SYSTEM DESIGN MANUAL
SUMMARY OF PART ONE This part of the System Design Manual presents data and examples to guide the engineer when preparing practical cooling and heating load estimates. After the load has been determined, the “Applied Psychrometrics” chapter will bridge the gap between the load estimate and equipment selection. The text of this Manual is offered as a general guide for the use of industry and of consulting engineers in designing systems. Judgment is required for application to specific installation, and Carrier is not responsible for any uses made of this text.

survey and estimate

1

design conditions

2

heat storage solar heat gain-glass

3 4

heat and moisture flow

5

infiltration and ventilation

6

internal and system heat gain

7

applied psychrometrics

8

INDEX

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 1. Building Survey And Load Estimate

CHAPTER 1. BUILDIGN SURVEY AND LOAD ESTIMATE
The primary function of air conditioning is to maintain conditions that are (1) conducive to human comfort, or (2) required by a product, or process within a space. To perform this function, equipment of the proper capacity must be installed and controlled throughout the year. The equipment capacity is determined by the actual instantaneous peak load requirements; type of control is determined by the conditions to be maintained during peak and partial load. Generally, it is impossible to measure either the actual peak or the partial load in any given space; these loads must be estimated. It is for this purpose that the data contained in Part 1 has been compiled. Before the load can be estimated, it is imperative that a comprehensive survey be made to assure accurate evaluation of the load components. If the building facilities and the actual instantaneous load within a given mass of the building are carefully studied, an economical equipment selection and system design can result, and smooth, trouble free performance is then possible. The heat gain or loss is the amount of heat instantaneously coming into or going out of the space. The actual load is defined as that amount of heat which is instantaneously added or removed by the equipment. The instantaneous heat gain and the actual load on the equipment will rarely be equal, because of the thermal inertia or storage effect of the building structures surrounding a conditioned space. Chapter 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 contain the data from which the instantaneous heat gain or loss is estimated. Chapter 3 provides the data and procedure for applying storage factors to the appropriate heat gains to result in the actual load. Chapter 8 provides the bridge between the load estimate and the equipment selection. It furnishes the procedure for establishing the criteria to fulfill the conditions required by a given project. The basis of the data and its use, with examples, are included in each chapter with the tables and charts; also an explanation of how each of the heat gains and the loads manifest themselves. completeness and accuracy of this survey is the very foundation of the estimate, and its importance can not be overemphasized. Mechanical and architectural drawings, complete field sketches and, in some cases, photographs of important aspects are part of a good survey. The following physical aspects must be considered: 1. Orientation of building - Location of the space to be air conditioned with respect to: a) Compass points-sun and wind effects. b) Nearby permanent structures-shading effects. c) Reflective surfaces-water, sand, parking lots, etc. Use of space(s) – Office, hospital, department store, specialty shop, machine shop, factory, assembly plant, etc. Physical dimensions of space(s) - Length, width, and height. Ceiling height - Floor to floor height, floor to ceiling, clearance between suspended ceiling and beams. Columns and beams - Size, depth, also knee braces. Construction materials - Materials and thickness of walls, roof, ceiling, floors and partitions, and their relative position in the structure. Surrounding conditions - Exterior color of walls and roof, shaded by adjacent building or sunlit. Attic space - unvented or vented, gravity or forced ventilation. Surrounding spaces conditioned or unconditionedtemperature of non-conditioned adjacent spaces, such as furnace or boiler room, and kitchens. Floor on ground, crawl space, basement. Windows - Size and location, wood or metal sash, single or double hung. Type of shading device. Dimensions of reveals and overhangs. Doors - Location, type, size, and frequency of use. Stairways, elevators, and escalators Location, temperature of space if open to unconditioned area. Horsepower of machinery, ventilated or not. People - Number, duration of occupancy, nature of activity, any special concentration. At times, it is required to estimate the number

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11.

BUILDING SURVEY

SPACE CHARACTERISTICS AND HEAT LOAD SOURCES An accurate survey of the load components of the space to be air conditioned is a basic requirement for a realistic estimate of cooling and heating loads. The

The latter is of great significance and should be carefully evaluated. 4. 9. and other obstructions or interferences that may be in the way of the duct system. Frequently these motors may be operating under a continuous overload. 2. Exhaust fanstype. Refrigeration. exhaust air quantity installed or required. or on average traffic. brine or chilled water (if furnished by customer) – Type of system. business machines. how additional power (if required) may be brought in and where. nature of surface materials enclosing the space (see Chapter 3). return or supply. 3 or 4 wire. and usage. 14. 3. maximum temperature. Power service – Location. refrigeration machines. dumbwaiter shafts. or only occasionally. Location of all fire walls and partitions – Requiring fire dampers (also see Item 16). rugs on floor. nameplate and brake horsepower. 16 or 24 hours per day) specifically during peak outdoor conditions. Appliances. or not all business machines in a given space may be used at the same time. The power input to electric motors is not necessarily equal to the rated horsepower divided by the motor efficiency. rated wattage. and plan the air and water distribution systems. a toaster or a waffle iron may not be used during the evening. scheduled ventilation (agreement with purchaser). exhaust. 10. piping lines. Existing air conveying equipment and ducts – For possible reuse. 15. Typeincandescent. Continuous or intermittent operation – Whether system be required to operate every business day during cooling season. steam or gas consumption. capacity. determine duration of time available for precooling or pulldown. size of lines. permissible temperature swing in space during a design day. phases and cycle. . Architectural characteristics of space – For selection of outlets that will blend into the space design. 16. type of return system. size. abandoned smokestacks. hooded or unhooded. gpm. speed. etc. pipe shafts. and services (also see Item 5). The manufacturer’s recommendation for temperature and humidity variation must be followed. or the fry kettle may not be used during morning. temperature. temperature. Steam service – Location. the type of air flow over the lights. dirt. Load Estimating | Chapter 1. It is always advisable to measure the power input wherever possible. pressure.Part 1. code requirements. LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICE The building survey should also include information which enables the engineer to select equipment location. such as churches and ballrooms. recessed. The regular service meters may often be used for this purpose. 17. Avoid pyramiding the heat gains from various appliances and business machines. Available spaces – Location of all stairwells. For example. 8. fluorescent. The following is a guide to obtaining this information: 1. Excessive smoking or odors. elevator shafts. should be anticipated. At times. Thermal storage – Includes system operating schedule (12. Greater accuracy may be obtained by measuring the power or gas input during times of peak loading. Motors – Location. and these requirements are often quite stringent. cfm delivery. and usage. Water service – Location. This is especially important in estimates for industrial installations where the motor machine load is normally a major portion of the cooling load. Lighting . capacity.. size. 13. provided power or gas consumption not contributing to the room heat gain can be segregated. Electronic equipment often requires individual air conditioning. capacity. pressure. see Chapter 6. 7. due to lack of exact information. capacity. and short-circuiting of unwanted contaminants. Ventilation – Cfm per person. Building Survey And Load Estimate of people on the basis of square feet per person. pumps. other buildings. cooling towers. Possible obstructions – Locations of all electrical conduits. Location of outdoor air intakes – In reference to street. it is required to estimate the wattage on a basis of watts per sq ft. wind direction. 12. voltage. If intermittent operation. electronic equipment – Location. 6.Wattage at peak. exposed. and spaces for air handing apparatus. 5. cfm per sq ft. pressure. or may be operating at less than rated capacity. If the lights are recessed. current limitations.

Drains – Location and capacity. 3. 27. The time of peak load can usually be established by inspection. pages 73 and 74. “Internal and System Heat Gain”). and Stratification. 22. page 84. pages 66-72. 12. page 29. overhangs. construction of refrigeration and air handling apparatus rooms. “Design Conditions”). page 52. cause heat to flow into the space. A day when there is little or no haze in the air to reduce the solar heat (Chapter 4. 4. 14. Codes. although. drainage. Control facilities – Compressed air source and pressure. provide the transmission coefficients or rates of heat flow for a variety of roof and wall constructions. and ventilation of buildings in general and apparatus rooms in particular. This form contains the references identified to the particular chapters of data and tables required to estimate the various load components. this load is neglected. A large portion of the solar heat gain is radiant and will be partially stored as described in Chapter 3. with overall factors from Table 16. stairways. refer to Chapter 3. local and national – Governing wiring. All of the internal loads are normal (Chapter 7. and Tables 29 and 30. Load Estimating | Chapter 1. Sound and vibration control requirements – Relation of refrigeration and air handling apparatus location to critical areas. 24. Tables 7 thru 11.” The infiltration and ventilation air quantities are estimated as described in Chapter 6. Diversity. Tables 19 and 20. The sun rays entering windows – Table 15.Part 1. page 58. These storage factors are applied to peak solar heat gains obtained from Table 6. provide equivalent temperature differences for sunlit and shaded walls and roofs. provide an easy means of determining how much the window is shaded at a given time. Tables 25 and 26. page 57. electrical. fire dampers. page 52. doors. as well as the heat being generated within the space. venting of refrigeration. 13. The data required to estimate this load is contained in Table 40. pages 44-49. estimates must be made for several different times of the day. “Heat Storage. This load is significant only in low dewpoint applications. AIR CONDITIONING LOAD ESTIMATE The air conditioning load is estimated to provide the basis for selecting the conditioning equipment. 15. It must take into account the heat coming into the space from outdoors on a design day. 23. The air vapor pressure – A higher vapor pressure surrounding conditioned space causes water vapor to flow thru the building materials. and Table 16. A design day is defined as: 1. and 28. accessibility from street. the situation of having all of the loads peaking at the same time will very rarely occur. provide data from which the solar heat gain through glass is estimated. In addition to this reduction. in some cases. and Table 18. 2. The sun rays striking the walls and roofThese. factors are contained in Table 16. 16. water supply. In comfort applications. To be realistic. OUTDOOR LOADS The loads from outdoors consist of: 1. 3. 2. provide the storage factors to be applied to solar heat gains in order to arrive at the actual cooling load imposed on the air conditioning equipment. Foundation and support – Requirements and facilities. various diversity factors must be applied to some of the load components. ductwork. pages 30-34. Fig. The temperature differences used to estimate the heat flow thru these structures are contained in the notes after each table. partitions. The solar heat gain is usually reduced by means of shading devices on the inside or outside of the windows. all or part of the window may be shaded by reveals. in conjunction with the high outdoor air temperature. pages 69 and 70. pages 62 and 63. provide the transmission coefficients. A day on which the dry-and wet-bulb temperatures are peaking simultaneously (Chapter 2. . Tables 21. Chart 1. sewage disposal. Actually. 1 illustrates an air conditioning load estimate form and is designed to permit systematic load evaluation. 25. and by adjacent buildings. “Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass”). Accessibility for moving equipment to the final location – Elevators. and floors. strength of building. Building Survey And Load Estimate 11. The air temperature outside the conditioned space – A higher ambient temperature causes heat to flow thru the windows.

Building Survey And Load Estimate FIG.Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 1. 1-AIR CONDITIONING LOAD ESTIMATE .

depends on the character of the application. Load Estimating | Chapter 1. as listed in 5. The amount of bypassed outdoor air depends on the type of equipment used as outlined in Chapter 8. If a positive exhaust hood is used with the appliances. not all of the machines would be in use simultaneously. thus reducing the load to be impressed on the air conditioning equipment. Electric motors – Electric motors are a significant load in industrial applications and should be thoroughly analyzed with respect to operating time and capacity before estimating the load (see Item 13 under “Space Characteristics and Heat Load Sources”).). or steam appliances which release heat into the space. The internal load. provides data for estimating the heat gain from electric motors. similar to infiltration. the heat gain is reduced. The foregoing is that portion of the load on the air conditioning equipment that originates outside the space and is common to all applications. page 100. hospitals. Building Survey And Load Estimate The wind blowing against a side of the building. Some of the heat is radiant and is partially stored (see Chapter 3). Tables 54 thru 58. Table 53. see Chapter 7. therefore. provides the data from which the ventilation requirements for most comfort applications can be estimated. In addition to the heat gains from the indoor and outdoor sources. 6. to reduce the load on the air conditioning system. and should be so done where possible. 4. page 105. page 97. Table 48. This ventilation air imposes a cooling and dehumidifying load on the apparatus because the heat and/or moisture must be removed. 7. Miscellaneous sources – There may be other sources of heat and moisture gain within a space. laboratories. a usage or diversity factor should be applied to the full load heat gain. Tables 50 thru 52. Outdoor air usually required for ventilation purposes – Outdoor air is usually necessary to flush out the space and keep the odor level down. 2. or partially cooled internally. the air conditioning equipment and duct system gain or lose heat. Most air conditioning equipment permits some outdoor air to bypass the cooling surface (see Chapter 8). 5. such as escaping steam (industrial cleaning devices. Normally. absorption of water by hygroscopic material (paper. Appliances – Restaurants.Wind causes the outdoor air that is higher in temperature and moisture content to infiltrate thru the cracks around the doors and windows. and some specialty shops (beauty shops) have electrical. it enters the room thru the supply air duct. resulting in localized sensible and latent heat gains.). All or part of this infiltration may be offset by air being introduced thru the apparatus for ventilation purposes. . and evaporation from the surface. and. pressing machines.Part 1. textiles. gas. Electric calculating machines – Refer to manufacturer’s data to evaluate the heat gain from electric calculating machines. instead of coming thru a crack around the window. It is frequently possible to actually measure this load in existing applications. add heat. Proper diversity and usage factor should be applied to all internal loads. This bypassed outdoor air becomes a load within the conditioned space. etc. Chapter 6 contains the estimating data. some of the internal gains consist of radiant heat which is partially stored (as described in Chapter 3). Table 45. The amount of heat generated and released depends on surrounding temperature and on the activity level of the person. convection. or heat generated within the space. 6. As with the solar heat gain. tanks are open to the air. Lights – Illuminants convert electrical power into light and heat (refer to Chapter 7). causing water to evaporate into the space. The fans and pumps required to distribute the air or water thru the system add heat. Hot pipes and tanks – Steam or hot water pipes running thru the air conditioned space. Generally. People – The human body thru metabolism generates heat within itself and releases it by radiation. or hot water tanks in the space. 3. In many industrial applications. pages 101-103. list the recommended heat gain values for most appliances when not hooded. INTERNAL LOADS Chapter 7 contains the data required to estimate the heat gain from most items that generate heat within the conditioned space. and by convection and evaporation in the respiratory tract. internal heat gains consist of some or all of the following items: 1. pages 107-109 provide data for estimating the hear gain from these sources. The machines may also be hooded. etc.

HIGH ALTITUDE LOAD CALCULATIONS HEATING LOAD ESTIMATE Since air conditioning load calculations are based on pounds of air necessary to handle a load. Standard load estimating methods and forms are used for load calculations. Another factor that may be considered in the evaluation of the heating load is temperature swing. Table 4. therefore. The procedure for estimating the heat gains from these sources in percentage of room sensible load. page 148): 1. of course. page 110. Fig. the wetbulb temperature decreases (except at saturation) as the elevation above sea level increases. the effective sensible heat factor must be corrected. The heating load evaluation is the foundation for selecting the heating equipment. therefore. The air supplied to the space must be of the proper conditions to satisfy both the sensible and latent loads estimated. it may be desirable to provide the additional capacity. even if continuous operation is contemplated. This estimate must take into account the heat loss thru the building structure surrounding the spaces and the heat required to offset the outdoor air which may infiltrate and/or may be required for ventilation. page 20. It is. because of pickup required after forced shutdown. provides recommended inside design conditions for various applications. the heating load is estimated for the winter design temperatures (Chapter 2) usually occurring at night.). etc. a decrease in density means an increase in cfm required to satisfy the given sensible load. Building Survey And Load Estimate heat is also added to supply and return air ducts running thru warner or hot spaces. This. Chapter 6 contains the data for estimating the infiltration air quantities. lights. and grand total heat load is contained in Chart 3. Capacity requirements may be reduced when the temperature within the space is allowed to drop a few degrees during periods of design load. EQUIPMENT SELECTION . “Applied Psychrometrics. Chapter 8. Load Estimating | Chapter 1. additional equipment capacity is required for pickup.). Normally. no credit is taken for the heat given off by internal sources (people. 2. and Table 13. except that the factors affecting the calculations of volume and sensible and latent heat of air must be multiplied by the relative density at the particular elevation. contains the data for estimating the possible capacity reduction when operating in this manner. Chapter 5 contains the transmission coefficients and procedures for determining heat loss. Table 66. room latent load.Part 1. pages 111-113. Because of the increased moisture content of the air. After the load is evaluated. Although this type of operation may be effective in realizing fuel economy. etc. The following adjustments are required for high altitude load calculations (see Chapter 8. the equipment must be selected with capacity sufficient to offset this load. apparatus dewpoint. Design room air moisture content must be adjusted to the required elevation. The weight of air required to meet the latent load is decreased because of the higher latent load capacity of the air at higher altitudes (greater gr per lb per degree difference in dewpoint temperature). and Tables 59 and 60. 3.” provides procedures and examples for determining the criteria from which the air conditioning equipment is selected (air quantity. The practice of drastically lowering the temperature to 50 F db or 55 F db when the building is unoccupied precludes the selection of equipment based on such capacity reduction. In fact. evident that the use of storage in reducing the heating load for the purpose of equipment selection should be applied with care. applies to continuous operation only. page 37. cold air may leak out of the supply duct and hot air may leak into the return duct. 2 illustrates a heating estimate form for calculating the heat loss in a building structure. For the same dry-bulb and percent relative humidity.

Load Estimating | Chapter 1.HEATING LOAD ESTIMATE .Part 1. 2. Building Survey And Load Estimate FIG.

MAXIMUM DESIGN CONDITIONS-SUMMER Maximum summer design conditions are recommended for laboratories and industrial applications where exceeding the room design conditions for even short periods of time can be detrimental to a product or process. permit a choice of outdoor drybulb and wet-bulb temperatures for different types of applications as outlined below. apparatus. The dry-bulb is exceeded more frequently than the wet-bulb temperature. OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER The outdoor design conditions listed in Table 1 are the industry accepted design conditions as published in ARI Std. refer to Chapters 5 and 6. This range varies with local climate conditions.Part 1. 530-56 and the 1958 ASHAE Guide. as listed. DESIGN CONDITIONS This chapter presents the data from which the outdoor design conditions are established for various localities and inside design conditions for various applications. And usually when the wet-bulb is lower than design. When cooling and dehumidification (dehydration) are performed separately with these types of applications. The maximum design dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures are simultaneous peaks (not individual peaks). These outdoor design conditions are the simultaneously occurring dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures and moisture content. NORMAL DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER Normal design conditions are recommended for use with comfort and industrial cooling applications where it is occasionally permissible to exceed the design room conditions. use a moisture content corresponding to the normal design wet-bulb temperature and 80 % rh for selecting the dehumidifier (dehydrator) Daily range is the average difference between the high and low dry-bulb temperatures for a 24-hr period on a design day. The moisture content is an individual peak. Each of these conditions can be expected to be exceeded no more than 3 hours in a normal summer. times the number of degrees between 65 F db and the daily mean temperature. The conditions. They directly affect the load on the air conditioning equipment by influencing the transmission of heat across the exterior structure and the difference in heat content between the outdoor and inside air. Load Estimating | Chapter 2. and is listed only for use in the selection of separate cooling and dehumidifying systems for closely controlled spaces. The annual degree days listed are the sum of all the days in the year on which the daily mean temperature falls below 65 F db. both outdoor and inside. Design Conditions CHAPTER 2. NORMAL DESIGN CONDITIONS – WINTER Normal winter design conditions are recommended for use with all comfort and industrial heating applications. For further details. The design conditions established determine the heat content of air. normally during the early morning hours. which can be expected to be exceeded a few times a year for short periods. The outdoor dry-bulb temperature can be expected to go below the listed temperatures a few times a year. use the normal design dry-bulb temperature for selecting the sensible cooling .

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lights. Frequently.Part 1. the design conditions at other times of the day and other months of the year must be known. Example 1 – Corrections to Design Conditions Given: A comfort application in New York City. to 12 p. These corrections are based on analysis of weather data and are applicable only to the cooling load estimate. . outdoor air. it may be uneconomical to design for the optimum conditions. Since all of the loads (sun. Find: The approximate dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures at 12:00 noon in October. Yearly range in New York City = 95-0 = 95 F db.M. are 95 F db. Correction for time of day (12 noon) from Table 2: Dry-bulb = -5 F Wet-bulb = -1 F Correction for time of year (October) from Table 3: Dry-bulb = -16 F Wet-bulb = -8 F Design conditions at 12 noon in October (approximate) : Dry-bulb = 95-5-16 = 74 F Wet-bulb = 75-1.m.m. people. based on the average daily range. The optimum or deluxe conditions are chosen where costs are not of prime importance and for comfort applications in localities having summer outdoor design dry-bulb temperatures of 90 F or less. based on the yearly range in dry-bulb temperature (summer normal design dry-bulb minus winter normal design dry-bulb temperature). are applicable to the month of July at about 3:00 P.) do not peak simultaneously for any prolonged periods. listed in Table 1. These conditions are based on experience gathered from many applications. Design Conditions CORRECTIONS TO OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR TIME OF DAY AND TIME OFYEAR The normal design conditions for summer.8 = 66 F INSIDE COMFORT DESIGN CONDITIONS- SUMMER The inside design conditions listed in Table 4 are recommended for types of applications listed.m. 75 F wb (Table 1). and the wet-bulb corrections assume a relatively constant dewpoint throughout the 24-hr period. The dry-bulb corrections are based on analysis of weather data. substantiated by ASHAE tests. etc. Solution: Normal design conditions for New York in July at 3:00 p. Table 2 lists the approximate corrections on the drybulb and wet-bulb temperatures from 8 a. Daily range in New York City is 14 F db. Load Estimating | Chapter 2. Table 3 lists the approximate corrections of the drybulb and wet-bulb temperatures from March to November.

Applications of inherently high sen-sible heat factor (relatively small latent load) usually result in the most economical equipment selection if the higher dry-bulb temperatures and lower relative humidities are used. heat will be stored in the building mass.The commercial inside design conditions are recommended for general comfort air conditioning applications.). lights. As the peak loading occurs (outdoor peak dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. usually 78 F db. the temperature swing (variation) is below the comfort condition at the time of peak heating load (no people. INSIDE COMFORT DESIGN CONDITIONSWINTER For winter season operation. Applications with low sensible heat factors (high latent load) usually result in more economical equipment selection if the lower dry-bulb temperatures and higher relative humidities are used. the thermostat is set to these temperatures. and these conditions are maintained under partial loads. With summer cooling. If the temperature in the conditioned space is forced to rise. The range of summer inside design conditions is provided to allow for the most economical selection of equipment. Since a majority of people are comfortable at 75 F or 76 F db and around 45% to 50% rh.” for a more complete discussion of heat storage. all people and lights. 100% sun. the inside design conditions listed in Table 4 are recommended for general heating applications. Diversity and Stratification. etc. and with the minimum outdoor temperature). or solar gain. Refer to Chapter 3. . “Heat Storage. With heating. the temperature swing used in the calculation of storage is the difference between the design temperature and the normal thermostat setting. Heat stored in the building structure during partial load (day) operation reduces the required equipment capacity for peak load operation in the same manner as it does with cooling. the temperature in the space rises to the design point.

Table 5 lists typical temperatures and relative humidities used in preparing. the temperature and humidity conditions and the permissible limits of variations on these conditions should be established by common agreement with the customer. machining. to prevent expansion and contraction of the machine parts. have a property of capturing water molecules within the microscopic surface crevices. Non-hygroscopic materials such as metals. and manufacturing various products. A constant temperature level is required for close tolerance measuring. machined products and measuring devices. In some cases. products. A constant relative humidity is secondary in nature but should not go over 45% to minimize formation of heavier surface moisture film. forming an invisible. They may also vary as changes occur in processes. processing. non-continuous surface film. and knowledge of the effect of temperature and humidity.. specific inside design conditions are required in industrial applications for one or more of the following reasons: 1. This normally improves workmanship and uniformity. Normally.. gaging. Some of the conditions listed have no effect on the product or process other than to increase the efficiency of the employee by maintaining comfort conditions. In all cases. it may be advisable to compromise between the INSIDE INDUSTRIAL DESIGN CONDITIONS required conditions and comfort conditions to maintain high quality commensurate with low production cost. These conditions are only typical of what has been used. and for storing both raw and finished goods. glass. plastics. etc. and my vary with applications. Generally. a constant temperature is more important than the temperature level. or grinding operations. thus reducing rejects and production cost. The density of this film increases when relative .

such as textiles and paper. preparation of synthetic fibers or chemical compounds. 5. With applications of this type. *Published in ASTN pamphlet dated 9-29-48. and regain of hydroscopic materials. . These conditions have also been approved by the Technical Committee on Standard Temperature and Relative Humidity Conditions of the FSB (Federal Specifications Board) with one variation: FSB permits ±4%. the moisture should not be introduced before the materials have a chance to warm up if they are cooled during shutdown periods. such as drying of Varnishes or sugar coatings. Generally. in many instances. Design Conditions humidity increases. or a little below. pliability. the comfort conditions to minimize perspiration of the operator. The temperature and relative humidity control are required to regulate the rate of chemical or biochemical reactions. or the electric resistance of insulating materials is significantly decreased. this film must. With some industrial applications where the load is excessive and the machines or materials do not benefit from controlled conditions. 2. Load Estimating | Chapter 2. 3. etc. the conditions to be maintained by this means will be above normal comfort. The humidity must also be controlled in some applications to reduce the effect of static electricity. Constant temperature and humidity may also be required in machine rooms to prevent etching or corrosion of the parts of the machines. Hence. Control of relative humidity is required to maintain the strength. to minimize increase is maintained. 4. to minimize increase in surface moisture film. Laboratories require precise control of both temperature and relative humidity or either.Part 1. high temperatures with low humidities increase drying rates. it may be advisable to apply spot cooling for the relief of the workers.4 F db and 50% rh. The temperature and humidity should be at. Where highly polished surfaces are manufactured or stored. Generally. Development of static electric charges is minimized of 55% or higher. high temperatures increase the rate of chemical reaction. Both testing and quality control laboratories are frequently designed to maintain the ASTM Standard Conditions* of 73. whereas ASTM requires ±2% permissable humidity tolerance. 6. (2) During the winter. fermentation of yeast. the starting of air conditioning after any prolonged shutdown should be done carefully: (1) During the summer. and high temperatures and relative humidities increase such processes as yeast fermentations. the moisture accumulation in the space should be reduced before the temperature is reduced. be held below a critical point at which metals may etch. a constant relative humidity and temperature is maintained. if the conditions are not maintained 24 hours a day.

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a further reduction in required capacity results. with inside blinds Fluorescent Lights Incandescent Lights People* Transmission† Infiltration and Ventilation Machinery or Appliances‡ *The remaining 40% is dissipated as latent load. The instantaneous heat gain in a typical comfort application consists of sun. Heat Storage. Generally. in most cases. The higher the surface temperature. etc. This load is normally a relatively small part of the total load. Since. such a system has a low owning and operating cost. people. transmission thru walls. Diversity And Stratification CHAPTER 3. ceiling. as brought out in the tables. and for simplicity is considered to be the instantaneous load on the equipment. This degree should be determined by the engineer from project requirements and customer desires. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. because it must strike a solid surface and be absorbed by this surface before becoming a load on the equipment. it is usually desirable to provide some flexibility in the air side or room load to allow for individual room control. A system so designed. It is a well-known fact that equipment sized to more nearly meet the requirements results in a more efficient. the equipment installed to perform a specific function is smaller. it results in a more economical and efficient system at a partially loaded condition. In addition. The breakdown on the various instantaneous heat gains into radiant heat and convected heat is approximately as follows: HEAT GAIN SOURCE RADIANT HEAT 100% 58% 50% 80% 40% 60% 20-80% CONVECTIVE HEAT 42% 50% 20% 20% 40% 100% 80-20% STORAGE OF HEAT IN BUILDING STRUCTURES Solar. CONSTANT SPACE TEMPERATURE AND EQUIPMENT OPERATING PERIODS As the radiant heat from sources shown in the above table strikes a solid surface (walls. This chapter contains the data and procedures for determining the load the equipment is actually picking into account the above factors.). if the equipment is operated somewhat longer during the peak load periods. This requires more exacting engineering including air distribution design and system balancing. if a smaller system is selected. in some cases. electric calculating machines. infiltration and ventilation air and. This temperature . better operating system. The actual cooling load is generally considerable below the peak total instantaneous heat gain. and is based on extended periods of operation at the peak load. resulting in a smaller overall system. research and testing have shown that the reasons for this are: 1. except at time of peak load. etc. floor. it is absorbed. it was found that the equipment selected on this basis was oversized and therefore capable of maintaining much lower room conditions than the original design. HEAT STORAGE. DIVERSITY AND STRATIFICATION The normal load estimating procedure has been to evaluate the instantaneous heat gain to a space and to assume that the equipment will remove the heat at this rate. roof and glass.Part 1. there is less margin for error. 2. Extensive analysis. appliances. Also. load pickup. Application of these data to the appropriate individual heat gains results in the actual cooling load. raising the temperature at the surface of the material above that inside the material and the air adjacent to the surface. ‡The load from machinery or appliances varies. 3. it is recommended that the full reduction from storage and diversity be taken on the overall refrigeration or building load. etc. full reduction on refrigeration load and less than full reduction on air side or room load. A large portion of this instantaneous heat gain is radiant heat which does not become an instantaneous load on the equipment. The smaller system operating for longer periods at times of peak load will produce a lower first cost to the customer with commensurate lower demand charges and lower operating costs. thus requiring smaller equipment to perform a specific job. †Transmission load is considered to be 100% convective load. lights. Generally. the greater the radiant heat load. machinery. with some degree of conservatism on the air side or room loads. and/of the temperature in the space is allowed to rise a few degrees at the peak periods during cooling operation. Non-simultaneous occurrence of the peak of the individual loads (diversity). Stratification of heat. depending upon the temperature of the surface. in some cases. the air quantities and/or water quantities are reduced. In addition. multi-room application. Storage of heat in the building structure. meets all of the flexibility requirements. without inside blinds Solar. With multi-story. Also.

3 is typical of the solar heat gain for a west exposure. With light construction.All of the curves shown inFigs. as this process of absorbing radiant heat continues. as illustrated in Fig. the more attention should be given to zoning. most of the radiant heat will be stored. The highly varying and relatively sharp peak of the instantaneous solar heat gain results in a large part of it being stored at the time of peak solar heat gain. The cross-hatched areas (Fig. AVERAGE CONSTRUCTION FIG. medium and heavy construction respectively. 3 and 4 illustrate the relationship between the instantaneous heat gain and the actual cooling load in average construction spaces. 5 is the instantaneous solar heat gain while the three lower curves are the actual cooling load for light. as illustrated in Fig. SOLAR HEAT GAIN. The relatively constant light load results in a large portion being stored just after the lights are turned on.3. LIGHT. The reduction in the peak heat gain is approximately 40% and the peak load lags the peak heat gain by approximately 1 hour. The dotted line indicates the actual cooling load for the first day if the lights are on longer than the period shown. the resistance to heat flow into the material is much lower than the air resistance.ACTUAL COOLING LOAD FROM FLUORESCENT LIGHTS. The portion of radiant heat being stored depends on the ratio of the resistance to heat flow into the material and the resistance to heat flow into the air film. 4 and 5 illustrate the actual cooling load for 24-hour operation. FIG. Since all of the heat coming into a space must be removed. and the lower curve is the actual cooling load that results in an average construction application with the space temperature held constant. The upper curve in Fig. 3. more heat is stored at the peak (more storage capacity available). One more item that significantly affects the storage of heat is the operating period of the air conditioning equipment. This heat must be removed (heat in must equal heat out) and will appear as a pulldown load when the equipment is turned on the next day. MEDIUM AND HEAVY CONSTRUCTION .Part 1. Figs. some of the stored heat remains in the building construction. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. 3-ACTUAL COOLING LOAD. However. as shown in Fig. AVERAGE CONSTRUCTION FIG. Diversity And Stratification difference causes heat flow into the material by conduction and into the air by convection. The heat conducted away from the surface is stored. therefore. 4. less heat is stored at the peak (less storage capacity available). The upper curve of Fig. Heat Storage. With most construction materials. the lighter the building construction.If the equipment is shut down after 16 hours of operation. The cross-hatched areas are the Heat Stored and the Stored Heat Removed from the construction. 5. 5-ACTUAL COOLING LOAD. the material becomes warmer and less capable of storing more heat. with a constant temperature in the space. WEST EXPOSURE. SOLAR HEAT GAIN. and theheat convected from the surface becomes an instantaneous cooling load. The upper and lower curves represent the instantaneous heat gain and actual cooling load from fluorescent lights with a constant space temperature. with a decreasing amount being stored the longer the lights are on. 4. these two areas are equal. and with heavy construction. 3) represent the Heat Stored and the Stored Heat Removed from the construction. as illustrated in Fig. This aspect affects the extent of zoning required in the design of a system for a given building. 6.

Basis of Tables 7 thru 12 Storage Load Factors. 9. 9-ACTUAL COOLING LOAD.and 16-hour operation with a constant space temperature (assuming 10-hour operation of lights). 8-PULLDOWN LOAD. 12-HOUR OPERATION FIG. WEST EXPOSURE. 12-HOUR OPERATION These tables are calculated. 12-AND 16-HOUR OPERATION . SOLAR HEAT GAIN. The dotted line represents the additional cooling load from the heat left in the building construction. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. The light load (fluorescent) is shown in Fig. using a procedure developed from a series of tests in actual buildings.Part 1. Adding this pulldown load to the cooling load for that day results in the actual cooling load for 12-hour operation. 6-PULLDOWN LOAD. WEST EXPOSURE. 8 illustrates the pulldown load for 12-hour operation. The upper and lower solid curves are the instantaneous heat gain and the actual cooling load in average construction space with a constant temperature maintained during the operating period. 7. 16-HOUR OPERATION FIG. SOLAR HEAT GAIN. and is brought back to the control point during the pulldown perios. 16-HOUR OPERATION FIG. WEST EXPOSURE. 7-ACTUAL COOLING LOAD. The temperature in the space rises during the shutdown period from the nighttime transmission load and the stored heat. 10 for 12. as illustrated in Fig. 10-ACTUAL COOLING LOAD FROM FLUORESCENT LIGHTS. and 24-hour Operation. FIG. Fig. and residences throughout this country. SOLAR HEAT GAIN. Constant Space Temperature FIG. 16-. SOLAR HEAT GAIN. supermarkets. The cross-hatched areas again represent the Heat Stored and the Stored Heat Removed from the construction. as illustrated in Fig. Shorter periods of operation increase the pulldown load because more stored heat is left in the building construction when the equipment is shut off. WEST EXPOSURE. Diversity And Stratification Adding the pulldown load to the cooling load for that day results in the actual cooling load for 16-hour operation. Heat Storage. Solar and light Heat Gain 12-. The upper curve represents the instantaneous heat gain and the lower curve the actual cooling load for that day with a constant temperature maintained within the space during the operating period of the equipment. These tests were conducted in office buildings.

and 16-hour factors.85 B. Example 1 – Actual Cooling Load. Therefore. Table 6 is a compilation of the peak solar heat gains for each exposure. (Table 6).56 x 1 ) x 0. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. 8 p. page 52) and the correction for steel sash = 1/. assuming that the spaces above and below are conditioned and are utilizing the other halves for storage of heat. The overall factor for the window with the white venetian blind is 0. The actual cooling load is determined by multiplying the storage load factor from these tables for any or all times by the peak solar heat gain for the particular exposure. 4 p. Daylight Saving Time). The radiant heat exchange from the body is reduced in situations like this because there is relatively .85 Table 12 is used to determine the actual cooling load from the heat gain from lights. Solution: The weight per sq ft of floor area of this room (values obtained from Chapter 5) is: Outside wall = (20x8) – (16x5) X126lb/sq ft 20x20 Partitions (Table 21.m.m. The actual cooling load from ths solar heat gain in July at 4 p. theaters. Use of Tables 7 thru 12 Storage Load Factors. page 73) Table 7 thru 11 are used to determine the actual coolingload from the solar heat gain with a constant temperature maintained within the space for different types of construction and periods of operation. etc.2 + 13. 40° North latitude with the air conditioning equipment operating 24 hours during the peak load periods and a constant temperature maintained within the room.2 lb/sq ft floor area 20x8x3 = ½ 20x20 X22lb/sq ft (Table 26.m.85.5 lb/sq ft floor area (Table 29.66 (Table 7) The peak solar heat gain for a west exposure in July at 40° North latitude = 164 Btu/(hr)(sq ft).2 + 29. page 73) NOTE: One-half of he partition. floor and ceiling thickness is used. People – except in densely populated areas such as auditoriums. Heat Storage.5 = 97. Reduction in solar heat gain from the shading of the window by reveals and/or overhang should also be utilized. 12-.2 lb/sq ft floor area =½ 20x20 X59lb/sq ft 20x20 (Table 29. for the same conditions.Part 1.m. Constant Space Temperature Floor Ceiling = 29.56 (Table 16. page 66) = 25.m.. Since the specific heat of most construction material is approximately 0. no suspended ceiling. the data in the tables is based on weight of the materials surrounding the space. = . Total weight per sq ft of floor area = 25. These values are extracted from Table 15.20 (Table 7) Actual cooling load = (5 x 16 x 164 x . The cooling load at 8 p. the thermal capacity is directly proportional to the weight of the material. Storage factor. = 0. A. 16-. The thermal capacity of a material is the weight times the specific heat of the material. Diversity And Stratification The magnitude of the storage effect is determined largely by the thermal capacity or heat holding capacity of the materials surrounding the space.5 lb/sq ft floor area 20x20 = ½ 20x20 X59lb/sq ft = 29. suntime (7 a. month and latitude desired.20 = 1730 . With both the 12. month and latitude. page 52) and the corrections listed under Table 6. Find: A. These data may also be used to determine the actual cooling load from: 1. page 44. The peak solar heat gain is also to be multiplied by either or both the applicable over-all factor for shading devices (Table 16. Actual cooling load = (5 x 16 x 164 x . with a floor tile finish.5 + 29. Storage factor. Solar and Light Heat Gain B. pages 66-76.4 lb/sq ft. The weight per sq ft of types of construction are listed in Tables 21 thru 33.56 x 1 ) x . page 70) = 13. and a 12-inch common brick outside wall with 5/8-inch sand aggregate plaster finish on inside surface. per square foot of floor area.20 Btu/ (lb) (F).66 = 5700 Btu/hr . A 16 ft×5 ft steel sash window with a white venetian blind is in the outside wall and the wall faces west. and 24-hour Operation. Solar Heat Gain Given: A 20 ft × 20 ft × 8 ft outside office room with 6-inch sand aggregate concrete floor. 21/2-inch solid sand plaster partitions. the starting time is assumed to be 6 a.m.

m.). Load Estimating | Chapter 3.m. Solution: The time elapsed after the lights are turned on is 8 hours (8 a. exposed fluorescent lights and 4 people. Lights and People Given: The same room as in Example 1 with a light heat gain of 3 watts per sq ft of floor area not including ballast. dryers.4×1. 2.87 = 5190 Btu/hr. Some appliances and machines that operate periodically. NOTE: For Items 1 and 2 above. Diversity And Stratification less surface available for the body to radiate to. use values listed for fluorescent exposed lights. with hot exterior surfaces such as ovens.87 (Table 12). Example 2 – Actual Cooling Load. Storage load factor = .m.Part 1.25×20×20) + (4×215) ] × . .m. The room temperature to be maintained at 78 F db with 24-hour operation during the peak load periods. Heat Storage. Find: The actual cooling load at 4 p. etc. (with the lights turned on as the people arrive at 8 a. Sensible heat gain from people = 215 Btu/hr (Table 48. to 4 p. hot tanks. page 100) Actual cooling load = [(3×3.).

to 6 p.m. Diversity And Stratification NORTH LAT. Heat Storage. The storage factors in Tables 7 thru 11 assume that the solar heat gain on the North (or South) exposure is constant. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. ° 0° TABLE 6-PEAK SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS* Btu/(hr)(sq ft) MONTH June July & May Aug & April Sept & March Oct & Feb Nov & Jan Dec June July & May Aug & April Sept & March Oct & Feb Nov & Jan Dec June July & May Aug & April Sept & March Oct & Feb Nov & Jan Dec June July & May Aug & April Sept & March Oct & Feb Nov & Jan Dec June July & May Aug & April Sept & March Oct & Feb Nov & Jan Dec June July & May Aug & April Sept & March Oct & Feb Nov & Jan Dec Steel Sash or No Sash X 1/. †Solar heat gain on North exposure (inNorth Latitudes) or on South exposure (in South latitudes) consists primarily of diffuse radiation which is essentially constant throughout the day.m. page 43.17 N† 59 48 25 10 10 10 10 40 30 13 10 10 9 9 26 19 11 10 9 8 8 20 16 11 9 8 7 6 17 15 11 9 7 5 5 16 14 11 8 5 4 3 5 NE 156 153 141 118 79 52 42 153 148 130 103 66 37 28 154 138 118 87 52 26 18 139 131 108 90 39 16 12 133 127 102 58 35 12 10 126 117 94 58 29 9 7 SE E 147 152 163 167 163 152 147 155 158 163 164 155 143 137 160 163 165 163 147 128 121 161 164 165 158 135 116 105 162 164 162 149 122 100 86 164 163 158 138 105 64 47 E EXPOSURE NORTH LATITUDE SE S SW W NW 42 14 42 147 156 52 14 52 152 153 79 14 79 163 141 118 14 118 167 118 141 34 141 163 79 153 67 153 152 52 156 82 156 147 42 55 14 55 155 153 66 14 66 158 148 94 14 94 163 130 127 28 127 164 103 149 73 149 155 66 161 106 101 143 37 163 120 163 137 28 73 14 73 160 154 85 14 85 163 138 113 26 113 165 118 140 65 140 163 87 160 111 160 147 52 164 141 164 128 26 167 149 167 121 18 90 21 90 161 139 100 30 100 164 131 129 63 129 165 108 152 105 152 158 90 163 145 163 135 39 162 159 162 116 16 162 163 162 105 12 111 54 111 162 133 125 69 125 164 127 146 102 146 162 102 162 140 162 149 58 163 162 163 122 35 156 166 156 100 12 148 165 148 86 10 135 93 135 164 126 143 106 143 163 117 157 138 157 158 94 163 158 163 138 58 157 167 157 105 29 127 153 127 64 9 116 141 116 47 7 NE N NW W SW EXPOSURE SOUTH LATITUDE Altitude Dewpoint +0. 0° 10° 10° 20° 20° 30° 30° 40° 40° 50° 50° Solar Gain Correction Haze -15% (Max) South Lat Dec or Jan +7% * Abstracted from Table 15.).85 or 1.7% per 1000 ft Above 67 F -7% per 10 F Horiz 226 233 245 250 245 233 226 243 247 250 247 230 210 202 250 251 247 233 208 180 170 250 246 235 212 179 145 131 237 233 214 183 129 103 85 220 211 185 148 94 53 40 Horiz MONTH Dec Nov & Jan Oct & Feb Sept & March Aug & April July & May June Dec Nov & Jan Oct & Feb Sept & March Aug & April July & May June Dec Nov & Jan Oct & Feb Sept & March Aug & April July & May June Dec Nov & Jan Oct & Feb Sept & March Aug & April July & May June Dec Nov & Jan Oct & Feb Sept & March Aug & April July & May June Dec Nov & Jan Oct & Feb Sept & March Aug & April July & May June Dewpoint Below 67 F +7% per 10 F SOUTH LAT. The solar heat gain values for this exposure are the average for the 12 hr period (6 a. .Part 1.

