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“THE GREATEST DISCOVERY OF ANY GENERATION IS
THAT A HUMAN BEING CAN ALTER HIS LIFE BY ALTERING HIS ATTITUDE.”
Change & Change Management.
• Adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization.
– Organizations need to continuously adapt to new situations if they are to survive and prosper – Constant change keeps organizations agile – Indicative of “learning” organizations
BUT when you say Change,they say:
• “This is a waste of time.” • “Why change if it was working just fine before?” • “If it isn't broken, don't fix it.” • “They never tell us what’s going on!” • “How soon will this happen?” • “How will this impact me?” • “Will I receive new training?” • “What’s in it for me.” • “I doubt they are really serious about this.”
Shifting Demographics World Politics Technology
Forces For Change
ORGANIZING FOR CHANGE…
Doing the right things
How you achieve your goals
Who is responsible Structure for what
shared vision/ values/goals Culture Underlying assumptions that drive behavior Workforce Organizatio n systems
Capacity and capabilities of the people who do the work
Four Roles in Organizational Change
Inventor · Develops and understands technical aspects of ideas · Does not know how to win support for the idea or make a business of it Champion · Believes in idea · Visualizes benefits · Confronts organization realities of cost, benefits · Obtains financial and political support Overcomes obstacles Sponsor ·High-level manager who removes organizational barriers ·Approves and protects idea within organization Critic · Provides reality test · Looks for shortcomings · Defines hardnosed criteria that idea must pass
Types of Changes: 1) Planned 2) Accidental
Planned Changes • Changes in products and services • Changes in administrative systems • Changes in organizational size or structure • Introduction of new technologies • Advances in information processing and communication Accidental Changes • Changing employee demographics • Performance gaps • Governmental regulations • Economic competition in the global arena
Types of Planned Changes
Operational Change based on efforts to improve basic work and organizational processes
Transformational Change involves redesign and renewal of the total organization
HUMAN SIDE OF IT.
• Change is fundamentally about feelings. It needs people’s heads and hearts together. • “Winning Attitudes” do make a difference, and it is important to market new ideas and approaches within the organization very carefully.
Lewin’s 3 step Change process.
Unfreezing Old behavior creates motivation to learn.
Lewin’s Three-Step Process
• The first step, “unfreeze” involves the process of letting go of certain restricting attitudes during the initial stages of an outdoor education experience. • The second step, "change" involves alteration of self-conceptions and ways of thinking during the experience. • The third step, "refreeze" involves solidifying or crystallizing the changes into a new, permanent form for the individual
people are taken from a state of being unready to change to being ready and willing to make the first step. • Burning platform: Expose or create a crisis. • Challenge: Inspire them to achieve remarkable things. • Evidence: Cold, hard data is difficult to ignore. • Education: Learn them to change. • Management by Objectives (MBO): Tell people what to do, but not how. • Visioning: Form Visions. Visions work to create change.
• Show how staying where you are is not an option, and that doing nothing will result in disaster. • Look for a crisis that you can highlight. They are often lurking nearby, forlorn and unnoticed. • You can also engineer your own crisis that forces change.
• Stimulate people into change by challenging them to achieve something remarkable. Show confidence in their ability to get out of their comfort zone and do what has not been done before. • Once the group has bought the challenge, then they will bounce off each other to make it happen.
• Find evidence that supports the need for change. • Use data and statistics to create impressive graphs and charts. • Cold, hard evidence is a good way of changing minds as counter-arguments require better data.
• Teach people about the need for change and how embracing change is a far more effective life strategy than staying where they are or resisting. • Teach people the methods of change, about how to be logical and creative in improving processes and organizations.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
• Set formal objectives for people that they will have to achieve, but do not tell them how they have to achieve this. • Give people objectives that they can only achieve by working in the intended change.
•Give them relatively free rein in how they go about achieving the objectives. Encourage them to 'look outside the box' for creative new ways of achieving the objective.
