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N E W YO R K
Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
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About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. and a speaking vocabulary. One way you can do this is to ﬁnd a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. With practice. The words something and whatever work well v . Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. You’ve read words you have never heard. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. Usually you can ﬁgure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. If so. 2. 3. a listening vocabulary.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. it’s a verb. look at the words around it. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. you will eventually see how they ﬁt together. and heard words you’ve never read. Here’s how to start. As you explore the vocabulary in this book. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. though. 1. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. Is it the subject—the person. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. Start small. You can also use trial and error to ﬁnd islands of meaning in a sentence.
the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. or exchange and scholarship programs. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. Once you establish a study plan for yourself. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. Welcome them to your world. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . Think about when would be the best time for you. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. In general.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. and certiﬁcation agencies. Always keep your end goal in mind. during your commute to work. you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. friends. Sometimes. this book will help you prepare. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. and spelling. Whenever the time is right. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. grammar. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. For the TOEFL iBT. If you study hard the first time. Vocabulary is a broad topic. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). licensing. Share them with your coworkers. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. It mostly takes curiosity. write. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have ﬁnished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. Take them apart. It may be first thing in the morning. Determine how much time you have until the test day. or family. thesaurus. or before you go to bed at night. You may ﬁnd you prefer nonsense words instead. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks.
I NTR O D U CTI O N
Now, once you have set a study plan for yourself, look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence, or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. Each chapter is ﬁlled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. As you work through the practice questions, you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. After you answer the practice questions, you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice, reread the questions and try responding one more time. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. The book ﬁnishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). It will be very beneﬁcial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT, not waiting until the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition, and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT.
About TOEFL iBT
he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading, listening, speaking, and writing on effective communication. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.
WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST
Proﬁciency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In many courses, you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. And if you are applying to a graduate program, you may be given a position as a teaching assistant, which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork, instruct them, and grade their assignments. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language, and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school, colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL, you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission.
and Writing. After completing a section of the test. each test taker receives the same range of questions. The test is not computer-adaptive. followed by Listening. The ﬁrst test section is Reading. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage .2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. In other words. The test is worth a total of 120 points. There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. Speaking. you will not be able to return to that section to ﬁnish or change your answers. each followed by 12–14 questions. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages.
You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simpliﬁcation • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons. indicating your remaining time. a passage will appear on the computer screen. Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions. A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage. . The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you. On the right will be a clock.
There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume.4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen. the number of questions in the section. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. you may not go back and review questions. you are asked to click the OK button to conﬁrm that you want to move to the next question. each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. a question will appear on the screen. After selecting Next. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. In the Listening section. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. Difﬁcult words or phrases in the passage may be deﬁned for you. life sciences. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. and your remaining time. and social science 2–3 conversations. physical sciences. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. When the listening passage is complete. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. there are Back and Next buttons.
you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. Listening. For all of the speaking tasks. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. Listening. Listening. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. For four of the speaking tasks. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. you will type your response to two tasks. For the integrated writing task. . and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset.
seven days a week. To schedule a test date in the United States.toeﬂ. or U. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). and other information you will ﬁnd useful. To register by phone. or U. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories). territories. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. You should receive a registration conﬁrmation. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin. call 1-443-751-4862. and a list of writing topics. Canada. you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. To schedule a test date in the United States. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. www. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. You will be given a test date.S. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. you will receive an instant e-mail conﬁrmation. territories. Canada. such as sample questions.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers ﬁll up quickly. After completing the registration form. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . If you do not. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. ﬁll out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. which you must bring to the test center on test day. reporting time. call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. 24 hours a day. To schedule a test date elsewhere. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. test center address.S. test instructions. institution codes. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. To register by mail. and a registration number. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student ofﬁces at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative ofﬁces • from the TOEFL website.
you may view your scores online. the examinee score report will be sent to you and ofﬁcial score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. TOEFL test scores are kept on ﬁle for two years after the test date. Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140. You can have ofﬁcial score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail. by mail. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost.O. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the ﬁnal section scores as well as your total score. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. NJ 08541–6152.M. you will be . (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. you can get one examinee score report and up to four ofﬁcial score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. Box 6152 Princeton. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. call the RRC for your area or country. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. Fifteen days after you take the test. If you reschedule. Requests must be made online. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Ofﬁce P. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. or by fax.
you can take the TOEFL iBT again.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. So. If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your ﬁrst semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. meaning each question has a correct answer(s). PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. contact your RRC.to 30-point scale. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. If you do cancel your scores. However. you can cancel your score at the test center. In the United States. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. For testing elsewhere. or U. territories. and you will not receive a refund. you will receive a refund of $65. Alternatively. Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. after taking the exam. . For each test section. they will not be reported to you or any institutions.S. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the ﬁrst time around. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. After canceling your scores. the points are converted to a 0. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. Canada. the total score will range from 0 to 120. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas.
and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter. you will receive a revised examinee score report. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online.S. NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. Box 6151 Princeton.O. Canada. . daytime phone number. registration number. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. and U. date of birth. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. These revised scores will become your ofﬁcial scores. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. If there is a change in your score. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. If the rescoring conﬁrms your original score. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new ofﬁcial score reports. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. which is found on the TOEFL website. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. you will be notiﬁed via mail.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States.
To receive an ofﬁcial score report. In most cases. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. you will be required to write your signature and sign a conﬁdentiality statement. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identiﬁcation for TOEFL test takers. pagers. or chew gum. DON’T: • bring cellular phones. If. smoke. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. You will also need your registration number. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identiﬁcation. drink. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. If you fail to provide proper registration and identiﬁcation documents on the day of the test. Before the test session. . AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. Read the identiﬁcation requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. raise your hand. • eat. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. Your identiﬁcation will be checked before you are admitted. you must answer at least one question in each section. If. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. for some reason. beepers. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. raise your hand. watch alarms. at any time during the test. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using.
books. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. notes. • leave the test center during the test session and break. calculators. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. • give or receive unauthorized help. pamphlets. translators. dictionaries. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. • attempt to tamper with the computer. • exceed the time permitted for the break. highlighter pens. rulers. . watch calculators. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identiﬁcation. Follow these guidelines.
You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. .2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. the best way to deﬁne a word. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your ﬁrst English words. of course. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. For example. you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. Once in a while. sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). which gives you a very clear definition of the word. Using a dictionary is. Simply put. you have been determining meaning from context. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition.
and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. if you don’t use it. Based on the context of the sentence. 3. comfort with speaking in front of people. The ﬁrst part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. 2. . but sometimes. b. thus signifying that candor means frank. In this case. he can be a bit too honest. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. d. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. Even if you can’t ﬁgure out exactly what candor means. Introduce them to members of your family. sincere speech. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. Candor means a. When you are learning a new word. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. Now. readiness to judge or criticize others. 4. irritability. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. you will soon forget what it means. frank. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Speciﬁc Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. c. only b can be the correct answer.
ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. and left the dishes in the sink. she was back to her old assiduous self. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. so choice c is also incorrect. laziness The correct answer is d. reading and watching television. Thus you can determine what indolence means. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. while the second and third sentences conﬁrm this with speciﬁc details. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. essentially deﬁning the word within the sentence. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. laziness. The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. and paid her bills. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. she slept until noon. deep sleep d. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. But on Sunday. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. Saturday. done her grocery shopping. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. luxurious b. The speciﬁc details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. Again. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. The ﬁrst sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. and by noon. Besides. hard labor c.
if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary. Therefore. very busy on Sunday. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. when you are looking for context clues. for example. or persevering. the connotation can be favorable or positive. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions of the following words. is the sound a duck makes. . ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. For instance. however. Then again. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualiﬁed person who pretends to be a doctor. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. unremitting. You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. cleaning and working around the house (speciﬁc detail). For example. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary deﬁnition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. A quack. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. Assiduous means diligent. you might get a deﬁnition similar to that of two of its synonyms. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary deﬁnition. not functioning or operating Some English words. have more than one meaning. hardworking. spirited and mischievous. while playful is neutral in tone. At a minimum. Sometimes. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active.
Thus.16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. most words have their own unique connotation. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. though. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. has the most positive connotation of these three words. for example. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. Laconic. ample. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. you should choose your words carefully. For example. plentiful. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. While you can have a bountiful. In some cases. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. they are rarely identical. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. and succinct. While some synonyms can be similar. Succinct is more neutral. For instance. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. you can’t even ﬁgure out if it is something positive or negative. on the other hand. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufﬁcient context. when it comes to your own communications. each word carries its own speciﬁc connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. although these words are effectively synonymous. terse. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. In fact. ample. one of these words suggests an overabundance. Terse. and glut suggest abundance. the words bountiful. However. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. But you could ﬁgure out what inept means by . your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase.
then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. Meanwhile. More often than not. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance ﬂoor. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnition.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its preﬁx (in-) and word root (ept). Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. though. you can ﬁgure out what these words mean. Sometimes you will ﬁnd unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. it’s hard at ﬁrst and gets easier as you practice. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. Even if you have no idea what a word means. however. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. but like everything else worth doing. one of the units will express a complete thought. Once you have the key to the code. though. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. Often. There are some basic skills you need to acquire. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. it’s easy to decipher the message. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message.
If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. you have: After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. This question has a blank in each of its two units. it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. Your ﬁnal step is to look at the answer choices to ﬁnd the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). a. The first unit. theological c. Now you know you need to ﬁll in the blank with a word that means “not sacred.” a word such as civic. secular. ➥ After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. the one with the blank. Choice d. religious d. . The second unit. reverent b. or secular. is the best answer choice. For example. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-deﬁned units. consider this sample question: Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. Now you’re ready to use the ﬁrst unit to illuminate the second. the unit without the blank. Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves.
As in the preceding example. . . Now read the sentence using your word in the ﬁrst blank. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. careful . Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. . perambulate. The best answer to this question is choice b. The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. a. . would indicate that kind of temperament. scuttle The ﬁrst unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. . and cause and effect. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. . There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. or move about on one’s own. uses a phrase of comparison. you could be fairly conﬁdent that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. . . if not done before age two. Think of them as clues to a mystery. . daring . Think of something that. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on.” Put it in the ﬁrst blank. perambulate c. comparison. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. Actually is a clue word. If actually were to be removed from the sentence. as illustrated by. careful . Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). . adventurous . Think of a synonym for “not bold. bold. to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. daring. The second unit of the sentence.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best ﬁll in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. amble b. rest d. These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. right? So the word that goes in the ﬁrst blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. reckless .
The ﬁrst unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. as the second unit. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. then ﬁll in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at ﬁrst glance. for example. and as illustrated by. as shown. in other words. despite. when you see one of these words or phrases. however. This is the logical relationship of contrast. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. You might choose the word social. in fact. despite. similarly. using the punctuation to guide you. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. such as on the other hand. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. or opposition. as well as. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the ﬁrst unit is in opposition to solitary. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. and yet. First divide the sentence into two units. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. and. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. and and. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. or on the contrary. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely. or sociable are other options. Friendly. although. however. all meaning “not solitary. but. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. Now you have as the ﬁrst unit. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. and that is. gregarious. Words that signal comparison include likewise. but.
and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. and phrases such as due to. This sentence has three units. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. illogical c. consequently. and because. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. cumulative b. irrelevant . Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. When you know what the complete unit says. In other words. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. or its synonym. Foster never stood up straight. The blank in the third unit. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. a. English is a difﬁcult language because it is so visually confusing. Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. therefore. Again.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. ➥ Scientiﬁc knowledge is usually _______. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. decreasing d. therefore. Words such as thus. two complete and one incomplete. or very nearly so. needs to be ﬁlled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. as a result. You may also ﬁnd it helpful to use a nonﬁction or ﬁction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. The ﬁrst two units tell you that before military school. Foster slouched. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. This will help you match the word to its written form. The correct answer will be posture. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book.
Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. cumulative. which. while disdain and revere are opposites. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. of course. chances are you will understand the crucial words. The incomplete unit. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. you will be daunted if you are timid. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. you’ve made a good start. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. • You might disdain something that is banal. J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. To prepare for these types of questions on the . tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientiﬁc knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. • You might vacillate if you are timid or difﬁdent. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. the one with the blank. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. • You might grovel if you are servile. applies to lots of stuff.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. have nearly the same meaning. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. Abate and ebb. using key words and phrases. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. for example.
Read carefully. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. Look for speciﬁc details that provide clues to meaning. and speciﬁc detail. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. . however. This is a skill you can practice every day. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. Remember the four types: restatement. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. contrast. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. like the TOEFL iBT. Often. By reading actively. By reading carefully. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. it is a good idea to become an active reader. the more you will comprehend. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. This may sound like a contradiction. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. From the start. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. To help you eliminate answers. surprisingly. have a dictionary handy. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. At a minimum. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. and the less time you will spend looking up words. positive/negative.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. For example.
She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. demographic c. practical d. blasé . domain b. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. 1. talkative b. remainder c. nominal b. a. a. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. receptive c. accomplished c. incumbent 2. a. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. but secretly she was very excited. dedicated b. artiﬁcial d. candid d. assessment 4. nocturnal 3. revenue d. a.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank.
loneliness d. dedicated c. outmoded . aged b. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. he longed most of all for _____________. a. fulcrum d. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. nadir 6. association c. solitude b. receptive c. unnecessary d. summit c. a.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. a. accessible b. scented c. decrepit 7. a. irrelevancy 8. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. musty d. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. ambiguous 9. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. We were tired when we reached the _____________. eloquent d. a. but now it is _____________. current b. circumference b.
c. c. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. d. Futile means a. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. b. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. of local origin. natural. d. dangerous. radical. d. Benign means a. clearly and fully stated. a. chronologically ordered. discovery d. Explicit means a. intricate. c. complex. to close down temporarily. to be full of. b. they were on a _____________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of tea. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. . b. 12. to be under close scrutiny. useless. nearly overﬂowing. 14. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. harmless. fruitful. insane. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. cadence 11.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. Teem means a. surge b. b. ambiguous or implied. c. d. 13. quest c. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign.
d. to create. d. c. elegant. b. c. 16. d. Elusive means a. cut 500 words from the 2. c. 18. Evade means a. b. to deviate. b. Terse means a. stray. to intensify. to change the tone. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. who was always one step of his creator. preferring a more terse writing style. to refuse to answer directly. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. 17. Digress means a. to regress. 19. descriptive. b. to express concisely.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15. c. factual. difﬁcult to capture. concise. d. . revert. to soften. Diffuse means a.000-word article. to deceive. to answer indirectly. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. to escape or elude. b. to refuse. difﬁcult to avoid. d. c. The editor. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics. difﬁcult to forget. difﬁcult to compare.
b. b. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. to conﬁrm. 7. antics b. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. unlike loneliness. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. can be a desirable thing. a. a. bolster d. b. 6. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. activities 22. d. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. foster c. Solitude. c. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. banter c. The summit means the highest point. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. 1.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. behavior d. and it would be something a person who works in a busy ofﬁce would crave. a. to surprise. . to guess. 8. Surmise means a. d. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. Incumbent means holding any post or position. 21. d. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. 2. 3. to believe. c. 4. Revenue is the income of a government. where the hikers would have a good view. 5. a. sustain b. c.
to soften or make less brilliant. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. gentle. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. b. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. d. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. exact. Benign means not harmful or malignant. The sentence tells you that Dr. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. 13. eluding the grasp. there is likely to be a great number of security ofﬁcers in the hotel. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. mild. 19. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. To diffuse means to spread throughout. who constantly escaped his grasp. using no unnecessary words. disperse.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. b. straightforward. Terse means concise. hopeless. 20. Futile means useless. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. difﬁcult to capture. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. deviate. 10. a. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. b. vain. 18. d. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. to avoid fulﬁlling. 15. or doing. having a beneﬁcial effect. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. Elusive means evasive. 14. a. . to be present in large numbers. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. producing no result. b. To teem means to be full of. a. 21. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. 16. 17. d. d. 12. answering. 11. To digress means to turn aside. dramatically reducing its wordiness. d. c. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing.
and d are all incorrect. . c. Choice a. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. thus. b. The speaker would.30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. If the friend has a “sinking morale.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. want to raise or bolster this morale.
For example. ﬁx. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. Learning preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in another language may seem like a daunting task. meaning before. Though preﬁxes and sufﬁxes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. There are dozens of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in the English language.3 Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. Thus the meaning of the root word. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. you are already using the same preﬁxes and sufﬁxes with simple words that you already know well. the word preﬁx itself uses the preﬁx pre-. This chapter reviews preﬁxes and sufﬁxes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. changes: 31 . but the job may be easier than you think. A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is essential to building an effective vocabulary.
including inept. O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. Knowledge of preﬁxes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. If you know that the preﬁx poly. take the word polyglot. For example. to eliminate incorrect answers. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. c. d. For example. is an expert in global issues. it is the only possible correct answer. is easily frightened.means many. the base upon which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are added preﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning sufﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. speaks many languages. Thus. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a preﬁx alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a preﬁx to determine whether a word is positive or negative.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ﬁx: to place securely or ﬁrmly preﬁx: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used preﬁxes. b. meaning not—not suitable or competent. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. administers lie detector tests. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word. which uses the preﬁx in-. knowing that the .
millennium. that is. decathlon. rather.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 preﬁx mal. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. to arrange. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. . evil. Among the most common number related preﬁxes are: un-. bilateral. b. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. these examples are not test-prep words. trident. This will help you remember the meaning of each preﬁx—and show you just how well you already know them. With a few exceptions. b. or wrong can help you signiﬁcantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. To malign is to say evil. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the preﬁxes are the numerical preﬁxes. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. For each preﬁx. d. trinity. With your knowledge of preﬁxes. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. harmful. triple) quad-. Take a look at some words that contain numerical preﬁxes: bipartisan (two parties). enchant. quart. traditionally in three orders of priority). and trilogy (a series of three plays). millimeter) Following is a list of the preﬁxes. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. to charm. bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. monotonous. you may be able to choose the correct answer. quarter. to speak badly about. decimal. to speak ill of. you can eliminate choices a and c. and often untrue things about someone. centipede.means bad. c. to cast an evil spell. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. unity. mono-: one (unique. bicameral. quar-: four (quadrant. decibel) cent-: hundred (century. we have provided two examples of words that use that preﬁx.
occur. circum-: around. or an occurrence) co-. apart. against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). abs-: from. before anterior (placed before). in front of. away. expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). intervene (to come. a particular incident. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). informal (not formal) inter-: between. appear. out of. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. ant-: opposite. atypical (not typical) ab-. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. not dismiss (to send away from. antedate (to proceed in time. opposing. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. come before) anti-. without amoral (not moral). together. off abduct (to take by force). com-. comply). or lie between two points of time or things) . eject). disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. jointly cooperate (to work together. an-: not. away from exit (go out). reversal. among. about. con-: with.
superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). beneath. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). predict (to forecast. make known in advance) re-: back.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. ill. polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). to take the place of) sub-: under. below subdue (to overcome. evil. opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). of unusually high quality. recent. bring under control). submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. magniﬁcent. malpractice (wrongdoing. wrong. over. replace (to put back in its former position. wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). abnormal. multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. exceeding superb (grand. again rebuild (to build again after destruction). excellent). neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonﬁction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than ﬁction).
