronounced like g in good ɲ is pronounced like ng in singer c is pronounced like ch in church j is pronounced like j in jam ñ is pronounced like gn in signor ṭ is pronounced like t in hat ḍ is pronounced like d in good ṇ is pronounced like n in now
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Lesson 1 VOCABULARY 1. Masculine nouns ending in -a manussa brāhmaṇa kumāra • • Verbs bhāsati bhuñjati chindati dhāvati speaks eats cuts runs pacati sayati gacchati cooks sleeps goes kasati passati āgacchati ploughs sees comes man, human being brahmin boy nara / purisa putta vāṇija man, person son merchant the Buddha friend kassaka mātula bhūpāla farmer uncle king

Buddha / Tathāgata / Sugata sahāya / sahāyaka / mitta

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a Nominative case: The case ending -o is added to the nominal base to form the nominative case singular number. The case ending -ā is added to the nominal base to form the nominative case plural number. A noun thus inflected is used as the subject of a sentence. Singular: 1. nara + o = naro 2. mātula + o = mātulo 3. kassaka + o = kassako Plural : 1. nara + ā = narā 2. mātula + ā = mātulā 3. kassaka + ā = kassakā 3. Present, third, singular and plural verbs. In the verbs listed above bhāsa, paca, kasa etc. are verbal bases and -ti is the present tense, third person, singular termination. The present tense, third person, plural is formed by adding the termination -nti to the base.

Singular: bhāsati He speaks pacati He cooks kasati He ploughs Plural: bhāsanti They speak pacanti They cook kasanti They plough 4. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. Naro bhāsati The man speaks. 2. Mātulo pacati The uncle cooks. 3. Kassako kasati The farmer ploughs. Plural: 1. Narā bhāsanti Men speak. 2. Mātulā pacanti Uncles cook. 3. Kassakā kasanti Farmers plough. Exercise 1 5. Translate into English: 1. Bhūpālo bhuñjati. 2. Puttā sayanti : 3. Vāṇijā sayanti 4. Buddho passati 5. Kumāro dhāvati. 6. Mātulo kasati. 7. Brāhmaṇā bhāsanti. 8. Mittā gacchanti. 6. Translate into Pāli: 1. Sons run. 2. The uncle sees. 3. The Buddha comes. 4. Boys eat. 5. Merchants go. 6. The man sleeps. 7. Kings go. 8. The brahmin cuts. 9. Friends speak. 10. The farmer ploughs. 11. The merchant comes. 12. Sons cut. 13. Uncles speak. 14. The boy runs. 15. The friend speaks. 16. The Buddha sees. 9. Kassakā pacanti. 10. Manusso chindati. 11. Purisā dhāvanti. 12. Sahāyako bhuñjati. 13. Tathāgato bhāsati. 14. Naro pacati. 15. Sahāyā kasanti. 16. Sugato āgacchati.

Lesson 2 VOCABULARY 1. Masculine nouns ending in -a dhamma the doctrine, bhatta truth suriya vihāra pabbata rukkha rice sun monastery mountain tree odana canda patta yācaka cooked rice moon bowl beggar

gāma village kukkura / sunakha / soṇa dog āvāṭa sigāla Verbs harati oruhati vijjhati vandati carries, take away descends shoots worships, salutes pit jackal

āharati yācati paharati

brings begs hits, strikes

āruhati khaṇati rakkhati

climbs, ascends digs protects

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.) Accusative case: The case ending -ŋ is added to the nominal base to form the accusative singular number. The case ending -e is added to the nominal base to form the accusative case plural number. A noun thus inflected is used as the object of a sentence. The goal of motion is also expressed by the accusative case. Singular: 1. nara + ŋ = naraŋ 2. mātula + ŋ = mātulaŋ 3. kassaka + ŋ = kassakaŋ Plural: nara + e = nare mātula + e = mātule kassaka + e = kassake 3. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. Putto naraŋ passati The son sees the man. 2. Brāhmaṇo mātulaŋ rakkhati -The brahmin protects the uncle. 3. Vāṇijo kassakaŋ paharati The merchant hits the farmer.
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Plural: 1. Puttā nare passanti Sons see men. 2. Brāhmaṇā mātule rakkhanti Brahmins protect uncles. 3. Vāṇijā kassake paharanti Merchants hit farmers. Exercise 2 4. Translate into English: 1. Tathāgato dhammaŋ bhāsati. 2. Brāhmaṇā odanaŋ bhuñjanti. 3. Manusso suriyaŋ passati. 4. Kumārā sigāle paharanti. 5. Yācakā bhattaŋ yācanti. 6. Kassakā āvāṭe khaṇanti. 7. Mitto gāmaŋ āgacchati. 8. Bhūpālo manusse rakkhati. 9. Puttā pabbataŋ gacchanti. 10. Kumāro Buddhaŋ vandati. 11. Vāṇijā patte āharanti. 12. Puriso vihāraŋ gacchati. 13. Kukkurā pabbataŋ dhāvanti. 5. Translate into Pāli: 1. Men go to the monastery. 2. Farmers climb mountains. 3. The brahmin eats rice. 4. The Buddha sees the boys. 5. Uncles take away bowls. 6. The son protects the dog. 7. The king worships the Buddha. 8. The merchant brings a boy. 9. Friends salute the brahmin. 10. Beggars beg rice. 11. Merchants shoot jackals. 12. Boys climb the mountain. 13. The farmer runs to the village. 14. The merchant cooks rice. 15. Sons worship the uncle. 16. Kings protect men. 17. The Buddha comes to the monastery. 18. The men descend. 19. Farmers dig pits. 20. The merchant runs. 21. The dog sees the moon. 22. Boys climb trees. 23. The brahmin brings the bowl. 24. The beggar sleeps. 25. The king sees the Buddha. 14. Sigālā gāmaŋ āgacchanti. 15. Brāhmaṇā sahāyake āharanti. 16. Bhūpālā sugataŋ vandanti. 17. Yācakā sayanti. 18. Mittā sunakhe haranti. 19. Putto candaŋ passati. 20. Kassako gāmaŋ dhāvati. 21. Vāṇijā rukkhe chindanti. 22. Naro sigālaŋ vijjhati. 23. Kumāro odanaŋ bhuñjati. 24. Yācako soṇaŋ paharati. 25. Sahāyakā pabbate āruhanti.

Lesson 3 VOCABULARY 1. Masculine nouns ending in -a ratha pāda sāvaka assa pāsāṇa cora vehicle, chariot foot disciple horse rock, stone thief sakaṭa magga samaṇa miga kakaca paṇḍita cart path deer saw wise man hattha dīpa sara khagga hand island, lamp heaven arrow sword

recluse, monk sagga

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.) Instrumental case: The case ending -ena is added to the nominal base to form the instrumental singular. The case ending -ehi is added to form the instrumental plural; -ebhi is another archaic case ending that is sometimes added. A noun thus inflected expresses the idea ‘by', ‘with' or ‘through'. Singular: 1. nara + ena = narena (by means of the man) 2. mātula + ena = mātulena (with the uncle) 3. kassaka + ena = kassakena (through the farmer) Plural: 1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi) 2. mātula + ehi = mātulehi (mātulebhi) 3. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi) Saddhiŋ / saha meaning ‘with' is also used with the instrumental case. They are not normally used with nouns denoting things. 3. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. Samaṇo narena saddhiŋ gāmaŋ gacchati. The monk goes to the village with the man. 2. Putto mātulena saha candaŋ passati. The son sees the moon with his uncle. 3. Kassako kakacena rukkhaŋ chindati. The farmer cuts the tree with a saw. Plural: 1. Samaṇā narehi saddhiŋ gāmaŋ gacchanti. Monks go to the village with men. 2. Puttā mātulehi saha candaŋ passanti. Sons see the moon with uncles.
pg. 4

3. Kassakā kakacehi rukkhe chindanti. Farmers cut trees with saws. Exercise 3 4. Translate into English: 1. Buddho sāvakehi saddhiŋ vihāraŋ gacchati. 2. Puriso puttena saha dīpaŋ dhāvati. 3. Kassako sarena sigālaŋ vijjhati. 4. Brāhmaṇā mātulena saha pabbataŋ āruhanti. 5. Puttā pādehi kukkure paharanti. 6. Mātulo puttehi saddhiŋ rathena gāmaŋ āgacchati. 7. Kumārā hatthehi patte āharanti. 8. Coro maggena assaŋ harati. 9. Kassako āvāṭaŋ oruhati. 10. Bhūpālā paṇḍitehi saha samaṇe passanti. 11. Paṇḍito bhūpālena saha Tathāgataŋ vandati. 12. Puttā sahāyena saddhiŋ odanaŋ bhuñjanti. 13. Vāṇijo pāsāṇena migaŋ paharati. 14. Sunakhā pādehi āvāṭe khaṇanti. 15. Brāhmaṇo puttena saha suriyaŋ vandati. 16. Kassako soṇehi saddhiŋ rukkhe rakkhati. 17. Sugato sāvakehi saha vihāraŋ āgacchati. 18. Yācako pattena bhattaŋ āharati. 19. Paṇḍitā saggaŋ gacchanti. 20. Kumārā assehi saddhiŋ gāmaŋ dhāvanti. 21. Coro khaggena naraŋ paharati. 22. Vāṇijo sakaṭena dīpe āharati. 23. Assā maggena dhāvanti. 24. Sigālā migehi saddhiŋ pabbataŋ dhāvanti. 25. Bhūpālo paṇḍitena saha manusse rakkhati. 5. Translate into Pāli: 1. The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend. 2. Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha. 3. The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs. 4. The boy hits the lamp with a stone. 5. Merchants shoot deer with arrows. 6. Farmers dig pits with their hands. 7. Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle. 8. The brahmin cooks rice with his friend. 9. The king protects the island with wise men. 10. Kings worship monks with their sons. 11. Thieves bring horses to the island.
pg. 5

12. Disciples climb mountains with men. 13. Merchants cut trees with farmers. 14. The beggar digs a pit with a friend. 15. The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles. 16. The thief hits the horse with a sword. 17. The son brings rice in a bowl. 18. Boys run to the mountain with their dogs. 19. Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers. 20. Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons. 21. Jackals run to the mountain along the road. 22. Dogs dig pits with their feet. 23. The man carries a saw in his hand. 24. Recluses go to heaven. 25. The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples. Lesson 4 VOCABULARY 1. Masculine nouns ending in -a dhīvara amacca dāraka sappa sopāna Verbs patati ḍasati khādati nikkhamati falls bites eats leaves, sets out dhovati pucchati hanati washes questions kills icchati pakkosati otarati wishes, desires calls, summons descends fisherman minister child serpent stairway maccha upāsaka sāṭaka pañha sūkara / varāha fish lay devotee garment question pig piṭaka pāsāda rajaka suka / suva basket palace washerman parrot

Sons ask questions from uncles. Corā pāsāṇehi varāhe paharanti. 18. The son asks a question from the uncle. Vāṇijo assena saddhiŋ pabbatasmā oruhati. Amaccā sarehi mige vijjhanti. nara + ā / mhā / smā = narā / naramhā / narasmā (From the man) 2. Yācako kassakasmā soṇaŋ yācati. Sappā pabbatehi gāmaŋ otaranti. 20. Yācakā narehi bhattaŋ yācanti. 17. Amaccā paṇḍitehi pañhe pucchanti. 3. The farmer falls from the tree. 15. Translate into English: 1. The beggar asks for rice from the man. 6. 2. Kumāro sopānamhā patati. 24. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd. 4. 11. Plural: 1. Macchā piṭakamhā patanti. 3.) Ablative case: Case endings -ā / -mhā / -smā are added to the nominal base to form the ablative singular. 3. 6 . Dhīvarā piṭakehi macche āharanti. 2. Amacco pāsādamhā suvaŋ āharati. 8. Rajako sahāyena saha sāṭakaŋ dhovati. 19. 5. Brāhmaṇo kakacena rukkhaŋ chindati. Buddho sāvake pucchati. Corā gāmamhā pabbataŋ dhāvanti. 16. 23. Kassako rukkhasmā patati. Exercise 4 4. Dārako mātulasmā odanaŋ yācati. Upāsakā samaṇehi saddhiŋ vihārasmā nikkhamanti. Sūkarā pādehi āvāṭe khaṇanti. Bhūpālo amaccehi saddhiŋ rathena pāsādaŋ āgacchati. Beggars ask for rice from men. Farmers fall from trees. 12. Samaṇā gāmamhā upāsakehi saddhiŋ nikkhamanti. 2. mātula + ā / mhā / smā = mātulā / mātulamhā / mātulasmā (From the uncle) 3. -ebhi is an archaic ending that is also used. pg. 25. 21. 7. Kumāro sahāyakehi saha sāṭake dhovati. Kumārā mittehi saha bhūpālaŋ passanti. 22. 10. 14. kassaka + ā / mhā / smā = kassakā / kassakamhā / kassakasmā (From the farmer) Plural: 1. Puttā mātulehi pañhe pucchanti. Coro gāmamhā sakaṭena sāṭake harati. 9. mātula + ehi = mātulehi (mātulebhi) (From uncles) 3. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi) (From men) 2. 13. Yācako naramhā bhattaŋ yācati. Kukkuro piṭakamhā macchaŋ khādati. Kassakā rukkhehi patanti. Case ending -ehi is added to form the ablative plural. Singular: 1.2. Mātulā sāṭake dhovanti. Mitto puttamhā sunakhaŋ yācati. Putto mātulamhā pañhaŋ pucchati. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi) (From farmers) 3.

kassaka + ānaŋ = kassakānaŋ (for or to farmers) 3. The thief gets down from the stairway. Plural: 1. The dog bites the child. 3. 22. together with his dog. Wise men go to the monastery. abandons hasati dadāti nahāyati laughs gives bathes labhati ādadāti ākaḍḍhati gets. The merchant gives a goat to the farmer. 16. 2. kassaka + āya / ssa = kassakāya / kassakassa (for or to the farmer) Plural: 1. 28. 19. The king worships the Buddha from his palace. 3. The child falls from the rock with a friend. 23. Singular: 1. 5. with his friends. Puttā mātulānaŋ odanaŋ dadanti. The horse hits the serpent with its foot. sees recluses from the mountains. The son brings a parrot from the tree. The minister questions the thief.5. 12.) Dative case: Case endings -āya / -ssa are added to the nominal base to form the dative singular. 26. Lay devotees ask questions from the wise man. Vāṇijo kassakassa ajaŋ dadāti. Vāṇijā kassakānaŋ aje dadanti. 2. Kings protect islands with their ministers. 13. The man kills a serpent with a sword. Boys take away lamps from merchants. 7 . 21. 4. 2. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. Fishermen bring fish for men. 15. Disciples go along the road to the village. The child falls from the stairway. 7. 24. The case ending -ānaŋ is added to form the dative plural. Fishermen bring fish to the village in carts. Pigs run from the village to the mountain. mātula + ānaŋ = mātulānaŋ (for or to uncles) 3. 18. 20. Merchants come from the island to the monastery with lay devotees. Verbs rodati pavisati kīḷati pajahati cries enters plays gives up. 10. The beggar. 6. Lesson 5 VOCABULARY 1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd. Dhīvaro narāya macchaŋ āharati. The farmer gets down from the tree. 3. Merchants give goats to farmers. Sons give rice to uncles. Putto mātulassa odanaŋ dadāti. Masculine nouns ending in -a tāpasa sīha vānara / makkaṭa kuddāla hermit lion monkey hoe ācariya luddaka lābha teacher hunter profit vejja aja mañca doctor goat bed pg. 17. nara + ānaŋ = narānaŋ (for or to men) 2. The fisherman brings a fish for the man. 9. The son gives rice to the uncle. 30. sleeps. The lay devotee questions (about) the dhamma from the recluse. 25. 29. Dhīvarā narānaŋ macche āharanti. 8. The uncle. 27. Merchants bring parrots from mountains. Horses run from the village to the mountain. The fisherman climbs the mountain with his uncle. 14. 11. mātula + āya / ssa = mātulāya / mātulassa (for or to the uncle) 3. Dogs run along the road with horses. Thieves shoot pigs with arrows. The farmer eats rice with the washerman. Translate into Pāli: 1. receives takes drags 2. Ministers set out from the palace with the king. nara + āya / ssa = narāya / narassa (for or to the man) 2. Merchants bring horses to the palace from the island. The man brings a deer from the island.

16. Hunters shoot deer with arrows for ministers. Deer run away from the lion. 5. 2. Ācariyo dārakāya rukkhamhā sukaŋ āharati. the son enters the monastery. 29. Tāpaso ācariyamhā pañhe pucchati. The teacher enters the monastery. The serpent bites the monkey. Children desire rice from the uncle. The lion sleeps. Thieves run from villages to the mountains. Luddako pabbatasmā ajaŋ ākaḍḍhati. The cart falls off the road. 14. The king worships the Buddha along with lay devotees. the monkeys play. Luddako tāpasassa dīpaŋ dadāti. Farmers get fish from fishermen. Kumārā sahāyakehi saddhiŋ nahāyanti. Sons see the moon from the mountain. Dārako hatthena yācakassa bhattaŋ āharati. 24. Vāṇijo rajakassa sāṭakaŋ dadāti. 23. 2. The washerman washes garments for the king. 8. 11. 26. The king abandons the palace. Wise men get profit from the dhamma. The ministers go up the stairway. 17. 27. 6. Merchants bring horses for ministers. 28. 10. 9. 7. 11. Monkeys leave the village. The doctor gives a garment to the hermit. mātulo kumāraŋ paharati. 27. The man cuts trees with a saw for the farmer. Makkaṭo puttena saha rukkhaŋ āruhati. 24. the doctor comes down the stairway. Thieves enter the palace together with men. 15. Luddako vāṇijānaŋ varāhe hanati. 21. 8 . 25. 30. 23. Translate into Pāli: 1. Vāṇijā kassakehi lābhaŋ labhanti. 29. 19. 8. Samaṇā upāsakehi odanaŋ labhanti. 22. 5. 15. 12. 26.Exercise 5: 4. The merchant brings a goat by cart for the teacher. Sīhā mige hananti. 5. Kassako vāṇijāya rukkhaŋ chindati. amacco rathaŋ pajahati. 3. 12. 22. 13. Yācako ācariyāya āvāṭaŋ khaṇati. 6. 7. kukkuro vānaraŋ ḍasati. the child cries. Coro kuddālena ācariyāya āvāṭaŋ khaṇati. 30. The teacher protects his sons from the dog. kumāro hasati. Vānarā pabbatamhā oruhanti. Tāpaso pabbatamhā sīhaŋ passati. rukkhe āruhanti. Dārakā rodanti. sees the monks. 17. 3. 20. pg. The jackal runs from the village to the mountain along the road. Vānaro rukkhamhā patati. 19. Wise men ask questions from the Buddha. The fisherman brings fish in baskets for farmers. 10. Pigs go from the island to the mountain. The son brings a parrot for his friend from the mountain. 9. Brāhmaṇo sāvakānaŋ mañce āharati. Rajako amaccānaŋ sāṭake dadāti. The hunter kills a goat for the merchant. Manussā Buddhehi dhammaŋ labhanti. 18. Vejjo puttānaŋ bhattaŋ pacati. Tāpaso luddakena saddhiŋ bhāsati. Dhīvarā piṭakehi amaccānaŋ macche āharanti. 25. 16. 13. 4. 14. Putto mañcamhā patati. 18. 21. Vejjo ācariyassa dīpaŋ āharati. Boys drag the bed for the brahmin. Migā pāsāṇamhā pabbataŋ dhāvanti. 20. Translate into English: 1. Puriso vejjāya sakaṭaŋ ākaḍḍhati. Corā rathaŋ pavisanti. The doctor enters the monastery. 28. 4.

Sarā luddakassa hatthehi patanti. Narassa putto bhattaŋ yācati. The case ending -ānaŋ is added to form the genitive plural. migā pabbataŋ dhāvanti. Paṇḍitassa puttā Buddhassa sāvakena saha vihāraŋ pavisanti. Mātulānaŋ sahāyakā rathe āharanti. Luddakassa puttā corassa dārakehi saddhiŋ kīḷanti. 3. Coro vāṇijassa sahāyakasmā assaŋ yācati. The farmer's pig runs to the island. Migā āvāṭehi nikkhamanti. The man's son asks for rice. Sons of the men ask for rice. Upāsakā Tathāgatassa sāvakehi pañhe pucchanti. nara + ānaŋ = narānaŋ (of the men) 2. 2.Lesson 6 1. Translate into English: 1. Rajakā rukkhehi oruhanti. 4. kassaka + ssa = kassakassa (of the farmer) Plural: 1. 10. Kassakassa sūkaro dīpaŋ dhāvati. 3. Samaṇā ācariyassa hatthena sāṭake labhanti. Kumāro mātulānaŋ puttānaŋ hatthena odanaŋ dadāti. 13. The case ending -ssa is added to the nominal base to form the genitive singular. Kassakassa putto vejjassa sahāyena saddhiŋ āgacchati. sunakhā dhāvanti. 20. 5. 14. Dhīvarassa kakacena coro kukkuraŋ paharati. Yācako amaccassa sāṭakaŋ icchati. kassaka + ānaŋ = kassakānaŋ (of the farmers) 2. Dhīvaro manussānaŋ macche āharati. 22. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd. 7. Pāsāṇamhā migo patati. Mātulassa sahāyako rathaŋ āharati. 11. pg. Farmers' pigs run to the islands. 2. Bhūpālassa putto amaccassa assaŋ āruhati. Yācakassa dārakā rodanti. 19. 12. Coro vejjassa sakaṭena mittena saha gāmamhā nikkhamati. 30. 15. Mātulassa mitto Tathāgatassa sāvake vandati. Vejjassa patto puttassa hatthamhā patati. 3. Narānaŋ puttā bhattaŋ yācanti. mātula + ānaŋ = mātulānaŋ (of the uncles) 3. Singular: 1. 9 . Vejjassa sunakho ācariyassa sopānamhā patati. Plural: 1. Tāpaso Tathāgatassa sāvakānaŋ odanaŋ dadāti. 24. 18.) Genetive case: The inflections of the genitive case are very similar to those of the dative case. Suriyo manusse rakkhati. Kassakānaŋ sūkarā dīpe dhāvanti. 21. luddako hasati. 23. Mittānaŋ mātulā tāpasānaŋ odanaŋ dadanti. 26. Brāhmaṇassa kuddālo hatthamhā patati. Vāṇijānaŋ assā kassakassa gāmaŋ dhāvanti. Amacco bhūpālassa khaggena sappaŋ paharati. nara + ssa = narassa (of the man) 2. Uncles' friends bring vehicles. mātula + ssa = mātulassa (of the uncle) 3. Upāsakassa puttā samaṇehi saha vihāraŋ gacchanti. 6. Bhūpālassa putto amaccehi saddhiŋ pāsādasmā oruhati. 25. Exercise 6: 3. 16. lābhaŋ labhati. 17. 2. 27. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. 8. 29. 28. 9. The uncle's friend brings the vehicle. Vāṇijā gāme manussānaŋ piṭakehi macche āharanti. Vejjassa soṇo kassakassa sūkaraŋ ḍasati.

is pleased with comes out (of pasīdati water) 2. 16. 5. bull samudda āloka nivāsa kāya ocean. sea light house body virtuous man asappurisa walks dwells stands nisīdati vasati uppatati sits lives flies. The boy brings rice in a bowl for the monk. Wise men protect the islands of the kings from the thieves. narasmiŋ (in / on / at the man) 2. The washerman brings garments for the man's uncle. nara + esu = naresu (in / on / at men) 2. 4. The doctors' teacher calls the child's uncle. pg. The child gets a lamp from the hands of the teacher. Monks enter the village of the teacher. 28. The disciples of the Buddha go from the monastery to the mountain. 30. The snake falls on the man. jumps up becomes glad.) Locative case: Case endings -e / -mhi / -smiŋ are added to the nominal base to form the locative singular. Boys bring baskets for the fishermen from farmers. Masculine nouns ending in -a nāvika deva / sura sakuṇa sappurisa dūta Verbs āhiṇḍati sannipatati jīvati tarati wanders assembles lives crosses (water) carati viharati tiṭṭhati uttarati sailor deity. The farmer's horse drags the doctor's vehicle away from the road. Garments fall from the carts of the merchants. 19. nara + e / mhi / smiŋ = nare. Monkeys play with the deer. The merchant brings a bed for the doctor's child. mātulamhi. god bird messenger ākāsa loka kāka goṇa Lesson 7 sky world crow wicked man ox. mātulasmiŋ (in / on / at the uncle) 3. Deer run from the mountain to the village. The brahmin's doctor gives garments to the hermits. 27.4. 10. 18. The king's ministers set out from the palace with the horses. The wise man comes to the king's island with the merchants. naramhi. The merchant's chariot falls from the mountain. kassaka + e / mhi / smiŋ = kassake. 23. The teacher's child falls from the farmer's tree. Putto mātulamhi pasīdati. 8. 13. The brahmin's sons bathe with the minister's son. Men go to the village of the lay devotees. 12. Translate into Pāli: 1. 17. mātula + esu = mātulesu (in / on / at uncles) 3. kassakamhi. 15. The fisherman brings fish to the king's palace. VOCABULARY 1. Singular: 1. The hunter's dogs run from the mountain to the village. 7. 2. The king calls the ministers' sons from the palace. The farmer's children go to the mountain by their uncles' chariots. 29. 22. 20. 11. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. 25. 6. The dog eats fish from the fisherman's basket. The case ending -esu is added to form the locative plural. The recluse gets a bowl from the king's hands. 9. 3. King's ministers eat rice together with the teacher's friends. Pigs run away from jackals. mātula + e / mhi / smiŋ = mātule. kassakasmiŋ (in / on / at the farmer) Plural: 1. 2. kassaka + esu = kassakesu (in / on / at farmers) 3. Uncle's friend cooks rice with the farmer's son. 14. Sappo narasmiŋ patati. The hunter kills a pig with an arrow for the minister's friends. The son is pleased with the uncle. 10 . Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd. 21. 26. 24.

