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French Language Course

French Language Course

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French Language Course
French Language Course

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French Language Course

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection Second Edition
Published: March 18, 2006

The current version of this book can be found at

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/French

Table of Contents I. Lessons
A. Introductory Lessons
0.01 Introduction 0.02 The Alphabet 0.03Accents 0.04 Greetings 0.05 Formal Speech 0.06 How are you? 0.07 Dates 0.08 Telling Time 0.00 Review

B. Level One Lessons
1.01Basic Grammar 1.02 Description 1.03 Family 1.04 Animals 1.05 The House 1.06 Weather 1.07 Recreation 1.08 Travel 1.09 Art 1.10 Science

C. Level Two Lessons
2.01 School 2.02 Culture 2.03 Shopping 2.04 Going out 2.05 Transportation 2.06 Everyday Life 2.07 Rural Life 2.08 Food and Drink 2.09 Dining 2.10 Communication

D. Level Three Lessons
3.01Vacations 3.02 Work 3.03 Health 3.04 Money 3.05 Youth 3.06 Adolescence 3.07 Ancient History 3.08 Revolution! 3.09 Modern France

3.10 Current Events

II. Grammar
01. Adjectives 02. Adverbs 03. Gender 04. Negation 05. Prepositions 06. Pronouns 07. Sentences 08. Tenses 09. Verbs

III. Appendices
01. Dates, Time, and Numbers 02. French authors 03. Hints and Common Errors 04. French History 05. Nations of the World 06. Phrasebook 07. Slang 08. Typing Characters 09. Web Resources

IV. GNU Free Documentation License

LESSONS

Introductory French Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world! 01 Leçon 01 : L'introduction Lesson 01 : Introduction 02 Leçon 02 : L'alphabet Lesson 02 : The Alphabet 03 Leçon 03 : Les accents Lesson 03 : Accent Marks 04 Leçon 03 : Les salutations Lesson 03 : Greetings Leçon 05 : Le discours 05 formel Lesson 05 : Formal Speech 06 Leçon 06 : Ça va? Lesson 06 : How are you? 07 Leçon 07 : Les dates Lesson 07 : Dates 08 Leçon 08 : L'heure Lesson 08 : Telling Time .French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! .

In medieval times and until the 19th century. the Congo. This . Luxemburg. Remember that. descended from Latin and closely related to Portuguese. Spanish. Burkina Faso. Tunisia. administration. Try to make it a part of your schedule. at least a third of the English lexicon is derived from French. Gabon. it is still significantly used as a diplomatic language. and the European Union. Belgium.01 • Introduction About French French is a Romance language. We all have to add and subtract before we can do calculus. Italian. this is only half of the skills that make up fluency. While it is true that it poses certain difficulties to native English-speakers. Senegal. and Canada (mostly in the province of Québec. It is the native tongue of over 77 million people and has an additional 68 million non-native speakers. Algeria. Learning any new language requires some commitment. A written document cannot teach much about listening to and speaking French. but it is also used in other parts of the country . It is spoken in France. Morocco. For listening and speaking. Madagascar. In modern terms. like any skill. Mali. Rwanda. the Ivory Coast. Togo. And if you do not practice your French regularly. Niger. generally long-term. being an official language of the United Nations. Remember that you are learning a new skill. the Olympic Games. Haiti. For this reason. it was often the language used in diplomacy. it is highly likely that you will begin to forget it. All consumer product packages in Canada are required by law to have both English and French labels). French-speaking people have made incursions upon the British Isles many times in the past. where it is the primary language. even if it's not daily. Djibouti. You must train all of these skills.notably New Brunswick. Switzerland. thus appropriately becoming the lingua franca of its time. Mauritius. and Romanian. finding a native speaker to help you once you have some skill will help you with these skills. and they will reinforce one another. at least make it regular. Advice on Studying French French tends to have a bad reputation amongst English speakers as hard to learn. Burundi. The very best way to learn French is to get amnesia in France or another French-speaking country. it may be noted that English is also considered to be 'difficult'. culture. the Seychelles. Cameroon. although English is a Germanic language. it requires a certain amount of effort. While this course can teach you to read and write in French. which is the only bilingual province.0. most noticeably in the Norman Invasion of 1066. French is a complete language. and yet we learnt it without the benefit of already knowing a language. royal courts across Europe and also in trade. Chad. Try to master the simple stuff before moving on to the more complex.

and several irregularly-conjugated verbs.allows you to start with a clean slate. Pay attention to pronunciation. Most countries are in the relative vicinity of a French-speaking country. Book Organization This book is divided into one set of preliminary lessons. is given. The next best thing is immersion. which will enrich your vocabulary. you will learn several more tenses and complex grammar rules. and information on how you can help improve this book. most of us are unwilling to take that step. as babies do. Listen. most common present tense. Read French newspapers and magazines. an excellent source is Google's news page. the page of which you are reading now. Allons-y! Bonne chance! . you will learn basic grammar. speak. In the second level. along with many other irregular verbs. In the first level. including pronouns. In the third level. For more on course structure. Grab a French speaker you meet and talk to him or her in French. and practice. The introductory lessons will teach you pronunciation and phrases. If you are serious about learning French. the present indicative. and four increasingly complex lesson levels. Rent or buy French-language movies. then try listening to French-language programs on the radio. see the lessons planning page. TV. will be conducted in French and will focus on French litterature and prose writing. which links to French-language news stories. Again. or the Internet. However. a period of immersion (where you go to live in a Francophone culture) is a good idea once you are moderately studied. the most common past tense. If you can't travel to a French-speaking country. The fourth level (still in development). the passé composé.

French uses several accents which are worth understanding. ô.02 • The Alphabet Introduction French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info • 101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Hh Ii Jj zhee Kk Xx Ll Yy Mm em Zz Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee kah el Uu Vv Ww Pronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh In addition. or u: like g in get aspirated h: see note below* non-aspirated h: not pronounced*** like ea in team like s in measure name in French (in IPA transcription) /a/ /be/ /se/ /de/ /ə/ /ɛf/ /ʒe/ /aʃ/ /i/ /ʒi/ . A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â. î. ï. like oo in book** like f in fog before e and i: like s in measure before a. ü. And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. û. These are: à. ö. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ Letters and Examples French Grammar • Alphabet • audio (info • 101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français letter Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj pronunciation like a in father like b in baby* before e and i: like c in center before a. ê. ë. ù. or u: like c in cat like d in dog approx.0. è. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. o. o.

like v in violin Depending on the derivation of the word. say the word 'pit' and then the word 'spit' out loud. If you're a native speaker. certain consonants are silent when they are the final letter of a word. but is a slight extra puff of air accompanies the stop). when you pronounce the letters 'b' and 'p' in French. the difference in the French 'b' and 'p' and their English counterparts is one of aspiration (this is not related to the similarly named concept of 'h' aspiré below. or w in water either /ks/ in socks. s (as in 'héros'). little to no air should be expended from your mouth. In terms of phonetics.Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz like k in kite like l in lemon like m in minute like n in note closed: approx. like u in nut open: like o in nose like p in pen* like k in kite /ka/ /ɛl/ /ɛm/ /ɛn/ /o/ /pe/ /ky/ see 'u' for details force air through the back of your throat /ɛʀ/ just as if you were gargling like s in sister at begining of word or with two s's or like z in amazing if only one s like t in top Say the English letter e. but only in specific environments. in English both aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) actually exist. Did you notice the extra puff of air in the . Fortunately. but make your lips say "oo". or /gz/ in exit like ea in leak like z in zebra /ɛs/ /te/ /y/ /ve/ /dubləve/ /iks/ /igrək/ /zɛd/ Final consonants and the liaison In French. t (as in 'chat') and x (as in 'paresseux'). The letters p (as in 'coup'). are never pronounced at the end of a word. like v as in violin. b and p Unlike English.

Get a loose piece of printer paper or notebook paper. Concentrate. the letter h can be aspirated. • • If the paper moved. . Now. Here is a table of some basic h words that are aspirated and not aspirated: aspirated héros. (h aspiré). harmony (l'harmonie) Exercise 1. Exercise 1. and ten nonaspirated h words 2. heroine (l'héroïne) habiter. Notice how the paper moved when you said the 'b' and the 'p' respectively. If the paper didn't move.'). or not aspirated. 3. 3.) huit. to live (j'habite.. and papa. However. Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in front of the entry word in the French-English H section if the h is aspirated. to hate (je hais or j'haïs. 4. depending on which language the word was borrowed from. 2. the result is le héros. the words must be memorized. and both words must be pronounced separately. Therefore. In short. say the words belle (the feminine form of beautiful in French. (hero) has an aspirated h. (h non aspiré). because when the definite article le is placed before it. eight (le huit novembre) non-aspirated héroïne. when you put the definite artcle in front of it. Other dictionaries will include it in the pronunciation guide after the key word by placing a (') before the pronunciation. and puppy like you normally would in English. What do these terms mean? • Ex. Look at it every day and memorize the columns. the feminine form of héros. Say the words baby... pronounced like the English 'bell. and try it again. non-aspirated h In French. Grab an English-French-English dictionary. and find at least ten aspirated h words. and is pronounced as one word. Make a column of the two categories of h-word. congratulations! You pronounced the words correctly! Aspirated vs. Hold the piece of paper about one inch (or a couple of centimeters) in front of your face.) harmonie. it becomes l'héroïne. the 'p' in 'spit' is not (like the 'p' in any position in French).first word that doesn't come with the second? The 'p' in 'pit' is aspirated [pʰ]. your pronunciation is slightly off. héroïne is a non-aspirated h.: the word héros. hero (le héros) haïr. (the French equivalent of "Dad").. without making the piece of paper move. The only way to tell if the h at the beginning of a word is aspirated is to look it up in the dictionary.

arobe . point + plus # dièse point ? d'interrogation _ soulignement / barre oblique ~ @ tilde arobase.Punctuation From Wiktionary: & ' * " esperluette apostrophe asterisque guillemet barre oblique \ inverse [ ] crochets : deux points . a commercial. point virgule . = $ ! > < ( virgule égal dollar point d'exclamation supérieur à inférieur à moins. tiret ) parenthèses { } accolades % pourcent .

cigüe and not ciguë. both spellings can be used interchangeably (you might even get a point knocked off if you write "aigüe" in a text. Pronounced like ï. chômage: unemployment. ï. Acute accent. there où: where gâteau: cake. conium. (accent circonflexe) ô. Since this reform is relatively recent and not known in vulgar surrounding. aigüe: acute(fem)* examples circumflex â. it happened to me!) • Note : The letter ÿ is only used in very rare words. loved regarder. ambigüe and not ambiguë (acute(fem). ambiguous). to love past participle aimé. or an approximation thereof: . watched Another thing to note is if you are unsure of how to translate certain words into English from French.03 • Accents There are five different kinds of accent marks used in written French. accent aigu The acute accent (French. the diaresis indicating gu is not a digraph on words finishing in guë is now placed on the u in standard (AKA "académie française" French) : aigüe and not aiguë. to watch regardé. û diaeresis (tréma) ë. most old town names : L'Haÿ-LesRoses (Paris surburb). dû: past participle of devoir Noël: Christmas. maïs: corn. ÿ** cedilla ç only français: French (cédille) • Note : As of the spelling reform of 1990. île: island.0. accent aigu) is the most common accent used in written French. and the word begins with é. là. î. They are: accent acute accent (accent aigu) grave accent (accent grave) letters used é only è. ü. infinitive aimer. ê. ù éléphant: elephant fièvre: fever. replace that with the letter s and you will occasionally get the English word. It is only used with the letter e and is always pronounced /ay/. One use of the accent aigu is to form the past participle of regular -er verbs. être: to be. à.

accent grave).: • • • étable --> stable (for horses) école --> scole --> school il étudie --> il studie --> he studies • And to combine what you already know about the accent aigu. accent grave • à and ù In the case of the letters à and ù.) là (there) où (where) Unlike à and ù. is used to graphically distinguish one word from another. here is one last example: • étranglé (from étrangler) --> stranglé --> strangled NB: This will not work with every word that begins with é. to have) la (definite article for feminine nouns) ou (conjunction. at. without accent grave a (3rd pers. è is not used to distinguish words from one another.• Ex. and in rapid speech is sometimes not pronounced at all. . sing of avoir. the grave accent (Fr. In careful speech. The è is pronounced like the letter e in pet. et al. an unaccented e is pronounced /euh/. The è used for pronunciation. to. or) • è with accent grave à (preposition. [edit] Grave accent.

Jacques? Jacques: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Ah. Alors. oui. à bientôt. Not much. Luc: Ah.0. what's new) bun nwee (informal) (more formal than salut) (all day) Pas grand-chose. oui. Luc! • • • • • • • ^ me ^ so. Olivier: Salut.04 • Greetings D: Greetings • • • • • • Jacques: Bonsoir. Marie. AlorsT. Marie: À tout à l'heure. Marie: Euh? Tu t'appelles comment? Jacques: MoiT. Et toi?T Olivier: Je suis Olivier. Olivier: Tu t'appelles comment? Luc: Luc. Quoi de neuf. no big-thing) . Olivier. then ^ And you? (informal) [edit] V: Greetings French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (upload) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Bonjour Bonsoir Bonne nuit Quoi de neuf? Hi. au revoir./Bye. (lit. Luc: Bonjour. Hello Good evening Good night What's up (about you)? (lit. Marie. je m'appelle Jacques. Olivier: Salut. à demain. Jacques.

Bye. and ask "What's up?" . It's English equivalents would be hi and hey. is used to say Good evening. is used to say Good night. or À tout à l'heure. Check for understanding One of your good friends is introducing you to his younger cousin who is visiting on a trip from France. Ciao [edit] Hi. Salut! is used as a greeting. À tout à l'heure. it should only be used among friends. Bonsoir. Formal Lesson . Good-bye. See you! See you soon. (informal) ohrvwahr (ev not pronounced) ah duhman (Lit: To/Until Tomorrow) ah tootah luhr ah byantoe chow (Italian) Au revoir. à demain. [edit] V: Names Tu t'appelles comment? is used to informally ask someone for his or her name. also means bye. If you will be meeting someone again soon. À bientôt. Au revoir. See you tomorrow. before going to bed. should be used for anyone else. You want to introduce yourself to him.[edit] Formal Lesson . Again. Bye. You respond to this with Je m'appelles [name]. Another informal greeting is ciao. [edit] V: Good-bye French Vocabulary • Greetings • audio (upload) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. is used. an Italian word commonly used in France. literally meaning good day. you will learn more formal ways of asking someone for their name. tell him your name. Bonjour./Bye. À demain. Au revoir is the only formal way to say Good-bye. and doesn't speak a word of English. In the next lesson. Salut. see you tomorrow. À demain. is used if you will be seeing the person the following day. À bientôt.Greetings When talking to one's peers or to children.Good-byes In addition to being used as an informal greeting. Bonne nuit.

This is known as w:Vouvoiement. In French. except that it is much more formal than all but the last example. or someone you are unfamiliar with. and also used between children or when addressing a child. someone who is older than you are.0. use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name. "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" (you) in French. Conversely. it signals disrespect. Comment vous appelez-vous ? Je m'appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. As a rule of thumb. Bernard and M. "all of you". English doesn't have a singular and plural. This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all". "Vous" is a plural form of "you". It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member. beginning a sentence)) ^ Nice to meet you (lit. otherwise use "vous". French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu".05 • Formal Speech D: A Formal Conversation French Dialogue • Formal speech • audio (info • 65 kb • help) A Formal Conversation • Une conversation formelle Two people—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are meeting for the first time: Monsieur Bernard Monsieur Lambert Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. Monsieur Lambert Enchanté[2]. Lambert above as an example of this use. tu This is an important difference between French and English. Note the conversation between M. to be polite or to be neutral. It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important. Et vous ? Moi. If it is used when speaking to a stranger. formal version of "you" (although "thou" used to be the informal(arguably archaic) singular version in the days of Shakespeare). of course. "youse". enchanted) [edit] G: Vous vs. it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu". "Vous" is also used to refer to single individuals to show respect. je[1] suis Marc Bernard. "you guys". Enchanté. ^ I (I is not capitalized in French (unless. This is known as w:Tutoiement. [edit] .

[edit] V: Asking For One's Name French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (upload) Asking For One's Name • Demander le nom de quelqu'un Comment vous appelez-vous? How do you call yourself? (formal) . Je vous en prie [edit] (Lit: Of nothing. Gentlemen. Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle Plural Mesdemoiselles M [edit] mahdmqoizell Miss..Titles The titles monsieur. madame. V: Titles French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (upload) Titles • Les titres French Singular Monsieur Plural Messieurs.) (formal).) shtahn pree (informal) jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) (Lit: If you please. Mme muhsyur mehsyur mahdamn maydahm English. Merci (beaucoup). madame. or mademoiselle.) (Lit: Not of what.) (No problem. or generally someone older than you. and mademoiselle are almost always used alone. When beginning to speak to a professor. De rien. S'il vous plaît. Pas de quoi. Singular Madame Plural Mesdames Abbr. Je t'en prie. Usage Mr. Pronunciation M. it is polite to say monsieur.V: Courtesy French Vocabulary • Formal speech • audio (upload) Courtesy • La politesse Please Thanks (a lot) S'il te plaît. employer. without the last name of the person. Sir. Young lady maydmwahzell Young ladies Formal Lesson . Mrs. Ma'am. You're welcome..

Quel est votre nom? Tu t'appelles comment? Je m'appelle... (lit...) I am. I call myself..... Je suis... What is your name? What is your name? (informal) (lit: You call yourself how?) My name is. .

0.06 • How Are You?

D: A Simple Conversation
Two good friends—Marie and Jean—are meeting:
• • • • • • •

Marie: Salut Jean. Ça va ? Jean: Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ? Marie: Pas mal. Jean: Quoi de neuf ? Marie: Pas grand-chose. Marie: Au revoir Jean. Jean: Au revoir, à demain.

[edit]

V: How are you?
French Vocabulary • How are you? • audio (upload) How are you? • Ça va? Comment allez-vous? (formal), Comment vas-tu? (informal), How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) Ça va (très) bien Oui, ça va. Très bien, merci. Pas mal. Comme ci, comme ça. pas si bien/pas très bien Désolé(e). et toi ? et vous ? I'm doing (very) well (lit. It's going (very) well) Yes, it goes. Very well, thanks. Not Bad So-So. not so well I'm sorry. and you? (informal) and you? (formal)

Check for understanding
Write down as many ways to respond to Ça va? as you can think of off the top off your head. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways.

[edit]

E: 1.01 1 - Basic Phrases - Dialogue
French Exercise • How are you? • audio (upload) Basic Phrases • Expressions de base Exercise Put the following conversation in order: First 1. Michel Je ne vais pas très bien. Second Bonjour, Jacques Ça va très bien! Et vous? Allez-vous bien? Solution: First 1. Michel Bonjour, Jacques. 2. Jacques Salut, Michel! [edit] Second Comment ça va? Ça va très bien! Et vous? Allez-vous bien? Third Je ne vais pas très bien. Désolé. Fourth Au revoir. À demain. Third Au revoir À demain Fourth Comment ça va? .Salut, Michel!

2. Jacques Désolé.

Formal Lesson - Asking How One Is Doing
Ça va? is used to ask someone how they are doing. The phrase literally means It goes?, referring to the body and life. A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. You can respond by using ça va as a statement; Ça va. roughly means I'm fine. The adverb bien is used to say well, and is often said both alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well. Common phrases are assez bien, meaning rather well, très bien, meaing very well, and vraiment bien, meaing really well. The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal., meaing Not bad. Comme-ci, comme-ça., literally translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so. To be polite, add merci, meaing thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding
Pretend to have (or actually have) a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.

0.07 • Dates

V: Numbers 01-31
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Numbers 01-31 • Les nombres 01-31 un(e) deux trois quatre cinq six sept huit neuf dix onze douze treize quatorze quinze seize dix-sept dix-huit dix-neuf vingt vingt et un(e) trente trente et un(e) [edit] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 31 une douzaine (one dozen) une dizaine (one ten) une unité (a unity)

vingt [deux - neuf] 22-29

V: The days of the week.
French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (info • 420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. • Les jours de la semaine. # French Pronunciation luhndee mahrdee maircruhdee juhdee vahndruhdee sahmdee English Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Origin Moon Mars Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun 1 lundi 2 mardi 3 mercredi 4 jeudi 5 vendredi 6 samedi

Wednesday Mercury

7 dimanche deemahnsh Notes:
• • • •

What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes..., C'est... or On est... (last two are less formal). Nous sommes... is not used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly. The days of the week are not capitalized in French. French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Asking For The Day • Demander le jour

1a

Aujourd'hui on est quel jour ?

Today is what day? Today is [day].

ojzoordwee on ay kell jzoor

1b Aujourd'hui on est [jour]. 2a Demain c'est quel jour ? 2b Demain c'est [jour].

Tomorrow is what day? Duhman on ay kell jzoor Tomorrow is [day].

French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Relative Days • Les Jours relatives avant hier hier aujord'hui ce soir demain lendemain [edit] the day before yesterday yesterday today tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow

V: The Months of the Year French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # French Pron. • For phrases relating to the months of the year. see the phrasebook French Vocabulary • Dates • audio (upload) Asking For The Date • Demander la date 3a Quelle est la date (d'aujourd'hui) ? What is the date kell ay lah daht (today)? 3b C'est le [#] [month]. [edit] V: Seasons le printemps l'été l'automne l'hiver spring summer autumn winter . It's [month] [#]. jzahnveeyay fayvreeyay mahrse ahvrill maye jzwan jzooeeyay oot/oo septahmbruh oktuhbruh novahmbruh English January February March April May Juin July August September October November 01 janvier 02 février 03 mars 04 avril 05 mai 06 juin 07 juillet 08 août 09 septembre 10 octobre 11 novembre 12 decembre daysahmbruh December • The months of the year are not capitalized in French.

eelay [nombre] er [edit] V: Time In French.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. It is [number] hours. though it would literally translate as “he is”. Unlike in English. In English.neuf] quarante cinquante soixante [edit] 30 31 32-39 40 50 60 V: Asking for the time French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info • 612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. it is actually. Time • Demander le jour/la date/le temps Asking for the time. “il est” is used to express the time.08 • Telling Time V: Numbers 30-60 French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info • 337 kb • help) Numbers 30-60 • Les nombres 30-60 trente trente et un(e) trente [deux . Date. equivalent to “it is” (impersonal "il").0. French Vocabulary • Time • audio (info • 145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it? . “It’s nine. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. it is OK to say. 4a Quelle heure est-il ? 4b Quelle heure il est ? What hour/time is it? kell er ayteel kell er eel ay 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). in this case.

It is three o’clock. Il est quatre heures quarante. midday afternoon evening. It is a quarter till 4. [edit] It is one o’clock.du matin hier matin le midi l'après-midi (m) le soir . It is twenty to five.. Il est quatre heures cinq.M. It is four fifteen. Il est quatre heures trente. Il est quatre heures et quart.. It is half past four. lit: of the mornng yesterday morning noon. morning A.. V: Times of Day French Vocabulary • Time • audio (upload) Times of Day • L'heure relatif le lever du jour le lever du soleil le soleil levant le matin . Il est trois heures. Il est dix heures..Il est une heure. It is noon. Il est midi. It is ten o’clock. It is four forty. It is a quarter past four. in the evening P. It is midnight. It is five past four. lit: of the evening night .M. Il est minuit.du soir la nuit daybreak lit:the rise of the day sunrise lit: the rise of the sun rising sun. It is four thirty. Il est quatre heures et demie. Il est cinq heures moins vingt.. Il est quatre heures moins le quart Il est quatre heures quinze.

