This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Friday, August 12, 2011 9:47 PM
A&P target score: 88% Grammar target score: 100% Math target score: 98% Reading target score: 98% Vocab target score: 90% Composite target: 94.8% = 34 points on application
I. Homeostasis 1. Homeostasis: the body's maintenance of a stable environment 2. Receptors (may be a molecule or a cell) provide information about environment --> control center (and set point) indicates correct value e.g. body temp @ 98.6 degrees --> effectors (such as muscles or glands) elicit responses that alter conditions in the internal environment 3. Most is monitored by negative feedback: receptors measure deviations from set point, effectors are activated, conditions return toward set point, effectors gradually shut off 4. A few homeostatic mechanisms function by positive feedback: changes by effectors elicit more changes (e.g. blood clotting or labor contractions) II. Levels of Structural Organization 1. Organelles: cell components that perform a specific function 2. Cells: basic unit of structure and function a. Each contain a full set of genetic information but only use a portion of it… allows cells to specialize 3. Tissues: groups of cells organized into layers or masses that have specific functions 4. Organs: structures that perform a specialized function (comprised of tissues) 5. Organ systems: groups of organs that function together closely 6. Organism: comprised of interacting organ system III. Directional Terms 1. Superior: above, or closer to the head 2. Inferior: blow, or closer to the feet 3. Anterior: toward the front 4. Posterior: toward the back 5. Medial: toward the midline 6. Lateral: away from the midline (closer to the sides) 7. Planes (sections) a. Median (saggital): imaginary vertical line dividing the body into right and left portions b. Coronal (frontal): imaginary vertical line dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions c. Transverse (horizontal): imaginary horizontal line dividing the body into superior and inferior portions 8. Body cavities a. Dorsal cavity: cranial and spinal cavities i. Cranial cavity: brain ii. Spinal (vertebral) cavity: spinal cord, vertebrae b. Ventral cavity: orbits, nasal, oral, thoracic, mediastinum, pericardial, pleural, and abdominopelvic (peritoneal) i. Orbits: eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves ii. Nasal cavity: divided into right and left portions by nasal septum; air -filled sphenoid and frontal sinuses iii. Oral cavity: teeth and tongue iv. Thoracic cavity: lungs v. Mediastinum: heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus vi. Pericardial cavity: potential space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium vii. Pleural cavities: Right and left; potential space between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes viii. Abdominopelvic cavity: extends from diaphragm to floor of pelvis; includes stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs ix. Peritoneal cavity: potential space between parietal and visceral peritoneal membranes 9. Membranes of body cavities a. Pleural membranes: serous membranes that line the lungs (parietal: outside layer, lining the cavity; visceral: inside layer, covering the lung) b. Pericardial membranes: serous membranes that line the heart (parietal: outside layer, lining the mediastinum; visceral: inside layer, covering the heart) c. Peritoneal membranes: serous membranes that line the abdominopelvic cavity (parietal: outside layer, lining the cavity; visceral: inside layer, lining the organs) IV. Four major tissue types (and their functions) 1. Epithelial tissue a. Found throughout the body. Covers the body, lines organs, inner lining of body cavities, and hollow organs b. Always has an apical (free) surface exposed to an open space (inside or outside). Thin, nonliving basement membrane anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue c. Tightly packed; lac k blood vessels (supplied by underlying connective tissues with abundant blood vessels) d. Functions include protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion e. Simple squamous i. Single layer of thin, flattened cells ii. Common at sites of diffusion and filtration (substances pass through easily) iii. Alveoli, walls of capillaries, insides of blood and lymph vessels, covers membranes that line body cavities iv. Thin and delicate --> easily damaged f. Simple cuboidal i. Single layer of cube-shaped cells ii. Lines follicles of thyroid gland, covers ovaries, lines kidney tubules, ducts of glands (salivary glands, pancreas, liver) iii. Functions in tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption iv. Secretes glandular products g. Simple columnar i. Single layer of enlongated cells ii. Ciliated or nonciliated
Anatomy and Physiology Page 1
Holocrine glands: secrete entire cell along with fluids n. Goblet cells secrete mucus. Appear stratified. Specialized cells to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids ii. Abundant extracellular matrix iii. Lacunae: chambers that house the chondrocytes v. iv. but are not ii. Lines larger ducts of mammary glands. function as scavenger cells g. and reproductive systems)… type of epithelium varies… goblet cells in between epithelial cells secrete mucous b. Multiple layers of cuboidal cells that form lining of a lumen ii. tough protective material that prevents water and other substances from escaping and microorganisms from entering iv. simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue. like ligaments and tendons (tissue containing abundant collagenous fibers is dense connective tissue… tissue with sparse fibers is loose connective tissue) i. there are multiple layers of cuboidal cells. Usually found within columnar or cuboidal epithelium. e. pancreas. Anatomy and Physiology Page 2 . Macrophages: originate as white blood cells. sweat glands. form inner linings of thorax and abdomen. Connective tissue a. Commonly ciliated iii. thick --> good protective layer Nonciliated: portions of the GI tract Secretes digestive fluids. usually attached to fibers but can detach. Pseudostratified columnar i. absorbs nutrients Microvilli in intestines for absorption Goblet cells: flask-shaped glandular cells in between epithelial cells that secrete mucus onto free surface h. superficial cells are elongated while basal cells are cuboidal ii. secrete watery serous fluid c. and seminiferous tubules k.Ciliated or nonciliated Elongated. great tensile strength. Merocrine glands: release fluids by exocytosis vi. iii. the spleen k. Transitional i. lymphatic organs m. Serous membranes: Line cavities that do not open to the outside. Delicate. Stratified squamous i. Provides frameworks. Makes up epidermis iii. 2. fills spaces. respiratory. Exocrine gland: secretes into a duct that opens onto an open surface (such as skin or GI tract) iv. reduce friction. spleen. Chondrocytes: cartilage cells iv. Framework of certain internal organs. Most abundant type of tissue by