. dis-. Some preﬁxes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. After you have completed this chapter. make sure you review the list carefully and study any preﬁxes that are unfamiliar to you. in-. and illegible. Other preﬁxes only remotely affect word meaning.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. and il. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . . the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present deﬁnition. The point of learning about preﬁxes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. the preﬁxes un-. displeasing. Go to the movie theater to see a ﬁlm in English. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts.” Historically. . as in unhappy. not a verb. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. For example. which means “ten. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. the more you will understand. For example. Try watching the evening news. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them.36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English preﬁxes is located in Appendix B. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you. inconsiderate. You may also realize that the sufﬁx -ian calls for an adjective. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken. which means “to completely destroy. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds.” in the word decimate. For example. or rent a ﬁlm in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. there is only a distant hint of the preﬁx deci-. The important point to remember is that in learning preﬁxes. As you use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to determine meaning.
interrupt For example..g. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. ancient. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Deﬁnition one who opposes or contends with another. Helen. opponent opposing. imagine. contend. tells where. that dog) several (e. or concept verb shows an action. exhilarating that (e. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. or a modiﬁer. occurrence. how many. Elm Court. soon Examples cloud. Sufﬁxes tell you whether a word is a person. place. oblong. combating. an adversary. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. They often change a word’s part of speech. brush. can also identify or quantify. to provoke the hostility of . or thing (a noun). which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). Part of Speech noun Function names a person. how and to what extent white. clumsily. an action or state of being (a verb). other adverbs. never. adversarial to oppose actively. jump. adjectives. feel. place.g. ant-). thing.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. when. tells what kind.. several dogs) slowly. very. valor go. car. look how the sufﬁxes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the preﬁx. here. how much adverb describes verbs. which one. or entire clauses.
However.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. d. but look for other clues to meaning as well. to scream or squeal. the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. just knowing sufﬁxes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. nauseated. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. if you know that the sufﬁx -ity means state of being. or shocked. For example. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. Thus. Only choices c and d deﬁne adjectives. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. c. if you know that -ish is a common sufﬁx for adjectives. Squeamish means easily sickened. easily disgusted. Select the best answer to the question. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. Choices a and b are deﬁnitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. such as equality (state of being equal). not adjectives. For example. extremely shy. zero in on its meaning. respectively. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. . but they are both verbs. but it can help you determine the function of the word. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. deserving of honor and respect. as you come across vocabulary words with common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. to honor with a sense of awe. depending upon its sufﬁx. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Deﬁnition to regard with deep respect or reverence. recurring illness. and only choice d is correct. Similarly. BUT NOT ALWAYS While preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. disgusted. ➥ Squeamish means a. b. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech.
-ence: action. or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. process. produces. believes. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. and economic equality of the sexes). dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). and again. paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. etc.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the sufﬁxes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. process. makes. political. politician (one who seeks or holds a political ofﬁce) -ion: act or process. For each sufﬁx. ﬁdelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance. we have again provided two examples of words that use that sufﬁx. or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). state or condition detection (the act of detecting). or process. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. practice. . function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. state. the transitional period between youth and maturity). pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality.
vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. you can quickly and accurately learn the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes by remembering examples of words you already know. or resembling a child). tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. improbable) -al. characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. such as cooperate and dismiss. -ial. useful). ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. damaged. frail). realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. abjectly submissive. -ible: capable or worthy of. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama. Because the words are already so familiar to you. -ical: having the quality of. or destroyed. unable to be believed. or characteristic of a humanitarian). in the manner of a fool) . incredible (not credible. relating to. -ian: related to. pertaining to.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difﬁcult vocabulary word for each preﬁx or sufﬁx. theatrical). you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. servile (pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave. However. trustworthy). or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. exhibiting folly. slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of.
Remember that you use preﬁxes and sufﬁxes every day. having the quality of. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. done with or working with others for a common purpose). annoyed) -ify. You already know much of this material.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. to make inferior in quality or character). The more familiar the word is to you (e. rather. form into beautify (to make beautiful). angry. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. famous). democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. -fy: to make. relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. to make impatient. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.. nauseous (causing nausea. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become. to bring about colonize (to establish a colony). Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. By memorizing these essential word parts. ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Use as many . -ose: full of. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the preﬁx or sufﬁx.g. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. impair. all the time. cooperate). Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. they change or add to the meaning of the root word. Remember that preﬁxes and sufﬁxes alone do not create meaning.
Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. c. 3. word roots (covered in the next chapter). Use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to eliminate incorrect answers. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. coming before. including preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. 1. d. 2. Allow for exceptions. c. word roots. try to recall another word with a similar root. Check preﬁxes. put forth in writing. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. d. cut into parts. relating to the circus. Plug in that meaning with the preﬁx or sufﬁx and see if it makes sense. ﬁghting against. looking after. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. not every -ist word is only a noun. many sided. b. Circumspect means a. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns deﬁning a kind of person (one who does). b. and context. two-faced. to examine thoroughly. c. Antecedent means a. and context if possible to conﬁrm meaning. uniform. . b. looking around carefully. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. under the authority of. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. The more you narrow down your choices. Does it match the part of speech of the deﬁnition according to the sufﬁx? If you know the preﬁx or sufﬁx but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Multifaceted means a. d.
a nonbeliever. to issue a warning. 5. amount. Consensus means a. a counting of individuals. 7. d. to send a message. amount. Supercilious means a. 8. disappointing. to warn in advance. c. to make equal in status. or degree. to be uncertain. c. doubtful. an individual opinion. d. haughty. incapable of making a decision. or degree. d. To presage means a. c. one who is equal in status. d. exactly as expected. or degree. Parity means a. general agreement by a group. c. Agrarian means a. the state of being equal in status. 6. to pressure. exact tone. b. d. b. or degree. amount. to cultivate. questionable. less than the norm. c. b.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. to be out of date. with an air of superiority. b. Dubious means a. relating to land or land ownership. b. one who doubts. to age gracefully. to doubt or question. 9. amount. c. b. the act of making someone or something equal in status. . d. speaking in a measured.
10. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. to be active or aware. d.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. value or degree. The verb sufﬁx -ize means to cause. 4. The preﬁx non. 3. d. fraught with uncertainty. a. the state of becoming active or aware. Parity means having equality in status. 8. 1. complex. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. the thing. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. reversing a previous opinion or decision. . wary. not showing anxiety or excitement. 6.means many. 11. amount. not showing anxiety or excitement. foretell. relating to.means with. an opinion or position reached by a group. d. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering preﬁxes and sufﬁxes? Check your answers here. done with the intent of harming another. The preﬁx super. a. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. The adjective sufﬁx -ian means related to. b. The preﬁx ante. c. on all sides. Nonchalant means a. questionable. b. to bring about.means around. The preﬁx circum. d. wavering. disdainful. c. d. haughty. c. to cause to become active or aware. c. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance. 9. The preﬁx con. c. circumstance.means before.means before. d. 5. Galvanize means a. indifferent. Antecedent means that which precedes. together. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. b. watchful. 2. or exceeding. The preﬁx pre. The preﬁx multi. over. Consensus means general agreement or accord. Dubious means doubtful. or event that came before. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. 7. Circumspect means cautious. b. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of. one who becomes active or aware. equivalence. scornful. 11. to predict.means above. challenging.means not. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another).
You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. In fact. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. the stronger your vocabulary will be. so. For example. The more word roots you know. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. the more roots you know. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. The study of word origins and development 45 . do many of the words in the English language. too. meaning name. Needless to say. meaning hand. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning.Word Roots 4 P reﬁxes and sufﬁxes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning.
He will write the information on a graph. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. For example. Phil loves to help others.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. or spelling. All the eggs are in the pan. green. however. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. the acronym Roy G. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. . Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. meaning. or acronyms (words that are made up of the ﬁrst letters of a group of words or phrases. yellow. violet). When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. blue. For now. For example. My mother plants herbs in her garden. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. Meaning “memory aid. tunes. orange. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. indigo. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots.
Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. stop. proper. move on. useful: • Use rhymes. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an ofﬁce or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. especially after an interruption. for example. etc. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. kind ous: sufﬁx meaning having the quality of. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. process . homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. meaning to go. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. a course of action or conduct. The Latin roots err and pug. Now. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. related to Thus. (often with reluctance). roots are the base to which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. place. therefore. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. a thing yielded. to yield. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. respectively. or tunes. rhythmic patterns. yield. On occasion. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to this root and how the different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes change meaning. rank. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. But most of the time.
Thus. and the sufﬁx -ant means being in a state or condition of. plac. ceaseless. going between. retreat d. to go forward blindly b.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. yielding readily under pressure. pacify. meaning the act or state of. withdraw. d. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. continuous. cess means to go. b. stop. to go together with others Remember your preﬁxes from Chapter 3. again. to move or go below the surface. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efﬁcacy of a drug . continuing without interruption. meaning to please. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to the root word. ced means to go. you can also answer the following question. to move back. self-satisﬁed. not stopping. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. The preﬁx in. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. c. retreat.means not. or yield. performing or causing an action. placate: to appease. to stop or abandon before completion c. or among. Re. to move or go back. Now add the noun sufﬁx -sion. to allay the anger of. try determining what the word recede means: a. not direct. through. yield.means back. incessant means continuing without interruption. Recede means c. ➥ Incessant means a. stop. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. subliminal. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. Again. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. The correct answer is b.
again. For example. we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. For example. a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time. you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. to remember the root pug. meaning time. For example. Similarly. especially visual learners. To remember that eu means good or well. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. If you are an auditory learner. If you are a visual learner. to record in chronological order. or a boxer with a pug nose. or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. chronic: continuing for a long time. you can picture the letters EU on a well. because the colors of the trafﬁc light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. use pictures to help you remember words. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop.WO R D R O OTS 49 J HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. on-going. . you could try one of these sentences for the root am. stop. we can create even more words. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. habitual. I love Amy. I love ham. You could also picture a trafﬁc light for the root ced/ceed/cess. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. yield. be simultaneous By changing the sufﬁx of synchronize. meaning love: I am love. the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. Many different words can be built from a single root. For example. to occur at the same time.
predict (to foretell. bitter acid (something that is sharp. or ill natured). romantic. dict. cess: to go. make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you. sour. captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war. tell.50 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. to rebuke) ced.). taking note of the examples. chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank. as with a beating. Review the list carefully. After you have completed this lesson. affectionate). use words dictate (to say or read aloud. especially the American Civil War). acute (extremely sharp or severe. etc. stop antecedent (that which precedes). exceed (to extend beyond or outside of. chastise (to punish severely. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. ceed. enamored (inﬂamed or inspired by love. make known in advance) equ: equal. which once again are mostly everyday words. keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love. yield. equidistant (equally distant) . to issue orders or commands). COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. even equate (to make or consider two things as equal). surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime). rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. mea culpa (Latin. dit: to say. profession. acr: sharp. “my fault”) dic.
lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light. bubble. burning. to amplify). high spirited. enlighten). error (a mistake. nat. lum. nox: harm. nic. conspicuous. to lessen the force or purity of). max: big magnify (to increase in size. translucent (almost transparent. maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand). projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface). lofty. distinguished) nas.WO R D R O OTS 51 err: to wander err (to make a mistake). volume or signiﬁcance. to make unﬁt or harmful to living things) mag. loqu: word. not dangerous or harmful). burn fervid (very hot. noc. nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country). maj. hateful) . effervescent (bubbling up. luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. pollute (to make impure or unclean. free from guilt. death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. vehement). lut. innate (possessed at birth. ardent. as a carbonated liquid. allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug. log. animated) loc. eminent (towering above or more prominent that others. inborn. neologism (a new word or phrase) luc. an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil. hang over prominent (standing out. inherent) nec. manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project. speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people). obnoxious (offensive.
call back. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). strong) voc. taciturn (habitually untalkative. active. repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. outspoken). reverse. calm. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. forceful. tranquil (free from disturbance. verify (to conﬁrm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. pound: to put. bright. implied). still). revoke (to cancel. reserved) ver: truth verdict (the ﬁndings of a jury in a trial. placate (to appease or pacify) pon. place deposit (to put or set down. aware). pos. science (knowledge. tending to express oneself often and freely. transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. anxiety. withdraw) . interchange) pug: to ﬁght pug (a boxer). brilliant. prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. disposed to ﬁght) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). decision or judgment). hostile. vigorous (energetic. place). vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. distinct).52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). true to life.
A sufﬁx like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. . too. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. the root of credible is cred. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. sufﬁx. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. unnecessary. Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. or preﬁx. preﬁx. Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. In this case. Otherwise. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. For instance. If you are lucky. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. sacred.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. Very often. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. For instance. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. To identify most word parts—word root. and credit. Preﬁxes come before the word root. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. which means to trust or believe. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. Not only do you need to know the word in question. Knowing this.
especially one made of biological materials). autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. or cause to do so. seeing with one’s own eyes) card. habitual. especially one used as a burial place). slope. to give support. slant. one who creates plans for buildings). cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). having inherent power of action or motion). courage. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. clin: to lean toward. long-lasting or recurrent). cord. ongoing. andro: man. or conﬁdence. principal. such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external inﬂuence or control. ruler architect (one who plans or devises. the sequence in which events occurred) cli. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). bend incline (to lean. archy: chief. archi. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. to have a tendency or disposition toward something). anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. encourage (to inspire with hope. cryptography (secret writing. chronology (the arrangement of events in time. epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) .
dia: apart. well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. deviate. obstinate). width). synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. digress (to turn aside. or swerve. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. having a uniform structure or composition throughout).WO R D R O OTS 55 di. excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). a marked change of form. dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. thickness. abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). character. homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). or function). dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind. dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). especially one praising someone who has died).
religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). all the gods of a people or region) pas. respond to a visual clue in a word. pat. suffering. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). agreement between two people) ped: education. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed ﬁeld) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books).56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. a large orchestra) theo: god. preﬁxes. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). and sufﬁxes. a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). remember to focus ﬁrst on roots. feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. existence. for example. theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. You might. harmony. path: feeling. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way.
Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. the meaning of the root bel is war. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. . The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. Here again are some speciﬁc strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. the root ac means sharp. ﬁghts in a war. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. for instance. Similarly. bitter.in impervious means not. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. For example. The prefix im. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and signiﬁcantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. fervent has the root ferv. for example. By memorizing common preﬁxes. which means to boil. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. burn. For example. and word roots. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. A rebel. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s preﬁx with that same preﬁx on another word she knows. Here are some speciﬁc strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. sufﬁxes. bubble. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship.
is very clear and intelligible. The more familiar the word is to you (e. talkative. try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. By memorizing these word bases. 1. good natured. is loosely held together. d. Remember that you use common word roots every day. d. if possible. use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. 2. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. to determine meaning. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. c. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. errs repeatedly in its logic. highly educated.. loud. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. often without realizing it. An amiable person is a. Look at all parts of the word and the context. You already know much of this material. honest. c. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. tenuous. Remember that word roots work with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. Use the power of association. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. . truthful. b. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. predict. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. A lucid argument a.g. friendly. The more you narrow down your choices. equate). frequently digresses. b. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question.
stop or block that person from doing something. hackneyed. d. d. frequently makes mistakes. 7. antiquated. not ﬁt for consumption. c. harm that person. d. . d. c. b. tumultuous. d. to solve it. c. d. very isolated. truthfulness. b. To exacerbate a problem means a. c. chaotic. dull. to lessen it. value or worth. c. c. b. but does not accept responsibility. trite. b. is known to tell lies. circumference. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. at rest. still. Something that is eloquent is a. very old. self-satisﬁed. is contented to a fault. to analyze it. harmful. embellish the truth. inedible. To indict someone is to a. charge that person with a crime. b. A complacent person a. 4. to worsen it. b. 6. 8.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. A quiescent place is a. pick a ﬁght with that person. 5. dangerous. expressed in a powerful and effective manner. likes to pick ﬁghts. weight.
a. unscented. refreshing. 10. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. . good natured. Veracity means truth. Quiescent means inactive. is even-tempered and composed. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. The root loc/log/loqu means word. d. 1. d. easy to understand. b. at rest. intelligible. or bitterness of. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. has a violent temper. enjoys the company of others. tell. A person with equanimity a. ﬂuent. quiet. b. 7. The root equ means equal. The root luc/lum/lus means light. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. d. pleasing. a. Lucid means very clear. The root ver means truth. b. speech. 6. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. 4. tantalizing. especially under stress. A noxious odor is a. is very stubborn. patience and composure. c. Complacent means contented to a fault. d. self-satisﬁed (pleased with oneself). use words. 8. 3. and persuasive manner. b. c. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. The root plac means to please. To exacerbate means to make worse. likeable. d. 2. The root ac means sharp. The root qui means quiet. to increase the severity. death. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. bitter. even-temperedness. 5.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. The root am means love. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. d. c. harmful. d. even. violence. 10. truthfulness. unwholesome. 9.
5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your ﬁnger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. he will learn something new about his craft. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring. fall. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 . or winter to ﬂavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry. summer. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. They are called homonyms. For example. One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things.
as are slay and sleigh. you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. If so. There are dozens of homophones. . KON-dukt (n) means behavior. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. For example. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. or stress.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A speciﬁc type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. The term for these words. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. for example. this chapter will help you get them straight. like TOEFL iBT. are homophones. Night and knight. for example. His conduct in school was terrible. homophone. many of which you may already know. and bear and bare. but have different spellings and meanings. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. on one part of the word. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. while others that you may still ﬁnd confusing. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. Otherwise. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. or piece or peace. great and grate. It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly.
CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to inﬂuence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (ﬁnancial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief deﬁnition of each word.
verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. suggest to assume. deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to ﬁnd something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late . having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint. verb) compliment (noun.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun.
her. not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue proﬁts main person in charge. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are . sum of interest-earning money standard still. she. or they substitute for him.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. That is, you might encounter questions that use the deﬁnition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Here’s an example: To waive means a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. b. to return to the original starting point. c. to relinquish a right or claim. d. to swell up or rise to the surface. The correct answer is c. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily, relinquish; to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule, penalty, standard procedure, etc.). If you don’t know the meaning of waive, however, you might be tempted to choose a, which is the deﬁnition of its homophone wave, or d, which is related to the deﬁnition of a wave. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its deﬁnition. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct preﬁxes. But the preﬁxes are attached to the same root, and the preﬁxes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis- means away from, apart, reversal, not; unmeans not, against. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. However, only uninterested has this meaning. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased, free of selﬁsh motives or interests—a different word entirely. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar, but they also have similar meanings. Take the homophones cue and queue, for example. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles, although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. However, cue also means a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S
HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS
These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. To keep them straight, think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Lie Lie means to rest, to recline. (subject) past tense: lay, had lain Don’t just lie there, do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Rise Rise means to go up. (subject) After it is ﬁlled with helium, the balloon rises. Set Set means to put or place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. Lay Lay means to place, to set down. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table.
