P. 1
Piling Specs

Piling Specs

|Views: 5|Likes:
Published by Elvis Gray
Piling Specs
Piling Specs

More info:

Published by: Elvis Gray on Jan 11, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/11/2013

pdf

text

original

Section 4 Part 02

General Specification

TABLE OF CONTENTS 2. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE PILES ............................................ 2 General ........................................................................................................................ 2 Scope ...................................................................................................................... 2 References .............................................................................................................. 2 MATERIALS ................................................................................................................ 2 Cement .................................................................................................................... 2 Aggregate ................................................................................................................ 3 Water ....................................................................................................................... 3 Admixtures ............................................................................................................... 3 Steel Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel ........................................................... 3 CONCRETE MIXES FOR PILING WORK ................................................................... 3 General .................................................................................................................... 3 Grade Designation ................................................................................................... 3 Designed Mix ........................................................................................................... 3 Durability .................................................................................................................. 4 Minimum Cement .................................................................................................... 4 PLACING CONCRETE ................................................................................................ 4 General .................................................................................................................... 4 Inspection ................................................................................................................ 4 Cleanliness of Pile Bases ........................................................................................ 5 Workability of Concrete ........................................................................................... 5 Compaction ............................................................................................................. 5 Placing Concrete in Dry Borings .............................................................................. 6 Placing Concrete under Water or Drilling Fluid........................................................ 6

Rev. 0

1/ 6

1 1 LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications MATERIALS Cement Cement shall be ordinary Portland. the Contractor shall also submit for approval the type of cement.Section 4 Part 02 General Specification 2. sulphate-resisting Portland. The use of cement replacement materials will be permitted subject to the approval of the Engineer and provided that they can be shown to have beneficial effects on concrete impermeability. 0 2/ 6 . Precast Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles Part 4. The mix proportions shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section Part 1.1. 2. Part 3.2. he proposes to use. High alumina cement shall not be used.1 1 2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE PILES General Scope This part applies to cast in situ as well as precast concrete piles. Bored Cast-in-Place Piles Part 5. other than ordinary Portland cement. Driven Cast-In-Place Piles Section 5.2 2. Concrete. Portland blast-furnace cement or rapid-hardening Portland cement unless otherwise specified or approved.2 1 References The following Standards are referred to in this Part: ASTM C494: Standard specifications for chemical admixtures for placing in concrete C1017-92: Standard specifications for Chemical admixtures for Use in Producing Flowing Concrete ASTM C94: Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete ASTM C685: Standard Specification for Concrete Made by Volumetric Batching and Continuous Mixing ASTM C 595: (2003) Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements AASHTO: 2. Bored Piles Constructed Using Continuous Flight Augers and Concrete or Grout Injection through Hollow Auger Stems Part 6.1. For cement requirements see Section 5. 2 Rev.1 2. 2. When submitting his piling method statement and programme to the Engineer. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 3. heat generation during setting and general durability. For requirement of cementitious additions refer to Section 5 Part 5.

5 1 2 3 2. For requirements of prestressing steel refer to Section 5.3 1 If water for the Works is not available from a public supply.1 1 2.3.3. Part 5. For quality of water refer to Section 5. if approved.4 1 2. The number of joints in longitudinal steel bars shall be kept to a minimum. The concrete shall be Class A and shall confirm to requirements of section 8.2. Part 18.2 1 2. Joints in reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of each bar is effective across the joint and shall be made so that there is no detrimental displacement of the reinforcement during the construction of the pile. may be used. For aggregates requirements refer 5.2 1 All cement and cement replacement materials shall be separate containers according to type in waterproof stores or silos. approval shall be obtained regarding the source of water. and shall be used as and when required by the Engineer. naturally occurring or crushed gravel. It shall be clean.3 2. Aggregate stored in Aggregates shall consist of approved.2. but the Engineer will specify the minimum cement content and any other properties required to ensure durability.2. mixing and transportation of fresh concrete and testing of hardened concrete refer to Section 5.3. and free from loose rust and loose mill scale when installed in the Works. For requirements of steel reinforcement refer to Section 5. in accordance with ASTM C94-94 AND C685-94. Part 2.3 1 2 Rev. For use of admixtures refer to Section 5. Admixtures Admixtures complying with ASTM C494: Standard specifications for chemical admixtures for placing in concrete and C1017-92: Standard specifications for Chemical admixtures for Use in Producing Flowing Concrete. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer of the source of the aggregates before beginning work and provide evidence their properties and gradation. Water sand and supply of regarding to Section 2. Part 11. or by grades. batching. Part 4.2. 2.Section 4 Part 02 General Specification 3 2. Designed Mix The Contractor shall be responsible for selecting the mix proportions to achieve the required strength and workability. Steel Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean and dry conditions. 0 3/ 6 . CONCRETE MIXES FOR PILING WORK General For general requirements of concrete mixes. Grade Designation Grades of concrete shall be denoted by the characteristic 28 day compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens in micro pascals. trial mixes.

