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Buffalo Health and Disease for AVSSA

Buffalo Health and Disease for AVSSA

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Buffalo types, husbendary, managment, disease susceptibility in comparison to cattle: Lecture by Ali Sadiek for AVSSA 4.02.09
Buffalo types, husbendary, managment, disease susceptibility in comparison to cattle: Lecture by Ali Sadiek for AVSSA 4.02.09

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10/14/2014

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Buffaloes: Health and Disease !

Prepared by

Dr. Ali H. Sadiek

Prof. of Internal Veterinary Medicine
and Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University

E-mail: Sadiek59@yahoo.com

2

? What is a Buffalo

•Buffalo are members of the bovine group of animals.
•They are cloven footed ruminants with 4 teats.

There are two main species of buffalo.

1- The African wild Buffalo (Syncerus)
2- Asian Buffalo (Bubalus) which for the most are domesticated
(Bubalus bubalis).
•Water (domestic) buffaloes is ~ 150x 106

in 50 countries

worldwide:1/9th

the Nr. of cattle in the world. It is an
economically important livestock species in many Asian and
Mediterranean countries.
3- American buffalo (Bison)

African Buffalo

Water buffaloes

Bison

3

World Distribution of Water Buffaloes

Mediternian countries

China and south asian

East Africa

4

: Asian Water Buffalo

97 % of the world's water buffaloes are located in Asia.
There are two types
1- Swamp buffalo: تاعقنتسملا سوماج

Indigenous to those parts of Asia which do not have a great
culture from consuming milk & milk byproducts (Indonesia
northwards to China)
It is a dual purpose animal (meat and draught)

2- River buffalo: يرهنلا سوماجلا

It is a triple purpose animal (milk, meat and draught power),
Found in those countries where milk plays a more important
part in the human diet e.g India , Pakistan , middle east ,
Caucasus and Balkans.

5

Asian Water Buffaloes

In addition to its for meat and/or milk, Buffaloes are still
used in Asian countries as Drought animals (transport, land
Cultiv. and carriage)
An old chineese women say:
"To my family, the buffalo is more important than I am. When I
die, they'll weep for me; but if our buffalo dies, they may starve.
South Asian countries where the rice cultivation depends
mainly on buffalo- workload.

6

Water Buffalo

•Kingdom:

Animalia

•Phylum:

Chordata

•Class:

Mammalia

•Order:

Artiodactyla

•Family:

Bovidae
•Subfamily:Bovinae
•Tribe:

Bovini
•Genus: Bubalus
•Species:

B. bubalis

7

The Egyptian women observe
and take care of their
buffaloes.

Buffaloes back home from
pastures

Egyptian water Buffaloes

Bubalis bubalis

8

Egyptian Water Buffaloes

Villagers in medieval
Egypt adopted the water
buffalo, and become the
most important domestic
animal in modern Egypt.
Buffalo population
increased gradually and
has reached over 2 million
head.
Buffaloes now supply
Egyptian with more meat,
milk, cooking oil, and
cheese
.

9

Egyptian Water Buffalo

• Dimensions:
- height at withers: 125-150
cm
- Weight: 350-600 kg
- Color: dark grey
- Horns: extend backwards
(sickle shape)
• Principle usage:
- milk, meat, fertilizer
- no longer used for
plowing, pulling, riding, etc...
• Temperament:
- Can be vicious when
handling (temperament can
depend a lot on environment
and level of confinement)

10

Egyptian Water Buffalo

• Milk production:

- 4-10 kg of milk twice daily,
depends of the amount of
concentrate fed
- Has at least a 7% milk fat
- Milk is whiter in color than
cow's milk
- Days in lactation per year:
210-280
- Average number of
lactations: 7

• Calving:

- age at first calving: 34-41

months

11

Egyptian Water Buffalo

• Housing:

- In isolated pens beside
the house
- In pens connected to the

house

- In fields (usually tied to
the ground)

• Watering:

- Through pipes for those
kept in houses.
- From irrigation canals
for those in a field
• Feeding:

- Usually fed baseem
during the day and
concentrate (corn, bran,
cotton seed, etc...) at night