You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. The ones you don’t know, you simply need to memorize. The question is, how do you remember these differences in meaning, especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. And when it comes to frequently confused words, mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous, for example:
ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity; showing inventiveness and skill, remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. not cunning or deceitful, unable to mask feelings; artless, frank, sincere. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness
The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. You can use this difference to remember key words in the deﬁnition of each word.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings
Similarly, the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the preﬁx. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation.
a allude (˘·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to elude (i·'lood) v. 1. to escape from or evade, especially by cleverness, daring, or skill. 2. to be incomprehensible to, escape the understanding of a appraise (˘·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of ˘ apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform
ascent (a·'sent) n. 1. an upward slope. 2. a movement upward, advancement ˘ ˘ assent (a·'sent) n. agreement; concurrence; consent censor ('sen·sor) v. to forbid the publication, distribution, or other public dis˘ semination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. n. an ofﬁcial who reviews books, ﬁlms, etc. to remove what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable ˘ censure ('sen·shur) n. expression of strong criticism or disapproval; a rebuke or condemnation. v. to criticize strongly, rebuke, condemn ˘ sensor ('sen·sor) n. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light, smoke, etc. cue (kyoo) n. 1. a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something; a hint or suggestion. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles; a queue queue (kyoo) n. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing
2. reputation. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. to withhold approval or assent. fake. impending ˘ emanate ('em·a·nayt) v. the act of descending or moving downward. to pretend. 2. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. to separate and scatter in different directions. etc. the range. to differ in opinion. 2. about to occur. towering above or more prominent than others. to provoke.. 1. gladly feign (fayn) v. hereditary derivation. distinguished ˘ imminent ('im·˘·nent) adj.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·sent) adj. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. 1. a vast multitude . an enemy. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. 1. to call forth or draw out. forbidden by law. to come or issue forth. a large group or crowd. adversary. distance. character. 2. depreciate depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v. n. 2. contrary to accepted morality or convention e eminent ('em·˘·n˘nt) adj. sufﬁcient. 1. 1. 2. or degree to which something reaches or extends. as from a source extant ('ek·stant) adj. destroyed or lost ˘ extent (ik·'stent) n. to think or speak of as being of little worth. cache. 1. illegal. to lessen the worth of. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. 2. with joy. not extinct. to express disapproval of. to collect and lay up. a hidden store or stock. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. disagree. lofty. nonconformity ˘ deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. standing above others in quality. a difference of opinion. to diminish in price or value. 2. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or ˘ correct. to cause to do so. to distribute widely. a downward slope or movement. 1. meeting acceptable standards. still in existence. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. v. artiﬁcial. to belittle.
to increase in size. dictate. the pointed top of a mountain. spirit peak (peek) v. 1. summit. activity. or intensity. to vex or create resentment. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. courage. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘ meddle ('med·el) v. interfere ˘ mettle ('met·el) n. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. artless. to be full of. quantity. to be present in large numbers . implausible. or strength. 1. 1. n. 1. sincere. to level to the ground. or mistreat. 1. demolish completely. pique (peek) v. 2. 1. fortitude. 2. to prohibit. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. n. to oppress. to cause annoyance or irritation.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·bel) adj. 2. to erase. to bring a criminal action against. not cunning or deceitful. make higher. to join together so as to form a team. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. to lift. degree. to reach its highest point or maximum development. beyond belief. the act of raising or increasing. 2. 2. or intensity peek (peek) v. frank. a brief or furtive look. put in an upright position 2. to issue commands. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. the highest possible point of development. activity. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. to provoke or arouse ˘ persecute ('pur·se·kyoot) v. unable to mask feelings. harass. religious or political beliefs. skeptical. marked by inventive skill or creativity. unwilling to believe ingenious (in·'jeen·yus) adj. n. or sexual orientation ˘ prosecute ('pros·e·kyoot) v. 1. 2. order something to be done. a group organized to work together. 2. 1. obliterate team (teem) v. n. to carry on. especially because of race. remarkably clever ˘ ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. 1. astonishing ˘ ˘ ˘ incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. showing ˘ inventiveness and skill. continue. intensity. to intrude in other people’s affairs. 2. 3.
Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. 1. 2. dispense with wave (wayv) v. especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. Review. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. Meddle. Pay attention to details. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. appraise has the word praise in it. rhymes will be more effective. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. Or teach them to someone else. if you are a visual learner. etc. to move up and down or back and forth. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. The more carefully you read each deﬁnition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. for example. 1. 3. 2.). If you are an auditory learner. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. rush. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. . For example. 1. especially of the hand. Remember to make the most of your learning style. relinquish. And then review them again. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. undulate. you will remember which word has which meaning. and appraise means to evaluate. For example. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. n. Use ﬂash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. review. standard procedure. For example. penalty. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well. Use these words. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. a surge. review. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. 2. the more likely you are to ﬁnd a “key” for you to remember the differences between them.
6. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. 1. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. 10. but she didn’t say anything directly. 2.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. 8. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. 5. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. for example. have the root scrib/script. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. 7. 3. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. 4. Both prescribe and proscribe. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. Once again. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. 9. . meaning to write.
standard procedure.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. 10. 3. move on. or degree to which something reaches or extends. 2. disbursed. remarkably clever. proceed. 5. ascent. ingenious. waive. a movement upward. 1. censor. penalty. imminent. 6. prosecuted. especially after an interruption. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. 9. relinquish. Imminent means about to occur. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone.). 7. alluded. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. extent. To censor is to forbid the publication. impending. Extent means the range. 4. 8. distribution. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. An ascent is an upward slope. To disburse means to pay out. To proceed means to go forward or onward. advance. . distance. etc. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. showing inventiveness and skill. To allude means to make an indirect reference to. advancement.
or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the ofﬁce until late last night. that there were people able to interpret a political ofﬁce seeker’s actions in a favorable light. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. He was on the phone when I got to his house. and the third.6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to deﬁne outside of the context in which they are used. however. the second. They’re called idioms. 74 Taken literally. All of these expressions are idioms. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their ofﬁce chairs. perched on top of telephones. In its simplest form. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign. depending on how it’s used within a sentence. you know that the ﬁrst means that someone was delayed at work. that a man was talking on the phone. .
I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. for example. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. A related term is tenure track. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these deﬁnitions. Through overuse. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. “Pretty as a picture. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT. which are frequently heard around campus. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the ﬁnancial ofﬁcer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. or the world of education. and slang. is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. their impact is lessened. In college.” “right as rain. colloquialisms. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. . An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. or even ask a university representative. They are too well known to English speakers. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. try and locate the deﬁnitions of the following words. Some of the words you’ll ﬁnd in the world of academia. An idiosyncrasy. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job. referring to the self.
people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difﬁcult. For instance.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. give it a shot: try for the ﬁrst time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . presumably. hot heels result from running hard. What people in the United States call an “apartment building. where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group. up to the job.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms.” Here are some idioms with their deﬁnitions. All languages have their own idioms.” the British call a “block of ﬂats. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms.
occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. from Reagan and economics. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver ﬁnd out: discover. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. . which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. Reaganomics.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion ﬂy off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. all fouled up. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen.
a colloquialism. it happens rarely. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. If you burn out at something. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. it means that you need the services of an electrician.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. _____ . the more familiar they will feel to you. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. or a cliché. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. If it happens once in a blue moon. The more you hear how they sound. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. textbooks. 4. _____ 5. “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________. 2. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. Once again. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the deﬁnitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. 3. and other dayto-day communications. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. 1. and the easier it will be to remember them. Answer yes or no to the following sentences.
2. 7. _____ 7. 3. If you give the slip to someone. you hand over your undergarment. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . If you give something a shot.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. _____ 8. you are willing to try. 6. 8. 5. 1. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something. 4.
however. adversely b. When you are ﬁnished. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. she was very _____________. candidly d. 1. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. favorably 81 . check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Directions: For questions 1 through 20. a. aloof d. artistic 3. Take your time when answering each question. I have always liked your positive attitude. expressive b. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. (We suggest not timing yourself. We knew everything about the newest member of our group.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. elitist b. ingenious 2. After you complete the test. a. make a list of these words. secretive c. irrational c. if you come across words that you are unsure of. reserved d. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. shamelessly c. Then. a.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary.
a. reminisced d. a. a. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. devised c. it could cause serious health problems. condoned . docile 5. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. a. commonplace c. explicit d. arduous c.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. valid b. meddlesome d. quenchable c. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. priceless b. If your drinking water is not _____________. impure d. a. delectable b. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. conformed b. decreased d. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. The directions to the new ofﬁce were _____________. dispersed 8. embodied 6. encompassed b. released c. potable 7.
obscurely 12. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. Wanting to make a good impression. monotonous b. redundancy c. eminently b. torrid c. presumed d. quandary d. concept 11. a. a. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. vital 13. a. resolved . Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. virtuously c. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. conspicuously d. conformity c. prestige b. supposed b. perplexity d. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. a. priority b. ample d. deﬁcit 10. a. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. To get the promotion she wanted. surmised c.
After running an early 5K race. winding highway. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. audibly 17. a. attraction c. dynamically b. beneﬁcially 18. council c.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. a. voraciously c. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. reunion 15. The ﬁre alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. a. mishap b. disguise d. approvingly b. reﬂex d. dissented b. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. duplicate . agitated 16. portrayal b. careened d. symbolically d. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. generously d. ventilated c. a. signiﬁcantly c. a.
Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people ﬁnd his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. refreshingly honest. d. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. enemy. a. d. luxuriously c. 23. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. stranger. 22. c. ﬁlibuster d. b. in a new location. scatter c. measurably d. a. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. relentlessly funny. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. 21. mystery. d. Enigma means a. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. c. cutting edge. Caustic means a. c. Exorbitant means a. . rendezvous b. b. disperse 20. very high. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. to orbit. b. original.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. newcomer. Understanding the world economic conditions. warily b. bitingly sarcastic. Sandra is truly an enigma. belonging to a group.
c. of or like a condemnation. one who denounces or openly condemns another. hierarchical. . To reconcile means a. without distinction. repeated frequently to aid memorization. 28. understated. one-sided. d. Denunciation means a. organized according to rank. b. to multiply. to undermine. Subordinate means a. d. b. b. to preach. c. the process of instructing. d. moralizing. c. moralize. 26. a transformation. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. something ordinary or average. to surpass. a teacher or instructor. to reestablish a close relationship between. b. to transform. critical. c. d. b. 29. one who has changed. intended to instruct. to move away from. 25. b. tending to change frequently.86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. to denounce or openly condemn. d. outdo. Metamorphosis means a. 27. Unilateral means a. under someone else’s authority or control. literal. c. c. d. Didactic means a.
c. d. villain. Miscreant means a. penetrating. know intimately. an evil person. Perennial means a. rest quietly. to act forcefully. ﬁght. c. revoke. b. the process of encoding a message. to establish contact. someone who lacks creativity. 34. 31. worthy of consideration. relating to the acquisition of territories. d. b. lasting a very long time. an empire built by acquiring other territories. 33. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. occurring at intervals between two times or points. . one who acquires items from other empires. d. Incisive means a. Intermittent means a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. quarrel. b. biting in nature. c. b. 32. b. abolish. b. greatly varied. a very naïve person. c. someone who is unconventional. a number between one and ten. insight. d. c. To abrogate is to a. constant. badly handled. one who plants a garden. d. 35. d. Imperialism means a. c.
a place to rest. hobo. has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. c. has existed for a long time. A magnanimous person is a. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. d. is extremely friendly. c. . give in to. generous. d. rambling speech. If there is amity between two nations. given to wordy. c. A vicarious action is one that a. An edict is a. speak in a whisper. call attention to.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. 38. highly noble. 41. enables a guilty person to be set free. peace. bitterness. mask the truth. b. a place to stop. the act of seeing or shining. is bitter or resentful. d. c. is experienced through the life or action of another. b. extremely talkative. c. comply with another’s wishes. b. war. d. b. d. c. b. a wanderer. surrenders the rights of others. there is a. exists only in the imagination. 39. 37. equality. b. a formal proclamation or command. d. 40. To acquiesce is to a.
Directions: For questions 46 through 59. carefree. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. 48. is not discerning. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to ﬁnd out how much it is worth. 43. intense. nosy. A loquacious person a. in its proper place. is properly ordered. c. tends to talk a great deal. ﬁery emotion. tends to like everyone. c. ruthless. often has difﬁculty ﬁnding things. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. d. light-hearted. combative. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. but believe me.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. A pugnacious person is best described as a. d. straying from the norm. To feel fervor is to feel a. d. 46. he is very anxious to learn more about you. d. moves at a constant. 45. b. as with guilt. meandering. talented. appropriate. 44. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. . c. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. Something that is erratic a. 49. has good intentions. c. calmness. burdened. 47. b. is unpredictable. steady pace. peace. b. b.
I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). a partial report a. I think he’s telling the truth. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. let’s eat here.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. 55. 54. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. or sufﬁxes. visible d. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. enhanced . preﬁxes. identiﬁable b. 56. 59. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. 57. You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. 58. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). 53. 51. A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. 60. incomplete c. 52.
conﬁrm b. a substantial report a. negate c. deny d. moderate work ﬂow a. hasten c. slow b. reverted b. proven d. processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. original b. corroborate the statement a. alleged 62. transgressed c. tardy d. inconclusive b. regular 65. regressed d. weighty c. ﬁnal d. punctual b. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. excessive . challenge 63. average c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. pause d. rain delay a. slack c. 64. desist 66. manufactured goods a. prompt payment a.
” and other such overused sayings a. aﬁcionado . façade 71.” “sleep like a baby. 68. cliché b. gauche 72. oeuvre 70. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. bourgeois c. par excellence b. gestalt b. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. insouciant d. blasé b. ﬁnal d. hiatus c. the complete works of Shakespeare a. imbroglio 69. savoir faire d. mélange c. ﬁrst b. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. rendezvous c. milieu c. apropos b. mélange d. “work like a dog. an avid sports fan a.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. avant-garde d. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. initial impression a. zeitgeist d. crisis c.
steady. b. A synonym for comply is a. available. choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. cheerful. conﬁne b. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. ﬂatter. proactive a. 78. subdue. sufﬁcient. perform d. A synonym for adequate is a. 73. . c. b. d. immense. see c. c. slight. d. c. mediocre. d. attentive. adamant. A synonym for vast is a. after b. inscribe a. b. behind 74. entertain. d. 76. 77.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 93 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. b. c. toward d. proﬁcient. write 75. forward c. obey. average. eager.
Voraciously means having a huge appetite. a. 19. 10. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. d. a. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. 2. An antonym for uniform is a. a. to lurch or swerve while in motion. 5. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. d. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. 8. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. Encompassed in this context means included. 16. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. c. dissembling. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. 6. wild. 4. b. a. Explicit means clearly deﬁned. 7. a. Ingenious means marked by originality. a. Docile means easily led or managed. b. . b. 9. A synonym for ecstatic is a. and cleverness in conception. Favorably means gracious. kindly. c. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. to plan to obtain or bring about. ravenously. 11. 80. d. 13. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. a. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. or obliging. d. 3. resourcefulness.94 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. c. thrilled. d. c. 14. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. positive. b. attracting attention. d. 18. d. bizarre. ANSWERS 1. c. 12. slovenly. inconsistent. d. diverse. c. 17. 15.
The preﬁx uni. a. b. Incisive means penetrating and clear. 21. and watchful prudence. The noun sufﬁx -sis means the process of. The preﬁx re. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. The main context clue is that people ﬁnd Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. The adjective sufﬁx -ial means having the quality of. a. a bafﬂing problem or riddle. wrong. Intermittent means occurring at intervals. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic. Choices b and c are both nouns. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. 25. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. b. cunning. cutting. to bring back to harmony. related to. beneath. a marked change of form. 22. 23. constantly recurring. an evil person. a. d. but for choice b to be correct. a. d. Only choice b deﬁnes a quality. a. The preﬁx sub. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another. The adjective sufﬁx -ive means having the nature of. Metamorphosis means a transformation. Didactic means intended to instruct. character. or function. and as a verb (notice the -ate sufﬁx) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. The preﬁx ex. 32. away from.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 95 20. 26. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between. The preﬁx mis. (2) to make subservient. acute. it would require the sufﬁx -ist. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. The noun sufﬁx -tion means the act or state of. 28. not continuous. Miscreant means a villain. suitable for. 31. sharp. c. d. Unilateral means one-sided. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable.means between or among. . The context tells you that people know who Sandra is. but no one knows anything about her. d. criminal. she remains a mystery. secondary. again. biting. forever.means bad. (2) subject to the authority or control of another. 29. below. periodic.means one. thus.means under. 33. The preﬁx inter.means out. Perennial means lasting an indeﬁnitely long time. especially in public. thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. meaning action or process. evil. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. d. Choice a is the only adjective deﬁnition. out of. subdue. c. having the quality of. 24. 27. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution.means back. 30. happening again and again or year after year. to openly condemn or accuse of evil. alternate. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -al.
d. c. Amity means friendship. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. d. To acquiesce means to comply. teeming. d. not genuine or real. Faux means artiﬁcial. 39. 38. intense emotion. a. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. 49. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. garrulous. etc. 43. b. having the quality of. down. Fervor means zeal. uneven. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. faux. 46. Loquacious means very talkative. To abrogate means to abolish. The root ac/acr means sharp. having no care or interest in knowing. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. 45. The noun sufﬁx -ism means state or doctrine of. 35. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. acting or suffering for another. burn. tell. 48. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. use words. to establish value or estimate the worth of. formally revoke. . The root vi means life. away from. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. The sufﬁx -or means a condition or activity. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. b. to be present in large numbers. Uninterested means not interested. d. bubble. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. away. bitter. The root err means to wander. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. a. Magnanimous means very noble and generous.means off. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. d. uninterested. speech. give in. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. An edict is an ofﬁcial order or decree. do away with. 40. The root mag/maj/max means big. cause to be. To teem means to be full of. The root loc/log/loqu means word. d. understanding and forgiving of others. opinion. 37. a. appraised. 42. The root pug means to ﬁght. The preﬁx ab. 47. fake. ardor. 44. To appraise means to evaluate. inclined to ﬁght. or inconsistent manner. The root qui means quiet. 41.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. combative. The root am means love. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. The root rog means to ask. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The root ferv means to boil. 36.
a vast multitude. consent. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. Initial means ﬁrst. The key part of the word substantial is substance. assent. fortitude. A delay is a postponement in time. The root of the word here is part. 64. d. To raise is to lift. prescribing. and collide. A substantial report is extensive. (2) the total lifework of a writer. b. This sentence uses the second meaning. Some related words are cooperate. censured. 60. adequate. c. A horde is a large group or crowd. condemn. d. Incredible means implausible. To censure is to criticize strongly. Partial means incomplete. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. . To corroborate is conﬁrm. beyond belief. Context clues are important as well. to vex. 57. 55. tardy means late. mettle. c. cutting-edge. b. horde. a hint or suggestion. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. etc. To prescribe is to issue commands. intensity. 62. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. incredible. 54. concurrence. 63. order something to be done. composer. This sentence uses the second meaning. c. 68. dictate. ﬁnal means last. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. cue. 51. spirit. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. degree. astonishing. Mettle means courage. A cue is a signal. such as a word or action. Notice the preﬁx co-. (2) to provoke or arouse. rebuke. A partial report is only part of the whole. or strength. 56. which means with or together. coworker. Prompt means punctual. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. 59. quantity. to increase in size. 53. raise.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. sufﬁcient. innovative. 52. Assent means agreement. d. artist. given to prompt or remind someone of something. (2) meeting acceptable standards. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. make higher. 65. 58. 69. Moderate means average. piqued. 66. excessive means extreme. a. 61. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. to hasten is to hurry. decent. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. b. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. especially in the arts or literature. 67. To delay is to slow. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance.
a. especially a popular gathering place. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. to meet at a rendezvous. An aﬁcionado is a fan or devotee. to engrave on a surface.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. 75. (2) a place where people meet. especially of a sport or pastime. 72. 71. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. . 73. If someone is proactive. Enthusiastic means eager. 78. immense. a. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. d. b. b. The preﬁx pro means for. Vast means very great in size. 79. If something is adequate. 74. The word root scribe means to write. d. to be diverse is to have variety. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. 76. b. 80. d. 77. d. b. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. Comply is synonymous with obey. it is sufﬁcient. d.
check the answer key carefully to assess your results. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. (We suggest not timing yourself. Being a direct relative of the deceased. 1.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. a. facilitate 99 . vicious c. commended 3. legitimate 2. her claim to the estate was _____________. optional b. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. The hail _____________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. if you come across words that you are unsure of. make a list of these words. a. Then. pummeled c. pacify c.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. a. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. Take your time when answering each question. When you are ﬁnished. confound b. prominent d. however. rebuked d. After you complete the test. belittled b. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. integrate d. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank.
massive . a. punitive b. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. determined c. prevailed b.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. Do not _____________ yourself. requisite 7. When you address the members of the committee. principled b. depreciate c. diverged c. a. relinquish d. a. exempliﬁed d. restorative d. prohibit 8. assumption b. a. treatise 6. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. delude b. comprehensive d. conﬂuence c. varied 5. Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. grandiose c. seclusion d. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park.
Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we ﬁrst met him. animated d. reputedly c. and we were able to continue our golf game. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. customary b. a. perpetually d. repulsively b. tedium b. After an hour of heavy rain. momentum 11. abated b. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. voluntary 10. ample . acute b. superﬁcial c. consummate d. a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. The news was no longer secret. constricted d. preference d. the thunderstorm _____________. a. After years of experience. a. reticent c. germinated c. principally 12. a. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. precursor c. he soon began to talk more than anyone. evoked 13.
reconnoiter 18. divided c. clairvoyant . comical c. On each slick curve in the road. _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. a. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails. Irritating b. a. dreamlike b. a. a. My cousin claimed to be _____________. a. they were exactly alike. diligently d. operate b. haphazardly 15. otherwise. Anthony. Provoking d. differentiated 17. I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. submerge d. a meticulous young man. hydroplane c. Smuggling 16. disconnected d. perpendicularly c. Poaching c. evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. criminal d. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature.102 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. terminally b. separated b.
to be excessively competitive. exciting. to regard as inferior. 22. Cy’s attempt to ﬁnally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. imitate. d. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. to support actively. Trite means a. to injure seriously. 19. d. to propose. or outdo. to be more successful than. overused. b. to support wholeheartedly. c. bring under control. complex. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. b. Ilka has always emulated her older brother. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. Although the plot of the ﬁlm is admittedly trite. b. and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. To emulate means a. b. to withhold. b. To subjugate means a. the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. . original. d. to strive to equal. to create.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 103 Directions: For questions 19 through 45. d. to prevent from accomplishing. 20. to be surrounded on all sides. d. c. to demonstrate. To garner means a. c. c. To thwart means a. 21. to conquer. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. 23. c.
d. c. c. d. especially in shame. obedience. 26. generous ruler. b. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. something that is irregular. to do something without telling anyone. to be generous with one’s time or money. to do something ahead of deadline. one who domesticates animals. an unfortunate occurrence. kindness. c. to go away secretly and hide. to combine and form a whole.104 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. b. b. a surprising collaboration. the management of domestic affairs. . Benevolence means a. c. to dig up. d. easily managed or taught. 25. to do something regrettable. regrettable. giving charitably. c. to regret. Lamentable means a. b. To coalesce means a. d. abnormal. d. to withdraw silently. To abscond means a. c. join together. b. to create a secret hiding place. or deviates from the usual form. discontent among a speciﬁc group within a larger population. 29. kind. willing to obey. b. Anomaly means a. 27. unfortunate. regularity. the cooperation of unlikely individuals. consistency. Docile means a. mine. generosity. d. 28. a kind.
c. eager to help. incapable of being understood. Antipathy means a. 33. c. someone who lives with another. having little or no impact. that which occurred previously. original. teaching a lesson. d. a beginner or novice. Rectify means a. to correct. eager to ﬁght. exceeding expectations. the act of separating from the source. . or apart from others. b. foreign. from another country. b. kept between or within members of a family. distinct. Neophyte means a. c. hostile. an examination of all aspects of an issue. b. from the same origin. Inscrutable means a. chosen from within. 31. c. b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. b. 34. c. an editor. a roommate. c. loving. d. a correction. d. a surprising error. fundamentally different. d. unique. 35. not fathomable. a strong aversion or dislike. 32. A belligerent person is a. b. d. something that comes from multiple sources. Disparate means a. d. kind. devoted.
a rebirth. newborn. blames others for his or her own faults. . d. a lie. capable. Something that is manifest is a. To equivocate is to a. b. guilty. d. A renaissance is a. d. full of life. energetic. b. bright. 37. a punishment. 40. put something in its proper place. shining. obvious. speak in a way that conceals the truth. everywhere. c. calm or quiet. 41. excessive.106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. full of knowledge. c. b. a mistake. b. c. b. Something that is luminous is a. c. Someone who is omniscient a. c. A person who is culpable is a. 39. vocal. d. b. even. d. d. is eager to please. receives the maximum beneﬁt. equal. deadly. burn or sting. c. often speaks without thinking. 38.
inoffensive. b. but the dollar is up. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). place side by side. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. d. very valuable. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. b. 48. harmless. reserved. a forgery or fake. clean. A veritable autograph is a. I tried everything. be born again. b. deeply in love. c. Someone who is reticent is a. d. genuine. 47. As soon as I get off the phone. Something that is innocuous is a. To juxtapose is to a. an autograph by a famous person. irrelevant. dangerous or deadly. . b. c. bubbling over with enthusiasm. ﬂood. c. 43. 50. 44. d. 45. 49. fair. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. speak in a round-about manner. wandering from the main path or point. 46. c. d. overwhelm. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. silent. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. judging equally. thoroughly washed.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in.
undeniable d. Although you all seem to agree.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. I must (decent/descent/dissent). 52. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. 59. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. 57. 56. 55. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. not understandable b. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to ﬁnd out what he was getting. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. or sufﬁxes. 60. preﬁxes. I think this is a bad decision. 58. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. not likely c. challenging . but they ﬁnally caught up with him in Reno. an incoherent answer a. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. 54. 53. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory.
purposely c. cautiously d. competitive c. expensive b. 64. covered with debris a. harmonious d. comical 66. outrageous . compatible workers a. scattered rubble d. idle d. capable employee a. envious b. eager c. able 65. gifted b. apt d. unskilled b. carefully 63. good excuses b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. reasonable d. absurd c. mistakenly b. protective material 62. inadvertently left a. experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. unexpected c. transparent material c. zealous pursuit a. exorbitant prices a.
ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. an artist’s ﬁrst gallery showing a. ennui b. hostile b. parvenu d. imbroglio c. façade 72. belligerent attitude a. hiatus d. quid pro quo c. cliché d. a temporary separation in a relationship a. debut 69. instinctive d. gauche c. wearing a disguise a. appeasing c. incognito b. oeuvre 71. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. imbroglio c. liaison c. aﬁcionado b. ad hoc b. milieu d. vis-à-vis . malaise 70.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. 68. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. parvenu d. blasé b.
uninterrupted. with b. over c. worried. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. A synonym for continuous is a. adjacent. An antonym for wary is a. d. wisdom a. An antonym for novel is a. b. dangerous. congregation a. intermittent. leery. unsettled. d. 76. accomplish. inﬂuence. c. d. suitable d. a state of being b. a relationship c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. . apart d. c. alert. cause. c. a property d. b. an action 75. sicken. 78. old. careless. 77. b. 73. A synonym for affect is a. c. contiguous. time 74. b.
d. b. a meeting. it is called hydroplaning. a. 5. 13. d. 18. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. fable. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. 12. . a. 11. 4. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. c. b. 8. b. A synonym for courtesy is a. 16. to deceive. An antonym for fallacy is a. or a gathering at one point. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. d. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. ANSWERS 1. weakness. blessing. congruity. b. Requisite means essential or necessary. 10. rudeness. 80. 6. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. 14. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. c. b. c. 15. 3. civility. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. 7. b. reserved. Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. truth. d. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. c. 9. Reputedly means according to general belief. d. conviviality. Pummeled means to pound or beat. d. Delude means to mislead the mind. b. b. c. 2. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. c. 17. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. d. d. Precursor means something that comes before.
or acquire. down. To garner means to gather.means under or below.means new. promotes. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. 30.means with. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. 22. b. correct. away from. inspiring grief or mourning. 31.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. to join together. 20. 23. Inscrutable means bafﬂing. The preﬁx neo. fuse. d. one that is irregular or abnormal. Neophyte means a beginner or novice. To subjugate means to conquer. d. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. unfortunate. meaning one that performs. a new form of. 28. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. reversal. a disposition to act charitably. or easily managed. 32.mean not. . especially after wrongdoing. The preﬁx dis. The adjective sufﬁx -ile means having the qualities of. 34. The preﬁx anti. or causes an action. Lamentable means regrettable. The verb sufﬁx -ify means to make. bring under control. especially by imitation. The preﬁx in. 25. opposed to. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. Docile means willing to obey. 33. Notice also the verb sufﬁx -ate. 29. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -able. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. 27. d. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. apart. varied.means away from. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea. a. unfathomable. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something.means not. being in a speciﬁed state or condition.means off. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support.means against. The preﬁx co. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous. not. c. To rectify means to make right. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. without. overly familiar through overuse. together. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. The preﬁx sub. apart. The preﬁx a. c. 24. a. b. d. b. d.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. dissimilar. 21. b. The noun sufﬁx -ence means state of. subdue. 26. ready and willing to be taught. b. recent. a. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. The preﬁx ab. d. incapable of being understood. Trite means repeated too often. amass.
to belittle. a. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. as the other answers correspond with different roots. to provoke. The preﬁx re. cause to be. 43. reserved. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. depreciated. especially to compare or contrast. . true. thus. elicit. The root tac/tic means to be silent. 38. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. 48. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. 36. obvious. or mistreat. Luminous means shining. Thus. a. d. 46. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. 41. To juxtapose means to place side by side. at hand. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. religious or political beliefs. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. 47.means not. Veritable means real. especially because of race. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. the sufﬁx -ance means state of. to lessen the worth of. the root voc/vok means to call. a. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. guilty. b. brilliant. blameworthy. The root equ means equal. 42. Manifest means clear and unmistakable. The root omni means all. The root culp means blame. not quite doing either). 37. 40. To persecute is to oppress. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. c. The sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. persecuting. 45. knowing all things. harass. untalkative. The preﬁx in. performing or causing a speciﬁed action. genuine. The root bel means war. emitting light. b. the root sci means to know. c. Omniscient means having inﬁnite knowledge. Thus. The ending -ent is an adjective sufﬁx meaning in a state or condition. d. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. The root man means hand. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. full of light. death. a. c. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. having no adverse or ill effects. place. 39. 44. The root pon/pos/pound means to put.means back or again. silent. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. innocuous means harmless. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. The root luc/lum/lus means light. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. The root ver means truth. or sexual orientation.
Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. dispersed. Capable means able. demolish completely. ingenuous. 53. 51. 61. peek. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. 50. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. (2) to be incomprehensible to. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. 57. or skill. c. 58. especially by cleverness. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. queue. a. unable to mask feelings. very high. escape the understanding of. which means out of or away from. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. 60. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. obliterate. frank sincere. Incoherent means not understandable. 62. You may have heard the word zeal before. disseminate. 63. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. 59. c. 66. choice b. disagree. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. (2) in information processing. apprise. or cause to do so. 56. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. to give the false appearance of. The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex-. (2) to erase. which means not. The preﬁx in. interfere. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. unskilled means unable. . 65.means not. dissent. a. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. a. artless. 54.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. c. To cohere means to connect. 55. meddling. (2) to withhold approval or assent. To apprise means to give notice or information to. daring. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. Zealous means eager. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. emanating. To feign is to pretend. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. elude. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. Inadvertently means by mistake. 52. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. To emanate is to come or issue forth. c. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. 64. to make aware of. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in-. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. (2) to distribute widely. as from a source. feign. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. raze. inform. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. eager. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. so idle is most nearly the opposite.
Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. 72. 73. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. an interruption or break. 71. (2) a close relationship or link. a. 68. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. The antonym would be appeasing. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. a truth is something that conforms to the facts. d. d. the opposite is old. or lasting. The key element in this word is the root belli. 77. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed. which means warlike. Hiatus means a gap or opening. careless is the opposite of watchful. b. To be novel is to be new. . To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. a. it is characterized by civility. d. 75. 69. 74. a. a. 76. trickery. d. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. 78. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. d.means to be together with. 80. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. a. one who maintains such communication. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. A debut is a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public.116 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. b. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. 70. true. The preﬁx con. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. c. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea. To affect means to inﬂuence. c. 79. (2) an artiﬁcial or deceptive front.
Repetition is key—use a word three times. You should also try and write sentences using the new words.) If the word list looks intimidating. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. and a sentence using the word. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. 117 . they’re portable. Flash cards are easy to handle. so you can study with a buddy. 2. deﬁnition. studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now. Or. use it in conversation as soon as possible. try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the ﬂash card and the deﬁnition of the word on the other. 1. try the following strategy. and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with ﬂash cards.APPENDIX A Word List B y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. review the word list. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the deﬁnition on the other. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary. When you learn a new word. and they’re friend-friendly. part of speech. Learn a short list every day. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used. You and your friends can drill each other. After each vocabulary word. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. Multiply that number by 10. you will ﬁnd the word’s pronunciation.
clear. PRONUNCIATION KEY Before you review the word list. please division. coarse oil. live.118 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT If you have only 30 days until the test day. put. pull vail. sew aboard. edible icy. hazy. pop rain. father. dinner. frank odd. worry cook. score. trot salmon. here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the deﬁnitions. middle stencil. sky jug. a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n hat. sure for. aware. nowhere it. preacher day. tree ear. tragic. fact ago. noodle. dependable. breath this. listen. how pan. heaven. super pour. hedge kitten. cheer fan. stuffy. yarn. treat. cherry shaken. draw stage. breathe cup. regular. you can learn 300 new words. house. ﬁnger. horse out. day bat. scare. walk. track lost. crib church. Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. marry. tire. quaint you. father car. rabbit. dear sun. some of these words may already be familiar to you. head. shaken. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily. unhappy whether. carry. by studying only ten new words each day! And. cure. rice share. puddle. scorn. coin. paper. trickle eat. slim no. summon. fog heed. advisor oak. pedal palm. pot three. mutter. relief go. shut delicious. yesterday zebra. turn. coy ooze. trolley. come. fox. bed egg. ﬁshing. cash tip. measure her. treasure . chart. remember. man n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh sing. live want. fair ball. toll more. sliver. boat. strengthen. blame. farm bare.
to go away secretly and hide oneself. abysmal (a·'biz·mal) adj. to regard with horror or repugnance. It ˘ ˘ was not surprising that the movie was a ﬂop. 1. distortion. redemption. using or consuming sparingly. ˘ ˘ 2. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. 2. detest. When Joseph became a citizen. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. the reviews were abysmal. to lessen in strength. praise or approval. but he should still get out and vote. 1. abeyance (a·'bay·ans) n. absolution (ab·so·'loo·shon) n. 2. we began to survey the damage it caused. abjure (ab·'joor) v. I have decided to abstain on this issue. 1. 2. 1. profound. As the violent ˘ storm abated. to abolish. deviation from what is normal. . obscure.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a·'bayt) v. being temporarily suspended or set aside. a formal declaration of forgiveness. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. renounce under oath. difﬁcult to comprehend. 1. extreme. or degree. intensity. His new ˘ ˘ ˘ scientiﬁc theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. 1. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. to repudiate. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. do away with. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. aberration (ab·e·'ray·shon) n. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. eating and drinking in moderation. subside. 3. 2. to refrain from voting. abscond (ab·'skond) v. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. The dictator ˘ abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes. used with ˘ temperance or moderation. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. limitless. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. to give up or reject. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·us) adj. a ceremonial embrace in greet˘ ing. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. accolade ('ak·o·layd) n. ˘ ˘ Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. extremely bad. abrogate ('ab·ro· ayt) v. formally revoke. 2. I know Carlos abhors politics. suspension. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
accretion (a·'kree·shon) n. 1. growth or increase by gradual, successive addition; ˘ ˘
building up. 2. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground.
acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. to comply, give in, consent without protest. After the
police ofﬁcer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian trafﬁc, I acquiesced and walked to the next street.
acrid ('ak·rid) adj. 1. having an unpleasantly bitter, sharp taste or smell. 2. bitter
or caustic in language or manner. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor.
acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. bitter and sharp in language or tone. Jasleen ˘
did not like her new neighbors; it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them.
acumen (a·'kyoo·men) n. quickness, keenness, and accuracy of perception, judg˘ ˘
ment, or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen, she would make an excellent trial lawyer.
ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. for a speciﬁc, often temporary, purpose; for this case only.
An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.
adamant ('ad·a·mant) adj. 1. unyielding to requests, appeals, or reason. 2. ﬁrm, ˘ ˘
inﬂexible. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget.
addle ('ad·el) v. 1. to muddle or confuse. 2. to become rotten, as in an egg. The ˘
prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant.
ado (a·'doo) n. fuss, trouble, bother. Without much ado, she completed her book ˘
adroit (a·'droit) adj. skillful, clever, or adept in action or in thought; dexterous, ˘
deft. Priya is a very adroit seamstress; she should have your trousers ﬁxed in no time.
agrarian (a·' rair·ee·an) adj. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or ˘ ˘
cultivation. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city, Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer.
aﬁcionado (a·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pas˘
time. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aﬁcionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts.
alacrity (a·'lak·ri·tee) n. a cheerful willingness; being happily ready and eager. ˘
The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly.
WO R D LI ST
allay (a·'lay) v. 1. to reduce the intensity of, alleviate. 2. to calm, put to rest. The ˘
remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees.
allude (a·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to. The presidential candidate ˘
alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying, “We’ve all made sacriﬁces.”
altercation (awl·ter·'kay·shon) n. a heated dispute or quarrel. To prevent an alter˘ ˘
cation at social functions, one should avoid discussing politics and religion.
amiable ('ay·mee·a·bel) adj. friendly and agreeable; good natured, likable, pleas˘ ˘
ing. Miguel was usually the ﬁrst person invited to a party; his amiable personality drew people to him.
amity ('am·˘·tee) n. friendship; a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity had
existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to ﬁght about money anymore.
ambivalent (am·'biv·a·lent) adj. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a ˘ ˘
person, thing, or situation; uncertain. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction.
ameliorate (a·'meel·yo·rayt) v. to make or become better, to improve. The diplo˘ ˘
mat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.
amorphous (a·'mor·fus) adj. 1. having no deﬁnite form or distinct shape; shape˘ ˘
less. 2. of no particular kind or character, anomalous. Andrea looked up at the sky, looking at the amorphous clouds.
amulet ('am·yu·lit) n. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. ˘
The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard.
anachronism (a·'nak·ro·niz·em) n. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect ˘ ˘ ˘
historical period. 2. a person, custom, or idea that is out of date. With the rise in popularity of cell phones, pagers seem like an anachronism.
anarchy ('an·ar·kee) n. 1. the complete absence of government or control result˘
ing in lawlessness. 2. political disorder and confusion. After the king’s assassination, the country fell into a state of anarchy.
anomaly (a·'nom·a·lee) n. something that deviates from the general rule or usual ˘ ˘
form; one that is irregular, peculiar, or abnormal. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood, so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly.
antagonist (an·'ta ·o·nist) n. one who opposes or contends with another; an ˘
adversary, opponent. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
antecedent (an·ti·'see·dent) n. that which precedes; the thing, circumstance, ˘
event that came before. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash.
anthropomorphic (an·thro·po·'mor·fik) adj. attributing human characteristics, ˘ ˘
motivations, or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities, who express human characteristics such as love, envy, and sadness.
antipathy (an·'tip·a·thee) n. 1. a strong aversion or dislike. 2. an object of aver˘
sion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet, Peter had antipathy for his classmate.
antithesis (an·'tith·e·sis) n. the direct or exact opposite, opposition or contrast. ˘
Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine; he is strict, I am not.
apathetic (ap·a·'thet·ik) adj. feeling or showing a lack of interest, concern, or ˘
emotion; indifferent, unresponsive. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school.
aperture ('ap·er·chur) n. an opening or gap, especially one that lets in light. The ˘ ˘
aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light.
apex ('ay·peks) n. 1. the highest point. 2. tip, pointed end. Upon reaching the apex
of the mountain, the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow.
apocalypse (a·'pok·a·lips) n. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation ˘ ˘
or the end of the world. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons.
apostate (a·'pos·tayt) n. one who abandons long-held religious or political con˘
victions. Disillusioned with religious life, Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry, not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain.
apotheosis (a·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. deiﬁcation, an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. Hanson ˘
was so in love with Marge; in his daydreams, she was an apotheosis.
appease (a·'peez) v. to make calm or quiet, soothe; to still or pacify. The only way ˘
to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right.
appraise (a·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth ˘
of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting.
apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform. ˘
The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and ﬁnal exams would occur.
