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THE ROYAL ORDERS OF BURMA, A.D. 1598-1885 PART THREE, A.D. 1751-1781 Edited with Introduction, Notes and Summary in English of Each Order by THAN TUN, M.A., B.L., Ph.D (London) Professor of History, Mandalay University


THE ROYAL ORDERS OF BURMA, A.D. 1598-1885 PART THREE, A.D. 1751-1781

Edited with Introduction, Notes and Summary in English of Each Order by

THAN TUN, M.A., B.L., Ph.D. (London) Former Professor of History, Mandalay University



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The editor owes much gratitude to THE CENTRE FOR SOUTHEAST ASIAN STUDIES KYOTO UNIVERSITY for research facilities given to him in editing these Royal Orders of Burma and to have them published under its auspices He is also thankful to THE TOYOTA FOUNDATION for the financial aid to publish them. For sending notes and references that he asked from Burma, he thanks U Pyinnya Zawta, U Saw Lwin and U Htun Yee


CONTENTS Acknowledgement List of colleagues who helped in collecting the Royal Orders Introduction Chronology 1752-1782 Summary of Each Order in English Royal Orders of Burma in Burmese iv vi vii xxiii 1 87

List of colleagues who helped in collecting the Royal Orders

Aung Kyaw (Chaung U) Aung Myin Chit So Myint Htun Yee Khin Htwe Yi Khin Khin Khin Khin Gyi Khin Khin Sein Khin Lay Khin Maung Htay Khin Myo Aye Khin Nyun (Mrs Thein Than Tun) Khin Yi (Mrs Than Tun) Kyaw Kyaw Win Mya Mya Myine Myine Myint Myint Myint Htek Myint Myint Than Myo Myint Ni Ni Myint Ni Toot Nyunt Nyunt Way Ohn Kyi (Chaung U) Ohn Myint Oo Pannajota Sai Kham Mong San Myint (Candamala) San Nyein San San Aye Saw Lwin Sein Myint Than Than Thant Zin (Mawlike) Thaung KO Thein Hlaing Thein Naing Thein Than Tun Thoung Thoung Tin Maung Yin Tin Tin Win Toe Hla Tun Nwe Tun Thein Win Maung Yi Yi Yi Yi Aung


INTRODUCTION THE INDIA OFFICE LIBRARY (London) has a palm-leave manuscript with the title Ratanasingha Kun: bhon Mrui. tann Man: tara: kri: Aminto (Orders by the Just King who founded the City of Yadana Theinga Konbaung). There are forty eight leaves ( 4 anga) and each leaf contains nine lines of writing ( 9 kron: re:). Seventy one orders recorded in it are of the period 28 February 1750-25 March 1760. U Lat (Wetmasut Myoza Wundauk) had another collection of twenty eight orders of the same king copied on twenty seven laves (2 anga 3 khyap) of eleven lines (11 kron: re:) of writing on each leaf. The orders are of the period 4 November 1755 to 19 August 1758. These two collections had been edited and published by the Burma History Commission in 1964. All ninety nine orders are edited and published hre again. Because notes and summaries would be of some use to scholars who do not read Burmese. Alaungmintaya made himself king early in 1752 and he died in 1760. In all these eighty years he was busy fighting and building an empire. Nevertheless, in Burma in those days, there was no Fighting in the four rainy months of June, July, August and September in each year (Kon., I, 1967, pp. 69& 101). So quite contrary to the common belief, he had time, for at least four months every yera during his short reign to pay attention to the administration in his ever growing territories. His orders bear testimony to this fact. The king had at his new court some of the former ministers of the last king of the Ava dynasty who was taken prisoner to Hanthawaddy and drowned to death on (3) November 1755 (Thiri Uzana: Lokabyuha, 1962, p.7). In fact they were taken together with their king to Hanthawaddy though some escaped and came to serve Alaungmintaya chiefly as advisers


in the ways of "the Golden Palace" which Alaungmintaya was trying to establish. They arrived at Shwebo in this order:
Thado Mingyi Thado Minnge Thirt Zayya Kyaw Zwa Nay Myo Shwe Daung and Thiri Uzana.

It seems that Alaungmintaya asked them what a king is supposed to do, apart from establishing himself firmly in authority, when he ascends the throne and they were to answer him with concrete examples of what the ancient kings had done in a similar situation with special reference to Ava from the last quarter of the 17th century. Consequently they compiled a chronology starting with King Tuesday's ascendency at Ava on 19 April 1673. But long before he received their counsel, Alaungmintay realized that he should have a capital of his own built. He had had the constructions begun on 21 June 1753 simultaneously in and around his native village of Moksobo, on the following seven sites.
city palace moat Mahananda lake Shwe Chet Tho pagoda shrine of guardian spirits and clock tower (Kon., I 1967, p.68).

The city was supposed to have been constructed like Kapilavatthu (Kon., I 1967, p.67) near the Himalayas where the Buddha had lived before the Great Renunciation, and like the cities of Kapilavatthu and Rajagaha, (according to the memorial submitted by ex-ministers), the tower to announce the time would be located right in the centre of the city as Mt Meru is said to be in the centre of the universe (ROB 3 November 1755) . Or it could be taken that with the clock tower in the palace yard to represent Mt Meru, the palace itself becomes the centre of the universe.


The palace was built like that of Tagaung (Kon., I 1967, p.104; though we now know that Tagaung being a city founded by the Sakyans of India and Alaungmintaya's descent from Mahasamada, the first king on earth, are all imaginary). It was completed on 12 September 1754. The ceremony of occupying it was held on 28 October 1754 (Kon., I 1967, p.108). While the city was built, arrangements were carefully made to make it invulnerable to any attack by enemies both human and spirit. To ward off evil spirits, images of various guardian gods were made and put in shrines. Rituals with offerings were carried out at these shrines regularly. Mantras were recited at all the city gates and magic symbols were drawn on city walls, city gate door panels, city gate arch ceilings and inside the striking surface of the city gate drums (ROB 3 November 1755). Buddhist priests would also be requested to recite paritta at the city gate and they would be given alms there. These would safeguard the city and its inhabitants from attacks supernatural. On the other hand, city defences would take care of any attack by human beings. The city walls were made very strong.. The moat around it was dug deep and wide (ROB 13 January 1758). Guard duties were much more intensified than before. Guard were to do no other work like digging the moat or building the city wall which were given top priority at that time (ROB 13 January 1758). After each victorius campaing, the city population would increase considerably and to avoid congestion, the building of Greater Yadana Theinga was begun on 24 October 1757 (Kon., I 1967, p. 265). The hinterland of the city was made more productive (ROB 24 January 1756) by improving areas of land were granted for homesteads in order than more land


would be brought under cultivation (ROB 29 October 1759). War captives were not turned into salves as usual. They were given land and necessary aids to settle into homesteads (Kon . , I 1967, p. 58). Some of them were employed again in the war effort (ROB 7 January 1760) and some foreigner captured in war were made king's own guards (Kon., I 1967, pp.185-6). To ensure security of life and property in the urban area, special care was taken to prevent fire (ROB 13 January 1758, 22 September 1759, 6 March 1760 and 13 March 1760) and crime (ROB 13 January 1759). Selling and consumption of intoxicant drinks was also prohibited (ROB 1 January 1760) Due to the ravages of war many villages were destroyed and many families were broken up and many fields had relapsed into jungle. Programmes of reconstruction, rehabilitation and repatriation were made with some efficiency (ROB 20 March 1759, 15 January 1760 and 20 February 1760). Trade routes between the city and provinces were kept open safe. A provincial officer must be in a constant state of preparedness for any emergency but his main duty was to restore peace and force in his area only as a last resort (ROB 23 December 1759). The would promote peaceful relations within the kingdom. Toll stations where the dues were collected should never exact more than the customary dues (ROB 4 January 1758, 16 May 1758). In the city, for all buying and selling standard weights, measures and quality of silver to be used as the medium of exchange, were prescribed and regular checks were made so that the standards were respected at all business transactions within the city limits (ROB 4 November 1755) as well as in the areas where Alaungmintaya's suzerainty was accepted (19 December 1756). Local chieftainship was almost always hereditary (ROB 26 July 1756) but some veterans were

rewarded with the chieftainship in some areas (ROB 26 July 1756). After having built the palace, the next concern of the king was to have the regalia made according to the usuage (ROB 3 November 1755). The Thihathana (Lion) throne was placed in the centre in the west end of the Myay Nan (Earth Palace) so that the king and queen would be sitting facing east. On the right of the throne were displayed: 1. Than Lyet - A Double-edged Sword, with gold handle 2. Tha Myi Yat-A Fly-whisk, with gold handle 3. Yadana Shwe Pan Daung - A Relic Casket of Bejewelled Gold 4. Shit Hmyaung Kun Gwet- An Octagonical Gold Betel Receptacle on Lions 5. Salin Kya - A Chandelier of Gold 6. Kun Gwet Kyi - A Big Betel Receptacle of Gold 7. Kun Hte- A Betel Receptacle of Gold on Lions 8. Kun Chat - A Betel Cup of Gold (9. Kyat - A Gold Conical Basket) 10. Kaya - A Gold Jar with Spout 11. Tagaung - A Gold Water Bottle 12. Myuta - A Gold Pot and 13. Myuta - A Gold Pot. On the left were: 1. Hpa Nut - A Pair of Gold Slippers 2. Taung Way - A Gold Staff 3. Let Tin Kya - A Gold Lotus Arm Rest 4. Kun Gwet - A Gold Betel Receptacle on Serpants 5. Thalat - A Gold Bowl with Cover 6. Kun Long Gyi - A Gold Big Betel Receptacle 7. Kun Long Nge - A Gold Small Betel Receptacle 8. Hpa La - A Gold Bowl 9. Kaya - A Gold Jar with Spout 10. Tha Lin Hmyaunt - A Crystal Pumpkin Bowl 11. Thit Taing - A Bejewelled Big Cup with Cover 12. Myuta - A Gold Pot and 13. Myuta - A Gold Pot. Although it was claimed that the regalia was made and displayed as in the ancient times, changes were mage without admission. Because the display of regalia in 1784 (Zayya Thin Khaya : Rhwe Bum Nidan : A Description on Golden Palace, written on 21 February 1784, Rangoon, Hanthawaddy, 1963, pp.96-7) and the display of regalia in 1884 (Shay Haung


Sayay Thutaythi Ta U : Nan: Mu - Palace Patent, IV, King Thibaw's Display of Regalia on 15 May 1884) were each in its own way different from the display mentioned above. Each one a these objects, it is said, was either a gift from a friendly king or a captured thing from an enemy king or an heirloom handed down from Mahasamada the first king on earth. Thus the Lotus Arm Rest called Let Tin Kya, Bejewelled Big Cup called Thit Taing, Betel Receptacle called Kun Hti, Chandeliers called Salin Kya and Crystal Pumpkin Bowl called Tha Lin Hmyaunt are traced to Thailand, Cheienmai, Arakan, Bengladesh and Viengchang respectively. The rest are said to be from India, Tagaung, Thayayhkittaya, Pagan and Thaton. Ceremonial robes of courtiers were also marks of status. A proper use of them ahould be maintained (ROB 4 November 1755, 29 December 1757) so that there would be no confusion. In fact anyone who used a robe above his rank would be punished. Some robes were supplied by the state though there were some robes and uniforms made by each individual officer for his own use (ROB 16 May 1758). These must be checked so that they were properly made. Those that were not in good condition were supplied new. Correct use of insignias of rank was also insisted and any discrepency would be punished (ROB 3 November 1755). On the other hand, the king did not like people of high position taking undue advantage of their status. His cousins who became somewhat unruly were seriously warned to beheve (ROB 19 October 1757). Queens were once warned not to talk too much (ROB 16 December 1759). A senior monk who asked the life of a rebel leader was refused (ROB 14

December 1759). A minister who was rude to his subordinate was to apologize publicly by a Shihko - obeisance (ROB 4 November 1755). When an officer of a toll gate checked the barge of a minister, the minister was rude to the officer. The king said that no one shall hinder


an officer from carrying out his duty (ROB 7 February 1758). While the king was away on a military campaign, he left administration in the hands of his eldest son. In this way he expected that his son would learn the kingly art from experience (ROB 22 September 1759). As he took all good men in his campaign, he knew that some of the officers he left in his son's council were hopeless (ROB 21 September 1759). For instance, he admitted that he made one of his servants to take charge of moat construction though that man had no engineering skill (ROB 22 September 1759). But with the instructions that he gave, he believed that moat construction as part of the project to make the city defenses stronger would come out all right. The king would not, however, tolerate dishonesty. When the master maker of gold foils was found to be dishonest, he was dismissed from office (ROB 4 February 1758). As regards the

commonfolks, the king was of the opinion that every one of them must be called upon to do a public work and anyone who failed to do so should not live in a society. He would be considered a social outcast (ROB 13 January 1759). By public works, he meant the work to improve the city moat and wall. They must be finished as quickly as possible (ROB 6 March 1760). These people were of course cultivators and cultivation should never be neglected. Three quarter of them would be sent back to the fields to start growing when the rains came (ROB 6 March 1760). Alaungmintaya expected that his eldest son Sirisudhammaraja (Prince Dabayin) might be able to cope the administration in his absence, with the help of his mother the Chief Queen (ROB 1 January 1760). As a young man the was not asked to do much. He shall have to do only the following five things well. 1. In any dealing with a vassal lord, he must be careful not to


hurt the felling of that lord in any way (ROB 21 September 1759) 2. Give the best possible training to all recruits and send them batch by batch to the front (ROB 22 September 1759). 3. Keep the city safe from fire (ROB 22 September 1759) 4. Keep the irrigation works in a constant state of repairs so that agriculture would not suffer (ROB 1 January 1760. 5. Suppress animism (ROB 1 January 1760). On general administration, Alaungmintaya wanted to fix the court procedures first (ROB 4 November 1755). In writing Royal Orders on either (1) an appointment of an officer, or (2) conferring insignias if rank, or (3) giving a decision, or (4) giving an instruction, a uniform style should be adopted in each case and the spelling must be correct (ROB 4 November 1755, 29 October 1757, 28 December 1757, 29 December 1757). An officer must check them and when they were found correct, another officer must fix a seal to each order. Language style in writing an official correspondence should be prescribed too (ROB 14 April 1757). All taxes collected at Seik-Port, Ti-Shop, Pwe-Brokerage, Kin-Toll Station, and Gado-Ferry, were to be fixed at ten percent of the value of the thing assessed (ROB 16 May 1758). On things sold, tax should be collected only from two third of the quantity sold. On things bought, only three quarter of the commodity bought was liable to be taxed (ROB 4 January 1758). Apaw WunCourt Fee from the Plaintiff, was also fixed (ROB 16 May 1758). There shall be no misappropriation of public funds (ROB 20 November 1757). Alaungmintaya wanted to keep himself informed with the general state of affairs and therefore each minister or a judge had to write a monthly repoort and to hand it over to an officer appointed by the king to summarise them. That officer shall submit th summarise


to the king on every second day of the month (ROB 29 November 1757). He also wanted a manual of Nagan-Heralds, compiled so that there was uniformity in all court procedures. On administration of justice, he directed all judges to study various Dhammathats (Law Books) thoroughly and to make neither a biased or a hasty decision. It would be good to wait one to six weeks to pass any important judgement (ROB 19 August 1758). When a monk was required to appear in a witness box, he shall not be summoned without the prior sanction of the primate (ROB 5 September 757). Law suits to realize debts, however, shall wait until the Ayedaw-(Ayutia) Campaign, was over (ROB 1 January 1760). On religion Alaungmintaya allowed only one Buddhist sect in his eralm (Kon. , I 1867, p.70). Members of the sects like Gamavasi-Village Dweller, Ok Htoke Lon-Round Hat, Ok Htoke Pya-Cap, Mo Gyo Thwa-Tall Hat with Top pressed like a blade of an Axe, Talapat Ni-Red Forehead Band, and Talapat Hpyu-White forehead Band, were ordered to abandon their ways and adopt the way of atin-Robe on Left Shoulder leaving Right Shoulder bare, and Ayon-Robe covering Both Shoulder, the king decided in favour of the Atin. Atulayasamahadhammarajadhirajaguru was appointed Thathanabuy-Head of the Mission to propagate Buddhism. He ordered that there shall be no killing of cattle for meat nor consuming any kind of intoxicant drinks or drugs, in his kingdom. Animal sacrifice at the time of harvest was strictly prohibited (ROB 1 January 1760). Any laxity in the observation of the Vinaya among the Buddhist monks was not allowed and Mahadan Wun and his men were to check it. All these measure pivoted on one consideration that Alaungmintaya could not wait until the were over, to carry out his destined role


of the defender of the faith. He had to do everything in his power to promote Buddhism as it was believed in Burma or to be more precise, as it was believed by his religious preceptor called Atulayasamahadhammarajadhirajaguru. The religious preceptor on the other hand also tried to help the king by issuing a very interesting notification to all provincial chief s of the former Ava Kingdom. In that notification, he alluded to a prophecy that there will be much trouble in the east and anyone who wanted to escape destruction should take refuge in Burma or Shwebo where Alaungmintaya was king. When a chief was wise to make the good decision to accept Alaungmintaya's suzerainty, he could save not only himself but also his followers from death. etc. Then he gave a list of provinces that had already accepted the overlorship of Alaungmintaya. The list included the place of Ingye (Gadu), Kachin, Kayin, Khanti (Shan) and Lawa who were once said to be impossible to subdue. He concluded the notification by saying: As a monk, I take no part in political affairs but if you have any difficulty in your endeavour to mitigate the miseries of human beings, it is my duty to give you all possible help (ROB 19 December 1756). Thus the king and monk helped each other to build an empire and to bring prosperity to Buddhism in that empire. The fall of was attributed to three factors, viz. 1. the weakness of the king, 2. the corruptibleness of the ministers and 3. the treachery of Mons (ROB 4 March 1755). Alaungmintaya considered that the king's weakness was due to his disregard of the ten kingly virtues. Perhaps Mahadhammarajadhipati was not innately bad. Yjere were so many odds against him that he eventually


lost his throne and was drowned to death on (3) November 1755. To his own success, Alaungmintaya attributed to his destiny. He seemed to have an infinite faith that he was to become king of kings. A lot of propaganda had been worked on it (ROB 2 January 1755, 20 June 1755, 15 January 1756). Another piece of propaganda that worked well was an enticement to all would-be defectors with a promise that if they deserted Pegu, Alaungmintaya would welcome them without any degradation in rank. The phrase used to denote it was: Can :cim ma pyak asak ma se ne ra ma nim (that he would be allowed to live without being alienated from the ownership of his former property nor he would be denied of his official rank and statue) (ROB 18 January 1756). At a later stage, Alaungmintaya even suggested this king of arrangement to the Pegu King (ROB 28 September 1756). Some leaflets of propaganda were written in some European languages (probably French) with the hope that mercenaries in Pegu might defect (ROB 9 April 1756). There were quite a considerable number of mercenaries in the Mon fighting forces and it was recorded that in Kyaik Hkauk battle on 15 April 1756, the Burmese forces succeeded in killing 300 foreigners (Kon., I 1967, p.166). Some were taken prisoner and on 29 July 1756, 550 foreigners who had been taken in battle were organized into a gun group called Ko Yan Thay Nat Su - King's Own Guards (Kon., I 1967, pp.185-6). Foreigners so employed were Ferengi, Pathi (Muslim), Kappali (Negro) and Tamil. Using God Indra's name as the author, a letter was sent to people of Pegu with a suggestion that the Pegu King should send his daughter as a bride to Alaungmintaya and the hostilities should be ended with a marriage union (ROB 9 April 1756). Jataka stories were used to negotiate terms of peace (ROB 28 June 1756, 19 October 1756). The stories referred to are:


No. 51 Mahasilava Jataka - a good king met evil with good. Refusing to sanction war, he was captured but he eventually regained his sovereignty. No. 371 Dightikosala Jataka - a prince spared the life of the king who had slain his father and thereby he succeeded to make that king repent. No. 462 Samvara Jataka - a prince made friends with all kinds of people and in this way he was able to avert a war. No. 543 Bhuridatta Jataka - a marriage union proved to be the best form of alliance between two kingdoms. To the monks who came from Pegu to negotiate peace, Alaungmintaya

promised that there would be no massacre after Pegu was taken if everything turned out well as he had suggested (ROB 19 October 1756). He also said that if the Pegu King was really earnest to stop the war, he was to take the initiative and stop all hostilities first (ROB 19 December 1756). Taking the cue from the Bhuridatta Jataka (No. 543) the Pegu. King sent his daughter as a bride to Alaungmintaya on 22 December 1756 (ROB 13 December 1756: Kon. I 1967, p.224). From the few records that we have on Alaungmintaya's relationship with the Europeans, we find that he was more eager to get the British friendship and trade was an only excuse to procure arms and ammunition. He sent a letter to the British saying that there always was a good trade and friendly relationship between Burma and British and due to a Mon rebellion, that relationship was terminated for a while. Now that an almost normal conditions had been restored, he wanted the friendship renewed (ROB 4 March 1755). Obviously it was a request for the supply of weapons just like what the French were doing for the Mons (ROB 6 June 1755). To show that he was in real earnest to get the British help, he gave them a piece of land for a factory site in Bassein (ROB 8 May 1756). He sent letters to Negrais, Madras and London. There was no reply. We find one Pali verse that might refer to this situation. The Pali


composition is so faulty that it is very difficult to know what it really means though we could make a guess as follows: (You Englishmen1)You do well in trading, But you are no good in fighting. What about your literary attaiment? Find out what this Pali is meant. (ROB 29 October 1757) The hopelessness of the situation culminated in the massacre at Negrais on 6 October 1759. The causes of the tragedy were summed up as: 1. Help given by Jackson and Whitehill to Mons when they attacked Rangoon on 13 May 1755 was taken as a British treachery. 2. Receiving no reply to Alaungmintaya's letter dated 8 May 1756 to king George II was considered an affront that could not be forgiven. 3. Gregory (an Armenian in the service of the Burmese) told the Burmese that the British came to India as merchants but they built an empire there; the Burmese took it as a warning. 4. Larine, a French Eurasian, who came with the Burmese to Negrais to seize military stores and to capture men for ransom, over did the work because of his hatred on the British; he could easily explain that he had been forced to take extreme measures. The English considered that revenge was out of question at that time and an irreconciliable breach with Burma was also not advisable. In the meanwhile Alaungmintaya planned to invade Thailand. Hoping to get guns, etc. he sent a letter of friendship to the French at Pondicherry on 20 December 1759. Mergui and Tenasserim were under Thai in those days and he took these towns on (7 March 1760) and ( 9 March 1760) respectively. That started the war with Thailand. The fighting men were organized as IO Laknak Kaing (armed men) under


1 Kyat (leader), 10 Kyats (leaders) under I Tat Hmu (chief) and 10 Tat Hmus (chiefs) under I Bo (commander) with 2 Sitke (officer), 2 Nagan (herald) and 2 Sayay (clerk) (Kon., I 1967, p.57). Alaungmintaya had his men organized into fighting units from the time that Ava fell on II March 1752 (Kon., I 1967, p.19). Occasionally he had the strength of some units increased and they were

reorganized before a major campaign was started. One unit of armed men was called one Thwethauk and the approximate strength was fifty. The whole

fighting force under Alaungmintaya would be around 100 Thwethauks or 5,000 men. The following is the list of fighting men and the date that they were organized as mentioned in the chronicle (Kon., I 1967). 17 April1752 68 (I) May 1752 120 Myin Yi Det (Best Horsemen) (p.27) Ko Yan Daw Thet Taw Saunt Shwe Nan Daw Thay Nat (Golden Palace and Body Guard Gunmen) (pp.32-3) (I) May 1752 140 Thon Thwethauk Su (Three Thwethauk Groups) (p.33) (30) May1752 190 Thay Nat Su (Gun Group) (pp.42-3) 26 July 1756 93 Myo Tet Lu Kyun Daw Yin Thu Ye (Commandoes selected from the Most Loyal Servants of the king to raid Syriam) (p.182) 28 July 1756 550 Ko Yan Thay Nat Su (Foreigners called Kala comprising Ferengi, Pathi or Muslim Indians,Kappali or Negros, and Kale or Tamils)(pp.185-6) 24 Oct1756 100 Shwe Lhan Ye Zu (Braves of the Golden Lance; Commandoes to raid Pegu) (p.194). 24 Oct 1756 106 Ywe Zu That Bat (Selected Gunmen, Commandoes to raid Pegu) (p.200) (20) Dec1756 410 Nga Thwethauk (Five Thwethauk Groups) (p.290) 24 July 1758 I,848 Letwe Thon Ze Thon Thwethauk (Thirty Three Thwethuk Groups of the Right) (p.290) I Sept 1758 I, 302 Letya Thon Ze Thon Thwethauk (Thirty Three Thwethauk Groups of the Right) (p.290) I Sept 1758 I, 980 Ywe Letwe Thay Nat Su (Selected Gunmen Group of the Right) (p.291) The King went on a campaign against Manipura on 12 November 1758 and he was again at his capital on 22 January 1759. The forces that he mustered on the Manipuri campaign seemed to be all that he could get. It comprised of I, 848 men of Letwe Thon Ze Thon, I,302 men of Letya Thon Ze Thon and I, 980 men of Ywe Letwe Thay Nat Su - a total of 5, 130 men or 100 Thwethauk


Groups. But in the Ayut'ia campaign, we are told that Alaungmintaya had mustered over 10,000 men at Tavoy before he started the invasion (Kon., I 1967, p.306). With Min Gaung Nawyatha in the command, there were 300 Horsemen and 3,000 Gunmen; with Min Hla Nawyatha there were 300 Horsemen and 3,000 Gunmen and with Siridhammaraja (Prince Myedu) there were 500 Horsemen and 5,000 Gunmen. That made a total of 510 Horsemen and 11,000 Gunmen. That was slightly over double the strength that he used against Manipura and with a lightning assault, he expected a quick victory. He would have been successful if he were not wounded. (Accounts other than Burmese mention that Alaungmintaya was wounded when a cannon that he managed to fire bursted. See Q.A.R.Wood, A History of Siam, London, Fisher Unwin, 1926, p.242). But there were three reasons that could explain his failure. Firstly, he made the invasion against the advice of his generals (Kon., I 1967, pp.305, 315). Secondly he started it too late. We know that in Southeast Asia, the fighting season is from November to February. It would be too hot to be fighting in March and April and the rains made it impossible in May. Thirdly he could not have the required military supplies without the European aid and we know that there were no such aids at that time. As a good general he knew when to retreat. We have very few Royal Orders of the next three reigns of King

Dabayin (Naungdawgyi 1760-1763), King Myedu (Sinbyushin 1763-1776), and King Singu (1776-1782). There were many remarkable events, especially during the time of King Myedu when wars were fought against Chinese, Manipura and Thailand. It is impossible that there were no Royal Orders with reference to anyone of these important episodes though we failed so far to trace them.


CHRONOLOGY 1752-1782 27 9 11 January March March 1752 1752 1752 Sagaing fell into the hands of Mon Ava's first fortification broken Ava's second and last fortification broken; the King was taken prisoner 9 April 1752 Mon envoys came to Moksobo to administer cath of allegiance to Alaungmintaya; Kwe envoys also arrived on the same purpose 13 April 1752 Another Mon envoy came to Moksobo; it was ambushed 17 April 1752 A contingent of Mon troops sent against Moksobo; Alaungmintaya organized 68 selected horsemen 24 (1) April May 1752 1752 Mon attack on Moksobo repulsed Alaungmintaya organized 120 gunmen 140 armed men 46 town guards (30) 3 May June 1752 1752 Alaungmintaya organized 190 gunmen Another contingent of Mon troops left Ava to attack Moksobo 8 29 23 29 11 14 4 6 June June September September October October November November 1752 1752 1752 1752 1752 1752 Myaung Wun battle; Mons defeated Thomas Taylor came to Diamond island Khin Lat battle; Mons defeated English got a factory site at Syriam Alaungmintaya attacked Khin U Another attack on Khin U; Khin U taken

1752 Alaungmintaya attacked Zin Ywa;Zin Ywa taken 1752 Alaungmintaya attacked Ye U; fighting forces

organized;war captives given land for homesteads 13 November 1752 Alaungmintaya attacked Te Daw





Alaungmintaya made a tour of recruiting men in his fighting forces

6 11 26 21

April April April June

1753 1753 1753 1753

Alaungmintaya attacked Kyi Daw Gyi Alaungmintaya took Min Gin David Hunter seized Negrais Constructions begun at Moksobo to turn it into a capital


Buddhist sects other than "Left Shoulder" were declared illegal; animal sacrifices at harvest time prohibited



Thomas Taylor came to Bassein with a permission for a factory site




Alaungmintaya sent troopd against Kwe at

Taung Thon Sint;Alaungmintaya took Laung Tha 17 December 1753 Alaungmintaya's land forces held fort at Shwe Kyek Yet and Tat Kyi and water forces at Sin De getting ready to attack Ava 24 December 1753 David Hunter died of fever at Negrais; Henry Brooke succeeded him as Chief of Negrais; Thomas Taylor became second in command there 29 3 8 15 19 11 December January January February February March 1753 1754 1754 Alaungmintaya's attack on Ava begun Sagaing taken; Ava taken Pagodas destroyed in war were repaired

1754 Alaungmintaya marched to Anya Sin Bo Min Gin 1754 1754 Alaungmintaya came back to Kyauk Myaung Alaungmintaya in Katha; sent troopd to Mchnyin and Mogaung



March 1754

Alaungmintaya at Shwe Baw Gyun; administered oath of allegiance to Sawbwas of Mong Mit and Bhamo


March 1754

Alaungmintaya won over Shans and Kachins in a battle on a ridge near Tha Mine village; he proceeded to Sin Bo Min Gin where he reached after twenty two stages from Ava

31 6 8 9 29 24

March 1754 April April April April May 1754 1754 1754 1754 1754

Alaungmintaya at Shwe Baw Gyun Alaungmintaya Tagaung Alaungmintaya at Kyauk Myaung Alaungmintaya at Shwebo (former Moksobo) Mons troops came north and arrived at Taloke Myo First major engagement between Mon forces and Alaungmintaya's forces in the river; Mons were good in fighting from boats but they lost the battle

27 2

May June

1754 1754

Mons retreated from upper Burma Alaungmintaya left Ava for Pin Me Hti by Sekya Taing Min village route

26 27 25 29

June June

1754 1754

Constructions in Shwebo resumed Alaungmintaya arrived at Shwebo Alaungmintaya sent troops against Nge Kyan in Hti Lin Alaungmintaya received reports on success of anti-Mon activities in Burmese towns under Mons

August 1754 August 1754

12 September 1754

A gold finial was fixed above the palace in Shwebo


to mark the completion of palace construction 21 (15) September October 1754 1754 Thit Chauk Tut where Nge Kyan stood, fell Kyaw Htin Thet Shay escaped from Hanthawaddy; he came to Kyan Gin to start anti-Mon activities there; Prome succeeded in expelling Mons from it 28 October 1754 Ceremony of occupying the new palace held in Shwebo 30 25 October November 1754 1754 Finial fixed above Shwe Chet Tho pagoda Alaungmintaya went to Kyauk Myaung to sent troops to lower Burma 27 29 November November 1754 1754 Troops sent to Prome Ceremony of sitting on a new throne held in Shwebo 24 December 1754 Name plates fixed at the twelve gates of Shwebo; it was a kind of proclamation that city building was over 2 13 16 18 30 January January January January January 1754 1754 1754 1754 1754 Alaungmintaya left Shwebo to march south Alaungmintaya left Kyauk Myaung Alaungmintaya in Ava Alaungmintaya left Ava Troops under La Goon Ain were defeated at Shwe Bon Tha Letkya 6 February 1755 Attack on San Daw Shin fort where Banya Jala made a stand 7 February 1755 San Daw Shin fort taken; Alaungmintaya in Prome 9 23 February February 1755 1755 All Mon attacks on Prome repulsed Bassein fell into Burmese hands


3 4 13

March 1755 March 1755 March 1755

Campaign against Hanthawaddy begun Loon Hsay renamed Myan Aung A Burmese envoy came to the English factory (trade depot ) in Bassein; Captain George Baker from the factory accompanied the envoy to Negrais; henry Brooke, Chief of Negrais , received him well; the Burmese wanted military supplies but he had very little of them to spare

8 10

April April

1755 1755

Alaungmintaya left Myan Aung; arrived at Kanaung Burmese envoy left Negrais; Bassein fell into the hands of Mon; envoy was sent back to Nagrais

14 16 2 2 13 18

April April May May May May

1755 1755 1755 1755 1755 1755

Alaungmintaya stopped at Hsa Ma Lauk Dagon taken; built a fort there Dagon renamed Rangoon Burmese got back Bassein Mon attack on Rangoon Mon stockade of Tamwe fell; from the arms seized at Tamwe, Alaungmintaya was convinced that Henery Brooke was double-crossing him

22 27 30 1

May May May June

1755 1755 1755 1755

Mons made a stand in Hpaung Nin Ma Lit Hpaung Nin Ma Lit taken Burmese attack on Syriam begun; they failed badly Dala taken (not the present Dala; it is now a ruined site outside Twante)

6 (7) 27

June June June

1755 1755 1755

John Whitehill arrived at Rangoon Second Burmese envoy went to Nagrais Alaungmintaya left Rangoon


13 29 31

July July July

1755 1755 1755

Alaungmintaya left Prome Alaungmintaya left Ava Alaungmintaya in Shwebo Mon attack on Rangoon Chinese envoys in Keng Tung Another Mon attack on Rangoon




George Baker in Shwebo; North died on the way

28 28 4 7 13 3 5 15

September September February February February March March March

1755 1755 1755 1755 1756 1756 1756 1756

Baker left Shwebo Baker in Negrais Alaungmintaya left Shwebo Alaungmintaya left Kyauk Myaung Alaungmintaya left Nyaung U Alaungmintaya left Prome Alaungmintaya left Myan Aung Alaungmintaya in Rangoon; Kala ByoThiridamarut Thwethauk - Young Foreign Mercenary Platoon called Damayut, organized

17 9

March April

1756 1756

Collected provisions as much as possible Alaungmintaya had a stockade built close to Syriam




Kyaik Htauk battle; over 300 mercanaries from Mon side were reported to have been killed in that battle




troops sent to Hanthawaddy to hang a propaganda letter outside one of its gates



Alaungmintaya sent by Ensign Lester and Dr William Anderson letters to King George II,


Directors of East Company in London, Governor of madras and Chief of Negrais 8 19 May May 1756 1756 English envoys left Rangoon; attack on Dawbon Dawbon taken; a series of attack on Syriam begun 13 July 1756 The Yay Nan Set Kya used in an attack against Syriam; Mahasenapati (Alaungmintaya's Chief of Guns) was seriously wounded in battle and died that very day 26 29 July July 1756 1756 93 Commandoes led the attack; Syriam fell Foreigners taken as prisoners were organized into Ko Yan Daw Thay Nat Su- group of Body Guards with Guns 13 September 1756 Do Zwe Ya Zet defected; Mons made a stand at Kamapi 28 3 4 13 15 24 September October October October October October 1756 1756 1756 1756 1756 1756 Kamapi taken Major assault on Hanthawaddy begun Alaungmintaya in Kamapi Alaungmintaya in Kyaik Pa Kit Kyaik Pha Tine taken 100 Commandoes organized to attack Nyaung Bin 26 October 1756 Nyaung Bin taken; peace mission led by mnoks from Hanthawaddy came 30 26 29 7 October November November December 1756 1756 1756 1756 Alaungmintaya in Yan Gin Si Tun Alaungmintaya in Pan Say Son Gon taken Mons came to build a very strong stsckade at some distance outside their city; it was taken


in a rush and Alaungmintaya had a stockside built at Si Di, 1.5 miles / 2.5 kilometres on the south of Hanthawaddy; Si Di was renamed Zaytuwady and Alaungmintaya went to camp there 18 December 1756 Night attack on Hanthawaddy organized; best general of the Mons called Dalaban left his King and went to Sittang (and latter to Kawgun) 22 December 1756 King of Hanthawaddy sent his daughter as a bride to Alaungmintaya 1 January 1757 King of Hanthawaddy dethroned by a faction of Mons led by Banya Dala who wanted to fight till the end 8 March 1757 Hanthawaddy completely surrounded by Burmese stockades 25 March 1757 Directors of the English East India Company in London allowed Madras to use its discretion to close the Negrais settlement 30 29 6 12 14 16 March April May May June June 1757 1757 1757 1757 1757 1757 Captain Howe died in Nagrais Tha Main Lut came to attack the Burmese Attack on Hamthawaddy renewed Hanthawaddy fell Martaban submitted Yaw, Laung Shay and Hti Lin chiefs confirmed in their offices 24 25 June June 1757 1757 Many Shan and Yun chiefs submitted Presents from Chenapatam (Ft St Heorge, Kadras) arrived





Rewards given to all soldiers of distinguished service in battles

1 2 5

July July July

1757 1757 1757

Titles conferred upon brave soldiers Alaungmintaya left Hanthawaddy Alaungmintaya at Rangoon; titles conferred upon more soldiers

8 12 22

July July July

1757 1757 1757

Alaungmintaya visited Shwedagon Alaungmintaya left Rangoon Ensign Robert Lester came to Alaungmintaya with presents from Captain Thomas Newton, Chief of Negrais




Celebration to mark the completion of constructions at Myan Aung Shwe Bon Tha pagoda; treaty with English ratified; Robert Lester allowed to return to Negrais

1 4 21 22

August August August August

1757 1757 1757 1757

Alaungmintaya in Prome Alaungmintaya left Prome Alaungmintaya in Ava Lester took formal possession of a site in Bassein




Alaungmintaya left Ava; Lester arrived at Negrais

28 7 24 4

August September October December

1757 1757 1757 1757

Alaungmintaya at Kyauk Myaung Alaungmintaya left Kyauk Myaung Constructions of Greater Shwebo begun Mong Mit chief confirmed in his office; 180 gunmen organized





Miniature of Hanthawaddy Shwe Daw pagoda built in Shwebo

2 9 16

January January January

1758 1758 1758

Envoys from Negapatam (Madras coast) arrived Envoys from Manipura arrived Negapatam envoys returned; troops sent against Kwe Lawa

24 24 1 12 22 7 15

January July September November January February February

1758 1758 1758 1758 1758 1758 1759 1759

More troopd sent against Kwe Lawa Fighting forces reorganized Fighting forces reorganized Alaungmintaya went to attack Manipura Alaungmintaya came back from Manipura Alaungmintaya in Shwebo Troops sent to Bhamo Robert Lester died in Negrais Negrais main garrison ready to withdraw Newton arrived at Ft William (Calcutta) bringing back men and stores from Negrais; 35 Europeans and 70 Indians and 4,000 timber were left at Negrais

April 13 May

1759 1759




Alaungmintaya left Kyauk Myaung for Rangoon



Captain William Henry Southby left Calcutta for Negrais to take charge of Negrais from Lt Hope and to carry out the task of removing timber from there as mush as possible

21 4

September October

1759 1759

Alaungmintaya left Prome Southby in Negrais; took over the charge of the station from Lt Hope; Antonio (Portuguese


Governor of Bassein) and Lavine (French Eurasian in the service of the Burmese King) arrived at Negrais in about the same time with Southby 6 October 1759 Massacre at Negrais; 60 men, 4 women and child escaped 16 10 October November 1759 1759 Negrais settlement burnt Captain Alves who escaped the massacre at Negrais arrived at Calcutta 21 December 1759 Alaungmintaya left Rangoon on a campaign against Ayut'ia (25 December 1759) Tavoy rebellion suppressed; its former Governor executed (30 (7 (14 (19 (27 (7 (9 (16 (22 (26 (9 11 17 December February February February February March March March March March April April April 1759) Alaungmintaya in Martaban 1760) Alaungmintaya in Moulmein 1760) Alaungmintaya in Ye 1760) Alaungmintaya in Tavoy 1760) Alaungmintaya left Tavoy 1760) Alaungmintaya in Mergui 1760) Alaungmintaya in Tenasserim 1760) Alaungmintaya in Kwe 1760) Alaungmintaya in Phetburi 1760) Alaungmintaya in Ratburi 1760) Alaungmintaya in Suphanburi 1760 1760 Alaungmintaya laid siege to Ayut'ia Alaungmintaya raised the siege of Ayut'ia and hastened back to rangoon via Rahaeng, Mas Sot, Myawadi route


29 24

November August

1763 1763

Prince Myedu ascended the throne Abayagamani and Min Hla Thiri conquered Chiengmai; Sin Mya Shin was found there and taken prisoner




Triumphant generals of Chiengmai campaign in Shwebo

6 3 16 15

February March May September

1764 1764 1764 1764

Ayut'ia campaign begun Order to rebuild Ava as capital passed Coronation Men in the King's service were of (1) high mental capacity as well as physical prowess, (2) high mental capacity only and (3) physical prowess alone; the King wanted to have them adjusted in the services according to their own capabilities




Troops sent against Mong Ton,. Nong La, Hkapin, Annam, Viengcheng




Troops sent against Ayut'ia Troops sent against Manipura

15 25 7

January March April

1765 1765 1765

King marched against Manipura Viengcheng taken King left Manipura; on arrival at the capital he built Neikban Hseik U pagoda

23 22 22 27

June August October December

1765 1765 1765 1765

Palace built in Ava Troops from Chiengmai sent against Ayut'ia Troops from Tavoy sent agaunst Ayut'ia Chinese came to attack Keng Tung





Burmese forces were camped at a distance of about 400 ta / .75 mile / 1.25 k from Ayut'ia



Report of success at Keng Tung reached the capital

20 8

March April

1766 1766

King in Ava; city area extended west Triumphant army from Keng Tung arrived at the capital; Bala Min Htin sent to Kaung Ton




Troops sent to Twelve Pannas of Lu and Chiengmai

(31) 9

December January

1766 1767

Chinese attacked Bhamo Ava extension completed; Ayut'ia offered terms of peace

30 3 5 9 21 5 (19) 24 16 31 30 30 6 12

January February February April May June December December March March April May June June

1767 1767 1767 1767 1767 1767 1767 1767 1768 1768 1768 1768 1768 1768

Troops sent against Chinese invaders King agreed to conclude peace with Ayut'ia Troops sent by river to Bhamo Ayut'ia fell Triumphant army returned from Bhamo Triumphant army returned from Ayut'ia Another Chinese invasion Troops sent against Chinese invaders Troops returned to the capital Pagan Shwezigon finial fell King went to Pagan Shwezigon finial fixed King left Pagan Great earthquake; Rangoon Shwedagon finial fell

23 26 20

August August October

1769 1769 1769

Bride from Candapuri / Viengchang / Lin Zin Bride accepted Troops sent against Chinese invaders


29 15 18 1

November December December January

1769 1769 1769 1770

Chinese offered terms of peace Peace concluded with Chinese Chinese withdrew King was angry for allowing the Chinese go; troops went to Manipura on their own to please the King




Troops returned from Manipura; they were not allowed to enter the city

18 28

June June

1770 1770

Received a white elephant King assumed the title of Hsinbyushin- Master of White Elephant

26 11 13 (7) 9 (10) 7 15 14 7

July August August January January February March December May November

1770 1770 1770 1772 1772 1772 1772 1773 1774 1774

Great earthquake Dowager Queen Mother died Remains of the queen cremated Campa Thet sent a bride Bride accepted Troops sent against Thai Troops sent against Candapuri / Viengohang King moved to a temporary palace Coronation Troops sent against Thai; leaders of a Manipuri piracy at capital executed

8 11 13 20 21

January January January January February

1775 1775 1775 1775 1775

King left Ava for Rangoon King in Pagan King left Pagan King in Prome' erected Po U Taung inscription King left Prome


1 15

March March

1775 1775

King in Rangoon Shwedagon finial fixed; ex-lord of Pegu and her executed

3 31 22 9 10 11 16

May July February June June June June

1775 1775 1776 1776 1776 1776 1776

King left Rangoon King in Ava Shwepyi Seik U pagoda construction completed King moved to a new palace King died; Prince Singu ascended the throne Remains of the King cremated Prince Salin executed ; all troops in various campaigns recalled; Princes Amyint, Badon, Pakhan Pindale (uncles of the King as rival claimants to throne) were under house arrest

23 4

December June

1776 1776

Coronation Mahathihathura dismissed from office; Queen

North executed 26 (25) September May 1776 1778 Prince Amyint executed Prince Badon confined in Sagaing, Prince Pakhan in Pinya and Prince Pindale in Ywa Thit Gyi (4) March 1780 Schism among Buddhist monks over; Manle Sayadaw Gunamuninda given charge of the Religion; Prince Maung Maung sent to Hpaungga 20 2 5 10 11 October February February February February 1782 1782 1782 1782 1782 Pinya Shwezigon fell King went to Anya Thiha Daw Prince Maung Maung seized the throne King in Kyauk Myaung Prince Badon killed Maung Maung and took over


the throne; ex-King Singu fled north and on arrival at Sanpanago, he found that all soldiers had deserted him. 14 February 1782 Ex-King Singu captured and executed


THE ROYAL ORDER OF BURMA, AD 1598-1885; PART III, AD 1751-1781

SUMMARY 28 February 1750

From the Emperor in the East To the Emperor in the West It was a very sad thing that there had been no relationship between our two empires for the past 120 years. Now the Lord of the East has sent his Envoy to extend his love and affection to his brother the Lord of the West. It is hoped that the two monarchs shall revive the ancient friendship that existed between the lords from many generations of the past. If this proposal is accepted, please allow the Envoy to return as quickly as possible. The two lords have common ancestors. To make this point more clear, the portraits of the ancestors are sent with the Envoy. The territories under the Lord of the West are quite extensive. If there ever were any enemies to molest the peace and tranquility of these territories, the Lord of the East deems it his responsibility to help in quelling them. Note: In all probability, this Burmese version of the address from China is quite different from its original thought in is the one acceptable to the Burmese king who admits no other monarch as his superior. (2 January) 1755 Between 1723 and 1753, according to astrology, it was expected that there would be a great trouble at Ava. Usually calamities visited Ava on every other one hundred year of its existence. There was also a

prophesy that after the tenth king (Mahadhammarajadhipati 1733-1752) in the Nyaung Yan dynawty of Ava, a 'Friday born' would became king there. According the tenth king had no scruples to be guided himself with the ten kingly virtues, etc. His officers were corrupt. These were reasons enough for the fall of the dynasty. In addition to these, the Mons of the Ramannadesa were treacherous. They rebelled. Consequently there was much bloodshed. They succeeded to revive a Mon kingdom. Only the saupid however, believed that this revival would last long. It was clear that their success would be only temporary. Because when a person destined to be most supreme appears, somehow or other, people of less importance faded away. History has many parallels in this respect. There was trouble in Videhara awaiting Mahosatha to solve them. Frightful monsters ravaged Pagan until Pyusatha to solve them. Frightful monsters ravaged Pagan until Pyusawhti conquered them. With all the virtues of a Bonhisattva and a good king, Alaungmintaya had been able establish the capital city at Ratanasingha and bring the chiefs of following places under his control. Kale Kathe Kawlin Hsawnghsup Hsipaw Hsumhsai Leihka Lawksawk Moda Mogagung Mohnyin Wuntho Yinge People who would trust his leadership would have peace of both mind and body. Once Mon rebels overan many of places mentioned above and the chiefs of these places were forced to take an oatha of allegiance to these Mons. Now they changed their allegiance to Alaungmintaya. Even Mons

should do that. In case Mons should pledge their allegiance to Alaungmintaya, he certainly would have pardoned them with magnanimity. Order: All Burmese shall (pledge their allegiance to King

Alaungmintaya) by bowing low until their heads touch the Golden Feet. This Order was proclaimed on (2 January) 1755 (when the King left his capital city on a campaing south). Note: Alaungmintaya used some diplomancy to evade taking the oath of allegiance to the Mons on 9 April 1752 and it is assumed that he considered himself a king since then. He decided to have a capital city built for himself and constructions at Moksobo which was his native village and was later renamed Ratanasingha, begun on 21 June 1753. But they were syopped for a while when the fighting seasons came, i.e. between November and February before it becomes too hot in March or before the rains in May. Constructions were resumed on 26 June 1754. The palace was completed on 12 September 1754 and the King occupied it on 28 October 1754. The ceremony of a coronation that required more elaborated preparations. Name plates were hung up at the twelve city gates on 24 December 1754 and it marked the end of city construction. Later Alaungmintaya found that the city as originally designed was small and constructions on Greater Ratanasingha begun on 24 October 1757.

(4 March 1755) As there had been friendship and commerace between Burma and (British now at) Minjjhimadesa (Central India), the present monarch of Burma wants to extend this good relationship as it had been in existence before. Formerly there had been an exchange of precious gems of Burma called in

a general term of Badamya Kyauk Than with things of western produce known generally a Amyauk Thay Thagalat Ok Myo Hti Myo-Cannon, Gun, Scarlet or Bales of Various Texitles. It was of some considrable profit to both parties concerned. In the meanwhile, the people of Ramannadesa had rebelled and destroyed Ava. It seemed that Ava subjected to such a catastrophe on or about every one hundredth year since its establishment in 1365. This time, the calamity was due firstly to the weakness of the ex-king and secondly to the fact that he was to the yield his palace to a better man who is Alaungmintaya himself. The disasters that the Burmese suffered, however, were temporary. King Alaungmintaya, with his capital city at Ratanasingha (Shwebo) had (with the exception of Mons) conquered all provincial chiefs like Dana, Kachin, Kathe, Kayin and Shan who were formerly under the Ava king. He had virtually restored peace and prosperity in (the central and northern territories of the former Kingdom of Ava).The Burmese at Prome succeed (on 15 October 1754) in driving away the Mons from their town and they had invited Alaungmintaya to take possession of their town. Alaungmintaya left his capital city (on 2 January 1755) and on arriving at Prome, he managed to destroy a Mon Fort close to the town of Prome (on 7 February 1755). Then he started (on 3 March 1755) a campaign again Hanthawaddy which was the centre of Mon rebellion. (After having taken Lun Hsay on 4 March 1755, he renamed it Myan Aung). Then he sent a letter by an envoy headed by Thiri Thenga Thet Shay Nawyatha) to Henry Brooke, the English Chief at Negrais. He said: Following the former practise, an exchange of things like amber, copper, gold, iron, ruby and silver (of Burma) with guns and a variety of textiles (of Europe) like scarlet in cales, shall be resumed.

A gift of two resceptcles made of gold rubies, in the likeness Hamsa birds, has been sent. The two birds shall remind us of our trade relations. This letter was written on (4 March) 1755.

29 May 1755 Order: (1) Nanngambhi of Htaw Ma village in Atwin Shell shallbe held responsible for the good observation of the Vinaya by the monks living on the west of Pon Daung Pon Nya divide. (2) Monks living in the aforesaid area shall obey Nanagambhi who would report me if there were any disobedience to his remonstrations. This Order was passed by Mahaatulayasadhammarajaguru (Hson Da Thathanabyu Sayadaw) on 29 May 1755 and given to Nga Pu in the service of Mahadan Wun.

29 May 1755 Order: Appoint the following monks Gaing Ok (Local Leaders) in the places located on the east of the Yakhaing Yoma and the Chin Hills. (1) Shin Nanngambhi, native of Pakhgngyi, now living in Htaw Ma, Atwin Shell; (2) Shin Tejodipa, former Maung Shan of the Cavalary, native of Taung Dwin Gyi,, now living in Htaw Ma; (3) Shin Gunasara, former Maung Paw San, an Athi Gyi, native of Seik Zay in thirty villages of the Range under Pakhan, now living in Htaw Ma; and (4) Shin Dhammasara, former Maung Nay Dun, an Athi of Min Ywa, living in Min Ywa. This Order by the Thathanabyu Sayadaw was passed on (29 May 1755).

(6 June 1755) Alaungmintaya, King of Sunaparanta, Tampadipa and several other kingdoms, Defender of the Buddhist Religion, Possessor of Sakra weapon, Lord of the Golden Palace, Owner of Mines producing various precious gems, Master of Elephants white, Red and Spotted, wants to intimate the (English) at Maw Tin Ga Yit (Negrais) and (Madras) under Governor Thomas Saunders, that Pegu is in fact part of the Burmese territory though it had rebelled recently and set up a separate kingdom from about 1740; that the Burmese are very quickly regaining the lost territories so that at present Prome, Toungoo, Tharawaddy, Okkan, Thonze, Lun Hsay (Myan Aung), Kyan Gin. Danubyu, Henzada, Bassein, Myaungmya, Hke Baung, Dagon (Rangoon), Dala, etc. are now under the Burmese securely and that the Burmese had recently acquired Syream, Pan Hlaing and Kyaikkhami with the result that Pegu alone is left without any support; that Dagon is now rebuilt with a new name of Rangoon and Alaungmintaya has it made a capital for (lower Burma); that Burma and Mijjhimadesa (now under the English) had trade relations for quite a long time in the past and it is indeed good to know that the (English East India) Company wants to revive this good relations; that Pegu does only the defensive war now and we want more cannons to be used in the siege of Pegu and we know for sure that the Company has many; that we want 12 big cannons of shots weighing 5 viss (18.25 lbs), 4 viss (14.6 lbs), 3 viss (10.95 lbs) and 1 viss (3.65 lbs) and that we hope the Company shall give them to us for the sake of amity; that the French are helping Pegu with 60 cannons and 300 guns with all the necessary munitions and that a Frenchman called Bruno once came to Rangoon to make overtures of friendship with us but we did not believe him and he was sent away from Syriam and is now at sea; that while the French goes to Pegu, you

English should come to us at Dagon with double the amount of supplies that the French are giving to Pegu because we Burmese and English are now to be considered as Kan Sat-partners of the same fate; that the Company's agent Whitehill came to Rangoon on 5 June (1755) as his ship was caught in a storm and it needs some repairs and he and his crew have been our honoured guests since then; and that our envoys are visiting you with the purpose of buying arma and ammunition. This letter was sent on (6 June 1755) Note: Since the letter mentions the arrival of John Whitehill at Rangoon, it would have been sent sometime after his arrival. Probably it was sent on the next day.

10 June 1755 By the stroke of some extraordinary good luck, a slave would become a master himself and could use his former master for a slave. The lucky man was the Pegu king. Alaungmintaya on the other hand was destined to build a new dynasty when the old one fell. Even though he had been very lucky before, the Pegu king should not try his luck against Alaungmintaya who was to become the most supreme lord. Alaungmintaya came south in a pilgrimage to the pagoda of Thein Gottaya Kon (Shewdagon). He would, of course, condescend to become a friend with the Pegu king. He would like to extend this cordiality also to all local chiefs at their respective places. He would not feel averse to such a political expediency of taking the Pegu king in subordinate alliance. With these things in mind, Alaugmintaya was at Dagon (since 16 April 1755). Pegu king should have wise and learned advisers or ministers who would give him a good counsel to start the overtures of peace. Order: Send the monk called Panna Dippa who was brought to Rangoon

from Hmaw Wun some members of the group collecting grass for horses, with the above letter to Pegu. This Order was passed on 10 June 1755. Note: Monks from Pegu came to talk peace only on 26 October 1756. From the time Prome was taken by Alaungmintaya on 7 February 1755 it took nearly two years to reduce Mons to a situation to ask for terms of peace. Even then one group of Mons continue to fight till the last when Pegu was taken on 12 May 1757.

20 June 1755 Like a fallen fruit, there was no one to look after the kingdom of Ava and it was Alaungmintaya who took upon himself the responsibility of caring it. The last king of Ava had great wealth and power bequeathed upon him by his predecessors. In spite of that he lost everything. Why? His disappearance was due to the fact that a very much better man was coming to take his place. In the name of the Religion, that great king would have no difficulty to conquer Ava, Bassein, Mawdin, Myaungmya, Pagan and Prome. He would be respected even in those far off lands like China, India and Thai. Acknowledging his leadership would give the various chiefs of different lands peace and prosperity. Saopha of Hsenwi was among the first to recongnise this and he was wise. The Hanthawaddy campaingns would be soon over. Hsenwi is in the empire's one point of extremity in its territories and it should therefore watch carefully against any invader. Order: Saopha of Haenwi shall one of his ministers (Paw Mine) or one of his subordinate chief, with suitable tributes to the King in Rangoon in case he needs the King's help. This Order was passed on 20 June 1755.

Note: The King left Rangoon for Shwebo on 27 June 1755 but he was there again on 15 March 1756 until 12 July 1757.

(3 November 1755) Alaungmintaya had his own capital built (on 21 June 1753) but he wanted to know how ancient capitals were founded and what the king is supposed to do at the biginning of a reign. Taking Rajagaha, capital of Magadha, built by Mahagovinda, for an example, the following suggestions were made (probably by the former ministers of the Ava kings). 1. Astrological considerations came first; it is believed that some arrangements made after some astrological calculations would make the city invulnerable to any attack by enemies either human or spirit. 2. Mantras were also very important. They were recited at all strategic points and they were written either in words or in symbols on walls, ceilings, gates, etc. That would also ward off evils, etc. 3.Figures of Sakka, Catulokapala, Mahesara, Canni, Paramisva, Genesa, Visnu, Asura, Sun God, Moon God, etc. in groups of 108 gods, 124 gods and 550 gods were painted on the doors or their statues were put in niches made in the walls at the entrances to the city, palace or temples. 4. After the description in the cosmography of the universe, the city was so built that it was a miniature universe and the clock tower would be in the centre of the city as Mt Meru is in the centre of universe. 5. Five big drums were made according to specification (a) to announce time and (b) to terrify the enemies who came to attack the city, by striking them.

6. Coronation was essential. It bound the King and his people in a mutual pledge to work together for peace and prosperity in the kingdom. 7. Regalia would add magesty to the Audience Hall. 8. Giving suitable rewards to men in the King's service either for their bravery in the battlefield or for their wisdom in counselling. Note: Mahadhammarajadhipati, ex-King of Ava and his family together with many of his faithful followers were executed. Some of his former ministers who were not executed at that time, escaped from Hanthawaddy and came to Alaungmintaya who was in great need of information regarding kingly practices and duties and court customs. Manhadhammarajadhipati was drowned in Thadingyut S 1117 (6 October 1755- 3 November 1755) (Siri Ujana, Lokabyuha Kyam:, Rangoon, Government Publications, 1962, p.5). Thiri Zayya Kyaw Zwa and Thiri U-zana came to serve Alaungmintaya in Pyatho S 1118 (21 December 1756-19 January 1757). When the day of the month is not given, we take the last day of the month as the date of the event. Thus the king was drowned on (3) November 1755 and two of the ex-ministers came to serve Alaungmintaya on (19) January 1757.

(3 November 1755) A king usually appointed his eldest so as the Crown Prince. The Investiture of the Crown Prince consested of the following. 1. The Crown Prince shall have his own office with advisers, officers and secretarial staff. 2. The Crown Prince shall have his own guards and regiments. 3. The Crown Prince shall have his own house for residence with actendants, servants, etc. 4. The Crown Prince shall have no Brahman astrologers and no execution men in his service.


(3 November 1755) The King wanted to have some information on various episodes of importance during the last four reigns of the former dynasty. The following chronology was submitted. 19 April 1673 King Tuesday ascended the throne with Queen Atulasirimahacandadevi 19 January 8 October 1675 1675 Bon Gyaw monastery was built Nat Set Yaung monk was given the title of Sirisaddhammaghosamaharajaguru and Bon Gyaw monastry was given to him. (13) May 1679 1680 Queen Monther Dowager founded the U Min Daw 51 families were dedicated at the U Min Daw as servants of the Religion Candadevi built Bon Gyaw Tu Loot which was much more better than Bon Gyaw 28 January 14 July 1696 1698 Great earthquake; one quarter of the city was destroyed King Saturday ascended the throne; he founded the Man Aung Yadana pagoda 18 January 1700 1700 Final was fixed on the Man Aung Yadana pagoda Wabaung Kyaung was built for Pitakat Taik Shin Asabha 1701 Sagaing Tilokaguru Kyaung and Loka Hman Gin Kyaung were built 1702 Image at Mahabodhi collapsed; tow monasteries and two alms houses were added at the establishement 1703 Min Wun Lay Dub Kyaung Ponnya Zedi Zayat, Shin Hpyu Shin Hla Zayat, Bon Kyaung, Shwe Taw Gadaw Kyaung,


Kyak Yon Hpa Gadaw Kyaung and Pyin Daung U Gedaw Kyaung were built 1704 1705 Gyet Five Bodhi tree from Srilanka planted 18 December 11 November 1708 1709 1709 22 October 30 December 1711 1711 Thakin Hla marched to Keng Tung Prince Myaydu went to Pagan Thakin Hla was reprimanded Investiture of the Crown Prince Prince Singu was administered an oath of allegiance, married to the eldest daughter of the King and was ssent to Pagan 1712 Kyauk San Gadaw built a monastery at Loka Man Aung pagoda 1713 8 August 1714 Monks were given many hutments Great earthquake; water gushed into the front part of the palace 11 August 12 August 22 August 1714 1714 1714 1715 1716 King Saturday died; succeeded by King Sunday Dead king cremated Thakin Hla marched against Pagan Thabin Palace built Min Ye Thiha marched against Manipuri; crossed over the Irrawaddy with a pontoon bridge at Sagaing 1717 14 February May 1720 1721 Hman Zi Kyaung built at Tada U Palace burnt Mo Di Kyaung built Way Za Yan Da Dyaung was built Princess Manipuri came to reside in the village of Wa




Min Ye Thiha Kyaw led a contingent of forces against Manipuri


Min Ye Kyaw led a contingent of forces against Manipuri

16 April 22 November

1724 1724 1725 1726

Troops sent to Mohnyin New throne used Sagaing Lay Gyun Man Aung pagoda built Yan Dibba rebelled and killed Prince Singu made the Crown Prince; value of copper became lower and lower since then

23 April


28 December

1728 1730 1731

Thadoe Min Saw died A contingent of forces sent against Chiengmai Dhammadevi, daughter of Twin Thin Min Gyi died; wife of Twin Min Gyi died

24 May 27 May

1732 1732

White elephant from Choon Daung arrived King assumed the title of Sinbyushin (Master of White Elephant)

1733 3 November 1733

Twin Thin Min Gyi died King Sunday died; King Thursday succeeded the throne; there were rejoicings for one whole month

1734 8 January 1736

Sin De Palace built Thaynapati and Min Kyaw brothers were executed at Wa Gyat village

1736 1737 1738 1739 1740

Loka Thara Hpu finial fell; Shin Hla image lest Sitkes of provinces changed 101 men were ordained in the Buddhist order of monks Min Ye Kyaw Gaung marched against Manipuri Nga Tha Aung rebelled in Hanthawaddy


1741 1742 1743 1744

Famine; people had to eat dogs and even human flesh Famine conditions continued Famine conditions continued Bayin Naung was made king at Sagaing to forestell the prophesy that the kingdom would be divided into many petty kingdoms

(3 November 1755) On insignia of a King 1 2 3 4 5 Five White Umbrellas 1 2 3 4 5 Kanetkadan Kampat Yinhti U Yu Kya Ngan Five White Umbrellas A Double-edged Sword A Pair of Sandals A Fly-whisk A Forehead Band

Four White Umbrellas displayed on the left of the throne Kanetdadan Kampat Yinhte 1 1 2

There are three big fans called Yat Ma, one between two umbrellas. Another set of four umbrellas and three fans are displayed on the right of the throne. When the King visits a pagoda or a monastery, two Kampat umbrellas and four Yinhti umbrellas are used. In the palace, U Yu umbrella is placed at the U Yu (southeasternmost) pillar of the main building of the palace and Kya Ngan umbrella at the Kya Ngan (northeasternmost) pillar. The umbrellas were used in the like manner given above until the time when the King was taken prisoner to Hanthawaddy.


(3 November 1755) A king's musical troupe called Si Daw Zon, uses the following instruments. 7 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 5 1 1 1 4 4 5 3 1 In Ava the throne. Drums at each of the four city gates Drum called Ain Shin Si that announces the king's departure from or arrival at the palace Drum called Baho Si used to announce time Drum of good omen called Mingala Si A set of drums called Si Daw Zon Old drums were sent to the Rajamanicula pagoda. The description of other sets of musical instruments for: 1 the Crown Prince, 2 the King's own brother and 3 Shan Saopha are also given. When a king of Ava left his palace, various things that would be of some use during the trip were packed in red and carried by servants dressed in red. The whole entourage is therefore called an Ahsaung Ni. The things so packed are: Guns in 7 red sacks Lances in 3 red sacks drums called Hmyauk Si (to announce the King's appearance or the beginning of an important event) big horns called Dabo Gyi short wind instruments called Tan Hmwa long wind instruments called Tan Shay conches called Hkayuthin pairs of clappers called Lak Khat horns called Dabo round drums called Si Wun oboes of silver called Ngwe Hne long drums called Si Byaw short drum called Pon Tha little drum called Si Poke pair of clappers called Lin Gwin big oboes called Hne Gyi (small) silver oboes called Ngwe Hne drums used at the close of a ceremony called Win Si oboes of Mon people called Talaing Hne little drum called Si Poke following drums were made new when a king ascended the


A rain hat with a stand wrapped in red cloth and put in a net A lamp called Nan Ka Wine A lamp with handle Drinking water in two Myuta pots covered with red cloth A box for things used in cleaning guns One role of gun wick and One mat with special trimmings Similar sets for the Crown Prince, other senior princes, Shan Saphas, etc. are also described in detail. Insigias of rank for all officers are also given in ditail. It is imperative that a consort of a prince must have the royal recognition. Otherwise she is not the wife of the prince or her children would be taken as legitimate. A prince good in horsemanship would be made a Myin Mintha-Prince Chief of Cavalry, in the following horse groups. Gadu Hket Lone Hpaung Ga Lanbu Let Yway Nge Myay Ne Myin Thi Pe Ku Gyi Pin Si Pyin Si Saw Pa O Tabayin Gwe Tanin Pyi Tanin Tha Yi Thayet Inn Thin Gaung and Ya Haing The palanquins that they were entitled to use, the set of harnesses for their horses and their elephants, the ornaments to dicorate their boats, the type of houses that built for residence, etc. are also prescribed. Sons of ministers and senior officers would be grouped in Lubyo ZuBachelors Group, as reserves for a Thway Thauk Zu-Group of Fifty Armed Men. Selection for both membership and leadership in any Thway Thauk Zu


was made by in Hluttaw.

4 November 1755 Order: (1) Nanda Bahu is given the duty to check any irregularities or discrepencies in ceremonial robes and official uniforms used by courtiers and officers while they are attinding a ceremony or attending to their own official duties around the palace at Samut-Night Guards on north, east and south of palace, Dawe-Tea Rooms on north and south, Hlaung Daw U-the Porch of a Palace building, Lay Tha-Balmy BreezeApartment, Baung Daw-Crawns Apartment, Bye Dike-Court of the Interior, Myay Nan-the Earth Palace, Pyat That-Palace of Multiple roofs, and Hluttaw-Administrative Centre, and he is also to check the seats so that all status in the Audience Hall, etc. (2) Nanda Bahu shall also fix the official seal on various weights and baskets after having them checked by the standards prescribed for use in the palace enclosure. (3) Weights and measures for use in the city must be checked at the Office of Myo Wun-Officer in charge of the City, before use. This Order was passed on 4 November 1755.