ë. Comment vas-tu? (informal). ü. It's going (very) well) thank you and you? (informal) and you? (formal) not bad well not so well so-so I'm sorry. A circumflex applies to all vowels as well: â.0. ÿ and combined letters: æ and œ [edit] V: Basic Phrases French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 353 kb • help) Basic Phrases • Les expressions de base bonjour. ï. û. ê.00 • Review G: The French alphabet French Grammar • Review • audio (info • 101 kb • help) The French Alphabet • L'alphabet français Characters Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Hh Ii Jj zhee Kk Xx Ll Yy Mm em Zz Pronunciation ah bay say day euh eff jhay ash ee kah el Uu Vv Ww Pronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh In addition. what's up (about you)? (lit. ô. How are you? Comment ça va?/Ça va ? (informal) ça va (très) bien merci et toi ? et vous ? pas mal bien pas si bien/pas très bien comme ci. comme ça Désolé(e) quoi de neuf ? pas grand-chose I'm doing (very) well (lit. hi (informal) Comment allez-vous? (formal). ù. salut hello (formal). And also a tréma (French for diaerasis) for vowels: ä. î. what's new) not much (lit. è. no big-thing) . French uses several accents which are worth understanding. (grave accents) and é (acute accent) which only applies to e. These are: à. ö.

at tomorrow) Bye.neuf] trente trente et un trente [deux . à demain.au revoir à demain Au revoir. [edit] bye (lit.neuf] quarante 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22-29 30 31 32-39 40 une douzaine (one dozen) une dizaine (one ten) une unité (a unity) . akin to German auf Wiedersehen) see you tomorrow (lit. with reseeing. see you tomorrow V: Numbers French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres un deux trois quatre cinq six sept huit neuf dix onze douze treize quatorze quinze seize dix-sept dix-huit dix-neuf vingt vingt et un vingt [deux .

31.000.neuf] cents deux cent un neuf cent un mille (un) million 50 60 70 71 72-79 80 81 82-89 90 100 200-900 201 901 1. Time • Demander le jour.dix-neuf] quatre-vingts quatre-vingt-un quatre-vingt-[deux . le temps Asking for the day. trente-trois.51. What is the date kell ay lah daht ojzoordwee say kell jzoor . Date. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number. but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six. 3a Quelle est la date Today is [day]. 2a Demain c'est quel jour 2b Demain c'est [jour].etc) have "et un".dix-neuf] 91-99 (un) milliard 1. Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor Tomorrow is [day].neuf] quatre-vingt-dix cent [deux .000 Things of note about numbers: • • • For 70-79. la date.41.000 un millier (one thousand) une centaine (one hundred) quatre-vingt-[onze .000. Asking for the date. etc) For 100-199.000.cinquante soixante soixante-dix soixante-et-onze soixante-[douze . [edit] V: Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 612 kb • help) Asking For The Day. this continues up to 1000 and onward.000 1. it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 Only the first (21. 1a Aujourd'hui c'est quel jour? Today is what day? 1b Aujourd'hui c'est [jour].

It is four forty. Il est quatre heures cinq. It is five past four. It is three o’clock. it is actually. It is four thirty. • Les jours de la semaine. It is twenty to five. What hour/time is it? It is [number] hours. “It’s nine. though it would literally translate as “he is”. It is noon. It is half past four. Il est dix heures.(aujourd'hui)? 3b C'est le [#] [month]. Il est quatre heures et demie. 4a Quelle heure est-il? 4b Il est quelle heure? 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 145 kb • help) Time • Le temps Quelle heure est-il ? Il est une heure. Il est quatre heures quinze. “il est” is used to express the time. kell er ayteel eel ay kell er eelay [nombre] er V: Time In French.” but this wouldn’t make sense in French. It is midnight. [edit] What time is it? It is one o’clock. V: The days of the week. In English. It is ten o’clock. Il est quatre heures quarante. It is a quarter past four. Il est minuit. it is always important to use “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. it is OK to say. Asking for the time. Les jours de la semaine [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 420 kb • help) The Days of the Week. Il est quatre heures trente. in this case. Il est midi. Il est trois heures. Unlike in English. # French Pronunciation English Origin . It is four fifteen. [edit] (today)? It's [month] [#]. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. equivalent to “it is” (unpersonal "il"). Il est quatre heures et quart.

.. or demain.. [edit] V: Relative Date and Time French Vocabulary • Review • audio (info • 883 kb • help) Relative Date and Time • Date et heure relatives Times of Day le lever du jour le lever du soleil le soleil levant le matin . C'était (past) or C'est (present/future) must be used accordingly.du matin hier matin le midi l'après-midi (m) le soir ...1 lundi 2 mardi 3 mercredi 4 jeudi 5 vendredi 6 samedi luhndee mahrdee maircruhdee juhdee vahndruhdee sahmdee Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday Saturday Moon Mars Jupiter Venus Saturn Wednesday Mercury 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French.. midday afternoon evening. see the phrasebook. morning A. or On est... • For phrases relating to the day of the week. aujourd’hui. (last two are less formal). is not used with hier. lit: of the mornng yesterday morning noon. Notes: • • • What day is it today? is equivalent to Quel jour sommes-nous ?.M.. in the evening P.M... Nous sommes.. lit: of the evening night Relative Days the day before yesterday .. Quel jour sommes-nous ? can be answered with Nous sommes. C'est.du soir la nuit avant hier daybreak lit:the rise of the day sunrise lit: the rise of the sun rising sun..

agreed. A demain. You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. Tu fais ça chez toi ? March 3rd. It goes well. merci. bonne journée. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party.summer l'automne . On va danser toute la nuit. So long. it goes (fine)? 2 Daniel Ça va bien. entendu.winter [edit] D: A Conversation Between Friends French Dialogue • Review • audio (upload) A Coversation Between Friends • Une conversation entre amis Daniel Hervé Bonjour Hervé. How are you? [lit: How go you?] Je vais bien. It's very nice to invite me. March 3rd at 08:00 PM. merci. Hervé. Hervé Daniel C'est quand ? When is it? [lit: It is when?] Le 3 mars à 20h. Hervé Daniel C'est très gentil de m'inviter. good day. J'ai invité une vingtaine d'amis. Daniel Yes. Est-ce que tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J'organise une petite fête. Comment vas-tu ? Hello. thank you. Until tomorrow.spring l'été . . We4 are going to dance all night. I have invited (a set of) twenty friends. it's at my place. And you.hier aujord'hui ce soir demain lendemain [edit] yesterday today tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow V: Seasons and Seasonal Activities le printemps . A bientôt. 3 Hervé Le 3 mars. Et toi ça va ? I'm good.1 thank you.autumn l'hiver .

one can say Do you want it? Est-ce que.1 Bien is an adverb meaning well. Since je vais. thank you.. In the large conference room on the second floor... 2 Est-ce que. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a [?] for my birthday. Mr.. In English. and is often used to start questions. which means good.. Je veux vous demander s'il est possible d'organiser un pot pour mon anniversaire. is a preposition meaning at the house of. I'm good. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. 3 chez. literally means Is is that. We would need it until 04:00 PM. Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel [edit] . Director. monsieur le directeur. I'm well. And you.. other than signifying that a question follows. Chez moi is used to say at my place.. Instead of You want it?. On en aurait besoin jusqu' à 16 h.. meaning I go. Est-ce que vous allez bien? Hello. Et vous voulez l'organiser où ? And you want to organize it where? Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. Entendu! J'espère que je serais invité ? Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup! Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir! Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci! Good-bye and thanks again. le temps de tout nettoyer. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. has no real meaning.. the time of cleaning everything. the adjective bien is used. [edit] D: The Director French Dialogue • Review • audio (upload) The Director • Le directeur Daniel Le directeur Daniel Le directeur (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc) (knocks on the door : knock knock knock) Entrez! Enter! Bonjour. Are you well? Je vais bien merci.. I would organize it the third of March around 02:00 PM. uses an action verb. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. Its adjective equivalent is bon(ne). comment allez-vous? I am well.. is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. Et vous. 4 on can mean we or one. how are you? Je vais bien. which uses the linking verb am.

L'instituteur : non Toto tu t'es trompé ! Huit plus six égal quatorze. un jour je vous en raconterais une ! . Et combien font cinq plus neuf ? .Clément : quatorze ! .L'instituteur : Bonjour. Combien font huit plus six ? .A l'école Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est cancre à l'école.Toto : treize. les enfants ! Aujourd'hui c'est mardi. monsieur ! . [edit] Exercices • • • • • • • • • • huit plus cinq égal : (treize) cinq et un égal : (six) neuf plus huit égal (dix-sept) trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal (quatre-vingt-un) soixante plus vingt égal (quatre-vingts) cinquante-trois plus douze égal (soixante-cinq) dix-neuf plus cinquante égal (soixante-neuf) quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal (soixante-quatorze) Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-quinze) soixante plus trente-deux égal (quatre-vingt-douze) . Il y a beaucoup d'histoires drôles sur Toto. nous allons réviser la table d'addition.L'instituteur : Très bien Clément.

Zoo Lesson 04 : Animals 04 Leçon 04 : La maison G: Faire. te. and les V: Family Lesson 03 : Family 04 Leçon 04 : Les animaux G: Aller V: Pets. Furniture Lesson 04 : The House 05 Leçon 05 : Le temps G: Negation. Beau. spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. and Vieux Lesson 08 : Art V: Museums.Basic French If you haven't done so already. Directions Lesson 07 : Travel 08 Leçon 08 : L'art G: -re Verbs. Adjectives V: Colors. Plays 09 Leçon 09 : La science G: V: Lesson 09 : Science . Sports. Subject Pronouns Lesson 01 : Basic Grammar V: 02 Leçon 02 : La description G: Conjugation. Places. Nouveau. lui and leur V: Games. me. nous. Possessive Adjectives V: Hotels. Once that's done. you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level. and vous V: Household. Numbers Lesson 02 : Description 03 Leçon 03 : La famille G: Avoir. Housework. Finally. 01 Leçon 01 : Grammaire de base G: Gender. Movies. le. Être. Environments. Articles. la. Playing Lesson 06 : Recreation 07 Leçon 07 : Les voyages G: -ir Verbs.French Level One Lessons Allons! . Aller V: Weather Lesson 05 : Weather 06 Leçon 06 : Récréation G: -er Verbs. go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. you can move on to the next level.

which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. professeur. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. all nouns have a grammatical gender. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. For example. that is. This form can be masculine or feminine. and the word for teacher.01 • Basic Grammar G: Gender of Nouns In French. for example.1. is always feminine. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. for example. personne. is always masculine even if the teacher is female.g. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form. even if the person is male. the word for person. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form. Examples French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Masculine le cheval le chien le livre le bruit the horse the dog the book the noise Feminine la colombe la chemise la maison the dove the shirt the house Common Endings Used With Masculine Nouns: -age -r -t -isme le fromage the cheese le professeur the teacher le chat the cat le capitalisme capitalism Common Endings Used With Feminine Nouns: -ie -ion -ite/-ité la boulangerie the bakery la nation the nation la fraternité . The nouns that express entities without gender (e..

and vice versa. In French. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). It is similar to english. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. [edit] G: Definite and Indefinite Articles [edit] The Definite Article In English. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. There are even words that are spelled the same. la foi is feminine and means a belief. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. starting with a vowel sound plural . there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned.brotherhood la liberté liberty -nce -nne -mme -lle la balance the scales la fille the girl l’indienne the Indian Unfortunately. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. "Le" is used for masculine nouns. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). the definite article is always “the”. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. Gender 2. un livre (m) means a book. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. Then there are some that just don't make sense. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. Plurality 3. "La" is used for feminine nouns. for example. whereas le foie means liver. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini singular feminine le la la fille the daughter le fils the son l’ les l’enfant les filles les fils the child the daughters the sons singular.

Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album." ("I am looking at some photographs. elles I we you you he." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis 1st person 2nd person singular plural singular plural singular 3rd person plural je nous tu vous il. one they (masculine) they (feminine) .") [edit] G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. 2nd. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. "Je regard des photographs. on ils. the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. elle." In French. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. [edit] The Indefinite Article In English. In English. 2nd. we would say "I am looking at photographs. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. "Je regard photographs.") If you were just flipping through the album. French Grammar • Basic grammar • audio (info • 55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini singular plural 1"des feminine masculine une une fille un des un fils des filles des fils1 a daughter a son some daughters some sons fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. Again. and 3rd person plural. you would say "Je regarde les photographs.les enfants the children Note: Unlike English. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. you would say. she. you cannot say. looking at nothing in particular. "Some" is used as a plural article in English." ("I am looking at the photographs.

However. instead of “nous”. While in English. In everyday language. The French third person "on" has several meanings. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. For more. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu. to express “we”. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". if a group of people consists of both males and females. see the Wikipedia entry. the male form is used.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. see notes in lesson 1. . French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. Also. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. Also. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. When referring to a single person. as discussed in lesson 1. the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. when pronounced. to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock". “on” is used. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun.When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person.” (formal). "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. “vous” must be used. For example.

you see. which is the only example of English verb conjugation. (thou art).). Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. [edit] Formation French Verb • Description • audio (info • 103 kb • help) être • to be Singular first person second person third person [edit] je suis jeuh swee I am tu es too ay il est eel ay elle est ell ay on est ohn ay you are he is she is one is vous êtes ils sont elles sont Plural nous sommes noo sumz we are voozett eelzont ellzohnt you are they are (masc. Tu es à la banque. that is the third person singular (I see. or mized) they are (fem. you are. we see. or present indicative.02 • Description G: Conjugation French verbs conjugate. [edit] G: The verb être Être can be translated to “to be” in English. they are. You are at the bank.) Examples Je suis avocat. they see). He is handsome. he/she sees. English verbs only have one conjugation. I am (a) lawyer. Here. we are. which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. . (I am. Il est beau. we will look at the conjugations in the present tense. he/she is. The only exception is the verb "to be".1.

Most adjectives. are affected by this rule. Ils sont petits. lent For more advanced rules. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. like gros. Ils sont moyens. [edit] G: Adjectives Les adjectifs Just like articles. the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. amusant. They will become very useful in forming tenses. see the topic: French Adjectives: Describing Nouns in French [edit] V: Describing People French Grammar • Description • audio (upload) Describing People • Décrire des personnes Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural size and weight Il est petit. Elle est petite. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. Other adjectives. Elles sont moyennes. do not change in plurality. such as those above. Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender.Try to learn all these conjugations. French adjectives also have to match the nouns that they modify in gender and plurality. Feminine Plural . Il est moyen. Elle est moyenne. Elles sont petites. [edit] Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes [edit] Pronunciation Generally. amusan.

Elle est brune. Il est intéressant. V: Common Adjectives Descripting People sympa(thique)(s) nice sociable(s) sociable timide(s) timid dynamique(s) outgoing gentil(le)(s) nice. Elle est grosse. Elle est intéressante. Elles sont brunes. Ils sont gros. Il est blond. Ils sont bruns. Ils sont intelligents'. Ils sont grands. Il est brun. Elles sont grosses. Elles sont grandes. Elle est amusante.Il est grand. gentle strict(e)(s) strict Describing Actions mauvais(e)(s) bad bone(ne(s) good fort(e)(s) strong Describing Things facile(s) easy difficile(s) difficult [edit] V: Colors French Vocabulary • Description • audio (info • 160 kb • help) Colors • Les couleurs Masculine blanc gris noir rouge Feminine blanche grise noire rouge white gray black red English . attitude and personality Elle est intelligente. Elles sont intéressantes. Elles sont blondes. Ils sont intéressants. Elles sont amusantes. Ils sont amusants. Il est intelligent. Il est gros. Il est amusant. Elle est blonde. hair color Ils sont blonds. [edit] Elle est grande. Elles sont intelligentes.

Please use the The Nations of the World Appendix to find out what your country is called in French.orange jaune vert bleu violet marron brun rose safran [edit] orange jaune verte bleue violette marron brune rose safranne orange yellow green blue violet brown (everything but hair) brown (hair . When stating your nationality or job. you use the verb habiter .for males and females respectively. To say where you live now."to live (somewhere)" and you form it using the first person "Je" form (I/me) present tense . . Please note that there is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality .which truncates to "J'habite". enough très .truly. for example.dark haired) pink saffron G: Adverbs Detailing Adjectives • • • assez . only that.rather."Je habite" . en. "Je suis Australienne".very vraiment . or aux. really [edit] G: Describing yourself Now that you have successfully said hello and how are you to your partner. You then choose the right gender for the word "in". and its gender. This is an exception to the normal rule. it would be a good idea to tell them a little about yourself. it is not necessary to say that you are 'un(e)' whatever-it-is.

) second person tu as too ah you have vous avez voozahvay il a eel ah he has third person elle a ell ah she has on a ohn ah one has [edit] ils ont elles ont eelzohnt ellzohnt Examples J'ai deux stylos. He has an idea. V: The Family French Vocabulary • Family • audio (info • 1245 kb • help) The Family • La Famille Immediate Family ma famille my family les parents parents Extended Family ma famille éloignée my extended family les grand-parents grandparents .03 • Family G: The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". Tu as trois frères.1. You have three brothers. or mized) they have (fem. [edit] I have two pens. Il a une idée. [edit] Formation French Verb • Family • audio (info • 100 kb • help) avoir • to have Singular first person j' ai zjay I have Plural nous avons noozahvohn we have you have they have (masc.

• Il jette la boule.replaces a masculine singular direct object la .. such as "la boule". A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb.. [edit] G: Direct Object Pronouns le. direct objects.replaces plural direct objects. tu. . and les are called direct object pronouns. because they are pronouns that are.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. and les le. . • • Le. The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to.He throws them. • • • • le . .He throws it. Similary. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. tonton le neveu la nièce grandfather grandmother grandchildren grandson granddaughter uncle aunt nephew niece l'enfant(e) child (m or f) la tante. you must use the de mon/ma/mes form . la.replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les .la mère le père la femme le mari la soeur le frère mother father wife husband sister brother le grand-père la grand-mère les petits-enfants le petit-fils la petite-fille l'oncle.). used as direct objects. la. la. and les can replace either people or inanimate objects."le cousin de ma grandmère". can be replaced by pronouns. . both masculine and feminine Il la jette. Il les jette. tati les enfants children la fille daughter le fils son le/la cousin(e) cousin (m or f) To speak about more complex family relations. you guessed it.He throws the ball. such as "my grandmother's cousin".

04 • Animals V: Animals French Vocabulary • Animals • audio (upload) Animals • Les animaux Pets l'animal (m) le chat la chatte le chaton le chien la souris le lapin jaguar le singe jungle l'arbre (m) le cheval la vache le mouton [edit] animal (male) cat (female) cat kitten dog mouse rabbit Wild Animals jaguar monkey Environments jungle Plants tree Farm Animals horse cow sheep V: Going to the Zoo .1.

home flat/apartment neigborhood habiter quitter Actions to live (somewhere) to leave arriver (à la maison) to arrive (home) at the house of [person] rentrer (à la maison) to go back home at [person]'s house Floors level lobby.05 • The House V: The House French Vocabulary • The house • audio (upload) The House • La maison General la maison l'appartement(m) le quartier chez [person] house.1. ground floor Rooms le premier étage le deuxième étage le troisième étage second floor third floor fourth floor ceiling door window roof ground wall stairs to walk up stairs elevator l'étage (m) le rez-de-chaussée Parts of a Room le plafond la porte la fenêtre le toit le sol le mur l'escalier (m) monter à pied l'ascenseur (m) la pièce la salle de séjour la cave le grenier la cuisine la salle à manger la salle de bains les toilettes (f) (no singular) le garage le rideau la chaise room family room basement attic kitchen dining room bathroom la chambre à coucher bedroom water-closet Garage Furniture curtain chair monter en ascenseur to take the elevator Outside a House la voiture la terrase car patio .

[edit] Formation French Verb • The house • audio (upload) faire • to do.to do badly refaire .I make/have the stove repaired.) Uses For Faire • • • • sports weather tasks le faire causatif • faire (conjugated) + infinitive .la table l'armoire (f) le lit le tapis [edit] table cupboard bed carpet le balcon le jardin la fleur l'arbre (m) balcony garden flower tree G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. to make Singular first person je fais jeuh fay I do you do he does she does one does il fait eel fay third person elle fait ell fay on fait ohn fay [edit] second person tu fais too fay Plural nous faisons noo fezohn we do vous faites voo feht ils font elles font eel fohnt ell fohnt you do they do (masc.to remake [edit] . . It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb). or mized) they do (fem.to have something done for oneself • Je fais réparer le fourneau.to demolish malfaire . [edit] Related Words • • • défaire .

us.Expressions with Faire • • • • • faire attention . nous. to you (plural. formal) [edit] Place in sentences • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify .me. informal) nous .you. te.to wait in line s'en faire . to us vous .to scold faire la queue .. and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns [edit] Meanings • • • • me .to pay attention faire connaissance .you.to worry [edit] V: Housework French Vocabulary • The house • audio (upload) Housework • Le ménage faire la cuisine faire le jardin faire le lit faire le ménage faire la vaiselle faire les carreaux faire les courses faire le repassage [edit] to do the cooking to do the gardening to make the bed to do the housework to do the dishes to do the windows to do the shopping/errands to do the ironing faire la lessive/le linge to do the laundry G: me. to you (singular. to me te .to get acquainted faire la morale .

La deuxième est plus petite : c'est la chambre de mon fils. Il te voit.I saw you.He sees you. Ma maison a 2 chambres : la première pour moi et ma femme avec un grand lit. Il vous le jette. If a perfect tense is used. Il nous voit. .He sees me. Il vous voit.He sees us.I want to see you.He calls to me. il y a un petit salon. Don't forget prepositions. . [edit] Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary. Il nous le jette. à coté de Lyon en France. Nous aimons regarder la télévision allongés dans le fauteuil. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs.• Je te vois. Nous avons aussi un bureau avec 3 ordinateurs : un par personne ! La salle de séjour est très grande et à coté. . La maison est de plein pied et ne comporte pas d'étage.He throws it to you. Il te le jette.He sees you. Il y a une petite table et 4 chaises. .I see you. . [edit] Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. • Je t'ai vu. . .He throws it to us. .He throws it to you. these pronouns go before the auxillary verb. [edit] Chez moi J'habite une villa à Mornant. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. • [edit] Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. La cuisine est toute petite et nous y mangeons le soir. . . . . • Je veux te voir.