• Create a motivating vision of the future. • Share it with others. • Live it until it comes true. • Visions work only when they act to motivate and inspire the large numbers of people that are needed to make the change happen. • For the vision to be motivating, then it must be memorable. • For it to be memorable, it must be exciting and short. • To be believed, it must be a regular part of the conversation of senior people.
Once you have unfrozen the people, the next question is how you keep them going.
• Coaching: Psychological support for executives. • Facilitation: Use a facilitator to guide team meetings. • First steps: Make it easy to get going. • Involvement: Give them an important role. • Open Space: People talk about what concerns them. • Step wise change: Break the work into packages.
• When you have individual people who are having difficulty in managing to adapt to change, be a Coach to them. • Coaching helps explore deeper motivations and beliefs about other people, and find practical ways to change these.
• Use skilled facilitators (HR) to support change activities. • Facilitators can be used to guide various group events, from brainstorming and planning to improvement projects and change activities. • Facilitators can also act as team coaches, helping people to improve within themselves and work together in better ways.
• Actually starting something is often the hardest thing. The Greek poet Horace said, ‘He has half the deed done who has made a beginning.’ • Make the first steps of change particularly easy. Make them the most obvious thing to do. • Then make the next steps easy that it takes away all reasonable objections to enacting it.
• • • • Get them involved in the change. Invite them to participate in discussions. Give them things to do. When people are a part of something, they bond with it, making it a part of their identity.
• 'Open Space' (or, more fully, Open Space Technology, or OST) is a simple but very useful way of getting people to openly discuss issues that are of concern to them. • It started when Harrison Owen was running conferences and found that people preferred talking to others during the breaks than listening to speakers. He then began running conferences without speakers. • The underlying philosophy is that trying to control a naturally chaotic universe just makes things worse. If you want people to collaborate, the basic principle is to bring them together and then get out of the way. For managers and facilitators this can be a very difficult part of the Open Space process. Yet the most successful Open Spaces are managed with but a very light touch. • In change, this is useful for getting people talking together. For example, you can use it to get people to talk about their fears and concerns.
• Have clear steps in the change. Break the work into distinct packages and talk about each separately. • Communicate about the change not as a single, but as a set of activities, each of which gains specific value. • Celebrate the Milestones.
people are taken from a state of being in transition and moved to a stable and productive state
• Burning bridges: Ensure there is no way back. • Evidence stream: Show them time and again that the change is real. • Institutionalization: Building change into the formal systems and structures. • Reward alignment: Align rewards with desired behaviors. • Socializing: Build it into the social fabric
Burning the bridges
• When changes are instituted, it is not uncommon for people to seek ways to go back the old way of working, hence ensure that there is no way back to previous ways of working. • 'Burning bridges' is a deliberate way of preventing any backsliding by removing any method by which people can go back. • Managers who may be not fully committed to the change are now strongly motivated to continue.
• Get people to accept that a change is real by providing a steady stream of evidence to demonstrate that the change has happened and is successful. • Communicate through a range of media. Get people who have been involved to stand up and tell their stories of challenge and overcoming adversity. • Evidence is a powerful tool for persuasion, particularly when people are doubtful whether something is real. This is particularly powerful when presented by people who are trusted by the audience for the information. • A steady stream of evidence is needed because people are not always convinced by a few pieces of early evidence.
• Make changes stick by building them into the formal fabric of the organization. • Make them an organizational standard, building them into the systems of standards. • Put them or aspects of them into the primary strategic plan. • Build them into people personal objectives. • Ensure people are assessed against them in personal reviews. • The formal systems and structures within the organization are those which are not optional. People do them because they are 'business as usual‘.
• When you make a change, ensure that you align the reward system with the changes that you want to happen. • The saying 'Show me how I'm paid and I'll show you how I behave' is surprisingly common.
• Seal changes by building them into the social structures. • Give social leaders prominent positions in the change. When they feel ownership for it, they will talk about it and sell it to others.