(4 November 1755) Thet Shay Nawyatha sent his clerk and contestants with a copy of a Royal Order to Baya Thayna. It was just routine. Baya Thayna used strong words in blaming the clerk and in the course of his talk with the clerk, he said something to the effect that he seriously doubted the ability of Thet Shay Nawyatha as a minister. Thet Shay Nawyatha reported this


to the King with a humble request for redress. Baya Thayna checked the Royal Order sent by Thet Shay Nawyatha as he usually do with all other orders for style and spelling before a seal is fixed to it. To his surprise, the order was written like a personal letter. Assuming that it was the fault of the clerk, he reprimanded him. He went further to say that it was impossible to fix a seal to such an order and the minister concerned should be more careful in wording an order. The King called the minister and officer and heard what each of them had to say. Suddenly Thet Shay Nawyatha gave Baya Thayna a box on his head. The King said: ''Thet Shay Nawyatha, no one surpasses you in madness and wildness". Order: (1) Thet Shay Nawyatha shall Shi Hko-make an act of obeisance, to Baya Thayna in the King's presence. (2) Baya Thayna shall receive the Shi Hko of Thet Shay Nawyatha and forgive him. By status, Thet Shay Nawyatha is of Taw seats while Baya Thayna is of Right Du seats only. This Order was passed on (4 November 1755).

15 January 1756 Saopha of Bhamo pleaded on behalf of Saopha of Mong Mit, his two sons Hkam Long and Hkam Line and all officers and men under them, that they shall be condoned of their ricent misdemeanour. It was true that Nga Kyi Nge, known as Saopha of Mong Mit had rebelled. Even if they had succeeded and their area was lost to the King, he would not consider it a serious lost. The King believed that because of his cumulative merits that he had done in his former existences, he was invulnerable.


Anyone who tried to do any harm to the King would soon find that it was he who became the looser ultimately. It was well and good that these people wanted to atone their past misdemeanour by owning their mistakes and by volunteering to join a military expedition to prove their loyalty to the King. Order: (1) Saopha of Mong Mit and his followers were pardoned of their former misdeeds. (2) (3) They shall participate in the Hanthawaddy campaign. They shall be rewarded for all their valour and fighting prowess during the campaign. This Order was passed on 15 January 1756 and sent to the Saopha of Bhamo.

18 January


When the King left Rangoon for Shwebo (on 27 June 1755), he had Mahathenapati Min Hla Min Gaung Min Kyaw Sithu Zaya Nanda Bala Nanda Sithu Bala Gamani and Min Gyaw Dazaung given the duty of Rangoon defenses. The King, however, felt that there was nothing to worry about. All his enemies would be destroyed sooner or later. Hanthawaddy was like a fruit broiled. It was there ready to be eaten though one should wait a few moments to get it lest he would burn his hands in getting it out of the fire. Order : (1) Everyone of the fighting forces, including officers, must get

himself prepared for the final onslaught against the enemies, even at the risk of his life. (2) Major attacks shall wait until the King gets back to Rangoon.

This Order was sent to officers and men at Rangoon on 18 January 1756.


Note : The King arrived at Rangoon on 15 March 1756. The first thing he did was to collect food provisions as much as possible. He waited until 3 October 1756 when the campaign against Hanthawaddy was launched.

18 January 1756 Prince Sirisudhammaraja (King Dabay in 1760=1763), Prince Siridhammaraja (King Myedu 1763-1780) and Prince Sudhammaraja made a direct address to the people of Hanthawaddy. 1 It is understandable that a subject people have had no choice but to serve the lord who was ruling over them. 2 Now they have a chance to compare the Pegu King their lord with Alaungmintaya and it goes without saying that Alaungmintaya is far more superior to him. 3 At this moment it is a matter of life and death to everyone of them. Obviously this Pegu King is doomed to destruction. Forsake allegiance to him. Whoever attached to him would finally be destroyed with him. Order : Anyone who has edfected Pegu shall be pardoned and shall be given his former position in the service or his status in the hierarchy. This Order was passed on 18 January 1756. Note: The person who chooses to defect is guranteed Can: cim ma pyak asak mase ne ra ma nim- that he would be allowed to live without being alienated from the ownership of hes former properties nor he would be denied of his former official rank and status.

9 April 1756 Thagya (Sakka-King of Devas) sent this notice to all men. 1 There shall be a great calamity in Pegu soon. To forewarn this, the children are inspired to say a ditty :


When the Gwe is gone, send the GonStop the fight and send a bride. The meaning of the is clear. Pegu had now lost almost all its territories. It should acknowledge defeat and send the king's of the city and its people. This king of upper Burma is a very unusual man of great past merits. He is destined to become the supreme lord of Chinese, Indians, Shans, Talaings, Thais, etc. That is the Buddha's prophecy. 2. When King Tabinshwehti was beheaded (on 21 April 1551) in a place

near Pegu, people found the eyes of the severed head winking for nearly twelve hours. This winking eye episode was my making to let people know that although this Burmese king was removed, the Burmese rule shall continue. Those who failed to take notice of this warning were killed in their futile attempt to riveve the Talaing kingdom. 3. Ava was taken and its king was captured. This is not the be-all and end-

all of the story. It was only a prelude. Alaungmintaya appeared on the scene. Punishment came somehow or other to all and sundry who had the audacity to refuse his suzerainty. Families were divided. A man might lost his wife and children or the children their parents. A woman would be left all alone without her beloved family. Only those who fled and hide in a deep forest would have some chance to survive this catastrophe. Anyone who had read this notice must take it his responsibility to copy it and circulate it among friends so that they too have a chance of survival. The worst moment would come sometime between next April and May. Wait and see. The dangers of war, epidemic and famine are all coming one in the wake of another. Ava would prosper for 300 years and Pegu for 80. The time allotments, so given, were now over.


like myself the Thagya, this king of upper Burmese is a champion of the

Buddhist Religion. In this way we are allies. I have to support him. I had already given him a mighty lance. I also sent to him a white elephant. Talaings have no alternative except to beg for mercy. This notice was dated 9 April 1756. Note: The ruse of making Thagya the author of this kind of notice was found to be an effective propaganda even in the early 20 th century Burma. It came to be known as Thagya Shwe Pe Hlwa-the Gold Leaf Note from Sakka. Similarly airdropped propaganda leaflets of the Allies during the Second World War were called Lay Nat Tha-Air God's Communique.

9 April 1756 Prince Sirisudhammaraja (King Dabayin 1760-1763), Prince Siridhammaraja (King Myedu 1763-1780) and Prince Sudhammaraja made a direct address to officers and men in the service of the Pegu King. 1. King Alaungmintaya received from Thagya (Sakka-King of Devas) the gifts of an unusual lance and some red and spotted elephants. These proved that he is far superior to your king. The contest between your king and ours had lasted well over a year or two and by now you would be quite aware of the fact that your king has no chance to win. 2. It is time that Pegu King should surrender. Syriam would fell soon. Alaungmintaya always get s with he wanted. If your city has two wings to fly, you could escape capture. It it were made of iron, it would be invulnerable to attacks. If your king were a naga, ours would be a garuda that always destroy all nagas. 3. When a war was fought, men were killed by hundreds and thousands. Human life is too precious to be wasted like this. If we can settle a dispute with a dual between a few persons, it would be good. We challange


you for single combats between your King and ours, your Crown Prince and ours, and so on. We give you the choice of weapon and prescription of the terms of combat. The plain outside Syriam is most suitable for such a contest between champions. Let us meet there. Or if you all possess the intelligence, which we believe you have, defect. Nga sent to Pegu with to send defectors as messengers to the place from where they had escaped.

25 April 1756 Prince Sirisudhammaraja (King Dabayin 1760-1763) sent 1,000 men to reconnoitre around Pegu. They are to erect a hoarding just outside the Pan Daing Gate on the river bank on the west of Pegu city wall and then to fix the following notice on that hoarding. NOTICE Our King Alaungmintaya is an extremely powerful king. He is the Defender of the Buddhist Religion. He has a wonderful weapon called Arindama. He is the master of while, spotted and red elephants. As all the rivers have their sources at the Anotatta Lake, so the power to rule has its origin in our King. He has the strength of a garuda. He has the courage of a kesara. He rules like Yama. He is the King of Kings. He is the Lord of Ayujjhapura (Ratanasingha Kon Baung Shwe Pyi Gyi). In comparison he is the full moon while other dignitaries are mere little stars. Like the sun, he provides strength to grow. Now read this Pali stanza that describes you and your king.


Hamratiyo sabbadhanam Sadhusamma dhammonatthi Vane bhavatiti sunnam Tikappagata cora maha This Notice is dated 25 April 1756. Note : The beginning words of these four lines of Pali together made Hasavati. The meaning of the whole stanza is : Unscrupulous characters! That is what you Talaings are. You are thiefs and robbers. You have no decency. As a result of your ruthlessness, you are accelerating your own destruction. There would be massacres, epidemics and famines in your place. Eventually this city of yours will relapse into a jungle. Your chief, whom you now call your King, would also perish. Min Hla Min Gaung led the reconnoitering group. There was a skirmish before the group could leave the notice as directed (Kon., I 1967, pp. 166-7).

8 May 1756 King Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent Lord of sunaparanta, Tampadipa, Kampoca and other countries, Owner of Mines producing Rubies, Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, etc., Master of Elephants White, Red and Spotted, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Descendant of the Race of Sun, King of Ratanapura Ava and Ayujjhapura Ratanasingha, informs the (Directors of) the English (East India) Company 1 that there was trade with mutual benefits between our two countries from the time of our ancestors, though it was discontinued for some time because of the Talaing rebellion; 2 that (when your agent) Henry Brooke, Chief of Negrais at the scuth end of our land, came with a humble request for a factory site, we had given him a plot of land in Bassein, in consideration of the fact that we want to resume friendly relations with both your King and your Company and we also agreed to let your imports and exports and exports free from any


taxation in our country if you are prepared to continue the ancient practice of giving us a certain amount of arms and ammunition as gifts; 3 that other merchants would also be allowed to trade provided thay pay the taxes at Bassein; and 4 that we hope this amicable association would last for many generations to come. This letter was dated 8 May 1756 and was given to Henry Brooke by the Burmese Governor of Bassein.

8 May 1756 King Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent Lord of Sunaparanta, Tampadipa, Kampoca and other countries that have kings of their own, Owner of Mines producing Rubies, Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, etc., Master of White, Red and Spotted Elephants, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Founder of Ayujjhapura Ratanasingha Kon Baung Shwe Pyi Gyi, made this address to the Covernor of Chenapatam (Fort St. George, Madras) 1 that there had been trade between you and our country with mutual benifits; 2 that this trade was discontinued due to a Talaing rebellion ; 3 that we know you have your agent Henry Brooke stationed at Negrais on the extreme south of our country and that you want to have a trading depot opened at Bassein ; 4 that there should be a friendship between the two countries and the Governor of Chenapatam should have the favour requested, a site has already been chosen in Bassein and given to Henry Brooke; 5 that the Company's trade would be allowed free of taxes provided it gives us the usual gifts of military stored; 6 that other merchants would also be allowed to trade provided they pay


the taxes in Bassein; 7 that these conditions has been written in the Da Zeik Sa Gyun Daw Letters Patent, and given to Henry Brooke; and 8 that the friendship would last for many generations to come. This letter to the Governor of Chenapatam was dated 8 May 1756 and was given to Ensign John Dyer and Dr (William Anderson).

8 May 1756 King Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent Lord of Sunaparanta, Tampadipa, Kampoca and other countries that have Kings of their own, Owner of Mines producing Rubies, Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, etc., Master of White, Red Spotted Elephants, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Founder of Ayujjhapure Kon Baung Pyi Gyi, made this address to Governor John Howe, Esq., Chief of Merchants at Negrais 1 that there has been trade between our two countries to our mutual benifits; 2 that this trade was terminated due to a Talaing rebellion; 3 that in the menawhile the rebellion was suppressed, Dagon had been renamed Rangoon, and Henry Brooke, after having settled in Negrais at the extreme end of our country, had in the name of your King, made a request to have a trading depot in Bassein so that there should be a revival of friendliness between the two nations, we had given to Governor John Howe a site in Bassein; 4 that the Company's trade would be allowed free of taxes provided it gives the usual tribute of military stores; 5 that other merchants would also be allowed to trade provided they pay the taxes in Bassein; 6 that we want cannons, guns, gun powder, etc. as much as possible


because our campaign against Pegu is not yet over ; and 7 that we would like to have this friendship extended for several generations to come. This letter to Governor John Howe, Merchant Chief in Negrais, was dated 8 May 1756 and given to Ensign John Dyer and Dr (William Anderson). The land in Bassein given for a factory site (to the English East India Company) is a 25 ta (37.5 ft / 11.43 metres) square. A leaf of very good gold called Nayaka Shwe measuring 1.5 ft / 45 cm x .25 ft / 8cm and weighing 5 ticals ( .73 lb / 331 g) is used to inscribe the letter to the King of England. Each end of this gold leaf is fashioned like a Jata- Horoscope, ornamented with twelve rubies. The letter is in ten lines and the letter head has a Hintha bird crest. The leaf is rolled up in a red paper and the roll is put in an ivory casket. A brocade bag holds the ivory casket. A box of lacquered gold holds this brocade bag. The address is written in English. This lacquer box with the address is put in a gunny bag and sealed. The letter to (the Directors of the English East India) Company is written in Burmese in twinty five lines of illuminated writing on a red paper. It also bears a crest and it is sealed with red wax. There is and English version of the letter and it is also sealed. The letters are put in a gunny bag and the bag is sealed too. The letters to the Governor of Chenapatam (Madras) and the Chief of Negrais are also written, sealed and put in bags in the same marner as the letter to the Directors in London.

8 May 1756 King Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent Lord of Sunaparanta, Tampacipa, Kampoca and other countries known as Myanma, Shan, Yoon, Kathe, Talaing, etc. which have their own kings, Owner of Mines producing Rubies, Gold,


Silver, Copper, Iron, Amber and other precious gems, Master of White, Red and Spotted Wlephants, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Descendant of the Race of Sun, Founder of Ratanapura Ava Shwe Pyi and Ayujjhapura Ratanasingha Kon Baung Shwe Pyi Gyi with most magnificient mansions, makes this friendly intimation to the King of England, Liege of Chenapatam, of Bengal, of Ft St David and of DeveCotah which are like various stars in the constallation that surround the full moon, 1 that there was trade between our two countries in the time of our ancestors with a certain freedom of movement; 2 that this trade was terminated for some time because of a Talaing rebellion; 3 that in the opportune moment while we want to have this trade renewed, your agent in the person of Henry Brooke, who came to settle at one of the extreme ends of our land, appeared at our court and it was through him that we know you are also in favour of resuming the trade as before, 4 that to be definite. Henry Brooke petitioned that he would like to have a site for sgipyard in Bassein and he and your permission to petition us; 5. that in the name of friendship between our two nations, we have instructed our Governor of Bassein to allow Henry Brooke to make his own choice of land in Bassein for the said shipyard and to have the land given for an immediate use; and 6. that we hope this friendship would last for many generations to come. This letter to the King of England is dated 8 May 1756. A leaf of very good gold called Nayaka Shwe measuring 1 ton 4 sac (49. 5 cm) -5 sac (5 cm) and weighing 300 g is made like a leaf to inscribe this litter. The left and right and ends has each two lines of rubies. There are ten lines of


writing and Letwe Thondara was the author of it. The gold leaf was put in an ivory casket, the casket in a brocade bag, the bag in a gold lacquered box, the box in a gunny bag and the bag was sealed with a Hintha bird seal. With the envoys, four fine horses were sent for the King of England and the Governor of Chenapatam. The envoys Ensign John Dyers and Dr (William Anderson) were each given a horse and six evories.

13 June 1756 The Lord Buddha who was most supreme over all the beings of the Thirty One Divisions of the Universe had prophesied that by AB 2 (2) 90/AD 1746 which was well neigh the middle of the 5,000 years of the Religion, there would appear a Bodhisattva in the Royal Centre of Hanthawaddy. This Bodhisattva who is also the Lord of the White Elephant, would uphold the Buddhist Religion greatly. Accordingly, I have had the good fortune to become king at Hanthawaddy in that year and I certainly have done much in support of the Religion. I helped people as much as possible by looking after their welfare and recently I had a pagoda built enshrining the Buddha's relics. I want you, my royal friend, to share the merits that I have acquired so far. Evidently you have had the accumulation of much merit done in your former lives and accordingly you become a king in this life too. Your duty as well as mine is to help people including ourselves to obtain the ultimate bliss of nirvava. You know that the Five Buddhas of our Kappa must have worked close enough before so that they realised their goal one after another in the same Kappa. Prehaps we two are like them. At the present moment, people are at great enmity with each other and that leads to many deaths and destructions. I believe it is within our power to stop such an undesirable situation. With this fact in mind, I have requested my religious preceptor


to call at your place so that you might also benifit from having a discussion on religion with him. This letter from the Pegu King brought to Alaungmintaya by Shin Gunamanju, Sayadaw of Ava Taung Bilu and Shin Pasamsa, Saydaw of Kyet Thun Gin. Note: After the fall of Daw Bon stockade on 19 May 1756, the Burmese started a series of attack on Syriam and probably Pegu King then realised that he should start negotiations for peace. As it was done before during a Burmese Mon struggle of early 15 th century. (Mhannan, I 1967, pp.446-53) he sent monks to do that.

16 June 1756 ALaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Possessor of the Arindama Lance, Master of the White Elephant, Owner of Mines of Various Precious Gems, Founder of Ayujjhapura Ratanasingha Konbaung Shwe Pyi Gyi, made this reply to the King of Hanthawaddy. Dagon, the town of Flying Elephant, had been given a new name of Yangon the End of Strife, and Alaungmintaya has been there for nearly two years. He or anybody else for that matter, would notice the fact that his counterpart simply ignores his presence there. Then, all of a sudden, he received a letter from the King of Hanthawaddy. It seems that the King was badly shaken to wake up from a dreadful dream and did something which he would never think of doing it before. Nevertheless, Alaungmintaya considers it as a good gesture of the King of Hanthawaddy. Among friends one could say anythinf either good of bad without reservation. When two kingdoms become one like water that cannot be cut into two halves, it would be good in the name of love and compassion on all beings. Deliberating on the welfare of fellow creatures is the way of wise and


good men. It is not unusual that two enemies who had tried to kill each other at one time would turn into two friends at another time. The three things that people revere most are the Lord, the Law and the Order of Buddhist Monks and since the King of Hanthawaddy had requested a Learned person in the Order to visit Alaungmintaya, Alaungmintaya would deem it the best of gestures that one king could show on another king. He would like to say that he appreciated it very much. Entering into alliance is one happy thing that the two kings should do now and it is nice of the King of Hanthawaddy to have initiated it. This reply was sent back on 16 June 1756 with the two monks, five novices and ten men who came (with a letter from the King of Hanthawaddt).

28 June 1756 King of Hanthawaddy, who rules Ramannadesa according to the Buddha's prophency and who had acquired enough merit (to be taken as one of the Bodhisattvas, made this address to Alaungmintaya, King of Ratanasingha Konbaung, Since the two reverend monks had returned from the young brother, bringing the tidings that the young brother was not averse to the idea of friendship, the elder brother was very happy because that would stop all hostilities between the two countries. We would all be saved from being killed now and punished in hell hereafter. This friendship should last long. When upper Burma and lower Burma are united into a close alliance, all other countries in Jamcudipa would respect our two countries immensely. The two capital cities of Hanthawaddy and Ratanasingha would prosper and the Buddha's Religion would also grow like a waxing moon. All these would certainly pave the way for the two Bodhisattvas to become two Buddhas. As a prelude to the said peace and friendship, the religious preceptors


(from Hanthawaddy) are again visiting (Rangoon). This letter dated 28 June 1756 brought from Hanthawaddy by


28 June 1756 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King of Sunaparanta, Tampadipa, Kampoca and several other kingdoms, made this reply. There is no denying of the fact that friendship would be the antidote of all our former differences. A war was fought by the Burmese only in self-defence. Definitely it was not fought for bloodthirstiness. Alaungmintaya has enough wealth so that he would not certainly covet another person's property. Talking good is easy but to do good is not easy. The law of impermenance is also a thing much talked of though it is not properly understood. On friendship or alliance, the King of Hanthawaddy should take the cue from Bhuridhatta Jataka (No. 543). The monks who brought the letter from Hanthawaddy were given this reply on 28 June 1756, the same day they come and were sent back to the King of Hamthawaddy.

(26 July 1756) Nanda Bahu has been assigned to report monthly on how many Sa Gyun- Royal Orders on appointment, had been given and who were the clerks responsible in issuing them. Consequently, the report forWazo ( 27 June 1756-26 July 1756) is: Letwe Thondara Shwe Daung Sithu Waylu Yaza Bala Sithu Letya Waylu Others Total Among these 3,030, there were 150 150 750 60 550 1,370 3,030


Da Gyaung Yay Sa Gyun- One Line Order Akhant Ahtha Sa Gyun - Posting Order Total Charges for the Seal (each 1 pe of gold) This report was made by Nanda Bahu on (26 July 1756).

75 100 175 9 ticals

(26 July 1756) Order : Though he is not a descendant of a local chief, Nga Ka Lay, son of Nga Kauk living in Tha Myin Ton, is appointed Myo Thagyi Headman of the town, in Tha Myin Ton. It is in recognition of his service as one of the thirty braves who took quite a distinguished part in the capture of Syriam (26 July 1736). Clerk Waylu Yaza wrote the appointment order on a sealed toddy palm leaf. It seemed somewhat irregular and when asked Waylu Taza replied that there was nothing unusual to write an appointment on a sealed leaf. But when Nga Ka Lay was questioned, he said that as gifts, he gave Waylu Yaza Silver cut from a bar by chisel Silver of Ywet Ni quality Sugar Hand Painted Pa Soe Hearing this, the King made no remarks. This Order was passed on (26 July 1756). 350 ticals 5 ticals 25 ticals 5

28 September 1756 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King of Shans, Yoons, Burmese, Ramannadesa, Thayaykhittays, Paukkanyama, Ketumadi Toungoo, Makkhaya, Myin Zaing, Pinya, Pinle, Sagaing, Ava, Ayujjhapura Ratanasingha, etc., Possessor of Arindama Lance, Master of White Elephant, made this address to the King of Hanthawaddy to remind him of certain things that he failed to take note before. Firstly, he should know that he is fighting a losing battle. Secondly, he failed to take the cue of Bhuridatta cataka. Perhaps the King of Hanthawaddy has no messengers who have the courage to


come through the Burmese troops. We are therefore sending Nga Aung Nge, who was captured in Hle Zeik battle, with this letter. As an escont, he shall have 60 Burmese war boats. Men of these boats, however, do not request a safe passage. Talaings might try and stop them if they dare. In case they were destroyed or captured by Talaings, Alaungmintaya would acknowledge defeat and go back to upper Burma. If not, the King of Hanthawaddy shall have to think seriously on surrender so that he could have the favoured treatment of Can: cim ma pyak Asak ma se Nera me nim,- being allewed to live without his property confiscated and his position lowered. Nga Aung Nge was given this letter with one umbrella as a gift to the King of Hanthawaddy on 28 September 1756.

19 October 1756 Reverend Arannavasi and Gamavasi Monks of Burmese, Mon and Shan nationalities bless both the kings of upper and lower Burma. It is believed that these kings are Bodhisattvas and accordingly they are devoted to do good for all creatures. But sometimes forgetfulness could even stop these men from being kind and helpful. In such a case, these monks take the liberty of referring them to the Jataka stories of Dighavu (Dighitikosala-Jataka, No.371) Mahasilava (Mahasilava-Jataka, No. 51) and Samvara (Samvara-Jataka, No. 462) in which they will find some examples of how hostilities among nations could be averted by peaceful means. In Burmese history, King Rajadhiraj invaded upper Burma and reached up to Yay Wun of sagaing in 1404 (Mhannan, I 1967, p. 446) and taking the advice of Monk Zagyo Thu Myat, he withdrew his forces (Mhannan, I 1967, p. 452). Through the intercession of holy men, two warring kings could become affectionate brothers.


This letter was brought to the Pan Zay stockade by monks Pannadipa, Sirisaddhamma, Vimalacara, Candasiri, Varapanna and three novices from Hanthawaddy on 19 October 1756. Note : This Peace Mission of Monks from Hanthawaddy is mentioned to have visited Alaungmintaya in the month of Tazaungmon S 1118 (23 October 175621 November 1756, Kon., I 1967, p. 201). Now we know the date was 19 October 1756.

19 October 1756 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King of Sunaparanta, Tampadipa, Kampoca, Ramanna, Liege of Various Vassals in Jambudipa, Possessor of Arincama Lance, Master of White Elephant, Descendant of the Race of Sun, founder of Ayujjhapura, Defender of the Buddhist Religion, made this reply to the monks of all nationalities who had preached compassion. The sweet smell of a flower is perceptible only at places down the wind. Kingly appurtenances could strike awe and obedience only on those who behold them. But a king who observes the virtues as prescribed by the Buddha's Religion would be respected everywhere. Perhaps the monks were afraid that there would be a ruthless massacre (following the fall of Hanthawaddy). They should not nurse this

misapprehension. In Burmese history, one could find many episodes where a champion appeared to remove a tyrant and bring prosperity and happiness to all people. Burmese suzerainay is spreading. It has been accepted by Chins, Europeans, Indians, Kachins, Kathes and Ehans. And they prospered under the Burmese rule. The King of Hanthawaddy could not escape the Burmese suzerainty. Meet the inevitable with a good grace and be happy. This letter was sent back to Hanthawaddy with those monks who came on 19 October 1756. There were Pannadipa, five Burmese monks, three Burmese


novices, two Shan monks and two Shan novices.

25 October 1756 The King of Hanthawaddy considered that it would not be difficult to settle the disputes between Alaungmintaya and himself by peaceful means, Because both of them are innately good as both aspire to become Buddhas in future. By Alaungmintaya's reply (date 19 October 1756) he was of the impression that Alaungmintaya was amenable to terms of peace. Perhaps their present discord is similar to the one that happened betwiin Kapilavetthu and Koliya (over their sharing the water of Rohini). By the intervention of the Buddha, the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and Koliyans became friends again. So in the same way, peoples of two different places of Shwebo and Hanthawaddy would soon become friends again. If there is any message to be sent, instead of a prisoner of war, we expect that a specially appointed envoy would come. To represent the King of Hanthawaddy, the envoys are Banya Yaza Satu Daywun and Do Gonna Daywa Ain. By the reply letter, the King of Hanthawaddy expects that Alaungmintaya could say more explicitly what he wants. The letter, written in an illuminated paper, was brought to Pen Zay stockade by Nga U, a Burmese of Ava now called Banya Yaza Satu Daywun, Do Gonna Daywa Ain, a Talaing, and Pannadipa, a monk, on 25 October 1756. Note : This letter from Hanthawaddy came when the Burmese had started a major offensive against Hanthawaddy after the fall of Syriam on 26 July 1756.

25 October 1756 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Defender of the Buddha's Religion Possessor of Arindama Lance, Master of White Elephant, made this reply


to the King of Hanthawaddy. The campaign south is not exactly a military expedition. It is a kind of tour to find out how propagation and extension of the Buddha's Religion could be made more effective in a land where normal conditions were much disturbed recently due to war. Wherever he went, local rulers readily accepted his suzerainty and his teachings to live a Buddhist way of life in peace. Unfortunately he was confronted by hostilities in the land under aman who claimed to be a Bodhisattva. All he wanted to do was to bestow peace on the people and talk religion with their king as he had done with the rulers that he had mentioned above. This reply was dated 25 October 1756.

9 December 1756 Order : Send messengers to Zayya Kyaw Zwa sayadaw asking him his opinion on removing the Hair Relics found in the relic chamber of Kyaik Ko pagoda on the west of Hanthawaddy. This Order was passed at the Rangoon Palace on 9 December 1756. Note : The reply came on 19 December 1756 saying that it is most suitable to remove the relics as they would be enshrined again in a pagoda at the capital.

13 December 1756 The King of Hanthawaddy admitted the fact that he had done his best to repulse the invader first and when it failed, he tried again to put up a stout defense from within his city. Now it seems that he has no alternative except '' to take the cue from Bhuridatta-Jakaka (No. 543) as it was mentioned in Alaungmintaya's letter (dated 28 June 1756). This letter was brought to Mungala Tattaw where Alaungmintaya camped, by Ship Htaung Kyanung Sayadaw with six monks and ex-officer called Min


Yaza with twenty four men on 13 December 1756; the letter was written on Parabike in a brocade bag. The brocade bag was put in a white bag sealed with the King of Hanthawaddy's Emblem of the Hamsa bird.

19 December 1756 Alaungmintaya made this reply. No one could attain the bliss of nirvans unless he becomes a man first in Jambudipa. On the other hand, the sharp point of a needle that was dropped from high beaven might probably meet right on the point of another needle on earth, but there is less chance for a soul to be born a man on this earth. With this illustration in mind, we all are quite aware that human life is very precious. In another words, we do not want to kill. There is also another point which both kings should not forget. Mighty kings did not live for ever. Even this earth might perish when its time comes. Friendship is not easy when one party continues to be hostile. The ending in the Bhuridatta story gives us the best solution though it is up to the King of Hanthawaddy to decide. We shall not say otherwise after a word had been spoken. This reply was given to Shit Htaung Kyaung Sayadaw and Min Yaza with a bouquet of orchids. The red bag to hold the letter written in Parabike was not sealed. Note : Of the flowers given, tan san, ra tan Chan san, ra chan-some are to be offered (at the shrine) and some to beautify (the bride). (See Kon., I 1967, p. 221.)

(19 December 1756) The religious preceptor of Alaungmintaya made this address to various local chiefs. These is a prophecy which says:


Arhe, ta lhyan: ton can pyak man Arhe, ta lhva: thva: thva: nak man Ma ne ap kun Mranma pran sui, rhan le kun All places on the eastern plateau shall be destroyed, Everything in the east would be annihilated. Leave there And take refuge in Burma. Anyone who is determined to follow this advice shall have to come to Shwebo. He needs information as to where to go and whom he should meet before he gets the recognition of being a subject of the liege here. Come to me for the information. If he is a chief, he would by this wise decision, safe hundreds of his people from misery. The following places had already paid their homage to Alaungmintaya. Awpanlet Bassein Dagon Dala Hpaunglin Hsawnghsup Hsenwi Hsipaw Htilin Kale Lai Hka Lawksawk Lekai Martaban Mingin Mogaung Mohnyin Mong Mit Myaung Mya Mat Mauk Pin Prome Sagu Salin Saw Taung Dwin Tharawaddy,Wuntho Yaw, Yaunghwe


The following people who were once said to be impossible to subdue, had already submitted to Alaungmintaya. Ingye (Gadu) Kachin Kayin (Karen) Khanti (Shan) Lawa It is wise ''to cry before the lashes fall on one's back or stand up to welcome before the dignitary appears''; you play safe in this way. In another words, come to pay homage before you are called upon to do so. To the bad and wicked, Alaungmintaya is as fierce as an ogre; to the good and docile, he is as gentle as Thagya (Sakka-King of Devas). You might do well to join the forces of Alaungmintaya in his campaign south. As a monk, I take no part in political affairs but if you have any difficulty in your endeavour to mitigate the miseries of human heings, it is my duty to give you all possible help. Note : No date and name are attached to this notice. But it seems that while the King was in the south, people at Shwebo, including the Chief Monk, felt that they should do as much as possible to send recuits to the King. Hence this important notice was circulated to various local chiefs in vorthern and eastern Burma for sending armed men to the King.

19 December (1756) (Zayya Kyaw Zwa Sayadaw) made this reply to the King's message (of 9 December 1756). It is correct and proper to have the relics removed to Shwebo. The following facts are submitted in support of this statement that relics had been moved from one place to another with or without the consent of the original person who had put them in a certain repository.


When the Buddha died, Sariyadhatu-the bodily relics, were distributed among the Buddhist kings, etc. After some time, there were cases where the faithfuls became heretics and lost respect in these relics. Ajatasattu collected these relics and stored them in a stone pagcda. Later Asoka took all the relics from that pagoda and had them enshrined in pagodas built in all the places where he sent missioneries to propagate the Buddha's Religion. When King Anawratha requested a few copies of the Pitaka and some of the Buddha's relics from the King of Thaton, the request was ignored. Anawratha went with an army to get them. When there were troubles in Sri Lanka, a Srilankan king sent his daughter with a replica of the Buddha's Tooth Relic to King Hanthawaddy Hsinbyushin for help. When King Alaungmintaya started to build a new state in 1752, he declared that he would not wait to do the religious affairs until the political affairs get settled. Then he subdued the people who excell in fighting from boats in the river. That would soon be over. Relics found in many ruined pagodas around Hanthawaddy should be removed to the relic chambers of new pagodas instead of leaving them in the ruins. This reply was dated 19 December 1756.

(19 January 1756) Another part of the chronology of the former dynasty was submitted. 1732 Prince Taloke was made the Commander of Nanda Thu

Thwethauk Prince Thayet was made the Commander of Zayya Yawda (Thwethauk)


Both Princes Taloke and Thayet were assigned to duty the Hluttaw Min Ye Nandathu led a contingent of forces against Chiengmai 3 November 1733 King Sunday died; King Thursday took over the realm with the regnal title of Siripavarasudhammaraja Lokasaraphu image completed Prince Taloke became Mun Ye Kyaw Zwa Prince Thayet became Mun Ye Thihayit Shwe Hpyo, the King's Ahteindaw-former nurse, became Nanda Mate Kyaw Htin and he was married to Thirivimala; he was enlisted in Nanda Thiri Thwethauk; his two sons were given the status of senior princes 1738 rank Nanda Mate Kyaw Htin was given insignias similar to those of Min Ye Kyaw Zwa and was attached to the office of the Crown Prince The Crown Prince was given more officers and men At U Gin Tha- New King on New Throne for the First Time, Min Ye Kyaw Zwa was given the title of Dhammaraja and Nanda Mate Kyaw Htin was given the title of Bayin Naung; Prince Thayet or Min Ye Thihayit became Tahdo Dhammaraja; Prince Taloke or Min Ye Kyaw Zwa or Dhammaraja became Min Pyine - Parallel King U Ka was given the title of Min Ye Kyaw Khaung and Min Ye Kyaw Zwa was given additional insignias of


he was made the Commander - in - Chief of Manipura campaign 1740 Min Ye Kyaw Khaung was sent to Hanthawaddy to suppress a rebellion led by Nga Tha Aung; he was made King Toungoo and married to the King's sister 1746 Shwe Hpyo or Nanda Mate Kyaw Htin or Bayin Naung was made King Sagaing Many princes were given titles with a prefix Min Ye to each title (11) March 1752 When Ava fell, the King and his family were taken as prisoners to Hanthawaddy (3) November 1755 Ex-King and family were drowned Ex-Ministers Thado Min Gyi, Thado Min Nge, Thiri Zayya Kyaw Zwa, Nay Myo Shwe Daung and Thiri U Zana came to serve Alaungmintaya; their history of service was also submitted to the king Note : Thiri Zayya Kyaw Zwa came to Alaungmintaya in Pyatho s 1118 (21 December 1756-19 January 1757) and assuming that it was he or other exMinisters of the former dynasty who gave the King the necessary information on administration under the Ava kings, we give 19 January 1757 as the date of these notes,etc. Siri U Jana : Lckabyuha Catam : (Rangoon , Government Publications, 1962) is the best known of the accounts submitted by these ex-Ministers.

2 April 1757 It has been a bad period during which a kingdom was destroyed, many families were broke up and quite a number of people were acptured and sold as slaves by the Talaings. There were, however, slaves born of slave


parents before the advent of these troubles. Order : (1) If a slave escaped from a master who is a rebel (that invariably applies to a Talaing of lower Burma) and if he happens to be serving Alaungmintaya now, he shall become free even if his former master is serving Alaungmintaya some time before him or at the same time with him or after him. (2) If a debtor slave and his master came to serve Alaungmintaya in the same time, the debtor slave shall pay the price of redemption to become free. (3) A debtor slave who came to serve Alaungmintaya befor his master, shall go free without paying anything. This Order was passed on 2 April 1757 when the King was at Jetuvati about 1.5 miles / 2.5 kilometres on the south of Hanthawaddy.

14 April 1757 Order : (1) Baya Thayna shall not have the toddy palm leaf used in correspondance, made into a tapering point at one end of it. (2) Fix the seal with the permission of Kin Wun-Officer of the Tolls, and Ta Zeik Wun-Officer of the Seals. (3) One of the seals that has been in use during the day at the Hluttaw must be locked up by Baya Thayna at the end of the day. This Order was passed on 14 April 1757.

5 September 1757 Order: (1) Baya Thayna shall interrogate Zayya Theiddi, Zayya Yan Aung, Dipa Guna Kyaw Thu, Kaytu Mala and clerk Nge Hpyo Htwe who were sent by Mahadan Wun-Officer of Religious Affairs, to collect some of their things of daily use from the monks.



In case a monk or a novice or a man who is living a religious life at a monastery is required to appear at a law court,

Mahaatulayasadhammarajaguru Sayadaw shall summon him with a letter that bears his seal. Mahadan Wun should not do the summoning by sending his subordinates with a letter from the Sayadaw. (3) This Order should be written in a suitable style and sent to all administrative chiefs at various stations of the kingdom. This Order was passed on 5 September 1757.

19 October 1757 At a marriage ceremony at Din De, there was a fight because someone said that Thado Theinga Thu and his family who were Alaungmintaya's relatives living at that village, were not truly related to the King. Order: (1) (2) Din De relatives of the King shall not be punished for the fight. If a relative of the King takes an undue advantage of his kinship with the King and if he does something unjust, he shall be punished like any other subject of the King. (3) Nay Myo Thiri Zayya Nawyatha, Zayya Yanda Thu (Officer in charge of the town) and other officers in various fighting units who are the King's cousins shall see to the fact that this Order is respected. (4) To say in boast ''I'm the King's So and So", even if it is true, shall be punished. Cut off his mouth. This Order was given on 19 October 1757.

29 October 1757 Order: (1) While in the service Gonna Ye and Setka Kyaw Htin shall work


and enjoy the produce of Le-fields for wet cultivation of rice, and King-fields for cultivation of maize, peas, vegetables, etc. after the yearly innundation of the river, in lands under Thiri E Karat Kyaw, located at Kado Zeik Gaung Gwe (in the Tada U area). This Order was sealed by Waylu Yaza on 29 October 1757.

(29 October 1757) (You Englishmen.) You do well in trading, But you are no good in fighting.What about your literary attainment? Find out what this Pali is meant. This is what Da Zeik Taw Wun-Officer of the Seals, wrote. 29 October 1757 Order: (1) Write an order that deals with one of the various petitions, first in a Parabike, and then copy it on a long today palm leaf that has a tappering end on one side called Sa Gyun, in the usual way of writing an order. (2) Put up the Sa Gyun to Naymyo Thiri Zayya Nawyatha for checking. (3) Naymyo Thiri Zayya Nawyatha shall write a note that he has checked it. (4) Baya Thayana, after making sure that the Sa Gyun has a note by Naymyo Thiri Zayya Nawyatha that he had it checked, shall fix the seal to it. This Order was given on 29 October 1757. 20 November 1757 Hereditary chiefs at Sanpanago and Tamowa reported that from S 1109 / AD 1747 to S 1119 / AD 1757, the tolls collected was Ks 4438. After deducting the share of (Kin) Wun-Officer of the Tolls, there was Ks 555.1 left. From Tamo and Sanpanago Toll Stations the tolls collected


was Ks 490.1. The collection was given to Min Hla Kyaw Htin. They were not in a position to konw whether Min Hla Kyaw deposited it in the Royal Treasury or not. Order: Baya Thayna shall interrogate Min Hla Kyaw Htin's cleark as well as those who had weighed the money and witnesses who had seen it being handed over. This Order was given on 20 November 1757.

29 November 1757 Order: (1) Baya Thayna shall report in writing anything that the King should know on the second day of every month. (2) All cases that had been tried at the Hluttaw, Shay Yon, Nauk Yon, Win Yon and at the residence of ministers and princess during the last month together with the gifts received by officers and pleaders and the court fees exacted, are also to be included in the report by Baya Thayna. This Order was passed on 29 November 1757.

28 December 1757 Order: (1) Only Letwe Nawyatha, Letya Nawyatha, Shwe Daung Nawyatha, Letwe Shwe Daung and Letya Shwe Daung shall have to write the Sa Gyun (on a long toddy palm leaf with one end tappering to a point). (2) (3) Write the Sa Gyun only in the Palace or Hluttaw. Cut the hand of anyone else who write the Sa Gyun.

This Order was given on 28 December 1757 and given to Baya Thayna. 29 December 1757 Order: Daywa Nawyatha, Zayya Nawyatha and Kyaw Htin Nawyatha shall have to write the Sa Gyun.


This Order was passed on 29 December 1757 and given to Baya Thayna.

29 December 1757 Order: Officers shall not use robes with silk brocade edgings. The use of such borders is reserved for special awards. Baya Thayna shall make a check. This Order was given on 29 December 1757.

4 January 1758 The customary due exacted at the Toll Station like those at Tamowa and Sanpanago is 10 percent on the value of the commodity. That is too high. Order: (1) From the boat that brings of the commodities for sale, collect the due only from two-third of the commodities brought. (2) From the boat that brings commodities that had been bought, collect the due only from three quarters of the commodities that had been bought. (3) Give a note to any Chinese merchant who had passed a certain Toll Station that he had passed it. (4) Take no gifts (something like giving one quarter kyat of silver or one sixteenth basket of rice or one lingth (20 cubits/ 10 yards/ 9.144 metres) of cloth from the Chinese. (5) On arriving at the capital, the Chinese shall report his arrival to the Kin Wun-Officer of the Tolls, and pay the dues to the clerks in the presence of the Kin Wun who shall keep a proper account of the money received from him. This Order was passed on 4 January 1758.

13 January 1758 Order: (1) Nga San and members of five families are appointed guards in Kon village.



The old man Nga San and his group shall be exempted from all other duties.


Officers at Prome shall take note of these points.

This Order was given on 13 January 1758 in Shwebo Palace.

(13 January 1758) Order : (1) Nga Pon is appointed Mi Zaw (Fire Fighter) over 169 houses in the administrative unit under Daywa Bala Kyaw at Moksogyon. (2) Men living in one locality and irrespective of belonging to any group of service men, shall join in doing any particular tadk assigned to them by the authorities. (3) Min of boat groups or gun groups shall be exempted from a task assignment when they are required elsewhere on a state duty. (4) When a man is away on a military expedition, members of his family shall contribute work only in important projects. Otherwise they are to be exempted from doing any of the minor duties. (5) For contribution of money, a local chief could use his discretion to exempt men mentioned in No. 4 above, from giving any money. (6) Follow these instructions on ''fire fighting''. a b c d People should be told to check the fire place several times in the day and a few more times at night. A house must keep 5 to 10 bambocs with one end sharpened in each bamboo, ready on a rack. Pots with full water must be kept on a shelf on the roof. Cook food in a pit 4.5 feet / 1.3716 metres square only in the given time (5.00 am-7.00 am and 3.30 pm-5.30 pm). Use a feather to check the fire place at non-cooking time and punish the housewife if the feather singes. Seize the smoking pipe when a man is found smoking it when he comes along the road.

e f



Men on fire duty must go around to check various points where fire could have started, at least five times in a day. h Allow no one to wander from one place to another after 9 pm or if he has some important business to attend to after the forbidden hour, let him go by carrying a lamp. Everyone hearing a shout ''thief'' must turn up to help in catching the thief; failing to do so is punishable with five lashes or a fine of 50 ticals of copper.


Everyone who fails to turn up to help in a public work shall be given five lashes of punishment or a fine of (50) ticals of copper. When a man is unable to come and join the work gang himself, he should send some one on his hehalf or he should come and ask leave of absence from the group leader.


A man who fails to cooperate in any public work is not fit to live in society. He shall become a social outcast.

This Order was given to Daywa Bala Kyaw, Chief of Moksogyon on (13 January 1758). Note : This Order concerns more on social welfare activities than on administrative affairs.

24 January 1758 Order : Yaza Thahtay shall take possession of the southern sector of Ledwin. (4 February 1758) For making gold foils to be used at Kaung Hmu Daw pagoda, the King asked Theikdi Bahu how much foils one could get from 1 tical of gold, and the answer was 6 packages of foils exactly. On the contrary, Mi Kyaing said 8. Each of the two groups (one led by Theikdi Bahu and another by Mi Kyaing) was given 1 tical of gold and it started making the foils in the palace on 22 January 1758. On 25 January 1758 the work was over and each


group produced 8 packages. There was even a little gold left. The King blamed TheikdiBahu for being a bad servant. He was dishonest. He should be punished with a fine worth ten times the gold he had cheated so far, but the King pardoned him. Order : (1) (2) Give Mi Kyaing the title of Theikdi Bahu. Mi Kyaing shall give 7 packages of gold foils for 1 tical of gold given to her to make gold foils. This Order was given on (4 February 1758).

7 February 1758 Order : (1) Baya Thayna, as a Kin Wun (Officer of the Tolls), shall check any barge that passes through a toll station. (2) No one should hinder an officer from carrying out his official duties; it was reported that Mun Gaung Nawyatha was very rude to Baya Thayna when he came to check the barge of Min Gaung Nawyatha; it was not correct. (3) Never hinder an officer while he is at work in his official capacity. (4) Baya Thayna is very loyal and very precise; his decision shall be respected. This Order was passed on 7 February 1758.

11 February 1758 Order : (1) Mahaatulayasadhemmarajaguru is allowed to have four gates five stariways two pediments each with a Hman Gin top door panel opening on hinges and canopy over the Buddha's throne, in the monastery that he is huilding at South Lain Lu in Ok


Shit area. (2) He is allowed to gilt the building with as much gold as he could afford. This Order was (written by Letwe Nawyatha) on 11 February 1758.

20 March 1758 Order : (1) Baya Thayna has reported that the general condition of the people is bad; in order to mitigate this, all officers shall carry out their duties with justice as well as kindness and understanding. (2) No one shall be put in bondage or in prison unless he is guilty of treason. (3) This order shall be sent to all provincial chiefs and the chief must explain it carefully to all their subordinates. This Order was passed on 20 March 1758.

16 May 1758 Nagans-officers who receive orders from a higher authority to be transmitted to people concerned, are posted to : Hsenwi Mindon Mong Mit Mong Nai Prome Rangoon Sagu Tharawaddy Toungoo and Yay Gin on 16 May 1758; it is not unlikely that some of them are not familiar with the work they are supposed to do. Order : (1) Dama Min Rai, Chief Nagan of the Palace, shall write a manual of Nagan and send it to all Nagans.



Dama Min Rai is appointed Chief of All Nagans.

This Order was given on 16 May 1758.

16 May 1758 Order : (1) (2) Baya Thayna shall have the right to use certain insignias of rank. He shall made them at his own expense.

This Order was given on 16 May 1758.

16 May 1758 With reference to ROB 9 September 1757, fiftyseven men under Ainda Wayya Kyaw, who are the crew of Yadana Shwe Hpaung Daw, have been exempted from taxes known as Hseik-Port, Ti - Shop, Pwe - Brokerage, Kin - Toll, Gado Ferry, and Apaw Wun -Court Fee payable by Plaintiff. From Ghun Daung (near Hti Gyaint) these men had brought (down the river in rafts) a total of 789 timber of circumferences 30 mm to 50 mm and Kin Wun- Officer of the Tolls, asked 10 ticals of silver for the timber, another 10 for the raft, 1.5 for the toll keeper and 20 for the expences to bring them down to the court. They wanted to have these silver ( a total of 41.5 ticals ) refunded. Order : Pay the tax as exacted by the Kin Wun.

This Order was passed on 16 May 1758.

19 August 1758 In the law suit in the Hluttaw between Lawksawk Sawbwa and Hla Chit who was a former slave, the Sawbwa maintained that Hla Chit was a born slave though Hla Chit denied it. He said that he was a debtor slave and he had served more time than he should for a debt he owed and therefore he should now become free.


Order : (1) (2) (3)

Study various Damathats for a similar case. Do not make a hasty or a biased judgement. Take time from one to six weeks before a decision is made.

This Order was passed on 19 August 1758.

19 January 1759 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Defender of the Buddha's Religion, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Master of White, Red and Spotted Elephants, Lord of the Golden Palace, Liege of Various Kingdoms in Jambudipa, proclaimed that all land known as Manipur is annexed to his empire from this day of 12 January 1759 and to make it a lasting record for all generations to come, this proclamation is inscribed on stone. Any ruler over this land of Manipur shall send either his sister or his daughter as a bride to his liege lord in Burma once in every three years. The yearly trubute is : 10 viss of gold 100 horses 500 bows 5,000 arrows with poisoned iron tips and 1,000 viss of tree gun In times of war, he has to join the imperial army with a force of 2,000 men (1,000 Horsemen and 1,000Archers). He shall be allowed to rule Manipur so long as he accepts Burma's suzerainty. But in case he becomes disloyal the Burmese king, may he suffer all the great miseries enumerated below. The curse of all the guardian spirits of the Buddha's Religion The curse of all the guardian spirits of the Burmese King The curse of all the Hindu gods The horrible death of being eaten alive by leopards, lions, tigers and ogres on land or crocodiles and sharks in water The horrible death of being struck by a thunderbolt The horrible death of being burnt alive The affliction of all the ninety six kinds of illnesses The affliction of the loathsome disease of leprosy


The inexplicable failures in all trade ventures The lost of property like water in an ebb tide The horrors of war, epedemic, famine and plunder The disintegration like salt in a sunken boat On the other hand if he remains loyal, may he be healthy and prosperous in this life and in all the lives to come and ultimately may be obtain the bliss of nirvana. This record was incribed on stone by Thet Shay Nawyatha and the inscription stone was erected right in front of the Manipur palace on 19 January 1759. Note : Alaungmintaya started the Manipur campaign on 12 November 1758. He took the town of Manipur on 2 January 1759 and left it on 22 January 1759.

12 April 1759 Order : (1) After the demise of Nanagambhi of Htaw Ma village in Atwin hel, his duties of looking after the good behaviour of monks in he locality as a Gaing Gyoke Daya shall devolve obviously on ejodipa. (2) In view of the fact that it was bard to lead a good way of life during the present bad times, the local leader of the Religion shall enlist the hilp of Atwin Shil Headman in having a good control over the monks so that they would desist from wandering about at will and devote more time on learning the religious scriptures. This Order was passed by Mahaatulayasadhammarajaguru (Sonda Thathanabyu Sayadaw) on 12 April 1759.

10 September 1759 Order : (Chief Queen Mahamargalaratanadhipatisiriraja) candadevi is


allowed to fix Mhangin- a top ornament, on Dayin -pediment at each of the four corners of the roof, at the Zayat-rest house, that she built at Mann Settaw Ya (in Minbu area). This Order was passed on 10 September 1759.

(21 September 1759) Prince Sirisudhammaraja has been given charge of the capital city and state administration with the belief that he could do it with effeciency. Ministers are also expected to advise him well on all affairs of people, religion and state. (Unfortunately good officers come with the King and only) hopeless ones are left at the capital. Order : (1) If there is anything to do with a place on the outskirts of the kingdom, choose carefully the person to be sent there. (2) Let the order (or instructions of the Crown Prince) be clearly nd precisely written by an officer who could do it properly. (3) If necessary send for the chief of that place.

This Order was passed on (21 September 1759) and sent to (Shwebo) by U Dain Sithu.

(22 September 1759) Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Defender of the Buddhist Religion, Possessor of Wonder Weapons and Master of White Elephant, send this intimation to Sirisudhammaraja (the Crown Prince at Shwebo). The Campaign against Ayut'ia (Dvaravati), Lamphun and Chiengmai is scheduled as follow : 18 November 1759 Min Hla Yaza, Leading 100 horsemen and 1, 000 urmen shall leave Rangoon for Tayoy 28 November 1759 Sithu Nawyatha (Pakhan Gyi) and Two Han Ewa (Yaw) leading jointly 100 horsemen, 400 gunmen and 1,000


lancers shall leave Rangoon for Tavoy 7 December 8 December 1759 1759 The King goes on board a ship to tevoy 1 big ship, 1 small ship, 100 war boats and 31 barges are to convey 1,000 men and connons to Tavoy The return from the east would be through the Shan area Whenever the King was on an expedition, his eldest son would then have a good chance to learn the statecraft. Order : (1) Learn from experience. The rainy season would soon be over. With the coming of the ry weather, the most dreadful danger is fire. (2) Take special precautions against fire (ROB 13 January 1758). he irrigation system is now working well. Give priority to aking the city defenses stronger. Nga Tha Tun Aung of Singu as been given an official status as a reward for his loyalty. aking charge of improving the moat, it was reported that he had laid logs below stones along the banks of the moat. It is the absurd thing to do. (3) Stop using logs in making most banks; stamp down the earth hard and lay the stones. There are about 15,000 viss of gunpowder at Rangoon. We need some more, say about 7.000 or 8,000 viss. (4) Collect gunpowder and sent it as quickly as possible to Rangoon so that it would be in time to ship it to Tavoy. Taise a contingent of about 5,000 men and some horses. (4) Commandeer all good horses and press men into service and send


them to Rangoon by Toungoo route. There are about 400 men under training in the use of guns. The training should be over by now. (5) Send the new gunmen along with the horsemen to Rangoon.

This Order was given to U Dain Ain Da on (22 September 1759). Note : Order 1 mentions that ''rains would soon be over'' and 15 Thedingyut (6 October 1759) is traditionally takin as the last day of the rainy season. Probably it was 1 Thadingyut (22 September 1759) when the King said that.

6 December 1759 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Master of White Elephant, Liege Lord over Many Kings, gave these instructions on the use of a flintlock. 1 2 Pass the cleaning rod three to four times through the gun barrel. Put the gun butt close to the level ground and bump it gently on the ground two to three times. 3 4 Use a coarse cloth once or twice to wipe the muzzle. Put the priming powder from the muzzle, push it down the barrel to the far end by the rod and press it gently but firmly by the head of the rod two or three times. 5 Put in a shot and press upon it or cover it with a piece of ccarse cloth; gauge thesize of the piece of cloth so that it is neither too small nor too big. 6 Open the priming pan and set the piece of steel (frizzen) ready for the flint (pyrite) attached to the hammer (cook) to strike it causing a shower of sparks and firing the charge inside the barrel. Now the


gun is ready. 7 8 Bend the head slightly either to the left or right in taking the aim. Hold the gun tight against the right shoulder, make sure the aim is true, wait until the obhect comes within a striking distance and pull the trigger; never let the shot wasted. Every bearer of a gun shall follew these instructions strictly. These instructions were made on 6 December 1756. Note : A flintlock came into use from about 1580 and it was in use until about 1840. Until then the guns were hand made. (''Firearms'', Modern Reference Encyclopaedia, VIII, 1965, pp. 308-10)

9 December 1759 Order : (1) Men posted as guards of the port of Madama (Martaban) shall take proper care in storing the provisions sent to then now for the use of troops in the Ayut'ia campaign. (2) They shall also construct a suitable camp for the King's use when he arrives at Madama. (3) (4) Collect some provisions from Dalaban. Cammandeer all boats in the creeks and made them ready for use when the troops passes through Madama. This Order was sent to Babya Dala's men at Madama on 9 December 1759/ Note : It means that the King would soon arrived at Madama. He scheduled departure from Rangoon on 7 December 1759 (ROB 22 September 1759 though he could not make it until 21 December 1759 and he arrived as Madama on 30 Decimber 1759. Preparations of the invasion took much longer than expectation and he could not leave Madama until 7 February 1760. This delay was one of thecauses of his failure in this campaign. Do Zwe Ya Zet, after defection, became Banya Dala. Dalaban also defected from


Hanthawaddy and came to live at Kawgun (about 50 km on the north of Madama).

14 (December 1759) Let alone kings on land, even those sailor kings living on islands in the ocean are afraid that Alaungmintaya might one day send his men to destroy them (like what had happened to the English in Negrais on 6 October 1759). On the other hand, men in his service owe everything to him and therefore they should be loyal to him. If anyone of them is found to be doing anything detrimental to the interest of the King, he should be punished accordingly. There cannot be any clemency. That is to cover a misshapen pot with a similar cover. Otherwise, it would be impossible to control them. The King, however, does not mean that he disapproves a monk's interference in this case. He regrets that he could not grant the amnesty requested. Order : Amnesty requested by Sayadaw is refused.

This Order was given on 14 (December 1759). Note : Banya Dala, formerly known as Do Zwe Yazet, was suspected of a conspiracy together with Dalaban and Alaungmintaya had him executed on his arrival at Madama (Martaban). (Kon., I 1967, p. 306) Perhaps this Order is the refusal to pardon him as requested by a chief monk (unknown), though Alaungmintaya would be still at Rangoon when this Order was passed. 16 December 1759 Order : Cut both ends of the mouth well into the cheeks if anyone of the women say anything against the King's decision. The barge was stopped to pass this Order on 16 December 1759. Note : This suggests that the King and his women entourage were on a journey by water. Queens, concubines and children of the King were with


him up to Tavoy during his Ayut'ia campaign (Symes, Michael : An Account of An Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava sent by the Governor-General of India in the Year 1759, London, W. Bulmer & Co., 1800; pp. 49-50).

20 December 1759 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Lord of White Elephant, Liege Lord of Several Kings, made this address to the Governor of Pondicherry. There had been some considerable trade between those mercantile nations of thewest with Burma for quite a long time though it was disrupted for a whil due to a Talaing rebellion. Monsieur Bourno acted on his own and sided with the rebels and accordingly he was punished (Symes 1800, p. 32). Bourno incident, however, should not in any way effect the friendship and trade between Pondicherry and Burma. Order : Trade between Pondicherry and Burma shall be continued (as before). This Order was written on a gold illuminated paper (29 lines) and sent to Pondicherry. Note : After the destruction of an English settlement in Negrais (on 6 October 1759), Alaungmintaya felt that he should turn to the French for the supply of guns, etc. (See Hall, D.G.E.: Europe and Burma, London, Oxford University Press, 1945, pp. 62-7; Harvey, G.E.: History of Burma, London, Frank Cass, 1967 Reprint, pp. 230-1: Phayre, A.P. : History of Burma , London, Susil Gupta, 1967 Reprint, pp.161-2)

23 December 1759 Order: (1) Min Ye Aung Naing with Sitke, Nagan and Sayay Gyi under him, shall restore peace and order in the Shan and Yoon areas under their control as there had been serious disturbances in these


areas recently. (2) Min Ye Aung Naing, etc. shall be extremely righteous in the discharge of their duties so that there would be no oppression. (3) In cases where the use of force is necessary, great care should be taken as it would ensue political grievances of lasting effect. (4) They shall be in a constant state of preparedness for any emergency. (5) Store provision as much as possible.

This Order was passed on 23 December 1759 and given to Min Ye Aung Naing.

1 January 1760 Order: (1) Confer the title of Jambudipasaddhammamaharajaguru upon Jinabhirama the Laungshe Sayadaw. (2) Made four lacquer images (Man Hpaya) of the Buddha using the ashes of the King's cloths and place them at the four gates of the Shwe Hsan Daw of Dagon (Shwedagon). (3) The image on the east shall be named Yay Natha, south Thwoot Natha, west Zabu Tha and north Paung Natha. This Order was given on 1 January 1760. Note: See Than Tun: ''Lacquer Image of the Buddha (Mam Bhura:)'' , Shiroku, XIII, November 1980, pp. 21-36, for the technique and the history of the lacquer Buddha industry in Burma.

(1 January 1760) Alaungmintaya, the Excellent King, Possessor of Arindame Lence, Master of White Elephant, Liege Lord of Various Kings, sent this Order to Sirisudhammaraja the Crown Prince. Order: (1) Stop all law suits for realizing the loans, etc. on any


member of the families bolonging to men in the fighting forces against Ayut'ia. (2) (3) Postpone all such law suits for loans, etc. until the said campaign is over. For other loans, a demand for repayment is prohibited until a period of ten months is over. (4) (5) Prohibit strictly the consumption of any intoxicant drinks. Stop all practices of animism. Proclaim the Order by displaying the execution blade and solemnly announcing the fact that the punishment for disobedience would be an execution with that blade. This Order was passed on (1 January 1760) Note: The King allowed the offer of liquor and meat to the spirit of Yan Bon Khwin cannon at the Shwe Hsan Daw battle near Prome on 7 February 1755 (Kon., I 1967, p. 133).

(1 January 1760) Order: Permission granted to Sirisudhammaraja the Crown Prince to build a monastery with five stairways, elephant approach (veranda) all around the building, four gates each with Mhangin fixed on top of the decoration over the gate. This Order was passed on (1 January 1760).

(1 January 1760) Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Defender of the Buddha's Religion, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Master of White Elephant, Liege Lord of Various Kings, sent this intimation to his Chief Queen. Everthing in the campaign goes well due to the fact that the King and his men have an infinite faith in the Religion.


(1 January 1760) Unlike any other king, Alaungmintaya is destined to live long and do his duty in helping the Religion prosper. Unlike any other woman, Alaugminthaya's Chief Queen would be extremely kind and generous. These are indeed the good qualities of a good administrator and she is expected to help her son in the government so that there would be nothing like an opptessive rule. Order: (1) The subject people should not suffer from any kind of oppression done inadvertently by the Crown Prince who is now ruling the kingdom during the absence of the King. (2) A judgement should be made only after hearing what each of the contending partices has to say. (3) Take care to prevent fire. As a young man, the Crown Prince might have some remissions in the discharge of his duties. Remind him often of the dangers of fire, etc. (4) Give priority to constructions of the moat though workers shall never be pressed to work too hard. (5) (6) it. This Order was passed in (1 January 1760). Repair the Royal Lake. It is only half a day's work to do. Dam the Mu but choose carefully the right place and time to do

4 January 1760 Min Hla Yaza (Shwe Dike Wun), Sithu Nawyatha (Lord of Pakhan Gyi) and Tain Gya Min Gyi (Sawbwa of Yaw) were sent with horsemen and gunmen to suppress a rebellion at Tavoy. Theinga Set and Thihi Pyan Tin of the gunmen group came to report that the rebellion is now over. The King is very much pleased with this information.


Order : (1) (2) (3)

Execute those who led the rebellion. Be magnanimous on others who surrendered. Choose one from those who surrendered in Tavoy as our envoy to Tenasserim to get back our ship that was seized at Rangoon and taken to Tenasserim by some Europeans during a rebellion there.


Send the envoy to Tenasserim by a ''speed'' boat.

This Order was passed on 4 January 1760. Note : ROB 22 September 1759 mentions that Min Hla Yaza was sent with 100 horsemen and 1,000 gunmen to Tavoy on 18 November 1759 and another contingent of 100 horsemen, 4oo gunmen and 1,000 lancers under Sithu Nawyatha and Sawbwa of Yaw was sent there too on 28 November 1759. Messengers with the news of victory arrived at Madama where the King was busy preparing to march south, probably on this day when the Order was passed, i.e. 4 January 1760. Allowing ten days for the horseman to negotiate the journey from Tavoy to Madama, we could say that Tavoy fell on 25 December 1759. About the ship ''stolen'' from Rangoon, one account says: Early in 1759 some Peguan rebels, who had made a raid on Syraim, escaped by a French ship. Bad weather compelled this vessel to put in at the Siamese port of Tenasserim. The Burmese demanded the surrender of the ship. The Siamese refused and permitted it to proceed on its voyage. (Wood, W.A.R. : A History of Siam, London, Fisher Unwin, 1926, p. 240) 5 January 1760 On Saturday 5 January 1760, Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Defender of the Buddhist Religion, Possessor of Arindama Lance, Master of White Elephant, invested the Lord of Bhummagiri with the Arrow Symbol of Vassalage. Lord of Bhummagiri took this oath of allegiance :


From today onwards I promese to do nothing detrimental to the interest of the King. I am ready forever even to risk my life for the King. Should I become a traitor, may the Arindama Lance destroy me. The King said : It you are true in allegiance like the straightness of this arrow, you shall be free from all illnesses and you shall enjoy happiness of both physic and mind. You shall have prosperity in this life and in all the lives hereafter. This investiture of the arrow was made at a place in front of the Arindama Lance on stand. Note : This way to administer the oath of allegiance is not Burmese. Bhummagiri is unknown.

7 January 1760 Order : (1) Troops under Min Gyi Nawyatha shall select camp sites where water and grass are easily available along the route of march into the territories of Thai. (2) They shall construct tents of bamboo and thatch for troopers and made the tents as good as possible according to the available supply of material for constructions. (3) They shall construct the Royal Pavilion at each site and made its surrounding clean and good for a royal residence. (4) Men under Sitke Nanda Sithu and Maha Bo of Min Gyi Nawyatha's command shall do these constructions. This Order was passed on 7 January 1760.

7 January 1760 Order : (1) Troops under U Dain Nandathu, Bala Ye Htoot and Daywa Thura shall build a temporary road from Moulmein to Tavay. (2) The road should be wide enough for elephants and horses to


pass through without congestion. (3) Construct causeways in swampy areas by laying logs of each 10 to 15 cubits (15-22.5 feet / 4.5-6.85 meters) length side by side, covering them with bamboo mats and spreading earth on them so that they would be strong enough to stand the weigh of elephants walking on them. (4) Wherever the constructions are faulty, responsible persons shall be punished. This Order was passed on 7 January 1760.

(7 January 1760) Order : (1) Irrespective of whoever their former commanders were, Min Hla Yaza (Shwe Dike Wun) shall take the sole command of all the fighting forces coming either by land or sea on arrival at Tavoy. (2) Sithu Nawyatha (Lord of Pakhan Gyi), Sawbwa of Yaw, Kanda Yawda, Aka Bohmu and all other commanders of various fighting units shall take orders from Mun Hla Yaza. (3) Since Mergui and Tenasserim belong to the other kingdom, attack against them shall wait until the arrival of the King at Tavoy. (4) (5) In the menwhile, collect provisions. Give provisions to Theinga Set as much as his Talaing boat can carry. This Order was passed on (7 January 1760).

(7 January 1760) Order : (1) Min Hla Yaza, Sithu Nawyatha, Thohanbwa, Nanda Yawds and Aka


Bohmu shall send 1,000 baskets of rice that had been sent from Rangoon by ships to Tavoy, to Ye and wagaru after providing enough men, boats and escorts. (2) Get half of the boat men required from the prisoners captured in Tavoy and another half from the fighting forces. This Order was passed on (7 January 1760).

(15 January 1760) In the name of the Burmese King, his generals in Tavoy send this Order to the authorities now in charge of Tenasserim. Order : (1) During the Alaungmintaya's Manipur campaign (12 November 1758-7 February 1759), due to oppressinons by the Burmese officers, there was a Talaing rebellion at Rangoon, some Europeans seized a Burmese ship at Rangoon and took it away to Mergui and Tenasserim at that time. On demand to have it returned, a reply was given that Thai king's permission is necessary to do that. One king would not withhokd another king's property. Return the ship as quickly as possible. (2) When people from one kingdom fled to another, they shall be repatriated as soon as possible. We abserve this rule and we also expect that you observe it. Otherwise, declare that the refugees from Tavoy shall not be repatriated. This Order was dated (15 January 1760) and Theinga Set and Thiha Yan Tin were sent with it to Tenasserim. Note : Merchants of Tavoy carried their property on ships and took refuge in Tenasserim and the Burmese officers now wanted them repatriated. (See Wood 1926, p.240; JBRS, XI, ii, p.299)


19 January 1760 From the Generals of the Fighting Forces of Alaungmintaya To the Officers in Charge of Mergui and Tenasserim We came to subdue a rebellion in Tavoy. Some people there took fright and fled into the territories of the neighbouring kingdom. We followed them in an attempt to stop them. At Sin Doe some people fought against us. Nga Tha Byaung, Nga Pyan Yan and his wife of that willage were captured and now they were used as messengers. Order : Send back all people, not excepting one, from Tavoy if you do not want to severe friendship with us. This Order was dated 19 January 1760 and sent to Mergui by boat men said to be of Mergui and captured by Bohmu Nanda Yawda at Tike Bataw Gyaung and Taung Gyaung.