The doctor brings a garment to the teacher's house. 12. Dhīvarā samuddamhā piṭakesu macche āharanti. Migā dīpasmiŋ pāsāṇesu nisīdanti. sakuṇo rukkhamhā āvāṭasmiŋ patati. Translate into Pāli: 1. Uncle's oxen wander on the road. 22. 10. sappurisā Buddhamhi pasīdanti. 29. 9. Children play with the dog on the road. 11 . The ox hits the goat with its foot. The virtuous man brings a lamp for the hermit. Suriyassa āloko samuddamhi patati. 26. The fisherman eats rice in the house of the farmer. 6. 18. 29. Bhūpālassa amaccā dīpesu manusse rakkhanti. Sīho pāsāṇasmiŋ tiṭṭhati. Upāsakā samaṇehi saddhiŋ vihāre sannipatanti. The garment falls on the farmer's body. Kākā rukkhehi uppatanti.3. Sappā naresu patanti. Merchants are pleased with farmers. 16. Sappuriso nāvikena saha samuddamhā uttarati. Tāpasā pabbatamhi viharanti. Disciples of the Buddha assemble in the monastery. Manussā loke jīvanti. 13. 17. 3. Vāṇijo kassakasmiŋ pasīdati. The king's horses live in the island. 15. 5. The uncle sleeps on the bed with his son. 16. Merchants cross the sea together with sailors. Migā pabbatesu dhāvanti. devā sagge vasanti. Manussā suriyassa ālokena lokaŋ passanti. The hunter carries arrows in a basket. The light of the sun falls on the men in the world. Bhūpālassa dūto amaccena saddhiŋ samuddaŋ tarati. Snakes fall on men. 10. Birds sit on the tree. 25. Goṇassa kāyasmiŋ kāko tiṭṭhati. The king worships the feet of the Buddha with his ministers. Vejjassa dārako mañcasmiŋ sayati. Sugatassa sāvakā vihārasmiŋ vasanti. 24. Thieves enter the house of the teacher. Jackals live on the mountain. 21. 4. 28. Plural: 1. The pig pulls a fish from the fisherman's basket. 19. Crows fly from trees in the mountain. Ācariyo mātulassa nivāse mañcamhi puttena saha nisīdati. Puttā mātulesu pasīdanti. 20. 5. Vāṇijā kassakesu pasīdanti. 3. 21. 11. Amacco khaggaŋ bhūpālassa hatthamhā ādadāti. 18. 19. 25. 4. Birds fly in the sky. 12. 17. The king's messenger gets down from the horse. 13. 7. The washerman washes the garments of the ministers. The wicked man drags a monkey from the tree. 8. 27. 14. sakuṇā ākāse uppatanti. 15. Brāhmaṇo sahāyakena saddhiŋ rathamhi nisīdati. 23. The merchant is pleased with the farmer. pg. 11. Exercise 7: 4. Buddho dhammaŋ bhāsati. 28. 3. 7. 27. Kassakānaŋ goṇā gāme āhiṇḍanti. Vāṇijo kassakassa nivāse bhattaŋ pacati. Children run from the road to the sea with friends. 30. 6. 8. Sons are pleased with their uncles. 26. 2. Suriyassa ālokena cando bhāsati (shines). Makkaṭo rukkhamhā āvāṭasmiŋ patati. Sakuṇo nāvikassa hatthamhā āvāṭasmiŋ patati. 2. 9. 22. The good man protects the dog from the serpent. The monkey plays with a dog on the rock. Deities are pleased with the Buddha's disciples. Kassakassa goṇā magge sayanti. Asappurisā corehi saha gāmesu caranti. 5. makkaṭā rukkhesu caranti. Asappuriso khaggena nāvikassa dūtaŋ paharati. Puriso sarena sakuṇaŋ vijjhati. 24. 20. Translate into English: 1. Kuddālo luddakassa hatthamhā āvāṭasmiŋ patati. Deities go through the sky. 14. 2. The lion stands on the rock in the mountain. The virtuous man comes out of the sea together with the sailor. 30. 23.

) Vocative Case: The uninflected nominal base is used as the vocative singular. 3rd = instrumental… etc..Lesson 8 1. Singular: 1.M. second.. However. 1st = nominative. third… in relation to this schema (viz. later in the textbook. The full paradigm of the declension of masculine nouns ending in -a Nara = "man" Singular Nominative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative Vocative naro naraŋ narena narā. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a Phala = fruit Singular Nominative Accusative phalaŋ phalaŋ Plural phalā. in the second position). as noted in lesson 18 --E. charity cloth [In this table. precept door arañña / vana forest āsana khīra khetta dāna vattha seat milk field alms. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd. De Silva instead lists the Vocative after the nominative (viz. Vocabulary Neuter nouns ending in -a: nayana / locana puppha / kusuma paṇṇa nagara bhaṇḍa rūpa Verbs: vivarati uṭṭhahati ovadati akkosati opens gets up advises scolds naccati phusati saŋharati bhindati dances touches collects breaks nikkhipati anusāsati āsiñcati puts instructs sprinkles eye flower leaf city.). narassa narassa nare. 12 . the cases are listed in their traditional order. the Pali names for the cases translate as first. nara (O man) 2. 2nd = accusative. mātula (O uncle) 3. narasmā narāya. town goods object udaka / jala geha / ghara tiṇa uyyāna sīla dvāra water house grass park virtue. naramhā. kassaka (O farmer) Plural: nara + ā = narā (O men) mātula + ā = mātulā (O uncles) kassaka + ā = kassakā (O farmers) 2. phalāni … Vocative … phala … phalāni   The rest is similar to the declension of masculine nouns ending in -a. naramhi. phalāni phale. Dr. The case ending -ā is added to form the vocative plural.] pibati / pivati drinks pg. narasmiŋ nara Plural narā nare narehi (narebhi) narehi (narebhi) narānaŋ narānaŋ naresu narā 3.

27. 16. 4. The merchant puts fish in baskets. The wise man advises the merchant. Amacco dūtena saddhiŋ rathena araññaŋ pavisati. Wicked men hit the monkeys on the trees with stones. 20. 29. 5. 3. The wicked man breaks leaves from the tree. 6. Disciples of the Buddha assemble in the park with lay devotees. 21. Good men protect virtues. Paṇḍito asappurisaŋ ovadati. Tathāgatassa sāvakā asappurisānaŋ putte anusāsanti. Vāṇijā bhaṇḍāni nagaramhā gāmaŋ āharanti. Sailors get up from their seats. Luddakassa putto migassa kāyaŋ hatthena phusati. Rajakassa putto sāṭake mañcasmiŋ nikkhipati. Merchants bring clothes for farmers from the city. Samaṇo vihārasmiŋ āsane nisīdati. Brahmins sit on seats in the house of the wise man. 8.Exercise 8: 4. Kassakā vāṇijehi vatthāni labhanti. 28. 13 . Upāsakā udakena pupphāni āsiñcanti. Translate into Pāli: 1. Mātulo puttassa bhaṇḍāni dadāti. 22. Lay devotees place flowers on altars (pupphāsana). 26. 16. 4. rukkhesu makkaṭā caranti. 30. The Buddha instructs his disciples in the monastery. 10. 17. 21. 24. 3. 25. 5. The lions get up from the rock at the foot of the tree (rukkhamūla). 5. 20. 29. Goats drink water from pits in the field. The king's messenger comes out of the sea with the sailor. Dārakā mittehi saddhiŋ udakasmiŋ kīḷanti. 10. Manussā nayanehi passanti. 9. 25. Kings go in vehicles to the park with their ministers. Rajakā udakena āsanāni dhovanti. The sons of fishermen dance with friends in the park. Goṇā tiṇaŋ khādanti. 2. 8. The parrot flies into the sky from the house of the sailor. Sugatassa sāvako vihārassa dvāraŋ vivarati. dogs live in villages. 9. Bhūpālo kumārena saddhiŋ uyyāne carati. 24. Virtuous men give alms to monks. 12. 11. the merchant is pleased with the wise man. Goṇo khette pāsāṇamhā uṭṭhahati. 27. Translate into English: 1. 7. mātulo akkosati. 17. Vāṇijā gāmamhā khīraŋ nagaraŋ haranti. Coro ācariyassa sakaṭaŋ pabbatasmiŋ pajahati. Jackals live in forests. The thief cuts a tree with a saw. sīlāni rakkhanti. 23. Boys collect flowers from the park. 12. Kumāro pattaŋ bhindati. Children play in the water with the dog. 26. 15. 13. 22. Leaves from the trees fall on the road. 23. 28. 19. tiṇāni khādanti. 6. 18. lay devotees sprinkle them with water. Sīho vanasmiŋ rukkhamūle (at the foot of a tree) nisīdati. the farmer scolds (him). 14. Upāsakā samaṇānaŋ dānaŋ dadanti. Upāsako pupphāni āharati. 13. Brāhmaṇassa ajā goṇehi saha vane āhiṇḍanti. Yācakassa putto udakena paṇṇāni dhovati. Gods protect virtuous men. pg. Rukkhamhā paṇṇāni patanti. Araññe migā vasanti. 15. 11. Vejjassa dārakā gehe naccanti. 18. The doctor's horse eats grass with the ox on the road. 7. The sailor opens the doors of his house. 14. 19. 2. 30. Kumāro uyyānamhā mātulassa kusumāni āharati. Merchants set out from the city with goods. Men see objects with their eyes with (the help of) the light of the sun. The thief gets down from the tree in the forest. Kassako khettamhi kuddālena āvāṭe khaṇati. The doctor's friend touches the body of the dog with his foot. The world gets light from the sun.

Lesson 9 1. having come from the field. Sappuriso yācakassa putte pakkositvā vatthāni dadāti. monkeys eat fruits. 6. Luddako hatthena sare ādāya araññaŋ pavisati. uṭṭhāya 3. 10. Dārakā pupphāni saŋharitvā mātulassa datvā hasanti. Vāṇijā dīpamhā nagaraŋ āgamma ācariyassa gehe vasanti. Exercise 9: 4. Sappurisā dānāni datvā sīlāni rakkhitvā saggaŋ gacchanti. Goṇā khettamhi āhiṇḍitvā tiṇaŋ khāditvā sayanti. 17. These are normally given in Sanskrit in grammars by Western scholars. Sakuṇā gāme rukkhehi uppatitvā araññaŋ otaranti. Vāṇijo pāsāṇasmiŋ ṭhatvā kuddālena sappaŋ paharati. Migā vanamhi āhiṇḍitvā paṇṇāni khādanti. Dārako khīraŋ pivitvā gehamhā nikkhamma hasati. 24. Examples in sentence formation 1. 18. but disvā is more commonly used from the root dṛś to see. 14. 30. Kumāro nayanāni dhovitvā suriyaŋ passati. Samaṇā bhūpālassa uyyāne sannipatitvā dhammaŋ bhāsanti. 5. 4. eats rice. For example: pac is the root khād is the root bhuj is the root gam is the root paca is the base khāda is the base bhuñja is the base gaccha is the base = having come = having taken = having climbed = having descended 3. 23. nikkhamma pajahati pajahitvā. 26. suffixes or terminations. hantvā dadāti daditvā. Asappuriso yācakassa pattaŋ bhinditvā akkositvā gehaŋ gacchati. uṭṭhahati uṭṭhahitvā. Rajako vatthāni dhovitvā puttaŋ pakkosati. Having asked for rice. Dārako bhattaŋ yācitvā rodati. The farmer. the Absolutive or the Indeclinable Participle The suffix -tvā is added to the root of the verb or verbal base* with or sometimes without the connecting vowel -ito form the gerund. 13. The suffix -ya is sometimes added to roots with a prefix. bhutvā āgacchati āgantvā. 19. 4. pahāya passati passitvā. Devā sappurisesu pasīditvā te (them) rakkhanti. 20. āgamma hanati hanitvā. 16. Having seen the Buddha. Sūkaro udakamhā uttaritvā āvāṭaŋ oruyha sayati. Yācakā uyyānamhā āgamma kassakasmā odanaŋ yācanti. 2. Sāvako āsanamhi nisīditvā pāde dhovati. the recluse worships (him). The base is formed by adding a suffix to the root before a termination. 15. 7. datvā nahāyati nahāyitvā. 27. Paṇḍito āsanamhā uṭṭhahitvā tāpasena saddhiŋ bhāsati. Translate into English: 1. ā + gam + ya = āgamma (with assimilation) ā + dā + ya = ādāya ā + ruh + ya = āruyha (with metathesis) ava + ruh + ya = oruyha (with metathesis) 2. 8. Kassako khettamhā āgantvā bhattaŋ bhuñjati. 22. Vānarā rukkhehi oruyha uyyāne āhiṇḍanti. Tāpaso Tathāgatassa sāvakaŋ disvā vanditvā pañhaŋ pucchati. Kumārassa sahāyakā pāsādaŋ āruyha āsanesu nisīdanti. 21. The Gerund. instead of passitvā. pg. 29. 3. Samaṇo Buddhaŋ passitvā vandati. Putto nahātvā bhattaŋ bhutvā mañcaŋ āruyha sayati. 12. Attention may be paid to the following forms: bhuñjati bhuñjitvā. Dārako āvāṭamhi patitvā rodati. Sunakho udakaŋ pivitvā gehamhā nikkhamma magge sayati. 14 . 25. Bhūpālo pāsādamhā nikkhamitvā amaccena saddhiŋ bhāsati. Upāsako vihāraŋ gantvā samaṇānaŋ dānaŋ dadāti. Vānarā rukkhaŋ āruyha phalāni khādanti. 28. 9. Having climbed the tree. pac + i + tvā = pacitvā = having cooked khād + i + tvā = khāditvā = having eaten gam + tvā = gantvā = having gone han + tvā = hantvā = having killed * The root is the simplest element of a verb without prefixes. nahātvā tiṭṭhati ṭhatvā nikkhamati nikkhamitvā. Nāvikassa mittā nagarasmā bhaṇḍāni ādāya gāmaŋ āgacchanti. 2. the child cries. absolutive or the indeclinable participle. Dārako gehā nikkhamma mātulaŋ pakkositvā gehaŋ pavisati. 11. Kumārā kukkurena saddhiŋ kīḷitvā samuddaŋ gantvā nahāyanti.

The dog. Upāsakā samaṇānaŋ dānaŋ dātuŋ vihāraŋ pavisanti. 3. 15. Khettaŋ kasituŋ kassako kuddālaŋ ādāya gehā nikkhamati. Having washed the clothes in the water. Goṇā uyyāne āhiṇḍitvā kassakassa khettaŋ āgacchanti. 16. 30. abandons the palace and goes to the monastery. The oxen having eaten grass in the park. Amaccā bhūpālaŋ passituŋ pāsādamhi sannipatanti. The deities. 15 . Kassako khettaŋ kasituŋ icchati. 27. The brahmin. pg. Having broken (into) the house thieves run to the forest. Having stood on a mountain. The king having got down from the chariot speaks with the farmers. 2. The hermit. Vāṇijassa putto bhaṇḍāni āharituŋ rathena nagaraŋ gacchati. 12. 26. 20. Manussā samaṇehi pañhe pucchituŋ vihāraŋ āgacchanti. 24. Having advised the farmers' sons. 4. pac + i + tuŋ = pacituŋ = to cook khād + i + tuŋ = khādituŋ = to eat gam + tuŋ = gantuŋ = to go dā + tuŋ = dātuŋ = to give (Skt sthā) ṭhā + tuŋ = ṭhātuŋ = to stand pā + tuŋ = pātuŋ / pivituŋ = to drink 2. Coro amaccassa gehaŋ pavisituŋ uyyāne āhiṇḍati. Yācako mātulassa kuddālena āvāṭaŋ khaṇituŋ icchati. Dārako phalāni khādituŋ rukkhaŋ āruhati. the teacher comes home. the Buddha enters the monastery. Fishermen give fish to merchants and receive profits. the child breaks the bowl. 9. 10. 2. 12. Sīho pabbatamhi sayitvā uṭṭhāya migaŋ hantuŋ oruhati. Having roamed in the field the pig falls into a pit. 17. Exercise 10: 3. the washerman brings (them) home. 3. 4. 3. The farmer wishes to plough the field. Having drunk water. 5. having crossed the sea. Translate into Pāli: 1. 6. Migā tiṇaŋ khāditvā udakaŋ pātuŋ pabbatamhā uyyānaŋ āgacchanti. 5. sleep on the road. the child laughs. Kumārā kīḷituŋ mittehi saha samuddaŋ gacchanti. having asked questions from the Buddha. 14. 4. Boys go to the sea with friends to play. 18. Having washed clothes and bathed. 29. hits (him). The lay devotee having asked a question from the monk sits on his seat. 9. The king having been pleased with the Buddha. 23. the monks go to the monastery. 6. Tathāgataŋ passitvā vandituŋ upāsako vihāraŋ pavisati. 22. 7. 11. having played with the goat on the road. having come from the forest. 14. Kumārā vanamhi mittehi saha kīḷitvā bhattaŋ bhuñjituŋ gehaŋ dhāvanti. The doctor having seen the merchants' goods leaves the city. receives a cloth from the good man. Rathena nagaraŋ gantuŋ puriso gehasmā nikkhamati. and having risen from the seats. Having gone out of the house the farmer enters the field. the hunter shoots birds with arrows. 28. 8. runs into the house. 2. 19. Lesson 10 1. eats having sat on a rock. 13. The monkey. The fisherman brings fish from the sea for farmers. 21. climbs a tree. Having preached (deseti)the doctrine. the farmer gets out of water. 25. Having taken goods from the city. The lion having killed a goat. Having gone to the forest the man climbs a tree and eats fruits. Examples in sentence formation 1. 8. The child climbs the tree to eat fruits. Brāhmaṇo vejjena saddhiŋ nahāyituŋ udakaŋ otarati.5. having scolded the child. become glad. goes to the island. The disciples of the Buddha. having bitten the teacher's foot. 11. Men come to the monastery to ask questions from the recluses. 13. The man having given up his house enters the monastery. The Infinitive The suffix -tuŋ is added to the root of the verb or the verbal base with or sometimes without the connecting vowel -ito form the infinitive. The child calls the uncles and dances in the house. having seen the wicked men. 7. Having hit the serpent with a stone the boy runs into the house. Having climbed down from the stairway. Translate into English: 1. Udakaŋ otaritvā vatthāni dhovituŋ rajako puttaŋ pakkosati. 10. admonish. The sailor.

The wicked man wishes to hit the dog with his foot. 21. 3. 7. The hunter calls a friend to drag a goat from the forest. Friends go to the park to play with their dogs. Lay devotees assemble in the monastery to worship the Buddha. paca + nta / māna = pacanta / pacamāna = cooking gaccha + nta / māna = gacchanta / gacchamāna = going pg. The lay devotee wishes to come home and instruct his sons. The minister mounts the horse to go to the forest to shoot deer. Pigs run from the village to enter the forest. The farmer wanders in the forest to cut grass for his oxen. 8. 20. 18. 25. 17. action wealth cloth puñña kusala dhañña cīvara merit good corn robe beak song drinking water pāpa akusala bīja mūla vetana suvaṇṇa / hirañña citta evil. Men take baskets and go to the forest to collect fruits for their children. 9. 20. 2. 14. Having received a garment from the teacher the doctor is pleased. 16. Neuter nouns ending in -a āpaṇa kamma dhana dussa rukkhamūla paduma sacca Verbs pariyesati searches. 17. 5. 19. pay gold mind foot of a tree tuṇḍa lotus truth gīta pānīya upasaɲkamati approaches āmasati uppajjati ākaɲkhati touches. 24. 15. 13. the feminine gender of the present participle is explained in Lesson 21). Goats roam in the park to eat leaves and drink water. The Present Participle Present participles are formed by adding -nta / māna to the verbal base. 6. The farmer asks for a hoe from the merchant to dig pits in his field. The boy wishes to cook rice for his uncle's friends. bazaar deed. strokes is born hopes understands. They function as adjectives and agree in gender. Ajassa kāyaŋ hatthehi phusituŋ dārako icchati. Translate into Pāli: 1. Having stood on the rock. Having risen from the seat the good man wishes to speak with the monk. 22. The good man wishes to protect virtues and give alms. 18. Narā gāmamhā nikkhamitvā nagare vasituŋ icchanti. merchants wish to get horses. Jackals leave the forest to enter the farmers' fields. 4. Brāhmaṇassa gehe āsanesu nisīdituŋ rajakassa puttā icchanti. seeks ārabhati adhigacchati bhāyati khipati sibbati begins ussahati tries sings departs. 23. The king wishes to abandon his palace. 25. The sailor calls merchants to cross the sea. number and case with the nouns they qualify. Men wish to live in houses in the city with their sons. Farmers wish to get oxen. 10. Pupphāni saŋharitvā udakena āsiñcituŋ upāsako kumāre ovadati. gāyati attains fears throws sews cavati vapati 2. Pātuŋ udakaŋ yācitvā dārako rodati. Children wish to get down to the water and bathe. Men wish to see objects with their eyes by the light of the sun. 16. Paṇḍito sugatassa sāvakehi saddhiŋ bhāsituŋ icchati. sin evil seed root. Samuddaŋ taritvā dīpaŋ gantvā vatthāni āharituŋ vāṇijā icchanti. Phalāni khādituŋ makkaṭā rukkhesu caranti. They are declined like -a ending nouns in the masculine and neuter. The uncle comes out of the house to call the fisherman. 16 . The deity wishes to go to the monastery and speak to the Buddha. 19. 21. the child sees flowers on the trees. Pabbatasmā rukkhaŋ ākaḍḍhituŋ vāṇijena saha kassako gacchati. 11. 22. 12. (As the feminine gender has not been introduced thus far. Sakuṇe passituŋ amaccā kumārehi saha pabbataŋ āruhanti. Sarehi mige vijjhituŋ luddakā sunakhehi saha araññaŋ pavisanti. money wage. 23. 4. dies sows shop. 24. Lesson 11 VOCABULARY 1.15.