˘ irritability. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. often without permission. arduous ('ahr·joo·us) adj. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difﬁcult for many students to understand. ˘ 2. 1. appropriate to the situation. roughness of manner. ardor ('ahr·dor) n. an original model from which others are copied. requiring great effort. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment. appropriate (˘·'pro·pre·˘t) adj. ﬁery intensity of feeling. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. practicing self-denial. by the way. harshness. beyond comprehension. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. original pattern or prototype. passionate enthusiasm. adv. austere. (˘·'proh·pree·ayt) v. The asperity that Marvin. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. ﬁtting. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. suitable for a particular person. laborious. 2. ascetic (a·'set·ik) adj. to one side. severity. & adv. approval. but they were deﬁnitely apropos. apropos (ap·ro·'poh) adj. The ˘ ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. Even the ˘ pictures on the wall stood askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. asperity (a·'sper·i·tee) n. very difﬁcult. advancement. not allowing oneself pleasures or ˘ luxuries. the grumpy accountant. Patrick’s Day. The local authorities issued an approba˘ ˘ tion to close the street for a festival on St. suitable to what is being ˘ said or done. mysterious. 1.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. to take for one’s own use. 2. belonging to former or ancient times. an upward slope. zeal. difﬁcult to traverse or surmount. crooked. a movement upward. secret. condition. The ˘ rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. occasion. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. ascent (a·'sent) n.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro·'bay·shon) n. a ¯ ¯ a or place. to set aside for a special purpose. not straight or level. 1. askew (a·'skyoo) adj. . characteristic of the past. ill temper. incidentally. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. at an appropriate or opportune time.
3. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. agreement. augment (aw ·'ment) v. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or ˘ ˘ robotic way. reduce in ˘ force. assuage (a·'swayj) v. 1. unquestioning obedi˘ ˘ ence to authority as opposed to individual freedom. value. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. 2. 2. attenuate (a·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. the committee must reach an assent. persevering. patronage. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. consent. auspice ('aw·spis) n. favoring complete. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. 2. austere (aw·'steer) adj. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. a self-operating or automatic machine. protection or support. diligent. to satisfy (as ˘ hunger or thirst). Because she fol- . to examine. to try. assent (a·'sent) n. venerable. 1. to make thin or slender. 1. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. assiduous (a·'sij·oo·us) adj. strength. severe or stern in attitude or appearance. hardworking. or intensity. simple. a forecast or omen. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. 1. majestic. to weaken. 2. to increase in size. inspiring admiration or reverence. to agree to something ˘ especially after thoughtful consideration. enlarge. but his interference only augmented the problem. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. put to a test. concurrence. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. In order to pass the new law. automaton (aw·'tom·a·ton) n.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a·'say) v. unadorned. a robot. very plain. ˘ ˘ Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. evalu˘ ate after an analysis. I know my dad seems austere. to make something less severe. unre˘ strained by convention or propriety. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. but they often achieved results. to judge critically. authoritarian (a·thor·i·'tair·i·an) adj. 2. or degree. to soothe. v. unremitting. audacious (aw·'day·sh us) adj. august (aw·' ust) adj.
cooked breakfast. to contradict. poison. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. 1. 1. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. misery. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. to obstinately refuse or oppose. innovative. 2. 1. to amuse or charm. to give a false impression. misrepresent. divert. 2. distress. eager to make war. 1. menacing. cutting-edge. but the ﬁlm turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. trite. a strong. B baleful ('bayl·ful) adj. destructive. balk (bawk) v. woman. belligerent. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. aversion (a·'vur·zhon) n. banal (ba·'nal) adj. car. bane (bayn) n. the object of ˘ ˘ this feeling. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. I was expecting ˘ something original and exciting. personal or political independence. to pass time in a pleasant manner. cause of trouble. or animal.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. . or harm. belie (bi·'l¯) v. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. Whether it’s a ˘ man. self-determination. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. quarrelsome. Violet was able to beguile the spy. obvious and uninteresting. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. sinister. intense dislike. autonomy (aw·'ton·o·mee) n. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. to deceive or cheat through cunning. 2. to show to be false. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. especially in the arts or literature. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. harmful. causing him to miss his secret meeting. to distract the attention of. repugnance. self˘ government. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. Natasha made coffee. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. 2. commonplace.
The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. stormy and rough. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. 2. blithe (bl¯th) adj. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. to swindle. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. having a beneﬁcial or favorable nature or inﬂuence. the inclination to be kind and generous. disrespect of something sacrosanct. hostile and aggressive. 3. especially to evade paying one’s debts. such as air pollution. he always acted in a benign manner. bilk (bilk) v. 4. unconcerned. loud. to deceive or defraud. Coach ˘ Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s conﬁdence. blight (bl¯t) n. something that causes this condition. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. kind. to support or prop up. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. 1. 2. noisy. 2. atti˘ tudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. 1. ˘ ˘ 2. something that impairs or destroys. blasphemy ('blas·fe·mee) n. nonchalant. completely obvious. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. 1. contemptuous or irreverent acts. light-hearted. very sophisticated. and lacking restraint or discipline. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. 2. 1. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. 1. utterances. bevy ('bev·ee) n. an unsightly object or area. a ﬂock of animals or birds. 3. a dis˘ ˘ ˘ position to act charitably. 1. cheat. bolster ('bohl·ster) v. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. 2. gentle. you would be tortured and killed. to buoy or hearten.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·er·ent) adj. benevolence (be·'nev·o·lens) n. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. not harmful or malignant. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. showing an eagerness to ˘ ˘ ﬁght. mild. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. not attempting to conceal in any way. boisterous ('boi·ste·rus) adj. a large group or assemblage. casual. . and carefree.
conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. buoyant ('boi·ant) adj. clamor. bumptious ('bump·shus) adj. to begin to grow and ﬂourish. able to ﬂoat. a scheme or conspiracy. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. burnish ('bur·nish) v. With Antonio as their leader. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. to tap or pierce. cacophony (ka·'kof·o·nee) n. In science class. cheerful. to bring up. 2. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. conservative. introduce. in fact.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. I ˘ ˘ heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. discordant sound. . censor. C cabal (ka·'bal) n. rub to a shine. The bumptious man couldn’t stop ˘ talking about himself or looking in the mirror. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. light-hearted. conceited. a show of pretended bravery. to begin to sprout. as in to draw off liquid. typical of the middle class. boor (boor) n. solid silver. for many of the original tales included graphic language. bravado (bra·'vah·doh) n. Although she won millions in the lottery. bowdlerize ('bohd·le·r¯z) v. 2. arrogant. loud. ill-mannered person. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. she realized that it was. 2. 1. din. ˘ the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. false courage. 1. with inﬂated selfimportance. burgeon ('bur·jon) v. jarring. blossom. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. speaking pompously. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. 1. to polish. a crude. commonplace. Kyle’s ˘ bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. or materialistic. a small group joined in a secret ˘ plot. in order to begin a discussion of. broach (brohch) v. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. offensive. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be ˘ considered offensive. hence also. grow ˘ new buds. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain.
While visiting India. or dissolve by chemical action. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. candor ('kan·dor) n. openness. The librarian served as a censor. capitulate (ka·'pich·u·layt) v. impulsive. etc. able to burn. to remove what is ˘ considered morally. catharsis (ka·'thahr·sis) n. to surrender under speciﬁc terms or agreed upon ˘ ˘ conditions. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. corrode. acquiesce. to rush care˘ lessly or headlong. careen (ka·'reen) v. 2. ﬁlms. cutting. caste (kast) n. 2. . to forbid the publication.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. Robin ˘ ˘ Williams. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. to inﬂict a severe punishment on. a distinct social class or system. they castigated him. to give in. v. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. 1. to beg. frank. especially through art. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. distribution. an ofﬁcial who reviews books. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic ﬂuid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. the comedian. sincere speech. whimsical and unpredictable. to chastise severely. politically. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. the act of ridding or cleansing. censor ('sen·sor) n. or otherwise objectionable. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or ﬂattery. capricious (ka·'prish·us) adj. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. to lurch from side to side while in motion. he welcomed my candor. cajole (ka·'johl) v. 1. to obtain by begging. relieving emotions via ˘ the experiences of others. When I told my boss about my ˘ performance concerns. bitingly sarcastic. to whee˘ dle. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica.
Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. to punish severely. v. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. a precise ˘ ˘ instrument for measuring time. illusion.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shur) n. cautious. ill-mannered. chronometer (kro·'nom·i·ter) n. Tito has an engaging writing style. 2. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. to criticize strongly. chronicle ('kron·i·kel) n. The prison guard was ˘ circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. a detailed record or narrative description of past ˘ events. watchful. chronology (kro·'nol·o·jee) n. on-going. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. . but he uses too many clichés. to criticize harshly. (in Greek mythology) a ﬁre-breathing she-monster ˘ with a lion’s head. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. 2. rebuke. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. an exceptionally accurate clock. an extreme nationalist. a vain or incongruous fancy. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. rebuke. conducted in secrecy. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. long-lasting or recurrent. habitual. make a historical record. boorish. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. a goat’s body. condemn. circumspect ('sur·kum·spekt) adj. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. the sequence ˘ ˘ in which events occur. continuing for a long time. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. a trite or overused expression or idea. rude. wary. her mother censured her behavior. 1. v. cliché (klee·'shay) n. The ﬁreﬁghter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the ﬁre. a rebuke or ˘ condemnation. chimera (ki·'meer·a) n. to record in chronological order. the arrangement of events in time. 1. as with a beating. and a serpent’s tail. kept or done in private. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v.
conciliatory (kon·'sil·ee·a·tohr·ee) adj. to join together.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a·'les) v. mollifying. copious ('koh·pi·us) adj. an opinion or position ˘ ˘ reached by a group. enigma. fuse. Ella’s cogent ˘ arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. 1. controversial. abundant. a puzzling question or ˘ ˘ problem. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. (often ˘ with reluctance). conundrum (ko·'nun·drum) n. . quick to ﬁght. it was sure to be a lively debate. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. of the same time period. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. a hard riddle. conclave ('kon·klav) n. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. consensus (kon·'sen·sus) n. surrender. contentious (kon·'ten·shus) adj. large in number or quantity. soothe. etc. collusion (ko·'loo·zhon) n. consternation (kon·ster·'nay·shon) n. cogent ('koh·jent) adj. to yield. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. to combine and form a whole. concede (kon·'seed) v. The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. incapacitating horror or ˘ ˘ dismay. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. proper. contented to a fault. With two contentious candidates on hand. to grant as a right or privilege. coeval (koh·'ee·val) adj. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. convincing. a secret agreement between two or more people for a ˘ ˘ deceitful or fraudulent purpose. The ˘ shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellﬁsh on the island. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her ﬁred. 1. competitive. general agreement or accord. conspiracy. 2. The poet Ben ˘ Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. self-satisﬁed. compelling belief. persuasive. ˘ ˘ 2. complacent (kom·'play·sent) adj. or comfort. Jay ˘ and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. contemporary. quarrelsome. making or willing to make concessions ˘ ˘ to reconcile. plentiful. to acknowledge or admit as true. a feeling of deep. appeasing. a private or secret meeting. uncon˘ ˘ cerned. causing contention.
hidden. All the tables. a total defeat or failure. abundance. debacle (di·'bah·kel) n. deserving blame or censure for being or doing some˘ ˘ thing wrong or harmful. D daunt (dawnt) v. conﬁrm. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. a horn of plenty. When the timer buzzed. a hint or suggestion. a signal. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. culpable ('kul·pa·bel) adj. I only had time to give it a cursory review. “This craven act of violence will not go unpun˘ ished. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. Although I should have proofread ˘ the essay carefully. facial features ˘ ˘ and expression. to intimidate. to make afraid or discouraged. credulous ('krej·u·lus) adj. blameworthy. cowardly. cue (kyoo) n. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. to strengthen or support with evidence or ˘ ˘ authority. occult. the central or critical point or feature. a queue. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. As she walked down the aisle.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu·'koh·pi·a) n. . a sudden disaster or collapse. 1. 2. hasty and superﬁcial. the appearance of a person’s face. a line of waiting people or vehicles. cursory ('kur·so·ree) adj. ˘ 2. The ﬁrst-graders ˘ ˘ made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. especially of a problem. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. mysterious. I admitted that I was culpable. 1. too willing to believe things. to make more certain. having a hidden or secret meaning. craven ('kray·ven) adj. secret.” remarked the police chief. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. ˘ ˘ graphs. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. such as a word or action. guilty. countenance ('kown·te·nans) n. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. given to prompt or remind someone of something. His austere manner daunted the small children. crux (kruks) n. corroborate (ko·'rob·o·rayt) v. violent ﬂood waters. gullible. so she must be telling the truth.
Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. actual. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. I always refer to Emily Post. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. & adv. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. to blacken the reputation of. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. to condescend. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. describe. When it was to her advantage. to destroy a large portion of. propriety. to express disapproval of. v. defame. in reality or fact. to portray. deign (dayn) v. . hesitate. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. Polly hated to demur. the de facto leader is the prime minister. deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. or pretending to be so. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. disparage. demur (di·'mur) v. appropriateness of behavior. Sharon could be very demure. a leader who obtains power by appealing to peo˘ ple’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. depict. demagogue ('dem·a· aw ) n. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. demure (di·'myoor) adj. decorum (di·'kohr·um) n. depreciate. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. delude (di·'lood) v. sketch. so those scenes were removed.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. to draw or outline. decency in ˘ manners and conduct. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. The king is only the nominal head of the country. modest and shy. When questions concerning decorum arise. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. ˘ Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. to deceive. to belittle. to raise objections. to make a ﬁrst appearance in public. make someone believe something that is wrong.
The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. 1. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. dilatory ('dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. wordy. slow or late in doing something. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. In order to promote freedom of expression. disabuse (dis·a·'byooz) v. ˘ especially to gain time. 2. Alan used to be so ˘ difﬁdent. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o·mee) n. correct a false impression or erroneous ˘ belief. . mocking. 1. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. to perceive clearly. make less brilliant.” desecrate ('des·e·krayt) v. intended to delay. unoriginal. diminish. extend. derivative (di·'riv·a·tiv) n. haphazard. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. After the economy declined. Unfortunately. shy and timid. verbose. to draw or take away from. scattered. something that is derived or made by derivation. 1. to violate the sacredness of. desultory ('des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. expressing ridicule. difﬁdent ('dif·i·dent) adj. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. ˘ derived from another source. scornful. lacking self-conﬁdence. adj. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. to soften. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. discern (di·'surn) v. jeering. division into two usually contradictory parts or ˘ kinds. extremely poor. to distinguish. 2. to profane. to spread throughout. to turn aside. to remove part of something. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. recognize as being distinct. or swerve. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. not concentrated. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. adj. deviate. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. many families were left destitute. aimless. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. to undeceive. penniless. spread out. 2. Someone dese˘ crated the local cemetery by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. digress (d¯·' res) v. disperse. moving from one subject to ˘ another without logical connection. utterly lacking. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. detract (di·'trakt) v.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj.
dissuade (di·'swayd) v. calculating. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. dither ('dith·er) v. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. not straightfor˘ ward or frank. 2. ˘ Some ﬁnd the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. 1. 2. v. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. a prescribed doctrine. a system of principles or beliefs. falsely pretending to be unaware. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. but they didn’t listen. . Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. 1. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. disappointed. to be extravagant and wasteful. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. especially the right to vote. dejected. During a crisis. a state of being despised. sad. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·kon·'surt) v. 1. to frustrate ˘ plans by throwing into disorder. 2. rufﬂe. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. and only the very angriest protesters remained. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. belittle. 2. insincere. squander. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so·lit) adj. to separate and scatter completely. be indecisive and uncertain. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. despise. dissemble (di·'sem·bel) v. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. inconsolable. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives ˘ behind a false appearance. to hesitate. 1. dogma ('daw ·ma) n. to disperse to the point of disappearing. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. 1. to upset the composure of. 2. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. ˘ hopelessly unhappy. 1. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. to shake or ˘ quiver. or nearly so. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. 2.
éclat (ay·'klah) n. . extremely severe (especially a law or ˘ punishment). latent. 1. melodious. waste product. gullible. as the tide. temporarily quiescent. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. exuberant. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. to deceive. trick. the return of the tide to the sea. commonplace. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. 1. The ebul˘ lient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. 1. conspicuous success. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·an) adj. systems. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. very harsh. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. someone who is easily deceived. ˘ 2. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. lying asleep or as if asleep. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. 2. to ﬂow back or recede. v. great acclaim or applause. inactive but capable of becoming active. dupe (doop) n. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. to fall back. 2. at rest. or styles. ebullient (i·'bul·yent) adj. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. brilliant performance or achievement. anomalous. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. I am eager for a reconciliation. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. or trivial. inactive. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. 1. bubbling over with enthusiasm. E ebb (eb) n. sweet-sounding. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. sludge. irregular. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·mant) adj. This is a wonderful. decline. v. droll (drohl) adj. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj. something worthless. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. 2. harmonious.