(7 February 1760) Theinga Set brought the report that Min Hla Yaza, Mani Set, Thamanta Thura and men of Thu NgeDaw and Thay Nat had conquered the port of Mergui. The King was immensely pleased with their services. Order : (1) (2) Collect provisions and prepare for the advance further. Min Hla Yaza is given the entire command.

This Order was given on (7 February 1760).

20 February 1760 Order : (1) (2) Nanda Yawda is given the supreme command. For reasons of being very close friends, no one shall disobey him or leave the camp site without his permission. (3) Everyone shall do his best to bring success to the whole campaign soon.


This Order was given to Nanda Yawda on 20 February 1760. Note : The King was in Tavoy from 19 February 1760 to 27 February (ROB 6 March 1760).

20 February 1760 King of Dvaravati, the original reason of Alaungmintaya's visit to Rangoon was to do some meritorious deeds on the Thein Gottaya Hill. A casual check at the port was made and the King was reported that one of the ships was stolen and taken to Mergui. Men were sent to bring it back. But they failed to do so because officers at Mergui would not return without a specific order from the Thai King. In the meanwhile there was a rebellion in Tavoy. It was suppressed and the leader of rebellion was executed. Many people of Tavoy took fright and fled to Mergui and Tenasserim. A demand was made that they should be repatriated. Officers there simply ignored this demand. The King's men went to Mergui and Tenasserim. The stolen ship was not found there. The King also follewed them and he is now approaching Dvaravati. Alaungmintaya expects to meat the Thai King before he reaches Dvaravati. This letter was dated 20 February 1760.

(20 February 1760) Dvaravati King does not observe the ten virtues of a king. He had done many things wrong in his dealing with both his dealing with both his relatives and his ministers. (Alaungmintaya) who is a Bodhisattva, has no equal in this Jambuddpa. He had decided to teach Dvarayati King to become a good King. He must come and sit at the foot of the Bodhisattva to learn his lessons. Otherwise he shall be punished severely. This was written in Pali on (20 February 1760). Note : The Burmese had used a similar ruse upon the Mons before (ROB 25 April 1756).


3 March 1760 Order : (1) Min Gaung Nawyatha, Nay Myo Nawyatha and all the commanders who lead the vanguards shall clear the way only good enough to let themselves get through and they should move froward on the double in order to pass the difficult terrain and reach the plains as quickly as possible. (2) Troops, though moving quickly, shall not get divided into several groups. (3) Collect provisions along the way.

This Order of 3 March 1760 was given to Tuyin Hla Gyaw for sending it to the commanders concerned. Note : After having taken Tenasserim, the Burmese forces crossed the peninsula over to the Gulf of Siam side and in marching north on that side, they went ''for several days with the sea to the right and a high range of mountains to the left'' (Wood 1926, p. 241).

(3 March 1760) Order : (1) Sithu Nawyatha (Lord of Pakhan) and Min Gyi Nawyatha must send 500 gunmen under Nanda Pyanchi and 400 gunmen under Naya Pyanchi by the water route as quickly as possible to support the forces that had marched ahead comprising 1,000 horsemen and 100 gunmen of the shwe Daung Letyapaw under Shwe Daurg Kyaw Zwa Htin. (2) Min Gyi Nawyatha, Lord of Pakhan and their men shall follow the advance forces while they construct the road and wait for the vews of the advancing forces. (3) Thura Pyanchi and 25 horsemen from the Amyint forces shall march with Ainda Pyanchi.



Report immediately, irrespective of time, the information from

interrogating captured enemy soliders. This Order was given to Tutta Pyitsi on (3 March 1760).

(3 March 1760) Order : (1) Believing that they are dependable, Shwe Daung Kyaw Htin and Shwe Daung Letwe Paw shall lead the vanguard. (2) They shall get all horsemen of various groups to move in unison as under one command. (3) 300 gunmen under Ainda Pyanchi and Naya Pyanchi shall join them. (4) They shall fight and conquer when there are any enemy croops that come to stop them. Otherwise, they shall not fight against either a stockade or a fortified town. (5) They shall have to report immediately when they encounter any enemy making a stand in a stockade, etc. (6) Send also 25 horsemen under Thuya Pyanchi from the Amyint forces, together with Ainda Pyanchi. (7) Report immediately, irrecpective of time, the information from interrogating any captured enemy soldier. This Order was given to Tutta Pyitsi on (3 March 1760).

6 March 1760 Order : (1) Chief Queen and Crown Prince Sirisudhammaraja shall take special precautions against theft and fire in the city. (2) (3) (4) Get the city moat and walldone quickly and properly. Inspect the administration of local chiefs and learn the statecraft. On 27 February 1760, the King left Tavoy on a campaign againstAyut'ia and the Chief Queen and Crown Prince should not have


any anxiety about the safety of the King. (5) (6) Get the Wet Toe Dam ready before the rainy season comes. Whin the rains come, send back three fourth of the people who are now working on the moat and wall construction to their villages to cultivate. (7) Invite (forty six) monks to a feast in the Hlaung Daw U of the palace on the King's birthday (25 August 1760 as he was born on Friday 15 Tawthalin S 1076-12 August 1714). (8) (9) Made offering to the guardian spirits on the King's birthday. Chief Queen, Queens and Concubines shall offer flower, food, light and water to the Buddha everyday Uposatha day and wish for the King's health and success of the Ayut'ia campaign. This Order was given to Daywa Yanthu on 6 March 1760.

(6 March 1760) Order : (1) Sirisudhammaraja shall send men to fetch the collection of arms at Rangoon to Shwebo. (2) Men who go to fetch these arms shall not disturb the people along the route by asking provisions or labourers or money in lieu of food and labour. This Order was given to (Daywa Yanthu on 6 March 1760).

6 March 1760 Order : (1) Min Hla Hawyatha, Shwe Daung Letya Paw, Shwe Daung Letwe Kyaw, Tain Gya Min Gyi, Lubyodaw Regimental. Chiefs who are already noted for their lravery and their men shall fight with atmost valour in a synchronized effort when they encounter with Shan or Thai enemies.



The results of a battle shall be reported, irrespective of time.

This Order was given on 8 March 1760 and sent Dippa Yanda with it to various commanders of the advance forces.

(8 March 1760) Order : (1) Shwe Daung Letya Paw, Shwe Daung Kyaw Zwa Htin and Lubyodaw Regimental Chiefs who are already noted for their bravery, shall seize provisions at any place they take after a fight. (2) They shall send horsemen to reconnitre before they move from one place to another. (3) If Phetburi has any kind of fortifications, wait the arrival of the main forces to attack it. Cannons are essential to attack a fort. (4) Min Gaung Nawyatha and Nay Myo Nawyatha shall also abide by the Order. This Order was given on (8 March 1760) and Shwe Daung Pyan Htin and Nanda Thuriya were sent with it (to various commanders concerned). Note : This Order was passed to warn the advance forces to wait for the arrival of the main forces for a united simltaneous attack on Pheburi. It seems that while some forces were attacking Kwe (Kuinua) some forces went further north to attack Phetburi.

8 March 1760 Order : (1) Min Gyi Nawyatha, Shwe Daung Letya Paw, Min Hla Nawyatha, Shwe Daung Kyaw Zwa Htin and men of various units shall bear in mind that death and destruction would be the result of any wrong movement in war and as the King is also coming in the rear closely with the marching troops, they shall wait


for the King's signal to march forward from Hsa Lin. (2) In spite of the fact that Min Gaung Nawyatha, Nay Myo Nawyatha, Do To, Shwe Daung Nge, U Dain Zayya, etc. are chiefs in their own units and in spite of the zeal that each leader would like to go in front of others and win the battle by his unit alone, he and his unit shall wait for the word to fight from the supreme command. This Order was given on 8 March 1760 and sent it with Headman of Yay Poke to various leaders of the fighting forces.

8 March 1760 Order : One would not know the colour of the chick before it is hatched. So is a battle. That is one point to remember. Next, if several men try to kill one enemy by spearing him, none of them could have achieved his purpose because one's effort would nullify the effort of others. Remember this too. Then follow this battle plan. a Min Gaung Nawyatha, Naymyo Nawyaths, Min Gyi Nawyatha and Shwe Daung Kyaw Zwa Htin shall keep the main force in some strategic point ready for an immediate advance. b Shwe Daung Letay Paw with 75 horsemen and Shwe Daung Letwe Kyaw with 75 horsemen, with the forces under Shwe Daung Letya Kyaw, Shwe Daung Kyaw Zwa Htin and Thiha Nanda shall charge the enemy first. c U Dain Ponnya and U Dain Yanda Mate shall select 250 horsemen from Lu Byo Daw and Thu Nge Daw group and made the supporting charge. d Min Hla Nawyatha with a select group of 300 gunmen shall


stay at a close range to help the charging men. e Fight and conquer Kwe (Kuinua) or if there is no resistence, occupy it. f Thin Gya Min Gyi witg stay at a close range to help the from 2,000 gunmen shall stay at a close range to help the charging men from the left flank. g Failures shall not be tolerated.

This Order was given on 8 March 1760 in Panan. Note: Kwe (Kuinua) was not taken on that day (8 March 1760). According to the chronicles, it took seventeen days after Alaungmintaya had left Tavoy to take Kwe; therefore the day when Kwe fell would be 16 March 1760.

11 March 1760 Order: (1) Min Gyi Nawyatha, Min Gaung Nawyatha, Nay Myo Nawyatha, Shwe Daung Kyaw Zwa Htin and commanders of cavalry and infantry who had been already noted for their bravery, shall organize the march of the fighting forces as follows: a Shwe Daung Letya Paw shall lead with 75 horsemen with guns; any infantry men who want to serve in this first group shall given their names to Min Hla Yaza. b The rest of the cavalry shall be divided into left, centre and right groups and they are to follow the first group from a distance that could not be reached by enemy guns or cannons. c The rest of the fighting men shall march in a given order; they should not get crazy of a few successess before; there shall be no confusion during the march. This Order was passed on 11 March 1760 and it was given to Min Hla Yaza.


(11 March 1760) Order: (1) Min Hla Yaza (Shwe Dike Wun) and fighting men of various groups including horse and elephant groups shall carry out the duty assigned to each of them with efficiency. (2) While the fighting is going on man in the rear must quickly decide either the centre or the left flank is winning and push forward in the direction where reinforcement is urgently needed. This Order was sent with Shwe Daung Kyaw Htin on (11 March 1760).

11 March 1760 Order: (1) Min Gyi Nawyatha, Min Gaung Nawyatha, Nay Myo Nawyatha, Shwe Daung Kyaw Htin and members of the fighting forces of Thu Nge Daw, Shwe Hlan, Phone Daw Byit and groups of horse, elephant and gun should not get crazy with a few initial successes. (2) (3) (4) Ordnance should be most carefully looked after. Camp sites should be chosen with the usual care. Troopers shall not, while the main force is at rest in camp, wander in groups of ten or twenty. This Order was passed on 11 March 1760 and given to Banya Dala and Aka Htin for circulation.

13 March 1760 Order: (1) Min Hla Yaza, Shwe Daung Letya Paw, Shwe Daung Letwe

Kyaw who was first given command of the advance forces, and Nay Myo Nawyatha and Tain Gya Min Gyi who had been given command of the advance forces later, failed to report daily all the events of each day including the condition of supplies etc. and the position of the enemy; they shall report these


immediately. (2) Report the condition in Phetbure; if there is no opposition, occupy the town and take care that there is no danger of fire as in other places where fire broke out as soon as the fighting forces had passed through them. (3) After having taken possession of the town of Phetburi, the main army shall camp outside it; mimbers of the fighting forces shall not be allowed to come and go freely in the newly occupied town. (4) Collect food provisions at Phetburi as much as possible and store them at one single place only so that proper care could be taken against lost or destruction through theft or negligence. This Order was sent with Shwe Daung Thiri Kyaw Htin on 13 March 1760

21 March 1760 Order: (1) Min Hla Yaza and 300 gunmen and 150 horsemen shall follow the retreating enemy from a distance of one lance throw and Tain Gya Min Gyi shall go at a little distance from Min Hla Yaza so that he could help the former when necessary. But Tain Gya Min Gyi is stupid and slow and he is like a blind man at a dance performance. What he should do is to chase the enemy who had escaped so that they would not have a chance to reorganize. (2) To find out the situation at Phetburi, the King sent Letya Min Nge Kyaw Zwa; when he passes through the advance forces, he shall give this Order to them; on receiving the Order, all troops shall stop and wait for the arrival of the King, except


Shwe Daung Thiri Kyaw Htin and his men who shall accompany Letya Min Nge Kyaw Zaw (in his mission to Phetburi). This Order was sent with Letya Min Nge Kyaw Zaw on 21 March 1760.

25 March 1760 Alaungmintaya, the Most Excellent King, Possessor of Arindama, Master of White Elephant, Defender of the Buddhist Religion, Liege Lord of Various Kings, Terror to Kings who have the audacity to refuse his suzerainty, Descendant of the Race of Sun, Lord of Sunaparanta, Tambadipa, Kampoca, Ramanna, Manipura, Sarekhettara and several others, made this intimation to King of Dvaravati, members of his family and all his subjects: The ascendency of Alaungmintaya happened in accordance with the Buddha's propgesy. Anyone who does not want to suffer the lost of his position, life and property shall submit himself to Alaungmintaya. Opposition to Alaungmintaya who is destined to become supreme, is hopeless. This intimation was written on paper in Burmese as well as in Thai and given to a young monk called Nga Mun and seven others of Phetburi and they were sent to (Ayut'ia) on 25 March 1760. The letters were put in two white bags. The bags were then put in a casket. The casket was put in a gunny bag. Note: Phetpuri fell into the Burmese hands in about 22 March 1760.

(25 March 1760) Order: (1) Provisions now stored at Phetpure shall be distributed among the Thai people after the fall of Ayut'ia. (2) It was reported that some food stores had been stclen or robbed; let it be known to all inhabitants of Pheopuri that


if there were any more occurance of theft or robbery at these food stores, everyone of them shall be put to death. This Order was passed on (25 March 1760).

12 September 1760 Min Gaung Gyi rules at Ava where five rivers meet, condescends to give this warning to the leaders of theforces sent from Moksobo to attack Ava, that (1) their effort is futile and that (2) they would suffer greatly if they continued to fight. This warning was dated 12 November 1760 and it was given by King Min Gaung Nawyatha to the forces that were camping at Paya Hla. Note : Min Gaung Nawyatha was the best of Alaungmintaya's generals and as soon as he knew the death of Alaungmintaya, he raised the standard of rebellion. 27 June 22 July 6 December 1760 1760 1760 Min Gaung Nawyatha took Ava King Dabayin sent troops to take back Ava Min Gaung Nawyatha escaped from Ava and was soon murdered

14 September 1760 Leader of the forces sent by the King against Min Gaung Nawyatha made this reply to Min Gaung Nawyatha (1) that he has no chance of a success, (2) that he was misled to assume that he is destined to become a king, (3) that he too is misleading hundreds and thousands of people to destruction, and (4) that he would soon be destroyed. This letter was dated 14 September 1760 and sent from the forces at Paya Hla to Min Gaung Nawyatha in Ava.

29 April 1769 Order : (1) The nine pleaders shall take th oath : We will never allow ourselves to be influenced by the


high or low status of a client; we will always try to be free from four unhealthy considerations due to greed, anger, ignorance or love; we will for ever take care not to become biased due to the fact that a person is one of our blood relatives or he is a very close friend of ours or he has given us a bribe; and we will confine our arguments within the framework of Dhammathat. If we break anyone of the promises given here, may we suffer the calamities mentioned in this book of oaths. The oath shall be administered at the East Court in the presence one Wundauk-Deputy Minister, and one Sayay Gyi-Senior Clerk. This Order was passed on 29 April 1769 and proclaimed by the Chief of Haralds. (2)

28 April 1770 Nga Pan + 10 of Thiha Daw Nga Myat Yin + 10 of Yay Myet Nga Nyo + 10 of Ma Gyi Don Nga Kaung Gyi, Nga Kya + 10 of Tha Bye Ak The above mentioned men were put under the charge of Thado Thiha Kyaw by (Alaungmintaya) and after the death of Thado Thinha Kyaw, they were employed in the service of the Dowager Queen Mother and this was formally informed to the Chief of Artillery. In spite of that, Letya Bala Kyaw Htin of King U is exacting dues from them. Order : (1) Letya Bala Kyaw Htin shall not exact dues from the men mentioned above. (2) These men shall remain in the service of the Queen Mother.

This Order was passed on 28 April 1770 and proclaimed by the Herald.

4 September 1773 Commonfolks of Taung Hswe Lay have the same obligations as those of He Pu Commonfolds of Met Mon and Pa Ke have the oblgation to build HawResidence of the Local Chief, to prepare the compound of that residence and to give in each year 30 viss of cotton, bee wax, oil, saffron and cloth. Lwe Me and Aung Ban had settled their dues as usual on 4 September 1773.


There was a dispute for the ownership of Met Mon and Pa Ke between the Chiefs of Mong Nai and Lawksawk. The officer from Lawksawk contended that from the time of the grandfather and father of the King who was taken as a prisoner to Hanthawaddy, MetMon and Pa Ke were under Lawksawk. Due to some disturbances by Karens, Lawksawk's control over them was not tangible. Then Alaungmintaya suppressed the Kerens and restored them under the charge of Lawksawk. In the time of King Dabayin, Mong Nai forcibly took over Met Mon and Pa Ke. Sawbwa of Mong Nai also claimed that Met Mon and Pa Ke were under Mong Nai right from the time of the grandfather and father of the King who was taken to Hanthawaddy. A water ordeal was prescribed to settle the dispute. Note : Unfortunately we do not know the results of the ordeal.

31 July 1775 Order : (1) Find out the distance between one stage and another where stops for the night were made along the river Irrawaddy from Rangoon to Ava. (2) Write a verse on the distances between stages on the Irrawaddy.

This Order was passed (when the King arrived at Ava on 31 July 1775). Note : There were 38 stages and the distance in total was 180,000 ta / 357.95 miles / 576 kilometres.

24 February 1780 Order : (1) It is meet that the monks observe the same principle in wearing the robes on approaching an area where lay people live; one monk should not leave the right shoulder bare while another covers all shoulders and vice versa. (2) Let the two groups of opposing ideas meet at the Thudama Zayet and debate. This Order was passed on 24 February 1780 and proclaimed by Nay Myo Nawyatha the Atwin Wun, at the Thudama Zayat in the Man Aung Yadana pagoda precincts. Note : Hsonda Sayadaw, Bagaya Sayadaw and Gadoe Sayadaw represented the


Cover Both Shoulders Group while Yadana San Loot Sayadaw, Pyo Gan Sayadaw and Taung Bilu Sayadaw represented the Leave Right Shoulder Bare Group in the debate. The group for Leave Right Shoulder Bare was defeated. Gunamunindadhipatipavarasamimahadhammarajadhirajaguru the Manli

Sayadaw was made the Superme Leader of the Religion who had to make all monks follow the single convention to cover both shoulders with the robe on entering the premises of lay people (Kon., I 1967, p.517).

25 February 1780 Order : (1) In the ensuing debate for or against covering only one shoulder with the robe and using the breast band, no long speeches would not be allowed. (2) Arguments must have full scriptural support.

This Order was passed on 25 February 1780 and proclaimed by Kyaw Htin Nanda Mate Hlawga Thon Daung Hmu at Thudama Zayat in Man Aung Yadana pagoda precincts.

26 February 1780 Order : (1) At the debate between monks for and against robe on left shoulder alone, San Gyaung Sayadaw shall support the group for robe on left shoulder alone. (2) Kyaw Aung San Hta Sayadaw, Min Ywa Sayadaw, Gadoe Zeik Sayadaw Nyaung Gan Sayadaw shall support the group against robe on left shoulder alone. This Order was passed on 26 February 1780 and proclaimed by Nay Myo Mawyatha the Atwin Wun at the Thudama Zayat in the Man Aung Yadana pagoda precincts. 15 November 1780


Order ;

The Buddha would not have allowed two different style in the way of monks wearing their robes. Decide which one is in conformity with the scriptures.

This Order was passed on 15 November 1780 and proclaimed by Nay Myo Nanthe the Chief of Heralds.

23 November 1780 Order : (1) There is no scriptural support on Left Shoulder; both shoulders should be covered. (2) But before the final decision, state clearly the facts in favour of Both Shoulders. This Order was passed on 23 November 1780 and proclaimed by Sithu Shwe Daung Nawyatha the Herald.


28 February


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28 February


urmwnfpuonf tmb&jA[mhjynfu qif; wnfaxmifonf? tmb&jA[mjynfvnf; tcsm;r&Sd? nDawmfaemifawmfwdkYab;avmif;awmf yifjzpfonf? ta&SUwdkif;BuD;jynfBuD;rSmvnf; xD;aqmif;rif;taygif;wdkYudk tpdk;&onf nDawmfyifjzpfawmhonf? aemifawmf nDawmfwdkYwdkif dkaoaumif;rGefpGm omoemawmfpD;yGg;? om;awmforD;awmfwdkY pD;yGg;twdkif; rod&Sdonfudk&nfrSwf aemifawmfnDawmfwdkY ab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmf tmb&bkHrS vmaom jA[mudk;a,mufonf wa,mufaomoludk &Spfa,mufaomolajrmuf rif;jzpfayonf? &Spfa,mufaomolonf t&yf&SpfrsufESmkyfudk tpOf vkyfaqmif udk;uG,fxm;onfh tkyfudk ckwdkifvnf;aemifawmf nDawmfwdkY ab;avmif;awmfyifjzpf nDawmfwdkYudk;uG,fapcsifaomaMumifh cspfvSonfESifh tnDqufvdkufygonf? twGif;eef;jy'fodkYoGif; nDawmfa&SUwGif a&Tjzifh vTrf;vsufw&ufrjcm; udk;uG,fygap? tmb&bkHrS qif;onfhjA[mudk;a,mufwGif jA[mBuD;wpfa,muf\ om;tBuD;onf aemifawmfab;avmif;awmf? om;ti,fonf nDawmfab; avmif;awmfyifjzpfonf? taemufrsufESm wdkif;BuD;jynfBuD; xD;aqmif;rif;taygif;wdkYudk tpdk;& awmfrlaom qifjzLqifeD&wemwGif;rsm;ocif nDawmfa&Teef;&Sif? aemifawmfcspfMunfpGm &mZr[mrdwfjzpf &mZoHpmudk {ol&JtrwfwGHwm &JwdkYudk cefYxm; ydkYqufygaponf? nDawmfwdkif;EdkifiHta&SUrsufESm udkif;rm;? rdkif;rdkif;? rdkif;vSnf;ocif? awmifrsufESm,dk;',m;? vif;Zif;? taMumf? v0dkuf? rsufESmjrnf;? yifv,fus? taemufrsufESm ork'&mem;xd xD;aqmif;rif;taygif;um; yk*H? rdk;jAJ? ykcef;? rkwr? [Hom0wD? oHvsif? awmifil?


28 February


Zif;r,f? uav;? aomifoGyf? odED? 'g;0,f? jynf? awmifwGif;? 9BudKif; 9apmfbGm;rSp ,ckwdkifnDawmfab;avmif;awmf tqufqufwdkif;EdkifiHawmf jzpfayonf? EdkifiHawmftwGif; a&S;ab;avmif;awmfwdkY vufxufuuJYodkY jynf&Gmwdkif;EdkifiHpnfyifom,m Nidrf0yfonfudkodvdkonf? rNidrfr0yfnDawmfrSm &SdvQif aemifawmf&efoljzpfawmhonf? aemifawmfwdkY bkef;tmPmESifh rNidrfr0yf &SdvQif ESdyfuGyf&Sif;vif;&rnf nDawmfaexGufbk&if a&Teef;&Sif/ (okawoD)


(2 January


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(2 January


trIawmfudk xrf;&GufvQif jrefrmZmwfwljcif;udk rqdkESifh OD;olykefjzpfaom wvdkif;yifusdK;EGH0yfysufxyfaomfvnf; iga&TESvkH;awmf txl;r&Sd? jrefrm uRefawmfrsdK; t&yf&yfudk ac:odrf; iga&TpufawmfpkHOD;wdkuf vmMu&rnf/ ou&mZf 1116ck (jymodkvjynfhausmf 5 &ufaeY) 2 January 1755 t&yf&yfolBuD;acgif;tBuD;wdkYudk ay;jyefonf (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 2? pm 9-10)


(4 March


bkef;awmftvTef BuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&ef wr'Dy uarmp wdkif;BuD; taygif;wdkYESifh oa&acw&mjynf t&dr'emyk*Hjynfyif;, jrifpdkif;ppfudkif; tif;0 uav;rdk;aumif; rdk;nif; Aef;armf rdk;rdwf oDayg a,mufapmufrSp &mZXmeD xD;aqmifapmfbGm;NrdKUpm; taygif;ESifhwuG &wemodCF ukef;abmifa&TjynfBuD; udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom ywjrm;eDvm Ob,m; a&TaiGy,if;aMu;oH&wemwGif; taygifwdkYudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom qifjzLqifeD qifusm;rsm;ocif toQif b0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m; 528yg;aom arwmpdwfESifh wuG trdefYawmf&Sdonf armf"*F&mZftBuD; *krnDa'gudk rZdrma'ojzpfaom jynfaxmifrifwdkYESifh jrefrmOpGef;udk tpdk;&aom ab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif; awmftqufqufjynf\ t*Fg 7yg;wGif ocg[laom jynfaxmifjcif; xD; aqmif;rif;{u&mZfwdkY 0,fjzpfcJYaom t*Fgjzpfonf igab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmf tqufqufrZdrma'o jzpfaom rif;wdkYESifh tpnf rdo[m,jzpfMu ywjrm;ausmHoHtajrmH aoHouvyf tkyfrsdK;xnfrsdK; ukefp,fESifh qif;&Jom;wdkYonfvnf t&Suftwifa&mif;0,fabmufum; rdbom;r,m; pnf;pdrfOpmpD;yGg;Mu csrf;ompGmtoufarG;Mu&onf udef;cef; tavsmuf&mrnwvdkif;wdkY t&Sifudkt&SifrrSwf vuf0g;ajymif;jyef aus;Zl;opm awmfudk azgufjyef ykefpm;dkif;jyK axmifxm;onfudk &wemyl&tif;0NrdKUvnf; tESpfw&mausmfvQif Oyg'a&mufjrJ tpnfuJYodkYjzpf ysufpD;&rnftcg a&mufonfESifh &wemyl&tif;0rif;a[mif;vnf w&m;udkrapmifhusifhavonf waMumif; waMumif;rSmvnf; bkef;&Sdvg ajrmufbkef;rJYaysmufonf qdkouJYodkY igb0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; (bk&m;) ay:xGef; odrf;kef;&rnftcsdefa&muf tcdkuftwefYrQ jrefrmwdkY a&TNrdKUawmfBuD;udk wnfxm; a&TxD;a&Teef; pdkufxlvQif xD;aqmif;NrdKUpm; &Srf;udk;apmfbGm;rSp uonf;apmfbGm; [kefucsif u&if "Ek apmfbGm;acgiftBuD; xD;aqmif;taygif;wdkY ysyf0yfBudK;EGH uRefawmfcH trIawmfudknD


(4 March)-


nGwfpGm xrf;&GufMuvQif a&S;rif;tqufqufwdkY vufxuf&wemwGif taygif;wdkY wdrfjrKwforQonf ibkef;awmfaMumifh tqqwdk;yGg;ay:xGuf jynfoljynfom;taygif;wdkY a&csrf;udk&ifydkuf&ouJYodkY pdwf\&Tifjycsrf;omcsif; udk&Muonf? rw&m;aomtusifhudkusifh jynfql;jynfanmifh jyKusifhonfudk rSefaomopmpum;jzifh t"dXmef tBudrfBudrf&Sifvif;&onfESifh 1116ck igudk,f awmfjrwfqifjrif; tvkH;t&if;ESifh csDawmfrl wdkufvH&onfjynfMuufwif; awmifwGif opfwyfusHK;ajrmif; avSwuftrsm;ESifh cH&yfjyefonfudkvnf; opm pum;jzifh "dXmef vkyfMuHvQif ibkef;awmfudk rcHEdkif olykefwdkYysufpD;onf avS 600ausmf tajrmHaowfqifjrif; vufeuftukeftpifodrf;,lvdkuf ajy;oGm;aponf? rZdrma'ojzpfaom wuRef;wEdkifiHukefonfolaX; ol<u,f ESifhigaejynfawmf &wemyl&t0 a&TNrdKUawmfESifh pD;yGg;jyKbuf ab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmf tqufqufvufxuf wdk;yGm; arwmESifhwOD; pD;yGm;udkwOD; t&Snfumv csrf;omNidrf0yf ywjrm;a&TaiGaMu;oHy,if; aoewfouvwf tkyfrsdK;xnfrsdK; c&D;vrf;a[mif;twdkif; 2jynfwjynf pD;yGm;&Sufwif&atmif ywjrm;[ifom 2ckudk OyrmjyK owif;Mum;apawmfrlvdkufonf/ ou&mZf 1116ck (waygif;vjynfhausmf 7 &ufaeY) (4 March) [dkif;BuD;*krnD a'gwdkYudk ay;onfh&mZoH (avmif;rdefYrSwf 1? pm 3-4)


29 May 1755

r[mtwkv,"r&mZ*kk (qkHxm; omoemjyKq&mawmf) trdefYawmf&Sdonf? twGif;oQJawmr&Gmae OmP*rD? ykHawmifykHnm tvGJtaemufbufoDwif;okH; aeawmfrlaom oHCmawmfwdkYudk 0denf;usrf;*efvg&Sdonfhtwdkif; usifhaqmif atmif MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; qkH;rpD&if&rnf/ oHCmawmfwdkYuvnf; OmP*rDtqkH;tr Mo0g'udk remcHvQif xdkoHCmwdkYudk ighxHavQmufxm;&rnf/ ou&mZf 1117ck e,kefvjynfhausmf 4 &ufaeY(29 May 1755) ydkYtyfonfhtrdefYawmf r[m'gefvkvif&SifyifvSpm; iykwdkYtpkHtnDtyfvSonf/ (a,m? pm 65)


29 May


&cdkifdk;r csif;awmifwef; ta&SUwGif &[ef;oCFmwdkUudk tkyfxdef;Muyfrvsuf&Sd ap&ef *dkPf;tkyfq&mawmfcefYxm;onfrSm 1 twGif;&SJ; awmrowif;oHk;? ycef;BuD;Zmwd &SifOgP*rD 2 awmrowif;oHk;? awmifwGif;BuD; Zmwdjrif;awmfonf armif&Srf;? &[ef;bGJU &SifawaZm'Dy 3 awmowif;oHk;? ycef;aus; awmifpOfoHk;q,fh&Gmt0if qdwfacs;Zmwd tonfBuD; armifaygpH? &[ef;bGJU&Sif*kPom& 4 rif;&Gmowif;oHk;? rif;&GmtonfBuD; armifaexGef;? &[ef;bGJU&Sif"ro& (ou&mZf 1117 ck e,kefvjynfhausmf 4 &ufaeY) (29 May 1755) omoemjyK omoemapgifh q&mawmfu trdefYawmfpgay;tyfcefYxm;onf/ (rlvtrdefYawmfr&SdNyD? a,m? pg 66)


6 June 1755

bkef;awmftvGef BuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&efwr'Dypaom wkdif;BuD;rsm; taygif;ESihfwuG wkdif;EdkifiHxD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkUudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom omoem'g,umawmf jzpfawmfrlaom vufeufpMumocif taqmifaqmif aom a&Teef;jy'focif a&TwGif;aiGwGif; y,if;Ob,m; eDvga*:rdwfaMu; oHywjrm;wGif; tp&Sdaom &wemwGif;taygif;wkdUudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom qifjzLqifeD qifusm;rsm;ocif toQifbo&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m; trdefYawmf&Sdonf? arm"uF&Zf*Hk ynpE&yfwkdU? [Hom0wDNrdKUonf jreYfrmhOpGef; xGef;&m jrefrmrif;tqufquf tpOftkd;ydkifaom EdkifiHjzpfonf? wvdkif;olykef wkdUonf aus;Zl;opmudk axmHvSefykefuefpm; tcdkuftwefYrQ rif;jyKESihf&onf udk iudk,fawmf om;awmfnDawmfAdkvfrSL;wyfrSL; ol&Jolcuf wdkufavS0ef avSqifvHk;jrif;&if;trsm;ESihf tBudrfBudrf t&yf&yfwkdufvH vkyfBuH&Sif;vif; jynfawmifil om,m0wDtkwfuef 30 vGrf;aq;BuHcif; "EkjzL [if;ow ykodef ajrmif;jrcJaygif '*kef'v udk;NrdKUt&yf&yf NrdKUjyaus;&Gmrsm;ESihf avSwuftajrmH aoewfvufewfud&d,mtrsm; &awmfrlonf? oefvsifyefvdkif oHvsifBudKufcrD t&yf&yfwGif olykefwkdUu qD;cHonfrsm;udkvnf; tukeftpif wdkufvHzrf;qD; owfnSpfonf [Hom0wDywfvnf rnfonhfNrdKUjy aus;&Gmrusef wkdufvH zsufqD; odrf;,lawmfrlNyD;vQif '*kefNrdKUudk &efukefordkufawmfrl NrdKUjy usrf;ajrmif; ypif&ifavsmuf waZmif;jytkd;ESifhwuG a&Teef;pdkuf aqmufpyg,f awmfrlonf? ukrfynDwdkUudkvnf; rZdrma'orif;ESihf jrefrmrif;tqufquf rdwfo[m,jyK qufqHabmufum; a&mif;0,fonhftwdkif; tpnfrysuf rdo[m,jzpfMurnfhtaMumif;udk ightrdefYawmf &mZoHESifhap&mwGif *krfynDwdkU u avQmufonf&Sdcdk; oHawmfOD;wifpmwGif t&Snfrdwfo[m, jzpfMurnhf taMumif;udk Mum;odawmfrl&onf? [Hom0wDNrdKUudk rif;jyKolwdkUonf igol&J olcwf&JrufawmfwdkUudk ppfOD;buf&Snf rxGufrwdkufyHhNrdKUudkom vkyfaqmif udk;,dk;aeonfudk wkdufvHvkyfBuHawmfrlrnf *krfynDwdkUwGif tajrmufvufeuf trsm;&SdaMumif;udkvnf; apoloHwdkUwGif Mum;awmfrlonf? [Hom0wD


6 June 1755

NrdKUudk vkyfBuHjypfNzdK&ef tajrmH 5 0if 4 0if 1 0if tajrmH 12 tvdkawmf&Sdonf? tcspfarwmESihf ay;apcsifonf? yJul;wvkdif;wkdUrSmvnf; z&ifopf*HkynD z&aem onf yJul;wvdkif;wkdUESihf wusdK;wpD;yGg;wnf;jyK tajrmuf 60 aoewf 300 aq;usnfaphcJruefYtrsm;ay; yJul;wvdkif;wdkUudktm; ajrSmufonfwdkif;BuD; *HkynDwdkUvnf; igb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m;ESihf uHpyf okc'ku 2 yg;udk ar;jref;ajymqkdMu&onf? z&ifopf*krfynDu wvdkif;wdkUudk wqtm;ay; jyKonfudkaxmuf [kdif;BuD;*krfynD t&SnfpD;yGg;udkarQmf iudk 2 qxufyif jyKoihfrnfxifonf? z&ifopf*krfynDz&aemudkvnf; jynf&GmESihf rwefoljzpf oHvsifNrdKUu oabFmudkEkwf,l ESifvdkufonf? yifv,f0odkUa&mufNyD; tuF&dwf rif;u u*HkynDodkUapol0dkufxnfudkvnf; 111 (7) ck e,kefvjynhfausmf 11 &ufaeY &efukefNrdKUawmfodkU oabFmESihfa&mufvSmar;vQif tuF&dwfrif;u ynD odkUaponfavroifh a&Tpufawmfatmuf a&muf0ifaMumif;udk &Sdcdk;awmfOD;wif aomaMumifh taMumif;ESihfapyg; ar;jref;oifhonfjzpf aumif;rGHpGmxm; &SdaMumif;udk trdefYawmf&Sdonf? aiGawmfvnf; aoewf0,f&ef apoloHwGifay; vdkufonf? [dkif;BuD;*HkynD pE&yfwkdUudk ay;onhf&mZoH (ou&mZf 1117 ck e,kefvjynhfausmf 12 &ufaeY - 6 June 1755) (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 14? pg 52-3)


10 June 1755

bkef;awmftvTef BuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&ef wr'Dy uarmp aZ,s0ke wdkU wkdif;BuD;rsm;ocif jzpfawmfrlaom ywjrm;EeDvm rom&uefOb,m; aMumifrsuf&GJykvJy,if; a&TaiGaMu;oHcJr &wemwGif;taygif;wkdU\ ocifjzpf awmfrlaombk&m; oAnKAsm'dwfawmf& aumif;uifysHaom &aohwdkUa[maom okduf0ifomoem'g,um jzpfawmfrlaom 10 yg;aom &mZ"r 7 yg;aom avmurif;usifh 4 yg;aom o*F[w&m; 5g; aom y#dnmOf,rrif;\ oabm uJhodkU wnhfrwfaom 4 yg;aom *wdrif;usihfw&m; taygif;wkdUESihf jynhfpHkawmf rlaom pnf;vJauGUvnfaumufuspfaom wzufom;&efolwkdUudk oMum;ao 0P? ,rutmV0uwdkU\ vufeufBuD; 4 yg;ESihftwl qEtwdkif; aMuysufvGihfa0;apouJhodkU w&m;ojzifh pD&ifawmfrlavh&Sdaom bkef;vufHk; ynmawmf&Sifjzpfawmfrlaom qifjzLqifeDqifusm;rsm;ocif jzpfawmfrlaom taqmifaqmifaom a&Teef;a&Tjy'f ocifjzpfawmfrlaom tm'dp0Hoaerif;\ tquftEG,fjzpfawmfrlaom t,kZyk&rnfaom &wemodCF ukefabmifa&Tjynf BuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom tMunfawmfavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; Mum;rSmtyfaom yJul;jynfudk tpkd;&aom tMunfawmfonfvnf; a&S;b0tqufqufu bk&m;yapu Ak'gom0uwkdU 'getvSLudkay; yefcJhbl;aom ukokdvfaMumihf &wemyl& rif;wkdif;EdkifiHwGif uRefawmfjzpfvQuf xl;aomukodkvfapwemaMumifh t&Sifukdt&SifrrSwfjyKusihfonfESihf yifavmu0,fxl;aom orkwdrif;pnf;pdrfudk & t&Sifudk uRefjyKjyef&onf igvnf; ysufNyD;aom jynf&Gmomoemawmfjrwf udk a&S;bk&g;tqufqufwdkU yg&rDDyknorm& taqmuftOD; bk&m;&SifAsm'dwf awmf0if tavmif;jzpf tenf;i,frQESihf wnfaxmif rif;tqufqufwkdU vufxufkdif;ysvpfvGwforQ xD;aqmif;NrdKUpm; apmfbGm;taygif;wkdUudk "g;rusdK; vSHr&Sowif; aus;Zl;&eHYESihf yifjyefYBudKif ,Ofaus;ysyf0yfusdK; EGHuRef awmfcH wkdif;BuD;jynfBuD;ocif jzpfawmfrlonfudk raxmuf twaemrwd t,ludk,l iguJhodkUrQru bkef;Murm&Sifyifjzpfayonf r,lrpGJ t0rif; uHMurmukefvludk wcgEdkifbl;onfudk tpGJjyK NidKxm;&efpdkuf b0tqufquf edAgef


10 June 1755

ra&muforQ bk&m;&SifESihf &Sifa'0'gwfodkU 0dygu0wftpnf&efol jzpfrnf tvm;ukd r&SLoljyKbl;aom ukodkvfuHapwemaMumifh jynfNrdKUwdkif;ckdifEdkifiH a&TxD;a&Teef; qifjzLqifeDqifusm; ywjrm;&wemocifjzpfavonf r,krpGJ tBudrfBudrftvHk;t&if; qif;jrif;AdkvfygESihfvm ppfjyKvSmaomfvnf; bk&m;avmif;wdkU wefxmudkpGJ 2 odef; 4 aomif; txk&Sdaom r[myx0D ajrBuD;ESihftwl onf;cHvQuf &efwkefYrvdkow0gtaygif;wkdUudk 528 yg;aom arwmpdwfESihfom bk&m;oAnKw a[mawmfrlaom yd#uwfoHk;yHk xGufvmonf twdkif; w&m;ojzihf a[mMum;qHk;ryJhjyif omaeonf ,ckcsDawmfrl taMu t&yfodkU a&mufonfvnf; aumuoefa*gem*Hkuy a*gwrbk&m;ocif wkdU\ "gwfarGawmfXmyemxm;&g odukFw&ukef;jrwf o&d,"gwfarGapwDawmf jrwfudk zl;ajrSmfvdkonfwaMumif; bkef;Murm&SifaMumihfukd jynfaxmifcsif;rif; wdkUudk odjcifapvdkonfwaMumif; jynft*Fg 7 yg;wGif ocg[laom jynfaxmif csift*Fgwyg;onfjzpfcJhaom t&mjzpf okc'ku 2 yg;udk ajymqkdvdkonf taMumif;bHkoHk;yg; puf&[wfuJhodkU epfrGef;ajrmygMuavukefaom ow0gtaygif;wkdYudk bk&m;oAnKwa[mawmfrlonhftwkdif; a[mMum; ewf&GmedAgefNcD;udkjynGef jynfaxmifcsif;rif;wkdU\ tquftuyfcHvdkonf waMumif;? taMumif; 4 &yfESihf oMum;wnfaom '*kefqifysH&Sifudk &efukefNrdKU orkdufawmfrl xD;eef;ueufpkdufaxmufaeonf 2 vausmf 3 vcefY&SdrQ taMut&yfwGif NrdKUBuD;&GmBuD;jzpfvQuf q&maumif; rSL;aumif; rwfaumif; ynm&Sd okcrdefaumif; r&SdavouJhodkU tMunfawmfu owif;pum;rMum;& jrifp&dwfol0JwdkUarmf0ef;bufu aqmif,lcJhonfyOif; ynm'Dyudk owif;Mum; apawmfrlvdkufonf/ ou&mZf 1117 ck yXr0gqdkvqef; 2 &ufaeY(10 June 1755) yJul;odkU jrif;pm&dwf oli,fwdkU armf0efbufu aqmif,lcJhonfh yOifynm'Dyudk aponhf &mZoH (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 3? pg 12-13)


20 June 1755

bkef;awmftvTef BuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf qifjzLrsm;ocif jzpfawmfrlaom a&Teef;jy'focif tm'dp0Hoaerif;\ tquftEG,fjzpfawmf rlaom bk&m;ocif a&TAsm'dwfawmf& &aohwkdU a[mawmfrlaom odkuf0if jzpfawmfrlaom a&TaiGausmufoHy,if; &wemxGif;rsm;ocif jzpfawmfrlaom pnf;auGUaumufuspfaom jynfql;jynfanmihf olykefoluefwkdUudk ao0P, ruodMum; tmVm0ubDvl;wdkU\ vufeufBuD; 4 yg;ESihf twlqEtwkdif; aMuysufvGifha0;apEdkifaom bkef;vufHk;ynmawmf&Sifjzpfawmfrlaom ,rrif;\ oabmuJhodkY qEma'gomb,marm[ 4 yg;aom *wdwdkU rwdrf;rapmif; pD&ifvkyfBuHavh&Sdawmfrlaom &mZ"rty&d[med,? o*F[w&m; 4 yg;wkdUESihf ruif;,dk,Gif;aom wkdif;ckdifEdkifiH omoemawmfjrwfwkdUonf aumufodrf;jyKpk csD;ajrSmufrnhfolr&Sd jynftnSma<uudk tarGawmfrlaom toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; bk&m;trdefYawmf&Sdonf? odefeDapmfbGm; &wemyl&t0 rif;onfab;avmif;awmf bkd;avmif;awmf tqufqufu jyKpkonf qifvHk; jrif;&if; vufeufoif;yif; trsm;ESihfyif wdrf;,drf;ysufpD;onfrSm olwa,muf onfaumif;bkdUa&muf olwa,mufum; aysmufvifhumom "rwm a&S;ola[mif;wdkUqdkonfESihftnD jynfwkdif;EdkifiHomoemawmfjrwf tpD;tyGg; tmHkjyKawmfrl odrf;jref;awmfrlvQif &wemyl&t0 t&dr'em? yk*Hoa&acw&m jynfwvdkif; udk;NrdKU&mrnwdkif;? ykodefajrmif;jr? armf"ifuRef;rSp wkyf ,dk;',m; uvm; rusefxdkrif;uRefvQif jzpfvwefY? odkuf"gwfESihftnD t&yf&yf xD;aqmif; apmfbGm;NrdKUpm;wdkUonf aus;Zl;opmawmf 2 yg;udkcH um,okc pdwokc 2g; ukd aMuukefonf? odef;eDapmfbGm;u trSL;trwfwdkUukdap quf&ef tEmum&ESihf "g;rusdK;vSHr&S EGm;tkdNcHoda&Tpufawmfatmuf a&mufonft&monf ynm&SdwkdU oabmvuPmjzpfawmhonf? [Hom0wD ta&;awmfukefpJpJjzpf csDawmfrlrnf odef;eDapmfbGg;wdkU ae&yfonf wdkif;pGefjzpf qD;qkdU&yfcH&rnf trSK&SdvQif quf&HvufaqmifvufeufESihf trwfaygrdkif wdkUudkap


20 June 1755

&efukefa&TNrdKUawmfrSm qufvSmap&rnf ou&mZf 1117 ck yXr0gqdkvqef; 12 &ufaeY(20 June 1755) odef;eDapmfbGm; udk ay;onfh &mZoH (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 4? pg 16-17 )


3 November 1755

r*"wkdif;&mZN*dK[fjynfudk 0dxd,rif;BuD; ou&mZfwdk 65 ck xD;eef;pdkuf\ OwroDv pwk'Dy&aohonf oajyyif&dyfudk a&wGufownf;? 'dypuKy'e&aohonf uefUawmfyif&dyfukd a&wGufownf;? a[mwuoDv&aohonf jynfanmifyif&dyfudk a&wGufonf? Owr0*Ftaumvdu&aoh tkef;yif&dyfudk a&wGufownf;? xdk&aohxm;onf "gwfudka&wGufownf;? "gwfum;ygy"gwfol&Z"gwf tNrdw"gwf aumvd"gwf [laom "gwfudkpD&ifownf;? todwd&SpfusdyfjyK\? wl&moDjzpfaom yyg"gwf wGif okOf;onfh "gwfzdkuonf "gwfr"gwfESpfyg;jzpf\/ rdwfum;owGwfwnf;? ol&p"gwfwGif;onf "gwfzdk&onf "gwfrwnf; "gwfzdkESpfyg;jzpf\? rdwfum; ,if;rwnf;? tNrdw"gwfwGif av;onf"gwfzdkajcmufonf "gwfrwnf; "gwfESpfyg;jzpf\ rdwfum;pug;wnf;? aumvd"gwfwGifESpfum; "gwfzdkig;um; "gwfrwnf; "gwfESpfyg;jzpf\ rdwfum;O&Spfwnf;? &mZN*dK[fNrdKU\ rlv[laom MuiSef;opf&yf 4F 2d ta&SUajrmH 1 rlv&Sm;wnf;? opf&yf 4F 2d? ta&SU 2 rlv ukudKwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d? ta&SUawgif 3 rlvckqefwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d? awmif 4 rlvoD;wnf;opf&yf 4F 2d? taemufawmif& rlvbawmufwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d taemHrlvaygufwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d? taemufajrmuf *rkvrtlwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d taemHrlaygufwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d? taemufajrmuf *rkvrtlwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d ajrmuf 6 rlv vdefwnf;opf&yf 4F 2d? tifum;tXrkwfjzpf\tif; yDvmpkwf vuf0JoGm;*tif;? pwk&*Fedygwftif; us,foufawmf&Spfq,ftif;? oufawmf &Spfq,fhwpfcktif;? ocsFm 5000 tif; onftif;ajcmuftif;udk pkvmoDtif; ajcmufxyfqdkonf? pkvmoD&dtif; ajcmHxyf? xifrom;EdkUpdkU? jrif;rom;EdkUpdkU? bkrpkd;ewf? ausmufudkxkjzpfodkU rsufESmjyKxm; &aohjyKaomtcg odrfxJwGif vG,faomoydwf? omok&ewdwdkUrjzpfudk a&;onfhausmufaowmESpfvHk; "gwftm;&yfudk w&doD[pfausmufaowmvHk;a& 20 pD&ifonftiftm; tXrkwfajcmufxyftif; zDvmpkwfvuf0JoGm; ajcmHq,fh&Spftif;? oufawmf&Spf q,ftif;? oufawmf&Spfq,fwcktif; ocsFm 500 tif; pkvoD&dtif; ajcmufxyf ausmufaowmBwDpDwyg;ESpfvHk; "gwfzdk"gwfr tpykwfajcmuf xyftif; tmVm&O'u&aoh? a'0Do&aoh? Oka0ouy


3 November 1755

&aoh? e'umy&aoh? *&muy&aoh? okoDr&aohwkdU tkyfrsm;udk a&;om;xm;onf? &efatmifaomrEefrsm;udkvnf; tif;a&;onf? pmaMumif;a&; onf? odMum;? pwkavmuygvm? ra[o&? pED? t&rDoGm? rpmydEJ? ydEdk;? tok&def? aeewfom;? vewfom;? wdrfewfog;? kupdk;? tmumopdk; wq,fh &Spfyg;aom ewfw&mH&Spfyg;aom ewfw&mhESpfq,fhav;yg;aom ewfig;&mh ig;q,faom ewfwdkUtkyfrsm;udkvnf; a&;om; aA'ifusrf;dk;ESpfq,hfajcmuf usrf;rSvmaom t&modEdua0&usrf;rSxGufaom tcsufrEefrE,m;wkdUudk tif;a&;oihfvnf;tif;? pmaMumif;a&;oihfvnf; pmaMumif;a&;onf? aomwm *D&dewfESihfwuG aomwyefwnfukefaom bDvl; 1000 wkduf rEefrE,m;wkdUudk vnf;NrdKUwHcg;jyBuD;i,frsm;wGif pmaMumif;a&;onf? uywdav;yg;udkvnf; *lrokjz&fo@efjya&;onf? vuFm'DyuRef;wGif apgifhaogOyv0wewf? ore*kwfawgifapgifhaom zed*kwewfvif;vGef;yif oze0wewftkyfrsm; udkvnf; a&;om;apmihfaponf? &mZN*dK[fjynfBuD;udk tpkd;&aom 0dxd,rif;BuD; onf ou&mZfwdk 65 ckwGif &mZ*[jyK\ xD;eef;pdkuf rif;jyK\? ou&mZf wdk 73 ck uqkefvjynhfausmf 1 &uf 3 aeY 0dxd,rif;BuD;rSm om;awmf ydrom&udk zGg;ownf;? xkdydrom&rif;om; touf 15 ESpfajrmuf ou&mZfwkd 88 ckwGif 0dxd,rif;BuD; tedpa&muf om;awmf ydrom&rif;om; eef;wuf\? urdv0wfjynfBuD;udk tpkd;&aom oka'g"erif;BuD; ou&mZfwdk 65 ck urdv0wfjynfBuD;udk xD;eef;pkduf rif;jyKawmfrl\/ ou&mZfwkd 68 ck uqkef vjynhf 6 aeYbk&m;avmif; od'gwdukrm&rif;om;ukd bGm;awmfrlownf;? ou&mZfud 84 ck &mrokwol&m ra&Teef;awmfESihf orE ckdifawmfESihfwuG odrf;Hk;awmfrl uydv0wfjynfawmf oka'g"erif;BuD; a&Teef;wufawmfrl\? oka'g"erif;BuD;ESihf 0dxd,rif;vnf; r[mrdwjzpf wa,muftusdK;udk wa,muf aqmif&Gufavh&SdMuownf;? &mZN*dK[ftp&Sdaom aomVojynfBuD; wdkU A[dk&fpnf[k tpOfjyKwnfonfum; Moumoavm


3 November 1755

uwnf[efudk taMumif;jyK wnfownf;? Moumoavmuwnf[ef tcsif; t&mum; ajr a& avtxkwkdUjzifh BuHUcdkifpGmwnf\? xkdwnfaom ajrtxkum; ,kZem 24000? xkdajrudkcHwnfaom a&txkum; ,kZem 48000wnf;? xkdajra&wkdUudkcHwnfaom avtxkum; ,kZem 60000 wnf;? xdkajr\ tjyif tcsif;,kZem 123450 &Sdaom pu0Vmxdkufonfwnf\? xkdpu0Vm wkuf\tv,fcsufr xufatmuf,kZem 680000 &Sdaom jrifrkd&fawmifrif; onf oD'gow&befESihfwuG ay:xGef;\? xkdjrifrkd&fawmif\ xdyfjyif tcsif; ,kZem 100 &Sdaom yifv,fuopfyifrif;onfa&muf\/ jrifrkd&fawmif\ ta&SUrsufESmxktjyif ,kZem 7000 &Sdaom jyKy0da'[muRef;BuD;onf t&H 500 ESihfwuGxGef;\? uRef;OD; tcsif;,kZem 100 &Sdaom ukudKyifa&cH\/ jrifrdk&fawmif\ taemufrsufESm a&tjyif ,kZem 7000 &Sdaom tjya*g&m uRef;BuD;onf t&H 500 ESihfwuG ay:xGef;\/ uRef;OD; tcsif;,kZem 100 &Sdaom xdefyifonfa&muf\/ jrifrdk&fawmif\ ajrmufrsufESma&tjyif ,kZem 8000 &Sdaom ya'omyifrif;a&muf\? jrifrkd&fawmif\ 'udPa&tjyif ,kZem 1000 &Sdaom ZrL'DyuRef;BuD;onf t&H 500 ESihfwuG ay:xGef;\/ uRef;OD; tcsif;,kZem 100 &Sdaom oajyyifrif;onfa&muf\? odkU Moumoavmuwnfonfudk OyrmjyK &mZ*[NrdKU\ tv,fcsuf A[kd&fpif aqmuf A[dk&fpnfwD;ownf;? NrdKUtaemufrsufESm opfrnf;pnf? ta&SU rsufESm uRef;? ajrmufrsufESm o&uf? awmifrsufESm ayguf? tv,frsufr pum; [laom ig;vHk;aom opfwkdUudk pnfjyK ig;vHk;aog pnfwkdUudk ogaomVojynfBuD;wdkU tpOfedprjywfwD;ownf;? xdkrSwyg; xGufpnf 0ifpnfwkdYonfum; rif;wkdUtoHk;taqmifomwnf;? A[kd&fpnfawmf tdrf&Sif pnfawmfav;? aygif;pnfawmfig;vHk;udk aA'ifoHk;yHkrSxGufaom *gxmwkdUudk &aohwkdUudk&Gufap ykPm;wdkUudk ewfylaZmfap\? aA'ifoHk;yHkrSvmaom t&Sywfxyftif; pwk&*fedygwftif; oufawmf&Spfq,ftif; &Spf


3 November 1755

q,fhwcktif; prme0xGuftif; ocsFm 50000 tif;wkdUudk pnfawmfig;vHk;wGif t&if;uovGJzsm;ESihf ESHYaponf? tif;OD;udk opfzsm;odkUxm;&onf? opfzsm;wGif z'k'g,av;tif;oHBuD;av;yg; ra[o&ewfrif; rEefodMum;rif;*gxg pwkavguygvmewfwdkU rEefrsm;udk tif;a&;oihfonf? pmaMumif;a&;oihfonf xkdokdUaomt&mwdkUudk xm;ESHonf urmewfaygif; 550 tkyfwdkUudk pkyfjzihfa&; onf? &aohrEefewfwdkU rEefrsm;udk t&if;tzsm; pmaMumif;a&;onf? xGufpnf 0ifpnfwGifvnf;a&;onf? ESJc&mwHrTg wH&SnfwHydk;vif;uGif; armif; ckoif;rsm; wGifvnf; pmaMumif;oifhonf pmaMumif;tif;oihfonfvnf; tif;a&;onf xkdpnfawmfwkdUudk wa,mfuif;rGefrsdK; rEefrE&m;wdkUjzifh yefaponfjcnf; 0* rQif 5 uGif; 7 xHk;pD? xHk;ESihf 7 wHhpDESihfpnfawmfig;vHk;udk aq;avQmf oefY&Sif; pGmjyKNyD;vQif wkdifMumyHkESpfwkdifESihf &ifzsm;nSd oihfatmifaxmifapNyD;vQif atmifcsufrSwf wda&;\? pnfawmfusufaomcg yxrEGm;eufa&ESihfusuf &onf? aoGYvQifcGgjyef 'kwd,wzefusufjyef&onf? pnfawmfrsm;udkodyf waqmif;awmfodkYwif&\? xdkig;vkH;aom pnfwdkYudkaomVojynfBuD;wdkY edprjywf wD;vpfownf;? ou&mZfwdk 4ck aemifESpfjzpfrnf? trdrgofvnf; tXm&o Budrfrnf? av;v&ufpkH&rnf? xdkESpf &mZmbdaoucHvdkonfjzpf rd[m ,ut&Sifjzpfaom uydv0wfjynfudk tpdk;&aom &mZm"d&mZrif; w&m;BuDD;odkY uefawmhvufaqmifawmfquf &mZmbdaoucHrnf oabmvuPmudk avQmufonf? &mZmbdaoucHonfwGif jrwfpkpe,fdk;wdkY wifaqmifaom xD;jzLawmfESpfq,fhESpfpif;udk rSwfpgESifh ay;tyfawmfrlonfum; ueu'gPfxD;awmf 2? O*sLxD;awmf 2? ork'ZmxD;awmf 2? MuiSef;xD;awmf 2? pExD;awmf 2? ol&d,xD;awmf 2? y'krxD;awmf 2? xD;jzLawmf 22pif;wGif ueu'gPfxD;jzLawmfonf xD;0 5F5H? xD;vuf 16pD;? xD;axmH 39pD;? xD;vkH;ywfwxGmESifh *HxD;csuftponf vufoHawmifwGif 3Hwu? apmufum;3F2d3H a&TypGefcGefrTrf; ywjrm;tjynfhpDonf?