18. Vejjo bhattaŋ pacantehi / pacamānehi purisehi saha bhāsati. Bhattaŋ pacantā / pacamānā purisā hasanti. 13. Rathena gacchamānehi amaccehi saha ācariyo hasati. Upāsako padumāni ādāya vihāraŋ gacchamāno Buddhaŋ disvā pasīdati. 20. The minister gives seeds to the farmers who plough their fields. Dānaŋ dadāmānā sīlāni rakkhamānā manussā sagge uppajjanti. (Acc. Recluses who enter the city wish to worship the Buddha dwelling in the monastery. The uncle's friend calls the boys singing songs seated under the tree. The sailor wishing to cross the sea asks for money from the king. 16. Wise men who wish to be born in heaven practise (rakkhanti) virtue. Rukkhamūle nisīditvā gītāni gāyantā kumārā naccituŋ ārabhanti. 26. 14. 2. 19. Araññe āhiṇḍanto luddako dhāvantaŋ migaŋ passitvā sarena vijjhati. 6. Sīlaŋ rakkhantā sappurisā manussalokā cavitvā devaloke uppajjanti. Plural: 1. 3. Goṇe pariyesamāno vane āhiṇḍanto kassako sīhaŋ disvā bhāyati. Translate into English: 1. Pānīyaŋ yācitvā rodanto dārako mañcamhā patati. Vatthāni labhituŋ icchanto vāṇijo āpaṇaŋ gacchati. Suriyassa ālokena locanehi rūpāni passantā manussā loke jīvanti. 17 15. Sakuṇo tuṇḍena phalaŋ haranto rukkhasmā uppatati. Tuṇḍena piṭakamhā macchaŋ ākaḍḍhituŋ icchanto kāko sunakhamhā bhāyati. Vejjo bhattaŋ pacantaŋ / pacamānaŋ purisaŋ pakkosati. Translate into Pāli. 3. 23. The doctor speaks with the men who are cooking rice. 16. Uyyāne āhiṇḍamānamhā kumāramhā brāhmaṇo padumāni yācati. 11. Vāṇijassa mūlaŋ datvā asse labhituŋ amacco ussahati. The brahmin sees the deer coming out of the forest to drink water. 30. Bhattaŋ pacanto / pacamāno puriso hasati. (Nom. Samaṇehi bhāsantā upāsakā saccaŋ adhigantuŋ ussahanti. 27. Similarly. 1. Dhanaŋ saŋharituŋ ussahanto vāṇijo samuddaŋ taritvā dīpaŋ gantuŋ ārabhati. 21. Rukkhamūle nisīditvā cīvaraŋ sibbantena samaṇena saddhiŋ upāsako bhāsati. Seeing the jackal approaching the village the farmer tries to hit it with a stone. Goṇe hanantā rukkhe chindantā asappurisā dhanaŋ saŋharituŋ ussahanti. Wicked men wish to see hunters killing deer. 3. Dhaññaŋ ākaɲkhantassa purisassa dhanaŋ dātuŋ vāṇijo icchati. 3. 8. 5. case) The men who are cooking rice laugh. 22. Goats in the park eat leaves falling from the trees. Virtuous men give food to the monks who approach their houses. 24. Vejjo bhattaŋ pacantena / pacamānena purisena saha bhāsati. case) The doctor calls the men who are cooking rice. 20. the present participle can be declined in all cases to agree with the nouns they qualify. Magge sayantaŋ sunakhaŋ udakena siñcitvā dārako hasati. Udakaŋ pātuŋ icchanto sīho udakaŋ pariyesamāno vanamhi carati. 19. The farmer sees birds eating seeds in his field. 2. 18. Suvaṇṇaŋ labhituŋ ussahantā manussā pabbatasmiŋ āvāṭe khaṇ The doctor speaks with the man who is cooking rice. Khettaŋ kasitvā bījāni vapanto kassako dhaññaŋ labhituŋ ākaɲkhati. 22. 4. Exercise 11: 4. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. 15. 2. 2. 12.bhuñja + nta / māna = bhuñjanta / bhuñjamāna = eating tiṭṭha + nta / māna = tiṭṭhanta / tiṭṭhamāna = standing vihara + nta / māna = viharanta / viharamāna = dwelling 3. . 21. The uncle gives a lotus to the child searching for flowers. 6. Wishing for merit virtuous men give alms to the monks and observe (rakkhanti) the precepts. Lay devotees try to give robes to monks living in the monastery. Standing on the stairway the child sees monkeys sitting on the tree. 10. Khīraŋ pivitvā hasamāno dārako pattaŋ mañcasmiŋ khipati. The man washing clothes speaks with the boy going on the road. case) The doctor calls the man who is cooking rice. 9. (Nom. 17. 25. The man walks on the leaves falling from the trees in the forest. Vetanaŋ labhituŋ ākaɲkhamāno naro rajakāya dussāni dhovati. The dog tries to bite the hand of the man who strokes his body. Rukkhamūle sayantassa yācakassa kāye paṇṇāni patanti. 9. 5. Speaking the truth lay devotees try to understand the doctrine. (Inst. Rukkhesu nisīditvā phalāni bhuñjamānā kumārā gītaŋ gāyanti. Men see with their eyes the light of the moon falling on the sea. 13. (Inst. 14. Cīvaraŋ pariyesantassa samaṇassa ācariyo cīvaraŋ dadāti. Having given the beggar some corn the fisherman enters the house. 7. Vihāraŋ upasaɲkamanto Buddho dhammaŋ bhāsamāne sāvake passati. 12. Boys give rice to fish moving in the water. case) The man who is cooking rice laughs. 29. Vejjo bhattaŋ pacante / pacamāne purise pakkosati. 4. 7. 5. (Acc. 17. pg. 23. 8. 11. Cittaŋ pasīditvā dhammaŋ adhigantuŋ ussahantā narā sagge uppajjanti. 10. The Buddha's disciples question the child crying on the road.

pg. We stand under the tree and sprinkle water on the flowers. 18. Seeing the crying child we call the doctor going on the road. Mayaŋ araññaŋ pavisitvā ajānaŋ paṇṇāni saŋharāma. 24. 20. Mayaŋ sagge uppajjituŋ ākaɲkhamānā sīlāni rakkhāma. I see a fruit falling from the crow's beak. I ask questions from the men who come out of the forest. 14. 2. 8. 17. You (pl. 7. 8. Mayaŋ puññaŋ icchantā samaṇānaŋ dānaŋ dadāma. Tvaŋ rukkhamūle nisīditvā ācariyassa dātuŋ vatthaŋ sibbasi. Phalāni khādantā tumhe rukkhehi oruhatha. Mayaŋ sugatassa sāvake vandituŋ vihārasmiŋ sannipatāma. 11. This lesson gives the conjugation in full. You drink milk seated on a chair. 12. We set out from home to go and see the deer roaming in the forest. Mayaŋ uyyāne carantā sunakhehi saddhiŋ kīḷante dārake passāma. 9. 9. Sitting in the park you (pl. Tvaŋ mittehi saddhiŋ rathena āpaṇamhā bhaṇḍāni āharasi. 21. 13. 25. "to cook" Singular Plural 3rd person pacati pacanti 2nd person pacasi pacatha 1st person pacāmi pacāma 2. 23. Tvaŋ gītaŋ gāyanto rodantaŋ dārakaŋ rakkhasi. Mayaŋ hasantehi kumārehi saha uyyāne naccāma.) assemble in the park. 2. Ahaŋ hiraññaŋ pariyesanto dīpamhi āvāṭe khaṇāmi. Singular: 3rd: (So) pacati = He cooks 2nd: (Tvaŋ) pacasi = You cook Plural: (Te) pacanti = They cook (Tumhe) pacatha = You cook 1st: (Ahaŋ) pacāmi = I cook (Mayaŋ) pacāma = We cook Paca. 18 11. Translate into English: 1. 15. 5. 10. Te dhammaŋ adhigantuŋ ussahantānaŋ samaṇānaŋ dānaŋ dadanti. active voice. 16. Tvaŋ gehassa dvāraŋ vivaritvā pānīyaŋ pattamhā ādāya pivasi. 10. You (sg. Ahaŋ bhattaŋ pacāmi = I cook rice.) cook rice. Pāsāṇasmiŋ ṭhatvā tvaŋ candaŋ passituŋ ussahasi.) eat fruits with friends. We wander in the fields looking at the birds eating seeds. Mayaŋ manussalokamhā cavitvā sagge uppajjituŋ ākaɲkhāma. third person singular and plural have been introduced. I wash the bowls with water and give (them) to the doctor. Tumhe araññe vasante mige sarehi vijjhituŋ icchatha. Khettaŋ rakkhanto so āvāṭe khaṇante varāhe disvā pāsāṇehi paharati. Translate into Pāli: 1. 12. 3. 4. 5. Having washed the bowl with water the hermit looks for drinking water. Wishing to see the monks you (pl. Searching for the truth I give up the house and enter the monastery.) get frightened seeing the snake approaching the house. I set out from home to bring a lamp from the market. I advise the wicked man who kills pigs. 4. Expecting to get profit we bring goods from the city. 3. Active Voice So far only the present tense. You (sg. 15. Pāsādaŋ upasaɲkamantaŋ samaṇaŋ disvā bhūpālassa cittaŋ pasīdati.24. Exercise 12: 3. 3. 7. 18. .) sit on the seats. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. Āgacchantaŋ tāpasaŋ disvā so bhattaŋ āharituŋ gehaŋ pavisati. 2. Te bhattaŋ pacanti = They cook rice. 4. Mayaŋ bhattaŋ pacāma = We cook rice. 20. I call the child who is stroking the dog's body. 2.) cook rice. I protect virtues. I wish to understand the doctrine. 6. 19. Standing on the mountain we see the moonlight falling on the sea. Tumhe samaṇānaŋ dātuŋ cīvarāni pariyesatha. 22. 16. So araññamhi uppatante sakuṇe passituŋ pabbataŋ āruhati. I drag the farmer's cart away from the road. 19. I bring drinking water from the house. 14. Lesson 12 1. Ahaŋ udakaŋ oruyha brāhmaṇassa dussāni dhovāmi. 25. Wise men who observe the precepts begin to understand the truth. We try to learn the truth speaking with the monks who assemble in the monastery. 21. 24. 3. Tumhe bhattaŋ pacatha = You (pl. 23. Ahaŋ udakamhā padumāni āharitvā vāṇijassa dadāmi. So pānīyaŋ pivitvā pattaŋ bhinditvā mātulamhā bhāyati. Plural: 1. Tumhe saccaŋ adhigantuŋ ārabhatha. Conjugation of Verbs The Present Tense. So bhattaŋ pacati = He cooks rice. 6. Tvaŋ bhattaŋ pacasi = You (sg. give alms to the monks and live in the house with children. 13. 22.) cross the sea and bring a horse from the island. Having taken a basket I go to the field to collect corn. Good men who fear evil deeds are born in heaven. 25. 17.

Gerunds / absolutives and infinitives from the above verbs are formed retaining the -e in the base. or the conjugational sign in between the root and the termination. pūjetvā. It should be observed that the present tense verbal terminations remain constant. etc. the other ending in -aya. one ending in -e.B. Some verbs similarly conjugated are as follows: deseti pūreti uḍḍeti manteti oloketi māreti ṭhapeti parivajjeti preaches fills flies cinteti pīḷeti udeti thinks oppresses (sun or moon) rises addresses kindles leads. etc. cintetvā. pūretvā. "to steal" Singular Plural 3rd person (So) coreti (Te) corenti 2nd person (Tvaŋ) coresi (Tumhe) coretha 1st person (Ahaŋ) coremi (Mayaŋ) corema Base: Coraya.Lesson 13 1. Active Voice (continued) Verbs which have the base ending in -e are conjugated somewhat differently from what has been learnt so far. āmanteti takes counsel looks at kills keeps avoids jāleti neti pāteti obhāseti 7. takes away fells illuminates pūjeti katheti ropeti nimanteti chādeti āneti pāleti deti (dadāti) honours. pūjetuŋ. The two verbs bhavati / hoti (to be) and karoti (to do) occur frequently in the language. 19 hoti karoti . collects N.B. Only the vikaraṇa suffix. "to steal" Singular Plural 3rd person (So) corayati (Te) corayanti 2nd person (Tvaŋ) corayasi (Tumhe) corayatha 1st person (Ahaŋ) corayāmi (Mayaŋ) corayāma   2. shows variation. Conjugation of Verbs The Present Tense. governs gives 4. Infinitives desetuŋ. pūretuŋ. Gerunds desetvā. Verbs which have the base ending in -nā are conjugated as follows:   Base: Kiṇā = to buy Singular Plural 3rd person (So) kiṇāti (Te) kiṇanti 2nd person (Tvaŋ) kiṇāsi (Tumhe) kiṇātha 1st person (Ahaŋ) kiṇāmi (Mayaŋ) kiṇāma 5. 6. pg. offers speaks plants invites covers brings rules.   Base: Core. Some verbs similarly declined are as follows: vikkiṇāti gaṇhāti jināti pahiṇāti sells takes wins sends suṇāti uggaṇhāti pāpuṇāti / pappoti hears learns reaches mināti jānāti ocināti measures knows picks. N. Attention should be paid to the following forms: Present Tense jānāti suṇāti pāpuṇāti / pappoti gaṇhāti Gerund / Absolutive ñatvā / jānitvā sutvā / suṇitvā patvā / pāpuṇitvā gahetvā / gaṇhitvā ñātuŋ sotuŋ / suṇituŋ pāpuṇituŋ / pappotuŋ gahetuŋ / gaṇhituŋ Infinitive discusses. They can have two verbal bases. cintetuŋ. Their gerunds and infinitives are as follows: Present Tense Gerund / Absolutive bhavitvā / hutvā katvā kātuŋ Infinitive bhavituŋ / hotuŋ 3. as in coreti and corayati.

Tvaŋ āpaṇehi bhaṇḍāni kiṇitvā sakaṭena ānetvā gehe ṭhapesi. The king governing the island wins. So vane āhiṇḍante goṇe gāmaŋ ānetvā vāṇijānaŋ vikkiṇāti. Sīlaŋ rakkhantā puññakammāni karontā manussā saggaŋ pappotuŋ ākaɲkhanti. Ahaŋ ācariyo homi. 29. Akusalaŋ pahāya pāpaŋ parivajjetvā viharantā narā sappurisā bhavanti. 20. 28. 27. 5. Avoiding the sleeping dog with his foot the child runs home. Ahaŋ suvaṇṇaŋ pariyesamāne dīpamhā āgacchante vāṇije jānāmi. Saccaŋ ñātuŋ icchanto ahaŋ samaṇehi pañhe pucchāmi. 17. Tvaŋ uḍḍentaŋ sukaŋ disvā gaṇhituŋ icchasi. pg. The sick man (gilāna) is a messenger of the gods in the human world. 15. There are good men in the world who admonish wicked men. 11. Tumhe kakacehi rukkhe chinditvā pabbatamhā pātetha. Mayaŋ amaccehi saha mantentā pāsādasmiŋ āsanesu nisīdāma. Buddhena desentaŋ dhammaŋ sutvā sappuriso bhavituŋ ussahasi. We see with our eyes.The verb atthi (to be) from root as and karoti (to do) from root kṛ are special verbs of frequent occurrence. tvaŋ vejjo hosi. You (pl. 21.) go from island to island searching for gold with merchants. I am the king governing the islands. We cook rice to give alms to the monks coming from the monastery. 26. 2. the thief wishes to avoid evil. "to do" Singular Plural 3rd person karoti karonti 2nd person karosi karotha 1st person karomi karoma Exercise 13 8. You (pl. 23. 26. Having picked fruits from the trees you send (them) to the market. . 7. 8. 23. 11. 8. 13. hear with our ears (sotehi). Mayaŋ āpaṇaŋ gantvā vāṇijehi saddhiŋ kathetvā dhaññaŋ vikkiṇāma. 5. So āpaṇamhā khīraŋ kiṇituŋ puttaŋ pahiṇāti. Having heard the Buddha preach the doctrine I become glad. Upāsakā vihāraŋ gantvā dīpe jāletvā dhammaŋ sotuŋ nisīdanti. 9. 30. 30. Expecting to hear the monk preaching the dhamma lay devotees assemble in the monastery. 16.) are wicked men who take counsel with thieves. 13. Having heard the dhamma. Singing songs you (pl. Translate into Pāli: 1. Tumhe araññe vasante mige pīḷetvā asappurisā hotha. 14. the doctor goes to the monastery to listen to the dhamma. Dānaŋ datvā sīlaŋ rakkhantā sappurisā saggalokaŋ pāpuṇanti. You (pl. 10. We begin to learn the dhamma from recluses living in the village. 4.) look at the birds flying in the sky. Mayaŋ dhammaŋ uggaṇhituŋ ussahantā paṇḍitena saha mantema. Luddako sīsaŋ (head) dussena chādetvā nisīditvā sakuṇe maretuŋ ussahati. 3. 9. Departing from the human world wicked men are born in hell (narake). Translate into English: 1. 6. Tumhe Tathāgatassa sāvake nimantetvā dānaŋ detha. 22. Seeing the Buddha and being pleased the thief throws away the arrows. 2. 15. 24. 27. We know the man who is lighting lamps in the monastery. 19. Wishing to be born in heaven wise men fear to do evil. 7. 9. 12. I advise the wicked man who oppresses the farmers in the village. Good men begin to plant trees to protect the world. 10. Te patte udakena pūrentā gītaŋ gāyanti. We dig pits to plant trees in the park. 12. "to be" Singular Plural 3rd person atthi santi 2nd person asi attha 1st person asmi / amhi asma / amha Kṛ-. Buddho vihārasmiŋ sannipatantānaŋ manussānaŋ dhammaŋ deseti. Corehi saddhiŋ gehe bhinditvā manusse pīḷentā tumhe asappurisā hotha. 29. 22. 18. Searching for the truth the wise man goes from city to city. Ahaŋ paṇḍitehi saddhiŋ mantento dhammena dīpaŋ pālento bhūpālo asmi. Varāhe mārentā corā kassake pīḷentā pāpakammāni karonti. 19. 14. 20. Buddhassa pūjetuŋ cintento upāsako pupphāni ocināti. Dhammena manusse pālentā bhūpālā akusalaŋ parivajjenti.) cross the sea with sailors to reach the island. Having invited the hermit from the mountain the king gives him a robe. 17. Thinking of collecting corn I go to the field with the farmer. touch with our bodies. 28. 24. Ahaŋ pattena pānīyaŋ pivanto dvārasmiŋ ṭhatvā maggaŋ olokemi. Wishing to avoid evil I practise virtue. Ahaŋ kassakehi saha khettasmiŋ rukkhe ropemi. Pabbatamhā udentaŋ candaŋ passituŋ kumāro gharamhā dhāvati. 18. 6. 25. Merchants keep clothes in shops to sell (them) to farmers coming from the villages. 4. 21. They are conjugated as follows:   As-. 16. Tvaŋ asappurisa. 20 25. Having picked lotuses from the water. 3. Dhaññaŋ minanto kassako āpaṇaŋ netvā dhaññaŋ vikkiṇituŋ cinteti.Trying to understand the truth lay devotees become recluses.

3. Rukkhamūle nisīditvā cīvaraŋ sibbantaŋ samaṇaŋ ahaŋ upasaɲkamissāmi. 18. 20. 25. They who are walking in the forest collecting fruits will desire to drink water. 16. 12. Dānaŋ dadamānā sīlaŋ rakkhantā mayaŋ samaṇehi dhammaŋ uggaṇhissāma. Udakaŋ otaritvā vatthāni dhovanto kassako nahāyitvā gehaŋ āgamissati. Farmers approaching the city will look at vehicles running on the road. 6. The Future Tense The future tense is formed by adding -ssa to the root / verbal base with. Tvaŋ dhaññena pattaŋ pūretvā ācariyassa dassasi. 11. Translate into Pāli: 1. The children will like to see the parrots eating fruits on the trees. Dīpaŋ pappotuŋ ākaɲkhamānā mayaŋ samuddaŋ tarituŋ nāvikaŋ pariyesāma. Having filled the bowl with drinking water the child will give it to the beggar pg. "to cook" ["will cook"] Singular Plural 3rd person (So) pacissati (Te) pacissanti 2nd person (Tvaŋ) pacissasi (Tumhe) pacissatha 1st person (Ahaŋ) pacissāmi (Mayaŋ) pacissāma   Base: Cora. 2. Saccaŋ adhigantuŋ ussahanto tāpaso Tathāgataŋ passituŋ ākaɲkhati. Mayaŋ bhūpālā dhammena dīpe pālessāma. 7. Keeping the garment on the seat the child will enter the water to bathe. 13. 24. The rising sun will illuminate the world. 8.) will become pleased with the Tathāgata. 3. Translate into English: 1. I will advise the king to rule the island righteously with his ministers. 10. So pabbatamhā udentaŋ candaŋ passituŋ pāsādaŋ āruhissati. Having heard the doctrine you (pl. 19. Bhūpālo corehi dīpaŋ rakkhituŋ amaccehi saha mantessati. Mayaŋ gītāni gāyante naccante kumāre olokessāma. Buddhe pasīditvā upāsako devaputto hutvā saggaloke uppajjati. You (sg. 15. Rukkhaŋ pātetvā phalāni khādituŋ icchantaŋ asappurisaŋ ahaŋ akkosāmi. 9. 22. Dhāvantamhā sakaṭamhā patantaŋ dārakaŋ disvā tvaŋ vejjaŋ ānesi.Lesson 14 1. "to buy" ["will buy"] Singular Plural 3rd person (So) kiṇissati (Te) kiṇissanti 2nd person (Tvaŋ) kiṇissasi (Tumhe) kiṇissatha 1st person (Ahaŋ) kiṇissāmi (Mayaŋ) kiṇissāma 2. 10. Udentaŋ suriyaŋ disvā brāhmaṇo gehā nikkhamma vandati. 17. Attention may be paid to the following forms: Present Tense gacchati āgacchati dadāti tiṭṭhati karoti Future gamissati āgamissati dadissati / dassati ṭhassati karissati English he will go he will come he will give he will stand he will do Exercise 14 3. or in some cases without. 4. Ahaŋ samuddaŋ taritvā dīpaŋ pāpuṇitvā bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇissāmi. Base: Paca. Dhammaŋ sotuŋ uyyāne nisīdantānaŋ upāsakānaŋ ahaŋ pānīyaŋ dassāmi. 14. 8. 4. Tumhe vihāraŋ upasaɲkamantā magge pupphāni vikkiṇante manusse passissatha. 11. He will take money and go to the shop to buy goods. Pāpaŋ parivajjetvā kusalaŋ karonte sappurise devā pūjessanti. 12. Puññaŋ kātuŋ icchantā tumhe sappurisā pāpamitte ovadissatha. Saccaŋ bhāsantā asappurise anusāsantā paṇḍitā upāsakā bhavissanti. 9. 5. 4. 6. 21 . Puññakammāni karontānaŋ vāṇijānaŋ dhanaŋ atthi. the connecting vowel -ithe terminations are the same as those in the present tense. 5. you are teachers going to the island. "to steal" ["will steal"] Singular Plural 3rd person (So) coressati (Te) coressanti 2nd person (Tvaŋ) coressasi (Tumhe) coressatha 1st person (Ahaŋ) coressāmi (Mayaŋ) coressāma Base: Kiṇa.) will be pleased seeing your sons asking questions from the wise man. Gāme viharanto tvaŋ nagaraŋ gantvā rathaŋ ānessasi. 23. 7. We are doctors coming from the island. Ahaŋ sayantassa puttassa kāyaŋ āmasanto mañcasmiŋ nisīdāmi. Amaccassa dūtaŋ pahiṇituŋ icchanto bhūpālo ahaŋ asmi. Uyyānesu rukkhe ropetuŋ samaṇā manusse anusāsanti. Having learnt the dhamma from the Buddha I will live righteously (dhammena) in the world. 21. 13. 2. The trees in the park will bathe in the light of the moon.