12

Behavior and physiology of water buffalo

In general the husbandry of buffalo is more
or less similar to that of cattle.
Buffalo are generally docile and easy to
handle & unless wounded or severely
stressed.
Breeding throughout the year and having a
calf every year.
They carry their calf for 10 months; twin
calves and dystokia are very rare.
Adult females may reach 350kg, in
Himalayans, to 800kg in Bulgaria and Italy
Longevity : up to 20 years old

13

Behavior and physiology of water buffalo

Buffalo love to wallow in water but it is not necessary.
De-horning is not recommended as the horns provide
a mechanism for body heat loss.
Well constructed house is preferable, can be loose
yard or cubicles.
Buffalo exceed cattle in their ability to convert poor
quality forage to meat or milk.
Buffalo consume 2.5% of its body weight as a daily dry
matter intake.
Stocking rates for buffalo: 10-20% higher than for cattle.
Buffalo prefer to graze a shorter sward to cattle, nearer to
that for sheep.

14

Comparison with Cattle

Cattle and water buffaloes are obviously different animals.
Genetics

Swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes,
The River buffalo, 50. chromosomes
The chromosomal material is, however, similar in the two types
and they crossbreed to produce fertile hybrid progeny.
Cattle have 60 chromosomes, hybrids from the union are unlikely
to occur

15

Comparison of Buffalo & Cows Milks

Buffalo

Cows

Butterfat %

8.0%

3.9%

Protein %

4.5%

3.3%

Cholesterol

8mg

14mg

Colour

Pure white

Creamy

Texture

Smooth

Less smooth

Taste

Sweet

Salty

Cell Counts

Very low

Higher

Yield/Lact'n
Kg

1850

5500

16

Meat Production

Buffalo meat, like the milk is lower in
cholesterol and higher in mineral
content than that of cows.
Lean buffalo meat has less than half
(44%) the total fat content of lean beef
and has less saturated fat.
When cooked there is little noticeable
difference in the two meats, either
visually or in taste or texture.

17

Vital Clinical And Laboratory values

Animal

Cattle Buffaloe

Normal Temperature °C 38.5

38.2

Pulse rate/min

50-80 40-60

Respiratory rate/m

10-20 8-20

RBCs (T/l)

5-10

6-8

Hb (G/dl)

8-14 11.5-15.5

WBCs (G/l)

4-12

7-9

PCV (%)

26-42 32-52

18

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

Buffaloes are very hardy and tolerant of weather
conditions as well as extremely disease
resistant.

•In comparison with other domestic livestock, the
water buffalo generally is a healthy animal.
•This is particularly impressive because most of them

live in hot, humid regions that are conducive to
disease,
•Buffalo is a bovine susceptible to most diseases
and parasites that affect cattle.
•Although the reasons are not specifically known, the
effect of disease on the buffalo and its productivity is
often less deleterious than on cattle.

19

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

•The greatest buffalo losses are often among
calves.
•Newborn buffalo calves, like cattle calves, can
die in large numbers due to viruses, bacteria,
and poor nutrition.
Calves especially rarely suffer from
pneumonia or non-nutritional scours.

•Poor management during the calf's first 2
months of life may attribute to these losses., e.g.
depriving calves from their valuable mother milk
to sell it.
Proclivity of buffalo calves for wallowing
exposes them to waterborne diseases.

20

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

I- Non infectious disease
1-Exposure to heat and direct sunlight

•Buffaloes suffer if forced to remain,
even for a few hours, in direct sunlight.
•They have only one-tenth the density
of sweat glands of cattle and their coating of hair is sparse,
providing little protection from the sun.
•Accordingly, buffaloes must not be driven over long distances
in the heat of the day.
•They must be allowed time for watering and, if possible, for
wallowing.
•Driving under a hot sun for long hours will cause heat
exhaustion and possibly death; losses can be very high and
can occur suddenly.
•Young calves are particularly affected by heat.

21

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

2- Exposure to extreme cold
Buffaloes are also sensitive to extreme
cold and seem less able than cattle to
adapt to truly cold climates,
Buffaloes don't do well where the sun
is inadequate to ripen,
Sudden drops in temperature and chill
winds may lead to pneumonia and
death
.

22

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

3- Lameness and clinical mastitis is also
rare in adults.
4- Lymphangitis and Limb Abscesses
were frequently noted on Egyptian
Buffalo.
5- There has been no incidence of BSE in
any buffalo anywhere in the world.