(3 November 1755)

xD;dk;oHcif;wGif a&TypGefcGefrTrf; 2F2dwGif ywjrm;&&pf pDownf;? a&Tanmif&Guf 200okH;qifh? ywjrm;qdkif; 100? oEmqdkif; 100? yvJqdkif; 100? a*:rdwfqdkif; 100? pdefqdkif; 100? jy,m;qdkif; 100? xD;tkHudk &wemckepfyg;twdpDonf? xdkxD;onfum; xD;wumwdkYxufjrwfaomaMumifh ueu'gPfrnfownf;? ork'&mZfewforD;apmifh\? xdkueu'gPfxD;udk vkyfaomtcg xD;csufapmifh aom ewforD;wdkYudk rsm;pGmaom tay;turf;wdkYjzifh ewfylaZmfap? O*sLxD;jzLawmfum; xD;04F8H? xD;tkHudk e0&yftxdpDonf? a&Tanmif&Guf 4qifhyvJqdkif;? O*sLrnfaomewforD;apmifh\? ork'D;jzLawmf um; xD;07F? 5qifha&Tanmif&Guf 300? yvJqdkif; 300? eDvmqdkif; 300? ork'ewforD;apmifh\? MuiSef;xD;jzLawmfum; xD; 04F4H? a&Tanmif&Guf 200? oEmqdkif; 200? uka0&rnfaom ewforD;apmifh\? pExD;jzLawmfum; xD; 04F6H a&Tanmif&Guf200? jrqdkif;200? pErnfaomewforD;apmifh\? ol&d, xD;jzLawmfum; xD;04F6H? a&Tanmif&Guf 200? ywjrm;qdkif; 200? ol&d,rnfaom ewforD;apmifh\? y'krxD;jzLawmfum; xD; 04F2d6H? a&Tanmif &Guf 200? Ob,m;qdkif; 200? y'krrnfaom ewforD;apmifh\? orkuxD;jzLawmfum; xD; 04F8H? a&Tanmif&Guf 200? a*grdwfqdkif; 200? orku rnfaomewforD;apmifh\? ork'&mZfxD;jzLawmfum; xD; 04F8H? a&Tanmif&Guf 200? ykvJqdkif; 200? ork'rnfaom ewforD;apmifh\? urKxD;jzLawmfum; xD; 04F7H? a&Tanmif&Guf 300? e0&yfudk;yg;udkaygif; oDaomyef;qdkif; 300? xD;tkHa&Tpif 15ojym 6ajrmifhtvkH;pkHudk e0&yfpDownf; urKrnfaom ewforD;apmifh\? 0doMuHKxD;jzLawmfum; xD;04F7H? a&Tanmif&Guf 200? pdefqdkif; 200? jy,m;qdkif; 200? 0doMuHKrnfaom ewforD;apmifh\? xD;jzLawmf 22pif; wGif O*sLrnfaom xD;jzLudk eef;wGif; usrf;pify zGifh&m\? ork'xD;jzLawmf udktdk;rwwf&? teHtvsm; 7FpDtajc 6 acsmif;uyf


(3 November 1755)

aoma&TovGefawmfwGif txufu rsufESmMuuf zGifhownf;? ueu'gPf xD;ESpfpif;udkum; &mZyvifa&SUwGif vuf0JvusfmzGifhownf;? t&dyfcdktyf\? xdkrS<uif;aom xD;&Spfpif;wdkYudkum; ueu'gPfxD;ESpfpif; zGifhrS vuf0Jvusfm zGifh&mownf;? xD;jzLoocif ckoif;vusfm&pf 8vkH;te0'wfpaom tdkifBuD; a&&wefoD'g&wefjrpfBuD; ig;pif;a& 5wefomuD0ifrif;rsdK; orD;unmvuf0J vusfm8a,mufpD pm&dwwl ykPm;vkvif 8 a,mufpD pwk'DyoaX; 4a,mufpD? &aoh 108? uRrf;oD;xnfhMuKyftxJ tzkH;a&Ttojym tcsdef 20? e0&yf 9yg;pD? t0ef;eHYomajymif;xnfhMuKyf a&Tcsdef 9ojymtxJ tzkH;e0&yf 9yg;pD xkHoif;xnfh [oFmkyf a&Tcsdef 25dEIwfoD;oEm? rsufvkH; 2zufykvJ? rifESifhrsufeufaz:onf? tawmif 2zufjr? tNrD;ESifh OpGef;ywjrm;pD ausmukH;udk eDvmwcsrf;pD? aMumifwcsrf;pD? ajcudkjy,m;pD? a&Tcsdef 90d? a&TcGuftkyfum; txJtzkH;ajcESifh &Spfajrmifhvkyfonf? wnmtzkH;udk y'krmyGifhuJYodkY vkyfownf;? txJtzkH;udk e0&yfpDownf;? apmuf18Hwnf;? t0vufopf 20? txGufudk pdefwwfownf;? a&Ttojym&0dukefownf;? tem;&pf 4qifh? rif;{u&mZfwdkY tNrdeft&omwnfh pm;awmfac:&mownf;? a&Tzvm;BuD;um; tcsdef 22dtem; 5&pfwnf;? e0&yfudk;yg;pDownf;? a&Tzvm;i,fum; 19ojymwnf;? tem;&pf 8qifhwnf;? jrtwdpDownf;? a&Toifacsmum; tojym 30wnf;? a&ToaEum; tojym 40dwnf;? a&TuGrf;avmif;um; tcsdef 50d? e0&yftwdpDownf;? a&TZGef; um; 5ojymwnf;? a&Ttifum;ojym 100? um;ti,fwnf;? tBuD;um; tojym 330dwnf;? a&Tpavmif; 40dwnf;? a&Twaumif; 59wnf;? 12ajrmifh vkyfonf? apmuf0Fwnf;? tzkH;um; 20d tajrmifhjrwfav;ikH o@efe0&yf 9yg; pDonf? usyfBuD;um; tcsdef 250d? Mumy'krmyGifhuJYodkY yGifhcsyf 250? tem;a&; 100? e0&yf 9yg;pDownf;? a&TjrLwmav;vkH; aiGjrLwmav;vkH; tcsdef 50dpD? apmuf0FpD to8H? vSHxD;t&pf 4qifh? e0&yfpD; a&Ttdk; aiGtdk; a&Tzsnf; aiGzsnf; um;tcsdefto


(3 November 1755)

jym 200pD? tem;&pfudk e0&yfpDonf? a&TrIwfaiGrIwf 23dpD? tdk;um;tpdk;&aom rif;\ eHawmfESifhBwd&ef; pwk&ef;opfudkwwfonf? a&Tajcaq;tiftcsdef 340d wnf;? usyfzvm;tcsdef 220d e0&yfpDownf;? rif;acgifrif;w&m;wdkY xD;eef; Ouifwufaomtcg jrwfaomrif;orD;ESifh pm;awmfac:&ef a&TMuufjcrf; aiGMuufjcrf; jyK&monf? tcsdef 25dpDwnf; a&TrkHYaiGrkHYvkyf&monfum; tcsdef 1dpDwnf;? a&Tig;Muif;aiGig;Muif; vkyfonfum; tcsdef 30pDwnf;? a&Tig;&HY aiGig;&HUvkyf&monfum; 8dpDwnf;? a&TykpGefxkyf aiGykpGefxkyf vkyf&monfum; 7dpDwnf;? a&T0rf;yJaiG0rf;yJum; 26pDwnf;? a&TjzifhNyD;aom uGrf;cGuf? a&Tjzifh NyD;aom uGrf;csyf? a&TjzifhNyD;aom xkH;bl;? a&TjzifhNyD;aom oGm;Mum;xdk;? a&TjzifhNyD;aom bD;wm;? a&TjzifhNyD;aom uGrf;vdyf? a&TjzifhNyD;aom jyxkH;? a&TjzifhNyD;aom &Sm;aq;xnfh? a&TjzifhNyD;aom eHYomxnfh [oFmkyf? a&TjzifhNyD;aom a&TukH;? a&TjzifhNyDaom uGrf;tkyf? a&TjzifhNyD;aom zvm;? aiGjzifhNyD; aom[if;*sdK? a&TjzifhNyD;aom oaE? a&TjzifhNyD;aom pavmif;? a&TjzifhNyD;aomZGef;? a&TjzifhNyD;aomtif? a&TjzifhNyD;aom waumif;? a&TjzifhNyD;aom waumif;ydwf? a&TjzifhNyD;aom uGrf;avmif;BuD;i,f? a&TjzifhNyD;aom zvm;BuD;i,f? a&TjzifhNyD; aom MuKyfBuD;i,f? xdkxdkaomtpD&ifwdkYonf &wemtwdpDownf;? xdkodkY aomtaqmifwdkYudk aumif;jrwfaomaeY&uf? aumif;jrwfaompdwdMwif; e0if;aumif;onfhtcsdeftcgwGif blrdeufoH ajrMuefvuPmvnf;aumif;ap? a&S;a&S;aomrif;wdkY xD;pOfeef;pOfaebl;aom Xm0&Xmevnf;&ap? ok0P bkrdra[o&ewfwdkYudkvnf;aumif;? N*dKvfewfwdkYudkvnf;aumif;? a'0&SED *gxmjzifh&Gwf aumif;rGefpGmylaZmf&mownf;? xdkodkYaomtcrf;tem;wdkYudk pifjrifhESifhwnfxm; rif;acgifrif;zsm; rif;Mwm;wdkYonf usif;yylaZmfukef&m\? a&Tdk;wwfaomoHvsuf? a&Tdk;wwfaomom;NrD;,yf? &wema&Tyef;awmif;? jcaoFhcH 8ajrmifh a&TuGrf;cGuf? a&TpvifMum? a&TuGrf;cGuf


(3 November 1755)

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(3 November 1755)

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(3 November 1755)

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(arNrdKU bkef;<u,fayrl)


(3 November 1755)

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(3 November 1755)

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(3 November 1755)

ou&mZf 1035ck uqkefvjynfhaeY(19 April1673)Ouiftwlxdkifaom rdzk&m;um; jynfrif;orD;awmf twkvoD&dr[mpEma'0DESifh OuifzGifhawmf rlonf? ou&mZf 1036ck waygif;vqef; 6&ufaeY (19 February 1675) bkHausmfwkvGwfausmif;udkaqmufonf? ou&mZf 1037ck wefaqmifrkef;vqef; 1&ufaeY (8 October 1675) ewfpufa&mifausmif; yk*dKvfudk oD&do'r aCmo r[m&mZ*kkwHqdyfawmf ESifhwifvSLawmfrlonf? ou&mZf 1041ck e,kefv (vjynfhaeY) (13 May 1679) Orifawmfudk r,fawmfbk&m;wnfonf? (ou&mZf) 1042ck (1680) Orifudkom"kac:onf? 51tdrfaxmifvSLawmfrlonf? ovlxD;wGif tjzLrTrf;w& ywfjzLom;awmf &rnf;oif;rif;om; r,fawmf pEma'0Dv,fay: a&Tausmif;udk aqmuf&mwGif 4axmifhausmif;udk a&Txnfhonf udk remvdk bkHausmfwkvGwfausmif;awmfa&SU 6ausmif;pnfaZw0ef 3xyf tkwfavSum; 3qlESifh wk&ifpdefyGifh wwfonf? a&TtrTrf;xnfhonf? usD;&Smuawmf? yeHuawmf? om*&uawmf? a&wGif;jyJuawmf? yvifBuD;uawmf? yef;wGif;uawmfwdkYu 6 ausmif;pnf Muyfraqmf&onf? b0&Sifrif;w&m;u rif;0Hywjrm;apwDudkxyf a&Tjynfhxnfh taeuZmxyfwifom"k ac:awmfrlonf? aemuftjyifausmif;udk cdkeef;ausmif; aqmufawmfrlonf? wkwfxD;eDw&ywfeD (ou&mZf) 1058ck waygif;vqef; 6&ufaeY) (28 January 1696) ajrvIyfonf NrdKUawmf wwef;NydKonf? om;awmf &rnf;oif;rif;om;udk tdrfa&SUeef;wufonf? &Sifyifrmefatmif&wemapwDudk r[m&HESifhwnfonf? (ou&mZf) 1060 (jynfh0gqdkvjynfhausmf 3&ufaeY) (14 July 1698) wGif tdrfa&SUrif;eef;wufonf? &Sifyifrmefatmif&wemapwDudk r[m&HESifhwnfonf? (ou&mZf) 1061ck wydkYwGJvqef; 10&uf (18 January 1700) 5aeYeHeufwcsufwD;ausmf 5arm;wGifa&TxD;wifonf? (ou&mZf) 1062ck yd#uwfwdkuf&SiftmobavmuaMumifh ig;aqmifausmif;aqmufonf? yxrwJaqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1063ck (1701) ppfudkif;wdavmu*kkausmif;? avmurSefuif;ausmif;udk aqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1064ck (1702) r[maAm"dapwD kyfxkawmfvJonf? ausmif;awmmf 2ausmif; apmif;wef; 2ql xyf aqmufonf? (ou&mZ) 1065ck (1703) rif;0Hav;xyfausmif;udk aqmufonf? yknapwDp&yf&SifjzL&SifvSp&yfaqmuf


(3 November 1755)

onf? bkHausmif;? a&Tawmuawmfausmif;? MuufkHbm;uawmfausmif; ysOfaxmifOD;uawmfausmif;udk aqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1066ck (1704) a0Z,Emausmif;awmfudk aqmufonf? 0wfcsuf&Gm (ou&mZf) 1067ck (1705) uonf;rif;orD;a&mufonf? (ou&mZf) 1067ck oD[dkVfuRef;u r[maAm"dyifr 5yifudk a&Tysnf; pnfawmfESifh,Gef; pdkufonf? ou&mZf 1070jynfh jymodkvjynfhausmf 4&ufaeY (18 December 1708) ocifvSusdKif;wkHodkY csD&onf? pnfjzL 5? ykHom 2? qifayguf 1? ,Ofom0efwifr 1? usdKif; a&Tcsuf 11ay;onf? yef;,atmif wyfawmfrSm wyfawmfcsonf? ausmfbkHwHcg;u xGuf&onf? (ou&mZf) 1071ck ocifvSudk a&SUkH;awmfwGif"g;jyonf? (ou&mZf) 1073ck wydkYwGJvqef; 3&uf (30 December 1711) 1ae YnDawmfpnfhul;rif;udk oD&dok"r&mZmwHqdyftyf opmwdkufonf? orD;awmfBuD;ESifh pkHbuf yk*Hudkydkifpm;ay;onf? 4if;aeY om;awmfajrxJrif;om; (ou&mZf) 1071ck wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 6&uf aeY (11 November 1709) yk*HodkYpkHawmfrlonf? (ou&mZf) 1071ck wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 14&ufaeY (19 November 1709) yk*HodkYa&mufonf? ewfawmfvqef; 2&ufaeY (22 November 1709) qefawmfrlonf? 11&uf 5aeYn 3csufwD;tcsdefwGif NrdKUawmfodkY a&mufonf? (ou&mZf) 1072ck (1710)a&Tpm&HodkY xGufawmfrlonf? om;awmfudk ou&mZf 1173ck wefaqmifrkef; vjynfhausmf 8&ufaeY (22 October 1711) tdrfa&SU ESif;awmfrlonf?a&SU0ef2 a&SUkH;ae2 em;cH1 tcsKyftBuD;tdrfa&SUawmfyg2? tpka&; 3? 'dkif;pma&; 4? aoG;aomufpma&; 2? aumif[efpma&; 5? obifpma&; 2? wdkufpma&; 7? udk,fpma&; 2? qifxdef;pma&; 2? 0if;rSL; 2? 0if;pcsD 2? 0if;pma&; 4? a&SUawmfajy;rSL; 11? a0grSL;jrif;pma&; 8? y&dwfawmf&Gwf 4? oHawmfqifh 2? oHawmfcH 2? tdrfa&SUtwGif;0ef 2? taemufkH;ae taemuf0ef 2? 0efpma&;BuD; 2? xdkrSp ta&SUrSmESifhpyforQ taemufrSmESifh pyforQwdkYudk tpka&; tpkudkifcefYawmfrlonf? uHauR;awmfcH 'DyJ&if;NrdKU? uHauR;awmfcH awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKU? tokH;awmfcHol&if; ajrxJNrdKUtdrfa&SU (tdrfawmf) paMum 2xyftrTrf;wwf a&SUaemufawmifajrmufaqmif


(3 Noember 1755)

ul;abmifuyfESifhtrdk; 3qifhtrTef;eef;aysmufwif 0if;jyifuyftxufuGrf;ypfpD y'krf;ydwf 7? wHcg;a&SUaemuf 7? (ou&mZf) 1074 ck 1721 avgurefatmif apwDausmufpHuawmfausmif;ukd aqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1075 ck 1713 q&mawmfwdkUudk ausmif;aqmuf vSLawmfrlonf? avScg; 5 qlwwfonf? wk&ifzsm; (ou&mZf) 1076 ckawmfovif;vqef; 11 &ufaeY(8 August 1714) ajrjyif;pGmvIyfonf? a&eef;wGif;odkU yif0ifonf? (oD&dr[moD[ol&"r&mZm rif;w&m; ou&mZf 1076 ckawmfovif;vqef;14&ufaeY(11 August 1714 ) ewf&GmpHonf? om;awmfoD&dy0&r[m"r&mZm"dywdbGJUcH) a&Teef;wufonf? rdk;aomufvQif crnf;awmfukd oN*dK[fawmfrlonf t&mrsm;udk pD&ifonf? (ou&mZf) 1076 ck awmfovif;vjynhfaeY (12 August 1714 ) oN*dK[fawmf rlonf/ (ou&mZf) 1076 ck awmfovif;vjynhfausmf 10 &ufaeY(22 August 1714 )yk*HokdU ppfud&d,mwdkUjzifh ocifvScsD&onf? (ou&mZf) 1078 ck (1716) uonf;okdU rif;&JoD[csD&onf? ppfudkif;ojyifrSm wHwm;ul;onf? usdKif;a&Tcsuf 1? qif 1? pnfjzL 5? yHkom 1? ay;onf? (ou&mZf) 1077 ck 1716, 1717 odkU obifeef;aqmufawmfrlonf? (ou&mZf) 1078 ckodkU obifeef;rSm y[kdpnfwD;onf? (ou&mZf) 1079 ck wHwm;OD; rSefpD ausmif;udkaqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1080 jynhf (1718) wkdif; a&;jynfrSKudkpD&if onf? (ou&mZf) 1081 ck waygif;vjynhfausmf 4 (&uf1) aeY (14 February 1720 ) nnhfwcsufwD;ausmf 4 em&Deef;awmfudk rD;oihfonf? (ou&mZf) 1082 ck (1720) rdk;xdausmif;udkaqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1083 ck e,kefv(May 1721 ) okr*fr[momrdq&mawmfukdwifonf? jrif;&xm;pD;xGufonf? (ou&mZf) 1084ck0gacgifv(July 1722 )uonf;odkU rif;&JoD[ausmfcsDonf? wyifudkifrSmcsonfh qifaygufrpnfjzL 7 vHk;yHkomay;onf? (ou&mZf) 1085 ck 1723 rif;&Jausmfuonf;odkUcsD&onf? (ou&mZf) 1086 uqkefvqef; 6 &ufaeY(ck16 April 1724) AdkvfrSL;avSudk rdk;nSif;BuD;odkU ydkUjyefaomtrdefYawmfudk a&SUHk;awmfrSm cH&onf NrdKUwGif;uxGufaomcg aZi,fwHcg;uxGufonf? (ou&mZf) 1086ckewfawmfvjynhfausmf 4 &ufaeY(22 November 1724 ) eef;awmfodrf; OuifzGihfonf? (ou&mZf) 1087 ck 1725 ppf


3 November 1755

udkif;av;uRef; rmefatmifudkwnfonf? (ou&mZf) 1088 ck 1726 &efwdy aoonfudk jcm;em;onf? (ou&mZf) 1090 jynhf jymokdvfvqef; 10 &uf (28 December 1728) nDawmfowkd;rif;apmvGefonf? &efatmifjrifwHcg;u tavmif;udkxkwfonf? b0&Sifrif;w&m; a&Ta0gpD; azgif;xkwf0ufOD;ESihf pH&mwHcg;u xGufawmfrl uljzLjrpfem;awmifwGif a0gawmf&yf oN*FK[fawmfrlonf? (ou&mZf) 1189 ck uqkefvjynfhaeY(23 April 1727 ) om;awmfpnfhul;rif;om;udk tdrfa&SUESif;onf? xdkup aMu;bdk;qkwfonf? (ou&mZf) 1092 ck (1730)ocifjynf Zif;r,fodkU csDonf? pnfeD 7 vHk;? usdKif; 1? qifaygufr? pnfeD? yHkom? aMu;eD? aMu;0g? ESJ? c&may;onf? (ou&mZf) 1093 ck (1731) wGif;oif;rif;BuD; orD;"ra'0D vGefonf? ou&mZf (1093) ck (1731) wGif;oif;rif;BuD;uawmfvGefonf? (ou&mZf) 1094 ck e,kefvqef; 12 &ufaeY (24 May 1732 )cRef;awmifu qifjzLa&mufonf? (ou&mZf 1094 ck e,kefvjynfaeY (27 May 1732) odrf; qifjzL&SifcHonf? (ou&mZf) 1095 ck (1733) wGif;oif;rif;BuD;vGefonf? &efatmifjrifwHcg;uxkwfonf? aygif;ysHeDxdopf? usdKif;a&Tcsuf 4? qif 4 pD;? oHvsif? xD;wpif;tkyfcsonf? (ou&mZf) 1095 ck ewfawmfvqef; 9 &ufaeY (3 November 1733 ) tdrfa&SUrif;eef;wufonf? wvwdkifwdkif (obifBuD; cHaeonf)? usD0efu ol&JolcufwkdUudk xrif;auR;&onf? (ou&mZf) 1096 ck (1734) qifwJ eef;awmfaqmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1097 ck wydkwGJvqef; 7&ufaeY(8 January 1736 ) aoemywdwkdUESihf rif;ausmfnDtpfukdudk 0wfcsufrSm tqHk;tHk; pD&if onf? (ou&mZf) 1098ck(1737) avmuo&blxD;usonf? &SifvSbk&m; aysmufonf? (ou&mZf) 1099 ck (1738)ta0;NrdKU0efppfuJvJonf? (ou&mZf) 1100 jynhf (1738)wGif yOif; 101 yg;cHawmfrlonf? ta0;NrdKU0efwdkUcH &onf? (ou&mZf) 1102 ck (1740) [Hom0wDrSm iomatmifaomif;Murf;onf? (ou&mZf) 1103 ck 1104 ck 1105 ck (1741, 1742, 1743)xrif;iwf vlom;acG;om;pm;ukefonf? (ou&mZf) 1105 ck(1743)ppfukdif;udk bk&ihfaemif u vkyf&onf? (ou&mZf) 1106 ck (1744)bk&ihfaemifppfudkif;rSm &Sifbk&if jyKonf?


3 November 1755

u&0dwfabmif? xD;jzL8? ajrSmufpnf? xGufpnf? 0ifpnfay; ul;&onf? NrdKUudktwkv0wforkwfonf? aumif;rIawmf&Sif Evm&yk*dKvf? yvdkif;&Sif okZmw? tkwf&Spfaus;&SifnmP? 4if;&Sif,owkdUudk oHwHqdyf ppfudkif;&Sifbk&if uvSLonf? ppfudkif;ausmif;aqmuf udk;uG,fonf? &SifokZmwrSm aZw0ef oufawmf&Snfaqmufonfh ausmif;udkwifonf/ (ou&mZf 1117 ck owif;uRwfvjynhfausmf 14 &ufaeY-3 November 1755) (arNrdKUbkef;<u,f ayrl)


(3 November 1755)

a&S;rif;{u&mZfwdkU 0,f rif;ajrmufwefqm 15 um; xD;jzL? oHvsuf? ajceif;? om;NrD;,yf? oif;uspf? xD;jzL 5 um;u euwefxD;? urwfxD;? ,nfxD;? O&KxD;? MuiSef;xD;? rdvdEynmusrf;wGif xGufonfESihftnD &wemyl&tif;0NrdKU wGif a&S;tif;0rif;wdkUuonf avmuo&bl 'g,um [Hom0wDa&muf rif;w&m;wkdif rif;ajrmufwefqm cif;usif;onfum; &mZyvif vusfmuonf ueu'gefxD;jzL 1 pif;? urwfxD;jzL 1 pif;? ,nfxD;jzL 2 pif;? xD;jzL 4 pif;? aqmufusif;onf? xD; 4 pif;tMum; ,rm; 1 pif;pD? ,rm; 3 pif;usif;onf? onfxD;jzL 8 pif;wGif ausmif;bk&m;oGm; xD;aqmif;onfjzpffvQif urwfxD; jzL 2 pif;? ,nfxD;jzL 4 pif; vuf0Jvusfmuaqmuf aqmif&onf? OkxD;rSm eef;rOkwdkif&if;wGif aqmHusif;onf? MuiSef;xD;rSm eef;rMuiSef; wdkif&if;wGif aqmufusif;onf? ueu'gefxD;rSp xD;rsm;rSm tkd;twefudk a&TypGefcGefrTrf;onf? xD;csufudk a&TypGefcGefrTrf; ausmuftjynhfpDonf? a&S;tif;0rif;wkdUuonf avmuo&bl'g,um [Hom0wDa&muf rif;w&m; wdkifaqmifonf? pnfawmfpHk (udk) rif;rdbk&m;ESihf tdrfa&SUrif; nDawmfom;awmf rl;awmfrwfawmfwdkUudk ay;onf? pnfESihf&Srf;jynfapmfbGm; NrdKUpm;wkdUudkvnf; ay;onf? tif;0rif;w&m; pnfawmfpHkum; ajrSmufpnf 7 vHk;? wydkBuD; 4? tcsdef aiG 1gpD w>rm; 4? tcsdefaiG 37d pD;wH&Snf 4? aiGESJ 4? tcsdef 15d pD;pnfajym 25? yHkom 1? pnfykwf 1? vif;cGif; 1 pHk? aiGESJBuD; 4? tcsdefaiG 20 pD; aiGESJi,f 3? tcsdefaiG 15d pD;0ifpnf 5? a&Tydef;wvdkif;ESJ 3? pnfykwf 1 aqmifonf? rdzk&m;wkdU pnfawmfpHkum; ajrSmufpnf 5 vHk;? wydk; 2? tcsdefaiG 80 pD;wH&Snf 2? tcsdef 35d pD;wH>rm 2? tcsdef 37d pD; ckoif; 1? vufcsyf 1? wydk;BuD; 1? tcsdef 0gpD;pnf0ef; 5? aiGESJ 2? tcsdef 15d pD; pnfajym 15? yHkom 1? pnfykwf 1? vif;cGif; 1? aiGESJBuD; 2? tcsdef 20d pD;?


3 November 1755

aiGESJi,f 3? tcsdef 15dpD;c&m 2? tcsdef 35d pD;onf pnfawmfpHkrsm;udk rdef;rwkdUudk a&SUawmfajy;pkom;zGJU wD;&onf? a&S;tif;0rif;wdkU txGwftjrwf odkUa&muf a&Teef;awmf OuiforzGihfcifNrdKUwHcg; 4 &yfqGJpnfBuD; tdrf&Sifpnf? y[dkpnf? r*Fvmpnf? pnfawmfpHkonf &Spf&yfudk topfvJaqmifonf? pnfa[mif;udk &mZrkPdplVm bk&m;p&yfrSm wifxm;onf? tdrfa&SUrif;pnfum; pnfeD 9 vHk;? yHkom? pnfykwf 1? vif;uGif; 1? aiGESJBuD; 2? aiGESJi,f 2? wH&Snf 3? c&m 1? jynfrif;vufxuf aemifawmfawgifilrif;udk ay;onhfpnfpHk? rmefatmif&wembk&m; 'g,umrif;vufxuf nDawmfyk*Hrif;udk ay;onfhpnfpHk? avmuo&blbk&m;'g,um rif;w&m;vufxuf owdk;"r&mZmudkay;onfh pnfpHkum; ajrSmufpnf 5? wydk; 2? wH>rm 12? ckoif; 1? vufckyf 1? wydk;BuD; 1? pnf0ef; 5? aiGESJ 2? pnfajym 5? yHkom 1? pnfykwf 1? vif;uGif; 1? aiGESJBuD; 2? aiGESJi,f 3? aiGc&may;onf? &mZrkPdplVmbk&m; 'g,umrif;vufxuf nDawmfrif;&JausmfpGmudk ay;onf pnf? ig;xyf'g,um rif;w&m;BuD;vufxuf nDawmfrif;&Jxif nDawmf rif;&JausmfacgifwkdUudk ay;onfhpnf? rmefatmif&wembk&m;'g,umvufxuf nDawmfipnfhul;rif;udk ay;onfhpnf? avmurmefatmif bk&m;'g,um rif;w&m;vufxuf nDawmfowdk;rif;aZmukd ay;onfhpnfum; pnfeD 9 vHk;? yHkom? pnfykwf 1? vif;uGif; 1? ESJBuD; 2? ESJi,f 2? a&may;onf? 'l;ae&mae trwfwdkUwGif pnfay;vQifrlum; pnfjzL 5? yHkom 1? pnfykwf 1? vif;uGif; 1? ESJBuD; 2? ESJi,f 2? c&may;onf? &Srf;jynfapmfbGm;wdkUudk pnfp ay;onfum; pnfjzL 5 vHk;ay;onf? aemufxyf 7 vHk;ay;onf? aemufxyf pnfeD 7 vHk;ay;onf? &Srf;jynfNrdKUpm;wkdUudk pnfay;vQif pnfjzL 5 vHk;? yHkom? yvkwf? vif;uGif;? ESJBuD; 2? ESJi,f 2? c&m 2 ay;onf? tif;0rif;xGufoGm;vQif taqmiffeDaqmifonfum; aoewfudk eDyg;xnftdwfwpif;pDoGwfonf 7 tdwf? vSHrwpif;udk eDyg;tdwfoGwfonf 3 tdwf? vSH&Sif 18 udk pnf; eDyg; xnftdwfoGwfonf 3 tdwf? carmufeDtwif


(3 November 1755)

ESihfppfwyfykqkd;eDESifh ydk;eDBudK;uGefcsm&Suf cufonf 1? eHu0dkifrD;tdk; 1? rD;tdrftdk;wefESifh 1? aomufa&wifjrLwmyifeDtkyf 2? aoewfaq;bl;ESifh 1? rD;pmacG 1? ae&moifjzL;tem; rTrf;vdyf 1? onfrsm;udk taqmifeDpkacgif; xkyfaygif;vdkuf&onf? twifawmfrSm uvyfajcjrifhuJhodkU a&Tudkvkyf twifawmfac:onf? twifawmf 2 ckudk twifpkom; acgif;xkyfaygif;udkif& onf? a&SUawmfwGif uGrf;cGufwnfaomtcg twifawmfwGif uGrf;cGufqifh wnfonf? aomufawmfa&tkd;vnf; twifawmfwGifqihfwnfonf? tdrfa&SUtaqmifeDum; aoewfwpif;udk eDyg;xnftdwfoGwf 1? vSHrudk eDyg;xnfftdwfoGwf 1? vSH&Sif 10 udk eDyg;xnftdwfoGwf 1? eHu0dkifrD;tkd;ESifh 10? aomufa&aqmifjrLwm 12 ESihf y0geDtkyf 2? aoewfaq;bl;ESihf 1? rD;pmacG 1? carmufwif 1? ppfrwfzl;ESihf 1? ae&moifjzL;tem;rTrf;vdyf 1? onfrsm;udk tqmifeDudkifpkom;wkdU acgif;xyfaygif; ukdif&onf nDawmf om;awmfwkdYwGif a0g&onfjzpfap? a0gyvm&onfjzpfap a0gyvmpD; oGm;vm onfjzpfvQif taqmifeDenf;wlaqmifonf? a0gyvm r&oolwdkUwGif ppfrufcH xrf;&Guf&vQif vSHrudk eDyg;xnftdwfoGwf 1? vSH&Sif 10 ukd eDyg;xnftdwfoGwf 1? aoewfeDyg;xnftdwfoGwf 1? aomufa&aqmifjrLwm y0geDtkyf 2? aoewfaq;bl;ESihf 1? ae&moifjzL;vdyf 1 aqmifonf? &wemyl& tif;0rif;nDwkdUudk xD;jzLay;onfum; jynfrif;r[my0& "r&mZmavmum "dywdtrnfawmf&Sdaom rif;w&m;vufxuf aemifawmfawmifilrif;udk ,OfxD;jzL 2 pif; tcsufa&TtxGwf ywjrm; 9 &pfpD? a&TMu,fanmif&Guf 3 qifh ay;onf? auwkrwDrnfaom awmifilNrdKUwGif aqmifusif;&onf? rmefatmif &wembk&m; 'g,umrif;w&m;vufxuf nDawmfyk*Hrif;udk ,nfxDjzL 2 pif; tdk;eDtcsuf a&TtxGwf ywjrm;tjynhfpDay; t&dr'emrnfaom yk*HNrdKUwGif aqmifusif;&onf? tdrfa&SUrif;rSp rif;om;wkdUudk ,nfxD;jzLxD;eDray; raqmif&? rl;awmfrwfawmfwdkUwGif 0efBuD;wdkUrSp awmfae&maewdkUudk xD;eD ay;vQif xD;eDtdk;eD tcsufa&Tanmif&Gufwqifh


(3 November 1755)

pay;onf? onfhaemufanmif&Guf 2qifhay;onf? onfaemufanmif&Guf 3qifhay;onf? xD;udktdrfwGifraqmifrusif;&? ausmif;bk&m;oGm;vQifvnf; raqmif&? wESpfwBudrf obifawmfwufwGifom aqmif&onf? ta0;NrdKU&Gmu oHBuD;wrHBuD; a&muf wufoufvQifrlum; aqmif&onf? rmefatmif&wem bk&m;'g,umrif;vufxuf 0efBuD;r[mowdk;oD[ol&udk yef;qdk;xD;txGwf a&Ttcsufa&Ttdk; a&TMuHqpfay;onf? avmurmefatmif bk&m;'g,umrif; vufxuf 0efBuD;pnfolausmfxif? 0efBuD;owdk;rif;BuD;wdkYudk yef;qdk;xD;tdk; MuHqpftv,fcsuf a&Tanmif&Guf3ay;onf? avmuo&bl bk&m;'g,umrif; w&m;vuffxuf 0efBuD; pnfolausmfxif? 0efBuD;owdk;rif;BuD;wdkYudk aersdK;aZ,aemf&xm enf;yef;qdk;xD;ay;onf? &Srf;jynfodEDNrdKU? anmifa&TNrdKU? rdk;rdwfNrdKU? rdk;eJNrdKU? rdk;aumif;NrdKU? rdk;nif;NrdKU? onfckepfNrdKU apmfbGm;wdkYESifh ,Gef;jynfusdKif;csdKifapmfbGm;wdkYrSm xD;0gtdk;eDtcsuf a&T2pif;ay;onf? &Srf;jynf rdk;nif;NrdKUrSm apmfbGm;udk xD;0gtdk;eD tcsufa&T 1pif;ay;onf? acrm&Xwdkif; *HkjynfusdKif;wkHNrdKU aZmwde*&wdkif; usdKif;&Srf;NrdKUrSm a&S;tpnfqif;ouf eef;tdrfOD;wGif &mZyvifwnfonf? xD;jzL4pif; aqmufusif;onf? ,rm;oHvsufusif;onf? rif;om;rif;ajr;rl;awmf rwfawmfwdkYudk taqmif"g; ay;onfum; tdrfa&SUrif;rSm "g;taqmif a&Ttdrfrnf;o&DtdwfoGwfay; aqmif&onf? trnf&wdkYom; ajr; 2a,mufwdkYudk "g;vdkufcHonf? "g;acG; racG;i,faemufydwf oHy&mcGHa&TvufudkifvGwf tdrfjzL 12udk a&Twdkufawmfu ay;tyf tdrfa&SUrif;rSm "g;ESifhvdkuf7onf? nDawmfom;awmf ppf&onf olwdkYrSm "g;rdk;BudK;qifhtdrfjzL o&DtdwfoGwfaqmifonf? "g;vdkuf 12a,muf vnf; enf;wlay;onf? cg;vdkuf&onf a0gyvm&onfholwdkYrSm "g;rdk;BudK; 1qifhtdrfjzLuwDygeDoGwf aqmif&onf? rdzk&m;wdkYwGif jrifonfhom; udk,fvkyfwGifjrifonfhom;wdkYudk "g;ay;vQif "g;rdk;BudK;qifhtdrfjzL ouvyftdyf oGwf aqmif&onf? 0efBuD;twGif;0efwdkYudk "g;acG;racG;i,f or&mcGH ywjrm; pDtdrf


(3 November 1755)

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(3 November 1755)

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(3 November 1755)

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3 November 1755

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3 November 1755

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3 November 1755

csyfpD;onf? ESD;acgufae ESD;acgufrae? trnf&? jrif;acgif;? trSL;tBuD;? pma&;? pmcsDwdkUrSm jrif;uanmif&Guf 5 csyfu udkif;uawmifqGJ&uf abmufor&m cGefeif;ESif;odyf tdrfajrmifqufyg;um aiGZ0guawmifjyif teDokwftwGif; teufokwfjrif;BudK; ouvyftpdef; teDwefYpD;ESD;buf0ef; ouvyfrTrf;atmif; wif&ef; aemufwufrxnfh&? jrif;awmfonfwkdUrSm jrif;uteufokwf anmif&Guf 3 csyfu udkif;uawmifqGJ&uf abmufor&mcGefeif; ESif;odyf tdrfajrmifqufyg;um; aiGZ0gu awmifteufokwf jrif;BudK;um; aiGZ0gay; pD;eif;&onfum; tdrfa&SUrif;rSm jrif;uanmif&Guf 9 csyfuudk a&TypGefcGefrTrf; tajymufxkonf? wjrK[if;oy'g;okwfonf? uawmifqGJ&uf abmufor &mcGef tkyfqufyg;umudk a&TypGefcGHuGyfonf? eif;ESif;odyftdrfajrmif&ifywfuGif; qufudk a&TZ0gxnfhonf? uawmifrnf; o&DrTrf; tem;udk a&T&ufjym;uGwf onf? jrif;BudK;rnf; o&DrTrf; a&Tcsnfwwfonf? wif&ef; anmif&Guf 3 qifhESifh rnf;o&DrTrf;onf? atmif;yyg;udk ydk;pHkxnfh ay;onfudk pD;eif;&onf? nDawmfom;awmfwkdUwGif a0g&onfolwdkUrSm onfenf;wlwGif a&TypGefcGHrrTrf; a&TZ0gomjzpfonfay; pD;eif;&onf? rdzk&m;wkdUwGif jrif;onfhrif;om; udk,fvkyfawmfwkdUwGifjrifonfh rif;om;wkdUudk jrif;uanmif&Guf 9 csyfu ukdif;uawmifqGJ&uf abmufor&m cGHeif;ESif;odyf tdrfajrmif&ifywfuGif; qufyg;um; a&TZ0guawmif tem; 4H a&Tydef;tv,fudk wkd;kyfyef;cwf udkufcsL;ao;oGwf wNrHKvGwfpD;ESD; ou'gef jrif;BudK;ouvyfwif&ef; anmif&Guf 3 qifhay;pD;onf? onfaemufjrif;BudK; ouvyfwGif a&TMu,fwyf pD;onf? onfaemufjrif;BudK;wif&ef; uwDygrTrf;ay;pD;onf? rl;awmfrwfawmfwdkUrSm 'l;ae&modkUa&muf uGrf;cGufay;NyD;rS jrif;uudkif; anmif&GufuawmifqGJ&uf abmufor&mcGH eif;ESif;odyftdrfajrmif&ifywf uGif;qufyg;um a&TZ0guawmif tem; 4H a&T


3 November 1755

ydef;tv,fpmr&D kyfyef;cwfudkufcsL; ao;oGwfwNrHKvGwfpD;ESD; ou'gef ouvyfrTrf; jrif;BudK;ouvyf rTrf;atmif;wif&ef; aemufwufay;pD;onf? onfaemufawmfae&modkUa&mufvQif ouvyfwif&ef; ydk;yef;yGg;ay;pD;onf? &wemyl&tif;0NrdKUwGif tpOfoHk;aqmifdk;um; rdzk&m;wGifjrifonfh rif;om; wkdUrSm i,f&G,f twGif;awmfrSm aepOfjrif;u a&TypGefcGHrTrf; ausmufpDy,if;pD jzpfap jrif;BudK;a&TMu,fwyf y,if;jzpfap uGrf;cGufrTrf;wuf y,if;wuf ausmufpDjzpfap a&T&ufaiG&uf ykqkd;jzpfapay;vQif twGif;awmfrSm aepOfaqmif &Guf0wfqif&onf? t&G,fokdUa&muf jyiftdrfwGifae rif;om;ae&modkU a&mufvQif twGif;rSm aepOfay;onfh taqmift&Gufrsm;udk raqmifrqif&? rdzk&m;wGifjrifonfh rif;om;udk,fvkyfawmfwGifjrifonfh rif;om;wkdUae&modkU a&mufvQif tpOfaqmif&Guf oHk;aqmifNrJum; rif;om;ae&modkUa&muf oGm;cGihf&Sd oGm;vmonfjzpfap 0g0if0guRwf obifawmfwufjzpfap jrif;pD;vQif jrif;uanmif&Guf 9 csyfu udkif;uawmifqGJ&ufabmuf or&mcGH eif;ESif;odyf tdrfajrmif&ifywfuGif;qufyg;um aiGZ0gu awmifuwGif; teDjyif [if;oy'g;okwf jrif;BudK;ouvyf rTrf;oifacsmpD;ESD; ou'gef ouvyf rTrf;atmif;wif&ef; aemufwufatmif;vHk;udkqGJpD;onf? uGrf;xkwfa&waumif; zufuawmh tkyfukdaqmifonf? aq;wefzsm; a&TjcLqGJcsifpGyfudkaqmifonf? ae&moifjzL;tem;rTrf;aqmifonf? trnf&vQif carmufwifudk [if;oy'g; okwf carmufwifae&m tkyfaqmifonf? aq;weft&if; acG;rdk;BudK; a&Ty&dwf csnfpGyfudkaqmifonf? usdKif;aqmiftm;&SdvQif usdKif;dk;EGJU tkd;t,yf [if;oy'g;okwfudkaqmif a&SUvkvifpnf,yfESifhpnf usdKif;aemufwGif jrif;OD;pD;onf? onfaemuf uGrf;xyfa&waumif; aea&miftkyfcarguf uifaq; wefaq; usKyfaqmifoGm;onf? 0g0if0guRwf obifawmfxufwGif xrf;pifpD;tm;&SdvQif xrf;pif[if;oy'g;ukd usdKif;kd;EGJUtkd; tvpf[if;oy'g; okwfukd aemufutkyf aumfaZm 4 axmifhrSDtHk;udk xrf;pifwGifcif;


(13 November 1755)

pD;onf?tdrfaqmufvQif ezl;vSnfhtrTrf;csifydwfoifacsmwk&ifysm;wufonf? tdrfjcHudk jrif;Murf;um rm&bifuefUonf? jcHwHcg;&Guf2bufESifh &ufabmuf 3wefUvQdKonf? a&Tusyfjrifrdk&fvbuftdk;&vQif vbuftdk;a&waumif; uawmh tkwfudkjrif;aemufuaqmifonf? uGrf;cGuf&Spfaxmifh&vQifvnf; uGrf;cGuf vbuftdk;a&waumif; taemufuaqmifonf/ "g;tdyfoGwf&vQif jrif;pD;onf jzpfap ajcvsifoGm;onfjzpfap tdyfpGyfudka&SUuaqmifonf/ a&Tcsnfygajceif;pD; onf? avSpD;vQif avSavSmfum;[if;oy'g;okwf paMumteDokwfudkpD;onf/ avSmfum;avSrSwf&vQif vufoifoefyefpD;tm; &Sd&mpD;onf/ 0wfvHkuwDyg 0wfonf? ausmif;bk&m;oGm;vQif yef;ESpfykqdk;ok*efykqdk;ESifh 0wfvHka&T&ufjym; oa'gifvnfudk 0wfqifonf/ 0g0if0guRwfobifawmfwufudkrlum; r0wf rqif&? ay;rS 0wfqif&onf? o'gapwem&Sd ausmif;aqmuf vSLvQif v,fay:2xyfjzpfap aZw0ef3xyfjzpfapaqmuf rkwfxkwfonf? trTrf;csif ydwfwk&ifudk a&Tjynfhxnfhonf? twGif;t&dyfaecHkbdeyfatmuf yef;vS qifuyf ywfvnfcHkatmuf yef;vSxnfh tkwfavSum;oHk;qlxnfhonf? twGif;t&dyf aeESifh rm&bifudk a&Tcs,fxnfhonf? Ouiforxnfh&? rSefuif;rpdkuf&? trdefUawmf&SdrS pdkuf&xnfh&onf? rif;om;wdkUbmom tdrf,maxmifvQif vufqHkpm;r,m;rjzpf&? r,m;pm&if;ray;&? tarGrcH&? pHkbufawmfrlrS r,m; pm&if;ay;&onf? tarGcH&onf? jrif;rSL;ae&maeodkU a&mufooltrnf& rif;om;ae&modkU a&mufoolwdkUtpOf aqmif&GufjrJum; rif;om;wdkUtodrf;wGif jrifoolwdkUudk qifuay;urf; pD;awmf0if;awmf a&G;qifawmfa&ay;&mrSm pD;eif;neHeufa&ay;&onf? qifpD;jrif;pD; uRrf;usifvQif jrif;rSL;ae&mrSmcs cHpm;&onf/ aemufcufvHkjrif;? vufa&G;i,fjrif;? jrif;onfjrif;? apmytdkjrif;? yifpnfjrif;? awmifum;jrif;? uwl;jrif;? weifom&Djrif;? weif;jynfjrif;?


(3 November 1755)

&[dkif;jrif;? ajreJjrif;? o&uftif;jrif;? y,fulMuD;jrif;? jynfpnfjrif;? vHbljrif;? oif;aumif;jrif;? wy,if;uGJjrif;? onfjrif;pkrsm;udk wpkwa,mufpDjrif;rSL; cefU jrif;ajrwGif jrif;rSL;wdkUudk pm;ajrvkyfcGefwdkUudk jrif;rSL;wdkUuodrf;cH &onf/ jrif;rSL;cefUvQif jrif;uanmif&Guf7csyfuudkif;u awmifqGJ&ufabmuf or&mcGHeif;ESif;odyftdrfajrmifqufyg;um&ifbwfuGif; aiGZ0guawmiftwGif; teDokwfjyif[if;oy'g;okwfjrif;MudK; ouvyfrTrf;oifacsmpD;ESD; ou'gef ouvyfrTrf;atmif; wif&ef;aemufwufESifhpdD;onf/ 0g0if0guRwfobifawmf wufjzpfap ausmif;bk&m;oGm;vmonfjzpfap uGrf;xkwfa&waumif;uawmh tkyfaemufuaqmifonf? avSpD;vQifvnf; avSteDokwfudk arsmh0ef;[if;oy'g; okwfpaMumeufwifpD;onf? oGm;vmvQif ae&moifjzL;tem;rTrf;aqmifonf? trnf&vQif carmuf[if;oy'g;okwf carmufaea&miftkyfaemufu aqmif; onf? tdrfqif0ifwdkuf AkpKbufuefUtdrfjcHudk ig;jcrf;tzsm;cRef&ufabmuf vQdKUMuufajcuefUumonf? aq;wefzsm;a&TjcLqGJjcifpGwfaqmifonf? jrif;rSL; ae&m aejrif;rSL;wdkUwGif trnf&vQif jrif;rSL;ae&muESKwf jrif;rSL;wdkU vufwGif; rif;om;ae&mcs cpm;&onf? rif;om;wdkUtpOfaqmif&GufjrJum; jrif;uanmif&Guf 7csyfuudkif;uawmifqGJ&ufawmufor&mcGHeif; ESif;odyf tdrfajrmif&ifbwfuGif; qufyg;um aiGZ0gu awmif[if;oy'g;okwftwGif; teDokwfjrif;MudK;ouvyfoifacsm pD;ESD;ou'gefouvyfrTrf;atmif; wif&ef; aemufbufESifh pD;eif;&onf? jrif;pD; oGm;vQif a0SUvkvQiftpnf,yfESifh usdKif; dk;EGJUtdk;tweft,yf [if;oy'g;okwfudkaqmifonf? onfaemuf pjrif;onf aemufuGrf;xkwfa&waumif; carmufwif [if;oy'g;okwf carmufaea&mif tkyfaq;wefzsm;a&GUcsifpGwfudkaqmifonf? a&TjcLygajceif; udkpD;onf? 0g0if 0guRwf obifawmfwufudk xrf;pifpD;tm;&SdvQif [if;oy'g;okwfudk aumfapmrSDtHk;uif usdKif;MuD;dk;EGJU tdk;tueft,yfudk [if;oy'g; okwfaemufutkyfpGwfonf/ uGrf;cGuf8axmifhvbuftdk;


(3 November 1755)

&vQif uGrf;cGufvbuftdk;udk aemufuaqmifonf/ avSpD;vQifavSavmif;udk [if;oy'g;okwf paMumteDokwftrTrf;csifydwf [if;oy'g;okwfudk wif pD;&onf/ avSmfum;avSrSwf&vQif vufoiformefpD;tm;&Sd&mpD;onf? "g; ouvyftdwfoGwf&vQif "g;udka&SUaqmifonf/ tdrfvHylvnfESifh jrif;Murf;&uf uyfumonf? rl;awmfrwfawmfwdkUtpOf oHk;aqmifdk;um; trnf&vQif carmufwifudkcsdwfeDwdkuf tpdrf;t0gwefUonfudkaqmifonf? tdrfjcHudk uyfpdwfumonf? uGrf;xkyfa&waumif; y0geDzHk; aemufuaqmifonf? aq;wefa&Tzsm;wusyfcefY aqmifonf? avSpD;vQifoap;teufokwfavSudk pD;tm;&SdvQif pD;onf? jrif;uanmif&Guf 5csyf uudkif;uawmifqGJ&ufabmuf or&mcGHeif;ESif;odyftdrfajrmif qufyg;um&ifywfuGif; aiGZ0guawmifjyif teDokwftwGif; teufokwfjrif;BudK; ouvyftem;csnfjzLaysmufxdk; tpdrf; t0gwefYpD;ESD;buf0ef;ouvyfrTrf;atmifwif&ef; pD;eif;onf? usdKif;aqmiftm; &SdvQif a&SUvkvif 2pif? onfaemufusdKif;dk;EGJYtjzLudk aqmifonf? onfaemuf uGrf;xkwfa&waumif; y0gzkH;onf? aemufcarmufaqmif; jrif;pD;onf? onfaemuf carmufwifaq;MuKyfaqmifonf? o'gapwempdwf&Sd ausmif; aqmufvQif w0,f 2xyfjzpfap? aZw0ef 3xyfjzpfap qifuyf 3rsufESm avScg; 3qlESifh aqmufvkyfap ausmif;OD;u&dyfaeudk a&Taysmufaysmufxnfh pdefzl;a&Tydef;xnfhudkwyfaumif;rIjyKonf? jyifba0g twGif;ba0g penf;onfh ae&m3oG,fodkY a&mufvQif jrif;BudK;jrif;uenf;wkwGif pD;ESD;ou'gefOD; ouvyfrTrf;jrif;BudK; ouvyfrTrf;tem; csnfaygufaygufxdk; atmif;csufrsm; aemufwufxnfhpD;onf? 0g0if0gxGufobifabmfxufwGif xrf;pifpD;tm; &SdvQif xrf;pifudk teDokwf usdKif;dk;EGJYtjzLudk aemufutkyf pD;onf? 0wfvkHZmy,if;0wfonf? ouvyfrTrf;ajceif;pD;onf? tdrfqif0ifwdkufESa&mif AkpK 2bufuefYtum ysnfaxmifurwfBuD; urwfi,fowfonf? tdrfjcHudk 0g;pdyftzsm;cRef&ufabmufdI MuufajcuefY&ufonf? uyfudkumonf? aq;wefzsm;a&TcsKcsif pGyfudkaqmifonf? avSpD;vQif avS


(3 November 1755)

avSmfum;teufokwfarsmh0ef;teDokwf pMumteuf? trTrf;csifydwfteDokwfudk wifpD;onf? a&TMuKwfvbuftdk;&vQif oGm;cGifh&Sd jrif;ESifhoGm;vQif jrif;a&SUuvkvif 2pnfpnf usdKif;dk;EGJUudkaqmifonf? onfaemuf a&TusKyf vbuftdk;a&waumif; y0gzkH;oGm;onf? onfaemufpjrif;onf aemufc armufaq;wef ta>ct&HwdkYoGm;onf? ajcvsifoGm;vQif carmufaqmif; oGm;onf? onfaemufua&Tusyfvbuftdk; a&waumif;carmufwif tacRt&H wdkYvdkufonf? usyfvbuftdk; usdKif;raqmif jrif;pD; oGm;onfjzpfap ajcusifoGm;onfjzpfap uGrf;tkyfvbuftdk;udk y0gjzLtNrdwf 2bufESifhxkwf a&waumif; y0geDtkyfaemufuaqmifonf? acgif;xkyfaygif; oGm;vQif ykqdk; puftem;ygudk 0wfonf? ae&m3oG,faewdkYo'g apwem&Sd ausmif;aqmHvQif ausmif;udkqifuyfvSnfh avScg;2qlxnfhonf? pdefzl;udk a&Tbdef;xnfh pdkufonf? ausmif;OD;t&dyfaeudk a&T1pkteD1pkxnfh aumif;rIjyKonf? 'l;ae&m odkYa&mufvQif rdkif;vkHudk0wfonf? tdrfa&SUenf;wlwGif ebl;vnfaqmuf aeonf? qifuyfvQif tdrfa&SUuqifukwfaqmufonf? uGrf;cGuf&vQif uGrf;cGufudk y0geDzkH; aqmifonf? waumif;ydwf&vQif aqmifonf? oGm;cGif&Sd oGm;vQif uGrf;cGufvbuftdk;waumif;zkH; raqmifr,l&? jrif;pD;onfjzpfap ajcusifoGm;onfjzpfap uGrf;vbufudk y0gjzLtNrdwf 2bufESifhxkwf a&waumif;udk y0grzkH; zufuawmhBuD;tkyf aqmifonf? avSmfum;avSrSwf &vQif vufoifoHyefpD;tm;&Sd&m pD;onf? avSavmif;udk [if;oy'g;okwf paMumhteDokwftrTrf;csifydwf [if;oy'g;okwfudkwif 0g;ckHcsifykESifh oN*dKvf onf? o'gapwem&Sd ausmif;aqmufvQif qifuyfywfvnfjyifckwfESifhxnfh onf? tkwfavScg; 2qlausmif;OD;t&dyf aea&T 1pkteD1pkwdkif a&Tbdef;xnfhonf? pdefbl;a&Tbdef;xnfh aumif;rIjyKonf? awmfae&modkYa&mufvQif jrif;BudK;jrif; uenf;wlwGif anmif&Guf 7csyfjrif;BudK; ouvyfrTrf;oifacsmudk pD;onf? carmuf wif [if;oy'g;okwfudk aqmifonf? aq;wefzsm;


(3 November 1755)

a&TcsLqGJcsifpGyfudk aqmifonf? y,if;rdk;BudK;uGyf a&Ty&dwfcsnfaqmifonf? a&TcsDygajceif;udkpD;onf? ausmif;bk&m;oGm;vmvQif yef;ESpfykqdk; ok*efykqdk;? zJpyfykqdk;0wfqifonf? 0g0if0guRwfobifawmfwuf aemufawmfvdkufvTwf awmfkH;awmfrSmrlum; r0wfrqif&? puftem;ygykqdk;udkom 0wfonf? rnfooludk obifawmfwufaemufawmfvdkufudk rnfonfhykqdk;udk 0wfap trdefYawmf&SdrS 0wf&onf? pvG,f&vQif 0wfvkHuwDyg0wf&onf? t*r[m aoemywd0efBuD;cefYvQif rSDtkH;a&TzkHouvyfrTrf;udk aqmif&onf? tdrfvHblvnf; trTrf;wk&ifysm;oifacsmwwfonf? tdrfjcHjrif;Murf;uyfumonf? jcHwHcg;&Guf 2buf&ufabmuf 3wHhvQdKonf? awmfae&maewdkY ausmif;aqmuf vQif prkwfxkwf trTrf;csifydwfwk&if acgufoHMuufarmuf a&T2pk teD 1pk xnfhonf? pdefzl;wwfonf? twGif;t&dyfae pkHabmufyef;vSjyif qifuyfvnf ckHaygifyef;vSxnfh tkwfavScg; 3qlxnfhonf? twGif;t&dyfaerm&bifudk a&T2pkteD 1pkwdkifudk wbufpOf a&Tbdef;xnfhonf? awmfae&mwdkYtb trdtpfudknDr,m;wdkY aovGefvQif ysnftzkH;urwfudk a&Txnfh ckHcsifykESifh oN*dK[fonf? awmfae&m'l;ae&mpenf;ae&m twGif;ba0gae&m jyifba0gae&m 5oG,fwGif ae&m2oG,fudk jrif;OD;a&Tyef;yefpkrSp tpkpkom;wdkYudk jyKpkawmfrl ae&m 5oG,fodkYa&mufonfh trwfwdkYrSm om;&SdvQif om;wdkYonf tpk&if;wGif rxrf;&? ae&mae rnfolYom; rnfolpm&if;rSwfNyD;vQif vlysdKpkrSmjcm; xrf;&onf? vlysdKpkwdkYonf aoG;aomufpkwdkYenf;trIudk xrf;&onf? vlysdKrsm;vQif aoG;aomufpkbGJY trIudkxrf;&onf? rl;awmfrwfawmf r,m;onf taemuftwGif;awmfwGif ae&mrwuf&ao;oolwdkY aqmif&Guf pD;eif;dk;um; trnf&r,m;wdkYoGm;vmvQif vufudkifusdKif;BuD;udk vlrdef;rum vdkuf&onf? uGrf;vbufy0geDxkyf a&waumif;zufuawmhtkyf aq;wH a&Tzsm;ESH 4HcHhaqmifonf? ouvyfpGyfajceif;pD;onf? twGif;ba0g jyifba0g penf;ae&m 3oG,faetrwfwdkY r,m;rSm oGm;vmvQif oHvsif;wGif 4rsufESmwif;wdrfum oHvsif;&Gufudk ykqdk;puftem;ygvTrf; pD;onf? vufudkifusdKif;


(3 November 1755)

aqmifonf? uGrf;uvyfBudK;Zmxdk; eDyg;xnftdwfoGwf y0geDtkyfonf? a& waumif;y0geDtkyfonf? aq;wHa&Tysm;tdwfcsLqGJcsif pGyfaqmifonf? ouvyf ajceif;aqmifonf? aovGefvsifysnfudk tjzLrTrf; 0g;ckHcsifykESifh oN*dK[fonf? 'l;ae&mwdkY r,m;jzpfvQif onfenf;wlwGif aovGefvQif ysnftjzLrTrf; tzkH; urwfudka&Txnfh 0g;ckHykESifhoN*dK[fonf? awmfae&mwdkY r,m;jzpfvQif onfenf;wlwGif aqmif&Gufonf? oGm;vmvQif oHvsif;pD; a&SUvkvif 2 pnfpOf oGm;onf? ae&m5oG,fwGif ae&maygif; 120 aeolwdkYwGif jrif;pk? a&Tyef;yefpkrSp tpkpkom;wdkYudk jyKpkawmfrlonf? ae&m5oG,fodkY a&mufvQif om;ajr;&SdvQif om;wdkYonf tbtpk&if;rSm rxrf;&? ae&maetrwfrnfolom; rnfol[l pm&if;rSwfom;NyD;vQif vlysdKpg&if;jcm; xm;onf? vlysdKpkwdkYonf aoG;aomufpkwdkYenf; trIawmfudk xrf;&onf? ae&maetrwfwdkY om;vlysdKpk rsm;vQif aoG;aomufpkbGJY trIawmfudk xrf;&Guf&onf? ae&m 5ae trwfwdkY onf obifawmfonfrwdkYudk vufqkHpm; r,m;jzpfap? todrf;jzpfap arG;jrifonfhom;udkrlum; vlysdKpkrSm pm&if;roGif;&? obifawmfonfr om;trd pkrSm xrf;&onf? &mZrkPdplvmbk&m;'g,um rif;w&m; vufxufou&mZf 1000 jynfhwGif(1638) trnf& aus;pm;&Gmom; ajr;vlysdKpkwdkYudk aoG;aomufpk 2pkbGJY 1pkudk "roD&dudk aoG;aomufBuD;cefYonf? 1pkudk aZ,sb,ausmfudk aoG;aomufBuD;? 1pkudk pkuaw;udk aoG;aomufBuD;cefY zGJYonf? &rnf;oif; rif;w&m;vufxuf ou&mZf 1048ckwGif (1666) aemufawmfygtxdef;t, wdkYom;ajr;trnf& aMu;pm;&Gmpm;wdkYom;ajr;wdkYudk aoG;aomufpk2pkbGJY 1pkudk aZ,sausmfxifudk aoG;aomufBuD;? 1pkudk O'dEausmfxifudk aoG;aomufBuD; cefYbGGJYonf? ou&mZf 1053ckwGif trnf&wdkYom;ajr;wdkYudk aoG;aomufpk 1pk bGJY aZ,sausmfxifudk aoG;aomufBuD;cefY bGJYonf? avmurmefatmif


(3 November 1755)

bk&m;'g,umrif;w&m;vufxuf trnf&aMu;pm;&Gmpm;wdkYudk aoG;aomufpk 2pkbGJY 1pkudk &mZ*kEudk aoG;aomufBuD;? 1pkudk &mZb,udk aoG;aomuf BuD;? ou&mZf 1091ckwGif(1729)cefYbGJYonf? avmuo&blbk&m; 'g,um rif;w&m;BuD;vufxuf ou&mZf 1096ckwGif (1734) trnf& om;ajr;vlysdKpk wdkYudk aoG;aomufpk 2pkbGJY 1pkudk eErdwfudk aoG;aomufBuD; 1pkudkvuf0J eEoludk aoG;aomufBuD;cefY bGJYonf? aoG;aomufpkbGJY&mrSm aoG;aomufpk bGJYoolwdkYudk opmawmfay;NyD;rSvQif aoG;aomufBuD; cefYrnfholwdkYESifh vTwf awmfodkYac: 0efBuD;wdkYa&SUwGif pOf aeapNyD;rS 0efBuD;wdkYu rnfolvlaygif; rnfrQudk aoG;aomufpk 1pkbGJYawmfrlonf? rnfoludk aoG;aomufBuD; cefYawmfrl onf? 0efBuD;wdkYu jyefqdkonf? aoG;aomufBuD;cefYooludk opmawmfray; trdefYawmfpmcRefrtyf/ (ou&mZf 1117ck owif;uRwfvjynfhausmf 14&ufaeY) (3 November

(arNrdKU bkef;<u,f ayrl)


(4 November 1755)

bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoem'g,umawmf vufeufpMum ocifqifjzLqifeDrsm;&SiftoQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m; e(E)Am[k udka&Teef;awmftwGif; prkwfawmf? '0,faqmifawmf? avsmif;awmfOD;aqmif awmf? avomaqmifawmf? aAmif;awmfaqmifawmf? jAJwdkufawmf? ajreef;awmf? jy'fawmf? a&SUvTwfawmfrSp tppftaMum&mZ0wfESifh pyfqdkiforQ taygif; txkwft0wftpm; taqmift&Guf tpD;teif; taetxdkif a&Teef;awmfNrdKUwGif; wGif vkyfaqmifonfwdkYrSm wHqdyfvuf&m tav;awmif;wif;rSp ppfaMum &rnf tcsKyf tBuD;tudkifBuD; cefYawmfrlonf? cefYawmfrlaMumif;vnf; aus;Zl; opmawmfudk apmifhoddkaopGm trIawmfudk dk;dk;rwfrwf xrf;&GufppfaMumpD&if rnfaus;&if;uRef&if;jzpf cefYawmfrlonf? wHqdyfvuf,m tav;awmif;wif; rSp ppfaMum&rnf tcsKyftBuD;tudkifBuD;cefUawmfrlonf/ cefUawmfrlaMumif; vnf; aus;Zl;opmawmf udkapmifhod&dkaopGm trIawmfudk dk;dk;rwfrwf xrf;&Guf ppfaMumpD&ifrnf aus;&if;uRef&if;jzpf cefUawmfrlonf/ wHqdyfvuf,m tav; awmif;wif;rSm a&Teef;awmfNrdKUwGif;u xGufvQif NrdKU0efkH;rSwif csifhxGufcsdefvDNyD;rS a&mif;0,fap/ ou&mZf 1117ck wefaqmifrkef;vqef; 1&uf 3aeY(4 November

(avmif;pk rSwf 6? pg 230)


(4 November 1755)

bk&m;uRefawmf ouf&Snfaemf&xm &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifygonfbk&m;? bk&m;Asm 'dwfawmfjrwfudk OD;xdyf&Guf&onfhtwdkif; b,aoerSm trIonfwdkYESifh bk&m; uRefawmfpma&;wdkYudk ap pmudkay;jrJay;ygonfudk b,aoeonf bk&m; uRefawmfpma&;wdkYudkvnf; jyif;jypGmqkdonf? bk&m;uRefawmfudkvnf; rSL;BuD; rwfBuD; r[kwfqdkonf b,aoeuJYodkY jzpfcJYvQif bk&m;uRefawmfu pma&; vkyfapyg0Hhrnf r[kwfygNyDbk&m; Asm'dwfawmfjzpf bk&m;uRefawmf trIonf ESifhwuG apyg&onf? bk&m;trdefYawmfjrwfudk OD;xdyf&Gufyg&rS ,ckvnf; oifh aemifvnf;jrifh Asm'dwfawmf wnfyg&rnfhtaMumif;udk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD; wifygonfbk&m;/ bk&m;uRefawmf b,aoea&TpufawmfpkHudk OD;xdyf&Guf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD; wifygonfbk&m;? ouf&Snfaemf&xm pmcRefawmfwGif trdefYawmf ta&;tom; towftvwftzktqpfudk tMunfhtI cefYawmfrl MunfhIvQif bk&m;uRef awmfudk,ftrIuJYodkY pma&;wGif a&;vdkufonfpmwGif wHqdyfcwf&rnf wHqdyfyg wHqdyfygbd? ouf&Snfaemf&xmu tyf wHqdyfcwf&ouJYodkY ydkifydkifpmyg pma&;udkvnf; vlrdkufvldkif; bk&m;uRefawmfqdkonf? ouf&Snf aemf&xmudk vnf; pma&;wGifeifhrif;udk ajymav? tl;pmtayghpmudk a&; wHqdyfcwfrcH vSmESifh rif;rmwHqdyfr[kwf rSL;BuD;rwfBuD; r[kwfouJYodkYpmudk twnfr& ay;cJYonfomqdkygonf? ouf&Snfaemf&xmudk rSL;BuD;rwfBuD; r[kwfrqdkyg qdkonfwGif ouf&Snfaemf&xmx a&SUawmfwGif vufoD;Oaumif;udk ouf&m wGifAsm'dwfawmf eifhxufl; (eifhxuf) dkif;rdkufapmfum;olr&Sd eifhtjypfudk b,aoeodkY uawmhay/ b,aoevnf; eef;awmfxufwifyif ouf&Snf aemf&xmuHawmhudk cH&rnftrdefYawmf&Sd vuf,m'l;&Spfae&mae b,aoeudk awmfae&mae ouf&Snfaemf&xm uHawmh&onf? b,aoepdwfajzawmh Asm'dwfawmf&Sd twGif;awmfodkY 0ifawmfrlonf/ (ou&mZf 1117ck wefaqmifrkef;vqef; 1&ufaeY) (avmif;pk? rSwf 7? pg 213)


(15 January


trdefYawmf&Sdonf AefarmfapmfbGm; rdk;rdwfapmfbGm;om; cefavmifcef;vdkif trSL; trwfpma&; pmcsD prmwdkYESifh trIawmfudkpGefY xrf;&Gufygrnf oem;awmfcHyg vma&mufaMumif;ESifh oem;awmfjrwfudkcH iga&Tem;awmf Mum;awmfrl&onf oem;awmfudk tw[dwy&[dw t&SiftpD;tyGm;udkaxmuf oem;awmfcHoifh onfyifjzpfonf? igESvkH;awmfxm;onfrSmrlum; rdk;rdwfapmfbGm;cH iBuD;iJom; iudkaomif;usef;onf r[kwf trSL;trwfESifhwuGyif t&SifrrSwfusifhonfjzpf rdk;rdwfwNrdKU igEdkifiHawmftwGif;wGif ysufavonf[l igpD;yGm;awmf avsmhrnf r[kwfrSwfawmfrlonf? cef;avmifcef;vdkifiJwdkY ab;bdk;bwdkY 'dXmEk*wdcdkif NrdKUjyaus;&Gmudk rypfrpGefYEdkif ajy;p&majrvnf; ZrL'dwfuRef;wGif r&Sdonfudk owd& a&S;rlypf aemufaumif;atmif usifhygrnf oem;awmfjrwfudk cHyg rnf? a&mufonfrSm NrdKU&Gmcdkifudk tm;BuD; pnf;pdrfrysuf toufrao ae&mredrfh trIawmfudk xrf;ygrnfqdkonfhtwdkif; trSL;trwfxrkHaygrdkif;dkif;ys aMumHvefYwdrf;,drf;a&SmifaeorQ tonftvmwdkYudk ac:odef;kH;pk vufeuf rsdK;&dumtpkHESifh iga&TpufawmfcsDawmfrl&m vdkufvgapodkYrS xrf;&nf&Guf&nfudk axmuf olaumif;jyKawmfrl&rnfjzpf igudk,fawmfonf 0&Zdefwkef;uJYodkY jzpfawmfrlonfudk owdynmtjrifr&Sd todenf;oolwdkYu zJYvQifyJYwef\xif jyKa&mifMuonfpdkYESifh ESufvnf; pdkYomaMurnf? ausmHESifhESufvnf; ausmHom aMurnf 0&Zdefwkef;rSm tvQHta&mifajymifawmhrnfom ryJY&monfudk raxmuf vlrdkufvldkif; qifuef;awmwdk; tusdK;tjypfudk rod ysufpD;jzif;odkY a&muf aMumif;udk trdefYawmf&Sdonf? ou&mZf 1117ck jymodkvqef; 14&ufaeY (15 January 1756) AefarmfapmfbGm;udkjyefonf (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 5? pg 19)


(18 January


trdefYawmf&Sdonf r[maoemywd rif;vSrif;acgif? rif;ausmfpnfol? aZ,eE? AveEpnfol? AvumrPd? rif;ausmfwaqmifwdkYESifh AdkvfrSL;wyfrSL; trnf& aoG;aomufBuD; trdefYawmfa&; tuGyftMuyfol&Jolcuf uRefawmfrsdK; taygif; wdkYESifh ZAL'dwfajrwGif igtoQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m;onf bk&m;ocifa&TAsm'dwfawmf twdwftem*wfwdkYudkjrifaom &aohynm&SdwdkY a[m xm;onfhtwdkif; jzpfawmfrlonf igudk,fawmfrSmudk ig\bkef;vufkef;tpGrf; t&nfynmomr[kwf oMum;rif;omoemawmf 5000udk apmifhrygrnf bk&m;&Sifudk 0HcHonfhtwdkif; oMum;paom avmuygvbkrkutmumo paomewftaygif;wdkY aumif;csD;nm xif&Sm;pGm omoemawmfjyKrif;udk ronf txift&Sm;jzpfonfudk wdkYwpktrIxrf; uRefawmfrsdK; taygif;wdkYvnf; t&SifaptyfaomolwdkYonf yrmvkH;vkH; jcaoFhxkH;udk tkH;tpD;rSwfonfhenf; jzifh? yrnf,l,l? Edkif&Snfrlaomf? ol&yfcGif? tMuiftMuif? tjzpfwGif? jrif;qifuRJEGm;? aus;iSuftm;vnf;? tvm;raw? BudKufwkHawmfvnf;? ravsmf rvQH? 0HBuD;cH? onf;cHcsdKcsdK? vkv&Sdom;? olodolxif? yGJnmwif? cspfcif dkao? arG;ayaomusdK;? tm;usdK;tef&? olrrQatmif rIxrf;aqmifonf? udk,fa&SmifvGwfaq; rokefajz;wnfh? vdka&;vnfa&mH? NyD;xkwfacsmufvQif? atmifapmifhonf;awmif? ranmif;rusif? opfyiftzsm;? ikwfzGm;oJxd? jyKrduem;? a&Smif&Sm;rnm? vdk&mjzpfap? ta&tdk;? EkwfEkwfusdK;? OD;csdK; ajcmufxyf? aoG;om;uyfvnf? ysyfpyfqdkif&m? aoumoNrdKU? rwGefYwdkvQif[l a&S;ynm&Sd ola[mif;wdkY bk&m;ocif tavmif;awmfvl? qif? jrif;? uRJEGm;? aus;iSuf tqufqufu olarG;aom aus;Zl;&SdvQif olaus;Zl;udkpGefY qyfbl; aMumif; xkH;a[mif;udk rSwf&rnf? [Hom0wDta&;rSm tpdrf;r[kwf rD;tkH;t usufjzpfonfudk pm;csif;l;rl; avmuw&m;tm;aMumifh arm[w&m; a>r;&Suf zkH;vTrf; rD;&uf&mwGif vufudk avmifjyefavonfqdkouJYodkY &Sdrnfudkvnf; atmufarhawmfrlonf? onfwa&jzifh vkyfMuHp&mta&;BuD; r&SdNyD? ESpfvaeY&uf tcgtcsdefuRrf;onfr[kwf


(18 January


ESpfvnf;trsm;vnf trsm;&Sdaoonf igudk,fawmfa&mufawmfrlrS 0gAsm'dwf awmfjrwfudk qif&Guf vkyfMuH&rnfhtaMumif;udk trdefYawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1117ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 2&ufaeY &efukefNrdKU&Sd AdkvfrSL;wdkYudk jyefonf (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 6? pg 21-2)
(18 January 1756)


(18 January


bkef;awmftvGefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom wdkif;BuD;taygif;wdkY tjynfjynfaxmif aom xD;aqmif;rif;apmfbGm;NrdKUpm; taygif;wdkYudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom t&drErm vufeufpMumqifjzLrsm;ocif tvQifb0&Siftavgif;rif;w&m;BuD; bk&m; om;awmfr[mOy&mZm? r[moD&dok"r&mZm? ocifowdk;rif;vSausmf nDawmf aemifawmf 3yg; trdefYawmf&Sdonf &mrnom; a'gAnm;qif;&Jom; uRefawmf rsdK; ow0gtaygif;wdkY yudk;rif;aus;Zl;opmvnf; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkYwGif&Sdonf? t0rif;aus;Zl;opmvnf; &Sdonf? t0rif;opmudk rapmifh aus;Zl;rodtm;&Sd tm;rsm;jyKusifhvQif yudk;rif;opmudk cHMu&avonfjzpf yudk;rif;trIudkvnf; qif;&Jom;wdkY xrf;&GufMu&onf? yudk;rif;jyKol bkef;vufkef;t&nfESifh igwdkY t&Sif bkef;vufkef;t&nfudkvnf; &mrnom; a'gAnm; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkY odjrifaumif;NyD? tworH ayrH ewdygVdawmfESifhtnD udk,fudkomcspftyfaMumif; udka[mawmfrlonf? a'gAnm;qif;&Jom;wdkYudkom ap tbufr[kwf jyKMu onft&mudk uGyfnyfawmfrlvQif bkef;awmfjrwfaMumifh ypfcyforQ vufeufonf uRefawmfrsdK;ol&JolcufwdkY ab;r&Sd rxdryg;aq;wtdk; uRrf;cefYESifhyif oHvsifNrdKUudk tvdkawmfjynfhrnf? ZrL'DyguRef; vl\tjzpfudk &cJonf tonfpnf;pdrfudk axmufawmfrl wvdkif;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkYudk oem;awmfrl wESpfuonfwESpfiHhvifhawmfrlonfudk ynmr&SdvQif pum; rwwf? rvdrmvQif cGifhrod qifuef;awmwdk; tusdK;tjypfudk rarQmf trsufawmf0ifvQif wvdkif;wdkY&mrnwdkif; t&yfu wuRef;wEdkifiH ork'&m yifv,fudkul; ajy;oGm;Edkifrnfr[kwfonfudk owdr&? t0NrdKUouf rif;qufukefqkH; ow0gwdkUuHESifhavsmfpGm ysufpD;&onfudk tm;&oifh awmhonf? bkef;Murmaumif;onftaMumif; jyufjyufxifvsufudk rrSwfaumif;NyD ppfyGJobif[lorQonf vufkH;aumif;um? ynm&Sdum ESifhjzpfonfr[kwf oDv'gebkef;trSDjzpf ewfa&oMum;a& apmifr&mom atmifjcif; IH;jcif;jzpfonf? jzpfcefYEdkifcefY rjzpfcefY rEdkifcefYudkvnf; q,fBudrfq,fcgom ppfyJqdkifonfr[kwf tBudrfrsm;pGmqdkif orQrwnfrwefY r&yfrcHEdkif ysufonfudkvnf; txift&Sm;jzpfvsuf rD;awmuf udka&T


(18 January


awmifaiGawmifxifrSwfvsuf prg,ftHh0ifaom ydk;zvHuJYodkY &SdMuonfudk owdr& wdkif;EdkifiHawmfwGif uRefawmfrsdK;csnf;jzpf t&Snfudk axmuf igwdkY trdefYawmf&Sdonf? xifrSwfaumif;&m r&SdNyD;onfudk yudk;rif;rmaygufabmfom; csif; av;ig;q,fcefYomjzpfonf? qif;&Jom;uRefawmfrsdK;rsm; udk;uG,f&mr&Sd vQif udk;uG,f&m&&mt&Sif&Sd&mom pnf;pdrfrysuf toufrao ae&mredrfh qif;&Jom;wdkY oem;awmfudkcHrS oifhrnfjzpf igwdkYtrdefYawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1117ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 2&ufaeY(18 January om;awmf nDaemif3yg;u &mrnom;wdkYudk ay;onf (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 7? pg 25-6)


(9 April


oMum;rif;pga&mufonfum; tdkvltaygif;wdkY oauma'0&mZm ig oMum;rif; onf &mrnwdkif; wvdkif;jynf owE&uyfa&muf ow0gtaygif;wdkY aoaMuysufpD; epfrGef;vwHhaomtaMumif;udk jrifawmfrl &mrnwvdkif;wdkYudk oem;ojzifh trdefYawmf&Sdonf? oifwdkYjynf&GmwGif igoMum;rif;oliJwdkYudk oGefoif wdwfpum;jzpfonfum; acG;oDukefvQif *kPfoD;ESifh acsmh tysdK 0gwGif;udkrjiif;ESifhawmh qdkaponf? wdwfudkr,luHMurmarSmuf jzpfMuonf? tnmurif;onf omrnrwxD;aqmifeef;aer[kwf aumorDjynf *EmkH ausmif;awmf tmeEudk owfaorl omoemawmfudk jyKpkcsD;ajrmufvwHh omoem'g,um[laom trnfudk cHvwHh omoemvnf; a&mif0gwdk; wHcdk;aeES,fvif;vwHh wvdkif;0efxrf;&Srf;um; apuRefjzpfvwHh wkwf dk;',m; ukvm;rusef xdkrif;uRefvQif cHvwHh Asm'dwfawmf&jzpfonf? &mrnokH;&yfom; udkrqdkESifhOD; ZAL'DyHvudwHedrdwfjzifh rSwftyfaom uRef;av;uRef;wGif txl; jzpfaom 3uRef;wdkYonf uRef;OD; a&mufaomopfyifudkpGJ onmrac:ra0: awmifuRef;om oajyyifudkpGJ ZALedrdwfjzifh rSwftiftyfaom uRef;qdkonf udk owdr&aomaMumifh twwfodomatmif pma&; ork'&m**Fgapmifhaom rPdarcvmewforD;udk ap ydkYvSmaponf? acG;oD;ukefvQif *kefoD;ESifh acsmh [l&mum; yudk;onf 2vFmeH acG;yifyifjzpfonf? toD;tcufESifh wlaom aus;&Gmcdkif tacstvufysufpD; ukefonfudkqdkonf? *kefoD;ESifhacsmh[lonf um; 2eHudk yudk;rif;wGif taoG;t&nfjzpfaom orD;onf toD;rnf;\? orD;udkay; pnf;pdrfrysuf toufrao ae&mredrfhap&rnfudk r0ifr0ifh rnif;ESifhawmhqdkonf? oauma'0&mZm igoMum;rif;onf ow0gtaygif; wdkYonf Oyg'fBuD;pGmjzpfrnfudk jrifaomaMumifh qdkonfudk ,kHrSm;r&Sdukefvifh? yudk;[Hom0wDonfvnf; rif;w&m;a&TxD;vufxuf edrdwfBuD;pGm wvdkif;wdkY vkyfMuH aojywfonf? Oaumif;udk owd&ygap? igoMum;rif;pD&if Oaumif;


(9 April


rsufESmrsufpd wvIyfvIyfodomjrifomatmif rsufawmifcwf rsufvkH;vSnhfap csDaponfudkvnf; txufumvu igjyawmfrlonfudk &mrnwdkif;wGif ynm&Sd aomolwdkYu wvdkif;wdkY xD;eef;rpdkuf raqmuf& jrefrmOD;pGef;jzpfrnfzwfonf? wvdkif;aoab;a&mufvdk &wemyl&t0NrdKUvnf; omoemawmfukef rif;qufaphonfNrdKUokH;rnf rif;avmif;aygufrnf jynf&Gmtopfjzpfrnft aMumif;&Sd w'*FjzpfESifh&onfudk pnf;pdrftjrJxifrSwfMuavvQif ow0g taygif;epfrGef; aoMuavawmhrnf tavmif;tvsmrSHonf rrSHonfudkvnf; &mrnom;wdkY odaumif;avNyD;onf 10Budrf 9Budrfom ppfqdkifonfr[kwf tBudrfrsm;pGmppfqdkiforQyif epfrGef;qkH;IH;jcif;odkY a&mufonfudkodvsuf oif;wdkY raxmufraMumuf ow0gtaygif;wdkY qkH;IH;bdrnfudk oem;aomaMumifh igqdk onf? igqdkonfhpum;udk r,kHrMunfaom oltaygif;wdkYonfum; "g;rdk;vSHrdk; &Gmvifudk r,m;rawGY? r,m;udkvifrawGY ysufpD;jcif;odkY a&mufrnfynm&SdwdkY ESifhaygif; taMumif;oifh&mu omoem'g,umawmf tavmif;rif;w&m;udk rysyfr0yf rusdK;rEGHvQif oifwdkY&mrnwdkif; awmawmifBuD;&m ajy;ykef;a&Smif vTJaeEdkifolwdkYom &ufoJhMum;wGif ig;wifouJYodkY &SifrnfOyg'fBuD;pGmjzpfrnfudk jrif iga&;om; ydkYvmapaomightrdefYawmfudk aysmufzsufxdrfuG,f jynfol jynfom;ow0gtaygif;wdkYudk ra&;rul;ap jyKusifhvQifavmuvnf; ab;&Spf yg; 'gPf10yg;a&mufavapvmaomtcgvnf; t0Dpdi&J cH&rnfrcRwf? ightrdefYawmfudk wa,mufudkwa,muf wNrdKUuonf wNrdKUw&Gmuonfw&Gm jyefYESHYMum;jrifatmifjyaomolwdkYonfum; bkef;BuD;ouf&Snfpnf;pdrfwnf aoaomtcgvnf; ewf&GmxkwfacsmuftrSef a&mufyap 0gqdkaompum;udk r,kHvQif wHcl;vukefuqkefvqef;udkMunfhESifhav? xdkab;b,mrS vGwfvdkaom olwdkYonfum; awmawmifacsmufurf;a0;&m 14&ufp&dwf &dumxkwfESifh ykef;atmif; o&Pm*kPfokH;yg; yOmoD 5g; tXoD 8yg; w&m;udkrrSm; taetjrJvSap? rSwfavawmh? igpum;udk remr,lvQif oifwdkY&mrnwdkif; owE&uyfa&muf *E&uyf 'kAduE&uyf uyf 3yg;pkHa&muf ysufpD;aoaMu vwHh?