Sace tumhe rukkhe ropeyyātha dārakā phalāni bhuñjeyyuŋ. ahaŋ taŋ (him) rodantaŋ dārakaŋ passituŋ āneyyāmi. might. 8. Yadi ahaŋ nagare vihareyyāmi. If I dwell in the city. he too would come to the city. they too will come to the city. similar 3. 3. 23. Exercise 15 4. "to cook" Singular Plural 3rd person (So) paceyya (Te) paceyyuŋ 2nd person (Tvaŋ) paceyyāsi (Tumhe) paceyyātha 1st person (Ahaŋ) paceyyāmi (Mayaŋ) paceyyāma Singular 3rd (So) paceyya = 2nd (Tvaŋ) paceyyāsi = 1st (Ahaŋ) paceyyāmi = Plural 3rd (Te) paceyyuŋ = 2nd (Tumhe) paceyyātha = 1st (Mayaŋ) paceyyāma = 2. Sace tvaŋ iccheyyāsi. . Searching for wealth wicked men will oppress farmers living righteously in villages. Sace tumhe pabbataŋ āruheyyātha. Seeing the jackal coming to the park the children will get frightened. Sace te bhattaŋ paceyyuŋ. vāṇijo taŋ kiṇeyya. If you would like. Translate into English: 1. kumārā tāni Buddhassa pūjeyyuŋ. 11. Yadi amaccā pāpaŋ parivajeyyuŋ. we will question the thieves. Sace so vejjo bhaveyya. mayaŋ bhūpālesu pasīdeyyāma. 18. Sace kassako goṇaŋ vikkiṇeyya. The Optative or the Potential Mood The optative expresses mainly probability and advice. Yadi mayaŋ bhūpālena saha manteyyāma amaccā na āgaccheyyuŋ. 5. ahaŋ dussaŋ ādadeyyāmi. If you so wish. Sace tvaŋ pattena pānīyaŋ āneyyāsi pipāsito (thirsty) so piveyya. Wise men instruct kings governing the islands. sace / yadi = if ca = and pi = too. Sace tumhe padumāni ocineyyātha. 15. mayaŋ core puccheyyāma. 21. I will question the thief. 22 If he would cook If you would cook If I would cook If they would cook If you would cook If we would cook It should be observed that the terminations of the second and first persons are similar to those of the present tense. Good men doing meritorious deeds will learn the dhamma from monks. would. 2. 6. 18. so pi nagaraŋ āgaccheyya. 17. If he would cook rice I will eat. We will become good men practising virtue. 4. Yadi putto pāpaŋ kareyya ahaŋ taŋ (him) ovadeyyāmi. Base: Paca. It is formed by adding -eyya to the verbal base before terminations. Sace tvaŋ dhammaŋ suṇeyyāsi. kassako tāni (them) khette vapeyya. 2. The following particles are useful for construction of sentences. te pi nagaraŋ āgaccheyyuŋ. āhiṇḍante mige ca rukkhesu carante makkaṭe ca uḍḍente sakuṇe ca passeyyātha. You will buy fish from fishermen coming from the sea. Sace tvaŋ bījāni pahiṇeyyāsi. 13. addhā (certainly) tvaŋ Buddhassa sāvako bhaveyyāsi. 16. Wishing to learn the dhamma we approach the Buddha. You are a good man who lives righteously. Lesson 15 1. 14. 12. 25. 20. 24. There are fruits on the trees in the mountains. etc. puttā pi sappurisā bhaveyyuŋ. 3. 2. If they cook rice we will eat. 14. Yadi mayaŋ nagare vihareyyāma. ahaŋ pi uggaṇheyyāmi. 16. Sace amacco paṇḍitaŋ ācariyaŋ āneyya mayaŋ dhammaŋ uggaṇheyyāma. and ideas such as those conveyed by if. I see a parrot picking a fruit with its beak. mayaŋ bhuñjeyyāma. ahaŋ bhuñjeyyāmi. also na = not viya = like. Plural: 1. 3. Sace tvaŋ mūlaŋ gaṇheyyāsi. Sace manusse pīḷentā asappurisā gāmaŋ āgaccheyyuŋ ahaŋ te ovadeyyāmi. Sace mayaŋ sappurisā bhaveyyāma. Sace bhūpālā dhammena dīpe pāleyyuŋ. Kusalakammāni katvā tumhe manussaloke uppajituŋ ussaheyyātha. pg. Sace so bhattaŋ paceyya. Sace tumhe iccheyyātha. manussā pāpaŋ na kareyyuŋ. If we dwell in the city. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. 9. 22. Yadi te gītāni gāyituŋ uggaṇheyyuŋ. 15.eating rice. ahaŋ coraŋ puccheyyāmi. 19. 7. 17. Men wishing to get merit will plant trees for people in the world. They will go to see the king coming to the village with the ministers. 10.

"to cook" Singular Plural 3rd person pacatu pacantu 2nd person paca. if we look with our minds we will see good and evil. Base: paca = to cook Paca. If you admonish the merchant he will become a virtuous man. 15. Translate into Pāli: 1. they will become thieves. Mā tvaŋ sunakhaŋ āmasāhi. 19. Let them not pick flowers in the park. 14. Translate into English: 1. 11. Mayaŋ dhammaŋ uggaṇhāma. If the king wishes to govern the island righteously he will discuss with wise men and ministers. . bhāsatu. 2. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. Let us learn the dhamma. If you do work in the field you will get wealth and corn. The prohibitive particle mā 1. 11. sace so saccaŋ jānāti. If you (sg. If you search for the truth you will approach the Buddha living in the monastery. 5. Let him cook rice for the merchants. Mā tumhe saccaŋ parivajjetha. The prohibitive particle mā is also used with the imperative. so taŋ (you) ḍaseyya. If we depart from the human world we will not fear to be born in the human world. mā tvaŋ pāpamitte upasaɲkama. If you listen to the dhamma you will be able to live righteously. 18. Let me learn the dhamma. the children will start dancing.pacāhi = 1st (Ahaŋ) pacāmi = Let him cook You cook Let me cook pg. 13. 23 Plural 3rd (Te) pacantu = Let them cook 2nd (Tumhe) pacatha = You cook 1st (Mayaŋ) pacāma = Let us cook It should be observed that the second person plural and first person singular and plural have the same forms as in the present tense. 8. Sace ahaŋ hatthena suvaŋ phusituŋ ussaheyyāmi so gehā uppateyya. The Imperative The imperative mood expresses a command. 9. 9. Mā te uyyānamhi pupphāni ocinantu. Tumhe dīpe jāletvā vihārasmiŋ rūpāni oloketha. benediction. You go to the city in the vehicle. 17. Putta. 2. Tumhe pāpaŋ karonte putte ovadatha. 2. Ahaŋ dhammaŋ uggaṇhāmi. Plural: 1. 2. 5. 10. If you work in the field you will see farmers ploughing. 7. If gods are born in the human world they will do meritorious deeds. 20.) start singing a song. Sugato dhammaŋ desetu. If the minister is not a good man we will not approach him. 7. 10. Mā corā kassakānaŋ goṇe mārentu. If we look with our eyes we will see objects in the world. Te vāṇijānaŋ bhattaŋ pacantu. 6. 8. Exercise 16 3. 4. I see boys playing in the park with a monkey.pacāhi pacatha 1st person pacāmi pacāma Singular 3rd (So) pacatu = 2nd (Tvaŋ) paca. 6. 5. 3. tumhe sappurisā bhaveyyātha. Sace tumhe saccam bhāsituŋ ussaheyyātha. 16. Mā manusso bhāyatu. You go to the city in the vehicle. Lesson 16 1. 3. Let them cook rice for the merchants. Tvaŋ rathena nagaraŋ gaccha / gacchāhi. If there are fruits on the tree I will climb to pick them (tāni). prayer or wish. Tumhe rathena nagaraŋ gacchatha. 3. 3. If you are a good man you will not kill oxen roaming in the forest. 2. If I pick fruits you will eat them with friends. 12. Tumhe asappurise āmantetvā dhammena jīvituŋ anusāsatha. Yadi so vejjaŋ pakkosituŋ iccheyya ahaŋ taŋ (him) āneyyāmi.19. If they want to see birds singing they will go to the park. Bhūpālā dhammena dīpaŋ pālentu. You do not avoid the truth. If you (pl. If you cover the evil deeds your sons do.) want to become virtuous men avoid evil. If you avoid evil friends (pāpamitte) you will become a good man. 2. sāvakā ca upāsakā ca vihārasmiŋ nisīdanti. If I invite the monk he will come home to preach the dhamma. 4. So vāṇijānaŋ bhattaŋ pacatu. 20. Mā te pāpakammāni katvā manussalokamhā cavitvā narake (in purgatory) uppajjantu.

) run home and bring water for the farmers ploughing the field. Verbs whose bases end in -nā are also conjugated in the past tense as above. Upāsaka. etc. 10. Examples in sentence formation Singular: 1. 7.12. 11. Mā suvaṇṇaŋ coretvā gacchantā corā samuddaŋ tarantu. 14. 9. paci apaciŋsu. The Past Tense Conjugation of verbs with the base ending in -a. 2. Do not cut trees in forests if you wish to protect deer. "to cook" ["cooked". Bhūpālā dīpesu cariŋsu / acariŋsu Kings wandered in the islands. paci = 1st (Ahaŋ) apaciŋ. 12. Let the farmer plough the fields and sow seeds. Let the farmers and merchants assemble in the king's park. 4. Let the children playing in the park collect falling leaves. corayi coresuŋ. Samaṇā dhammaŋ desesuŋ / desayiŋsu Monks preached the dhamma. pacittha 1st person apaciŋ. corayi = 2nd (Tvaŋ) coresi = 1st (Ahaŋ) coresiŋ. corayiŋ = Plural 3rd (Te) coresuŋ. 2. 6. 3. samaṇehi saddhiŋ mantetvā putte anusāsāhi. apaciŋsu etc. 15. 3. paci = 2nd (Tvaŋ) apaci. he will fall. 2. Ahaŋ pabbataŋ āruhiŋ I climbed the mountain. Ahaŋ dīpaŋ jālesiŋ / jālayiŋ I lit the lamp. May the king ruling the island protect the people righteously. paci apacittha. 15. 8. Sace tvaŋ pāsāṇe khipeyyāsi. etc. Paca. pacimha Singular 3rd (So) apaci. kākā ca sakuṇā ca ākāsaŋ uppateyyuŋ. pacimha = He cooked You cooked I cooked They cooked You cooked We cooked It should be noted that ain apaci. Tumhe bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇittha You sold goods. Tvaŋ bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇi You sold goods. do not commit sins. corayiŋsu 2nd person coresi corayitha 1st person coresiŋ. deer and birds. paciŋ = Plural 3rd (Te) apaciŋsu. corayiŋsu = 2nd (Tumhe) corayitha = 1st (Mayaŋ) corayimha = He stole You stole I stole They stole You stole We stole 2. let him not kill goats. 24 . Let the child not come down the stairway. Plural: 1. Samaṇo dhammaŋ desesi The monk preached the dhamma. Sons. Do not ask questions from the king's messenger. pg. pacittha = 1st (Mayaŋ) apacimha. live righteously. Let the sons climb the mountain to see lions. May the disciples of the Buddha get alms and robes. paciŋ apacimha. corayiŋ corayimha Singular 3rd (So) coresi. Lesson 17 1. paciŋsu = 2nd (Tumhe) apacittha. Boys. 13. 4. paciŋsu 2nd person apaci. "to steal" ["stole".] Singular Plural 3rd person apaci. Mā dāraka pānīyaŋ pivitvā pattaŋ bhinda. Let the children come out of the house and see the moon rising from the mountain. You (pl. It is the augment (optional) denoting the past tense. 13. Tvaŋ pupphāni pūjesi You offered the flowers. 4. 14. Conjugation of verbs with the base ending in -e Base: core = to steal Cora. mā putte akkosāhi. do not go and kill deer in the forest with the hunter. is not a negative prefix. You lay devotees should try to avoid evil and do good deeds. Let the parrots fly taking fruits with their beaks. Translate into Pāli: 1. Bhūpālo dīpe cari / acari The king wandered in the island.] Singular Plural 3rd person coresi. 5.

Rukkhamūle nisīditvā gitāni gāyantānaŋ kumārānaŋ kāyesu paṇṇāni ca pupphāni ca patiŋsu. 9. 12. Sahāyakā udakaŋ otaritvā nahāyantā padumāni ociniŋsu. 3. 4. Translate into Pāli: 1. Ahaŋ puttassa dātuŋ dussaŋ sibbanto gītaŋ gāyiŋ. presumably because she considers it easier to learn in this order --E. Having received the pay the men went to the market and bought goods. Translate into English: 1. 16. 25 . 5. Ahaŋ sopānaŋ āruhiŋ. 17. te sopānamhā oruhiŋsu. Luddakena saddhiŋ vane āhiṇḍante putte āmantetvā kassakā akkosiŋsu. Do not do evil. Mā tvaŋ suvaṇṇapattaŋ vikkiṇitvā khagge kiṇāhi. 9. Nagaresu kammāni katvā vetane labhituŋ ākaɲkhamānā narā gāmehi nikkhamiŋsu. 13. 3. 4. Paṇḍitamhā pañhe pucchitvā saccaŋ jānituŋ mātulo ussahi. 6. 7. The child sprinkled the lotuses with water and honoured the Buddha with them. Uggaṇhantānaŋ dārakānaŋ dātuŋ ācariyā kusumāni āhariŋsu. 5.] pg. and the accusative third. Exercise 17 3. Kassako khettaŋ kasitvā nahāyituŋ udakaŋ otari. 11. 25. 8. Ācariyo āsanaŋ dussena chādetvā samaṇaŋ nisīdituŋ nimantesi.M. 19. 2. 21. We got frightened seeing a serpent enter the house. 22. 24. The parrots and the crows flew into the sky from the trees. 10. 3. So bhaṇḍāni ca khettaŋ ca goṇe ca puttānaŋ daṭvā gehaŋ pahāya samaṇo bhavituŋ cintesi. 18. I gave water to my son eating rice together with his friend. 20. vanitāyo vanitā. vanitāyo vanitā. De Silva instead lists the Vocative second. I spoke to the people sitting in the park having assembled to see the king. 2. however.Tumhe pupphāni pūjayittha You offered flowers. 15. 8. Pāsāṇamhi ṭhatvā ajaŋ khādantaŋ sīhaŋ disvā vānarā bhāyiŋsu. Dhammaŋ uggaṇhitvā samaṇo bhavituŋ ākaɲkhamāno amacco ācariyaŋ pariyesamāno Buddhaŋ upasaɲkami. Yācakassa puttā rukkhehi patantāni phalāni saŋharitvā āpaṇasmiŋ vikkiṇiŋsu. from this point forward in the book. Kumāro dvāraŋ vivaritvā rukkhamhā oruhante vānare passamāno aṭṭhāsi (stood). Āpaṇasmiŋ bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇantassa vāṇijassa ratho atthi. Upāsakā āsanehi uṭṭhahitvā dhammaŋ desetuŋ upasaɲkamantaŋ samaṇaŋ vandiŋsu. Lesson 18 1. do good to enter heaven after departing from the human world. 4. Purisā rukkhamūle nisīditvā tāpasena bhāsamānaŋ suṇiŋsu. Tumhe dhanaŋ saŋharamānā mā samuddaŋ taritvā dīpaŋ gacchatha. Sūkarā ca sunakhā ca khette āvāṭe khaṇiŋsu. 6. Mayaŋ dīpe jālayimha We lit lamps. Mayaŋ pabbate āruhimha We climbed mountains. Kassako dhaññaŋ minitvā vāṇijassa vikkiṇituŋ pahiṇi. The fisherman brought fish from the sea and sold them to the farmers. 10. 23. 14. 7. vanitāyo vanitāhi (vanitābhi) vanitāhi (vanitābhi) vanitānaŋ vanitānaŋ vanitāsu [NB: The traditional order of the cases is given in the table for "nara" in lesson 8. Dhammena jīvantā sappurisā mige na māresuŋ. If you go to bathe wash the clothes of the children. Dr. 4. Do not scold the children playing under the tree with the dog. Declension of feminine nouns ending in -ā Vanitā woman  Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative vanitā vanite vanitaŋ vanitāya vanitāya vanitāya vanitāya vanitāya. vanitāyaŋ Plural vanitā. Paṇḍito goṇe coretvā akusalaŋ karonte nare pakkositvā ovadi. Sace tumhe gāmaŋ pāpuṇeyyātha mitte olokeyyātha.

The Past Participle Past participles are mostly formed by adding -ta to the root with or without the connecting vowel -ipacati bhāsati yācati deseti pūjeti gacchati hanati nayati / neti   pac + i + ta bhās + i + ta yāc + i + ta dis' + i + ta pūj + i + ta gam + ta han + ta nī + ta = nīta = pacita = bhāsita = yācita = desita = pūjita = gata = hata = led = cooked = spoken = begged = preached = honoured = gone = killed 3. 13. Bhariyā mañjūsāsu vatthāni ca suvaṇṇaŋ ca ṭhapesi. Translate into Pāli: 1. 4. Kaññāyo sālāyaŋ sannipatitvā kumārehi saddhiŋ sallapiŋsu. 5. 8. The man stood on the road asking my mother the way to go to the monastery. deposits engages in modati conversation experiences suffering paṭiyādeti Exercise 18: 4. 4. 6. Varāhe māretvā jīvanto naro gilāno hutvā dukkhaŋ vindati. 7. 9. If you light lamps the lay devotees will see the objects in the monastery. kaññā / dārikā girl gaɲgā river Ganges ammā bhariyā latā vālukā surā parisā jivhā mother wife creeper sand liquor retinue tongue paññā sabhā guhā mañjūsā sākhā saddhā pipāsā wisdom assembly cave box branch faith. you can avoid evil and do good. 10. Bhariyāya kathaŋ sutvā pasīditvā kassako sappuriso abhavi. 17. nourishes parivāreti kujjhati vāyamati accompanies. Having seen the lion sleeping in the cave the woman ran. 20. Sace tumhe nāvāya gaɲgaŋ tareyyātha dīpasmiŋ vasante tāpase disvā āgantuŋ sakkissatha. 6. 10. Guhāyaŋ nilīyitvā suraŋ pivantā corā sīhaŋ passitvā bhāyiŋsu. 3. Taking the basket and money the girl went to the market to buy corn. 3. Having prepared rice with faith for the monks. devotion thirst nāvā sālā kathā chāyā mālā devatā gīvā khudā ship hall speech shadow garland deity neck hunger sukhaŋ vindanti. Wicked men did not advise their sons who drink liquor. Dārikāyo pupphāni ocinitvā sālāyaŋ nisīditvā mālāyo kariŋsu. 14. 12. Khudāya pīḷentaŋ gilānaŋ yācakaŋ disvā ammā bhattaŋ adadi / adāsi. You can live righteously and seek wealth. Samaṇā manusse pāpā nivāretvā sappurese kātuŋ vāyamanti. Ammā dārikāya kujjhitvā hatthena pahari. If you try. Dārikā pāsādassa chāyāyaŋ nisīditvā vālukāya kīḷiŋsu. 5. Vanitāyo saddhāya bhattaŋ pacitvā vihāraŋ netvā samaṇānaŋ pūjesuŋ 11. 26 . Devatāyo puññāni karonte dhammena jīvante manusse rakkhantu. 7. 9. Lesson 19 1. O good men. you learn the dhamma and try to live righteously. chases after brings up. 2. Sitting in the shade of the house the girls cut branches from the creeper. 5. Vāṇijassa āpaṇe mañjūsāyaŋ mūlaŋ (money) atthi. 16. Vocabulary Verbs sakkoti anubandhati poseti sallapati dukkhaŋ vindati can. 15. 19.2. worships hides experiences joy puts. 2. Dhammena dhanaŋ saŋharamānā paññāya putte posentā narā manussaloke pg. enjoys prepares namassati nilīyati sukhaŋ vindati pakkhipati prevents salutes. The following nouns are similarly declined: (Most nouns ending in -ā are feminine). Tumhe mā suraŋ pivatha. Pabbatasmiŋ guhāsu vasantā sīhā vālukāya kīḷante mige māresuŋ. Parisaŋ parivāretvā pāsādamhā nikkhamantaŋ bhūpālaŋ disvā vanitāyo modanti. Translate into English: 1. 18. Vanitā rukkhassa sākhāyo chinditvā ākaḍḍhi. nivāreti surrounds gets angry tries is happy. mā gilānā (sick) bhavituŋ ussahatha. the woman took it to the monastery. Sace sabhāyaŋ kaññāyo katheyyuŋ aham pi kathessāmi. 8. places. is able follows.

Translate into English: 1. kaṭṭha pacita. tiṭṭhati are intransitive verbs. and -ā ending nouns in the feminine. Udento suriyo brāhmaṇena namassito hoti. Magge ṭhite vāṇijassa sakaṭe ahaŋ kaññāya ānītāni bhaṇḍāni ṭhapesiŋ. Ammāya jālitaŋ dīpaŋ ādaya putto vihāraŋ paviṭṭho hoti. 16. Pacati. 4. Ammāya mañjūsāyaŋ pakkhittaŋ suvaṇṇaŋ dārikā na gaṇhi. chindati chid + na = chinna = cut bhindati bhid + na = bhinna = broken nisīdati ni + sad + na = nisinna = seated tarati tṛ + na = tiṇṇa = crossed 2. Kassakena kasite khette sūkaro sayati A pig sleeps in the field ploughed by the farmer. 3. They are declined in the three genders. 11. nimanteti are transitive verbs. Buddhā devehi ca narehi ca pūjitā honti. Adhammena (unrighteously) dīpaŋ pālentena bhūpālena pīḷitā manussā kuddhā honti. Dārikāya āhaṭāni bhaṇḍāni ammā piṭakesu pakkhipi The mother put in baskets the goods brought by the girl. Examples in sentence formation Upāsakehi vihāraŋ paviṭṭho Buddho diṭṭho hoti The Buddha who entered the monastery was seen by the lay devotees. Past participles have a passive meaning when they are formed from transitive verbs. Sace tvaŋ saccaŋ jāneyyāsi mā puttaŋ akkosa. 2. Te Buddhena desitaŋ dhammaŋ suṇiŋsu They listened to the dhamma preached by the Buddha. patati. Pakkaŋ (ripe) phalaŋ tuṇḍena gahetvā uḍḍentaŋ suvaŋ ahaŋ apassiŋ. 15. Vāṇijā mañjūsāsu ṭhapitāni dussāni na vikkiṇiŋsu 13. The following are some past participles Verb kasati pacati phusati āmasati ārabhati bhuñjati vasati khipati pajahati pivati hanati jānāti mināti kiṇāti karoti Past Participle kasita. puṭṭha daṭṭha paviṭṭha laddha. Vānijo patitassa rukkhassa sākhāyo chindi The merchant cut the branches of the fallen tree. 8. Nāvāya nikkhantā narā samuddaŋ taritvā dīpaŋ pāpuṇitvā bhariyāhi saddhiŋ kathentā modanti. 12. chindati. bhutta vuttha khitta pahīna pīta hata ñāta mita kīta kata ḍasati pavisati labhati bhavati vapati āsiñcati dhovati vivarati cavati nikkhamati suṇāti gaṇhāti pāpuṇāti tiṭṭhati Verb pucchati Past Participle pucchita. Therefore: pacito odano = the rice that is cooked (passive meaning) chinnaŋ paṇṇaŋ = the leaf that is cut (passive meaning) nimantitā kaññā = the girl who is invited (passive meaning) But gacchati. 6. Sāvakehi ca upāsakehi ca parivārito Buddho vihārassa chāyāya nisinno hoti. Udakena pūritaŋ pattaŋ gahetvā vanitā gehaŋ āgatā hoti. Kassakena khettaŋ ānītā goṇā tiṇaŋ khādantā āhiṇḍiŋsu. 7. 5. Dhotāni vatthāni gahetvā bhariyā udakamhā uttari.The past participle is also formed from some roots by adding -na. pakka phuṭṭha āmasita. Exercise 19: 5. (dṛś) kujjhati pasīdati Verb Past Participle kuddha pasanna mutta muñcati 4. 17. Vanitāya dussena chādite āsane samaṇo nisīditvā sannipatitāya parisāya dhammaŋ desesi. Kassakehi uyyāne ropitesu rukkhesu phalāni bhaviŋsu. Dhammena laddhena dhanena putte posetvā jīvantā manussā devatāhi rakkhitā honti. 27 Verb harati dadāti (passati) Past Participle haṭa dinna diṭṭha. dhota vivaṭa cuta nikkhanta suta gahita patta ṭhita pg. 14. but from intransitive verbs they have an active meaning. 9. as -a ending nouns in the masculine and the neuter. āmaṭṭha āraddha bhuñjita. Therefore: manusso gato (hoti) = the man has gone (active meaning) pupphaŋ patitaŋ (hoti) = the flower has fallen (active meaning) kaññā ṭhitā (hoti) = the girl has stood (active meaning) 3. 10. Mayaŋ udakena āsittehi pupphehi Buddhaŋ pūjema We may worship the Buddha with flowers sprinkled with water. labhita bhūta vutta āsitta dhovita. .

