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# DVR-ECE

MODULE 4 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Various op-amp ICs in 8-pin dual in-line packages ("DIPs") An operational amplifier, which is often called an op-amp, is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and, usually, a single output.[1] Typically the output of the op-amp is controlled either by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain and oscillation. High input impedance at the input terminals (ideally infinite) and low output impedance (ideally zero) are important typical characteristics. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities. Modern designs are electronically more rugged than earlier implementations and some can sustain direct short circuits on their outputs without damage. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with 2 outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from 3 op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but which works fine with common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from 1 or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network). T.Satyanarayana. Asst.Prof. Department of ECE

DVR-ECE

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Circuit notation

Circuit diagram symbol for an op-amp The circuit symbol for an op-amp is shown to the right, where:

• • • • •

V + : non-inverting input V − : inverting input Vout: output VS + : positive power supply VS − : negative power supply

The power supply pins (VS + and VS − ) can be labeled in different ways (See IC power supply pins). Despite different labeling, the function remains the same — to provide additional power for amplification of signal. Often these pins are left out of the diagram for clarity, and the power configuration is described or assumed from the circuit.

Operation

The amplifier's differential inputs consist of V + input and a V − input, and generally the op-amp amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two. This is called the differential input voltage. Operational amplifiers are usually used with feedback loops where the output of the amplifier would influence one of its inputs. The output voltage and the input voltage it influences settles down to a stable voltage after being connected for some time, when they satisfy the internal circuit of the op amp. In its most common use, the op-amp's output voltage is controlled by feeding a fraction of the output signal back to the inverting input. This is known as negative feedback. If that fraction is zero (i.e., there is no negative feedback) the amplifier is said to be running open loop and its output is the differential input voltage multiplied by the total gain of the amplifier, as shown by the following equation:

where V + is the voltage at the non-inverting terminal, V − is the voltage at the inverting terminal and G is the total open-loop gain of the amplifier. T.Satyanarayana. Asst.Prof. Department of ECE

power consumption.. Asst. the precise magnitude of this gain is not well controlled by the manufacturing process. the frequency magnitude response is flat everywhere with zero phase shift). For any input voltages.Satyanarayana. bandwidth. thus amplifying the voltage difference between V + and V − . Department of ECE • . dual and quad op-amps available have a standardized pin-out which permits one type to be substituted for another without wiring changes. Shown on the right is an example of an ideal operational amplifier. Many uses have been found for operational amplifiers and an ideal op-amp seeks to characterize the physical phenomena that make op-amps useful. Supply voltages Vcc + and Vcc − are used internally to implement the dependent voltage sources. Instead. input impedance. limit should be taken as open loop gain Gopenloop goes to infinity) • Infinite bandwidth (i. Ideal op-amp Equivalent circuit of an operational amplifier.. and the negative source Vs − acts as a lower bound on the output. The internal Vs + and Vs − connections are not shown here and will vary by implementation of the operational amplifier. noise performance.DVR-ECE Since the magnitude of the open-loop gain is typically very large. when doing theoretical analysis. T. A specific op-amp may be chosen for its open loop gain." Additionally. The positive source Vs + acts as an upper bound on the output.e. The main part in an amplifier is the dependent voltage source that increases in relation to the voltage drop across Rin. and so it is impractical to use an operational amplifier as a stand-alone differential amplifier.e. open-loop operation results in op-amp saturation (see below in Nonlinear imperfections) unless the differential input voltage is extremely small. Most single. an ideal op-amp has the following properties: Infinite open-loop gain (i.Prof. op-amps are usually used in negative-feedback configurations. Finley's law states that "When the inverting and noninverting inputs of an op-amp are not equal. or a compromise between any of these factors. its output is in saturation.