(9 April


0rf;us&ifemaoG;oHtH aovwHh? yudk;[Hom0wD tcdkuftwHhrQ rif;jzpfonf vnf; omoemawmfcGJykHwGif t0300uonf OmyJul; 80rif; 5qufudk qdkonfukefNyD;? tdkvlrsm;taygif;wdkY rSwfukefavmh? tnmuvmaomrif;onf um; omoemawmfudk jyKpkawmfrlaomrif;jzpf ighudkvnf; bk&m;ocif y&dedAmef,lawmfrlcg omoemawmfjrwfudk apmifhr&rnf trdefYawmf&Sd ukefabmifjynfrif;udk igapmifr&onf? qifjzLvnf; ig;pD;igay;NyD; t&dErmvSH vnf; igtyfNyD;? oifwdkYppfxdk; jzpfrnfr[kwf? ,kwfaomtMuHudk rMuH ukefvifhavmh ,kwfaomtMuHudk MuHvQif oifwdkY Oaumif; 5pdwfuGJvwHh? tvSL'geoDv urXmef; bm0emudk tm;xkwfMuukefavmh? tdkvlrsm;taygif; wdkY/ ou&mZf 1117ck wHcl;vqef; 10&ufaeY (9 April 1756) oMum;rif;pma&mufonf/ (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 8? pg 28-30)


(9 April


bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom wdkif;BuD;taygif;wdkY tjynfjynfaxmif aomrif;xD;aqmif;apmfbGm;NrdKUpm; taygif;wdkYudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom t&dErm pMuma&TvSHysHESifhwuG &wemqifjzLrsm;ocif toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m; BuD;bk&m; om;awmfr[mOy&mZm r[moD&dok"r&mZm? ocifowdk;rif;vSausmf nDawmfaemifawmf okH;yg;trdefYawmf&Sdonf? &mrnt0if [Hom0wDrif;trwf a'gAnm; uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;wdkY oMum;rif;omoemawmfjrwfudk jyKpkcsD; ajrmufpdrfhrnfudk&nf tyfawmfrlonf? t&dErmpMum a&TvSH&aMumif;udk rMum; avm qifeD 2 qifusm; 3 &onfudk rMum;avm bkef;Murm&Sif jzpfawmfrl tjynfhjynfaxmifaom xD;aqmif;apmfbGm; NrdKUpm;taygif;wdkY ysyf0yfusdK;EGH uRefawmfcH pdwf\csrf;omjcif; udk,f\csrf;omjcif;&Muonfudk rMum;avg [Hom0wDrif; bkef;Murmaumif;vQifvnf; jynfoljynfom;wdkY pdwf\csrf;om jcif; udk,f\csrf;omjcif; 2g;udk jynfaxmifcsif;rif;wyg; raESmifhr&SufEdkif jzpfrnf bkef;vufkH; t&nftoGm;udk a'gAnm;qif;&Jom; uRefawmfrsdK; taygif;wdkY ta&;jyufjyufodomavNyD;onf [Hom0wDrif;bkef;Murmaumif; ow0gaygif;wdkYudk tkyfodrf;jyKpkEdkifvQifvnf; qif;&Jom;wdkYrSm [Hom0wDrif; uRefjzpf&onf? igwdkYt&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; bk&m;bkef;Murm&Sif jzpfawmf rl odrf;ydkufjyKpkawmfrlvQifvnf; igwdkYt&Siftavgif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m; uRefawmfrsdK;csnf;yif jzpfcJYonf? bk&m;qkudk yefawmfrlonfht&Sifjzpf a'gAnm;qif;&Jom; uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;wdkYta&;t&m trmtavsmhukd arQmifwifapmifhihHaeawmfrkonf?wESpfausmfNyD;tnhHcHvnf;,lrnfyif? tnHhrcH twifcHvnf;,lrnfyif?ow0gtaygif;wdkU pnf;pdrfudkaxmuf qdkif;iHhawmf rlonf? oHvsifNrdKUudk rqdkvifhOD; ZAL'DygaomifajrjyifwGif jynfaxmif 7g Zifrif; taygif;wdkYudkyif owif;rMum; r,lvdkrSHa&Tvufawmfu vGwf&rnf oHvQifNrdKUudk tvHvkyfaqmif ausmufBuD;atmufig;cdkaernf MuHMuoavm? txufudk oHjym;oHrdkESifh tawmif 110 qifhavOD; e*g;jzpf ajr


(9 April


udkyifvQdK;0ifaomfvnf; t0ef;,lZem 450&Sdaom *VKefrif;tm;ESifh wlaom tpGrf;t&nfESifhjzpfawmfrlonf &atmif,lrnf? *VKefudkysHvTm; e*g;udkwD Edkif &Snf tbufr[kwfonfuJYodkY &mrnom; a'gAnm;uRefawmfrsdK; taygif;wdkY cH&yfEdkifrnf (r)[kwf? ZAL'DyguRef; vl\tjzpfudk &cJonf aoqkH;avvQif tusdK;ra&muf vljzpfusdK;r&Sd&Sdavawmhrnf? 0wKusrf;*ef &mZ0ifykHjyif tem*w 0ifpaom tpnfpum;wdkY pMumocifjzpfaom pMumrif;wdkYudk yef;wdefyef;yJwdkY xkcyfjzpfaom "g;vSHaoewf vufeufwdkYudkpGJ ppfNydKifvQif atmifjrifbl; aom xkH;pH&SdrSom Om[tm;xkwfjcif;udk jyKoifhonf? pdwfESvkH;rcsbkef;Murm udk,dk;vdkonfjzpfvQif [Hom0wDrif;xGufvSmap? rif;udkrif;csif; om;udk om;csif; nDudknDcsif; trwfudktrwfcsif; ol&Jolcufudk ol&Jolcufcsif; wvdkif; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkYu BudKufonfta&;udk igwdkYuvdkufrnf? oHvQifywf vnf v,fjyifvnf;aumif;\ bkef;Murm,dk;vdkvsif vmapOD;awmh? vdrfrm vQifpum;wwfonf ynm&SdvQif cGifhodonf a&S;ola[mif;wdkYqdkdk;&SdaMumif;udk igwdkYtrdefYawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1117ck wefcl;vqef; 10&ufaeY(9 April 1756) rvGefae&if; wvdkif;u0ifok ixGef;atmifESifh ukvm;&G,fudefwdkYwGif jrefrmpm wapmif wvdkif;pmwapmif ukvm;pmwapmif pmokH;apmifESifhaponf/ (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 9? pg 32-3)


(25 April


bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf t&dErmvufeuf pMumocifqifjzLqifusm; qifeDrsm;ocifjzpfawmfrlaom 5vkH;aom awmif xGwfonf e0'wfodkYnGwfvQuf cpm;ouJYodkY ow&zefawmifpnfBuD;iJ taygif;wdkYonf jrifrdk&fawmifudkvmc,rf;onfESifh txlt0ef;,lZem 450&Sd aom *VKefrif;\tm; om;wumwdkYudk tpdk;&aom auo&mZgcsifaohrif;\ &J&ifhjcif; ,rrif;\oabmuJYodkY &mZ"r 10yg;rif;usifhw&m; taygif;wdkYESifh jynfhpkHawmfrlaom xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkY c,rf;&mjzpfaom t,kZyl&rnfaom a&TjynfBuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; bk&m; a&SUaemuf vuf0Jvusfm0ef;usifawmf cyfodrf;aomMu,ftaygif;wdkYonf vjynfh0udkc,rf;aom[louJYodkY jynfolow0gtaygif;wdkYudk om,mjcif; xrif;uJYodkYpnf;vJauGYvnf aumufuspfaom wzufom;&efol jynfaxmifrif; wdkY\ xdyfxuf ajcpkH&yfvsuf bkef;vufkH;awmft&dyfjzifh ESdyfeif;awmfrlavh&Sd aom rMunfaom&efolwdkY0,f txl;tm;xkwfawmfrrlyJvsuf awmawmif ork'&macsmufurf; ausmufppftdk;csrf;ponfwdkY r&nfcsrf;rrSwfyJvsuf tESHYtpyf ylavmifaomol&d,aerif;ESifhtwl jynfoltaygif;wdkY\ tpD;tyGg; udkaqmifawmfrlaom toQifb0&Sif rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m;om;awmf r[mOy&mZm r[moD&dok"r&mZm bk&m;u yudk;NrdKUtaet&yfudk MunfhIrnfvmaMumif;udk rSmcJYonf? [H&wda,moA"eH? om"kormHewd? 0aeb0wDwdoknHwduyHaom apm&r[m/ ou&mZf 1117ck wefcl;vjynfhausmf 11&ufaeY(25 April 1756) yudk;taemufbufa&muf Munf;aMumif;xdk;refwdkif wHcg;ESifhqDwnfjrpfem;wGif qGJxm;cJYonf (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 10? pg 35)


(8 May


bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&Ewr'Dy? uarmp? paomwdkif; BuD;jynfBuD; xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkYudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom ywjrm;a&TaiGaMu;oH y,if;paom &wemwGif;rsm;ocif qifjzLqifeDqifusm; t&dErmpMum a&TvSH& aerif;\ tquftEG,fjzpfawmfrlaom aqmifaqmifaom a&Teef;jy'focif &wemyl&tif;0jynfBuD;ESifhwuG t,kZKyl&rnfaom &wemodCFukef;abmif a&TjynfBuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom b0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; Mumtyfaom tifu&dwfNrdKU y*HkynD? igab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmfwdkYvufxufuyif jrefrmrif;tuF&dwfrif; tqufqufabmufum;a&mif;0,f oGm;vma&mufayguf Mu rif;okH;rif;aqmifxnfrsdK; qE&Sd&m aqmif,lMu&ukefonf? oaX;ol<u,f ukefonfwJumwdkYrSmvnf; tomt,mjrwfpGefMu pD;yGg;csrf;omrsm; jrwfMu ukefonfwvyfwMum;wGif udef;cef;tavsmuf wvdkif;wdkYaESmifh&Suf ra&mufraygufMu&Sdonfudk awmifhwvsufaeonfESifh igEdkifiHawmfpGefjzpfaom armf"if[dkif;BuD;odkY rnf;pvDykyfwdkYudk ap aexdkifvm&mwGifrS tifu&dwfNrdKUr bk&ifuap aexdkifa&mufvSmaMumif; ae&yfae&mtvdk&SdygaMumif;udk &Sdcdk; oHawmfOD;wifaomaMumifh NrdKU\t*Fg 7yg;wGif jynfaxmifjcif;rif;[laom &mZr[mrdwft*Fgwyg;onf jzpfcJaomt&mjzpfonfESifh *krfynDocif tMunfawmft*f&dwfNrdKUr bk&ifESifh t&SnfcspfMunfpGm r[mrdwfjzpfMu&rnfudk waMumif; NrdKUr*krfynDwdkYudk t&SnfcspfMunfoem;awmfrl&rnfudk taMumif; axmuf ykodefNrdKUwGif ajrudkwdkif;wmrSwfom; csay;aponf? t8F&dwfNrdKUr bk&ifESifhpyfqdkifonfh rif;b@moabFmrSeforQudkvnf; taumuftpm;vGwf ap a&S;xkH;&Sd&mvufaqmif vufeufudkomqufap? ukefonfwJum;wdkYudk rlum; tdk;tpnf&Sdonfhtwdkif; ykodefNrdKU0ef ppfuJem;cHpma&;wdkYu aumuf qufap? ykodefNrdKU0efwdkYESifh rnf;pvDykyfwdkY rsufESmnDwHqdyfpmcRefawmf ay;tyfawmfrlonf? rif;{u&mZfwdkY0,f jynfaxmifcsif;rif;&mZr[mrdwf&SdrS 2OD;om;qE&Sd&m jynfhpkHMuonfjzpfonf? igom;awmf


(8 May


tpOfajr;awmftquf jrpfawmftnGefY *krfynDocif tuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&if udk,fog;ajr;jrpf NrdKUr*HkynDwdkYwdkif tpnf&SnfpGmcspfMunfMu&rnf taMumif;udk ou&mZf 1118ck uqkefvqef; 10&uf 0aeY (8 May 1756) wGif &mZoHpmESifh Mum;tyfaomtuF&dwfNrdKUr*HkynD? tuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&if/ (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 11? pg 38-9)


(8 May


bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&ef wr'Dy uarmp paom wdkif;BuD;jynfBuD; taygif;wdkY xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkYudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom ywjrm;a&TaiGaMu;oHy,if; &wemwGif;rsm;ocif qifjzLqifeDqifusm; t&dErm pMuma&TvSH& taqmifaqmifaom a&Teef;a&Tjy'focif jzpfawmfrlaom &wem yl&tif;0jynfBuD;ESifhwuG t,kZyl&rnfaom &wemodCFukef;abmif a&Tjynf BuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom b0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; bk&m;trdefYawmf&Sdaom ZdeywHqdyfpm; *kem'dk igab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmfvufxufuyif rif; tqufquf abmufum;a&mif;0,f &Sufwif a&mufaygufMuyif oaX; ol<u,fukefonfwdkY ta&mif;t0,fom,mNrdwfpGef;Mu qE&Sd&mjynfhpkHMuukef onf? wvyfwMum;wGif udef;cef;tavsmuf wvdkif;olykefwdkY aESmifh&Suf ra&mufraygufMu&Sdonfudk awmifhwvsuf aeonfESifh EdkifiHawmfpGefjzpfaom armf"if[dkif;BuD;odkY tMunfawmf tuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&ifu ap rnf;p&DykyfwdkY a&mufaygufaexdkifvSmaMumif; ykodefNrdKUwGif ae&yfae&mtvdk&SdygaMumif;udk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifaomaMumifh NrdKU\t*Fg 7yg;wGif jynfaxmifcsif;rif;[laom t*Fgwyg;onf jzpfcJaomt&mjzpfonfESifh tMunfawmf tuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&ifESifh t&SnfcspfMunf&rnfudk waMumif; ZdeywHqdyfpm; *kPm'dkwdkYudk t&Snfoem; awmfrl&rnfudkwaMumif; axmuf ykodefNrdKUajrudk wdkif;wmrSwfom; csay;ap onf? tMunfawmf tuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&ifESifh pyfqdkifonfb@moabFmrSHorQudk taumuftpg; vGwfap a&S;tpnf&Sdonfhtwdkif; ykodefNrdKU0ef ppfuJem;cH pma&;wdkYu aumufqufaprnf pvDykyfwdkYudk wHqdyfpmcRefawmfay;tyfawmf rlonf? rif;{u&mZfwdkY0,f jynfaxmifcsif; &mZr[mrdwfjzpfrS ESpfOD;qE&Sd&m jynfhpkHMuukefonf? iom;awmftpnfajr;awmf tqufjrpfawmftnGefY tMunf awmftuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&ifudk,f om;ajr;jrpfZdeywfwHqdyfpm; *kPm'dkwdkYwdkif tpnf&SnfpGm cspfcifqufqHMu&rnf taMumif;udk &mZoHpmESifh


(8 May


ou&mZf 1118ck uqkefvqef; 10&ufaeY (8 May1756) ZH'g ,yfa'guf wdkYwGif trdefY awmf&Sdaom ZdeywfwHqdyfpm; *kPm'dkwdkY (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 12? pg 40-1)


(8 May


bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&ef wr'Dy uarmp paom wdkif;BuD; jynfBuD;taygif;wdkY xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkYudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom ywjrm;a&TaiGaMu;oHy,if;&wemwGif;rsm; ocifqifjzLqifeD qifusm;t&dErm pMum a&TvSH&taqmifaom a&Teef;jy'focif jzpfawmfrlaom &wemyl&t0 jynfBuD; ESifhwuGt,kZyl&rnfaom &wemodCFukef;abmifjynfBuD;udk tpdk;& awmfrlaom toQifb0&Siftavgif;rif;w&m;BuD; bk&m;trdefYawmf&Sdonf? [dkif;BuD;qdyf ukefonftBuD; *kPg'dkZH[dktpfouG,f? igab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmfwdkYvufxufuyif jrefrmrif;tuF&dwfrif;tqufquf abmufum;a&mif;0,fukefp,fom,m jrwfpGef;Muvsuf qE&Sd&m jynfhpkHMuukH onf? wvyfwMum;wGif wvdkif;olykefwdkYaESmifh&Suf ra&mufraygufMu&Sd onfESifh igudk,fawmfom;awmf nDawmfAdkvfrSL;wyfrSL; qifvkH;jrif;&if; avSwuftrsm;ESifh tBudrfBudrf wdkufvHvkyfMuH&Sif;vif; owfnpf '*kefNrdKUudk &efukefNrdKUordkufawmfrl xD;eef;pdkufaqmuf pHrg,fawmfrl&mwGif ighEdkifiHawmfpGef arm"if[dkif;BuD;odkYtMunfawmftuF&dwfrif;uap rnf;pvD ykyf wdkY a&mufayguf aexdkifvmaMumif; ykodefNrdKUwGif ae&yfae&m tvdk&SdygaMumif;udk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD; wifaomaMumifh NrdKU\t*Fg 7 yg;wGif jynfaxmifcsif;rif;[laom &mZr[mrdwft*Fgonf jzpfcJonfjzpf tMunfawmf tuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&ifESifh t&SnfcspfMunfMu&rnfudkwaMumif; axmuf ykodefNrdKUwGif ajrae&yfae&mudk rSwfom;wdkif;wm csay;aponf? tMunfawmftuF&dwfNrdKUbk&ifESifh pyfqdkifonfh oabFmb@rSeforQudk taumuftpm;vGwfap vufaqmifvufeufudk omqufap? ukefonfwdkY rSmom tdk;tpnf&Sdonftwdkif; ykodefNrdKU0ef ppfuJem;cHpma&;wdkYu aumuf qufap? rif;{u&mZfwdkY0,f jynfaxmifcsif; r[mrdwf&SdMurS 2OD;qE&Sd&m jynfhpkHMuNrJjzpfonf? igwdkUEdkifiHwGifvnf; vkyfa&;BuHa&;rsm; r&SdNyD? [Hom0wDNrDKUom vkyfa&;BuHa&;pJpJ jzpf tajrmufaoewf aq; usnfaph trsm;tvdk&Sdawmfrlonf/ ig om;awmftpOf ajr;awmftquf


8 May 1756

jrpfawmftnGefYtuF&dwfNrdKUrbk&ifom;ajr;jrpfrSp *kem'dkZH[dktpfouG,fwdkY wdkift&SnfcspfcifqufqHoem;awmfrl&rnftaMumif;udk &mZoHpmESifh ou&mZf 1118ck uqkefvqef; 10&uf 0aeY(8 May 1756) ZH'g&yfa'gwdkYwGif trdefYawmf&Sdonf[dkifBuD;qdyfukefonfBuD; *kem'dkZH[dk tpfouG,f/ (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 13? pg 42-3)


8 May 1756

bkef;awmftvTefBuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&Ewdkif; wr'Dywdkif; uarmZ wdkif; paomwdkif;BuD; taygif;wdkY jrefrmjynf&Srf;jynf? ,Gef;jynf? uonf;jynf? wvdkif;jynf &mZXmeDjynfBuD; xD;aqmif;rif;taygif;wdkYudk tpdk;& awmfrlaom ywjrm;a&TaiGaMu;oHy,if; &wemwGif;rsm;ocif? qifjzLqifeD qifusm; t&dErmpMum a&TvSH&tm'dp0Hoaerif;\ tquftEG,f taqmif aqmifaom a&Teef;a&Tjy'focif jzpfawmfrlaom &wemyl&tif;0a&TjynfBuD; ESifhwuG t,kZyl&rnfaom &wemodCFukef;abmif a&TjynfBuD;udk tpdk;&awmf rlaom tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;bk&m; cspfMunfpGmMum;a&muftyfaom ZdeywH? b*Fvm;? 0Sufoa'0D? a'0Duwfpaom NrdKUtaygif;wdkYonf vjynfh0ef;udk euwfwm&m taygif; jcH&HouJYodkY&Hvsuft*FvdyfNrdKUrudk tpdk;&aom tMunfawmft*FvdyfNrdKU bk&ifab;avmif;awmf bdk;avmif;awmfwdkY vufxuf jrefrmrif;t*Fvdyfrif; tqufquf azgufum;a&mif;0,fa&mufaygufMu tvdk&SdorQudk aqmif,lMu &onf? udef;cef;tavsmufwvdkif;wdkY aESmifh&Suf&mwGif wvwfwvsm; ra&mufrayguf&SdMu awmifhwaeonfESifh tMunfawmf EdkifiHawmfpGef; armfwif[dkif;BuD;odkY tMunfawmft*FvdyfNrdKUrbk&ifu rnfpvD ykyfwdkYudk ap a&mufaygufvm&mwGifrS ar;jref;Mum;od&vQif twdkif;txuftvGef rif;{u&mZfwdkY0,fNrdKY\ t*Fgckepfyg;wGif ocg[laom jynfaxmifcsif; t*Fg wyg;jzpfcJaom t&mudkawGY&ayawmhrnf 0rf;ajrmufawmfrlonf? tMunf awmft*FvdyfNrdKUrbk&ifu apolrnfpvDykyfwdkYu ykodefNrdKUwGif wdkufMuoabFm oGif;xm;&efae&mae&yfvdkygonf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifaomaMumifh tMunfawmf t*FvdyfNrdKUrbk&ifuap avQmuf&onfjzpfonf? t&SnfcspfMunf&rnfudk axmuf MudKuf&maexdkifap? ykodefNrdKUwGif wdkif;wmrSwfom; ykodefNrdKU0efwdkY rsufESmpkHnD wHqdyfpmcRefawmfay;tyfawmfrlonf? jynfaxmifcsif;rif;wdkY0,f jrwfaomtaqGcifyGef;aumif;wdkYudk rSDMu&onfjzpfrS tvdk&Sd&mESpfOD;om; jynfhpkH Murnfjzpfonf? om;awmft


8 May 1756

pOfajr;awmftquf jrpfawmftnGefY tMunfawmft*FvdyfNrdKU bk&ifudk om;ajr;jrpftpOf &SnfMumpGmcspfMu&rnfh taMumif;udk ou&mZf waxmifhw&mwq,fh uqkefvqef;q,f&uf paeaeY(8 May 1756) &mZoH a&TaypmESifh cspfMunfpGm Mum;a&muftyfaom t*FvdyfNrdKUudk tpdk;&aom tMunfawmf t*FvdyfNrdKUbk&if[laom &mZoHpmudk a&Tayem&um tcsdefig;usyf tvsm;oHwawmifhav;opf teHoHig;opfpmaMumif; a&wq,f&if;zsm; ywjrm;ESpf&pfpD&onf/ pmudk vuf0JokE&a&;&onf/ Zdeywqdwfpm;wdkU udkvnf; puLwGifrifpma&; tem;ywfvnff jcL;yef;oHESpfopfoGwf&onf/ &mZoHa&Tayudk qifpG,fMuKwfoGwf&onf/ qifpG,fMuKwfudk a&TzsifMuKwfudk *HkZ&yftdwfeDoGwf [oFmbmom puLwGif rifpma&;jyD;vQif jrefrmpmwapmif t*FvdyfpmwapmifwGif csdyfwHqdyf cyf jrefrmpmESifhtwl opfyGwfcsdyfeD wdkufusnfysHoGwfjyD;rS *HkZ&yftdwfeDoGwf csdwfwqdyfcyfjyefonf? t*Fvdyfrif; t*Fvdyfqdyfpm;wdkUodkUvnf; jrif;av;pD; rdkif;vHk;a&Tzsifvdyf ay;awmfrlonf/ vmvlZHwm&wfESifh wkPbdkZH? tpfuopf wdkUudkvnf; jrif;wpD;pD qifpG,fajcmufpD;oem;awmfrlonf/ (ukef;yxr? 1968? pm 168-9)


13 June


avmu"gwfwGif {u&mZfrsm; t&SifoHk;q,fwbHk0,f vlewfrsm;rudk#fo&bl jzpfawmfrlaom oAnKbk&m;ocifAsm'dwfxm;onf omoemawmf 2290vGef omoemtv,fodkUa&mufvQif bk&m;tavmif;qifjzL&Sifbkef;MuD; [Hom0wD &mZXmeDudk tpdk;& igomoemudk csD;ajrmuf&rnf a&mifawmfajcmHyg;ESifh jynfhpHkawmfrlaom bk&m;&SifAsm'dwfxm;onfESifhtnD a&S;twdwfukodkvfyg&rD &Sd [Hom0wD&mZXmeD omoemawmfudk jyKpkwnfaxmifonf/ ow0g taygif;wdkUudk apmifrjyKpk aumif;rIukodkvfapwD "gwfawmfESifhwuG omoem awmfudk jyKpkygonf/ ukodkvfjrwftm; igtaqGawmf 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om om"ktEkarm'emac:yg/ taqGawmfvnf; a&S;bk&m;yapuAk'gwdkU b0 tqufquftwdkif;rodatmif aumif;rSKukodkvfjyKuJhbl;onf jzpfonf/ igwdkU2OD; omoemawmfudk csD;ajrmuf ow0gtaygif;wdkUudk u,frpvsuf edAmefodkUa&mufatmif usifhMu&rnf/ aumuoef? a*gPm*Hk? uy? a*gwr? t&drdaw,sbk&m; ig;qlwdkUvnf; Zmwdawmfwjcm;wjcm;jzpfvQuf opm*wd jyK aumif;rIudk wcsufwnf;jyKbl;aomaMumifh wurmwnf;wGif bk&m;ig;ql txift&Sm;jzpfawmfrlonf/ taqGawmfvnf; a&S;bk&m;yapuAk'gwdkUtm; vSL'gef;pnfa0aP,sow0gtaygif;wdkUudk u,fq,frpawmfrl&rnf/ ,ck ow0gtaygif;wdkUonf a0&Djzpf toufqHk;IH;jcif;ESifh i&J0dyguftpnfquf ygMuavawmhrnf bk&m;qkudk awmif;yg&rDjznfhonfESifhtnD 0dygwfuif; vGwfonfhtaMumif;udk igwdkUrif;2OD;onf t&drdaw,sbk&m;&Sif vlewfjA[m wdkU tcsD;trGrf;udk cH&atmif ESvHk;xm; o[m,jzpfMurnfh taMumif;udk igtaqGawmf q&mawmf&if;udk vmygaponf? a&mufvQif q&mawmf&if;uJhodkU a&TESvHk;awmf xm;awmfrlyg/ ou&mZf 1118ck e,kefvjynfhausmf1&ufaeU(13 June1756) tp awmifbDvl;q&mawmf&Sif *kPrOL 4if;MuufoGHcifq&mawmf&SifygoHo wdkUwGif ygonfhpm/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 15? pm 56)


16 June


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom t&dErmpMum qifjzL&wem &wem aygif;rsm; ocift,kZsyl&rnfaom &wemodCFukef;abmifa&TjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom tMunfawmf tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; Mum;tyfaom [Hom0wDjrdKUudk tpdk;&aom tMunfawmf? odMum;rif;wnfaom qifysH&Sif jrdKU '*Hk onmudk &efukefjrdKUordkufawmfrl a&TxD;a&Teef; pdkufaqmuf prg,fawmfrlonf/ 1ESpfausmf 2ESpfumv&Snfvsm; rQtMunfawmf pum; wcGef;wyg'rMum;&? tdyfaysmfaomolonf rSifusuf Edk;vaomf tdyfrHkrajy a,mif,rf;prf;oyfonfESifhtwl ,ckrSMum;&onfudk axmufvQif em;jiD; yg;jiD; vlMuD;vltdk r[kwfouJhodkU rmefrme cufxefonfyif xifrSwfawmf rlonf? tMunfawmfyudk;rif;ESifh igESifhonf bkef;Murm&Sifcsnf; jzpfMu awmhonf? tMunfawmfua&mufonfhpmwGif oifhwifhonfyif? jynf\ t*Fg7yg;wGif omrsrapmocgaumaom 'kw&OZd0dwHzvH &Zs*Fged#DumygVd &Sdonf 7yg;t*FgwGif ocg[laom jynfaxmifcsif; &mZr[mrdwfo[monf jynfhpHkcJonfudk okc'kucspfMunf ajymqdkMu&rnfh t&monf urmaMuaomf vnf; O'gef;armfuGef;raMu jynfolow0g taygif;wdkUvnf; 2jynf 1jynf a&T2jym;udk wjym;wnf;a&0,fom;aomf tjcm;rxifouJhodkU arwm*kPm o[m,jzpfMuvQif qdkbG,fr&SdjyD ow0gtaygif;wdkU\ tpD;tyGm;pum;udk qdkjcif;onf olawmfaumif;wdkU\ oabmvuPmudk od&awmhonf? aopdrfhMuHpnf&efolonfvnf; cspfMunfcifyGef;jzpfavmu[dwwGif ynm&Sd wdkUqdkonf/ cspfMunfaom pum;ESifhtnD &wemoHk;yg;wGif wyg;t0ifjzpf aom awmifbDvl; q&mawmfudk arwmESifhapa&muf udk;uG,f&onfvnf; &wemwyg;udkrQw ay;a0onf jzpfayawmhonf/ xD;eef;ueufpdkufaqmuf pdk;tkyfaom rif;wdkUrnfonfvnf; rif;wdkU\ wqJh2yg;aom Oyg,frm,mrS p &mZr[mrdwf o[m,\ jrJjrefrnftaMumif;udk t<uif;r&Sd tuRrf;0if onfESifhtnD &SdMuvQif oifhonft&mjzpf 0rf;ajrmufawmfrlaMumif;udk Mum;tyfonf/


16 June


ou&mZf1118ck e,kefvjynfhausmf 4&ufaeU (16 wvdkif; bkef;MuD; 2 omraP 5 vl 10wdkUudk jyefaponf (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 16? pm 58-9)

June 1756)



28 June


tpdaE,bHkvltxGwf oAnKbk&m;&Sif Asm'dwfawmfudkcH [Hom0wD &mZXmeD &mrna'oudk tpdk;&aom yg&rD&Sif rif;w&m;MuD; cspfMunfpGm taMumif;udk Mum;ygonf/ &wemodCFukef;abmifa&TjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom nDawmftavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; ighq&mawmf 2yg; jyefa&muf nDawmfu &mZoHwGif taMumif;t&mudkMum;vQif tvGef0rf; ajrmuf0rf;om &Sdygonf? ighnDawmfpmwGifygonfh omrsrapmocg aumaom 'ku&OZD0dw zvH&Zs*FgeD qdkonfum; a[mawmfrlaom "ra'oem w&m;awmfjzpfonf? nDawmfu Mum;a&mufonfhpmudk axmufemaomf r[mrdwf 10yg;wGif wyg;aomrdwf jzpfMujyD? rdwfwyg;jzpf igESifhnDawmf tcspfvSJjyefcJhvQif wdkU2OD;aMumifh trwfppfolMuD;&JrufAdkvfyg xdyg;Mu Oyap'uuHESifh aoaMuysufpD;jcif;odkU a&mufrnfudkvnf; ypKygef aemif tem*wfi&J0dygwfwdkU 2OD;qufMuawmhrnf/ i&J0dygwf vGwfrnfhtaMumif;udk igESifhighnDawmf ajzwifazsmufzsuf a&SUodkUwMudrfuonf 2Mudrf 2Mudrfuonf oHk;Mudrf &mZr[mrdwf jzpf&vQif ,ckypKygefwGif a&TxD;a&Teef;udk tpdk;& ZrL'dyfwuRef;vHk; Mum;&vQif xdwfvefUaMumuf&GHU jcif;&SdMurnf? odkUjzpfygvQif [Hom0wDESifh &wemodCFa&TjrdKUawmf 2jrdKUonf ok'e t,kZsyl& ewfjynfuJhodkU yGifhvif; pnfyifjcif;ESifhomoemawmfudk qef;aomvuJhodkU igESifhighnDawmfjyKpk csD;ajrmufMuyg&rnf? tem*wfwGifvnf; avmuwp&d,H nmwup&d,H Ak'wp&d,H b0oHk;yg;jynfh igESifh ighnDawmfbk&m; oAnKwOmPfudk jynfhatmif ,ckypygefwGif aygufabmf &if;uJhodkU &wemoHk;yg;wdkUudk udk;uG,f MunfndKpGm q&mbkef;MuD;wdkUudk <uvSmygaponftaMumif;udk cspfMunfpGmMum;ygonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck 0gqdkvqef;2&ufaeU (28 June 1756) [Hom0wD ubkef;MuD;oDvynm0drvmpm&wdkUwGif ygonfhpm/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 17? pm 60)


28 June


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&ef wr'Dy uarmpwdkif;MuD; taygif;wdkU xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkUudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom tMunfawmf jynf\t*Fg7yg;wGif ocg[laom jynfaxmifjcif; t*Fgonf jzpfcJaom t&mjzpf tMunfawmfu aponfhq&mwdkUwGif trdefUawmfjyefvdkufonf? ppfrufjyKMuonfht&mrSmvnf; vlom;vl&nfudk pm;aomufvdk jyKMuonf r[kwf? &efjyKvSmomjyKonf? b0tqufqufyif&efqdkonfudk tvdkawmf r&Sd? rif;rwfusDusjrdKUjy usHK;ajrmif;ypif&ifwm;wdkifum; Adkvfygonf t&mrsm;onf jynfhpHkjrJyif jzpfawmhonf? ocg[laom t*Fgonf rif;wdkU0,fjynfhpHk cJonfjzpf bk&m;paom ynm&Sdolawmfaumif;wdkU csD;rGrf;Muukefonf? onft*Fgudk tMunfawmfu o[m,jzpfcsifaygif;zufvdkonf rSefvQif aygif;zufMu&rnfh pum;udk tpdkUpdkU t&yf&yfrsm;yif qdkaomfvnf; rsm;wdkif;tusdK;a&mufonfht&mra&mufonfh t&m&Sdonf? 'Gwdomum, owdyXmefpaom t&mrsm;wGif tus,ft0ef; pGrf;aqmifEdkifoolwdkUudk pGrf;aqmifavhusufapa[mawmfrlonf/ tedpokw0pO 'kued,yd#u tewmbd"rwm,oAAka'[dbmodwm[lvnf; tusnf;csKyfudkif a[m awmfrlonf? avmuwGifvnf; jynfaxmifcsif;rif;wdkU\ o[m,jzpfcsif;udk bl&d'gwfZmwfudk ESvHk;oGif;ojzifh o[m,\ jrJjrefrnfh taMumif;udk cspfMunfpGmMum;tyfonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck 0gqdkvqef;2&ufaeU (28 June 1756) vm&if;bkef;MuD;wdkUudk yif pmESifhjyefaponf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 18? pm 62)


(26 July


bk&m;uRefawmfeEAm[ka&TpufawmfpHkudk OD;xdyf&Guf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif ygonfbk&m;? t&yf&yfay;orQ pmcRefawmfudk rSwfom; vpOf&Sdcdk; oHawmfOD;wif&rnfbk&m; Asm'dwfawmfjrwfudk OD;xdyf&Guf&onfhtwdkif; ou&mZf 1118ck 0gqdkvqef;w&ufaeU( 27 June 1756) uonf uHkwdkif pma&;awmf vuf0JokE&u 150? a&Tawmifpnfolu 150? a0vk&mZmu 750? Avpnfolu 60? vuf,ma0vku 550? tpkpkpmcRefawmfaygif; 3030teuf trdefUawmf waMumif;a&; pmcRefawmf 75 tpD&ifjrdKUolMuD; uif;apmihfuif;ae tcefUtxm; pmcRef 100? 2pk pmcRefawmf 175 pmcRefawmfvQif wHqdyfawmf cwf? a&TwyJudkwGufvQif 9d &ygonfhtaMumif;udk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifygonf bk&m;/ ou&mZf 1118ck 0gqdkvjynfhausmf 15&ufaeU (26 July 1756) (avmif;pk? rSwf 9? pm 238)


(26 July


ojrifwHk;jrdKUae iaumufom;iuav;onf jrdKUolMuD;dk;&mom;ajr;r[kwf? iuav;onf oHvsifjrdKUbuf vl 30wGif yg0if trIawmfudk xrf;onf? jrdKUolMuD; dk;&mtqufr[kwfaomfvnf; ojrifwHk;jrdKUudk jrdKUolMuD;t&mESifh pD&ifap? pma&;awmf a0vk&mZmuay;tyfonfh pmcRefwGif wHqdyfawmf ygonf jzpf ppfvQif rif;rIrif;cif;apygonf wHqdyfxef;&Gufusefaom aMumifh iuav;udk jrdKUolMuD;cefUawmfrlonfhpmudk a&;vdkufayonf a0vk&mZm xGufqdkygonfhtaMumif;udk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifygonfbk&m;? avQmuf&mwGif a0vk&mZmrSm vufaqmif&onfudk rppfavm xyf Asm'dwfawmf&Sd jrdKUolMuD;iuav;udkppfvQif uRefawmfu aiGpdkU350 ay;&ygonf ykqdk;aq;a&; 5 &GufeD 5 oMum;wHqdyfay;&ygonf ppfaq;csuf &ygonf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif&mwGif wdrf; aeawmfrlonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck 0gqdkvjynfhausmf 15&ufaeU (26 July 1756) (avmif;pk? rSwf 10? pm 240)


28 September


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom &Srf;jynf,Gef;jynf jrefrmjynf &mrn wdkif;rSp oa&acw&mayguH&mr auwkrwDawmifil ru&mjrifpdkif; yif;,yifv,f ppfudkif;t0rSp xD;eef;pdkuf&m &mZXmeDjynfMuD; wdkif;MuD; xD;aqmif;apmfbGm;jrdKUpm; taygif;wdkUESifh wuG t,kZsyl&rnfaom &wemodCF ukef;abmifa&TjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom t&dErmpMuma&TvSH &wemqifjzL rsm;ocif tMunfawmf tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; Mum;tyfaom [Hom0wDjrdKUudk tpdk;&aom tMunfawmf? bk&m;&Sifa[mawmfrkaom yd#uwfawmfwGif pdEdwyd0dewd tpdEdwHydb0dwd[laom *gxmudk avmu jzpfjcif;ysufjcif; avmu"Hw&m;8yg;udk ESvHk;oGif; igvkyf&nf MuH&nf ynmodvorm"dpaom rif;usifhw&m;taygif;ESifh tMunfawmf bkef;vufHk; t&nfynm tiftm; jrdKU\ tpm4yg;rsm;ESifh udk,fESKwfESvHk; twdkif; t&Snfudk axmufxm; ynmESifh vkyfa&;MuHa&;udk vkyfMuHrS ow0gtaygif;wdkU\ toufpnf;pdrf udk,fom;orD;wdkU\ toufpD;pdrf qdk&rnf? twaemrwd t,ludk ,l igrif;udkum; rmeudk rowfvQif Oyg'fMuD;pGmjzpfrnf? tMunfawmfu q&mbkef;MuD;wdkUudk ap&mwGif &mZoHjyefvdkufonfh pum;&yfrsm;udk ESvHk;roGif; owdr& qdk&mwdkoifhonfudk rqdkrjyef aeonfjzpfrnf? pum;rqufra&muf raygufonfudk axmufaomf igvnfig[l rmefpdwfESifh aeonfom jzpfrnf[l ,l&onf? igbkef;awmfudk cefUnm;aMumuf&GHU apygaomfvnf; rl;rwfaus;uRefwdkU raygufra&muf Edkifonfjzpfrnfudk rodom vSnf;qdyfwdkufyGJwGif brf;rdonf iatmifiJudk &mZoHpmESifh apvTwfvdkufonf? avSvnf; 50 ausmf 60cefU tpl;tprf; vTwfvdkufonf? r,HkvQif tMunfawmf yudk;rif;wGif &SdorQ avS 1000? 10000yif &Sdaomfvnf; igu tpl;tprf; vTwfonfhavS 60 om;wdkUudk wdkufvHapawmh? igavS 60udk yudk;rif;u wdkufvH &vQifvnf; yudk;rif;ae&mESifh yudk;rif;aeawmh? igvnf; ightaeESifh aeawmfrlrnf? wdkufvH r&vQifvnf; ynm&Sd\ SHK;jcif;udk ESvHk;xm; xdkufavsmufonfh t&mESifh vma&mufvQif pnf;pdrfrysuf toufraoae&mredrfh csrf;om&rnfht


28 September


aMumif;udk cspfMunfpGm arwmESifh Mum;a&mufonf? a&Teef;ocifwGif aocsmarwmESifh igjc,fvS,foG,fa&mifnDxG#f xDudkxdrSwfydkufayvdkuf\ xdkufeepnf,J&Snfonf pdwf,nfaysmif;tdvSLygod/ ou&mZf 1118ck owif;uRwfvqef; 5&ufaeU (28 September 1756) iatmifwGif kyfxD; 1ESifh ay;vdkufonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 19? pm 67-8)


19 October


y#doaEpkwdpdwfwdkU\ tMum0,f jzpfMuwwfpGmaom a&m*gtp&Sd tedXzvkyftaygif;wdkUonf Mumbufay:wGifwifaom ESif;&nfuJhodkU avsmusajyaysmufonfjzpf oufawmf&mausmfjrifh&Snf wnfonfywfvHk; bkef;Muufoa&wufopfaom aevkvifqef;opfaom vuJhodkU oD&d,o orwdwdkUonf udk,fawmfjrwf tjrJwnfonfjzpf omoemawmf tpD;tyGm;udk tZmwowfrif;umvaomurif; oD&d"rmaomurif;wdkU uJhodkU jyKpk&GufaqmifawmfrlvQuf 'geoDvpaom olawmfaumif;wdkU\ w&m;onf udk,f tjrJwnfawmfrlonfjzpfaom [k rGefq&mawmf? jrefrm q&mawmf? ,Gef;q&mawmf? *gr0goD? t&n0goD*dkPf;yk*dKvf oCFm taygif;wdkUonf waeUrcsm; Mo'darwmjzifh &[ef;wdkU\ w&m;ESifh tnD arwm&nfrSwf ydkUtyfaom tnmwdkif;MuD;jynfMuD;rsm; taygif;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom omoemh'g,umawmf r[m"r&mZfrif;jrwfESifh ,ck [Hom0wDjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom omoemh'g,um r[m"r&mZfrif; jrwf2yg;wdkUonf om0uqk? yapuAk'gqk? ormorK'qk[l qkoHk;yg; wdkUwGif xl;jrwfvGefuJaom ormorK'qkudk awmif;awmfrlonfh udk,fawmf jrwfjzpfMuygonfudk a0ae,sow0gwdkU\ csrf;omudk &GufaqmifawmfrlMu ygrS a0ae,sow0gtaygif;wdkUonf rif;jrwf2yg;udkrSD csrf;omygrnf? a0ae,scsrf;omygvQifvnf; ormorK'qkudk yefawmfrlonfESifhtnD jynfhawmfrlMurnfhtaMumif; &Sdygonf? ukodkvfw&m;omvQif yuwly taMumif;&if;cH xl;jrwfaom a&TbHka&Teef;ocifa&ESifhajrudk tpdk;&awmf rlaom rif;jrwftjzpfudk &Muygonf? aemufaemufaom b0wdkif;vnf; uJhodkUjzpfjcif;\ taMumif;ukodkvfw&m; arhavsmh&muscJhvQif yrm' w&m;\ tusdK;pD;yGm;enf;apwwfaomtjzpfudkvnf; t[Hbdua0tnH {u"rH 0dorEkrda,m {0Hyrmabm tew,oH0wd? ,wod'H bdua0 yyga'gbdua0 yrmawmtewm,oH 0wwd tp&Sdonfjzifh a[mawmfrlaom w&m;awmfudk a&TESvHk;awmfjrwf oGif;awmfrlojzifh 4if;? tyrma'g trwH yrma'g rpKaemy'H tyrwmerd,Eda,yrwm,xmrwm[l a[mawmfrltyfaom a'oemawmfjrwfudk 4if;?


19 October


tauma"eZdemaum*? tompHkpm"kemZdae? Zdaeu'&d,J'? aeeZdae? oapemvdu0g'deH[l a[mawmfrlaom w&m;awmfudk4if;? oH0&rif;jrwf jzpfawmfrlaomtcg &efudkatmifjrifaomxHk;udk4if;? r[moDv0"r&mZfrif; jrwfjzpfawmfrlaomtcg oDvwefcdk;jzifh &efudkatmifjrifaom xHk;ZHudk4if;? 'DCm0krif;jrwfjzpfawmfrlaomumv cspfarwmudk&Snfap &efpudkwdkapojzifh &efudkatmifjrifaom xHk;ZHudk4if;? [Hom0wDjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&aom bk&if&mZm"&mZonf ormorK'qkudk yefawmfrlonfESifhtnD avmbEdkifiH a'goedkifiH arm[EdkifihodkUrvdkufrl tMunftom rdwfo[mtjzpfjzifh pkefoHm;bl;avonfh xHk;ZHudk4if;? a&TESvHk;awmfjrwf qifjcifawmfrl tMunf tom &mZr[mrdwf o[m,tm;jzifh rif;jrwf2yg; jzpfMurS a0ae,s ow0gtaygif;wdkUonf u,okcpdwokc 2yg;aom csrf;omudk &Muygrnf? omoemawmfwGif; ypKyefoHo&mtusdK;pD;yGm; 2yg;udk odjrifaom bk&m;wynfhom;oCFmawmfwpkwdkU\ Mo0g'arwmudk cHMuyg nDESifh tpfudk uJhodkU &SdMuygvQif aemifvmvwHUaom bk&m;wdkU MuHKMudKufaom umv oljrwf 2a,mufwdkUonf olawmfaumif;wdkU\ pum;udk emcH &efpudk jzwf cspfpudk &Snfapaomrif;ESpfa,mufay? iguJhodkUyif bk&m;jzpf vwHh[l Asm'dwfawmfwnf;[laom rOLouyef;udk nDaemifESpfyg; bk&m;qkudk awmif;awmfrlonfESifhtnD yefqifygapjcifaomaMumifh rGefq&mawmf jrefrmq&mawmf ,Gef;q&mawmf oCFmawmftaygif;wdkU\ arwmpmjzifh omhoemh'g,um rif;jrwf2yg;udk arwm&yfcHygonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck owif;uRwfvjynfhausmf 11&ufaeU (19 October 1756) [Hom0wDu yef;aps;wyfodkU bkef;MuD;ynm'Dy jrefrmbkef;MuD; oD&do'r4if;? 0drvpm&4if; pEoD&d4if; 0&ynmomraPwdkUwGif ygonfhpm/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 20? pm 71-2? ukef;? yxr 968? pm 242-4)


19 October


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&efwr'Dyuarmp&mrn paom ZrL'dwfajrjyif xD;aqmif;apmfbGm;wdkUudk tpdk;ydkifawmfrlaom t&dErm pMuma&TvSH&wemqifjzLrsm;ocif tm'dp0Ho aerif;\ tquftEG,f jzpfawmfrlaom t,kZsyl&rnfaom &wemodCFukef;abmifa&TjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom omoe'g,umawmf tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; 528yg;aom arwmESifh Mum;tyfaom &Srf;,Gef;jrefrmwvdkif; '0,fpaom q&mawmfrsm;wdkU? yef;wdkU\ &eHUaus;Zl;onf avaMut&yf omarT;ysHUonf? avmurif;wdkU0,fpD;eif;oHk;aqmifjcif; ,OfoHvsif rif;crf;rif;em; rif;ajrmuf wHqm ponfwdkUudkjrifaom vlwdkU rsufaphom aus;Zl;owif;jzpfonf? t&yf4rsufESm &SpfrsufESm 10rsufESmodkU aus;Zl; owif;rausmfrapmbk&m; oAnKa[mawmfrlaom yd#uwfusrf;*ef"rcEm ponfwdkU ynwfa[mawmfrl onftwdkif; bk&m;tavmif;olawmfaumif;wdkU usifhaMumif;usifh&mjzpfaom usifh0wfw&m;wdkU usifhaqmifaom udk,fESKwfESvHk;rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg; 7yg; ponfwdkUudkom t&yf&SpfrsufESm ysHUvGifhausmfapmcsif;udk bk&m;paom olawmfaumif;wdkU avsmufywf vlewfjA[mow0g taygif;wdkU ausmfapmxif&Sm;jcif; jzpfonfbk&m; tavmif;olawmfaumif;wdkUvnf; a'goudk a&SUarwmudkaemufarwmudk a&SUa'goudk aemufumva'o t&yftcgtcsdeftvm; trItaMumif;rSmom t&if;yXmejzpfonf? q&mawmfwdkU avmupdwfjzpf wkefvSKyfoifhawmhonf? rnfonfudkrQ aMumifhMupdk;&drfjcif; r&SdukefESifhqif;&Jom; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUrSm igomoemawmfjyK bkef;Murm&Sifrif; jzpfawmfrlonf/ xHk;a[mif;pHa[mif;odrSDolwdkUudk ar;jref; jrefrmOD;pGef;xGef;&m auwkr'D awmifil &mrn [Hom0wDoa&acw&mjynft&dr'em yk*H&wemyl& t0rSp jynftqufquf rif;tqufqufwGif xHk;a[mif;trsm;&Sdawmhonf? t&dr'em aygum&mrvnf; ausmifjzLrif; t&dErmvSHpMumponfwdkUudk oMum;o aygum&mrjynfudk odrf;onfhumv jynfoljynfom; ow0g taygif;wdkU0,frif;


19 October


rjzpfrD 7ESpfu rif;avmif;aygufa&mufawmhrnftnDtnGwf &[ef;&Sif vlqdkMuukefonfumv aeU&ufa&muf rif;avmif;vmpnf jynfolwdkU rif;ESifh xdkufavsmufaom c&D;udk okwfoif a&tdk;pifyef;aygufayguf vufpGJum rif;avmif;udk ylaZmfrnf iHhvsuf aeukefonfumv jynfoljynfom;wdkU Oyg'fr&Sdum,okc pdwokc 2yg;udk &Mubl;onfh xHk;vnf; txift&Sm; jzpfonfrsm;ESifh [Hom0wDrif;ESifh tMudrfMudrf ppfqdkif onfudkom [Hom0wDom;wdkUom odonf? &Srf; jynf ,Gef;jynfESifh ppfqdkifonfudkvnf; &Srf;jynf ,Gef;jynfom odonf? jynfaxmif&m Zif;rif; taygif;wdkUyif ysyf0yfusdK;EGH &Srf;jynf ,Gef;jynf uonf; ucsif ukvm; csif;paom vlrsdK;taygif;wdkUyif txdkuftvdkufbkef;Murmudk odjrifMuvQif usdK;EGHMu um,okc pdwokcudk &Muukefonfvnf; trsm;yif rsufarSmufxHk;pH igh0,f&Sdonf? rusdK;rEGHonf[l ae&rnf r[kwfaMumif;udkvnf; yudk;rif; jyKoolrSp trsm;todyifjzpfonfudkvnf; txl;trdefUawmf r&SdoifhaMumif;udk arwmESifhMum;a&mufonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck owif;uRwfvjynfhausmf 11&ufaeU (19 October 1756) yudk;ua&mHonfh bkef;MuD;ynm'DyESifh jrefrm&[ef; 5? omraP 3? &Srf;bkef;MuD; 2 &Srf;omraP 2 wdkUwGif ay;vdkufonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 21? pm 204-5? ukef;? yxr? 1968? pm 204-5)


25 October


ajcmufyg;aom a&mifjcnfawmfwdkUjzifh xGef;vif;aom 31bHkaom vlwdkU\ t&Sifjzpfawmfrlaom oAnKbk&m;ocifonf ZmwdoHom& b0oHom& oAnK bk&m;jzpfaMumif; yg&rDwdkUudk jznfhawmfrljcif; ESvHk;onf;yGwf rsufvHk;touft*Fgjrwfaom te*&wem ypnf;av;yg;wdkUudk pGefUvSL bk&m;&Sif &[EmjrwfwdkU oydwfawmfwdkUudk avmif;&bl;aom a&S;b0u jrwfaom pdwfESvHk; &Sdojzifh ol\pnf;pdrfwdkU wyfrufaom oabmtvdk r&Sdonfjzpf oAnKwOmPfudk &awmfrlvQif ow0gtaygif;wdkUtm; u,fq,fawmfrl edAmefa&TjynfMuD;odkU ydkUwifawmfrlonfvnf; tvSLaumif;rSK bk&m;&Sif oydwfawmfudk avmif;Mu&aom apwemtm;jzifh bk&m;Asm'dwfawmfudk usEkfyfwdkU nDaemifcHMu& womoemwnff; w&m; ojzifh ow0gwdkUudk apmifronfh Asm'dwfawmftwdkif; oD&d[Hom0wD &mZXmeD oMum;rif; orkwfaom t*Fg4yg;ESifh jynfhpHkaom a&TjynfMuD; xD;eef;ueufpdkufvsuf tMunfawmf&mZbdaouudkcHonf? rif;usifhw&m; wdkUonf tcgcyfodrf; rarhravsmh &efolwdkU a'goMuD;jcif;r&Sd oAnKwnmPfudk jynfhpHkatmif jznfhonf? tMunfawmf usEkfyfnDrSmvnf; bk&m;&Sif oydwfawmfudk avmif; Asm'dwfawmfudk cH&vsuf wHcdk;MuD; &wemodCFukef;abmifjynfMuD; xD;eef;ueufpdkuf ow0gtaygif;wdkUudk apmifrvsuf omoemawmfudk apmifhaqmifonf? oAnKwqkudk awmif;onf aumif;aomt,ludk ,lonf &efol a'goMuD;jcif;r&Sd &efwkefU rrlaMumif;rsm;udk nDawmfu pmay;vdkuf Mum;&vQif atmufarhqGwfvGwfjcif;&Sdonf a&S;uHukodkvfra&mufao; tjyKtrlcHcuf&avonfrsm;udk ratmufarhygESifh a&SUtem*wd tusdK;pD;yGm; rsm; oAnK bk&m;qkudk jynfhrnfhtaMumif;usEkfyftMunfawmf ESvHk;oGif; r*Fvmpum;udk Mum;&onf? ESKwf*wdqdkonfhtwdkif; rabmu rjyefjrJjrHpGm ,kwd&SdygonfjzpfvQif usEkfyfESifh usEkfyfnD tMunfawmf*wdopmjrJapvsuf uydv0wf jynfuJhodkU rdwfjzpf usEkfyfnD tMunfawmf ESvHk;&Sdonfhtwdkif; jzpf&rnf? oD&d[Hom0wDjynfMuD;ESifh &wemodCFukef;abmifa&Tjynf


25 October


MuD;onf a&Tvrf;jzpf wm0wdom ewfjynfuJhodkU pnfyifom,mrnfh taMumif;onf tem*wf qdkbG,fr&SdjyD? tMunfawmfonfvnf; t&Snfudk jrifooljzpf usEkfyfoufMuD;&G,f&ifhudk tbufjyK aoe*Ftm;jzifh csDvSm&mrSm ol&Jolcuf &Jrufppfonf Adkvfyg ow0gtaygif; wkefvSKyfjcif; &SdMu pdwf\ csrf;omudk r&Mujzpfonfht&monf 0dygwfom qufMu awmhrnf onftaMumif;udk y,fazsmuf bk&m;&SifqHawmfjrwf &SpfqlxGef;yaomt&yf rdwfo[m, jzpf&vQif qdkzG,f&m r&SdjyD? tMunfawmfrSmvnf; trSL;trwf ynm&Sd t&SnfudkjrifarQmfoolwa,mufrQ rvmap? vljzpfqef; okefyef &oolwdkUwGifom pmay;vdkufcJhonf? ,ckrnfodkU tMunfawmf ESvHk;u tvdk&SdaMumif;udk {u0kwf,kwd odomatmif ynm;&mZm pwka'0ef? a'g*kEa'0tdrfwdkUudk apvdkufonf tMunfawmfodkU a&mufvQif pum;rsdK; tvHk;pHkudk t&SnfodjrifoolnmPfynm&SdwdkUudk vmapvQif tcif;udprsdK;onf jyD;ajy usEkfyfESifh usEkfyfnD tMunfawmf r*fzdkvfedAmef tusdK;udk cHpm;&awmhrnf/ ou&mZf 1118ck wefaqmifrkef;vqef; 3&ufaeU (25 October 1756) t0u a&TydkUaponf iOD;Anm;&mZm? pwka'0def;cHok? wvdkifa'g*kE a'0tdef &[ef;ynm'dy0drvmpm&wdkUESifh yef;aps;wyfawmfodkU a&mufonfh pmpuLwGif rifa&;uHywfa&TaiGMuKwfa&TjziftdyfoGwf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 22? pm 83-4)


25 October


bkef;awmftvGef MuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf vufeufpMum &wemqifjzLrsm;ocif tMunfawmf tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; cspfMunfpGm arwmESifh Mum;tyfaom yudk;rif; ,ckcsDawmfrlvSmonfrSm &efjyKrnfrvm omoemawmfjrwf tpD;tyGm; jynfolvlwumwdkU tpD;tyGm; w&m;rwnfaom olwdkUtm; w&m;ojzifh jzpfjcif;oHo&mtpD;tyGm;udk axmuf wdkif;cdkif EdkifiHvSnfhvnfawmfrlonf? yudk;rif;jynf&GmodkU a&mufrS bk&m;qkudk yefaom olwdkU\ pdwfESvHk;onf cufxefaom oabmESifh &efjyKESifh awGUjrif&onf jzpfawmhonf twdkif;wdkif;tjynfjynf xD;aqmif;eef;ae apmfbGm;jrdKUpm; taygif;wdku tavQmuftywf rif;{u&mZfESifh xdkufwefaom pum;udkqdk usdK;EGHvQif txl;r&Sd w&m; wnfatmif qHk;ryJhjyif um,okc pdwokc 2yg;udk jzpfaponf pum;opmomvQif avmu"rudk aqmif&GufjrJ xHk;oufao trsm; bk&m;paom olawmfaumif;wdkU a[mawmfrlonf xHk;a[mif;yHkjzifh &mZ0ifpaom tpnftum;wdkUudkvnf; rif;wdkU0,favhvmuRrf;usifjrJ jzpfonf? wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD;wdkUudk pdk;tkyfaomolwdkU rnfonfhow0gwdkU touf pnf;pdrfudkom cspf&rnfudk toufpnf;pdrfudk pdk;&drf&rnf r[kwfaMumif;udk cspfMunfpGm arwmESifh Mum;a&mufonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck wefaqmifrkef;vqef; 3&uf 2aeU (25 October 1756) (avmif;rdefY? rSwf 23? pm85)


9 December


[Hom0wDjrdKU taemufusdKufudk;bk&m;rSm Xmyem bk&m;&SifqHawmf &SdaMumif;udk wvdkif;wdkUrSm ajymqdkMuonfh pum;twdkif; rSef&monf? qHawmfudk wl; a&TjrdKUawmfodkU aqmif,ljyD;vQif oifh&mMuHaqmif&aomf oifhrnf xifonfhtaMumif;udk aZ,sausmfpGm q&mawmfrSm avQmufxm; &rnf/ ou&mZf 1118ck eawmfvjynfhausmf 3&ufaeU (9 Decemeber 1756) &efukefeef;awmfwGif trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 27? pm 99)


13 December 1756

&mrnwdkif; [Hom0wDjynfMuD;udk pdk;tkyfawmfrlaom rif;w&m;MuD; cspfMunfpGm Mum;a&muftyfaom wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; taygif;ESifh &wemodCF ukef;abmifjynfMuD;udk pdk;tkyfawmfrlaom tMunfawmfrif;w&m;MuD; a&Tpufawmf csDawmfrlvmaMumif;udk Mum;&onfrSp ,ckwdkif a&mufawmfrl vQif qD;MudK wdkufrnftMuH&Sd jrdKUjyusHK;ajrmif;rSp jynfMuD;\ t*Fg tvHk;pHkudk nnfhaeU&Haeygonf a&S;ykyur taMumif;awmftm;jzifh bkef;awmfwefcdk;awmf tMuHtpnfawmfwdkUonf waeUwyg;wdk;yGm; MuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaomaMumifh tMunfawmfudk tMuHtpnf MudK;pm;ygorQ rjzpfEdkif&SdcJh&onf oAnKqkudk awmif;awmfrlonfESifhtnD onf;cHawmf rljcif; yg&rDudk jznfhapjcifygonf/ txufu &mZoHpmwGif ygonfhtwdkif; bl&d'wfZmwfawmfrSm &mZr[mrdwfjzpfouJhodkU &mZr[mrdwfjzpf &mrn wdkif;wGifrSKtcif;&SdvQifvnf; bkef;awmfudkrSD omoemawmftpD;tyGm;udk aqmif&Guf&ygrnftaMumif;ESifh jynfolvlwum ow0gwdkU csrf;omygrnfh taMumif;udk &Spfaxmifhbkef;awmfMuD;eSifh rif;&mZmwdkUudk vmygaponf taMumif;udk twdkif;xuftvGef cspfMunfpGm Mum;a&mHygonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU (13 December 1756) yudk;u&Spfaxmifhausmif; bkef;MuD;ESifh &[ef; 6yg; rif;&mZma[mif; ESifh vl 24? r*FvmwyfawmfatmifajrpHawmfrl&m a&mufonf y&ydkifpmtdwf a&Tjzifh4if; tdwfudk tdwfjzLoGwf [HomwHqdyfESifhygonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 24? pm 88? ukef;? yxr? 1968? pm 221-2wGif ou&mZf 1118ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 14&uf[kygonf)