136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. gushy. distinctive style or ﬂair. vivacity. reputation. ﬂuent. evasive. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. lofty. profuse. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. social. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. towering above or more prominent than others. ˘ standing above others in quality. eluding the grasp. The bank robber was not caught during his ﬁrst crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. enthusiasm. vigor. brazen boldness. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. 1. etc. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. overﬂowing. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. ﬂa˘ grant. élan (ay·'lahn) n.S. egregious (i·' ree·jus) adj. 1. elite (i·'leet) n. acting effectively. Enid was ﬁred. improving. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. describe or comprehend. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. to earn or accomplish laboriously. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. producing the desired effect or ˘ result. president. impudence. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. eloquent ('el·o·kwent) adj. effrontery (i·'frun·te·ree) n. 2. distinguished. The customs ˘ ofﬁcials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. civil. eke (eek) v. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. efﬁcacious (ef·˘·'kay·shus) adj. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. Within the student orchestra. Margaret’s efﬁcacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. difﬁcult to capture. character. a person or group regarded as superior. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. eminent ('em·˘·nent) adj. 2. and economic rights for all persons. and persuasive manner.. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a power˘ ˘ ful. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of ˘ equal political. instructing. insolence. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. The .
empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. he began his secret mission. was actually imported from Japan. a monstrous offense or evil act. a ˘ ˘ bafﬂing problem or riddle. to try to equal or excel. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. ephemeral (i·'fem·e·ral) adj. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people. it’s time to go back to school again. give rise to. 2. conceal. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. larger territory. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. to make fee˘ ble or impotent. Summer ˘ ˘ always seems so ephemeral. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. Ricky ˘ admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. especially by imitation. transitory. to ﬁx or settle ﬁrmly and securely. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. ensconce (en·'skons) v. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. before you know it. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·an) n.. enigma (e·'ni ·ma) n. 1. Joan became a true epicurean. Kudzu. to place or hide securely. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. Professor ˘ Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. to weaken. excessive wickedness.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. The math problem was difﬁcult to solve and proved to be an enigma.g. . bring into existence. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. 1. based on observation or experience rather than theory. lasting only a very short time. enclave ('en·klayv) n. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e. atrocity. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. 2. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. enervate ('en·er·vayt) v. native to a particular region. emulate ('em·yu·layt) v. to produce. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. 1. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and ˘ luxury. 2. engender (en·'jen·der) v. deprive of strength or vitality. a hairy. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another.
evade (i·'vayd) v. a representative example or a typical model. When falling ˘ in love. During an earthquake. ˘ scholarly. a brief summary or abstract. patience and composure. the spirit. artiﬁcial. especially under stressful circumstances. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. having or showing great learning. The scholarly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young man. etc. 1. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. answering. opinion. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. 2. calmness of temperament. 1. eulogy ('yoo·lo· ee) n. to annihilate. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. equanimity (ee·kwa·'nim·i·tee) n. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. Epiphany. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. or inconsistent manner. even˘ temperedness. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. uneven. moving or behaving in an irregular. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. or doing. etc. to root out and utterly destroy. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to ˘ mislead or conceal the truth. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. 3. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. exterminate. a manifestation of the divine. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. 2. something or someone that embodies a particular ˘ quality or characteristic. attitude. . being an imitation or substitute. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone ˘ or something. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. erudite ('er·yu·d¯t) adj. a perceptive revelation. profoundly educated. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm. region. a sudden. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o·kayt) v. to avoid fulﬁlling. 1. ersatz (er·'zats) adj. 2.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a·nee) n. 2. epitome (i·'pit·o·mee) n. intuitive realization of the essence or ˘ meaning of something. especially one ˘ ˘ that is inferior. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a) n. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz trufﬂes. ethos ('ee·thos) n. epoch.
exact. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. evince (i·'vins) v. a short-lived means to an end. annihilate. 2. ˘ or bitterness of. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. adj. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. F façade (fa·'sahd) n. to make evident. 2. When Anthony admitted to the crime. crit˘ ical. stated clearly and fully. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. 2. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. exigent ('ek·si·jent) adj. exacerbate (i ·'zas·er·bayt) v. facetious (fa·'see·shus) adj. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. straightforward. to wipe or rub out. to show or demonstrate clearly. demanding. ˘ ˘ sportive. cleverly amusing. violence. the face or front of a building. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. urgent. requiring immediate action or attention. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. to increase the severity. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. inordinate and excessive. an artiﬁcial or deceptive ˘ front. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·tant) adj. 1. 1. 1. transi˘ ˘ tory. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. it served to exculpate Marcus. to clear from a charge of guilt. . delete. suitable for a means to an end. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. ﬂeeting. jocular. to make worse. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·ent) n. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. After ﬁnishing probation. requiring much effort or precision. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. humorous and witty. he is really a deeply emotional person. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal ˘ or reasonable. to free from blame. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. to eliminate completely. appropriate ˘ for a purpose.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a·'nes·ent) adj. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. to try to partially excuse.
hanging loose or wrinkled. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. deception. ﬂaccid ('fla·sid) adj. ﬂabby. patience. to shackle. to reject. Because ˘ Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. . 2. 2. 1. ﬂorid ('flor·id) adj. mock. Gustaf ˘ dreaded the security check in the airport. put in chains. apropos. ardor. suitably expressed. careless. intense emotion. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. apt. saucy. zeal. 2. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. go against (as in a tradition or convention). weak. The presence ˘ of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. fervor ('fur·vor) n. lacking purpose or vitality. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tus) adj. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. marked by good ˘ fortune. The fervor of the fans in the stands ˘ helped propel the team to victory. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. 1. feign (fayn) v. not ﬁrm. (of complexion) ruddy. 2. weak. 1. incompetent and ineffective. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. feeble-minded and silly. ﬂout (flowt) v. rosy. to disobey openly and scornfully. ornate.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a·see) n. complacently stupid. fertile. to give the false appearance of. ﬂippant ('flip·ant) adj. Flappers in the early twentieth century ﬂouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. willingness to wait. not showing proper seriousness. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect ˘ or illogical reasoning. fecund ('fek·und) adj. Mr. Y and Z will automatically follow. 1. forbearance (for·'bair·ans) n. feeble. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. something that misleads. to pretend. tolerance. to impede or restrict. 1. disrespectful. elaborate. fetter ('fet·er) v. fatuous ('fach·oo·us) adj. 2. ˘ Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the ˘ growing community.
to amass. excessively bright or over-decorated. vain. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. offensive due to excessiveness. hopeless.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. acquire. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. contradict. to oppose. costing little.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. to deny under oath. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. especially excess ﬂattery ˘ or praise. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. 1. 1. gigantic. tastelessly showy. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. thrifty. producing no result. 2. garner (' ahr·ner) v. Whitney garnered ˘ enough money to buy a used car. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tus) adj. My mother would never let me attend the party. fulsome ('fuul·som) adj. gaudy. happening by accident or chance. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. 2. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. berate. to gather and store up. . or declare false. characterized by stealth or secrecy. ˘ My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. 2. suggesting a hidden motive. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. to explode or detonate. occurring ˘ unexpectedly or without any known cause. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. frugal ('froo· al) adj. arguing with her was futile. useless. 1. garish (' air·ish) adj. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·an) adj. Wei chose a small. shifty. sparing. 1. The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. 2. huge. renounce. forswear (for·'swair) v. however. to give up. to deny. surreptitious. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to ﬁnd that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. It was a gargantuan super˘ market for such a small town. preempt. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. careful and economical. In its true sense.
you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. unlucky. clumsy or awkward. unfortunate. 3. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. to encompass. elegantly polite. reﬁned. 1. a noisy. guile ( ¯l) n. treacherous cunning. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. and the soldiers girded for battle. 2. lacking social graces or polish. shrewd. ˘ ˘ sociable. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. to make holy. missed connections. consecrate. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. gibe. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. 2. gird ( urd) v. mock. coarse burst of laughter. seeking and enjoying the company of others. talkative. v. 1. and a very late arrival. hum˘ ble. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. 1. so be ˘ ˘ prepared to listen for hours. . to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. The negotiations had failed. or fearful manner. 2. without tact. to encircle or bind with a belt or band. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. the act of gerrymandering. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. to sneer at. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. a conﬁguration or pattern of elements so uniﬁed as a whole ˘ ˘ that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. surround. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·der) n. crafty deceit. grovel (' ruv·el) v. to prepare for action. gregarious ( re·' air·ee·us) adj. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. gestalt ( e·shtalt) n. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. to divide an area ˘ into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. especially military confrontation. gauche ( ohsh) adj. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. 4. Panji.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u·lus) adj. well bred. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage.
a person. having an airtight closure. thing. creating great stress or torment. harbinger ('hahr·bin·jer) n. to sharpen. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. 2. hone (hohn) v. Using words as weapons. After he was laid ˘ off by the bank. ignominious (i ·no·'min·ee·us) adj. scornfully arrogant and condescending. 2. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. lacking nobility in character or purpose. often scolding or bombastic speech.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha·'ran ) n. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. 2. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. common. deserv˘ ˘ ing disgrace or shame. . hegemony (hi·'jem·o·nee) n. 1. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the ﬁnancial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. distressing. to declaim. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. overbearing pride or presumption. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. especially of ˘ one government over others. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. By practicing creating spreadsheets. 1. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. beliefs. dishonor˘ able. ignoble (i ·'noh·bel) adj. a long. 1. protected from outside inﬂuences. or event that foreshadows or indi˘ cates what is to come. to ˘ speak in a pompous maner. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. a forerunner or precursor. or institutions. v. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tus) n. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. I honed my computer skills. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. despicable. make more effective. not of the nobility. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. a tirade. 2. and many members of the organization resigned. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. disdainful. marked by shame or disgrace. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. to perfect. 1. a gap or opening. an interruption or break. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it.
impecunious (im·pe·'kyoo·nee·us) adj. 2. penni˘ ˘ less. 2. In order for the plants to grow. to ask incessantly. a curse. impulsive. Stella was ˘ relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. 1. an invocation of evil. 1. forceful energy or ˘ emotion. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. a deadlock. incapable of being placated or appeased. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. characterized by sudden. marked by violent force. In the book I’m ˘ ˘ reading. . bossy. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. but most are relatively easy to serve. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a·liz·em) n. impasse ('im·pas) n. I had to immolate the weeds. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. a difﬁculty without a solution. not able to ˘ be inﬂuenced or affected. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre. to destroy (one thing for another). poor. to beg persistently and urgently. importune (im·por·'toon) v. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. the policy of extending the rule or author˘ ˘ ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. impervious (im·'pur·vee·us) adj. make incessant requests.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. a confused or difﬁcult situation. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. unduly hasty and without thought. 1. stalemate. implacable (im·'plak·a·bel) adj. 1. Great Britain embraced imperialism. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. and a strike seemed imminent. In Shakespeare’s comedies. imprecation (im·pre·'kay·shon) n. inex˘ ˘ orable. as a sacriﬁce. overbearing. immolate ('im·o·layt) v. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. imperious (im·'peer·ee·us) adj. having little or no money. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. ˘ 3. 2. 2. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·us) adj. incapable of being penetrated. domineering. to kill.
incontrovertible (in·kon·tro·'vur·t˘·bel) adj. of or involving arson. (in·'sens) v. a frog. 3. burning readily. ascribe. . Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. 1. shamelessly forward. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. 2. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. as they mature. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. undeveloped.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu·dent) adj. The members of ˘ ˘ the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. The ˘ ˘ photographs showed Brad and Allison together. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s terri˘ tory. skeptical. undeniable. it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow. with one’s identity concealed. incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. hoping to ﬁnd some measure of privacy on her vacation. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. in disguise ´e or under an assumed character or identity. boldly showing a lack of respect. 1. impute (im·'pyoot) v. incognito (in·ko ·ne ·toh) adj. credit. incursion (in·'kur·zhon) n. just begun. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. instill. incomplete. 1. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. ˘ ˘ 2. to make (someone) angry. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. incense ('in·sens) n. to attribute to a cause or source. insolent. The star was traveling incognito. to indoctrinate. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. not yet fully formed. to attack as false or questionable. or a human. indisputable. to contradict or call into question. tending to incite or inﬂame. unwilling to believe. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. 2. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. inﬂammatory. in an initial or early stage of development. immodest. or adv. incipient.
inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta·bel) adj. . lacking sophistication or worldliness. 3. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. not easily discouraged or subdued. not suitable. disrespectful. to prohibit. foolish. Carlos argued that the agriculture ˘ department should interdict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. 2. not able to be vanquished or overcome. unmatchable. ˘ ˘ The volunteers were indefatigable. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta·bel) adj. inclined to avoid labor. sincere. 1. lethargic. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. unable to mask feel˘ ings. not easily exhausted or fatigued. inept (in·'ept) adj. haughty and contemptuous. or system of beliefs. defying imitation. His performance ˘ ˘ on the tennis court was inimitable. ˘ ˘ unconquerable. 2. tireless. 2. a nonbeliever. inappropriate. slow to grow or heal. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta·bel) adj. 1. brazen. lazy. insolent ('in·so·lent) adj. artless. inﬁdel ('in·fi·del) n. the members considered him an inﬁdel. a person with no religious beliefs. for even though he didn’t know her well. unfathomable. certain. not to be avoided or over˘ ˘ come. bafﬂing. forbid. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his ﬁnances will get him in trouble someday. causing lit˘ ˘ tle or no pain. frank. ˘ indifferent. insouciant (in·'soo·see·ant) adj. absurd. inevitable. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. incompetent. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta·bel) adj. incapable of being ˘ ˘ understood. 1. bungling and clumsy. and he won three championships. 1. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. interdict (in·ter·'dikt) v. doctrine. one ˘ who does not accept a particular religion. indolent ('in·do·lent) adj. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. ˘ ˘ impertinent. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. blithely unconcerned or carefree. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. not cunning or deceitful.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a·bel) adj. 2. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. nonchalant.
iota (¯·'oh·ta) n. ˘ Sandra is still irresolute. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. easily aroused to anger. involute ('in·vo·loot) adj. meager. Her ˘ irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. . stubborn. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. intransigent (in·'tran·si·jent) adj. nonsensical or meaningless talk. undaunted. a very small amount. lacking substance. intricate. Young ˘ children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. adapted. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂat˘ tery. hot tempered. irritable. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. inveigle (in·'vay· el) v. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel ﬁlm. hence: (a) lacking in interest or signiﬁcance. The tax reform committee faces an ˘ extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. unwilling to compromise. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. you might help her make up her mind. to annoy. I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. deep rooted. feeling or showing uncertainty. unmanageable. The young colt ˘ ˘ was intractable. ire (¯r) n. specialized or technical language of a speciﬁc trade or ˘ group. the smallest possible quantity. J jargon ('jahr· on) n.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta·bel) adj. fearless. indecisive. Professor ˘ Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. wrath. 1. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. irresolute (i·'rez·o·loot) adj. so if you talk to her. anger. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. accustomed to. I am an ˘ inveterate paciﬁst and am unlikely to change my mind. brave. irk (urk) v. irascible (i·'ras·˘·bel) adj. irritate. inveterate (in·'vet·e·rit) adj. and he faced the mammoth without fear. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. complex. unruly. habitual. to entice. vex. stubborn. hesitant. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. 2. inured (in·'yoord) adj. and it no longer bothered her. ﬁrmly established.
Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and proﬁts are up for the third quarter in a row. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. 1. to lose vigor or strength. Alexi’s jocund ˘ nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. lacking in rigor or strictness. not taut or rigid. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. brief and to the point. title for the Hindu god Krishna. weak. a massive. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. juggernaut ('ju ·er·nawt) n. but in my opinion. 1. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. to become languid. present or in existence but not active or evident. . 2. cheerful. slack. a channel or means of connection or com˘ munication between two groups. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. lenient. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop˘ pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. 1. libertine ('lib·er·teen) n. ﬂaccid. merry. 2. 2. feeble. They claim to be avant-garde. they’re just a bunch of libertines. languish ('lan · wish) v. Juggernaut. 1. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible ˘ way. 2. succinct. lax (laks) adj. a close relationship or link. often to ˘ the point of being curt or brusque. 'lee·a·zon) n. latent ('lay·tent) adj. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. L laconic (la·'kon·ik) adj. Julian’s ˘ latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. sprightly and lighthearted. hands-off.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·und) adj. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. terse. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. concise. one who maintains such communication.
1. 1. disable. inept. proﬁtable. clumsy. or injure. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. trivial or petty. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. malinger (ma·'lin · er) v. talkative. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·shan) adj. misconduct or wrongdoing. especially those ˘ ˘ that are similar in sound. The loquacious woman sitting ˘ next to me on the six-hour ﬂight talked the entire time. The maladroit waiter broke a ˘ dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. Teaching is a very ˘ rewarding career. After several tests. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. malaise (ma·'layz) n. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. producing much money. easy to understand. a crafty ˘ or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. sane or rational. garrulous. loquacious (loh·'kway·shus) adj. 1. My troubles ˘ are lilliputian compared to hers. bungling. 2. improper professional conduct. comical misuse of words. often exag˘ geratedly or ridiculously so. intelligible. the act of plotting or devising. 2. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from ofﬁce. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. His malapropisms may make us laugh. ˘ ˘ Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. a feeling of illness or unease. malfeasance (mal·'fee·zans) n. malapropism ('mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. but they won’t win our vote. maladroit (mal·a·'droit) adj. especially by a pub˘ ˘ lic ofﬁcial. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. . maim (maym) v. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·us) adj. disﬁgure. tiny. excessively dismal or mournful. to wound. to mutilate. cripple. very small. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·shon) n. Wella ﬁnally ˘ learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. 2. very clear. lucrative ('loo·kra·tiv) adj.
the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. who don’t feel they can trust him. make defective or imperfect. . showily attractive but false or ˘ ˘ insincere. to distribute. lively. one who acts independently. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. extremely careful and precise. meretricious (mer·e·'trish·us) adj. 1. liable to change moods suddenly. move aimlessly or without a ﬁxed direction or course. I meandered through the park for hours. maverick ('mav·er·ik) n. sounding sweet and ﬂowing. 1. mercurial (mer·'kyoor·ee·al) adj. she’s quite a malleable person. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. easily ˘ ˘ controlled or inﬂuenced. honeyed. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. trying to ﬁgure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. courageous. Her mel˘ liﬂuous voice ﬂoated in through the windows and made everyone smile. high-spirited. nonconformist. to wan˘ der about. meticulous (me·'tik·yu·lus) adj. mettlesome ('met·el·som) adj. meander (mee·'an·der) v. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a·bel) adj. gaudy. 2. melliﬂuous (me·'lif·loo·us) adj. a mixture or assortment. mete (meet) v. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. 2. mar (mahr) v. easily molded or pressed into shape. to impair or damage. apportion. 1. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. tawdry. 3. 2. 1. volatile. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. With its casinos and attractions. ˘ Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. 2. Alice’s mettlesome atti˘ ˘ tude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. a falsehood or lie. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. paying great ˘ ˘ ˘ attention to detail. easily adapting to changing circumstances. environment or setting. to move on a winding or turning course. 1. ˘ ˘ changeable. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. 2. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. rebel. allot.
melancholy. 1. as with studied reﬁnement. too numerous to be counted. . to lessen in intensity. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n. a villain. to make less intense or severe. vast amount. minutiae (m˘·no¯'she·a) n. going to work each day can become mundane. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. secular.. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·us) adj. great merriment. 1. not spiritual. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. moot (moot) adj. undecided. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. greatly diversiﬁed. Pay no mind to his criticism. worldly. His ¯o ¯ attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. calm. If you do not have passion for your job. To the refugees from Somalia. commonplace. My daughter has been morose ˘ ever since our dog ran away. one who hates or distrusts humankind. n. 2. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. alleviate. an immense number. 3.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. morose (mo·'rohs) adj. ordinary. to cut into very small pieces. diminish. The miscreant had ˘ eluded the police for months. soften. to walk or speak affectedly. sullen. 3. myriad ('mir·ee·ad) adj. 2. to moderate the force or intensity of. dull. Although this is a moot issue. 1. make less rigid. very varied. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. an indeﬁ˘ nitely large number. mirth (murth) n. joyous laughter. gloomy. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. debatable. evil person. very small details. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. pl. to soften. innumerable. 2. he’s a real misanthrope. 2. miscreant ('mis·kree·ant) n. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. 1. but today he was ﬁnally captured. trivial or triﬂing matters. to soothe the anger of. criminal. having many ˘ aspects.