86 .03 .04 .18 .22 .47 .07 .24 . § Weight per sq ft of floor(Weight of Outside Walls.09 .08 .06 . Btu/hr = [Peak solar heat gain.05 .13 .02 .09 .08 .03 . Floor and Ceiling. Haze factor.20 .19 .14 .65 .09 . sq ft] × [Shade factor.02 .21 .43 .20 .54 .18 .03 .84 .25 .04 .14 .10 .14 .13 .59 .10 .09 . †These factors apply when maintaining a CONSTANT TEMPERATURE in the space during the operating period.17 .80 .23 .02 .13 .10 .36 .70 .24 .04 .06 .90 .59 .36 .05 .64 .04 .24 .26 .16 .86 .07 .49 .67 .04 .04 .16 . sq ft (Weight of Outside Walls.05 .33 .05 .79 . lb) (Weight of Outside Wall. Constant Space Temperature† EXPOSURE (North Lat) WEIGHT§ (lb per sq ft of floor area) 150 & over Northeast 100 30 150 & over East 100 30 150 & over Southeast 100 30 150 & over South 100 30 150 & over Southwest 100 30 150 & over West 100 30 150 & over Northwest 100 30 North 150 & over and 100 Shade 30 PM AM AM 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 .79 .03 .08 .10 . Where the temperature is allowed to swing.12 .67 .08 .09 .19 .88 .03 0 .22 . sq ft Room in Bldg Interior (No outside walls) = Basement Room (Floor on ground) = Entire Building or Zone = ½ (Weight of Partitions.87 .01 0 0 0 .09 .08 .07 .06 .08 .06 .06 .28 .07 .05 0 .58 .21 .04 .06 .07 .65 .48 .84 .14 .61 .14 .23 .81 .72 .02 .09 .70 .16 .62 .13 .12 .03 .70 .66 .79 .18 .08 .73 .10 .60 .04 .10 .40 .19 .12 .05 .10 .01 0 0 0 0 0 .64 . SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS WITH INTERNAL SHADE* 24 Hour Operation.62 .09 .11 .10 .09 .79 .01 .07 .17 . additional storage will result during peak load periods.08 .66 .05 .17 .74 .12 . (Chapter 4)] × [Storage factor.lb) Air Conditioned Floor Area.10 .11 .06 .09 .50 .01 .96 .08 .24 .04 .07 .16 .59 . (above Table at desired time)] * Internal shading device is any type of shade located on the inside of the glass.65 .18 .07 .07 .23 .17 . Structural Members and Supports.10 .05 .74 .08 .03 .01 EXPOSURE (South Lat) Southeast East Northeast North Northwest West Southwest South and Shade Equation: Cooling Load.11 . Weights per sq ft of common types of construction are contained in Tables 21 thru 33.08 .18 .30 .03 .67 .10 .06 .05 .64 .05 .05 .86 .08 .07 .69 .09 .01 0 0 0 0 0 .08 .26 . lb) + (Weight of Floor. Ceilings.08 .26 .33 .61 .02 .16 .08 .14 .07 .01 SUN TIME 5 .94 .21 .09 .10 .17 15 .98 .09 .19 .18 .13 .46 .30 .10 .10 .08 .57 .17 .15 .16 .15 .17 .34 .15 .65 .07 .60 .03 .17 .30 .04 .16 . etc.06 .08 .15 .10 .50 .57 .08 .06 .05 .11 .20 . Partitons.11 .38 .24 .28 .81 .02 .03 .19 .17 .12 .22 .10 .29 .31 .58 .22 .10 .23 .83 .04 .08 .65 .05 .66 .08 .19 .76 .09 .07 .11 .08 .42 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions.52 .12 .09 .85 .09 .47 .26 .63 .01 .06 .19 .19 .10 .10 .13 .11 .08 .88 .52 .26 .08 .14 .17 .18 .98 .13 .85 .08 .17 .20 .81 .13 .01 .40 .56 .06 .17 .10 .25 .15 .08 . .05 .63 .02 .03 .19 .50 .45 .20 .09 .01 0 .15 .68 .10 .25 .13 .99 .23 .12 .13 .20 .64 .18 .03 .02 .03 .12 .07 .63 .39 . Floors.80 .17 .15 .05 .05 0 .04 .12 .02 .58 .91 .09 .11 .07 .06 .02 .24 .02 0 . Heat Storage. lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions and Ceiling.46 .19 .02 0 .42 .02 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.66 ..01 .11 .05 0 . sq ft Floor Area in Room.10 .44 .05 .18 .57 .12 .08 .53 .04 .63 .05 0 .10 .39 .11 .06 .09 .75 . lb) Room on Bldg Exterior (One or more outside walls) = Floor Area in Room.15 .22 .49 .71 .11 .16 .07 .18 .02 .08 .09 .09 .81 .04 .08 .10 .06 .10 .15 .96 .56 .05 .Part 1.59 .05 .87 .04 . sq ft With rug on floor-Weight of floor should be multiplied by 0.60 .63 .10 .82 .05 .10 .11 .35 .53 .38 .60 .37 .41 .09 .08 .79 .12 .17 .10 .76 .27 .28 .47 .24 .12 .30 .02 .29 .47 .42 .20 .10 .04 .76 .09 .06 .01 0 0 0 0 0 .15 .08 .23 . pages 66 thru 76.08 .05 .39 .50 to compensate for insulating effect of rug.07 .67 .81 .04 .88 .03 .12 .08 .21 .91 . Btu/(hr) (sq ft).07 .26 .42 .99 .04 0 .09 .06 .69 .54 .52 .24 .30 .09 .12 .19 .47 .01 .15 .07 .09 . Floor and Ceiling.10 .83 .22 .74 .09 .01 .04 .21 .64 .04 .19 . lb) Floor Area in Room.67 .09 0 .24 .12 .04 .06 .09 .11 .08 .06 .83 .06 .51 .13 . (Table 6)] × [Window area.88 .16 .04 .52 .55 .12 .08 .55 .27 .07 .04 .07 .06 .16 .07 .63 .16 .03 . Refer to Table 13 for applicable storage factors.36 .10 .06 .71 .09 .55 .08 .60 . Diversity And Stratification TABLE 7-STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.19 .77 .20 .02 .61 .08 .07 .

12 .29 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions.20 .06 .14 .09 .49 .12 .01 .12 .42 .57 .46 .44 .46 .38 .07 .21 .98 .18 .10 . Where the temperature is allowed to swing.01 0 0 0 .29 .08 .09 .09 .22 .13 .30 .14 .47 . Structural Members and Supports.23 .35 .08 .11 .27 .10 .Part 1.77 .02 .06 .14 .05 .10 .10 .32 .17 .43 .33 .16 .10 .14 .08 . sq ft With rug on floor-Weight of floor should be multiplied by 0.10 .67 .33 .12 .10 . etc.61 .10 .16 .12 .22 .34 . Haze factor.06 .59 .75 .31 .44 .42 .46 .08 .76 .09 .37 .09 .43 .46 .16 .18 .23 .01 .33 .51 .10 .65 .27 .97 .20 .34 .09 .07 . †These factors apply when maintaining a CONSTANT TEMPERATURE in the space during the operating period.29 .11 .lb) Air Conditioned Floor Area.08 .42 .40 .07 .16 .19 . Refer to Table 13 for applicable storage factors.22 .13 .21 .08 .57 .02 .34 .19 .25 . lb) Floor Area in Room.09 .20 .78 .09 .14 .15 . Floor and Ceiling.38 . sq ft Floor Area in Room.20 .93 .36 .31 .42 .78 . Heat Storage.51 .08 .36 .07 .06 .53 .51 .52 .10 .23 .01 .09 .01 .12 .09 .07 .14 .58 .13 .05 .17 . lb) (Weight of Outside Wall.31 .09 .09 .05 .59 . Windows with shading devices on the outside or shaded by external projections are considered bare glass.13 . Btu/(hr) (sq ft).10 . SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS WITH BARE GLASS OR WITH EXTERNAL SHADE‡ 24 Hour Operation.11 .42 .08 .20 .19 .68 .09 .30 .03 .26 .08 0 0 .20 .09 .66 .16 .15 .17 .33 .15 .29 .01 SUN TIME EXPOSURE (South Lat) Southeast East Northeast North Northwest West Southwest South and Shade Equation: Cooling Load.40 . pages 66 thru 76.42 .10 .03 .24 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions and Ceiling.03 .51 .87 .08 .14 .10 .01 . additional storage will result during peak load periods.23 .10 .02 .06 .02 .14 .80 .31 .07 .12 .03 .01 .02 .14 .31 .27 .24 .21 .14 .36 .29 .12 .18 .37 .02 .10 .68 .16 .41 .22 .44 .22 .12 .39 .49 .53 .30 .16 .12 .14 .16 .11 .04 .02 .26 .29 .06 .23 .12 .81 .25 .16 .08 . Btu/hr = [Peak solar heat gain.73 .27 .20 .03 .01 0 0 . lb) Room on Bldg Exterior (One or more outside walls) = Floor Area in Room.06 .04 .39 .38 .07 .42 .10 .02 .29 .08 .06 .03 .12 .13 .05 .09 . sq ft (Weight of Outside Walls.46 .25 .61 .02 .17 .21 .09 .28 .08 .13 .04 .13 .31 .79 .95 .29 .14 .12 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.54 .09 .65 .25 .11 .21 .29 .30 .07 .60 .53 .39 .10 .09 .22 .15 .21 .66 .05 .14 .13 .11 .04 .34 .28 .19 .07 .23 .18 .48 .08 .10 .06 0 .34 .18 .27 .21 . lb) + (Weight of Floor.57 . Partitons.21 .32 .51 .05 .01 .01 .09 .09 .12 .26 .17 .61 . Diversity And Stratification TABLE 8-STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.07 .25 .09 .29 .38 .19 .35 .12 .40 .67 .14 .35 . Ceilings.12 .18 .06 .05 .11 .12 .13 .16 .20 .48 .72 .10 .10 .15 .01 .19 .04 .23 .52 . .27 .26 .16 .26 .34 .14 . Weights per sq ft of common types of construction are contained in Tables 21 thru 33.. Floor and Ceiling.10 .68 .98 .33 .11 .08 .10 .21 .75 .27 .50 .11 .24 .08 .52 .22 .26 .70 .16 .40 .13 .47 .57 .33 .09 .01 .19 .09 .23 . (Table 6)] × [Window area.11 .37 .19 .17 .13 .19 .04 . (Chapter 4)] × [Storage factor.18 .46 .15 .23 .32 . Floors.69 .18 .10 .50 .44 .23 .09 .34 .48 .26 .29 .22 .13 0 .01 .75 .02 .09 .10 .27 .72 .46 .07 .62 .05 . § Weight per sq ft of floor(Weight of Outside Walls.12 .01 0 0 .44 .08 .05 .44 .19 .28 .23 .74 .27 .21 .48 .38 . sq ft] × [Shade factor.17 .16 .16 .01 .13 .56 .66 .03 .03 .23 .23 .48 .28 .32 .35 .13 .14 .18 .22 .35 .29 .14 .04 .36 .40 .37 .06 .82 .01 0 0 0 0 .27 .48 .06 .42 .40 .31 .30 .64 .02 .34 .33 .36 .05 . sq ft Room in Bldg Interior (No outside walls) = Basement Room (Floor on ground) = Entire Building or Zone = ½ (Weight of Partitions.22 .15 .03 .04 .10 .74 .19 .29 .31 .10 .20 .01 .26 .18 .10 .39 .14 .08 .49 .02 .24 .09 .12 .12 .47 . Constant Space Temperature† WEIGHT§ EXPOSURE (lb per sq (North Lat) ft of floor area) 150 & over Northeast 100 30 150 & over East 100 30 150 & over Southeast 100 30 150 & over South 100 30 150 & over Southwest 100 30 150 & over West 100 30 150 & over Northwest 100 30 North 150 & over and 100 Shade 30 PM AM AM 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 .27 .82 .04 .40 .02 .11 .19 .91 .16 .16 .82 .33 .27 .11 .16 .09 . (above Table at desired time)] ‡Bare glass-Any window with no inside shading device.53 .72 .31 .45 .60 .48 .01 .51 .09 .18 .34 .18 .11 .09 .10 .22 .07 .10 .50 to compensate for insulating effect of rug.05 .53 .26 .11 .06 .47 .31 .05 .12 .43 .03 .76 .15 .44 .08 .39 .73 .

21 .87 .59 .68 .16 .19 .54 .14 .85 .63 ..67 .86 11 .38 . sq ft With rug on floor-Weight of floor should be multiplied by 0.17 .09 .61 .11 .52 .85 .59 .09 .35 .95 2 .12 .81 .39 .42 .94 SUN TIME 1 .84 .38 .16 .79 .06 .74 . lb) Floor Area in Room.11 .65 .18 .19 .70 .31 .22 .74 .10 .47 .Part 1.08 .83 .20 .12 .56 .13 .88 .70 .05 .63 .17 .60 .17 . †These factors apply when maintaining a CONSTANT TEMPERATURE in the space during the operating period.82 .11 .11 .75 . pages 66 thru 76.64 .46 .17 .18 .08 .50 .19 .03 .71 .10 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.20 .18 .23 . Heat Storage. Haze factor.69 .20 .30 .66 .20 .19 .79 .56 .07 .59 .07 .14 .16 .47 .16 .10 .34 .44 .17 . Partitons.98 4 .18 .39 .13 .02 .18 .80 .16 .12 .17 .84 .86 .22 8 .73 .24 .36 . Ceilings.18 .23 .48 .64 . Refer to Table 13 for applicable storage factors.58 .32 .20 .12 .17 .73 . lb) Room on Bldg Exterior (One or more outside walls) = Floor Area in Room. lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions and Ceiling.09 .49 .12 .47 .93 12 .19 .17 .23 .15 .69 9 .10 .20 .29 .16 .27 .20 .22 .25 .08 .99 7 .17 .35 8 .31 .10 .64 .07 .19 .23 9 .80 .10 .16 .22 .90 .27 .36 .17 .64 .25 .55 .47 .18 . Constant Space Temperature† WEIGHTS EXPOSURE (lb per sq (North Lat) ft of floor area) 150 & over Northeast 100 30 150 & over East 100 30 150 & over Southeast 100 30 150 & over South 100 30 150 & over Southwest 100 30 150 & over West 100 30 150 & over Northwest 100 30 North 150 & over and 100 Shade 30 AM 6 .10 . Structural Members and Supports.46 .54 .40 .68 .21 .20 .09 .86 .88 .11 .80 10 . Floors.23 .28 .33 .58 .61 .08 .08 .18 .16 .31 .68 .23 .20 .16 .25 .24 .80 .22 .63 .18 .15 .84 .34 .42 .21 .72 .14 . lb) + (Weight of Floor.23 . lb) (Weight of Outside Wall.16 .27 .61 .19 .09 . SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS WITH INTERNAL SHADING DEVICE* 16 Hour Operation. etc.45 .11 .18 .65 . Btu/(hr) (sq ft).16 . sq ft Floor Area in Room.86 .18 .11 .19 .11 .25 .46 .19 .14 .24 . additional storage will result during peak load periods.97 3 .09 .12 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions.21 .04 .16 EXPOSURE (South Lat) Southeast East Northeast North Northwest West Southwest South and Shade Equation: Cooling Load. Btu/hr = [Peak solar heat gain.25 .16 .22 .88 .89 .81 .56 .11 . (Chapter 4)] × [Storage factor.61 . sq ft Room in Bldg Interior (No outside walls) = Basement Room (Floor on ground) = Entire Building or Zone = ½ (Weight of Partitions.69 .50 .13 .37 .11 .21 .73 .66 .09 .87 .19 .70 .02 .82 .53 .65 .19 .17 .34 .14 .14 .75 .53 .15 .13 .77 .77 .19 .80 .02 .09 . Where the temperature is allowed to swing.10 . (Table 6)] × [Window area.20 .69 .63 .82 . .52 .64 .21 .76 .24 .12 .60 .22 .60 .64 .15 .17 .81 .04 .12 .17 .16 .47 .53 .25 .50 .16 . Floor and Ceiling.21 .46 .42 .66 .16 .35 .22 .26 .65 .29 .17 .12 .99 6 .83 .04 .24 .05 .19 .02 .36 .98 PM 5 .04 . Weights per sq ft of common types of construction are contained in Tables 21 thru 33.11 .11 .07 7 .21 .30 .19 .08 .24 .79 .66 . sq ft] × [Shade factor.60 .24 .26 .70 .18 .15 .58 .66 .57 .15 .08 .15 .12 .lb) Air Conditioned Floor Area.19 .18 .27 .31 .12 .82 .55 .18 .08 .07 .78 .19 .63 .23 . Diversity And Stratification TABLE 9-STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.26 .10 .17 .13 .02 .15 .12 . § Weight per sq ft of floor(Weight of Outside Walls.47 .47 .15 .67 . Floor and Ceiling.81 .07 .60 .15 .46 .60 . sq ft (Weight of Outside Walls.59 .31 .69 .50 to compensate for insulating effect of rug.50 .17 .79 .09 .17 . (above Table at desired time)] *Internal shading device is any type of shade located on the inside of the glass.68 .19 .24 .18 .21 .33 .20 .

20 .19 .30 .41 . lb) Floor Area in Room.79 .75 .37 .81 .30 .51 .12 .27 . lb) + (Weight of Floor.23 .20 .33 .48 .03 .18 .20 .09 .27 .19 .32 .51 .28 . etc.23 .60 .52 . additional storage will result during peak load periods.40 .81 .46 .50 .35 .93 3 .29 .26 .65 .10 .42 .06 .19 .57 .75 .43 .25 .30 .43 .34 .20 .49 .29 .31 .31 .78 .45 .12 .34 .26 .53 .38 .13 .30 .80 .33 .53 .31 .51 .14 .25 .25 .23 .88 SUN TIME 1 .26 .36 .30 . Constant Space Temperature† WEIGHT§ EXPOSURE (lb per sq (North Lat) ft of floor area) 150 & over Northeast 100 30 150 & over East 100 30 150 & over Southeast 100 30 150 & over South 100 30 150 & over Southwest 100 30 150 & over West 100 30 150 & over Northwest 100 30 North 150 & over and 100 Shade 30 AM 6 .26 .95 4 .43 .15 .07 8 .14 .66 .28 .28 .09 .41 .68 .37 .53 9 .10 . Where the temperature is allowed to swing.78 .15 .22 .25 . pages 66 thru 76.42 .99 7 .lb) Air Conditioned Floor Area.22 . Windows with shading devices on the outside or shaded by external projections are considered bare glass.23 .65 .28 .52 .42 .74 .35 .68 .28 .50 .30 .73 .22 .60 .12 .27 .45 .35 . sq ft Floor Area in Room.39 .27 .28 .60 .23 .17 .04 .46 .23 .32 .35 .62 .11 .53 .06 .26 .30 .23 .24 .33 .19 .27 .14 .29 .57 .72 .27 .24 .34 . lb) Room on Bldg Exterior (One or more outside walls) = Floor Area in Room.35 .31 .82 .60 .76 .31 .49 .53 . Ceilings.36 . Floor and Ceiling.18 .05 .60 .72 .40 .33 .48 .76 .22 .12 .26 .55 .54 .42 .29 .82 .10 .57 .44 .15 .49 .57 .22 .53 .77 . sq ft] × [Shade factor.12 .75 .06 .41 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.39 .09 .64 .15 .37 .38 .36 .37 .16 .74 .38 .14 .21 .24 .24 .47 .61 .28 .21 .74 .23 .20 .49 .50 to compensate for insulating effect of rug.67 .21 .11 .04 7 .98 6 .41 .44 .27 .23 .46 . sq ft With rug on floor-Weight of floor should be multiplied by 0. Heat Storage.91 2 .18 .17 .13 .27 .46 .35 .84 12 .32 .73 .14 .16 .29 .78 .12 .09 .22 .60 . (Table 6)] × [Window area.20 .12 . †These factors apply when maintaining a CONSTANT TEMPERATURE in the space during the operating period.39 .31 .10 .51 .70 10 .51 .48 . .48 . Partitons.14 .40 . (above Table at desired time)] ‡Bare glass-Any window with no inside shading device.44 .28 .29 .49 .13 .33 .19 . Haze factor.31 .17 .83 .28 .39 .24 .25 .24 .11 .14 .44 . Structural Members and Supports.14 .24 EXPOSURE (South Lat) Southeast East Northeast North Northwest West Southwest South and Shade Equation: Cooling Load.38 .16 .03 .28 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions.22 .03 .69 . Btu/(hr) (sq ft).78 .74 .54 .68 .45 .48 .36 .17 .17 .40 .32 .12 .10 .75 .26 .97 PM 5 .41 .12 .04 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions and Ceiling.72 .34 .34 9 .30 .48 .46 .42 .34 .29 .67 .25 .52 .07 .33 .31 .31 .18 .25 .46 .29 .15 .Part 1.26 .29 .73 .28 .57 .21 . (Chapter 4)] × [Storage factor.35 .58 . Diversity And Stratification TABLE 10-STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.62 8 .59 .17 .18 .11 .38 .78 . sq ft Room in Bldg Interior (No outside walls) = Basement Room (Floor on ground) = Entire Building or Zone = ½ (Weight of Partitions.33 . Weights per sq ft of common types of construction are contained in Tables 21 thru 33.23 .09 .28 .33 .29 .26 . § Weight per sq ft of floor(Weight of Outside Walls.38 . Floor and Ceiling.33 ..22 .47 .21 .16 .14 .04 .44 .19 .34 .73 .12 .29 . Floors.18 .44 . SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS WITH BARE GLASS OR WITH EXTERNAL SHADE‡ 16 Hour Operation.33 .51 . Btu/hr = [Peak solar heat gain.14 .77 .53 .28 .48 .20 .40 .26 .37 .31 .78 11 .10 .23 .32 .26 .26 .18 .24 .46 .57 .19 .18 . sq ft (Weight of Outside Walls.21 . Refer to Table 13 for applicable storage factors.32 .68 .60 .53 .27 .21 . lb) (Weight of Outside Wall.43 .41 .22 .

25 . sq ft Floor Area in Room.77 .69 .34 .66 .29 .82 .28 .63 .37 .64 . lb) Room on Bldg Exterior (One or more outside walls) = Floor Area in Room.18 .30 .73 .61 .42 .88 .43 .77 .98 .82 .53 .15 .26 .33 .25 .28 .50 .82 .21 .84 .28 .79 . Structural Members and Supports.45 .17 .79 .73 .52 .96 .36 .96 .98 .64 . lb) (Weight of Outside Wall.61 .55 .27 .50 .25 .20 .48 .61 . Ceilings.17 .39 .26 .61 .72 .49 .lb) Air Conditioned Floor Area.48 .31 .64 .50 .68 . pages 66 thru 76.62 .14 .50 .21 .79 . Btu/(hr) (sq ft).13 .40 .77 .63 .82 .58 .44 .34 .22 .67 .48 .29 .20 .40 .41 .14 .78 .50 .91 .50 .77 .34 . sq ft] × [Shade factor.61 .16 .96 .41 .28 .16 .Part 1.95 ..29 .92 .17 .44 .24 .54 .15 .71 .76 .25 .44 .23 .22 .71 .26 .96 .18 .34 .65 .47 .70 .13 .72 .25 .51 .45 .20 .25 .51 .35 .70 .77 . (above Table at desired time)] ‡Bare glass-Any window with no inside shading device.33 .50 to compensate for insulating effect of rug.27 .20 .52 . .28 .86 .66 .13 .75 .12 .96 .23 .59 .79 .56 .94 .16 .27 .49 .52 . Floors.34 .24 .34 .28 .47 .80 .54 .53 . Partitons.15 .20 .80 .38 .31 .40 .65 .29 .26 .98 .47 .88 .37 . Diversity And Stratification TABLE 11-STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.28 .64 .31 .20 .39 .22 .39 .42 . †These factors apply when maintaining a CONSTANT TEMPERATURE in the space during the operating period. (Chapter 4)] × [Storage factor.33 .45 .25 . *Internal shading device is any type of shade located on the inside of the glass.41 .22 .25 .23 .12 .93 .18 .25 .68 .29 .37 .44 .17 .35 .33 .50 . lb) Floor Area in Room.27 .22 .72 .78 .60 .27 . etc.31 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions and Ceiling.70 .96 . § Weight per sq ft of floor(Weight of Outside Walls.56 .51 .57 .65 .57 .19 .33 .24 .49 .72 .17 .67 .34 .21 .75 .60 .91 .57 .30 .33 .44 .50 .30 .51 .16 .39 .37 .42 .53 .49 .70 .70 .68 .81 .58 .98 .40 .29 .85 .52 .26 .36 .37 .35 .44 . sq ft (Weight of Outside Walls.50 . Windows with shading devices on the outside or shaded by external projections are considered bare glass.54 .82 .36 .29 .31 .44 .56 .43 .69 .59 .23 .46 .33 .13 .70 .86 .61 .17 .27 .44 .56 .09 .20 .56 .30 .24 .25 .28 .57 .49 .26 .73 .81 .79 .33 .87 .28 .95 .35 .44 .19 .25 .34 .71 .93 .00 SUN TIME EXPOSURE (South Lat) Southeast East Northeast North Northwest West Southwest South and Shade Equation: Cooling Load.71 .42 .14 .76 .24 .09 . Refer to Table 13 for applicable storage factors.21 .74 .44 .37 .98 .67 .45 . Constant Space Temperature† WEIGHT§ EXPOSURE (lb per sq (North Lat) ft of floor area) 150 & over Northeast 100 30 150 & over East 100 30 150 & over Southeast 100 30 150 & over South 100 30 150 & over Southwest 100 30 150 & over West 100 30 150 & over Northwest 100 30 North 150 & over and 100 Shade 30 PM AM AM 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 .34 .12 .30 .82 .17 .33 .98 .24 .75 .93 .25 .31 .79 .25 .54 .84 .74 .40 .84 .26 .31 .44 .38 .53 .19 .40 .28 . Btu/hr = [Peak solar heat gain.23 .19 .45 .23 .22 .25 .39 .89 .24 .94 .49 .54 .26 .24 .83 .35 .41 .50 . additional storage will result during peak load periods.19 .18 .47 .67 .21 .88 .51 .96 .75 .30 .19 .39 .77 .43 .89 .27 .15 .62 . Haze factor.20 . Heat Storage.20 .70 .67 .67 .37 .30 .19 .49 .64 .65 .46 .24 .56 .96 .21 .14 .28 .41 .32 .27 .53 .61 .50 .24 .39 .71 .18 .38 .31 .19 .22 .23 .60 .53 .19 .15 .50 .16 .63 . Where the temperature is allowed to swing.34 .98 .55 .39 .31 .36 . Floor and Ceiling. sq ft Room in Bldg Interior (No outside walls) = Basement Room (Floor on ground) = Entire Building or Zone = ½ (Weight of Partitions.11 .31 .39 .32 .23 .53 .35 .49 .31 .23 .56 .40 .36 .56 .54 .54 . Weights per sq ft of common types of construction are contained in Tables 21 thru 33.96 .00 1.95 1.79 .54 .27 .28 .30 .61 . Floor and Ceiling. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS 12 Hour Operation.51 .93 .69 .66 .57 .98 .86 .98 .15 .27 .75 .70 .69 .60 .19 .69 .58 .74 .28 .80 .23 .24 .57 .33 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.62 .33 .14 .39 .20 .46 .21 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions.44 .49 .64 .62 .43 .96 .51 .18 .33 .19 .11 .27 .72 .28 .41 . lb) + (Weight of Floor.55 .26 .64 .48 .24 .28 .74 .25 .35 .64 .22 .19 .58 . (Table 6)] × [Window area.60 .36 .37 .61 .69 .17 .42 .83 .63 .28 .58 .18 .77 .18 .73 .68 .75 .67 .54 .73 .48 .33 .98 .25 .14 .51 .42 .98 .61 .30 .34 .42 .29 .57 .36 .67 .26 .39 .58 .64 .68 .22 . sq ft With rug on floor-Weight of floor should be multiplied by 0.43 .96 .44 .29 .96 .36 .44 .98 .59 .

93 .98 .52 . 2. OPERWEIGHT NUMBER OF HOURS AFTER LIGHTS ARE TURNED ON ATION (lb per sq ft Hours of floor area) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 150 & over .94 . Where the temperature is allowed to swing.90 .04 .01 .78 . except in Step 2b add values of 12th hour to that designated 0. Ceiling and Ceiling Plenum Return System.89 .42 .68 .98 . extrapolate load factors as follows: 1.95 .95 .31 .98 .60 .01 0 0 150 & over .72 .69 .65 .98 .34 .28 .17 . 13th hour to the 1st hour.17 .72 .94 .41 .83 .66 .95 .23 . 3.86 .47 .25 .82 .65 . follow the procedure in Step 3 of “A”.69 .23 .00.88 .16 .79 .93 .91 .60 . Follow the procedure in Step 1.07 .73 .53 .57 .22 . c.50 100 12 .85 .83 .16 . HEAT GAIN-LIGHTS* Lights On 10 Hours† with Equipment Operating 12. Follow the procedure in Step 1b of “A” except shift the load factors beyond 10th hour now to the right.81 .52 .89 .91 .14 .31 .86 .84 .98 .26 .88 .92 .82 .61 .94 .32 30 .73 .99 .98 .74 .86 .95 . For 12-hor equipment operation.25 .86 .05 .77 .77 .96 .14 .34 .97 .99 .79 .75 . c.78 .77 .72 .75 .97 .55 .28 .88 .17 .90 .95 .08 .18 .42 .79 .80 .86 .82 .52 †These factors apply when maintaining a CONSTANT TEMPERATURE in the space during the operating period.19 100 16 .91 .19 .87 .46 .17 .93 .87 . Heat Storage.91 .12 .93 .87 .11 150 & over .60 .95 .82 .99 .02 .94 .93 .20 .52 .63 .27 .78 .67 .92 .94 .74 .23 .84 .66 .76 .59 .20 .07 .94 .88 .03 . with lights operating the same number of hours as the time of equipment operation. etc.88 .16 .48 30 .52 .82 .72 .26 .16 .35 .72 .61 .97 .37 .15 .87 .33 .89 .35 .40 .25 .48 .80 .76 .28 .73 .99 .30 .14 .26 .90 .96 .57 .85 .69 .34 . .Part 1.63 . dropping off the last few hours.59 .95 .29 .68 .84 .56 .82 .91 . Fluorescent Lights Exposed Ceiling or Exposed Incandescent Lights.84 .46 . b.97 .11 .83 .51 .09 .93 .39 .97 .91 .88 .11 .01 0 0 150 & over . using the storage load factor values in 24-hour equipment operation table.74 .33 .76 .85 .08 30 .11 .88 .15 . This leaves last few hours of equipment operation without designated load factors.98 . 16 or 24 hours at the time of the overall peak load.98 .91 .80 .83 .16 100 24 .91 .74 .03 .31 .27 .96 . Refer to Table 13 for applicable storage factors.26 150 & over . additional storage will result during peak load periods.90 .95 .20 .74 . Equipment operating for 12 hours: Follow procedure in Step 2.89 .93 .off the lights are as in Steps 1b and 1c.86 .16 . Follow the same procedure as in Step 1b of “A” except shift load factors beyond 10th hour now to the right.93 .08 .26 .34 .68 .74 .89 .07 .40 .85 . Use the load factors as listed through 10th hour and extrapolate beyond the 10th hour at the rate of the last 4 hours.15 .96 .02 .79 .72 . The following is the procedure to adjust the load factors: A-WITH LIGHTS IN OPERATION FOR SHORTER PERIOD THAN 10 HOURS and the equipment operating 12.67 .04 .96 .83 .42 .71 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.98 . Diversity And Stratification TABLE 12-STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.57 .84 .29 .95 .05 .89 .05 .02 .01 .78 .84 .95 .70 .52 .25 .81 .84 .37 .07 150 & over .95 .91 .09 .89 .40 .09 .23 .07 .46 .61 .06 30 .83 .96 .96 . Extrapolate the last few hours at thee same rate of reduction as the end hours in the table.18 .14 .04 .97 .89 .08 .58 .95 . Constant Space Temperature EQUIP. b. Fluorescent Lights Recessed in Susp.87 .52 .32 .35 150 & over .99 .10 . use a load factor of 1.22 . 17th hour to the 1st hour.25 .71 .84 .60 .82 .97 .98 .16 .84 .15 .20 .25 .26 .86 .37 .75 100 12 .88 .35 .83 .51 .95 .37 100 12 .20 30 .64 .77 .90 .13 .84 .86 .81 .92 .97 .87 .22 .80 .93 .19 .17 .77 .16 .72 30 .29 .98 . extrapolate load factors as follows: 1. d.37 . b.76 .95 . Now construct a new set of load factors by adding the new values for the 16th hour to that denoted 0.89 . Equipment operating for 16 hours: a.91 . etc.88 .10 .81 .78 .18 .12 .86 .42 .16 .89 . Use the load factors in 24-hour equipment operation table as listed through 10th hour and extrapolate beyond the 10th hour at the rate of the last 4 hours.91 .34 .68 .81 .84 .80 .93 .77 .90 .85 .12 .24 . Fluorescent or Incandescent Lights Recessed in Susp.23 .25 100 16 .19 .92 .37 .94 .29 .08 100 24 .87 .39 .93 .34 .66 .93 .92 .74 . Shift the load factors beyond the 10th hour (on the right of heavy line) to the left to the hour the lights are turned off.23 .95 . 16 or 24 hours at the time of the overall peak load.05 150 & over .79 .82 .79 .99 .01 0 0 150 & over .18 .16 30 .94 .11 100 24 .75 .32 .86 .97 .12 30 0 .94 .11 .98 .93 .88 .56 .16 . b.99 . follow the procedure in Steps 2b and 2c of “A”. The load factors for the hours succeeding the switching.82 . Use the storage load factors as listed up to the time the lights are turned off.79 .88 .67 .36 30 .44 .88 .23 .88 .85 .69 .58 .10 .90 . 16 and 24 Hours. 2.12 .92 .17 . b.98 .34 . For 16-hour equipment operation.30 . †Lights On for Shorter or Longer Period than 10 Hours Occasionally adjustments may be required to take account of lights operating less or more than the 10 hours on which the table is based.92 .02 . Equipment operating for 24 hours: a.94 .83 .12 .47 .01 .37 .37 100 16 .12 .75 .31 .84 .30 . Equipment operating for 24 hours: a.74 .95 .96 .79 . B-WITH LIGHTS IN OPERATION FOR LONGER PERIOD THAN 10 HOURS and the equipment operating 12.96 .98 .35 .81 .81 .98 .23 . Equipment operating for 16 hours or 12 hours: a.21 .

17 .79 .87 . 11-ACTUAL COOLING LOAD WITH VARYING ROOM TEMPERATURE Basis of Table 13 -.07 .90 .84 .14 . Space Temperature Swing The storage factors in Table 13 were computed using essentially the same procedure as Tables 7 thru 12 with the exception that the equipment capacity .08 .20 .83 .15 .79 .26 .87 . heat is stored in the building structure when the space temperature is forced to swing.17 . lb) Air Conditioned Floor Area.19 .17 .84 . lb) Floor Area in Room.94 . and an enclosure of 150 lb/sq ft of floor.29 .11 .89 .sq ft Room in Bldg Interior (No outside walls) = Basement Room (Floor on ground) = Entire Building or Zone = ½(Weight of Partitions. lb) Room on Bldg Exterior (One or more outside walls) = Floor Area in Room.15 .81 .91 . less heat is convected from the surface and more radiant heat is stored in the structure. if the cooling capacity supplied to the space is lower than the actual cooling load at any point.88 .89 .81 . and that the capacity is controlled to maintain a constant temperature at partial load. 11.29 . Floor and Ceiling.95 .76 .83 .29 .91 . When the actual cooling load exceeds the available cooling capacity.83 .14 .97 .82 .86 . Structural Members and Supports.76 . Under normal operating conditions.85 .86 .50 to compensate for insulating effect of rug.82 .90 .74 .83 .84 .86 .08 .Part 1.95 . pages 66 thru 76. This process of storing additional heat is illustrated in Fig. lb) + (Weight of Floor.23 .87 . the maximum swing occurs only at the peak on design days.20 . 24-hour operation.37 .If the cooling capacity supplied to the space matches the cooling load. the temperature in thespace remains constant throughout the operating period.26 .29 .23 . Floors.71 .29 . NOTE: When a system is designed for a temperature swing.79 .96 . which are defined as those days when all loads simultaneously peak. Weights per sq ft of common types of construction are contained in Tables 21 thru 33.11 .10 . Load Estimating | Chapter 3.51 .19 .19 § Weight per sq ft of floor(Weight of Outside Wall.28 . the temperature in the space will rise. lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions and Ceiling.19 .93 . sq ft With rug on floor-Weight of floor should be multiplied by 0.Storage Factors.06 .23 .96 .26 .12 . FIG.92 .12 .sq ft (Weight of Outside Wall.26 .60 .85 .84 . EQUIP WEIGHT§ OPERATION (lb per sq ft NUMBER OF HOURS AFTER LIGHTS ARE TURNED ON Hours of floor area) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 LIGHTS ON Hours 13 8 10 13 8 10 24 16 150 150 .sq ft (Weight of Outside Wall.67 .15 . Heat Storage.67 . This operates in a similar manner with different periods of operation and with different types of construction.09 .93 . Ceilings. lb) Floor Area in Room.84 .60 .67 .87 . the temperature will swing as shown in the lower curve.84 .76 .25 .26 .17 .74 . The solid curve is the actual cooling load from the solar heat gain on a west exposure with a constant space temperature.81 .23 .20 . Assume that the maximum cooling capacity available is represented by A. the temperature remains constant or close to constant.15 .23 .90 .71 .84 .20 .88 .85 .37 .71 . SPACE TEMPERATURE SWING In addition to the storage of radiant heat with a constant room temperature.19 .37 . Ad the space temperature increases.11 .10 .09 .90 .14 . The actual cooling load with temperature swing is shown by the dotted line. Floor and Ceiling.12 .79 . lb) + ½ (Weight of Partitions. Partitions.32 . On the other hand.94 . Diversity And Stratification Example Adjust values for 24-hour equipment operation and derive new values for 16-hour equipment operation for fluorescent lights in operation 8 and 13 hours.74 .

the thermal capacity is directly proportional to the weight of the material. Use of Table 13 -. has a constant base load which is present for 24 hours with an additional intermittent load occurring during daylight hours.20 Btu/(lb)(F). per square foot of floor area. The thermal capacity of a material is the weight times the specific heat of the material. A hospital. Since the specific heat of most construction material is approximately 0. the data in the tables is based on weight of the materials surrounding the space. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. an office building has a rather large varying load with a high peak that occurs intermittently. The magnitude of the storage effect is determined largely by the thermal capacity or heat holding capacity of the materials surrounding the space. . Load patterns for different applications vary approximately as shown in the first column of Table 13. It is limited by the amount of heat available for storage. Therefore.Storage Factors. An interior zone has an intermittent peak but the load pattern is relatively constant. NOTE: This reduction is only taken at the time of peak cooling load. Diversity And Stratification available was limited and the swing in room temperature computed. Space Temperature Swing Table 13 is used to determine the reduction in cooling load when the space temperature is forced to swing by reducing the equipment capacity below that required to maintain the temperature constant. Heat Storage. For instance.Part 1. on the other hand. This reduction is to be subtracted from the room sensible heat.

supermarkets. Therefore. page 28. Precooling is very useful in reducing the cooling load in applications such as churches. For example. only when the precooling temperature is maintained as the control point. a diversity factor on the people and light loads should be applied for selecting the proper size refrigeration equipment. This is because the potential temperature swing is increased. depending on the load. Diversity And Stratification Example 3 – Space Temperature Swing Given: The same room as in Example 1. Under partial load operation. from sun. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. no additional storage occurs.m. in large office buildings. (For comparison purposes. and the lights are normally turned on only after sundown. etc. In addition to lights being off because the people are not present. Heat Storage. lights. type and size of the application. These factors vary with location. thus adding to the amount of heat stored at the time of peak load.890 . the lighting arrangement will frequently be such that the lights in the vacant offices will not be on. Generally. the peak infiltration and ventilation load also occurs at 3 p. the cooling unit shuts off and there is no cooling during the period of warming up. some people will be away from the office on other business. the diversity factor can be much greater than with office buildings. in apartments and hotels. A building with predominantly sales offices would have many people out in the normal course of business. Normally.. The solar and light loads are almost at their peak at 4 p.) Since the normal thermostat setting is about 75 F or 76 F db. hotel or apartment buildings. the normal maintenance procedure in large office buildings usually results in some lights being inoperative. Diversity of cooling load results from the probable non-occurrence of part of the cooling load on a design day.4 × 3 = 1680 Btu/hr Cooling load = 10. Table 14 lists some typical diversity factors. the room temperature is between 75 F db and 78 F db. 30 or 40-story building.4 lb/sq ft of floor area. Although the transmission across the large glass window peaks at about 3 p.610 Btu/hr. Therefore. Expanding this to one floor of a building with 50 to 100 people. Also. . the cooling load is approximately up to the point it would have been without any precooling.1680 = 9210 Btu/hr.m. the diversity factor on a single small office with 1 or 2 people is 1. and people with 3 F temperature swing in the space.m. (Examples 1 and 2.. in the spaces with this exposure. lights. the design temperature (78 F = 75 F thermostat setting +3 F swinng) occurs only on design peak days at the time of peak load. Where the space is precooled to a lower temperature and the control point is reset upward to a comfortable condition when the occupants arrive. 10% to 20% may be absent during the peak.890 Btu/hr. In this situation. ventilation and other internal heat gain) is 5700+5190 = 10. The possibility of having all of the people present in the building and all of the lights operating at the time of peak load are slight. These reductions in cooling load are real and should be made where applicable. This same concept applies to apartments and hotels. theater. where the precooled temperature can be maintained as the control point and the temperature swing increased to 8 F or 10 F. DIVERSITY OF COOLING LOADS PRECOOLING AS A MEANS OF INCREASING STORAGE Precooling a space below the temperature normally desired increases the storage of heat at the time of peak load.0 or no reduction. and expanding to a 20.m. The weight of the materials surrounding the room in Example 1 is 97. lights. Normally. based on judgment and experience.m. and are based entirely on the judgment of the engineer. diversity factors can be applied to people and light loads in large multi-story office. Solution: The peak sensible cooling load in this room from the sun. or at the thermostat setting (75 F). When the cooling unit begins to supply cooling again. Find: The actual cooling load at 4 p. very few people are present at the time the solar and transmission loads are peaking. Reduction in cooling load for a 3 F swing (Table 13) = 20 × 20 × 1. The sum of these loads results in the peak cooling load occurring at about 4 p. and people in this particular room is 14. and people (neglecting transmission infiltration.) NOTE: The peak cooling load in this room occurs at approximately 4 p.Part 1. the instantaneous heat gain from sun. and the relatively small transmission load across the wall peaks much later at about 12 midnight. Diversity factors are applied to the refrigeration capacity in large air conditioning systems. 5% to 10% may be absent at the time of peak load. The size of the diversity factor depends on the size of the building and the engineer’s judgment of the circumstances involved.m.

95 .Part 1.Typical Diversity Factors for Large Buildings The diversity factors listed in Table 14 are to be used as a guide in determining a diversity factor for any particular application. people.30 to . and the wall transmission load about 40%.90 Equation: Cooling Load (for people and lights). Normally. Diversity And Stratification TABLE 14-TYPICAL DIVERSITY FACTORS FOR LARGE BUILDINGS (Apply to Refrigeration Capacity) TYPE OF DIVERSITY FACTOR APPLICATION People Lights Office . Heat may be stratified in rooms with high ceilings where air is exhausted through the roof or ceiling. and apartments. Btu/hr. and convection from the upper part of the walls.70 to . Also. carrying more of the convective heat into the plenum space. the light load is about 50% with fluorescent (20^ with incandescent). Chapter 7) × (Storage Factor. Hotel . Table 12) ×(Diversity Factor. Containing heat within the ceiling plenum space tends to “flatten’ both the room and equipment load.) striking the ceiling warms it up and causes heat to flow into the plenum space.50 Department Store .80 to . some of the convective heat from recessed lights flows into the plenum space. Heat Storage. STRATIFICATION OF HEAT There are generally two situations where heat is stratified and will reduce the cooling load on the air conditioning equipment: 1. the basic fact that hot air tends to rise makes it possible to stratify load such as convection from the roof.0 Industrial* . etc. With both cases. this convection load released abovethe supply air may be subtracted from the air conditioning load. The final factor must necessarily be based on judgment of the effect of the many variables involved. With suspended ceilings. This results in a large reduction in load if the air is to be exhausted.90 . the radiant heat within the room (sun. In any room with a high ceiling. Heat may be contained above suspended ceilings with recessed lighting and/or ceiling plenum return systems The first situation generally applies to industrial applications. auditoriums. Load Estimating | Chapter 3. convection from lights.85 to . These sources of heat increase the temperature of air in the plenum space which causes heat to flow into the underside of the floor structure above. When the ceiling plenum is used as a return air system. The second situation applies to applications such as office buildings. Btu/hr = (Heat Gain.80 to . a large part of the convection load being released above the supply air stream will stratify at the ceiling or roof level. 2. If air is exhausted through the ceiling or roof. The convective portion of the roof load is about 25% (the rest is radiation).85 Apartment.60 .40 to . and the like. Refer to Chapter 7.90 to 1. This usually results in a larger increase in load than the reduction realized by exhausting air. Hot air stratifies at the ceiling event with no exhaust but rapidly builds up in temperature. churches. about a 10 F to 20 F rise in exhaust air temperature may be figured as load reduction if there is enough heat released by convection above the supply air stream. It is not normally practical to exhaust more air than necessary. lights. Some will be induced into the supply air stream. as it must be made up by bringing outdoor air through the apparatus.75 to . . hotels. The storage factors for estimating the load with the above conditions are contained in Table 12. and no reduction in load should be taken where air is not exhausted through the ceiling or roof. Use of Table 14 -. some of the return air flows through and over the light fixture. above table) *A diversity factor should also be applied to the machinery load.90 . Nominally. about 80% is stratified and 20% induced in the supply air.