Thus the name operational amplifier stems from its original use for these mathematical operations and is abbreviated to op-amp. the output is a virtual ground).Prof. the rate of change of the output voltage is unbounded) and power bandwidth (full output voltage and current available at all frequencies).the intermediate stage is dual input.e. when the input terminals are shorted so that V + = V − .unbalanced output...e.Satyanarayana. The op-amp is a versatile device that can be used to amplify dc as well as ac input signal and was originally designed for performing mathematical operations such as addition . an op-amp can be modeled as a nullor An operational amplifier is a high gain amplifier usually consisting of one or more differential amplifier and usually followed by a level translator and an output stage.On most amplifiers. there is no leakage or bias current into the device) Zero input offset voltage (i.Therefore.e... Asst. and so output voltage does not vary with output current) Zero noise Infinite Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) Infinite Power supply rejection ratio for both power supply rails.subtraction. Because of these properties. Zero output impedance (i. Department of ECE ..the dc voltage at the output of the intermediate stage is well above ground potential.which is driven by the output of the first stage. and so zero current flows from V + to V ) − Zero input current (i.This stage generally provides most of the voltage gain of the amplifier and also establishes the input resistance of the op-amp.e.The first op-amp was introduced by Fairchild semiconductor in 1963.DVR-ECE • • • • • • • • Infinite input impedance (i.The output stage increases the T.The final stage is usually a push pull complementary symmetry amplifier output stage. .its μA 702 which set the stage for development of other IC op-amps Internal Block Schematic of op-amp The input stage is the dual input balanced output differential amplifier.e. Rout = 0.multiplication and integration.the level translator(shifting)circuits is used after the intermediate stage downwards to zero volts with respect to ground. Because of direct coupling.The intermediate stage is usually another differential amplifier. Infinite slew rate (i.

A real-world op amp will have a non-zero voltage output even if its inputs are shorted together. Common mode rejection is the logarithmic expression of CMRR. a certain tolerance of its final value. and remain within. Example of an Actual Spec: AD712: 150 V/mV min. 7 µA max. the base leakage current if the input transistor is bipolar. which is the slight voltage present across its inputs brought about by its non-zero input offset current. In essence. Example of an Actual Spec: AD829: 50 nA typ. Example of an Actual Spec: AD829: 3..DVR-ECE voltage swing and raises the ground supplying capabilities of the op-amp.e. and amplify any signals that are differential between them. Example of an Actual Spec: Settling time to 0.Prof. This is usually specified for a fast full-scale input step.a well designed output stage also provides low output resistance. This current is known as the input bias current. This is the product of the op amp's open-loop voltage gain and the frequency at which it was measured...3 µA typ. Typ.. i.. i. This is ideally zero. Department of ECE . This is the length of time for the output voltage of an operational amplifier to approach. 20 V/µsec typ.Satyanarayana.1% for a 10V step with Vs=+/-15V: 90 nsec This is the ability of an operational amplifier to cancel out or reject any signals that are common to both inputs.e. This is the ratio of the op amp's output voltage to its differential input voltage without any external feedback. 0.1 mV typ.. Unit Test Parameter Each input of an operational amplifier has a certain amount of current that flows in or out of it. An ideal operational amplifier will give an output of 0V if both of its inputs are shorted together. This is simply the mismatch or difference between the input bias currents flowing through the inputs. and is ideally zero. CMR=20logCMRR. CMRR is simply the ratio of the differential Typical Description Input Bias Current µA Input Offset Current nA Input Offset Voltage mV Open-Loop Gain V/mV Gain-Bandwidth Product MHz Slew Rate V/µsec Settling Time nsec Common Mode Rejection (CMR) dB T.. Example of an Actual Spec: AD712: 16 V/µsec min. or the gate leakage current if it is a FET. This is basically the leakage current of the input transistor. Example of an Actual Spec: AD829: 750 MHz for Vs=+/-15V This is the rate of change of the op amp's voltage output over time when its gain is set to unity (Gain =1). Asst. This is the effect of its input offset voltage.3 mV max. the input voltage offset is also the voltage that needs to be applied across the inputs of an op amp to make its output zero. 400 V/mV typ. 500 nA max. Example of an Actual Spec: AD712C: 0.