1. the core or center. a genre of literature. strikingly new. 2. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. coming into existence. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. novel ('nov·el) n. original. 3.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. a conclusion that does not logically follow ˘ from the evidence. harmful. unpleasant and harmful. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. O obdurate ('ob·du·rit) adj. 1. nascent ('nas·ent) adj. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·em) n. bane. unwholesome. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tur) n. or different. excessive inter˘ est in one’s own personal features. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. ˘ noxious. ˘ The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. The nascent movement ˘ gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. the lowest point. . invalidate. the cause of one’s misery or ˘ downfall. source of harm or ruin. foul. a link or tie between a series of ˘ things. not showing anxiety or ˘ excitement. hardhearted. 2. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. admiration or worship of oneself. he’s the most obdurate person I know. noxious ('nok·shus) adj. The noxious smell ˘ drove everyone from the room. especially in odor. stubborn and inﬂexible. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. but I could tell she was nervous. nemesis ('nem·e·sis) n. indifferent or cool. 2. noisome ('noi·som) adj. nonchalant (non·sha·'lahnt) adj. 1. to make null (without legal force). 1. offensive. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. putrid. 2. not easily moved ˘ to pity. nexus ('nek·sus) n. I doubt he’ll change his mind. adj. In Frankenstein. emerging. Marcus’s argument started off strong. a means of connection. the very bottom. agent of retribution or vengeance. a connected series or group. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism.
having unlimited or universal power or force. bossy. The embezzler was good at keeping his ﬁnancial records occult from the authorities.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. fawning. intrusive. 1. 1. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. undesirably noticeable. projecting. contemptible. hidden. . 2. secret. 1. 2. omnipotent (om·'nip·o·tent) adj. 2. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. ˘ ˘ In Greek mythology. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. Please don’t be so obtuse. artist. obsequious (ob·'see·kwee·us) adj. ˘ thrusting out. obtuse (ob·'toos) adj. meddlesome. etc. prominent. Zeus was the most powerful god. involving the realm of the ˘ supernatural. get rid of. com˘ poser. obtrusive (ob·'troo·siv) adj. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. stupid and slow to understand. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e·rus) adj. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand. but he was not omnipotent. My ofﬁcious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. occult (o·'kult) adj. unruly. to dim or darken. 1. 3. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. a work of art. to make obscure or unclear. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or ˘ ˘ submissive. Instead of clarifying the matter. eagerly offering unnecessary or ˘ ˘ unwanted advice. the total lifework of a writer. but it is clearly an oligarchy. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. detestable. Thankfully. aggressively ˘ ˘ boisterous. oeuvre ('uu·vre) n. 2. not sharp or ˘ pointed. Walter only obfuscated it further. incomprehensible. hateful. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. beyond ordinary understanding. ofﬁcious (o·'fish·us) adj. concealed. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. 1. forward. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. odious ('oh·di·us) adj. Zachary found the work ˘ in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. Minsun survived the accident. for she is also a classical pianist. to make unnecessary. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. blunt. 2. 3. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. you know what I mean.
to gloss over. mitigate. seeming. knowing all things. 2. excessive. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. pallor ('pal·or) n. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. opprobrious (o·'proh·bree·us) adj. such as friendly ﬁre. to provide relief from pain. task. vacillate. onus ('oh·nus) n. to waver. opulent ('op·yu·lent) adj. lack of color. presumptuously arrogant. 2. 2. 2. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. appearing as such.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·ent) adj. duty or responsibility of doing something. burden. luxu˘ ˘ rious. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. possessing great wealth. 1. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. immoderate. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. The fever subsided. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. In ˘ a story with an omniscient narrator. 1. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. lacking in importance or worth. put forward (as of a ˘ reason) but not necessarily so. 1. pitiful. It was ˘ Clark’s idea. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. contemptibly small in amount. to reject. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. afﬂuent. wretched or contemptible. but her pallor remained ˘ for several weeks. but I believe they have already made their decision. overweening (oh·ver·'wee·nin ) adj. put a positive spin on. expressing contempt or reproach. . cast out from a group or from society. as between two conﬂicting options or opinions. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ron) n. insigniﬁcant. ˘ ˘ abusive. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly con˘ tradictory combination of expressions. bringing shame or disgrace. ˘ 2. 1. 1. alleviate. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·bel) adj. uninterrupted rhythm. 2. having inﬁnite knowledge. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. Kendall ˘ was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. to make something less intense or severe. Lee is very wealthy. paleness. scornful. overbearing. 1. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. pretended. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. ostracize ('os·tra·s¯z) v. abundant.
Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. something that serves as a model or example. pariah (pa·'r¯·a) n. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. beliefs.g. 1. being the best or truest of its kind. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. Although the ﬁlm received critical acclaim. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. a trivial offense. of course. smallness of supply or quantity. After he told a sexist ˘ ˘ joke. unremarkable. especially of rules or trivial matters. . a walker adj. scarcity. adj. beyond comparison. an outcast. of writing) very clear. ˘ 2. easy to understand. a small sin or fault. ˘ ˘ unimaginative. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. of. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or ˘ economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. dull. 1. ˘ 2. an upstart. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. peccadillo (pek·a·'dil·oh) n. 2. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. set of assumptions. able to be seen through with clarity. quin˘ tessential. marked by a narrow.. pedantic (pi·'dan·tik) n. relating to. pellucid (pe·'loo·sid) adj. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. a rejected and despised person. or involving money. Elected “Employee of the Month.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a·d¯m) n. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. pedestrian (pe·'des·tri· an) n. parvenu ('pahr·ve·noo) n. (e. commonplace. Ronnel was nice enough. a walker. Don’t make such ˘ a big deal out of a little peccadillo. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj. a guerilla. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se·lahns) adj. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. partisan ('pahr·ti·zan) n. 1. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. trite. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a ˘ group or cause. tiresome focus on or ˘ display of learning. translucent. having the highest degree of excellence.
2. to spread everywhere. penury ('pen·yu·ree) n. deadly. imperative. perjury ('pur·ju·ree) n. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. not allowing contradiction or refusal. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. 1. personable ('pur·so·na·bel) adj. the deliberate willful giving of false. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. extremely stubborn or persistent. dis˘ ˘ loyal. treacherous. After ten years of penury. perfunctory (per·'fun k·to·ree) adj. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. misleading. The perﬁdious knight betrayed his king. putting an end to debate or action. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. done out of a sense of duty or routine but ˘ ˘ without much care or interest. harmful. pervade (per·'vayd) v. it’s ˘ good to be ﬁnancially secure again. dictatorial. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. or dread. very destructive. extreme poverty. Higgins would be their new teacher. attractive. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. Nancy’s opponent ˘ ˘ started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. astonishment. . 1.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·chant) n. pernicious (per·'nish·us) adj. purpose. violating good faith. deeply thoughtful. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. to stun or paralyze with fear. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. superﬁcial. or ˘ incomplete testimony while under oath. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shus) adj. ˘ ˘ ˘ Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. to be diffused or present ˘ throughout. offensively self-assured. peremptory (pe·'remp·to·ree) adj. dishonest. next to last. After the terrible car accident. commanding. 3. ˘ ˘ 2. pleasing in appearance or manner. not thorough. to make hard or stiff like a stone. a strong liking or inclination (for something). or course of action. perﬁdious (per·'fid·ee·us) adj. destitution. Consuela ˘ has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work. permeate. holding ˘ ﬁrmly to a belief.
mournful. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. pivotal ('piv·o·tal) adj. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). Her brief. the essential or central part. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. ˘ ˘ The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant.). idea. calm and peaceful. 1. to offend. but he’s really just a philistine. melancholy. piercing or incisive. but concise. 2. keenly ˘ distressing. etc. .WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u·lant) adj. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. agreeably pungent. 1. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. to arouse or provoke. experience. There was a plethora ˘ ˘ of food at the reception. pillage ('pil·ij) v. touching. a smug. arousing emotion. polemical (po·'lem·ik·al) adj. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. The analyst presented ˘ ˘ a highly polemical view of the economic situation. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. a trite or banal statement. pleasantly ˘ stimulating or provocative. sharp or tart in taste. the heart or essence (of the matter. 2. expressing sorrow. pique (peek) v. an overabundance. poignant ('poin·yant) adj. 1. deeply moving. piquant ('pee·kant) adj. controversial. We are at a pivotal point ˘ ˘ in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. 1. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. peevish. especially in time of war. 2. the wrong move now could ruin everything. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre. ignorant person. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. pith (pith) n. 2. argumentative. especially one uttered as if it were new. extreme excess. 2. 1. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm. to plunder. crucial. to wound (someone’s) pride. to forcibly rob of goods. being of vital importance. free from disturbance or tumult. plethora ('pleth·o·ra) n. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. (in biology) the soft. placid ('plas·id) adj. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed.
2. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. the working class. proximity. nearness. primeval (pr¯·'mee·val) adj. pure. pretentious (pri·'ten·shus) adj. lavish or profuse. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. 1. lacking moral restraint. similarity in nature. 2. matter-of-fact. in its original and unspoiled condition. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. clean. given in great abundance. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. proletariat (proh·le·'tair·ee·at) n. but she is sorely mistaken. 2. afﬁnity. presenting favorable circumstances. a phony. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. dropping sharply. someone who takes on airs to impress others. Hannah thinks ˘ that being pretentious will make people like her. 1. putting on airs. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. 1. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. prodigal ('prod·˘· al) adj. belonging to the earliest ages. to tell lies. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. dangerously unsteady ˘ or insecure. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·us) adj. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. ˘ These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. Driving through the state park. favoring utility. unadulterated. a rule establishing standards of conduct. ˘ rash. hasty. extremely steep. to stray from or evade the truth. original. 1. pompous. . those who do manual labor ˘ ˘ to earn a living. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. foolhardy. 1. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. 2. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. 2. especially with ˘ money. practical. proﬂigate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. free from contamination. auspicious. The ˘ primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tus) adj. prodigal. The propinquity of these two elements make them difﬁcult to tell apart. His prodigal actions led to his ﬁnancial ruin. ancient. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. showy. precept ('pree·sept) n.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. dissolute. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune. 2. 1. propitious (proh·'pish·us) adj. fraught with danger. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada.
judicious. one who is an authority on a subject. In ˘ Native American mythology. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shus) adj. proselytize ('pros·e·li·t¯z) v. 1. extremely attentive to detail. ˘ caustic. changeable. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. Clarissa has always been very prudent. 2. pundit ('pun·dit) n. Because my parents were so provident. very meticulous ˘ and precise. bel˘ ligerent. to prohibit. a learned person or scholar. I love the pungent taste of a good. having a strong. After a few minutes. to banish or outlaw. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. sharp taste or smell. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. variable. belief. childish. 2. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. pungent ('pun·jent) adj. penetrating. eager to ﬁght.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. strong curry. forbid. contentious. suitable only for children. a document authorizing this substitution. ordinary. dull. versatile. 1. or procedure with regard to ˘ people’s rank or status. ˘ belonging to or of childhood. 2. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. provident ('prov·i·dent) adj. frugal. 1. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. unimaginative. exercising good judgment. 1. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. immature. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and inter˘ ests. proxy ('prok·see) n. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. to convert or seek to convert someone to another ˘ religion. puerile ('pyoo·r˘l) adj. etiquette. 2. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. quarrelsome. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. 2. . to denounce or condemn. stinging. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. protocol ('proh·to·kawl) n. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·us) adj. economi˘ cal. wisely providing for future needs. protean ('proh·tee·an) adj. ceremony. taking many forms. doctrine or cause. prudent ('proo·dent) adj. 1.
to have the appearance of being. but who knows when it will erupt again. pedestrian. He’s a cantan˘ ˘ kerous and querulous old man. propose or intend. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of ˘ dollars. to free from impurities. discontented. pure. quintessence (kwin·'tes·ens) n. . 1. querulous ('kwer·u·lus) adj. After Leon writes a draft. Prudence ˘ took her quotidian dose of medicine. The volcano is ˘ quiescent at the moment. the perfect ˘ example or embodiment of something. an equal exchange or substitution. peevish. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. cower. 2. impractical. 2. 2. to make or become clean. complaining. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. queue (kyoo) n. dormant. quail (kwayl) v. to draw back in fear. to be intended to seem. the essence of a substance. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. 1. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. 2. quiescent (kwi·'es·ent) adj. commonplace. latent. to steal. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·an) adj. a thing given in return for something. at rest. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. Q quaff (kwahf) v. romantically idealistic. quiet. 1. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. 1. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. but I love him. purloin (pur·'loin) v. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. inactive. ﬂinch. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. daily. to swallow in large draughts. to drink hurriedly or heartily. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours.
2. deal˘ ing with abstruse or profound matters. obscure. reconnoiter (ree·ko·'noi·ter) v. censure. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. unruly. a bitter feeling of ill will. jaunty in appearance or manner. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. . and this causes tension at family gatherings. resisting control or dis˘ cipline. smartly dressed or mannered. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. debonair. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. a relapse or backslide. rapacious (ra·'pay·shus) adj. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. raucous ('raw·kus) adj. 1. boisterous. to criticize sharply. ˘ ˘ especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. 1. ˘ The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. unconventional and disreputable. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. 2. The raucous music kept us awake all night. unmanageable. refractory (ri·'frak·to·ree) adj. a person who favors political conservativism. ˘ one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. disobedient. regale (ri·' ayl) v. ˘ disturbing the peace. 2. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. recondite ('rek·on·d¯t) adj. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho·ner·ee) n. rancor ('ran ·kor) n. stubborn. plundering. not easily understood. voracious. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. abstruse. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for ˘ ˘ money). The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. refusing to obey authority.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. 1. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. unpleasantly loud and harsh. long-lasting resentment. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·trant) adj. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. dissolute or debauched. Greg is ˘ full of rancor towards his brother. 2. 1. to reprove or reprimand. disorderly.
2. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. 2. witty reply. famous. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. the ability to make witty ˘ replies. a deserter. reprobate ('rep·ro·bayt) n. 2. a quick. objection. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. well stocked or abundantly supplied.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. deserving rebuke or censure. to meet at a rendezvous. 1. reject completely. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. The repre˘ hensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. disavow. widely known and esteemed. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla ﬁghters. a criminal. v. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. postponement or cancellation of punishment. The house was replete with expensive antiques. tranquility. and a traitor in his written confession. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. renegade ('ren·e· ayd) n. or opposition. full. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·zal) n. gorged. peace of mind. 2. to say or plead in protest. one who rejects a cause. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. etc. repose (ri·'pohz) n. 1. resting or being at rest. to bring or come together at a certain place. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and ˘ place. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·bel) adj. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. to disown. especially of the death sentence. 1. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. 2. 1. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. group. 1. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. 2. to scold or reprove. 2. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. 1. Mrs. rendezvous ('rahn·de·voo) n. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. an immoral or unprincipled person. one without ˘ scruples. ˘ 2. 1. a place where people meet. calmness. especially a popular gathering place. . 1. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of ˘ inﬂicting at least as much harm in return. repartee (rep·ar·'tee) n.
having or showing sound judgment. conspicuous. drawing ˘ attention through a striking quality. a pleasantly mischievous person. to repeal or cancel. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·us) adj. resplendent (ri·'splen·dent) adj. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. sagacious (sa·' ay·shus) adj. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. echoing. 1. ˘ ˘ wise. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. Annette is very reticent. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. to regard with reverence or awe. 2. a class or category. disrespectful or irreverent towards something ˘ regarded as sacred. salient ('say·lee·ent) adj. to anger or annoy. dazzling. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. highly noticeable. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. reticent ('ret·i·sent) adj. The new announcer at the stadium ˘ ˘ has a wonderfully resonant voice. having great splendor or beauty. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. revere (ri·'veer) v. Yesterday. to venerate. When you look at Judith’s work. untalkative. springing up or jutting out. to void or annul. 1. 2. 2. resonant ('rez·o·nant) adj. 3. 2. 1. 2. unprincipled person. sound advice. a complicated. or note of explanation or direction. rogue (roh ) n. a dishonest. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. silent. prominent. title. 3. resounding. rubric ('roo·brik) n. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. confusing. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery.” not “alternative medicine. hold in highest respect or estimation. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. to stir up or agitate. rigmarole ('ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. bril˘ liant. ˘ reserved. 1. perceptive. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. a heading. incoherent ˘ talk. rambling. 1. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a ﬂood zone. . Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. petty procedure.
˘ excessively self-righteous. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. schism ('siz·em) n. conﬁdently cheerful. sullen. sarcastic. To promote better health. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. 1. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. mean. mocking scornfully. saturnine ('sat·ur·n¯n) adj. 1. 2. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. She has not one ˘ scintilla of doubt about his guilt. hypocritically pious or devout. brilliantly clever and animated. sparkling. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. 1. 2. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. dark. a penalty ˘ imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. ratify. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. sanguine ('san · win) adj. of the color of blood. 1. contemptible. ofﬁcial authorization or approval. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. 2. iota. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. a separation or division into factions because of a difference ˘ in belief or opinion. red. minute amount. . I had planned to leave the dinner party early. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. engaging in or ˘ promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). v. gloomy. scintilla (sin·'til·a) n. to approve or permit. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. to give ofﬁcial authorization or approval for. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. a trace or particle.164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. optimistic. shining brilliantly. sanction ('san k·shon) n. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. composure. reme˘ dial. seditious (si·'dish·us) adj. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. graceful tact. The saturnine child sulked for ˘ hours. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate.
undulating. I was looking for your honest opinion. 1. connotation. It is dangerous to drive ˘ fast on such a sinuous road. to reduce the intensity of. simian ('sim·ee·an) adj. 3. He claims it’s an issue of semantics. 1. to satisfy. 3. 2. petition. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. lazy and inefﬁcient. pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave or forced labor. 1. or purpose. or interpretation of words. 2. hard working. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. 2. the meaning. sodden ('sod·en) adj. of or like an ape or monkey. 2. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. symbols. to approach with an offer for paid services. 1. diligent. expressionless or dull. a mistake in the use of language. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. slavish. winding. but the matter is not open to interpretation. impropriety. persevering. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. I was amused by his sophistry. The climax comes when Yolanda. the study of meaning in language. solicit (so·'lis·it) v. violation of ˘ ˘ good manners or etiquette. clever but faulty reasoning. thoroughly saturated. serpentine.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u·lus) adj. or other forms. initiative. 2. sinuous ('sin·yoo·us) adj. ˘ unimaginative. moderate. to ask for earnestly. . full of ˘ maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. pithy. Scientists have studied ˘ humans’ simian ancestors. sententious (sen·'ten·shus) adj. 1. to seek to obtain by per˘ suasion or formal application. 1. solecism ('sol·e·siz·em) n. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. ﬁnds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. the researchers discovered a cure. allay. 2. lacking ambition. expressing oneself tersely. slake (slayk) v. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. abjectly submissive. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. 1. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. After years of sedu˘ ˘ lous research. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. soaked. quench. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. not a sententious reply. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. 2.
having noble or majestic qualities. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. discordant. succinct (suk·'sin kt) adj. cripple. ˘ When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. false. destroy completely. (also stanch) stopping the ﬂow of something. 1. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. Ian’s ˘ surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. 1. 1. adora˘ tion. thwart. unpleasantly loud and harsh. lofty. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. to overthrow. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. 2. 1. to impair or make ineffective. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won ﬁrst place in the essay contest. squalid. 2. stoical ('stoh·i·kal) adj. sublime (su·'bl¯m) adj. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·nal) adj. to undermine. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. sordid. specious ('spee·shus) adj. concise. or reverence. 2. spurious ('spyoor·ee·us) adj. 2. ﬁlthy and wretched. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. indifferent. 1. staunch (stawnch) v. unswerving. unswerving. adj. 2. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. 3. ﬁrm and constant in principle or loyalty. grating. to hinder. obstruct. not genuine or authentic. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. inspiring awe. below the threshold of consciousness. counterfeit. 2. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. 1. dirty. resolute. ﬁrmly ﬁxed or unchanging. ﬁrmly loyal and constant. Michael was stoical. morally repulsive. supreme. ˘ impassive. ˘ terse. morally degraded. ﬁrm and steadfast. strident ('str¯·dent) adj. to prevent the accomplishment of something. wretched.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. . but underneath. deceptively pleasing ˘ in appearance. to ruin. shrill. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. he is every bit as emotional as we are. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. Subliminal ˘ advertising is devious but effective. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. seemingly plausible but false. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking.