23

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis and its -6
allied syndrome

Traumatic pericarditis

Dewelap & Brisket edema

24

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

7- Phytobezoar obstructing

•The reticuloomasal orifice
causing ruminitis, regurgitation,
aspiration pneumonia and death
in a she-buffalo

Frothy Tempany-8

25

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

9- Metabolic diseases
-Hypophosphatemia

•It occurs mainly at late pregnancy, It is related
closely to feeding with Barseen (Sweet Clover).
•In Cattle it occurs primarily at peak of lactation and
related directly to heavy milk production
Milk fever occurred in mild form and
respond to ca therapy as well

26

Tail Tip Necrosis in buffaloes-10 :

Zinc deficiency/or microfilaria

27

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

III- Infectious Diseases
Tropical countries have more serious disease
problems than temperate countries do.
Despite their general good health, buffaloes are
probably as susceptible as cattle to most
infections.
Buffalo seems to be sensitive to a few cattle
diseases and resistant to a few others.
Reactions to some diseases seem to vary with
region, environment, and breed, and the
differences are not well understood
.

28

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

1-Pasteurellosis, or HS

It is the most serious disease of water buffaloes, it is
caused by Pasteurella multocida.
Buffaloes are more susceptible
to it than cattle and die in large
numbers where pasteurellosis
occurs.
A vaccine against pasteurellosis is effective in
protecting both buffaloes and cattle; it is cheap and
easily made.

29

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

2-Tuberculosis-

It was thought that buffaloes were
resistant to the disease. Despite some
claims to the contrary, the water
buffalo is susceptible to the bovine
strain of T.B.
Scattered reports from different parts
of India indicate no difference in the
incidence of infection between cattle
and buffaloes .
T.B occurs among the buffalo herds of
the world only because most are kept
under unsanitary conditions.
Most were housed in muddy, ill-kept
pens and forced to eat sugarcane tops
off the ground;

30

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

3- Brucellosis

•Brucellosis is a frequent cause of abortion in buffaloes.
Buffaloes and cattle are equally susceptible to
brucellosis.

•Serologic procedures and measures developed for the
control of the disease in cattle are also effective means
of curbing this infection in buffaloes.
•Brucellosis in Venezuela is increasing more rapidly
among buffaloes than among cattle.
•In India the disease is no more prevalent among
buffaloes than among cattle.
•Consumption of raw milk or contact with aborted fetuses
may cause undulant fever in humans.

31

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

4-Mastitis

•Among milking buffaloes
mastitis is a problem as it is in
dairy cows, but to a lesser
extent.
•It is likely to increase, however,
as the milk production per
individual buffalo is increased.
•The bacteria that cause mastitis
in the buffalo are similar to
those in cattle.
•Treatment and control
programs used for cattle are
equally effective for buffaloes.

.Severe swelling of the hind quarter

32

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

5-Rinderpest and piroplasmosis
seem to affect buffaloes as much
as cattle.
6-FMD also affects buffaloes, but
to a lesser degree than cattle,
producing smaller lesions and
having a lower incidence.
7-Bovine pleuropneumonia:
N
atural infection was not reported
in buffaloes , however
experimental infection exhibited
slight fever, but the disease never
appeared.

33

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

Suscepatibilty vs cattle

Disease

Equal or greater

Pasterullosis

1

Equal

T.B

2

greater

Black leg

3

Equal

Anthrax

4

Probly equal

Salmonellosis

5

Equal or greater in iran

Rinderpest

6

Probly equal

FMD

7

Probly equal

BVD

8

Equal but less common

Rabies

9

Not known

Blue tongue

10

Pecuular to buffalo

Buffalo Pox

11

Not known

Ephemeral f.

12

Not known

M.C.F

13

34

Suscepatibilty vs cattle

Disease

Less susceptible

Anaplasmosis

1

Equal

Theileriosis

2

Less suscept.

Babesiosis

3

Equal

Trypanosoma

4

Probly equal

Coocidia

5

Equal or greater in iran

Sarcosporidia

6

Probly equal

Echinococcus

7

Probly equal

Schistosoma

8

Equal but less common

Fascioliasis

9

Not known

Bovine
encephaloml.

10

Equal

Trypanosoma

11

Probly equal

Coocidia

12

Diseases susceptibilityvs Cattle

35

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