Vs=+/-15V This is the small-signal resistance between the two inputs (both ungrounded) of an op amp. for Vs=+/-15 V. the pole generated by capacitive loading should be at least a decade above the circuit's closed loop bandwidth. The closed-loop bandwidth of a voltage-feedback op amp circuit is equal to the op amp's bandwidth at unity gain. Differential V Output Voltage Swing +/-V Input Resistance or Impedance. Asst. with respect to the ground. if this frequency is below the closed-loop bandwidth. Example of an Actual Spec: AD712: +/-20V This is the maximum output voltage that the op amp can deliver without saturation or clipping for a given load and operating supply voltage. for Vs=+/-4. PSR is a measure of an op amp’s ability to prevent its output from being affected by noise or ripples at the power supply.e. Example of an Actual Spec: OP27C: 0. Typically. 120 dB typ.7 MΩ min. divided by the circuit's closed loop gain.. Department of ECE .5V. Common Mode MΩ GΩ T. The common mode input resistance of an op amp is the equivalent resistance value of the op amp's two input resistances in parallel. As phase margin approaches zero. Examples of Actual Specs: AD712: +14. 120 dB typ..DVR-ECE gain to the common-mode gain.. -11. the loop phase shift approaches -180° and the op amp circuit approaches instability. Differential Input Resistance or Impedance.5V to +/-18V An op amp will tend to oscillate at a frequency wherein the loop phase shift exceeds -180°.com Example of an Actual Spec: AD847: 50 degrees AD829: 60 degrees This is the maximum voltage (negative or positive) that can be applied at both inputs of an operational amplifier at the same time..Satyanarayana.analog. It is often expressed in dB. AD844: +/. In order to maintain conservative phase margin. Reference: www. for R=1K. +/-13V typ. It is computed as the ratio of the change in the power supply voltage to the change in the op amp's output voltage (caused by the power supply change)..10V for Vs=+/-15 V This is the maximum voltage (negative or positive) that can be applied across the two inputs of an operational amplifier. Example of an Actual Spec: AD829: 100 dB min. values of phase margin much less than 45° can cause problems such as "peaking" in frequency response. Example of an Actual Spec: AD829: 98 dB min.Prof. Common Mode V Input Voltage Range. 4 MΩ typ. phase shift + phase margin = -180°). The phase margin of an op amp circuit is the amount of additional phase shift at the closed loop bandwidth required to make the circuit unstable (i.5 V typ. and overshoot or "ringing" in step response. Example of an Actual Spec: +/-11V min. This is the resistance of the two inputs Power Supply Rejection (PSR) dB Phase Margin degrees Input Voltage Range. Each input of an op amp has a resistance with respect to ground.

gain and bandwidth. Such direct coupled (dc) amplifiers do not use blocking (coupling and by pass) capacitors since these would reduce the amplification to zero at zero frequency.. Large by pass capacitors may be used but it is not possible to fabricate large capacitors on a IC chip.Prof. T. How the differential amplifier is developed? Let us consider two emitter-biased circuits as shown in fig. The op-amp exhibits the gain down to zero frequency. Example of an Actual Spec: AD844: 15 Ω typ. Example of an Actual Spec: OP27: 90-100 mW typ. diodes and resistors are also fabricated on the same chip.Satyanarayana. for Vs=+/-15V The total DC power supplied to the op amp minus the power delivered by the op amp to its load. This is the non-signal power supply current that the op amp will consume within a specified power supply voltage operating range.e. Output Resistance or Impedance Ω This is the small-signal resistance or impedance between the output of an op amp and ground...5V min. Transistor. Asst.DVR-ECE shorted together with respect to ground. Department of ECE .. Example of an Actual Spec: OP27C: 2 GΩ typ. The capacitors fabricated are usually less than 20 pf. Example of an Actual Spec: AD712: +/. open loop This refers to the minimum and maximum values of supply voltages that the negative and positive supplies of an operational amplifier can accept. +/-18V max. Power Supply Range V Quiescent Current mA Total Power Dissipation mW Operational Amplifiers: The operational amplifier is a direct-coupled high gain amplifier usable from 0 to over 1MH Z to which feedback is added to control its overall response characteristic i. 6.4. 1. The function of a differential amplifier is to amplify the difference between two input signals. 140-170 mW max. Example of an Actual Spec: AD712: 5 mA typ. Differential Amplifiers: Differential amplifier is a basic building block of an op-amp.8 mA max.