The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. surly ('sur·lee) adj. sycophant ('sik·o·fant) n. suave. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. 1. ˘ ˘ clandestine. surrogate ('sur·o· it) n. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. supplicant ('sup·l˘·kant) n. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. one who ˘ beseeches or entreats. overindulge. habitually untalkative. to infer based upon insufﬁcient evidence. made. slender and graceful. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. various. satiety. or fraudulent means. a person who asks humbly for something. After ﬁnding dirty footprints in her apartment. glut. haughty. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. supercilious (soo·per·'sil·ee·us) adj. v. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. surmise (sur·'m¯z) v. . to guess. one who takes the place of another. an excessive amount or overabundance. 2. miscellaneous. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. to feed or ﬁll to excess. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. or obtained through stealthy. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. In some countries. scornful. the state of being or eating until excessively full. a substitute. bad-tempered. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or ˘ ˘ powerful people through ﬂattery. to pro˘ vide assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. disdainful. v. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. done.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·or) n. Sunil’s super˘ ˘ cilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. 1. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. surreptitious (sur·ep·'tish·us) adj. Martha ˘ agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. svelte (svelt) adj. conjec˘ ture. reserved. a fawning parasite. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. or disgust. 2. gruff.
partisan. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. gaudy or showy but without any real value. adhesive. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. The ﬁsherman found a stream teeming with bass. it’s all hearsay. conviction. tenuous ('ten·yoo·us) adj. or organization. After our disagreement. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. to be full of. The stray dog was timorous. succinct. she is the most tenacious person I know. afraid. palpable. persistent. ﬂashy and tasteless. temerity (te·'mer·i·tee) n. timid. 1. 3. tenet ('ten·it) n. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. This ˘ is no time for temerity. a belief. such as a right or ˘ ˘ principle. fearful. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·shal) adj. tendentious (ten·'den·shus) adj. group. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. timid ('tim·id) adj. thwart (thwort) v. having little substance or ˘ validity. using no unnecessary words. tangible ('tan·j˘·bel) adj. 2. terse (turs) adj. holding ﬁrmly. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. of or relating to a tangent. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. real or con˘ crete. shy. fearful. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. unsubstantial. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. lacking conﬁdence. 2. timorous ('tim·o·rus) adj. 4. concise. . only superﬁcially relevant. holding ﬁrmly to something. to be present in large numbers. ﬂimsy. not impartial. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. supporting a ˘ particular cause or position. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. hesitant. of no substantive ˘ connection. or courage. opinion. biased. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. audacity. 1. 2. 1. and it ˘ ˘ took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. brashness. (of memory) retentive. able to be perceived by touch. not relevant facts. foolish disregard of danger. tenacious (te·'nay·shus) adj. sticking ﬁrmly. cohesive. stubbornly unyielding.
etc. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. 1. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·us) adj. vote. overly familiar through overuse. labor strenuously. In the ˘ ˘ novel Brave New World. The theme of the novel was trite. a long. a court of justice. ﬂeeting. tumult.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. transient ('tran·zhent) adj. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. worn out. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. penetrating. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. toil (toil) n. 2. to work laboriously. docile. lasting only a very short time. bitterly ˘ ˘ expressing opposition. transitory. ˘ brief. especially with the goal of getting a customer. sharply deﬁned. trenchant ('tren·chant) adj. tractable ('trak·ta·bel) adj. 1. often highly critical speech. Since Andre was known for his temper. votes. etc. 1. . turbulence. creating an uproar. violent. It was a trenchant argument. 3. effective. and ﬂuctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. difﬁcult or laborious work. obedient. to promote or praise highly and energetically. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. repeated too often. 1. 2. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. 2.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. He will be sentenced for his war crimes ˘ by an international tribunal. hackneyed. a violent denunciation or condemnation. incisive. many writers had written about death in a similar way. Their relationship was transient but profound. v. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. noisy. trite (tr¯t) adj. clear-cut. disorderly. of a form of government in which those in ˘ control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. forceful. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·nal) n. his tirade did not surprise his roommate. angry. extremely per˘ ceptive. truculent ('truk·yu·lent) adj. deﬁantly aggressive. tout (towt) v. easily managed or controlled. 3. exhausting labor or effort. a ˘ state of confusion. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. to solicit (customers. or agitation. 2. ﬁerce.
elegant. to destroy in an underhanded way. greasy. inane. inconvenient. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. extremely tactful and polite.. resentment. troublesome. reproach sharply. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. but he’s really quite pedestrian. who was the rightful heir to the throne. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. by force and without right. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. purposeless. 2. perverse. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. etc. U umbrage ('um·brij) n.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. undermine (un·der·'m¯n) v. admonish. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. senseless. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. vacuous ('vak·yoo·us) adj. to swing back and forth about an opinion. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. 1. to weaken or injure. 2. to seize. stupid. improper. especially by wearing away at ˘ the foundation. ˘ The curtains undulated in the breeze. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. who had forbade them to eat sweets. wickedness. to be indecisive. or take possession of. 1. slippery. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. unctuous ('un k·choo·us) adj. undulate ('un·ju·layt) v. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. ﬂuctuate. 2. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ˘ earnest or ingratiating. offense. 1. unseemly. a corrupt or depraved act. ﬂuctuate. 2. empty. condemn. to move or sway from side to side. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. highly reﬁned in manners. 1. waver. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. to wrongfully take over. 2. suave. course of action. . adverse. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. to reprove. the babysitter undermined their mother. 1. This TV ˘ show is yet another vacuous sitcom.
worthy of reverence or respect because of age. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. the lights came back on. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. vignette (vin·'yet) n. Einstein was a veritable genius. veritable ('ver·i·ta·bel) adj. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. easily bribed or corrupted. 2. After a few minutes of pandemonium. to cen˘ sure severely. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e·ment) adj. face to face. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. irritate. genuine. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. using more words than necessary. vigor. long-winded. venal ('vee·nal) adj. a brief description or depiction. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. 1. extremely poisonous. venerable ('ven·e·ra·bel) adj. ˘ ˘ 2. vie (v¯) v. injurious or infectious. to annoy. virulent ('vir·yu·lent) adj. vis-à-vis (vee·za·'vee) adj. The ﬁlm is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. marked by great force. acrimonious. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. to cause worry to. 1. the appearance of being true or real. verbose (ver·'bohs) adj. unprincipled. bitterly hostile or hateful. to strive for superiority or victory. real. caustic. The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. ˘ Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. vituperate (v¯·too·pe·rayt) v. face to face ˘ with or opposite to. to compete with or contend. The two scientists were vying to be the ﬁrst to ﬁnd concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. wordy. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. dig˘ ˘ ˘ nity. 1. character or position. 2. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. or energy. The venal judge was ˘ removed and disbarred. savagely hostile or bitter. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. indeed. 2. 1. adv. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or ˘ ˘ forcefulness of expression or conviction. berate. . true. referring or directing attention to.
1. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. eager. Z zealous ('zel·us) adj. distrust. ˘ 2. peak. ﬁckle.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a·til) adj. guarded. watchful. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the ﬁfties. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. or fear of foreigners. X xenophobia (zen·o·'foh·bee·a) n. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. devouring greedily. likely to change suddenly or violently. varying widely. rapid. 1. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. zenith ('zee·nith) n. the point in the sky directly above the observer. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. cautious. to separate the good from the bad. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n. language ˘ ˘ marked by great ﬂuency. inconstant. top. After being swindled by the street vendor. explosive. ˘ earnest. 2. nimble speech. talking a great deal and with great ease. the spirit of the times. ﬁlled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. voluble ('vol·yu·bel) adj. turning or rotating easily on an axis. 2. winnow ('win·oh) v. having a great ˘ appetite for something. 3. rapacious. changeable. excessively greedy. voracious (voh·'ray·shus) adj. unstable. 2. the highest point. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. . We have winnowed the list of applicants down to ﬁve highly qualiﬁed candidates. 1. 1. fervent. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. a strong dislike. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. ˘ ˘ Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia.
WO R D LI ST
Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
The following table lists the most common English language preﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each preﬁx.
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
a-, anab-, absanteant-, antibicircumco-, com-, concontracounterdedis-
not, without from, away, off prior to, in front of, before opposite, opposing, against two, twice around, about, on all sides with, together, jointly against, contrary, contrasting contrary, opposite or opposing; complementary do the opposite or reverse of; remove from, reduce away from, apart, reversal, not
atypical, anarchy, amorphous abnormal, abduct, abscond antedate, antecedent, antebellum antidote, antagonist, antipathy bisect, bilateral, bicameral circumference, circumnavigate, circumspect cooperate, community, consensus contradict, contraindication counterclockwise, countermeasure, counterpart deactivate, dethrone, detract disperse, dismiss, disinterested
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES
two out, out of, away from
duo, duet, duality expel, exclaim, exorbitant induct, impart, inculcate invariable, incessant, illicit, inept, impervious intervene, interact, intermittent intramural, intravenous introvert, introduction malfunction, malpractice, malign misspell, miscreant, misanthrope monologue, monogamy, monocle multiple, multimillionaire, multifarious neologism, neonatal, neophyte nonconformist, nonentity, nonchalant overabundance, overstimulate polytechnic, polyglot postpone, postpartum, postoperative precaution, precede, presage proceed, proclivity, profess pseudonym, pseudoscience recall, reconcile, rescind semiannual, semiconscious subconscious, subdue, subjugate superhero, superﬁcial, supercilious transmit, translate, translucent triangle, tricycle, triumvirate unable, uninterested, unorthodox unite, uniform, unilateral
in- (also il-, in, into, within in- (also il-, not im-, ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween, among, within within, during in, into, within bad, abnormal, evil, wrong bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of one, single, alone many, multiple new, recent, a new form of not exceeding, surpassing, excessive many, much after, subsequent, later (than), behind before (a) earlier, before, prior to; in front of (b) for, supporting, in behalf of (c) forward, projecting false, fake back, again half, partly, incomplete under, beneath, below above, over, exceeding across, beyond, through three, thrice not one
P R E F I X E S, S U F F I X E S, AN D WO R D R O OTS
The following table lists the most common English language sufﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each sufﬁx.
SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
-age -al -an, -ian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -ary -cide -cy -er, -or -ion, -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y
(a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state, rank action or process of or relating to; a person specializing in action or process; state of quality or state one that performs, promotes, or causes an action; being in a speciﬁed state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer, killing action or practice; state or quality of one that is, does, or performs act or process; state or condition act, practice, or process; state or doctrine of one who (performs, makes, produces, believes, etc.) quality, state, or degree action or process; result, object, means, or agent of an action or process state, condition, quality or degree doctrine, theory, or science; oral or written expression condition, activity process or action act or process; ofﬁce or function state, condition, quality; activity or place of business
drainage, orphanage, marriage rehearsal, disposal, reversal guardian, pediatrician, historian adolescence, benevolence, renaissance agency, vacancy, latency disinfectant, dissident, miscreant adversary, dignitary, library suicide, pesticide, homicide democracy, legitimacy, supremacy builder, foreigner, sensor attraction, persecution, denunciation criticism, anachronism, imperialism anarchist, feminist, imperialist clarity, amity, veracity entertainment, embankment, amazement happiness, readiness, goodness biology, theology, eulogy candor, valor, succor diagnosis, dialysis, metamorphosis exposure, legislature, censure laundry, empathy, anarchy
emanate quicken. relating to characterized by. exacerbate. tending or inclined to ﬂammable. rectify colonize. archaic fragile. cursory. full of. having the qualities of. futile. cooperative. -fy -ize to make. -ose. peaceful. egregious sleepy. or characterized by one who is or does. preeminent helpful. tolerate. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. bookish. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. electrify. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. -ial. form into to cause to be or become. having the nature of without. inscrutable educational. -y capable or worthy of. culpable. unable to act or be acted on (in a speciﬁed way) full of. listless adventurous. glorious. -ible -al. American. servile Swedish. of. ephemeral human. lengthen. relating to. squeamish sensitive. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. -ical -an. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). chronic.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. synchronize . lacking. related to. to bring about violate. to come to be or have to make. fearless. pensive endless. frighten beautify. plagiarize. characteristic of performing (a speciﬁc action) or being (in a speciﬁed condition) full of. tending or liable to having the quality of. incessant. having the qualities of. wistful fantastic. peripheral. agrarian important. -ian -ant.
their meanings. ceed. another love to go. eccentric ascertain. animosity. preamble. apotheosis adapt. carnage caste. chant cap. to happen by chance to sing head. ambivalent. cardiac. ﬁtness. principal. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. bemoan. reincarnation. crim. chronology. alter am amb amb. to stop center to separate. ambush ambiguous. more than one. cip. cept card. recant capital. ability chief. toward. to get heart ﬂesh cut to go. belligerent. bonus accident. to walk both. amph anim annui. enamor ambulatory. adept. to have a certain quality war good to fall. equanimity annual. S U F F I X E S. ruler self to be. to drive. cord. belittle rebel. acr act. amphitheater unanimous. allure alternative. agitate adjacent. headlong to take. cid cant. capit. acrimonious agent. anarchy automatic. chast ced. cent. castigate exceed. autonomy. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. discern chronic. monarchy. capitulate capture. To learn these roots. cert. perennial anthropology. critique. emancipate encourage. alien amiable. adhere. to lead to. intercept. cipit cap. There are more than 150 roots here. al al. to yield. discord carnivore. benevolent. enact. incessant central.P R E F I X E S. amity. chastise. andr apo apt. inept hierarchy. concede. archi. cour carn cast. and examples of words with those roots. soul. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. bell ben. antebellum beneﬁt. to distinguish. enchant. android. ennui anthro. cess centr cern. to force. archy auto be bel. to decide time acid. human away skill. principal. ag ad. around life. coincidence. acute. ali. cret. misanthrope apology. concentric. synchronize . anniversary. bon cad. apocalypse. ept arch. near other. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. mind. to judge. cascade chant. spirit year man. crit chron sharp. automaton befriend. alias. bitter to do.
endow dubious. to bear to boil. indubitable. cresc. proclivity recur. to make to bring. enclose. ﬂexible ﬂuid. dict. dit dign dog. dia dic. to cry out to lean toward. proclaim. dystopia. to bubble faith. ﬂam ﬂect. ﬂex ﬂu. diatribe. clam cli. ﬁnite. error. indignant dogma. dolorous donate. cur crat. close to shout. epigraph equation. eulogy. afﬁnity ﬂame. increase. endow. equanimity. coalesce. equivocate err. proliferate fervor. incursion. ﬁg. a course to govern to grow to believe. ﬂuctuation. dot. epigram. clo. to carry. fervid. obdurate dysfunctional. clu claim. increment incredible. euthanasia fable. incubate. durable. orthodox. exculpate doctor. dow dub duc. culpable. dox dol don. recline. cryptic. pandemic dialogue. indoctrinate. factory. clin cour. dictionary.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. cret cred cryp cub. autocracy. to use words worth opinion suffer. trust end to burn to bend to ﬂow scissors. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. even to wander becoming good. indolence. precise. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. well speak to do. ﬂammable. famous. epidemic. affable ﬁction. cryptography succumb. superﬂuous . credit. cursory democracy. erratic adolescent. cumb culp dac. dyslexia epidemic. inﬁdel ﬁnal. conducive endure. dubiety conduct. reﬂect. induct. inﬂammatory deﬂect. ﬁdelity. feign offer. to tell. fy fer ferv ﬁd ﬁn ﬂag. fait. acquiesce euphoria. fam fac. docile democracy. clamor decline. ﬁc. paradox condolence. abnormal upon equal. doc dem di. effervescent conﬁde. incredulous crypt. incisive closet. ﬂux to cut shut. bend running. feit. cracy cre. dichotomy predict. bureaucracy creation. transfer. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. incumbent culprit. preclude exclaim. through to say. indict dignity.
nominal . renaissance innocent. immutable. eloquent. lucid. to throw down to meet. hyperextend. rise word. digress grateful. infringe infusion. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. homogenous ignore. select. perjury. homonym. diminish. nox nom. admonish. log. noc. gno grad. lum. junction. forbear fortune. anthropomorphic fra. hyperbole idiom. fortuitous fracture. monit morph to pour birth. leg lev loc. intermittent monitor. ingratiate cohere. elude. fortunate. aggressive. loqu luc. inherent heterosexual. noun. conjecture joint. eclectic elevator. morbid. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. light. recognize. nown death change rule. nascent. manifest minute. alleviate dialogue. genetics. frag. gress grat her. noun. death name immortal. to choose lift. max man min min mis. nym. fraction. juxtapose jury. nai nec. race. manufacture. minutiae prominent. excessive one’s own to throw. dilute. diffuse generous. remit. heterodox homogeneous. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. noxious. moratorium mutate. frac. mit mon. incognito progress. adherent. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. magnitude. nym nat. deluge magnify. nas. junct jur lect. luminous illusion. imminent. lus lud. S U F F I X E S. lut. creation. luv mag. fring to break fus gen gn. lever. magnanimous manual. autonomy native. dejected. innocuous nominate. nown. remonstrate amorphous. taxonomy. forestall. loquacious illustrate.P R E F I X E S. abjure election. homonym hyperactive. heterogeneous. idiosyncrasy. maj. permutation economy. ideology eject. allude lavatory. preeminent transmit. nic. nom. lus lug. to join to swear to select. other same over. gratitude. metamorphosis. order to be born harm.
desultory conscious. omniscient pacify. nunc nov. secr sal. pu ped ped. pandemic. obstruct. poor child. pronounce. pugnacious. impugn point. poign que. seditious . sacrament. neophyte object. plic. suffering. nou ob. pat. deplete. peripheral.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. completely. philanthropy. disease few. probation. obsequious omnipresent. paragon. reprisal proliferate. pauper. plethora complex. oc. proselytize probe. to compensate to hang. ris rog sacr. importune surprise. to jump to know to write apart announce. to strive love sound to please to ﬁll to fold. to. component. of. over all peace all. circumscribe separate. tranquil. to place to carry to take. cacophony placid. pedantic pedestrian. impoverish pediatrician. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. to seize much. penance depend. reprobate repugnant. omniscient scribble. surrogate. insolent. pos. to weigh. pens per peri pet. pit phil phone plac ple plex. scrip se to announce new toward. profuse. wrong around to go. beside feeling. paradox passionate. to tangle. disparate. quis qui rid. petition. ridiculous. conquest. portable. peripatetic compete. pod pen. prise pro prob pug punc. pervade perimeter. a lot to prove. against. query quiet. to test to ﬁght to point. po. pov. to pay completely. pun pend. sil. to seek. science. apprehend. sanct. omnipotent. comply. pound port prehend. prescribe. neo. juxtapose import. puncture. for. impede penalty. sault. implicit expose. paciﬁer panorama. antipathy. to twist. panacea par. punishment. path pau. appease. derision interrogate. sult sci scribe. to get. parity parallel. homophone. encyclopedia. sanction assault. permeate. impetuous philosophy. to bend to put. placebo. pensive perplex. education foot to pay. segregate. punctilious inquisitive. abrogate sacred. apathetic poverty. complacent complete. denounce novice. acquiesce riddle. bibliophile telephone. peas pan par para pas. compensate. novel. pung. op omni pac. everyone equal next to. expedite. little. ply pon.
tin tend. equivocate volunteer. tractable abuse. to thin god. reticent. religion to drag. to plot to feel. dissuade tacit. vok vol to follow to sit. persuade. dissolution perspective. to be aware to loosen. dissent dissolve. ut ven. intervene verdict. visionary vocal. sustain. dissident sense. tenacious extend. to pull.P R E F I X E S. S U F F I X E S. sentiment. usurp convene. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. tens. aversion. spic. ten. vis voc. tent. to free to look. sti sua tac. sess. to draw to use to come. to be still. to see to stand. detract. taciturn detain. tension. benevolence . theology. verisimilitude. obsequious subside. venture. vent ver vers. utility. obstinate. apotheosis attract. vert vi vid. veritable revert. sid sens. spit sta. sequel. survey. sequ sed. steadfast suave. vigorous. tent. circumspect static. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. sent sol spec. advocate. versatile vivid. tenu theo tract us. assiduous. to plan. vicarious evident. tic tain. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. volition. tenuous atheist. speculation. resolution.
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