Kassakehi khettesu vuttehi bījehi thokaŋ (little) sakuṇā khādiŋsu. The teacher having seen the evil deed done by the girl advised her. 23. 13. The children went out of the open door. 27. 3. Kumārehi rukkhamūle nilīyitvā sayanto sappo diṭṭho hoti. Ammāya pāpehi nivāritā puttā sappurisā hutvā dhammaŋ suṇanti. bhūmiyaŋ Plural bhūmī. bhūmiyo bhūmīhi. Sabhāyaŋ nisīditvā dārikāya gāyitaŋ gītaŋ sutvā kaññāyo modiŋsu. the girls quickly (sīghaŋ) ran home. You do not drag the branches cut by the farmer from the mountain.18. 20. 25. 29. seated at the door. 19. 26. I did not take the flowers and fruits brought by the girl from the forest 10. Kassake pīḷentā corā paṇḍitena anusāsitā sappurisā bhavituŋ vāyamantā upāsakehi saddhiŋ uyyāne rukkhe ropenti. Buddhas and their disciples are worshipped by gods and men. The woman who is scolded by the brahmin cries. 6. Bitten by the dog the girl ran home and cried. The women who got down to the water washed clothes and bathed. 2. 28 21. We did not light the lamps prepared by the women. Seated under the tree the girls played with sand. bhūmiyo bhūmī. Having discussed with the wise man the farmers sent a messenger to the king. Being chased by the dog. Translate into Pāli: 1. 16. The man who came to the assembly could not speak with the ministers. ground  Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative bhūmi bhūmi bhūmiŋ bhūmiyā bhūmiyā bhūmiyā bhūmiyā bhūmiyā. Seeing the hunter coming we hid among the trees. 24. 6. pg. 22. 4. The thieves who were instructed by the monk became good men. Ahaŋ pariyesitaŋ dhammaŋ adhigantvā modāmi. Vāṇijena dīpamhā āhaṭāni vatthāni kiṇituŋ vanitāyo icchanti. Amaccena nimantitā purisā sālāyaŋ nisīdituŋ asakkontā (unable) uyyāne sannipatiŋsu. (bhūmībhi) bhūmīhi. We prepared alms with faith and gave to the monks. 2. Do not ask for fruits from the boy sitting on the branch. 22. Corehi guhāyaŋ nilīyitāni bhaṇḍāni passitvā vānarā tāni (them) ādāya rukkhe āruhiŋsu. Vocabulary Feminine nouns ending in -i aɲguli finger doṇi asani iddhi boat thunderbolt psychic power aṭavi yuvati nāḷi sammajjani forest maiden unit of measure broom ratti yaṭṭhi rasmi night walking stick ray . 17. 5. Vanitā puttāya paṭiyāditamhā bhattamhā khudāya pīḷitassa yācakassa thokaŋ (little) datvā pānīyaŋ ca dadi / adāsi. Puttena yācitā ammā mittānaŋ odanaŋ paṭiyādesi. The men who tried to cut the creepers started pulling the branches. 12. 15. 29. the woman is angry. 14. 27. 8. The farmer who makes a living righteously. 7. 30. Amaccena puṭṭhaŋ pañhaŋ adhigantuŋ asakkonto corānaŋ dūto cintetuŋ ārabhi. The girl being called by the mother ran home to eat rice. 20. The minister is not known to the doctor. bhūmiyo bhūmī. 28. Declension of Feminine Nouns ending in -i Bhūmi = earth. Mothers prevent children from evil. 23. Lesson 20 1. 26. 18. I gave water to the dog oppressed with thirst. do not drink liquor. The merchant sold the clothes sewn by women. 25. 30. ploughing his fields experiences happiness with his wife and children. There were no fruits on the trees planted by the farmer. 19. 24. Sons. 28. Sace bhūpālo dhammena manusse rakkheyya te kammāni katvā dārake posentā sukhaŋ vindeyyuŋ. 9. 11. (bhūmībhi) bhūmīnaŋ bhūmīnaŋ bhūmīsu Feminine nouns ending in -ī are also similarly declined with the only exception being the nominative and vocative singular which end in-ī. Deities who have departed from the world of gods and are born in the human world rejoice listening to the dhamma preached by the Buddha. The king is seated in the chariot drawn by horses. Without getting the pay for the work done. The child ran to the shop taking the money given by the mother. 21.

The Present Participle (contd. e. 11. Kassakānaŋ gāviyo aṭaviyaŋ āhiṇḍitvā khettaŋ āgamiŋsu. 14. 2.) went to the river to bathe and got frightened hearing the peal of thunder (asanisaddaŋ). Saddhāya dānaŋ dadamānā kusalaŋ karontā sappurisā puna(again) manussaloke uppajjituŋ patthenti. e. 4. Lesson 21 1. It was learnt in Lesson 11 that -nta / -māna are added to the base of verbs which end in -a. 9.) This lesson is a continuation of Lesson 11 and should be studied together with that lesson.: kiṇā + nta = kiṇanta kiṇā + māna = kiṇamāna suṇā + nta = suṇanta suṇā + māna = suṇamāna Present participles ending in -nta occur more frequently in Pāli literature than those ending in -māna. Pāniyaŋ pivitvā dārikāya bhūmiyaŋ nikkhitto patto bhinno hoti.: core + nta = corenta coraya + māna = corayamāna With verbs whose base ends in -nā both -nta / -māna are generally added. Bhūpālo rājiniyā saddhiŋ nāvāya nadiŋ taranto udake carante macche olokento amaccehi saddhiŋ katheti. inform your mother.g. 12. You (pl. 9. If you spent money to buy clothes. The present participle feminine gender is formed by adding -ntī / -mānā to the verbal base. Kumāro suvaŋ hatthamhā muñcitvā taŋ uḍḍentaŋ passamāno rodanto rukkhamūle aṭṭhāsi.: paca + ntī = pacantī paca + mānā = pacamānā core + ntī = corentī coraya + mānā = corayamānā kiṇā + ntī = kiṇantī kiṇā + mānā = kiṇamānā Exercise 20 4. 2. -nta is usually added to the base ending in -e. Women and girls did not climb trees to pick fruits and flowers. 13. Yuvatiyā puṭṭhaŋ pañhaŋ vyākātuŋ asakkonto ahaŋ tāya (with her) saddhiŋ sallapituŋ ārabhiŋ. but the -nā is shortened to -na. 2. and -māna is added to the base ending in -aya. 6. Bhaginiyā saddhiŋ pokkharaṇiyā tīre (bank) ṭhatva so padumāni ocinituŋ vāyami. 5. 4.g. Nāriyo vāpīsu nahāyituŋ vā (or) vatthāni dhovituŋ vā na icchiŋsu. 7. Further it should be noted that with verbs whose base ends in -e / -aya. 8. There are lotuses and fishes in ponds in the king's park. Translate into English: 1. Send the lotuses wrapped in lotus leaves to the young girls seated in the hall. Rattiyā samuddasmiŋ patitā candassa rasmiyo oloketvā taruṇiyo modiŋsu.: paca + nta = pacanta paca + māna = pacamāna They are declined like -a ending nouns in these two genders. Kumāro mañjūsaŋ vivaritvā sāṭakaŋ nīharitvā ammāya pesesi.g. Translate into Pāli: pg. 3. 3. 7. 10. The young women picked lotuses from the tank and kept them on the ground. Upāsakā iddhiyā ākāse gacchantaŋ tāpasaŋ disvā pasannā honti. I saw the dog chasing the cow in the field. to form the present participle masculine and neutuer genders. 29 .g.) do not conceal the evil committed with your friends. Sappuriso amacco dhanaŋ vissajjetvā yācakānaŋ vasituŋ sālāyo gāmesu karitvā bhūpālaŋ ārocesi. 5. Mā tumhe magge sayantaŋ kukkuraŋ viheṭhetha. 6. 10. Bhaginiyā dussena veṭhetvā mañcasmiŋ ṭhapitaŋ bhaṇḍaŋ itthī mañjūsāyaŋ pakkhipi. 15. You (pl. 8. We can explain the questions asked by the women in the assembly. Asappurisassa puttena kataŋ pāpakammaŋ paṭicchādetuŋ ammā na ussahi. e.Feminine nouns ending in -ī nadī river bhaginī kadalī rājinī / devī 3. The queen spoke with her sisters who came having crossed the river by boat. 5. e. Verbs vyākaroti āroceti peseti viheṭheti sister banana queen nārī / itthī vāpī brāhmaṇī kumārī woman tank brahmin woman girl taruṇī pokkharaṇī gāvī young woman pond cow explains informs sends harasses pattheti muñcati paṭiccādeti aspires releases conceals vissajjeti nīhareti veṭheti spends takes out wraps 1.

Kaññā bhattaŋ pacantiyā ammāya udakaŋ deti. 19. sace kareyyātha manussalokamhā cavitvā dukkhaŋ vindissatha. Rathaŋ pājetuŋ (to drive) uggaṇhanto puriso dakkho (clever) rathācariyo pg. 23. Aṭaviŋ gantvā rukkhaŋ chinditvā sākhāyo ākaḍḍhantiyo itthiyo sigāle disvā bhāyiŋsu. 5. Pokkaraṇiyā tīre (bank) ṭhatvā kadaliphalaŋ khādantī kaññā bhaginiyā dinnaŋ padumaŋ gaṇhi. Gehassa chāyāya ṭhatvā dārikāya bhūmiyaŋ nikkhittaŋ odanaŋ sunakho khādituŋ ārabhi. Buddhassa sāvakena desitaŋ dhammaŋ sutvā yuvati saccaŋ adhigantuŋ icchantī ammāya saddhiŋ mantesi. 20. Examples in sentence formation Singular: Ammā bhattaŋ pacantī kaññāya saddhiŋ katheti. Sace tumhe sagge uppajjitvā modituŋ patthetha puññāni karotha. Kaññāyo bhattaŋ pacantiyo ammāyo passanti. 30 . Girls see mothers cooking rice. Declension of pacantī:   Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative pacantī pacantī pacantiŋ pacantiyā pacantiyā pacantiyā pacantiyā pacantiyā. 7. Plural: Bhattaŋ pacantiyo ammāyo kaññāhi saddhiŋ kathenti. When -mānā is added it is declined like feminine nouns ending in -ā. mā vatthaŋ kiṇāhi. Nāriyā pañjare (cage) pakkhittā sukā kadaliphalaŋ khādantā nisinnā honti. The girl gives water to the mother cooking rice. 18. Rattiyā gehā nikkhamituŋ bhāyantī kaññā dvāraŋ na vivari. Goṇaŋ viheṭhetuŋ na icchanto vāṇijo sakaṭamhā bhaṇḍāni nīharitva bhūmiyaŋ nikkhipitvā kassakaŋ ārocesi. Kassako chinnā sakhāyo khettamhā nīharitvā aṭaviyaŋ pakkhipi. pacantiyaŋ Plural pacantī. Rājinī nārīhi puṭṭhe pañhe vyakarontī sabhāyaŋ nisinnā parisaŋ āmantetvā kathaŋ kathesi. Cooking rice mothers speak with girls. 17. 4. Sace tumhe bhūpālassa dūtaŋ pesetha amacce pi ārocetha. 6. 8. 24. 27. 12. Translate into English: 1. 13. Saccaŋ ñātuŋ ussahantā brāhmaṇā sahāyakehi saha mantayiŋsu. Sāṭakena veṭhetvā nilīyitaŋ suvaṇṇaŋ passituŋ ākaɲkhamānā yuvati ovarakassa (room) dvāraŋ vivari. Kaññāyo bhattaŋ pacantīnaŋ ammānaŋ udakaŋ denti. 21. 26. 2. pacantiyo pacantīhi (pacantībhi) pacantīhi (pacantībhi) pacantīnaŋ pacantīnaŋ pacantīsu 3. Amhākaŋ (our) hatthapādesu vīsati (twenty) aɲguliyo santi. Aṭaviyaŋ viharantā migā ca goṇā ca varāhā ca sīhamhā bhāyanti. 15. 14. The girl sees the mother cooking rice. the present participle can be declined in all cases to agree in gender. Cooking rice the mother speaks with the girl. Pāpakammehi anubandhitā asappurisā corā niraye (purgatory) uppajjitvā dukkhaŋ vindanti. 10. Mā puññaŋ parivajjetvā pāpaŋ karotha. number and case with the nouns they qualify. Sace tvaŋ yaṭṭhiyā kukkuraŋ pahareyyāsi so ḍaseyya. pacantiyo pacantī. Khette phalāni corentī dārikā kassakaŋ disvā bhāyitvā dhāvituŋ ārabhi.When -ntī is added. 16. 9. Similarly. 28. 25. Asappuriso pāpakammāni paṭicchādetvā upāsakehi saddhiŋ sallapanto vihārasmiŋ āsane nisinno hoti. pacantiyo pacantī. Uḍḍente kāke disvā vālukāya ca udakena ca kīḷantī dārikā hasamānā dhāvi. Kaññā bhattaŋ pacantiŋ ammaŋ passati. Mayaŋ sappurisā bhavituŋ ākaɲkhamānā samaṇe upasaɲkamma dhammaŋ sutvā kusalaŋ kātuŋ ārabhimha. 11. Sayantaŋ sunakhaŋ āmasantī kumārī gehadvāre nisinnā hoti. Sace tvaŋ mulaŋ vissajjetuŋ iccheyyāsi. Gehadvāre nisīditvā dussaŋ sibbantī bhaginī gītaŋ gāyati. Exercise 21 4. the present participle feminine is declined like feminine nouns ending in -ī. Samaṇā saddhāya upāsakehi dinnaŋ bhuñjitvā saccaŋ adhigantuŋ vāyamantā sīlāni rakkhanti. 3. Rattiyā nikkhantā doṇi nadiŋ taritvā pabhāte (in the morning) dīpaŋ pāpuṇi. 22. 29. Girls give water to mothers cooking rice. Bhariyāya nāḷiyā mitaŋ dhaññaŋ ādāya kassako āpaṇaŋ gato hoti.

puññāni kātabbāni. Lesson 22 1. 14.bhavituŋ vāyami. 4. Migā pānīyaŋ udakaŋ pariyesantā aṭaviyaŋ āhiṇḍiŋsu. Dārikāya bhuñjitabbaŋ / bhojanīyaŋ odanaŋ ahaŋ na bhuñjissāmi. 21. 12. 19. 5.' pacati bhuñjati karoti pacitabba / pacanīya bhuñjitabba / bhojanīya kātabba / karaṇīya pg. Āpaṇesu ṭhapitāni vikkiṇitabbāni bhaṇḍāni kiṇituŋ te na icchiŋsu. 5. These participles are declined like a ending nouns in the masculine and neuter genders. te samaṇehi ca paṇḍitehi ca sappurisehi ca anusāsitabbā. You wish to do the work that should be done by the farmer. Mañjūsāyaŋ nikkhipitabbaŋ suvaṇṇaŋ mā mañcasmiŋ ṭhapehi. 8. 6. May the king and his ministers not oppress the people living in the island. Surā na pātabbā. 2. 23. Putting fruits and flowers in boxes sisters sat at the open door. 16. The girls laughed pulling the creeper from the tree. 6. 20. There is no (natthi) milk in the bowl of the crying child. I gave the box to the girl sitting in the shade of the tree. asappurisā tathā (likewise) na karonti. 8. Without wishing to harass the bird the woman released him from the cage (pañjara). Upāsakehi samaṇā vanditabbā honti. Exercise 22 3. saccaŋ adhigantabbaŋ hoti. 14. Goṇānaŋ dātabbāni tiṇāni kassako khettamhā āhari. Uyyāne ropitā rukkhā na chinditabbā honti. We see with our eyes the rays of the sun falling on the ground. Wishing to get profit the women sold garments in shops. The merchant brought horses to be sold to the farmers. 4. 7. -tabba is mostly added with the connecting vowel -i-. 3. Bhūpālassa uyyāne vasantā migā ca sakunā ca luddakehi na hantabbā honti. Translate into Pāli: 1. 7. The mother kept the (raw) rice which is to be cooked in the basket. Bhūpālena rakkhitabbaŋ dīpaŋ amaccā na sammā (well) pālenti. . Kumārīhi āhaṭāni pupphāni udakena āsiñcitabbāni honti. 10. 18. 31 2. Ammā khādanīyāni ca bhojanīyāni ca paṭiyādetvā dārakānaŋ deti. Asappurisā parivajjetabbā. Seated on the bed the girl drank the milk given by her mother. Translate into English: 1. 15. 2. 3. Sappurisā pūjanīye pūjenti. 20. sace piveyyātha tumhe gilānā bhavissatha. is formed by adding -tabba / -anīya to the base of the verb. 16. 30. Samaṇehi ovaditabbā kumārā vihāram na gamiŋsu. 3. Do not shoot the cows and deer roaming in the park. I will not eat the rice which should be eaten by the girl. At night people should light lamps. 9. 2. Unable (asakkoti) to pick the fruits from the tree the young girl called the farmer. 19. Vivaṭamhā dvāramhā nikkhantā kumārā pañjarehi muttā sakuṇā viya (like) uyyānaŋ dhāviŋsu. and like ā ending nouns in the feminine. Translate into Pāli: 1. 12. Hitting with a stick the woman killed the serpent entering the house. Kassakena kātabbaŋ / karaṇīyaŋ kammaŋ kātuŋ tvaŋ icchasi. Kusalaŋ ajānitvā pāpaŋ karontā kumārā na akkositabbā. 18. 11. If you will come out of water and protect the child I will step into the pond and bathe. Objects should be seen with eyes. sīlāni rakkhitabbāni. 10. They express ideas such as ‘must. Manussehi dānāni dātabbāni. Manussehi dhammo uggaṇhitabbo.' ‘should be' and ‘fit to be. 25. Being chased by the hunter and his dogs the deer ran into the forest. 5. mā tumhe tehi saddhiŋ (with them) gāme āhiṇḍatha. tastes (rasāni) should be enjoyed with the tongue. 13. 24. the king and queen will get angry. Upāsakena puṭṭho pañho paṇḍitena vyākātabbo hoti. Dhammena jīvantā manussā devehi rakkhitabbā honti. The girls who were singing under the tree started dancing. 9. 13. Dhotabbāni dussāni gahetvā yuvatiyo hasamānā pokkharaṇiŋ otariŋsu. Tumhe bhūpālā amaccehi ca paṇḍitehi ca samaṇehi ca anusāsitabbā hotha. They who oppress women and children are wicked men. 15. 11. 4. Kassakena kasitabbaŋ khettaŋ vikkiṇituŋ vāṇijo ussahi. In order to buy oil (tela) to light lamps the boy went from shop to shop. Darikāya dātuŋ phalāni āpaṇāya vā (or) khettamhā vā āharitabbāni honti. The Future Passive Participle The future passive participle or the potential participle as it is sometimes called. 17. Taking the pots (ghaṭe) and talking the women went to the river to bring water. We got angry with the women committing evil and left the hall. Corena gahitaŋ bhaginiyā dhanaŋ pariyesitabbaŋ hoti. Examples in sentence formation Ammā pacitabbaŋ / pacanīyaŋ taṇḍulaŋ (raw rice) piṭake ṭhapesi. Kathetabbaŋ vā akathetabbaŋ* vā ajānanto asappuriso mā sabhāyaŋ nisīdatu. 22. 17. I gave rice to the starving dogs walking on the road.

2. Sappurisena kārāpitesu vihāresu samaṇā vasanti. Bhūpālo samaṇe ca yācake ca bhojāpesi. 20. Lesson 23 1. pacati pāceti / pācayati / pacāpeti / pācāpayati bhuñjati bhojeti / bhojāpeti coreti corāpeti / corāpayati kināti kiṇāpeti / kiṇāpayati karoti kāreti / kārāpayati dadāti / deti dāpeti / dāpayati In sentences with causative verbs the agent carrying out the action is expressed by the accusative or the instrumental case. Vāṇijā assehi bhaṇḍāni gāhāpetva vikkiṇituŋ nagaraŋ gamiŋsu. People in the island should be protected by the king and his ministers. Ammā samaṇehi asappurise putte anusāsāpesi. 6. The farmer caused the tree to fall into the pit. The thief ran having got a friend to steal a saw. Coro mittena kakacaŋ corāpetvā vanaŋ dhāvi. 4. Brāhmaṇo coraŋ / corena saccaŋ bhāsāpetuŋ vāyami. The brahmin tried to make the thief speak the truth. Upāsakā amaccena samaṇānaŋ vihāraŋ kārāpesuŋ. Ammā puttena gehaŋ āgataŋ samaṇaŋ vandāpesi. Bhariyāya kātabbaŋ kammaŋ ahaŋ karomi. Flowers should not be picked by men walking in the park. The wicked man gets his sons to shoot birds. 9. 7. Mother gets the sister to cook rice. Ammā dārikaŋ khīraŋ pāyetvā mañce sayāpesi. Examples in sentence formation Ammā bhaginiŋ bhattaŋ pacāpeti. The corn should be measured by the farmer with his wife. Kaññāhi āhaṭāni pupphāni vanitāyo āsiñcāpesuŋ. 17. Vāṇijo kassakena rukkhe chindāpetvā / chedāpetvā sakaṭena nagaraŋ netvā vikkiṇi. Women get their children to honour the Buddha's disciples. 3. Amacco vāṇije ca kassake ca pakkosāpetvā pucchissati. 6. The lions sleeping in the caves should not be approached by men. Upāsakā samaṇe āsanesu nisīdāpetvā bhojāpesuŋ. 14. Yuvati bhaginiyā ācariyassa mūlaŋ dāpetvā sippaŋ uggaṇhi. The dog should not be hit with sticks and stones. Vanitā sahāyakena rukkhassa sākhāyo ākaḍḍhāpetvā gehaŋ nesi. Samaṇo upāsake sannipātāpetvā dhammaŋ desesi. 16. The king got his ministers to build a monastery. Lay devotees got the minister to build a monastery for the monks. 10. Luddako tuṇḍena phalaŋ ocinituŋ vāyamantaŋ suvaŋ sarena vijjhi. The young woman will get her sister to speak at the assembly. Grass and water should be given to oxen and goats. The mother's clothes should be washed by the girl. 9. Tumhe manusse pīḷente core āmantāpetvā ovadatha. You (pl. 4. 32 . Vejjo puttena āpaṇamhā khīraŋ kiṇāpesi. 3. 6. 2. 15. Bhaginī bhinnapattassa khaṇḍāni (pieces) āmasantī rodantī gehadvāre aṭṭhāsi. 9. 5. 5. Udakaŋ āharituŋ gacchantiyo nāriyo sallapantiyo rukkhamūlesu patitāni kusumāni oloketvā modiŋsu. The doctor got his son to buy milk from the market. Men should not do evil. Translate into English: 1. 8.) will get the flowers sprinkled with water. The brahmin got the Buddha's disciple to preach to his people. The assembly should be addressed by the teacher's sister. 8. 8. Sometimes the vowel in the root is strengthened when the suffixes are added. The merchant got his wife to put the goods in boxes. Exercise 23 3. Brāhmaṇo ācāriyena kumāriŋ dhammaŋ uggaṇhāpesi. Translate into Pāli: 1. pg. The king fed the recluses and beggars. 7. 10. Dārikā sunakhaŋ pokkharaṇiŋ otarāpesi.4. 5. The queen will live in the palace which the king got built. 18. The lay devotees will get the monk to preach the doctrine. 2. Verbal bases ending in -e / -aya invariably take the suffixes -ape / -āpaya to form the causative. Mātulo kumārehi pupphāni ca phalāni ca ocināpesi. The Causative Causative verbs are formed by adding -e / -aya / -āpe / -āpaya to the root or verbal base. 13. 12. The maiden got the sister to give money to the teacher and learnt an art. 7. 10. 19. 12. 4. 11. Luddako mittena migaŋ vijjhitvā mārāpesi. 11.