The differential amplifiers are of different configurations.Satyanarayana. The two input signals v1 & v2 are applied at the base of Q1 and at the base of Q2. These voltages are measured with respect to ground. To make a differential amplifier. The resistances of the circuits are equal. the output voltage is zero when the two inputs are equal. The output voltage is taken between two collectors. When v1 is greater then v2 the output voltage with the polarity shown appears. 1 The two transistors Q1 and Q2 have identical characteristics. T. 2. the two circuits are connected as shown in fig. 1. RC1 = R C2 and the magnitude of +VCC is equal to the magnitude of ?VEE.Prof. When v1 is less than v2. the output voltage has the opposite polarity.DVR-ECE Fig. 4. The two emitters are also connected and the parallel combination of RE1 and RE2 is replaced by a resistance RE. Single input unbalanced output differential amplifier. unbalanced output differential amplifier. The two +VCC and ?VEE supply terminals are made common because they are same. Ideally. Dual input. Department of ECE . Asst. 3. The collector resistances are equal and therefore denoted by RC = RC1 = RC2. i. RE1 = R E2. The four differential amplifier configurations are following: 1. Single input balanced output differential amplifier. balanced output differential amplifier. Dual input.e.

the configuration is said to be dual input. otherwise it is a single input configuration. it is referred to as a balanced output because both the collectors are at the same dc potential w. On the other hand.t. ground. A multistage amplifier with a desired gain can be obtained using direct connection between successive stages of differential amplifiers.r. the configuration is called an unbalanced output. If the output is measured at one of the collectors w. if the output voltage is measured between two collectors.t. Asst.Satyanarayana. T. The advantage of direct coupling is that it removes the lower cut off frequency imposed by the coupling capacitors. Department of ECE . 2 These configurations are shown in fig. If use two input signals. and they are therefore. capable of amplifying dc as well as ac input signals.DVR-ECE Fig.r.Prof. 2. and are defined by number of input signals used and the way an output voltage is measured. ground.

The output voltage cannot exceed the positive and negative saturation voltage.keeping gain A constant.DVR-ECE Real vs Ideal Op-amp Readily available. Department of ECE .The output voltage is directly proportional to the input difference voltage until it reaches the saturation voltages and thereafter the output voltage remains constant.Vo is plotted against input difference voltage Vid.Satyanarayana.These saturation voltages are specified by an output voltage swing ratings of an op-amp for given values of supply voltages. inexpensive IC op-amps have characteristics which are reasonable approximations of an ideal op-amp (data from Simpson): These characteristics lead to the golden rules for op-amps.where the output voltage . They all Vo=A(V1-V2) This is the basic op-amp equation in which the output offset voltage is assumed to be zero.Prof. Asst.The graphic representation of this equation is shown. This curve is called ideal voltage transfer curve Open loop OPAMP Configuration: T.

1. v1= 0.Prof. shows the open loop differential amplifier in which input signals vin1 and vin2 are applied to the positive and negative input terminals.DVR-ECE In the case of amplifiers the term open loop indicates that no connection. There are three open loop OPAMP configurations. In open loop configuration. v2 = vin. Therefore v1 = vin1 and v2 = vin2. the output signal is not fedback in any form as part of the input signal. Ad is the open loop gain. Fig.This configuration is shown in fig. vo = Ad (vin1 ? vin2 ) where. The OPAMP amplifies both ac and dc input signals. 2.Satyanarayana. 1 Since the OPAMP amplifies the difference the between the two input signals. exists between input and output terminals of any type. The Differential Amplifier: Fig. That is. Department of ECE . this configuration is called the differential amplifier. The Inverting Amplifier: If the input is applied to only inverting terminal and non-inverting terminal is grounded then it is called inverting amplifier. The source resistance Rin1 and Rin2 are normally negligible compared to the input resistance Ri. Asst. vo = -Ad vin T. Therefore voltage drop across these resistances can be assumed to be zero. The OPAMP functions as a high gain amplifier.