The total solar FIG. and facing direction of the window. 13. time of day. 80 ANGLE OF INCIDENCE NOTE: The 40% of the absorbed solar heat going into the space ° is derived from the following reasoning: 1. the diffuse radiation component increases but the direct component decreases. whereas the diffuse radiation component results in a heat gain. The solar heat reaching the earth’s surface is reduced considerably below these figures because a large part of it is scattered. the overall effect is to reduce the total quantity of heat reaching the earth’s surface. As the angle of incidence increases. 13-REACTION ON SOLAR HEAT (R). as shown in Fig. time of year. about 89% or 87% is transmitted and 8% or 9% is reflected. ° FIG. and about 415 Btu/(hr)(sq ft) on June 21 when it is farthest away. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass CHAPTER 4. The amount of solar heat outside the earth’s atmosphere varies between these limits throughout the year.) At low angles of incidence. water vapor and ozone in the atmosphere. As the distance traveled or the amount of haze increases. SOLAR HEAT – DIRECT AND DIFFUSE heat gain to the conditioned space consists of the transmitted heat plus about 40% of the heat that is absorbed in the glass. The solar heat that comes directly through the atmosphere is termed direct radiation. The scattered radiation is termed Diffuse or sky radiation. 18. 2.The direct radiation component results in a heat gain to the conditioned space only when the window is in the direct rays of the sun. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS The solar heat on the outer edge of the earth’s atmosphere is about 445 Btu/(hr)(sq ft) on December 21 when the sun is closest to the earth. As either or both of these factors increase. as shown in Fig. The amount of haze in the air.8 Btu/ (hr) (sq ft) (deg F) with a 5 mph wind velocity during the summer. and absorbed by the atmosphere. and is more or less evenly distributed over the earth’s surface because it is nothing more than a reflection from dust particles. Fig. 12-REACTION ON SOLAR HEAT (R). 30 ANGLE OF INCIDENCE ORDINARY GLASS Ordinary glass is specified as crystal glass of single thickness and single or double strength. more solar heat is reflected and less is transmitted. The amount reflected or transmitted depends on the angle of incidence. ORDINARY GLASS. The outdoor film coefficient is approximately 2. reflected back out into space. (The angle of incidence is the angle between the perpendicular to the window surface and the sun’s rays. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. The distance traveled through the atmosphere to reach the point on the earth. page 55.Part 1. The relationship between the total and the direct and diffuse radiation at any point on earth is dependent on the following two factors: 1. . ORDINARY GLASS. even when the window is not facing the sun. Ordinary glass absorbs a small portion of the solar heat (5% to 6%) and reflects or transmits the rest. The solar heat gain through ordinary glass depends on its location on the earth’s surface (latitude). 12.

8x100 = 60. It does not include the transmission of heat across the glass caused by a temperature difference between the outdoor and inside air. the diffuse component listed for the other exposures must be divided by the haze factor to result in the actual room or building peak load. the glass temperature is above both. causing more of the absorbed heat to flow into the space. “Heat Storage.Solar Heat Gain thru Ordinary Glass The bold face values in Table 15 indicate the maximum solar heat gain for the month for each exposure. and 50° latitudes. ft) (deg F) because.8+2.or 40% 1. This table includes the direct and diffuse radiation and that portion of the heat absorbed in the glass which gets into the space. Use of Table 15 . Table 15 is used to determine the solar heat gain thru ordinary glass at any time. If outdoor temperature is equal to room temperature.Solar heat Gain thru Ordinary Glass Table 15 provides data for 0°. The inside film coefficient is approximately 1. 75 F wb) which approximately corresponds to 4 centimeters of precipitable water vapor. A glass area equal to 85% of the sash area.2%. the glass area is assumed equal to 100% of the sash area because the conductivity of the metal sash is very high and the solar heat absorbed in the sash is transmitted almost instantaneously. (See Chapter 5 for “U” values. 20°.This is typical for wood sash windows. the glass temperature also irises. in the average system design. 5. 4. If these conditions do not apply.8%. Basis of Table 15 . 30°. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass 2. A sea level dewpoint temperature of 66. refer to Chapter 3. 3. To determine the actual cooling load due to the solar heat gain.” CAUTION – Where Estimation Multi-Exposure Rooms Or Buildings If a haze factor is used on one exposure to determine the peak room or building load. as explained on page 41. For metal sash windows. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. This reasoning applies equally well when the outdoor temperature is below the room temperature. Sea level elevation. Precipitable water vapor is all of the water vapor in a column of air from sea level to the outer edge of the atmosphere. . and 100% of masonry opening with casement windows. This is because the diffuse component increases with increasing haze. Therefore absorbed heat flowing in = 1.8x100 = 39. FIG. use the correction factors at the bottom of each page of Table 15. for each month of the year and for each hour of the day. The bold face values that are boxed indicate the yearly maximums for each exposure. 90% of masonry opening with double hung metal sash windows. or 60% 1.8+2. zone or building.Part 1. air velocities across the glass are approximately 100-200 fpm. 3. As the outdoor temperature rises. Diversity and Stratification. 10°.8 4. 40°.8 Btu/ (hr) (sq NOTE: The sash area equals approximately 85% of the masonry opening (or frame opening with frame walls) with wood sash windows.8 F (95 F db. No haze in the air. in any space.) The data in Table 15 is based on the following conditions:1. This can be accounted for by adding the transmission of heat across the glass (caused by temperature difference between inside and outdoors) to the constant 40% of the absorbed heat going inside.8 Absorbed heat flowing out = 2. 14 WINDOW AREAS 2.

since many cities are above sea level.. Given: A west exposure with steel casement windows Location – Topeka. West 74 100 91 South 139 104 59 Total 213 204 150 The peak solar heat gain to this room occurs at 3:00 p. because the peak transmission load. may occur at some other time. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass Example 1 – Peak Solar Heat Gain (2 Exposures) Since the time at which the peak solar load occurs in a space with 2 exposures is not always apparent. .85 (bottom Table 15) Solar heat gain at 4:00 p.007×.90×1/.8-66. The peak room cooling load does not necessarily occur at the same time as the peak solar heat gain. Load Estimating | Chapter 4.m..8 = 3 F Dewpoint correction = 1 – (3/10×.m. Given: A room with equal glass areas on the West and South at 40° North latitude.90 (bottom Table 15) Steel sash correction = 1/.Part 1.m.007 (bottom Table 15) Dewpoint difference = 69.8 F 39° North latitude Find: Peak solar heat gain Solution: By inspection of Table 15 The boxed boldface values for peak solar heat gain.m. on July 23 = 164 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) Assume a somewhat hazy condition.85 = 171 Btu/ (hr)(sq ft) Solution: From Table 15 Solar heat gainSeptember 22 2:00 3:00 4:00 p. and many have different design dew points and some haze in their atmosphere. on October 23.. West 88 122 117 South 137 104 59 Total 225 226 176 Solar heat gainNovember 21 2:00 3:00 4:00 p. occurring at 4:00 p. Find: Peak solar heat gain. Kansas Altitude – 991 ft Design dewpoint – 69.979 (bottom Table 15) Haze correction = 1 . etc.979×. July 23 = 164×1. Altitude correction = 1. people land. the solar heat gain is generally calculated at more than one time to determine its peak. West 99 1:39 149 South 110 81 44 Total 209 220 193 Solar heat gainOctober 23 2:00 3:00 4:00 p.m.m.10 = .07) = . Example 2 – Solar Gain Correction Factors (Bottom Table 15) The conditions on which Table 15 is based do not apply to all locations.

Load Estimating | Chapter 4. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .Part 1.

Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 4.

Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 4.

Load Estimating | Chapter 4.Part 1. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .

16-REACTION ON SOLAR HEAT (R).4agrsd)] R .88R = . The solar heat gain factor thru the combination in Fig. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass ° ° FIG. The overall effect. is to reduce the solar heat gain to the conditioned space as shown in Fig.56 (Refer to Table 16 for 1 4 -inch regular plate glass with a white venetian blind. These special glass types reduce the transmitted solar heat but increase the amount of absorbed solar heat flowing into the space.24agrsd)] .) . 52% HEAT ABSORBING GLASS.64F/. caused by the hot air space between glass and drapes: The transmission factor U for glass with 100% drape is 0. Multipliers for various types of glass are listed in Table 16. for absorptivity. 15. (Refer to Item 8. page 51. The outdoor shading devices are much more effective than the inside devices because all of the reflected solar heat is kept out and the absorbed heat is dissipated to the outdoor air. 16) wherein some of it is absorbed. This multiplier (. reflectivity and transmissibility of common types of glass at 30° angle of incidence.728 or . 15-REACTION ON SOLAR HEAT (R).85asd +tsd+rgrsd+.88 Where: Q = solar heat gain to space. 30 ANGLE OF INCIDENCE back through the glass (Fig. Btu/(hr)(sq ft).88 For drapes the above formula changes as follows. 30 ANGLE OF INCIDENCE Glass. All shading devices reflect and absorb a major portion of the solar gain. WHITE VENETIAN BLIND. for absorptivity.) The solar heat gain factor through 52% heat absorbing glass as compared to ordinary glass is . ¼ -INCH PLATE GLASS. May be specially treated to absorb solar heat (heat absorbing glass).80 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (F).49R/.73. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. or 2.557 or . reflectivity and transmissibility of common shading devices at 30° angle of incidence. (Refer to Item 8. absorbs more solar heat because it 1. 12 R Q = [.Part 1.4ag +tg (asd +tsd+rgrsd+.73) is used with Table 15 to determine the solar heat gain thru 52% heat absorbing glass. (From Table 15) a = solar absorptivity t = solar transmissibility r = solar reflectivity g = glass sd = shading device . leaving a small portion to be transmitted. May be thicker. 16 as compared to ordinary glass is .24ag +tg (. Inside devices necessarily dissipate their absorbed heat within the conditioned space and must also reflect the solar heat ALL GLASS TYPES – WITH AND WITHOUT SHADING DEVICES FIG. however. page 51.88R = .) The solar heat gain thru glass with an inside shading device may be expressed as follows: Q = [.88 = conversion factor from Fig. A portion of heat reflected from the inside surface is absorbed in passing back through the glass. Btu/ (hr)(sq ft) R = total solar intensity. other than ordinary glass. Normally they reflect slightly less than ordinary glass because part of the reflection takes place on the inside surface. The effectiveness of a shading device depends on its ability to keep solar heat from the conditioned space.

since the quantities are normally small on the second pass. This is not 1. except roller shades.00 . Venetian blind slats horizontal at 45° and shading screen slats horizontal at 17°.18-91/36) Fiberglass Cloth.75‡ . An inside film coefficient of 1.02 6. With and Without Shading Devices The factors in Table 16 are multiplied by the values in Table 15 to determine the solar heat gain thru different combinations of glass and shading devices. the reaction is assumed identical. 5.m. The correction factors listed under Table 15 are to be used if applicable. 7. ‡For a shading device in combination with ordinary glass. ¼ “ Glass. Vinyl Coated (similar to roller shade) Cotton Cloth. Heat Absorbing Venetian Blind.05 . reflectivity and transmissability for common glass and shading devices at a 30° angle of incidence along with shading factors appear in the table below. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass NOTE: Actually the reaction on the solar heat reflected back through the glass from the blind is not always identical tot he first pass as assumed in this example. The procedure is illustrated in the following example: Given: West exposure.05 – a) .Part 1. Light Color Medium Color Dark Color Fiberglass Cloth.76‡ .56‡ . With and Without Shading Devices The factors in Table 16 are based on: 1.55-57/29) Glass Cloth.05 .94 -..88 (Fig. Transmission due to temperature difference between the inside and outdoor air must be added to the solar heat gain to determine total gain thru glass. Consult manufacturers for actual values. The first pass through the glass filters out most of solar radiation that is to be absorbed in the glass.01 .48‡ .77 (1 .60 .39 .8-86/81) Cotton Cloth. Dark Green. Golden Stripes Fiberglass Cloth. and the second pass absorbs somewhat less. . Solution: By inspection of Table 15. and yarn count warp/filling.8 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F) at 5 mph wind velocity. Dark Green (6. (See Table 16 footnote).59‡ .Over-all Factors for Solar Heat Gain thru Glass.14 .30 .23 .58 .76‡ *Factors for various draperies are given for guidance only since the actual drapery material may be different in color and texture. Dark Gray Dacron Cloth. 40° North latitude Thermopane window with white venetian blind on inside. the boxed boldface values for peak solar heat gain.03 .88‡ . and below the 30° angle the atmosphere absorbs or reflects more.72 .28 . Tan (7. 3. 4. occurring at 4:00 p.06 .51 .70 .05 . so the factors have been slightly increased. White.47 .29 .51 .86 .08 .72-61/58) Cotton Cloth.02 . Outdoor canvas awnings ventilated at sides and top. 8.41 . 2.47 as normally used. Since Table 15 is based on the net solar heat gain thru ordinary glass.11 .23 .60 .42 .44 . on July 23 = 164 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) Example 3 – Partially Drawn Shades Reflectivity (r) .28 Transmissibility (t) . †Compared to ordinary glass. White (1.15 .12 . since the present practice in well designed systems is to sweep the window with a stream of air. Use of Table 16 . Basis of Table 16 Over-all Factors for Solar Heat Gain thru Glass. Above the 30° angle the transmissibility of glass decreases.15 by mfg.65‡ .-. A 30° angle of incidence which is the angle at which most exposures peak.37 .27 . All shading devices fully drawn.75‡ .56‡ . figures in parentheses are ounces per sq yd. Beige (6.35 . The average absorptivity. all calculated solar heat factors are divided by .70 Solar Factor† 1. Light Gray Fiberglass Cloth. 100-200 fpm. For simplicity.8 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F). .08 .00 . Load Estimating | Chapter 4. Off White (5. Experience indicates that roller shads are seldom fully drawn.54 .06-91/36) Absorptivity (a) . 12). Occasionally it is necessary to estimate the cooling load in a building where the blinds are not to be fully drawn.65‡ . 3 4 drawn.82 . The 30° angle of incidence is approximately the balance point on reduction of solar heat coming through the atmosphere and the decreased transmissibility of glass. Find: Peak solar heat gain.26 . An outdoor film coefficient of 2.64‡ . TYPES OF GLASS OR SHADING DEVICES* Ordinary Glass Regular Plate.

16 .10 .85 (bottom Table 15).11 .10 .18 .18 .69 .59 Solar heat gain = 164× .15 . therefore.21 . slats 17° horiz.12 .65 .94 .80) (Table 16) = .80 .28 .12 .32 .47 . Solution: By inspection of Table 15 the boxed boldface value for peak solar heat gain.85 TABLE 16-OVER-ALL FACTORS FOR SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS WITH AND WITHOUT SHADING DEVICES* Apply Factors to Table 15 Outdoor wind velocity.13 .75 .39 . 40° North latitude ¼” Solex “R” glass in steel sash.10 .11 .11 .22 .85 = 114 Btu/ (hr) (sq ft).14 .73 = 141 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) . Regular Plate inside. 30 – Shading devices fully covering window GLASS FACTOR NO SHADE ORDINARY GLASS REGULAR PLATE (1/4 inch) HEAT ABSORBING GLASS†† 40 to 48% Absorbing 48 to 56% Absorbing 56 to 70% Absorbing DOUBLE PANE Ordinary Glass Regular Plate 48 to 56% Absorbing outside.15 .73 .14 .54 .59 .19 .10 .16 .73. the solar heat gain factor equals ¾ of the overall factor + ¼ of the glass factor. therefore.61 .37 INSIDE VENETIAL BLIND* 45° horiz.36 .39 .56 .57 OUTSIDE OUTSIDE SHADING VENETIAN BLIND SCREEN† 45° horiz. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass Thermopane windows have no sash. Steel sash window correction = 1/.10 .14 .16 . Example 4-Peak Solar Heat Gain thru Solex “R” Glass Given: West exposure.20 .12 .52 .16 .20 . occurring at 4:00 p. 48 to 56% Absorbing outside.56 .11 .52 .53 .62 .12 .12 .18 .67 .Part 1.36 .56 .43 .72 .56 .60 .16 .12 .90 .65 .56 .11 .12 . Load Estimating | Chapter 4.85 (bottom Table 15).70 .15 .59 .25 .43 . or vertical or ROLLER SHADE Light Medium Dark Color Color Color .17 Footnotes for Table 16 appear on next page.18 .52)+(1/4×.80 . the factor = .64 .11 .24 .20 .46 . From Table 16.00 .48 . Ordinary Glass inside.13 .9% of the solar heat (footnotes to Table 16) which places this glass in the 48% to 56% absorbing range.10 OUTSIDE AWNING‡ vent.10 .43 . slats Light on Light Outside Medium** Dark§ Color Dark on Color Color Inside .14 .22 .15 .14 .20 . or Color Dark Color .10 . on July 23 = 164 Btu/(hr) (sq ft).12 . sash area correction = 1/. double hung window Find: Peak solar heat gain.10 .62 .12 . Solex “R” glass absorbs 50.39 .14 .62 .52 .10 .83 .20 . TRIPLE PANE Ordinary Glass Regular Plate PAINTED GLASS Light Color Medium Color Dark Color STAINED GLASS‡‡ Amber Color Dark Red Dark Blue Dark Green Greyed Green Light Opalescent Dark Opalescent 1.10 .65 . Factor for ¾ drawn = (3/4×.59 .74 .54 . In this example. .51 . sides & top Light Med.12 .10 . ¾ of the window is covered with the venetian blind and ¼ is not. 5 mph-Angle of incidence.10 .10 .56 .10 .50 .11 .m.18 . Solar heat gain =164x.50 .

m. 17 per inch.m. Angle Med.m. 17).77R) + (. Metal slats 0. 50° Lat. and the over-all thermal conductance of the air space of 1. (2) by applying the absorptivity. and (3) by distributing heat absorbed within the dead air space and glass panes (Fig. Solution: Figure 17 shows the distribution of solar heat. 6:30 a.77R) + (.m.37×.77×.m. 7:30 a. 13. 15 and 16. For fully drawn roller shades.08×. The heat absorbed between the glass panes (dead air space) is divided 45% and 55% respectively between the in and out flow.66 Aklo Blue Ridge Glass Corp. 6:40 a. 6:30 p. .15R) + (. Dark Name or Manufacturer ness Color Radiation (deg) Color Color Descrip(in. Coolite Mississippi Glass Co.59 2. Equations: Solar Gain Without Shades = (Solar Data from Table 15) × (Glass Factor from table) Solar Gain With Shades = (Solar Data from Table 15) × (Over-all Factor from table) Solar Gain With Shades Partially Drawn = (Solar Data from Table 15) × [(Fraction Drawn × Over-all Factor) + (1 – Fraction Drawn) × (Glass Factor)] **Commercial shade.m.12×.m. 40° Lat.51×. 30 ANGLE OF INCIDENCE APPROXIMATION OF FACTORS FOR COMBINATIONS NOT FOUND IN TABLE 16 Occasionally combinations of shading devices and types of glass may be encountered that are not covered in Table 16.2684R or .m. L.m.15×. Find: The over-all factor. 6:15 p.77R) + .77R) + (. 30 1.08×. Aklo Blue Ridge Glass Corp. *Shading devices fully drawn except roller shades.7 5:15 p. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. Co. 17) = (. industrial applications normally use 56% to 70%. 4:30 p. Footnotes for Table 16: 17.27R/ .12×.4 4:30 p.O. multiply light colors by .8 Btu/(hr)(sq ft) (deg F). Libbey-Owens-Ford 1/4 Pale Blue-Green 48.6 6:45 a. use the predominant color. Commercial shade bronze.m.m.8 Btu/ (hr)(sq ft) (deg F).95. ‡‡ With multicolor windows.9 multiply over-all factor by 1.09 1. WHITE VENETIAN BLING.m.20 [(.12×. 1/4 Light Blue 70. ¼ -INCH PLATE GLASS. Metal slats 0.m. The 1.27R Solar heat gain factor as compared to ordinary glass = .m. which assume the outdoor film coefficient of 2.46 6:00 p. 1/4 Pale Green 50. ¼ -INCH PLATE GLASS.4. July 23 Solar Multiplier ° SOLAR RADIATION ABSORBED BY HEAT ABSORBING GLASS Altitude Trade ThickSolar 30° Lat. aluminum. 1/4 Pale Blue-Green 69.77R)] + . the indoor film coefficient of 1.) Absorbed tion (%) 6:00 a.51×. and 75% in and 25% out for the inner pane. and dark colors by ††Most heat absorbing glass used in comfort air conditioning is in the 40% to 56% range.057 inches wide. 16 backed on the inside with another pane of 1 4 -inch regular plate glass. reflectivity and transmissibility of glass and shades listed in the table on page 51. medium colors by . 5:30 a.45 [(. 20 1. 5:45 a. The heat absorbed within the glass panes is divided 20% in and 80% out for the outer pane.31 ° FIG.4 7:30 a. 5:20 p. 1/8 Pale Blue-Green 56.75× .05 inches 0.m. 4:30 p.m. or determined from manufacturer. At solar altitudes below ° types:40.08.77R)] = .F. ° following table presents the absorption qualities of the most common glass †Factors for solar altitude angles of 40 or greater. Use following multipliers:MULTIPLIERS FOR SOLAR ALTITUDES BELOW 40 Approximate Sun Time.67 Coolite Mississippi Glass Co.15×. These factors can be approximated (1) by using the solar heat gain flow diagrams in Fig. 5:30 p. These divisions are based on reasoning partially stated in the notes under Fig. some direct solar rays pass thru the slats.Part 1. 7:30 a.2 Solex R Pittsburgh Plate Glass ‡With outside canvas awnings tight against building on sides and top. 17-REACTION ON SOLAR HEAT (R). 10 2.88F = .m.09 3. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass Example 5-Approximation of Over-all Factor Given: A combination as in Fig.37 Btu/ (hr)(sq ft)(deg F) Heat gain to space (Fig. 1/8 Light Blue 58.m.05 inches wide.5 per inch.73.

0 3. The transmission of heat caused by a difference between the inside and outdoor temperatures must also be figured.22 . = (.Solar Heat Gain Factors for Glass Block.24 .27 . Shading devices on the outdoor side of glass block are almost as effective as with any other kind of glass since they keep the heat away from the glass.22 .0 .27 .24 3. Chapter 5. Load Estimating | Chapter 4.0 3.21 .21× 98) = 84 At 6:00 p. North or South. on July 23. = (.39 .39×161) + (. Ba = Absorption transmission factor from Table 17.25 Solar heat gain with inside shading devices = (Bi×lI+ Ba×la)×. GLASS BLOCK Glass block differs from sheet glass in that there is an appreciable absorption of solar heat and a fairly long time lag before the heat reaches the inside (about 3 hours). la = Solar heat gain value from Table 15 for 3 hours earlier than li and same wall facing. 30° to 50 North or South latitude.21 3. Glass Block Given: West exposure.m. The high absorption of heat increases the inside surface temperature of the sunlit glass block which may require lower room temperatures to maintain comfort conditions as explained in Chapter 2. li = Solar heat gain value from Table 15 for the desired time and wall facing.35 .Solar Heat Gain Factors for Glass block.21× 43) = 73 At 5:00 p. using the appropriate “U” value. Use of Table 17 . Basis of Table 17 .39×118) + (.85 multiplier in Table 15.0 3.0 EXPOSURE IN SOUTH LATITUDES Southeast East Northeast North Summer† Winter† Northwest West Southwest Northeast East Southeast South Summer† Winter† Southwest West Northwest *Factors include correction for no sash with glass block windows.22 3.35 . †Use the summer factors for all latitudes. Equations: Solar heat gain without shading devices = (Bi×li) + (Ba×la) Solar heat gain with outdoor shading devices = (Bi×lI+ Ba×la×. Example 6-Peak Solar Heat Gain.21×144) = 76 Peak solar heat gain occurs at 5:00 p. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass Since glass block windows have no sash.24 3.0 . the peak solar heat gain occurs on July 23.Part 1.39 .39 . . With and Without Shading Devices The factors in Table 17 are used to determine the solar heat gain thru all types of glass block. the factors in Table 17 have been increased to include the 1/. Shading devices on the inside are not effective in reducing the heat gain because most of the heat reflected is absorbed in the glass block. With and Without Shading Devices The factors in Table 17 are the average of tests conducted by the ASHAE on several types of glass block.27 .0 .39×164) + (.m. 40° North latitude Glass block window Find: Peak solar heat gain Solution: By inspection of Table 15. This is primarily caused by the thermal storage capacity of the glass block itself.m. EXPOSURE IN NORTH LATITUDES TABLE 17-SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS FOR GLASS BLOCK WITH AND WITHOUT SHADING DEVICES* Apply Factors to Table 15 MULTIPLYING FACTORS FOR GLASS BLOCK Instantaneous Absorption Transmission Transmission Factor Factor Time Lag (Bi) (Ba) Hours .m.0 3. Solar heat gain At 4:00 p.90 Where: Bi = Instantaneous transmission factor from Table 17. = (. Use the winter ° factor for intermediate seasons.

solar altitude angle Tan X = Cos B. Use of Chart 1 . Drop vertically to “Shading from Top” from intersection. Drop vertically to “Shading from Side” scale. Overhangs.Shading from Reveals. Locate the solar azimuth angle on the scale in upper part of Chart 1. 6. The solar altitude angle is the angle in a vertical plane between the sun and a horizontal plane through a point on earth. 5. 18-SOLAR ANGLES FIG. Move horizontally until the “Shading from Side” value (45 deg. 9.” Locate the solar altitude angle on the scale in lower part of Chart 1.Shading from Reveals. even at the time of peak solar heat gain. The shading of a window by a vertical projection alongside the window (see Fig. times the depth of the projection. Determine the solar azimuth and altitude angles from Table 18. Basis of Chart 1 .Part 1. The shaded portion has only the diffuse component striking it. Tan A. FINS AND ADJACENT BUILDINGS All windows are shaded to a greater or lesser degree by the projections close to it and by buildings around it. 19-SHADING BY WALL PROJECTIONS 2. a resultant of the combined effects of the altitude angle (A) and the wall solar azimuth angle (B). Fins and Adjacent Buildings The location of the sun is defined by the solar azimuth angle and the solar altitude angle as shown in Fig. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass SHADING FROM REVEALS. 19) is the tangent of the wall solar azimuth angle (B). lines) determined in Step 4 is intersected. Multiply the depth of the projection (plan view) by the “Shading from Side. this chapter. The shading of a window by a horizontal projection above the window is the tangent of angle (X). 1. The wall solar azimuth angle is the angle in the horizontal plane between the perpendicular to the wall and the vertical plane passing through the sun and the point on earth. FIG. 3. 8. Fins and adjacent Buildings The procedure to determine the top and side shading from Chart 1 is. 4. 7. Shading of windows is significant in monumental type buildings where the reveal may be large. The solar azimuth angle is the angle in a horizontal plane between North and the vertical plane passing through the sun and the point on earth.” . is presented to simplify the determination of the shading of windows by these projections. times depth of the projection. Proceed horizontally to the exposure desired.wall solar azimuth angle The upper part of Chart 1 determines the tangent of the wall solar azimuth angle and the bottom part determines tan X. Chart 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 4. 18. This shading reduces the solar heat gain through these windows by keeping the direct rays of the sun off part of all of the window. OVERHANGS. The location of the sun with respect to the particular wall facing is defined by the wall solar azimuth angle and the solar altitude angle. Overhangs. Multiply the depth of the projection (elevation view) by the “Shading from Top.

1 ft/ft shading from top = .4 in. shading from side reveal = .5 ft The air conditioned building is shaded to a height of 47. shading from top reveal = 1.6 in. From Table 18.6 – 6. Solution: From Table 18. 20-SHADING OF BUILDING BY ADJACENT BUILDING Example 7 – Shading of Building by Adjacent Building Given: Buildings located as shown in Fig.6 in.1×75) = 62.m. shading from side = . Find: Shading by the reveal at 2 p. Shading from side reveal (same as Example 8) = 4.5 ft along the face at 4:00 p.5 it and 62. Since the overhang is 6 inches above the window. L = 85-15-(.m. on July 23.m. solar azimuth angle = 267° solar altitude angle = 35° From Chart 1.7) = 47. Load Estimating | Chapter 4.8 in. of building to be air conditioned. the portion of window shaded = 57. FIG. Example 9 – Shading of Window by Overhang and Reveal Given: The same window as in Example 8 with a 2 ft overhang 6 inches above the window. H = 100-(75×.m. 20. on July 23.8 in.0 = 51. Solution: Refer to Fig. 40° North Latitude. 21-SHADING OF REVEAL AND OVERHANG Length of building in shade.Part 1. 21.5 ft Height of building in shade. Find: Shading at 4 p. Find: Shading by reveal and overhang a 2 p.6×8 = 4. July 23.8×8 = 14.7 ft/ft . on July 23. Solution: It is recommended that the building plans and elevations be sketched to scale with approximate location of the sun. Example 8-Shading of Window by Reveals Given: A steel casement window on the west side with an 8-inch reveal. Shading from overhang = 1. solar azimuth-angle = 242° solar altitude angle = 57° From Chart 1. 40° North Latitude. to enable the engineer to visualize the shading conditions..8× (24+8) = 57. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass FIG.

Load Estimating | Chapter 4. Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .Part 1.

Solar Heat Gain Thru Glass .Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 4.

in turn. For this particular wall. The equivalent temperature difference across the structure must take into account the different types of construction and exposures. using the actual temperatures on either side. Fig. and for all practical purposes may be assumed as such. This occurs early in the morning after a few hours of very low outdoor temperatures. EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCESUNLIT AND SHADED WALLS AND ROOFS . 24. the heat flow can be determined from the steady state heat flow equation. The process of transferring heat thru a wall under indicated unsteady state conditions may be visualized by picturing a 12-inch brick wall sliced into 12 one-inch sections. ceilings and partitions) is caused by a difference in temperature of the air on both sides of the structure. This approaches steady state heat flow conditions. causing heat to flow to the outdoor air and also to the second slice. most of the solar heat is absorbed in the first slice. This raises the temperature of the first slice above that of the outdoor air and the second slice. and design conditions. It is caused by solar heat being absorbed at the exterior surface and by the temperature difference between the outdoor and indoor air. and that the indoor and outdoor temperatures remain constant. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. the direction of flow is towards the point of low vapor pressure. Fig. The rate at which the heat or water vapor will flow varies with the resistance to flow between the two points in the material. The amount of heat flowing in either direction depends on the resistance to heat flow within the wall and thru the outdoor air film. It also presents data for determining and preventing water vapor condensation on the enclosure surfaces of within the structure materials. This process of absorbing heat and passing some on to the next slice continues thru the wall to the last or 12th slice where the remaining heat is transferred to the inside by convection and radiation. Both heat sources are highly variable thruout any one day and. When the sun shines on this wall. the direction of flow is always towards the lower temperature. it can be handled best by means of an equivalent temperature difference across the structure. 23. condensation occurs. location of the building (latitude). Water vapor also flows form one point to another whenever a difference in vapor pressure exists between the two points. Heat flow thru the interior construction (floors. time of day. The equivalent temperature difference is that temperature difference which results in the total heat flow thru the structure as caused by the variable solar radiation and outdoor temperature.Part 1. therefore. using the steady state heat flow equation with the equivalent temperature difference. The heat flow into the second slice. Btu/hr U = transmission coefficient. q = UA∆te where q = heat flow. The heat flow thru the structure may then be calculated. Fig. causing heat to flow into the third slice. This unsteady state flow is difficult to evaluate for each individual situation. sq ft ∆te = equiv temp diff F Heat loss thru the exterior construction (walls and roof) is normally calculated at the time of greatest heat flow. however. therefore. Assume that temperatures in each slice are all equal at the beginning. raises its temperature. This temperature difference is essentially constant thru out the day and. HEAT AND WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU STRUCTURES This chapter presents the methods and data for determining the sensible and latent heat gain or loss thru the outdoor structures of a building or thru a structure surrounding a space within the building. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures CHAPTER 5. 22. it takes approximately HEAT FLOW THRU BUILDING STRUCTURES Heat gain thru the exterior construction (walls and roof) is normally calculated at the time of greatest heat flow. If the temperature and vapor pressure of the water vapor correspond to saturation conditions at any point. Btu/(hr)(sq ft) (deg F temp diff) A = area of surface. Heat flows from one point to another whenever a temperature difference exists between the two points. result in unsteady state heat flow thru the exterior construction.

the magnitude of heat released to inside space would be reduced to about 10% of that absorbed in the slice exposed to the sun.Part 1. 23-BEHAVIOR OR ABSORBED SOLAR HEAT DURING SECOND TIME INTERVAL FIG. Because each slice must absorb some heat before passing it on. FIG. 24-BEHAVIOR OF ABSORBED SOLAR HEAT DURING THIRD TIME INTERVAL . 25-BEHAVIOR OF ABSORBED SOLAR HEAT DURING SECOND TIME INTERVAL PLUS ADDITIONAL SOLAR HEAT ABSORBED DURING THIS INTERVAL FIG. 26-BEHAVIOR OF ABSORBED SOLAR HEAT DURING THIRD TIME INTERVAL PLUS ADDITIONAL SOLAR HEAT ABSORBED DURING THIS INTERVAL The solar heat absorbed at each time interval by the outdoor surface of the wall throughout the day goes thru this same process. 25 and 26 show the total solar heat flow during the second and third time intervals. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures FIG. depending on the resistance to heat flow thru the wall and the thermal capacity of the wall. 22-SOLAR HEAT ABSORBED IN FIRST SLICE FIG. This same process occurs with any type of wall construction to a greater or lesser degree. These diagrams do not account for possible changes in solar intensity or outdoor temperature. A rise in outdoor temperature reduces the amount of absorbed heat going to the outdoors and more flows thru the wall. 7 hours for solar heat to pass thru the wall into the room. Figs.

Refer to Tables 19 and 20. Find: Equivalent temperature difference in November at 12 noon. 5. Corrections for these differences must be made first. For light color.Equivalent Temperature Difference for Sunlit and Shaded Wall and Roofs The equivalent temperature differences in Tables 19 and 20 are multiplied by the transmission coefficients listed in Tables 21 thru 33 to determine the heat gain thru walls and roofs per sq ft of area during the summer. times the specific heat of the material. for medium color.e. The specific heat of most construction materials is approximately 0. NOTE: The thermal capacity of a wall or roof is the Example 1 – Equivalent Temperature Difference. with built-up roofing. The total weight per sq ft of walls and roofs is obtained by adding the weights per sq ft of each component of a given structure. then the corrected equivalent temperature differences for both sun and shade must be applied in corrections for latitude. Outdoor daily range of dry-bulb temperatures. may be evaluated by the use of the equivalent temperature data presented in Tables 19 and 20. interpolated) Example 2 – Daily Range and Design Temperature Difference Correction At times the daily range may be more or less than 20 deg F. 2.70. If the equipment is operated less than 24 hours. 30° North latitude. located in New Orleans. the heat gain estimate (sun and transmission thru the roof and outdoor walls). i. insulation. and may result in a heat gain to the space during the night. times the volume. interpolated) Equivalent temperature difference = 43 – 1 = 42 deg F Example 3 – Other Months and Latitudes Occasionally the heat gain thru a wall or roof must be known for months and latitudes other than those listed in Note 3 following Table 20. Dark color walls and roofs with absorptivity of 0. the nighttime radiation to the sky and the lowering of the outdoor temperature may decrease the transmission gain and often may reverse it. 0. This progression of heat gain to the interior may occur over the full 24-hour period. Roof Given: A flat roof exposed to the sun. common brick wall facing west. even with equipment operating less than 24 hours. This equation adjusts the equivalent temperature difference for solar radiation only. and to the correction Table 20A. Sun time. Given: The same roof as in Example 1 Room design temperature = 78 F db Outdoor design temperature = 95 F db Daily range = 26 deg F Find: Equivalent temperature difference under changed conditions Solution: Design temperature difference = 17 deg F Daily range = 26 deg F Correction to equivalent temperature difference = -1 deg F (Table 20A. The corrections to be applied to the equivalent temperature difference for combinations of these two variables are listed in the notes following Tables 19 and 20.20 Btu/(lb)(deg F).1 1 2 in. These weights and shown in italics and parentheses in Tables 21 thru 33.Equivalent Temperature Difference for Sunlit and Shaded Walls and Roofs Table 19 and 20 are analogue computer calculations using Schmidt’s method based on the following conditions: 1.Part 1. Solution: Wt/sq ft = 8 + 2 + 2 = 12 lb/sq ft (Table 27. Room design temperature = 80 F db Outdoor design temperature = 95 F db Daily range = 20 deg F Find: Equivalent temperature difference at 4 p. absorptivity is 0. a design difference of 15 deg F. page 71) Equivalent temperature difference = 43 deg F (Table 20. pages 62 and 63. 4. either skipping the peak load requirement or as a routine procedure. i. the difference between outdoor and room design temperatures may be more or less than 15 deg F. 20 deg F. 3. the peak load requirement or as a routine procedure. This equivalent temperature difference is determined from the equation in Note 3. Use of Tables 19 and 20 . July. Basis of Tables 19 and 20 . this permits easy interpolation. Additional correction may have to be made for differences between outdoor and indoor design temperatures other than 15 deg F.3 in.e. Given: 12 in. with no interior finish. Maximum outdoor temperature of 95 F db and a design indoor temperature of 80 F db.90. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures density of the material in the wall or roof. Find: Equivalent temperature difference in November at 12 noon. Load Estimating | Chapter 5.m. wood deck and suspended acoustical tile ceiling. Solar heat in July at 40° North latitude. . the thermal capacity of typical walls or roofs is proportional to the weight per sq ft. Therefore.50.

Equivalent temperature differences for 12 in.† EXPOSURE WEIGHTS OF WALL‡ (lb/sq ft) TABLE 19-EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (DEG F) SUN TIME PM 5 14 13 11 12 14 13 16 17 15 15 16 18 20 23 18 13 41 35 19 9 45 34 17 11 33 21 9 7 13 11 5 3 5 6 14 14 12 10 14 14 14 16 14 14 14 16 16 20 18 14 42 36 22 10 48 40 20 12 40 30 12 8 12 12 5 4 6 7 12 13 12 10 12 13 14 14 12 13 13 15 12 15 15 15 30 35 23 15 34 41 25 14 37 31 17 9 10 12 5 5 7 Northeast East Southeast South Southwest West Northwest North (Shade) 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 20 60 100 140 6 5 -1 4 5 1 -1 5 11 10 1 7 9 -1 -1 4 7 -2 2 7 8 -2 2 7 12 -3 -2 5 8 -3 -3 1 1 6 7 15 -2 3 5 17 -1 5 10 6 1 7 8 -2 -3 4 6 -4 1 5 8 -3 1 7 11 -4 -3 4 7 -3 -3 1 1 7 AM 8 9 10 22 23 24 . For wall constructions less than 20 lb/sq ft. sq ft) × (equivalent temp diff) × (transmission coefficient U. by interpolation in Table 20A. use listed values of 20 lb/sq ft. †For other conditions. Lat. Constant 80F db Room Temp.m.5 deg F FOR DARK COLORED† .2 2 -1 0 -1 3 1 2 2 4 3 2 2 1 2 3 4 AM AM 5 -2 -1 5 7 -3 0 6 12 -2 2 7 9 -1 -1 5 7 -1 3 7 8 -1 2 8 13 -2 -1 5 9 -2 -2 1 1 5 Equation: Heat Gain Thru Walls. page 19) Outdoor design dry-bulb temperature in November at 3 p. ‡“Weight per sq ft” values for common types of construction are listed in Tables 21 thru 25.Part 1. page 11) Winter design dry-bulb for New Orleans = 20 F db (Table 1 page 11) Yearly range = 75 deg F Correction in outdoor design temperature for November and a yearly range of 75 deg F = -15 F (Table 3. 20 deg F Daily Range.4 -3 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 9 10 AM 11 19 22 10 6 35 31 20 9 27 24 11 7 14 7 3 4 4 1 5 7 3 2 6 8 3 0 4 6 1 -1 0 0 11 12 14 20 16 6 32 31 24 10 28 28 16 6 22 12 4 4 6 2 6 6 6 4 6 8 6 2 4 6 4 0 0 0 12 1 13 15 15 10 20 19 25 15 26 26 17 11 27 20 8 4 19 8 7 6 14 7 7 9 10 6 4 6 8 3 1 0 1 2 12 10 14 14 12 14 24 18 24 25 18 14 30 24 12 4 26 12 8 6 20 10 8 10 12 8 4 6 10 6 2 0 2 3 13 11 12 16 13 13 20 19 19 21 19 15 28 25 15 7 34 24 12 7 32 19 10 10 19 10 5 6 12 8 3 1 3 4 14 12 10 14 14 12 18 18 16 18 18 16 26 26 16 10 40 32 14 8 40 26 12 10 24 12 6 6 14 10 4 2 4 PM SUN TIME 8 10 12 12 10 10 12 14 12 10 12 12 14 10 12 14 16 24 34 24 18 22 36 28 16 34 32 20 10 8 12 8 6 8 9 8 11 11 10 8 11 13 13 8 11 11 13 7 10 11 16 12 20 23 19 14 28 27 21 18 21 21 14 6 10 7 7 9 10 6 10 10 10 6 10 12 14 6 10 10 12 6 8 10 14 6 10 22 20 8 16 26 22 6 12 22 18 4 8 6 8 10 11 4 8 9 10 4 8 11 14 4 8 10 12 3 6 9 12 4 7 15 13 5 10 19 23 4 8 14 19 2 6 5 7 11 12 2 6 8 10 2 5 10 14 2 6 10 12 2 4 8 10 2 6 10 8 2 6 14 22 2 6 8 20 0 4 4 6 12 1 2 3 4 0 -2 -3 -4 4 2 1 0 7 6 6 5 9 9 8 7 0 -1 -2 -3 4 3 1 1 9 8 7 7 13 13 12 12 0 -1 -1 -2 5 4 3 3 9 9 8 8 11 11 10 10 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 8 7 6 6 10 9 9 8 1 1 0 -1 5 4 4 3 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 1 0 0 -1 5 4 3 3 12 11 10 9 20 18 16 15 0 -1 -1 -2 4 3 1 0 7 7 6 6 16 7 11 10 0 13 . 95 F db Outdoor Design Temp. brick wall in New Orleans at 12 noon in November: ∆tem for west wall in sun = 7 (Table 19)-11. = 95 – 15 = 80 F With and 80 F db room design. page 11) The design difference of 0 deg F and a 13 deg F daily range results in a –11. refer to corrections on page 64. Tables 21 thru 25) *All values are for the both insulated and uninsulated walls. the outdoor to indoor difference is 80 – 80 = 0 deg F Average daily range in New Orleans = 13 deg F (Table 1. SUNLIT AND SHADED WALLS* Based on Dark Colored Walls.5 deg F addition to the equivalent temperature difference. . Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures Solution: The correction for design temperature difference is as follows: Example 3. Btu/hr = (Area. July and 40 N.5 = -4. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. 24-hour Operation.1 .2 5 24 4 4 4 6 6 6 30 33 36 0 21 30 6 8 14 10 9 8 13 19 26 0 13 20 6 6 6 8 8 8 -4 1 4 -4 -3 -2 2 2 2 6 5 4 -4 -2 0 0 0 0 6 5 4 8 8 8 -4 -2 0 0 0 0 6 6 6 10 9 8 -4 -2 0 -4 -3 -2 4 4 4 6 6 6 -4 -3 -2 . contd Summer design dry-bulb for New Orleans = 95 F db (Table 1.

5 deg F No correction is needed for the time of day. Wt/sq ft of wall = 120 lb/sq ft (Table 21) ∆tes = .5 deg F as corrected (Table 19 and 20A) Rs = 116 Btu/hr (Table 15. use the roof area projected on a horizontal plane. this is accounted for in Table 19.Rs ) ∆t Rm em Rm es Rm em es FOR DARK COLORED†.11. refer to corrections on page 64.Part 1. ° 24-hour Operation.5-(-11.5+ 116 [-45-. ‡“Weight per sq ft” values for common types of construction are listed in Tables 27 or 28. page 44) ∆te = -11. Constant 80 F db Room Temp.6. reduce equivalent temp diff 25% For peaked roofs. page 44) Rm = 164 Btu/hr (Table 15. †For other conditions. July and 40 N.† CONDITION WEIGHTS OF ROOF‡ (lb/sq ft) TABLE 20-EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (DEG F) SUN TIME PM 5 46 43 40 38 35 16 15 15 15 14 13 13 13 9 5 6 45 43 41 39 37 14 15 16 14 14 14 12 12 10 6 7 41 40 39 38 37 12 14 15 12 13 13 10 11 10 7 Exposed to Sun Covered with Water Sprayed Shaded 10 20 40 60 80 20 40 60 20 40 60 20 40 60 6 -4 0 4 9 13 -5 -3 -1 -4 -2 -1 -5 -5 -3 6 7 -6 -1 3 8 12 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -5 -5 -3 7 AM 8 9 10 -7 -5 -1 -2 -1 2 2 3 6 6 7 8 11 11 12 0 2 4 -1 -1 0 -2 -2 -2 0 2 4 -1 -1 0 -2 -2 -2 -4 -2 0 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -2 8 9 10 AM 11 7 9 10 11 13 10 5 2 8 2 0 2 0 -1 11 12 15 16 16 16 16 16 10 5 12 5 2 6 2 0 12 1 24 23 23 22 22 19 13 7 15 9 5 9 5 2 1 2 32 30 28 27 26 22 15 10 18 13 8 12 8 4 2 3 38 36 33 31 28 20 15 12 17 14 10 13 10 6 3 4 43 41 38 35 32 18 16 14 16 14 12 14 12 8 4 Equation: Heat Gain Thru Roofs. Load Estimating | Chapter 5.5 deg F as corrected (Table 19 and 20A) ∆tem = . Lat. Tables 27 or 28) *With attic ventilated and ceiling insulated roofs.5)] 164 = . Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures ∆te8 for west wall in shade = 0 (Table 19) – 11.5 deg F ( Novemder . sq ft) × (equivalent temp diff) × (transmission coefficient U.1 15 12 8 6 4 20 17 13 11 9 25 22 18 16 13 30 27 23 20 18 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 3 1 -1 -2 -3 6 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -2 -3 3 1 0 0 -1 6 4 2 1 0 0 -1 -3 -4 -5 2 0 -1 -3 -4 4 2 1 0 -1 12 1 2 3 4 AM AM 5 -3 2 6 11 14 -5 -3 0 -3 -1 -1 -5 -5 -2 5 . PM SUN TIME 8 35 35 35 36 35 10 12 14 10 12 12 8 10 10 8 9 28 30 32 34 34 6 10 12 6 9 11 5 8 9 9 10 22 25 28 31 34 2 7 10 2 7 10 2 6 8 10 11 16 20 24 28 32 1 5 8 1 5 8 1 4 6 11 12 1 2 3 4 10 7 3 1 .5 = -11. SUNLIT AND SHADED ROOFS* Based on 95 F db Outdoor Design Temp. Btu/hr = (Area. 12 Noon) The correction for different solar intensity is ∆te = ∆tes + Rs (∆t ∆t ) = Rs ∆t + (1.4. 20 deg F Daily Range.

