1.

GENERAL

This section covers the stormwater drainage works for the section of the main road located between stations 0+000 and 3+500. The objective of the proposed stormwater system is the collection and disposal of surface run-off water generated over various roads and open lands within the project area. This will include the main road and a short length from the branches. 2. 2.1 STORMWATER DRAINAGE WORKS DESIGN CRITERA 1) The following criteria were adopted for the concept design of the project. These criteria were selected in accordance with the British Standards (BS) and codes of practice. 2.2 DATA COLLECTION

Information required for hydrological analysis and design was collected. The collected data include the following: 1. Topographic Contour Maps: a 100 m contour interval topographic maps were obtained and were used for the delineation of the watershed. 2) Rainfall data: Rainfall data was collected from rainfall gauging stations. 3) Survey: Additional survey should be carried out for the existing culvert status. 2.3 HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Hydrologic analysis is the most important step prior to the hydraulic design of a highway drainage structure. It includes the estimation of the catchment physical parameters, calculations of the time of concentration, establishment of intensity - duration - frequency curves, and calculation of runoff.

2.3.1 ESTIMATION OF CATCHMENT PHYSICAL PARAMETERS Physical parameters of the drainage area are very significant for the hydrologic analysis. Boundaries of catchments are delineated from the 100m topographic maps which was not very significant. Main streams are also traced as well as the maximum and minimum elevations along them. The area of each catchment as well as the difference in elevation within the catchment are used for computing runoff quantities. The runoff coefficient/curve number for every catchment is generally estimated from the ground cover, the topography and the shape of the area. These are discussed in the following sections. 2.3.2 2.3.2.1 RUNOFF QUANTITY RUNOFF FORMULA

Several methods, each with its own assumptions and constraints, may be used to estimate watershed runoff. Two methods are used in the preliminary analysis for estimating runoff from the drainage areas crossed by the project. The application of each method depends on the availability and type of rainfall data, flow records, and the catchment size. Methods considered in this analysis are: • • The Rational Method for areas < 50 ha. The SCS Unit Hydrograph Method for areas ≥ 50 ha. a- The Rational Method This method is based on the assumption that a steady uniform rainfall rate in time and space will produce maximum runoff when all parts of the watershed are contributing to outflow. This condition is met when the storm duration exceeds the time of concentration. It is used to calculate surface runoff discharges generated from a design storm with a specific return period and a duration time equal to the time of concentration

of the catchment areas. The method relates rainfall to runoff using the following formula:

Q =

CIA 360

where Q A = = Maximum rate of runoff, m3/s Catchment area, hectares. The rainfall intensity in millimeters per hour, for the period of maximum

I

=

rainfall of a given frequency of occurrence and for a duration corresponding to the time of concentration. C = Runoff coefficient

The run-off coefficient is the ratio of runoff to rate of rainfall. consideration the type of the Project and its location.
b - The SCS Unit Hydrograph Method

Taking in

The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS - now the Natural Resource Conservation Service) method estimates runoff using in addition to rainfall, catchment characteristics such as antecedent soil moisture conditions, types of soil, initial abstraction of rainfall, slope, length of the longest channel, and surface treatment and land cover. These characteristics are reflected by a Curve Number (CN) value. This number typically ranges from 25 (for low runoff depressions) to 98 (for paved impervious areas). An initial abstraction factor (Ia) can be specified. The SCS-CN method typically uses an initial abstraction of 0.2S, where S is a maximum soil storage depth (in inches) and is calculated from the equation below (other values may be used).

S=

1000 − 10 CN
CN = Curve Number S = Maximum storage depth

where:

Soils are classified, into four hydrologic groups: A, B, C, and D based on their runoff potential. Soil A has a low runoff potential, it has a high infiltration rate and high rate of water transmission. aggregated silt. This group covers soils such as deep sand, deep loess, and Soil C has slow infiltration and water Soil B has moderate infiltration and water transmission rates. This

group includes shallow loess and sandy loam.

transmission rates even if thoroughly wetted. This group includes layered soils with high fine textures such as clay loam, shallow sandy loam, soils low in organic contents, and soils of high clay contents. Finally, soil D has a very high runoff potential due to low infiltration and water transmission rates. This group includes most of clay soils and soils of high swelling potentials. Table 1 below shows typical CN values for different land use/cover/soil complexes.