3 In all there configurations any input signal slightly greater than zero drive the output to saturation level. T. 2 The negative sign indicates that the output voltage is out of phase with respect to input 180 ° or is of opposite polarity.DVR-ECE Fig. Thus when operated in open-loop. v1 = +vin vo = +Ad vin This means that the input voltage is amplified by Ad and there is no phase reversal at the output. The non-inverting amplifier: In this configuration. 3. Department of ECE . Asst.Prof.Satyanarayana. This is because of very high gain. the output of the OPAMP is either negative or positive saturation or switches between positive and negative saturation levels. the input voltage is applied to non-inverting terminals and inverting terminal is ground as shown in fig. v2 = 0 Fig. Thus the input signal is amplified and inverted also. Therefore open loop opamp is not used in linear applications.

L. 2/13/2004 The slew rate (SR) is defined as the maximum rate of change of the output of an op amp circuit. An important application of it is the comparator with hysteresis (i. We know that the current required to charge a capacitor is I = c dv/dt The Slew Rate is found from SR=I dv/d tmax Consider the following example. Basic single stage amplifiers Non-inverting amplifier An op-amp connected in the non-inverting amplifier configuration T. Department of ECE . Asst. the SR effect is due to the maximum supplied current available for charging up the compensating capacitor.DVR-ECE Slew Rate of Op Amp Circuits E. What is the largest possible amplitude of the input signal to avoid distortion due to slewing? The Slew Rate is found as the maximum of this derivative.e.Satyanarayana. Dove.. The SR in general describes the degradation effect on the high frequency response of the active amplifier (one with an op amp) near or at the rated maximum output voltage swing. or dv0/dt = M 2pi f cos 2pift SR= M 2pifM .Prof. which takes a fraction of the output signal back to the non-inverting input. This effect is generally due to the compensating capacitor and not to the transistor circuits internal to the op amp. Positive feedback configurations Another typical configuration of op-amps is the positive feedback. the Schmitt trigger). In short. Suppose that the input signal to a 741-based unity gain amplifier configuration is a 20kHz sine wave.

differential outputs): G is the open-loop gain of the op-amp. Op-amp outputs have very low source impedance. negligible current will flow into or out of the inputs. Inverting amplifier Because it does not require a differential input.Satyanarayana.Prof. The output voltage is a multiple of the difference between the two inputs (some are made with floating. Department of ECE . T. If the output is connected to the inverting input. The inputs are assumed to have very high impedance. comes close to . where G > 0 Solving for Vout / Vin.[citation needed] but many different configurations are possible.[citation needed] It remains very popular. making it one of the most versatile of all electronic building blocks. Asst. after being scaled by a voltage divider: then: . this negative feedback connection was the most typical use of an op-amp in the days of analog computers.DVR-ECE The general op-amp has two inputs and one output. we see that the result is a linear amplifier with gain: If G is very large.

However. the inverting input v − can be assumed to match the non-inverting input v + .DVR-ECE An op-amp connected in the inverting amplifier configuration By applying KCL at the inverting input. reducing the input offset voltage due T. However. and so By applying KVL at the output. because the input current into any operational amplifier is assumed to be zero. because the operational amplifier is in a negative-feedback configuration.Prof. Asst. Therefore. Department of ECE . In particular. and so v − is a virtual ground. Hence.Satyanarayana. closed loop gain • [6] Some Variations: o A resistor is often inserted between the non-inverting input and ground (so both inputs "see" similar resistances).