Table 15. Shaded walls For shaded walls on any exposure. Example 3 illustrates the procedure. corrected if necessary as shown in Correction 1.90 em es Rs (∆t ∆t ) = Rs ∆t + (1.55 ∆t + . MINUS ROOM TEMP (deg F) DAILY RANGE (deg F) 8 -39 -29 -19 -9 -4 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 10 -40 -30 -20 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 12 -41 -31 -21 -11 -6 -1 4 9 14 19 24 29 14 -42 -32 -22 -12 -7 -2 3 8 13 18 23 28 16 -43 -33 -23 -13 -8 -3 2 7 12 17 22 27 18 -44 -34 -24 -14 -9 -4 1 6 11 16 21 26 20 -45 -35 -25 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 22 -46 -36 -26 -16 -11 -6 -1 4 9 14 19 24 24 -47 -37 -27 -17 -12 -7 -2 3 8 13 18 23 ∆te8 -30 -20 -10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 26 -48 -38 -28 -18 -13 -8 -3 2 7 12 17 22 28 -49 -39 -29 -19 -14 -9 -4 1 6 11 16 21 30 -50 -40 -30 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 32 -51 -41 -31 -21 -16 -11 -6 -1 4 9 14 19 34 -52 -42 -32 -22 -17 -12 -7 -2 3 8 13 18 36 -53 -43 -33 -23 -18 -13 -8 -3 2 7 12 17 38 -54 -44 -34 -24 -19 -14 -9 -4 1 6 11 16 40 -55 -45 -35 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Corrections to Equivalent Temperature Differences in Tables 19 & 20 for Conditions Other Than Basis of Table 1. Tables 19 and 20 values are approximately correct for the east or west wall in any latitude during the hottest weather. ∆tem = equivalent temperature difference for wall or foof exposed to the sun for desired time of day. or the daily range is different from the 20 deg F db on which Table 19 and 20 are based.∆t ) = .50 (∆t . See Table 18 for solar altitude angles. where the outdoor design temperature (Table 1.70 (∆t .90 em es Medium color wall or roof: ∆te = ∆tes + ∆te = ∆tes + . In lower latitudes when the maximum solar altitude is 80° to 90° (the maximum occurs at noon).Rs ) ∆t Rm em Rm es Rm em es where = equivalent temperature difference for month and time of ∆te day desired. where: = equivalent temperature difference for month and time of ∆te day desired. Outdoor Design Temperature Minus Room Temperature Greater or Less Than 15 deg F db. R8 = maximum solar heat gain in Btu/(hr) (sq ft) thru glass for wall facing or horizontal for roofs. corrected if necessary for design conditions. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 20A-CORRECTIONS TO EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURES (DEG F) OUTDOOR DESIGN FOR MONTH AT 3 P. corrected if necessary for design conditions. the temperature difference for either south or north wall is approximately the same as a north or shade wall. 2. 4.78 ∆t + . exposed to sun and shaded walls or roof. page 29. page 44. ∆tem = equivalent temperature difference for wall or foof exposed to the sun for desired time of day. for month and latitude desired. = equivalent temperature difference for same wall or roof in ∆te8 shade at desired time of day. This correction is to be applied to both equivalent temperature difference values. 3.M. for July at 40 North latitude.∆t ) = .22 ∆t em es . page 29. . or Table 6. Light or medium color wall or roof Light color wall or roof: . page 44.45 ∆t em es . corrected if necessary for design conditions. page 20) is different from 15 deg F db. Rm = maximum solar heat gain in Btu/(hr)(sq ft) thru glass for wall facing or horizontal for roofs. or Table 6.Part 1. Latitudes other than 40° North and for other months with different solar intensities. and/or Daily Range Greater or Less Than 20 deg F db: Add the corrections listed in Table 20A. Table 15. corrected if necessary for design conditions.The temperature differential ∆te for any wall facing or roof and for any latitude for any month is approximated as follows: ∆te = ∆tes + = equivalent temperature difference for same wall or roof in shade at desired time of day. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. page 10) minus the room or indoor design temperature (table 4. use the values of equivalent temperature difference listed for north (shade).

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures
Note: Light color = white, cream, etc. Medium color = light green, light blue, gray, etc. Dark color = dark blue, dark red, dark brown, etc. 5. Other latitude, other month, light or medium color walls or roof. The combined formulae are: Light color walls or roof
∆te = .55 +

conditions, the coefficient for summer conditions will be: 1. Thermal resistance R (winter) of wall = 1 = 1 = 3.33
U 0.3

Rs ∆tem + (1- .55 Rs ) ∆tes Rm Rm Rs ∆tem + (1- .78 Rs ) ∆tes Rm Rm

Medium color walls or roof.
∆te = .78 +

5. For South latitudes, use the following exposure values from Table 19: Use Exposure Value South Latitude Northeast Southeast East East Southeast Northeast South North (shade) Southwest Northwest West West Northwest Southwest North (shade) South

2. Outdoor film thermal resistance (winter) = 0.17 (Table 34) 3. Thermal resistance of wall without outdoor air film (winter = 3.33 – 0.17 = 3.16 4. Outdoor film thermal resistance (summer) = 0.25 (Table 34) 5. Thermal resistance of wall with outdoor air film (summer) = 3.16 + 0.25 = 3.41 6. Transmission coefficient U of wall in summer = 1 = 1 = 0.294
R 3.41

TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U

Transmission coefficient or U value is the rate at which heat is transferred thru a building structure in Btu/ (hr)(sq ft)(deg F temp diff). The rate times the temperature difference is the heat flow thru the structure. The reciprocal of the U value for any wall is the total resistance of this wall to heat flow to the of heat. The total resistance of any wall to heat flow is the summation of the resistance in each component of the structure and the resistances of the outdoor and inside surface films. The transmission coefficients listed in Tables 21 thru 33 have been calculated for the most common types of construction. Basis of Tables 21 thru 33 - Transmission Coefficients U for Walls, Roofs, Partitions, Ceilings, Floors, Doors, and Windows Table 21 thru 33 contain calculated U values based on the resistance listed in Table 34, page 78. The resistance of the outdoor surface film coefficient for summer and winter conditions and the inside surface film is listed in Table 34. Note: The difference between summer and winter transmission coefficients for a typical wall is negligible. For example, with a transmission coefficient of 0.3 Btu/(hr)(sq ft) (F) for winter

Example 4 – Transmission Coefficients Given: Masonry partition made of 8 in. hollow clay tile, both sides finished, metal lath plastered on furring with 3 4 in. sand plaster. Find: Transmission coefficient Solution: Transmission coefficient U = 0.18 Btu/(hr)(sq ft)(deg F), Table 26, page 70 Example 5 – Transmission Coefficient, Addition of Insulation The transmission coefficients listed in Tables 21 thru 30 do not include insulation (except for flat roofs, Table 27, page 71). Frequently, fibrous insulation or reflective insulation is included in the exterior building structure. The transmission coefficient for the typical constructions listed in Table 21 thru 30, with insulation, may be determined from Table 31, page 75. Given: Masonry wall consisting of 4 in. face brick, 8 in. concrete cinder block, metal lath plastered on furring with 3 4 in. sand plaster and 3 in. of fibrous insulation in the stud space. Find: Transmission coefficient. Solution: Refer to Tables 22 and 31. U value for wall without insulation = 0.24 Btu/(hr)(sq ft)(deg F) U value for wall with insulation = 0.07 Btu/(hr)(sq ft)(deg F)

7. Difference between summer and winter transmission becomes greater with larger U values and less with smaller U values. Use of Tables 21 thru 33 - Transmission Coefficients U for Walls, Roofs, Partitions, Ceilings, floors, Doors, and Windows The transmission coefficients may be used for calculating the heat flow for both summer and winter conditions for the average application.

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures .

Load Estimating | Chapter 5.Part 1. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures .

Load Estimating | Chapter 5.Part 1. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures .

Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures . Load Estimating | Chapter 5.Part 1.

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures .

Load Estimating | Chapter 5.Part 1. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures .

Part 1. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures . Load Estimating | Chapter 5.

30 0. HOLLOW GLASS BLOCK WALLS Description* 5¾×5¾×37/8” Thick—Nominal Size 6×6×4 (14) 7¾×7¾×37/8” Thick--Nominal Size 8×8×4 (14) 11¾×11¾×37/8” Thick—Nominal Size 12×12×4 (16) 7¾×7¾×37/8” Thick with glass fiber screen dividing the cavity (14) 11¾×11¾×37/8” Thick with glass fiber screen dividing the cavity (16) .08 2½ .53 0. sq ft) × (U value) × (outdoor temp – inside temp) *Italicized numbers in parentheses indicate weight in lb per sq ft.33 .40 0.56 0.60 0.21 .20 .23 0.12 .43 U 0.10 .18 .07 .86 1.14 .13 .06 3 .19 .05 U With Storm Door 0.09 .40 .69 0.26 .55 0.12 .08 .16 . DOORS & GLASS BLOCK WALLS Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F temp diff) Air Space Thickness (in.09 .54 0.) Without Storm Windows With Storm Windows Nominal Thickness of Wood (inches) 1 1¼ 1½ 1¾ 2 2½ 3 Glass (3/4” Herculite) GLASS Vertical Glass Horizontal Glass Single Double Triple Single Double (1/4”) ¼ ½ ¾ -4 ¼ ½ ¾ -4 Summer Winter Summer Winter 1.13 .35 .12 .25 .08 .15 .15 .09 .15 .11 .30 .35 0.10 .08 .09 1 .44 Equation: Heat Gain or Loss.16 .52 0.09 .70 0.Part 1.41 0.10 .32 0.30 0.48 0. SKYLIGHTS.05 TABLE 33-TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-WINDOWS.09 .14 .11 .10 Addition of Roof-Deck Insulation Thickness (in.22 .17 .28 0.50 0.07 2 .13 .11 .61 0.12 .11 .09 .59 0. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 32-TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-FLAT ROOFS WITH ROOF-DECK INSULATION SUMMER AND WINTER Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F temp diff) U VALUE OF ROOF BEFORE ADDING ROOF DECK INSULATION .33 1.07 ½ .51 0.08 .12 .21 .52 0.12 .10 .60 .43 0.29 .19 .10 .38 0.) 1½ .14 . Load Estimating | Chapter 5.50 . Btu/hr = (Area.34 0.64 DOORS U Exposed Door 0.16 .25 0.13 0.36 0.46 0.24 .

Resistance Construction R 1.20) 0. 8” 1. 27-OUTDOOR WALL Find: Transmission coefficient in summer. Building and Insulating Materials The thermal resistances for building materials are listed in two columns. (2 × . Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures CALCULATION OF TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U For types of construction not listed in Tables 21 thru 33. 2 in. Building and Insulating Materials Table 34 was extracted from the 1958 ASHAE Guide and the column “weight per sq ft” added. Solution: Refer to Table 34. R = r1+r2+r3+.Part 1. based on conductivity.40 5. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Add these resistances together.16 3. Determine the resistance of each component of a given structure and also the inside and outdoor air surface films from Table 34.Thermal Resistance R. calculate the U value as follows: 1. based on conductance.85 4.34 u = 1 R 3. while the other column lists the thermal resistance for a given thickness or construction. U = R Example 6 – Calculation of U Value Given: A wall as per Fig. Sand aggregate plaster. Use of Table 34 . Inside air surface (still air) 0.68 ___________ Total Resistance 3.30 Btu/(hr)(sq ft) (deg F) . Take the resistances. (2 × . rn 1 3. . 2. 27 Basis of Table 34 .08) 0.25 2. FIG. One column lists the thermal resistance per inch thickness.Thermal Resistance R.34 = 1 = 0. . Stone facing. . Outdoor air surface (7 1 2 mph wind) 0. Hollow clay tile. . 2 in.

72 0.58 2. Clay.03 0.08 0.35 1.26 1. Pine. Fir or Pine Vapor Permeable Felt Vapor Seal. Line or Sand . Oak.08 4. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Panels. Sheathing.DENSITY NESS (lb per (in.25 0. Face Clay Tile.71 0.18 0.71 1. Fir or Pine Sheathing Wood.47 0.38 2.52 1.13 1. Plastic Film Maple.67 - Lightweight Aggregate (Expanded Shale. and Similar Softwoods Brick.89 1.85 2.Part 1.50 0.40 0.34 40 43 15 16 25 30 35 40 19 23 32 43 63 17 20 27 37 53 15 17 32 43 11 9 13 K RESISTANCE R Per Inch For Listed Thickness Thickness 1 1 C BUILDING MATERIALS 1/8 3/8 1/2 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1/4 25/32 1 5/8 120 120 50 50 34 34 34 34 34 26 31 65 65 32 32 45 32 120 130 60 48 50 45 42 40 76 69 64 64 63 68 60 54 56 53 60 52 48 43 45 35 38 150 BUILDING PAPER WOODS MASONRY UNITS 4 4 3 4 6 8 10 12 3 4 6 8 12 3 4 6 8 12 3 4 8 12 3 3 4 0.) cu ft) WEIGHT (lb per sq ft) 1.72 1.31 0. Hardboard Type Wood Fiber.45 0.11 1.00 2.25 1.32 0. etc DESCRIPTION Asbestos-Cement Board Asbestos-Cement Board Gypsum or Plaster Board Gypsum or Plaster Board Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood or Wood Panels Wood Fiber Board.91 1.28 0.80 1.94 0. Three Oval Core Sand & Gravel Aggregate Cinder Aggregate THICK.50 1.63 0. Slate or Slag.98 2.06 0.22 2.00 0. Pumice) Gypsum Partition Tile: 3”×12” ×30” solid 3” ×12” ×30” 4-cell 4” ×12” ×30” 3-cell Stone.44 0.25 1.03 0.06 1. 2 layers of Mopped 15 lb felt Vapor Seal.86 1.50 2.27 1.80 . Hardboard Type Wood.25 2.91 1.12 Negl .08 0.11 1. Laminated or Homogeneous Wood Fiber.42 2.11 1.27 1. Common Brick. Hollow: 1 Cell Deep 1 Cell Deep 2 Cells Deep 2 Cells Deep 2 Cells Deep 3 Cells Deep Concrete Blocks. and Similar Hardwoods Fir.35 2. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 34-THERMAL RESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATERIALS (deg F per Bu)/(hr) (sq ft) MATERIAL BUILDING BOARD Boards.

lapped Wood.) cu ft) 116 51 120 100 80 60 40 30 20 140 140 116 116 116 116 45 45 45 45 105 105 105 105 105 45 120 70 70 70 201 40 120 25 25 80 34 110 140 32 45 WEIGHT (lb per sq ft) 4.28 0.5 6. Cellular Concretes Sand & Gravel or Stone Aggregate (Oven Dried) Sand & Gravel or Stone Aggregate (Not Dried) Stucco Cement Plaster. Double.45 0.28 0.20 0.15 11.43 0. Load Estimating | Chapter 5.2 1.6 2. Sand Aggregate Sand Aggregate 1/2 Sand Aggregate 3/4 Gypsum Plasten: Lightweight Aggregate 1/2 Lightweight Aggregate 5/8 Lightweight Aggregate on Metal Lath 3/4 Perlite Aggregate Sand Aggregate Sand Aggregate 1/2 Sand Aggregate 5/8 Sand Aggregate on Metal Lath 3/4 Sand Aggregate on Wood Lath Vermiculite Aggregate Asbestos-Cement Shingles Asphalt Roll Roofing Asphalt Shingles Built-up Roofing 3/8 Slate 1/2 Sheet Metal Wood Shingles Shingles Wood.26 0.20 0.08 0.22 0. ¾×”10”.06 0. Plywood.18 0.08 0.40 0.20 0.08 2.4 5.59 0.05 0. Hardwood Finish 3/4 PLASTERING MATERIALS ROOFING SIDING MATERIALS (On Flat Surface) FLOORING MATERIALS .47 0. 7½ “ exposure Wood.11 0.15 1. Concretes 12½ % wood chips Lightweight Aggregates Including Expanded Shale.05 0.15 0. 5/16” Siding Asbestos-Cement.19 0. Plus Insul Backer Board.19 1.39 0.15 0.33 0.44 0.21 0.77 1. 1”×8” Wood.94 0. Perlite. Drop. lapped Structural Glass Asphalt Tile 1/8 Carpet and Fibrous Pad Carpet and Rubber Pad 1 Ceramic Tile Cork Tile 1/8 Cork Tile Felt. Flooring Floor Tile 1/8 Linoleum 1/8 Plywood Subfloor 5/8 Rubber or Plastic Tile 1/8 Terrazzo 1 Wood Subfloor 25/32 Wood. Vermiculite Also.04 2. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 34-THERMAL RESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATERIALS (Contd) (deg F per Bu)/(hr) (sq ft) MATERIAL DESCRIPTION THICK.) MASONRY Cement Mortar MATERIALS Gypsum-Fiber Concrete 87½ % gypsum. 16”.08 1.81 1.81 K C RESISTANCE R Per Inch For Listed Thickness Thickness 1 1 0.DENSITY NESS (lb per (in.59 0.Part 1. 12” exposure Wood.08 0.10 0.02 0. Bevel.05 0.13 0.78 0.10 0.40 0. Clay or Slate Expanded Slag.32 0.11 1.40 0.7 2. 16”. ¼” lapped Asphalt Roll Siding Asphalt Insul Siding.68 BUILDING MATERIALS.2 8. Bevel.09 0.34 2.98 0. 3/8”.4 1.79 0.87 1.25 0.21 0. (CONT.08 0.86 1.60 0. ½” Board Wood. Cinders Pumice.11 0. ½”×8”.83 1.23 0.67 0.59 Negl 2.8 7.88 2.80 4. lapped Wood.

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 34-THERMAL RESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATERIALS (Contd) (deg F per Bu)/(hr) (sq ft)
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION THICK- DENSITY NESS (lb per (in.) cu ft) WEIGHT (lb per sq ft) .93 1.4 0.62 0.83 1.31 .7 1.3 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.9 K

RESISTANCE R Per Inch For Listed Thickness Thickness 1 1
C

INSULATING MATERIALS
BLANKET AND BATT* Cotton Fiber 0.8 - 2.0 Mineral Wool, Fibrous Form 1.5 – 4.0 Processed From Rock, Slag, or Glass Wood Fiber 3.2 – 3.6 Wood Fiber, Milti-layer Stitched Expanded 1.5 – 2.0 BOARD AND SLABS Glass Fiber 9.5 Wood or Cane Fiber Acoustical Tile 1/2 22.4 Acoustical Tile 3/4 22.4 Interior Finish (Tile, Lath, Plank) 15.0 Interior Finish (Tile, Lath, Plank) 1/2 15.0 Roof Deck Slab Sheathing (Impreg or Coated) 20.0 Sheathing (Impreg or Coated) 1/2 20.0 Sheathing (Impreg or Coated) 25/32 20.0 Cellular Glass 9.0 Cork Board (Without Added Binder) 6.5 – 8.0 Hog Hair (With Asphalt Binder) 8.5 Plastic (Foamed) 1.62 Wood Shredded (Cemented in Preformed Slabs) 22.0 LOOSE FILL Macerated Paper or Pulp Products 2.5 – 3.5 Wood Fiber: Redwood, Hemlock, or Fir 2.0 – 3.5 Mineral Wool (Glass, Slag, or Rock) 2.0 – 5.0 Sawdust or Shavings 8.0 – 15.0 Vermiculite (Expanded) 7.0 ROOF INSULATION All Types Preformed, for use above deck Approximately 1/2 15.6 Approximately 1 15.6 Approximately 1 1/2 15.6 Approximately 2 15.6 Approximately 2 1/2 15.6 Approximately 3 15.6

3.85 3.70 4.00 3.70 4.00 2.86 2.63 2.50 3.70 3.00 3.45 1.82 3.57 3.33 3.33 2.22 2.08 -

1.19 1.78 1.43 1.32 2.06 1.39 2.78 4.17 5.26 6.67 8.33 0.85 0.78 1.02 1.15 1.23 1.25 0.85 0.93 0.99 0.90 0.89 0.97 0.86 0.61 0.62 0.68 0.76 0.92 0.17 0.25

AIR

AIR SPACES

AIR FILM Still Air 15 Mph Wind 7½ Mph Wind

POSITION Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Sloping 45° Sloping 45° Vertical Vertical POSITION Horizontal Sloping 45° Vertical Sloping 45° Horizontal Any Position (For Winter) Any Position (For Summer)

HEAT FLOW Up (Winter) Up (Summer) Down (Winter) Down (Winter) Down (Winter) Down (Winter) Down (Summer) Down (Summer) Down (Summer) Up (Winter) Down (Summer) Horiz. (Winter) Horiz. (Summer) HEAT FLOW Up Up Horizontal Down Down Any Direction Any Direction

¾ -4 ¾ -4 ¾ 1½ 4 8 ¾ 1½ 4 ¾ -4 ¾ -4 ¾ -4 ¾ -4

-

*Includes paper backing and facing if and. In cases where the insulation froms a boundary (highjly refiective) of on air space, refer to Table 31, page 75

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures

The loss through the floor is normally small and relatively constant year round because the ground temperature under the floor varies only a little throughout the year. The ground is a very good heat sink and can absorb or lose a large amount of heat without an appreciable change in temperature at about the 8 ft level. Above the 8 ft level, the ground temperature varies with the outdoor temperature, with the greatest variation at the surface and a decreasing variation down to the 8 ft depth. The heat loss thru a basement wall may be appreciable and it is difficult to calculate because the ground temperature varies with depth. Tables 35 thru 37 have been empirically calculated to simplify the evaluation of heat loss thru basement walls and floors. The heat loss thru a slab floor is large around the perimeter and small in the center. This is because the ground temperature around the perimeter varies with the outdoor temperature, whereas the ground temperature in the middle remains relatively constant, as with basement floors. Basis of Tables 35 thru 37 - Heat Loss thru Masonry Floors and Walls in Ground Tables 35 thru 37 are based on empirical data. The perimeter factors listed in Table 36 were developed by calculating the heat transmitted for each foot of wall to an 8 ft depth. The ground was assumed to decrease the transmission coefficient, thus adding resistance between the wall and the outdoor air. The transmission coefficients were then added to arrive at the perimeter factors. Use of Tables 35 thru 37 - Heat Loss thru Masonry Floors and Walls in Ground The transmission coefficients listed in Table 35 may be used for any thickness of uninsulated masonry floors where there is good contact between the floor and the ground. The perimeter factors listed in Table 36 are used for estimating heat loss thru basement walls and the outside strip of basement floors. This factor can be used only when the space is heated continuously. If there is only occasional heating, calculate the heat loss using the wall or floor transmission coefficients as listed in Tables 21 thru 33 and the temperature difference between the basement and outdoor air or ground as listed in Table 37. The heat loss in a basement is determined by adding the heat transferred thru the floor, the walls and the outside strip of the floor and the portion of the wall above the ground level.

HEAT LOSS THRU BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS BELOW THE GROUND LEVEL

Example 7- Heat Loss in a Basement Given: Basement-100’×40’×9’ Basement temp-65 F db, heated continuously ° Outdoor temp-o F db Grade line-6 ft above basemen floor Walls and floors-12 in. concrete (80 lb/cu ft) Find: Heat loss from basement Solution: 1. Heat loss above ground H = UA1(tb - toa) = 0.18 × (200+80) × 3 × (65-0) = 9828 Btu/hr 2. Heat loss thru walls and outside strip of floor below ground. H = LpQ (tb - toa) = (200+80) × 1.05 × (65-0) = 19,100 Btu/hr 3. Heat loss thru floor H = UA2 (tb - tg) = 0.05×(100×40) ×(65-55) = 2000 Btu/hr = 30,928 Btu/hr Total Heat Loss where U = Heat transmission coefficient of wall above ground (Table 21) and floor (Table 35) in Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F) A1 = Area of wall above ground, sq ft A2 = Entire floor area, sq ft Lp = Perimeter of wall, ft Q = Perimeter factor (Table 36) tb = Basement dry-bulb temp, F tg = Ground temp, F, (Table 37) toa = Outdoor design dry-bulb temp, F TABLE 35-TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT UMASONRY FLOORS AND WALLS IN GROUND (Use only in conjunction with Table 36) Transmission Floor or Wall Coefficient U Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg f) *Basement Floor .05 Portion of Wall exceeding 8 feet .08 below ground level *Some additional floor loss is included in perimeter factor, see Table 36. Equations: Heat loss through floor, Btu/hr = (area of floor, sq ft) × (U value) × (basement-ground temp). Heat loss through wall below 8 foot line, Btu/hr = (area of wall below 8 ft line, sq ft) × (U value) × (basement-ground temp).

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures
NOTE: The factors in Tables 35 and 36 may be used for any thickness of uninsulated masonry wall or floor, but there must be a good contact (no air space which may connect to the outdoors) between the ground and the floor or wall. Where the ground is dry and sandy, or where there is cinder fill along wall or where the wall has a low heat transmission coefficient, the perimeter factor may be reduced slightly. TABLE 36-PERIMETER FACTORS FOR ESTIMATING HEAT LOSS THROUGH BASEMENT WALLS AND OUTSIDE STRIP OF BASEMENT FLOOR (Use only in conjunction with Table 35) Distance of Floor Perimeter Factor From Ground Level (q) 2 Feet above .90 At ground level .60 2 Feet below .75 4 Feet below .90 6 Feet below 1.05 8 Feet below 1.20 Equations: Heat loss about perimeter, Btu/hr = (perimeter of wall, ft) × (perimeter factor) × (basement-outdoor temp). TABLE 37-GROUND TEMPERATURES FOR ESTIMATING HEAT LOSS THROUGH BASEMENT FLOORS Outdoor Design Temp (F) -30 -20 -10 0 +10 +20 Ground Temp (F) 40 45 50 55 60 65

TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTSPIPES IN WATER OR BRINE
Heat transmission coefficients for copper and steel pipes are listed in Tables 38 and 39. These coefficients may be useful in applications such as cold water or brine storage systems and ice skating rinks. Basis of Tables 38 and 39 - Transmission coefficients, Pipes in Water or Brine Table 38 is for ice coated pipes in water, based on a heat transfer film coefficient, inside the pipe, of 150 Btu/ (hr)(sq ft internal pipe surface)(deg F). Table 39 is for pipes in water or brine based on a heat transfer of 18 Btu/(hr)(sq ft external pipe surface) (deg F) in water, 14 Btu in brine. It is also based on a low rate of circulation on the outside of the pipe and 10 F to 15 F temperature difference between water or brine and refrigerant. High rates of circulation will increase the heat transfer rate. For special problems, consult heat transfer reference books.

TABLE 38- TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-ICE COATED PIPES IN WATER Btu/(hr) (lineal ft pipe) (deg F between 32 F db and refrig temp)
Copper Pipe Size (Inches O.D.) 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1/8 Copper Pipe With Ice Thickness (Inches) 1/2 6.1 7.1 8.0 9.8 1 1 1/2 4.5 3.8 5.1 4.2 5.7 4.7 6.7 5.4 2 3.4 3.8 4.1 4.7 Steel Pipe Steel Pipe With Size Ice Thickness (Inches) Nominal (Inches) 1/2 1 1 1/2 2 1/2 7.2 5.2 4.4 3.9 3/4 8.7 6.1 5.1 4.5 1 10.6 7.2 5.8 5.1 1 1/2 13.0 8.6 6.8 5.9

3 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.8

TABLE 39- TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-PIPES IMMERSED IN WATER OR BRINE Btu/(hr) (lineal ft pipe) (deg F between 32 F db and refrig temp) Outside water film coefficient = 18 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F) Outside brine film coefficient = 14 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F) Water refrigerant temp = 10 F to 15 F
Copper Pipe Size (Inches O.D.) 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 1/8 Pipes in Water 2.4 2.9 3.5 5.3 Steel Pipe Nominal Size (Inches) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 Pipes in Water 4.0 5.0 6.2 7.8 Pipes in Brine 3.1 3.9 4.8 6.1

50% rh.0 100 = 777 Btu/hr Total Latent Heat Gain = 1046. with the outdoor design conditions at 95 F db. Water vapor flows from high to lower vapor pressure at a rate determined by the permeability of the structure. 75 F wb. roofs. resulting in a latent load whenever a vapor pressure difference exists across a structure. As heat flow can be reduced by adding insulation. Find: The latent heat gain from the water vapor transmission. NOTE: Some of the values for walls. etc. aluminum foil or galvanized iron.Water Vapor Transmission thru Various Materials The values for walls. floors. vapor flow can be reduced by vapor barriers. The outdoor wall is 12 inch brick with no windows. ceilings and partitions have been estimated from the source references listed in the bibliography.) 100 = 10. and it also has been assumed that there is no surface resistance to water vapor flow. Solution: Gr/lb at 95 F db.Water Vapor Transmission thru Various Materials Table 40 is used to determine latent heat gain from water vapor transmission thru building structures in the high and low dewpoint applications where the air moisture content must be maintained. Use of Table 40 . Latent heat gain: Outdoor wall = 40x8 x 81 x .4 Btu/hr Floor and ceilings = 2x 40x40 x 81 x . except that there is transfer of mass with water vapor flow.04 (Table 40. Basis of Table 40 . have been increased by a safety factor because conclusive data is not available. Floor and ceiling are 4 inch concrete. 75 F wb = 99 (psych chart) Gr/lb at 40 F db. Example 8 – Water Vapor Transmission Given: A 40 ft × 40 ft × 8 ft laboratory on second floor requiring inside design conditions of 40 F db.Part 1. This process is quite similar to heat flow. The values for permeability of miscellaneous materials are based on test results. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU BUILDING STRUCTURES Water vapor flows thru building structures. The partitions are metal lath and plaster on both sides of studs. 50% rh = 18 (psych chart) Moisture content difference = 81 gr/lb Assume that the dewpoint in the areas surrounding the laboratory is uniform and equal to the outdoor dewpoint.. The resistance of a homogeneous material to water vapor transmission has been assumed to be directly proportional to the thickness. The latent load from this source is usually insignificant in comfort applications and need be considered only in low or high dewpoint applications. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. to prevent the water vapor from flowing up to the barrier and condensing within the wall. The vapor barrier may be paint (aluminum or asphalt).4 Btu/hr . It should always be placed on the side of a structure having the higher vapor pressure.10 100 = 259 Btu/hr Partitions = 3x 40x8 x81x1.

018 .067 .17 --ditto plus wall linoleum .033 -.017 -. 4 inch face and 4 inch common .12 .029 -.011 . plus 3 layer felt roofing .023 .33 --ditto plus 2 coats aluminum paint ---spruce. plus 3 layer felt roofing .0 --ditto plus 2 coats water emulsion paint 3.79 Frame -.20 Insulating Materials Corkboard.12 inches .95 --ditto plus primer and 2 coats lead and oil paint -Plywood--1/4 inch Douglas fir (3 ply) .same with asphalt coated insulating board lath . ½” 5.0 Building Materials Masonite--1 thickness.06 With Aluminum Foil Mounted on One Side of Paper Cemented to Wall† .018 .024 .0 ROOFS .021 .32 Plaster on wood lath 1.029 .028 .051 2.19 .06 -. .02 Concrete--2 inches.16 .508 inch .034 -.013 Tile—hollow clay (face.13 .49 .24 --hollow clay.13 . plus 3 layer felt roofing --6 inches.12 -.02 1. rafters--plus plaster on wood or metal lath .63 --ditto plus 2 coats asphalt paint ---ditto plus 2 coats aluminum paint ---1/2 inch Douglas fir (5 ply) .10 Concrete--4 inches --8 inches .17 .04 -.041 . Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 40.27 --ditto plus 2 coats asphalt paint ---ditto plus 2 coats aluminum paint -Wood--Pine .8 inches .18 .40 Plaster on wood or metal lath on joists—double flooring PARTITIONS 4.040 .with plaster interior finish -.40 .13 .6 inches -.per inch of thickness .17 .50 Plaster on wood or metal lath on joist—flooring .Part 1. 1 inch thick .0 Plaster on wood or metal lath on joist—no flooring .028 . 1/8 inch 1.016 -.14 .012 CEILINGS AND FLOORS .1 --5 thicknesses .03 .0086 .018 PERMEANCE Btu/(hr) (100 sq ft) (gr/lb diff) latent heat DESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL OR CONSTRUCTION No Vapor Seal Unless Noted Under Description WALLS .WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION THRU VARIOUS MATERIALS With 2 Coats Vapor-seal Paint on Smooth Inside Surface* .02 Wood –1 inch.0 --ditto plus 2 coats lead and oil paint .027 .1 --plus 2 coats aluminum paint -Plaster on gypsum lath 1. plus 3 layer felt roofing --2 inches.12 inches .018 .087 . sheathing.067 Concrete -.046 .5 Shingles.12 Brick -.012 .0 --ditto plus 2 coats varnish base paint .050 ..0 – 4. glazed)--4 inches --hollow clay (common) )--4 inches .14 .508 inch .02 MISCELLANEOUS 3.075 .030 .4 inches -.6 Air Space. still air 3 5/8 inch 1 inch 13. Load Estimating | Chapter 5.028 .per inch of thickness .020 .046 .11 .030 .18 .019 .029 .0 Insulating Board ½ inch on both sides of studding Wood or metal lath and plaster on both sides of studding 1.0091 .025 .0 – 7.1 – 1.63 Interior finish insulating board.42 .

091 Draft paper--1 sheet 8.05 .25 Glassine (1 ply waxed or 3 ply plain) .0015 . 6 lb per 100 sq ft.Part 1.. estimated .5 --ditto plus ½” plaster.5 Packaging materials Cellophane. Data indicates that either asphalt or aluminum paint are good for vapor seals..012 Sheathing paper Asphalt impregnated and coated. moisture proof . unprotected 3.1 Pliofilm .8. .2 --ditto plus ½” plaster 1.6 – 6. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. multiply by 7000/1060 = 6.. and flat coat of paint .5 lbs per 100 sq ft 1.. The vapor barrier should always be placed on the side of the wall having the higher vapor pressure if condensation of moisture in wall is possible.27 --ditto 30-60-30. saturated and coated with asphalt 25 lb. 3. grain/(hr) (sq ft) (pounds per sq inch vapor pressure difference).1 --ditto plus asphalt coating both sides . estimated 5. 4.2 lb per 100 sq ft .1 --2 sheets 5. 50% saturated with tar 1.0 To convert Btu latent heat to grains. †Aluminum Foil on Paper: This material should also be applied over a smooth surface and joints lapped and sealed with asphalt. estimated .6 2 coats water emulsion.1 --aluminum foil on one side of sheet ..0 Mineral wool (3 5/8 inches thick). sealer..17 Crack 12 inches long by 1/32 inches wide (approximated from above) 5.0 Papers Duplex or asphalt laminae (untreated) 30-30.051 .015 50 lb.006 Kraft paper soaked with parafin wax. 4.15 .1 2 coats lead and oil paint.WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION THRU VARIOUS MATERIALS (Contd) PERMEANCE Btu/(hr) (100 sq ft) (gr/lb diff) latent heat With 2 Coats Vapor-seal Paint on Smooth Inside Surface* With Aluminum Foil Mounted on One Side of Paper Cemented to Wall† DESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL OR CONSTRUCTION No Vapor Seal Unless Noted Under Description MISCELLANEOUS Insulating Materials.1 .6.4 – 3.6 – 8. This latent gain should be considered for air conditioning jobs where there is a great vapor pressure difference between the room and the outside. 7 lb per 100 sq ft .1 lb per 100 sq ft .31 Insulating board sheathing.2 *Painted surfaces: Two coats of a good vapor seal paint on a smooth surface give a fair vapor barrier.2 2 coats asphalt paint.01 – 0.4 Roofing Felt. Conversion Factors: To convert above table values to: grain/(hr) (sq ft) (inch mercury vapor pressure difference). multiply by 9. Note that moisture gain due to infiltration usually is of much greater magnitude than moisture transmission through building structures. 25/32” 2.. estimated . multiply by 20. Application: The heat gain due to water vapor transmission through walls may be neglected for the normal air conditioning or refrigeration job.025 Paint Films 2 coats aluminum paint.046 – 1. per sq ft . cont.011 Tin sheet with 4 holes 1/16 diameter ..01 . per sq ft .05 . Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures TABLE 40. Insulating board lath 4.16 .0 – 8. particularly when the dewpoint inside must be low. More surface treatment is required on a rough surface than on a smooth surface.016 --aluminum foil on both sides of sheet ..02 .10 Slaters felt.

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures

CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR

Whenever there is a difference of temperature and pressure of water vapor across a structure, conditions may develop that lead to a condensation of moisture. This condensation occurs at the point of saturation temperature and pressure. As water vapor flows thru the structure, its temperature decreases and, if at any point it reaches the dewpoint or saturation temperature, condensation begins. As condensation occurs, the vapor pressure decreases, thereby lowering the dewpoint or saturation temperature until it corresponds to the actual temperature. The rate at which condensation occurs is determined by the rate at which heat is removed from the point of condensation. As the vapor continues to condense, latent heat of condensation is released, causing the dry-bulb temperature of the material to rise. To illustrate this, assume a frame wall with wood sheathing and shingles on the outside, plasterboard on the inside and fibrous insulation between the two. Also, assume that the inside conditions are 75 F db and 50% rh and the outdoor conditions are 0° F db and 80% rh. Refer to Fig. 28. The temperature and vapor pressure gradient decreases approximately as shown by the solid and dashed lines until condensation begins (saturation point). At this point, the latent heat of condensation decreases the rate of temperature drop thru the insulation. This is approximately indicated by the dotted line. Another cause of concealed condensation may be evaporation of water from the ground or damp locations. This water vapor may condense on the underside of the floor joints (usually near the edges where it is coldest) or may flow up thru the outdoor side of the walls because of stack effect and/or vapor pressure differences.

Concealed condensation may cause wood, iron and brickwork to deteriorate and insulation to lose its insulating value. These effects may be corrected by the following methods: 1. Provide vapor barriers on the high vapor pressure side. 2. In winter, ventilate the building to reduce the vapor pressure within. No great volume of air change is necessary, and normal infiltration alone is frequently all that is required. 3. In winter, ventilate the structure cavities to remove vapor that has entered. Outdoor air thru vents shielded from entrance of rain and insects may be used. Condensation may also form on the surface of a building structure. Visible condensation occurs when the surface of any material is colder than the dewpoint temperature of the surrounding air. In winter, the condensation may collect on cold closet walls and attic roofs and is commonly observed as frost on window panes. Fig. 29 illustrates the condensation on a window with inside winter design conditions of 70 F db and 40% rh. Point A represents the room conditions; point B, the dewpoint temperature of the thin film of water vapor adjacent to the window surface; and point C, the point at which frost or ice appears on the window. Once the temperature drops below the dewpoint, the vapor pressure at the window surface is also reduced, thereby establishing a gradient of vapor pressure from the room air to the window surface. This gradient operates, in conjunction with the convective action within Tive action within the room, to move water vapor continuously to the window surface to be condensed, as long as the concentration of the water vapor is maintained in a space.

FIG. 28-CONDENSATION WITHIN FRAME WALL

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures

Visible condensation is objectionable as it causes staining of surfaces, dripping on machinery and furnishings, and damage to materials in process of manufacture. Condensation of this type may be corrected by the following methods: 1. Increase the thermal resistance of walls, roofs and floors by adding insulation with vapor barriers to prevent condensation within the structures. 2. Increase the thermal resistance of glass by installing two or three panes with air space(s) between. In extreme cases, controlled heat, electric or other, may be applied between the glass of double glazed windows. 3. Maintain a room dewpoint lower than the lowest expected surface temperature in the room. 4. Decrease surface resistance by increasing the velocity of air passing over the surface. Decreasing the surface resistance increases the window surface temperature and brings it closer to the room dry-bulb temperature. Basis of Chart 2 - Maximum Room RH; No Wall, Roof or Glass Condensation Chart 2 has been calculated from the equation used to determine the maximum room dewpoint temperature that can exist with condensation.
t dp = t rm − U (t rm − toa ) ft

FIG. 29-CONDENSATION ON WINDOW SURFACE

Chart 2 is based upon a room dry-bulb temperature of 70 F db and an inside film conductance of 1.46 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F). Use of Chart 2 - Maximum Room RH; No Wall, Roof or Glass Condensation Chart 2 gives a rapid means of determining the maximum room relative humidity which can be maintained and yet avoid condensation with a 70 F db room.
Example 9-Moisture Condensation Given: 12 in. stone wall with 5/8 in. sand aggregate plaster Room temp – 70 F db Outdoor temp - 0°F db Find: Maximum room rh without wall condensation. Solution: Transmission coefficient U = 0.52 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F) (Table 21, page 66) Maximum room rh = 40.05%, (Chart 2) Corrections in room relative humidity for room temperatures other than 70 F db are listed in the table under Chart 2. Values other than those listed may be interpolated. Example 10- Moisture Condensation Given: Same as Example 9, except room temp is 75 F db Find: Maximum room rh without wall condensation Solution: Transmission coefficient U = 0.52 Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F) (Example 9) Maximum room rh for 70 F db room temp = 40.05% (Example 9) Rh correction for room temp of 75 F db with U factor of 0.52 = -1.57% (bottom Chart 2). Maximum room rh = 40.05-1.57 = 38.48% or 38.5%

where

t dp = dewpoint temp of room air, F db t rm = room temp, F U = transmission coefficient, Btu/(hr)(sq ft) toa = outdoor temp, F f i = inside air film or surface conductance,

(deg F)

Btu/(hr)(sq ft) (deg F)

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 5. Heat And Water Vapor Flow Thru Structures

CORRECTION IN ROOM RH (%) For Wall, Roof or Glass Transmission Coefficient U Outdoor Temp (F db) -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 U = 1.1 60 +1.0% +1.0 +2.0 +3.5 +5.0 +7.0 +9.0 +12.0 80 -1.0% -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.5 -4.0 -7.5 -9.5 U = .65 Room Temp (F db) 60 80 +1.5% -2.0% +2.5 -2.5 +3.5 -3.0 +4.0 -4.0 +5.0 -4.5 +6.5 -5.0 +8.5 -6.0 +9.5 -7.5 U = .35 60 +2.5% +3.0 +3.0 +3.5 +4.0 +4.5 +5.0 +6.0 80 -2.0% -2.0 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 -4.5

Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 6. Infiltration And Ventilation

CHAPTER 6. INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION
The data in this chapter is based on ASHAE tests evaluating the infiltration and ventilation quantities of outdoor air. These outdoor air quantities normally have a different heat content than the air within the conditioned space and, therefore, impose a load on the air conditioning equipment. In the case of infiltration, the load manifests itself directly within the conditioned space. The ventilation air, taken thru the conditioning apparatus, imposes a load both on the space thru apparatus bypass effect, and directly on the conditioning equipment. The data in this chapter is based on ASHAE tests and years of practical experience. This opposite direction flow balances at some neutral point near the mid-height of the building. Air flow thru the building openings increases proportionately between the neutral point and the top and the neutral point and bottom of the building. The infiltration from stack effect is greatly influenced by the height of the building and the presence of open stairways and elevators. The combined infiltration from wind velocity and stack effect is proportional to the square root of the sum of the heads acting on it. The increased air infiltration flow caused by stack effect is evaluated by converting the stack effect force to an equivalent wind velocity, and then calculating the flow from the wind velocity data in the tables. In building over 100 ft tall, the equivalent wind velocity may be calculated from the following formula, assuming a temperature difference of 70 F db (winter) and a neutral point at the mid-height of the building: (for upper section of tall bldgs – winter) (1) 2 (for lower section of tall Ve = √ V – 1.75b bldgs – winter) (2) where Ve = equivalent wind velocity, mph V = wind velocity normally calculated for location, mph a = distance window is above mid-height, ft b = distance window is below mid-height, ft Ve = √ V2 – 1.75a NOTE: The total crackage is considered when calculating infiltration from stack effect. INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS, SUMMER Infiltration during the summer is caused primarily by the wind velocity creating a pressure on the windward side. Stack effect is not normally a significant factor because the density difference is slight, (0.073 lb/cu ft at 75 F db, 50% rh and 0.070 lb/cu ft at 95 F db, 75 F wb). This small stack effect in tall buildings (over 100 ft) causes air to flow in the top and out the bottom. Therefore, the air infiltrating in the top of the building, because of the wind pressure, tends to flow down thru the building and out the doors on the street level, thereby offsetting some of the infiltration thru them.

INFILTRATION

Infiltration of air and particularly moisture into a conditioned space is frequently a source of sizable heat gain or loss. The quantity of infiltration air varies according to tightness of doors and windows, porosity of the building shell, height of the building, stairwells, elevators, direction and velocity of wind, and the amount of ventilation and exhaust air. Many of these cannot be accurately evaluated and must be based on the judgment of the estimator. Generally, infiltration may be caused by wind velocity, or stack effort, or both: 1. Wind Velocity-The wind velocity builds up a pressure on the windward side of the building and a slight vacuum on the leeward side. The outdoor pressure build-up causes air to infiltrate thru crevices in the construction and cracks around the windows and doors. This, in turn, causes a slight build-up of pressure inside the building, resulting in an equal amount of exfiltration on the leeward side. 2. Difference in Density or Stack Effect – The variations in temperatures and humidities produce differences in density of air between inside and outside of the building. In tall buildings this density difference causes summer and winter infiltration and exfiltration as follows: Summer – Infiltration at the top and exfiltration at the bottom. Winter – Infiltration at the bottom and exfiltration at the top.