weight b. Reticular fibers: thin collagenous fibers… delicate supporting networks in e. Thin structures that are usually composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissue a. vi. and attachments. components of body parts that hold structures together. Lines urinary bladder iii. Fibroblasts: star-shaped cells that produce fibers by secreting proteins into the extracellular matrix f. Stratified cuboidal i. vii. wandering cells: reside in different places in the body e. Endocrine gland: secretes into tissue fluid or blood v. Collagenous fibers: thick threads of collagen. and anal canal j. Areolar i. thin membranes ii. protects underlying tissues.g. stores fat. Types of membranes i.g. liver. Fixed cells: remain in their place. Glandular i. Hyaline cartilage ii. Also prevent the contents of the bladder from diffusing back into the internal environment m. secrete heparin. protects against infection. produces blood cells. Lines the respiratory system i. Stratified columnar i. Specialized to change in response to increased tension ii. the tissue stretches and there appears to be only a few layers of cells iv. vagina. Perichondrium: connective tissue covering that houses cartilaginous structures (contain blood vessels) vi. one or more glandular cells composes a gland iii. When the cells contract. Also lines oral cavity. urinary. Mucous membranes: Line tubes that open to outside of the body (oral and nasal cavities and tubes of digestive. very thick ii. salivary glands. Mast cells: usually near blood vessels. Synovial membranes: Lines joints (composed entirely of connective tissue) d. Elastic fibers: composed of springlike protein elastin… commonly in body parts that stretch --> vocal cords. Cartilage i. Extracellular matrix: protein fibers and ground substance… between cells d. Binds the skin to the underlying organs and fills spaces between muscles l. v. developing ovaries. they accumulate keratin (protein) which produces covering of dry. forms structural models for bones ii. Cutaneous membrane: Skin. and helps repair tissue damage c. Many layers of cells. air passages of respiratory system (yellow fibers) j. Apocrine glands: lose small portions of glandular cell bodies during secretion vii. also release histamine h. esophagus. cilia sweep it away iv. As older cells are pushed outward. which prevents blood clotting. Provides support. Several layers of columnar cells. Reticular i. when the organ is distended. Lines part of the male urethra and ductus deferens and parts of the pharynx l. frameworks.
parts of tendons and ligaments (can withstand a lot of pulling). Single nucleus iii. Adipose i. called signal transduction a. Fibrocartilage 1) Very tough 2) Shock absorber 3) Intervertebral discs 4) Cushions bones in the knees and pelvic girdle n. poor blood supply ii. Intercalated disc: intercellular junctions that are only in cardiac tissue iv. Internally supports body structures iv. Basic cells = neurons c. Blood i. Endoplasmic reticulum: participates in protein and lipid molecule synthesis… rough ER synthesizes protein. Lysosomes: "garbage disposal" of the cell… enzymes dismantle debris. Abundant collagenous fibers iii. somewhat elastic. concentrically clustered around central canal ix. Red marrow forms blood cells. empties urinary bladder c. In brain. surface of heart. controlled by conscious effort ii. abdominal membranes. spaces between muscles. osteoblasts --> osteocytes viii. Attach to bones. Canaliculi: cytoplasmic processes that extend outward and pass through minute tubes in extracellular matrix. form chromosome) 3. Voluntary (skeletal) i.g. Ribosomes: composed of protein and RNA… link amino acids to form proteins… scattered in cytoplasm and bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum 4. Found only in heart ii. gap junctions connect them to membranes of surrounding cells… allow materials to move rapidly between blood vessels and bone cells o. Mitochondria: "powerhouse" of the cell… final step in ATP synthesis 9. intestines. being modified chemically (sugar molecules added or removed). smooth ER synthesizes lipids. Dense i. many outpouching and infoldings that increase surface area… controls entrance and exit of substances (selectively permeable). absorbs fats from the digestive tract. Elastic cartilage 1) More flexible 2) Dense network of elastic fibers 3) External ears and parts of larynx viii. Golgi apparatus: glycoproteins pass from layer to layer. and blood vessels iv. Bulk of heart. Lines walls of hollow internal organs e. Osteoblasts deposit bone matrix vi. soft part of the bones 4) Bones begin as hyaline cartilage during embryonic development vii. Composed of phospholipid bilayer Anatomy and Physiology Page 3 . joined end to end. some joints q. Regular: very strong. branched. spinal cord. stored nutrients and pigments) 8. Fat --> forms when adipocytes store fat in their cytoplasm ii. Cell/plasma membrane: extremely thin. stomach. constricts blood vessels. Contain more than 40 different enzymes… these enzymes only work in very acidic conditions. carry on phagocytosis. and breaking down drugs 5. Once surrounded by matrix. urinary bladder. Involuntary (smooth) i. Multinucleate cells b. RBC: transport gases. Nerve tissue a.vi. Nucleus: large. lamellae (layers of bone) are deposited concentrically around them… each contains a blood vessel vii. uterus. Form in hematopoietic tissues in red marrow p. alternating light and dark striations iii. Hyaline cartilage 1) Most common type 2) Very fine collagenous fibers 3) Found on ends of bones. which prevents it from destroying other cellular contents 7. Cells suspended in plasma ii. around kidneys. Haversian (central) canals contain blood vessels.g. Irregular: randomly organized. are secreted by exocytosis 6. Chromosomes (chromatin): chromatin consists of loosely coiled fibers in nuclear fluid… fibers consist of DNA molecules wrapped around proteins called histones (chromatin fibers organized. allows cells to receive and respond to incoming messages. sustain tension exerted from multiple directions. Cardiac i. WBC: fight infection. structure that contains DNA 2. Most rigid connective tissue (mineral salts) ii. Inclusions (vacuoles): other chemicals contained in the cytosol. stores and releases inorganic chemicals like calcium and phosphorus v. Beneath skin. Lack striations ii. Striated. and interconnected in complex networks… single nucleus iii. pumps blood through the heart 4. Cell organelles 1. Muscle tissue a. are usually there temporarily (e. Bone i. Transmit nerve impulses along cellular processes called axons to other neurons or to muscles or glands d. behind eyeballs. Thin and narrow. in the dermis 3. peripheral nerves b. Moves food through digestive tract. platelets clot iii. Osteon/Haversian system: osteocytes and layers of extracellular matrix. Neroglia: support and bind the components of nervous tissue. usually spherical. flexible. and help supply growth factors and nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels V.