Tumhe vijjuyā ālokena guhāyam sayantam sīhaŋ passittha. Ahaŋ rukkhassa chāyāyaŋ nisinnānaŋ dhenūnaŋ ca goṇānaŋ ca tiṇāni adadiŋ / adāsiŋ. May virtue and wisdom illuminate the minds of men in the world. 7. 11. creates spreads pg. 9. dhenuyo dhenū. 12. closes illuminates divides. Vadhū khette kāsūsu patitāni phalāni saŋhari. 6. Sappurisena kiṇitvā āhaṭehi bhaṇḍehi chaḍḍetabbaŋ natthi. Yuvatiyā hattesu ca aṇgulīsu ca daddu atthi. 10. dhenuyo dhenūhi. dhenuyo dhenū. 5. 2. element. 17. 10. 5. You (pl. Brāhmaṇo Buddhassa dhātuyo vibhajitvā bhūpālānaŋ adadi / adāsi. 25.Aṭavīsu vasantiyo kaṇeruyo sākhāyo bhañjitvā khādanti. 3. Vadhū sassuyā pāde vandi. Itthī yuvatiyā bhattaŋ pacāpetvā dārikānaŋ thokaŋ thokaŋ vibhaji. 14. 20. 6. 2. (dhenūbhi) dhenūnaŋ dhenūnaŋ dhenūsu 2. (dhenūbhi) dhenūhi. 4. The woman tied the cow with a rope and brought it to the field. 15. 13.Lesson 24 1. Mayaŋ aṭaviyaŋ carantiyo kaṇeruyo apassimha. The rays of the sun illuminate the world. Some nouns similarly declined are as follows: yāgu rajju dhātu gruel rope kāsu daddu pit eczema mother-inlaw vijju kaṇeru vadhu lightning cow-elephant daughter-inlaw Exercise 24 4. Translate into English: 1. Ammā asappurise bhajamāne putte samaṇehi ovādāpesi. Mā tumhe gāme vasante kassake vihiŋsatha. Vadhū sassuyā dhenuŋ rajjuyā bandhitvā khettaŋ nesi. 4. I looked at the girls crossing the river by boat. Declension of Feminine Nouns ending in -u Dhenu cow  Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative dhenu dhenu dhenuŋ dhenuyā dhenuyā dhenuyā dhenuyā dhenuyā. Devatāyo sakalaŋ (entire) vihāraŋ obhāsentiyo Buddhaŋ upasaɲkamiŋsu. The mother took the gold kept in the box and gave it to the daughter. Vocabulary Verbs thaketi obhāseti vibhajati vihiŋsati shuts. The daughter-in-law went to Anurādhapura with the mother-in-law to honour the relics of the Buddha. 18.) go to the field and bring the corn home. Itthī magge gacchantiŋ ammaŋ passitvā rathamhā oruyha taŋ vanditvā rathasmiŋ āropetvā gehaŋ nesi. 7. 16. distributes harms nāseti bhajati bhañjati chaḍḍeti destroys keeps company breaks throws sammajjati bandhati māpeti pattharati sweeps ties builds. 8. I will plant trees. If you dig holes. Translate into Pāli: 1. Young women pulled the branches fallen in the pit. Yuvatiyā geham sammajjitabbaŋ hoti. 8. Bhūpālo manusse vihiŋsante core nāsetvā dipaŋ pālesi. 9. relic sassu 3. 11. Cow-elephants wandered in the forest eating plantain trees. dhenuyaŋ Plural dhenū. Singing songs the sisters went to the tank to bathe. The daughter-in-law honoured the gods with garlands and fruits. Vadhū gehassa dvāram thaketvā nahāyituŋ nadiŋ upasaɲkamitvā yuvatīhi saddhiŋ sallapantī nadiyā tīre aṭṭhāsi. 3. 12. 33 . 19. Ammā yāguŋ pacitvā dārakānaŋ datvā mañce nisīdi. Yuvatiyā hatthesu kumārehi dinnā mālāyo santi.

Gahapatīhi munayo ca atithayo ca bhojetabbā honti. Bhūpatinā kattabbāni kammāni adhipatayo na karissanti. Mayaŋ locanehi rūpāni passāma. 32. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -i Aggi fire Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative aggi aggi aggiŋ agginā agginā / aggimhā / aggismā aggino / aggissa aggino / aggissa aggimhi / aggismiŋ Plural aggī / aggayo aggī / aggayo aggī / aggayo aggīhi (aggībhi) aggīhi (aggībhi) aggīnaŋ aggīnaŋ aggīsu   2. Muni saccaŋ adhigantvā manussānaŋ dhammaŋ desetuŋ pabbatamhā oruyha gāme vihāre vasati. 18. Munayo sīlaŋ rakkhantā girimhi guhāsu vasiŋsu 2. Uyyāne āhiṇḍitvā tiṇaŋ khādantiyo gāviyo ca goṇā ca ajā ca aṭaviŋ pavisitvā dīpiŋ disvā bhāyiŋsu. Te aṭaviyā āhiṇḍantiyo gāviyo rajjūhi bandhitvā khettam ānesuŋ. Ammā mañjūsāya pakkhipitvā rakkhite maṇayo dārikāya ca vadhuyā ca adadi / adāsi. 7. 24. Rajjuyā bandhitā gāvī tattha tattha (here and there) āhiṇḍfituŋ asakkontī rukkhamūle tiṇaŋ khādati. 3. 34 6. Adhipati atithiŋ khādanīyehi ca bhojanīyehi ca bhojāpesi. Devī parisāya saha sabhāyaŋ nisinnā hoti. 16. 26. 4. 22. Gahapatīhi puṭṭho isi pañhe vyākari. 9. Gahapatayo pañhe pucchituŋ ākaɲkhamānā isiŋ upasaɲkamiŋsu. 35. Gītaŋ gāyantī yuvati gāviŋ upasaɲkamma khīraŋ duhituŋ (to milk) ārabhi. Bhariyā vyādhinā pīḷitassa patino hatthaŋ āmasantī taŋ (him) samassāsesi (comforted). 33. Mayaŋ kaññāyo dhammasālaŋ sammajjitvā kilañjāsu (on mats) nisīditvā dhammaŋ suṇimha. 36. Bhūpatino muṭṭhimhi maṇayo bhavanti. Atithīnaŋ odanaŋ pacantī itthī aggiŋ jālesi. 12. Nāriyā dhotāni vatthāni gaṇhante kapayo disvā kumārā pāsāṇehi te (them) pahariŋsu. Ari kavino soṇaŋ yaṭṭhiyā paharitvā dhāvi.Lesson 25 1. Vyādhinā pīḷito naro mañce sayati. 23. Bhūpati asinā ariŋ paharitvā māresi. jivhāya rasaŋ sādiyāma (we taste) 34. 25. hammer ari gahapati vyādhi vīhi dīpi maṇi pāṇi enemy householder illness paddy leopard gem hand Exercise 25 3. sotehi (with ears) saddaŋ (sound) suṇāma. 31. 28. 39. 10. 21. 8. 15. Sappurisā gahapatayo bhariyāhi ca puttehi ca gehesu vasantā sukhaŋ vindanti. Pati bhariyāya paṭiyāditaŋ odanaŋ bhuñjitvā khettaŋ agami. 29. 5. Tvaŋ girimhi vasante dīpayo oloketuŋ luddakena saha giriŋ āruhasi. Gahapati coraŋ gīvāya gahetvā pādena kucchiŋ pahari. 13. Dārikā girimhā udentaŋ raviŋ olokentī hasanti. leader ocean monkey sun sword belly kavi pati atithi nidhi ahi giri rāsi muṭṭhi poet husband. Nidhiŋ pariyesanto adhipati sahāyakehi saddhiŋ dīpaŋ agacchi. 20. 27. 19. Gahapati atithinā saddhiŋ sallapanto sālāya nisinno hoti. 30. Yadi tumhe bhūpatiŋ upasankameyyātha mayaŋ rathaŋ paṭiyādessāma. 17. Translate into English: 1. Nāriyo patīhi saddhiŋ udadhiŋ gantvā nahāyituŋ ārabhiŋsu. Munīhi pariyesitabbaŋ dhammaŋ aham pi uggaṇhituŋ icchāmi. Masculine nouns ending in -i muni / isi bhūpati adhipati udadhi kapi ravi asi kucchi sage king lord. pg. Devī bhūpatinā saddhiŋ rathena gacchantī anatarāmagge (on the way) kasante . Kavi patinā dinnaŋ maṇiŋ pāṇinā gaṇhi. Buddhassa dhātuyo vandituŋ mayaŋ vihāraŋ gamimha. Sakuṇehi katāni kulāvakāni (nests) mā tumhe bhindatha. Ahaŋ dīpaŋ jāletvā udakena āsittāni padumāni Buddhassa pūjemi. 38. 14. 11. master guest (hidden) treasure serpent mountain heap fist. Gahapati vīhīnaŋ rāsiŋ minanto bhariyāya saddhiŋ kathesi. Ācariyena saddhiŋ viharanto kavi isi hoti. 37.

The rest agrees with it. I washed the clothes which were to be washed by the wife. 11. 10. If you dig up the treasure you will get gems. 5. 19. I will sell them (tāni) to farmers. Sicknesses oppress people living in the world. 20. Lesson 26 1. husband seṭṭhī minister tusker carpenter evil doer sikhī dīghajīvī sārathī banker peacock one with long life charioteer powerful one vaḍḍhakī leper pāpakārī pg. 2. 13. There are gems and gold in the boxes in my mother's house. The householder hit with a sword the thief who entered the house. Mā tuhme akusalaŋ karotha. 3. 9. sages and poets are honoured by virtuous men. 17. The husbands brought gems from the island for their wives. Do not cut branches of the trees planted in the park. sace kareyyātha sukhaŋ vindituŋ na labhissatha. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -ī Pakkhī bird Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative pakkhī pakkhī pakkhinaŋ / pakkhiŋ pakkhinā pakkhinā / pakkhimhā / pakkhismā pakkhino / pakkhissa pakkhino / pakkhissa pakkhini / pakkhimhi / pakkhismiŋ Plural pakkhī / pakkhino pakkhī / pakkhino pakkhī / pakkhino pakkhīhi (pakkhībhi) pakkhīhi (pakkhībhi) pakkhīnaŋ pakkhīnaŋ pakkhīsu It should be noted that this declension differs from the aggi declension only in the nominative.kassake passi. 12. serpents move on the ground. 15. The sage preached the doctrine to the king's retinue seated on the ground. Masculine nouns ending in -ī hatthī / karī sukhī pāṇī balī kuṭṭhī elephant one who is happy living being sāmī mantī dāṭhī lord. if you do merit you will experience happiness. 35 . We drank the gruel which was prepared by our mother. We did not see sages crossing the river through psychic power. Sitting on the ground the woman measured paddy with a nāḷi. You kindle the fire to cook rice and gruel for the guests coming from the city. 40. O wicked man. Monkeys dwell on trees. the only exception being pakkhini in the locative singular. We will get the treasure which is protected by the leader. 4. for which there is no corresponding form in the aggi declension. Recluses. Being released from the cage the birds flew into the sky. lions sleep in caves. If you buy goods from the city and bring. Translate into Pāli: 1. 14. vocative and accusative cases. 6. 7. 4. 16. 18. 8. Householders who do evil do not worship sages. 2. The young girl gave grass to the cows standing in the shade of the tree.

Sārathinā āhaṭe rathe vaḍḍhakī nisinno hoti. 8. 3. viduno vidū. Balinā bhūpatino dinnaŋ kariŋ oloketuŋ tumhe sannipatittha. Pakkhī gāyanto sākhāyaŋ nisīdati. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -ū Vidū wise man Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative vidū vidū viduŋ Plural vidū. Mayaŋ maṇayo vatthena veṭhetvā mañjūsāyaŋ nikkhipitvā bhariyānaŋ pesayimha. 11. viduno vidū. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -u Garu = Teacher Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative garu garu garuŋ garunā garunā garuno. Ammā vaḍḍhakinā gehaŋ kārāpetvā dārikāhi saha tattha (there) vasi. Asanisaddaŋ (sound of thunder) sutvā girimhi sikhino naccituŋ ārabhiŋsu. pg. Kaññāyo sabhāyaŋ naccantiyo gāyiŋsu. 23. 10. 7. Vāṇijo nagaramhā bhaṇḍāni kiṇitvā piṭakesu pakkhipitvā rajjuyā bandhitvā āpaṇaŋ pesesi. the girls will become angry and will not sing. 4. garusmiŋ Plural garū. Pāpakārī pāpāni paṭicchādetvā sappuriso viya (like) sabhāyaŋ nisinno seṭṭhinā saddhiŋ kathesi. garavo garū. kaviŋ paharituŋ asakkonto ari kuddho ahosi. 6. Leopards living in the forest do not fear lions living in the caves. Singing a song. Seṭṭhī mahantaŋ (much) dhanaŋ vissajjetvā samaṇānaŋ vihāraŋ kārāpesi. 9. Kapayo rukkhesu carantā pupphāni ca chindiŋsu. 21. 4. 5. Mothers with their daughters spread lotuses on the flower altar (pupphāsane). Mā balino pāpakārī hontu / bhavantu. 8. Bhūpati sappuriso abhavi / ahosi. garavo garū. Translate into Pāli: 1. 2. 10. the boys danced with the girls in the hall. Muni pāpakāriŋ pakkosāpetvā dhammaŋ desetvā ovadi. puttā sukhino bhavantu. 17. Balinā kārāpitesu pāsādesu seṭṭhino puttā na vasiŋsu. 36 9. Kavi asinā ariŋ pahari. garussa garuno. Gāviŋ rajjuyā muñcamānā ammā khette ṭhitā hoti. 13. garussa garumhi. Masculine nouns ending in -u bhikkhu bahu pasu veḷu setu monk arm beast bamboo bridge bandhu sindhu ākhu kaṭacchu ketu relation sea rat spoon banner taru pharasu ucchu sattu susu tree axe sugar cane enemy young one 3. Sappurisā kusalaŋ karontā. 2. 24. 18. 6. viduno The rest is similar to the garu declension. Sappurisā dīghajīvino hontu. Translate into English: 1. Sabbe pāṇino sukhaŋ pariyesamānā jīvanti. kammāni karonti. Sace girimhi sikhino vasanti. Followed by the evil hunter the elephants ran in the forest. mantino pāpakārino abhaviŋsu / ahesuŋ. 14. The leper took the garments given by the husband. 20. . If the boys drink liquor. 15. 19. The banker got the carpenter to build a mansion for his sons. 3. sukhino bhavanti.) who harassed the cows grazing in the field. 25. manussehi puññaŋ kārentā. May all (sabbe) living beings live long happily. te (them) passituŋ ahaŋ giriŋ āruhituŋ ussahissāmi. Hatthino ca kaṇeruyo ca aṭaviyaŋ āhiṇḍanti. 12. 5. 16.Exercise 26 3. 22. The farmer got angry with the evil doer (use gen. Sāmī maṇayo ca suvaṇṇaŋ ca kiṇitvā bhariyāya adadi / adāsi. Ahaŋ seṭṭhī kuṭṭhiŋ pakkosāpetvā bhojanaŋ (food) dāpesiŋ. Lesson 27 1. garavo garūhi (garūbhi) garūhi (garūbhi) garūnaŋ garūnaŋ garūsu 2. 4. 7. May the deities protect the good king governing the island righteously. Sabbe (all) pāṇino dīghajīvino na bhavanti / honti.

Ammā kaṭacchunā dārikaŋ odanaŋ bhojāpesi. 10. satthūhi satthārehi. men and beasts living in the island. 8. Wise men became eminent people. Mattaññū sappurisā dīghajīvino ca sukhino ca bhaveyyuŋ. Ahayo ākhavo khādantā aṭaviyā vammikesu (anthills) vasanti. Sappurisā viññuno bhavanti. satthuno. Vanitāya sassu bhaginiyā ucchavo ca padumāni ca adadi / adāsi. pg. They express the agent or a relationship. 15. Masculine nouns ending in -ū pabhū vadaññū eminent person philanthropist sabbaññū omniscient one atthaññū benevolent man viññū mattaññū wise man moderate or abstemious man 6. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -u / -ar Some masculine nouns have two bases ending in -u and -ar. satthūsu Exercise 27 5. 17. Bhūpatissa mantino sattūnaŋ ketavo āhariŋsu. 9. 11. Bhūpati mantīhi saddhiŋ sindhuŋ taritvā sattavo paharitvā jinituŋ ussahi. vidusmiŋ Plural vidūhi (vidūbhi) vidūhi (vidūbhi) vidūnaŋ vidūnaŋ vidūsu 4. 5. The teacher sent sugar-cane to the tuskers' young ones. Lesson 28 1. Translate into Pāli: 1. sattha satthāraŋ satthārā satthārā satthu.. 3. brahmins. 18. The trees cut by the enemy fell into the sea. Ahaŋ dhammaŋ desentaŋ bhikkhuŋ jānāmi. 2. 7. Sīhā ca dīpayo ca aṭaviyaŋ vasante pasavo māretvā khādanti. With the fist the mother hit the dog which was trying to bite the girl. he who admonishes)  Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative satthā satthā. 4. 16. Mayaŋ ravino ālokena ākāse uḍḍente pakkhino passituŋ sakkoma. 6. satthūhi satthārānaŋ. Tumhe pabhuno hutvā dhammena jīvituŋ vāyameyyātha.Singular Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative vidunā vidunā viduno. 37 . The monk was a relation of the king who rules the island. You shall not cut bamboos with axes. Satthu / satthar teacher (lit. Translate into English: 1. Kings protect recluses. 12. King's ministers tied banners on the bridge and on trees. 4. vidussa vidumhi. Uyyāne ropitesu veḷūsu pakkhino nisīditvā gāyanti. 19. Seeing a monkey trying to enter the house the husband closed the door. satthuno. Hatthino ca kaṇeruyo ca ucchavo ākaḍḍhitvā khādiŋsu. 6. Mother's sister killed a rat with a bamboo. The beasts fed the young ones with rats. Sabbaññū Tathāgato dhammena manusse anusāsati. 8. Bandhavo ammaŋ passituŋ nagaramhā gāmaŋ āgamiŋsu. 14. Crossing the bridge the enemy has entered the island. 2. 20. Sace pabhuno atthaññū honti manussā sukhino gāme viharituŋ sakkonti. Coro āraññe taravo chindituŋ pharasuŋ ādāya gacchi / agami. satthussa satthu. 11. 10. 13. satthūnaŋ satthāresu. satthussa satthari Plural satthāro satthāro satthāro satthārehi. 9. Setumhi nisinno bandhu taruno sākhaŋ hatthena ākaḍḍhi. satthūnaŋ satthārānaŋ. you may with saws. 5. 12. vidussa viduno. Viññūhi anusāsitā mayaŋ kumārā sappurisā bhavituŋ ussahimha. Bhikkhavo Tathāgatassa sāvakā honti. 3. 7.

māte mātaraŋ mātarā. Feminine nouns expressing relationships are declined as follows: Mātu / Mātar = mother Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative mātā mātā.mātānaŋ mātaresu. bhātuno bhātussa bhātari Plural bhātaro bhātaro bhātaro bhātarehi. mātāya mātu. 3. mātuyā. mātūnaŋ. pitūhi pitarānaŋ pitūnaŋ pitaresu. Some words similarly declined are as follows: kattu dātu jetu bhattu doer giver victor husband gantu netu vinetu nattu goer leader grandson sotu vattu hearer sayer knower Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative Bhātu / bhātar = brother Singular bhātā bhātā. mātuyaŋ Plural mātaro mātaro mātaro mātarehi. mātuyā. as in Sanskrit. mātūhi mātarānaŋ. pitūsu 4.bhātūsu disciplinarian viññātu N. bhāta bhātaraŋ bhātarā bhātarā bhātu. mātūsu pg.mātānaŋ mātarānaŋ.bhātūhi bhātarehi.B. māta. pituno pitussa pitari Plural pitaro pitaro pitaro pitarehi. 38 . mātāya mātari.2. mātūhi mātarehi. and bhātu (brother) are declined somewhat differently as follows: Pitu / pitar = father Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative pitā pitā. mātūnaŋ. mātuyā mātarā. Masculine nouns expressing relationships such as pitu (father). Though bhattu and nattu are nouns expressing relationships they are declined like agent nouns such as satthā. pitūhi pitarehi. pita pitaraŋ pitarā pitarā pitu.bhātūhi bhātarānaŋ bhātūnaŋ bhātaresu. mātuyā mātu. mātuyā.