1.06 • Weather

G: Standard Negation
In order to say that one did not do something, the ne ... pas construction must be used. The ne is placed before the verb, while the pas is placed after. Examples Il est avocat. He is [a] lawyer. Il n'est pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer. Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. We are not doing our homework. Je joue du piano. I play the piano. Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano. Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car. Vous ne vendez pas votre You do not sell your car. voiture. When negating with the indefinite article (un, une), the indefinite article changes to de. Examples Il est belge.. He is Belgian. Il n'est pas belge. He is not Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. We read a book. Nous ne lisons pas de We do not read a book. livre. Je mange une cerise. I eat a cherry. Je ne mange pas de cerise. I do not eat a cherry. • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne...pas around the verb. • Je ne vole pas. - I do not steal. • In a perfect tense, ne...pas wraps around the auxillary verb, not the participle. • Je n'ai pas volé. - I have not stolen. • When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne...pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb. • Je ne veux pas voler. - I do not want to steal. • ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning. • Je veux ne pas voler. - I want to not steal. • ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. • Je ne le vole pas. - I did not steal it. [edit]

V: Weather and Seasons

La météo (A French Weather Map)

French Vocabulary • Weather • audio (upload) Weather • Le temps General le soleil le ciel sun sky Warm Weather Il fait beau Il fait chaud. Le ciel est dégagé. Le ciel se dégage. Le soleil brille. la brume le brouillard la bruine It's nice. It's warm. Cloudy Weather le nuage Il y a des nuages. . nuageux(-euse) couvert(e)(s) l'éclaircie (f) Il fait froid. cloud It's cloudy. lit: There are some clouds. cloudy overcast, lit: covered clearing, break (in clouds) It's cold. wind It's windy. The wind blows. gust of wind Snowy Weather l'hiver (m) la neige Il neige. la grêle winter snow It's snowing. hail

Cold and Windy Weather

The skiy is clear. le vent lit: The sky is freed. Il fait du vent. The skiy is clearing up. Le vent souffle. The sun is shining. la rafale

Rainy Weather fog, haze, mist fog drizzle

Il tombe de la grêle. It's hailing. . lit: It falls of the hail. une goutte de pluie la pluie La pluie tombe. Il pleut. il a plu. Il va pleuvoir. a drop of rain rain The rain falls. It's raining. It rained. It's going to rain. Extreme weather un orage orageux(-euse) Il y a un orage! l'éclair (m) l'éclairage (m) a storm stormy There's a storm! flash (of lightening) lightening

rainy pluvieux(-euse) It's raining. Le temps est pluvieux. lit: The weather is . rainy. de gros nuages noirs. l'averse (f) large black clouds downpour

la tempête agité(e)(s) le tonnerre

storm, tempest stormy, agitated thunder

French Vocabulary • Weather • audio (upload) Seasons • Les Saisons Une saison (f) Le printemps (m) L'été (m) L'automne (m) L'hiver (m) [edit] A season Spring Summer Autumn Winter

G: Aller
• • •

The verb aller is translated to to go. Aller is used with the preposition à. Example: Je vais au stade. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -er verb).

[edit]

Formation
In the present indicative, aller is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Weather • audio (upload) aller • to go Singular first person je vais jeuh vay I go Plural nous allons nouzah lohn we go

second person tu vas too vah il va eel vah third person elle va ell vah on va ohn vah [edit]

you go he goes she goes one goes

vous allez vouzah lay ils vont eel vohn

you go they go (masc. or mized) they go (fem.)

elles vont ell vohn

Futur Proche
The strucure aller + infinitive is used to say that something is going to happen in the near future.

Il va faire froid. - It's going to be cold.

[edit]

Idioms
• •

Allons-y - ahlonzee - Let's go there! (impératif) 1 Ça va? - How are you? (lit: It goes?)

[edit]

Liaison
Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after ...ons or ...ez, the usually unpronounced s and z change to a sharp z sound and link to the next syllable. (This process is called liaison.) However, since allons and allez begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay. In order to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go connsecultively. There is therefore no liaison in allons à when it comes right after nous and allez à when it comes after vous.
• •

In the phrase Vous allez à l'école?, vous allez à is pronounced vouzahlay ah. In the phrase vous et Marie allez à l'école?", allez à is pronounced ahlayzah.

[edit] . Also. as a rule of thumb: "h" is considered a vowel. To conjugate. • • • • • • Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites ? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis.to play French Grammar • Recreation • audio (upload) -er Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -er pronoun je tu il/elle nous vous -e -es -e -ons -ez ending joue joues joue jouons jouez verb ils/elles -ent jouent Note: In all conjugations. Pierre : Je vais au parc. Michel : J'attends mon ami. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. Example: J'attends.. jouer . as in "J'habite.07 • Recreation G: Regular -er Verbs Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence.". [edit] D: Recreation Here is a short dialog about people planning/doing leisure activities..1. je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel. drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". Christophe : Je viens du stade.

V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faîtes? What are you doing? jouer finir attendre aimer détester (mon/ma) ami(e) [edit] to play to finish to wait (for) to like to hate (my) friend V: Places la bibliothèque library1 le parc la piscine la plage le restaurant le stade le théâtre 1Caution: park swimming pool beach restaurant stadium theater a librairie is a bookshop.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary. . . An example follows: • . They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her and to them respectively. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns.He throws the ball to him. • • lui . • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques. .replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. salle de concert concert hall [edit] G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur . Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie.He throws the ball to Jack.He throws the ball to Mary. . Il jette la boule à Marie.

jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive.. As always.He throws the ball to them. la. When referring to sports. When used with the direct object pronouns le. au baseball au basket au football au golf au tennis au volley aux cartes aux dames aux échecs baseball basketball soccer.. Il leur jette la boule. .. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments. football golf tennis volleyball cards checkers/ draughts chess jouer de. Note that while le. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel.He throws it to him. but when referring to instruments. In English. and les. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context.• • Il lui jette la boule. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects..He throws the ball to her. lui is never shortened [edit] V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. la. . Also note that unlike le and la. "He throws him the ball" is also said. use jouer à. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. lui and leur come after those pronouns. • Il la lui jette. use jouer de. and means the same thing... . de la clarinette clarinet du piano de la guitare de la batterie piano guitar violin drums (singular in French) au football américain American football du violon . French Vocabulary • Recreation • audio (upload) Play • Jouer jouer a.

votre.08 • Travel V: Hotels [edit] G: Regular -ir Verbs The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. vos Third person plural .ton.votre. ma. drop the -ir to find the "stem" or "root". nos Second person plural (and polite form) .1. notre.leur.to finish French Grammar • Travel • audio (upload) -ir Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -ir pronoun je tu il/elle nous vous ils/elles [edit] -is -is -it -issons -issez -issent ending finis finis finit finissons finissez finissent verb G: Possessive Adjectives • • • First person singular .son. ta. To conjugate. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense.notre. finir . leur.mon. mes Second person singular (informal) . ses First person plural . leurs • • • . sa. tes Third person singular .

To conjugate. drop the -re to find the "stem" or "root".1.09 • Art G: Regular -re Verbs The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. as demonstrated below for the present tense. Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. [edit] Formation attendre – to wait French Grammar • Art • audio (upload) -re Verb Formation • Formation des verbes en -re pronoun je (j') tu il/elle nous vous ils/elles [edit] -s -s -ons -ez -ent ending attends attends attend attendons attendez attendent verb Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: French Verb • Art • audio (upload) vendre • to sell Singular first person je vends jeuh vahn il vend eel vahn elle vend ell vahn I sell he sells she sells second person tu vends too vee ehn you sell third person Plural nous vendons noo vahn dohn we sell vous vendez voo vahn day ils vendent eel vahnde you sell they sell (masc. or mized) .

New. and Old • Beau. and Opera Houses The Louvre [edit] The Louvre Pyramid G: Beau. Beau Nouveau Vieux [edit] un beau garçon un nouveau camion Masc. Plural Fem.on vend ohn vahn [edit] one sells elles vendent ell vahnde they sell (fem. Nouveau. Sing Vowel un bel individu un nouvel ordre Masc. You will however see the following verbs fairly often. and Vieux French Grammar • Art • audio (upload) The Adjectives Beautiful.) Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs. [edit] V: Going to a Museum [edit] V: French Museums. Theaters. (all) Fem. Sing. Nouveau. -re verbs are not very common. Cons. Sing. and Vieux Masc. Plural de beaux garçons une belle fillette de belles fillettes de nouveaux ordres une nouvelle idée de nouvelles idées un vieux camion un vieil ordre de vieux camions une vieille idée de vieilles idées .

Take a seat! Les films sont fascinants! Vous allez au cinéma? Pourquoi? Vous aimez les films? On parle Qu’est-ce qu’on joue au cinéma? pour démander les films qui jouent.O. où l'employé(e) vous les vend. • Prenez la place! . (Version originale) unaltered video) les sous-titres sub-titles (foreign) movie (on DVD) actor actrice to rent la vidéo le DVD video DVD Film Genres le dessin animé le documentaire le film d’amour le film d’aventures le film d’horreur le film policier le film de sciencefiction cartoon documentary love story adventure movie horror film police film sci-fi film The Movie Theater the (movie) theater theater showing room lit: room of the the theater showing ticket window seat/place to sit chair1 to cost to play 1Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on. On achète les places au guichet. On entre la salle du cinéma pour regarder un film.V: Movies French Vocabulary • Art • audio (upload) Movies • Les films General le film (domestique) (en vidéo) le film (étranger) (en DVD) l'acteur (m) l'actrice (f) louer le cinéma la salle du cinéma la séance le guichet la place le fauteuil coûter jouer • (domestic) movie (on V. Quel est votre genre de film préféré? Vous louez les vidéos? les DVDs? [edit] V: Plays French Vocabulary • Art • audio (upload) Plays • Les pièces At the Theater le théâtre la pièce (de théâtre) theater (theatrical) play lit: (theatrical) le ballet la comédie Play Genres ballet comedy . One would normally use "une place" whenever "a seat" is used in English.

ogg .ogg Garou.ogg Juliette Greco.ogg Edith Piaf.ogg Robert Charlebois.ogg Jacques Brel.ogg Raymond Devos.piece l'acte (f) la scène l'entracte (m) act scene intermission la comédie musicale musical comedy le drame la tragédie drama tragedy chanter to sing le (la) chanteur (-euse) singer danser to dance le (la) danseur (-euse) dancer [edit] V: French Artists and Entertainers • • • • • • • • • • Charles Aznavour.ogg Joe Dassin.ogg Celine Dion.ogg Gilbert Becaud.

-éxer Verbs V: Leisure Activities. Y. Desserts G: Prendre. Directions. Écire. Irregular Past Participles (so far) V: Shopping. -cer Verbs. Waking up. School Subjects G: Regular Verbs Review. Passé Composé of Regular Verbs V: School. and review the grammar you have already learned. Dining at a Restaurant G: Dire. Sleep G: Suivre. Mettre V: Meat. Connaître & Savoir. Vivre. Methods of transportation G: Devoir. Bastille Day) G: exer Verbs (Acheter). Passé Composé with Être V: Local Travelling. Holidays. Celebrations (Birthdays. Religions. Vouloir & Pouvoir V: Meals. Croire & Voir V: Life.Slightly More Advanced French Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative. you will learn the passé composé. Drinks. -aître Verbs. and each lesson now gives much more information. 01 Leçon 01 : L'école Lesson 01 : School 02 Leçon 02 : La culture Lesson 02 : Culture Leçon 03 : Faire des courses Lesson 03 : Shopping 04 Leçon 04 : Sortir 03 Lesson 04 : Going Out 05 Leçon 05 : Le transport Lesson 05 : Transportation 06 Leçon 06 : Le quotidien Lesson 06 : Everyday Life 07 Leçon 09 : La vie rurale Lesson 09 : Rural Life 08 Leçon 07 : La nourriture Lesson 07 : Food and Drink 09 Leçon 08 : Dîner Lesson 08 : Dining Leçon 10 : La 10 communication Lesson 10 : Communication G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses. Falloir. Passé Composé with Reflexive Verbs V: Pets. Object Pronoun Review. Farm Animals G: Manger. Partitive Article. Shoes G: Sortir & Partir. En. Computers . Recevoir V: Mail. Inside. -yer Verbs (Payer). Christmas. you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course. -rir Verbs (Ouvrir). Driving to Work. Movies G: -uire Verbs (Conduire). Envoyer. Reflexive Verbs V: Employment. Naître. Servir. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Boire.French Level Two Lessons Toujours Là? . The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced. the most common French past tense. Dairy Products. -enir Verbs (Venir). Clothing. How to Get to Places. Preparing for work. Places to go. Silverware. you can move on to the next level. Lire. Calling Others. After you have completed this level.

• Je l'ai finie. • the direct object is masculine singular .replace -ir with i -re verbs . • the direct object is feminine singular .no change • J'ai fini le jeu.I have finished them.must be memorized [edit] Past Participle Agreement • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. • the direct object is masculine plural .01 • School G: Introduction to Perfect Tenses • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses. .I have finished the task. • J'ai fini les jeux.replace -re with u irregular verbs . . .2.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. • Je les ai finis. [edit] Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs .I have finished it. . .I have finished the games. . . • Je l'ai fini.I have finished it. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé.I have finished.replace -er with é -ir verbs . for example. The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.add an s to the past participle. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative. .I have finished the game. • J'ai fini. [edit] Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être.

In the next lesson. the passé composé is introduced.add an es to the past participle. • The verb is reflexive. .• the direct object is feminine plural . Each tense and lists of irregular verb conjuagtions will be given later in this course. passé composé (past) plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (farthest past indicative) plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (farthest past subjunctive) passé antérieur (farther past) futur antérieur (future past) conditionnel passé (conditional past) passé du subjonctif (subjunctive past) Don't worry if you don't completely understand the perfect tenses. . . the auxillary verb is être. 2. • That is. These are: 1. even if the teacher is female. [edit] V: School General le professeur teacher l'étudiant student (m) l'étudiante student (f) la bourse scholarship la bibliothèque library • The word professeur is considered masculine at all times. [edit] Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. the subject of the verb is also its object. the auxillary verb is avoir. under certain situations. • Je l'ai finies. the auxillary verb becomes avoir. 3.I have finished the tasks. However. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs. 4.I have finished them. The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof". [edit] List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. 6. 5. This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. 7. or when adding a few words before : "madame/mademoiselle la/le professeur". • J'ai fini les tâches.

Pendant During les cours classes le tableau chalkboard la craie chalk le pupitre desk l'examen (m) test les devoirs homework la classe class la cantine cafeteria la récréation recess la récré Des fournitures School scolaires Supllies le stylo(-bille) pen steeloh (bee) le crayon pencil krayoh la calculatrice calculator le livre book le bouquin le cahier notebook kie ay le papier paper la feuille de pahpeeyay sheet of paper papier le bloc-notes (small) notepad block nut le classeur three-ring binder le sac à dos backpack sack ah doe la gomme eraser gum le règle ruler rehgluh le feutre marker Schools l'école (f) school high school le collège (grades 6-9) high school le lycée (grades 10-12) l'université (f) university la fac(ulté) Verbs passer to take a test étudier to study écrire to write lever (la to raise (your hand) main) .

[edit] . and is therefore composed of an auxiliary verb and a past participle.poser to ask (a question) (une question) parler to speak écouter to listen (to) entendre to hear (of) regarder to watch déjeuner to (have) lunch Describing Sctudents intelligent(e) intelligent stupide stupid V: School Subjects French Vocabulary • School • audio (upload) School Subjects • Les matières d'enseignement les langues l'anglais le français l'espagnol l'allemand le russe l'italien les science naturelles la biologie la bio la chimie la physique [edit] languages English French Spanish German Russian Italian natural sciences biology chemistry physics les mathématiques les maths l'algèbre (f) le calcul la géométrie les science sociales l'économie la géographie l'histoire (f) d'autres matières le dessin l'informatique (f) la musique mathematics algebra calculus geometry social sciences economics geography history other subjects drawing computer science literature music la technologie engineering la littérature G: Passé Composé with Regular Verbs The passé composé is a perfect tense. With most verbs. that auxililary verb is avoir.

[edit] Auxiliary Verb . They have played. verbs comjugated in the passé composé literally mean have/has ____ed.replace -re with u Formation of the Past Participle Verb Group Infinitive Stem Past Participle -er verbs jouer jou joué -ir verbs finir fin fini -re verbs répondre répond répondu [edit] Avoir + Past Participle J'ai joué. • For example. Il a joué. j'ai I have nous avons we have tu as you have vous avez you have il a he has ils ont they have [edit] Past Participle • • • -er verbs . I have played Nous avons joué.replace -ir with i -re verbs . is conjugated in the present indicative and the past participle is then added. He has played. literally mean has/have spoken. You have played. the helping verb.Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. [avoir] parlé. [edit] Basic Formation To conjugate a verb in the passé composé. usually avoir. You have played. Ils ont joué. While there is a simple past tense in French. the passé composé form of parler (to speak). .replace -er with é -ir verbs . it is only used in formal writing. but also means spoke. Vous avez joué.Meaning In English. so verbs conjugated in the passé composé can also be used to mean the English simple tense. We have played. Tu as joué.

G: General Verbs Review Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are simply irregular. try and reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture. Je Tu Il -e -es -e parle parle parle parlons parlez parlent -ir Verbs fin. Ending Example -s -s -ez vends vends vend vendons vendez vendent Subject Ending Example Ending Nous -ons Vous -ez Ils [edit] -e -issons finissons -ons finissent -ent Irregular Verbs Ending in -er • aller [edit] Common -ir Verbs [edit] .02 • Culture This lesson is on the culture of France. Also. Verb finis finis finit finissez -is -is -it -issez -issent -re Verbs vend..2. The culture of France is diverse... reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration.... [edit] Formation French Grammar • Culture • audio (upload) Regular Verbs • Les verbes réguliers -er Verbs Stem: parl.

to answer [edit] Irregular Verbs Ending in -re boire | conduire | connaître | croire | dire | écrire | être | faire | lire | mettre | prendre | rire | suivre | vivre [edit] G: Croire & Voir Croire is not a regular -re verb.cru Singular first person je crois jeuh crah I believe you believe he believes she believes il croit eel crah third person elle croit ell craw second person tu crois too crah Plural nous croyons noo croy ohn we believe vous croyez voo croy ay ils croient eel crah you believe they believe (masc.vu Singular first person je vois jeuh vwah I see you see he sees she sees il voit eel vwah elle voit ell vwah second person tu vois too vwah third person Plural nous voyons noo vwahyohn we see vous voyez voo voy ay ils voient eel vwah you see they see (masc.to wait (for) répondre . and is conjugated irregularly.) on croit ohn crah one believes elles croient ell crah Voir is not a regular -ir verb.Irregular Verbs Ending in -ir acquérir | avoir | s'asseoir | devoir | dormir | falloir | ouvrir | partir | pleuvoir | pouvoir | recevoir | savoir | servir | venir | voir | vouloir [edit] Common -re Verbs • • attendre . or mized) they believe (fem. or mized) . and is conjugated irregularly. French Verb • Culture • audio (upload) croire • to believe past participle . French Verb • Culture • audio (upload) voir • to see past participle .

on voit ohn vwah [edit] one sees elles voient ell vwah they see (fem. cake gift to invite [edit] l'anniversaire (f) Tu as quel âge? *J'ai ____ ans.) athiest Le Père noël Santa Clause le 14 juillet Bastille Day [edit] V: Birthday birthday How old are you? I am ____ years old. lit: I have ___ years. Armistice Day Independance Day Christmas Eve le Nouvel An La Fête du Travail l'Armistice la Fête Nationale le Reveillon .) V: Religion la religion Chrétien L'Islam religion Christian Islam le musulman Muslim l'athée (m. le gâteau le cadeau inviter V: Marriage [edit] V: Holidays Les jours fériés New Year's Day Labor Day Memorial Day .

Yule [edit] Noel V: Bastille Day and Parades [edit] V: Islamic Holidays .Christmas .

03 • Shopping V: Shopping French Vocabulary • Shopping • audio (upload) Shopping • Les achats To Go Shopping faire des courses faire du shopping porter acheter payer vendre le magasin le grand magasin le rayon la boutique la pharmacie le marché to go shopping Buying Goods le(la) vendeur(euse) salesperson on sale display window price faire du lèche-vitrine to go window shopping en solde to wear. salami. big supermarket butcher shop 1 bakery 2 a place that sells bread 2 delicatessen 3 dairy store pastry shop seafood store grocery 4 French butchers do not sell pork. For these products.2. 3. to carry to buy to pay to sell General Goods Stores shop. chemist outdoor market le supermarché le hypermarché la boucherie la boulangerie le dépôt de pain la charcuterie la crémerie la pâtisserie la poissonnerie l'épicerie (f) 1. store department store department small store pharmacy. cold meats. go to a charcuterie. 4. 2. In France. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called dépôt de pain. . pork products. la centre commercial mall la vitrine le prix (plis/moins) cher(ère) (more/less) expensive Foods Stores supermarket hypermarket. 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. salads. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). nor horsemeat. bakeries only sell fresh bread. including pâte. quiches and pizzas.

. m' te. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. te. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. [edit] Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. and you respectively. to us. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. He gives bread to him. For example. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: lui to him. t' le. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. or I had them.? or From whom. you. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. Pierre. . in te phrase Je les ai eus. to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • French me. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. l' him. to you.. m' te. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. Il lui donne du pain. it us1 you1 them 1 me. Pierre sees him. Pierre le vois.?.. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. nous.[edit] G: Object Pronouns Review [edit] Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me. les. a tense that uses a past participle. us. Pierre sees the burglar. te. l' nous vous les her. t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me. was referring to a masculine object. and to you respectively. nous..

Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). nous.• • The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. When me. [edit] G: -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed.to bring surmener . or mized) they buy (fem.to carry out emmener . but also are stem changing. [edit] Formation French Verb • Shopping • audio (upload) acheter • to buy past participle .to overwork lever . te.to take along amener .to weigh mener . and vous are used in a perfect tense. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. The bread is given by the man (direct).to raise [edit] .to raise soulever . the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous.acheté Singular first person j' achète jzah shet I buy second person tu achètes too ahshet you buy il achète eel ahshet he buys third person [edit] elle achète ell ahshet she buys Plural nous achetons noozashtohn we buy vous achetez voozahshtay you buy ils achètent eel ahshet they buy (masc.) on achète ohn ahshet one buys elles achètent ell ahshet Other -exer Verbs • • • • • • • peser . The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do.

dress clothes les vêtements sport . it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. However.casual clothes la chemise la cravate le pantalon le complet le manteau le tailleur la robe le jchemisier la jupe [edit] button down shirt tie pants suit coat women's suit dress blouse skirt la casquestte le tee-shirt le polo le pull(over) le sweat-shirt le blouson la veste le jean les chaussettes cap t-shirt polo shirt a sweater sweatshirt jacket jeans socks G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. [edit] Payer The verb payer translates to to pay. or mized) ils paient eel pay or ils payent . [edit] Formation In the present indicative.V: Clothing French Vocabulary • Shopping • audio (upload) Clothing • Habillement les vêtements habillés . payer (and all other -yer verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Shopping • audio (upload) payer • to pay Singular first person je paie jeuh pay I pay you pay he pays she pays il paie eel pay elle paie ell pay second person tu paies too pay third person vous payez Plural nous payons new pay ohn we pay voo pay yay you pay they pay (masc. this affects all forms except nous and vous. when y is part of the last syllable.

to clean tutoyer .to address as tu.été faire .to support employer . À la boulangerie (At the bakery) Bernard (le boulanger) : Bonjour madame Camille (la cliente) : Bonjour monsieur Bernard : Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? .fait voir .) Other -yer Verbs • • • • • • appuyer .eu croire .on paie ohn pay [edit] one pays elles paient ell pay or elles payent they pay (fem.to try essuyer . to call someone informally [edit] V: Shoes )les chaussures shoes la paire de chaussures pair of shoes les baskets basketball shoes les tennis tennis shoes les sandales sandals [edit] G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles. • • • • • avoir .to wipe nettoyer .cru être .to employ essayer .vu [edit] V: Practise Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1.

pour trois kilos il faut payer six euros.ça fait deux euros.A large range "Des cerises" .. Alors... ?" . Est-ce que vous avez des cerises ? Marie : Oui.What would you like? "Je voudrais. We use mostly "Que voulez-vous ?" or "Que désirezvous ?". . monsieur. je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard : Très bien . s'il vous plaît. elles coûtent deux euros le kilo Clément : Bon.They (feminine) cost two euros per kilo "Il faut" . s'il vous plaît Bernard : C'est tout ? Camille : Non. Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez.One must/You need to Remember your verbs .That'll be two euros Remember your verb .I would like . Same for "C'est tout ?".What do you have? "Un grand choix" . "C'est tout ?" . Note of a frenchman : "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" is a little abrupt. . s'il vous plaît Camille : Merci beaucoup Useful vocabulary here: "Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?" .. 2. we use most of the time "Ce sera tout ?" (future tense) or "Et avec ceci ?" (and with this?). je voudrais trois kilos.Camille : Je voudrais acheter une baguette." ..Is that all? "Ça fait deux euros" . s'il vous plaît Marie : Très bien. .acheter (to buy).Some cherries "Elles coûtent deux euros le kilo" . Au marché (At the market) Marie (la marchande) : Bonjour monsieur Clément (le client) : Bonjour madame Clément : Qu'est-ce que vous avez à vendre ? Marie : J'ai un grand choix de fruits et légumes Clément : Très bien.vendre (to sell) and payer (to pay)..

purpose. Similarly. de and les combine into des.04 • Going Out G: À and De The preposition à can indicate a destination. Similarly. a point in time. and several other things which will be covered later. and several other things which will be covered later. a characteristic. [edit] V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs le cinéma la musique le baladeur une sortie un spectacle le théâtre le repos le vacancier la danse allumer/éteindre la télévision le(la) téléspectateur(trice) le sport [edit] cinema music walkman going out a show the theater rest a vacationer dance to turn on/turn off television television viewer sport . measurement. possession. The preposition de can indicate an origin. the à and le combine into au.2. When le follows à. a location. manner. contents. à and les combine into aux. the de and le combine into du. cause. When le follows de.