19 December 1756

bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf jzpfawmfrlaom t&dErmpMum &wemqifjzLrsm;ocif jynftaqmifaqmifaoma&Teef; jy'focif wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif;taygif; apmfbGm;jrdKUpm;rsm; ocif tm'dp0Hoaerif;\ tquftEG,fjzpfawmfrlaom tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; cspfMunfpGm Mum;a&muftyfaom yudk;rif;?edAmeful;qdyfjzpfaom ZAL 'DyguRef; vltjzpfudk &cJaMumif;udk ajru tyfwpif;pdkuf txufb0ufu tyfwpif;csaomf tyfoGm;jcif;qdkifrD&m\ vltjzpfudk tvGef&cJonf oHk;vltxGwfbk&m;ocif a[mawmfrlonf w&m;awmfudk axmuf jynfjrdKUuyif wyfrsm;wGif tMudrfMudrf pmqGJxm;jyonf? ow0g taygif; toufpnf;pdrfudkaxmuf ,ckvnf;waeUrjywfyif atmufarhawmfrlonf? yudk;rif;vnf;onf pnf;pdrfESifhurmywfvHk; wnfrnfr[kwf? igvnf; 4if;enf;yif jzpfwwfysufwwfaom oabmw&m;onf toufpnf;pdrf&Sdaom ow0gudkrqdkESifhOD; jrifrdk&fpMum0VmrSaomfvnf; tydkif;tjcm;umva&mufvQif ysufpD;&onf yudk;rif;vnf; ow0gtaygif;wdkU rSDcdk&m ow0gtaygif;wdkU\ pD;yGm;udk aqmifonfyif jyKonf? igvnf; jynfolow0g omoemawmf tpD;tyGm;udk aqmif&Gufawmfrlonf? igudk pD;yGm;jzpfap[l tpGJt,lr&Sd edAmefomvQif tjrJwnfonfudk aomu atmufarhvsufyif aeawmfrlonf? wa,mufjznf;nif;om,m vdkaomfvnf; wa,mufcufxHu wjcm;trItcif; uJhodkUr[kwf omoemawmf pD;yGm;rIjzpfonf? bl&d'wfZmwfudk ESvHk;oGif;oifh onf &mZoHpmwGifygonfhtwdkif; oabmrSefvQif oifhawmhonf? rSefjrJr[kwfuvnf; ,Hk&cJjrJjzpfonf? w&m;apmifhaom rif;wdkU\ tvkyftmoH onfum; 0&Zdefrdk;MudK;pufuJhodkU wcsufjyif 2csufjyifxyf qdkjrJr[kwfaMumif; udk cspfMunf pGm arwmESifhMum;a&mufonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 13&ufaeU (19 December 1756) yudk;odkU rif;&mZm&Spfaxmifhausmif;bkef;MuD;wdkUwGif jyefay;onfh &mZoH trdefUawmf pmy&ydkufa&; puL&pfudk tdwfeDoGwf wHqdyfrcyfay;onf? oZifyef;udkvnf;


19 December 1756

ay;awmfrl vmoloHwdkUudk oGm;aponf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 25? pm 90)


(19 December 1756)

bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom tjynfjynfrjrdKUjrdKUtwdkif;wdkif;ocif jzpfawmfrlaom omoemh'g,umawmfa&ajrocif b0&Siftavmif; rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; q&mawmftrdefUawmf&Sdonf apmfbGm;jrdKUpm; tpD&if0efcsKyf jAe&ufwdkU? ta&SUwvsnfawmifpnfysufrnf ta&SUwvTm; xGm;xGm; nufrnf raetyfukef jrefrmjynfodkU &Snfavukef[l ynm&SdwdkU qdkbl;onf odkuferdwftvdkudkowd&Sdonfhtwdkif; taMumif;udk ajrmfaxmuf udk,fESifhwuG vlwumwdkU pD;yGm;csrf;omjzpfpdrfhrnfudk&nf a&Tjynf a&TjrdKUawmf t*r[maoemywdxHodkU &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifpmESifh apcefUtoem;awmfcH avQmufvSmaponfrSm oifhvSonfyif? wa,mufvdrmvQif w&Gmcsrf;om\ wa,mufaumif;vQif waomif;<u,f\ a&S;ola[mif;wdkU qdkbl;aom xHk;pHeSifh tnD jzpfawmhonf? aus;Zl;opmawmfudkcH MurmwdkUESifh ruif;ruGm omoemjyKbufa,m? aqm? avmif&Snf? xD;vif;? ueD? rifuif;? uav;? atmfyvuf? aomifoGyf? 0ef;odk? rdk;nif;? rdk;aumif;? rdk;rdwf? odef;eD? oDayg? vJcsm;? a,mufapmuf? anmifa&T? awmifwGif;? yif;? ewfarmuf? puk? pvif;? azgifvif;? v,fudkif;? jynf? om,m0wD? '*kef? 'v? ykodef? ajrmif;jr? rkwr 32jrdKUrSp t&yf&yfwdkif;MuD; cdkifwdkUvnf; aus;Zl;opmawmfudkcH vufeufawmfEdkifiHawmfcsnf; jzpfMuavjyD;onf/ tqufqufaom rif;wdkUvufxufyif aus;Zl;opmawmfudkrcH awmifykef; ajrmufwdrf;aeonf ucsif? u&if? v0? cwD? tifMu,fpaom vlrsdK; taygif;wdkUonfvnf; aus;Zl;opmawmfudk cH &SdMuavjyD;onf? rdkufcif u pdk;vifhonf? ra&mufcifu MudKvifhonf qdkaomt&mvnf; rif;cpm;jcif; vdrmukefaom uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU"rwfxHk;yif jzpfawmhonf? b0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD;rSm jynfaxmifjyKrif;omr[kwf jynfaxmifjyKomoemjyKrif;{u&mZf jzpfawmfrl cdkifrmaom olwdkUudk awGUawmfrlvQif bDvl;? El;nHhaomolwdkUudk awGUvQif oMum;? jynfxJa&;rSm oHacsmif;? "ruHa&;rSm ba,mif;qdkouJhodkU trIrIudk EkEk&ifh&ifh rqdkcefU&efawmfrlavh &Sdacsonf? t&maumif;aomfwcsuf? taeaumif;aomf


(19 December


woufqdkdk;&Sdonfhtwdkif; jrdKU0eftMuHtpnfrSm olcyfodrf;udk pdwfryludk,f ryef;? jidrf;csrf;rnftaMumif; jzpfawmhonf? odkUt&mwGifrlum; olUudkrcdkif; udk,fwefwdkif; qdkouJhodkUonfavmufowd&Sdonfudk,f jzpfavjyD;onf? a&Tjynfa&TjrdKUawmfodkU pHk&mapcefU rif;{u&mZf udk,fawmf wvdkif;jynfrSm odrf;,lawmfrl&m udk,fwdkifudk,fa&muf jyKoifhrnfxifonf? q&mawmfrSmrlum; &[ef;w&m;ESifh jzpf vlbmomavmupdwfjzpfvQif wm;vnf;rwm;om wm;vnf;rwm;oifh qdkonfhpum;twdkif; olawmf oabm oufMuonf rSwfvQifrlum; [kwfygvsufvGJ&avonf jyKygvsuf r&avonf[k trSKrSKudk aemifw&Sdef&rnf? rpdk;&drfESifh q&mawmf &SdavjyD;onf/ (ou&mZf 1118ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 13&ufaeU ) (19 December 1756) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 26? pm 95-6)


19 December


q&mawmfarwmpmqufonf w&m;rif;jrwf? oAnKbk&m; y&dedAmef ,lawmfrlvQif uydv0wf &mZj*dK[fpm0wdukdEmHk paom &Spfjynfaxmif rSm omo&D&"gwfawmfudk wpdwf&GwfpDcGJa0 udk;uG,fMuonf? tjcm;jynf axmifrif;wdkUrSm a0pk&pk r[kwfacs/ ig\arGawmf "gwfawmfwdkUonf tav;tjrwfjyK udk;uG,f&m omoemawmfudk csD;ajrmufEdkifonf tpdk;&onf rif;bkef;&Sd&mwnfrnf bk&m;&SiftrdefUawmf&Sdonfvnf; waMumif;? tem*awypE&a'o Ak'omoeHXwd? &Sifarm*vdykwq&m rdefUawmfrlonf waMumif;udkaxmuf bk&m;r&Sdawmfrlonfaemuf xD;aqmif;rif; jynfaxmifrif;wdkUonf wjynfaxmifysuf wjynfaxmifwnfonf bkef;&Sifrif;wdkUonf yd#uwfawmf arGawmf "gwfawmfwdkUudk tusdK;yGm;&myifh udk;uG,fMuaomaMumifh bk&m;&SifarGawmf"gwfawmf ZrL'dwfuRef; jynfhrQ wnfonf jzpfygawmhonf &Spfp&Gwfaom "gwfawmfwdkUudk cGJa0jyD;vQif &olvufwGif tifwefpmudk;uG,fHkxm;cJh &Sifr[muy wHcdk;jzifh &Spfp&GwfvHk;udk aqmif,ljyD;rS tZmwowftm;tyfay\/ tZmwowfrif;vnf; tawmiftapmuf &Spfq,f&Sdaom wdkuf aocsmvHkcsHKpGm ausmufapwD wnf bk&m;&Sif Asm'dwfawmftwdkif; "rmaomurif; aqmif,l onfOpm&yfrsm;ESifh apwDyxdk;jyKyap urnf;rSwfpmESifh xm;cJh\ bk&m;ocif y&dedAmef0ifawmfrl (218)ESpfwdkifaom tcgygwvdyk'fjynf "rmaom uomoemjyK {u&mZfjzpf omoem MunfndKaomaMumifh &Sifarm*vdykwq&mpum;udk Mum;&vQif bk&m;&Sifa[mawmfrlaom "rcEm&Spfaomif;av;axmifudk &nf a&wGif;a&uef &Spfaomif;av;axmifpHjyK vSLawmfrl\/ bk&m;&SifarGawmf"gwfawmfudk aqmif,lvdk tjynfjynf t&Gm&Gm apwDykxdk;wdkUudk ysuf&Sm\/ r&onfudk tpm;jyK xm;cJh\/ &mZj*dK[fjynfodkU a&muf tZmwowfurnf; rSwfpmESifh xm;cJhonfh apwDudk awGU&mwGif &Spfp&Gwfaom "gwfawmfwdkUudk & 84000apwDwnf ZrL'dwfjynfhrQ toD;toD;udk;uG,f&mwGifs t&yf&yfESHUonf jzpfygawmhonf? onft&mrSmvnf; "rmaomurif;bkef;MuD;ap


19 December


wDykxdk;wdkU arGawmfudkvdkuf &SmxHk;jzpfygawmhonf? yk*HjynfwGif aemf&xmrif;apmvufxuf omoemawmfa&muf q&m&Sift&[HESifh jyKpk&m wGif rif;MuD;EdkifiHwGif y&d,wdomoem yd#uwfpmay r&Sdacsao;? &SifAk'aCmowdkU oD[dkuRef;udk ul;,lonfh yd#uwfwzHkoxHkjynfrSm &Sdavonf? oxHkrEk[mrif;rS xkwfygap&Sift&[Hqdk aemf&xmrif;onf bk&m;&SiftrdefUawmf omoemawmfa&; jzpfonfudk &nf oifhwifhavsmuf ywfatmif oHwdkUudk ap oxHkjynfrSm yd#uwfawmfudk xkwfap oxHk rEk[mrif;vnf; EdkifEdk; jyKonf tp&SdvQif tpOfjzpfrnf ykxkZmefESvHk; jzpf ,lrdavaomaMumifh pmudkrxkwf ZAL'DyguRef;wGif jrwfaom&wem udk rnfooltm; pmayxkwf&OD;rnfenf;qdk pmxkwfonfh oHwdkUjyefvSm\ aemf&xmrif;apmvnf; omoema&;"ruHjzpf pmxkwfyg igtMunftom qdkrS rxkwfvdkufaomf yd#uwfudk rqdkvifhoifh jrdKUoifhudk,fESifhwuG yd#uwfawmfudk&atmif ,lrnfppft*Fg4yg; cefUxm; oxHkjrdKUudk wdkuf& vQif jrdKUESifhwuG rEk[mudk& yd#uwfawmfapwDykxdk;rsm;pGm &Sdonf "gwf awmfarGawmf kyfxkawmf oif;usyfawmfrsm;udk aqmifcJh yk*HjynfrSm udk;uG,f&onf jzpfygawmhonf? onft&mrSmvnf; a&S;bkef;wef;MuD;onf rif;wdkU"gwfawmf yd#uwfawmfwdkUudk tusdK;&Sd&m ppft*Fg4yg;ESifh yifhaqmif ,lbl;onfhxHk; jzpfygawmhonf? oD[dk"rapwDrif;vufxuf bkef;tmPm nHh oD[dkwGif aus;uRefwdkUudk rEdkif toD;toD;axmifxm; rif;rlMuaom aMumifh orD;ESifhpG,fawmfyGm;udks [Hom0wDqifjzL&Sifudkquf ppfulawmif; vSmaomaMumifh [Hom0wDodkU pG,fawmfa&muf udk;uG,f&onf jzpfygawmh onf? onft&mrSmvnf; rwdkufrawmif;bJESifh bkef;MuD;&modkU rSDcdkvdk ysHUvSmaomaMumifh udk;uG,f&onf jzpfygawmhonf? yk*He&ywd bkef;MuD;&m wGif wkwfOD;wnfbGm; jynfodkU csD a&mufvQif wkwfOD;wnfbGm; e&ywd bkef;udk bufjydKif ppfrjyK0HhaomaMumifh pG,fawmfyGm;udk qufay; yk*HrSm udk;uG,f&avonf? onft&mrSmvnf; bkef;tm; rwlvlESifh ppfrjydKif0HhaomaMumifh pG,fawmfyGm;udkqufay; udk;uG,f&onfhxHk; jzpfyg


19 December (1756)

awmhonf? w&m;rif;jrwfrSm wdkif;EdkifiHawmfjyKpuyif jynfolvl&[ef;wdkU avmu0wf"r0wf tusifhtoHk;xHk;pnf trlt&m abmufjyefodrfzsif;onfudk om jidrf0yfatmif qHk;rESdrfeif; a&S;rif;wdkUuJhodkU jynfaxmifjyKrnfom MuHawmfrlonf r[kwfacs? udk,ftoufpnf;pdrfudk pGefUpm; jynfaxmifa&; ESifhwuG omoemawmfudk dk;usatmif jyKpkpD&ifawmfrlrnf omoemapmifh ewfwdkUudkwdkifwnf "dXmefESifhwuG &mZyvif O*ifbGifhawmfrl&if; jzpfacs onf? a&S;rif;wdkUjyK\ qdkaomfvnf; rif;pnf;pdrfvufodkUa&muf jidrfrSom tifwefjyKpkMuacsonf? &mZ'gPfESifhEdkifatmifrjyK a&S;rif;xHk;uJhodkU jynfxJ jidrfrSomoema&; jyKoifhygonf t&dyft>ruf avQmufMuvQifvnf; udk,fhtouf pnf;pdrfudk rnfol tpdk;&onf r[kwfuH ay;orQom tcsdef a&mufvQif ocFg&rsdK;jzpf bk&m;rSrvGwfEdkif abmufjyef&onf jynf&Gmjidrf pnf;Hk;rdrS omoema&;udk jyKpkoifhonfqdkonfh pum;udk igMudKufawmf rrl jynfxJa&;udk aevdkae&rnf omoemawmfudk jyKvdkaomaMumifhyif igrif;rlonfudkum; omoema&; jynfxJa&; wcsufwnf; jyKawmfrlrnf trdefUawmf&Sd jrdKUawmfywfvnf txyfxyfok&efok0ef;aepnf 4ckESpfup yifomoemawmf ta&;udk jyKpkawmfrl&onf jzpfygawmhonf? q&mawmf vnf; wum&Ju q&m&J&acs\ ESvHk;&Sd\ bkef;awmfa[mif;udk trSDjyK &J&onf jzpfygawmhonf? ZAL'DygwGif awmifudk cdk;onfh trsdK;uonf jrpfudk cdk;onfh trsdK;wvdkif;onf 2&yfydk tvdkawmfjynfhvQif jrpfrukefjyD jrpfaoomusefonf jzpfygawmhonf [Hom0wDrSm jydKysufonfh apwDwGif arGawmfqHawmf"gwfawmf trsm;&Sdonfudk,l udk;uG,f&vQif oifhroifh tar;awmf &SdonfrSm "rmaomuxHk;udk axmufvQifvnf; bkef;awmftm;udk olrwefvQif vlcsif;buf ppfrjyKiHhacsaomaMumifh quf&onfyif ,lawmf rl&rnf? a&S;a&S;umvrif;pdk;&mZm toD;toD; jzpfMuorQ xHk;pnfawmfrSm wcsufckwfvQif w&mjywfonfqdkouJhodkU wcsufwnf;0ifygaomaMumifh "gwfawmfarGawmfudk aqmifjcif;onf avmuaMumif;ESifhvnf; trSef? "ruH aMumif;ESifhvnf; rvGwf&mZ0wfxHk;a[mif;ESifhvnf; tnDjzpfygaMumif;udk q&mawmfarwmpm


19 December (1756)

qufonf/ (ou&mZf 1118ck) ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 13&ufaeU (19 qufonfh arwmpm/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 28? pm 101-3)

December 1756)


(19 January


ou&mZf 1094ck om;awmfwkyfrif;udk a0gyvma&Tcsuf 2pif;ESifh eEpnfol aoG;aomufvkvifpkwpk aoewfpkwpk aumif[efpkwpkESifh vltMuD; ESpfa,mufESifhcefU ay;awmfrlonf? om;awmfo&ufrif;udkvnf; a0gyvm usdKif;a&Tcsuf 2pif;aZ,sa,mfwm vkvifpkwpk aoewfpkwpk aumif[efpk wpkESifh vltMuD;ESpfa,mufESifhcefU ay;awmfrlonf? wkyfrif; o&ufrif; wdkUudk 0if;awmfjyifawmfwGif tdrfaqmuf ae&onf/ vTwfawmfwGif oifjzL;cif; wkyfrif;udk vufwGif;uo&ufrif;udk vufjyifucs 0g0if 0guRwfudk ae&modkUwuf uHawmh&onf? tdrfa&SUrif;udkvnf; 0g0if0g uRwf uHawmh&onf? udk,fvkyfawmfukvm;uawmfwGif om;awmf a&Tjynf&Gmudk atmufjrdKUopfudkay; Zif;r,fcsDwGif xrf;&onf jyefa&mufvQif rif;&JeEoltrnfudk rSnfhawmfrlonf? udk,fvkyfawmf vkvifoduawmfwGif jrifonfh om;awmfudk ta&SUbufwdkuf rw&mudkay;onf? udk,fvkyfawmf acsmif;eufuawmfwGif jrifonfh om;awmfudk ykwufjrdKUudk ay;awmfrlonf? udk,fvkyfawmf qDonf&GmuawmfwGifjrifonfh om;awmfudk rkwrjrdKU t0if vdkif;yGJjrdKUudk ay;awmfrlonf? udk,fvkyfawmf vSdKif;wufuawmfwGif jrifonfh om;awmfudk rkwjrdKUt0if w&yifjrdKUudk ay;awmfrlonf? 4if;om;awmfudk rkwrjrdKUt0ifaygifjrdKUudk ay;awmfrlonf? we*FaEGrif; avmurm&f atmifbk&m; 'g,umrif;w&m;onf ou&mZf 1095ck ewfawmf(vqef; 9&ufaeU) ((3) November 1733)cEmajymif; tdrfa&SU rif;a&Teef;wuf OuifozGifhonfwGif oD&dy0& ok"r&mZm"dywd emrH wHqdyfudk cHawmfrl onf? crnf;awmfbk&m; wnfawmfrlonfh apwDawmfudkvnf; tjyD;wdkif qufvkyf a&TxD;wifvSLawmf rlonf? avmuom&blemrurnf;om;awmfrlonf? avmuo&blbk&m;? 'g,umoD&dy0&ok"r&mZm"dywd trnfawmf&Sdaom [Hom0wDa&mufrif;w&m; vufxuf ou&mZf 1095ck (ewfawmfvqef; 9&ufaeU) ((3) November 1733) a&Teef;awmfwuf OuifozGifhwGif nDawmf&if; wkyfrif;udk rif;&J ausmfpGmtrnf rdaxG;awmf pEma'0DwGif jrifonfh nDawmf o&ufrif;udk rif;&JoD[&mZftrnfudk rSnfhawmfrlonf?txdef;awmf pmoifq&m &mZeE a&TjzdK;udkeErdwf ausmfxif trnfESifhyif;jrdKUudkay;txdef;awmf &aemifjrdKUopf uawmfoD&d0drvmESifh


(19 January


pHkbufawmfrlonf? rSL;MuD;rwfMuD;wdkU taqmift&Gufudkvnf;ay; eErdwf ausmfxifudkeEoD&daoG;aomufudk jznfhoGif;awmfrlonf? anmif&rf;jrdKUudkvnf; ay;awmfrlonf? eErdwfausmfxif om;tMuD;udkvSdKif;wufjrdKU? om;ti,fudk jrawmifjrdKUudkay; rif;om;MuD;wdkUae&mwGif csxm; cpm;&onf? ou&mZf 1100jynfhwGif (1738) nDawmfrif;&JausmfpGmudk a0gtrdk;a&Ta&; cdkeef; tv,fpufuGif;a&T2pkteDwpkrTrf;csifydwfaxmifhoef;Muufarmufyef; a&Tydef; a0gcGufa&Tydef;wdkif a&TMuHqpfusdKif; a&Tcsuf2pif; uGrf;cGuf yHkeef; tem;ywjrm;pDMuKwfcGuf txGwfywjrm;pD vufbuftdk;waumif;ydwft xGwf ywjrm;pDa&TaxG;tif pnfeD 9vHk;? pnfykwf1? yHkom1? vif;uGif;1? aiGESJ 4? aiGwH&Snf3ay;awmfrlonf? jyif0ef2? twGif;0ef 1? taemuf0ef 1? 0if;rSL;1? pma&;MuD;3? em;cH 2? oHqifh2? oHcH4? qifonf 12? "g;vdkuf12 cefU ay;awmfrlonf? eErdwfausmfxifudkvnf; rif;&JausmfpGma0gtaqmif enf;wlay;awmfrl tdrfa&SUtdrfwGifae&onf? vuf0JeErdwf? O'defAvol& a,mfwmwdkUudk 0ef? oD&deEoludk twGif;0ef? *ZeEudk 0if;rSL;? &mZacw wk&if"rwdkUudk taemuf0ef? xGef;jzL? ijzL? omZHwdkUudk pma&;MuD;? iaygif;? ijzLwdkUudk em;cH/ oHcH4? oHqifh 2? "g;vdkuf 12? a0grSL; 2? a&SUawmfajy;rSL; 1cefU ay;awmfrlonf? rif;&JausmfpGmudk vuf0Ju? eErdwfausmfxifudk vusfmuae&mjydKif eef;awmfwGif ae&mcsxm;onf? ou&mZf 1100jynfh (1738) OuifozGifhwGif a0gpD; ae&modkUwuf&onf? rif;&JausmfpGmudk owdk;"r&mZmtrnf? eErdwfausmfxifudk bk&ifhaemiftrnfudk rSnfhawmfrl onf? nDawmfo&ufrif; rif;&JoD[&mZfudkvnf; owdk;"r&mZmtrnfudk rSnfhonf? zdk;awmfrm&fatmif &wembk&m;'g,umom;awmf rif;&JatmifEdkif udk rif;&Jrif;vSa&Tawmiftrnfudk ay;onf? aemufbkef;awmfMuD;trnfESifh pnfykw&mjrdKUudkay;onf? rif;&JausmfpGma0gqifESifh taqmift&Gufudkvnf; ay;awmfrl rif;jydKif[laom trnfudk rSnfhawmfrlonf? rif;jydKifnDOumudk ,if;cJjrdKUESifh rif;&Jausmfacgif trnfudk rSnfh uonf;(odkU)csD&mwGif AdkvfrSL;cefU xrf;&Guf&onf? ou&mZf 1102ckwGif (1740) [Hom0wD jrdKU0efu wy,if;uGJ


(19 January


jrif;rSL;vydkUpm;omatmif jcm;em;&mwGif rif;&Jausmfacgifudk AdkvfrSL;cefU xrf;&Guf&onf/ aemufrif;&Jausmfacgifudk auwkrwDrnfaom awmifiljrdKU udkay; awmifilbk&ifrSnfhawmfrlonf? a&S;awmifilrif; a0gqiftaqmif t&Gufudk ay;awmfrl ESrawmf ta&SUwwf;rdbk&m;ESifh pHkbufawmfrlonf? qif10pD;? jrif;10pD;? tajrmufaoewf? aq;usnfaph? a&TaiG? tkyfrsdK;xnf rsdK;rsm;udk vufzGJUawmfrlonf? vrdkif;i,fwdkUudk avSoif;pk 2pkbGJU wpkudk ol&JyvTm;y0Suf tpkrSnfhawmfrlonf/ avSmfum;a&ta&;wpif;? avSmfum;eD wpif; ay;awmfrlonf/ rif;&Jjrif;ua&TjzdK;udkvnf; pmoifq&may;awmf rlonf? ou&mZf 1108ckwGif(1746) bk&ifhaemifudk ppfudkif;jrdKUudk ay;awmf rl a&Teef;taqmifaqmif aqmufvkyfjyD;vQif a&S;rif;{u&mZfwdkUrif;crf; rif;em; taqmift&GufESifhwuG ay;awmfrl ppfudkif;jrdKUudk ajymif; rif;jyK &onf? ppfudkif;bk&ifcHonf? eef;raqmifrdbk&m; om;awmfudk pvif;jrdKU? awmifeef;rdbk&m;om;awmfudk pukjrdKU? awmifaqmifrdbk&m; om;awmfudk a&TawmifjrdKU? ajrmufaqmifrdbk&m; om;awmfudk wefawmif&Gmudk ay;awmf rlonf? udk,fvkyfawmfwGifjrifonfhom;awmfudk ru&m&Gm? 4if;nDudk a&eHUom&Gmudkay;awmfrlonf/ a&Tawmifrif;? uefawmifrif;wdkUudk aAgif;xkyfem;xGif;r*Fvmaqmif&mwGif a&Tawmifrif;udk a0gyvmusdKif; a&Tcsuf 2pif;ESifh aemf&xmrif;apmtrnfudk rSnfhawmfrlonf? uefawmifrif; udk a0gyvmusdKif;a&Tcsuf2pif;ESifh owdk;rif;apmtrnfudk rSnfhawmfrlonf? crnfhawmfbk&m; udk,fvkyfawmfom; ru&mpm;udk rif;&Ja'0ausmftrnf? aygifjrdKUpm;udk rif;&J&mZausmftrnf? w&yifjrdKUpm;udk rif;&JeEausmf trnf? vSdKif;yGJpm;udk rif;&Jrif;vStrnf? uomjrdKUpm;udkrif;&Jrif;vSausmf trnfudk rSnfhawmfrlonf? ou&mZf 1113ckwefclv(qef;8&ufaeU) ((11) March 1752) wGif [Hom0wDwvdkif;wdkU tif;0jrdKUudk& avmuo&blbk&m; 'g,umrif;w&m;ESifh rdbk&m;om;awmf orD;awmfwpk aqGawmfrsdK;awmfwdkU ESifh nDawmfowdk;"r&mZm om;orD;wpk om;awmfpvif;rif;om;? pukrif;om;? ppfudkif;rif;om;orD;wpk


(19 January


ESifh rSL;MuD;rwfMuD;wdkUudk wvdkif;wdkU odrf;,l [Hom0wDodkU aqmif,lav onf? ppfudkif;bk&if [Hom0wDwGifvGefonf? avmuo&blbk&m; 'g,um rif;w&m;ESifhnDowdk;"r&mZm om;awmf pvif;rif;rif;jydKifwdkUudk [Hom0wD wvdkif;rif;u (ou&mZf 1116ck owif;uRwfvjynfhausmf 14&ufaeU) (3 November 1755) a&rSmazsmufavonf? 0efMuD;owdk;rif;MuD;udk avmu o&blbk&m; 'g,um[Hom0wDa&mufrif;w&m;vufxuf ta&SUbufwdkuf ajrmif;acgif;&Gmudk ay; eEaZ,trnfudkrSnfhonf? tpk&if;uESKwf &mZb,aoG;aomufpm&if;wGif oGif;onf? a&Tusyfvufbuftdk;ay;onf? oD&dausmfxiftrnfudk rSnfhonf? owdk;rif;MuD;trnfudk rSnfhonf? 0efMuD; cefUonf? "g;tdrfrnf; o&DrTrf;ay;onf? wGif;oif;rif;MuD; taqmifenf; aqmifap trdefUawmf&Sd wGif;oif;rif;MuD;aZ,aemf&xm taqmifuJhodkU aqmif&onf? 0efMuD;owdk;rif;i,fudk avmuo&blbk&m; 'g,um [Hom0wDa&mufrif;vufxuf tdrfa&SUpm;awmfuJa[mif; tdrfa&SUpHpOf qyfoGm;&Gmudk ay;onf? qifajcwdkufoayguf&Gmukday;onf? wk&ifAv trnfaemufwk&ifausmfxif trnfudkrSnfhonf? taemufbufwdkuf w&Gm udkay;onf/ 0efaxmufcefU a&Tusyfvufbuftdk; usdKif;4HcHay;onf? uGrf;cGufvufbuftdk;0ef;ay;onf? rif;vSa&Tawmiftrnfudk rSnfhonf? waumif;ydwfay;onf/ owdk;rif;i,ftrnfudkrSnfhonf? 0efMuD;cefUonf? wGif;oif;rif;MuD;aersdKaZ,aemf&xm aqmif&Gufonfhenf; aqmif&Gufap trdefUawmf&Sd aqmif&Guf&onf? 0efMuD;oD&daZ,ausmfpGmudk avmuo&bl bk&m; 'g,umrif;vufxuf tdrfa&SUygtaqmifjrJ wy,if;aus;a&jzL&Gmudk tdrfa&SUpHpOfay;onf? eEol&trnfudk ay;onf? ou&mZf 1096wGif (1734) tpk&if;uESKwf &mZAvaoG;aomufrSm jznfhoGif;awmfrlonf/ a&Tusyfvufbuftdk;ay;onf? rif;xifrif;vStrnfudkrSnfhonf? qmvif;&Gm udk ay;onf/ uGrf;cGufvufbuftdk;t0ef;ay;onf? 0efMuD;cefUonf? "g;tdrfrnf;o&DrTrf;oHywf&wefU ywjrm;pDay;onf? ajrmufbufwdkuf i&eJjrdKUudkay;onf? rif;&Jrif;vSay:xif trnfrSnfhonf? ewf&SifMuD;trnf "raoemywd trnfudk rSnfhonf? oD&daZ,ausmfpGmtrnfudk rSnfhonf? ueDjrdKUudkay;onf? wGif;


(19 January


oif;rif;MuD;aersdK;aZ,saemf&xm aqmif&Gufonfh enf;aqmif&Guf&rnf trdefUawmf&Sd aqmif&Guf&onf? ou&mZf 1113ckwGif(1752) [Hom0wD wvdkif;wdkU tif;0jrdKUudk 0ef;&H&mwGif [Hom0wDodkU ygavonf/ ou&mZf 1118ck jymodkv(jynfhausmf15&ufaeU) ((19) January 1757)wGif a&Tz0g;awmf atmufa&mufonf? 0efMuD;0da'[&mZmudk rm&fatmifbk&m; 'g,um rif;w&m;vufxuf pm;awmfuGrf;a&udkifcefU awmifwGif;aus; yGifhvS&Gmudk ay;onf? a&T"g;aqmufjynfhtdrf tajymufxkay;onf? avmurm&f atmifbk&m; 'g,umrif;w&m;vufxufppfvQif axmifudk trSL;cefU &mZausmftrnf udk rSnfhonf? a&Tusyfvufbuftdk; usdKif;4HcHay;onf? eEaZ,ausmfxiftrnfudk rSnfh a&Twdkuf0efcefUonf? eEausmfoltrnfudk rSnfh twGif;0efcefUonf? uGrf;cGufvufbuftdk; t0ef;waumif;ydwfaxG; tifxrf;pifvufcwf xD;eDanmif&Guf2qifhwyf"g;(tdrf)rnf;o&nf;rGTrf;ay;onf? wkyfajrmfjrdKUudk ay;onf?jrdKUvyf0efcefUonf? avmuo&blbk&m; 'g,um[Hom0wDa&mufrif; vufxuf pnfolausmfxiftrnfudk rSnfhonf? wGif;oif;rSL;cefUonf? 0efMuD;cefUonf? wGif;oif;rif;MuD; aersdK;aZ,aemf&xmaqmifonfhenf; taqmifudkaqmif&Gufap trdefUawmf&Sd aqmif&Guf&onf? rif;&Jrif;vS ausmfxiftrnf rif;MuD;rif;vStrnfudk rSnfhonf? ya'o&mZftrnfudk rSnfhonf? ya'o&mZmtrnfudk rSnfhonf? a0gyvmusdKif;a&Tcsuf 2pif;ay; 0g0if0guRwfudk a0gyvmpD; uHawmh wuf&onf? ou&mZf 1113ck (1752) [Hom0wDwvdkif;rif;wdkU tif;0jrdKUudk & [Hom0wDudk aqmif&mvrf;c&D; tMum;wGif qHk;avonf? 0efMuD;aersdK;a&Tawmifudk avmurm&fatmifbk&m; 'g,umrif;w&m;vufxuf aoG;aomufMuD;cefUonf? avmuom&blbk&m; 'g,umrif;vufxufs jrif;acgif;cefU ycef;MuD;aus; anmifwGif;&Gmudk ay;onf? eErdwftrnfudk rSnfhonf? a&Tcg;aqmifjynfhtdrfjynfh oif;acsm ay;onf? a&Tusyfvufbuftdk; ay;onf? ausmfxifeErdwftrnfudk rSnfh twGif;0efcefUonf? uGrf;cGufvufbuftdk;t0ef;ay;onf? 0efMuD;cefUonf? waumif;ydwf aiGaxG;tif xrf;pifvufcwf"g;rnf;o&DrTrf;ay;onf? uRefawmfrsdK;udk ay;onf? aersdK;a&Tawmiftrnfudk rSnfhonf?


(19 January


aemufrif;&Jrif;a&Tawmiftrnfudk rSnfhonf? aersdK;aZ,aemf&xmtaqmif enf;wlaqmifap trdefUawmf&Sd aqmif&Guf&onf? 0efMuD;oD&dOZemudk rm&fatmif&wembk&m;'g,umrif;w&m;vufxuf tpka&;cefU tb pma&;MuD;wGif axmufra&;om;&onf? avmurm&fatmifbk&m; 'g,um rif;w&m;vufxuf jrdKUvyftcGefpma&;cefUonf? vTwfawmfpma&;MuD;cefU onf? awmifwGif;MuD;aus; tifHk&Gmukday;onf? avmuo&blbk&m; 'g,um [Hom0wDa&mufrif;w&m;vufxuf bk&if&mZmtrnfudk rSnfhonf? a&Tusyf vufbuftdk;ay;onf? tdrfa&SUygb@m0efcefUonf? 0efaxmufcefUonf? vTwfapvkvifav; aoG;aomufudk0efcefUonf? ajymhpajrmif ae&mcsHk;awmf0ef cefUonf? vusfmeEoltrnfudkrSnfhonf? uGrf;cGufvufbuftdk;t0ef;ay;onf? usdKif;4HcHay;onf? oD&daZ,ocF,m trnfudkrSnhfonf? 0efapmifcefUonf? waumif;ydwf axG;tif jrif;ua&TZ0g uawmifa&Ta&;ay;onf? "g;tdrf(rnf;) o&DrTrf;oHywf7wefU ywjrm;pDay;onf? uGrf;vdyfoHk;jrTmay;onf? ouvyfwif&ef; xrf;pifvufcwfay;onf? 0efMuD;cefUonf? xD;eD anmif&Gufwqifh pvG,f5oG,fay;onf? usdKif; 2HcHay;onf? xD;eDanmif&Guf 2qifhay;onf? uGrf;vdyfoHk;jrTmay;onf? r[maersdK;oD[ol&trnfudk rSnfhonf? aoG;aomufpkjrif;pk tcsKyfwef;0efcefUonf? a&Taycarmufay;onf? rif;&JoD[oltrnf rif;&Jrif;vSausmfxiftrnfudk rSnfh wdkifwm;jrdKUudk ay;onf? uGrf;cGuf&Spfaxmifh vufbuftdk;y,if;wyfay;onf? "g;tdrft&if; tzsm;ou'gef rk',uHoD; ywjrm;pDay; aqmif&onf? uGrf;cGufy,if;wyf ay;onf? oHvQifwvJ 90ef;xD;eDanmif&Guf 3qifh jrif;MudK;a&TMu,fwyf ay;onf? &Sifyifhaemiftrnf avmuxGwfacgiftrnf &mZxGwfzsm;trnf "raomu&mZmtrnfudkrSnfhonf? t*wkv&mZmtrnf oD&dt*aoemywd trnf aersdK;&mZm trnfudk rSnfhonf? oD&OZemtrnfudkrSnfhonf/ (ou&mZf 1118ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 14&ufaeU) (19 January 1757) (ol&d,? *sefe0g&D 1929? pm53? azz0g&D 1929? pm 60-2)


2 April


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoem'g,umawmf vufeuf pMumocif toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; Asm'dwfawmf&Sdonf? umv0dywdwdkif; cdkifjynf&GmysufpD;a&GUvsm; om;ukdtrdrawGU? trdudk om;rawGU olykefoluefwdkUbrf;qD;aqmif,l&myg wvdkif;wdkUu tbdk;aMu;aiG ESifh tqifhqifha&mif;pm;onfuRefvnf; &Sdonf? txufjynf&Gmjidrf0yfpOfESpfbdkU vbdkUtapcHae&onfhuRef rdvmbvmuRefdk;uRefaygif t&yf&yf uRefwdkUrSm iga&Tpufawmfatmuf ocifolykefwdkUvufuuRef iga&Tpufawmfatmuf tvQif0ifa&muf trSKawmfudkxrf;cifvQif awmfvSefap? wvdkif;wdkUa&mif; cs 0,fonfhuRefrSm rdbajrmufjyD;ESifh qifhuJ uRefjzpfonfr[kwf? &efolwdkU brf;,la&mif;pm;orQuRefwdkUudk apvdkyg;vdk uRefjyKvdkonfhpdwfESifh 0,folwdkUrSm a&S;aemiftultnDa&mufonf rqdkom awmfvSefap? wvdkif; wdkU jynfodkU a&mufrS jynf&Gm,dk,Gif;vQif avsmfjypf'Pf cqdywfaMu;aiGESifh 0,fonfuRef jzpfvQif uRefESifh t&Siftwla&mufvQif tbdk;aMu;aiGudk ay;rS awmfvSefap? ocif tvQifuRefiguRefiga&Tpufawmfatmufa&mufvQif 4if;enf; vGwfap& rnf/ ou&mZf 1118ckwefcl;vqef; 14&ufaeU(2 April 1757) aZwk0wD eef;awmfwGif ay;tyfawmfrlonf/ (avmif;pk? rSwf 1? pm 219-20)


14 April


trdefUawmf&Sdonf b,aoe? t&yf&yfodkU pmay;onfrSm pmudk rcRefESifh? t&SnfwGif wHqdyfcyf tcsKyfMuD;tudkifMuD; uif;0efwHqdyfawmf0efjy bGJUudka&; vdyfwyf&rnf? vTwfrSmwHqdyfwvHk;xm; nnnfhrScwfrSwf ay;onfhwHqdyfudk b,aoeuodrf;&rnf? igtoQifb0&Siftavmif;rif; w&m;MuD;bk&m; tusdK;pD;yGm;awmfESifh pyforQudk aus;Zl;opmawmfESifhtnD tdk;xHk;pH&Sdonfhtwdkif; ppfaMumpD&if/ ou&mZf 1119ck wefcl;vjynfhausmf 11&ufaeU (14 April 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 19? pm 265)


5 September 1757

r[m'gefaZ,sod'd? aZ,s&efatmif? 'Dy*kPausmfol? auwkrmvm? pma&;ijzdK;axG;wdkUudkap &[ef;oCFmwdkUrSm toHk;taqmifudk awmif;,lol vkvifwdkUudk b,aoeuppf? t&yf&yfjrdKU&GmwGifaeonfh &[ef;oCFmwdkUrSm trSKtcif;&SdvQif r[mtwkv,o"r&mZ*kkq&mawmfu wHqdyfpm ESifh oCFm omraP owif;oHk;wdkUac:csrSvdkuf aqmif&Gufap? r[m'gef vkvifwdkUwGif q&mawmfu wHqdyfpmygaomfvnf; rac:rcsapESifh? pmoifhatmif t&yf&yf jrdKU&Gm jynfpdk;acgif;wdkUodkU ay;&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck awmfovif;vjynfhausmf&Spf&ufaeU (5 September 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 21? pm 269)


19 October


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? 'ifwJwGiftdrfxdrfjrm;ay;pm;onfrSm iaqGawmfrsdK;awmf qdk ausmuftkwfjzpfonfudkqdk 'ifwJ&Gmae aqGom;rsdK;om;wdkUvdkufvH brf;qD; xGef;xdk;y,f&Sm;onft&mrSmxGef;xdk;ydkifap?aqGom;rsdK;om;rSefvQif tkwfausmuf jzpfr[kwf aemif aqGom;rsdK;om;jzpfonf[l owdk;od*Folom;orD;rSp t&yf&yftaqGtrsdK; vlapmfum;wdkUonf rif;nD rif;om;uJhodkU rif;&SdefudkcH qif;&Jom;jynfoljynfom;wdkUudk tvGeftMuL; nnf;yef;ESdyfpuf rif;usifh pdk;usifh jyKaMumif;udk iga&Tem;awmfMum;&vQif aersdK;oD&daZ,aemf&xm? jrdKU0efaZ,&Eol? jrdKU0efvusfmpnfol? axmifrSL; t0ef;aoG;aomuf MuD;i,fom;wdkU 2cGef;acs&rnfrrSwfESifh wu,fhnDom;yif jzpfaomfvnf; rif;om;jzpfonf rif;ajr;jzpfonfqdkvQif ESKwfoD;udk twGif;uatmufvSD; jypf? iaus;Zl;opmawmfESpfyg;&Sdonfhtwdkif; igrkef;vQif rkef;csif; igcspfvQif cspfcsif;? iaus;Zl;Muufoa&awmfudkaxmuf ruGyfnyf pD&if/ ou&mZf 1119ck wefaqmifrkef;vqef;&Spf&uf4[l;aeU (19 October 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 22? pm 271)


29 October


ulbdkUqdyfacgif;uGJwGif oD&d{u&0fausmfv,fudk tpGwftacsmufudk *kP&J? puausmfxifwdkUudk oem;awmfrlonf/ vkyfpm; trIawmfudk xrf;&Gufap/ ou&mZf 1119ck wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 3&ufaeU (29 October 1757) pma&;awmfa0vk&mZmuwHqdyfawmfcyfonf/ (avmif;pk? rSwf 4? pm 227)


(29 October


owdoHauvabykw0gedap pwkowdAEeH owowHaA0p *d0&eo'H ba0tm,kraem 0Dowd'dOukuKuMuda,m 'aoem0dZm t'e &duaO0 Asuwd (wefqdyfawmf0efpm) (avmif;pk? rSwf 5? pm 229)


29 October


t&yf&yfu &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif yk&ydkufvTmwGifygonfhtrdefUawmftwdkif; a&;onfh pmcRefudk aersdK;oD&daZ,saemf&xmrSmjyap? aersdK;oD&daZ,saemf&xm u jyaMumif;udk rSwfpmygrS b,aoeuwHqdyfcwf&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 3&ufaeU (29 October 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 20? pm 267)


20 November


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? pr,fe*dkwarm0tpOf uif;wdkifwdkUu &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif csufwGif ou&mZf 111(8)ckup 1119ckwdkifuif;cGefawmfaiG 4438 0efpm;tjcm;aiG 555d 'lwarmuif; pr,fe*dkuif; 2uif; tcGefawmf 490d 'lbk&m;uRefawmfwdkUu rif;vSausmfxifudk ay;tyfygonf qufoGif;&m bk&m;uRefawmfwdkU udk,fryg qufoGif;onfudk twyfrodEdkifygbk&m; uRefawmfwdkUu uif;cGefawmfqdk rif;vSausmfxifrSm ay;tyfygonf? qufonf pmqufaomcg jrifolcsdefol pm&if;rSwfolqufonf aiGudk xdrf;odrf;olwdkUESifh rif;vSausmfxifpma&;uif;0ef b,aoeuppfESKwf xGufnD\rnDonfudk ppfcsufudk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck ewfawmfvqef; q,f&ufaeU (20 November 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 23? pm 273)


29 November 1757

b,aoe[kwfrSefawmfwnfhjim;Mum;odorQudk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifrnf&nf wHqdyfudk tyfawmfrlonf? tcsKyftudkifcefUawmfrlonf? rnfonfhou&mZf rqdk wvvQif vqef;ESpf&ufaeUudk yk&ydkufvTmoGif; &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD; wif&onf? vTwfrSp a&SUaemufHk;0if;Hk;eef;awmfywfvnf trnf&rSL;rwfwdkU tdrf0eftdrfrif;nDrif;om;wdkU tdrfwGif cHkolrwfxm; pD&iforQ jyD;jywfaom w&m;rIpum;rIudkvnf; cHkpma&; a&SUae trIonfwdkUudkac: ppfaMum&rnf cHkyef;a&SUae pma&;yef;a&mufvufaqmif cHkwdkUudkay;onfhvufaqmif a&SUae ajc<uay;&onfh aiGvufaqmifwif&onfh yPma&;pm;rSwfpm;aMu;aiG yPmrsm;onf vqef;w&ufaeUuonf vukefwdkif qif;&Jom;wdkUwGif uHkaMumif;udk odom&atmif a&;om; a&Tem;awmfMum; &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD; wif&rnf? uGrf;bdk;pD&ifpm;rsm;rSmvnf; ay;&onfrsm;udk rSwfcsufESifh &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif&rnf trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1119ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 4&ufaeU (29 November 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 17? pm 260)


28 December


vTwfupmcRefawmfrsm;udk pma&;cefUoolwdkUra&; t00pmcRefawmfrsm;udk a&;ay;aMumif;udk a&Tem;awmfMum;awmfrlonf? cefUawmfrlonfh pma&; vuf0Jaemf&xm? vuf,maemf&xm? a&Tawmifaemf&xm? vuf0Ja&Tawmif? vuf,ma&Tawmif wdkUudkoma&;ap? onfhjyif t00a&;vQif vufudkjzwf? pmcRefawmfudkvnf; tdrf&mrSm ra&;ray;apeSifh? a&Teef;awmf vTwfwGifom a&;ay;ap? b,aoeudk jyef&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 4&ufaeU (28 December 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 26? pm 280)


29 December 1757

a&Teef;awmfvTwfwGif pmcRefawmfudk a'0aemf&xm?aZ,aemf&xm? ausmfxif aemf&xm wdkUudk pmay; ayay;rsm;udk pmcRefawmf a&;ay;ap/ pmcRefawmfa&; cefUawmfrlonfh b,aoeudk jyef&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (29 December 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 27? pm 282)


29 December


rSL;rwfwdkUrSm 0wfvHktif;*sDudk a&TaiGzJ&H tem;uGyf r0wfrqifap ESifh xl;oem;awmfrlrS 0wfqifap? b,aoejrdKU0efwdkUudk qdk&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (29 December 1757) (avmif;pk? rSwf 25? pm 278)


4 January


warm0uif;awmf pr,fe*dkuif;awmfrSp jrefrm &Srf;wvdkif; avSoGm;ukefonfwdkUrSm q,fcdkifwcdkif aumufcHonfht&monf qif;&Jom; ukefonfwdkUukefoGm;Edkifrnf r[kwf? xHk;pHyif jzpfaomfvnf; q,fcdkifwcdkif raumufapESifh? avSwGifukefw&mygvQif aumufcH&rnfrSm ukefonfwdkU tiftm;udk axmufcsifhqifjcif oHk;pkpk wpkavsmhnHh aumufcHap? wkyfukefonfwdkUrSm uif;apmifhuif;aewdkUuom cRefay;jrJay;ap? aiG 1H qefwjynf zsifyemrwifapESifh? a&Tb0g;awmfatmufa&mufvQif a&muf aMumif;udk uif;0efrSm tpD&ifcHap? uif;0efa&SUuif;pma&;wdkU taumHawmfrsm; udk aumufap? aumH &onfhb@mawmfrsm;udk pm&if;us,fpm&if;csKyf ESifh uif;0efu pma&;oif;jrJoGif;ap/ ou&mZf 1119ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 11&ufaeU (4 January 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 24? pm 275)


13 January


&wemodCFukef;abmif eef;awmfwGif; waMumif;a&;pmcReftrdefUawmf jyef buf tyfonf? ukef;&Gmuif;apmifh ipHwdkUrSm 15tdrfaxmifom;udk uif;wGif pD;yGm;awmf b@mawmfrsm;udk tMunfhtSKaeap? jynfjrdKUu rif;rSKrif;cif; jrdKUrI&Gm0efrcefUrxm;apESifh uif;wGifae ipHtdkESifh pD;yGm;awmf udkMunfhIaeap/ ou&mZf 1119ck wydkwGJvqef; 5&ufaeU (13 January 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 12? pm 245)


(13 January


rkwfqdk;jcHtuGufwGif a'0Avausmfaqmf euftdrfajc 169&SdonfrSm vlMuD;iyHkudk t&yftuGufwGif tMuD;vlaqmfa0bdkU rD;aqmfcefUawmfrlonf? MuD;pdk; aqmfbefjrJtkyf aqmfeuft&yfwGif rnfonfhtpktrIxrf;rqdk wpnf; wHk; wnf; &Sdatmif MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; ESdK;aqmf rif;rSKrif;cif;tkwfo,f opfwdkuf ausmufwdkuf trSKtao;tzGJUbk&m;wnfausmif;aqmufromrI omrI tvHk;pHkrsdK;udk nDnGwfpGm cefUxm;aqmfbefxrf;&Guf&rnf a&TavSaoewf rSp trIawmfxrf;trnf& vlysdKawmfrsm;rSm rif;rSKrif;cif;&Sdonf rtm; rvyf aMumif; acgif;vlMuD;wdkUudk ajymvQifvGwfap? jrdKU&GmwGif udk,frIr&SdtrI awmfaumif;&m xrf;&Guf&Sdonf tcdkufudk tdrfwGifom;ajr;aus;uRef&SdvQif aocif;&Sifcif; tkwfo,f ajro,fwdkUudk vdkufvHxrf;ap? aMu;aiGrSm acgif;wdkUu trSKxrf;&nftiftm;udkaxmuf vGwfoifhvQifvGwfap? aus;uRef om;ajr; r&SdvQif trItao;tzGJUudkvGwfap? t&yfwGif cdk;ao;rD;yGm;rSmvnf; ray:ro&atmif nnfhaeESdK;aqmf wtdrfudk cRefaom 0g; 10wefonf 5pif;wefonf pdkufaxmif&Sdap? tdrfrdk;rSmvnf; tdk;a&jynfhxm;&Sdap? xrif;csufjyKwfonfrSmvnf; usif; 3Fjynfhwl; csufcsdefudkom csufap? eHeufav;csufwD;ausmf 3armif;csufjyKwf rD;aojidrf;ap? n 3csufwD;ausmf 2armif;wGif jrdKU0efwdkUarmif;cyfvQif xrif;csufap? 4if;3csufwD;ausmf7armif;udk rD;aojidrf;ap? csufjyKwfcsdef armif;cyfonfhtcsdefwGifu vGwfonfhtcsdefwGif wtdrfrQrD;yGm;rD;ayguf ryGifhr&SdapESifh? rD;usif;wGif rD;aqmfudktrSdKufMuufarG;ESifh xdk;prf;owfap? aojidrf;onfumv jzpfvsuf raorjidrf;prf;oyfonfh trSdKuf MuufarT;udkpGJ uyfavmifvQif rD;Sdonfhtdrf&Sifudkac: jrdKU0efHk;rSm ydkUtyf&rnf? vrf;c&D;udkvnf; aq;tdk;aq;wefaomuf roGm;rvmapESifh? oGm;vmvQif aq;tdk;aq;wefudk vk,lodrf;xm;&rnf? rD;aqmfudk waeUig;MudrfvSnfhywf ppfaMumap? nnfhrQnnfhcif;rSmvnf; trItcif;r&Sdonfudk nnfhwcsufwD; ausmfvQif roGm;rvmapESifh? jrpfwm;&rnf? trItcif;&Sd oGm;vQif rD;tdrfESifh oGm;vmMuap? vlaqmfudk rjywfvSnfhywf


(13 January


ppfaMumap? olcdk;wdkUtdrf,musDusabmuf,lwufcdk;onfudkod [pfaMumf vQif Mum;orQ0ef;&Hbrf;qD;ap? Mum;axmufodaxmufodoifhvsuf rvmr a&muf rnDrnmaevQif aeooludk 5csuftdkufcHap? tdkufrcH0HhvQif aMu; 50okwfap? t&yfrif;rIrif;cif; tkwfo,fajro,f tkwfwdkuf ausmufwdkuf trItao;tzGJ bk&m;wnfausmif;aqmuf romrIomrI&SdvQif &SdolwdkUu acgif;tMuD;wdkUrSmwdkif ESdK;aqmfonfudk rvmra&muf rnDrnGwfjyKusifh vQif rvmra&mufoludk 5csuftdkufcHap? rcH0HhvQif aMu;5omusap? udk,f rtm;rvyf wdkifqdkvQif aus;uRefvdkufap/ aus;uRefr&SdvQifvGwfap? t&yfwGif vlMuD;vlaqmfwdkUrif;rSIrif;cif; romrIomrI&Sd ESdK;aqmfonfudk rwdkifrqdk rvmra&muf rnfonfhtpktrIxrf; jzpfonf twif;trmqdkvQif acgif;vlaqmfaoG;aomufMuD;i,fom; wpknDnDnGwfnGwf 0ef;&HnDnm qHk;r&rnf? t&yftuGufwGif aevsuf aoabmf&Sifbuf r& oli,fcsif;tpkodkU r0ifaeoludk aygufabmfom;csif; jzpfaomfvnf; oli,fcsif;pkuxGuf omrIromrIudk rvdkufrulapESifh trdefUawmfrSwfpm ay;tyfonfhtwdkif; t&yfwGif;wGif acgif;vlaqmfrD;aqmf aoG;aomufi,f om;wpk uGrf;vbufESifh jyefbufcsKyfqdk&rnftrdefUawmf/ (ou&mZf 1119ck wydkwGJvqef;5&ufaeU) (13 January 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 13? pm 247-8)


24 January


awmifbufv,fwGif;t0if &mZoaX;ydkifonf/ ou&mZf 1119ck wydkwGJvjynfhausmf 1&ufaeU (24 January 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 28? pm 284)


4 February


ou&mZf1119ck wydkwGJvqef; 11&uf5aeU(19 January 1758) aumif;rI awmfapwDwnfrnf a&Tqdkif;trsm;cwfap&rnfod'dAm[kudk ac:awmfrl a&T 1d udk tqdkif;rnfrQ&rnf tar;awmf&SdvQif 6qdkif;&ygonf avQmufonf? 6qdkif;jyif r&EdkifjyDavm xyftar;awmf &Sdonfudk r&EdkifygavQmufonf? rdusdKif;udkac:awmfrl ar;vQif a&T1dudk 8qdkif;&ygonfavQmuf od'dAm[k u a&Tcwfvl? rdusdKif;ua&TcwfvlwdkUudk a&T1dpDtyfawmfrl eef;awmfwGif 14&ufaeU(22 January 1758)up cwfaponf? vjynfhausmf2&ufaeU (25 January 1758) 8pdkif;pD&ygonf/ a&Tpvnf;eJusefonf? od'dAm[kudk rsm;pGm tjypfawmfwifonf? b@mawmfudk avsmhatmifjyKonf? uRef;qdk; jzpfonf? b@mawmfa&Twqdkif;udk 10ay;avsmfEdkifrnfr[kwf? ray;avsmfapESifhawmh? rdusdKif;udkod'dAm[kr xGifap? od'dAm[kru a&T7qdkif;ESifh tjym; 50qufvufoGif;/ ou&mZf 1119ck wydkwGJvjynfhausmf 12&ufaeU (4 February 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 11? pm 242)


7 February


b,aoeudk igut&yf&yfudk tppftaMumftcsKyftudkif cefUawmfrl ppfaMum &onf? rif;acgifaemf&xmonf opfabmifrD;odkU trSKtaMumif; eifbJqJ qdkonfrSmrqdkESifh? rSL;MuD;csif;yifjzpfonf? qdkif&mpD&ifpkrSm igcefUawmfrlonfh twdkif; qdkif&mpD&ifMu&onfjzpfonf? usD;udkbkwfdkao? bkwfudkusD;dkao rSvnf; igt&Sifb0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD;bk&m;aus;Zl; Muufoa&awmf&Sdrnf? igtrdefUawmftwdkif;vnf;wnfrnf? b,aoerSm ppfaMum&onfom? b,aoeudk,frIudk,fpD;yGm;r[kwf? pD;yGm;awmfjzpfonf remomaompum;udk rqdkMuESifh? ighuRefb,aoeuJhodkU ESpfa,mufoHk;a,muf ighwGif&SdvQif ighpD;yGm;awmfrsm;jzpf&m &Sd&monf? b,aoeudk txl;oolwdkUu ighpD;yGm;awmf udk avsmhenf;atmifjyKygaiG 100ay;aomf vnf; avsmhenf;atmifjyKrnf uRefr[kwf? igh&mZ0wfawmfudkaMumuf&GHU cefUnm;vSooljzpfonf? ighuRefawmf b,aoeudk igomapyg;cefUxm;Edkifonf? r[kwfrrSefaom trIudk avQmufxm;aqmif&GufpD&ifrnfr[kwf? ightrSKawmfudkom dkdkaoao aqmif&Gufonf? dk;dk;rwfrwf ajzmifhom; rSefuefaom oabmvuPm&Sdaom uRefjzpf ig,HkMunfawmfrl&rnfjzpf uif;t&yfudk tyfawmfrl&onf? abmifpD;abmifeif;wdkUudk tpOftdk;&Sdonfhtwdkif;udkom qdkap&rnf t&om jzpfonf? trSKxrf;MuD;vQifMuD;avQmuf i,fvQifi,favQmufaxmuf b,aoeuvTwfvQif vTwf&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck waygif;vqef;1&ufaeU (7 February 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 14? pm 252)


11 February


bkef;awmftvTefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf vufeuf pMum ocif qifjzLqifeDrsm;&Sif toQifb0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; tkyf&Spfaus;awmifvdrfvkwGif r[mtwkv,o"r&mZm*kkq&mawmfu aqmuf onfhausmif;udk rkwfav;rsufeSmavSum; 5ql rSefuif; 2ql wHcg;&Guf&Sif vGwfausmif;wGif wnfxm;dk; O*ifESifha&TwwfEdkiforQ xnfh vkyfap/ ou&mZf 1119ck waygif;vqef;5&ufaeU (11 February 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 2? pm 223)


20 March


b,aoeu&Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif&mrSm jrdKUaejynfom;wdkif; cdkifEdkifiHae ow0g wdkUonf qif;&Javonfudk Mum;odonfhtwdkif; avQmufonfyifjzpfonf? qif;&Jom;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk pdwfcsESvHk;MuoabmjzLpifMu t&Sifudk pdwfapwemESifh arwma&mufMurSvnf; omoema&; jynfxJa&; oufomrnf/ w&m;rIpum;rIaMu;rI aiGrI tjiif;tcHk txkwftawmif; tavQmuftxm; a&muf ppfaMumpD&if&vQif *wdav;yg;ESifhtnD trSL; trwfcHkolrwfwdkU rwdrf;rnGwf awmfwnfhajzmifhrwfpGm pD&if&rnf? qif;&Jom;uRefawmfrsdK;ESifh trSL;trwfolaX;ol<u,fwdkU aMu;aiGacs;&m pyf&Sufonf[l &mZ0wf rpyf rqdkifonfhtrSKrsm;udk taESmiftzGJUxdwfMudK;ajccsif; rcsnfrcwfapESifh? raESmifrzGJUapESifh? igha&TjrdKUawmftwGif; jyifp t&yf&yfapmfbGm;jrdKUpm; t&yf&yfolMuD; trSKaqmifpD&if&olwdkUudk aphESHUatmif trdefUawmftrSmawmf pm&SnfwGif wHqdyfcwf wHqdyfrif;0efpm vdyfwwf a[m&rnf/ ou&mZf 1119ck wefcl;vqef; 12&ufaeU (20 March 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 15? pm 255)


16 May


jynfjrdKUrif;wHk;jrdKU? &efukefjrdKU? awmifiljrdKU? rdk;rdwfjrdKU? a&uif;jrdKU? pukjrdKU? odEDjrdKU? rdk;eJjrdKU? om,m0wDjrdKUrSp t&yf&yf jrdKU0ef ppfuJem;cHcefUawmfrl orQjrdKU&Gmrsm;wGif em;cHwdkUonf &mZ0wfawmfudk uRrf;usifodjrifolvnf; &Sdonf? ruRrf;usifrodrjrifolvnf; &Sdavonf/ &mZ0wfawmfudk uRrf;usifoolvnf; yGm; wwfrSwfatmif? ruRrf;rusif rodrjrifoludk vnf; uRrf;usifodjrifatmif em;cHwdkU rSwfom;&efudk ia&Tem;cHawmfMuD; "rrif;&Ju a&;rSwfpD&if pmay;tyfap? "rrif;&Judk t&yf&yfem;cHwdkUudk tcsKyf tpD&ifcefUawmfrlonf/ (ou&mZf) 1120jynfhe,kefvqef;10&ufaeU (16 May 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 8? pm 236)


16 May


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoem'g,umawmfvufeuf pMum ocif qifjzKqifeDrsm;&Sif toQifb0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD;bk&m;? b, aoeudk xm;qiftdrfqif pG,faqmuf acG;r acG;i,f aemufydwfa&Twbuf &wefUqifpG,f&yf tdk;qifpG,ft&G,fxkajymufZmabmuf tem;a&TuGyf oem;awmfrlonf? vkyfaqmif/ ou&mZf 1120jynfh e,kefvqef; 10&uf3aeU (16 May 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 3? pm 225)


16 May


&wema&Tabmifawmfcwf Ea0&ausmfi,fom; ixGef;0? i&Srf;jzLwdkUu bk&m;uRefawmfwdkU &wema&Tabmifawmfcwfvl 57wdkUudk qdyfwnfyGJuif; ul;wdkUtay:0ef tvHk;pHkudk vGwfjidrf;ap? ou&mZf 1119ck awmfovif; vjynfhausmf 12&uf (9 September 1757) bk&m;Asm'dwfawmfjrwfudk OD;xdyf&Guf&ygonfhtwdkif; cRef;awmif&yfwGif uRef;opf3qkyf4qkyf 5qkyf 6qkyf opfaygif; 7850,f csygonfudk uif;awmf0efu opftvHk; 10abmifaMu; 10uif;apmifhpm;aiG 1d 2H vaumif;onfcsac: cs0wf 20ay;& tyltjyif; awmif; &Sd&cJhonfbk&m; Asm'dwfawmfjrwfudk OD;xdyf &Guf&ygonfhtaMumif;udk toem;awmfcH &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifygonfbk&m;? Ema0&ausmf i,fom; ixGef;0u &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif&mrSm tpOfaumufpm; dk;&Sdonfhtwdkif; uif;0efrSm qdk qufoGif;ap/ ou&mZf1120jynfh e,kefvqef;10&uft*FgaeU (16 May 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 18? pm 262)


19 August


a&mufapmufusnfrdkif;ESifhvScspfwdkU uRefpum;udk vTwfwGif trwfwdkUESifh buftqdkESifh pD&ifcsufudk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif ESpfbufpum;udk "rowf pma[mif;ESifh axmufaomf wa,mufu rdvmbvm tpOfqif;oufonfh uRefqdkonf? wa,mufu ESpfou&mZft&Snf tvkyfb@mray;rtyf uRefrqdkap&qdkonfudk axmufvQif tpOfuRefrSef uRefr[kwfom rsufESm vTJumvESifhuReft&mu vGwfaumif;onfqdkonf? rSefrnf rrSefrnfudk ppf? vTwfwGifrif;rwfwdkUaumuf,lpD&ifonfh t&monf "rowfusrf;*efxHk;pH pma[mif;udkrMunfh? twaemrwdt,lESifh obifaps;yGJjzwfouJhodkU vufvD vufqtwdkif; t&SnftodqHk;jzwfonfht&monfroifh? w&mtqHk;tjzwf onf rawmfrwnfhr[kwfrrSef*wdav;yg;odkU nGwf pD&ifjcif;onf pD&ifol udk,fESdKufom tjypfr[kwf? xdkjynfxdkwdkif;EdkifiH xdkjrdKUxdkjynfxdkcdkif aus;&Gmwdkif; EdkifiHa&;jcm;&monf tpOfurmpum;qdkonf? aemifuJhodkU rusifhESifh? "rowftapmifapmifjzwfxHk;yHkpHoufaooabmvuPm nDnGwf [kwfrSefatmif wvwefonf wvcGJwefonf ckepf&ufwefonf qifjcif aqG;aEG; pD&if&rnf/ ou&mZf 1120jynfh0gacgifvqef; 15&ufaeU (19 August 1758) (avmif;pk? rSwf 16? pm 258)