Where the limitations of real devices can be ignored. circuit function and parameters are determined by feedback. real op-amp parameters are subject to drift over time and with changes in temperature. offset and so forth mentioned above. the capacitive component of the input impedance inserts a DC zero and a low-frequency pole that gives the circuit a bandpass or high-pass characteristic.and video-frequency pre-amplifiers and buffers voltage comparators differential amplifiers differentiators and integrators filters precision rectifiers precision peak detectors voltage and current regulators analog calculators analog-to-digital converters digital-to-analog converter voltage clamps oscillators and waveform generators Limitations of real op-amps Real op-amps can only approach this ideal: in addition to the practical limitations on slew rate. That is.DVR-ECE to different voltage drops due to bias current. o Other applications • • • • • • • • • • • • • audio. although the bipolar op-amps usually exhibit superior (i.. an op-amp can be viewed as a black box with gain. is much higher. input conditions. see the internal circuitry for the relatively simple 741 op-amp below.Prof. usually negative. input impedance. Department of ECE . etc. IC op-amps as implemented in practice are moderately complex integrated circuits. and may reduce distortion in some op-amps.Satyanarayana. lower) input offset drift and noise characteristics. bandwidth. A DC-blocking capacitor may be inserted in series with the input resistor when a frequency response down to DC is not needed and any DC voltage on the input is unwanted. Asst. DC imperfections Real operational amplifiers suffer from several non-ideal effects: T. for example.e. Modern integrated FET or MOSFET op-amps approximate more closely the ideal op-amp than bipolar ICs where large signals must be handled at room temperature over a limited bandwidth. in particular.

and so the impedance between them is made artificially very high.e.DVR-ECE Finite gain Open-loop gain is defined as the amplification from input to output without any feedback applied.e. Input current Due to biasing requirements or leakage. Because MOSFET-input operational amplifiers often have protection circuits that effectively short circuit any input differences greater than a small threshold. If the input currents are matched and the impedance looking out of both inputs are matched. and only a few pA for MOSFET input stages) flows into the inputs. in these cases.. When large resistors or sources with high output impedances are used in the circuit. a small amount of current (typically ~10 nanoamperes for bipolar op-amps. In the typical high-gain negative-feedback applications.. The input bias and leakage currents described below are a more important design parameter for typical operational amplifier applications. these small currents can produce large unmodeled voltage drops. as long as these operational amplifiers are used in a typical high-gain negative feedback application. these matched voltages will have no T.. tens of picoamperes for JFET input stages. this parameter is rarely an important design parameter. Similarly. idle) current in the output stage and will dissipate more power. it is finite in real operational amplifiers. So low-power designs may purposely sacrifice low-impedance outputs. It is not the impedance from each input to ground. For mathematical calculations. Hence. the output impedance of the amplifier reflects the maximum power that can be provided. So long as the loop gain (i. Asst.Prof.e. however. Hence. these protection circuits will be inactive and the negative feedback will render the input impedance to be practically infinite. the voltage drop across the output impedance of the amplifier will be significant. the input impedance can appear to be very low in some tests. the product of open-loop and feedback gains) is very large. Typical devices exhibit open-loop DC gain ranging from 100. it will be independent of open-loop gain). Non-zero output impedance Low output impedance is important for low resistance loads. In cases where closed-loop gain must be very high. the feedback ensures that the two inputs sit at the same voltage. the circuit gain will be determined entirely by the amount of negative feedback (i. Finite input impedance The input impedance of the operational amplifier is defined as the impedance between its two inputs. then the voltages produced at each input will be equal.000 to over 1 million. the feedback gain will be very low. low-impedance outputs typically require high quiescent (i. the ideal open-loop gain is infinite. for these loads. Department of ECE . and the low feedback gain causes low loop gain. However. Because the operational amplifier operates on the difference between its inputs. the operational amplifier will cease to behave ideally.Satyanarayana.