Use of Table 41 .74 - TABLE 41b-CASEMENT TYPE WINDOWS‡ DESCRIPTION Storm Sash . During the summer.Infiltration thru Windows and Doors. TABLE 41-INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-SUMMER* 7. b and c is based on a wind velocity of 7.17 1.55 . thus offsetting some of the infiltration thru the doors. the infiltration can be considerable if the two are open at the same time. causes the infiltration air to flow in a downward direction in tall buildings (over 100 ft). Summer The data in Tables 41a. For low buildings the door infiltration on the windward side should be included in the estimate.” With doors on opposite walls.Infiltration thru Windows and Doors. Summer The data in Table 41 is used to determine the infiltration thru windows and doors on the windward side with the wind blowing directly at them.51 . When the wind direction is oblique to the windows or doors.3 2.32 1. because stack effect is small and.28 - 66% 1.60 .40 .72 .82 . by 0. The data in Table 41e is based on actual tests of typical applications.76 . Some of the air infiltrating thru the windows will exfiltrate thru the windows on the leeward side(s).27 .22 .37 .14 . infiltration is calculated for the windward side(s) only.43 .6 6. This data is derived from Table 44 which lists infiltration thru cracks around windows and doors as established by ASHAE tests.58 33% .39 .49 .38 .Part 1. determine the infiltration thru the windows on the windward side. refer to “Offsetting Infiltration with Outdoor Air. For specific locations. Infiltration And Ventilation In low buildings.39 - 100% 2. Load Estimating | Chapter 6.26 .35 . refer to Table 1. adjust the values in Table 41 to the design wind velocity.99 .33 .25 Rolled Section-Steel Sash Hollow Metal-Vertically Pivoted Industrial Pivoted Architectural Projected Residential Heavy Projected 0% . To determine the net infiltration thru the doors.2 75% .20 . multiply the values in Tables 41a.5 mph Wind Velocity† TABLE 41a-DOUBLE HUNG WINDOWS‡ DESCRIPTION Average Wood Sash Poorly Fitted Wood Sash Metal Sash CFM PER SQ FT SASH AREA Small-30×”72” Large-54”×96” No W-Strip W-Strip Storm Sash No W-Strip W-Strip .60 and apply to total areas. and subtract from the door infiltration. multiply this by . c. b. air infiltrates thru open doors on the windward side unless sufficient outdoor air is introduced thru the air conditioning equipment to offset it.80 . Table 41d shows values to be used for doors on opposite walls for various percentages of time that each door is open.23 .80. Basis of Table 41 .27 25% . page 10. while the remaining infiltration air flows out the doors.5 mph blowing directly at the window or door. and on observed crack widths around typical windows and doors. d.22 CFM PER SQ FT SASH AREA Percent Openable Area 40% 45% 50% 60% .2 .45 .24 . therefore.

page 10).500 10. Infiltration And Ventilation TABLE 41-INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-SUMMER* (Contd) 7.2 10.0 6. Solution: The prevailing wind in New York City during the summer is south.5 2.0 5.Part 1. Wall area is 50% residential casement windows having 50% fixed sash.8 5. the vestibule is of little value for reducing infiltration.5 1.0 2.5 8. multiply the above values by the ratio of velocities. Find: Infiltration into the building thru doors and windows.0 3.0 2.8 Panels Open Glass Door-3/4” Crack 4.5 1. There are ten 7 ft × 3 ft swinging glass doors on the street level facing south. For design wind velocities different from the base. ** Vestibules may decrease the infiltration as much as 30% when the door usage is light. Building is 100 ft long and 100 ft wide with a floor-to-floor height of 12 ft.5 4. multiply the above values by 0.0 TABLE 41d-SWINGING DOORS ON OPPOSITE WALLS % Time 2nd Door is Open 10 25 10 100 250 25 250 625 50 500 1250 75 750 1875 100 1000 2500 TABLE 41e-DOORS APPLICATION Bank Barber Shop Candy and Soda Cigar Store Department Store (Small) Dress Shop Drug Store Hospital Room Lunch Room Men’s Shop Restaurant Shoe Store CFM PER PAIR OF DOORS % Time 1st Door is Open 50 75 500 750 1250 1875 2500 3750 3750 5625 5000 7500 100 1.6 Example 1-Infiltration in Tall Building. When door usage is heavy.0 22.5 7.0 Ramp Garage Door 2.0 5. disregarding outside air thru the equipment and the exhaust air quantity.0 5.5 2.0 6.8 2.0 6.75 Garage & Shipping Room Door 2.5 6.0 Small Factory Door .6 4.200 900 700 500 700 500 - Revolving Doors-Normal Operation .3 20.5 8.5 6.9 2.500 5.7 2. Summer Given: A 20-story building in New York City oriented true north.5 6.5 mph. When the wind direction is oblique to the window or door.0 5. CORNER ENTRANCES DESCRIPTION CFM PER SQ FT AREA** No Use Average Use 5.75 CFM Standing Open No Vestibute Vestibule 1.0 3.000 *All values in Table 41 are based on the wind blowing directly at the window or door.0 4.5 mph Wind Velocity† Table 41c-DOORS ON ONE OR ADJACENT WALLS.000 7.9 5. CFM PER PERSON IN ROOM PER DOOR 36” Swinging Door 72” Revolving Door No Vestibule Vestibule 6. Load Estimating | Chapter 6. ‡Includes frame leakage where applicable.000 2. †Based on a wind velocity of 7.5 Wood Door (3”×7”) 1.0 2. 13 mph (Table 1.8 2.5 7. .0 30.7 3.3 3.7 3.60 and use the total window and door area on the windward side(s).

5=750 cfm (Table 41e) Net outdoor air = 3000-2000=1000 cfm Only 975 cfm of outdoor air is required to offset 750 cfm of door infiltration (Table 42). This pressure causes exfiltration thru the leeward walls at a rate equal to wind velocity. Therefore.000 sq ft Infiltration thru windows =12. The outdoor air values have been increased by this amount for typical application as a result of experience.73 =3640 cfm (Table 41c) Since this building is over 100 ft tall. TABLE 42-OFFSETTING SWINGING DOOR INFILTRATION WITH OUTDOOR AIR-SUMMER Net Outdoor Air* (cfm) 140 270 410 530 660 790 920 1030 1150 1260 Door Infiltration (cfm) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Net Outdoor Air* (cfm) 1370 1480 1560 1670 1760 1890 2070 2250 2450 2650 Door Infiltration (cfm) 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 *Net outdoor air is equal to the outdoor air quantity introduced thru the apparatus minus the exhaust air quantity. Example 2-Offsetting Swinging Door Infiltration Given: A restaurant with 3000 cfm outdoor air being introduced thru the air conditioning apparatus. cannot be offset by outdoor air. If there are window in the building. Load Estimating | Chapter 6. net infiltration thru doors = 3640-(10. The outdoor air so introduced must develop a pressure equal to the wind velocity to offset infiltration. therefore. in a four sided building with equal crack areas on each side and the wind blowing against one side. Solution: Infiltration thru doors = 300×2. Most of the outdoor air introduced thru the apparatus flows out the door when it is opened. the outdoor air must be a little more than equal to that which infiltrates.Offsetting Swinging Door Infiltration with Outdoor Air.200 cfm (Table 41b) Infiltration thru doors =10×7×3×10×1.Offsetting Swinging Door Infiltration with Outdoor Air. Basis of Table 42 . At peak load conditions. Infiltration And Ventilation Correction to Table 1 values for wind velocity = 13/7.49×1. AIR. normally an open door. OFFSETTING INFILTRATION WITH OUTDOOR.50 = 12. the amount of outdoor air introduced thru the apparatus must be a little more than three times the amount that infiltrates. Exhaust fans in the kitchen remove 2000 cfm.73 = 10. Where the wind is blowing against two sides. there is no infiltration thru the doors on the street level on design days.000×. Therefore.200×. Find: The net infiltration thru the outside doors.73 Glass area on south side = 20×12×100×. in tall building the window infiltration tends to flow out the door. Also. there will be no net infiltration thru the outside doors unless there are windows on the leeward side. Summer Table 42 is used to determine the amount of outdoor air thru air conditioning apparatus required to offset infiltration thru swinging doors. Use of Table 42 . Summer Some of the outdoor air introduced thru the apparatus exfiltrates thru the cracks around the windows and in the construction on the leeward side. is almost independent of wind velocity and.Part 1. . calculate as outlined in Example 1.5 = 1. SUMMER Completely offsetting infiltration by the introduction of outdoor air thru the air conditioning apparatus is normally uneconomical except in buildings with few windows and doors. The infiltration thru revolving doors is caused by displacement of the air in the door quadrants.80) = -4520 cfm. only exfiltration. Offsetting swinging door infiltration is not quite as difficult because air takes the path of least resistance. Therefore. there are 300 people in the restaurant. Two 7 ft × 3 ft glass swinging doors face the prevailing wind direction.

40% rh. The total infiltration thru the windows on the leeward sides of the building is equal to the difference between the equivalent velocity at the first floor and the design velocity at the midpoint of the building. Since the wind is coming from the Northwest. WINTER Infiltration thru windows and doors during the winter is caused by the wind velocity and also stack effect. Solution: Net outdoor air = (.000×20)-40.12 × . When the wind direction is oblique to the windows and doors. Load Estimating | Chapter 6. The temperature differences during the winter are considerably greater than in summer and. Infiltration is reduced on two windward sides.4/15) × 1/2 ×. (For a floor-by-floor analysis.280 cfm . Basis of Table 43 .000 × 2× 1.6× . at 75 F db and 30% rh.000 = 10. Winter Table 43 is used to determine the infiltration of air thru windows and doors on the windward side during the winter.000 = 7970 cfm Net infiltration thru doors = 2310 cfm (Example 3) Net infiltration into building = 7970+2310 = 10. The stack effect in tall buildings increases the infiltration thru the doors and windows on the lower levels and decreases it on the upper levels.000 cfm being exhausted from the building. density is . Solution: The prevailing wind in New York City during the winter is NW at 16. average use.25×10. and in many cases requires spot heating at the doors on the street level to maintain conditions.Part 1. Winter Given: The building described in Example 1.800+2160-10.810 cfm. Since this building is over 100 ft tall. use equivalent wind velocity formulas. whenever the door infiltration is increased. In Example 3 all of the outdoor air is effective in reducing the window infiltration. Example 3-Infiltration in Tall Buildings.2 mph Ve – V = 22.000 cfm Net infiltration thru windows = 15.75b = √ (16. Ve = √ V2 + 1.25 cfm/sq ft supplied thru the apparatus and 40. much of the infiltration thru the windows in the upper levels will be offset. Therefore. therefore.8)2 + (1.4 mph Total infiltration thru windows in lower half of building (upper half is exfiltration) on leeward side = 12. A floor-by-floor analysis should be made to balance the system to maintain proper conditions on each floor. Find: The net infiltration into this building.Infiltration thru Windows and Doors.0738. Infiltration And Ventilation INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS. The total infiltration on the windward sides remains the same because the increase at the bottom is exactly equal to the decrease at the top. The infiltration thru these cracks is calculated from Table 44 which is based on ASHAE tests. page 10) Correction on Table 43 for wind velocity is 16. In applications where there is considerable infiltration on the street level.8 mph (Table 1.98 = 2160 cfm (Table 43) NOTE: This is the total infiltration thru the windows on the leeward side.4/15) × 30 = 2310 cfm (Table 43c.98 = 15. Winter The data in Table 43 is based on a wind velocity of 15 mph blowing directly at the window or door and on observed crack widths around typical windows and doors. at 0° F db. Use of Table 43 . Given: The building described in Example 1 with . 2 Example 4-Offsetting Infiltration with Outdoor Air Any outdoor air mechanically introduced into the building offsets some of the infiltration. multiply the values by 0.12.0865.000 × 2 × 1/2 × (5. stack effect causes infiltration on all sides at the lower levels and exfiltration at the upper levels.8 = 5. Correction for wind direction is . 1 and 2 story building).60 and use the total window and door area on the windward sides. the density difference is greater.75 x 240 ) = 22. density is . the crackage on the north and west sides will allow infiltration but the wind is only 60% effective. Find: The infiltration thru the doors and windows.2 – 16.) Infiltration thru windows on the windward sides of the lower levels = 12.6. and the air introduced thru the apparatus exfiltrates thru the other two sides. (on leeward side) = 10 ×7 × 3 × (5. Stack effect causes air to flow in at the bottom and out at the top. The data in Table 43 is based on the wind blowing directly at the windows and doors. the infiltration thru the upper levels must be decreased by 80% of the net increase in door infiltration.8/15= 1. The infiltration from stack effect on the leeward sides of the building is determined by using the difference between the equivalent velocity (Ve) and the actual velocity (V) as outlined in Example 3.Infiltration thru Windows and Doors.

26 4. Multiply the table values by the ratio (Ve-V)/15 for doors and one half of the windows on the leeward side of the building.4 .74 1.5 13.3 49. respectively.98 1.19 33% .5 13.2 30.69 .01 .47 1. CFM PER SQ FT AREA** Average Use 1&2 Tall Building (ft) Story Bldg. †Based on a wind velocity of 15 mph.44 Storm Sash . To evaluate this. When the prevailing wind direction is oblique to the window or door.5 21.42 .5 17.85 .0 13.63 2.64 . determine the equivalent velocity (Ve) and subtract the design velocity (V). in ft.75a (upper section) Ve = √ V2 + 1.0 4. Infiltration And Ventilation TABLE 43-INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-WINTER* 15 mph Wind Velocity† TABLE 43a-DOUBLE HUNG WINDOWS ON WINDOW SIDE‡ DESCRIPTION Average Wood Sash Poorly Fitted Wood Sash Metal Sash NOTE: W-Strip denotes weatherstrip. Load Estimating | Chapter 6.98 1.78 1.74 .52 .5 200 17.0 36.48 - 66% 2. the vestibule is of little value in reducing infiltration. ‡Stack effect in tall buildings may also cause infiltration on the leeward side.0 1.60 and use the total window and door area on the windward side(s).6 14. If door usage is heavy.0 2. The equivalent velocity is: Ve = √ V2 – 1.60 . (Use values under “1 and 2 Story Bldgs” for doors on leeward side of tall buildings.9 .5 .0 15.33 2.5 12.1 .3 TABLE 43c-DOORS ON ONE OR ADJACENT WINDWARD SIDES‡ DESCRIPTION Revolving Door Glass Door-(3/16” Crack) Wood Door 3’×7’ Small Factory Door Garage & Shipping Room Door Ramp Garage Door Infrequent Use 1.50 TABLE 43b-CASEMENT TYPE WINDOWS ON WINDWARD SIDE‡ DESCRIPTION Rolled Section-Steel Sash Hollow Metal-Vertically Pivoted Industrial Pivoted Architectural Projected Residential Heavy Projected 0% .44 . Vestibules may decrease the infiltration as much as 30% when door usage is light. multiply the above values by 0.53 .54 25% 1.0 9.0 *All values in Table 43 are based on the wind blowing directly at the window or door.75b (lower section) Where a and b are the distances above and below the mid-height of the building. 50 100 10.0 40.Part 1.56 - CFM PER SQ FT SASH AREA Percent Openable Area 40% 45% 50% 60% 1.6 9. For design wind velocities different from the base.45 1.2 1.78 - 100% 5.5 4.65 . multiply the table values by the ratio of velocities.80 1.4 75% .) **Doors on opposite sides increase the above values 25%.52 . Heat added to the vestibule will help maintain room temperature near the door.2 1.26 . CFM PER SQ FT SASH AREA Small-30×”72” Large-54”×96” No W-Strip W-Strip Storm Sash No W-Strip W-Strip .

33 . Find: The infiltration thru this window: Solution: Assume the crack widths are measured as follows: Window frame-none.3 3.10 .1 1.23 2.60 . as infiltration occurs on one side.47 .43 .Infiltration thru Windows and Doors.55 .30 .80 1.03 1.W.65 1. This table does not take into account winter stack effect which must be evaluated separately. in certain close tolerance applications.9 1.80 .90 3.15 .40 1.57 .16 .13 .87 .1 1.0 1. length.45 . Crack Method The data on windows in Table 44 are based on ASHAE tests.73 4.2 2. it may be necessary to evaluate the load accurately.No W.46 2. Infiltration thru window =20 × 2. Infiltration And Ventilation INFILTRATION-CRACK METHOD (Summer or Winter) The crack method of evaluating infiltration is more accurate than the area methods. .W.57 .60 2.No W.WStrip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip Strip .22 .35 1.Infiltration thru Windows and Doors.10 2. Load Estimating | Chapter 6.32 .30 1. using the equivalent wind velocity formulas previously presented.W. Use of Table 44 .87 .18 .60 . 20 ft Assume the wind velocity is 30 mph due south.58 1. a certain amount of pressure builds up in the building.53 .76 1.25 .93 1. These test results have been reduced 20% because.10 5.78 1.53 . Crack Method Given: A 4 ft × 7 ft residential casement window facing south.77 1.1 = 42 cfm (Table 44) TABLE 44-INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-CRACK METHOD-SUMMER-WINTER* TABLE 44a-DOUBLE HUNG WINDOWS-UNLOCKED ON WINDWARD SIDE DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW Wood Sash Average Window Poorly Fitted Window Poorly Fitted-with Storm Sash Metal Sash CFM PER LINEAR FOOT OF CRACK Wind Velocity-Mph 5 10 15 20 25 30 No W. It is difficult to establish the exact crack dimensions but.No W.87 .67 .8 1.10 .78 .93 .63 2.40 4.30 1. *Infiltration caused by stack effect must be calculated separately during the winter.30 .33 .98 2. The crack method is applicable both summer and winter.23 .20 3.73 .00 1.5 1.05 1.17 .27 TYPE OF TABLE 44b-CASEMENT TYPE WINDOWS ON WINDWARD SIDE TYPE OF DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW Rolled Section-Steel Sash Industrial Pivoted Architectural Projected Architectural Projected Residential casement Residential Casement Heavy Casement Section Projected Heavy Casement Section Projected Hollow Metal-Vertically Pivoted 1/16” crack 1/32” crack 3/64” crack 1/64” crack 1/32” crack 1/64” crack 1/32” crack 5 . Example 5-Infiltration thru Windows. See Table 43 for infiltration due to usage.05 .No W.60 1. thereby reducing the infiltration.70 30 6.No W.W. crack.20 2.10 .23 .00 †No allowance has been made for usage.27 . The data on glass and factory doors has been calculated from observed typical crack widths.05 .85 .86 2.10 .43 .33 3.50 CFM PER LINEAR FOOT OF CRACK Wind velocity-Mph 10 15 20 25 1.82 1.23 .43 1.W. well sealed Window openable area-1/32 in.40 .07 . Crack Method Table 44 is used to determine the infiltration thru the doors and windows listed.85 .53 4.53 . Basis of Table 44 .00 1.3 .59 1.32 .Part 1.29 .12 .

reduce the air quantity at design conditions to a minimum of 40% of the recommended air quantity. smoking and other internal air contaminants.2 4.6 5. This quantity can be reduced at the time of peak to.0 TABLE 44c-DOORS†ON WINDWARD SIDE VENTILATION VENTILATION STANDARDS The introduction of outdoor air for ventilation of conditioned spaces is necessary to dilute the odors given off by people. The amount of ventilation required varies primarily with the total number of people.90 .3 6.4 . the ceiling height and the number of people smoking.1 4. .4 19. Basis of Table 45 .8 3. provided the flushing period is available.0 19.0 38.0 1. It has been found. Use a dry-bulb thermostat following the cooling and dehumidifying apparatus to control the leaving dewpoint such that: a. b.2 CFM PER LINEAR FOOT OF CRACK Wind Velocity-mph 10 15 20 25 6.0 24. the ventilation quantity should be increased.0 29.0 20.0 26. These test results were then extrapolated for typical concentrations of people. In estimating the cooling load.4 9. Scheduled ventilation is recommended only for installations operating more than 12 hours or 3 hours longer than occupancy. The procedure for estimating and controlling scheduled ventilation is as follows: 1.2 2.0 2.Ventilation Standards Table 45 is used to determine the minimum and recommended ventilation air quantity for the listed applications.2 13. Use of Table 45 . Load Estimating | Chapter 6.7 3. use the larger minimum quantity. the calculated outdoor air quantity is used. People give off body odors which require a minimum of 5 cfm per person for satisfactory dilution. With the dewpoint at design.2 8. Infiltration And Ventilation TABLE 44-INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-CRACK METHOD-SUMMER-WINTER* (Contd) TYPE OF DOOR Glass Door-Herculite Good Installation Average Installation Poor Installation Ordinary Wood or Metal Well Fitted-W-Strip Well Fitted-No W-Strip Poorly Fitted-No W-Strip Factory Door 1/8” crack 1/16” crack 1/32” crack 3/64” crack 5 3. In applications where the minimum values are used and the minimum cfm per person and cfm per sq ft of floor area are listed.0 . Another method which could be used is a thermostat located in the leaving chilled water from the refrigeration machine.0 .6 13. In special gathering rooms with heavy smoking. in effect. At times other than peak load. As the dewpoint decreases below design. 3.90 3. This is based on a population density of 50 to 75 sq ft per person and a typical ceiling height of 8 ft. where local codes permit. for the applications listed.6 16.8 6. that few complaints of stuffiness are encountered when the outdoor air quantity is reduced for short periods of time.7 9. Seven and one half cfm per person is recommended. the outdoor air damper opens to the design setting. the additional odors given off by cigarettes or cigars require a minimum of 15 to 25 cfm per person. SCHEDULED VENTILATION In comfort applications.Part 1. When people smoke.4 10.0 26. the damper motor closes the outdoor air damper to 40% of the design ventilation air quantity.0 1. 2. use the recommended values.0 16. to allow some time for flushing out the building when no odors are being generated.45 .60 1. It is recommended that the outdoor air quantity be reduced to no less than 40% of the recommended quantity as listed in Table 45. minimize the outdoor air load.0 13.3 6.Ventilation Standards The data in Table 45 is based on test observation of the clean outdoor air required to maintain satisfactory odor levels with people smoking and not smoking. Where the crowd density is greater than normal or where better than satisfactory conditions are desired.6 14.3 2.90 1. it is possible to reduce the capacity requirements of the installed equipment by reducing the ventilation air quantity at the time of peak load. by tests. both smoking and not smoking. With greater population densities.0 30 19. 30 to 50 cfm per person is recommended.

0 2.33 . TABLE 45-VENTILATION STANDARDS APPLICATION Average Apartment De Luxe Banking Space Barber Shops Beauty Parlors Broker’s Board Rooms Cocktail Bars Corridors (Supply or Exhaust) Department Stores Directors Rooms Drug Stores† Factories‡§ Five and Ten Cent Stores Funeral Parlors Garage‡ Operating Rooms‡** Hospitals Private Rooms Wards Hotel Roms Restaurant† Kitchen Residence Laboratories† Meeting Rooms General Office Private Private Cafeteria† Restaurant Dining Room† School Rooms‡ Shop Retail Theater‡ Theater Toilets‡ (Exhaust) SMOKING Some Some Occasional Considerable Occasional Very Heavy Heavy None Extreme Considerable None None None None None None Heavy Some Very Heavy Some None Considerable Considerable Considerable None None None Some CFM PER PERSON Recommended 20 30 10 15 10 50 30 7½ 50 10 10 7½ 10 30 20 30 20 50 15 25 30 12 15 10 7½ 15 Minimum* 15 25 7½ 10 7½ 30 25 5 30 7½ 7½ 5 7½ 25 15 25 15 30 10 15 25 10 12 7½ 5 10 CFM PER SQ FT OF FLOOR Minimum* .33 4. ‡See local codes which may govern. otherwise the infiltration rate will increase. Therefore.25 2. but the number of smokers is considerable. The data in these tables were obtained from published ratings of several manufacturers of exhaust fans. 100 sq ft per person.0 2.10 1. .25 . Find: The ventilation air quantity. Office Space Given: A 5000 sq ft office with a ceiling height of 8 ft and 50 people. Infiltration And Ventilation Example 6-Ventilation Air Quantity.25 . §Use these values unless governed by other sources of contamination or by local codes. 750 cfm should be used in this application.05 .0 .0 1. Recommended ventilation = 50 × 15 = 750 cfm (Table 45) Minimum ventilation = 50 × 10 = 500 cfm (Table 45) 500 cfm will more than likely not maintain satisfactory conditions within the space because the number of smokers is considerable. This means that the outdoor air quantity must at least equal the exhausted air..33 . **All outdoor air is recommended to overcome explosion hazard of anesthetics. Tables 46 and 47 list the approximate capacities of typical exhaust fans. Solution: The population density is typical.25 . use the larger.Part 1. †May be governed by exhaust. NOTE: Many applications have exhaust fans.0 { *When minimum is used. Load Estimating | Chapter 6. Approximately 40% of the people smoke.

Load Estimating | Chapter 6. TABLE 47-PROPELLER FAN CAPACITIESFREE DELIVERY . Range of static pressures 1/4 to 1 1/4 inches. single inlet. Infiltration And Ventilation Inlet Diameter (in.) 4 6 8 10 12† 15† 18† 21† TABLE 46-CENTRIFUGAL FAN CAPACITIES Capacity* (cfm) 50-250 100-550 300-1000 600-2800 800-1600 1200-2500 1700-3600 2300-5000 Motor Horsepower Range 1/70-1/20 1/20-1/6 1/20-1/2 1/5-2 1/8-1/2 ¼-1 ¼-1 1/4 1/3-1 1/2 Outlet Velocity Range (fpm) 800-2000 500-2500 850-2900 950-4300 1000-2000 1000-2000 1000-2000 1000-2000 *These typical air capacities were obtained from published rating of several manufacturers of nationally known exhaust fans. single width. For these fans the usual selection probably is approximately 1500 fpm outlet velocity for ventilation.) (rpm) (cfm) 8 1500 500 12 1140 825 12 1725 1100 16 855 1000 16 1140 1500 18 850 1800 18 1140 2350 20 850 2400 20 1140 2750 20 1620 3300 *The capacities of fans of various manufacturers may vary ±10% from the values given above. Fans with inlet diameter 10 inches and smaller are direct connected. Fan Diameter Speed Capacity* (in. †The capacity of these fans has been arbitrarily taken at 1000 fpm minimum and 2000 fpm maximum outlet velocity.Part 1.

Part 1. The data in Table 48 as noted are for continuous occupancy. the room design temperature and the activity level of the occupants must be known. Incandescent lights convert approximately 10% of the power input into light with the rest being generated as heat within the bulb and dissipated by radiation. The heat dissipated by evaporation is determined by the difference in vapor pressure between the body and the air. this temperature may vary only thru a narrow range.850 Btu/hr LIGHTS Lights generate sensible heat by the conversion of the electrical power input into light and heat. The heat is dissipated by radiation to the surrounding surfaces. The body surface temperature is regulated by the quantity of blood being pumped to the surface. About 80% of the power input is dissipated by radiation and only about 10% by convection and conduction. Basis of Table 48 . 2. Find: Sensible heat gain = (10×525)+(20×240)+(20×280) = 15. The metabolic rate of women is about 85% of that for a male. The metabolic rate varies with the individual and with his activity level. by conduction into the adjacent materials and by convection to the surrounding air. etc. Use of Table 48 . The amount of heat dissipated by radiation and convection is determined by the difference in temperature between the body surface and its surroundings. appliances. These have been adjusted for typical compositions of mixed groups of males and females for the listed applications.650 Btu/hr Latent heat gain = (10×925)+(20×160)+(20×270) = 17. pipes. A portion of the heat gain from internal sources is radiant heat which is partially absorbed in the building structure. Evaporation of moisture from the body surface and in the respiratory tract to the surrounding air. and 20 standing. lights. The radiant portion of the light load is partially stored.” contains the data and methods for estimating the actual cooling load from the heat sources referred to in the following text. This heat is carried to the surface of the body by the blood stream and is dissipated by: 1. PEOPLE Heat is generated within the human body by oxidation. machines. Diversity and Stratification. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Chapter 3. . commonly called metabolic rate. INTERNAL AND SYSTEM HEAT GAIN Internal heat gain is the sensible and latent heat released within the air conditioned space by the occupants. by conserving or dissipating the heat generated within itself.Heat Gain from People To establish the proper heat gain.Heat Gain from People Table 48 is based on the metabolic rate of an average adult male. Example 1-Bowling Alley Given: A 10 lane bowing alley. and for children about 75%. 50 people. Convection from the body surface and the respiratory tract to the surrounding air.6 F. thru a wide ambient temperature range. Fig. The normal body processes are performed most efficiently at a deep tissue temperature of about 98. Estimate one person per alley bowling. and the convection portion may be stratified as described on page 39. the higher the surface temperature up to a limit of about 96 F. and generally for occupancies longer than 3 hours. The excess heat and moisture brought in by people. with a room design dry-bulb temperature of 75 F. to determine the actual cooling load. 3. The heat gain for restaurant applications has been increased 30 Btu/hr sensible and 30 Btu/hr latent heat per person to include the food served. the more blood. 30. thereby reducing the instantaneous heat gain. Refer to Table 12. “Heat Storage. However. at different INTERNAL HEAT GAIN levels of activity. Internal And System Heat Gain CHAPTER 7. This chapter outlines the procedures for determining the instantaneous heat gain from these sources. weighing 150 pounds. 20 of the remainder seated. page 35. may increase the heat gain from people by as much as 10%. convection and conduction. Radiation from the body surface to the surrounding surfaces. where short time occupancy is occurring (under 15 minutes). the human body is capable of maintaining this temperature.

metabolic rate 400 Btu per hr. or standing. 550 Btu per hr. adult female=Metabolic rate. very light work High School 450 Office worker Offices. 30-CONVERSION OF ELECTRIC POWER TO HEAT AND LIGHT WITH INCANDESCENT LIGHTS. ‡Bowling-Assume one person per alley actually bowling and all others sitting. APPROXIMATE FIG. . walking slowly Bank 550 Sedentary work Restaurant† 500 550 190 360 Light bench work Factory. Internal And System Heat Gain FIG. fairly heavy work 1000 1000 270 730 Heavy work Bowling Alley‡ Factory 1500 1450 450 1000 *Adjusted Metabolic Rate is the metabolic rate to be applied to a mixed group of people with a typical percent composition based on the following factors: Metabolic rate. adult male×0. 3 mph Factory. Retail.Part 1. In addition to this.. Fig. 31-CONVERSION OF ELECTRIC POWER TO HEAT AND LIGHT WITH FLUORESCENT LIGHTS. The other 50% is DEGREE OF ACTIVITY Seated at rest Seated. Apts. approximately 25% more heat is generated as heat in the ballast of the fluorescent lamp. Hotels. light work 800 750 190 560 Moderate dancing Dance Hall 900 850 220 630 Walking.75 465 985 485 965 525 925 605 845 †Restaurant-Values for this application include 60 Bu per hr for food per Individual (30 Btu sensible and 30 Btu latent heat per hr). or slowly Variety Store Walking.85 Metabolic rate. with about 25% being dissipated by radiation to the surrounding surfaces.. APPROXIMATE dissipated by conduction and convection. 31. adult male×0. Table 49 indicates the basis for arriving at the gross heat gain from fluorescent or incandescent lights. Fluorescent lights convert about 25% of the power input into light. College 475 Standing. seated Drug Store 550 550 MetTYPICAL abolic APPLICATION Rate (Adult Male) Btu/hr Theater. children =Metabolic rate. walking Dept. Grade School 390 Average Adjusted ROOM DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE Metabolic 82 F 80 F 78 F 75 F 70 F Rate* Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr But/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr Sensible Latent Sensible Latent Sensible Latent Sensible Latent Sensible Latent 350 400 450 175 180 180 175 220 270 195 195 200 200 220 220 245 300 155 205 250 300 330 530 605 700 210 215 215 220 240 245 275 330 140 185 235 280 310 505 575 670 230 240 245 255 280 295 325 380 120 160 205 245 270 455 525 620 260 275 285 290 320 365 400 460 90 125 165 210 230 385 450 540 TABLE 48-HEAT GAIN FROM PEOPLE 500 180 320 Standing. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.

ht. One drawer Auto. only by virtue of the function they perform. Basis of Tables 50 thru 52 . Sandwich Roll Warmer Toaster. Continuous Toaster. 4 Slices wide-720 slices/hr Auto. A properly designed hood with a positive exhaust system removes a considerable amount of the generated heat and moisture from most types of appliances.4 *Refer to Tables 12 and 13. the American Gas Association data. Auto. per sq ft top surface Food Warmer without Plate Warmer.25†×3. 12 Cakes. 18 Dia ×37H Auto.25 to include heat gain in ballast.) 20×30×26 H TYPE OF CONTROL Man. Frying area 12”×14” Auto.Part 1. One waffle 7” dia Auto. Electric appliances contribute latent heat. Frying Grille. 2 Slices Auto. Man. –550 watts Low ht—275 watts Insulated. 12 Dia×14H 16×18×12H 18×18×8H 14×14×10H 13×14×10H 26×17×13H 15×15×28H 20×15×28H *If properly designed positive exhaust hood is used. each 2 1/2”×3 3/4” . contribute additional moisture as a product of combustion. Cooking area 10”×12” Auto. Meat Grille. etc. Frying top 18”×14” Auto. Directory of Approved Gas Appliances and actual tests by Carrier Corporation. without plate warmer Auto. cooking. drying. MAINRECOM HEAT GAIN MFR TAINFOR AVG USE MAX ING Sensible Latent Total RATING RATE Heat Heat Heat Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr 2240 306 900 220 1120 306 306 230 90 320 16900 11900 15300 17000 16000 3740 1350 1020 8840 23800 8000 10200 5600 1500 7500 10200 4150 2480 7500 500 400 1100 2000 2800 1900 1900 400 5000 6000 1000 600 1500 3000 2600 3600 4800 2600 2200 3400 5000 1200 350 200 1600 3800 3100 3900 2700 1100 5100 6100 2450 1100 3100 800 350 350 2400 5700 1700 2100 700 100 1300 2600 450 750 2100 1200 1700 1500 2300 6000 4300 3700 5700 5000 2000 700 550 4000 9500 4800 6000 3400 1200 6400 8700 2900 1850 5200 MISCELLANEOUS DATA Water heater—2000 watts Brewers—2960 watts Black finish Nickel plated Nickel plated Exhaust system to outdoors-1/2 hp motor Med. separate heating unit for each pot. †Fluorescent light wattage is multiplied by 1. 2 Slices wide-360 slices/hr Auto. that is. 10×13×25H Man. Auto. multiply recommended value by . 22×22×57H Auto. Ditto. Internal And System Heat Gain TABLE 49 – HEAT GAIN FROM LIGHT TYPE Fluorescent Incandescent HEAT GAIN* Btu/hr Total Light Watts×1. Plate warmer in base 15 Dia×34H Man. 12×23 oval ×21H Auto. pages 35-37 to determine actual cooling load. APPLIANCES Most appliances contribute both sensible and latent heat to a space.Heat Gain from Restaurant Appliances and Miscellaneous Appliances The data in these tables have been determined from manufacturers data. per sq ft top surface Fry Kettle--111/2 lb fat Fry Kettle—25 lb fal Griddle.50. whereas gas burning appliances TABLE 50-HEAT GAIN FROM RESTAURANT APPLIANCES NOT HOODED*-ELECTRIC APPLIANCE Coffee Brewer-1/2 gal Warmer-1/2 gal 4 Coffee Brewing Units with 41/2 gal Tank Coffee Urn--3 gal --3 gal --5 gal Doughnut Machine Egg Boiler Food Warmer with Plate Warmer. Continuous OVERALL DIMENSIONS Less Legs and Handles (In. Grill area 12”×12” Auto. Auto. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Toaster. Pop-Up 6×11×9H Waffle Iron 12×13×10H Waffle Iron for Ice Cream 14×13×10H Sandwich Auto.4 Total Light Watts×3.

. Ring type burners 10000 to 12000 Btu/ea Auto. Internal And System Heat Gain Use of Tables 50 thru 52 .Heat Gain from Restaurant Appliances and .4 sq ft) grill surface) Man. Auto. Continuous Coffee Urn--3 gal --3 gal --5 gal Coffee Urn--3 gal --3 gal --5 gal Food Warmer. If the appliance has a properly designed positive exhaust hood. Black finish 12×23 oval ×21H Auto.000 Btu/hr Man. should extend beyond the appliance approximately 4 inches per foot of height between the appliance and the face of the hood. per sq ft top surface Man. A hood. The values in Tables 50 thru 52 are for unhooded appliances. to be effective. 50.Part 1. Values per sq ft top surface Stoves. Black finish Nickel plated Nickel plated Black finish Nickel plated Nickel plated 500 3900 3400 4700 900 3000 4500 15×15×28H 15 Dia×34H 12×23 oval×21H 18 Dia×37H 15 Dia×34H 12×23 oval×21H 18 Dia×37H STEAM HEATED *If properly designed positive exhaust hood is used. and warmer 4 Brewers and 4½ 19×30×26 H gal tank 15” Dia×34H Auto. multiply recommended value by.000 Btu/hr 15. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Man. These appliances seldom operate at maximum capacity during peak load since they are normally warmed up prior to the peak. Nickel plated 18 Dia ×37H Auto.Miscellaneous Appliances The Maintaining Rate is the heat generated when the appliance is being maintained at operating temperature but not being used. 2 Slices wide-360 slices/hr Auto. The Recommended for Average Use values are those which the appliance generates under normal use. Auto. Values per sq ft top surface Fry Kettle—15 lb fat Fry Kettle—28 lb fal Grill—Broil-O-Grill Top Burner Bottom Burner Stoves. Man. Values per sq ft top surface Toaster. Short Order-Open Top.) TYPE OF CONTROL MAINRECOM HEAT GAIN MFR TAINFOR AVG USE MAX ING Sensible Latent Total RATING RATE Heat Heat Heat Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr Btu/hr 3400 500 3200 2000 14250 24000 37000 14000 11000 12000 10000 1350 400 7200 2900 2500 3900 850 4200 7200 14400 4200 3300 7700 2900 2400 3400 3100 2600 3700 400 450 350 100 1800 2900 2500 3900 450 2800 4800 3600 4200 3300 3300 1900 1600 2300 3100 2600 3700 500 1150 1700 500 9000 5800 5000 7800 1300 7000 12000 18000 8400 6600 11000 4800 4000 5700 6200 5200 7400 900 1500 APPLIANCE GAS BURNING MISCELLANEOUS DATA Coffee Brewer-1/2 gal Warmer-1/2 gal Coffee Brewing Units with Tank Coffee Urn--3 gal Coffee Urn --3 gal Coffee Urn --5 gal Food Warmer. Water bath type Auto. Short Order-Closed Top. Combination brewer Man. Frying area 10×10 Frying area 11×16 Insulated Man. Ring type burners 12000 to 22000 Btu/ea Man. Nickel plated 12×20×18H 15×35×11H 22×14×17H (1. TABLE 51-HEAT GAIN FROM RESTAURANT APPLIANCES NOT HOODED*--GAS BURNING AND STEAM HEATED OVERALL DIMENSIONS Less Legs and Handles (In. reduce the sensible and the latent heat gains by 50%. Man. 22. per sq ft top surface Food Warmer. Auto. Man. The lower edge should not be higher than 4 feet above the appliance and the average face velocity across the hood should not be less than 70 fpm.

Auto. Auto. Auto.600 23. (low 300 watts. Auto.500 259.000 21.450 3.000 390.500 5.000 1.000 3.100 10.000 . multiply recommended value by.000 27.600 4.800 3. GAS BURNING Man.460 3.600 17.200 324. 115 volts AC Hair Dryer.870 850 12.600 20. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.800 68. for therapy Burner.200 9.500 24. Auto. high 1580 watts) Fan 80 watts.700 184. high 710 watts) 60 heaters at 25 watts each. for making pictures X-ray Machines.900 9.200 3.700 5.100 RECOM HEAT GAIN FOR AVG USE Sensible Heat Btu/hr 2.800 31. *If properly designed positive exhaust hood is used.800 41. Instrument Sterilizer. Man.300 34.080 3.450 18.700 None Total Heat Btu/hr 2. per Linear ft tube Solution and/or Blanket Warmer Sterilizer Dressing Sterilizer.700 24.000 210. Auto. Auto.000 14.200 10.680 1. Man.400 25. Man. Man.000 20.400 3. 7/16 dia barrel with manufactured gas 7/16 dia with nat gas 7/16 dia with not gas 7/16 dia bar with not gas 1 ½ dia mouth.100 8.400 5.700 92.200 2.700 5.000 45.300 2.000 97.100 6. Fan 165 watts.200 1.460 30 60 4.200 68. 6. Internal And System Heat Gain TABLE 52-HEAT GAIN FROM MISCELLANEOUS APPLIANCES NOT HOODED* APPLIANCE TYPE OF CONTROL MFR MAX RATING Btu/hr 5.100 2.050 9. Auto.5 amps.500 140. Auto.200 1. Auto.400 None MISCELLANEOUS DATA GAS BURNING Hair Dryer.000 19.000 35. Hot Air Water Still X-ray Machines.000 19.200 3. Auto.900 5.200 1.350 900 15.370 2. Auto. (low 915 watts.500 161.000 6. Auto. Auto.400 8.000 240 420 490 770 850 100 4. helmet type.900 6.600 2.000 2.000 960 1.Part 1.700 2. Utensil Sterilizer.700 56.000 16. Rectangular Bulk Man.600 30.100 2. 115 volts AC Permanent Wave Machine Pressurized Instrument Washer and Sterilizer Neon Sign. Auto. 50. Auto. Man.000 37.000 30 60 1. Laboratory small bunsen small bunsen fishtail burner fishtail burner large bunsen Cigar Lighter Hair Dryer System 5 helmets 10 helmets Auto.850 4.300 4. Auto.960 3.000 36. 36 in normal use 11”×11”×22” 1 / ” outside dia 32 /8” outside dia 18”×30”×72” 18”×24”×72” 16”×24” 20”×36” 24”×24”×36” 24”×24”×48” 24”×36”×48” 24”×36”×60” 36”×42”×84” 42”×48”×96” 48”×54”×96” 10 gallon 15 gallon 6”×8”×17” 9”×10”×20” 10”×12”×22” 10”×12”×36” 12”×16”×24” 16”×16”×24” 20”×20”×24” Model 120 Amer Sterilizer Co Model 100 Amer Sterilizer Co 5 gal/hour Physicians and Dentists office Heat load may be appreciable-write mfg for data Sterilizer.300 55.100 2.500 33.500 6.000 21.100 9.200 2. Man.000 4.000 1. Auto. adj orifice Continuous flame type Consists of heater & fan which blows hot air thru duct system to helmets 1.000 2. Water Sterilizer. Man. Auto.300 1. Blower Type 15 amps.300 47.400 8. Auto.200 1.700 None Latent Heat Btu/hr 400 330 150 23.000 27.600 12.200 113. Auto.000 180.

50 = 2900 Latent heat gain =2×2900×. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.Heat Gain from Electric Motors The data in Table 53 includes the heat gain from electric motors and their driven machines when both the motor and the driven machine are in the conditioned space. Frying Griddles: 5300 Sensible heat gain =2×5300×. fry kettles.): The total power input to the machine is dissipated as heat at the machine. used only in the morning. these heat gains to the fluid heat of compression are a load on this separate source only. as the pressure reduces. If the product is removed from the conditioned space at a higher temperature than it came in. Basis of Table 53 .Part 1. single phase. If the temperature of the fluid is maintained by a separate source. Motors driving process machinery (lathe. 110). Find: Heat gain from these appliances during the afternoon and evening meal. The heat gain or loss from the system should be calculated separately (“System Heat Gain. Toaster—not in use 5. some of the heat input into the machine is removed and should not be considered a heat gain to the conditioned space. or when only the driven machine is in the conditioned space. 4. 60 cycle. Two 24 × 20 × 10 inch frying griddles.Heat Gain from Electric Motors Table 53 is based on average efficiencies of squirrel cage induction open type integral horsepower and fractional horsepower motors.50= 3500 Latent heat gain =20 × 350 × .50 = 1150 Latent heat gain = 2300 × . Caution: The power input to electric motors does not necessarily equal the rated horsepower divided by the motor efficiency. 1160 or 1750 rpm.50 = 12. or may be operating at less than rated capacity. This heat gain does not appear as a temperature rise because. for integral horsepower motors. 2 or 3 phase general purpose and constant speed. only the inefficiency of the motor driving fan or pump should be included in room sensible heat gain. Motors driving fans and pumps: The power input increases the pressure and velocity of the fluid and the temperature of the fluid. 60 cycle. Fry Kettles: 3800 Sensible heat gain =2 × 3800 × . Food Warmer: 2000 Sensible heat gain =20 × 200 × . Solution: Use Table 50. 50 and 60 cycle enclosed and fractional horsepower polyphase motors. Sensible Latent 1. The increased energy level in the fluid is degenerated in pressure drop throughout the system and appears as a heat gain to the fluid at the point where pressure drop occurs. Two 25 lb deep fat. 2. One 4-slice pop-up toaster. both used in the morning. Some of this power input is dissipated as heat in the motor frame and can be evaluated as input × (1 .800 Total sensible heat gain = 13. the fluid expands. 5.50= 3. Two 5-gallon coffee urns. The driven machine utilizes this motor output to do work which may or may not result in a heat gain to the space. punch press. This is especially important in estimates for industrial installations where the motor-machine ELECTRIC MOTORS Electric motors contribute sensible heat to a space by converting the electrical power input to heat. only one used either in the afternoon or evening.motor eff). It is always advisable to measure the power input wherever possible. One 20 sq ft food warner without plate warmer.” p. Use of Table 53 . The rest of the power input (brake horsepower or motor output) is dissipated by the driven machine and in the drive mechanism.50 = 4. or 440 volts. The heat added to a product is determined by multiplying the number of pounds of material handled per hour by the specific heat and temperature rise. The . 220. 208. 3. This table may also be applied with reasonable accuracy to 50 cycle.50 = 2. etc. If the fluid is conveyed outside of the air conditioned space. Power supply for fractional horsepower motors is 110 or 220 volts.250 Total latent heat gain = A restaurant with the following electric appliances with a properly designed positive exhaust hood on each: heat of compression required to increase the energy level is generated at the fan or pump and is a heat gain at this point.50 = 5700 Latent heat gain =2 × 5700 × . single phase a-c. Frequently these motors may be operating under a continuous overload. Internal And System Heat Gain Example 2-Restaurant Given: 1. Coffee Urn-only one in use: 1700 Sensible heat gain = 3400 × . or when only the motor is in the conditioned space. The fluid expansion is a cooling process which exactly offsets the heat generated by friction.