13. Netuno kathaŋ sotāro uyyāne nisinnā suriyena pīḷitā honti. 12. 11. 5. aṭṭhissa aṭṭhino. 23. 2. Gehesu ca aṭavīsu ca vasante ākhavo ahayo khādanti. 19. Mattaññū dātā nattārānaŋ thokaŋ thokaŋ modake (sweets) dadiŋsu / adaŋsu. 12. 10. 17. Sindhuŋ taritvā dīpaŋ gantāro sattūhi hatā honti. Dīpaŋ gantārehi nāvāya sindhu taritabbo hoti. 4. Satthā bhikkhūnaŋ dhammaŋ desento rukkhassa chāyāya nisinno hoti. Bhātā pitarā saddhiŋ mātuyā pacitaŋ yāguŋ bhuñji. aṭṭhimhi. Vinetuno ovādaŋ (advice) sutvā bandhavo sappurisā abhaviŋsu / ahesuŋ. vocative and accusative cases. Pubbakā (ancient) isayo mantānaŋ (magic spells) kattāro ca mantānaŋ pavattāro (reciters) ca abhaviŋsu / ahesuŋ. 20. aṭṭhīni aṭṭhīhi. Sace satthā dhammaŋ deseyya viññātāro bhavissanti. Puññāni kattāro bhikkhūnaŋ ca tāpasānaŋ ca dānaŋ denti. Sārathinā āhaṭe veḷavo gahetvā vaḍḍhakī sālaŋ māpesi. Bhariyā bhattu sāṭake rajakena dhovāpesi. aṭṭhissa aṭṭhini. 6. 6. Bhūpati dīpasmiŋ jetā bhavatu. 4. Translate into Pāli: 1. Nattā mātaraŋ yāguŋ yācanto bhūmiyaŋ patitvā rodati. 39 11. Lesson 29 1. The Buddha is the teacher of gods and men. May the king. 9. 22. 16. Bhattā nattārehi saha kīḷantaŋ kapiŋ disvā hasanto aṭṭhāsi (stood). 25. 24. Dātārehi dinnāni vatthāni yācakehi na vikkiṇitabbāni honti. The enemies of my brothers tied banners on trees and bamboos. 2. Father and mother went with the brother to see the sister. cakkhūni cakkhū. Rodantassa nattussa kujjhitvā vanitā taŋ (him) hatthena pahari. aṭṭhīni aṭṭhī. (aṭṭhībhi) aṭṭhīnaŋ aṭṭhīnaŋ aṭṭhīsu N. 6.B. aṭṭhismiŋ Plural aṭṭhī. Neuter nouns ending in -i vāri dadhi water curds akkhi acci eye flame sappi satthi ghee thigh 3. The house builder gave bamboos to the grandsons. Setuŋ kattāro veḷavo bandhitvā nadiyā tīre ṭhapesuŋ. 5. Translate into English: 1. Evil doers will not live long happily. Vadaññū brāhmaṇo khudāya pīḷente yācake disvā pahūtaŋ (much) bhojanaŋ (food) dāpesi. Tumhe bhātarānaŋ ca bhaginīnaŋ ca mā kujjhatha. 8. Atthaññū netāro manusse sappurise karontā vinetāro bhavanti. . become victorious. May you (pl. cakkhūni The rest is similar to the garu declension. seed Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative aṭṭhi aṭṭhi aṭṭhiŋ aṭṭhinā aṭṭhinā aṭṭhino. Let good men become powerful ministers to govern the island. 2. 7. 8. (aṭṭhībhi) aṭṭhīhi. Mātā dhītaraŋ ovadantī sīsaŋ (head) cumbitvā (kissed) bāhuŋ āmasitvā samassāsesi. This declension is similar to the aggi declension except in the nominative. 3. 3. 21. pg. aṭṭhīni aṭṭhī. together with his retinue. cakkhūni cakkhū. 15. Mother's brother is the uncle. 18. 7.Exercise 28 5.) be speakers of the truth. 14. Declension of Neuter nouns ending in -i Aṭṭhi = bone. Brother gave food to (my) daughter with a spoon. 10. Pitā dhītaraŋ ādāya vihāraŋ gantvā satthāraŋ vandāpesi. Viññātāro loke manussānaŋ netāro hontu / bhavantu. Good husbands are kind (kāruṇikā) to their wives like gods. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -u Cakkhu = eye Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative cakkhu cakkhu cakkhuŋ Plural cakkhū. 9. The powerful kings were victorious.

12. 21. becomes ordained follows vippakirati pattheti teaches sammisseti mixes defeats fulfils. Translate into English: 1. Nattā hatthehi ca jaṇṇūhi ca gacchantaŋ yācakaŋ disvā anukampamāno bhojanaŋ ca vatthaŋ ca dāpesi. Translate into Pāli: 1. 10. Pitarā puṭṭhaŋ pañhaŋ bhattā sammā (correctly) vibhajitvā upamāya (with a smile) atthaŋ vyākari / vyākāsi. Mayaŋ khīramhā dadhiŋ labhāma. pg. Nadiyā vārinā vatthāni dhovanto pitā nahāpetuŋ puttaŋ pakkosi. Bhattā mātuyā akkhīsu assūni disvā bhariyāya kujjhi. Tvaŋ sappinā ca madhunā ca sammissetvā odanaŋ bhuñjissasi. 16. hopes samijjhati sheds tears vibhajati (assūni) sets in motion pavatteti Exercise 29 6. 23. 11. chakkhussa chakkhumhi. 2. Bhikkhu dīpassa acciŋ olokento aniccasaññaŋ (perception of impermanence) vaḍḍhento (developing) nisīdi. 8. Dārūni saŋharantiyo itthiyo aṭaviyaŋ āhiṇḍantī gāyiŋsu. 2. Gehaŋ pavisantaŋ ahiŋ disvā kaññā bhāyitvā assūni pavattentī rodituŋ ārabhi. 22. Dhaññaŋ khādantā migā āgacchantaŋ luddakaŋ disvā vegena (speedily) dhāvimsu. 40 . Pitā khettavatthūni puttānaŋ ca nattārānaŋ ca vibhajitvā vihāraŋ gantvā pabbaji. Ambūmhi jātāni padumāni na ambunā upalittāni (smeared) honti. You (pl. Ācariyo sissānaŋ (pupils) sippaŋ (art) vācento te anukampamāno dhammena jīvituŋ anusāsi. Pakkhīhi khāditānaŋ phalānaŋ aṭṭhīni rukkhamūle patitāni honti. 17. Sattu amaccassa satthiŋ asīnā paharitvā aṭṭhiŋ chindi. 19. Bodhisatto samaṇo māraŋ (the evil one) parājetvā Buddho bhavi / ahosi. analyses scatters. 14. Dīpinā hatāya gāviyā aṭṭhīni bhūmiyaŋ vippakiṇṇāni honti.Singular Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative cakkhunā cakkhunā chakkhuno. 13. Pāpakāri luddako dhanuŋ ca sare ca ādāya aṭaviŋ paviṭṭho. Vocabulary Verbs anukampati pabbajati anugacchati pavatteti feels vāceti compassionate renounces. chakkhusmiŋ Plural chakkhūhi (chakkhūbhi) chakkhūhi (chakkhūbhi) chakkhūnaŋ chakkhūnaŋ chakkhūsu 4. Mātaraŋ anukampamānā dhītā khippaŋ (soon) yāguŋ paṭiyādetvā mātuyā mukhaŋ (face) dhovitvā yāguŋ pāyesi. 20.) will bathe in the river water. 5. estate grandson 5. chakkhussa chakkhuno. succeeds distributes. He saw the bones of the animals killed by the leopard in the forest. (pp. 24. 9. base. 18. 3. Luddako aṭaviyā bhūmiyaŋ dhaññaŋ vippakiritvā mige palobhetvā (tempting) māretuŋ ussahi. Vyādhinā pīḷitā mātā assūni pavattentī dhītuyā gehaŋ āgantvā mañce sayitvā yāguŋ yāci. 15. Manussā nānākammāni (various work) katvā vasuŋ saŋharitvā puttadāre (children and wife) posetuŋ ussahanti. 7. Sace sappurisānaŋ sabbā patthanā (fem. Neuter nouns ending in -u dhanu jāṇu / jaṇṇu vasu bhattu bow knee wealth husband madhu dāru vatthu nattu honey firewood assu ambu tear water knower ground. 6. 25. parājeti vippakiṇṇa) aspires. 7. Buddhaŋ passitvā dhammaŋ sotuŋ patthentā narā dhammaŋ carituŋ vāyamanti. viññātu site. Ahaŋ sappinā pacitaŋ odanaŋ madhunā bhuñjituŋ na icchāmi. aspirations) samijjheyyuŋ manussā loke sukhaŋ vindeyyuŋ. 4.

10. The husband brought a gem for the wife from the city. 2. 7. guṇavantassa guṇavati. Planting trees in the fields and gardens men try to collect wealth. pg. guṇavantamhi. 9. cakkhumanto etc. There is eczema on the feet of the enemy. Balavantehi bhūpatīhi arayo parājitā honti. 6. guṇavantasmā guṇavato. The flames of the lamps danced in the wind (vātena). guṇavante. guṇavantassa guṇavato. guṇavantānaŋ guṇavataŋ. The bee (bhamara / madhukara) collects honey from flowers without hurting them.]. They are declined like kumārī. Kulavato bhātā Bhagavatā saha mantento bhūmiyaŋ pattharitāya kilañjāyaŋ (mat) nisinno ahosi. Sīlavantā upāsakā Bhagavantaŋ vanditvā dhammaŋ sutvā satimantā bhavituŋ vāyamiŋsu. guṇavanta guṇavantaŋ guṇavatā. "virtuous" Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental guṇavā. number and case. guṇava. having ears mindful wise sīlavantu dhanavantu kulavantu saddhāvantu balavantu phalavantu bhānumantu rich of good family devoted powerful fruitful sun. Adjectives ending in -mantu are declined as cakkhumā.]. 6. guṇavantamhā. 4. "nourishing" Singular Nominative Accusative ojavantaŋ ojavantaŋ Plural ojavantāni ojavantāni The rest is similar to the declension of masculine adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu. They agree with the nouns they qualify in gender. 5. Feminine Gender Guṇavatī / guṇavantī and cakkhumatī / cakkhumantī are the feminine forms of the adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu. guṇavantena guṇavatā. 3. Declension of Adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu Attributive adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu can be declined in all three genders. 2.e. guṇavantānaŋ guṇavantesu Neuter Gender Ojavantu [adj. guṇavantasmiŋ Plural guṇavanto. There are tears in the eyes of the daughter who is a young girl. Bhikkhavo Bhagavatā desitaŋ dhammaŋ sutvā satimantā bhavituŋ vāyamiŋsu. meritorious colourful having relations Ablative Himalayas. guṇavantā guṇavanto. Translate into English: 1. The woman bringing firewood from the forest fell into the river. guṇavante guṇavantehi (guṇavantebhi) guṇavantehi (guṇavantebhi) guṇavataŋ. guṇavanto guṇavā. 41 Exercise 30 3. Paññavantehi icchitaŋ patthitaŋ samijjhissati. 4. 8. the yasavantu Buddha attentive. i. Mayaŋ cakkhūhi bhānumantassa suriyassa rasmiyo oloketuŋ na sakkoma. Masculine Gender Guṇavantu [adj. Phalavantesu tarūsu nisinnā pakkhino phalāni khāditvā aṭṭhīni bhūmiyaŋ . radiant Bhagavantu sotavantu satimantu paññavantu himavantu buddhimantu famous virtuous cakkhumantu having eyes puññavantu fortunate. feminine nouns ending in -ī. Lesson 30 1. 7. Adjectives ending in -vantu and -mantu the Fortunate one. 5.3. guṇavantā guṇavanto. po ssessor of vaṇṇavantu snow intelligent bandhumantu Dative Genitive Locative NB: Note the similarities of this declension to the declension of the present participle masculine gender ending in -nta. The farmer sells ghee and curd to the merchants.

mamaŋ. te tvayā. Dhanavantā balavantā kadāci karahaci (seldom) guṇavantā bhavanti. no amhesu The second personal pronoun: tumha Singular Nominative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative tvaŋ. 5. 8. Guṇavato bandhu sīlavatiŋ pañhaŋ pucchi. 12. 22. no amhaŋ. 4. tavaŋ. no (= "us") amhehi.pātesuŋ. Balavatiyā rājiniyā amaccā dhammena dīpe manusse pālesuŋ. 4. vo tumhehi. 15. If a wise monk lives in the village. Dhammassa viññātāro yasavantā bhavituŋ na ussahanti. Himavati bahū (many) pasavo ca pakkhī ca uragā (reptiles) ca vasanti. tayā. Dhanavantassa sappurisassa bhariyā puññavatī ahosi. 3. the wise are virtuous. Buddhimā puriso pāpaŋ karonte putte anusāsituŋ paññavantaŋ bhikkhuŋ pakkosi. 8. tayi Plural tumhe (= "you") tumhe. 16. 25. People will follow the rich and powerful. Balavantā pabhuno guṇavanto bhavantu. amhākaŋ. me mayi Plural mayaŋ. no amhehi amhaŋ. You (pl. Yasavantīnaŋ nārīnaŋ dhītaro pi yasavantiyo bhavissanti. 10. Guṇavā puriso rukkhamhā ojavantāni phalāni ocinitvā vihāre vasantānaŋ silavantānaŋ bhikkhūnaŋ vibhaji. te tvayi. me mama.tuyhaŋ. Himavati phalavantā taravo na chinditabbā honti. tumhākaŋ. 29. Sīlavatī rājinī guṇavatīhi itthīhi saddhiŋ sālāyaŋ nisīditvā yasavatiyā kaññāya kathaŋ suṇi. pg. people will become virtuous. Silavatiyo mātaro putte guṇavante kātuŋ ussahanti. 7. Sages living in the Himalaya sometimes (kadāci) come to towns. 30. te tava. 23. People with eyes see the radiant sun. tumhākaŋ. tuvaŋ (= "you") taŋ. amhe (= "we") [n/a] amhe. 9. Dubbalaŋ (weak) sīlavatiŋ itthiŋ disvā anukampamānā dhanavatī taŋ (her) posesi. 24. 26. vo tumhesu . Lesson 31 1. 19. The rich are famous. Declension of Personal Pronouns The first personal pronoun: amha Singular Nominative Vocative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative ahaŋ (= "I") [n/a] maŋ. mayhaŋ. Translate into Pāli: 1. Kulavato nattā sīlavatā bhikkhunā dhammaŋ sutvā pasīditvā gehaŋ pahāya bhikkhūsu pabbaji. Sīlavantā dhammaŋ sutvā cakkhumantā bhavituŋ ussahissanti. 14. 42 11. 6. Sīlavantesu vasantā asappurisā pi guṇavantā bhaveyyuŋ. 28. 9. vo tumhehi. 2. 20. vo tumhaŋ. 21. May men of good families become virtuous and wise. The intelligent monk answered the question asked by the powerful eminent person. 15. vo tumhaŋ. Yasavatiyā bandhavo balavanto pabhuno abhaviŋsu. There are garlands in the hand of the virtuous girl. 18. Bhānumā suriyo manussānaŋ ālokaŋ deti. 14. Guṇavatī yuvati sīlaŋ rakkhantī mātaraŋ posesi. me mayā mama. Himavantasmā āgato paññavā isi sīlavatiyā mātuyā uyyāne atithi ahosi. 17. mamaŋ. amhākaŋ. Rich merchants go from village to village selling goods. mayhaŋ. 10. tuyhaŋ. Paññavantiyā yuvatiyā puṭṭho dhanavā pañhaŋ vyākātuŋ asakkonto sabhāyaŋ nisīdi. mamaŋ (= "me") mayā. tumhākaŋ. The Fortunate One is living in the famous island ruled by the powerful king. Bandhumā balavā hoti. tayā tava. dhanavā bandhumā hoti. amhākaŋ. tuvaŋ tvayā. 12. The famous king defeated the powerful enemy who has many relations. 11. Fortunate people have virtuous friends and relations. 27. Mindful monks preached the doctrine to wise lay devotees.) do not avoid virtuous and wise men. The virtuous girl was the wife of the rich teacher. 13. 13.

kissa kassa. Tava duhitā bhikkhuno ovāde ṭhatvā patino kāruṇikā sakhī (friend) ahosi. Amhākaŋ bhūpatayo jetāro hutvā pāsādesu ketavo ussāpesum (hoisted). They become adjectives when they qualify other nouns. Lesson 32 1. 14. Trees should not be cut by us or by you. 18. 8. 14. 28. Kulavantā ca caṇḍālā (outcasts) ca amhesu bhikkhūsu pabbajanti. They are declined in all cases except the vocative. 17.) saw sages living in caves in the Himalaya mountain. singular number Relative Pronoun Nominative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative yo (= "he who…") yaŋ yena yamhā. 27. A bird taking a fruit by the beak was seen by you. 19. tasmā tassa tassa tamhi. 4. May you be rich and famous. 2. 21. kismiŋ 3. 7. May our sons and daughters become rich and virtuous. Tayā kītāni bhaṇḍāni tava dhītā mañjūsāsu pakkhipitvā ṭhapesi. yasmiŋ Demonstrative Pr. 13.Exercise 31 3. 2. 7. 3. singular number Relative Pronoun Nominative Accusative yaŋ (= "that") yaŋ Demonstrative Pr. kasmiŋ kimhi. Translate into English: 1. 12. 4. Sace susūnaŋ vinetā kāruniko hoti. 20. Mama dhanavanto bandhavo viññū viduno bhavanti. 26. pg. Translate into Pāli: 1. 4. 9. Our teacher who was wise and famous taught us the doctrine. Mayaŋ khīramhā dadhi ca dadhimhā sappiŋ ca labhāma. The devoted lay devotee gave a flower to the young girl of good family. Mayhaŋ bhaginī gilānaŋ (sick) pitaraŋ posesi. Bhātuno puttā mama gehe viharantā sippaŋ uggaṇhiŋsu. The radiant sun illuminates the world. Tumhākaŋ dhītaro kuhiŋ (where) gamissanti? 5. Amhākaŋ sattuno hatthesu ca pādesu ca daddu atthi. tasmiŋ Interrogative Pr. ko (= "who…?") kaŋ kena kasmā. 10. 15. "that") taŋ Interrogative Pr. Dīpassa accinā ahaŋ tava chāyaŋ passituŋ sakkomi. Dātāro bhikkhūnaŋ dānaŋ dentā amhe pi bhojāpesuŋ. kissa kamhi. 25. My grandson wishes to become a doctor. Tumhākaŋ nattāro ca mama bhātaro ca sahayakā abhaviŋsu / ahesuŋ. 24. Masculine gender. The bee (madhukara) is standing on the lotus born (jāta) in the water. I picked up the seeds which were scattered on the ground by you. 6. Declension of Pronouns There are: • Relative pronouns. Uyyāne nisinno ahaŋ nattārehi kīḷantaŋ tavaŋ apassiŋ. 12. 9. 29. • demonstrative pronouns and • interrogative pronouns of all three genders. Ahaŋ tava na kujjhāmi. 3. 2. Amhākaŋ uyyāne phalavantesu tarūsu vaṇṇavantā pakkhino caranti. kismā kassa. Kusalaŋ karontā netāro saggaŋ gantāro bhavissanti. Amhākaŋ dhītaro satthāraŋ namassituŋ Veḷuvanaŋ gamissanti. 22. 23. May our sons and grandsons live long and happily." "that") taŋ tena tamhā. 43 8. Neuter Gender. 5. kim (= "which…?". Uyyānaŋ āgantvā tiṇāni khādantā migā amhe passitvā bhāyitvā aṭaviŋ dhāviŋsu. Amhaŋ bhūpatayo balavantā jetāro bhavanti. 13. tvam me kujjhasi. Dhaññaŋ minanto ahaŋ tayā saddhiŋ kathetuŋ na sakkomi. 10. Amhehi katāni puññāni ca pāpāni ca amhe anubandhanti. so (= "he. You (pl. Mama ācariyo maŋ vācento potthakaŋ (book) likhi (wrote). 6. My grandson will become a disciple of yours. 30. yasmā yassa yassa yamhi. The famous young girl has a colourful gem in her hand. Tumhehi āhaṭāni cīvarāni mama mātā bhikkhūnaŋ pūjesi. taŋ (= "it". Sace coro gehaŋ pavisati sīsaŋ bhinditvā nāsetabbo hoti. Sīlavantā buddhimantehi saddhim loke manusssānaŋ hitasukhāya (for welfare and happiness) nānā kammāni karonti. 16. Your king went to the island with the ministers and defeated the enemy. 11. 15. Amhaŋ kammāni karontā dāsā (servants) pi sappurisā bhavanti. Mayaŋ sappiŋ ca madhuŋ ca sammissetvā bhojanaŋ paṭiyādetvā bhuñjissāma. te sotavantā susavo gunavantā bhavissanti. Amhākaŋ bhattāro nāvāya udadhiŋ taritvā dīpaŋ pāpuṇiŋsu. "what…?") kim The rest is similar to the masculine declension . 11.

kāyo kāhi kāhi kāsaŋ(kāsānaŋ) kāsaŋ(kāsānaŋ) kāsu   5. kāyaŋ Nominative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative Relative Pronoun yā. expressing ideas such as anyone. Feminine gender. plural number Relative Pronoun Nominative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative ye (= "they who…") ye yehi yehi yesaŋ(yesānaŋ) yesaŋ(yesānaŋ) yesu Demonstrative Pr. tāyo tāhi tāhi tāsaŋ (tāsānaŋ) tāsaŋ (tāsānaŋ) tāsu Interrogative Pr. to. Masc. tā. singular number Relative Pronoun Nominative Accusative Instrumental Ablative Dative Genitive Locative yā (= "she who…") yaŋ yāya yāya yassā. kāya kassā. yāya yassā. "those") yo tā. ye Demonstrative Pr. kāni. The indefinite particle: ci The indefinite particle ci (Skt. kāya kassaŋ. sā (= "she". 44 . on some woman. tāya tassā. kenaci phalena = by some fruit Fem. kāci itthi = some woman. tāni. kāyo (= "who…?") kā. ye (= "those which…") yāni. "that") taŋ tāya tāya tassā. Masculine gender.g. te (= "they". ke The rest is similar to the masculine declension pg. whoever. cid) is appended to the case forms of the interrogative pronoun. of. Feminine gender. kenaci purisena = by some man Neut. kā (= "who…?") kaŋ kāya kāya kassā. ke (= "who…?") ke kehi kehi kesaŋ (kesānaŋ) kesaŋ (kesānaŋ) kesu 8. yāyo (= "they who…") yā.7. te (= "those…") tāni. whichever. 6. plural number 4. tāyaŋ Interrogative Pr. kāyaci itthiyā = by. koci puriso = some man. kiñci phalaŋ = some fruit. yāyaŋ Demonstrative Pr. tāyo (= "they". yā yāhi yāhi yāsaŋ (yāsānaŋ) yāsaŋ (yāsānaŋ) yāsu Demonstrative Pr. yāya yassaŋ. te Interrogative Pr. kā. "those") te tehi tehi tesaŋ (tesānaŋ) tesaŋ (tesānaŋ) tesu Interrogative Pr. plural number Relative Pronoun Nominative Accusative yāni. e. ke (= "which…?") kāni. tāya tassaŋ. Neuter gender.