Keratin: a waterproof. patella) 3. Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis: areolar and adipose tissue.g. contains blood vessels that supply the skin… forms network (rete cutaneum) between dermis and subcutaneous layer 3. Stratum corneum (outermost layer) ii. 4. and forehead… produce profuse sweat b. which form concentric circles around central (Haversian) canals 4. backbones. Sensory receptors 1) Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles: stimulated by heavy pressure 2) Tactile (Meissner's) corpuscles: senses light touch 3) Free nerve endings: respond to temperature changes or to factors that can damage tissues (extend into the epidermis) c. Peripheral protein: protein that projects from the membrane's outer surface iii. Hair: present on all surfaces except palms. or basal cell layer… deepest layer) … contain melanocytes b.g. or in pain 7. Short bones: cubelike. Central canals are longitudinal through bone. Irregular bones: variety of shapes. Cytoplasm: network of organelles suspended in liquid cytosol 11. Epidermis: outer layer. blonde and red hair has more reddish-yellow pheomelanin b. forearm bones. supplies the skin with nutrients from the blood 5. Stratum spinosum iv. smooth muscle tissue. cells lie within trabeculae (bony projections) and absorb nutrients that diffuse into calaliculi (microscopic canals that connect the bone tissue) b. Integumentary system 1. Sebaceous glands: usually associated with hair follicles. expanded ends (e. consists of stratified squamous epithelium i. frightened. Dermis: inner layer. Nails: nail plate.g. Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis): areolar and adipose tissue.2 Anatomy and Physiology Page 4 . whitish.2 c) Occipital d) Temporal . helps regulate temperature. Appendages a. Sesamoid or round bones: usually small and nodular and are embedded in tendons adjacent to joints (e. which contain larger blood vessels and nerves 7. thicker than epidermis. secrete globules of fatty material that burst the cells (holocrine glands)… release sebum… scattered throughout the skin but not on the palms and soles 6.g. Composed of phospholipid bilayer b. Spongy bone vs. Apocrine glands: sweat from these gland develop a scent when metabolized by bacteria… become active at puberty. produce blood cells. fibrous protein that accumulates in skin cells as they move further from the dermal blood supply (as a result of growth of the epidermis) as epidermal cells become keratinized. Skeletal system 1. Dark hair has more brownish-black eumelanin. Basement membrane: connects epidermis to dermis d. Functions: provides structure. Osteocytes: bone cells… are arranged in bony chambers called lacunae. ankle bones) c. Axial i. appendicular skeleton . Eccrine glands: abundant on the back. and provide points of attachment for muscles 2. Spongy bone i. connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers. Cytoskeleton: supportive framework formed by network of protein rods and tubules VI.total 206 bones a. usually connected to several other bones (e.g. support and protect softer tissues. keeps the body from losing water. Functions: keeps out pathogens. thigh bones) b. Osteoblasts: bone-forming cells… once they are surrounded by bony matrix in lacunae. Long bones: longitudinal axes. Instead. rib bones. cluster around central canal… form an osteon or Haversian system ii. Stratum basale (stratum germinativum. they become rougher and tightly packed. thickened. lips. half-moon lunula is most active growing region VII. Osteoclasts: cells that break down calcified bone matrix… Bone remodeling: occurs as osteoclasts resorb bone tissue and osteoblasts replace the bone 6. are activated when emotionally upset. Interior is fatty acid portions of phospholipid molecules (selective permeability) c. Epidermal and Dermal structures a. wrist bones. Compact bone i. and blood i. nervous tissue. and parts of external reproductive organs… dead epithelial cells in a hair follicle. Composed of osteocytes and extracellular matrix. facial bones) e. synthesizes nutrients such as vitamin D 2. Transmembrane protein: extends from the outer surface at one end and dips into the cytoplasm at the other end (many function as receptors) d.a. Many types of proteins i. Skull 1) 8 cranial bones a) Frontal b) Parietal . Cellular adhesion molecules: enable cells to touch or bind (help slow white blood cells to guide them to the site of injury. on top of nail bed. Bone classification a. Flat bones: platelike. short (e. soles. Stratum granulosum iii. Axial vs. Integral protein: protein that spans the membrane ii. nipples. they are called osteocytes 5. help establish connections between nerve cells that underlie learning and memory) 10. Central canals contain blood vessels and nerve fibers iii. neck. some skull bones) d. Sudoriferous glands: wide-spread in the skin. compact bone a. but the cells do not congregate around central canals ii. ball-shaped coil in the dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer a. Composed of osteocytes and extracellular matrix. forming the stratum corneum… these dead cells are eventually shed. with broad surfaces (e. perforating canals (aka Volkmann's canals) connect them transversely.