19 January


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf jzpfawmf rlaom t&dErmpMuma&TvSHqifjzLqifeDqifusm;rsm;ocifa&Teef;a&Tjy'focif ZrL'dwf uRef;ajrjyif xD;aqmif;apmfbGm;rsm;ocif toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m; MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ rPdyl&jrdKUwdkif; cdkifukd tpnfqif;ouf pdk;vkyfoluonf; apmfbGm;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU ou&mZf 1120ck jymodkvqef; 14&ufaeU (12 January 1759) rPdyl&jynfwdkif;jrdKU eef;ajra&odrf;awmfrl igha&TvufawmfodkU a&mufaMumif; eef;pnfarmfuGef; ausmufpma&;om; xm;awmfrlcJhonfhaemuf tqufquf pdk;tkyfMuD;yGm; vdkoolwdkU 3ESpfvQif orD;ESr? wESpfvQif a&Tcsdef 10? jrif;100vif;av 500qdyfvl;pnf;oGm; wyfaomrQm; 5000? opfap;csdef 1000quf? wdkif;a&; jynfa&;jynfrIxGufvQif apmfbGm;wdkU rl;rwfESifh jrif;pD; 1000? vifav;udkif vl 1000? 2pkvl 2000ESifh iga&TpufawmfcsDawmfrl&maemufawmfvdkuf&rnf? aus;Zl;opmawmfudk apmifh trSKawmfudk xrf;ukefEdkifvQif apmfbGm;MuD; &rnf? aus;Zl;opmawmfudk rapmifh? trIawmfudk rxrf;raqmif0Hh? pnf;vnf;pnf;om;aoGzD usifhavaomf omoem 5000udkapmifhaom ewfoMum;rif;/ pwkavmuygvewfom;4yg;? bkrpdk;? tmumopdk;? awmapmifhewf? jynfapmifhewf? eef;apmifhewf? ig\udk,fawmfjrwfudk apmifhaomewf? ig\Ouifo&wemxD;csufawmfudk apmifhaomewf? "r&X? 0dkVu? 0dlyu? uka0&? ydEdk;? pED? y&rDoGm? r[mydEJcyJrsm;pGm ewfwumvnf; owf raeaoavap? Munf;oGm;vnf; opfusm;csaoFh bDvl;obufwpfwifaoG;om;pm;avap? a&oGm;vnf; rdausmif;vbdkif ruef;vdyfig;pm; raeaoavap? avmifrD;vufeuf jA[mpuf? 0&pdefvufeuf oMum;puf? rdk;MudK;vufeufewfwdkUpufvnf; qufquf rvGJxufcsrf;uGJatmif ypfavap/ ovdyfvnf; acsaoG;avqdk;pGm temtrsdK; 96yg;a&m*grsm;vnf; pGJavap? EljzLEleDozef;tp&Sdaom raumif;aomtemwdkUonf udk,fpGJ vlcsif;rwlvlabmfr0if jzpfavap? vkifoD;


19 January


aqmifyGm;pnf;pdrfrsm;vnf;qkwfaomusaoma&cJhodkU waeUwyg;a&enf;ig; uJhodkU&Sm;yg;iwfrGwf'kAduE&uyf? a&m*E&uyf? owE&uyf? 0dvkyE&uyf 4yg;aomuyfwdkUonf wjydKifeufwnf;a&muf a&arSmufaom qm;avS uJhodkUysufpD;csif;odkUa&mufavap/ ab;&Spfyg;'gPfq,fyg;wdkUonfvnf; oGm;av&m&m t&yfygouJhodkUa&muf zufowf? zufocsm? wkemckydwf? temwdkU ruGmwemrIcsrf;omcsif;r&Sd? &Sdavap? ighaus;Zl;opmawmfudk apmifhoddkaopGm ig\trIawmf tbdk;awmf tcGefawmfig\urnf;pm tpnf&Sdonfhtwdkif; rSefuefpGmxrf;&GufayvQifvnf; temtrsdK; 96yg;aom qdkcJhjyD;aom tjzpftaygif;wdkUonf ESif;jrLrD;cdk;wdrfwdkuf tE&m,frS uif;vGwfvsuf oefU&Sif;pifus,fpGma&mifjcnfawmfwaxmifaqmifaom aerif;qef;opfaom vwufopfaoma&uJhodkU waeUwyg;wdk;wufyGm;rsm; onfudk pdwf2yg;csrf;omjcif;udk& udk,f\tjcm;rJhb0 ajymif;aomtcg vlrif;ewfrif;pnf;pdrfcsrf;omudk& edAmefa&TjynfodkU a&mufavap/ ou&mZf 1120jymodkvjynfhausmf6&ufaeU (19 January 1759) ausmufpma&; uonf;jrdKU eef;OD;wGifpdkufcJhonf/ pdkufolouf&Snf aemf&xm/ (avmif;pk? rSwf 29? pm 106-7)


12 April


r[mtwkv,ar&mZ*kk (qHkxm;omoemjyK) q&mawmf trdefU&Sdonf/ twGif;vQJawmr&Gmae&SifawaZm'Dy? &SifOmP*rDr&SdvQif tjcm*dkPf;tkyf &Smawmhrnf r[kwfjyD/ &SifOmP*rDtkyfcsKyf&if; aus;&GmaeoHCmwdkUudk MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; qHk;rpD&if tkyfcsKyf*dkOf;tkyf q&mjyK qHk;r&rnf/ umv0dywdtcdkufs olUaus;Zl;udkrSD toufarG;&onfwaMumif;? omoemawmfpD;yGm;jzpfrnfwaMumif;? taMumif;rsm;udk axmufI twGif;oQJolMuD;ESifh aus;&GmaeoHCmwdkUudk Edkifeif;Muyfwnf;pGm qHk;r omoemawmf pD;yGm;jzpfatmif jyK&rnf/ w&yfwaus;awmifoGm;ajrmufoGm; rjyKESifh? pmayrjywfrvyfEdk;aqmfoifMum;ap/ ou&mZf 1121ck aESmif;wul;vjynfh5aeU (12 April 1759) tyfonf/ (a,m? pm 65)


10 September 1759

bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom t&dErm vufeufpMum &wem qifjzLrsm;ocif wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD;xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkU\ ocifjzpfawmf rlaom tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf? pEma'0Duref;puf awmf&mrSmwnfxm;aqmufvkyfonfh p&yfudkrSefuif; 4qlpdkufvSLap/ (ou&mZf) 1121ck awmfovif;vjynfhausmf 4&ufaeU (10 September 1759) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 30? pm 110)


(21 September


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? oD&dok"rm&mZm om;awmfjzpf wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD;udk ighaejynfawmfwGif ig,HkrSwfawmfrlonfhtwdkif; trIukefrnfudk &nf cefUxm;awmfrlonf? rif;wGifrSK;rwfjyK apoHk;oolwdkUonf &mZ0wf"r 0wf avmu0wfudk odjrifEdkifol vdrfrmolr&Sd? vlqdk;vloGrf;rsm;onf wdkif;um;cdkif tpGeftem;jrdKUjyaus;&Gmcdkif t&yf&yfodkU toG,foG,f t00 pmay;rSm roGm;rac:rcsapESifh? aus;Zl;opmawmfudk apmifhodool? tarQmf tjrifynm okwu0dESifh vludk wOD;w0wnf;om rifESKwfxGuf cHrSwfa&;om; w0wnf;ac:cif;&SdvQif ac:odrf;ap&rnf? O'defpnfoludktyf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck awmfovif;vjynfhausmf 15&ufaeU) (21 September 1759) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 32? pm 115)


(22 September


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf jzpfawmfrl aom vufeufpMum&wemqifjzLrsm;ocif toQifb0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf? oD&dok"r&mZm&wemoHk;yg;*kPfawmf rdbq&m orm;wdkU aus;Zl;cyfodrf;aom &[ef;&SifvljynfolwdkU qkawmif; yCem ydkUqufaom arwmaMumifh igudk,fawmfrSp rdbk&m;om;awmf orD;awmf rSL;awmf rwfawmf ol&Jolcwf vufeufqifjrif; yuwdcsrf;oms 1121ck wefaqmifrkef;vjynfhausmf 14&ufaeU (18 November 1759) rif;vS&mZmudk AdkvfrSL;cefU jrif;100 aoewf 1000ESifh '0,fjrdKUodkU csDaponf? 4if;oMuZf ewfawmfvqef;9&ufaeU(28 November 1759) ykcef;MuD;pm;pnfolaemf&xm a,mapmfbGm;udk odk[efbGm;trnfESifh aumif;jyK awmfrl jrif;110 aoewf 400ausmf vSHudkifaygif; 1110sausmfESifh csDaponf? 4if;vjynfhausmf4&ufaeU (8 December 1759) oabFmawmfMuD; ESifh oabFmi,fwdkufavS 100wyifwdkif OcRef;O0ef; &yuwl 31vufeuf udkifaygif; 1700a&aMumif;csDaponf? igudk,fawmfvnf; ewfawmf vjynfhausmf3&ufudk trSL;trwf tvHk;t&if; qifjrif;ol&Jolcuf taygif;jcH&Hvsuf vrif;\ wifhw,fjcif;ESifhtwl &efukefjrdKUu oabFmawmfESifh '0,fweoFm&D ,dk;',m; 'Gg&m0wDjrdKU vAHkZif; (r,f)udk odrf;Hk; w&m;ojzifh qHk;rESdrfeif;awmfrl aejynfawmfodkU ta&SU&Srf;jynfuywf oufpHawmfrlrnf? ighaejynfawmfwGif igudk,fawmf wdkif;EdkifiH vSnfhvnf pHoGm;ESdrfeif;onfhtcdkuf ighwGifom;Mo&oightdk;t&mudk aemufiguJhodkU pdk;tkyfjyXmef;&rnfom;jzpf ,Hkawmfrlonfhtwdkif; ightrIawmfudk aqmif&GufrppD&if&rnf tapmifhtaewdkif;a&;jynfa&; trIudk yGef;wD;usifvnffatmif cefUxm;awmfrlonfhtwdkif; arwmESifh om,macsiH ajzmifhrwfpGm vkifa&;MuHcif;&SdorQudk pD&if&rnf? ,ckumv rdk;avpJyGifh aEGvqef;awmh rnfjzpfonf? rD;zGm;cdk;ao;wdkUudk vHkUvx<uMuyfMuyf wnf;wnf; ESdK;aqmfpD&if&rnf? uefawmfajrmif;awmfvkyfcsdefumv vGefav jyD;onf? usHK;wHcg;jy tdk;rsm;udkom usdK;pm;tm;xkwfpD&if? usHK;rSm wkyfopfysnf qif;&Jom;wdkUs tjyD;ulap? usHK;ajr


(22 September


rSm wkyfwmudkwjznf;jznf; pD&if&rnf? wHcg;jytdk;armfuGef;rsm;rSm pnful;iomxGef;atmifonf iga&Tpufawmfatmuf t&nftoGm;r&Sd olaumif;jzpfvdk jrJpGJcpm;onfESifh igoem;awmfrl vuf,ma&TawmifbGJU ESifh usHK;wGif;pm;a&;olMuD;uvH taqmftMuyfwdkU tjyKtusifhtvQyf tabmuf tcsJUtxGiftcGJtcefUudk od&aptaqmf tESdK;tMuyftr xm;cJhonf vlrQr[kwf oGm;wdkrsufESmtdk wa,mcGufpum;udk em,l Xm0&udk tvdk&SdaomaMumifh tkwfxufausmufXm0&jzpfrnf&nf pD&ifawmfrlonf udk opfysnfudkatmufu tjynfhcif; ausmufudktay:u pDcif;onfht&monf ausmufxuf ESpfopfysnf touf&SnfrnfuJhodkU rjcifh vkyfaqmifonfudk Mum;awmfrlonf? vGefrdonfudkomvGefap? aemifonfuJhodkU rvkyfr aqmifapESifh? ighaejynfawmf ywfvnf ajrvnf; ausmufESifhtwl ajre*dk&f aumif;jzpfonf? ausmufcif;rnf aomcgajrudk nDnGwfatmifxkjyD;vQif Munfxifodyfxdk; cif;ap? toHk;awmf tvdkawmf&Sdonfh ,ef;vnf; 15000 cefUom t&yf&yf igha&Tbkef;awmfaMumifh &onfh ,rf;ESifh aejynfawmfuygonfh,rf; tpkpkygonfh tajrmufaoewf vufeuftifudkaxmuf ,rf;enf;onf? ,ef;7000? 8000cefU avSaumif; wufaumif;ESifh vlaumif; vHkjcHKatmif cefUxm; &efukefjrdKUawmfodkU ydkUvSmap? &efukefjrdKUawmfwGif &SdvQif taxmuftvSrf; yifv,faMumif;oifh vdkvQif teD;tpyf ywfvnf jrif;aumif;jrif;rmrnfolUjrif;rqdk odrf;aumuf trIxrf;udkvnf; ppfao ppfom; 0yfoolaus;Zl;opm 2yg;udk apmifha&Smuf jrJjrefooludk a&G;aumuf 3000wefonf 5000wefonf&orQ jrif;wyfpm a&Tpufawmfjrwfatmuf aemufygaxmif awmifilaMumif;vmap? jrdKUrSm aoewfvkvifrcefUrrm xm;cJhonf vl400udkvnf; cefUvQif jrif;wyfESifh wcsufwnf; pD&if cefU&efvdkufvSmap&rnf? O'deftdEudktyf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck owif;uRwfvqef;1&ufaeU) (22 September 1759) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 33? pm 117-18)


6 December


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom t&dErmvufeufpMum &wem qifjzLrsm;ocif wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkU\ ocifjzpfawmf rlaom tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf? aoewfypfrnfaom cgajymif;udkxdk;wHESifh 3csuf4csufusyfjyD;rS ajymif;udkarSmuf cgjyD;vQif usnfaphESifh,rf;udkjcifh ajymif;rSm oGwfjyD;vQif aoewfaESmifhudk ajrwGif nDnDusatmif awhumawhum 2csuf3csufaqmifhjyD;rS ykqdk;Murf;ESifh ajymif; 0wGif wvTm2vTmusyf xdk;wHzsm;ESifh ,rf;udk xdatmifcs xdk;wHacgif; ESifhjyef ,rf;ay:wGif odyfodyfcsyfcsyfaeatmif 2csuf3csufawhjyD;rS usnfroGwf yqdk;Murf; renf;rrsm;usnfodkU xdatmif odyfcsjyD;rS oHcGufudkzGifh em;wGif tHkpkjyD;vQif aoewfwHqmjyD;awmhonf? ypfrnfh trmt&mudkawmifwdrf;ajrmufwdrf;apmif;um iJhumMunfhIjyD;rS ESvHk;wyf rSwfrdvQif aoewfudk wif;wif;MuyfMuyfudkif oifhonf ae&murSef axmufwefrS ypfvTwf&rnf? rSefaxmufrwefonfudk cJ,rf;tukefcH rjypfrvGwfapESifh? aoewfudkifwdkUudk aocsmatmifjyefqdk&rnf/ ou&mZf 1121ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf2&ufaeU (6 December 1759) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 31? pm 112)


9 December


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? Anm;'vu xm;onhf qdyftapmifhtaewdkU rkwrodkU a&TpufawmfjzefUcsDawmfrlvQif rsdK;axmuf&dumjzpfatmif pyg;awmfudk rkwr jrdKUa&muf tpnftacsmwdkUudk o,fydkUpkyHkaponf? a&mufvQif pyg;awmfudk usDusvHkcsHKatmif rkwrjrdKUwyf taetcif;awmfoifh&m aqmufvkyf pyg;awmfrsm;udk &atmif tapmifhtaeESifh oGif;xm;&rnf? wJeef;awmfvnf; avsmufywfwifhw,fatmif aqmufvkyfESifh&rnf? xvyefwdkUvkyfonfh pyg;rSmvnf; &JrufvufeufudkifwdkUudk pm;wef,Hkom odrf;,l pm;ap? rsdK;&dumawmfjzpfoifhvQifvnf; rdkr,Gif;&atmif odrf;,lpkyHk&rnf? acsmif; ayguf&SdorQ avSwufudkodrf; a&Tpufawmf jzefUcsdawmfrlvQif tul;toef; trsm;&atmif ax;zmjyifvkyf toifh&Sdap? ou&mZf 1121ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (9 December 1759) Anm;'vuxm;onfh qdyftapmifhtaewdkUudk jyefonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 34? pm 123)


14 (December


wumawmfavQmufonf q&mawmf? t&nftoGm; bkef;vufHk; tmPmpufudk ajrwjyifwnf;aeonfh jynfaxmifxD;aqmif;udk rqdkESifhOd; ork'&m yifv,f tjyifwGif uRef;i,ftoD;oD;&Sdonfh t&yfaeaom oabFmukvm;rif;wdkUrS igwdkUjynf&Gmvmcsdrfhrnf xdwfxufvufum Asmyg aomuESifh &SdMu&onf? ,ckwumawmf ajc&if;awmfwGif jrJpGJxrf;&Gufaom uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUonfvnf; wumawmf aus;Zl;bkef;&dyfudkrSD rdbom;r,m; pm;aomuf0wfqif auR;arG;Muonfudk raxmuf aus;Zl;rJhjyKoolwdkUtm; aemifusifhvwHhaom olwdkUudkvnf; r0Hhrusifhap&? usifhaomolwdkUudkvnf; tjypftavsmuftdk;&GJUudk pavmif;&GJUESifh awmfoifh&m ydwfouJhodkU rif;{u&mZfwdkUxGufaom tmPmt[kefudkudk,f&SifyifrqDEdkifonfwaMumif; awmif;yefonfudkvnf; tvdkr&Sdr[kwf tvdk&Sdvsuf tmrSm vTwfaom wHawG;udkaumuf rsdKouJhodkU jzpf raumufrodrf;aeaMumif;udk avQmufonf q&mawmf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck ewfawmf) vjynfhausmf 10&ufaeU (14 (December 1759)) q&mawmfarwmpmoGif;onfwGif avQmufonfhpm/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 35? pm 125)


16 December 1759

bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom vufeufpMum&wemqifjzLrsm; ocif toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf? eifwdkUudk pdwfvufrndK;rEGrf; rpdk;r&drf ibkef;awmfudkrSD csrf;ompGm toufarG;&onf tvSLay;&onfudkrS a&TxD;a&Teef;wGif rdef;ryDyDrae? ighomoemawmf tpD;tyGm; jynfolvl&[ef;wdkU tpD;tyGm; jynfrdjynfbjzpf jynfa&;wdkif;a&; vkyf&mMuH&m eifwdkUwpk pdwfESvHk;aESmifh&Sufatmif jyD;wefukefwefonf trI,ckwdkif rjyD;rukefumv &SnfMum&onf? aemif onfuJhodkU a,musfm;rwef rdef;rvGef iga&TpufawmfjzefUcsDawmfrl&m igrac:onfudk avQmufxm;vQif &mZ0wftjypftavQmuf tmudk[ufrnf/ (ou&mZf) 1121ck ewfawmfvjynfhausmf 12&ufaeU (16 December 1759) abmifawmfqdkufjyef/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 36? pm 127)


20 December


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom t&dErmvSHpMum &wemqifjzLrsm; ocif wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkU\ ocifjzpfawmfrlaom tavmif;rif; w&m;MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf? yGwfMuD;qnfudk;jrdKUpm;? wuRef;wEdkifiH oabFmjynf*HkyPDrsm;ESifh igwdkUEdkifiHawmf &efukefoHvQif oabFmqdyfodkU rjywfoGm;vma&mif;0,f&Sufwifap pD;yGm;jyKbuf jzpfMuonf? wvyfwMum; wGif wvdkif;uRefqdk;wdkUonf aus;Zl;opm 2yg;udk rapmifhabmufjyef aomif;usef;oD;jcm;axmifxm;onfESifh jrefrmrif;rsm;udk zsufqD; tcdkuftwefUrif;jyKonf? wvdkif;wdkUudk bk&m;oMum;ewfwdkU r vkyfMuHvQif [Hom0wDrSp tjynfjynfaxmifaom rif;wdkUudk tpdk;ydkifawmfrl w&m;ojzifh usifhawmfrlonf? udk;jrdKUpm;rlolb&aemonf &mZ0wf avmu0wf t&SnfpD;yGm; bkef;Murm&Sifjzpfonfudk raxmufwvdkif;wdkU wefqdk;yemudkcHpm; rawmfroifh tusifhr[kwfaom t&mudk,l ighudk wdkufvHaomaMumifh oifhtjypfESifhavsmfpGm qHk;SHk;ysufpD;avonf? rlolb&aem udkyGwfMuD;qnfudk;jrdKUpm;wdkUu cefUxm; wvdkif;wdkUbufu 0ef;&HwdkufvH&rnf raprcefUxm;onfudkvnf; ig a&TESvHk;awmftodyif jzpfonf rlolb&aemudk,fpdwftxl;ESifh jyKusifhonf trltavsmuf qHk;SHK;avjyD; onf/ iga&TESvHk;awmfvnf; yGwfMuD;qnfudk;jrdKUpm; wdkUu cefUxm; wvdkif;wdkUbufu 0ef;&HvdkufvH&rnf raprcefUxm; onfudkvnf; iga&T ESvHk;awmf todyifjzpfonf? rlolb&aemudk,fpdwftxl;ESifh jyKusifhonf trltavsmufsqHk;SHK;avjyD;onf? iga&TESvHk;awmfvnf; yGwfMuD; qnfudk;jrdKU pm;wdkUudk &Sdawmfrrl? igha&Tpufawmfatmuf ta&mif;t0,fESifh vdkonfht&m txl;udkoem;awmfcHonfjzpfvnf; tusdK;pD;yGm;udkaxmuf txdkuf tavsmuftoem;awmf cHap&rnfjzpfonf? rlolb&aem tusifhr[kwfonfudk jyKusifhonfhtrIaMumifh ighpD;yGm;awmfvnf; rvpfr[if; tyf? yGwfMuD; qnfudk;jrdKUpm;wdkU pD;yGm;vnf; rvpfr[if;oGm;vm a&mif;0,f ap&rnf/ ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvqef; 2&ufaeU (20 December 1759) yGwfMuD;qnfudk;jrdKUpm;wdkUudk ay;onfh rifpmteH 5H a&Ta&;pmaMumif; 29/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 17? pm 129)


23 December


trdefUawmf&Sdonf rif;&JatmifEdkif ppfuJem;cHpma&;MuD;wdkU? &Srf;jynf ,Gef;jynfjrdKUae&Gmom; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUonf usdef;cef;umvtavsmuf EdkifiHrjidrfr0yf&mwGif upnfhuvsm; tajcrJhawmtHkawmifurf;wdrf,drf; a&Smifae wa,mufudkwa,muf rEdkifEdkif&m nif;yrf;ESdyfpuf vk,ufzsuf qD;MuaomaMumifh rjidrfr0yf&Sdonfudk odrf;oGif;jyKpkawmfrl xHk;pHtpnf &Sdonfhtwdkif; xrf;&Gufap? odrf;tkyfpD&if&rnf ,HkrSwfawmfrl cefUxm; awmfrlonfhtwdkif; *wd4yg;udk rvdkufaMu;aiG yemum,udkriJhajzmifhrwfpGm pD&ifcif; pD&ifbG,f &SdorQudk aus;Zl;opmawmfjrwf &Sdonfhtwdkif; rp odrf;tkyf pD&ifcefUxm;&rnf/ ppfa&;ppfrIrSmvnf; vGwfvyfonf[l rpDr&if ayghayghavsmhavsmhaeomrnfr[kwf? trI&SdrS pD&ifaomfvnf; jyD;ajy Edkifrnf taMumif;r&Sd? wdkif;a&;jynfa&; qdkonfht&monf odcJodcufonf taMumif;jzpfonf tvdk&SdvQif t&if&atmif qifjrif;vufeuf tajrmuf aoewfaq;cJ,rf;rsm;udk pD&ifcefUxm; &Sdap? trI&SdvQif&ap? pD&ifonfh trIudkvnf; taqmwvQif pD&if&rnf? onfuJhodkU qif;&Jom; uRefawmf rsdK;wdkU ryifryef;apESifh? rsdK;&dumrSmvnf; vHkavmufatmif usDMuESifhpkyHks xm;&rnf/ (ou&mZf) 1121ck jymodlvqef; 5&ufaeU (23 December 1759) rif;&JatmifEdkifppfuJem;cHwdkUudkjyef/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 38? pm 133)


1 January


ou&mZf1121ck jymodkvqef; 14&ufaeU(1 January 1760) avmif&Snf q&mawmf Zdembd&mrudk ZrL'Dy o'r[m&mZ*kk wHqdyfudk vSLawmf rlonf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvqef; 14&uf) aeU (1 January 1760) '*Hka&TqHawmf rkwf 4rsufESmwGif 0wfvJawmfudk xkvyfonf bk&m;kyfxk 4qludk oGwfoGif; ta&SUrsufESm a&eHomawmifrsufESm oGwfeHom taemufrsufESm ZrLom;ajrmufrsufESm aygifeHom urnf;wyfvSL oGwfoGif;udk;uG,f awmfrlonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 39? pm 135)


(1 January


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom t&dErmvufeufpMum &wem qifjzL rsm;ocifwdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkU\toQifocif jzpfawmf rlaom b0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf?oD&dok"rm&mZm? rdk;aumif;rdk;nif; 0ef;odkp t&yf&yf aemufawmfyg trIxrf; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU twlae twlpm; rdbbdk;bGm; om;r,m;wdkUudk aMu;aiG pyg;acs;,l &Sufwifonf trIudk Opm&SifwdkUu 1000yif jzpfaomfvnf; rawmif;apESifh? armif;aMu; eif;cyf&rnf? w&m;pum; t&Suftwif &Sdonf jzpfvnf; iga&Tpufawmfvnfawmfrl a&TxD;a&Teef;odkU a&mufawmfrlrS qdkcif;&Sdonfh trlt&mwdkUudkqdkap? jrdKUjyaus;&Gm cdkifqif;&Jom; uRefawmfrsdK; jynfwdkifum; wdkUwGif ruHkrvHkravmuf tacs;t,l aMu;rIaiGrIrsm; vnf; 10v wckvwf usudkwGuf 10vuvGefrS awmif;ap? 3v 4v 5v 6v 7v 8v 9v &ufvcsdK;rSwf rawmif;apESifh/ t&yf&yfawmwGif &GmvufjrdKUjy aus;&Gmcdkifrsm;rSmvnf; xef&nf*aZmfavSmfZm t7ufewf upkef;&G,frsm;udk olMuD;uvHjrdKUwmusHK;wmwGif &SdMuonf ac: MuyfMuyf wnf;wnf; temtMuif jcdrf;jcdrf;armif;armif; qdkjrnf bkef;awmfMuD;vSaombk&m; trdefUawmfudk qefvSef aus;ae&Gmom;wdkUwGif xef&nf t&uf,pfrsdK; ewfupkef; &G,fjyKusifhonf Mum;&vQif "g;ESifh vnfudk awmufawmufwdkatmif jzwfrnf pdwfrmefESifhwuGs "g;udkjy tmPmxm;& rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvqef; 14&ufaeU) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 40? pm 137)


(1 January


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? oD&dok"r&mZmuaqmufvkyfonfh ausmif;udk avSum; 5pif; qifuyfywfvnfrkwfav;rsufESm rSefuif;wyfaqmufvkyfvSLap/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvqef;14&ufaeU) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 41? pm 139)


(1 January


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoem'g,umawmf t&dErm vufeufpMum&wemqifjzLrsm;ocif wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif; wumwdkU\ toQifjzpfawmfrlaom a&ajrocif b0&Siftavmif;rif;w&m; MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf &Sifrdbk&m;? &wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmf rdcifbcif q&morm; aus;Zl;&Sif rdbk&m;rSp om;awmforD;awmf rl;awmf rwfawmf jynfol vl&[ef;wdkU jyKaom qkawmif;yXemaMumifh igudk,fawmf rSp om;awmfrSL;awmfrwfawmf qifawmfonf jrif;awmfonf ajcawmf onf trIxrf;ol&JolcufrSp yuwdcsrf;omMuonf? rnfonfudkrQ pdk;&drf aMumifhMur&SdMuESifh? bk&m;ocif trdefUawmfudkvnf; odMum;vnf; omoemawmfudk tapmifhtxdef;om jyKpkEdkifrnfr[kwf ZrL'DyguRef; rif;usifhw&m; 10yg;ESifhtuG udk,fESKwfESvHk;udk apmifhxdrf; omoemawmf jrwf tjrpftyif tudkif;tcuf tyGifhtoD;uJhodkU pD;yGm;jzpfaMumif;udk pdkufysdK;aom rif;{u&mZftm; apmifronfudk oMum;omoemawmf tapmifh[l ynm&Sdtaygif;wdkUqdkonf? bk&m;&Sifvnf; oMum;vm trdefUawmf&Sdonf rSefonf? Ak'0peHopH ygVdawmfESifhtnD igwdkUocifonf udk,fESKwfESvHk;ESifhtuG rif;usifhw&m; taygif;ESifhtnD omoemawmf pD;yGm; jynfolvl&[ef;wdkU pD;yGm;udk aqmifaom rif;{u&mZf t&Sifjzpfonf? bk&m;&Sif trdefUawmf&odkuf0ifjzpfonf/ rif;wyg;ESifh rwlrSwf&rnf? wdrfawmif vQyfppfrdk;vnfqifumESifh jcrf;armif;vQuf &Gmaomrdk;wGif;[l wl;aomwGif; aeaom<uuf? 0if;0g rSnfhaomo&ufoD;? ydwfqdkUvQuf tESufjynfhaomtdk;? t&Hopfyifi,fESifh tuG tESpfjynfhaom opfyif? arSmif MuKwfvQuf eufaom a&ESifh twltrIcyfodrf; ynmowdtqif; t*Fg vuPm igwdkU t&Sif ruHkr&Sd? ta&;t&mESifh pyforQudkvnf; ESvHk;cs &rnf? "ruHaMumif;vnf; ygVda\tXuxm #Dum nDnGwf oabm rdwfvifawmfoiforQvnf; {uefrkcsbk&m;a[monfrSefonf? q&mawmf tqufqufwdkU rdefUawmfrl ukefonf/ avmuaMumif;vnf; odkuf"gwf penf;wabmif nDvQif ZrL'DyguRef;OD; ZrLoajya&mufonftwdkif; edrdwfjzifh rSwftyfaom


(1 January


ZrL'DyguRef;wGifonfESifhtnD odkuf"gwfedrdwfpenf; wabmiftapmifapmif vnf; tnDtnGwfrif;om;udk oMum;trnfay;vdrfhrnf? touf 80? 100ae omoemawmf tpD;tyGm;wdkif;EdkifiH trI jyKpkjcif; rif;tquf qufwdkUxuf jyKpkrnf? urnf;odkuf"gwfxGufonftwdkif;vnf; jynfolwdkU tm; &ifxufom;uJhodkU 4yg;aom *wdrjidrf rapmif; "rowfpma[mif; &mZowfpma[mif; &mZowfyHkjyifESifh ruif;rvGwf vkyfMuHcefU&ef pD&ifawmf rlonf? awmifESifhyifcsD olwyg;cspGrf;Edkif\ qdkaomfvnf; omoemawmf pD;yGm;jynfolwdkU tpD;tyGm;udk jyKpkaom igwdkUt&Sifrif;{u&mZfjzpfawmfrl onfrSwf&rnf? rif;rdrjzpf Muifemaom apwempdwfESifh ruif;aomaMumifh odomatmif trdefUawmf&Sdvdkufonf/ ajrvufcyfaomfvnf; cR,fvGJrnfr[kwf? igwdkUt&SiftrdefUawmfonf rcRwfrvGJrSef\ rSwf&rnf? oD&dok"r&mZmudkac: qif;&Jom; uRefawmfrsdK;udk rEGrf;re,f qEm a'go b,marm[av;yg;aom *wdudk riJhjrJjref wnfMunfpGm rwdrf;rvGwf oufomatmifcefU&ef pD&if&rnf? aus;qdk;uRefqdk;wdkU wbufem;avQmuf xm;aomfvnf; rsufESmtjyif rnDorQ udkr,lESifh? rjywfrvyf owday;&rnf? vlysdKvlvGifjzpfonf? cdk;ao;rD;yGm;rsm; udkvnf; vHkUvjyK&rnf? rjywfrvyf ESdK;aqmf usHK;rSmqif;&Jom; wdkUudk vkyftm;aqmiftm;MuD; us,fonf? wckrjyD;onfudk wck rvkyfrudkifapESifh? wpwdk;wnf;ajrudkom tvdkjynfhatmif xkvkyfap? opfysnfwkwfwmrsm;rSm wlonfusrf; tvdkjynfhrS 4pk 1pk wefonf 3pkwpkwefonf aus;tif&Gmudk axmuf vkyf&efaqmif&efudk vltaorcsmcGJcefUonfh wpkvlESifh opfysnfwkwfwmudk wpowfvkyfap? uefawmfrSmvnf; vkyfcsdefumv a&mufvQif wrGef;wnfh wae0ifrQom jzpfonf/ rl;udkqkdUydwf&rnf jzpfonf? vkyfcsdefumva&mufrS rl;udk qdkUydwfap? usHK;udkom wpwnf tvdkawmf jynfhatmif pD&if&rnf? om;udkac: MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; qdk&rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvqef; 14&ufaeU) (1 January 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 42? pm 141-2)


4 January


1121ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 2&ufaeU (4 January 1760) bkef;awmftvGef MuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom a&TvSHpMum &wemqifjzLrsm;&Sif jzpfawmfrlaom toQif b0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m;trdefUawmf&Sdonf?a&Twdkuf0ef rif;vS&mZm ycef;MuD;pm;pnfolaemf&xm a,mapmfbGm;wdrfMum;rif;MuD; trnf&jrif;awmf onf trSKxrf; aoG;aomufMuD; tMuyfi,f aoewfvkvifawmf uRefawmf rsdK;taygif;wdkU w0,fpm;i,fonf iaus;Zl;opmawmf 0rf;wGif 0&ZdefuJhodkU &Sdonfudk vlrdkufvldkif;jzpf trSeft&mrod? aomif;usef;ykef;pm; rif;wdkUudk aus;awmf&if;uRefawmf&if; jzpfonf igt,lawmfESifhtnD pD&ifcefU&ef vkyfMuH&rnf cefUxm;awmfrlonf twdkif; ta&;awmfjyD;ukefaMumif;udk odcFpuf? oD[ysHwif? aoewfvkvifawmfwdkU &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif Mum;awmfrl&vQif 0rf;ajrmufawmfrlonf/ raMumuf ao;aomolwdkUvnf; aMumufnifatmif vkyfMuHuGyfESdrf&rnf? aMumufjyD;aom olwdkUudkvnf; wdkif;a&;jynfa&; pD;yGm;awmfa&;udk axmuf om,macsiHpGm odrf;oGif;jyKpk&rnf/ wevFm&DrSm igoabFmawmfoHk;yifwdkif &efukef wdrf;,drf;&mwGifs ukvm;wdkUaqmifoGm; a&mufonf oabFmawmfudk txufrif;MuD;aemf&xmvlESifh '0,fu apawmif;onfudk ,dk;',m;rif;rSm avQmufxm;&OD;rnf ray;om weifvm&Dpm; xdrfxm;&Sdonf oabFmawmfudk '0,fwGif zrf;qD;&onf/ ajcajciHiH qdkEdkifrdefUEdkifoludk ap avSvsifESifh weifvm&Dudk ap&rnfrSm/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 43? pm 146)


5 January


(opmpum;) bk&m;uRefawmfwdkUonf ,aeUrSp t&SifhpD;yGm;rJhudk rusifhyg? touf pnf;pdrfudktyf uRefawmfcHonfrSefonfqdkaom opmpum;udk abmifjyef t&SifhtusdK;pnf;yGm;rJhudk usifhyacsaomf t&dErmpMuma&TvSHawmfab;a&muf vlESifhrwlvlabmfr0if qHk;SHK;ysufpD;jcif;odkU0f a&mufapaomf0f? uRefawmf wdkUqdkaom opmonf jrm;awmfuJhodkU ajzmifhrwfpGm usifhonfrrSefygvQif vkyfpm;aqmifpm; pD;yGm;csrf;om a&m*gtemrsdK; 96yg; ab; 8yg; 'Pf10yg; uif;jidrf; um,okcpdwokcESpfyg;udk&onf jzpfapaomf0f/ (bkef;awmf tvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh 'g,um t&dErmpMum a&TvSH &wemqifjzLrsm; ociftavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; trdefUawmf&Sdonf)? ig\ uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk opmjyKonfhtwdkif; igtyfawmfrlonfh jrm;awmf uJhodkU0f ajzmifhvQif pD;yGm;csrf;oma&muf tE&m,fr&Sd r&SdypKyefoHo&m ESpfyg; csrf;omonfjzpfap/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvfvjynfhausmf 3&uf0aeU (5 January 1760) bkr*D&dpm;udk uRefrsdK;jzpf jrm;tyfawmfrlaomtcg t&dErm a&TvSHa&SU wGif)jyef/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 45? pm 154)


7 January


trdefUawmf&Sdonf rif;MuD;aemf&xm wkyfudkwJeef;awmfaqmufcefUawmfrlonf? c&D;taxmuftvSef; awmfoifh&m wyftcs t&yftaejrufa& eD;pyf&m t&yfudk axmuf opf0g;oufuJ&Sm;vQif &Sm;vdkufaygvQif aygvdkuf avsmufywfatmif aqmufvkyf&rnf? wJeef;awmfteD;tyg;wGif roefUrpifr&SdapESifh? wJeef;awmf taqmuftvkyftrSKESifhpyforQudk rif;MuD;aemf&xmwyf ppfuJ eEpnfolvlpkESifh wuG r[mAdkvfudk wvHk;w0wnf; pD&if&rnf/ (ou&mZf) 1121ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (7 January 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 46? pm 156)


7 January


trdefUawmf&Sdonf O'defeEol? Av&JxGwfa'0ol&wdkU wyfudk rkwrjrdKUuonf '0,fa&mufvrf;jyifcefUawmfrlonf? c&D;vrf;wavQmuf awmtHkjcHKopfyif r&Sif;rvif; &Sdonfudk qifwyfjrif;wyfoGm;omatmif ckwfxGif&Sif;vif;ap? &THUa&acsmif;ajrmif; &Sdonfudkvnf; opfom;udk 10F 15F ckwfcs acsmif;vdkuf tpif;tjynfhcif;&rnf? opfom;jynfhrS tay:udk eif;Murf; uyfcif;wefvQif cif; ajrbdkUap? vkyfonfqdk&Hkomvkyf qifawmf jrifawmftavsmH toGm;rcH,dk,Gif;vQif &mZ0wfawmfudkcH&rnf? vkyfaqmif&ef &SdorQudk O'defeEolu wvHk;w0wnf; pD&if&rnf/ ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (7 January 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 47? pm 158)


( 7 January 1760)

trdefUawmf&Sdonf? a&Twdkuf0efrif;vS&mZm? ykcef;MuD;pm;pnfolaemf&xm? a,mapmfbGm;eEa,mfwm? tmumAkdvfrSL;wdkU? '0,fjrdKUonf Munf;aMumif; a&aMumif; ta&mufpHknDMuvQif a&aMumif;Munf;aMumif; AdkvfrSL;wyfrSL; wdkUvnf; wyfoD;wyfcsm;jzpfonfrqdkom? rif;vS&mZmudk ,HkrSwfawmfrl cefUawmfrl&if;twdkif; wvHk;w0wnf; Munf;aMumif;a&aMumif; &SdorQudk rif;vS&mZmu tkyfcsKyfpD&if cefUxm;ap? a&aMumif;Munf;aMumif; AdkvfrSL; wyfrSL;wdkUvnf; rif;vS&mZm cefUxm;onfudkom w0wnf;emcH trIawmf udk xrf;&Guf&rnf? jAdwfweifom&DrSmvnf; wwdkif;wEdkifiHjzpfonf? a&Tpuf awmfjzefUcsDawmfrlrS wvHk;w0wnf; bdbd&Gyf&Gyf ausysufatmif brf;qD; owfnpf&rnf? rcsDroGm; rcefUrxm;ESifhOD;? rsdK;&dumudkom xkwf vHkUv jyK&rnf? odcFpufwdkU pD;oGm;onfhwvdkif;wdkUavSrSm pm;&ef pyg;avSEdkif orQudk wifvdkuf&rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU) (7 January 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 48? pm 160)


(7 January


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;vS&mZm? pnfolaemf&xm? odk[efoGm;? eEa,mxm? tmumAdkvfrSL;wdkU? a&TpufawmfjzefUcsDawmfrl&m a&Tpufawmfatmufyg vufeufudkifol&Jolcufrsm;onf '0,fa&mufvrf;c&D;wGif &dumtaxmuf tvSef;udk rjrifEdkif? oabFmawmfyg qef 1000ESifh avSvlvHkavmufatmif cefUxm; tvsifaeUnrqdk qD;MudKydkUqufvSmap? cyfvlrSm '0,fvuf& vl w0uf vufeufudkif vlw0ufcefUxm; a&;0g*ka&mufqD;MudKqufydkU vSm&rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU) (7 January 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 49? pm 162)



(15 January


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh'g,umawmf jzpfawmf rlaom a&TvSHpMum&wemqifjzLrsm;ocif toQifb0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; a&TpufawmfpHkjrwfudk tjrJOD;xdyfxuf&Guf ykPewfa,musfm;uJhodkU qifawmfonf jrif;awmfonf rw&m;aomolwdkUtm; OD;vnfjzwfawmuf taoG;tom;pm;avh&Sdaom bDvl;&uKdufESifhwlaom a&T'dkif;a&TvTm;a&Tum a&TrD;aygufaiGrD;ayguf a&Tav;a&TvSHa&T"g; pGJMuaom uRefawmfrsdK; taygif; udk tkyfcsKyf ppft*Fg4yg; ppfqifajconf taygif;ESifh jynfhpHkaom t*r[maoemywdjzpfaom Adkvfrif;rsm;Mum; a&mufonf? weifom&DjrdKU tpD&ifwdkU? 1120jymodkvbkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom omoemh 'g,um jzpfawmfrlaom t&dErma&TvSHpMum &wemqifjzLrsm;ocif jzpfawmfrl aom toQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m;onf rPdyl& rnfaom uonf; wdkif;cdkifEdkifiHodkU a&TpufawmfjzefU csDoGm;pHyg,f vSnfhvnf awmfrlonfh tcdkuf &efukefjrdKUqdyfawmfwGif tapmifhtae cefUxm;awmfrlonfh tpD&ifppfuJem;cHpma&;wdkU aus;Zl;opmawmf 2yg;udk raxmufrcsifh qif;&Jom;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk nif;yrf;ESdyfpuf wvdkif;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU &mZ0wfavmu0wfwdkUudk rodrjrifaomif;usef; jyKusifhonfumv oabFm awmfudk ukvm;wdkUaqmif,loGm; b@mawmftrsm;ESifh jAdwfweoFm&DodkU a&mufaMumif;udkMum;vQif &efukef tpD&ifwdkUuap '0,fom;wdkUESifh weoFm&DjAdwftpD&ifwdkUrSm tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; obFmawmfjzpfonf ay;tyf&rnf awmif;onfudk ,dk;',m;rif;oabFmuJhodkU ,dk;',m;rif;rSm avQmufxm;&OD;rnf ray;rtyfomqdk oabFmawmfa&Tpufawmfjrwf atmufs ,ckwdkif ra&muf? ,dk;',m;rif;vnf; wdkif;cdkif&SifxD;aqmif; eef;aejzpfonf? rw&m;aomtusifhudk rusifh&m? ay;rnfjzpfvnf; vlESifh oabFmudk '0,fjrdKU a&mufaeUn tvQifvHkavmufatmif cefUxm; ydkUtyfvSm&rnf? '0,fpm;vnf; 0rf;wGif 0&ZdefcJESifh txk&Sdaom opmawmfudk raxmH? ykef;pm;aomif;usef; dkif;jy olykeftjypfESifhtnD uGyfnyfawmfrlonf


(15 January


'0,fjrdKUaus;&GmcdkifaeorQ'0,fuRefawmfrsdK; jrefrmuRefawmfrsdK;wvdkif; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU a&mHorQudkvnf; tif;pm&if;ESifh aoaocsmcsm wjynfESifh wjynfwwdkif;ESifhwwdkif; xD;aqmif;eef;jydKif jzpfMuonf? uRefraumif; wOD;rSm uGyfESdrfeif;&onfjzpfonf? a&mufayguforQ aus;uRefwdkUudk wOD;vufrcHay;tyf ydkUa&mufjrJjzpfonf? ay;tyf&rnf? ray;rtyfjzpfvQif igwdkUjrdKUqdyfodkUa&mufavjyD;onf ray;rtyfjyDjzpfvQifvnf; odomatmif rSmvdkuf&rnfh taMumif;udkMum;a&mufvdkufonf? aocsmaumif;rGefatmif a&;om; aeUcefU&ufcefU ap&rnfhtaMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf? odcFpuf oD[ysHxifwdkUudkap/ (ou&mZf 1121ck jymodkvjynfhausmf 13&ufaeU) (15 January 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 44? pm 149-50)


19 January


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom okemy&Hwr'Dy&mrn wdkif;MuD; jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif;wumwdkU\ txGwftxdyft&Sif jzpfawmfrlaom t&dErm a&TvSH pMum&wem qifeDqifusm;rsm;ocif a&TwGif; aiG y,if; aMu;wGif;ywjrm; &wemESpfyg;ocifomoemh 'g,umawmftoQifb0&Sif tavmif;rif;w&m; MuD;bk&m; a&Tpufawmfjrwf tpHkudk tjrJOD;xdyfxufqif &Gufvsuf &SpfrsufESmrS vmaom &efwumwdkUudk auo&mZmcsaoFhrif;uJhodkU &J&ifhMuyfwif;aom tpGrf;ol&owdESifh csif;wif;wdkufabmuf taoG; tom;udk pm;wwfaom ewfppfonfESifhwlaom ol&JolcufwdkU\Oacgif; waxmifaom AdkvfajcwdkUtm; udkaqmifEdkifaom t*r[maoemywd ppfolMuD;Adkvfrif;rsm;rSmvdkufonf? weifom&DjrdKU tpD&if'0,fpm;onf aus;Zl;opmawmfudk rapmifhauo&mZm csaoFhrif; a&SU,kefoli,fjrLouJhodkU jyKusifhaomaMumifh '0,fpm;i,fudk uGyfnyf&rnfcefUxm;awmfrl '0,fjrdKUwGif a&Gomvm&onf? '0,fpm; trSL;trwfaus;pm;&Gmpm;jrdKUolMuD;jrdKUom; qif;&Jom;uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;wdkU onf a&Tbkef;awmf&dyfudk rcHr&yfEdkif aMumuf&GHUjcif;ESifh ajrjcm;a&jcm; oGm;onfMum; vdkufvHodrf;onfudk weif;om;&Daus;qifxdk;&Gmae &Gmom;wdkU rpl;rprf; rar;jref;vufeuf ud&d,mESifh qD;cH wdkufvH&mwGif qifxdk;&Gmae ioajymif ijyef&ufwdkUESifh rdrudk brf;qD;rd rSmpmESifh vTwfvdkufonf? '0,fpm;om;ESifh qif;&Jom; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk wa,mufrusef ydkUtyfvSmrS a&SU 2jym;wjym;wnf; r[mrdwfjzpfMu csrf;om&m&rnf taMumif;udk rSmvdkufonf/ ou&mZf 1121ck wydkwGJvqef; 2&ufaeU(19 January 1760) AdkvfrSL;eEa,mxm wdkufwabmacsmif;awmifacsmif;wGif rdonfjAdwfjrdKUu avSom;wdkUwGif ay;vdkufonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 50? pm 164)


(7 February


Asm'dwfawmf trdefUawmf&Sdonf rif;vS&mZm rPdpuforE oli,fawmf aoG;aomufMuD; tMuyfaoewfvkvifawmf uRefawmfrsdK;trSKxrf;wdkU? igjyKpk csD;ajrmufrponfolaumif;jyKawmfrlonf aus;Zl;opm2yg;0rf;wGif 0&Zdef tcJESifhtwl igtrdefUawmf &Sdonfudk xdyfxufoHrSdKESufouJhodkU igcefUxm;onfh ,Hkawmfrlonfhtwdkif; jAdwfoabFmqdyfudk tvdkawmfjynfhaMumif;ESifh odcFpufudk aponf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifa&mufvQif igopmawmfjrwfudk apmifhoddkaopGm igapcdkif;awmfrlonfhtwdkif; jyD;ukefaMumif;ESifh &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif ig a&Tpdwfa&TESvHk;awmf &Trf;awmfrl&onf? rSwfMuukef csD;rTrf;awmfrlonf? jAdwfuRef;wGif&Sdonfh aus;&Gmrsm;udk qefpyg;rsdK;&dum oifwdkUpm;p&mudk arQmfwifqifjcif ajrmufbufawmifbuf&Sdonfh rsdK;&dumaus;&Gmwjyif rD;yGm; rD;awmufrxd rpnfap& uRefawmfrsdK;trsm;jzpf &duawmftrsm; tvdkawmf &SdaMumif;udk a&Twdkuf0ef odavjyD;onf? aus;&if;uRef&if;jzpf iga&TESvHk;awmf ryifryef;&rnfudk&nfvnf; waMumif;? ighbkef;awmfudkrSD t&nftoGm; *kPfaus;Zl;udk olcyfodrf; odjrifapvdkvnf; waMumif; cefUxm;awmfrlonf? oif;wdkUta&;t&m oif;wdkU tomtrmudk taMumif;tvrf; tvHk;pHkudk awG;ac: arQmfwif pD;yGm;awmf b@mawmf oabFmawmf avSwufrSp rvpfr[if;ap&atmif cefYxm;pD&if&rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck wydkwGJvjynfhausmf 6&ufaeU) (7 February 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 52? pm 168)


20 February


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? eEa,mxm? ppfuJrif;xifysHcsD? oD[&mZmausmf? wyfrSL;trnf& em;cHwyfpma&; aoG;aomufMuD; tuGyftMuyf avSpD;yJheif; trSKawmfxrf; uRefawmfrsdK; taygif;wdkU? a&Tbkef;awmfudkrSD aus;Zl; opmawmf2yg; 0rf;wGif&Sdonfhtwdkif; xrf;&GufMuonfjzpfonf? vlwdkU oabm aus;Zl;ynmqdkonfh t&monf trSKcyfodrf;udk ypKygefumvt&Snf twdkif; Oyg'fab;'gef&ef ya,m*trIudk uRrf;odarQmfjrif vdrfrmcJaom t&m jzpfonf? aus;Zl;opmawmf 2yg;ESifh rwdrf;rapmif;trIawmfudk xrf;aqmifonfyif qdkaomfvnf; tawG;tawmtqiftMuifudk owdavsmh ta&;awmf &mZ0wf aMumif; rwnfhrrwf rawmfjzpfwwfonf igta&; awmf(udk) igtxGwftjrwf a&mufawmfrlonfrSp rvpfr[if;wdkif;a&; jynf0efudk tyiftyef; cH Muaqmifawmfrlonf trIt&yf&yfudkaxmuf rvpfr[if;ap&? eEa,mxmudk vlMuD;jzpf &mZ0wfawmf uRrf;uHkrnf eSvHk;&nf&Sdonfjzpf tcsKyfttkyf tcefUxm;awmfrlonf? toD;toD; aemufvdkufaemufyg i,fom;wdkUudk igwdkUvlEdkifjzpfonf ayghayghavsmhavsmh cefUxm; [if;cl;xif;acGrSp rxGufroGm;apESifh? taMumif;t&mxifjrif cefUxm;vdkaomf eEa,mxmudk tpD&ifcH bdbdpD;pD; teD;yif jzpfaomfvnf; MuHa&;tm;xkwfjcif; 0d&d,udk ravQmhrvGwf toufudk toufrrSwf pGefU EdkifEdkifeif;eif; trIcyfodrf;udk tcdkiftjzD;&atmif ighaus;Zl;opmawmf 2yg;&Sdonfhtwdkif; &mZ0wfawmfa&;udk arQmfaxmuf vkyfMuHpD&ifcefU&ef s ta&;trIrvpfr[if;&atmif trIawmfudk nDnGwfatmif xrf;&Guf&rnf/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vqef; 5&ufaeU(20 February 1760) eEa,mxmudkay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 53? pm 170)


20 February


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? 'Gg&m0wDrif;? omrsrapmocgaumaom 'kuZd0dwH zvH[laom jynf\t*Fg 7yg;wGif jynfaxmifcsif;rif;wdkU jynfhpHktyfaom taMumif;udk tpdaE,s oHk;vltxGwf bk&m;ocifa[mawmfrlaom ygVdawmf &Sdonf? ,ck csDawmfrl 'Gg&m0wDwdkif;pGefaus;pGefodkU a&mufawmfrlonfvnf; ppfruftifjyKvdk ra&mufrvm? od*kFw& ukef;jrwf wnfxm;jyKpkaom Xm0&aumif;rIawmfudk tEkarm'emjyKawmfrlrnf rif;rdbk&m;om;awmf nDawmf rSL;awmfrwfawmfwdkUESifh pkefawmfrlvQif b@mawmf oabFm avSwufrsm;udk qdyfaumufem;cHwdkUudk tar;awmf &SdawmfrlvQif 1121ck (1759) rPdyl& uonf;wdkif;odku a&TpufawmfjzefUawmfrlonfh umvwvdkif;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU aus;Zl;opmawmfjrwf 2yg;udk raxmuf olcdk; xm;jyjyK nnnfhtcg &efukefjrdKUawmfodkU rD;oifhonfhtwGif; b@mawmf 0g*Grf;tajrmuftrsm;ESifh ukvm;wdkU aqmif,l xGufoGm;aMumif; ukvm;wdkUESifh oabFmawmfvnf; weifvm&Dqdyf jAdwfwGif&Sdaom taMumif;udk avQmufxm; Mum;vQif qdyfaumuf ppfuJ em;cHwdkUu ap awmif;aptrdefUawmf&Sdonfhtwdkif; apjAdwfqdyf taumuftMuD;tuJ wdkUudk ay;tyf&rnf oabFmawmfjzpfonf awmif;onfudk ,dk;',m;rif;rSm avQmufxm;&OD;rnf ray;omqdkvdkuf r&jyefa&mufonfESifh EdkifiHawmf '0,fjrdKUwGif txufuvdefatmif pm; i&Srf;i,fonf aus;Zl;opmawmfudk rapmifhabmufjyef ykefpm;aomaMumifh '0,fjrdKUodkUcsDawmfrl &mZ0wfawmf tjypftavsmuf uGyfnyfqHk;rawmfrlonf? '0,fjrdKUu trdefUawmfESifh ap jAdwfrSm&Sdonf oabFmawmfudk ay;tyfrnf jzpfvnf; odomatmif avQmuf &rnf i&Srf;i,fESifh taygif;twufjyKol '0,f uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU ighbkef;awmfudk rcHEdkif Munf;aMumif;a&aMumif; '0,fjrdKUjAdwfweifom&D wjyifwcGif 0ifaea&mufaygufonf uRefawmfrsdK; wdkUudkvnf; wwdkif;ESifh wwdkif; xD;aqmif;eef;jydKif jzpfMuonf? vufcHodrf; xm;dk;r&Sd? ay;tyfrnf jzpfvnf; tyf&rnf? ray;rtyfjzpfvnf; odomatmif &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif pm apolwGifqufvdkuf&rnf rdefUawmfrlonf? vludkvnf; rquf


20 February


rtyf? oabFmudkvnf; ray;rtyf? igwdkUjrdKUqdyfodkU 0ifa&mufavjyD;onf apolwGif pmjyefa&muf w&m;ojzifh oabFmudk odrf;,lrnfom csDawmfrl a&mufonfjzpfonf? ,ckjAdwfqdyfwGifvnf; b@mawmfESifh oabFmawmfudk rawGUr& vufcHodrf;xm;olwdkUvnf; aus;Zl;opmawmfudk rapmifh 'Gg&m0wD rif;ESifh igwdkUESpfjynfaxmifudk rnDrnGwf pdwfESvHk;&Seavatmif a00kwf jyufjy,fa&Smifaeonf? 'Gg&m0wDrif;wdkU igwdkUonf jynfol ow0gwdkU\ tpD;tyGm;ypKygefoHo&m taMumif;tusdK;ESifhwuG jynfMuD;0efudk &GufaqmifMuonfjzpfonftwdkif;xuf tvGef rD;raoa&rMunf 2jynf1jynf a&T2jym; 1jym;a&wGifom;aomtjcm; rxifouJhodkU oHo&m b0tquf bk&m;yapuAk'gwdkUtm; 'getvSLudk ay; zl;jrifawGUMu& jynfbjzpfMu &onf? qkawmif;qk,l yg&rDykn orm& taqmufttl wl&SnfMuonfjzpf owif;aus;Zl;awmfudk 'Gg&m0wDrif;Mum;aomumv ow&befwdkU &pfaom oDwma&uJhodkU csrf;Munfcsif;ESifhtuG 'Gg&m0wDu qD;MudK c&D;vrf;wGif 'Gg&m0wDodkU ra&mufcif bkef;Murmwl&SnfMuonf rSefvQif awGUMuHKapaom [k 528yg;aom arwmESifh csrf;MunfpGm qkawmif; qk,ljyKaMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vqef; 5&ufaeU (20 February 1760) ,dk;',m;odkU ay;rnf pDawmfrlonf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 54? pm 172-3)s


20 February


'Gg&m0wD? a&m&mZm? t"are? &mZ0HoO? trpm'a,mp? 0pdwGm&ZH? u&dwGm? ZrL'Dywav? twkavmow&mZm"dywd? r[moawm? t[H"r &mZm? 'arwHktm*pmrd? wGHaryg'rlav? 'reH? or#dpbHktm*pm[d? t*ar (tem*apaE)wGH? r[m0demoH? *rdwd? 'Gg&m0wDuk? oa&m? aom? &mZm? onf? t"are? rif;usifhw&m;ESifh rnDojzifh? &mZ0HoO? rif;aqGrif; rsdK;wdkUudk 4if;? trpm'a,mp? trwfwdkUudk4if;? 0'dwGm? owf? &ZH? udk? um&dwGm?aMumifh? ZrL'Dywav? ? twkv? aom? ow&mZm"dywd? rw&m; aomrif;wdkU\ t&Sifjzpfawmfrlaom? r[moawm? onf? t[H"r&mZm? onf? "arwHk? iSm? tm*pmrd? \? wGH? onf;ar? ig\? yg'rlav? odkU? "rH? udk? or#dpdwHk? 0efcHjcif;iSm? t*pm[d? vmavmh? tm*ar (tem*paE)e? ra&mufrvmonf&Sdaomf? wGH? oifonf? r[m0emoH? odkU? *rdwd? wHh/ (ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vqef; 5&ufaeU) (20 February 1760) eE*kEausmfoludkap/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 55? pm 176)


3 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;acgifaemf&xm aersdK;aemf&xmwdkUESifh a&SUcsDAdkvfrSL; wyfrSL;wdkU csDawmfrlrnfhvrf;rSm awmifurf;MuD;onfjzpf igudk,fawmf tajrmHvufeufawmfrsm;ESifh a&aMumif;a&SUcsDAdkvfrSL;wyfrSL;wdkUrSm aMu; aMumif; csDawmfrl&rnfuJhodkU vrf;c&D;udk okwfoifvkyfaqmifvQif &SnfMumrnf? qifawmfjrif;awmfoGm;omHkom okwfoifvkyfaqmif vGift&yfodkU aygufa&mufatmif csDESifhap? rsdK;&dumrSmvnf; &omorQodrf;Hk;&rnf? &JrufvufeufudkifwdkUudkvnf; upnfhuvsm; rcsDroGm;apESifh tMuD;tMuyf ESihfwpnf;wHk;wnf; tkyfcsKyfcsDoGm;apbk&m;Asm'dwfawmfjrwf&Sdonfhtwdkif; csDoGm;&rnf/ (ou&mZf) 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 27ufaeU (3 March 1760) wk&ifvSausmfudkay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 56? pm 177)


( 3 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? ykcef;pm;pnfolaemf&xm rif;MuD;aemf&xmwdkU? a&Tawmif vuf,may: a&TawmifausmfpGmxifESifh jrif; 1000ausmf aoewf 100ausmf vdkufaponf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifonf ta&;udkaxmuf a&aMumif;u eEysHcsD ESifh aoewf 500e&mysHcsDESifh aoewf 500? aoewfaygif; 1000? vlysdKawmf a&Tawmifvuf,may:wdkU jrif;wyfudk trSDtMuyf a&mufatmif tjyif;wyfcsD vdkufap? rif;MuD;aemf&xm ykcef;pm;wdkU udk,fESifh usefonf vufeufudkifwdkUrSm owif;emcH vrf;udk okwfoifcsDoGm;&rnf? tjrifhwyfuol&ysHcsDxifESifh jrif;rSm 25 vlaumif;udka&G; EysHcsDwdkUESifh vdkufap&rnf? oif;wdkUu vlolbrf;qD; rdvQifvnf; taMumif;t&mudk ppfaMumcsufESifh nnfhaeU oHawmfOD;wifap&rnf/ wkwypnf;wGifay;/ (ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 2&ufaeU) (3 March 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 57? pm 179)


(3 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? a&Tawmifvuf,may:? a&Tawmifausmfxif? a&Tawmif vuf0Jay:wdkU rif;wdkUudk aus;&if;uRef&if;HkrSwfawmfrlonfjzpf wyfOD;csD aponf? rif;wdkUESifh ygonfh jrif;wdkUudk MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; nDnGwfatmif pD&if uGyfnyf jrdKUjywyfusHK;ajrmif; tqD;tcHr&SdvQif jrif;vlajcaeonf wyfom;jzpfvQif cRHcRH&uf&ufaemufcefUawmfrlonf EysHcsDESifh aoewfaygif; 300&SdjyD toufudk toufrrSwf ta&;awmfudk aus;Zl;opmawmf 2yg; 0rf;wGif &Sdonfhtwdkif; wa,mufrusef zrf;qD;owfnpf&rnf qvif; wGif jrdKUjy usHK;ajrmif;jyvuf&rf; tcdkiftvHk &yfcHonfjzpfvQif iga&T pufawmfjrwfatmuf vm &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifvSm&rnf? tjrifhwyfu ol&ysHcsDxifESifh jrif;yg 25vnf; EysHcsDESifh csDvSmaponf? oif;wdkuvlolzrf; &vQif taMumif;t&m udk ppfaMumcsufESifh aeUntvQif oHawmfOD; wifap&rnf? wkwypnf;wGifay;/ (ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 2&ufaeU) (3 March 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 58? pm 181)


6 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? &Sifrdbk&m;oD&dok"r&mZm? &wemoHk;yg;*kPfawmf rdcifbcif q&morm; aus;Zl;&Sif rdbk&m;wdkU jyKaom qkawmif;yXem arwmqufonf twdkif; iudk,fawmfrSp om;awmfrl;awmf rwfawmf ol&J olcuf qifjrif; vufeufudkif Adkvfyg yuwd csrf;omawmfrlonf? aejynfawmfwGif cdk;ao;rD;yGm;udk MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; pD&ifeSdK;aqmfap? jrdKUusHK;jywHcg; vkyf&ef aqmif&efudkvnf; qif;&Jom;trIxrf;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk nDnDnGwfnGwf pD&ifcefU&ef&rnf? oD&dok"rm&mZmudk olMuD; uvH taqmf tuGyftMuD;tuJ wdkUudk rjywfrvyf pl;prf;MunfhI pD&ifcefUxm;&rnf? wdkif;a&;jynfa&; uRrf;uHkpdrfhrnf tapmifhtae cefUxm;awmfrlonf? rxdkif;rysif; r&dododjrifjrif rvpfr[if; ryifryef;&atmif tm;xkwf pD&if&rnf/ aejynfawmfwGif &Sifrdbk&m;rSp om;i,forD;i,fwdkif;ol jynfom;wdkU csrf;omjidrf0yfonf udkom Mum;awmfrlvdkonf igudk,fawmfudk rnfonfudkrQ raMumifhrus rpdk;r&drfESifh omoemawmfjrwf tpD;tyGm; jynfolwdkU tpD;tyGm;udk odkuf"gwf ESifhtnD aqmifawmfrl&onfjzpfonf? &wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmfudkrSD 1121ck waygif;vqef; 12&ufaeU (27 February 1760) weif;vm&DjrdKUu ,dk;',m;jrdKUodkU csDawmfrlonf? &wemoHk;yg;*kPfawmfudkrSD ZrL'DyguRef;wGif &efoltaygif; jriforQudk okwfoif&Sif;vif; eSdrfeif;qHk;r w&m;ojzifh ow0gtaygif;wdkUudk ypKyefoHo&m tusdK;pD;yGm;udk axmufawmfrlonf? rnfonfudkrQ ratmifharhESifh? a,musfm;wHcGefvl&nfrSefu aumif;uiftxGwf Mu,fudk qGwfvnf; rvGwfEdkif&m bkef;Murm&Sif jzpfawmfrlonfudkom pGJrSwf&rnf? vkyfcsdefaqmifcsdef qif;&Jom;wdkUa&mufvQif 0ufwdk;qnfawmfudk qD;qdkU e,kefvqGif;u rvkyfraqmifrD a&rdk;oGif;usHK;tvdkawmfjynfh vQif vnf; t&yf&yf tjrdKUjrdKU uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk 4pkpk 1pkom aejynfawmfwGif jywHcg;jrdKUvkyfap? oHk;pkvludk jrdKU&GmodkUjyef v,f,mudkif;uRef; vkyfap? igarG;awmfaeUwdkifwdkifvQifvnf; a&Teef;awmfavsmif;awmfOD;wGif ighoufawmf aph qGrf;vkyfauR;ap? a&Teef;awmfapmifh jrdKUawmf xD;csufawmfapmifh ewfrSp jrdKUwGif;jrdKUy ygVdewf


6 March


pmay;jyD;vQifigudk,fawmf usef;cefUomrmvsuf jynfa&;wdkif;rIukef qifjrif;Adkvfyg ryifryef;atmifjrifjyD;pD;apaMumif;udkvnf; oifykwfa&csrf; qGrf;ESifh rjywfrvyf &Sifrdbk&m;udk,frSp a&Teef;awmfwGif rif;rdbk&m; i,frif;udk,fvkyfawmfwpkvnf; igudk,fpm;awmf 1v av;owif; Oykof owif;aqmufwnf igodkU arwm ydkUquf&rnftaMumif;udk trdefUawmf &Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (6 March 1760) a'0&efolwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 59? pm 183-4)


(6 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf?oD&dok"r&mZm? &efukefjrdKUwGif igha&Tbkef;awmfaMumifh &onfh vufeufawmftrsm; &Sdonfudk &efukefwGif oD&dxufvGefESifh &efukefrSm vltpktHk;enf;onf aejynfawmfodkUa&mufatmif MuHaqmifEdkifrnfr[kwf? aejynfawmfu cefUxm; avSwuftcdkiftvHkESifh wif,lap&rnf? cefUxm;onfhvlwdkUudkvnf; jrpfpnfwavQmuf jrdKU&Gmqif;&Jom;wdkUudk &dyGwf yifyef;atmif acsmydkU0efxrf; yPmum,raxmufrxm; r,lap&rnfh taMumif; ESifh MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; tmPmxm; ap,l&rnfh taMumif;udk trdefUawmf &Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 5&ufaeU (6 March 1760) a'0&efol) wGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 60? pm 186)


8 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;vSaemf&xm? a&Tawmifvuf,may:? a&Tawmif ausmfpGmxif? a&Tawmifvuf0Jausmf? wdrfMum;rif;MuD;wdkUESifh vlysdKawmf aoG;aomufMuD;trnf& trIxrf;uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU? &Srf;,dk;',m; &efolawmf awGUvQif wnDwnGwfwnf; OD;vnfrokef&wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmf ibkef;awmf udk rSD toufudktoufrrSwf pdwfESvHk;cs wdkufvHzrf;qD; owfnpf&rnf? rnDrnGwf rqifrjcif trIcyfodrf;udkyifrjyKtyf? nDnDnGwfnGwfom aqmif&Guf vkyfMuH&rnf? ta&;udk jriforQudkvnf; aeUnrqdk rjywf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wif vSm&rnf/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif; vjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU (8 March 1760) 'dya,mxmwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 61? pm 188)s