When it means to come from. or mized) they leave (fem. • Nous venons du stade.parti(e)(s) Singular first person je pars jeuh pahr I leave you leave he leaves she leaves il part eel pahr third person elle part ell pahr on part ohn pahr second person tu pars too par Plural nous partons noo partohn we leave vous partez voo pahrnay you leave ils partent eel part they leave (masc.to distribute [edit] G: -enir verbs • -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated (they does not count as regular -ir verbs). You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. venir is used with the preposition de. **Je viens de finir mes devoirs (I've just finished my homework).to set out again répartir . . • • repartir .) one leaves elles partent ell part French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) sortir • to go out. The verb venir is translated to to come. or mized) they go out (fem. [edit] Venir • • • • The most common -enir verb is venir.sorti(e)(s) Singular first person je sors jeuh sore I go out you go out he goes out she goes out il sort eel sore third person elle sort ell sore second person tu sors too sore Plural nous sortons noo sortohn we go out vous sortez voo sortay ils sortent eel sort you go out they go out (masc.) on sort ohn sore one goes out elles sortent ell sort Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems. to take out past participle .G: Partir & Sortir French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) partir • to leave past participle .

to remember soutenir .suggéré .to support tenir .to keep.venu(e)(s) Singular first person je viens jeuh vee ehn I come you come he comes she comes il vient eel vee ehn third person elle vient ell vee ehn on vient ohn vee ehn [edit] second person tu viens too vee ehn vous venez Plural nous venons noo venn ohn we come voo vennay you come they come (masc. or mized) they come (fem.[edit] Formation In the present indicative.to become appartenir .to hold • • • • • • • [edit] -éxer Verbs -éxer verbs are regular -er verbs. venir (and all other -enir verbs) is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) venir • to come past participle . [edit] Formation French Verb • Going out • audio (upload) suggérer • to suggest past participle . to detain retenir .) ils viennent eel vee ehn one comes elles viennent ell vee ehn Other -enir Verbs • • revenir .to retain se souvenir .to belong contenir . to return devenir . but are also stem changing.to contain détenir .to come back.

to prefer sécher . or mized) they suggest (fem.to hope oblitérer .to celebrate espérer .to obliterate préférer .) you suggest vous suggérez he suggests she suggests one suggests ils suggèrent eel soo zjair third person elle suggère ell soo zjair on suggère [edit] ohn soo zjair elles suggèrent ell soo zjair Other -éxer Verbs • • • • • • accélérer .to dry .Singular first person je suggère second person tu suggères il suggère jeuh soo zjair too soo zjair eel soo zjair I suggest nous suggérons Plural noo soo zjairohn voo soo zjairay we suggest you suggest they suggest (masc.to accelerate célébrer .

to produce [edit] V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close [edit] .2. or mized) they drive (fem.05 • Transportation G: -uire Verbs -uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.) third person elle conduit ell cohndwee she drives one drives on conduit ohn cohndwee [edit] Other -uire Verbs • produire . [edit] Formation French Verb • Transportation • audio (upload) conduire • to drive past participle: conduit Singular first person je conduis second person jeuh cohndwee I drive nous conduisons Plural noo cohndweezohn we drive tu conduis too cohndwee you drive vous conduisez voo cohndweezay you drive il conduit eel cohndwee he drives ils conduisent eel cohndweez elles conduisent ell cohndweez they drive (masc.

To Run • • • • • • • je cours tu cours il court nous courons vous courez ils courent past participle: couru [edit] Mourir .to cover découvrir . [edit] Formation • • • • • • • j'ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvrez ils ouvrent past participle: ouvert [edit] Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form. • • • • couvrir . -rir is replaced with -ert for these verbs. following the -er conjugation scheme. A common -rir verb is ouvrir.to discover offrir .to offer souffrir .To Die • je meurs .to suffer [edit] -rir Verb Exceptions [edit] Courir .G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly.

I came to France. I stayed home. Je suis venu en france. Elle est partie travailler.To Acquire • • • • • • • j'acquiers tu acquiers il acquiert nous acquérons vous acquérez ils acquièrent past participle: acquis [edit] V: Traffic Signs and Laws [edit] G: Passé Composé with Être Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir. . Je suis resté à la maison.• • • • • • tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous mourez ils meurent past participle: mort(e)(s)1 1Mourir is the only -rir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense). The train has arrived. Example I went to the cinema. She left to go to work. however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. [edit] Acquérir . Le train est arrivé. [edit] List of Verbs French Grammar • Transportation • audio (upload) Perfect Past with Être • Passé composé avec être Verb aller venir arriver partir rester Je suis allé au cinéma.

He got out of the train. He came back early from school. I entered my room.retourner Il est retourné au restaurant. . It happened in front of the house. Je suis tombé dans la piscine. I climbed to the top. He returned to the restaurant. Il est mort en 1917. Je suis sorti avec mes amies. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. descendre Il est descendu du train. I went out with my friends. Je suis monté au sommet. The verbs that take être can be easily remebered by the acronym MRS. He died in 1917. RD VANDERTRAMP: M R S R D monté resté sorti revenu devenu V A N D E R T R A M P venu arrivé né descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti [edit] Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object • For Example: • Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai descendu mes baggages. tomber naître mourir passer monter sortir entrer rentre Je suis né en octobre. Il est rentré tôt de l'école. I was born in october. Yet another example but with ils instead of Je: • Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passport" • becomes: • Ils ont sorti leur passport. • • [edit] Subject-Past Participle Agreement The past participles of the above verbs must agree with the the subject of a sentence in gender and plurality. Another example: • Je suis monté with the direct object "mes baggages" • becomes: • J'ai monté mes baggages. Il est passé devant la maison. Je suis entré dans ma chambre. I fell into the pool.

[edit] Idioms • • Ça y est! . If the subject is masculine plural. Nous sommes allé(e)s. • • Les hommes vont en France. . Elles sont allées. [edit] Replacement of Places . .there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used).• • • • If the subject is masculine singular. an -e is added to the past participle.I respond to them.The men go there. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. there is no change in the past participle.It's Done! J'y suis! . Tu es allé(e). Vous êtes allé(e)(s). [edit] V: Trains and Stations Taking the Train [edit] G: The Pronoun Y [edit] Indirect Object Pronoun . an -es is added to the past participle. Il est allé. an -s is added to the past participle.Les hommes y vont. J suis allé(e). The men go to France . I respond to the questions.I get it! [edit] . If the subject is masculine singular. If the subject is feminine singular.to it. Note that lui and leur.J' y réponds. and not y. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. • • Je réponds à les questions. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. Elle est allés. Note that en. . Ils sont allés.

V: Taking a Taxi Taking a Taxi .

and naturally pronominal verbs. nous. or mized) they sleep (fem. reciprocal verbs. These pronouns are me. include pronouns. [edit] Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject.06 • Everyday Life V: Sleep [edit] G: Dormir French Verb • Everyday life • audio (upload) dormir • to sleep past participle: dormi Singular first person je dors jeuh door I sleep you sleep he sleeps she sleeps il dort eel door third person elle dort ell door on dort ohn door [edit] second person tu dors too door Plural nous dormons noo doormohn we sleep vous dormez voo doormay ils dorment eel dorm you sleep they sleep (masc. se. depending on the verb that they modify.) one sleeps elles dorment ell dorm V: Waking up and Getting Yourself Ready [edit] G: Pronominal Verbs Pronominal verbs are verbs that. put simply. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects.2. . te.

Nous nous lavons. Ils se lavent. • • [edit] Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. Je vais ne pas me laver.I'm going to wash myself. or mized) they have to (fem.• • • Je me lave.I'm going to not wash myself. .You remember? [edit] V: Going to Work [edit] V: At Work [edit] G: Devoir French Verb • Everyday life • audio (upload) devoir • to have to. . Tu te souviens? .I was myself.) you have to vous devez voo dehvay ils doivent eel dwahve elles doivent ell dwahve . to owe past participle: dû Singular first person je dois jeuh dwah I have to il doit eel dwah third person elle doit ell dwah on doit ohn dwah he has to she has to one has to second person tu dois too dwah Plural nous devons noo dehvohn we have to you have to they have to (masc. . • Nous nous aimons. people perform actions to each other.We wash ourselves. . . [edit] Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. Je vais me laver.We like each other. .They wash themselves.

owe).it was necessary (imparfait) il faudra . such as "To live. one must conjugate verbs correctly.it will be necessary il faudrait . ." Devoir expresses more personally what someone must do. "I want to pass my French test. so I must study verb conjugations. whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses. one must eat" or "To speak French well. Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular. duty. it's tomorrow".[edit] G: Falloir • • • • • • falloir .to be necessary il faut .it would be necessary The verb falloir differs from similar verbs such as avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] (to need [to do something]) and devoir (must. Falloir expresses general necessities.it is necessary il a fallu . "I need to study for my test.it was necessary (passé composé) il fallait ." Avoir besoin de [faire quelque chose] expresses need.

) one follows elles suivent ell sweeve G: Vivre French Verb • Rural life • audio (upload) vivre • to live past participle: vécu [vaycoo] Singular first person je vis jeuh vee I live you live he lives she lives il vit eel vee third person elle vit ell vee on vit ohn vee [edit] second person tu vis too vee Plural nous vivons noo veevohn we live vous vivez voo veevay ils vivent eel veeve you live they live (masc. or mized) they live (fem.07 • Rural Life G: Suivre French Verb • Rural life • audio (upload) suivre • to follow past participle: suivi Singular first person je suis jeuh swee I follow you follow he follows she follows il suit eel dee third person elle suit ell swee on suit ohn swee [edit] second person tu suis too swee Plural nous suivons noo sweevohn we follow vous suivez voo sweevay ils suivent eel sweeve you follow they follow (masc.) one lives elles vivent ell veeve G: Naître French Verb • Rural life • audio (upload) naître • to be born .2. or mized) they follow (fem.

. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. or mized) they are born (fem. .We liked each other. Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. .We washed our hands. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. Elle s'est lavé les mains.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. [edit] G: Reflexive Verbs with Perfect Tenses When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. [edit] Reciprocal Verbs • • Like reflexive verbs. • • • [edit] .We wash ourselves. . . Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . [edit] Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses.She washed her hands.We spoke to each other. être is used as the auxiliary verb. in gender and plurality.past participle: né(e)(s)1 Singular first person je nais jeuh nay I am born il naît eel nay third person elle naît ell nay on naît ohn nay 1 Plural nous naissons noo nehssohn we are born you are born they are born (masc.She was herself.) second person tu nais too nay you are born vous naissez voo nehssay he is born she is born one is born ils naissent eel nesse elles naissent ell nesse Naître is the only -aître verb that takes être as its helping verb (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in perfect tenses). Elles se sont téléphoné. . Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. Nous nous sommes parlé. .They called to one another. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. but not the indirect object pronoun.

Otherwise. Le chien se couche. the past participle agrees with the subject. the past participle of s'asseoir (to sit). . these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.She remembered. does not change in the masculine plural form.The dog lies down. Note that assis(e)(es). . . Elle s'est souvenue.Naturally Pronominal Verbs • • • In perfect tenses.

to relieve voyager .to require nager .to swim soulager . The most common -ger verb is manger. In this case. This only applies in the nous form.mangé Singular first person second person je mange jeuh mahnge I eat tu manges too mahnge you eat il mange eel mahnge he eats third person elle mange ell mahnge [edit] she eats nous mangeons Plural noo vmahnge ohn we eat you eat they eat (masc.2.) vous mangez voo mahngay ils mangent eel mahnge on mange ohn mahnge one eats elles mangent ell mahnge Other -ger Verbs • • • • • changer . the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included. or mized) they eat (fem. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs.to travel [edit] . [edit] Formation French Verb • Food and drink • audio (upload) manger • to eat past participle . the stem change is adding an e after the g.to change exiger .08 • Food and Drink G: -ger Verbs -ger verbs are regular -er verbs that are also stem changing.

fish anchovies salmon eel Other Foods crescent roll "French fries" crepe mayonnaise mustard bread butter slice of buttered bread pepper rice salt sugar jam les fruits de mer (m pl) .fruits la banane la cerise le citron la fraise l'orange (f) la pomme le raisin banana cherry lemon strawberry orange apple grape la viande .vegetables carrot spinach onion peas potato tomato les produits laitiers .dairy products la tarte (aux pommes) (apple) pie la glace (à la vanille) (vanilla) ice cream [edit] la glace (au chocolat) (chocolate) ice cream le sucre .dessert les anchois (m pl) le saumon l'anguille (f) le croissant les frites la crêpe la mayonnaise la moutarde le pain le beurre la tartine du pain beurré le poivre le riz le sel la confiture le poisson .V: Food French Vocabulary • Food and drink • audio (upload) Food • La nourriture les fruits .meat l'agneau (m) la dinde le jambon le porc le poulet le boeuf la saucisse le beurre le fromage le lait le yaourt/le yoghurt le bonbon le chocolat le gâteau la glace la mousse lamb turkey ham pork chicken beef sausage butter cheese milk yogurt candy chocolate cake ice cream mousse le dessert . seafood La coquille SaintJacques(f) le crabe scallop crab la carotte les épinards l'oignon (m) les petits pois la pomme de terre la tomate les légumes .shellfish.

bu Singular first person je bois jeuh bwah I drink you drink he drinks she drinks il boit eel bwah third person elle boit ell bwah on boit ohn bwah [edit] second person tu bois too bwah Plural nous buvons noo boovohn we drink vous buvez voo boovay ils boivent eel bwahve you drink they drink (masc. Also.G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink. the word some. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -re verb) as follows: French Verb • Food and drink • audio (upload) boire • to drink past participle . as de and les contract into des. As learnt earlier. or mized) they drink (fem. de l' is used in front of vowels. among other things. de and le contract (combine) into du. .) one drinks elles boivent ell bwahve V: Drinks les boissons .drinks la bière beer le café coffee le chocolat chaud hot chocolate le coca soda la limonade lemon soda le citron pressé lemonade l'eau (f) water le jus juice le jus d'orange orange juice le jus de pomme apple juice le jus de raisin grape juice le jus de tomate tomato juice le thé tea le vin wine [edit] G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates. instead of du or de la.

we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. I like ice cream. de la or des when there is nothing after it. As one has learnt in a previous lesson. j'en prends.. or des change to de in negative constructions. specific/whole items I ate the (whole) pie. As well. This is because what en does is replace du. un or une changes to de (meaning. For more detailed information. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. see French Pronouns Do you play piano? No. art. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte. art. . Def. Are you having fish? Yes.. When speaking about preferences. I ate some pie. Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article (le. if the idea of money has already been raised. J'ai mangé la tarte. Nous préférons le steak. Similarly. we use the pronoun 'en'. Like with 'me'. I ate a pie. Did you order some water? Yes. we ordered some. du. Nous avons mangé une tarte. nous en avons commandé. certain rules apply. de la. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. les) is used at other times. Tu joue du piano? Non. and the indefinite article (un. use the definite article: J'aime la glace. Nous n'avons pas mangé de tarte.When speaking about food. any) in a negative construction. Nous avons mangé de la tarte. We ate a pie. known quantity unknown quantity J'ai mangé une tarte. art. J'ai mangé de la tarte. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. We did not eat some pie/ We did not eat any pie. For instance. 'te' and other pronouns. We ate some pie. In the negative construction. We prefer steak. la. 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. I don't play it. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf?"(what's new?) encountered in the very first lesson was constructed. une) in yet another set of situations. We did not eat a pie/ We did not eat any pie. I'm having some. Ind. When speaking about eating or drinking an item. in this context. there are specific situations for the use of each article. Part. "Quoi de plus beau?!" (what is there prettier?) [edit] G: En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases.

to put money aside mettre fin à .to get in shape . to place permettre . to turn on.to put on.to set the table se mettre à table .to put an end to mettre la main à la pâte .[edit] G: Mettre [edit] Formation French Verb • Food and drink • audio (upload) mettre • to put past participle .to put back remettre en place .to sit down to eat se mettre d'accord .to bring to light mettre de l'argent de coté .to get back on the road [edit] Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • mettre au jour .to allow remettre .) one puts elles mettent ell met Related Words • • • • • • • mettre .to start the car mettre le couvert .to recover from an illness se remettre en route .to submit se remettre . or mized) they put (fem.mis Singular first person je mets jeuh may I put you put he puts she puts il met eel may third person elle met ell may on met ohn may [edit] second person tu mets too may Plural nous mettons noo mettohn we put vous mettez voo mettay ils mettent eel met you put they put (masc.to set back into place soumettre .to pitch in mettre le contact .to agree se mettre en forme .

In France. French butchers do not sell pork. go to a charcuterie.09 • Dining V: General Dining French Vocabulary • Dining • audio (upload) Dining • Diner Places la cuisine le restaurant le repas le déjeuner le dîner le goûter la boucherie la boulangerie la charcuterie l'épicerie (f) la crémerie la poissonnerie le marché kitchen restaurant Meals the meal lunch dinner snack Food Stores butcher shop 1 bakery 2 delicatessen 3 grocery 4 dairy store seafood store outdoor market le gramme Quantity gram liter bottle 5 can pack 6 packet pot le kilo(gramme) kilogran la bouteille la boîte la livre le pacquet le pot le petit-déjeuner breakfast la salle à manger dining room Actions and Feelings avoir faim avoir soif manger boire prendre vouloir to be hungry to be thirsty to eat to drink to take to want mettre le couvert to set the table préparer un repas to prepare a meal le dépôt de pain a place that sells bread 2 le litre la pâtisserie pastry shop Canadian and Belgian French has an off-by-one behaviour with meals : breakfast is called déjeuner. 2. pork products. nor horsemeat. bakeries only sell fresh bread. 1.2. lunch is called dîner and dinner is souper. For these products. Places where they sell bread that is not fresh are called .

G: Vouloir & Pouvoir The verb vouloir is translated to to want. 4. salami. It is irregularly conjugated (it does not count as a regular -ir verb) as follows: French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) vouloir • to want past participle .3.) on veut ohn veuh one wants elles veulent ell veuhl Pouvoir is conjugated in a similar manner: French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) pouvoir • to be able to past participle . 5. salads.voulu Singular first person je veux jeuh veuh I want you want he wants she wants il veut eel veuh third person elle veut ell veuh second person tu veux too veuh Plural nous voulons noo voolohn we want vous voulez voo voolay ils veulent eel veuhl you want they want (masc.pu Singular first person je peux second person jeuh peuh I can/am able to you can/are able to nous pouvons Plural noo poovohn we can/are able to tu peux too peuh vous pouvez voo poovay you can/are able to ils peuvent eel peuhve they can/are able to (masc. cold meats.) il peut eel peuh he can/is able to she can/is able elle peut ell peuh third person to on peut ohn peuh [edit] one can/is able elles peuvent ell peuhve to . 'Charcuteries' sell things besides pork products. 6. or mized) they want (fem. quiches and pizzas. or mized) they can/are able to (fem. -eille is pronounced ay Do not confuse with le livre (book). including pâte. An alternative to an 'épicerie' is an alimentation générale (a general foodstore). [edit] dépôt de pain.

G: Servir French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) servir • to serve past participle: servi Singular first person je sers jeuh sair I serve you serve he serves she serves il sert eel sair third person elle sert ell sair on sert ohn sair [edit] second person tu sers too sair Plural nous servons noo sairvohn we serve vous servez voo sairvay ils servent eel sairve you serve they serve (masc. or mized) they serve (fem.) one serves elles servent ell sairve G: Prendre Prendre is not a regular -re verb.V: Dining at a Restaurant arriver la table occupée la table libre trouver commander déjeuner dîner désirer le serveur la serveuse la carte l'addition le bourboire laisser je voudrais... [edit] to arrive an occupied table a free table to find to order to eat lunch to dine to eat dinner to desire waiter waitresse menu check tip to leave I would like. [edit] . and is conjuagted differntly..

) on prend ohn prahnn one takes elles prennent ell prehn Related Words • • • • prendre .to take part (in) prendre la parole .to gain weight prendre part (à) .to eat breakfast prendre rendez-vous . but are also stem changing.to change trains prendre une décision .to take apprendre . to have something to eat prendre conscience (de) .to start talking prendre le pas sur .to become aware (of) prendre la correspondance . .to surpass prendre le petit déjeuner .to make an appontment [edit] V: Ordering [edit] G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are ragular -er verbs. The most common -cer verb is commencer.to make a decision prendre des kilos .to take.to learn comprendre . or mized) they take (fem.to mistake [edit] Idioms and Related Expressions • • • • • • • • • • prendre .to comprehend/understand méprendre .Formation French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) prendre • to take Singular first person je prends jeuh prahn I take you take il prend eel prahnn he takes third person elle prend ell prahnn she takes [edit] second person tu prends too prahn Plural nous prennons noo prenn ohn we take vous prenez voo prennay ils prennent eel prehn you take they take (masc.

Etc.) Other -cer Verbs • effacer . or mized) elles commencent ell coe mahnce they begin (fem. le couvert le bol le couteau la cuillère la serviette la nappe la tasse le verre cover bowl knife spoon napkin tablecloth cup glass l'assiette (f) plate la soucoupe saucer la fourchette fork .[edit] Formation French Verb • Dining • audio (upload) commencer • to begin past participle .to erase [edit] V: Silverware.commencé Singular first person je commence second person tu commences il commence third person elle commence on commence [edit] jeuh coe mahnce too coe mahnce eel coe mahnce ell coe mahnce ohn coe mahnce I begin you begin he begins she begins one begins nous commençons vous commencez Plural noo coe mahnsohn voo coe mahnsay we begin you begin they begin ils commencent eel coe mahnce (masc.