28 8.2 2) Tibia .2 b) Palatine . Muscle groups: several muscles that control a specific part of the body b. When sarcomeres shorten (contract). Sliding filament theory of muscle contraction a. Myosin cross-bridges contain ATPase.2 2) Incus . rather slide past each other b.2 f) Vomer g) Inferior nasal concha . Smooth: under involuntary control.2 3) Stapes . which breaks down ATP to ADP + phosphate 3. Muscles c.28 iii.2 ii. Pectoral girdle 1) Scapula .10 7) Phalanx . Organization a. Muscular system 1. Actin: thin filaments e.14 6) Metatarsal . the H zones and I bands narrow. activating contraction… neurotransmitters norepinephrine and acetylcholine stimulate and inhibit contractions Anatomy and Physiology Page 5 . not striated… display rhythmicity (pattern of spontaneous repeated contractions) … peristalsis (such as in digestive tract) Lack troponin… instead use a protein called calmodulin. Pelvic girdle 1) Hip bone . the thick and thin filaments do not change length. actin and myosin ii. Myofilaments i.2 h) Mandible ii. mysoin cross-bridges attach iii.2 e) Nasal . Lower limbs 1) Femur . which binds to calcium ions released when fibers are stimulated.2 4) Patella .2 4) Carpal .2 5) Tarsal .10 6) Phalanx . regions of overlap widen.24 (12 pairs) 2) Sternum b.5 4) Sacrum 5) Coccyx v.7 2) Thoracic vertebra . Middle ear bones (ossicles) 1) Malleus . Sarcomeres: repeating pattern formed by striations of myosin and actin (functional unit of muscle tissue) 2. Skeletal: under voluntary control. Thin filaments that consist of two types of protein. As this happens. Vertebral column 1) Cervical vertebra .12 3) Lumbar vertebra . has striations (sarcomeres) b.d) Temporal . Actin: thin filaments iv. Thoracic cage 1) Ribs . Upper limbs 1) Humerus .2 iii.2 d) Lacrimal .2 3) Fibula . Appendicular i. Calcium ion concentration rises (released from sarcoplasmic reticulum) ii. Thin filaments move toward the center of the sarcomere from both ends c.2 2) Clavicle .2 iv.2 c) Zygomatic . Foramen magnum and its significance: where the inferior part of the brainstem connects with the spinal cord VIII.2 3) Ulna .2 2) Radius . Muscle types a. Cross bridges pull on the actin filaments iv. Myosin: thick filaments f.2 e) Sphenoid f) Ethmoid 2) 14 facial bones a) Maxilla . Hyoid bone iv. Myosin: thick filaments iii. Alternating filaments form striations of muscle tissue e. Binding sites on actin filaments open.16 5) Metacarpal . shortening the sarcomere d. Myofibrils: parallel. ATP binds to cross-bridge (not yet broken down) v. threadlike structures within a muscle fiber d. Step-by-step i. Z lines move closer together.
Axon: arises from elevation called axonal hillock.Hypothalamus Regulation of body temperature. anger. and the control of appetite and many emotions involved in pleasure. cardiac. and vasomotor centers (control heartbeat. Cell body: contains nucleus w/nucleolus c. assists cerebrum Sensory perception. Diencephalon i. Thalamus 1) Dumbbell-shaped 2) Composed chiefly of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons that have axons extending up toward the sensory areas of the cerebrum 3) Produces sensations 4) Associates sensations with emotions 5) Arousal. sleep-cycle control. or alerting mechanism c. and sexual arousal Sensory relay station from various body areas to cerebral cortex. and reacting to stimuli 2. Cardiac: composed of striated cells joined end to end by special junctions (intercalated discs)… whole structure acts unit (syncytium) 4. consciousness. appetite. willed movements. White matter and gray matter iii. influences respiration Two-way conduction pathway. Major parts of the brain and their functions BRAIN AREA Brainstem . such as viscera (heart. Sensory (afferent): carry nerve impulses from the peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord b.Medulla oblongata . interpreting. and midbrain ii.g.Pons FUNCTION Two-way conduction pathway between the spinal cord and higher brain centers. Abductors d. motor (efferent) nerves a. water balance.Thalamus Cerebellum Cerebrum Muscle coordination. Sensory fibers conduct impulses up from spinal cord to the brain vi. respiratory. Connects brain with the rest of the body v. sexual arousal. emotions and alerting or arousal mechanisms . maintenance of equilibrium and posture.norepinephrine and acetylcholine stimulate and inhibit contractions c. and blood vessel diameter) b. Anatomy of a neuron a. Motor fibers conduct impulses down from the brain to the spinal cord vii. respirations. Sensory (afferent) vs. ADH) 5) Some neurons function as endocrine glands (axons secrete chemicals called releasing hormones into blood to pituitary) 6) Maintaining body temperature 7) Regulation of water balance. Dendrites: highly branched. such as skeletal muscle contractions b. Adductors 5. and contractions of the stomach and intestines 4) Synthesize hormones that are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (e. Naming of muscles (by location. peripheral nervous system a. Central Nervous System (CNS): consists of brain and spinal cord b. fear. muscles or glands) 5. Somatic: oversees voluntary activities. provide receptive surfaces for communicating nerve impulses toward the cell body 3. sleep cycles. relay for visual and auditory impulses . Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body 6. Classification by function a. Hypothalamus 1) Below the thalamus 2) Major control over virtually all organs 3) Helps control the heartbeat. and pain ii. pons. Vital center in the medulla: cardiac. Extensors c.Midbrain Diencephalon . and memory a. Conduction of nerve impulses 4. Consists of medulla oblongata. Somatic nervous system vs. Autonomic: oversees involuntary activities. respiratory. Nervous system 1. and vasomotor control center Tw-way conduction pathway between areas of the brain and other areas of the body. action) 6. constriction and dilation of blood vessels. Flexors b. insertion. Names of all major contour muscles of the body IX. various glands) 7. origin. autonomic nervous system a. emotions. conduct nerve impulses away from the cell body b. Basic functions: receiving. Brain stem i. The most inferior part of the brain (lies within foramen magnum in occipital bone) iv. Central nervous system vs.g. Motor (efferent): carry nerve impulses out of the brain or spinal cord to effectors (e. Cerebellum Anatomy and Physiology Page 6 . shape.