Table : Areas

Typical Runoff Coefficients Values (C) For Rural
C Vegetal Cover 0.20 effective D Surface Storage 0.20 : few drainage surface and ways

Watershed Characteristics A B Relief Soil Infiltration 0.40 0.20 Steep terrain 30%

rugged No effective soil No thin

plant Negligible shallow;

:Average cover; either rock cover; bare or very depression mantle sparse soil cover negligible infiltration capacity 0.15 clay;

slopes greater than or

steep and small, no ponds or marshes 30% 0.15 0.15

0.30

Hilly with average Slow to take up Poor to fair; clean Low; well defined system slopes of 10 to water; 30% or cultivated crops or of small drainage ways, no less than 10% of area other soil of low poor natural cover; ponds of marshes. infiltration capacity such as under good cover

heavy gumbo 0.20 Rolling to 10% 0.10 with Normal, 0.10 0.10 considerable

deep Fair to good, about Normal;

average slopes of 5 loam

50% of area in good surface depression storage; grass land woodland typical of prairie lands, or equivalent cover lakes ponds, and marshes less than 20% of area 0.0 high; not drainage sharply

0.10

0.05 soil up

0.05

Relatively flat land High, deep sand or Good to excellent; High, surface depression average slopes 0 to other 5% takes that about 50% of area in storage water good grass land; system woodland equivalent

readily and rapidly

or defined, large flood plain storage; large number of

ponds and marshes Note: Runoff coefficient is equal to the sum of coefficients from the appropriate block in rows A, B, C, and D. These runoff coefficients shall be proportioned to the

percentage of area covered.
It shall be noted that all units of runoff nalysis in the SCS method are in inches (unless otherwise stated), conversion to metric units is possible at the end of analysis. The SCS-CN method calculates the volume of runoff given the input rainfall depth and the CN value. The relation is given by

( P - 0.2S) 2 Q=
P + 0.8S
where: Q P S = the accumulated depth of runoff (inches); = the accumulated depth of storm rainfall (inches); and = the value of S is a function of the CN value as given earlier.

According to existing conditions, hydrologic soil groups C and D were chosen to represent the hydrological condition of the soil in general. The Curve Number (CN) associated with normal (average) Antecedent Moisture Conditions (AMC II) for desert soils with poor vegetation cover ranges from 80 to 85 but for low lands it is 77. The project area is considered to be in a low land. The shape of the SCS flood hydrograph is standard and depends on the watershed area and the lag time of the basin. The lag time is about 0.6 times the time of concentration. The peak flow for one unit of rainfall excess is given by
2.08A

Q

peak

=

T

R

where Qpeak A TR = the peak discharge in (m3/s); = the drainage area in (km2); and = the time of rise of the flood hydrograph which equals the lag time plus onehalf of the storm duration in (hours). 2.3.2.2 Rainfall Intensity The drainage design is based on the rainfall-intensity duration relationship (IDF) extracted from Warry Gaging Station. 2.3.2.3 Recurrence Interval The recurrence interval was select according to Qatar Drainage manual. Generally, the following intervals are adopted. Road Body Culverts Underpasses 10 years 50 years 50 years.

2.3.2.4 Time of Concentration The time of concentration is the longest time, without unreasonable delay, required for a drop of water to flow from the upper limit of a drainage area to the point of collection or concentration. This time depends on the size and the shape of the catchment area, its hydraulic characteristics, and upon the hydraulic characteristics of the drainage system.

For cross drainage works (culverts); the time of concentration may be estimated using Kirpich or the Kinematic wave equation. For areas less than 50 ha, Kirpich is used; while the Kinematic wave is used for larger areas.

Kirpich’s equation is given by:

1 L1.155 Tc = x 52 H 0.385
where: Tc = L = (m) H = Difference in elevation between the farthest point on the drainage area and the point of collection, (m) The Kinematic equation is defined as follows:  L0.6 × n 0.6  T `c = 0.93 ×  0.4  i × S 0.3     Tc = Time of concentration, min. L = Length of Overland flow (ft) n = Manning Overland Roughness i = Rainfall Intensity (in/hr) For road drainage works in urban areas, the time of concentration for each area served by stormdrains may be divided into two parts: Time of concentration, min. Horizontally projected length of drainage basin along the main water course,

to = Time of entry. tp = Time of flow in the conduit.

The time of flow in the storm sewer may be evaluated from the design velocities and the length of the reach considered. The time of entry may be determined by the following formula developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The minimum time of entry is taken 6 minutes. Tc = 1.8 (1.1-C) L0.5/S1/3 Where, tc = Time of concentration, minutes C = Rational method runoff coefficient L = Length of overland flow, ft S = Surface slope, %. 2.4 SIZING OF CHANNELS

The Manning formula is used for the design of the collection network – pipes or channels. The equation states: Q = (1/n) x A x (R2/3) x (S1/2) Where, Q = The discharge in cu.m/sec. n = The roughness coefficient of the channel or pipe. A = The area of flow in sq.m. R = The hydraulic radius in m. and is the ratio of the flow section over the wetted perimeter. S = The slope of channel or pipeline in m/m. Values of n adopted for concrete channels is 0.016 The following criteria has been set for the design work: A minimum free board of 50 cm for the drainage channels is adopted. The free board is based on the peak design flow and is a safety margin for carrying either higher frequency storms or for future increase in surface run-off. 4) 5) 2.7 STREET INLETS (INTERCEPTORS) The street inlets shall be installed at sag points road intersections and whenever the spread of water across the road is expected to extend beyond the permissible limit. They shall be connected to the positive drainage collection system with a pipe gradient equal or greater than 1% or to the positive drainage collection system.

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