Savoir is used to say that you know .to know disparaître .) third person elle connaît ell cohnay she knows one knows on connaît ohn cohnay [edit] Other -aître verbs • • • • apparaître .10 • Communication G: -aître Verbs [edit] Formation French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) connaître • to know (personally) past participle: connu Singular first person je connais second person jeuh cohnay I know nous connaissons Plural noo cohnehssohn we know tu connais too cohnay you know vous connaissez voo cohnehssay you know il connaît eel cohnay he knows ils connaissent eel cohnesse elles connaissent ell cohnesse they know (masc.to appear connaître .to be born1 has an irregular past participle (né) and takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses. 1Naître [edit] G: Connaître & Savoir Connaître is used to say that you know someone personally. or mized) they know (fem.2.to disappear naître .

For example. as you may have noticed..) on appelle ohn ahhpell one calls elles appellent ell ahhpell G: Dire French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) . or mized) they call (fem.someone by reputation or that you know a fact or piece of information.. I'm calling Jacques. Appeler is a regular -er verb. but in English you would say My name is. or mized) they know (fem.. it is conjuagted as follows: French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) appeler • to call past participle: appelé Singular first person j' appelle jahhpell I call second person tu appelles too ahhpell you call il appelle eel ahhpell he calls third person elle appelle ell ahhpell she calls [edit] Plural nous appelons newzahh pell ohn we call vous appelez voozahh pellay ils appellent eel ahhpell you call they call (masc. so the verb is used with indirect. but. In the present indicative.. you call to someone. Je m'appelle. French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) savoir • to know (as a fact) past participle: su Singular first person je sais jeuh say I know you know he knows she knows il sait eel say third person elle sait ell say on sait ohn say [edit] second person tu sais too say Plural nous savons noo sahvohn we know vous savez voo sahvay ils savent eel sahve you know they know (masc.. and not direct. would be Je téléphone à Jacques. In French. objects.) one knows elles savent ell sahve V: Calling Others The verb téléphoner is used to say that you are calling (to) someone. is also stem changing. [edit] G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. literally means I call myself..

or mized) they write (fem.) on écrit ohn aycree one writes elles écrivent ell aycreeve French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) lire • to read past participle: lu Singular first person je lis jeuh lee I read you read she reads il lit eel dee he reads third person elle lit ell lee [edit] second person tu lis too lee Plural nous lisons noo leezohn we read vous lisez voo leezay ils lisent eel leez you read they read (masc. or mized) they read (fem.) on lit ohn dee one reads elles lisent ell leez . or mized) they say (fem.dire • to say past participle: dit Singular first person je dis jeuh dee I say you say he says she says il dit eel dee third person elle dit ell dee on dit ohn dee [edit] second person tu dis too dee Plural nous disons noo deezohn we say vous dites voo deet ils disent eel deez you say they say (masc.) one says elles disent ell deez V: Mail [edit] G: Écire & Lire French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) écrire • to write past participle: écrit Singular first person j' écris jay cree I write second person tu écris too aycree you write il écrit eel aycree he writes third person elle écrit ell aycree she writes Plural nous écrivons newzay creevohn we write vous écrivez voozay creevay ils écrivent eel aycreeve you write they write (masc.

or mized) they receive (fem.) elle she ell aycree envoie sends on ohn envoie ahnvwah one sends French Verb • Communication • audio (upload) recevoir • to receive past participle: reçu Singular first person je reçois second person jeuh rehswah I receive nous recevons Plural newzay rehsevohn we receive you receive they receive (masc. or mized) they send (fem.G: Envoyer & Recevoir French Verb • Communication • 7 (• kb • help) envoyer • to send past participle: envoyé Singular first person second person j' envoie jahnvwah tu too envoies ahnvwah il envoie eel aycree third person I send you send he sends Plural nous newzahnvwahyohn we send envoyons vous voozahnvwahyay envoyons ils envoient eelzahnvwah elles ellzahnvwah envoient you send they send (masc.) tu reçois too rehswah you receive vous recevez voo resehvay il reçoit eel rehswah he receives ils reçoivent eel rehswahve elles reçoivent ell rehswahve third person elle reçoit ell rehswah she receives on reçoit ohn rehswah one receives [edit] V: Computers & the Internet .

01 Leçon 01 : Les Vacances G: Geography Prepositions. PostLesson 08 : Revolution! Napoleon France. Relative Pronouns (Qui. and there will now be more vocabulary sections in each lesson. After you have completed this level. Blue-collar. Service. This is a much more rigorous presentation of the French language. the Dentist. Leçon 09 : La France G: Past Conditional. Pronouns with Commands Lesson 04 : Money V: Forms of Money. Perfect Tenses Introduction. Simple Future of Regular Verbs Lesson 01 : Vacations V: General Travelling. Going to a Bank 05 Leçon 05 : Jeunesse G: Imparfait. White-collar. Napoleonic Era. The Rennaissance. International Travelling. Part-Time Jobs Leçon 07 : L'histoire 07 G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs. Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review (Futur Proche. Mass Media. Stem Changing Verbs Review V: Children's Games and Toys. Handling Money. such as Jean de La Fontaine's Fables. Interrogative Pronouns Antique V: Farming and Peasant Life. Lesson 07 : Ancient The Reformation History 08 Leçon 08 : Révolution! G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs. Industrial Rev. go to the lessons planning page. Democracy. Possesive Pronouns. Passé Composé. The King. Nationalities 02 Leçon 02 : Le travail G: Irregular Past Participles Review. Present Conditional. Commands V: Visiting the Doctor. Songs. Pronominal Verbs Review. Faire Causitif) V: Companies.. But we didn't decide to stop there! This level will include longer lectures about a lesson's subject and will introduce you to real French literary works and news articles. Comparative & Superlative. Also remember that if you would like to help develop this course. Government. Medecine.Intermediate French After having completed the second level of the Wikibooks French language course. Payment. you can graduate to the third level. and Lesson 05 : Life as a Stories Child 06 Leçon 06 : L'adolescence G: Imparfait vs. Emergencies. French Rev. Healthcare Lesson 03 : Health 04 Leçon 04 : L'argent G: Personal Pronouns Review. 20th Century Advancements and Changes. Modern Lesson 09 : Modern War France . Dont) V: Enlightenment. Several verb tenses will be introduced in this level. Noble Life. French Children's Poems. Adverbs. Plus-QueParfait Lesson 06 : Adolescence V: Pop Culture. Asking Questions 09 moderne Review V: The 20th Century. Que. you can move on to the next level. The Lesson 02 : Work Office. Office Supplies 03 Leçon 03 : La santé G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs.French Level Three Lessons Formidable! .

. Government.10 Leçon 10 : L'actualité Lesson 10 : Current Events G: Future Perfect. Demonstrative Pronouns. European Union. Politics . Stating If. V: News. France's Role in Global Politics. Social Problems..

3. airplane les bagages baggage le billet ticket (for train.01 • Vacations V: General Traveling Audio: Ogg French native speaker (Kb) General il y a there is.. métro) le train train la valise suitcase la voiture car Audio : French native speaker Visiting Other Cities 1a Tu es d'où? (informal) Where are you from? D'où êtes-vous? 1b (formal) 1c Je suis de..) airport l’autobus (m.) bus l’avion (m. [edit] V: Geography Audio : French native speaker Geography the world le monde Political Geography a city une ville . airplane) le métro subway. there are l’aéroport (m.) aircraft. underground la poste post office le taxi taxi le ticket ticket (for bus.. (d') I am from..

. at. [edit] Feminine Regions. cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine. • le Havre . • . . .I'm going to Paris de is used to say from. . to • Je vais à Paris.Je reviens de la NouvelleOrléans.I go to France. . that ends in -e is feminine. • le Caire . . en is used to say in.Je vais au Havre. Countries.I return from Paris.Je vais au Caire.Je reviens du Havre.Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans.a village un village a country un pays a state un état Natural Geography river le fleuve mountain la montagne lake le lac ocean l'océan (m) Cardinal Directions north le nord south le sud east l'est west l'ouest [edit] G: Geography Prepositions [edit] Cities French native speaker • • • à is used to say in. at. to for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je vais en France. • Je reviens de Paris. Every continent is feminine. with one or two exceptions. • la Nouvelle-Orléans .Je reviens du Caire. and Continents • • • Most geographical areas are feminine Every French geographical area.

Je reviens du Texas. a contraction of de + le. . • Je vais en Espagne. . .Je reviens d' Espagne [edit] Masculine Regions • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline dans le is used to say in.I'm going to Portugal. • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je reviens du Portugal. .I return from Portugal. to for most masculine regions. du. is used to say from for most regions. Audio : French native speaker • • • [edit] Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant • • all countries that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline le Cambodge and le Mexique are masculine au is used to say in. . to.• • de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities • Je reviens de France. a contraction of de + les. and states • Je vais dans le Limousin.Je reviens du Québec. at. and states • Je reviens du Limousin.I'm going to the United States. . If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state. de is contracted to d' when followed by a vowel. au is used instead of dans le • Je vais au Québec. provinces. is used to say in. at. .I return from Limousin. (pronounced aytahzoohnee) des. to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant • Je vais au Portugal. .I'm going to Limousin. is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je reviens des Êtats-Unis. [edit] . . • Je vais au Texas. as if a plural article is part of the name of a country • Je vais aux Êtats-Unis.I return from France. • [edit] Plural Countries Audio : French native speaker • • aux.I return from the United States. . a contraction of à + les. provinces.

to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je vais en Israël.. . at. . (body) system to take off take-off flight (also theft) pilot les bagages (f pl) les bagages à main la livraison des bagages enregistrer (ses bagages) Baggage baggage carry-on bagage baggage claim to check in (one's baggage) The Terminal terminal a(n airline) company (plane/one-way/round trip) décoller ticket le décollage coach first class to go through customs le vol le pilote .Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel • • en is used to say in. [edit] Check For Understanding • • • • Are all French countries ending in e feminine? What geographical areas use the preposition dans le? What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use? What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? . machine. d' is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel • Je reviens d' Israël..the province of Quebec? [edit] V: Airports and Airplanes French Vocabulary • Vacations • audio: One • Two (• 258 + 205 kb • help) Airports and Airplanes • Les aéroports et les avions The Airport l'aéroport le passeport un chariot les arrivées les départs arriver (en avance/en retard) l'aérogare la compagnie (aérienne) le billet (d'avion/simple/allerretour) la classe tourisme la première classe passer à la douane airport (pronounced ahehrohpor) passport a (shopping/baggage) cart arrivals departures to arrive (early/late) The Airplane l'avion (m) l'appareil (m) plane plane.I'm going to Israel.I return from Israel.

Caen Bourgogne .le contrôleur le contrôle de sécurité la porte embarquer [edit] security officer security check gate (also door) to board l'hôtesse (de l'air) (f) flight attendant le passager atterir l'atterrissage (f) passenger to land landing V: Places Audio : French native speaker French Regions Île-de-France .Dijon Bretagne .Rennes Continents l'Afrique (f) l'Amérique du nord (f) l'Amérique du sud (f) l'Antarctique (f) l'Asie (f) l'Australie (f) l'Europe (f) Oceans l'Océan atlantique (m) l'Océan glacial arctique (m) l'Océan indien (m) l'Océan pacifique (m) Audio : French native speaker Audio : French native speaker la France * Paris la Belgique * Bruxelles le Portugal * Lisbonne European Countries France * Paris Belgium * Bruxelles Portugal * Lisbon .Paris Basse-Normandie .

l'Espagne * Madrid l'Italie * Rome la Grande-Bretagne * Londres l'Irlande * Dublin le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg * Luxembourg les Pays-Bas * Amsterdam l'Allemagne * Berlin l'Autriche * Vienne la Suisse * berne La principauté de Monaco * Monaco la Pologne * Varsovie la République Tchèque * Prague la Slovaquie * Bratislava la Hongrie * Budapest la Roumanie * Bucarest la Grèce * Athènes La principauté d'Andorre * Andorre-la-Vieille la Moldavie * Chisinau la Biélorussie * Minsk la Lituanie * Vilnius la Lettonie * Riga l'Estonie Spain * Madrid Italy * Rome Great Britain * London Ireland * Dublin Luxemburg * Luxemburg Netherlands * Amsterdam Germany * Berlin Austria * Vienna Switzerland * Bern Monaco * Moncao Poland * Warsaw Czech Republic * Slovakia * Hungary * Romania * Greece * Athens Andorra * Moldavia * Belarus * Lithuania * Latvia * Estonia .

* Tallinn * la Finlande Finland * Helsinki * Helsinki la Suède Sweden * Stockholm * Stockholm la Norvège Norway * Oslo * Oslo la Russie Russia * Moscou * Moscow l'Ukraine Ukraine * Kiev * Kiev • Nations of the World • More audio pronunciation: here. I have no idea where these are. </ignorant American> [edit] V: Nationalities Here is a list of nationalities: Audio: Ogg (300Kb) Audio: French native speaker Audio: French native speaker Audio: French native speaker Masculine allemand américain anglais australien belge birman cambodgien canadien chinois coréen espagnol français indien indonésien italien japonais malaisien mauricien néerlandais Feminine allemande américaine anglaise australienne belge birmane cambodgienne canadienne chinoise coréenne espagnole française indienne indonésienne italienne japonaise malaisienne mauricienne néerlandaise English German American English Australian Belgian Burmese Cambodian Canadian Chinese Korean Spanish French Indian Indonesian Italian Japanese Malaysian Mauritian Dutch .

The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in. If you are referring to a person. The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle. un tapis arabe.+ [edit] G: Perfect Tenses You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. This time. the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative.replace -er with é -ir verbs .replace -ir with i -re verbs . le chinois. If the nationality is used as an adjective. Review the grammar behind them. • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé. • J'ai fini. make sure you know all the rules.I have finished. the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. for example. as in an Arab person or a Chinese person. • • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.must be memorized [edit] . un livre chinois. [edit] Auxillary Verb Formation • • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être. However. [edit] Past Participle Formation • • • • -er verbs . if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language.philippin philippine Filipino portugais portugaise Portuguese singapourien singapourienne Singaporean suédois suédoise Swedish suisse suisse Swiss thaïlandais thaïlandaise Thai vénézuélien vénézuéliene Venezuelan vietnamien vietnamienne Vietnamese Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. the French would not capitalize: l'arabe. it is normally left uncapitalized.replace -re with u irregular verbs . .

[edit] passé composé (past) plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (farthest past indicative) plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (farthest past subjunctive) passé antérieur (farther past) futur antérieur (future past) conditionnel passé (conditional past) passé du subjonctif (subjunctive past) . • Je l'ai finie.I have finished them. [edit] List of Tenses There are seven perfect tenses in French. • the direct object is feminine plural . 2. . [edit] Avoir ou Être? • • • In most circumstances. • That is. 3. • the direct object is masculine singular . the subject of the verb is also its object. . This occurs when: • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être. 5. . . the auxillary verb is être. • the direct object is masculine plural . • J'ai fini les jeux. under certain situations. • J'ai fini les tâches. 4. . • Je les ai finies. • the direct object is feminine singular .Past Participle Agreement Audio: French native speaker • The past pasticiple must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb. • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs.I have finished the tasks.add an e to the past participle • J'ai fini la tâche. 6. the auxillary verb becomes avoir.I have finished it. These are: 1. the auxillary verb is avoir. • Je l'ai fini. However. • The verb is reflexive. 7.no change • J'ai fini le jeu.I have finished the games.I have finished them.I have finished the task.I have finished the game. .add an es to the past participle. . .I have finished it.add an s to the past participle. • Je les ai finis.

e. the futur simple the futur composé. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l'autoroute. or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit To conjugate a verb in the futur simple. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud. Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d'Azur.G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs There are three versions of the futur tense in French. one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez. and the futur antérieur(future perfect). elle va réussir (she will pass. nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d'attractions. L'après-midi. The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive.g. Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer. as according to the table: Audio: French native speaker Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ai réussirai Tu -as réussiras Il / Elle / On -a réussira Nous -ons réussirons Vous -ez réussirez Ils / Elles -ont réussiront [edit] Subject Les vacances Audio: French native speaker Cet été. Vivement les vacances ! .

3.02 • Work

G: Irregular Past Participles Review
Audio : french native speaker Audio : french native speaker
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

avoir - eu (to have) boire - bu (to drink) conduire - conduit (to drive) (and all other -uire verbs) connaître - connu (to know (personally)) courir - couru (to run) croire - cru (to believe) dire - dit (to say) devoir - dû (to have to, to owe) être - été (to be) faire - fait (to do, to make) falloir - fallu (to be necessary) lire - lu (to read) mettre - mis (to put (on)) (and all words adding prefixes to mettre) ouvrir - ouvert (to open) (and most other -rir verbs) pouvoir - pu (to be able to) pleuvoir - plu (to rain) prendre - pris (to take) recevoir - reçu (to receive) rire - ri (to laugh) savoir - su (to know (as a fact)) sourire - souri (to smile) suivre - suivi (to follow) vivre - vécu (to live) voir - vu (to see) vouloir - voulu (to want)

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G: Conjugated Verb + Infinitive Review
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Formation
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Aimer
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Vouloir
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Pouvoir
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Faire Causitif
Audio : french native speaker The faire causitif is formed by conjugating faire and adding an infinitive.

Je le fais fixer. - I have it fixed.

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Futur Proche
The future proche tense is formed by conjugating aller in the present indicative and adding an infinitive

Je vais aller. - I'm going to go.

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Pronouns
Pronouns come before the verb they modify, which is not necessarily the first verb in a sentence

Je vais le voir. - I'm going to see it.

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Negation
Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated, each meaning slightly different things.
• •

Je n'aime pas marcher. - I don't like to run. J'aime ne pas marcher. - I like to not run.

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V: Private Employment
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V: Government Occupations
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V: The Office
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V: Office Supplies
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Le chomage
Audio : french native speaker Avant j'avais un travail : je travaillais dans une banque. Mais la banque a fermé et je me suis retrouvé au chomage. Je n'ai plus de travail et j'en cherche tous les jours. Je lis les petites annonces et j'envoie des lettres de candidature. Je n'ai pas souvent une réponse. Mais aujourd'hui, j'ai obtenu un entretien d'embauche. Avec un peu de chance, j'obtiendrais le travail...

3.03 • Health

V: Illness
Audio : Native French Speaker French Vocabulary • Health • audio (upload) Illness • La maladie To ache avoir mal à... avoir mal à la tête to have a ...ache, to hurt avoir mal au ventre to have a headache avoir mal partout to have a bellyache to ache all over Actions éternuer s'évanouir saigner tousser vomir to sneeze to faint to bleed to cough to throw up

avoir mal â l'oreille to have an earache avoir mal aux dents to have a toothache Sickness and Pain être malade avoir la grippe avoir de la fièvre être enrhumé [edit] to be sick to have the flu to have a fever to have a cold

avoir des maux de cœur to feel sick, nauseaus

G: Simple Future of Irregular Verbs
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G: Issuing Commands in French - l'impératif
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The nous form commands are used to say "Let's...". The subject is not used when giving a command.

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Formation
Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table. French Grammar • Health • audio (upload)

as in English.The Imperative • L'impératif -er Verbs Subject Ending Tu -e Nous -ons Vous -ez [edit] Verb Parle! Parlez! -is -issez -ir Verbs Ending Verb Finis! Finissez! -s -ez -re Verbs Ending Verb Vends! Vendons! Vendez! Parlons! -issons Finissons! -ons Affirmative [edit] Negative [edit] G: Adverbs French adverbs. like their English counterparts. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. [edit] Formation In French. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. other adverbs. As in English. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. nor any characteristics of what they modify. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. For example. In most cases. They do not display any inflection. similarly. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. that is. so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") . however. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: Audio : Native French Speaker • • • If the adjective ends in an i.

Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. plus ("not any more"). and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. such as pas ("not"). Je tousse. Audio : Native French Speaker An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. as in English. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). (I cough) . J'ai mal à la tête. (I am fevrish) J'ai mal au ventre. unlike in English. (I am ill). Je vomis. or before the clause: • Note that. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • [edit] Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. (I have a headache). this is true even of negative adverbs: • [edit] V: Visiting the Doctor Audio : Native French Speaker Le patient : • • • • • • Je suis malade. J'ai de la fièvre. not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And.

C'est grave ! Je vais aux urgences. [edit] V: Visiting the Dentist Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • J'ai mal aux dents. Il faut vous opérer. Ahhhhhhhhhh ! [edit] V: Healthcare [edit] V: Emergencies Audio : Native French Speaker • • • • • • Je vais à l'hôpital. il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112. J'ai eu un accident de voiture. Je vais vous prescrire un médicament. midi et soir Il faut passer un "scanner" Il faut passer des radios. Je vais utiliser la roulette. Vous avez une carie. Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin. Je dois procéder à une extraction. SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d'Urgence En cas d'accident grave. [edit] V: Medecine [edit] . (Il va enlever la dent) J'ai un appareil dentaire.Le docteur • • • • • • • Comment allez-vous ? Prenez de l'aspirine.

V: Body parts Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts : Audio : Native French Speaker Audio : Native French Speaker French English La tête Head Le corps Body Le bras Arm La jambe Leg La poitrine Chest Le ventre Belly L'épaule (f) Shoulder >Le coude Elbow Le poignet Wrist La main Hand Le doigt Finger Le genou Knee Le pied Foot L'orteil (m) Toe L'oeil (m) Eye (pl. les yeux) La bouche Mouth La dent Tooth Le nez Nose L'oreille (f) Ear Le cou Neck La langue Tongue Les cheveux Hair L'ongle (m) Nail Le poumon Lung L'estomac (m) Stomach Le coeur Heart Le foie Liver L'instestin (m) Intestine L'os (m) Bone Le crâne Skull Le muscle Muscle Le cerveau Brain La rate Spleen L'utérus Womb .

belly button V: Body position And here is the vocabulary for body positions : French Debout Assis Couché À genoux Accroupi [edit] English Standing Seating Laying down Kneeling Squatted V: Common sentencies When you 'catch a cold' you 'attrapes un rhume'. Example: J'ai mal à la tete. . tu es malade. you say "J'ai mal à [body part] .Visual Memorization • Point to different parts of the body and recite its name in French par cœur.. (I have a headache).Body Parts .Le nombril [edit] Navel."..03 1 . When you're sick. When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore. [edit] E: 3. J'ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt).

A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre vois le cambrioleur..?..04 • Money G: Personal Pronouns Review French personal pronouns [edit] Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action (the verb). The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.3. English me1 you1 it Notes: • • • • la. nous. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me. it us1 you1 them 1 me. the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. te.. was referring to a masculine object. the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object. [edit] Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom. les. It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: Il donne du pain à The man gives some bread to Pierre.. to you. and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. a tense that uses a past participle. and to you respectively. l' him. Il lui donne du pain. or I had them. Pierre sees the burglar. to us. Pierre. and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me. t' le. For example. m' te. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.? or From whom. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: . Pierre sees him. l' nous vous les her. in te phrase Je les ai eus. Pierre le vois. He gives bread to him.

[edit] Replacement of Places . [edit] Idioms • • Ça y est! . t' nous vous leur to us1 to you1 to them 1 me.I get it! [edit] . Note that lui and leur. te. • • Les hommes vont en France. [edit] The Pronoun Y [edit] Indirect Object Pronoun .I respond to them. te.lui to him. m' te. Pierre gets the given apple (indirect). to English to me1 to you1 her Notes: • • • • French me. When me. and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me.It's Done! J'y suis! . The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject.to it.J' y réponds. and vous are used in a perfect tense. and you respectively. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. nous. The men go to France . . you. the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns.there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). and not y. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. . Note that en. . and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de.The men go there.Les hommes y vont. I respond to the questions. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. The bread is given by the man (direct). us. • • Je réponds à les questions. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à. nous. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.