lower gum. and willed movements 8. Vagus: motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles associated with speech and swallowing. then the filum terminale = cauda equina g. skin of the face. and carotid arteries… motor fibers transmit impulses to salivary glands and muscles of the pharynx for swallowing j. Tapers to a point and terminates near the intervertebral disc that separates the first and second lumbar vertebrae c. scalp. skin of the jaw. GH/STH (growth hormone/somatotropin): promotes tissue growth and development ii. Largest and uppermost part ii. Ocularmotor: transmit impulses to muscles that raise the eyelids. Trochlear: transmit impulses to muscles that move the eyes e. lining of palate. transmit impulses to viscera of thorax and abdomen. May have many more functions than originally thought. LH (luteinizing hormone): triggers ovulation and development of copus luteum in women. Ascending tracts transmit sensory impulses to the brain k. larynx. Endocrine system 1. memory. Basal ganglia or cerebral nuclei: a few islands of gray matter in the white matter vi. and focus the lenses d. posterior tongue. perhaps coordinating the whole brain d. upper gum. tear glands. 31 segments that each give rise to a pair of spinal nerves d. PRL (prolactin): promotes milk production… no established physiological role in males has been established. and lower lip. and salivary glands h. Vestibulocochlear: sensory fibers transmit impulses associated with equilibrium and sense of hearing i. vi. outer layer made of gray matter ii. glycoproteins. Ridges called convulsions or gyri… grooves called sulci. stimulates production of testosterone in men. Right and left hemispheres. muscles of the neck and back l. upper teeth. motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles of facial expressions. Hypoglossal: motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles that move the tongue 9. Interior made of white matter. Simple spinal reflexes vs. reflexes modified by ascending/descending tracts a. pharynx. Essential for smooth. Olfactory: transmits impulses associated with the sense of smell b.c. A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops… Some Say Marry Money. Slender column of nervous tissue that is continuous with the brain and extends downward through the vertebral canal b. Sustains normal postures v. joined by corpus callosum at their lower portions iv. Lumbar enlargement in lower back area: supplies nerves to lower limbs f. White matter surrounding butterfly-shaped core of gray matter i. Posterior pituitary Anatomy and Physiology Page 7 . and viscera of thorax and abdomen k. Cerebrum i. and larynx. But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter Most) a. sensations. Sex hormones: influence reproductive changes c. Cranial nerves (On Old Olympus' Towering Top. sensory fibers transmit impulses from pharynx. Cervical enlargement in the neck area: supplies nerves to upper limbs e. can stimulate growth of the gland… hypothalamus partially regulates secretion by producing thyrotropin -releasing hormone (TRH) iv. Spinal cord a. Trigeminal: transmit sensory impulses from the surface of the eyes. Pituitary gland a. Categories based on function a. Tropic hormones: target other endocrine structures to increase their growth and secretions b. amino-acid derivatives. upper eyelids. Anabolic hormones: stimulate the process of building tissues 3.deep anterior median fissure. motor impulses leave through the ventral horns X. TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone): controls secretion of hormones from the thyroid. Facial: sensory impulses associated with taste receptors of anterior tongue. Posterior horns and anterior horns j. esophagus. Thin layer of gray metter made up of dendrites and cell bodies: cerebral cortex v. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone): controls growth and development of follicles that house the egg cells in the ovaries… also stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogens. Dorsal horns vs. or lipids 2. Ascending/descending reflexes: 11. deepest sulci are called fissures iii. coordinated movements iii. Optic : transmits impulses associated with sense of vision c. Two grooves . ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone): controls manufacture & secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex --> renin-angiotensin system iii. shallow posterior median sulcus . Interstitial cell -stimulating hormone in males stimulates the production of sperm cells in the testes v. Maintains equilibrium iv. polypeptides. thinking. Cerebellum i. tonsils. Inferior portion of the spinal cord tapers into conus medullaris. move the eyes. lower teeth. Abducens: motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes g. Hormone: chemical messenger secreted by endocrine glands that act on specific target cells… may be proteins. although is may help normal sperm production… secretion is controlled by dopamine from the hypothalamus b. Accessory: motor fibers transmit impulses to soft palate. forehead. ventral horns: sensory impulses enter the dorsal horns. Glossopharyngeal: sensory fibers transmit impulses from pharynx. Descending tracts transmit motor impulses to muscles and glands 10.divide spinal cord into right and left halves h. emotions. Simple spinal reflexes: b. scalp. tear glands. Anterior pituitary i. Transmit motor impulses to muscles of mastication and muscles in the floor of the mouth f. upper lip. Consciousness. adjust the amount of light entering the eyes.