000 13.15 3 .000 60 89 172.000 75 90 212. multiply the above heat gain factors by the following maximum service factors: Maximum Service Factors Horsepower AC Open Type DC Open Type ‡For a fan 1 TABLE 53-HEAT GAIN FROM ELECTRIC MOTORS CONTINUOUS OPERATION* /20 .800 30 89 85.000 153. .000 16.15 1.000 *For intermittent operation.000 19. Although the results are less accurate.820 950 2 80 6.820 1.400 63.000 125 90 354. Internal And System Heat Gain load is normally a major portion of the cooling load.540 680 1 1 /2 80 4.000 200 91 560.20 1.800 5 82 15.000 250 91 700.500 38.000 25.000 64.000 510. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.000 36.4 Btu/(watt)(hr). preferably measured.100 3. it may be expedient to obtain power input measurements using a clamp-on ammeter and voltmeter. † If motors are overloaded and amount of overloading is unknown.800 2.600 8.15 1 1/2 .290 850 440 13 /2 70 1.280 3 81 9.000 191. an appropriate usage factor should be used.500 25 88 72.450 7. They afford means for determining the load factor but the usage factor must be obtained by a careful investigation of the operating conditions.500 51.200 6. multiply the watts by one minus the motor efficiency and by the factor 3. multiply the watts by the motor efficiency and by the factor 3.2 1.000 382.680 1.650 1.600 12.25 -- 1 1. When the machine is in the conditioned space and the motor outside. When reading are obtained directly in watts and when both motors and driven machines are in the air conditioned space.930 750 1 79 3. exhausting air and pumping fluid to outside of space.4 to determine heat gain to the space.000 50.000 102.100 1.3/4 1.280 540 3 /4 72 2. use values in last column.000 127.25 1.800 1 7 /2 85 22.800 76.400 40 89 115. These instruments permit instantaneous readings only.400 10 85 30. When the machine is outside the conditioned space.000 636.15 No overload is allowable with enclosed motors or pump in air conditioned space.000 29.1/3 1.300 20 87 58.400 9.770 3. LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT WITH RESPECT TO CONDITIONED SPACE OR AIR STREAM‡ NAMEPLATE† FULL LOAD Motor InMotor OutMotor InOR MOTOR Driven Machine in Driven Machine in Driven Machine out BRAKE EFFICIENCY HP×2545 HP×2545 HP×2545 (1-% Eff) HORSEPOWER PERCENT % Eff % Eff Btu per Hour 1 / 40 320 130 190 1 20 / 49 430 210 220 1 12 / 55 580 320 260 18 /6 60 710 430 280 1 /4 64 1.500 4.000 50 89 143.000 150 91 420.220 2.000 640 360 1 / 66 1.000 100 90 284.000 7.250 1.000 255.000 318.Part 1.1/8 1.500 15 86 44.35 -- 1 /2 .500 19.4.000 38. the heat gain is equal to the number of watts times the factor 3.4 -- 1 /6 .380 5.000 21.

Conversely. and pumps = 1.4.000 3 or 4 Wire I×E×pf×eff×1. and frequently dryers also contribute sensible and latent heat from the drying process.5 per inch of thickness for 85% magnesia and 2.73 I×E×pf×1. Table 57 is based on an emissivity of 0. Five 10 hp motors operated at 80% rated capacity. All open tanks containing hot water contribute not only sensible heat but also latent heat due to evaporation. exhausting air to the outdoors. Ten 5 hp motors (5 bhp) driving fans. Process water pumped to outside air conditioned space Heat gain to space =3 × 7500 22.01 Btu/(lb) (F).500 2.Part 1.Heat Gain from Piping.833 per inch and of concrete 0. furnaces or dryers are often encountered. deg R T2 = pipe surface temp.000 Btu/hr would become a load on this outside source. driving screw machines. bright nickel plate. In industrial plants. Solution: Use Table 53.9 per inch of thickness with moulded type.000 4 Wire I×E×pf×eff×2 I×E×2×pf 2 Phase 746 1. The metal surface temperature has been assumed equal to the water temperature. PIPING. NOTE: The heat gain from furnaces and ovens can be estimated from Table 57. Fan exhausting air to the outdoors: Heat gain to space = 10 × 2800 = 28.41 times that in either of the other two conductors.7500) = 153.08 per inch. deg R Tables 55 and 56 are based on the same equation and an insulation resistance of approximately 2. 3. cold pipes remove sensible heat. water discarded outdoors.). 2. Sensible Heat Gain Btu/hr 1. sp ht is . Both the final product and the shaving from the screw machines are removed from the space on conveyor belts.243. Caution: Table 55 and 56 do not include an allowance for fittings. screw machines. A safety factor of 10% should be added for pipe runs having numerous fittings. TANKS AND EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM A FREE SURFACE Hot pipes and tanks add sensible heat to a space by convection and radiation. Machines-Heat gain to space 1.80= Heat gain from screw machines = 5 × 30.000 × .080.000 – 7500 = 112.2 1 . Forty-five 10 hp motors operated at 80% rated capacity. The emissivity of chrome. each handling 5000 lbs of bronze per hr. or galvanized iron is 0. Find: Total heat gain from motors. using the outside temperature of furnace and oven.9 for painted metal and painted or bare wood and concrete.000 1 I×E×pf×eff I×E×pf Phase 746 1. driving various types of machines located within air conditioned space (lathes. stainless steel.500 . the heat gain to the water 3 × (58.000 NOTE: If the process water were to be recirculated and cooled in the circuit from an outside source. Three 20 hp motors (20 bhp) driving process water pumps.500 Total heat gain from motors on machines. The resistance (r) of wood is 0. common conductor current is 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Basis of Tables 54 thru 58 . These contribute sensible heat to the space by convection and radiation from the outside surfaces.23 x 10–10 x emissivity x (T1 4 – T2 4 ) where T1 = room surface temp. .016 X ( Dia ) X ( T ) 1 × (temp diff between hot water or steam and room).000 Btu/hr Heat removed from space from screw machine work = 5000 × 5 × 30 × . Internal And System Heat Gain The following is a conversion table which can be used to determine load factors from measurements: TO FIND HP KILOWATTS OUTPUT INPUT → Direct I×E×eff I×E Current 746 1.181 1. Rise in bronze temperature is 30 F. fans.000 = 45 × 30.000 Where I = amperes eff = efficiency E = volts pf = power factor NOTE: For 2 phase.80 = 120. The radiation from horizontal pipes is expressed by17.000 × . Example 3-Electric Motor Heat Gain in a Factory (Motor Bhp Established by a Survey) Given: 1.73 3 Phase 746 1.01 = 7. Tanks and Evaporation of Water Table 54 is based on nominal flow in the pipe and a convection heat flow from a horizontal pipe of-1 . 3 wire circuit.000 3.500 Btu/hr Net heat gain from screw machines to space = 120. etc.

12 5 2. The latent heat gain is equal to the pounds per hour escaping times 1050 Btu/lb.55 2.75 0.89 4.07 4.04 8 3.10 7.36 2.5= 15.30 3.61 8.58 6 3.68 6.23 1.900 Tank .59 4.000 × 50 × 1.97 3.80 50 F / 0.18 6.76 12 5. where vapor pressure is expressed in inches of mercury. sensible heat is added to the space. 57 and 58 Btu/hr Piping-Sensible heat gain = 50 × 50 × 4.46 / 0. MOISTURE ABSORPTION When moisture (regain) is absorbed by hygroscopic materials. The heat so gained is equal to the latent heat of vaporization which is approximately 1050 Btu/lb times the pounds of water absorbed.53 1.09 1.58 1.43 1.30 2.43 2. The tank is supported on open steel framework.82 0.74 0.22 3.58 0. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Find: Sensible and latent heat gain Solution: Use Tables 54. top =(20 × 10) × 330 = 66.47 3.29 4.68 1. LATENT HEAT GAIN .93 1.15 1.21 5. This does not change the total room heat gain.85 1/ 0.Sensible heat gain. but may have considerable effect on the sensible heat factor.000 STEAM When steam is escaping into the conditioned space.15 1.41 1. the room sensible heat gain is only that heat represented by the difference in heat content of steam at the steam temperature and at the room drybulb temperature (lb/hr × temp dift × .14 1.01 2.67 0. Use of Tables 54 thru 58 .64 4.000 Total sensible heat gain = 80.51 1.08 3.26 2.76 = 11. and the room conditions are 75 F db and 50% rh.15 2.22 5.28 1.Sensible heat gain.61 0.45).80 3.76 0.18 1 2 /2 1.88 10 4.92 1. This form of latent heat gain should be deducted from room sensible heat and added to room latent heat.71 0.07 1.88 0.72 2.53 .87 1.63 3.68 1/ 0.49 8.19 2.56 1 0.99 2.15 7. The power input to the steam or electric coils balances the heat of evaporation except for the initial warmup of the water.72 0.32 4.CREDIT TO ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT Some forms of latent heat gain reduce room sensible heat.92 1.96 2 1.07 5 psig 180 F 210 F 227 F TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE* 110 F 140 F 157 F 0.84 3.22 2. Moisture evaporating at the room wet-bulb temperature (not heated or cooled from external source) utilizes room sensible heat for heat of evaporation. When the evaporation of moisture derives its heat from another source such as steam or electric heating coils. room sensible heat is not reduced.32 1.53 2.12 9. bottom = (20×10) ×50×1. STEAM 50 psig 300 F 230 F 0.90 4 2.84 2.68 31/2 1.900 Total latent heat gain.8 = .49 1.05 4.06 2.67 7.09 6.63 2.41 6.77 6. This sensible heat is an addition to room sensible heat. sides = (20 × 10 × 2) + (10 × 10 × 2) 54. 50% rh 50 ft of 10-inch uninsulated hot water (125 F) pipe.39 5. and a deduction from room latent heat if the hygroscopic materials is removed from the conditioned space.88 2.16 6.96 5. The hot water is stored in a 10 ft wide x 20 ft long x 10 ft high.) TABLE 54-HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR BARE STEEL PIPES Btu/(hr) (linear ft) (deg F diff between pipe and surrounding air) HOT WATER 120 F 150 F 80 F 0. Tanks and Evaporation of Water Example 4-Heat Gain from Hot Water Pipe and Storage Tank Given: Room conditions – 75 F db.40 3 1.83 2.63 1.04 1.01 1. only the latent heat gain to the room is figured. Internal And System Heat Gain Table 58 is based on the following formula for still air: Heat of evaporation = 95 (vapor pressure differential between water and air).50 100 psig 338 F 268 F 0.55 0.Heat Gain from Piping.80 1.29 1.59 *At 70 F db room temperature 1 32 4 1 14 2 NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (in.61 0. painted metal tank with the top open to the atmosphere.85 3.50 0.Part 1.

13 2.65 0.27 31/2 0.15 2.0 0.13 2.) Coefficient 2.9 0.20 0.) 1 In.6 0.0 0.23 1.14 0. This table applies only to straight runs of pipe.24 3.59 0.45 0.24 0.36 1. Generally this table can be used without adding this safety factor.7 0.30 0.0 0. This added heat gain at the fittings may be as much as 10%. †Other insulation.5 0.46 1.12 1.43 8 0.09 3.17 1 /2 0. The thickness given above is for molded mineral wool board which is usually some 5 to 10% greater than molded cork board.17 1.15 3.09 2. multiply the above values by the factors shown in the following table: MATERIAL Corrugated Asbestos (Air Cell) 4 Ply per inch 6 Ply per inch 8 Ply per inch Laminated Asbestos (Sponge Felt) Mineral Wool Diatomaceous Silica (Super-X) Brown Asbestos Fiber (Wool Felt) PIPE COVERING FACTORS 1.38 3.40 0. Generally this table can be used without adding this safety factor.2 0.3 0. Internal And System Heat Gain TABLE 55-HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR INSULATED PIPES* Btu/(hr) (linear ft) (deg F diff between pipe and room) IRON PIPE 85 PERCENT MAGNESIA INSULATION† SIZE (In.65 BRINE Actual Thickness of Insulation (In. However.64 12 1.) Coefficient 2.19 2.20 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.18 3.16 1.15 0.32 5 0.5 0.9 0.21 1 2 /2 0.5 0.6 0. This table applies only to straight runs of pipe.52 0.9 0. When numerous fittings exists. This added heat gain at the fitting may be as much as 10%.Part 1.21 3.14 1.27 0.98 1.30 1.44 *No allowance for fittings.5 0. Thick 1½ In.5 0.29 1.49 0.) Coefficient 1.38 0.10 2.32 0.16 3.0 0.0 0.5 0. a suitable safely factor must be included.5 0.4 0.19 2.26 3.7 0.30 4 0.20 0.35 1.45 0. Values in this table are based on a material having a conductivity k=0.9 0.73 * No allowance for fittings.40 1.23 4.27 1.56 1.0 0.0 0. When numerous fittings exist.12 2.85 0.10 3.26 0. Thick 2 In.18 3.22 0.7 0.12 3 /4 0.6 0.13 3. The table applies to either cork covering (k=0.12 3.16 0. HEAVY BRINE Actual Thickness of Insulation (In.21 0.32).24 0.11 2.35 0. a suitable safety factor must be included.04 0.35 0.18 2 0. If other types of insulation are used.53 10 1. a 15% safety factor was added to this k value to compensate for seams and imperfect workmanship.9 0.36 0.7 0.9 0.17 2.9 0.38 6 0. †Insulation material.13 1 0.26 4.4 0.0 0.32 3.11 1.36 .5 0. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.0 0. Thick 1 /2 0.24 3 0.30.1 0.68 0.88 TABLE 56-HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR INSULATED COLD PIPES* MOULDED TYPE† Btu/(hr) (linear ft) (deg F diff between pipe and room) IRON PIPE SIZE (in.78 0.5 0.19 0.0 0.17 0.18 0.31 4.29).20 4.15 1 11/4 0. or mineral wool board (k = 0.7 0.) 1 / 32 /4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 ICE WATER Actual Thickness of Insulation (In.11 3.00 1.90 0.8 0.0 0.23 1.

percent addition = 4.36 . still air on the outside of the duct and a supply air rise of 17 F db. furred and insulated ducts.38 .9 2. etc.0 200 F 2. reduces the cooling capacity of the conditioned air. the cooling capacity of the air quantity must be increased.6 2.83 . in effect. This results in a heat gain to the duct before it reaches the space to be conditioned.4 1.26 = 5.Heat Gain to Supply Duct Given: 20 ft of uninsulated duct in unconditioned space at 100 F db Duct velocity – 2000 fpm Supply air temperature – 60 F db Room sensible heat gain – 100. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.Part 1. piping. To compensate for it. the duct velocity.97 . 90 F db and up.26 Actual percent addition = 4. evaluate the length of duct running thru the unconditioned space.7 2.7% . see Table 58 Vertical (Sides) Top Bottom 50 F 1. Use of Chart 3 -.97 1. the temperature of unconditioned space.37 .000 Btu/hr Find: Percent addition to room sensible heat Solution: The supply air to unconditioned space temperature difference = 100 – 60 = 40 F db From Chart 3.0 1.3 1.1 1.38 .37 .1 1.7 1.6 1. such as the ducts. Example 5.38 .8 2.5 × 1.Percent Room Sensible Heat to be Added for Heat Gain to Supply Duct To use this chart. Basis or Chart 3 .36 CONCRETE 6 in. 50% RH 75 F 42 100 F 140 125 F 330 150 F 680 WATER TEMP Btu/(hr) (sq ft) 175 F 1260 200 F 2190 SYSTEM HEAT GAIN The system heat gain is considered as the heat added to or lost by the system components.96 . and pump.86 .99 1.1 0. Correction factors for different room temperatures. the supply air temperature.88 . a supply duct velocity of 1800 fpm in a quare duct.5 Painted Temp Diff 100 F 150 F 2. Values are plotted for use with uninsulated.5% Correction for 40 F db temperature difference and 2000 fpm duct velocity = 1.90 TABLE 58-EVAPORATION FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE-LATENT HEAT GAIN STILL AIR.36 .9 2.91 .7 1.7 1. SUPPLY AIR DUCT HEAT GAIN The supply duct normally has 50 F db to 60 F db air flowing through it. The duct may pass through an unconditioned space having a temperature of. say. air conditioning fan.3 1.4 2.2 Bright (Nickel) Temp Diff 50 F 100 F 150 F 200 F 1. Thick Painted or Bare Temp Diff 50 F 100 F 150 F 200 F . This heat gain must be estimated and included in the load estimate but can be accurately evaluated only after the system has been designed.0 1. Internal And System Heat Gain TABLE 57-HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR UNINSULATED TANKS SENSIBLE HEAT GAIN* Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F diff between liquid and room) METAL CONSTRUCTION *To estimate latent heat load if water is being evaporated.4 WOOD 2½ in.Percent Room Sensible Heat to be Added for Heat Gain to Supply Duct Chart 3 is based on a difference of 30 F db between supply air and unconditioned space.38 .1 .35 . ROOM AT 75 F db. Thick Painted or Bare Temp Diff 50 F 100 F 150 F 200 F . This.37 .37 . duct velocities and temperature differences are included below Chart 3.0 2.6 1.93 .3 2. and room sensible heat subtotal. It is recommended that long runs of ducts in unconditioned spaces be insulated to minimize heat gain.

Smaller leakage per foot of length for larger perimeter ducts appears to be counterbalanced by the longer length of run. Individual workmanship is the greatest variable. whether large or small systems. Experience indicates that the average air leakage from the entire length of low velocity supply ducts. and duct leakages from 5% to 30% have been found. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. This loss of cooling effect must be added to the room sensible and latent heat load. The following is a guide to the evaluation of duct leakages under various conditions: 1. Internal And System Heat Gain CHART 3. 2.HEAT GAIN TO SUPPLY DUCT Percent of Room Sensible Heat SUPPLY AIR DUCT LEAKAGE LOSS Air leakage from the supply duct may be a serious loss of cooling effect. except when it leaks into the conditioned space. Bare ducts within conditioned space-usually not necessary to figure leakage. . depending on whether the leakage air actually gets into the room.Part 1. averages around 10% of the supply air quantity. Furred or insulated ducts within conditioned space-a matter of judgment.

4 3.9 2.6 5. Basis of Table 59 Heat Gain from Air Conditioning Fan Horsepower The air conditioning fan adds heat to the system in the following manner: 1.6 5.8 3.1 5.1 3.6 3.9 20.7 12.0 0.00 8.2 6.7 1.4 16.25 1.00 4.1 2.7 5.9 1.2 3.9 15.8 2. etc.5 3.HEAT GAIN FROM AIR CONDITIONING FAN HORSEPOWER.1 1.6 9. Energy gain in the air as a pressure and/or velocity rise.6 2.2 1. typical values for bearing losses.1 6.5 3.5 2.2 10.1 6.2 1.2 1.8 5.0 10.75 1.6 1.9 4.00 6. **50% fan efficiency assumed.8 30 F APPLIED OR UNITARY SYSTEM** 10 F 2.2 0.0 23.4 2.0 8.4 3.50 0.1 1.8 2.6 2.5 5.5 4.7 3.1 10.5 0.4 3.7 9. Load Estimating | Chapter 7.1 1.7 2.1 3.7 4.) the fan heat added is a load on the dehumidifier and. Above 1200 fpm the total pressure should be figured.0 18.2 2. this heat is an addition to the supply air heat gain and should be added to the room sensible heat.6 1.9 10. include that fraction of 10% as the leakage. For blow-thru systems this fan heat is added to the grand total heat. (Fraction is ratio of length outside of conditioned space to total length of supply duct.4 4.75 2.7 3.8 7.75 2.00 3.8 2.2 5. Below 1200 fpm the fan total pressure is approximately equal to the fan static.4 6. Internal And System Heat Gain TABLE 59.1 3.4 1.6 9.9 11.7 Temp Diff Room to Supply Air 15 F 20 F 25 F 1.0 7.8 1. of Water) 0. this heat is an addition to the supply air heat gain and is added to the room sensible heat.8 1.4 0.1 1.0 1.8 0.3 0. etc.2 1.4 38. †Fan Total Pressure equals fan static pressure plus velocity pressure at fan discharge.2 3.5 5.4 6.1 6.Part 1.9 7.6 5.8 6.6 3.7 4.7 2.1 7.6 5.9 2.9 15.0 45.00 CENTRAL STATION SYSTEMS‡ 10 F Temp Diff Room to Supply Air 15 F 20 F 25 F 0.2 19. use the RSH times the percent listed and add to the GTH.3 1. therefore.8 16.5 7.2 24.6 4.4 1.1 1.0 13.0 2.4 6.0 15.2 8.9 1.2 0.50 0. DRAW-THRU SYSTEM‡‡ FAN TOTAL PRESSURE† (In.75 1. ‡70% fan efficiency assumed.8 2.0 30.2 19.8 1.00 0.0 3.2 6.00 4.0 6.00 5.6 3.3 1.0 2.2 Fan Motor Not in Conditioned Space or Air Stream Fan Motor†† in Conditioned Space or Air Stream *Excludes from heat gain.0 4.5 1.3 2.2 4.4 2.3 5.3 7.1 3. All ducts outside the conditioned spaceassume 10% leakage.00 6. Immediate temperature rise in the air due to the inefficiency of the fan.3 4. This leakage is a total loss and the full amount must be included.6 3.6 1.2 2. .9 2.2 19.8 12.9 4. With blow-through systems (fan blowing air through the coil.2 8. ††80% motor and drive efficiency assumed.6 4.00 3.0 6.50 1.8 1. 2.1 6.5 11.9 1.6 PERCENT OF ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT* 0.8 4.5 4.0 3.4 15.0 1.9 2.7 9.5 4.) High velocity systems usually limit leakage to 1%. 1.6 1.2 5.3 19.5 2.1 9.1 7.25 1.5 12.8 30.7 15.2 12.4 1.8 9.” In the case of drawthrough systems. When only part of the supply duct is outside the conditioned space.4 2.6 3.8 2.4 8.2 12.9 1. should be added to the grand total heat (see “Percent Addition to Grand Total Heat”).8 3.4 8.9 3.3 1.6 12.7 0.50 1.00 5.1 6. HEAT GAIN FROM AIR CONDITIONING FAN HORSEPOWER The inefficiency of the air conditioning equipment fan and the heat of compression adds heat to the system as described under “Electric Motors.8 2.00 1.5 0.2 6.7 4.5 2.2 13.6 4.0 22.6 0.7 30 F 0.4 1.6 9. which are dissipated in apparatus room.3 3.00 1.1 1.4 0.2 10.4 8.3 25. ‡‡For draw-thru systems.00 8.1 3.2 7.9 2.

3. Furred duct within conditioned space or furred space used for return air – a matter of judgment.) in the ductwork and the type of air distribution system used.Heat Gain from Air Conditioning Fan Horsepower The approximate system pressure loss and dehumidified air rise (room minus supply air temperature) differential must be estimated from the system characteristics and type of application. Multiply the resulting percentage of heat gain by the ratio of RSH to GTH.Part 1. 4. depending on whether the furred space may connect to unconditioned space.Heat Gain from Air Conditioning Fan Horsepower Given: Same data as Example 5 80 ft of supply duct in conditioned space Find: Percent addition to room sensible heat. (2) supply duct leakage losses. except that the process is reversed.7% Supply duct leakage (20 ft duct of total 100 ft) = 2. and 20 F db dehumidifer rise.3% Safety factor = 0. 4. 2. high pressure system . To determine the return air duct leakage. Example 6. fan total pressure. SAFETY FACTOR AND PERCENT ADDITIONS TO ROOM SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT A safety factor to be added to the room sensible heat sub-total should be considered as strictly a factor of probable error in the survey or estimate. the heat generated by the inefficiency of the motor and drive is also an immediate heat gain.50 inches of water.0.00 to 6.00 inches of water. RETURN AIR DUCT HEAT AND LEAKAGE GAIN The evaluation of heat and leakage effects on return air ducts is made in the same manner as for supply air ducts. low velocity systems . Bare duct within conditioned space – no inleakage.00 inches of water. (3) fan horsepower .00 to 4. The total room sensible heat is the sub-total plus percentage additions to allow for (1) supply duct heat gain.0% The percent additions to room latent heat for supply duct leakage loss and safety factor should be the same as the corresponding percent additions to room sensible heat. Moderate amount of ductwork. 2. and should usually be between 0% and 5%. apply the following reasoning: 1. 3.0% Total percent addition to RSH = 10. These should be checked from the final system design. Normally. using the following procedure: 1. 2. Considerable ductwork. the fan total pressure can be approximated as follows: 1. Use of Table 59 -. 5. as explained in the preceding paragraph. Apply the resulting heat gain percentage to GTH. and also for the actual velocity. low velocity system1. Using RSH and the length of return air duct. Heat gain from fan horsepower = 2. The normal comfort application has a dehumidified air rise of between 15 F db and 25 F db and the fan total pressure depends on the amount of ductwork involved.3% and (4) safety factor. Moderate amount of ductwork. Solution: Assume 1.25 to 2. high pressure system – 3. No ductwork (packaged equipment) – 0. use Chart 3 to establish the percent heat gain.5 to 1.0% Fan horsepower = 2. Chart 3 can be used to approximate heat gain to the return duct system in terms of percent of RSH. there is inward gain of hot moist air instead of loss of cooling effect.2. Considerable ductwork. etc.75 to 1.50 inches of water. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Use the multiplying factor from table below Chart 3 to adjust the percent heat gain for actual temperature difference between the air surrounding the return air duct and the air inside the duct. The fan efficiencies are about 70% for central station type fans and about 50% for packaged equipment fans.00 inches of water. Refer to Table 59. Internal And System Heat Gain 3. the number of fittings (elbows. With the motor and drive in the air stream or conditioned space.00 inches of water. Example 7-Percent Addition to Room Sensible Heat Given: Same data as Examples 5 and 6 Find: Percent addition to room sensible heat gain sub-total Solution: Supply duct heat gain = 5.

Average external piping .5 2. Blow-through fan system-add percent room sensible heat from Table 59 to GTH.2% of GTH. b. Load Estimating | Chapter 7. Dehumidifier in conditioned apparatus roomreduce the above percentages by one half.5 2.0 2. those using small amounts of water have a higher rise.0 1. depending on the length of duct. Dehumidifier and piping losses: a.0 1.0 2. Ducts outside conditioned space – assume up to 3% inleakage. and the heat gain to the dehumidifier and piping system. 1.0 3. If there is a long run of duct.0 1. Heat and leakage gain to return air ducts.5 1. 3. normally.4% of GTH. 2. Heat gain from dehumidifier pump horsepower.0 SMALL PUMPS* 0-100 GPM LARGE PUMPS† 100 GPM AND LARGER CHILLED WATER TEMP RISE CHILLED WATER TEMP RISE 7F 10 F 12 F 15 F 5F 7F 10 F 12 F 15 F PERCENT OF GRAND TOTAL HEAT 1.1% of GTH.5 1. large pumps.5 1. heat gain from the dehumidifier pump horsepower.Part 1.Heat Gain from Dehumidifier Pump Horsepower Table 60 is based on pump efficiencies of 50% for small pumps and 70% for large pumps. The normal water temperature rise in the dehumidifier is between 7 F and 12 F.0 1.0 1. c.5 2. Use of Table 60 -. see above. Extensive external piping . then apply judgment as to the amount of inleakage. 2.0 3.5 1.5 1. more than 100 gallons. Large systems with considerable piping and fitting may require up to 100 ft pump head. This heat will be an addition to the grand total heat. If there is only a short connection between conditioned space and apparatus. 4.0 †Efficiency 70% 3. 70 ft head is the average.Heat Gain from Dehumidifier Pump Horsepower The chilled water temperature rise in the dehumidifier and the pump head must be approximated to use Table 60. Very little external piping . inleakage may be disregarded.5 0. Small pumps are considered to have a capacity of less than 100 gallons.5 4. HEAT GAIN FROM DEHUMIDIFIER PUMP HORSEPOWER With dehumidifier systems.5 2.5 1.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 1. the horsepower required to pump the water adds heat to the system as outlined under “Electric Motors”. Table 60. PERCENT ADDITION TO GRAND TOTAL HEAT The percent additions to the grand total heat to compensate for various external losses consist of heat and leakage gain to return air ducts. These heat gains can be estimated as follows: 1.0 0.0 2. . 5. Basis of Table 60 -.5 5. Internal And System Heat Gain TABLE 60-HEAT GAIN FROM DEHUMIDIFIER PUMP HORSEPOWER PUMP HEAD (ft) 35 70 100 *Efficiency 50% 5F 2. Applications using large amounts of water have a lower rise.

a brief definition of psychrometrics is offered at this point. It is divided into three parts: 1.Part 1. processes and factors-as encountered in normal air conditioning applications. 2. FIG. 32). along with an illustration and definition of terms appearing on a standard psychrometric chart (Fig. 3. Description of terms. city or local codes do not exist. 32 – SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART . Applied Psychrometrics CHAPTER 8. This chapter describes practical psychrometrics as applied to apparatus selection. Psychrometrics of partial load control – the effect of partial load on equipment selection and on the common processes. To help recognize terms. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. factors and processes described in this chapter. APPLIED PSYCHROMETRICS The preceding chapters contain the practical data to properly evaluate the heating and cooling loads. Air conditioning apparatus-factors affecting common processes and the effect of these factors on selection of air conditioning equipment. They also recommend outdoor air quantities for ventilation purposes in areas where state.

33-TYPICAL AIR CONDITIONING PROCESS TRACED ON A STANDARD PSYCHROMETRIC CHART . Load Estimating | Chapter 8. Applied Psychrometrics FIG.Part 1.

Normally most of the air SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR The thermal properties of air can be separated into latent and sensible heat. Applied Psychrometrics DEFINITION Psychrometrics is the science involving thermodynamic properties of moist air and the effect of atmospheric moisture on materials and human comfort. and effective sensible heat factor (ESHF). The air supplied to the space moves along line (4-1) as it picks up the room loads. 33 shows a typical air conditioning process traced on a psychrometric chart. Fig. and two italic numbers in parentheses represent a line. only those which affect the psychrometric properties of air will be discussed in this chapter. ROOM SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (RSHF) The room sensible heat factor is the ratio of room sensible heat to the summation of room sensible and room latent heat. where total heat is the sum of sensible and latent heat. and the cycle is repeated. There. 34-RSHF LINE PLOTTED BETWEEN ROOM AND SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS symbols used in this chapter. These elements are: room sensible heat factor (RSHF)†. This ratio may be expressed as: SHF = SHSH LH = SH + TH where: SHF SH LH TH = sensible heat factor = sensible heat = latent heat = total heat AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES supplied to the space by the air conditioning system is returned to the conditioning apparatus. it is mixed with outdoor air required for ventilation. The selection of proper equipment to accomplish this conditioning and to control the thermodynamic properties of the air depends upon a variety of elements. 34 by ∆hs (sensible heat) and ∆h1 (latent heat). grand sensible heat factor (GSHF). The term sensible heat factor is the ratio of sensible to total heat. effective surface temperature (tes). if adequate air is supplied to offset these room loads.Part 1. †Refer to page 149 for a description of all abbreviations and FIG. PROCESSES AND FACTORS Fig. This line represents the psychrometric process of the supply air within the conditioned space and is called the room sensible heat factor line. bypass factor (BF). . plotted on the accompanying psychrometric chart examples. to maintain the desired conditions. This ratio is expressed in the following formula: RSH = RSH RSHF = RSH + RLH RTH The supply air to a conditioned space must have the capacity to offset simultaneously both the room sensible and room latent heat loads. However. The slope of the RSHF line illustrates the ratio of sensible to latent loads within the space and is illustrated in Fig. *One italic number in parentheses represents a point. Air flows through the conditioning apparatus (3-4) and is supplied to the space (4). the room requirements will be satisfied. Outdoor air (2)* is mixed with return air from the room (1) and enters the apparatus (3). The mixture then passes thru the apparatus where heat and moisture are added or removed. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. The room and the supply air conditions to the space may be plotted on the standard psychrometric chart and these points connected with a straight line (1-2). provided both the dry-and wet-bulb temperatures of the supply air fall on this line. DESCRIPTION OF TERMS. Thus. the definition must be broadened to include the method of controlling the thermal properties of moist air. 34. As it applies to this chapter. as required.

apparatus (mixture condition of outdoor and return room air) and the condition of the air leaving the apparatus may be plotted on the psychrometric chart and connected by a straight line (1-2). including the outdoor air heat loads. 36 by ∆hs (sensible heat) and ∆h1 (latent heat). The following procedure illustrates how to plot this line. using the calculated GSHF. 35. 38. using the conditions on their respective RSHF and GSHF lines. 36-GSHF LINE PLOTTED BETWEEN MIXTURE CONDITIONS TO APPARATUS AND LEAVING CONDITION FROM APPARATUS The grand sensible heat factor line can be plotted on the psychrometric chart without knowing the condition of supply air. and the alignment circle on the psychrometric chart. using the calculated RSHF. This is illustrated in Fig. Draw a base line thru the alignment circle and the calculated RSHF shown on the sensible heat factor scale in the upper right corner of psychrometric chart (1-2). 36. FIG.Part 1. REQUIRED AIR QUANTITY The air quantity required to offset simultaneously the room sensible and latent loads and the air quantity required thru the apparatus to handle the total sensible and latent loads may be calculated. Fig. the sensible heat factor scale in the upper right hand corner of the psychrometric chart. 2. Step 1 (1-2) and Step 2 (3-4) show the procedure. The slope of the GSHF line represents the ratio of sensible and latent heat that the apparatus must handle. the intersection of the two lines (1) Fig. 35. The resulting GSHF line is plotted thru the mixture conditions of the air to the apparatus. the mixture condition of air to the apparatus. the room design conditions. when both the RSHF and GSHF ratio lines are plotted on the psychrometric chart. 37. and the alignment circle at 80 F dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity: 1. It is also the condition of the air leaving the apparatus. 35-RSHF LINE PLOTTED ON SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART GRAND SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (GSHF) The grand sensible heat factor is the ratio of the total sensible heat to the grand total heat load that the conditioning apparatus must handle. The condition of the air entering the . Fig. As shown. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. in much the same manner as the RSHF line. This ratio is determined from the following equation: TSH GSHF = TLHTSH = GTH + TSH Air passing thru the conditioning apparatus increases or decreases in temperature and/or moisture content. Draw the actual room sensible heat factor line thru the room design conditions parallel to the base line in Step 1 (3-4). the sensible heat factor scale. Applied Psychrometrics The room sensible heat factor line can also be drawn on the psychrometric chart without knowing the condition of supply air. represents the condition of the supply air to the space. The amount of rise or fall is determined by the total sensible and latent heat loads that the conditioning apparatus must handle. and is referred to as the grand sensible heat factor line. This line represents the psychrometric process of the air as it passes through the conditioning apparatus. For a particular application. Fig. this line may be drawn to the saturation line on the psychrometric chart. Fig. FIG.

the temperature of the air leaving the apparatus is not necessarily equal to the temperature of the air supplied to the space as indicated in Fig. Line (1-2) represents the temperature rise of the air stream resulting from fan horsepower and heat gain to the duct. cfmda = TSH 1.08(trm – tsa) The air quantity required thru the conditioning apparatus to satisfy the total air conditioning load (including the supplementary loads) is calculated from the following equation: FIG. In actual practice. Applied Psychrometrics Point (1) is the condition of air leaving the apparatus and point (2) is the condition of supply air to the space. 39-RSHF AND GSHF LINES PLOTTED WITH SUPPLEMENTARY LOAD LINE The air quantity required to satisfy the room load may be calculated from the following equation: cfmsa = RSH 1. 37 – GSHF LINE PLOTTED ON SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART FIG. 39 illustrates what actually happens when these supplementary loads are considered in plotting the RSHF and GSHF lines. With the exception of an all outdoor air application. these heat gains and losses are taken into account in estimating the cooling load. 38.Part 1. the term tm can only be determined by trial and error. One possible procedure to determine the mixture temperature and the air quantities is outlined below. FIG. Fig. 38 – RSHF AND GSHF LINES PLOTTED ON SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART This neglects fan and duct heat gain. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. etc. The above equation contains the term tm which is the mixture condition of air entering the apparatus. This procedure illustrates one method of apparatus selection . Therefore.08(tm – tldb) The required air quantity supplied to the space is equal to the air quantity required thru the apparatus. Chapter 7 gives the necessary data for evaluating these supplementary loads. duct leakage losses. neglecting leakage losses.

” These alone will permit the simplified calculation of supply air quantity. As this temperature difference increases (supplying colder air. and calculate the leaving condition of the air from the apparatus. Substitute the supply air quantity and mixture temperature in the equation for determining the air quantity thru the apparatus. This temperature difference can increase up to a limit where the RSHF line crosses the saturation line on the psychrometric chart. Use this air quantity to calculate the mixture condition of the air (tm) to the space. of course. In a normal. EFFECTIVE SURFACE TEMPERATURE (tes) The surface temperature of the conditioning equipment varies throughout the surface of the apparatus as the air comes in contact with it. mixture and leaving air temperatures. This is illustrated in Fig. tsa) may be plotted on their respective GSHF and RSHF lines (Fig. This temperature must equal the supply air temperature. Since this is impossible. since the room conditions are fixed). Fig. This is more clearly understood by illustrating the heat transfer effect between the air and the cooling (or heating) medium.” “bypass factor” and “effective sensible heat factor. To simplify the discussion on the interrelationship of RSHF and GSHF. 1. plotting the RSHF and GSHF ratios on a psychrometric chart. a new rise in supply air is assumed and the trial-and-error procedure repeated. The RSHF ratio will be constant (at full load) under a specified set of conditions. formulas and problems in the remainder of this chapter. How close to the saturation line depends on the physical operating characteristics and the efficiency of the conditioning equipment. and then including this equipment performance in the actual calculation of the load. the GSHF ratio may increase or decrease as the outdoor air quantity and mixture conditions are varied for design purposes. assuming. Fig. however. 38. As the GSHF ratio changes. These loads are taken into account on the air conditioning load estimate in Chapter 1. 38). Determining the required air quantity by either method previously described is a tedious process. that the available conditioning equipment is able to take the air to 100% saturation. if it does not. Assume a supply air rise and calculate the supply air quantity and the mixture temperature to the conditioning apparatus. when neglecting the supplementary loads. If they cannot. however. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. by relating all the conditioning loads to the physical performance of the conditioning equipment. and calculate the supply air quantity (cfmsa) to the space. that these supplementary loads must be recognized when estimating the cooling and heating loads. The calculation for the required air quantity still remains a trial-and-error procedure. The rise between the leaving condition from the apparatus and supply air condition to the space (tsa-t1db) must be able to handle the supplementary loads (duct heat gain and fan heat). 40 illustrates this process and . the effective surface temperature can be considered to be the uniform surface temperature which would produce the same leaving air conditions as the non-uniform surface temperature that actually occurs when the apparatus is in operation. (Equation 1. 2. These temperatures (t1db. the condition of the air normally falls on the RSHF line close to the saturation line. The same procedure previously described for determining the air quantity is used. It can not be over-emphasized. The difference in temperature between the room and the air supply to the room determines the air quantity required to satisfy the room sensible and room latent loads. In determining the required air quantity. Applied Psychrometrics and is presented to show how cumbersome and time consuming it may be. Substitute this supply air quantity and mixture condition of the air in the formula for air quantity thru the apparatus (cfmda) and determine the leaving condition of the air from the conditioning apparatus (tldb). This relationship is generally recognized as a psychrometric correlation of loads to equipment performance. page 150). 39) to determine if these conditions can handle the supplementary loads. and in actual practice accounting for the supplementary loads in determining the supply air.Part 1. However. Assume a rise (trm-tsa) in the supply air to the space. since it involves a trial-and-error procedure. and are evaluated in Chapter 7. The correlation is accomplished by calculating the “effective surface temperature. 3. the supply air condition to the space varies along the RSHF line (Fig. however. well designed. 38. a new supply air rise is assumed and the procedure repeated. the supplementary loads have been neglected in the various discussions. since the mixture temperature of the air (tm) entering the apparatus is dependent on the required air quantity. the supply air temperature is assumed to equal the condition of the air leaving the apparatus (tsa-t1db). This procedure has been simplified. 4. tight system this difference in supply air temperature and the condition of the air leaving the apparatus (tsa-t1db) is usually not more than a few degrees. the required air quantity to the space decreases.

The direction. evaporative cooling. BYPASS FACTOR (BF) FIG. and more water or lower temperature for chilled water equipment. The effect of varying the bypass factor on the conditioning equipment is as follows: 1. to obtain the most economical apparatus selection. 2. d. the air must be supplied to the space at some point along the RSHF line. As such. The two heat transfers are relatively independent of each other.RELATIONSHIP OF EFFECTIVE SURFACE TEMP TO SUPPLY AIR AND CHILLED WATER is applicable to a chilled water cooling medium with the supply air counterflow in relation to the chilled water. 41. Under specified room. Fig. Smaller piping if less chilled water is used. the required air quantity. 44. The relationship shown in Fig. . the “Air Conditioning Load Estimate” form. i. etc. outdoor design conditions and quantity of outdoor air. More heat transfer surface—more rows of coil or more coil surface available. b. Larger bypass factor-a. The physical and operating characteristics affecting the bypass factor are as follows: 1. but the relative position of GSHF may vary as the supply air quantity and supply air condition change. but Bypass factor is a function of the physical and operating characteristics of the conditioning apparatus and. Less air-smaller fan and fan motor. and hence the term apparatus dewpoint (adp) has come into common usage for cooling and dehumidifying processes. Therefore. the effective surface temperature is at the point where the GSHF line crosses the saturation line on the psychrometric chart (Fig. less rows of coil. i. Since cooling and dehumidification is one of the most common applications for central station apparatus. Smaller bypass factor— a. more time for the air to contact the heat transfer surface. c. 40 may also be illustrated for heating. Decreasing or increasing the amount of heat transfer surface has a greater effect on bypass factor than varying the velocity of air through the apparatus. To properly maintain room design conditions. is designed around the term apparatus dewpoint (adp). represents that portion of the air which is considered to pass through the conditioning apparatus completely unaltered.Part 1. 2. less coil surface area. as such. but are quantitatively equal when referred to the effective surface temperature. but the theory is identical. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. the effective surface temperature is used in calculating the required air quantity and in selecting the apparatus. For applications involving cooling and dehumidification. Since conditioning the air thru the apparatus reduces to the basic principle of heat transfer between the heating or cooling media of the conditioning apparatus and the air thru that apparatus. Applied Psychrometrics for these applications the effective surface temperature will not necessarily fall on the saturation line. Higher adp—DX equipment selected for higher refrigerant temperature and chilled water equipment would be selected for less or higher temperature chilled water. Lower adp—Lower refrigerant temperature to select DX equipment. Therefore. 40. slope and position of the lines change. Possibly smaller refrigeration machine. The psychrometrics of air can be applied equally well to other types of heat transfer applications such as sensible heating. 36). there must be a common reference point. as the bypass factor varies. the relative position of GSHF to RSHF changes. this effective surface temperature is considered to be the dewpoint of the apparatus. There is a psychrometric relationship of bypass factor to GSHF and RSHF. The term is used exclusively in this chapter when referring to cooling and dehumidifying applications. A decreasing amount of available apparatus heat transfer surface results in an increase in bypass factor. Possibly larger refrigeration machine. A decrease in the velocity of air through the conditioning apparatus results in a decrease in bypass factor. This point is the effective surface temperature of the apparatus. The position of RSHF is also fixed. direct expansion cooling and for air flowing parallel to the cooling or heating medium. RSHF and GSHF are fixed. As the position of GSHF changes. wider spacing of coil tubes.e. as shown by the dotted lines in Fig.. sensible cooling. the entering and leaving air conditions at the apparatus.e. bypass factor and the apparatus dewpoint also change.

thru the conditioning apparatus. . an economic balance of first cost and operating cost in selecting the proper bypass factor for a particular application. is a guide to representative saturation efficiencies for various spray arrangements. the entering and leaving air conditions at the conditioning apparatus and the apparatus dewpoint are related psychrometrically to the bypass factor. Tables have also been prepared to illustrate the various configurations of heat transfer surfaces and the resulting bypass factor for different air velocities. 42.wadp BF = t ldb – t adp = h la – hadp = wla . the effective sensible heat factor term was developed. The interrelationship of RSHF and GSHF to BF. The calculated ESHF. Fig.wla hea – hadp = wea . Drawing a straight line between the adp and room design conditions (1-2). c. is plotted thru the room design conditions to the saturation line (1-2). lists bypass factors for various coil surfaces. Spray washer equipment is normally rated in terms of saturation efficiency which is the complement of bypass factor (1-BF).Part 1. page 136. The effective sensible heat factor line may also be drawn on the psychrometric chart without initially knowing the adp. page 127.wadp t –t 1-BF = t edb – t ldb = edb adp NOTE: The quantity (1-BF) is frequently called contact factor and is considered to be that portion of the air leaving the apparatus at the adp. page 127. 42 represents the ESHF ratio. ESHF is interwoven with BF and adp.w edb adp ea adp ea adp To relate bypass factor and apparatus dewpoint to the load calculation. d. and thus greatly simplifies the calculation of air quantity and apparatus selection. Fig. Larger piping if more chilled water is used. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. 41-RSHF AND GSHF LINES PLOTTED ON SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART It is. Table 62. This ratio is expressed in the following formula: ERSH ERSH ESHF = ERSH + ERLH = ERTH The bypassed outdoor air loads that are included in the calculation of ESHF are. Table 61. adp and ESHF is graphically illustrated in Fig. unaltered. and hea – hla wea . unaltered. More air-larger fan and fan motor. As previously indicated. the bypassed outdoor air load is supplied to the space thru the air distribution system. The effective room latent heat is composed of the room latent heat (see RSHF) plus that portion of the outdoor air latent heat load which is considered as being bypassed. thus indicating the adp. it can be accurately evaluated mathematically from the following equations: t –t h –h w . EFFECTIVE SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR (ESHF) FIG. thru the conditioning apparatus. Table 63. 43. Applied Psychrometrics b. lists suggested bypass factors for various applications and is a guide for the engineer to proper bypass factor selection for use in load calculations. loads imposed on the conditioned space in exactly the same manner as the infiltration load. Effective room sensible heat is composed of room sensible heat (see RSHF) plus that portion of the outdoor air sensible load which is considered as being bypassed. Although it is recognized that bypass factor is not a true straight line function. The infiltration load comes thru the doors and windows. in effect. however. The effective sensible heat factor is the ratio of effective room sensible heat to the effective room sensible and latent heats. Plotting RSHF and GSHF on the psychrometric chart defines the adp and BF as explained previously. The procedure is identical to the one described for RSHF on page 118. Less heat transfer surface—less rows of coil or less coil surface available. therefore.