Give it to me. en (meaning 'some') comes before the verb.Find it. one takes the infinitive and appends the same endings as when using the imparfait. Me and Te become moi and toi. 'te' and other pronouns. As well. instead of saying J'ai besoin de l'argent. j'en prends. I don't play it. if the idea of money has already been raised. I'm having some. . nous en avons commandé. la. [edit] Do you play piano? No. Are you having fish? Yes. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. we use the pronoun 'en'. de la or des when there is nothing after it.En Note how we say Je veux du pain to say 'I want some bread' ? But what happens when we want to say 'I want some' without specifying what we want? In these cases. we ordered some. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen. we can just say 'J'en ai besoin'. and les precede all other object pronouns. . Tu joue du piano? Non. . • Donnez-le-moi.Give me the videos. For instance. • Retrouve-la. Did you order some water? Yes. G: Commands with Pronouns . Le. as according to the table: Add Ending Conjugated Verb Je -ais réussirais Tu -ais réussirais Il / Elle / On -ait réussirait Nous -ions réussirions Vous -iez réussiriez Ils / Elles -aient réussiraient [edit] Subject . 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. Vous avez commandé de l'eau? Oui. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. This is because what en does is replace du. je n'en joue pas Vous prenez du poisson? Oui. Like with 'me'. [edit] G: Present Conditional To conjugate a verb in the Conditional.L'impératif When expressing positive commands.

investing.V: Forms of Payment [edit] V: Economics [edit] V: Handling Money saving. etc [edit] V: Going to a Bank .

In French. The imperfect ending are added to ét___.Imparfait The imparfait is used to "set the tone" of a past situation.to play singular plural first person je joue nous jouons second person tu joues vous jouez third person il joue ils jouent • Remove the -ons ending to find the stem. the above example would be: "Nous chantions quand papa est rentré. Audio1 Audio2 . Every other verb uses the nous form of the present indicative as its root. and add these endings: French Grammar • Youth • audio (upload) The Imperfect • L'imparfait subject ending je tu il/elle/on nous vous -ais -ais -ait -iez jouer finir attendre (nous jouons) (nous finissons) (nous attendons) jouais jouais jouait jouiez finissais finissais finissait finissions finissiez attendais attendais attendait attendions attendiez -ions jouions ils/elles -aient jouaient finissaient attendaient • Note: The only verb that has an irregular stem (one not derived from the nous form of the present idicative) is être.3." In order to conjugate the imperfect.05 • Youth G: Imperfect ." It tells what was going on when a particular action or event occured. [edit] G: Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets. • take the 1st person plural of the verb you want to conjugate: jouer . An example in English being: "We were singing when Dad came home.

Yes. • • Elle est ta voiture? .Yes. the accent aigu above the e ( é ) changes to an accent grave ( è ). [edit] G: Stem Changing Verbs Review [edit] -exer Verbs -exer are regular -er verbs. The stem change involves adding a grave accent ( ` ) over the e in the stem. nous avons la nôtre. les vôtres yours les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence.French Grammar • Youth • audio (upload) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien mine le tien yours le sien his/hers le nôtre ours le vôtre yours le leur theirs mes copains tes copains ses copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miens mine ma copine my friend la mienne mine les tiens yours les siens his/hers les nôtres ours les vôtres yours les leurs theirs ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le tienne yours le sienne his/hers la nôtre ours la vôtre yours la leur theirs mes copines tes copines ses copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres mine yours his/hers ours • Vous avez votre voiture? . but also are stem changing. . it is mine.Is that your car? Oui.You have your car? • Oui. This usually occurs in sentences with être. elle est à moi. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. . . • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -éxer Verbs Like -exer verbs. we have ours.

• Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -yer Verbs -yer verbs are regular -er verbs. une ps2) des jeux de société : le monopoly. it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. this affects all forms except nous and vous. In the present indicative of -yer verbs. le cluedo. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] V: Children's Games and Toys • • • • • • • • • • un hochet un cheval de bois une poupée une dinette un train électrique des légos un ours en peluche une console de jeu (une nintendo. when y is part of the last syllable. une gameboy. However. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -ger Verbs An e is added after the g in the nous form. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] Appeler All forms except nous and vous have the l doubled. • Tenses affected by this rule: [edit] -cer Verbs The last c in the verb changes to ç in the nous form. la bonne paye des "transformers" [edit] .

V: The Carnival transfer [edit] V: French Children's Poems.. Songs. and Stories [edit] Petit Papa Noël Petit Papa Noël Quand tu descendras du ciel Avec des jouets par milliers N'oublies pas mes petits souliers Mais avant de partir Il faudra bien te couvrir Dehors tu vas avoir si froid C'est un peu à cause de moi .. .

06 • Adolescence V: Pop Culture [edit] G: Pronominal Verbs Review Pronominal verbs are verbs that. . but not the indirect object pronoun. .We washed our hands. • In perfect tenses. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs. . Ils se lavent. the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun.She washed her hands. and naturally pronominal verbs.3. • • • • Elle s'est lavée. . • • • Je me lave. [edit] . Nous nous sommes lavé(e)s. . .I'm not going to wash myself. Nous nous sommes lavé les mains. te.She was herself. put simply. être is used as the auxiliary verb. .They wash themselves. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects. When proniminal verbs are conjugated in perfect tenses.We wash ourselves. depending on the verb that they modify. . in gender and plurality. Nous nous lavons. . [edit] Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Elle s'est lavé les mains. se. • Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. These pronouns are me. reciprocal verbs. Je ne vais pas me laver. Je vais me laver. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.I wash myself.We wash ourselves. include pronouns.I'm going to wash myself. nous.

one finds the appropriate auxiliary verb (avoir). but they occur at different times. Elles se sont téléphoné. in English. Like reflexive verbs.They called to one another. the conjugation of Je mange in the plus-que-parfait becomes j'avais mangé or.We spoke to each other. Essentially.to go (to) Some verbs have different meanings as pronominal verbs. So to conjugate je mange (I eat) in the plus-que-parfait. . Tu te souvenu? . rendre . the past participle agrees with the subject. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. conjugates it (avais) and finds the past participle of manger (mangé). to give back se rendre (à) . this is used in a phrase like "I had given him the toy before he went to sleep. • • • [edit] Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action. The plus-que-parfait can be used to indicate the occurrence of one before the other.We liked each other. Otherwise.You write to each other often? The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.You remember? • • In perfect tenses. Vous vous êtes écrit souvent? . In English. Nous nous sommes aimé(e)s. . Nous nous sommes parlé. the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb." In this example. these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Passé Composé [edit] G: Plus-Que-Parfait The plus-que-parfait is used when there are two occurrences in the past and one wants to symbolise that one occurrence happened before the other. the past before the past. . In French. • • [edit] G: Imparfait vs. the plus-que-parfait is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb in the imparfait and adding the past participle. Elle s'est souvenue.We like each other. So. .Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs. [edit] . people perform actions to each other. . there are two past tenses. I had eaten.to return.She remembered. • • • Nous nous aimons.

Examples
J'ai parlé français. Je parlais français. I spoke French (on one particular occasion). I spoke French (during a period of time, and I don't speak French any more).

Nous avons réussi We passed the test. l'examen. Il a été mon ami. He was my friend (and he is not my friend any more) Il était mon ami lorsque... He was my friend when . . . Ils ont fait leurs devoirs. They did their homework. Il est venu. He came (and I don't need to say when) Il vint le lendemain. He came the day after. Il venait tous les jours. He came/used to come every day. Il était déjà venu. He had already come. It should be noted that these examples are making use of all the possible past tenses; not just the plusque-parfait. [edit]

V: Mass Media
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V: Part-Time Jobs

3.07 • Ancient History

L'hisoire de la France jusqu'en 1700. [edit]

G: Interrogative Pronouns
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G: Passé Simple of Regular Verbs
Unlike English, there is a literary past tense, used when writing formally. This past tense is named the passé simple. It is relatively simple to predict when to use this tense; for every occurrence of the passé composé in conversational French, one simply uses the passé simple in literary French. Note that the passé simple is not a composed tense, and therefore does not have an auxiliary verb like the pssé composé does. [edit]

Formation
To conjugate in this tense, one finds the stem and appends the following, as according to the table: French Grammar • History • audio (upload) The Simple Past • Le passé simple Subject Edning Conjugated Verb Je Tu Il Nous Vous Ils [edit] -ai -as -a -âmes -âtes -èrent Je dansai. Tu dansas. Il dansa. Nous dansâmes. Vous dansâtes. Ils dansèrent. English I danced. You danced. He danced. We danced You danced. They danced.

Regular Normally-Irregular Verbs
The following verbs are irregular in the present indicative, put are regular in their passé simple stems. Stem Je... -ir verbs dormir dorm dormis partir part partis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Verbs couvrir couvr couvris découvrir décrouvr découvris offrir offr offris ouvrir ouvr ouvris souffrir souffr souffris -re Verbs combattre combatt combattis rompre romp rompis suivre suiv suivis [edit] Infinitive

V: Farming and Peasant Life
[edit]

V: Noble Life
[edit]

V: The King
[edit]

V: The Rennaissance
[edit]

V: The Reformation

je s'asseoir conduire construire craindre dire dit assis m'assis conduisis tu t'assis conduisis conquis craignis dis il -i_ Endings s'assit conquit craignit dit nous assîmes vous assîtes s'assirent conduisîtes conquîtes craignîtes dîtes conduisirent conquirent craignirent dirent conquîmes craignîmes dîmes conduisit conduisîmes Passé simple nous vous ils conquérir conquis conquis craignis dis construisis construisis construisit construisîmes construisîtes construisirent .3. [edit] G: Passé Simple of Irregular Verbs Some passé simple stems are based off the past participle.08 • Revolution! Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen .Historical Text for this lesson. Others must be memorized. [edit] Ending Formation je -is je -in_ Endings -ins je -u_ Endings -us [edit] -i_ Endings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -îmes nous -înmes nous -ûmes vous -îtes vous -întes vous -ûtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent Irregular Verb List French Grammar • Revolution! • audio (upload) Simple Past Irregular Verbs • Des verbes irréguliers du passé simple Infinitive Past Part.

faire écrire mettre naître peindre prendre rejoindre rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir avoir boire connaître courir croire devoir être falloir lire mourir plaire pleuvoir pouvoir recevoir savoir valoir vivre vouloir [edit] plu plu pu reçu su valu vécu voulu fallu lut eu bu couru cru dû ri souri pris mis fis écrivis mis naquis peignis pris rejoignis ris souris vainquis devins tins vins eus bus courus crus dus fus fallus lus mourus plus plus pus reçus sus valus vécus voulus fis écrivis mis naquis peignis pris rejoignis ris souris vainquis devins tins vins eus bus connus courus crus dus fus fallus lus mourus plus plus pus reçus sus valus vécus voulus fit écrivit mit naquit peignit prit rejoignit rit sourit vainquit -in_ Endings devin tint vint -u_ Endings eut but connut courut crut dut fut fallut lut mourut plut plut put reçut sut valut vécut voulut fîmes écrivîmes mîmes naquîmes peignîmes prîmes rejoignîmes rîmes sourîmes vainquîmes devînmes tînmes vînmes eûmes bûmes connûmes courûmes crûmes dûmes fûmes fallûmes lûmes mourûmes plûmes plûmes pûmes reçûmes suûmes valûmes vécûmes voulûmes fîtes écrivîtes mîtes naquîtes peignîtes prîtes rejoignîtes rîtes sourîtes vainquîtes devîntes tîntes vîntes eûtes bûtes connûtes courûtes crûtes dûtes fûtes fallûtes lûtes mourûtes plûtes plûtes pûtes reçûtes sûtes valûtes vécûtes voulûtes firent écrivirent mirent naquirent peignirent prirent rejoignirent rirent sourirent vainquirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent furent fallurent lurent moururent plurent plurent purent reçurent surent valurent vécurent voulurent connus connus .

I see the man that did it. If que is folled by a vowel. which literally mean that which. . que is the direct object of the clause it introduces • Il est l'homme que j'ai vu. . .I see the car that is broken. . • Il est l'homme qu'il a vu. qui is never shortened. even when followed by a vowel qui and que can modify both people and things • Je vois la voiture qui est cassé. qui and que can modify both masculine and feminine nouns qui and que can modify both singular and plural nouns in the phrases ce qui and ce que. the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and plurality if the direct object comes before the verb • Elles sont les femmes que j'ai vues.G: Relative Pronouns Qui and Que Les pronoms relatifs qui et que • • • • • • • • • • relative pronouns begin adjective clauses • the man that was here • the man that I saw qui is the subject of the clause it introduces • Je vois l'homme qui l'a fait.He is the man that he has seen. remember that in perfect tenses. but more naturally mean what. • L'homme qui l'a fait est ici.The man that did it is here.He is the man that I have seen. . ce is the noun [edit] V: French Revolution [edit] V: Democracy [edit] V: The Napoleonic Era [edit] . it is shortened to qu'.They are the women that I have seen. .

V: Post-Napoleon France [edit] V: The Industrial Revolution [edit] V: The Enlightenment [edit] Les Lumières Jean-Jacques Rousseau Voltaire .

Denis Diderot .

you toi. you. + Verb Je suis I am Je suis I am Je suis I am Sub. you. you. Comparative Object que than que than que as toi. . + Verb Comparative Noun Comparative Object Comparative Object que than as than toi.3. you toi. plus/aussi/moins clairement clearly Verbs Sub. + Verb Je vois I see Comparative plus more moins less aussi as Comparative more as less Verb joue play Adjective intelligent intelligent intelligent intelligent intelligent intelligent Adverbs Adverb Comparative Object que than as than toi.09 • Modern France G: Past Conditional [edit] G: Comparative French Grammar • Modern France • audio (upload) The Comparative • Le Comparatif Adjectives Sub. Je I Comparative plus/aussi/moins more as much less Nouns Sub.

[edit] V: The 20th Century [edit] V: 20th Century Advancements and Changes Europaturm .Je joue plus de autant de moins de more as many less jeux que than as than toi I play [edit] games toi. G: Superlative [edit] G: Asking Questions Copy from French/Grammar/Sentences when complete.

France Paris.Paris. France La Tour Eiffel [edit] .

V: Modern War .

All rules that apply to the passé composé and other perfect tenses. Past Part. is conjugated in the future tense. and therefore consists of an auxiliary verb and a past perfect. Use Phrases constructed in the future perfect tense mean "will have ___ed" in both French and English.3. [edit] . Subject Être Conj. the future perfect tense is called the futur antérieur. The auxiliary verb.10 • Current Events G: Future Perfect In French. Past Part. such as certain verbs using être as an auxiliary verb. avoir or être. appy to the future perfect as well. French Grammar • Current events • audio (upload) The Future Perfect • Le futur antérieur parler j' tu il elle nous vous ils elles [edit] aurai auras aura aura aurons aurez auront auront parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé parlé je tu il elle nous vous ils elles passer serai seras sera sera serons serez seront seront passé(e) passé(e) passé passée passé(e)s passé(e)(s) passés passées Subject Avoir Conj. This construction is used to say that before an event occurs. [edit] Formation The future perfect is a perfect tense. something else "will have" occured by that time.

.G: Demonstrative Pronouns [edit] G: Stating If.) or un attentat la criminalité [edit] burglar a thief fire vandalism terrorism crime V: European Union [edit] .. current events news local news items the frontpage un hebdomadaire a weekly magazine se tenir informé(e) to stay informed V: France's Role in Global Politics [edit] V: French Social Problems le cambrioleur un voleur l'incendie (f.) le vandalisme l'acte de terrorisme (m. [edit] V: News un quotidien l'actualité les nouvelles les faits divers la une [edit] a daily newspaper news.

il y a un candidat du PS et un candidat de l'UMP au deuxième tour. L'Assemblée Nationale : • Les députés sont élus au suffrage universel direct à 2 tours. Le Président de la République est donc obligé de choisir un Premier Ministre ayant la majorité des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale.V: French Government French government • • L'élection présidentielle : • Le président de la république est élu pour 5 ans au suffrage universel direct. En général. Il y a souvent entre 10 et 15 candidats au premier tour. • Le Président de la République est le chef des armées et il désigne le Premier Ministre. Jacques Chirac l'a largement emporté avec 80% des voix. proposent un candidat. Le second tour a donc opposé Jacques Chirac (UMP) et Jean-Marie Lepen (FN). Les 2 candidats arrivant en tête au premier tour s'affrontent lors du deuxième tour. petits ou grands. • L'Assemblée Nationale vote les lois proposées par le gouvernement. [edit] . • Les députés peuvent renversé le gouvernement si la politique qu'il conduit ne leur convient pas. Le sénat : • Il est élu au suffrage indirect : seul les maires et les autres élus peuvent voter pour les sénateurs. Les sénateurs peuvent modifier certaines lois mais ont assez peu de pouvoir. à la surprise générale. Il existe aussi de nombreux candidats soutenus par aucun parti. L'élection comporte 2 tours : au premier tour la plupart des partis. • En 2001. Jean-Marie Lepen (FN) est arrivé deuxième au premier tour devant Lionel Jospin (PS). Le Premier Ministre doit alors démissionner.

V: French Politics President of the Republic Jacques Chirac on the right. . French political party division.

GRA M R M A .

Adjectives Regular Formation [edit] Spelling Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: • • Feminine: add an -e to the masculine form • un garçon intéressant --> une fille intéressante • un ami amusant --> une amie amusante • un camion lent --> une voiture lente Plural: add an -s to the singular form • un garçon intéressant --> des garçons intéressants • une fille intéressante --> des filles intéressantes [edit] Pronunciation Generally. lent [edit] Irregular Formation [edit] Irregular Plural Formation Examples M -. Most adjectives. Singular > -s -s un plafond bas des plafonds Notes No . the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. such as those above. > Pl. len Feminine Pronunciation: intéressant. Plural Sing. Masc. -Masc. amusan. are affected by this rule.M. • • Masculine Pronuciation: intéressan. amusant.

un pou (des poux. un genou (des genoux. These are: un bijou (des bijoux. Masculine --> Feminine > Notes -e égoïste. * The final consonant is pronounced on the masc. un joujou (des joujoux. dynamique. jewel). sympathique * When the masc. . pneu (pneus) __x -ou -oux un bijou des bijoux [edit] Irregular Feminine Formation Examples Masc. seven are the exception. sarrau (sarraus) Exceptions:bleu (bleus).-x -x change -z -z -au -eu -eau -al -aux -eux -eaux -aux un gros porc un homme généreux un garçon furieux un gaz dangereux un journal un pieu un château un journal bas des gros porc des hommes généreux des garçons furieux des gaz dangereux des journaux des pieux des châteaux des journaux Exceptions:bal. sociable. chacal. No change -e -el -il Final -on Consonant Doubled -en -os -as -eux -eux change -if -if change -Fem. festival. knee) Exceptions:landau (landaus). owl). timide. un chou (des choux. un caillou (des cailloux. louse). form ends in an -e. pal. cabbage). there is no change. récital et régal take an 's' Notes:While most -ou adjectives have an s added in the plural form. cal. populaire. un hibou (des choux. carnaval. form. stone)). toy ). énergique.

-en is pronounced euhn and -enne is pronounced ehne. it means financially poor. when pauvre goes before a noun. This rule works most of the time. -et is pronounced ay and -ète is pronounced ette. When it comes after the noun. but be careful. There is no change of pronunciation when changing from -el to -elle and -il to -ille. However. it means unfortunate. [edit] Special Rules [edit] Adjectives That Precede Nouns [edit] List Adjectives that are used frequently go before nouns.er change -er -et change -et -elle cruel -ille gentil bon -onne breton ancien -enne parisien -osse gros -asse bas furieux -euse généreux sportif -ive actif étranger -ère cher cruelle gentille bonne bretonne ancienne parisienne grosse basse -ète inquiet complet furieuse généreuse sportive active étrangère chère inquiète complète When an adjective has one of these endings. -er is pronounced ay and -ère is pronounced air. -on is pronounced ohhn and -onne is pronounced uhhne. Likewise. "pauvre" can mean . These are: • • • beau nouveau vieux bon mauvais petit grand long joli jeune gros [edit] Changes in Meaning When grand goes before a noun. when it goes after the noun. -as is pronounced ah and -asse is pronounced ahse. it means great. the ending of the feminine form is doubled. -eux is pronounced euhh and -euse is pronounced euhsse. it means tall. -os is pronounced oh and -osse is pronounced ohse.

nos Second person plural (and polite form) . mes Second person singular (informal) . leurs . (all) une belle fillette une nouvelle idée une vieille idée Fem. ses First person plural . ta. leur. votre. In French.ton. Plural de belles fillettes de nouvelles idées de vieilles idées Possessive Adjectives In English. sa.mon. Nouveau."financially poor" even when used before the nouns. we say "her car" when the owner of the car is a woman and "his car" when the owner is a man. Sing. Vowel Beau un beau garçon un bel individu un nouveau Nouveau un nouvel ordre camion Vieux un vieux camion un vieil ordre [edit] Masc.notre. It is not the owner who determines the gender of the possessive adjective but the object owned. First person singular . notre. and Vieux Masc.votre. [edit] Beau. Plural de beaux garçons de nouveaux ordres de vieux camions Fem. Masc. vos Third person plural . ma. Sing Cons.leur. tes Third person singular . Sing. they say "sa voiture" even if the owner is a male.son.

so the corresponding adverb is lentement ("slowly"). similarly.Adverbs French adverbs. are used to modify French/Grammar/Adjectives. their form does not change to reflect their precise role. like their English counterparts. then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form. this is done by adding the suffix -ment ("-ly") to the adjective's feminine singular form. and French/Grammar/Verbs or clauses. rather than to the feminine singular form: • vrai → vraiment ("real" → "really") • poli → poliment ("polite" → "politely") If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent. heureux → heureusement ("happy" → "happily"). not even using the suffix -ment: • • • • bon → bien ("good" → "well") mauvais → mal ("bad" → "badly") meilleur → mieux ("better"-adjective → "better"-adverb) pire → pis ("worse"-adjective → "worse"-adverb) ainsi ("thus" or "thusly") And. that is. many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all: • [edit] . [edit] Formation In French. nor any characteristics of what they modify. however. respectively: • constant → constamment ("constant" → "constantly") • récent → récemment ("recent" → "recently") Some adjectives make other changes: • précis → précisément ("precise" → "precisely") • gentil → gentiment ("nice" → "nicely") Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions. In most cases. As in English. most adverbs are derived from adjectives. other adverbs. then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment. as in English. as in English. They do not display any inflection. the feminine singular form of lent ("slow") is lente. For example. the adjective stem is sometimes modified to accommodate the suffix: • • • If the adjective ends in an i.

plus ("not any more"). such as pas ("not").Placement The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs. this is true even of negative adverbs: • [edit] List of Common Adverbs • après 1. also a preposition . and jamais come before the infinitive: • An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb. he began to walk" or "He began slowly to walk"). unlike in English. An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb: • • • complètement vrai ("completely true") pas possible ("not possible") tellement discrètement ("so discreetly") marcher lentement ("to walk slowly") ne pas marcher ("not to walk") Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher ("Slowly. Jamais je n'ai fait cela or Je n'ai jamais fait cela ("Never have I done that" or "I've never done that") An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive: • But negative adverbs. or before the clause: • Note that. afterwards On va au cinéma après We'll go the cinema afterwards 2.

and the word for teacher. objects and abstract concepts) have only one form.g. For example. The nouns that express entities without gender (e. la voiture (the car) can only be feminine. for example. is always masculine even if the teacher is female. all nouns have a grammatical gender. the two words for "actor" in French are acteur (m) and actrice (f). Examples French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 113 kb • help) Gender of Nouns • Genre des Noms Masculine le cheval le chien le livre le bruit the horse the dog the book the noise Feminine la colombe la chemise la maison the dove the shirt the house Common Endings Used With Masculine Nouns: -age -r -t -isme le fromage the cheese le professeur the teacher le chat the cat le capitalisme capitalism Common Endings Used With Feminine Nouns: -ie -ion la boulangerie the bakery la nation the nation -ite/-ité la fraternité . personne. they are masculine or feminine for the purposes of grammar only. le stylo (the pen) can only be masculine. for example. is always feminine. This form can be masculine or feminine.Gender Gender of Nouns In French. which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity. professeur. the word for person. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form.. Most nouns that express entities with gender (people and animals) use both a feminine form and a masculine form. even if the person is male. that is.

the definite article is always “the”. but une livre (f) means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine (like la photo. Gender 2. whereas le foie means liver. In French. be sure to learn the genders along with the words. there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. which is actually short for la photographie) are in fact feminine. Then there are some that just don't make sense. and "L' " is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent "h" (both masculine or feminine). and vice versa. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 78 kb • help) The Definite Article • L'article défini singular feminine le la la fille the daughter le fils the son l’ l’enfant les filles plural les les fils the child the daughters the sons singular. where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel.brotherhood la liberté liberty -nce -nne -mme -lle la balance the scales la fille the girl l’indienne the Indian Unfortunately. starting with a vowel sound les enfants the children . for example. "Les" is used for plural nouns (both masculine or feminine). "Le" is used for masculine nouns. but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine. la foi is feminine and means a belief. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult. the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. Plurality 3. [edit] Definite and Indefinite Articles [edit] The Definite Article In English. There are even words that are spelled the same. "La" is used for feminine nouns. un livre (m) means a book. It is similar to english.