Vascular… consists of outer cortex and inner medulla d. Attached to first section of small intestine (duodenum) by a duct b. Parathyroid hormone i. Beta cells: secrete insulin 1) Effect of insulin is the exact opposite of that of glucagon 2) Stimulates liver to form glycogen from glucose and inhibits conversion of noncarbohydrates to form glucose 3) Decreases concentration of blood glucose 4) Helps prevent excessive rise in blood glucose concentration iii. Stimulates bone reabsorption by osteoclasts and inhibits the activity of osteoblasts iv.a superior and inferior on each lobe c. Calcitonin 1) Lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting action of osteoclasts and stimulating action of osteoblasts 2) Increases excretion of calcium by the kidneys 3) Controlled by elevated blood calcium ion concentration and digestive hormones Parathyroid glands a. Alpha cells: secrete glucagon 1) Glucagon stimulates liver to break down glycogen to glucose 2) Stimulates conversion of non carbohydrates into glucose (such as amino acids) 3) Stimulates breakdown of fats 4) Low blood sugar stimulates secretion of glucagon ii.4. Small. Zona fasciculata 1) Cortisol 2) Inhibits synthesis of protein in various tissues. Cone-shaped glands that sit atop kidneys. but less so than ADH Thyroid gland a. which affect production and differentiation of T lymphocytes Pineal gland Anatomy and Physiology Page 8 . Zona reticularis (innermost) 1) Sex hormones: adrenal androgens. 7. and adipose tissues 2) Supplement the supply of sex hormones from gonads and stimulate early development of reproductive organs e. Zona glomerulosa (outermost) 1) Aldosterone 2) Regulates the concentration of mineral electrolytes 3) Causes kidneys to conserve sodium ions and secrete potassium ions (indirectly retains water by osmosis) iii. Oxytocin: contracts smooth muscles in the uterine wall during later stages of childbirth… also contracts certain cells near milk-producing glands and their ducts… also has antidiuretic action. Triiodothyronine 1) Same as thyroxine but five times more potent 2) Controlled by TSH from the anterior pituitary iii. Many tightly packed secretory cells closely associated w/capillary networks e. b. stimulates liver cells to synthesize glucose. Cortex (outer) i. 9. Protein hormone ii. some are converted into estrogens by skin. Epinephrine (aka adrenalin) … synthesized from norepinephrine ii. Usually 4 of them -. decreases blood phosphate ion concentration iii. embedded in adipose encasing of kidney c. Increases blood calcium ion concentration. 5. PTH secretion is stimulated Adrenal glands a. Posterior pituitary i. 8. yellowish brown structure covered by thin capsule of connective tissue d. 6. Delta cells: secrete somatostatin 1) Helps regulate glucose metabolism by inhibiting secretion of glucagon and insulin Thymus a. Specialized to remove iodine from the blood c. ADH (antidiuretic hormone): reduces volume of water that the kidneys excrete ii. Three important hormones i. Secretes thymosins. Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) include three types of secretory cells i. increases use of fatty acids. Makes up bulk of adrenal glands ii. thus increasing blood concentrations of glucose iv. On the posterior surface of the thyroid gland b. Two large lateral lobes connected by broad isthmus b. Medulla (inner) i. Also indirectly stimulates absorption of calcium ions from food in the intestine by influencing the metabolism of vitamin D v. PTH secretion is suppressed. Thyroxine 1) Increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates 2) Increases rate of protein synthesis 3) Accelerates growth 4) Stimulates activity in the nervous system 5) Controlled by TSH from the anterior pituitary ii. liver. Large in young children. Norepinephrine (aka noradrenalin) Pancreas a. as concentration of blood caclium ions drops. shrinks with age (eventually replaced by fat and connective tissue) b. "Suprarenal glands" b. Controlled by negative feedback mechanism: as concentration of blood calcium ions rises.
Leukocytes (WBC) i. Platelets: stick to broken surfaces to help repair damaged blood vessels 3. Atria and ventricles do this alternatingly iv. Lubb (1st heart sound): occurs during ventricular systole (atrial diastole). to the lungs iv. Pineal cells and supportive neuroglia c. Recording of electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle ii. Circulatory system 1. Heart anatomy/physiology a. QRS complex 1) Q wave 2) R wave 3) S wave iii. protein hormones (mechanism of action) XI. Placenta: produces estrogens. Pulmonary valve v. lipids. Lymphocytes 1) T cells . Pineal gland a.Directly attack microorganisms. Tricuspid valve iii. Biconcave shape allows it to transport oxygen in its hemoglobin molecules ii. Blood moves through mitral valve to the left ventricle vi. pH of blood: slightly alkaline. and transplanted cells 2) B cells . Pathway of cardiac electrical conduction d. Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary veins v. Mostly water ii. Also called hematocrit (HCT) ii. Names of chambers and valves i. Ovaries: produce estrogens and progesterone 12. Aortic valve b. Neutrophils 1) Fine cytoplasmic granules 2) Variation of nucleus shape 3) First to arrive at infection site 4) Phagocytize bacteria. very narrow range (7. vasodilation 7. and cellular wastes b. and a gonadotropin 13. and other debris in tissues vi. progesterone. Right atrium ii. Plasma (55%) i. dead cells. Mechanisms that return venous blood to the heart Anatomy and Physiology Page 9 . Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium through superior and inferior venae cavae ii. Secretes melatonin. pulmonary circulation 6. when AV valves are closing v. Basophils 1) Fewer. Systole/diastole i. vitamins. Eosinophils 1) Coarse. proteins. when the pulmonary and aortic valves are closing e. Blood moves through tricuspid valve to right ventricle iii. Right ventricle iv. Formed elements (45%) i. Dupp (2nd heart sound): occurs during ventricular diastole (atrial systole).Produce antibodies c.9. Systemic circulation vs. Pathway of blood flow i.35 to 7. PQ interval 5. uniformly sized granules 2) Bilobed nucleus 3) Moderate allergic reactions and defend against parasitic worm infestation iv. which inhibits blood clotting (to increase blood flow to damaged tissues) v. which promotes inflammation 3) Release heparin. Erythrocytes (RBC) i. Blood is pumped from right ventricle through pulmonary valve into pulmonary artery. fungi. more irregularly shaped granules than eosinophils 2) Release histamine. Blood is pumped from left ventricle through aortic valve into the aorta c. Mitral valve (aka bicuspid valve) vii. Steroid hormones vs. Composition of whole blood a. Regulates circadian rhythm 10. Left atrium vi. Also amino acids. Vasoconstriction vs. Monocytes 1) Leave the bloodstream and become macrophages 2) Phagocytize bacteria. Packed cell volume (PCV) 2. Formed elements and their functions a. Left ventricle viii. Synthesized in the red bone marrow b. Transported by blood to sites of infection ii.45) 4. Testes: produce testosterone 11. Between cerebral hemispheres b. tumor cells. and some viruses iii. electrolytes. EKG rhythm i. Diastole = relaxation iii. Systole = contraction ii. hormones. which is synthesized from serotonin d. carbohydrates.