These two factors need not be calculated to determine the required air quantity. 1 RSH 1. These are to guide the engineer and may be used in the outdoor air calculation when the actual equipment performance tables are not readily available. RSHF = RSH + RLH = 1 + 2 3 + 4 TSH 2.Part 1.RSHF. BF and adp are required to determine air quantity and to select the apparatus. . is: cfmda = 1. only ESHF. Applied Psychrometrics Tables have been prepared to simplify the method of determining adp from ESHF. in conjunction with the following items. 42. this form is designed so that these factors may also be calculated. BF and adp was shown with GSHF and RSHF. apparatus dewpoint and bypass factor. Normally. GSHF AND ESHF LINES PLOTTED ON SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART 4. since the use of ESHF. GSHF = GTH = 5 ERSH ERSH 3. (The circled numbers correspond to numbers in Fig. using BF and tadp. and also handles the total sensible and latent loads for which the conditioning apparatus is designed. Adp can be obtained by entering Table 65 at room design conditions and at the calculated ESHF. BF 11 used in the outdoor air calculations is obtained from the equipment performance table or charts. Fig. ADP AND BF A simplified approach for determining the required air quantity is to use the psychrometric correlation of effective sensible heat factor. ESHF 8 and room conditions 9 give adp 10 5. But for those instances when it is desirable to know RSHF and GSHF. including the outdoor air loads and the supplementary loads. explains how each factor is calculated. 44).08 (t ERSH) (1 – BF) rm – tadp This air quantity simultaneously offsets the room sensible and room latent loads. Adp located where ESHF crosses the saturation line. FIG. Typical bypass factors for different surfaces and for various applications are given on page 127. BF and adp results in the same air quantity. ESHF = ERSH + ERLH = ERTH 8 = 3 3 + 6 = 3 7 FIG. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.ESHF LINE PLOTTED ON SKELETON PSYCHROMETRIC CHART AIR CONDITIONING LOAD ESTIMATE FORM The “Air Conditioning Load Estimate” form is designed for cooling and dehumidifying applications. 43. AIR QUANTITY USING ESHF. or from Table 65. It is not necessary to plot ESHF on a psychrometric chart. and may be used for psychrometric calculations. the interrelationship of ESHF. The formula for calculating air quantity. Previously in this chapter. 44.

44 AIR CONDITIONING LOAD ESTIMATE . Applied Psychrometrics FIG. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.Part 1.

Frequently a maximum temperature difference is established for the application involved. FIG. Once the apparatus has been selected from ESHF. the entering and leaving air conditions are easily determined. 1. 46 – BYPASSING RETURN AIR ONLY OR NO FIXED BYPASS . the total air quantity in the system is increased by bypassing air around the conditioning apparatus. cfmda = 13 = ERSH 1. and the apparatus dewpoint 10 . dehumidified air quantity 13 . Applied Psychrometrics 6. If the outlet temperature difference calculation is larger than desired. use the cfmda 13 for the value of “cfm†” Fig. Outlet temperature difference – Fig. The entering dry-bulb calculation contains the term “cfm†”*. 45. 45 is a schematicsketch of a system bypassing a mixture of outdoor and return air. adp. 7. that portion of the load estimate form involving bypass factor should be adjusted accordingly.Part 1.08 (trm – tadp) (1 – BF) 3 1. because of some peculiarity in loading in a particular application.BYPASSING MIXTURE OF OUTDOOR AND RETURN AIR When bypassing a mixture of return air only or when there is no need for a bypass around the apparatus. 9. The total supply air quantity cfmsa 14 is used for “cfm†” when bypassing a mixture of outdoor and return air. The calculations for the entering and leaving dry-bulb temperatures at the apparatus are illustrated in Fig. to select apparatus. Entering and leaving conditions at the apparatus— Often it is desired to specify the selected conditioning apparatus in terms of entering and *”cfm†” is a symbol appearing in the equation next to 17 in Fig. If.08 x 13 8. the conditioning apparatus may be selected. 44 FIG. the bypass factor of the apparatus selected is usually in close agreement with the originally assumed bypass factor. Total air quantity when outlet temperature difference is greater than desired.08 x ∆t The amount of air that must be bypassed around the conditioning apparatus to maintain this desired temperature difference (∆t) is the difference between cfmsa and cfmda. Since guides are available. Fig. This temperature difference calculation is: Outlet temp diff = 1.08RSH x cfmda = 1 leaving air conditions at the apparatus. there is a wide divergence in bypass factor. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.10 ) (1 . 46 is a schematic sketch of a system bypassing room return air only. 44.The calculation for the total supply air quantity for a desired temperature difference (between room and outlet) is: 1 RSH cfmsa = 1.08 x ∆t = 1. BF and GTH. The usual procedure is to use the grand total heat 5 . This air quantity “cfm†” depends on whether a mixture of outdoor and return air or return air only is bypassed around the conditioning apparatus.11 ) Once the dehumidified air quantity is calculated. 44 shows a calculation for determining the temperature difference between room design dry-bulb and the supply air dry-bulb to the room.08 ( 9 .

that is. COIL CHARACTERISTICS . The point at which entering dry-bulb crosses the line plotted in Step a defines the entering conditions to the apparatus. using a practical rise between supply air and room air temperatures. It also requires an air distribution system that provides good air distribution within the conditioned space. Normally. Read the leaving wet-bulb from the apparatus at this point. The bypass factor. cooled and dehumidified. the media in turn is heated or cooled in the process. Since the only known items are the load in the space and the conditions to be maintained within the space. The amount of coil surface not only affects the heat transfer but also the bypass factor of the coil. As the air passes over the surface of the coil. depending upon the temperature of the media flowing thru the tubes. Draw a straight line connecting room design conditions and outdoor design conditions. air is drawn or forcedover a series of tubes thru which chilled water.Part 1. c.) d. The components must be selected and integrated to result in a practical system. it is a function of the type and amount of coil surface and the time available for contact as the air passes thru the coil. The procedure for determining the wet-bulb temperatures at the apparatus is illustrated in Fig.ENTERING AND LEAVING CONDITIONS AT APPARATUS AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS The following section describes the characteristic psychrometric performance of air conditioning equipment. b. it is cooled. brine. (This point defines the intersection of the RSHF and GSHF as described previously. An economical system requires the optimum combination of air conditioning components. is the measure of air side performance. Applied Psychrometrics The entering and leaving wet-bulb temperatures at the apparatus are determined on the standard psychrometric chart. performance requirements aestablished and then equipment is selected to meet the requirement In the operation of coils. volatile refrigerant. sprays and sorbent dehumidifiers are the three basic types of heat transfer equipment required for air conditioning applications. the selection of the various components is based on thes items. Coils.) (This line defines the GSHF line of the apparatus. The entering wetbulb is read on the psychrometric chart.) FIG. one having the most economical owning and operating cost. Table 61 gives approximate bypass factors for various finned coil surfaces and air velocities. The point at which the leaving dry-bulb crosses the line drawn in Step c defines the leaving conditions of the apparatus. or heated. Draw a straight line from the adp to the entering mixture conditions at the apparatus (Step b. These components may be used singly or in combination to control the psychrometric properties of the air passing thru them. The selection of this equipment is normally determined by the requirements of the specific application. once the entering and leaving dry-bulb temperatures are calculated. hot water or steam is flowing. Consequently. 47. 47 and described in the following items: a. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. as previously explained.

This is indicated by line (1-5). For practical considerations. tubes and spaced on approximately 11/4 in. The values are approximate.01-.02 .05-. This range is offered to provide sufficient latitude in selecting coils for the most economical system. a description of each with illustrated examples is presented in the following: (Refer to page 149 for definition of symbols and abbreviations.12-.to 0.08-. It is.10-.23 4 .Part 1. Sensible Cooling The first process.40 . 48. illustrated by line (1-2). Factory Application with high internal Dept.03-. or for combinations other than those shown. Factory 0.30. Table 61 contains bypass factors for a wide range of coils. Table 62 lists some of the more common applications with representative coil bypass factors.28 . 0.14 . TABLE 62. If this spray water is recirculated. Dept.11 .05 to 0.20 to 0.01-. Typical comfort application with a Residence.02-. or simultaneously cooling and dehumidifying the air.D.TYPICAL BYPASS FACTORS (For Various Applications) COIL BYPASS FACTOR TYPE OF APPLICATION EXAMPLE FIG. O. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. should be obtained from the coil manufacturer. 14 fins/in.06 6 .02-. somewhat larger load. This table is intended only as a guide for the design engineer. heat is added to the air at constant moisture content. a line that starts at point (1) and curves toward the saturation line below point (3).20 Typical comfort application.10-.05-. Store. line (1-3). They are used to control dry-bulb temperature and maximum relative humidity at peak load conditions.95. Hospital Operating Room. The ESHF for these applications can vary from 0. 48 illustrates the various processes that can be accomplished by using coils. 14 fins/in.04-.10 All outdoor air applications. where the load is A small total load or a load that is 0.02 These bypass factors apply to coils with 5/8 in. Since coils alone cannot raise the moisture content of the air.05 . in effect. Factory 0 to 0.22 .22-. 8 fins/in.06 . COIL PROCESS EXAMPLES To better understand these processes and their variations. represents a sensible cooling application in which the heat is removed from the air at a constant moisture content.) Cooling and Dehumidification Cooling and dehumidification is the simultaneous removal of the heat and moisture from the air. Cooling and Dehumidification Line (1-3) represents a cooling and dehumidification process in which there is a simultaneous removal of heat and moisture from the air.00-.30 relatively small total load or a low Small sensible heat factor with a Retail Shop.06-.15-.02-. Factory COIL PROCESSES Coils are capable of heating or cooling air at a constant moisture content.38 3 .TYPICAL BYPASS FACTORS (For Finned Coils) DEPTH OF WITHOUT SPRAYS WITH SPRAYS COILS 8 fins/in.10 5 .COIL PROCESSES psychrometric process when the air is being cooled and dehumidified.16 .0.15 . Store. centers. Cooling and dehumidification occurs when the ESHF and GSHF are less than 1. Sensible Heating Sensible heating is illustrated by line (1-4). 0. Bank.10 to 0. it will not materially affect the .22 .10 sensible loads or requiring a large Restaurant.14 . Velocity (fpm) (rows) 300-700 300-700 300-600 300-600 2 . a water spray on the coil surface must be added if humidification is required. 48. Bypass factors for coils with plate fins.50 somewhat larger with a low sensible Residence heat factor (high latent load).27-. amount of outdoor air for ventilation.00-.42-.55 .08 . Fig.03 8 . line (1-3) has been plotted as a straight line. Applied Psychrometrics TABLE 61. Fig.

conditions and the ESHF. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. TSH = 200. Effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) 4.000 + (. Fig. 49 illustrates the ESHF plotted on the psychrometric chart.000 Btu/hr RLH –50.000+43. tlwb) FIG.45 where the load is predominantly latent. Assume a bypass factor of 0.15 from Table 62. tadp = 50 F 200.400 Btu/hr (9) 3.08 (75 – 50) (1 . 50% rh RSH –200.785 Determine the apparatus dewpoint from the room design 4. and entering and leaving air conditions at the apparatus.68×2000× (99-65) = 46. OASH = 1.200 Btu/hr (7) TLH = 50. 49. 44 presents the procedure that is used to determine the ESHF.000 + (.200 = 339.000 + (.200 Btu/hr (8) GTH = 243.200 Btu/hr OALH = .200 = 89.200 = 243. dehumidified air quantity. Example 1 illustrates the psychrometrics involved in establishing these values.000 But/hr Ventilation –2. (tedb. tldb.Cooling and Dehumidification Given: Application –5¢ & 10¢ Store Location –Bloomfield. 200.15) Example 1. Grand total heat (GTH) 3. 75 F wb Inside design –75 F db. N.400 Btu/hr (17) 2. Apparatus dewpoint temperature (tadp) 5. Applied Psychrometrics predominantly sensible. tewb. Dehumidified air quantity (cfmda) 6.200) + 50.15) (43.000 + (.08×2000×(95-75) = 43.200) = . J. Entering and leaving conditions at the apparatus (36) NOTE: Numbers in parentheses at right edge of column refer to equations beginning on page 150.. Solution: (14) 1.200+46. by either plotting on the psychrometric chart or using Table 65.200+96. Outdoor air load (OATH) 2.15) (43.200) 5. cfmda = 1.000 cfmoa Find: 1.15) (43. Summer design –95 F db.Part 1. The air conditioning load estimate form illustrated in Fig.000+46.200 = 96.COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFICATION .200) ESHF = 200.15) (46. to 0.200 Btu/hr (15) OATH = 43.

000 = 91. Then.15(79. OASH = 1. to the assumed BF = 0.575 + reheat reheat = 70. Wsa) 9. Apparatus dewpoint (tadp) 4. Example 2.45-50) = 54.05) 51.45 db 9000 Read tewb where the tedb crosses the straight line plotted between the outdoor and room design conditions on the psychrometric chart.74 = 122.000 + . There are four criteria which should be examined. 50 F adp.05) (75 – 48) cfmda is also cfmsa when no air is to be physically bypassed around the cooling coil.000) = .500) + reheat 120. the best approach to determining the apparatus dewpoint is to assume a maximum allowable temperature difference between the supply air and the room.645) intersects the saturation vurve at 35 F. has a bypass factor that is equal. 4. or nearly equal. altering the room design conditions eliminates the need for reheat.000 + . 50% rh RSH – 120.000 + . The supply air conditions to the space must fall on the RSHF line to properly offset the sensible and latent loads in the space. For inside design conditions of 75 F db.000 + (. Supply air condition to the space (tsa. 4.74.. Maine Summer design – 90 F db.500 Btu/hr (17) 2. or reduces the quantity of reheat required.68×2500× (95-65) = 51. 120.500 cfmoa Temp. Supply air quantity (cfmsa) 6.000 Btu/hr (15) OATH = 40. (2000 x 95) + (7000 x 75) (31) = 79. diff. Similarly. 73 F wb Inside design – 75 F db.05 (40. tlwb = 52. Once the ventilation air requirement is determined.500) + reheat + 65.08×2500×(90-75) = 40. etc.05 (40.025 + 70. tewb. 3.Cooling and Dehumidification – High Latent Load Given: Application – Laboratory Location – Bangor. Grand total heat (GTH) Solution: 1. Maximum temperature difference between the supply air and the room. calculate the supply air conditions to the space. and GTH = 339. tewb = 65.74 results in an adp of 48 F which is a reasonable minimum figure.645 (26) When plotted on the psychrometric chart.000 + (.000 cfm. Effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) 3. an ESHF of .05 because of high latent load.08 (1 . an appropriate apparatus dewpoint is selected and the air is reheated to the RSHF line.08 x (1 – BF) (trm – tadp) 122.05 (40. Applied Psychrometrics 6. This may occur where the latent load is high with respect to the total loads (dance halls. assume that it is not necessary to physically bypass air around the apparatus. . the ventilation air quantity required may result in an all outdoor air application. between room and supply air.500) + 65. Outdoor air load (OATH) 2. ESHF (. Leaving conditions from coil (tldb. read tlwb. 2.). Entering conditions to coil (tedb.5 F wb tldb = 50+.05 (40. the utilization of a large air side surface (low bypass factor) coil may eliminate the need for reheat or reduce the required reheat.) Where tldb intersects this line. this ESHF (.7 F wb tedb = Cooling and Dehumidification – High Latent Load Application On some applications a special situation exists if the ESHF and GSHF lines do not intersect the saturation line when plotted on the psychrometric chart of if they do the adp is absurdly low. Example 2 is a laboratory application with a high latent load.000 Btu/hr Ventilation – 2. 20 F maximum Find: 1. Refer to Table 65.500) ESHF = 120.230 = = 6940 cfm 1.15. Fig. Also. The selected adp should provide an economical refrigeration machine selection. Assume a bypass factor of 0. Assume for this example that the apparatus selected for 9. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. Reheat required 5. Wea) 7.74) = 120.Part 1. (This is the GSHF line. These are: 1. Determine dehumidifier air quantity (cfmda) ERSH cfmda = (36) 1. With such a low adp an appropriate apparatus dewpoint should be selected and the air reheated to the RSHF line. but the resulting adp is too low. 3. In some cases. In this example the ESHF intersects the saturation line. In such applications. 50% rh. tlwb) 8.500+51.000 Btu/hr RLH – 65.500 Btu/hr (14) OALH = . Occasionally.025 + reheat 189. 49. Determine amount of reheat (Btu/hr) required to produce an ESHF of . to aid in establishing the supply air requirements to the space.230 Btu/hr 5.000 (25) . Air movement in the space. and if the supply air quantity is not fixed.05) (51.000 + .400.4 F db (32) Determine that tlwb by drawing a straight line between the adp and the entering conditions at the apparatus.

For such applications. GTH = 4. This situation sometimes occurs when the application requires large exhaust air quantities.000 Btu/hr RLH – 11.Part 1. This happens when the ESHF.3-19.08 (cfmsa) (120. or NOTE : Number in parentheses at right edge of column refer to equations beginning on page 150 . Determine supply air temperature to space tsa = trm . If a large difference exists.82 tlwb = 49. Outdoor air load (OATH) 2. 2.000) = 75 .6 F The moisture content at the entering conditions to the coil is real from the psychrometric chart. reheat is required. the ventilation or code requirements may be equal to. Effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) 3.21+.9 gr/lb Determine leaving conditions of air from cooling coil. tedb = Cooling and Dehumidification –Using All Outdoor Air In some applications it may be necessary to supply all outdoor air. 50. substitute cfmda for cfmoa in the outdoor air load calculations.05 (31. Example 3 – Cooling and DehumidificationAll Outdoor Air Given: Application – Laboratory Location – Wheeling. 55% rh RSH – 50.” Example 3 illustrates an application where codes specify that all outdoor air be supplied to the space.82) = 354.500 Btu/hr (24) 6.05 (80. 75 F wb Inside design – 75 F db. Fig. Recalculated outdoor air load (OATH) 6. This new dehumidified air quantity should check reasonably close to the cfmda in Item 1. Applied Psychrometrics an area that requires large quantities of ventilation air. 4. Use the recalculated outdoor air loads to determine a new apparatus dewpoints and dehumidified air quantity. 5. 3.21) = 19. A special situation may arise when the condition explained in Item 4 occurs.45×6940(31.4 (31) Read tewb where the tedb crosses the straight line plotted between the outdoor air and room design conditions on the psychrometric chart. This situation is handled in a manner similar to that previously described under “Cooling and Dehumidification –High Latent Load Application. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. for example. Calculate the various loads and determine the apparatus dewpoint and dehumidified air quantity. 1. 50. Apparatus dewpoint (tadp) 4. Find: 1. as plotted on the psychrometric chart. tewb = 66.1 gr/lb Temp.4-48) = 49.000 But/hr Ventilation – 1600 cfmoa All outdoor air to be supplied to space. Wea = 75. If the dehumidified air quantity is less than the outdoor air requirements. or more than.RSH (35) 1. a coil with a larger bypass factor should be investigated when the difference in air quantities is small.1 F 8.1. Dehumidified air quantity (cfmda) 5. tldb = tadp+BF (tedb-tadp) (32) = 48+.6 hsa = hadp+BF (hea-hadp) (34) = 19. does not intersect the saturation line. a hospital operating room.08 (6940) = 59 F Wsa = 51. Recalculated effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) FIG. Items 1 thru 5 explain the procedure for determining the dehumidified air requirements using the “Air Conditioning Load Estimate” form when all outdoor air is required.3-19. If the dehumidified air quantity is greater than the outdoor air requirements. however. the air quantity required to handle the room loads. the solution is selfevident. diff between room and supply air = trm-tsa = 75-59 = 16 F Which is less than 20 F 9.COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFICATION WITH HIGH LATENT LOAD (2500 x 90) + (4440 x 75) 6940 = 80. West Virginia Summer design – 95 F db. If the dehumidified air quantity is equal to the outdoor air requirements.

000 + (.05) (30. It may also be used at design conditions for industrial applications having relatively high sensible loads and high room relative humidity requirements. tadp = 54.000 + (. and recalculation is not necessary.000) = .5 F.5-71) = 46. the latent load introduced into the space is added to the room latent load. 3.. 50. the adp.600) ESHF = 50. using the apparatus dewpoint (from Step 2) and room design conditions. The ESHF is obtained from a psychrometric chart or Table 65. Deduct the original ERLH (before adding sprays or .05) (34.) 8.000 Btu/hr (17) 50. 4. tadp = 54 F 8. Table 65 shows that.000 = 64. Assume a bypass factor of 0.05) (75 – 54. and by code all OA is required.Part 1. cfmda = 50. the latent load introduced into the room by the humidifier or auxiliary sprays in the space is not added to the room latent load.5) = 2450 cfm (36) Since 2450 cfm is larger than the ventilation requirements.000) = 2500 cfm 1.81 (26) 3. This is sometimes referred to as a “split system.. tadp = trm - Cfmda is the reduced air quantity permissible in the air distribution system.000 + (.05) (34. 50. Table 64 gives the maximum moisture that may be added to a space without causing condensation on supply air ducts and equipment.000) = .000 + (.80 (26) 7.05) (53.000 Btu/hr (14) OALH = .000 + (.A loads. Applied Psychrometrics 7.08 (1 .600) 4.68×1600× (98. then a credit to the room sensible heat should be taken in the amount of the latent heat from the added moisture.5-71) = 30. ESHF = (50. The method of determining the amount of moisture necessary to reduce the required air quantity results in a trial-and-error procedure.05) (34.000 + (.000) 6. Recalculated dehumidified air quantity (cfmda) Solution: (14) 1.000) + 11.000 Btu/hr (15) OATH = 34.000+46. Without humidification.600) + 11. since the process is merely an interchange of heat. The new effective room latent load is determined from the following equation: ERLH = ERSH X 1 . Assume an amount of moisture to be added and determine the latent heat available from this moisture. NOTE : Numbers in parentheses at right edge of column refer to equations beginning on page 150. This method of reducing the required air quantity is normally advantageous when designing for high room relative humidities.05) (53. When the humidifiers and sprays are used to reduce the required air quantity.600 Btu/hr OALH = .08×2450× (95-75) = 53. This not only creates air distribution problems but also is often economically unsound. Cooling With Humidification Cooling with humidification may be required at partial load operation to make up a deficiency in the room latent load.05 from Tables 61 and 62. Deduct this assumed latent heat from the original effective room sensible heat and use the difference in the following equation for ERSH to determine tadp. the O.000 + (.08 X (1 – BF) cfmda The ERSH is from Step 2 and ESHF is from Step 3. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. 2. The humidifier motor adds sensible heat to the room but the amount is negligible and is usually ignored.05) (46.” The moisture is introduced into the space by using steam or electric humidifiers or auxiliary sprays. When the humidifier or sprays are operated only to make up the room deficiency. at the given room design conditions and effective sensible heat factor. cfmda = 1. Recalculating outdoor air load OASH = 1. OASH = 1.500+30. ESHF and the apparatus dewpoint.08 (1 .05) (53. the room sensible load is decreased by an amount equal to the latent heat added.600 Btu/hr (17) 2.000 = 99.ESHF ESHF ERSH 1. The introduction of this moisture into the space to reduce the required air quantity decreases the RSHF. Where humidification is required at design to reduce the air quantity.05) (75 – 54) (36) This checks reasonably close to the value in Step 4.08×1600×(95-75) = 34. and the dehumidified air quantity must be recalculated using 2450 cfm as the OA requirements. The method is outlined in the following steps: 1. 5. Final apparatus dewpoint temperature (tadp. Excessive supply air quantity requirements can be avoided by introducing moisture into the space to convert sensible heat to latent heat.000 Btu/hr (15) OATH = 53. excessively high supply air quantities may be required. 5. No credit to the room sensible load is taken when humidification is used to make up a deficiency in the room latent load during partial load operation.000) + (.68×2450× (98. When humidification is performed in the space.

tlwb) Solution: A. Outdoor air load (OATH) 2. Assume.000 = 131..73 = 48.000+(. Applied Psychrometrics humidifier in the space) from the new effective room latent heat in Step 4.000 Btu/hr (14) OALH = .9 F wb Tldb = 59.000 Btu/hr RLH – 10.000 Btu/hr (17) 2. Example 4 illustrates the procedure for investigating an application where humidification is accomplished within the space to reduce the air quantity.000) + (.000 + (. GTH = 160.05×108. tedb = 160.. When humidification is used in the space: 1. Apparatus dewpoint (tadp) 5.000 + (. assume another value and repeat the procedure.5 F 5.05) (10. Missouri Summer design –95 F db. 7. for the purpose of illustration in this problem.400 × 1 . Check calculated latent heat from the moisture added with amount assumed in Item 1.000+108.05 (76. New effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) 5.000 cfm.2 F 1. 70% F wb Inside design – 70 F db. . New apparatus dewpoint (tadp) 4.600 Btu/hr 6.. Example 4. If it does not check.400 x 70) = 76.92 4. ESHF = 160. New effective room sensible heat (ERSH) 3. 8.400 Read tewb where the tedb crosses the straight line plotted between the outdoor and room design conditions on the psychrometric chart (Fig. Assume 5 grains of moisture per pound of dry air is to be added to convert sensible to latent heat.Cooling With Humidification in the Space Given: Application – A high humidity chamber Location – St.73 (dotted line in Fig. that the maximum air quantity permitted in the air distribution system is 10. ESHF is read from the psychrometric chart as . 51). tlwb = 60 F wb B.000 Btu/hr).000 = 217.ESHF ESHF = 131. NEW ERLH = New ERSH × 1 .000 Btu/hr (15) OATH = 108.000) (36) 4.000) 160. Louis. tldb. Entering and leaving conditions at the apparatus (tedb. Effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) 4. 2.000+109. 2.Part 1. New effective room latent heat (ERLH) 6.68. Assume a bypass factor of 0.68×4000× (117-77) = 109. The result is equal to the latent heat from the added moisture.73 .4000 cfm 1. 70% rh RSH – 160. 51). When space humidification is not used: 1.05) (108.000) = 15.600 [ [10.000+109.000 Btu/hr RSHF .08 (1 . 52). Check for latent heat of added moisture.05 from Tables 61 and 62. Grand total heat (GTH) 3.200 Btu/hr This checks reasonably close with the assumed value in Step 1 (34. tewb = 67.. Latent heat of added moisture = New ERLH – Original ERLH = 48. 5. Dehumidified air quantity (cfmda) (tedb.7-59. NEW ERSH = Original ERSH – latent heat of added moisture = [160.400 Btu/hr 3.5) (36) (31) (400 x 95) + (11. Theoretical conditions of the air entering the evaporative humidifier before humidification. tadp = 59.000 + (.05) (108.05) (70 – 59.05) (109. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.000 + 10.000]-34. Plot the ESHF on a psychrometric chart and read the adp (dotted line in Fig. When space humidification isnot used: 1.4 F db (32) Determine the tlwb by drawing a straight line between the adp and the entering conditions to the apparatus (the GSHF line).000+10.94 Ventilation – 4000 cfmoa Find: A.000) (26) = . tewb. tldb. cfmda = 6. Determine maximum air quantity and assume an amount of moisture added to the space and latent heat from this moisture.000] = 33. tlwb) B. and must check with the value assumed in Step 1. tadp = 70 131. OASH = 1. tewb. read the tlwb (Fig.000 (9) = 387.08 (1 .05) (108.400 = 57.5+.05×109. Where tldb intersects this line. Dehumidified air quantity (cfmda) 6.7 F db 15. When humidification is used in the space: 1. The latent heat is calculated by multiplying the air quantity times the moisture added times the factor .000+(.5) = 60. NOTE : Numbers in parentheses at right edge of column refer to equations beginning on page 150. 51).000 Btu/hr 3.08×4000× (95-70) = 108.

This method of using two humidifiers gives the best control.8 F wb tldb = 57. The humidifier used for partial load is sized for the effective room latent load. Use two humidifiers. 52).Part 1. if a straight line were drawn from the leaving conditions of the apparatus (58.COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFICATION ADDING NO MOISTURE TO THE SPACE The straight line connecting the leaving conditions at the apparatus with the theoretical condition of the air entering the evaporative humidifier represents the theoretical process line of the air. read the tlwb (Fig.4 F db. The theoretical dry-bulb is determined from the psychrometric chart as 73. the humidifier would be sized for a latent load of 48. not including that produced by the other humidifier. 52 illustrate the theoretical air cycle as air passes through the conditioning apparatus to the evaporative humidifier. tedb = (4000 x 95) + (6000 x 70) = 80 F db 10. and finally back to the apparatus where the return air is mixed with the ventilation air.COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFICATION ADDING MOISTURE INTO THE SPACE .94). In Part B. 52). 58 F wb) to the room design conditions. 2.4 F db (32) Determine tlwb by drawing a straight line between the adp and the entering conditions to the apparatus (GSHF line). The theoretical dry-bulb of the air entering the spray is at the intersection of the room design wet-bulb line and the moisture of the air entering the sprays. illustrated on Fig. 1. Applied Psychrometrics 7. Psychrometrically. this line would be the RSHF line and would be the process line for the supply air as it picks up the sensible and latent loads in the space (including the latent heat added by the sprays). FIG. FIG.3 db. 8. 52.2 + (. This moisture content is determined by subtracting the moisture added by the room sprays from the room design moisture content. 52. one to operate continuously. The slope of this theoretical process line is the same as RSHF (. tlwb = 58 F wb Read teub where the tedb crosses the straight line plotted between the outdoor and room design conditions on the psychrometric chart (Fig. The following two methods of laying out the system are recommended when the humidifier is to be used for both partial load control and reducing the air quantity. and the other to operate intermittently to control the humidity. 51. Step 5. adding the moisture to reduce the air quantity. Where tldb intersects this line.05) (80 – 57. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. The heavy lines on Fig. Moisture content of air entering humidifier = 77-5 = 72 gr/lb. This theoretical condition of the air entering the humidifier represents what the room conditions are if the humidifier is not operating. If the winter requirements for moisture addition are larger than summer requirements.000 (31) tewb = 69. then to the room.600 Btu/hr. it can be assumed that the atomized water from the spray heads in the space absorbs part of the room sensible heat and turns into water vapor at the final room wet-bulb temperature.2) = 58. then the humidifier is selected for these conditions. Actually. Use one humidifier of sufficient capacity to handle the effective room latent heat plus the calculated amount of latent heat from the added moisture required to reduce the air quantity.

Outdoor air load (OATH) 2. the tes does not lie on the saturated line and. falls on the GSHF line. The apparatus dewpoint is read as tadp = 48. Room latent heat = 50. When only the RSHF equals.000 + (. the calculations for ESHF.08×(105-75)×(13. Sensible cooling occurs when either of the following conditions exist: 1. (This is the GSHF line. The apparatus dewpoint is referred to as the effective surface temperature (tes) in sensible cooling applications. Fig.0.000 Btu/hr Ventilation – 13.000 8. cfmda = 1. however. The effective surface temperature may be found by using equation 36.000 Btu/hr (15) OATH = 420. the GSHF equals 1. therefore.65) ×13.000+0 = 620.000 3. substitute the cfmoa for cfmda. tldb.6 F In Example 5. Grand sensible heat factor (GSHF) 4.000) (26) 5. (36) 200. read tlwb tlwb=54. tldb = tsa = 105-(1-.Part 1. Solution: (14) 1. TSH = 200.08 x (75 – 48.000+(-50. It is used in the “Air Conditioning Load Estimate” form and in Example 5 to determine the air quantity required thru the apparatus to offset the conditioning loads. tewb.000 + (. tes.000 = -88. will not be the dewpoint of the apparatus.000 Btu/hr 50. Effective sensible heat factor (ESHF) 5. the load and the required air quantity.000 Room moisture content = 54+ . 48.000) = 0 (8) GTH = 620.65 grains Adjusted inside design –75 F db. Since the dehumidified air quantity is less than the NOTE: Numbers in parentheses at right edge of column refer to equations beginning on page 150. ESHF= 200. it does not necessarily indicate a sensible cooling process because latent load.05) 26.000 + 50. The GSHF as calculated or plotted on the psychrometric chart is 1. Dehumidified air quantity (cfmda) 7.08 x (1 . the dewpoint temperature of the entering air. the assumed . Grand total heat (GTH) 3. Example 5. 2. Entering and leaving conditions at the apparatus (tedb.000 Btu/hr (7) TLH = 50. 70 F wb Inside design – 75 F db.000 tes = 75 . The use of the term cfm da in a sensible cooling application should not be construed to indicate that dehumidification is occurring. Applied Psychrometrics Sensible Cooling A sensible cooling process is one that removes heat from the air at a constant moisture content. 1.230 CFM 6.500 Btu/hr (15) The latent load is negative and a greater absolute value than the room latent load. The ESHF calculated on the air conditioning load estimate form is equal to 1.05) 420.000 cfmoa Find: 1.000 Btu/hr OALH = . Plot the ESHF to the saturation line on the psychrometric chart.000+420. tadp and cfmda may still be performed on the term tes for tadp. The effective surface temperature must be equal to.000 = . line (1-2.05 bypass factor is used to determine tes and dehumidified air quantity.000 Btu/hr (9) 620..8 F. or higher than.000 + (.8) (1 .000 = 59. (tes) 6.000 = 1 (27) This is a sensible cooling application since GSHF=1 4. Therefore.05) (105-58. 59.0.000)= 370.05) 420. Apparatus dewpoint (tadp) or the effective surface temp.000+(-50. 7.000 + (. introduced by outdoor air can give a GSHF less than 1.0.000 = -50.. Example 5 illustrates the method of determining the apparatus dewpoint or the effective surface temperature for a sensible cooling application. 50% maximum rh RSH – 200. tlwb) .000 = 620.68 x 13.0.05) (-50. 53. This is an all outdoor air application since the cfmda is less than the ventilation requirements therefore: tedb = toa = 105F tewb = 70F Calculate the tsa which equals the tldb by subsituting tes for tadb in equation (28). Assume a bypass factor of 0. OASH = 1.9 = (36) Since the dehumidified air quantity is less than the outdoor ventilation requirements. The leaving air conditions from the coil are dictated by the room design conditions.68× (54-59.000 = 420. However. the inside design conditions must be adjusted unless there is a means to humidify the air.05) 420.000 Btu/hr RLH – 50.) Where tldb intersects this line.68×(54-64)×13. The ESHF and the RSHF may equal 1.823 200.05 from tables 61 and 62. In most instances.4 F (36) This temperature. In a sensible cooling application.05) 420.0.1.05) x 13. GSHF = 620. fig.7 F (28) Determine the tlwb by drawing a straight line between the tes and the entering conditions at the apparatus.000 + (.000 Btu/hr (17) 2.000 = 58.0.4) = 60. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. 200.65 grains OALH = .Sensible Cooling Given: Location – Bakersfield.000 = 221. This results in a new effective surface temperature which does not lie on the saturated line. California Summer design – 105 F db.

considered to represent that portion of the air passing thru the spray chamber which contacts the spray water surface. the . Under these conditions. t –t W –W h -h FIG. SATURATION EFFICIENCY In a spray chamber. Table 63 illustrates the relative efficiency of different spray chamber arrangements. the counter-flow sprays are the most efficient. Saturation efficiency is. 53. after it has contacted the air. This efficiency of the sprays in the spray chamber is dependent on the spray surface available and on the time available for the air to contact the spray water surface. and the number of nozzles in each bank. For instance. the effect of saturation efficiency on the leaving air conditions from a spray chamber may be determined with a sufficient degree of accuracy from the following equation: Sat Eft = tedb – tldb = W ea – W la = h ea . and with spray equipment the bypass factor is used in the calculation of the cooling load.h la edb es ea es ea es The saturation efficiency is the complement of bypass factor.Part 1. parallel flow sprays are the most efficient. therefore. This still results in a tes above 50. it becomes a question of economic balance when determining which coil selection and which refrigerant temperature is the best for the application.05 bypass factor is used again to determine a new tes. a easure of the spray chamber efficiency.3 F and at the same time maintains a dehumidified air cfm of 13.SENSIBLE COOLING If a coil with a higher bypass factor is substituted in Example 5. parallel flow sprays are the least efficient. a lower tes results. The leaving water temperature will not usually vary more than a degree from the leaving air wet-bulb temperature. The relationship of the spray water temperatures to the air temperatures is essential in understanding the psychrometrics of the various spray processes. number of banks of nozzles. Generally. The air approaches the state of complete saturation. represents that portion of the air passing thru the spray equipment which is considered to be leaving the spray chamber completely unaltered from its entering condition. parallel to air flow. Though not a straight line function. The degree of saturation is termed saturation efficiency (sometimes called contact or performance factor).000 which equals the ventilation requirements. the maximum possible coil bypass factor that can be used is . It can be assumed that the leaving water temperature from a spray chamber. or in a pattern that is a combination of these two. This effective surface temperature is the temperature at complete saturation of the air. Applied Psychrometrics ventilation air requirement. The available surface is determined by the water particle size in the spray mist (pressure at the spray nozzle and the nozzle size). and when both are employed. therefore. The new tes is 58. The spray nozzles may be arranged within the chamber to spray the water counter to air flow. air is brought into contact with a dense spray of water.19. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. This contacted air is considered to be leaving the spray chamber at the effective surface temperature of the spray water. the length of the effective spray chamber. is equal to the leaving air wet-bulb temperature. the saturation efficiency of the spray chamber decreases. Table 63 illustrates the relative efficiency of different spray chamber arrangements. air is drawn or forced thru a chamber where water is sprayed thru nozzles into the air stream. and the direction of the sprays relative to the air flow.4 F. As the available surface decreases or as the time available surface decreases or as the time available for contact decreases. It can be . SPRAY CHARACTERSTICS In the operation of spray type equipment. The time available for contact depends on the velocity of the air thru the chamber. Bypass factor. Then the entering water quantity and the heat required to be added or removed from the air. the efficiency falls somewhere in between these extremes. substituting the ventilation air requirement for the dehumidified air quantity. the quantity of water sprayed.

5 gpm/sq ft†) Velocity‡ (fpm) 300 700 300 700 70% 50% 80% 60% 75% 65% 82% 70% 90% 85% 92% 87% 98% 92% 98% 93% 99% 93% 99% 94% *Saturation efficiency = 1-BF †Gpm/sq ft of chamber face area ‡Velocities above 700 fpm and below 300 fpm normally do not permit eliminators to adequately remove moisture from the air. This is represented by line (1-7). 54. Sensible cooling may be accomplished only when the entering air dewpoint is the same as the effective surface temperature of the spray water. This is illustrated by line (15). Heating and Humidification If the spray water is sufficiently heated. Reference to manufacturer’ data is suggested for limiting velocity and performance. SPRAY PROCESSES Sprays are capable of cooling and dehumidifying. this line approximately follows up the line of the wet-bulb temperature of the air entering the spray chamber. Cooling and Dehumidification If the spray water is cooled still further. the slope of the process line will move down from the evaporative cooling line. Note that the leaving air is lower in dry-bulb temperature. 54. In this process the dry-bulb temperature. This process is represented by line (1-3). In a sensible cooling process. in order to be at or near saturation. but higher in wet-bulb temperature and moisture content. the air leaving the spray chamber is lower in dry-and wet-bulb temperatures but equal in moisture content to the entering air. (This does not include heat gain from the water pump and thru the apparatus casing. cooling and dehumidification takes place. This is illustrated by line (1-6).Part 1. this condition is rare.SPRAY PROCESSES Sensible Cooling If the spray water is cooled further.) When plotted on the psychrometric chart. a heating and humidification process results. Limited cooling causes the leaving air to be lower in dry-and wet-bulb temperatures. Cooling and Humidification –With Chilled Spray Water If the spray water receives limited cooling before it is sprayed into the air stream.TYPICAL SATURATION EFFICIENCY* For Spray Chambers NO. the slope of the process line rises to a point above the evaporative cooling line. The leaving air is lower in dry-and wet-bulb temperatures and in moisture content than the air entering the spray chamber. but higher in moisture content. wet- . This process occurs when air passes thru a spray chamber where heat has not been added to or removed from the spray water. Adiabatic Saturation or Evaporative Cooling Line (1-2) represents the evaporative cooling process. Sensible cooling occurs only when the entering air dewpoint is equal to the effective surface temperature of the spray water. This process is represented by line (1-4). Applied Psychrometrics TABLE 63. All process lines must go toward the saturation line. FIG. The spray water temperature remains essentially constant at this wet-bulb temperature. sensible cooling occurs. and heating and humidifying. than the air entering the spray chamber. cooling and humidifying. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. sensible cooling. Cooling and Humidification – With Heated Spray Water When the spray water is heated to a limited degree before it is sprayed into the air stream. The various spray processes are represented on the psychrometric chart in Fig. than the air entering the spray chamber. OF BANKS 1 2 DIRECTION OF WATER SPRAY Parallel Counter Parallel Opposing Counter 1/8” NOZZLE ¼“ NOZZLE (25 psig (30 psig Nozzle Pressure Nozzle Pressure 3 gpm/sq ft†) 2.

Load Estimating | Chapter 8. Room dry-bulb temperature at design (trm) 2. 55. is required. bypass factor is determined by subtracting the selected saturation efficiency from one.0 Use all outdoor air at design load conditions Find: 1. Supply air quantity (cfmsa) FIG. The “Air Conditioning Load Estimate” form is used to evaluate the load. Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooling application is the simultaneous removal of sensible heat and the addition of moisture to the air. however. Spray chamber dehumidifiers may not be rated in terms of apparatus dewpoint but in terms of entering and leaving wet-bulb temperatures at the apparatus. When the dry-bulb temperature is to be maintained during the winter or intermediate season. When relative humidity is to be maintained in addition to room dry-bulb during the winter or intermediate season. heat must be available to the system.EVAPORATIVE COOLING. The spray water temperature remains essentially constant at the wet-bulb temperature of the air. Although originally prepared to exemplify the operation of a coil. SPRAY PROCESS EXAMPLES The following descriptions and examples provide a better understanding of the various psychrometric processes involved in spray washer equipment. page 128. Cooling and Dehumidification –Using All Outdoor Air When a spray chamber is to be used for cooling and dehumidifying with all outdoor air. (Heat gain from the water pump and heat gain thru the apparatus casing are not included. the procedure for determining adp. 54. 54. South Carolina Summer design – 95 F db. 75 F wb Inside design – 55% rh RSH – 2. This is a process in which heat is not added to or removed from the spray water. and also in dry climates where evaporative cooling gives some measure of relief by removing sensible heat. to evaluate properly the entering and leaving wet-bulb temperatures and the dehumidified air quantity. Cooling and Dehumidification When a spray chamber is to used for cooling and dehumidification. entering and leaving conditions at the chamber. except to hold it above a predetermined minimum. Example 1.000 Btu/hr RSHF – 1. WITH VARYING SATURATION EFFICIENCY . and moisture content of the leaving air is greater than that of the entering air. Fig. The latter method changes the process from evaporative cooling to one of the humidification processes illustrated by lines (1-6) or (1-7) in Fig. Evaporative cooling may be used in industrial applications where the humidity alone is critical. the procedure for estimating the load and selecting the equipment is identical to the procedure described on page 128 for coils. Example 6 illustrates an industrial application designed to maintain the space relative humidity only Example 6-Evaporative Cooling Given: An industrial application Location – Columbia. The apparatus dewpoint must still be determined. is also typical of the cooling and dehumidifying process using sprays. Therefore. This is usually accomplished by adding a reheat coil. line (1-2).) Evaporative cooling is commonly used for those applications where the relative humidity is to be controlled but where no control is required for the room dry-bulb temperature. ESHF and cfmda is identical to the procedure for determining these items for coils using all outdoor air. Applied Psychrometrics bulb temperature. or a reheat coil and spray water heating.100. the description on page 130 and Example 3 may be used to analyze this type of application.Part 1. a combination of preheat and reheat coils.