( 8 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? a&Tawmifvuf,may:? a&TawmifausmfpGmxif? vlysdKawmf aoG;aomufMuD;? trnf&trIxrf;wdkU? oif;wdkUrcH0Hhajy; rsdK;&dumtpdk;pnf tjznfhtpGuf&&ef&SdvQif rsdK;&dumodrf;&rnf? rysufrDa&mufonfh jrif;ESifh tifwHHkap t&yftcH &Sdonf r&SdonfudkMunfhap? zsyfzDwGifjrdKUjy usHK;ajrmif; tcHt&yf&SdaMumif;udk od&vQif rwdkufrvHESifhOD;? zsyfzD&GmwGif igudk,fawmfudkihH &OD;rnf? odkUrS oif;wdkUudk rvGwfrvyf& w0wnf; pD&ifvkyfMuH owfnpf&rnf? tajrmuf&xm;awmfrsm;vnf; ra&mufao;? ppf\ t*Fg ppfajc ppfvufHk;pnf; rdrS wdkufvH&rnf? trdefUawmfudk usL;vGef rjyKrusifhESifh? igcefUxm;awmfrl onfwGif a&GUomwdkufvH vkyfMuH&rnf? ta&;t&mudk arQmfwif;&OD;rnf jyifa&; twGif;a&; ukefatmif pD&if&rnf jzpf rSmxm;awmfrlonf? rif;acgifaemf&xm? aersdK;aemf&xm? a&TawmifausmfpGmxifwdkUvnf; wyfaygif;&SufrdvQif w0wnf; trdefUawmf udk cH&OD;rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU) (8 March 1760) a&TawmifysHxifeEol&d,udkay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 62? pm 190)


8 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;MuD;aemf&xm? a&Tawmifvuf,may:? rif;vSaemf&xm? a&TawmifausmfpGmxif? t&yf&yf trIawmfxrf;wdkU trIta&; cyfodrf; tvHk;pHkwGif ppfrIppfa&;onf toufpD;pdrf ta&;jzpf tvGefcufcJaom ta&;jzpfonf? igudk,fawmfvnf; a0;onfr[kwf xyfMuyfcsDawmfrlaMumif;udk todjzpfvsuf qvif;u tukeftuRwf csD&rnf igtrdefUawmf&SdrS csD&rnf? rif;acgifaemf&xm? aersdK;aemf&xm? a&TawmifausmfpGmxifwdkUESifh a'gaxmf? a&Tawmifi,f? O'defaZ,wdkUupyif ajca,mif vufa,mifvdkufonf t&monf oifhonf r[kwf? ,cktrdefUawmfESifh vdkufaponf? rSD&mwGifpk trdefUawmfudk cH&rnf? rif;acgifaemf&xmvnf; Adkvf? aersdK;aemf&xmvnf; Adkvf? a&TawmifausmfpGmxifvnf;Adkvf? rif;MuD;aemf&xmvnf;Adkvf? a'gaxmfvnf;Adkvf? a&Tawmifi,fvnf;Adkvf? O'defaZ,vnf;Adkvf? ta&;t&mudk raxmuf? t&Sif&Sdayao;onf? ravQmufrxm;? pdwfpdk;udk,fydkifudk,fpdk;& igha&Tvufawmf ESifh ta&;tom;udk udkwdkUajcESifh zsufouJhodkUusifhonfavm/ (ou&mZf ) 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU (8 March 1760) a&ykyfolMuD;wGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 63? pm 192)


8 Marchs


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? Adkvfrif;rsm;wdkU? trSKcyfodrf;wdkU oabmonf MuufO xJwGif Muufoli,fonf tjzLjzpfrnf trnf;jzpfrnf teDjzpfrnf rodom ouJhodkU rjyD;ao;aom trIwdkU oabmwnf&Sdonf/ jyD;aomtrIwdkU oabmonfum; aygufjyD;aomMuufoli,fuJhodkU tjzLtrnf;udk od&onf ESifh twljzpfonfudk ,ckrSmvnf; tcsKyftudkif toD;oD;ESifh wa,mufoGm;vQif wa,mufoGm;rnf? wa,mufaevQif wa,mHaernf? ighxufol rvGef&? ighudkolrom& toD;toD; xif,lMu aqmif&GufMuonfh ta&;oabmonf vlwa,mufudk aoapcsiftm;MuD;onf vSH 20ESifh vSrf; wyl;wnf; xdk;vdkufaomf ajzmifhrwfatmif roGm; xdkoludkvnf; rxd vGwfavouJhodkU jzpfMurnfhta&; jzpfMuonf? tusdK;vdk tjypfa&mufonfvnf;&SdMuonf? rif;acgifaemf&xm? aersdK;aemf&xm? rif;MuD;aemf&xm? a&TawmifausmfpGmxifwdkU vlMuD;wpk wyfawmfwGif &Sdonf ol&Jolcuf ajconfjrif;onf aoewf"g;vufeufpGJaom ol&JolwdkUudk aphpyfaocsm cdkifvHkatmifaeap a&Tawmifvuf,may:ESifh jrif;yg 75? a&Tawmifvuf0JausmfESifh jrif;yg vlyg 75 a&Tawmifvuf,mausmfESifh a&TawmifausmfpGmxif oD[eEMuifraqmfuJ toufudktoufrrSwf pdwfwludk,fwl vlpkESifh ta&;awmfjrif&mvdkufvHzrf;qD; owfnpf&rnf? a&Tawmifvuf0JausmfrSm O'defyknm? O'def&ErdwfwdkUESifh uGyfuJpD&if jrif; 250rSm vlysdKawmfoli,fawmf rif;MudKuf&mjrif;udk a&G;aumuf igaus;Zl; opmawmf 2yg; &Sdonfhtwdkif; nDnGwf wdkufvHzrf;qD;owfnpf&rnf? rif;vSaemf&xmESifh aoewf300 MudKuf&ma&G;aumuf vlysdKawmf a&Tawmifvuf,may:wdkU jrif;pkESifh taxmuftvSrf; oifhatmiftoufudk toufrrSwf MuyfMuyfwnf;wnf; pD&ifcefU&ef uGdwGifwyf&Sdvnf; wdkuf&rnf? wyfr&Sdonfjzpfvnf; uGdodkUa&mufrS ightrdefUawmfudk wpkw0wnf; cH&rnf? wdrfMum;rif;MuD;rSm rif;vSaemf&xmwGif aoewf 300 a&G;aumufonfhjyif usefonfh vufeufawmfpGJ aoewfvkvifawmf 2000ausmfcefUwGif MudKuf&m aoewfudk 300 a&G;aumuf vuf0JaMumif;jrif;pkESifh taxmuftvSrf; &atmif vSrf;rSDurf;rSD igaus;Zl;opmawmf2yg; &Sdonfhtwdkif; ta&;awmf jrifo


8 March


rQudk wdkufvHzrf;qD;owfnpf&rnf? trnft&nfwyfrSwf cefUawmfrlonf? igta&;awmfrom aESmifh&Suf&Suf edrdwf r*Fvmr&Sdpum;udk Mum;awmfrl &vQif 2cGef;acs&rnf rrSwfESifh? uGd&GmodkU a&mufrS igha&TpufawmfpHkudk qD;MudK wpkw0wnf; OD;cdkuf&rnftaMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU (8 March 1760) yeHuay; (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 64? pm 194-5)


11 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;MuD;aemf&xm? rif;acgifaemf&xm? aersdK;aemf&xm? a&TawmifausmfpGmxif? AdkvfrSL;wyfrSL; trnf&jrif;awmfonf aoG;aomufMuD; vlysdKawmf oli,fawmf trIxrf;uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;/ rif;vS&mZmESifh a&TvSH&J aoewfvkvifawmf bkef;awmfjzpfuRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk tvHk;tMuD; cefUxm; awmfrlonf jrif;rSm a&S;OD;a&Tawmifvusfmay:ESifh75 jrif; aoewf cefUxm;awmfrl &SdjyDudkwdkU wyfwGifygonf ajconfol&JolpGrf;xrf;tm; &Guftm; tvdkwl&SdvQif rif;vS&mZmwGif tif;pm&if;cs tyf? t&yf&yfjrif; onfwdkUrSm pGrf;oefarmufrmorQudk a&G;aumufppfaMum udkwdkUudk,fESifh rif;vS&mZmwyf aemufvuf0Jvuf,m 0rf;vSdKifoif;wdkUu jrifavmufHk jrif;OD;pD; tajrmufaoewf rvSrf;rD&muae&rnf? wyfwGifvnf; pdefajymif;aoewfvufeufpHkESifh ppfuJem;cHwyfpma&;wdkUESifh cif;cif; usif;usif; pDrHxm;? wyfwGifxm;onf vlpkwdkUudkvnf; ta&;awmf&onf [l a&m>yrf; rvdkufapESifh? oif;wdkUwyfysufvQif udkwdkU udk,fESifhwuG toD;oD;uGyfMuyf tukeftpif aemufa&;aemifrI rjyK rwGuf0Hhatmif pD&if uGyfESdrf&rnf? trdefUawmftwdkif; wnfatmifpD&if? ightrdefUawmftwdkif;rwnf&? t&Sifa&; r[kwfouJhodkU oloGm;vloGm;vdk jyKusifhMu ta&;t&m aESmifhaESmifh&Suf&Suf &SdaMumif;udk Mum;awmfrlvQif 2cGef;acs&rnf rrSwfESifh/ ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 10&ufaeU (11 March 1760) rif;vS&mZmwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 65? pm 198)


(11 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? a&Twdkuf0efrif;vS&mZm a&TvSHawmfpGJ &Jpkaoewf aoG;aomufMuD;tMuyf bkef;awmfjzpf trnf& vlysdKawmfjrif;awmfonf qifawmfonf tajrmufrSL;? aoewfvkvifawmf tif;pm&if;usESifh cefUxm; awmfrlonfh uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;wdkUonf tpGrf;t&nfr&Sd udk,fa&; udk,fxufru igbkef;awmfaMumifh aus;Zl;opmawmf2yg; 0rf;wGif &Sdonfh twdkif; oif;wdkUudk OD;vnfrwl ESdrfeif;jzwfawmufowfnpf brf;qD; wdkufvHvkyfMuH xrf;&Gufygrnf toD;oD; toem;awmfcHMuonfjzpf jrif; aoewftrsm;xyf cefUxm;awmfrlonfudk ayghayghavsmhavsmh trsm;trIxrf; trSL;trwf uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;wdkUvnf; ygonfjzpfonf? rpGJrrSwfom Oya'ay; cefUxm;awmfrlonfhtwdkif; &mZ0wfawmfonf igwdkUwGifom jzpfacsonfrSwf MuyfMuyfpdpd bdbd&rf;&rf;rsufpdwrSdwf uGrf;wnufudk toufudkpGefU &efolawmfjrifvQif rqkwfrqdkif; vQyfwjyuf "g;wxGufrQ wif;&yfMunfhIjyD;vQif ppfOD;uomonf vuf0Juomonf MunfhI cRHcRH &uf&ufzsufqD;ESdrfeif;&rnf? AdkvfrSL;wyfrSL; jrif;apewfwwyfvif;usif; onfrSm &efol,dk;',m;wdkUudk r<uif;rusef tyfwacsmif;udk OD;yJhxrf;ouJhodkU igwdkUzGJUcsnfEdkifrnfvnf; rSwf&rnf? rif;wdkUuJhodkUyifvnf; ighaus;Zl;awmfudk cHonf trSL;trwf uRefawmfrsdK;vnf; trIawmfudk olriyif pdwf&Sd &Sdaomfvnf; rif;wdkUwpkudkom tif;pm&if;ESifh a&S;OD;pGm csD&rnf cefUxm;awmfrlonf? aemufxyfbdonfrSm qefaphpyg;aph trsm;bdwfus onfudk pm0wD; trsm;aumuf pm;ap rusefukefouJhodkUvnf; rSwf cefUxm;awmfrlonf? ayghavsmh igta&;awmf vpf[if;&vQif cefUxm;awmf rlonf trIxrf;wpkudk &mZ0wfawmftjypftavsmuf pD&if&rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 10&ufaeU) (11 March 1760) a&TawmifausmfxifwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 66? pm 201)


11 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;MuD;aemf&xm? rif;acgifaemf&xm? aersdK;aemf&xm? a&Tawmifausmfxif? oli,fawmf? a&TvSHpGJwkef;awmfjzpf aoG;aomufMuD; trnf& jrif;awmfonf? qifawmfonf? aoewfvkvifawmf? ol&Jolcuf uRefawmfrsdK; taygif;wdkU ta&;awmf&onf[l toGm;tvmttdyftae ayghayghavsmhavsmh tuGJuGJtjym;jym; roGm;rvmapESifh vufeufawmf b@mawmfrsm;udkvnf; rusefr<uif;ap&? aphikpifMu,fatmifodrf;? wJeef;awmfrSm ajrrdk;oefU&Sif;&m a& jrufteD;tpyfwGif vGifjyifus,f&m cif;usif;omatmif aqmufvkyf&rnf? tuGJuGJtjym;jym; 10? 20? 30? awmifawmifajrmufajrmuf r&SdapESifh? roGm;rvmapESifh? pnf;a0;a0;owd*wdESifh ae&rnf? cefUawmfrl&m c&D;uvnf; rvGefapESifh? ightrdefUawmfudk wpkw0wnf; cHapjyD;rS oifh&m cefUxm;awmf rlrnf? &mZ0wfa&; aygufyifaus;odkU? wdrfarS;yifhul? MuufOwlvQif [l urmpum;qdkdk;&Sdonf? ajEorwdESifh wnfwnfMum;Mum; ,w&m&aom qifuJhodkU nDnDnGwfnGwf wifhwifhw,fw,f prg,fvsufom ae&rnf taMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck) waygif;vjynfhausmf 10&ufaeU (11 March 1760) Anm;'v tmumxifwdkUwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 67? pm 204)


13 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;vS&mZm? a&Tawmifvuf,may:? a&TawmifausmfpGmxif? a&Tawmifvuf0JausmfwdkUESifh aemufcefUawmfrlonfh aersdK;aemf&xm? wdrfMum;rif;MuD;? aoG;aomufMuD;? tuGyf? tMuyf? trIawmfxrf;wdkU? rsdK;&dum axmufESifh a&jruftqpftydkif; c&D;udkrjywfrvyf aeUquf oHawmfOD;wifvm ap&rnf trdefUawmf&Sdonfhtwdkif; ra&muf? oif;wdkU taMumif;t&mudkvnf; rodrMum;&? jzyfzdwGif&Sdonf r&Sdonfudkvnf; tvsifap r&SdvQifvnf; rD;yGm;rD;ao;rxdap&? wyfawmifwmudk jrdKU&GmESifh OypmvGwf&m tcif;tusif; awmfoifhonfqDu cs&yfaexdkifap/ onfjrdKUu &dumudkyif &dumpm vufeuf jyK&rnf? vrf;wavQmufvHk;yif aus;&Gmwjyif rD;xif;toifh txdrsm;onfh jrdKU&Gmudk odrf;jyD;vQif &JrufwdkUudk oGm;vdk0ifvdkorQ r0ifrxGufapESifh? a&rdk;vGwf&m pyg;udk rnfolwyfrnfolwGif rnfrQ tif;pm&if;ESifh aoaocsmcsm rSwfom; wvHk;w0wnf; pkyHkap? wJwdkif; wyfwdkuf; 10F pk 5Fpk tpkpk rxm;apESifh? pm;Hk&dumaqmifbdkUom axmif;xk&rnf? tuGJuGJtjym;jym; tpkpkxm;vQif rdkrao aysmufysuf vGifhyg;&monf? a0;&m c&D;vrf;rSmuJhodkU r[kwf ,ckrSm ppfa&;qJqJ jzpfonf? &dumudkom tm;xkwf&rnfhtaMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ (ou&mZf) 1121ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 12&ufaeU (13 March 1760) a&TawmifoD&dausmfxifwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 68? pm 207)


21 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? rif;vS&mZm? aoewf300 jrif;150ESifh tjreftjyif; oif;wdkU ppfonf ausmvSHuyfrdatmifvdkuf&rnf cefUxm;awmfrlonf? wdrfMum;rif;MuD; wdkUrSm aemufjcm;em; cefUxm;awmfrlonfh twyf taxmufom jzpfonf? wdrfMum;rif;MuD;qdkoolrSm ynmrdkuf tawG;rdkuf txifMuD; oluef;obifIcsif ouJhodkU tawG;tawm t,l0g'udk vdkufem qifbrf;awmif&Gmi,fu udk qiftefwGifwpcef;? qiftefuonfjzwfbd tMum;udkvnf; 5nnfh 6nnfh tdyf oGm;[ef&Sdonf? aMumifhMu tdyfvQif aMumifhMurufonf qdkdk;&Sdonf? awG;awG;qq jyKwefonf trItoufudk pGefUonf yDyDta&;udk axmuf oif;wdkU ysufajy;avjyD; onfudk b0g;ajcxyf r&yfrwnf0Hhatmif vdkuf&rnfh ta&;udk qifvHk;jrif;vHk;aomif;wyfodrf;wyfuJhodkU raeUoGm;&efudk 3wdkif 4wdkif uif;axmuf uif;a&mufayguf&m wef;csif;axmuf csDoGm;onfh ta&;udk axmuf igaMumifhMuawmfrlonf? &yfwif;MuavOD;? iga&Tpufawmf csawmfrlrS oGefoifjyo csdap&rnf? vusfmrif;i,fausmfpGmudkvnf; jz0fzD;wGif vl&Sdonf r&Sdonfudk ,ckwdkif twwfrod& apawmfrlao;onf? a&TawmifoD&d ausmfxifESifhygonfh jrif;wpkESifhvlysdKawmfwpkudkvnf;vuf,mrif;i,fausmfpGm ESifh vuf0Jvusfm oGm;&rnf? a&TawmifausmfpGmxif a&Tawmifvusfmay:? a&Tawmifvuf0JausmfwdkUESifh rif;vS&mZmwdkUrlum; igha&TpufawmfpHkudk OD;wdkuf&OD;rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck) wHcl;vqef; 5&ufaeU (21 March 1760) vuf,mrif;i,fausmfpGmwGifay;/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 69? pm 209)


25 March


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom t&dErmvufeufpMum&wem qifjzL ocif omoemh'g,umawmf jzpfawmfrlaom wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif; rif;taygif;wdkUudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom ZrL'DyguRef; rusdK;rEGHaom jynfaxmif xD;aqmif;rif;taygif;wdkUudk bkef;tmEkabmfawmf jzifh nnf;yrf;ESdyfpufwkefvSKyf acsmufcsm;apvsuf tm'dp0Hoaerif;\ tquftEG,fjzpfawmfrlaom cyfodrf;aom jrpftaygif;wdkUonf r[mork'&mudk c,rf;jcif; cyfodrf;aom awmiftaygif;wdkUonf r[markjrifrdk&fawmifrif;&Sd&m cnGwfonfESifh twl okemy&efwr'Dyuarmp &mrn rPdyl& oa&acw&mpaom wdkif;MuD;taygif; wdkUjzifh jcH&Htyfaom r[me*&? &wemodCFukef;abmifa&TjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m;trdefUawmf&Sdonf? 'Gg&m0wDrif; rSp rif;nD rif;om; trSL;trwf oaX;ol<u,f qif;&Jom; ow0g uRefawmfrsdK;taygif;wdkU b0tqufqufu jznfhtyfaom orm& taqmuftOD;ESifh bk&m;qkudk yef,lawmfrlaom tavmif;rif;w&m;MuD; jzpfrnf odkufwdwf edrdwf Asm'dwfawmfpum;a[mif;&SdonfESifhtnD rusdK;rEGHaom jynfaxmif&mpif; xD;aqmif;rif;wdkUudk ESdyfeif; omoemawmf tpD;tyGm; jynfolvl&[ef;wdkU tpD;tyGm;udk 528yg;aom arwmESifh odrf;,lu,fr jyKpkawmf rlonf bkef;MurmvuPm&Sif rSefaMumif;udkvnf; om"du oufao tjcm; jyaqmif&rnf r[kwfjyD? ppfrufjydKiforQ rif;Adkvftaygif;wdkU\ Ouifxdyf xuf &yfvsuf Oaumif;aoG;om;udk pm;tHhouJhodkU jynfaxmif&m pif;rif;jyKolwdkU\ t&Sifaumif;uif jyif0,f rzHk;ruG,fEdkifaom aev euwfwm&muJhodkU xif&Sm;&SdjyD? ZrL'DyguRef; xD;eef;pdk;ydkif tkyfcsKyfESifhMu &onfrSm "rwm tpnftwdkif; jzpfMu&onf? bkef;&Sda&mHvQif bkef;rJhaysmuf onf urmpum;qdkdk;&Sdonf? bkef;vufHk; tmEkabmfESifh tavmif;t&m jzpfMu onfumvvnf; ,ckiguJhodkUyif odrf;Hk;vQif w&mwpif;aom xD;aqmif; rif;wdkUonf usdK;EGH pnf;pdrfrysuf toufrao ae&mredrfh um,pdwokc 2yg;udk &Muukefonf igowif;aus;Zl;awmfudk Mum;odonf


25 March


twdkif;ynmjzifhESvHk;oGif;rd usdK;EGJvQifvnf; csrf;om&m&rnf? bkef;Murm ysufysuf tzufr[kwfonfudk *VKefysHvTm; e*g;udkwD aeudkydk;pkef; "X&| [oFmrif;udk EGm;acs;wdkU cdkif;EdkifonfESifhtwl &J&JnDaom oHawGcJudk om;wpf xif uyfa,mifaom jzKwfjcif,if&JuJhodkU igra&mHcif tcdkuftwefUrQ aeESifh&onfudk EGm;acs;ay: wufaom zg;uJhodkU usifhvQif txGwfrJhysufpD; qHk;SHK;jcif;odkU a&mufrnf? tao0emp AmveH y@dwm eO ao0em [laom r*Fvm*gxmawmfudk ESvHk;oGif; ynmrJhudk zJMunfvsuf ynm&SdwdkUESifh wdkifyifrnf jynfolowgtaygif;wdkUESifhwuG um,okc pdwokcESifh csrf;oma&mufrnfh taMumif;udk 528yg;aom arwmESifh trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1121ck wefcl;vqef; udk;&ufaeU (25 March 1760) jzwfzdyOif; irGefESifhomraP ipHol iqk&nf iawmif ipkMuD; ipHkaxmifwdkU vl&[ef;aygif; 8wGifay;onfh&mZoH trdefUawmf pufulrifa&; &Srf;pm 1 jrefrmpm 1? udk tdwfjzLESpfxyfESifh oGwfMuKwfudk *Hk;p&wftdwfeDoGwf/ (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 70?s pm 212-13)


(25 March


trdefUawmf&Sdonf? t&yf&yf &Srf;wvdkif; auGU,dk;',m; uRefawmfrsdK;wdk jzwfzD;jrdKUwGif usDawmfESifh avSmifxm;onfh pyg;awmfudk ,dk;',m;jrdKUudk tvdkawmfjynfhrS &Srf;wvdkif; auG,dk;',m; uRefawmfrsdK;wdkUudk zsrf;rQ pm;aomuf&rnf xm;awmfrlonf ig&dumawmfudk ig\pD;yGm;awmfudk raxmuf pm;,l aysmufysuf&onf? ig\trdefUawmfudkrwnf? ig\a&Tem;awmf aemifMum;awmfrl&vQif jzwfzDjrdKUrSp teD;tpyf aus;&Gmywfvnf a,musfm; rdef;rMuD;i,f zsufpD;jcif;odkU a&mufrnf? ,dk;',m;'Gg&m0wDjrdKUudk tvdkawmf jynfhrS oHk;aqmifpm;aomuf&rnf igtrdefUawmftwdkif; aemufpGefU&Sm;vQif t&yfacgif;tMuD;wdkU nDnGwf &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifjyD;rS igtrdefUawmfudk cHjyD; oHk;aqmifpm;aomuf&rnf/ (ou&mZf 1121ck wefcl;vqef; 97ufaeU) (25 March 1760) (avmif;rdefU? rSwf 71? pm 215)


12 September


okemy&E wr'Dywdkif;MuD; ESpfwdkif;wdkU\ tcsufrif;0HawmifOD; jrpfMuD;ig;pif; &SufqHkvsuf awmifndKig;vHk;wdkUjzifh ydwfzHk;jcH&Htyfaom &wemyl& tif;0 a&TjynfawmfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom bkef;awmftvGefMuD; jrwfawmfrlvSaom bk&ifrif;acgifMuD; trdefU&Sdawmfrlvdkufonf rkqdk;zdk AdkvfrSL; wyfrSL;wdkU? tqufqufaomb0wdkU jyKbl;aom ukodkvfuHawmfonf ysHUyGm;awmufxGef; onfjzpf ewfpnf;pdrfESifh[laom rif;tjzpfodkU a&mufawmfrlonfudk bk&m;yGifhawmfrlonfumv rm&fewftE&m,f jyKouJhodkU A[kokw tMum;tjrifr&Sd okwynmt&mwdkU rsufpdrJhaom oluJhodkU jzpfvwHhaom tE&m,fwdkUudk rarQmfraxmufighjrdKU&if;wGif wyf0ef; 0ufcsHpdkufxm;wnfvkyf rif;wdkUwpkaeonf t&monf tusdK;tjypf ESpfyg;udkodjrif aeonfr[kwf? a&mufvwHUaom tE&m,fudk rarQmfraxmuf rodrjrifaeonfvnf; waMumif;? cyfodrf;aom vltaygif;wdkU Oyg'f tE&,fa&mufrnfumv tusdK;tjypf ESpfyg;udk jyoajymqdk csrf;omapjcif;iSmvnf; a,musfm;aumif; wdkU\ wHxGm"rwmjzpf rif;wdkU\ tE&m,fMuD;pGmjzpfvdrnf taMumif;udk odjrifawmfrlonfESifhtnD? rif;wdkUwpk owd&apvdk trdefU&Sdvdkufonf/ trdefUawmfudk remr,l tjrifenf;pGmynm rxGef;vl[dkufuRefudk edAmefw&m; a[mygvsufvnf; emrem\? bkwfESifhusD; itdrfxufudk rif;wdkUwpk ,ck0ef;&H apmifhaeonf omru oHwdkifoHysm;yifcsDuyf zHk;tkyfaomfvnf; t(b),yl& ab;rJh&m t&yfjzpf rsm;pGm;aom t&yfppfonfESifhwuG tol&mewfodkU MudK;pm; tm;xkwfvkyfMuHaomfvnf; ysufpD;csif;odkU ra&mufavouJhodkU &Sdtyfaom taMumif;xl;udk ynmrsufpd odjrifEdkifaom &aoholjrwfwdkUxm;onf odkufa[mif;usrf;*efudk rif;wdkUwpk rodrjrifonf jzpf aotHhaom touf tE&m,fudk raxmufraMumuf 0ef;&Hapmifhaeonfomjzpfonf? &aoholawmf jrwfwdkU xm;onfh odkufa[mif;wGif (qifum;pG,fjyJ? wpD;xJESifh? t&Jbdk;vm? rif;t*FgonfrSm\odkU? qifajymifMuD;onf? tjrD; b,fnm? vSKyfvdrfhrnf? qifajymifvnf;vSKyf? csaoFhqkyf? wkyfwdkifatmif EdkifvwHU? &cdkifwdkifatmif ydkifvwHU? ajrmufbufAdkvfrsm;? rw&m;? Adkvfrsm;cdkodkU? ysdKvwHU? r,m;aqGrsdK;?


12 September


rsuf&nfjzdK;? ndK;usus? idkvwHU)? [l odkufa[mif; &Sdonfudk rvQH ajymifajymifawmufavmifaom oHawGcJ&J&Judk wyfrufarmjcif;ESifh em;0if rnfapmifhaeonf rSwf,ifobG,fjzpf MuD;pGmaom ysufpD;jcif;odkU a&mufvwHUaom taMumif;udk igoem;awmfrlonf? *kPmaw,fpdwfESifh tnD owd&apvdk trdefUawmf &Sdvdkufonf/ 1122ck owif;uRwfvqef;3&uf 6aeU (12 September 1760) tif;0jrdKUwGif;rS rif;acgifaemf&xmu tif;0udk &Hvmonfhbk&m;vS wyfawmf odkU ay;onfhpm/ (odef;oef;xGef; cifnGefUpmpk)


14 September


om&uyfr@uyf0&uyf om&r@ uyfwnf;[laom urmtaygif;wdkUonf csH&Htyfaom b'uyfurmonf wifhw,fouJhodkU udk;aomif;aom [oFm taygif;wdkUonf csH&Htyfaom *w&| [oFmrif;onf wifhw,fouJhodkU ,k*E&paom awmifckepfvHk;wdkUjzifh jcH&Htyfaom jrif;rdk&fawmifrif;onf wifhw,fouJhodkU euwfwm&m Mu,ftaygif;wdkUjzifh csH&Htyfaom vrif;onf wifhw,fouJhodkU cyfodrf;aom wdkif;MuD;jynfMuD; xD;aqmif;rif; taygif;wdkU\ jywf0yfMudK;EGH uRefawmfcH jcH&HpHyg,fvsuf &efoltaygif;wdkU OD;nGwf&m r[me*& t,kZyl& trnf&Sdaom ukef;abmifa&TjynfMuD;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom a&TwGif;aiGwGif; y&if;wGif; ywjrm;wGif; wnf;[laom cyfodrf;aom &wemwGif; taygif;wdkUudk tpdk;&awmfrlaom bkef;awmftvGef MuD;jrwfawmfrl vSaom t&Sifb0&Sif rif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; aus;Zl;opmawmf jrwfESpfyg;udk &wemod*DcGufjrwf auo&mZmjcaoFhrif; EdkU&nfonf tjrJwnf ouJhodkU aus;Zl;opmawmfjrwfESpfyg;udk apmifhodrf;dkaopGm tjrJwnfvsufbk&m; a&TpufawmfpHkjrwfudk OD;xdyfxufqif&Guf aus;Zl; opmawmfjrwfESpfyg; udkrapmifh? jynfql;jynfanmifh jynfavS;jynfrTm; tp&Sdaom &efolawmf *wdav;yg;odkUrvdkuf ,rrif;\ oabmuJhodkU OD;vnftnGefUudk ESdyfeif;csdK;zJh zsufqD; jzwfawmufwwfaom tavh 0dZm "dk&fykPuewf a,musfm;uJhodkU wodef;aom Adkvfajcwaomif;aomwyfrSL; w&maom AdkvfrSL;wdkUudk pdk;tkyf pD&ifaom t*r[maoemywd Adkvfrif;bk&m; Mum;a&mufonf rif;acgifaemf&xm? r[mork'&modkU ra&mufbl;aom icHk;rig;i,fonf rdrdaeaom uRJajc&m a&udk rsm;Edk;xifrSwfouJhodkU toufudktjyefjyefquf qyfaomfvnf; rydkifEdkif&maom bk&m;aus;Zl; opmawmfjrwfESpfyg;udk rapmifh odMum;rif;0,f rjywfpGJprSwfjzpf rw&m;aom olwdkU\ Oacgif;udk cGJavh &Sdaom 0&Zdefudkxdyf &Gufae&ouJhodkU aus;Zl;opmawmfjrwfESpfyg;udk rapmifhajracG;odaEmrmavmayoD; zGwfrD; oHajc;uJhodkU usifhMuHrnf EdkifiHawmf jzpfaom tif;0jrdKUMuD;udk cdk0if aomif;usef;dkif;jyaxmifxm;onfrSm r[morwrif;vufxufrSp ,ck rif;acgifaemf&xm


14 September


wdkifatmif aomif;usef;dkif;jyaxmifxm;orQ vlvQrf;vloGrf; taygif;wdkUonf csrf;omr& 'kuomjzpfaMumif;udk tapmifapmifaom &mZ0ifwdkU xif&Sm;pGm qdkonftcsufudk pdk;pnf;awGUjrifaomfvnf; ow0gwdkU ysufpD;csif;odkU a&muf vdkvQif wckckaom trlt&mazmufjyefjcif; oabm"rwm jzpfonftwdkif; ukodkvfuHukef tukodkvfuHxGef;yvSonfom jzpfonf? toifhw&m;udk ESvHk;oGif;[l rdonfrSefvQif a&SUrludkjypf aemufrludk usifh ygrnfbk&m;[k a&TpufawmfjrwfatmufodkU 0ifvdkvQif bk&m; yapuAk'm t&d,m olawmfaumif;wdkUxH yefawmfrlcJhaom bkef;awmftvGef MuD;jrwf awmf rlvSaom toQifb0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD; bk&m;onf tqufqufaom b0wdkU orm&ifhjyD; jzpf cyfodrf;aom ol&ifawmf jzpfaom om;awmf uJhodkU oem;awmfrlonf ESifhtnD csrf;oma&mufjrJtrSefjzpfonfudk toifh eSvHk;roGif;yJ(bl;)av;&mwGif zHkxyfqifhqdkcJhaom pum;a[mif;uJhodkU toQifb0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD;bk&m; aus;Zl;opmawmfjrwf ESpfyg;udkom apmifhonfr[kwf? bk&m;tp&Sdaom &aohjrwfwdkU xm;onfh odkufa[mif; r[kwfrrSefonfudk odkufa[mif;trSef jyKvkyfwifpm; tif;0jrdKUawmfwGif;odkU cdk0ifaeESifhonfh uRefawmfrsdK; qif;&Jom;wdkU [kwfEdk;xifrSwf t,lrSm; avvQif MuD;pGmaom ysufpD;jcif;odkU a&muf&ma&mufaMumif; jzpfavatmif wa,mufcsrf;omudk,fhbdkU&Sm ow0gaygif; qif;&JaMumif; qdkonfh pum;a[mif;uJhodkU odkufa[mif; r[kwfrrSefudk odkufa[mif;jzpfonf[k jyKvkyfajymjyaom t&monf urmtqufqufyif ausaomfvnf; tukodkvf qif;&Jraus&monfjzpfonf? twdwfypKyef tem*wfumvoHk;yg;wdkUudk jrifodEdkifaom *0Hyawh &aoholjrwf wdkUtm; aomomr? ,Zk? xk,k[laom aA'ifoHk;yHk aemiftem*gwf jzpfvwHUaom taMumif;udk od&pfpdrfhaomiSg yx0DtmaygawaZm0ga,m [laom r[mbkwfav;yg;udk &Spfq,faom enf;jzifh toD;(toD;) usrf;zGJU jyKxm;awmfrlcJhonfh odkufa[mif;wGif trSefqdkcJhonfum; (qifum;pG,fjyJ? wpD;xJESifh? t&Jwdk;vm? uReft*Fgonf vusfmawmifu0ifvwHU? ysdK;ESpfyg;om;? pum;trSef? t*FguRefonf? wHcGefcP? pdkuf


14 September


vwHU? wHcGefpdkufcg? uReft*Fgonf? rMumcP? ajy;vwHU? tajrmuf aoewf? txyfxyfonf? jypfcyfaeUn? xlvwHU? tvG,fykef;atmif;? vltaygif; wGif;atmif;<uufodkU? jyKvwHU? wGif;odkUa&mufcsif? ajz;atmif0if onf? yef;yif[dkuf? SLvwHU? jypfcwfxd&S? vlxdkrQonf? ajrustdk;? jzLvwHU? rSwf,ifaomif;aomif;? eHUraumif;? ESmacgif;rqefU? MuLvwHU? raocifu? ausmufcJusonf? xdyfpayguf? plvwHU? iydrjrif? qm;rjrifonf? awmifwGiftu,f? csLvwHU? Opm"e? &SdorQudk? vuf&ppf? ,lvwHU? vuf&ppfcg? vGefMuifemonf? tdrfrSmacG;odkU? tlvwHU? t*Fg0ifu? jrdKUtif;0? xif;prD;ES,f? ylvwHU? [l odkufa[mif;&Sdonfudk trSDaumif; taygif;oifhonfcdkuf acw pnf;pdrf&Sdonfudk udk,fpdk; udk,fydkifjzpfonfh tacRt&Hpnf;pdrftifcGifcJodkU xifrSwf aus;Zl;opmawmfjrwfESpfyg;udk rapmifh aomif;usef; dkif;jyaxmifvTm;aomfvnf; ESdKif;ESKef;&m r&Sdaom bk&m;a&Tbkef; awmfjrwfaMumifh oHcJESifh pdefndK jrif;rdk&fESifhajraeESifh rD;yGifhvESifh ydk;pkef;yrm ESKef;qdkouJhodkU waMumif; jcaoFhrif;udk,kef? *VKefrif;udkysHvTm;? e*g;rif;udk wDbufjydKifEdkiftHhouJhodkU? arm[t0dZmpdwf zHk;vTrf;xifrSwfavjim;aomfvnf; awmifudk wvdrfhjrLESifhvdrfh tdefUonf xifa&mif pdefa&Tawmifudk ysdKatmifza,mif; w&Gif;ajymif;ESifh wl;a&Smif;aomf axGajrukefatmif rSdKU*Grf;ESifhwdkUvnf; pGef;ndKUrxifqdkonfhpum;a[mif; uJhodkU axmifvTm;jyKESifh orQ (ab;'kuomusa&mufrnf? b0&Sifrif;w&m; MuD;\) owd*kPfonf aevmvQifESif;aMumufonf? a&vmvQif qm;aysmufonfqdkonf pum;a[mif; uJhodkUtwdkif; r&SnfrMum&acs? ysufjyHK; qHk;IH;jcif;odkU a&mufrnftaMumif;udk Mum;a&mufvdkufonf rif;acgif aemf&xm/ ou&mZf 1122ck owif;uRwfvqef;5&uf1aeU (14 September 1760) bk&m;vSwyfawmfu rif;acgifaemf&xmxHodkU jyefay;onfhpm/ (odef;oef;xGef; cifnGefUpmpk)


29 April


trdefUawmf& a&SUaecefUawmfrlooludk;a,mufrSm cefUawmfrlonfhtwdkif; vTwfawmfHk;awmf(rSm) tpD&ifcHcGifhvJqdk&ef &SdaomaMumifh trIonfwdkUu ac:vQif trIonfwzufrsufESmMuD;ooljzpfonf? trIonfwzufrsufESm i,fooljzpfonf? wHpdk;y@mum&trsm;ay;Edkifooljzpfonf pdwfurpGJ r,lr&nfraxmuf *wdav;yg; wHpdk;oHk;yg; uif;vGwfatmif [kwfrSefonfh twdkif; vJqdk&rnfjzpfonfudk rsufESmMuD;i,f &G,faxmufaMumif;udk a&Tem;awmfjrwfMum;awmfrlonf? aemifonfuJhodkUMum;awmfrrl&apESifh? rsufESmMuD;i,f r&G,fraxmuf *wdav;yg; wHpdk;oHk;yg;uif;vGwfatmif w&m;"rowfxHk;pHESifhtnD [kwf(rSef)awmfwnfh ajzmifhrwfpGm vJqdkygrnf? rvJrqdkvpf[if;,Gif;,dkvQif usrf;awmfwGifygonfhtwdkif; pl;a&mufygap aom t"dXmefyeufap trdefUawmf&a&SUaeudk;a,mufudk usrf;pGJudkifap? trdefUawmf& a&SUaewdkUudk usrf;wdkuf&m a&SUHk;odkU 0efaxmuf1? pma&;MuD; 1wdkU xGuf MunfhIap/ ou&mZf 1131ck uqkefvjynfhausmf 10&uf0aeU (29 em;cHawmfpajrmifrSL;jyef/ (wif? tkyfcsKyfyHk? 5? aemufqufwGJ)
April 1769)


28 April


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom bk&m;r,fawmf trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ cifOD;Adkvfvuf,mAvausmfxif? ighuRefawmfrsdK;Avausmf? 'dypufa&mif? O'def? irSwf? iMumwdkUudk trdefUawmfjrwfESifh ighom;owdk;oD[ausmfudk ighaus;Zl;&Sif vufxufawmfu tyfay;oem;awmfrlonfh uRefawmfrsdK; oD[awmajrae iyef;ESifh vlaygif; 10ausmf? a&rsufjrif;ajrae ijrwf&ifESifh vlaygif; 10ausmf? rusOf;wHkjrif;ajrae indKESifh vlaygif; 10ausmf? oajytdkuf 4ajrae iaumif;MuD;? iMumwdkUESifh vlaygif; 10ausmf? uRefawmfrsdK;rSwfpm0ifjzpf ighom;owdk;oD[ausmf r&SdvQif igu odrf;awmfrl oajytdkuf 4ajrwGif oD;oefUuGJjym;aexdkifaponfudk trdefUawmf rwnf&? cifOD;Adkvf vuf,mAv ausmfxifu vlwudk,fvQif aiG 1d 2H pDay;&rnf csac:csKyfawmif;aMumif;ESifh ighuRef AvausmfwdkUu ighudk &Sdcdk;oHawmfOD;wifjyefonftwdkif; csac: csKyfawmif;onfrSefvQif vuf,mAvausmfxifu rawmif;rcHapESifh? rSwfpm 0ifvlaygif; 50ausmfonf ,ckrS xrf;onf ighuRefr[kwf? ighaus;Zl;&Sif vufxufu ighom;owdk;oD[ausmfudk ay;tyfoem;awmfrlonfh uRefjzpf igu xyfrHodrf;awmfrlaMumif;udk tajrmuf0efwdkUudk igu trdefUjyef &SdavjyD;onf? ightrdefUawmfjrwf&if;ESifhtnD ndrf0yfpGm vkyfpm;aexdkif ightrIudkxrf;ap/ ou&mZf 1132ck uqkefvqef; 4&ufaeU (28 oHawmfqifhrSwf/ (a&S;a[mif;okawoe)
April 1770)


4 September 1773

awmifqGJvGJtonfrSm [JyktonfuJhodkU vkyfdk;jyifdk;xHk;pH&SdygaMumif; bk&m; rufrefygu,ftonfrSm a[mfaqmH? 0if;jyif? rJ;pDppfjyifc wESpfvQif 0gcsdef 30? csdyf0if? qD? eHEGif;? xdk;bG,faiGcsdeftd? zsifwckefqufdk;jyifaMu;pm; tdrfaqmHdk;xHk;pH&SdygaMumif;bk&m;/ ou&mZf 1135ck awmfovif;vjynfhausmf4&uf(0)aeU (4 September 1773) vG,fr,f? atmifyef; aus;&Gma&ajrtwGif; vkyfcif; aqmifwmrSHorQ tcGefudk a&S;xHk;pH &Sdonftwdkif; qufoGif; cH,lonf pm&if;bk&m;/
uHkvGifolMuD;csdefwm;rsm;i,fvQHdk;2 atmifyef;olMuD;csdef vG,farmolMuD;csdef 4if;olMuD;yHkvH tif;0if;olMuD;csdef 4if;olMuD;ucsdef0ufbdk;0efxrf; ausmHwvHk;olMuD;csdef 4if;ucsdef0ufbdk;0efxrf;c iygqkcsdef ixGef;yHkcsdef iaumfvScsdef jrif;rwdolMuD;csdef 4if;ixGef;jynfcsdef iygrlwifcsdef ibHkcsdef wrHkMuD;csdef oDawmfolMuD;csdef awmif; oifzsm csif;pdrf; csdef&Guf tdyfm csdefbG,f 14d 14d3H 15d 2H 11d 7d 10d 1 250d 12d 1d 3H1J 1d 20d 6d 1 250d 1d 6L 1d 6L 33d 8d 2H 96d22L1J


4 September 1773

yef;jzLcsdef vrdkif;olMuD;csdef 4if;olMuD;csdef0efxrf;c iHk;oHk;olMuD;csdef ixGufausmif;csdef iaepHcsdef yefvGefolMuD;csdef icspfvScsdef iomjzLcsdef &J;dkiyHkcsdef awmifxdkijzLcsdef iygaumfvScsdef iomxGef;csdef ajreDukef;a&TxGef;csdef avmOD;vScsdefydk;dkif;120d awmifxdkydwfcsdef awmifeif;wdefcsdef 1 ajrmufeif;wdefcsdef 1 aygif;

awmif; oifzsm csif;pdrf; csdef&Guf 96d2H2L1J 1 250d 8d 2H 4d4L 1d 6L1J 6L1J 1d3H 3H 6L1J 1d1J 6L1J 4d 4L 1 1 250d 250d

tdyfm csdefbG,f aemHbG,f 48d 8d 2H 12d 7d 4d 8d 3d

6L1J 6L1J 4L 20d

120d2H5L1J 74d


vG,fr,fatmifyef;v,fcGefrSm? t&Sifqufdk;? aemufvdkufrSm oGm;ol uRefawmfrsdK;wdkU pm;dk;xHk;pH&SdygaMumif;bk&m;/ rufrGefygu,f&Gmudk rdk;eJapmfbGm;trwfwdkUESifh vkqdkMuonf yXr a&ikwfjzwfpmbk&m;/ a&mHapmHpm;trwf? rufrGef&GmajrwdkifolMuD;a[mif;yGJwdkUESifh rdk;eJ apmfbGm;wdkU aemifvufaemifvifwjyifaus;&Gma&ajraMumifh tpD&ifcHMu onfhpum;rSm? &yfapmHpm;trwf? rufrGefygu,f&Gmajrwdkif


4 September 1775

olMuD;a[mif;yGJwdkUu aemifvufaemifvifwjyifaus;&Gmonf? a&mHapmHtpDpnf pD&ifeuf rufrGef&Gme,fwGif ajra&jzpf [Hom0wDygrif; bdk;awmfcrnf;awmf vufxuf tpnfpD&if&ygonf/ ,if;u&ifwdkU rjidrfroufwdkufzsuf aus;&GmysufpD; onfumv? tcdkuftwefUom vGwfvyf&ygonf? bk&m; crnf;awmfbk&m; a&TvufxufawmfwGif ,if;u&ifwdkUudk qD;um jrdKU&Gm jzpfvQif tpnfpD&ifeufrufrGeft0iftyg aus;&Gma&ajrrSefaomaMumifh vuf&SdvufruGm pD&if& ygonfudk bk&m;aemifawmfbk&m; a&Tvufxufawmf wGifrS rdk;eJapmfbGm; trwfwdkUu rdk;eJjrdKUe,fajrt0iftyg aus;&Gmr[kwf ygonfudk tm;MuD;tm;rsm; vk,lpD&if cHae&cJhonf? a&mHapmHpD&ifpk rufrGefygu,f&Gme,f ta&SUudk >yefacsmif;? ta&SUajrmHudk awmifydkU 2vHk;? ajrmHeefU0S,facsmif;? aemifvuf aemifvifwjyifaus;&Gmvnf; ,ckowfqdk onf rufrGefygu,fe,fajrtwGif; rSHygonf? rdk;eJapmfbGm;wdkU qdkonf ywkef;ig;&Gm vnf; ,ckowfqdkonf e,fajrjyif toD;tjcm; jzpfygonf tpD&ifcHonf/ rdk;eJapmfbGm;fwdkUuvnf; aemifvufwjyifaus;&Gmonf? a&mHapmH pD&ifpk rufrGef&Gme,f ajrt0iftyg aus;&Gmajra&r[kwf? rdk;eJjrdKU tpnfpD&if eufe,fajrt0iftygjzpf [Hom0wDygrif; bdk;awmfcrnf;awmf vufxuf uonf ,ckwdkif vuf&SdvufruGm pD&if&ygonf/ (awmifMuD;,Ofaus;rSKjywdkuf)


31 July


qifjzL&Sifrif;w&m;trdefUawmfjzifh {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;wGif wdkif wmawmf wdk; zGJU&SdonfhuGrf;axmufjrdKU&GmpOf/ jrdKU&Gmtrnf wdkif wm 1 '*HkjrdKUrS 2 yef;vSdKifodkU 8 3 &efuif;pH&m 8 4 "EkjzL 6 5 anmifyifom 6 6 awmifydkUw&m 3 7 [oFmw 3 8 om&a0g 300 9 iaomfuRJacgif; 300 10 a&Tusif 300 11 a&cif;odkU 2 12 uaemifodkU 300 13 jrefatmif 200 14 wkwfarSmf 44 15 a&Tawmif 8 16 jynfjrdKUodkU 4 17 ZvGefaomifxdyf 4 18 anmifyifqdyf 4 19 ajrxJodkU 4 20 qifaygif0JodkU 5 21 rdausmif;&J 5 22 jrifuGef; 4 23 rauG;jrdKUodkU 4


31 July


24 0ufrpGwf 4 25 omaygif; 4 26 a&eHacsmif; 4 27 ausmuf&J 4 28 pavjrdKU 4 29 pOfhul;jrdKU 4 30 &omjrdKU 4 31 t&drEernfaomyk*H 4 32 a&awmif7rdkif; 4 33 aysmfbG,fodkU 4 34 y0ufp0 4 35 ijrmMuD; 4 36 &Jywdkif&Gm 4 37 ausmufwvHk;odkU 4 38 tif;0aejynfawmf 8 {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;jzifh wmawmfxdk;zGJUap&m pyfqdkqufoGif;&aomvuFm/ vuFmydk'frsm;rSm ou&mZf 1133ckESpfwGif (1771) a&Tbdktavmif;rif; Mwm;MuD;\ 'kwd,ajrmufom;awmfjzpfaom qifjzL&Sifonf? &wemodcFrS &wemyl& tif;0jrdKUeef;odkU wwd,ajrmuf befqif;wnfaxmif ajymif;pHawmfrl um xdkxdkrPdyl& tmoefESifh,dk;',m;EdkifiHrsm;udk atmifjrifawmfrlhjyD;aemuf rif;aumif;rif;jrwfjzpfonf tm;avsmfpGm omoemawmfa&; bufvnf; ypnf; av;yg;wdkUjzifh axmufyHhvSL'gef;awmfrl ausmif;uefbk&m;rsm;pGm topfvnf; wnfaqmuf udk;uG,fawmfrl\/ ,dk,Gif;onfrsm;udkvnf; jyifqifawmfrl\/ odkUESifhvnf; tm;&a&mifh&Jawmfrrl&um; atmuftaMuodkU a&Tabmifawmfjzifh pkefqif;awmfrlcg wd*HkqHawmf&Siftm; xD;awmftopfwifvSLawmfrljyD;vQif rdrdaejynfawmfodkU jyefvnfawmfrl&m {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;wGif c&D;,lZem


31 July


wdkifwmawmfxdk;zGJUap trdefUawmft&jzifh rSL;MuD;rwf&mwdkUrSm uGrf;axmuf jrdKU&Gmrsm;tvdkuf wdkifwmxdk;zGJU&&m 4if;rsm;udkvnf; tqdkawmf ynm&Sd wdkUu atmufygjzpfaom vuFm 3yk'fwdkUjzifh pyfqdkqufoGif;&avonf/ wd*HkqHawmf&Sif wnf&m wd*Hk&yfXmerSmum; &wemyl& tif;0aejynf awmfwdkifatmif ,lZem 30ausmfrQ jzpf\/ wmawmfjzifhum; wmaygif; (180000) wodef;&Spfaomif;ausmfyifwnf;/ 1/ zufuRef;pH&m? aemfuRef;zsmydrfh? omcGmaiGa&mif? zvfta&mifxuf? awmufajymifbkef;wl? vwqlodkU? oHk;vlUaMu;rSHK? a&Twd*Hkudk? o*Hkjrwf&Sif? xD;awmfwifrS? r*Fvmazmif? 0if;0if;ajymifrQ? a&Tawmuft[ef? a&Tjynf jyefwGif? wdkifrSefwmzGJU? wmcJhonfwdkif? ydk'fodkPfr<uif;? t&if;rusef? avsmufqdk[efum;? wmrSefwmwdkif? yef;vSdKifMuatmif? wm&m&Spfwdkif? ESdKif; jydKifr,Gif;? &Hcif;pH&m? rSefpGmenf;wl? "EkjzLodkU? ajrmufqlxHk;zGJU? bkef;MudK oGJUcg? anmifyifomrl? ocsFmajcmuf&yf? xuf&yfrSdKif;ndKU? awmifydkUw&m? onmw0? [oFwESifh? XmetnD? aygif;oHk;vD0,f? oHk;pDrQom? jcm;Mum a&aMum? om&a0gwaz:? iaomfuRJacgif;? onfhaemifa&Tusif? oHk;&mwGif om? ocsFmoHk;vD? wmaygif;nDonf? a&oDwmvrf;jzefUoef;wnf;/ 2/ anmifa&Tusifu? a&TpifvQH0if;? qefUjyefvsOf;aomf? a&cif;a&mufatmif ESpfwdkifaqmif\/ uaemifoHk;&m? a'G;&mjrefatmif? wmaqmifbkef;tkyf? wkyfarSmfavS? Za,sZ,s? tiSa&Tawmif? &DarSmif&pfqdkU? jynfjrdKU&dyfnH? ZvGefaomifxdyf? anmifyifqdyfESifh? Hk;qdyfajrxJ? wuGJvif;aMumif;? vnf;aumif;tnD? av;wdkifpDwnfh? wvnfqifhuJ? qifaygif0JESifh? rdausmif;&J&Gm? ig;wdkifomvQif? jcm;uGmonfcsnf;? wenf;jrifuGef;? ajrmuf ,Gef;urf;ajr;? rauG;omvTwf? 0ufrpGwfomaygif;/ a&eHacsmif; omcJh? ausmuf&JomaxG? pavomwHk;? pOfhiltHk;om? omxufom? &omjrdKU u? &drEwdkif? wmrSwfydkif av;wdkifpDom? jcm;a0;uGmonf/ pOfvma&S;u xHk;pHwnf;/


31 July


3/ &drEem/ atmifcsmyl&? jrdKUayguHu? csDjyD;<uaomf? tif;0bkef;acgif? &mrif;aemifvQif? a&Tawmif&rdkif;? &yfqdkif;prg,f? aysmfbG,fw&uf? y0ufp0? wnpHjyD;? igjrmMuD;0,f? &yfrSD;,SOfETJU? waeUwJ? &Jywdkif&Gm? w&ufMumaomf? eDvma&mifzHk;? ausmufwvHk;odkU? pkHk;wmpOf? azmifawmf &Sifonf? a&,nfoDwm? uGrf;axmuf&Gmvnf;? rsm;pGmra0;? av;wdkiftrSef? wm&SpfjyefwGif? Adrmefod*Fg? &wemyl&? a&T0wdkif;csJU? ,lZemzGJUaomf? oHk;qJhav;om? ,lZemwnfh? twmcefUavmif;? ocsFmaygufaomf? odef;ESifh &Spfaomif;? cgaumif;qef;opf? ou&mZfomarm? O? Mo? nH? pD? ckcsdef(1771)onfudk od*D0if;vQH? a&TazmifysHjzifh? rif;0ifatmifcsuf? [efvsufuRef;il? qdkufawmfrlonf? ewfvlyDwd? &Tifvrf;wnf;/ (ol&d,r*Zif;? pufwifbm 1929? pmrsufESm 73-5) ajr'l;rif;&efukefrS t0odkUa&aMumif;jzifh jyef<uawmfrl&m t0odkU ou&mZf 1137ck 0gacgifvqef; 5&uf2aeU (31 July 1775) a&mufawmfrlonf/


24 February


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom a&Teef;ocif b0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD; trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ "l& 2yg;udk bk&m;a[mawmfrlonfhtwdkif; &G,faqmif awmfrlavh&Sdaom t&d,moCFmtaygif;wdkU oHkUvlxGwfxm; bk&m;oAnKw y&dedAmef vGefawmfrlonfhaemuf tZmwowfrif;? umvmaom[rif;? oD&d "rmaomurif;wdkUudk trSDjyK yXro*Fg,em? 'kwd,o*Fg,em? wwd, o*Fg,emwifawmfrlukefonf? ,ckvnf; &[ef;omraPwdkUudk e*&*gr ed*Hk;Zeyk'fodkU0ifvQif ouFef;Hkapvdkonfh yk*dKvfoljrwfwdkUu ouFef;Hkoifh onf? 'kuk#fwifapvdkonfh yk*dKvfoljrwfwdkUu wifoifhonf t,luGJjym; bk&m;&Sifomoemawmfudk pdwfworwfwnf; jzLpifpGm rusifhraqmif&? tvdkudk wGefUwdk&SdaMumif;ESifh a&Tem;awmfMum;awmfrlonf? t&d,moCFmawmf q&mawmftaygif;wdkUonf edAmefr*fzdkvftusdK;iSm udk,fhpD;yGm; ow0g taygif;wdkU\pD;yGm;udk a[mMum;usifhaqmifawmfrlMuonf jzpfonf? tvdkudk wGefUwdk &SdMu&rnf r[kwfbk&m;apmawmfrlonfh ygVdawmf tXuxm#Dum 0denf; usrf;*eftrSef &Sdonfudkom tm;xkwfawmf rlMu&rnf/ ouFef;Hkvdkonfh t&d,moCFmawmfq&mawmfwdkUESifh 'kuk#fwifvdkonfh t&d,moCFmawmf q&mawmftaygif;wdkU bk&m;a[mawmfrlonfh yg#drnfodkU teuft"dyg,f vmonf A'rwnKbk&m;&Sif tvdkawmfudkodaom tXuxm#Dum o*Fg,em0if 0denf;usrf;*efu rnfodkUvmonf? wumawmfa&ajr&SifrSp jynfom;jynfol &Sifvl taygif;wdkU vrf;aMumif; xifxif odjrifomatmif ok"rmp&yfwGif owdAswdESifh jynfhpHkaom yk*dKvf jrwfwdkUudk cGifhay;awmf rlMu tomt,m ajymqdkawmfrlMu&rnfh taMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1141ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 6&uf5aeU (24 February 1780) rm&fatmif &wemok"rmp&yfwGif twGif;0efaxmuf aersdK;aemf&xm jyef/ (awmifcGif)


25 February


bkef;awmftvGefMuD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom a&Teef;ocif b0&Sifrif;w&m;MuD; trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ pum;rsm;pGm qdkMu&rnfr[kwf? omraPwdkUudk 'kuk#f wif &ifbGJUpnf;oifhonf? ygVdtXuxm#Dum wdkufdkuf&Sdonfudkom trdefuawmf&if;twdkif; qdkawmfrlMu&rnfhtaMumif;udk trdefUawmf&Sdonf/ ou&mZf 1141ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU (25 February 1780) rmefatmif &wemok"rm p&yfwGif avSmfum; oHk;axmifrSL;ausmfxif eErdwfjyef trdefUawmf/ (awmifcGif)


ou&mZf1141ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 7&ufaeU rmefatmif&wemok"rmp&yfwGif vuf,mbufae 'kuk#fwifq&mawmfwdkU u ouFef;Hk yk*dKvfwdkU tqdkudkacsonf? yd@pm&dauebdua0? bduKem tp&Sdaom plV0gygVdawmfonfomraPudk ynwfaom odumyk'fr[kwf? omrnm, bduK [laom yg&mZduPfygVdawmf? ornm,wd? ynwd,m a0g[ma&emwdawm tp&Sdaom yg&mZduPf tXuxm\ t&jzpfaom omraPudk bduL[k ynwf&jcif;onf qGrf;yifhbdwfaomumv ponfwdkU omraPudkyif bduL [kqdk\/ ynwfawmfrlaom odumyk'f t&m omraPudk bduLrqdk r,l&? rqdkr,l&aMumif;udkvnf; bduLwd? bdu aPbduL? bdumpm& tZLyaumwd bduL? bdEy#"a&mwd bduL? omrnm, bduL?omrnm,bduL? v?tukayeXmem&a[e ,H rodtawt"daA awm bduLwd? yg&mZduPf ygVdawmf? bduLwd? bduL[lonfum; bdaum t&d,mwdkU awmif;jcif;jzifh awmif;wwf\/ wdwomwdkUaMumifh? bduL? bduLrnf\? bdaumpm&H qGrf;cH&modkU? tZsypuawm? uyfwwf\? wd? xdkUaMumifh bduL? bduLrnf\? bdEy# "a&m tydktawGtqif;udk zsufaom ouFef;udk aqmifwwf\? wd wdkUaMumifh? bduL?bduLrnf\? omrn,? &[ef;[laom ynwftm;jzifh? bduL? bduLrnf\? v,Gm,H a,m? t,HbduL? tMuif&[ef;udk ora*e? nDnGwfaom? oaCFe? oCFmonf twkaye? rysuftyfaom? Xmem&a[e? omoemawmfwnf;[laom taMumif;tm; xdkufxaom? nwdpwkawe? nwfvQif? av;ckajrmufaom? uare? urpmpmjyif? OyoraE? yOif;jzpfaom &[ef;udk? rodtaw? odumyk'fudk ynwf&m? t"dayawm? tvdk&Sdtyf\? yg&mZduPf ygVdawmft"dyg,fum;? t&d,m wdkUawmif; jcif;jzifhawmif; wwfaomaMumifhvnf; bduLrnf\/ qGrf;cHwwfaomaMumifhvnf; bduLrnf\? tqif;tawGtydkudk zsufaom ouFef;0wfaomaMumifhvnf; qGrf;yifhzdwfaomtcg &[ef;wdkUudk a&wGuf&m ponf omraPonfvnf; bduLrnf\ v? Onufur0gpmjzifh yOif;cHaom &[ef;onfvnf; bduLrnf\? xdkbduLtrsm;wdkUxGif odumyk'fudk ynwf&m omraP tp&Sdaom bduLtrsm;udk rvdktyfr&oifh? odkUyg&m

26 February 1780 (25 February 1780)


26 February


ZduPfyXryg&mZduodumyk'frSp edo*d30wdkif 43ygaomodumyk'fwdkU omraPudk bduL[kr,l&aMumif;ygpdwfygVdawmfrkom0g'odumyk'frSp yg#dapoed,odumyk'fav;yg;wdkif;? 96yg;aom odumyk'fwdkU omraP udk bduL[k r,l&aMumif;udk vmonfjzpf yOif;udkom bduL [k ,ltyfygonf? waMumif;vnf;ouFef;Hk;ouFef;Hkt&SifjrwfwdkUqdkonf? yd@pm&dauebdua0bduLempaom ygVd\ a&S;0uoDvudk ynwf jcif;\taMumif;aweacgyeora,e yd@pm&dubduLs'ked0um'kygkwm ponfjzifh &[ef;yOif;udkomqdkonfjzpfvnf;? yOif;udkom bduL [k ,lqtyf\? oky#dpaEmtE&Ca&*rdrd? wdodumu&Pd,m? oky#dp aEetE&Ca&*EAH? a,mtem'&d,Hy#dpum,H 0d0&dwGmtE&Ca&*pwd/ tmywd? 'kw#om[laom odumyk'fawmfudkvnf; yOif;jzpfaom qA*D &[ef;udk taMumif;jyK ynwfawmfrlonf? omraPa,musfm;? omraP rdef;r? oduref;wdkUrSm rdrdwdkUtm; ynwfaom q,fyg;aom odumyk'fwdkUrS <uif;aom omraPwdkUtm; ynwfaomt&mwdkU 'gPftvdift&mudkyif Oypm&tm;jzifh tmywf[k ac:onfomjzpfonf? *PduHr#drkOdwGm? ponf tEknmwom? y#dao"rygaomaMumifh uywfodrfrwwfaomfvnf; tmywfoifhroifhqdknm;tHh? 0uu'au? {um'ku#mywda,iomoA0 auok? tem'&da,ea[mwd? [laom yg&d0gtXuxmygXudkaqmif wywfodrfuywfuGif;wwf rpGyfr0wfy&d0g tXmuxmrSm OyZm,fq&m wdkUtm;jyK&maom 0wfudk rjyKvQif 'kuk#ftmywfoifhonfudkom qdkonfh t&m jzpfygonf? uywfodrfuywfuGif; wwfjcif;onf OyZsm,f0wf paom 0woDvr[kwf? tEknmwodumyk'frQomjzpfonf? xdkUaMumifh tEkZmem[d bdua0y@duH y#drkOdwHk[lom a[mawmfrlonf? wyg;odum yk'f tmywd'ku#om[k a[mawmfrlouJhodkU tEknmwodumyk'f 'kuk#f tp&Sdaom tmywfodkUwif rvmra[myg? taEm*garm0g a[mwk0d,ma&m0g[EkomeH paom tXuxmpum;onfvnf; yOif;udk taMumif;jyK ynwfawmfrlaom 0denf;ygVd\ tXuxmomjzpfonf? omraPwdkU usifh&monfudk qdkaom tXuxmr[kwfyg? ou


26 February


&mZf1141ck waygif;vjynfhausmf7&ufaeU (25 February 1780) ouFef;Hkyk*dKvfwdkU tqdkqifajcudk4if;aeU 'kuk#fwif t&SifjrwfwdkUu ajconf? 4if;tacsudk ouFef;Hkyk*dKvfwdkUu jyefvSef wbefracsrqdk0Hh? q&mawmf oCFmawmfwdkU tHktwifoabmrus 0d0g'&SdaMumif;udk Mum;awmfrlonfESifh 0d0g' ruGJrjym;ap&? w0wnf;om w&m;vrf;rSef jynTefonfht&mudk odawmfrlomatmif ok"rmp&yfwGifqdkMu&onf/ tqdkpm&if;us q&mawmf wdkUjyif vuf,muaeonf? pHausmif;q&m axmufrajymqdkonfudk Mum;awmfrl &ayonf? vuf0Ju ausmfatmifpHxm;q&mawmf? rif;&Gmq&mawmf? ul;wdkUqdyfq&mawmf? anmifuefq&mawmf wdkUvnf; usrf;*efodjrifonfh yk*dKvfjzpfonf? ygVdtXmuxm&Sdonfhtwdkif; axmufrajymqdkawmf rlMu&rnf/ ou&mZf 1141ck waygif;vjynfhausmf 8&uf0aeU (26 February 1780) rSm rm&fatmif&wemok"rmp&yfwGif twGif;0efaxmufaersdK; aemf&xmjyef/ (awmifcGif)


15 November 1780

'kuk#fwifq&mawmf ouFef;Hkq&mawmfwdkU tHktwifusrf;*efESifhtnD qdkMuonfh pum;rSm wifoifhonf Hkoifhonf bk&m;&SifESpfuGJ a[mawmfrlrnf r[kwf wckckudkom a[mawmfrlrnfjzpfonf? 'kuk#fwifq&mawmfwdkUudk ygVd tXuxmESifh ESpfOD;qdkap? rqdkEdkifvQif bk&m;a[mawmfrlonfh ygVd tXuxm &Sdonfhtwdkif; usifhaqmifap/ ou&mZf 1142ck wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf 4&ufaeU(15 November 1780) em;cHpajrmifrSL; aersdK;eefolwGifjyef/ (ou&mZf 1142ck wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf 11&ufAk'[l;aeU (22 November 1780) rm&fatmifok"rmp&yfwGif vuf,mbufae&mae 'kuk#f wif*dkPf;q&mawmf oHCmawmfwdkU tqdkjyKMuonf/) (awmifcGif)


23 November 1780

,ckqdkonfhpum;&yfjyifqdk&ef trsm;&Sdao;onf? igomoemawmfudk xdrf;odrf; jyKpkawmfrlonfh {u&mZfjzpfonf? qdkvdk&m&m pum;tacstjrif ygVdtXuxm wdkufdkuf rvmr&Sdonfudk cdkifjrnf qdk&rnfr[kwf? bk&m;&Sifa&TrsufESm awmfudkom Munfhawmfrl&rnfjzpfonf? ajreef;awmfwGif qdkapomfumvvnf; omraPwdkUwifaqmifpnf;bGJUonf 'kuk#f&ifbGJUudk ygVdtXuxm rvmr&Sday? q&mpOfodkU vdkufom usifhaqmifayonf qdkcsuf&SdjyD ,ckqdk qufoGif;onfh jyif omraPwdkUrSm &Gm0ifqGrf;pm; qGrf;pOfudk udk,f0wfpr,fwif&ifpnf; oGm;&rnf[k oky#dpEvuPm nDatmifs ycHk;ESpfbufudk zHk;vTrf;0wfHks oGm;&rnfudkom odawmfrl vdk&if;jzpfonf? ygVdawmf tXuxm vmonfh twdkif; odawmfrlomatmif qdkap/ ou&mZf 1142ck wefaqmifrkef;vqkwfs 12&ufaeU (23 November 1780) oHawmfqifh pnfola&Tawmifaemf&xmwGifjyef/ (awmifcGif)


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