Larynx: enlargement of the airway superior to the trachea… framework of muscles and cartilage e. Defecation 2. Inhalation (active process) i. Basic functions a. Components are widely scattered throughout the pons and medulla oblongata e. Mechanisms that return venous blood to the heart a. External respiration: exchange of gases between the air and the lungs b. CO2 diffuses from blood into alveoli. Oxygen is transported in hemoglobin of RBC 8. Respiratory Acidosis XIII. Alveoli are lined by single layer of squamous epithelium ii. Basic structures a. Secretion g. secrete clear. tiny projections into lumen that increase surface area b. External respiration vs. Saliva glands secrete salivary amylase (begins breaking down carbs) 1) Parotid glands: largest salivary glands. Medullary respiratory center i. Names and locations of all major arteries and veins XII. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase and completed in the small intestines by enzymes… resulting monosaccharides are absorbed by active transport or facilitated diffusion ii. Mechanical digestion . Ingestion b. Submucosa: loose connective tissue. and nerves c. Allows diffusion of oxygen from air into blood iii. Groups of neurons in the brainstem comprise the respiratory areas --> control breathing b. Muscular layer: two coats of smooth muscle (circular and longitudinal) that enable peristalsis d. Bronchi i. Pathways of O2 and CO2 throughout circulatory system 7. Diaphragm i. Impulses traveling on cranial and spinal nerves to breathing muscles cause inspiration and expiration c. Respiratory areas also adjust rate and depth of breathing to meet cellular requirements for O2 and removal of O2 d. Control of respiratory rate a. Skeletal muscle pump b. Rib cage and associated muscles 3. exhalation (active vs. Air is forced out 6. Pharynx i.reflex) i. Propulsion c. Contraction of diaphragm (increase volume of thorax. Unidirectional valves 8. Dorsal respiratory group f. maintain pH and homeostasis) 2. Fat molecules are digested almost entirely by enzymes in intestinal mucosa and the pancreas f. Breathing movements c. Nasopharynx: passageway for air during breathing. Protein digestion begins in the stomach as a result of pepsin… completed by enzymes in small intestines iii. metabolic wastes must exit the body. Nasal cavity c. Atmospheric pressure fills lungs b.7.alimentary canal is about 8 meters long a. watery fluid rich in salivary amylase (Stensen's duct) 2) Submandibular glands: in the floor of the mouth on the inside surfaces of the lower jaw… secrete a more viscous fluid than parotid glands (Wharton's duct) 3) Sublingual glands: smallest… on the floor of the mouth inferior to the tongue… secrete thick and stringy mucous (Rivinus's ducts) f. secretes serous fluid to reduce friction e. Oral cavity i. lowers air pressure) ii. blood vessels. Nose b. Internal respiration: exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells 5. Trachea (windpipe): lined with ciliated membrane w/many goblet cells… twenty C -shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage f. Recoil and surface tension (surfactant) act simultaneously iii. Ventral respiratory group ii.breaking down the macromolecules so they can be absorbed into the bloodstream e. Respiratory system 1. Lungs h. passive process) a. Oropharynx: passageway for food moving from the mouth and for air to and from the nasal cavity Anatomy and Physiology Page 10 . Pharynx (throat) d. lymphatic vessels. Basic structures (secretions and functions) . out of the body g. Exhalation (passive process .breaking down the physical matter of the food d. Carbon dioxide is transported by bicarbonate ion (CO2 + H20) 9. Mucosa: surface epithelium. Regulation of blood pH a. Pontine respiratory center: limits inspiration 4. Respiratory Alkalosis b. Inhalation vs. Digestive system 1. internal respiration a. connect with auditory tubes ii. Serosa: outer covering of visceral peritoneum. Absorption i. Basic functions: to oxygenate body tissues (oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration. Muscles relax ii. Intra-alveolar pressure increases iv. glands. Chemical digestion .
Esophageal hiatus: passage of the esophagus through the diaphragm ii. Appendix iv. Pancreas i. l. Gallbladder: stores bile c. Most nutrient absorption occurs here ii. Pancreatic amylase: splits molecules of starch or glycogen into disaccharides ii. Fundus: balloons superior to the cardia… temporary storage area iii. Transverse colon vi. Accessory organs (secretions and functions) a. Liver: Kupffer cells remove most bacteria from the blood by phagocytosis… secretes bile b. Intrinsic factor: secreted by parietal cells Small intestine i. Trypsin: breaks down protein iv. Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus 3. k. j. Intestinal lipase: splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol viii. Pepsinogen: precursor to pepsin viii. Pepsin: secreted by chief cells as pepsinogen… begins digestion of almost all types of dietary protein vii. Ileum Large intestine i. Absorption of nutrient building blocks by villi (including lacteals) iii. Pyloric sphincter connects to intestine vi. Lacteal: lymphatic capillary that absorbs lipids b. Sucrase: breaks down sucrose v. Lactase: breaks down lactose vii. Pancreatic lipase: breaks triglyceride molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides iii. Chymotrypsin: breaks down protein v. Cardia : small area near the esophageal sphincter ii. Pylorus v. Intestinal flora: bacteria that inhibit the large intestine that break down some of the molecules that get past the actions of digestive enzymes Anatomy and Physiology Page 11 . Descending colon vii. Jejunum x. Lymphatics: absorption of fat via lacteals. i. Peptidases: split peptides into them their constituent amino acids iv. Absorption of water ii. Maltase: breaks down maltose vi. Secretin: secreted to neutralize acidic chyme 4. Carboxypeptidase: breaks down protein vi. transport to bloodstream a. Ascending colon v. Duodenum ix. Oropharynx: passageway for food moving from the mouth and for air to and from the nasal cavity iii. prevent regurgitation Stomach (HCl) i. ii. h. Small quantities of gastric lipase… action is weak due to acidic pH of stomach ix. Lower esophageal sphincter: close the entrance to the stomach. Located in villi of small intestinal wall 5. Laryngopharynx: just inferior to the oropharynx … passageway to the esophagus Esophagus: provides passage for the food from the pharynx into the stomach i.g. Cecum iii. Body iv.