1 1 2 3 2. where A is the alkali content of the concrete (kg/m3). C is the maximum expected Portland cement content of the concrete (kg/m3 ) and a is the alkali content of Portland cement (%). Durability For piles exposed to potentially aggressive ground or groundwater.3. The concrete shall be placed without such interruption as would produce a cold joint in the pile.4 2. and a means of measuring verticality shall be provided. approved measures shall be taken to ensure durability. 3 The free alkali content of the concrete mix shall be less than 3 kg per cubic metre of concrete and the alkali content shall be calculated from the formula A = Ca/100. Minimum Cement The cement content in any mix for piling work shall be not less than 475 kg/m3 for normal weight concrete. 4 5 2. measuring tapes. Guide to Concrete Construction in the Gulf Region.4. PLACING CONCRETE General The workability and method of placing and vibrating the concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed.4.3. Torches or other approved means of lighting. Complete information on the mix and sources of aggregate for each grade of concrete and the water / cementecious material ratio and the proposed degree of workability shall be approved before work commences. Other grades may be approved if appropriate to the work. No soil. liquid or other foreign matter which would adversely affect the performance of the pile shall be permitted to contaminate the concrete. Reference should be made to Building Research Establishment Digest 360 relating to sulphate attack coupled with the CIRIA Special Publication 31.Section 4 Part 02 General Specification “Concrete Structures” of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction specifications unless otherwise specified in the contract documents. The Contractor shall submit the slump factor he proposes for approval before work commences. The latter percentage is to be the declared monthly mean alkali content + 0. For piles of 750 mm diameter or larger. Sulphate resisting cement shall confirm to ASTM C150 or C 595-86 depending on severity of exposure of piles.5 1 2. The method of placing shall be approved. This inspection shall be carried out from the ground surface in the case of piles of less than 750 mm diameter. 0 4/ 6 .4 1 2. The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and placing of the concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in a temporary casing.2 1 Rev.1 %. equipment shall be provided by the Contractor to enable his representatives and the Engineer to descend into the bore for the purpose of inspection. to safeguard against chloride attack. Inspection Each pile bore which does not contain standing water or drilling fluid shall be inspected directly or indirectly before to concrete is placed in it.

where concrete is placed within temporary casings. Where reinforcement is not spaced widely.4. Water or drilling fluid shall be maintained at such levels throughout and following the cleaning operation that stability of the bore is preserved. with the approval of the Engineer obtained in advance for each specific use.3 1 Cleanliness of Pile Bases Drilled shafts or bores shall confirm to section 5. where pile bore is water-free. Where pile bores contain water or drilling fluid. “Drilled Piles and Shafts”. 0 5/ 6 . of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications’ completion of boring and where inspection of a dry pile bore indicates the necessity.1 Standards for Concrete Slump Piling mix workability Slump Minimum ( mm) 75 Range (mm) 75-150 Placed into water-free unlined or permanently lined bore of 600 mm diameter or over. and the diameter less than 600 mm or Where concrete is to be placed by tremie under water or drilling mud. The concrete shall be of the workability approved under Clause 2. Compaction Internal vibrators may be used to compact concrete. disturbed or softened soil shall be removed from the bore. Workability of Concrete Slump measured at the time of discharge into the pile bore shall be in accordance with the standards shown in Table 2.5 1 A B 100 100-200 C 150 150 more Rev.4. shall be removed using appropriate approved methods.3. a cleaning process shall be employed before concrete is placed.3 when in its final position and shall remain sufficiently workable for all pile construction procedures to be safely completed. and where reinforcement is widely spaced leaving ample room for free movement of concrete between bars.4 1 2 2.4. Table 2. which shall be designed to clean while at the same time minimizing ground disturbance below the pile bases. Large debris or accumulated sediment.Section 4 Part 02 General Specification 2.1. loose. or by pumping Typical Conditions of use 2. or both of them. or the concrete shall be placed by tremie method. or where concrete is placed below temporary casing.

2 m. coherent mix and highly workable. allowing the tremie to pass within reinforcing cages without causing damage. A sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within the pipe to ensure that the pressure from it exceeds that from the water or drilling fluid.5.4. 0 6/ 6 . The concrete shall be placed in such a manner that segregation does not occur. In this event the Contractor shall modify or replace the bentonite as approved to meet the specification. which could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe.20 the placing of concrete shall not proceed. Pumping of concrete may be approved where appropriate. and the maximum sized aggregate shall be 20 mm. and the Contractor shall ensure that heavily contaminated bentonite suspension.Section 4 Part 02 General Specification 2. 2 2. Concrete shall be placed by “elephant trunk”. measures shall be taken in accordance with Clause 2. Concrete to be placed under water or drilling fluid shall be placed by tremie and shall not be discharged freely into the water or drilling fluid.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 END OF PART Rev. and the free fall shall not exceed 1. The pipe shall extend to the base of the bore and a sliding plug or barrier shall be placed in the pipe to prevent direct contact between the first charge of concrete in the tremie and the water or drilling fluid.4. has not accumulated in the bottom of the hole. It shall be so designed that external projections are minimized. If the specific gravity of the suspension exceeds 1. The pipe shall at all times penetrate the concrete which has previously been placed and shall be withdrawn at a rate such that there shall be a minimum concrete cover of 2 m over the end of the tremie pipe. The concrete shall be a rich.3. The hopper and pipe of the tremie shall be clean and watertight throughout. segregation or bleeding. until completion of concreting. Placing Concrete under Water or Drilling Fluid Before placing concrete.3 to ensure that there is no accumulation of silt or other material at the base of the boring. and cement content shall be in accordance with Clause 2. The internal diameter of the tremie pipe shall be not less than 150 mm. A sample of the bentonite suspension shall be taken from the base of the boring using an approved sampling device.6 1 Placing Concrete in Dry Borings Approved measures shall be taken to ensure that the structural strength of the concrete placed in all piles is not impaired through grout loss. The internal face of the pipe of the tremie shall be free from projections.4.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->