)? Kena dhenu aṭaviyā ānītā? By whom was the cow brought from the forest? Kassa bhūpatinā pāsādo kārāpito? For whom was the palace built by the king? Kasmā amhehi saccaŋ bhāsitabbaŋ? Why should we speak the truth? Asappurisehi pālite dīpe kuto mayaŋ dhammikaŋ vinetāraŋ labhissāma? In an island governed by wicked men where will we get a righteous disciplinarian? Kehi kataŋ kammaŋ disvā tumhe kujjhatha? Seeing whose work (lit. By which road he came. Where kings are righteous. Yāya rājiniyā sā vāpī kārāpitā taŋ ahaŋ na anussarāmi.)? Who are you (pl. Yattha bhūpatayo dhammikā honti tattha manussā sukhaŋ vindanti. The meeting where he made a speech. tathā tumhehi paṭipajjitabbaŋ. (therefore) those who have eyes see objects. Since the radiant sun illuminates the world. Yassa sā bhariyā hoti so bhattā puññavanto hoti. then we are happy. 45 . (therefore) we enjoy fruits. I wish to go by the same. Yāni kammāni sukhaŋ āvahanti (bring) tāni puññāni honti. Yāda amhehi icchitaŋ patthitaŋ samijjhati tadā amhe modāma. Ko tvaŋ asi? Ke tumhe hotha? Who are you (sg. so should you conduct yourselves. Examples in sentence formation Yo atthaññu hoti so kumāre anusāsituŋ āgacchatu. tattha tatra tato there there thence therefore in that manner therefore then there so long Interrogative Adverbs kattha kutra kuto kathaŋ kasmā kadā where where whence how why when [n/a] [n/a] Yāsu itthīsu kodho natthi tāyo vinītā bhariyāyo ca mātaro ca bhavanti. The bowl should not be taken by the hand which has eczema on it. Yassaŋ sabhāyaŋ so kathaŋ pavattesi tattha bahū manussā sannipatitā abhaviŋsu / ahesuŋ. Women in whom there is no anger become disciplined wives and mothers. Those women in whose boxes there is gold close the doors and go out. Yasmiŋ hatthe daddu atthi tena hatthena patto na gaṇhitabbo hoti. tasmā mayaŋ phalāni bhuñjāma. Yāsaŋ itthīnaŋ mañjūsāsu suvaṇṇaŋ atthi tāyo dvārāni thaketvā gehehi nikkhamanti. Yena maggena so āgato tena gantuŋ ahaŋ icchāmi. Yathā Bhagavā dhammaŋ deseti.9. Yasmā pitaro rukkhe ropesuŋ. Yaŋ ahaŋ ākaɲkhamāno ahosiŋ so āgato hoti. done by whom) do you get angry? Kesaŋ nattāro tuyhaŋ ovāde ṭhassanti? Whose grandsons will stand by your advice? Kehi ropitāsu latāsu pupphāni ca phalāni ca bhavanti? On the creepers planted by whom are there flowers and fruits? Kāya itthiyā pādesu daddu atthi? On the feet of which woman is there eczema? how in what tathā manner because when where how long tasmā tadā tena tāva 10. Just as the Blessed One preaches the doctrine. pg. Those actions which bring happiness are meritorious. Yato bhānumā ravi lokaŋ obhāseti tato cakkhumantā rūpāni passanti. Because fathers planted trees. May he who is benevolent come to admonish the boys. Pronominal Adverbs Relative Adverbs yattha yatra yato yathā yasmā yadā yena yāva where where whence where Demonstrative Adv. there many people gathered. When our wishes and aspirations are fulfilled. He whom I was expecting has come. there the men enjoy happiness. I do not remember the queen by whom that tank was built. Yā bhariyā sīlavatī hoti sā bhattuno piyāyati. He is a fortunate husband whose wife she is. The wife who is virtuous is dear to the husband.

He who is virtuous will defeat the enemy. Ahaŋ sāminā saddhiŋ gehe viharantī modāmi. tasmā sā pi pabbajituŋ icchati. tasmā sā tava kujjhati. Susavo mātaraŋ rakkhanti. Yo dhanavā hoti. 21. 3. Yattha sīlavantā bhikkhavo vasanti tattha manussā sappurisā honti. 27. 10. 9. Yo taŋ dīpaŋ pāleti so dhammiko bhūpati hoti. Kathaŋ tumhe udadhiŋ tarituŋ ākaɲkhatha? 14. pg. Where intelligent people live there I wish to dwell. Yo ajja nagaraŋ gacchati so tarūsu ketavo passissati. 5. Sace tvaŋ dvāraŋ thakesi ahaŋ pavisituŋ na sakkomi. The dog to whom I gave rice is my brother's. Yaŋ ahaŋ jānāmi tumhe pi taŋ jānātha. Kadā amhākaŋ patthanā (aspirations) samijjhanti? 24. Yasmā so bhikkhūsu pabbaji. Whom did you give the gold which I gave you? 8. 16. 2. 11. 18. 10. 25. Kuto ahaŋ dhammassa viññātāraŋ paññavantaŋ bhikkhuŋ labhissāmi? 19. Translate into English: 1. 23. Yāsu mañjūsāsu ahaŋ suvaṇṇaŋ nikkhipiŋ tā corā coresuŋ. Yāsaŋ itthīnaŋ dhanaŋ so icchati tāhi taŋ labhituŋ so na sakkoti. 4. tena sīlavatā bhavitabbaŋ. Tvaŋ suraŋ pivasi. Sace tumhe maŋ pañhaŋ pucchissatha ahaŋ vissajjetuŋ (to explain) ussahissāmi. Yasmiŋ padese Buddho viharati tattha gantuŋ ahaŋ icchāmi. Tumhākaŋ puttā ca dhītaro ca udadhiŋ taritvā bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇantā mūlaŋ pariyesituŋ icchanti. 8. Translate into Pāli: 1. 7. Yassā so putto hoti sā mātā puññavatī hoti. 20. 29. Amhehi katāni kammāni chāyāyo viya amhe anubandhanti. Yadā bhikkhavo sannipatitvā sālāyaŋ kilañjāsu nisīdiŋsu tadā Buddho pāvisi. Kuto tā itthiyo maṇayo āhariŋsu? 15. 28.Exercise 32: 11. Kadā tvaŋ mātaraŋ passituŋ bhariyāya saddhiŋ gacchasi? 12. Yāyaŋ guhāyaŋ sīhā vasanti taŋ pasavo na upasaɲkamanti. 9. Sabbe te sappurisā tesaŋ pañhe vissajjetuŋ vāyamantā sālāya nisinnā honti. Yassa mayā yāgu pūjitā so bhikkhu tava putto hoti. Eat what you like. The girl who spoke at the meeting is not a relation of mine. 12. 6. 2. 22. Yato amhākaŋ bhūpati arayo parājesi tasmā mayaŋ tarūsu ketavo bandhimha. When the mother comes home the daughter will give the gems. I will sit on the rock until you bathe in the river. From where did you get the robes which you offered to the monks? 7. Yāhi rukkhā chinnā tāyo pucchituŋ kassako āgato hoti. Why did you not come home today to worship the monks? 6. 17. 30. Kena ajja (today) navaŋ (new) jīvitamaggaŋ na pariyesitabbaŋ? 4. 26. Sace tumhe asappurisā lokaŋ dūseyyātha (pollute) kattha puttadhītarehi saddhiŋ tumhe vasatha? 5. 46 . 3. 13.

shuts • dadāti / deti (dā) : gives • dassati (dṛś) : to see • duhati (duh) : milks pg. hides • paṭiyādeti (prati + yat) : prepares • patati (pat) : falls • pattharati (pra + stṛ) : spread • pattheti (pra + arth) : wishes. aspires • pappoti (see pāpuṇāti ) : attains • pabbajati (pra + vraj) : goes forth. wanders • icchati (iṣ / āp) : wishes • uggaṇhāti (ud + gṛh) : learns • uṭṭhahati (ud + sthā) : stands up • uḍḍeti (ud + ḍī) : flies • uttarati (ud + tṛ) : crosses • udeti ( ud + i) : rises • upasaɲkamati (upa + saŋ + kram) : approaches • uppajjati (ud + pad) : is born • uppatati (ud + pad) : flies. descends (into water) • obhāseti (ava + bhāṣ) : illuminates • oruhati (ava + ruh) : climbs down • oloketi (ava + lok) : looks at • ovadati (ava + vad) : advises • katheti (kath) : speaks • karoti (kṛ) : does. governs • piyāyati (denom. mantra) : invites • nilīyati (ni+ lī) : hides • nivāreti (ni + vṛ) : prevents • nisidati (ni + sad) : sits • nīhareti (ni + hṛ) : takes out • neti (nī) : leads • pakkosati (pra + kṛṣ) : calls. preaches • dhāvati (dhāv) : runs • dhovati (dhov) : washes • naccati (nṛt) : dances • namassati (denom. chases after • anusāsati (anu + śās) : admonishes • ākaɲkhati (ā + kāɲkṣ) : expects • ākaḍḍhati (ā + kṛṣ?) : pulls. pollutes • deseti (diś) : points out. partakes of • manteti (denom. commits • kasati (kṛṣ) : ploughs • kiṇāti (krī) : buys • kīḷati (krīḍ) : plays • khaṇati (khaṇ) : digs • khādati (khād) : eats • khipati (kṣip) : throws • kujjhati (krudh) : gets angry • gacchati (gam) : goes • gaṇhāti (gṛh) : takes • gāyati (gai) : sings • carati (car) : wanders. keeps • ḍasati (ḍas) : bites. dies • cinteti (cit) : thinks • cumbati (cumb) : kisses • coreti (cur) : steals • chaḍḍeti (chaḍḍ) : throws away • chādeti (chad) : conceals • chindati (chid) : cuts • jānāti (jñā) : knows • jāleti (jval) : lights. piya) : is dear • pivati (pā) : drinks • pīḷeti (pīḍ) : oppresses • pucchati (pṛcch) : questions • pūjeti (pūj) : honours. worships • pūreti (pṛ) : fills • peseti (pra + iṣ) : sends • poseti (puṣ) : nourishes. drags • āgacchati (ā + gam) : comes • ādadāti (ā + dā) : takes • āneti (ā + nī) : brings. strokes • ārabhati (ā + rabh) : starts. summons • pakkhipati (pra + kṣip) : puts. namas) : worships. abandons • paṭicchādeti (prati + chad) : conceals. picks • otarati (ava + tṛ) : gets down. places. jumps up • ussahati (ud + sah) : tries • ussāpeti (ud + śri) : hoist • ocināti (ava + ci) : collects. salutes • nahāyati (snā) : bathes • nāseti (naś) : destroys • nikkhamati (nis + kram) : leaves. mantra) : discusses.List of Verbs Prefixes and roots of verbs are given in Sanskrit within brackets • akkosati (a + kṛś) : scolds • atthi (as) : is • adhigacchati (adhi + gam) : understands • anukampati (anu + kamp) : feels compassionate • anugacchati (anu + gam) : follows • anubandhati (anu + badh) : follows. strikes • pahiṇāti (pra + hi) : dispatches • pājeti (pra + aj) : drives • pāteti (pat) : fells • pāpuṇāti (pra + āp) : attains • pāleti (pāl) : rules. deposits • pacati (pac) : cooks • pajahati (hā) : rejects. takes counsel • māpeti (mā) : creates. 47 • dūseti (dūṣ) : spoils. ascends • āroceti (ā + ruc) : informs • āvahati (ā + vah) : brings forth • āsiñcati (ā + sic) : sprinkles • āharati (ā + hṛ) : brings • āhiṇḍati (ā + hiṇḍ) : roams. searches • parivajjeti (pari + vṛj) : avoids • parivāreti (pari + vṛ) : accompanies • palobheti (pra + lubh) : tempts • pavatteti (pra + vṛt) : sets in motion • pavisati (pra + viś) : enters • pasīdati (pra + sad) : is pleased • passati (spaś) : sees • paharati (pra + hṛ) : hits. ties • bhajati (bhaj) : keeps company • bhañjati (bhañj) : breaks • bhavati (bhū) : becomes • bhāyati (bhī) : fears • bhāsati (bhāṣ) : speaks • bhindati (bhid) : breaks • bhuñjati (bhuj) : eats. puts down • nimanteti (ni + denom. kindles • jināti (ji) : wins • jīvati (jīv?) : lives • ṭhapeti (sthā) : places. stings • tarati (tṛ) : crosses • tiṭṭhati (sthā) : stays. mantra) : addresses • āmasati (ā + mṛś) : touches. gets ordained • parājeti (parā + ji) : defeats • pariyesati (pari + iṣ) : explores. renounces the world. stands • thaketi (sthag) : closes. looks after • phusati (sprś) : touches • bandhati (badh) : binds. renounces • nikkhipati (ni + kṣip) : throws away. leads • āmanteti (ā + denom. instructs. conducts oneself • cavati (cyu) : departs. builds • māreti (mṛ) : kills • mināti (mā) : measures . commences • āruhati (ā + ruh) : climbs. enjoys.

tries • vikkiṇāti (vi + krī) : sells • vijjhati (vyadh) : shoots • vindati (vid) : feels. m : teacher • āpaṇa. ind : between • amacca. m : doer • kattha. m : minister • ambu. observes / • rodati (rud) : cries. m : elephant • kavi. ind : indeed. receives • likhati (likh) : writes • vaḍḍheti (vṛdh) : developes. becomes   Pāli Vocabulary (other than Verbs) • anicca. m : bed room • ovāda. m : chief • iddhi. sea • upamā. n : bone • atithi. n : water • udadhi. f : girl • kulavantu. adv : why • kāka. certainly • adhipati. f = feminine. adv : where • kathā. n : flame • aja. m : poet • kasmā. m : sugar cane • udaka. m : spoon • kaṇeru. adv : where • kumāra. adj = adjective. n : seat • itthi. succeeds • sammajjati (saŋ + mṛj) : sweeps • sammisseti (saŋ + denom. m : lay devotee • uyyāna. n : shop • āloka. m : sage • ucchu. 48 Abbreviations: m = masculine. m : fire • aɲguli. f : finger • acci. adv : when • kadāci karahaci. m : boy • kumārī. m : crow • kāya. m : dog • kucchi. adj : impermanent • antarā. increases • vandati (vand) : worships • vapati (vap) : sows • vasati (vas) : dwells • vāceti (vac) : teaches • vāyamati (vi + ā + yam) : exerts. adv : sometimes • kapi. m : leper • kuto. f : pit • kilañjā. plantain • kadā. gathers together • samassāseti (saŋ + ā + śvas) : consoles. n : action. adv = adverb pron = pronoun • akusala. f : simile • upalitta. comforts • samijjhati (saŋ + ṛdh) : fulfils. harms • viheṭheti (vi + hīḍ) : harasses • veṭheti (veṣṭ) : wraps • vyākaroti (vi + ā + kṛ) : explains • saŋharati (saŋ + hṛ) : collects • sakkoti (śak) : is able.• muñcati (muc) : releases. f : woman pg. deed • karī. f : speech • kathaŋ. n : forest • ari. f : banana. m : serpent • ākāsa. ind : today • aṭavi. m : benevolent person • addhā. f : thunder • asappurisa. m : wicked man • asi. m : enemy • asani. miśra) : mixes • sayati (śī) : sleeps • sallapati (saŋ + lap) : converses • sādiyati (svad) : enjoys • sibbati (sīv) : sews • suṇāti (śru) : listens. m : body • kāruṇika. experiences • vippakirati (vi + pra + kṛ\) : scatters • vibhajati (vi + bhaj) : distributes • vivarati (vi + vṛ) : opens • vissajjeti (vi + sṛj) : spends • viharati (vi + hṛ) : dwells • vihiŋsati (vi + hiŋs) : hurts. can • sannipatati (saŋ + ni + pat) : assembles. adj : compassionate • kāsu. frees • modati (mud) : takes delight • yācati (yac) : begs • rakkhati (rakṣ) : protects. m : pit • āsana. m : guest • atthaññū. m : monkey • kamma. ind = indeclinable particle. mf : belly • kuṭṭhī. f : forest • aṭṭhi. m : horse • assu. m : mouse • ācariya. adv : whence • kutra. adj : man of good family • kusala. m : light • āvāṭa. takes away • hasati (has) : laughs • hoti (bhū) : is. mfn : smeared • upāsaka. n : water • ammā. m : saw • kaññā. n : eye • aggi. n : tear • ahaŋ. n : advice • kakaca. f : psychic power • isi. m : ocean. m : sky • ākhu. m : reptile • odana. adj : demerit • akkhi. adj : luscious • ovaraka. f : mother • arañña. n : park • uraga. f : girl • kaṭacchu. m : sword • assa. n = neuter. m : rice • ojavantu. m : goat • ajja. adj : merit . weeps • ropeti (rup) : plants • labhati (labh) : gets. pron : I • ahi. f : cow / elephant • kattu. f : mat • kukkura. adv : how • kadalī. hears • hanati (han) : kills • harati (hṛ) : carries.

adv : therefore • tattha. m : flag • khagga. n : eye • caṇḍāla. adv : there • tatra. hand • pāṇī. m : teacher • gahapati. m : the Buddha • buddhi. mn : rice • bhattu. mfn : born • jivhā. f : ship • nāvika. mfn : powerful • balī. town • nadī. m : the Buddha • tadā. m : one who goes • garu. n : seed • Buddha. f : hope. mfn : thirsty • puñña. m : king • bhūpāla. f : young woman • tasmā. adv : suffering • dubbala. m : living being • pāda. n : food. m : sailor • nidhi. m : foot • pānīya. f : river • nayana. n : piece • khādanīya. m : victor • taṇḍula. n : soft food • makkaṭa. m : husband • patta. m : giver • dāna. n : alms • dāraka. m : bed • mañjūsā. n : goods • bhatta. n : grass • tīra. adj : weak • dussa. ind : not • nagara. m : brother • bhānumā. f : relics. f : cave • geha. m : question • paṇḍita. adv : then • taru. n : milk • khudā. f : tongue • jetu. m : one with long life • dīpa. pron : you • dakkha. n : bank • tuṇḍa. ind : and • cakkhu. n : house • ca. m : island / lamp • dīpī. m : brahmin • brāhmaṇī. m : gem . wise man • paṇṇa. 49 • na. m : road • maccha. m : reciter • pahūta. n : house. m : hermit • tāva. m : palm. adj : clever • daddu. m : servant • dīghajīvī. m : sun • bhikkhu. f : wife • bhātu. f : neck • guṇavantu. m : mansion • pi. m : monk • bhūpati. m : husband • bhariyā. m : sage. f : deity • devi. m : treasure • nivāsa. m : bowl • patthanā. m : son • puttadāra. adv : where • ketu. m : village • gāvī. f : ground • bhojana. m : king • bhūmi. f : a unit of measure • nāvā. n : lotus • pabbata. m : fisherman • dhenu. n : purgatory • nava. expectation • paduma. f : sister • Bhagavā. adj : virtuous • guhā. n : mind • cīvara. n : flower altar • pubbaka. n : water • jāta. m : thief • chāyā. adj : many • bīja. adv : there • tathā. ind : various • nārī. m : leader • pakkhī. f : pond • potthaka. adv : so far. m : mountain • gilāna. m : powerful one • bahu. m : child • dāru. n : early morning • pabhū. m : tree • taruṇi. adv : soon • khīra. m : relative • balavantu. f : queen • doṇi. m : householder • gāma. m : moon • citta. m : children and wife • puna. n : merit • putta. f : Ganges river • gantu. m : monkey • magga. n : corn • dhana. n : field • Gangā. adj : new • nānā. m : outcast • canda. f : wisdom • pañha. m : man • pokkharaṇī. m : leopard • dukkhaŋ. mfn : ancient • purisa. n : drinking water • pāpa. fn : eczema • dadhi. n : flower • kuhiŋ. n : raw rice • tato. mn : cage • paññā. until • tiṇa. n : leaf • pati. ind : again • puppha. f : daughter • dūta. m : doctrine • dhātu. m : sword • khaṇḍa. m : deity • devatā. adv : therefore • tāpasa. n : cloth • duhitu. n : wealth • dhanu. f : cow pg. m : man • naraka. n : curd • dāṭhī. n : beak • tela. m : tusker • dātu. also • piṭaka. n : song • gīvā. meal • bhojanīya. m : stone • pāsāda. f : hunger • khetta. f : thirst • pipāsita. m : house • netu. m : the Buddha • bhaṇḍa. m : ox • ghaṭa. n : eye • nara. m : messenger • deva. n : firewood • dāsa. f : cow • giri. n : door • dhañña. m : father • pipāsā. f : box • maṇi. n : robe • cora. ind : too. f : intelligence • brāhmaṇa. m : axe • phala. n : evil • pāsāṇa. f : boat • dvāra. m : sick man • gīta. m : bird • pañjara. n : city. n : knee • jala. adj : much • pāṇi. f : daughter • dhīvara. m : eminent person • pasu. n : food • khippaŋ. f : brahmin woman • bhaginī. m : animal • parisā. n : book • pharasu.• kusuma. m : basket • pitu. m : fish • mañca. home • goṇa. n : bow • dhamma. n : flower • pupphāsana. elements • dhītu. f : retinue • pavattu. n : pot • ghara. shadow • jāṇu / jaṇṇu. adv : thus • Tathāgata. n : fruit • bandhu. f : shade. f : woman • nāḷi. m : mountain • pabhāte. n : oil • tvaŋ.

n : form. ind : well. m : monk • samudda. m : world • locana. m : sound • saddhā. n : magic spell • mantī. n : gold • susu. m : bamboo • vyādhi. n : foot of tree • rūpa. m : enemy • satthi. n : arts and science • sissa. f : rope • ratti. n : heaven • sace. f : lightning • viññātu. ocean • sammajjanī. m : uncle • māra. ind : like. m : pig • seṭṭhi. adj : speed • vetana. f : night • ratha. m : young one • sūkara. m : cart • sakala. adv : when • yadi. n : honey • madhukara. m : hand • hatthī. ind : with • sappa. f : broom • sammā. m : jackal • sindhu. m : peacook • sigāla. f : creeper • lābha. m : generous one • vadhū. profit • luddaka. n : forest • vammika. m : washerman • rajju. mfn : all • sabaññū. m : sage • mūla. m : disciplinarian • viya. f : assembly • samaṇa. m : monkey • vāpī. mfn : Himalaya • hirañña. m : monastery • vīsati : twenty • vīhi. object • latā. m : beggar • yāva. m : deer • mitta. n : ear • sotu. m : listener • sopāna. n : virtue • sīsa. m : disciple • sikhī. n : thigh • satthu. m : charioteer • sālā. f : liquor • suriya. chariot • ravi. similar • vihāra. abstemious one • madhu. f : tank • vāri. f : wife/daughter • vana. m : wise man • vidū. ind : or • vāṇija. f : faith • saddhiŋ. f : mother • mātula. f : mother • saha. m : hunter • loka. m : speaker • vattha. n : eye • vaḍḍhakī. f : female friend • sagga. m : sun • rasa. m : fist • muni. mfn : famous • yasmā. n : river • vālukā. adv : fast • sīla. m : happy person • sugata. m : bird • sakhī. m : wise man • vinetu. n : ghee • sappurisa. m : sun • suva. m : moderate. m : dog • sura. m : garment • sāmī.• mattaññū. m : husband • sārathī. f : branch • sāṭaka. m : good man • sabba. n : gold . pay • veḷu. n : bridge • soṇa. m : bee • manussa. m : elephant • himavantu. f : garland • miga. adv : in which manner • yadā. 50 • sacca. m : deity • surā. mfn : colourful • vattu. adv : because • yāgu. f : queen • rāsi. n : wealth • vā. ind : with • sahāya (ka). n : cloth • vatthu. n : truth • sattu. m : the evil one • mālā. ind : do not • mātu. m : teacher • sadda. m : carpenter • vaṇṇavantu. n : taste • rasmi. m : wind • vānara. m : pupil • sīghaŋ. m : sickness • sakaṭa. m : stairway • hattha. m : sea. ocean • sippa. f : gruel • yācaka. m : man • manta. n : sweetmeat • yaṭṭhi. m : vehicle. m : merchant • vāta. adv : since • yattha. m : heap • rukkha. adv : where • yatra. m : lion • suka. f : hall • sāvaka. m : all knowing one • sabhā. m : pig • vasu. m : gain. m : banker • setu. m : paddy • vega. m : arrow • sassu. n : money • modaka. ind : if • yasavantu. m : minister • mā. n : estate • vadaññū. f : young woman • rajaka. m : serpent • sappi. mn : anthill • varāha. n : head • sīha. m : friend • sākhā. m : knowledgeable man • viññū. n : wage. ind : if pg. mouth • muṭṭhi. m : parrot • sukhaŋ. m : parrot • suvaṇṇa. m : dog • sota. adv : how far • yuvati. adj : entire • sakuṇa. m : tree • rukkhamūla. m : the Buddha • sunakha. n : face. f : ray • rājinī. adv : where • yathā. f : walking stick • yato. right • sara. adv : happily • sukhī. f : sand • vijju. m : sea. mn : friend • mukha.

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