Filtrate moves into renal tubule iii. Occurs in proximal convoluted tubule d. Occurs in distal convoluted tubule c. leads to renal sinus 2) Renal pelvis 3) Calyces (major and minor) 4) Renal medulla 5) Renal pyramids 6) Renal cortex 7) Renal capsule ii. Structure 1) Hilum is entrance on concave side of kidney. Ductus Deferentia iv. Terms a. LDL: low-density --> bad cholesterol 7. Filtration i. Also produces hormones that are responsible for secondary sex traits 2. Tubular secretion: selectively excreting metabolic wastes and excess substances such as water and glucose ii. Pathway of blood through the kidneys 6. Reproductive system produces sex cells b. Glomerular filtration: glomerular capillaries filter plasma ii.actions of digestive enzymes 6. Functions (hormones and sex cells) a. Organs of reproductive tract a. Acidosis b. Reproductive system 1. and pH of body fluids 2) Remove metabolic wastes from blood. Seminal Vesicles v. Bile: substance produced by liver. Epididymides iii. Function 1) Regulate volume. Movement of substances across nephron a. Bolus: chewed food as it's swallowed b. Testes ii.g. Urinary system 1. Transitional epithelium: stretch and change arrangement when the bladder is distended with urine 4. composition. Male (continual) i. Filters water and small dissolved molecules like ions (large molecules like proteins do not fit through) b. Urinary bladder: stores urine until it is excreted d. Alkalosis XV. Active movement vs. Produces 180 liters of fluid ever 24 hours iv. Tubular reabsorption: selectively reabsorbing the correct amounts of substances (e. female urethra: female urethra is much shorter than male urethra… females more susceptible to bladder infections 5. Reabsorption i. Prostate gland vi. Semen Anatomy and Physiology Page 12 . curves back toward renal corpuscle to form ascending limb… ascending limb returns to corpuscle. Basic functions: removes metabolic wastes and chemicals (excretes foreign substances such as drugs) 2. which then lead to efferent arterioles 5) Renal tubule leads away from glomerular capsule --> is highly coiled 6) Coiled portion is proximal convoluted tubule 7) Following it is the nephron loop (loop of Henle) 8) Dips toward renal pelvis to become descending limb. Chyme: food after it's gone through first stages of mechanical digestion… soupy mixture c. electrolytes. excrete them to outside 3) Help control rate of RBC formation by secreting erythropoietin 4) Regulate blood pressure by secreting renin 5) Regulate absorption of calcium ions by activating vitamin D iii. water. Ureters: carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder c. Male urethra vs. Structures and their functions a. Kidneys i. where it becomes distal convoluted tubule 9) Descending limb of loop of Henle: water only moves out by osmosis 10) Ascending limb of loop of Henle: salt only moves out by active transport 11) Several distal convoluted tubules merge to form collecting duct (collecting tubule) 12) Juxtaglomerular cells: vascular smooth muscles cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole near its attachment to the glomerulus b. Urethra: excretes urine from urinary bladder 3. HDL: high-density --> good cholesterol 8. Bulbourethral Glands vii. Secretion i. passive movement (diffusion) 7. and glucose) ii. Nephron structure 1) Kidney contains about 1 million nephrons (functional units) 2) Each nephron consists of renal corpuscle and renal tubule 3) Renal corpuscle consists of a filtering unit called a glomerulus (cluster of blood capillaries) and surrounding glomerular (Bowman's) capsule 4) Afferent arterioles lead to renal corpuscles. stored in gallbladder --> emulsifies fat XIV. Role of kidney in regulating blood pH a.
5. Labia majora vi. 8. Scrotum ix. Haploid: cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes (product of meiosis) e.3. Diploid: cell that has two complete sets of paired chromosomes (product of mitosis or fertilization of an egg) Anatomy and Physiology Page 13 . Uterine tubes iii. FSH b. carries genetic information c. Metaphase I iii. Semen viii. Anaphase I iv. Placenta b. Hormone levels during pregnancy (tissues affected in child/mother) d. Uterus iv. Testosterone e. Estrogen Control of gamete production by hormones a. Telophase I v. Second meiotic division Pathway of sperm development and emission Ovum pathway during fertilization and implantation Role of corpus luteum Pregnancy/development of the embryo a. Chromosome: threadlike structure of protein and nucleic acids. LH d. Estrogen f. 7. Labia minora vii. 6. Ovaries ii. 10. Vagina v. Prophase I 1) Chromosomes appear. Prophase I b. Clitoris Layers of uterine wall (hormonal changes) a. Progesterone Meiosis a. ICSH c. 4. vii. thicken 2) Crossing over occurs ii. Zygote: fertilized ovum d. Formation of embryonic tissues c. Female (cyclic) i. Embryo: unborn baby in first 8 weeks of development b. 9. Milk production (prolactin) Terms a. Penis b. First meiotic division i.