3 SUPPLY AIR QUANTITY (cfmsa) 102. as the supply air temperature rise decreases.3 an unsatisfactory air distribution system.40 50 1.4 gr/cu ft) Use all outdoor air thru a spray chamber with 90% saturation efficiency.000 Btu/hr RSHF – 1.50 1.25 65 1.0 Moisture added by auxiliary spray heads – 19 gr/lb (13. Table 64 gives the recommended maximum moisture to be added. use the following equation to determine the leaving conditions from the spray for various saturation efficiencies: tldb = tedb – (Sat Eff) (tedb – tewb)* The room dry-bulb temperature in the following table results from various spray saturation efficiencies and is determined by plotting the RSHF thru the various leaving conditions.70 1. South Carolina Summer design – 95 F db. supplemental spray heads are usually added to the straight evaporative cooling system. .6 16.7 92.7 13.7 13.6 16. SAT EFF (%) 100 95 90 85 80 DRY-BULE TEMP LEAVING SPRAYS (tldb) 75 76 77 78 79 SUPPLY AIR TEMP RISE (∆t) 19 17. TABLE 64.Part 1.9 cu ft/lb×1. and the supply air quantity.300 146.6 93. and the room sensible heat is reduced by the amount of heat required to evaporate the sprayed water.3 ROOM DRY-BULB TEMP AT 55% RH (trm) 94 93.200 are arbitrary limits which have been established by a combination of theory and field experience.400 110. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.3 F for every grain of moisture per cubic foot added. This value is often used as a check on the final room temperature as read from the psychrometric chart. Example 7 illustrates an evaporative cooling application with supplemental spray heads used in the space.2 92. These limits apply where the room dry-bulb temperature is 65 F db or over.MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED MOISTURE ADDED TO SUPPLY AIR ROOM DESIGN RH 85 80 75 70 †These Without Causing Condensation on Ducts† MOISTURE ROOM MOISTURE Gr/Cu Ft DESIGN Gr/Cu Ft Dry Air RH Dry Air 1.2 14. the supply air quantity increases in the same proportion. 75 F wb Inside design – 70% rh RSH – 2.08 (trm – tldb) SUPPLY AIR TEMP RISE (trm-tldb) 19 17.80 2.30 60 1. Calculate the supply air quantity for the various temperature rises from the following equation: RSH cfmsa = 1.000 132.60 1. 55. based on a 65 F db room temperature or over.100. The selection is based primarily on economic considerations. to the design relative humidity. and the entering and leaving water temperature to the sprays are all equal.2 14. Applied Psychrometrics Solution: 1. Example 7 –Evaporative Cooling-With Auxiliary Sprays Given: An industrial application Location – Columbia. Determine the room dry-bulb temperature by compromising between the spray saturation efficiency. Fig. Evaporative Cooling Used With A Split System There are occasions when using straight evaporative cooling results in excessive air quantity requirements and *This equation is applicable only to evaporative cooling applications where the entering air wet-bulb temperature. This situation usually arises in applications that are to be maintained at higher relative humidities (70% or more). the acceptable room dry-bulb temperature. As a rule of thumb. This added moisture is evaporated at the final room wet-bulb temperature. These spray heads atomize water and add supplementary moisture directly to the room. the supply air temperature rise decreases. To evaluate these items.35 55 1. When a split system is used. or to use a split system with the auxiliary sprays in the space.600 120. To use straight evaporative cooling with the large air quantity. Correspondingly. Note that the supply air temperature rise decreases more rapidly than the room dry-bulb temperature. the air is reduced in temperature approximately 8. becomes a problem of economics which should be analyzed for each particular application. The spray chamber and supply air quantity should then be selected to result in the best owning and operating costs. without causing condensation on the ductwork. the leaving air wet-bulb temperature.

tldb. The intersection of this wet-bulb temperature with the moisture content of the air leaving the evaporative cooler is the theoretical dry-bulb equivalent temperature if the auxiliary sprays were not operating. However. the room design drybulb would be where the RSHF line intersects the room design relative humidity.2 F db 3. Fig. Applied Psychrometrics Find: 1. the room latent load is usually not calculated and the room sensible heat factor is assumed to be 1.75 F.7 F to 89. From Fig. Psychrometrically.90 (95-75) = 77 F db tlwb = is the same as the tewb in an evaporative cooling process. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. .100. Since the supply air quantity and the spray water quantity have been determined from the summer design conditions. it can be assumed that the atomized water from the spray heads absorbs part of the room sensible heat and turns into water vapor at the final room wet-bulb temperature.100. 56. trm = 89. The theoretical dry-bulb temp is 100. Fig. Supply air quantity (cfmsa) without auxiliary sprays is used to determine the supply air quantity.08 x 23.08 x temp rise 1. 2.7 F db The supply air quantity required to maintain the room design relative humidity is determined from the following equation: RSH cfmsa = = 2. 56. it should be noted that. Heating and humidification may be accomplished by either of the following methods: 1. 2. the room dry-bulb temperature increased from 84. 56. 54.08 (84. tlwb) 2. tldb= tedb-(Sat Eff) (tedb-tewb) = 95-. line (1-7). Example 8 illustrates the psychrometric calculations for a heating and humidifying application when the spray water is heated. For applications requiring humidification. the room dry-bulb is read trm = 84. Room dry-bulb temperature is evaluated by determining the moisture content of the space. Wrm = Wsa+19=128+19=147 gr/lb The 19 gr/lb is the moisture added to the space by the auxiliary spray heads. FIG. Heating and Humidification –With Sprays A heating and humidifying application is one in which heat and moisture are simultaneously added to the air. The difference between this theoretical dry-bulb equivalent temperature and the temperature of the spray chamber. tldb (from spray chamber) = 77 F. by a steam to water interchanger or by direct injection of steam into the water system. It should be noted that this type of application occurs only when the quantity of outdoor air required is large in relation to the total air quantity. Temp rise = 23. The trm is the point on the psychrometric chart where the Wrm intersects the 70% design relative humidity line.75 F db 2.000 cfm 1. If no auxiliary sprays were to be used.7 – 77) = 253. Preheat the air with a steam or hot water coil and then evaporatively cool it in the spray chamber. Fig. This may be required during the intermediate and winter seasons or during partial loads where both the dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity are to be maintained.0.EVAPORATIVE COOLING. Fig. 56.75 4. 56.000 1. the only other requirement is to determine the amount of heat to be added to the spray water or to the preheater. WITH AUXILIARY SPRAYS WITHIN THE SPACE Solution: 1.000 RSH cfmsa = = = 82.08 (trm – tldb) 1. Room dry-bulb temperature (trm) 3. Add heat to the spray water before it is sprayed into the air stream. by reducing the air quantity.Part 1. Leaving conditions from spray chamber (tldb.000 cfm This air quantity is over three time the air quantity required when auxiliary sprays are used in the space.2 F. Spray water is heated. Supply air quantity (cfmsa) with auxiliary sprays 4.

Applied Psychrometrics Example 8. plot the mixture line of outdoor and return room air on the psychrometric chart.Heating and HumidificationWith Heated Spray Water Given: An industrial application Location – Richmond. Virginia Winter design – 15 F db Inside design – 72 F db.5 F db (31) 85. The leaving conditions are read from the psychrometric chart where the room moisture content line (41 gr/lb) intersects the heating and humidification process line. Fig. Heat added to spray water to select water heater.000 To determine the wet-bulb temperature.000 cfmoa (see explanation above) Supply air – 85. 57. Supply air wetbulb to the space = 65. plot the RSHF line on the psychrometric chart and read the wet-bulb at the point where tsa crosses this line (Fig. Supply air conditions to the space (tsa) 2. 57.Part 1.3 gr/lb . 2. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. 57).000 = + 72 = 99.4 F wb The air leaving the spray chamber must have the same moisture content as the air in the room.000 Btu/hr Spray saturation efficiency – 95% RSHF (winter conditions) – 95% Make-up water – 65 F Find: 1. Fig.17 + 17 = 42.500.4 F wb). calculate the entering and leaving air conditions at the spray chamber: (15 x 50. tewb= 32. 57.6 F db tlwb = 43.000) tedb = = 38. 54.3 gr/lb) and the entering conditions to the spray chamber (38.000) + (72 x 35.08 x cfmsa 2. Solution: design room heat loss + t 1. tlwb = 43. To determine the entering and leaving spray water temperature.5 F db and 32. WITH HEATING SPRAY WATER .Wea Wsat = + Wea Sat Eff = 41 . and read the wet-bulb temperature where tedb crosses the mixture line. Fig. tlw) 3. tsa = rm 1.HEATING AND HUMIDIFICATION.000 cfmsa Design room heat loss – 2.8 F wb. the moisture content of completely saturated air is calculated as follows: Wla .4 F wb The temperature of the leaving spray water is approximately equal to the wet-bulb temperature of the air leaving the spray chamber. Wrm= Wla = 41 gr/lb Since the spray chamber has a saturation efficiency of 95%. FIG. Entering and leaving spray water temperature (tew.08 x 85.2 Fdb 1.95 The heating and humidification process line is plotted on the psychrometric chart between the moisture content of saturated air (42.4 F NOTE: Numbers in parentheses at right edge of column refer to equations beginning on page 150.500. 35% rh Ventilation – 50. tlw = 43.000 To determine wet-bulb temperature of the air entering the spray chamber.

830.8 F 3. SORBENT DEHUMIDIFIERS Sorbent dehumidifiers contain liquid absorbent or solid adsorbent which are either sprayed directly into. Assume.34 = 2. then a credit to the heat added to the spray water may be taken. In this example a reheat coil is required to heat the air leaving the spray chamber. that this spray washer is selected for 110 gpm for cooling. 58.34 = water in pounds per gallon 85.Part 1.000 (41 – 17) Make-up water = 7000 x 12.45× (hla-hea) = 85.8 gpm The heat added to the make-up spray water is determind from the following equation: Heat added to make-up water = gpm×500 (tew-make-up water temp) = 2.200 Btu/hr To select a water heater. The amount of make-up water is equal to the amount of moisture evaporated into the air and is determined from the following equation: cfmsa (Wla – Wea) Make-up water = 7000 x 12. instead of adding moisture to the air as in an evaporative cooling process. This mixture must then be evaporatively cooled to the room dewpoint (or room moisture content). However.200 = 1.830.200 Btu/hr It the make-up water was at a higher temperature than the required entering water temperature to the sprays. the total amount of heat added to the spray water is determined by totaling the heat added to the air and the heat added to the make-up spray water. causing a rise in the temperature of the air stream and the sorbent material. The heat added to the air as it passes through the washer = cfmsa ×4. for illustration purposes.000×4.45× (16. As this moisture condenses. The heat added to the spray water (for selecting spray water heater) is equal to the heat added to the air plus the heat added to the make-up water.8×500 (76. depending on the type of sorbent used.4 + 500 x 110 = 76.7 x 8.7 x 8.34 where: wea.SORBENT DEHUMIDIFICATION PROCESSES latent heat of condensation is liberated. 58. moisture is removed from the air by the difference in vapor pressure between the air stream and the sorbent. Heat added to spray water = 1.000+16. to the required supply air temperature of 99.85-12) = 1.830. . And finally. during the sorption process. As moist air comes in contact with either the liquid absorbent or solid adsorbent. The liquid absorbent changes either physically or chemically. the path of the air stream. Heat is added to the air and moisture is removed from the air stream. or located in. The solid adsorbent does not change during the sorption process. at 43. or both. the air leaving the spray chamber must be reheated to the required supply air temperature.2 F db. Applied Psychrometrics The temperature of the entering spray water is dependent on the water quantity and the heat to be added or removed from the air.8-65) = 16. Wla = moisture content of the air entering and leaving the spray washer in grains per pound of dry air 7000 = grains of moisture per pound of dry air 12.7 = volume of the mixture in cubic feet per pound of dry air. determined from psychrometric chart 8. the reverse occurs. In this type of application.000 Btu/hr The entering water temperature is determined from the following equation: heat added to air tew = tlw + 500 x gpm 1. = Line (1-2) is the theoretical process and the dotted line (1-3) can vary. thus it is a dehumidification and heating process as illustrated in Fig.000 = 43. This process occurs at a wet-bulb temperature that is approximately constant.846. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.6 F db and at a constant moisture content of 41 gr/lb. FIG. the water quantity is usually dictated by the cooling load design requirements. The requirements of the application illustrated in Example 8 can also be met by preheating the outdoor air and mixing it with the return air from the space.

the conditions to be maintained within the space. and the broken lines indicate the resulting process at partial load. Control the volume of the supply air. Use on-off control of the air handing equipment. 3. If humidity is to be maintained. must be calculated for the minimum practical room sensible load. Partial load analysis should include a study of resultant room conditions at minimum total load. Figure 59 illustrates the psychrometrics of reheat control. It may also be caused by a reduction in these loads in any combination. If the internal latent loads decrease. 60 illustrates one method of bypass control when bypassing return air only. 4. however. The room thermostat then controls the temperature of the air leaving the reheat coil along line (1-2). 5. or minimum sensible load and full latent load. the resulting room conditions are at point (3). The solid lines represent the process at design load. and available plant facilities. The type of control selected for a specific application depends on the nature of the loads. REHEAT CONTROL Reheat control maintains the dry-bulb temperature within the space by replacing any decrease in the sensible loads by an artificial load. Bypass control may also be accomplished by bypassing a mixture of outdoor and return air around the heat transfer equipment. Fig. the space relative humidity decreases. Certain applications. if humidity is to be maintained within the space. 6. Actually. partial load analysis is at least as important as the selection of equipment.PSYCHROMETRICS OF REHEAT CONTROL BYPASS CONTROL Bypass control maintains the dry-bulb temperature within the space by modulating the amount of air to be cooled. 59. psychrometrically. This was described previously under “Spray Process. thus allowing an increase in room relative humidity. the reduced latent load is compensated by humidifying. Realistic minimum and maximum loads should be assumed for the particular application so that. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. Control the refrigeration capacity. peak load occurs but a few times each year and operation is predominantly at partial load conditions. and the new RSHF process line is along line (2-3). PARTIAL LOAD ANALYSIS Since the system operates at partial load most of the time and must maintain conditions commensurate with job requirements. of controlling space conditions for cooling applications at partial load are the following: 1. Bypass the heat transfer equipment. plotted from room design conditions to point (2). This method of control is inferior to bypassing return air only since it introduces raw unconditioned air into the space. However.Part 1. should be evaluated at minimum latent load with design sensible load. thus varying the supply air temperature to the space. rehumidifying is required in addition to reheat. or in the outdoor air load. As the internal latent load and/or the outdoor latent load decreases. Use on-off control of the refrigeration machine. Reheat the supply air. . thus returning to the design room conditions. Heating and Humidifying. 2. Partial load may be caused by a reduction in sensible or latent loads in the space. The six most common methods.” FIG. This type of control is applicable for any RSHF ratio that intersects line (1-2). The RSHF value. the resulting room conditions are properly analyzed. used singly or in combination. Usually this will be sufficient. Applied Psychrometrics PSYCHROMETRICS OF PARTIAL LOAD CONTROL The apparatus required to maintain proper space conditions is normally selected for peak load operation.

Point (3) falls on the new RSHF line when bypassing return air only. This is a result of a smaller bypass factor and lower apparatus dewpoint caused by less air thru the cooling equipment and a smaller load on the equipment. Applied Psychrometrics FIG. 60. increased relative humidity occurs under conditions of decreasing room sensible load and relatively constant room latent load and outdoor air load. 60) at a higher moisture content than the air supplied when bypassing return air only. However. 60. mixture conditions and apparatus dewpoint continue to change until the equilibrium point is reached. This reduced air quantity results in equipment operation at a lower apparatus dewpoint. Point (2) on Figs. VOLUME CONTROL Volume control of the supply air quantity provides essentially the same type of control that results from bypassing return air around the heat transfer equipment. Line (2-3-4) represents the new RSHF line caused by the reduced room sensible load. therefore. The light lines illustrate the initial cycle of the air when bypass control first begins to function. With bypass control. The new room conditions. this type of control may produce problems in air distribution within the space and. the air leaves the dehumidifier at a lower temperature so that there is a tendency to adjust for a decrease in sensible load that is proportionately greater than the decrease in latent load. The heavy lines in Fig. the required air quantity at partial load should be evaluated for proper air distribution. . 60 and 61 is the condition of air leaving the dehumidifier. 60 represent the cycle for design conditions. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. Fig. Fig.PSYCHROMETRICS OF BYPASS CONTROL WITH RETURN AIR ONLY A reduction in room sensible load causes the bypass control to reduce the amount of air thru the dehumidifier.Part 1. Thus it can be readily observed that humidity control is further hindered with the introduction of unconditioned outdoor air into the space. Bypass control maintains the room dry-bulb temperature but does not prevent the relative humidity from rising above design. 60. therefore. Bypassing a mixture of outdoor and return air causes the mixture point (3) to fal on the GSHF line. Also. The air is then supplied to the space along the new RSHF line (not shown in Fig.

PARTIAL LOAD CONTROL Generally. this type of control is frequently used for high sensible heat factor applications with reasonably satisfactory results. Refrigeration capacity control is normally used in combination with bypass or reheat control. ON-OFF CONTROL OF REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT On-off control of refrigeration equipment (large packaged equipment) results in a fluctuating room temperature and space relative humidity. temperature can be maintained reasonably well.SCHEMATIC SKETCH OF BYPASS CONTROL WITH BYPASS OF RETURN AIR ONLY ON-OFF CONTROL OF AIR HANDLING EQUIPMENT On-off control of air handling equipment (fan-coil units) results in a fluctuating room temperature and space relative humidity. For example. as control of humidity may be lost at reduced room sensible loads. This method of control is not recommended for high latent load applications since control of humidity may be lost at decreased room sensible loads. During the “off” operation air is available for ventilation purposes but the coil does not provide cooling. 61. any outdoor air in the system is introduced into the space unconditioned. Thus. but relative humidity will rise above design at partial load conditions. Also the condensed moisture that remains on the cooling coil. because the latent load may not reduce in proportion to the sensible load. When used in combination. REFRIGERATION CAPACITY CONTROL Refrigeration capacity control may be used on either chilled water or direct expansion refrigeration equipment. is reevaporated in the warm air stream. results are excellent. During the “off” operation the ventilation air supply is shut off. reheat control is more expensive but provides the best control of conditions in the space. Partial load control is accomplished on chilled water equipment by bypassing the chilled water around the air side equipment (fan-coil units). and poor humidity control in low sensible heat factor applications. However. results are not as effective. but chilled water continues to flow thru the coils. FIG. Applied Psychrometrics latent load. This is known as reevaporation. Both of these conditions increase the space . volume control and refrigeration capacity control provide reasonably good humidity control in average or high sensible heat factor applications. When used alone. Direct expansion refrigeration equipment is controlled either by unloading the compressor cylinders or by back pressure regulation in the refrigerant suction line. Bypass control. and excessive humidity results. This method of control is not recommended for high latent load applications. On-off control usually results in the least desirable method of maintaining space conditions. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.Part 1. when the refrigeration equipment is turned off.

APPARATUS DEWPOINTS . Applied Psychrometrics TABLE 65.Part 1. Load Estimating | Chapter 8.

Load Estimating | Chapter 8.APPARATUS DEWPOINTS (Continued) 79 – 72 F DB .Part 1. Applied Psychrometrics TABLE 65.

This limiting condition is the lowest effective sensible heat factor line that intersects the saturation curve.) .244 (trm – tadp) 1076 0. or may be calculated as shown in the following equation: ESHF = 1 (Wrm – Wadp) 1 + . Applied Psychrometrics TABLE 65.Part 1.APPARATUS DEWPOINTS (Continued) 72 – 55 F DB *The values shown in the gray areas indicate the lowest effective sensible heat factor possible without the use of reheat.0.628 (trm – tadp) This equation in more familiar form is: ESHF = 0. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. For Room Conditions Not Given. The apparatus dewpoint may be determined from the scale on the chart. NOTES FOR TABLE 65: 1.244 (trm – tadp) + 7000 (Wrm – Wadp) (Cont. Note that the room dewpoint is equal to the required apparatus dewpoint for an effective sensible heat factor of 1.

must also be corrected for high elevations. 40% rh. which is a small part of the total load.64 . 75 F db.89 .53 . Btu per deg F per lb of dry air 1076 = average heat removal required to condense one pound of water vapor from the room air 7000 = grains per pound.92 .98) (23.70 .82) (26. The latent heat of fusion of the moisture removed is not included in the calculation of apparatus dewpoint below freezing or in the calculation of room load.76 . 2.81 .96 .56 .54 . there is a greater difference in moisture content between the two conditions at high elevation than at sea level. The relative humidity and dry-bulb temperature must be used to define the room condition when using this table because the above equation was derived on this basis.67 .68 on the air conditioning load estimate should be multiplied by the direct ratio of the barometric pressures (p1) .93 .72 . 3.86 .95 .92 .88 .81 .87 .82 .244 = specific heat of moist air at 55 F dewpoint.77 . For High Elevations.89 .63 .09) (22. at a high elevation is lower (except for saturation) than that corresponding to the same condition (75 F db.95 .60 .65 . in order to simplify estimating procedures.58 .68 . Applied Psychrometrics where wrm = room moisture content.78 . gr/lb of dry air Wadp = moisture content at apparatus dewpoint. For effective sensible heat factors at high elevations. The room wet-bulb temperature must not be used because the wet-bulb temperature corresponding to any particular condition.81 .69 .73 .57) Load Estimate Equivalent Effective Sensible Heat Factor Referred to a Sea Level Psychrometric Chart or Tables .85 .87 .60 .71 .85 .55 .91 .83 . grains per pound. see Table 66.58 . o (p ) Using this method. Therefore.57 . 2.82) (25.61 .72 .51 .68 .91 .EQUIVALENT EFFECTIVE SENSIBLE HEAT FACTORS FOR VARIOUS ELEVATIONS* For use with sea level psychrometric chart or tables Effective Sensible Heat Elevation (Feet) and Barometric Pressure (Inches of Hg) at Installation Factor from Air 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Conditioning (28.76 . gr/lb of dry air trm = room dry-bulb temperature tadp = apparatus dewpoint temperature 0.96 . The required apparatus dewpoint for the high elevation is determined from the sea level chart or Table 65 by use of the equivalent effective sensible heat factor. Load Estimating | Chapter 8. Use the same equation as in Note 1.84 . it is assumed that the air quantity (cfm) is measured at actual conditions rather than at standard air conditions.80 .52 . and the same apparatus dew-point.62 .73 .74 .71 .96 . Air conditioning load estimate (See Fig. The selection of equipment on a basis of 16 to 18 hour operating time provides a safety factor large enough to cover the omission of this latent heat of fusion.75 .84 .85 .88 .86 .90 . for example. 40% rh) at sea level.75 .86) (27.69 . 44). The outdoor and room moisture contents.62 .84) (24. .08 and . 3.66 .76 .67 .96 . a higher apparatus dewpoint is required at high elevation for a given effective sensible heat factor.83 .75 .80 .71 .39) (20.88 .96 .85 .Part 1.61 . Reheat-Where the equivalent effective sensible heat factor is lower than the shaded values in Table 65.91 .81 .64 .90 .78 . The factors 1.89) (23.96 .77 .95 .77 .63 .57 .96 . For the same value of room relative humidity and dry-bulb temperature. TABLE 66.66 .56 . reheat is required.59 .82 .50 .55 .80 .59 *Values obtained by use of equation 1 ESHFe = (p1) (1 – ESHF) +1 (po) (ESHF) where po = barometric pressure at sea level p1 = barometric pressure at high elevation ESHF = ESHF obtained from air conditioning load estimate ESHFe = equivalent ESHF referred to a sea level psychrometric chart or Table 66 NOTES FOR TABLE 66: 1.79 .64 .68 .57 .95 . For Apparatus Dewpoint Below Freezing.92 .70 .12) (21.65 .61 .93 .92 .72 .

see. solar table 18 B Bibliography Building survey heat load sources location of equipment location of services space characteristics Bypass control. for partial load Bypass factor coils table 61 C Centrifugal fan capacities table 46 Coil characteristics. form internal load outdoor load Air constants. sorbent dehumidifiers Air By passed around conditioning equipment heat gain from outdoor Air conditioning adiabatic saturation cooling and dehumidification cooling and humidification evaporate cooling heating and dehumidification. heat gain from all types. solar table 18 Apparatus dewpoint high altitude selection table 66 psychrometric principle table Appliances. see heat gain. see heat gain. heat gain from. see coil processes with sprays. bypass factor table 61 Coil processes cooling and dehumidification with all outdoor air with high latent load cooling with humidification sensible cooling sensible heating Computers. electronic. see spray processes Adsorbent dehumidifier. see spray processes Cooling loads. internal Azimuth angles. see coil processes with sprays. see spray processes Crack method summer infiltration thru doors and windows table 44 winter infiltration thru doors and windows table 44 . internal Condensation maximum room rh without con-densation chart 2 maximum moisture added to supply air without causing condensation on supply ducts table 64 Cooling and dehumidification with coils. see coil processes with sprays.A Abbreviations Absorbent dehumidifier. see spray processes Cooling and humidification with coils. see sorbent dehumidifiers heating and humidification sensible cooling sensible heating sorbent dehumidifiers Air conditioning apparatus coil characteristics sorbent dehumidifiers sprays characteristics Air conditioning load estimate. diversity of table 14 Cooling processes with coils. see sorbent dehumidifiers Adiabatic saturation. derivation Air density difference effect on infiltration Air quantity from air conditioning load estimate form psychrometric calculations Altitude angles.

restaurant table 51 E Effective sensible heat factor Effective surface temperature Electric appliances. electric table 53 people table 48. 16-hour operation table 11. thru ordinary glass table 15 Heat gain.24-hour operation table 10. see heat gain. pipes. hooded appliances. system leakage loss. sorbent. system Dehumidifier. electric. heat gain from. table 16 peak solar. thru ordinary glass table 6 storage factors or glass. sunlit and shaded table 19 Evaporative cooling. heat gain to See heat gain.12-bour operation storage factors for glass. electric and gas burning.16-hour operation table 11 12-hour operation. summer table 1 normal outdoor design. system see heat gain. gas burning. restaurant table 51 electronic computer equipment latent. sunlit and shaded table 20 walls. solar direct and diffuse factors for glass block table 17 over-all factors or types of glass. table 50 appliances. system air conditioning fan horsepower . heat gain from All types. see heat gain. see heat gain. steam heated. see heat gain. inside comfort design conditions table 4 Pan capacity centrifugal. intern shade table 7. see heat gain. see heat gain. supply and return duct. thru building structures Heat gain. heat gain from. see sorbent dehumidifiers Design conditions industrial processes table 5 inside factory comfort. 24-hour operation table 9. see psychrometric formulas G Gas appliances. internal Electronic computers. see infiltration Duct heat gain to return duct. see spray processes F Factory. system heat gain to supply duct. see heat gain. table 47 Fan motors. bare steel table 54 pipes. of cooling loads table 14 Door infiltration. internal Equipment selection Equivalent temperature difference roofs. for calculating heat loss thru basement floors and walls tables 16 H Heat flow. appliances. uninsulated table 57 water surface table 58 Heat gain. insulated table 55 pipes. internal Grand sensible heat factor Ground temperature. credit to room sensible heat lights table 49 moisture absorption motors. table 1 outdoor design corrections for time of day table 2 outdoor design corrections for time of year table 3 Diversity. miscellaneous appliances. winter. winter and summer table 4 inside summer comfort table 4 inside winter comfort table 4 maximum outdoor design. internal appliances. restaurant. insulated cold table 56 steam storage factors for lights table 12 tanks.internal Electric motors. heat gain to system. table 46 propeller. bare or external shade table 8. summer table 1 normal outdoor design.D Dehumidifier pump. system Formulas. heat gain From all types.

see heat 0 On-off control of air handling equipment. see coil processes with sorbent dehumidifiers. see heat gain. heat gain from. 16-hour operation table 11 . summer normal design. 12-hour operation factors -for space temperature swing table 13 precooling as means of increasing storage stratification of heat Heat stratification.12-hour operation factors for solar heat gain thru glass. crack method table 44 winter table 43 winter. system I Industrial process design conditions. 16-hour operation table 11. heat gain from. see sorbent dehumidifiers Heating and humidification with sprays.table 59 dehumidifier pump horsepower table 60 percent addition to grand total heat percent addition to room sensible and latent heat return air duct heat gain chart 3 return air duct leakage gain safety factor to room sensible and latent heat supply air duct heat gain chart 3 supply air duct leakage loss Heating and dehumidification. see heat gain. see spray processes Heat storage factors for solar heat gain thru glass. crack method table 44 wind velocity effect Inside design conditions factory comfort table 4 industrial process table 5 summer and winter comfort table 4 Insulated cold pipe heat gain from. internal. for partial load control Outdoor design conditions corrections for time of day table 2 corrections for time of year table 3 maximum design. for partial load Control On-off control of refrigeration equipment. thru windows and doors summer table 41 summer. internal M Moisture absorption. internal Pipe . 24-hour operation table 9. internal Motors. internal shade table 7. summer normal design. see spray processes Heating load estimate form Heat loss thru basement floors and walls in the ground tables 35 thru 37 Heating with coils. see heat gain. see sorbent dehumidifiers with sprays. 24-hour operation table 10. and heat gain. heat gain from. internal transmission coefficient for. internal transmission coefficient for. internal gain. inside design table 5 Infiltration air density difference offsetting with outdoor air. winter summer and winter table 1 P Partial load control bypass control on-off control of air handling equipment on-off control of refrigeration equipment refrigeration capacity control reheat control volume control People. internal L Lights. storage of heat Heat transmission coefficient. heat gain from. see transmission coefficient U Internal heat gain. bare or external shade table 8. see heat gain. summer table 42 stack effect. see transmission coefficient U High altitude apparatus dewpoints table 66 load calculation Hooded appliances. see heat gain. see transmission coefficient U Insulated pipe heat gain from. see heat gain. see heat gain.

internal Return air duct heat gain to. maximum. 16-hour operation table 11. overhangs. capacity table 47 Psychrometric chart Psychrometric formulas air mixing bypass factor cooling load derivation of air constants sensible heat factor temperature at cooling apparatus temperature for supply air to space Psychrometric terms abbreviations apparatus dewpoint. see transmission coefficient U Storage load factors internal heat gain for lights table 12. see heat gain. see heat gain. bare glass or external shade table 8. see heat gain. with chilled spray water cooling and humidification. internal transmission coefficient for. for partial load control Reheat control.heat gain from. system Room sensible heat factor S Saturation efficiency for sprays table 63 Scheduled ventilation Sensible cooling with coils. 12-hour operation solar heat gain thru glass. 24-hour operation table 10. with heated spray water evaporative cooling evaporative cooling used with a split system heating and humidification sensible cooling Stack effect. see heat gain. as means of increasing heat storage Space temperature swing storage factors table 13 Spray characteristics saturation efficiency table 63 Spray processes adiabatic saturation cooling and dehumidification cooling and dehumidification with all outdoor air R Refrigeration capacity control. room. see design conditions . 16-hour operation table 11. heat gain from. without condensation. see heat gain. 1-3 Propeller fan. as means of increasing storage. heat gain from. chart 2 cooling and humidification. heat gain from all types. see coil processes with sprays. see heat gain system leakage loss from. solar Sorbent dehumidifiers liquid absorbent solid adsorbent Space precooling. fins and adjacent buildings chart 1 table 18 Solar altitude angles table 18 Solar azimuth angles table 18 Solar heat gain. 12-hour operation space temperature swing table 13 Storage of heat building structures constant space temperature diversity of cooling loads table 14 equipment operating periods heat stratification precooling space Stratification of heat Summer infiltration. see design conditions Summer outdoor design conditions. standard conditions table 66. see heat gain internal transmission coefficient for. with coils. see coil processes Shading from reveals. system Restaurant appliances. internal shade table 7. see effective surface temperature table 65. high altitude bypass factor table 61. see heat gain. see transmission coefficient U Precooling. internal Steel pipe heat gain from. sprays sensible heat factor symbols Pump. for partial load Relative humidity. see infiltration Summer inside design conditions. coil equipment effective sensible heat factor effective surface temperature grand sensible heat factor partial load control required air quantity room sensible heat factor saturation efficiency table 63.and 24-hour operation solar heat gain thru glass. see spray processes Sensible heat factor Sensible heating. on infiltration Steam appliances. 24-hour operation table 9. 12.

pitched table 28 skylights table 33 tanks. table 29 table 30 doors table 33 floors. internal transmission coefficient for.Sun load. masonry table 26 pipes. system leakage loss from. masonry. flat. immersed in water or brine table 39 pipes. heat flow up table 30 heat flow down floors. see infiltration Wind velocity. effect on infiltration. see heat gain. for partial load W Water surface. insulated table 55 pipes. see infiltration Winter inside design conditions. see heat gain. solar Supply air duct heat gain to. industrial. insulated cold table 56 roofs. heat gain from See heat gain internal Water vapor transmission air space table 40 building materials and structures table 40 ceilings table 40 floors table 40 insulating materials table 40 packaging materials table 40 paint films table 40 paper table 40 paper. in ground table 35 insulation table 31 table 32 partitions. internal transmission coefficient for. system Symbols. bare steel table 54 pipes. glass block table 33 walls. frame table 25 partitions. see psychrometric terms. sheathing table 40 partitions table 40 roofs table 40 roofing felt table 40 walls table 40 Window infiltration. in ground table 35 walls. T Tanks heat gain from. masonry construction. in water table 38 pipes. masonry veneer table 22 windows table 33 scheduled standards table 45 Volume control. see infiltration Winter infiltration. see heat gain. heat gain due to. masonry. see heat gain. masonry construction table 29 table 30 floors. frame construction table 29. frame table 25 walls. see heat gain. covered with built-up roofing table 27 table 32 roofs. see heat gain. light construction table 23 walls. see ransmission coefficient U V Ventilation . ice coated. see transmission coefficient U Temperature swing. masonry table 2 walls. see heat storage Thermal resistance R air space and film table 34 building materials table 34 insulating materials table 34 Transmission coefficient U air spaces table 31 ceilings. system System heat gain. uninsulated table 57 walls. see design infiltration Winter outdoor design conditions see design conditions U Uninsulated tanks heat gain from.

Reaction on Solar Heat (R). 2 – Heating Load Estimate Fig. Average Construction Fig.Reaction on Solar Heat (R). West Exposure. West Exposure. 21 – Shading of Reveal and Overhang . 30° Angle of Incidence Fig. West Exposure. Average Construction Fig. Ordinary Glass. 16-hour Operation Fig. Solar Heat Gain. 19 – Shading by Wall Projections Fig. 30° Angle of Incidence Fig. 12 – Reaction on Solar Heat (R). Average Construction Fig. 30° Angle of Incidence Fig. West Exposure. 30° Angle of Incidence Fig. Solar Heat Gain. 4 – Actual Cooling Load from Fluorescent Lights.Fig. Solar Heat Gain. 3 – Actual Cooling Load. 11 – Actual Cooling Load With Varying Room Temperature Fig. Solar Heat Gain. 16 Hour Operation Fig. Solar Heat Gain Lights. 16 . 15 . 8 – Pulldown Load. White Venetian Blind. 12-hour Operation Fig. 9 – Actual Cooling Load. 10 – Actual Cooling Load from Fluorescent Light. 13 – Reaction on Solar Heat (R). 5 – Actual Cooling Load. West Exposure.Reaction on Solar Heat (R). Solar Heat Gain.1 ⁄4 – Inch Plate Glass. 52% Heat Absorbing Glass. 20 – Shading of Building by Adjacent Building Fig. 18 – Solar Angles Fig. 1 ⁄4 – Inch Plate Glass. 7 – Actual Cooling Load.12 and-16 hour Operation Fig. 17 . 14 – Window Areas Fig. 6 – Pulldown Load. White Venetian Blind. 12 Hour Operation Fig. 1 .1 ⁄4 – Inch Plate Glass.Air Conditioning Load Estimate Fig. Ordinary Glass. 80° Angle of Incidence Fig.

Fig. 27– Outdoor wall Fig. Approximate Fig. 42 – RSHF. 33 – Typical Air Conditioning Process Traced on a Standard Psychrometric Chart Fig. 31 – Conversion of Electric Power to Heat and Light With Fluorescent Lights. 44 – Air Conditioning Load Estimate Fig.Behavior of Absorbed Solar Heat during Third Time Interval Fig.Condensation on Window Surface Fig. 26 . 34 – RSHF Line Plotted Between Room and Supply Air Conditions Fig.Behavior of Absorbed Solar Heat during Second Time Interval plus Additional Solar Heat Absorbed during This Interval Fig. 49 – Coil and Dehumidification Fig. 29 . 39 – RSHF and GSHF Lines Plotted with Supplementary Load Line Fig. 50 – Cooling and Dehumidification with High Latent Load Fig. 51 – Cooling and Dehumidification Adding No Moisture to the Space Fig. 47 – Entering and Leaving Conditions at Apparatus Fig. 52 – Cooling and Dehumidification Adding Moisture Into the Space Fig. GSHF and ESHF Lines Plotted on Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig. 22 – Solar Heat Absorbed in First Slice Fig. 43 – ESHF Lines Plotted on Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig. 38 – RSHF and GSHF Lines Plotted on Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig. 48 – Coil Processes Fig. 25 . 40 – Relationship of Effective Surface Temp to Supply Air and Chilled Water Fig. 46 – Bypassing Return Air Only or No Fixed Bypass Fig. 24 . 45 – Bypassing Mixture of Outdoor and Return Air Fig. 30 – Conversion of Electric Power to Heat and Light With Incandescent Lights. 23 – Behavior of Absorbed Solar Heat during Second Time Interval Fig. 35 – RSHF Line Plotted on Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig. 53 – Sensible Cooling . 36 – GSHF Line Plotted Between Mixture Conditions to Apparatus and Leaving Condition From Apparatu Fig. 37 – GSHF Line Plotted on Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig. Approximate Fig. 32 – Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig. 28 – Condensation Within Frame Wall Fig.Behavior of Absorbed Solar Heat during Third Time Interval plus Additional Solar Heat Absorbed during This Interval Fig. 41 – RSHF and GSHF Lines Plotted on Skeleton Psychrometric Chart Fig.

With Auxiliary Sprays Within the Space Fig. 61 – Schematic Sketch of Bypass Control With Return Air Only . 59 – Psychrometrics of Reheat Control Fig. 56 – Evaporative Cooling. With Heating Spray Water Fig. 55 – Evaporative Cooling. With Varying Saturation Efficiency Fig. 60 – Psychrometrics of Bypass Control With Return Air Only Fig. 57 – Heating and Humidification.Fig. 58 – Sorbent Dehumidification Processes Fig. 54 – Spray Processes Fig.

) TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.) TABLE 2 – CORRECTION IN OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES FOR TIME OF DAY TABLE 3 – CORRECTION IN OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES FOR TIME OF DAY TABLE 4 – RECOMMENDED INSIDE DESIGN CONDITIONS∗-SUMMER AND WINTER TABLE 5 – TYPICAL INSIDE DESIGN CONDITIONS-INDUSTRIAL TABLE 5 – TYPICAL INSIDE DESIGN CONDITIONS-INDUSTRIAL (Contd) TABLE 6 – PEAK SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS∗ TABLE 7 – STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS TABLE 11 – STORAGE LOAD FACTORS. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS TABLE 9 – STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.) TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.) TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS TABLE 12 – STORAGE LOAD FACTORS. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS TABLE 8 – STORAGE LOAD FACTORS.) TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS TABLE 10 – STORAGE LOAD FACTORS. SPACE TEMPURATURE SWING TABLE 14 – TYPICAL DIVERSITY FACTORS FOR LARGE BUILDINGS TABLE 15 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS . HEAT GAIN –LIGHT∗ TABLE 13 – STORAGE FACTORS.) TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.) TABLE 1 – OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS – SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.

TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-PITCHED ROOFS ∗ TABLE 29 . (Heat Flow Up) TABLE 30 . PREFABRICATED CURTAIN TYPE WALLS ∗ TABLE 25 .TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-FLAT ROOFS WITH ROOF-DECK INSULATION TABLE 33 . DOOR&GLASS BLOCKWALLS -DECK INSULATION TABLE 34 – THERMAL RESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATERIALS TABLE 34 – THERMAL RESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATERIALS (Contd) TABLE 34 – THERMAL RESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATERIALS (Contd) TABLE 35 – TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-MASONRY FLOORS AND WALL IN GROUP TABLE 36 – PERMITER TABLE 37 – GROUND TEMPERATURES TABLE 38 – TRANMISSION COEFFICIENT U-ICE COATED PIPES IN WATER . ROOFS COVERED WITH BUILT-UP ROOFING ∗ TABLE 28 .TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-WINDOWS.TABLE 15 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (Contd) TABLE 15 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (Contd) TABLE 15 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (Contd) TABLE 15 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (Contd) TABLE 15 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (Contd) TABLE 16 – OVER-ALL FACTORS FOR SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS TABLE 17 – SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS FOR GLASS BLOCK TABLE 18 – SOLAR ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH ANGLES TABLE 19 – EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (DEG F) TABLE 20 – EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (DEG F) TABLE 20 A – CORRECTIONS TO EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURES (DEG F) TABLE 21 – TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-MASONRY WALLS ∗ TABLE 22 – TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-MASONRY VENEER WALLS ∗ TABLE 23 – TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-LIGHT CONSTRUCTION.TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-CEILING AND FLOOR.TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-FRAME. INDUSTRIAL WALLS ∗ TABLE 24 .TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-LIGHTWEIGHT.TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-FLAT. (Heat Flow Up) TABLE 31 .TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-MASONRY PARTITIONS∗ TABLE 27 . WALLS AND PARTITIONS∗ TABLE 26 . SKYLIGHTS.TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-CEILING AND FLOOR.TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENT U-WITH INSULATION & AIR SPACES TABLE 32 .

TABLE 39 – TRANMISSION COEFFICIENT U-PIPES IMMERSED IN WATER OR BRINE TABLE 40 – WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION THRU VARIOUS MATERIALS TABLE 40 – WATER VAPOR TRANSMISSION THRU VARIOUS MATERIALS (Contd) TABLE 41 – INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-SUMMER∗ TABLE 41 – INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-SUMMER∗ (Contd) TABLE 42 – OFFSETTING SWINGING DOOR INFILTRATION WITH OUTDOOR AIR-SUMMER TABLE 43 – INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-WINTER ∗ TABLE 44 – INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-CRACK METHOD-SUMMER-WINTER ∗ TABLE 44 – INFILTRATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-CRACK METHOD-SUMMER-WINTER ∗ (Contd) TABLE 45 – VENTILATION STANDARDS TABLE 46 – CENTRIFUGAL FAN CAPACITIES TABLE 47 –PROPELLER FAN CAPACITIES-FREE DELIVERY TABLE 48 – HEAT GAIN FROM PEOPLE TABLE 49 – HEAT GAIN FROM LIGHTS TABLE 50 – HEAT GAIN FROM RESTAURANT APPLIANCES TABLE 51 – HEAT GAIN FROM RESTAURANT APPLIANCES TABLE 52 – HEAT GAIN FROM MISCELLANEOUS APPLIANCES TABLE 53 – HEAT GAIN FROM ELECTRIC MOTOR TABLE 54 – HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR BARE STEEL PIPES TABLE 55 – HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR INSULATED PIPES TABLE 56 – HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR INSULATED COLD PIPES TABLE 57 – HEAT TRANSMISSION COEFFICIENTS FOR UNINSULATED TANKS TABLE 58 – EVAPORATION FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE-LATENT HEAT GAIN TABLE 59 – HEAT GAIN FROM AIR CONDITIONING FAN HORSEPOWER. DRAW-THRU SYSTEM TABLE 60 – HEAT GAIN FROM DEHUMIDIFIER PUMP HORSEPOWER TABLE 61 – TYPICAL BYPASS FACTORS TABLE 62 – TYPICAL BYPASS FACTORS TABLE 63 – TYPICAL SATURATION EFFICIENCY TABLE 64 – MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED MOISTURE ADDED TO SUPPLY AIR TABLE 65 – APPARATUS DEWPOINTS TABLE 65 – APPARATUS DEWPOINTS (Continued) TABLE 65 – APPARATUS DEWPOINTS (Continued) TABLE 66 – EQUIVALENT EFFECTIVE SENSIBLE HEAT FACTORS FOR VARIOUS ELEVATIONS∗ .

SHADING FROM REVEALS OVERHANGS. FINS AND ADJACENT BUILDINGS (1-57) CHART 2 – MAXIMUM ROOM RELATIVE HUMIDITY WITHOUT CONDENSATION (1-88) CHART 3 – HEAT GAIN TO SUPPLY DUCT (1-110) .CHART 1 .

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