") If you were just flipping through the album." ("I am looking at the photographs." ("I am looking at some photographs. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures. she. French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 55 kb • help) The Indefinite Article • L'article indéfini singular plural 1"des feminine une une fille a daughter un fils a son des filles some daughters des fils1 some sons masculine un des fils" does mean "some sons" but is an homograph: it can also mean "some threads" Also note that des. on he. elle. indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. you cannot say. 2nd. and 3rd person singular and the 1st. you would say "Je regarde les photographs. In English. When referring to a plural ils. like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. [edit] The Indefinite Article In English. “vous” must be used. we would say "I am looking at photographs. a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. 2nd. one they (masculine) they (feminine) When referring to more than one person in the 2nd person. you would say. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. "Some" is used as a plural article in English. and 3rd person plural. "Je regard photographs." In French. Again. "Je regard des photographs. the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense. the indefinite articles are "a" and "an".") [edit] Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st. elles 3rd person . French Grammar • Gender • audio (info • 61 kb • help) Subject Pronouns • Les pronoms soumis 1st person 2nd person singular je plural plural nous vous singular tu I we you you singular il.Note: Unlike English. looking at nothing in particular." you must tell which photographs you are looking at using an article.

However. so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". to say "We (are) meeting at 7 o'clock".single person. they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle". Also. For more. For example. if a group of people consists of both males and females. you could say either “On se rencontre au cinéma à sept heures. The French third person "on" has several meanings. the male form is used. French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. instead of “nous”. see notes in lesson 1. the verb is always used in the 3rd person singular. as discussed in lesson 1. the French equivalent "On doit faire très attention à la grammaire française" is quite acceptable. “on” is used.” (formal). to express “we”. . the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. While in English. "One must be very careful in French grammar" sounds old-fashioned. even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English. “vous” or “tu” may be used depending on the situation. see the Wikipedia entry. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu.” (colloquial) or “Nous nous rencontrons au cinéma à sept heures. Also. In everyday language. when pronounced.

I do not steal.personne wraps around the entire verb set...aucun(e)..pas wraps around the auxillary verb.ni.I did not give it too anyone..I did not steal it.pas around the verb. • Je ne vole pas. .. . . not the participle. • Je ne veux le donner à personne. • Je ne veux pas voler.... either direct or indirect.. .I want to not steal.. • Je ne peux voir ni mon frère ni ma sœur..aucun(e) ne.nor ne.. ne pas can also go directly in front of the infinitive for a different meaning.ni not any. .. [edit] Other Negative Expressions ne.ni requires two objects. ne..I am not able to see neither my brother nor my sister. • ne. ni à ma sœur.pas usually wraps around the conjugated verb... ne goes before any pronoun relating to the verb it affects. . • Je ne l'ai donné ni à mon frère. no never neither. . • Je veux ne pas voler.. .. .He has no friend. In a perfect tense.. • Je ne l'ai donné à personne. None. Aucune.. None... • Il n'a aucune feuille de papier...Negation ne.pas • • • • • Simple negation is done by wrapping ne.He has no sheet of paper. • In ne..I have never stolen. Aucun.I gave it neither to my brother nor my sister. none.plus no longer • ne.jamais ne. . • Il n'a aucun ami.pas du tout not at all ne.personne nobody ne.I do not want to give it to anybody.. • Je ne le vole pas. ne.I do not want to steal. aucun(e) goes before an object.. ... • Je n'ai pas volé.pas encore not yet ne.. . and comes before them... When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together.ni..

• • Je l'ai donné à personne (I didn't give it to anyone) Je sais pas (I don't know) . the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks.[edit] Spoken French Now. it is always used in written French and in formal conversations. However.

. means. from 2.This is a friend of mine. of 4. in à côté de à l'intérieur de après au-dela avec chez contre dans de dehors derrière devant en entre ici loin de par next to. about outside behind in front of in between here far 1. time (at). of. through Used mostly to indicate distance in time or space.I am going to Paris. Notes -Expresses a report/ratio of place (to).Prepositions Common Prepositions Prepostion Translation Example Je vais à Paris. -. Also a cinjugation of the verb entrer.(golf) par . to 2. Contractions: du. -. C'est la voiture à John. La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house Synonym: en Also an indefinite artcle. à 1. price. des IPA: /də/ Also a noun: le par . Alternative: dedans (rarely used as a preposition) On mange après avoir bu We eat after we drink Also an adverb. -This is John's car.I am leaving at five C'est un ami à moi.Introduced a complement of indirect object or a complement of attribution. possession (of or 's). besides inside after beyond with at the home of against in 1. -. at 3. Je pars à cinq heures. Also a pronoun. a complement of the name or adjective. manner.

sept sur dix (seven out of ten) IPA: /pur/ sous Related term: dessous Also a noun: m pl of sou . wothless thing. by. according to 2. under) Antonyms: dessous. meaning sour IPA: /syr/ (audio) sur .penny.près de pour sans selon 2. in accordance with below. on 2. au-dessous-de (below) Also an adjective: m sing. under 1. upon 3. on top of 4. out of 6. for near for without 1. above 5. peanuts Synonyms: au-dessus de (above) Antonyms: sous (below.

te. to you (plural. • Je veux te voir. • Je t'ai vu. Elles (female) [edit] me.I see you. she) .us.you. If a perfect tense is used. [edit] .me.Vous (polite).Nous Second person plural (you) .I saw you.Il (male). formal) leurs . . . Elle (female) First person plural (we) . moi Second person singular (you) . and vous • Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns [edit] Meanings • • • • • • me . nous.to them [edit] Place in sentences • • These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify • Je te vois.Je.you. to you (singular.to him nous . to me te . well-known acquaintances only) Third person singular (he. informal) lui .Ils (male). me) . these pronouns go before the auxillary verb.I want to see you. Tu (informal. to us vous .Vous Third person plural (them) .Pronouns Subject Pronouns • • • • • • First person singular (I. .

Il les jette. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns (je. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. and les are called direct object pronouns. .replaces a masculine singular direct object la .. . . Similary.replaces plural direct objects. A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Il jette la boule à Jacques et Marie. . .He sees you.He throws it. • • • • le . and les le.replaces a feminine singular direct object l' . Il vous le jette. such as "la boule". . .). The direct object pronouns come before the verb they are linked to. [edit] Indirect Object Replacement • • • • Il m'appelle. you guessed it. • • [edit] lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.He throws it to you. .replaces le and la if they come before a vowel les .He throws it to you.He sees you. can be replaced by pronouns. Il te le jette.He sees us. . la. used as direct object. Il te voit. • • • Il jette la boule à Jacques.He throws them. Il nous le jette. tu. Il nous voit. .He calls to me. both masculine and feminine Il la jette.Direct Object Replacement • • • • Il me voit. . They replace nouns referring to people and mean to him/her .. because they are pronouns that are. la.He throws the ball to Jack.He throws it to us. direct objects. .He throws the ball.He sees me. . Il jette la boule à Marie.He throws the ball to Jack and Mary.He throws the ball to Mary. • Il jette la boule. Il vous voit. . [edit] le.

I respond to the questions. • • Les hommes vont en France.to it. An example follows: • • • Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. and means the same thing. .there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preoposition except de (for which en is used). Il lui jette la boule.Les hommes y vont. and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects.He throws it to him.and to them respectively. • Il la lui jette.He throws the ball to her.replaces a plural masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human Il lui jette la boule. which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel. and not y. lui is never shortened [edit] y [edit] Indirect Object Pronoun . Note that while le. • • Je réponds aux questions. la. are used when the the object refers the a person or persons. In English. . . The men go to France .J' y réponds. [edit] .He throws the ball to him. • • lui . .He throws the ball to them. Il leur jette la boule.I respond to them. la. When used with the direct object pronouns le. . Note that en. .replaces a singular masculine or feminine indirect object referring to a human leur . and les. to them The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.The men go there. Note that lui and leur. and not y is used when the object is of the preposition de. Also note that unlike le and la. [edit] Replacement of Places . lui and leur come after those pronouns. "He throws him the ball" is also said. .

Idioms • • Ça y est! . and not en are used if the object refers to a person or persons.I get it! [edit] en [edit] Replacement of a Partitive Construction [edit] Replacement of Quantified Nouns [edit] Replacement of Phrases withde • • The pronoun en replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de if the object of the preposition is referring to a thing or place.It's Done! J'y suis! .I come from it.. • J' en viens. [edit] Pronoun Order [edit] Order Chart If a sentence uses no infinitive. .. Note that stress pronouns. • Je viens de Paris. the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Pronoun Neg (or noun) je tu il (elle) ne nous vous ils (elles) Direct or Indirect Direct Obj Indirect Pronouns Objects Neg me le te la nous l' vous les se (reflexive) lui leur pas conjugated past y en plus verb participle etc. . .I come from Paris.

nous. • Il le lui donne. . • Il m'emmène à Paris. Le. and vous go first. Y in conjunction with en is only used a few times.. .There exist several ones.Give it to me. and vous with the direct object pronouns le. . la. and les.He takes me to Paris. When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns lui and leur with the direct object pronouns le. la. • Il me le donne. le. • Retrouve-la. en always go last. Me and Te become moi and toi. Theses are: • • • The pronouns are attached the the verb with a hyphen.He gave it to me. y goes after all of them with the exception of en. [edit] L'impératif When expressing positive commands. nous. te.Give me the videos. . .. and les. • Il y en a. • Donnez-moi les vidéos. la. vous vous les se (reflexive) ils (elles) [edit] Order Rules • • • • • When a sentence uses the indirect object pronouns me.He takes me there. la. me. When there are two pronouns in a sentence. the pronouns are embedded as follows: Subject Direct or Direct Obj Indirect Pronoun Neg Neg Indirect Pronouns Objects (or noun) je me tu le pas te il (elle) conjugated past la lui ne plus nous y en infinitive nous verb participle l' leur etc. te. [edit] Possesive Pronouns Possessive pronouns replace possessive article + noun sets. and les precede all other object pronouns.If a sentence uses an infinitive. • Donnez-le-moi. When y is used in the same sentence as other pronouns.He gave it to him/her. . . . .Find it. and les go first. • Il m'y emmène. there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns.

les vôtres yours les leurs theirs À + a stress pronoun is used when the noun replaced is also the subject of the sentence.You have your car? • Oui. • • Elle est ta voiture? .Yes. This usually occurs in sentences with être. nous avons la nôtre. .Yes. elle est à moi. .Is that your car? Oui.French Grammar • Pronouns • audio (upload) Possesive Pronouns • Les pronoms possesifs mon copain ton copain son copain notre copain votre copain leur copain my friend your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le mien mine le tien yours le sien his/hers le nôtre ours le vôtre yours le leur theirs mes copains tes copains ses copains nos copains vos copains leurs copains my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miens mine ma copine my friend la mienne mine les tiens yours les siens his/hers les nôtres ours les vôtres yours les leurs theirs ta copine sa copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine your friend his/her friend our friend your friend their friend le tienne yours le sienne his/hers la nôtre ours la vôtre yours la leur theirs mes copines tes copines ses copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines my friends your friends his/her friends our friends your friends their friends les miennes les tiennes les siennes les nôtres mine yours his/hers ours • Vous avez votre voiture? . we have ours. it is mine. .

.When? Pourquoi? .Where? Quand? .Sentences Subject .. Si. [edit] Interrogation [edit] Formation [edit] Intonation [edit] Est-ce que...Indirect Object [edit] If.Why? Comment? ..Direct Object .Verb .. [edit] Inversion [edit] Question Words • • • • Où? .How? .

[edit] Commands Main article: French/Grammar/Tenses/Imperative .

(The Past Infinitive) [edit] L'indicatif (The Indicative Mood) Simple Tenses Présent de l'indicatif (Present Indicative) Imparfait de l'indicatif (Imperfect) Passé simple (Literary Past) Futur (Future) Perfect Tenses Passé composé (Past) Le plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (Farthest Past Indicative) Passé antérieur (Farther Past) Futur antérieur (Future Past) Passé du subjonctif (Subjunctive Past) Components of Perfect Tenses Participe présent (Present Participle) Participe passé (Past Participle) Auxiliary Verb .Tenses Moods • • • • L'Indicatif (The Indicative Mood) L'Impératif (The Imperative Mood) Le Conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) Le Subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) [edit] Verb Tenses Sorted by Mood [edit] L'infinitif (The Infinitive) • • L'infinitif (The Infinitive) L'infinitif passé.

Other Tenses Passé récent (Near Past) Futur proche (Near Future) [edit] Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive Mood) • • • • Le subjonctif (The Subjunctive) L'imparfait du subjonctif (The Imperfect Subjunctive) Le subjonctif passé (The Past Subjunctive) Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive) [edit] L'impératif (The Imperative Mood) • • L'impératif (The Imperative) L'impératif passé (The Past Imperative) [edit] Le conditionnel (The Conditional Mood) • • • Le conditionnel (The Conditional) Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional) Le deuxième forme du conditionnel passé (The Second Form of the Past Conditional) [edit] Verb Tenses Sorted by Type [edit] Simple Tenses Présent de l'indicatif (Present Indicative) Imparfait de l'indicatif (Imperfect) Passé simple (Literary Past) Futur (Future) Conditionnel (Conditional) Présent du subjonctif (Present Subjunctive) Imparfait du subjonctif (Imperfect Subjunctive) [edit] .

Perfect Tenses Passé Composé (Perfect Past) Plus-que-parfait de l'indicatif (Farthest Past Indicative) Plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (Farthest Past Subjunctive) Passé antérieur (Farther Past) Futur antérieur (Future Past) Conditionnel passé (Conditional Past) Passé du subjonctif (Subjunctive Past) [edit] Perfect Tense Components Participe présent (Present Participle) Participe passé (Past Participle) Auxiliary Verb [edit] Other Tenses Passé récent (Recent Past) Futur proche (Near Future) L'Impératif (Imperative) L'impératif passé (Past Imperative) .

an accent mark is shown without a letter below it indicates that the accent mark is placed above the last letter of the stem. when the conjugation of the root verb is given. Derivatives of a verb are conjugated in the same manner as that verb. it is assumed that the reader will know that derivative verbs are similarly conjugated. The verb tenses here are organized by mood. In tables showing the endings or conjugations of verbs. only the masculine form will be used for the sake of brevity. One may assume that il includes elle and ils includes elles unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. are in italics. Instead of mentioning both. Literary tenses. In this appendix. which are only used in formal writing. . For instance. The general uses of a particular mood will be covered in the page linkd to by the section heading.Verbs • • • • Irregular Verb Conjugations Verb Negations Reflexive verbs Verb Tenses General Notes • • • • • The masculine form and feminine form of the third person are conjugated in exactly the same manner. devenir and revenir follow the same patterns as venir.

Appendices .

Dates. # French Pronunciation luhndee mahrdee maircruhdee juhdee vahndruhdee sahmdee English Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Origin Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn 1 lundi 2 mardi 3 mercredi 4 jeudi 5 vendredi 6 samedi 7 dimanche deemahnsh Sunday Sun • The days of the week are not capitalized in French. [edit] Les mois de l'année • The months of the year. time. [lay mwah duh lahnay] French Vocabulary • Dates. Time. time. and numbers • audio (upload) The Days of the Week. jzahnveeyay fayvreeyay mahrse ahvrill maye jzwan jzooeeyay English January February March April May Juin July . [lay jzoor duh lah suhmen] French Vocabulary • Dates. and Numbers Les jours de la semaine • The days of the week. and numbers • audio (upload) The Months of the Year • Les mois de l'année # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 French janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet Pron. see the phrasebook. • Les jours de la semaine. • For phrases relating to the day of the week.

English # Cardinal Numbers 02 020 vingt 021 vingt et un vahn vahntay uhn French Pronunciat 2n deuxième deuhzee ehm d 3rd troisième trawhzee ehm 4th quatrième catree ehm 5th cinquième sankee ehm 6th sixième 7th septième 8th huitième seesee ehm setee ehm weetee ehm 2ième second 3ième third 4ième fourth 5ième fifth 6ième sixth Numbers twenty-two to twen configured in the form of vin For example twenty-two is v 030 trente 031 trente et un trahnt trahntay uhn Numbers thrity-two to thirtyconfigured in the form of tren 7ième seventh For example thrity-three is tr 8ième eighth 040 quarante cahrahnt . time. zairo uhn deuh trawh catr sank seese set weet English zero one two three four five six seven eight 1st premier(èr prem me ay e) (air) 1er first # 000 zéro 001 un 002 deux 003 trois 004 quatre 005 cinq 006 six 007 sept 008 huit Ordinal Numbers 001-010 French Pronunciation Abbr. see the common French phrases appendix [edit] V: Seasons le printemps l'été l'automne l'hiver spring summer autumn winter [edit] Les numéros French Vocabulary • Dates. For phrases relating to the months of the year. and numbers • audio (info • 337 kb • help) Numbers • Les nombres Cardinal Numbers 001-019 # French Pron.08 09 10 11 12 • • août septembre octobre novembre oot/oo septahmbruh oktuhbruh novahmbruh August September October November decembre daysahmbruh December The months of the year are not capitalized in French.

For example forty-four is qua 050 cinquante sankaunte 051 cinquante sankauntay u et un 014 quatorze catorz 015 quinze 016 seize canz sehz Numbers fifty-two to fifty-ni configured in the form of cin 10]. ninty is quatre-vingt-dix (4*2010). For example eighty-one is quatre-vingt-un (4*20-one). etc) • For 100-199.neuf] cents mille (un) million (un) milliard 1.51.000 • For 70-79.41.000. For example fifty-five is cinq 060 soixante 061 soixante swahsahnt 017 dix-sept deeset swahsahntay uhn 018 dix-huit deezweet eighteen 019 dix-neuf deeznuf • nineteen Numbers sixty-two to sixty-n configured in the form of soi 10]. une dizaine (one ten) une douzaine (one dozen) 100 200-900 1. this continues up to 1000 and onward.000. it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number. . but past this it is simply both words consecutivly (vingt-six.009 neuf 010 dix 011 onze 012 douze 013 treize neuhf deese ohn dooz trehz nine ten eleven tweleve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen 9th neuvième neuhvee ehm 10t dixième h deezee ehm 9ième ninth 10ièm tenth e 041 quarante cahrahntay u et un Numbers forty-two to forty-n configured in the form of qua 10]. it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for 8099 • Only the first (21.000 un millier (one thousand) une centaine (one hundred) • • cent [deux . trente-trois. For example seventy is soixante-dix (60-10). and seventy-seven is soixante-dix-sept (60-10-7).etc) have "et un". seventy-three is soixante-treize (60-13). |080||quatre-vingts||catr vahn||eighty • Numbers eighty-one to ninty-nine are configured in the form of quatre-vingts-[01-19]. and ninty-four is quatre-vingt-quatorze(4*20-14).000 1.000. For example sixty-six is soix • This pattern changes slightly after the sixties: • Numbers seventy to seventy-nine are configured in the form of soixante-[10-19].31.

1784) Beaumarchais (1732 .a.French Authors Middle Age • Chrétien de Troyes (around 1135 .1650) Pierre Corneille (1606–1684) Jean de La Fontaine (1621–1695) Molière (1622–1673) Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Charles Perrault (1628–1703) Jean Racine (1639–1699) [edit] 18th century • • • • • • Marivaux (1688–1763) Montesquieu (1689–1755) Voltaire (1694–1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 .1778) Denis Diderot (1713 .1565) [edit] 17th century • • • • • • • René Descartes (1596 .around 1183) [edit] 16th century • • • Francois Rabelais (around 1483 or 1494 – 1553) Pierre de Ronsard (1524 – 1585) Louise Labé (a.1526 .1799) [edit] .

1974) André Breton (1896 .1922) Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 .1976) Raymond Queneau (1903 .1970) Marcel Pagnol (1895 .1998) Georges Perec (1936 .1976) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905 .1941) Edmond Rostand (1868 .1980) Robert Merle (1908 .1870) George Sand (1804 .1870) Prosper Mérimée (1803 . .1966) Jacques Prévert (1900 .2004) Nicolas Bouvier (1929 .1857) Charles Baudelaire (1821 .1880) Jules Verne (1828 .1867) Gustave Flaubert (1821 .1897) Emile Zola (1840 .1977) André Malraux (1901 .1982) [edit] Links List of French authors in the french wikipedia.1918) Jean Cocteau (1892 .1876) Alfred de Musset (1810 .1896) Henri Bergson (1859 .19th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • François-René de Chateaubriand (1768 .1961) Jean Giono (1895 .1963) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894 .1885) Alexandre Dumas (1802 .1918) [edit] 20th century • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paul Claudel (1868 .1905) Alphonse Daudet (1840 .1902) Paul Verlaine (1844 .1955) Marcel Proust (1871 .1850) Victor Hugo (1802 .1848) Honoré de Balzac (1799 .

qui est-ce qui [edit] tous.qu'est-ce que.qui.est-ce que.Hints and Common Errors quoi.ce que. toutes [edit] false cognates [edit] ap/em/porter [edit] a/em/mener [edit] em/s'en aller/vouloir/s'enfuir/s'envoler [edit] pronominal verbs with meanings different than regular version [edit] tomber [edit] . tout.que.

plus [edit] bon vs bien [edit] capitalization [edit] an/année. malaise. jour/journée [edit] negation other that ne. ce vs il vs one [edit] mal. le mal.. etc .pas in detail [edit] c'est vs il est. faire mal. malade.

see that page. .French History See: European History For the history of this book.