[nb 2] Common mode gain A perfect operational amplifier amplifies only the voltage difference between its two inputs. Power-supply rejection The output of a perfect operational amplifier will be completely independent from ripples that arrive on its power supply inputs. which is described below). Input offset voltage creates two problems: First. the input offset voltage is amplified along with the signal and this may pose a problem if high precision DC amplification is required or if the input signal is very small. Some operational amplifiers attempt to nullify this offset automatically. due to the amplifier's high voltage gain.Satyanarayana. Temperature effects All parameters change with temperature. it exists in actual op-amps because of imperfections in the differential amplifier that constitutes the input stage of the vast majority of these devices. Input offset voltage This voltage. Minimization of common mode gain is usually important in noninverting amplifiers (described below) that operate at high amplification. Asst. In the perfect amplifier. This offset voltage can create offsets or drifting in the operational amplifier. even when the input terminals are wired together. It can often be nulled externally. in a closed loop. which is what is required across the op-amp's input terminals to drive the output voltage to zero. leading to the amplification of these identical voltages to some degree.DVR-ECE effect (unless the operational amplifier has poor CMRR. The standard measure of this defect is called the common-mode rejection ratio (denoted CMRR). However. Temperature drift of the input offset voltage is especially important. Copious use of bypass capacitors can improve the PSRR of many devices.Prof. and so a small offset voltage can be produced. however. including the operational amplifier. it virtually assures that the amplifier output will go into saturation if it is operated without negative feedback. completely rejecting all voltages that are common to both. Second. Every real operational amplifier has a specified power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) that reflects how well the op-amp can reject changes in its supply voltage. Department of ECE . However. the differential input stage of an operational amplifier is never perfect. negative feedback configuration.[7][nb 1] is related to the mismatches in input bias current. T. It is more common for the input currents (or the impedances looking out of each input) to be slightly mismatched. many operational amplifiers include offset null or balance pins and some procedure for using them to remove this offset. there would be no input offset voltage.

DVR-ECE AC imperfections The op-amp gain calculated at DC does not apply at higher frequencies. First. general purpose op-amps exhibit a gain bandwidth product of a few megahertz. Input capacitance — most important for high frequency operation because it further reduces the open loop bandwidth of the amplifier. Second.Satyanarayana. For very high-frequency circuits. reduced bandwidth results in lower amounts of feedback at higher frequencies. Specialty and high speed op-amps can achieve gain bandwidth products of hundreds of megahertz. Department of ECE . associated with the bandwidth limitation is a phase difference between the input signal and the amplifier output that can lead to oscillation in some feedback circuits. To a first approximation. For example. a completely different form of op-amp called the current-feedback operational amplifier is often used.[nb 3] Saturation occurs when the output of the amplifier reaches this value and is usually due to: o In the case of an op-amp using a bipolar power supply.Prof. This means that an op-amp is characterized by its gain-bandwidth product. either a voltage gain that produces an output that is more positive than that maximum. above. the gain of a typical op-amp is inversely proportional to frequency. Nonlinear imperfections • Saturation — output voltage is limited to a minimum and maximum value close to the power supply voltages. The internal frequency compensation used in some op amps to increase the gain or phase margin intentionally reduces the bandwidth even further to maintain output stability when using a wide variety of feedback networks. Typical low cost. This is known as frequency compensation. or o In the case of an op-amp using a single supply voltage. because it tends to stabilize the circuit by introducing a dominant pole. producing higher distortion. an op-amp with a gain bandwidth product of 1 MHz would have a gain of 5 at 200 kHz. Asst. and a gain of 1 at 1 MHz. and output impedance and also reduced output phase linearity as the frequency increases. This creates several problems for op amps. noise. Common mode gain — See DC imperfections. Other imperfections include: • • • Finite bandwidth — all amplifiers have a finite bandwidth. This low-pass characteristic is introduced deliberately. a voltage gain that produces an output that is more positive or more negative than that maximum or minimum.[nb 4] T. or a signal so close to ground that the amplifier's gain is not sufficient to raise it above the lower threshold.

Non-linear transfer function — The output voltage may not be accurately proportional to the difference between the input voltages. it is usually specified in volts per microsecond. Asst. It is commonly called distortion when the input signal is a waveform. Slewing is usually caused by internal capacitances in the amplifier. Measured as the slew rate.DVR-ECE • • Slewing — the amplifier's output voltage reaches its maximum rate of change. Department of ECE . T. especially those used to implement its frequency compensation.Satyanarayana. further increases in the input signal have no effect on the rate of change of the output. When slewing occurs. This effect will be very small in a practical circuit if substantial negative feedback is used.Prof.