Nations of the World A French l'Afghanistan (m) l'Afrique du Sud (f) l'Albanie (f) l'Algérie (f) l'Allemagne (f) Andorre (f) l'Angleterre (f) l'Angola (f) l'Arabie saoudite (f) l'Argentine (f) l'Arménie (f) Aruba l'Australie (f) l'Autriche (f) l'Azerbaïdjan (f) [edit] English Afghanistan South Africa Albania Algeria Germany Andorra England Angola Saudi Arabia Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Antigua-et-Barbuda (m) Antigua and Barbuda B French le Bahreïn le Bangladesh la Barbade la Belgique English Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium les Bahamas (f) The Bahamas .

le Belize le Bénin le Bhoutan la Biélorussie la Birmanie la Bolivie le Botswana le Brésil le Brunéi la Bulgarie le Burundi [edit] Belize Benin Bhutan Belarus Burma Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burundi le Burkina-Faso Burkina Faso C French le Cambodge le Cameroun le Canada le Cap-Vert le Chili la Chine Chypre (f) la Colombie les Comores (f) le Congo English Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China Cyprus Columbia Comores Congo la Corée du Nord North Korea la Corée du Sud South Korea le Costa Rica la Côte d'Ivoire la Croatie Cuba [edit] Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba .

D French Djibouti English Djibouti le Danemark Denmark la Dominique Dominica [edit] E French l'Écosse (f) l'Égypte (f) les Émirats arabes unis (m) l'Équateur (m) l'Érythrée (f) l'Espagne (f) l'Estonie (f) les Étas-Unis (m) l'Éthiopie (f) [edit] Scotland Egypt The United Arab Emirates Equador Eritrea Spain Estonia The United States Ethiopia English F French English les Fidji (f) Fiji la Finlande Finland la France [edit] France G French le Gabon la Gambie English Gabon Gambia .

la Géorgie le Ghana la Grèce la Grenade le Guatemala la Guinée la Guinée-Bissao la Guyana [edit] Georgia Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guniea Guinea-Bissau Guyana la Guinée-équatoriale Equatorial Guinea H French Haïti la Hongrie [edit] English Haiti Hungary le Honduras Honduras I French l'Île Maurice (f) les Îles Cook (f) les Îles Marshall (f) les Îles Salomon (f) l'Inde (f) l'Indonésie (f) l'Iran (m) l'Iraq/l'Irak (m) l'Irlande (f) l'Islande (f) Israël (m) l'Italie (f) English Mauritius Cook Islands Marshall Islands Solomon Islands India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Iceland Israel Italy .

[edit] J French le Japon English Japan la Jamaïque Jamaica la Jordanie Jordan [edit] K French le Kenya Kiribati (f) le Koweït [edit] English Kenya Kiribati Kuwait le Kazakhstan Kazakhstan le Kirghizstan Kyrgyzstan L French le Laos le Lesotho la Lettonie le Liban le Libéria la Libye la Lituanie English Laos Lesotho Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembourg Luxembourg [edit] .

M French la Macédoine la Malaisie le Malawi le Mali Malte le Maroc la Mauritanie le Mexique la Micronésie la Moldavie Monaco la Mongolie English Macedonia Malaysia Malawi Mali Malta Morocco Mauritania Mexico Micronesia Moldavia Monaco Mongolia Madagascar (f) Madagascar les Maldives (f) The Maldives le Mozambique Mozambique [edit] N French la Namibie la Nauru le Népal le Nicaragua le Niger le Nigeria la Norvège English Namibia Nauru Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway la Nouvelle-Zélande New Zealand [edit] O French English .

l'Oman (m) Oman l'Ouganda (m) Uganda l'Ouzbékistan Uzbekistan [edit] P French le Pakistan le Panama le Paraguay les Pays-Bas (m) le Pays de Galles (m) le Pérou les Philippines (f) la Pologne la Polynésie français le Portugal [edit] English Pakistan Panama Paraguay The Netherlands Wales Peru The Philippines Poland French Polynesia Portugal la Papouaise-Nouvelle-Guinée Papua New Guinea Q French English le Qatar Qatar [edit] R French English la République centrafricaine Central African Republic la République dominicaine Dominican Republic la République tchèque la Roumanie le Royaume-Uni la Russie Czech Republic Romania The United Kingdom Russia .

le Rwanda [edit] Rwanda S French Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès (m) Sainte-Lucie (f) Saint-Marin (m) le Saint-Siège (le Vatican) Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines (m) le Salvador les Samoa (f) Sao Tomé et Principe (m) le Sénégal les Seychelles (f) la Sierra Leone Singapour la Slovaquie la Slovénie la Somalie le Soudan le Sri Lanka la Suède la Suisse le Surinam le Swaziland la Syrie [edit] Saint Lucia San Marino The Holy See (The Vatican) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines El Salvador Samoa Sao Tomé and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Somalia Sudan Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Surinam Swaziland Syria English Saint Kitts and Nevis T French la Tanzanie English Tanzania le Tadjikistan (m) Tajikistan .

le Tchad la Thaïlande le Togo les Tonga (f) la Tunisie le Turkménistan la Turquie Tuvalu [edit] Chad Thailand Togo Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Turkey Tuvalu Trinité-et-Tobago Trinidad and Tobago U French l'Ukraine (f) English Ukraine l'Uruguay (m) Uruguay [edit] V French Vanuatu le Vatican English Vanuatu The Vatican le Venezuela Venezuela le Viêt-Nam Vietnam [edit] W [None] [edit] X [None] [edit] .

Y le Yémen la Yougoslavie (m) [edit] Yemen Yugoslavia Z French la Zambie English Zambia le Zimbabwe Zimbabwe .

merci. Ça va bien. Pas mal. comme-ça. Abbr./Bye. It goes well. Usage Mr. Very well. . it goes. thanks. Très bien. (informal) (more formal than salut) (all day) bun nwee How's it going? (Lit:It goes?) Hello Good evening Bonne nuit Good night [edit] Answers to Ça va? French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) How are you? • Ça va? Oui. Pronunciation M. Sir. Gentlemen.. merci. [edit] Yes. thanks.Phrasebook TravelWiki phrase book Greeting People French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Greetings • Les salutations Salut Ça va? Bonjour Bonsoir Hi. Not Bad So-So Titles French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Titles • Les titres French Singular Monsieur Plural Messieurs. ça va. muhsyur mehsyur English. Comme-ci.

À demain. See you! Asking for the day/date/time French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Asking For The Day.) (Lit: Not of what.) (No problem. la temps Asking for the day. Ma'am. S'il vous plaît. Au revoir. Merci (beaucoup). la date. Je vous en prie [edit] (Lit: Of nothing. À tout à l'heure.) (formal).. Young lady maydmwahzell Young ladies Courtesy French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Courtesy • La politesse Please Thanks (a lot) S'il te plaît. Bye. De rien.Singular Madame Plural Mesdames Mme mahdamn maydahm Mrs.) shtahn pree (informal) jzuh vooz ahn pree (formal) (Lit: If you please. Je t'en prie. Good-bye. (informal) ohvwahr (rev not pronounced) ah toot ah luhre ah byantoe chow (Italian) See you tomorrow. Ciao [edit] Hi. You're welcome. 1a Aujourd'hui c'est quel jour? Today is what day? ojzoordwee say kell jzoor . Good-bye. French Vocabulary • Phrasebook • audio (upload) Good-bye • Au revoir Salut. A bientôt. Pas de quoi. ah duhman (Lit: To/Until Tomorrow) See you soon. Time • Demander le jours./Bye. Date. Ladies Singular Mademoiselle lle Plural Mesdemoiselles M [edit] mahdmqoizell Miss.

Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor Tomorrow is [day]. Asking for the date. 2a Demain c'est quel jour 2b Demain c'est [jour]. Asking for the time. kell er ayteel eel ay kell er eelay [nombre] er 3a kell ay lah daht 3b C'est le [#] [month].1b Aujourd'hui c'est [jour]. What is the date (today)? It's [month] [#]. 4a Quelle heure est-il? 4b Il est quelle heure? 5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). [edit] What hour/time is it? It is [number] hours. Physical and mental health [edit] Reacting to events [edit] Thanking [edit] Complementing [edit] (Dis)agreeing [edit] Inviitaions [edit] . Quelle est la date (aujourd'hui)? Today is [day].

Meetings [edit] Expressing opinions .

i. "On va bouffer quand?" [edit] Translating 'Fuck' The English term 'fuck' is exceptional as it can serve as noun. depending greatly upon your overall fluency in spoken French. verb. it is important to maintain a consistency of style. think on how it would sound to you if a foreigner-. it is quite finely rawkin'". place them at the end of the sentence. and others. Use rather question formations where there is no inversion or 'est-ce que'. adjective. Mixing styles might sound like saying: "Thy face. There is no such equivalent usage of any word in the French language.came up to you and said "Dude. limiting your use of slang in French (proportionally to your level of fluency) will also limit how much you are patronized and giggled at by native listeners. • • Avoid vous unless a plural is necessary. no matter how much slang you use in your native language. as a foreigner. what a sketchy-ass hater that bizz-natch was. Avoid subject-verb inversion in questions.). quand. etc. I totally was just like 'fuck off o-sheezy'". comment. your use of slang will often be received as cute or funny. To understand this. Therefore. Therefore the translation of 'fuck' into french depends on the corresponding part of speech.with a strong accent and odd rythym of speech-. exclamation.e. [edit] Slang: consistency & style To use slang effeciently. When doing this with interrogatives (qui.Slang Notes on how to use slang [edit] Foreign speakers It is important to note that. only the raised tone at the end of the sentence. [edit] Examples noun .

. The back of the throat should be stretched out as if you see a mouse and are saying "eee!". ça craint"/"C'est bordelique"/"C'est de la merde" "I am so fucked-up" = "Ça va pas du tout" (mental state).. an idiot ah-BROO-tee ."He's a great fuck" = "Il est bien baisable" (although 'baisable' = fuckable) "He is such a fuck(er)" = "C'est un enfoiré/enculé/connard/salaud" (insert any insult) "He's such a fuck-up" = "C'est un pauvre con/un raté" verb sexual: baiser. then try gargling without water. "Putain !" . "Putain de merde !" "Putain de bordel de merde" (for stringing these together. "J'suis totalement bourré(e)" (drunk) adverb "I am trying to fucking work here" = "Putain. j'essaie de bosser" exclamation "Fuck!" = "Merde !" . niquer. *The U is hardest for English speakers.e. gargle with water. enculer "I fucked up on my French test" = "J'ai raté/niqué mon examen de français" "I fucked (up) my car" = "J'ai niqué ma bagnole" "He fucked me over" = "Il m'a trahi" "I fucked your mom" = "J'ai baisé/niqué ta mère" "Fuck off" = "Fous-moi la paix". insulting: foutre.: these can also be compounded in French. but the lips should be in a tight circle as if you are saying "ooo". That is what your throat should be doing when pronouncing the R. "Bordel !" n. Audio1 Audio2 Audio3 Audio4 Abruti(e) n. là. A retard. coucher avec . i.b. see the scene in the film Matrix Reloaded with the Frenchman in the restaurant) [edit] Glossary Notes on Pronunciation: *To feel how R should be pronounced. "Fous le camp" (see the verb 'Foutre') "Fuck you"/"Go fuck yourself" = "Va te faire foutre/enculer" adjective "This is fucking awful" = "Putain.

Short for apéritif.. Slang for 'car' ban-YOLE Bahut n.Accro n. teenager. ah-PAIR-roh Appart n.. for 'well'. a crazy person BARge BAHR-joe Bander v.. Slang for 'high school' (formerly for 'factory') Barj' or Barjot adj.. short for 'appartement' ah-PARR Aprèm n. to become erect... flat or apartment. addict ack-RO Ado n. ah-PRIm Bagnole n. dick bEEt Blaireau n. short for 'adolescent' AH-doh Apero n... often used at the beginning of a phrase.... and followed by "ouais" or "non" Baañ ('baa' like the sound a sheep makes with a nasalized sound at the end) Bite n. Short for après-midi.. Loser bl-AIR-roh . crazy n. to get a hard-on BAHN-day Ben interj.

a rough equivalent in English would be 'face' rather than 'head'. "Quel con" = "What an idiot" .. litt.Le Bled n. it went well) / "Pas du tout" (Not at all) saw ah AY-TAY Chaud Lapin n. to eat n. job bOOL-oh Se Branler v. Sex maniac (lit. or 'head' in its slang usage. it went well.. Synonym for 'tête'. stupid "J'ai été con quand j'ai décidé de sortir" = "I was dumb when I decided to go out" n.. 'ball'.. the boondocks blED Boule n.. 'cunt' (as used in UK English). to wobble) suh BRAhn-lay Ça a été exp.. A night at the movies SEE-noh-sh La Cité n.: "Ta boule me manque" = "I miss seeing your sweet face" bOOL Bouffer v.. food BOOF-fay Bosser v.. ça a été" (Yes. Answers to this question: "Ouais. to work boss-SAY Boulot n. la bouffe. litt.e. i.. hot rabbit) show lah-PAÑ Cinoche n. also a question "Ta présentation... ça a été ?" = "How'd your presentation go?" .. to masturbate (lit.. ghetto see-TAY Con adj.

a cold. Also. to do or to make. Synonyms: 'bouder'(to brood). "Je suis hyper triste" = "I'm really sad" EE-pair Kiffer . to die. v.. creh-vay lah crehve Débile n. to pout. dear-loh Enculer v. la crève.. 'to kick the bucket' adj. 'very'. to bugger.. Commonly employed in vulgar/familiar expressions such as: "Va te faire foutre" = "Go get fucked" "J'en ai rien à foutre (ici. exp. to burst or explode. "à la con". "J'ai cet examen à la con" = "I have this stupid test" cohÑ Crever v. "to fuck flies in the ass") means "to nit-pick".. "faire la gueule". eñ-CU-lay La Fac n. stupid. the flu. Sperm. Equivalent to "fuck in the ass" ("cul"="ass"). Colloquial word meaning 'headmaster'.. crevé(e). fer lah tet Foutre n. with you)" FOO-truh Hyper adj.exp. Widely used under the form "va te faire enculer" (litt. exp. or adj. slang for "stupid" DAY-beel Dirlo n.: "J'ai la crève". "enculé" is the participle turned into a substantive. "go get fucked in the ass") which stands for "fuck off". exhausted. in a stupid way. As in "Je suis crevé(e)" = "I'm exhausted" n. avec toi)" = "I have nothing to do (here. Vulgar equivalent of the verb 'faire'. 'really' . : "enculer des mouches" (litt. To fuck. college or university fack Faire la tête exp. and means "bastard" or "asshole"..

Metaphorically.. or 'The meal is crap' This word has produced the phrase «le mot de cinq lettres». "sensational" or "awesome" j-knee-al Grave adj. Means 'to shout'. oñ-guh-lay Macdo Short for MacDonald's. "great".v. maRed / with emphasis or in exclamation: mare-DUH N'importe quoi exp. 'whatever' n. Sometimes used under the form faire kiffer.g Tu me fais trop kiffer. 'Arrête de me gueuler dessus' could be translated into 'Stop shouting at me'. It can be used in "Ta gueule!" which can be translated into 'Shut up!'. c'est de la merde'. Often used in insults such as 'Nique ta mère' (Fuck your mother). translated as 'shit'. Exists also engueuler. "brilliant".. adults use it often. slang for 'mouth' or 'face'. That is to say. "severe".g "il est débile grave.g "je la kiffe grave!" (I really like her). guh-lay . 'Je vais te niquer ta gueule (vulgaire)' : je vais me battre contre toi ! . slang for 'to break' or 'to be great'.. e. sometimes reduced to 'Ta mère!'. Slang for 'to have sexual intercourse'. gull Gueuler v. slang for 'to reprimand'. lui!" (he's really stupid) grah-ve Gueule n.g. Colloquial word meaning "genius" (as used in UK English).. e. mack-doh Merde n. lui!" or "il est grave débile. merde is not seen as vulgar as 'shit'. an exact transcribed meaning of the English phase "four-letter word". When used with a predicate. It can also mean 'rubbish'. it can be placed before or after it. as well as the youth. roughly means "stupid" e. litt.g "mes parents sont graves" (my parents are stupid) adv.. Colloquial word from arabic meaning 'to like'.. ce qu'il dit" nahm-poRt-UH-kwah Niquer v. excl. bullshit as in "C'est du n'importe quoi. keef-ay Génial adj. e. slang. for example 'Ce repas. roughly meaning "a lot" or "really" e.

) NEEK-ay Ouais 'yeah' (as opposed to "oui" = "yes") waay Putain n.. For example . and can be translated in some cases for the English adjective 'quite'.' (This game is great. job.e. 'really' . "Je suis super content" = "I'm really happy" soup-air Taff n.'Il est vachement idiot' could be translated as 'He is quite stupid'.g. 'Putain' is the closest equivalent to the English 'fuck' (see note on 'fuck'). It can however be used sometimes as an exclamation of surprise or amazement 'la vache! c'est genial ce truc' vah-shuh. a popular French phrase is 'la vache!' which.'tu as perdu!' could be greeted with 'la vache!' or 'mince!' or other such expressions of discontent. old form for 'pute' (whore).. pew-tAÑ Super adj. as an exclamation. [edit] .) 'Ce jeu nique tout. means 'damn!' or 'darn!'. vachement is a synonym for "very". For instance . 'very'.' (This door is out of order. Stuff trew-uhk Tronche n. As a name. excl. Literally "cowly". work. task taff Truc n. Whilst on the subject of 'vache'. vah-shuh-MAWÑ Zinzin n.. Colloquial word meaning 'face'. France. TRon-shuh Vachement adj. 'Cette porte est niquée. Colloquial word meaning 'crazy'. slang. Roughly equivalent to 'merde' when used as an exclamation.

. "-es" (such as in the articles les and des). The word verlan is in itself an example of this. Keuf Policeman (not polite) from flic "Il est chelou ce mec ! j'vais le balancer aux keufs. girl. difficult. the conjunction "et" (and). it comes from the word l'envers (meaning 'backwards'). 'reub'). ('Beur' is so commonly used that it now has its own Verlan form. . ridiculous. Party. from lourd... shady.. from louche. Crazy. awful.. (the d is dropped in Verlan because the final d does not pronounce in lourd). in verlan it will become [2-1]. [edit] Common Chat Abbreviations There are two general guidelines: • é can be susbstituted for all homophonic equivalents including "-ais". heavy. something that sucks. pissed off. Verlan is. Rotten. chick. angry. and the two componenents switch positions. Ouf adj. Woman. Not funny. in that certain words are split in half. from femme. unlike Pig Latin. and the verb "est" (third person sing. Ripou adj." Meuf n. from fête. quite commonly used among young adults and even adults.Verlan Verlan is roughly similar to English Pig Latin. Common verlan expressions include: Beur ou rebeu n. if you have word [12]. from fou. Used commonly in the expression "c'est un truc de ouf" ("that is some crazy shit"). Relou adj. from arabe. A person of Arab descent. Chelou adj. suspicious. Venère adj.. "-ait". aggravated. For example.. from enervé(e). from pourri Ripou = un policier qui commet des actes graves illégaux pl : des ripoux Teuf n.. but do not necessarily retain all letters (due to French pronunciation patterns). Fishy. gross.

c'était. vnr adj. laughing out loud). "sorry". also seen in pourkoi. "it is necessary". "it was". tout(e). ct subj+verb. donc.. and vois (voi). n.. "bursting with laughter". que. biz c subj+verb. "that" or "which". aggravated.. dc conj. il faut que. qui. "it is". "all". fok exp. mort(e) de rire. "but". "therefore.. "kisses". . so". "laughing myself to death"... stronger than mdr. koi interrogative. dsl adj... "that".. "why". and relative pronoun.. "what". (equivalent of lol.• conjugation of être. also seen in the expression tout le monde. "to be"). désolé(e). pour. from the Verlan form of enervé(e). c'est. laughing out loud). ki interr. tt adj. mdr exp. (equivalent of lol. bisous. "for". pron.. mé conj. peté(e) de rire. ptdr exp. mais. imparfait (past) conjugation of c'est. words that end in a silent -s commonly drop this s: such as pas (pa). pissed off. angry. and rel. quoi. pr prep. ke interr.

one types ` and then e.. Under Keyboard layout/IME. ù Alt+151 or Alt+0249 û Alt+150 or Alt+0251 ü Alt+129 or Alt+0252 [edit] In Mac OS X You could change your keyboard layout in System Preferences->International->Input Menu or with the default qwerty keyboard layout you can use meta keys to create the accents.. but there is a much better method. to get è. è. To get Ë. this can . 3.Typing Characters International Keyboard Configuration Commonly one memorises the alt-number code for inserting non-English characters (below). See http://www. Click Add. however. or ù. option option option option + + + + "`" "e" "i" "u" = = = = ` ´ ˆ ¨ [edit] Copy & Paste This method can be useful if you are just writing a short text (for example an e-mail) and don't have a computer where you can/want change language settings. For instance if you want to create an "`" accent you would press option+` then press the vowel you want to appear under the letter to create à. choose United States-International.. Just try to pull up a web page or a document that contains the special characters and paste them into your text. In Windows XP: 1. you prefix the letter with either ` ' " ~ or ^ So. 2. Under Input language. For longer texts. The keystrokes for the diffent accents are. 5. 4. choose your native language. Start -> Settings -> Control Panel Regional and Language Options Languages -> Details . One can change their keyboard configuration from their previous setting to a US (Qwerty) International setting. Now to form accents. ò. one types " and then E.starr.net/kbh for more information.. 6. ì.

become quite tedious. Of course you have to either type in the Alt number code or paste the character. Combinations useful for typing in French follow: à Compose + a + ` â Compose + a + ^ ä Compose + a + " ç Compose + c + . for example typing ~a when you mean à. you can define a compose key by opening a terminal window and typing: To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e To use the xmodmap -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: "keysym Menu = Multi_key" right Windows key: "keysym R_Meta = Multi_key" right Alt key: "keysym Alt_Gr = Multi_key" To use the Compose key. but the point is that you only have to do it once for the whole text and not for every single à that you want to type. then type two characters. The idea is to mark a character for becoming a special character. [edit] Unix and the Compose key If you are using Unix or a derivative operating system (such as Linux) with XFree86. è é ê ë É Compose Compose Compose Compose Compose + + + + + e e e e E + + + + + ` ' ^ " ' î Compose + i + ^ ï Compose + i + " ô Compose + o + ^ ö Compose + o + " ù Compose + u + ` û Compose + u + ^ ü Compose + u + " . [edit] Search & Replace If you are working with a text editor you have the option to search for text and replace it with other text. press and release the Compose key. This feature can be used to 'type' special characters. After you have written your text you replace marked characters (the ~a) with special characters (the à).

Dozens of valuable links.org) Dictionnaire de langue francaise.com French Language Anne Fox BBC Jump-Gate University of Adelaide. Australia French Language Learning Software Free Online French Tutorial BBC Bitesize grammar TravelWiki Phrasebook Orbis Latinus French MIT French I Assignments MIT French II Assignments Useful information on the French language can be found on the site of tv5 (www. Dictionnaire anglais/francais. Translators • • • Google Translator Babelfish Translation : A translation website Google Toolbar .automatic translate on mouseover of a word (English to French only) [edit] Learning french • • • • • • • • • • • • • About. Dictionnaire de synonymes.tv5.Web Resources Wikipedia French language external links . Conjugaisons. Dictionnaire francais/anglais. Meul Etienne) Online verb conjugator [edit] . and lots more! [edit] French grammar • • • • • Portail lettres Clo7 French grammar lessons Exercises on French grammar (Dr.

Dictionaries • • Lexilogos : all online French dictionaries French dictionary [edit] French Culture • • • Le portail de la culture Cortland Ambassade de France en Nouvelle-Zélande [edit] Travel in France • • Ministère des Affaires Etrangères français TravelWiki [edit] French Administration • Le portail de l'administration .

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