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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
PROFESSOR R. F. McRAE
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA
LONDON LUZAC AND CO (PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE) 46. of Christ Church. M. In and Examiner of Rishikula. lately Associate of the Society for Psychical Research.D. (Oxon. B.O. W.THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA In the Philosophy of the Vedanta B7 PRABHU DUTT SHASTRI Ph. etc. Professor of Sanskrit.).L.Sc. Lahore . Theological Exhibitioner of Manchester College. (Kiel}. Boden Research Grant. Hum.T. Member of the Oxford Philosophical Society. Oriental College.. Hardwar .. etc.C 1911 . GREAT RUSSELL STREET. Oxford (1910).\ B. Lit. and First Eng lish Master and Lecturer in Psychology at the Government Training spector College.A. Oxford. London.. M. (Pb. Oxford Government of India Research Scholar (Sanskrit-) .
FROME.BUTLER & TANNER. AND LONDON. . THE SELWOOD PRINTING WORKS.
During the last thirty years a good deal has been written on the Vedanta. that it is not the genuine product of the early speculation of the Upanisads. rather hastily. Some critics believe imported from Buddhism and receives hardly any countenance from the Upanisads. though only in passing and by the way. That it is richly supported in the later Vedanta is already an established fact. or less slipshod translations which Hitherto these treatises have . and it is only with a view to is contribute a little towards a clearer understanding on problem that I undertook to examine the Upanisads as minutely and as fully as I could. this always relying upon the original texts more than the are many more to be found. but a number of writers seem to conclude. and naturally this doctrine has also been treated of. but has been later added to the original Vedanta by Sankara and that it his followers.PREFACE THE Doctrine of Maya is the pivotal principle in the Advaita Philosophy the final pronouncement of Indian speculation on the conception of Reality and Appearance. The point is still debated.
and has attempted to base their chronology on such internal evidence. may appear dogmatic. Working independently on the I original texts of the also reached practically the same Upanisads. more appropriately I have not stated a fact but have in every instance supported dogmatically. far how The point to be and to what extent the con- . course. Scholars have only dashed at them to get out some meaning. investigated opinions concur. My method has been analytical. is On the question whether the conception of Maya found in the literature from Sankara down to the all is present day. inconsistent and unsystematic. hence in Chapter II have enlarged and have developed that scheme with the aid of all the more important passages bearing on each point. I believe. the conclusions to be arrived at.vi PREFACE looked upon as paradoxical. but that hardly touches me. conclusion. To press one s own per sonal belief and point of view in a scientific inquiry vitiates. To those who do not hold the same view as a little I. it with appropriate references. an examination of synthetico-analytic . which will lead us inductively to the established conclusion. but have hardly attempted to see if there existed in them an inner Deussen has. of principle of unity and system. indicated in his Geschichte the evolution of been thought within the Upanisads. since I have kept out all questions of personal belief and have only made an honest attempt to treat the a statement here and there question scientifically.
PREFACE vii ception is to be traced in the earlier literature before the time of Sankara (who flourished about a thou sand years before hauer). My is that the conception of Maya as old as some of the later books of the Rgveda conclusions are (i) where its forms are clearly noticeable. elaborated more and more as time went on ". . and 10) have started Maya (3) with gratuitously assuming Maya to be a concrete time in the Svetasvatara Upanisad that most of the critics of reality. as it is intended to help indirectly towards a thorough grasp of the idea of Maya. (2) ".".". and passing through the hands of Gaudapada and Sankara was crystallized into a technical form. Schopen Hence I have confined my inquiry to the Vedic literature. and have carried my investigation down to Sankara. Chapter I is more or less introductory. it standing face to face with the Absolute as were. in the sense of illusion of course. expressed in modern Kantian The transcendental ideality phrase. especially the Upanisads. would run : of the world does not deprive it of its empirical reality. and that it gradually developed through the speculation of the Upanisads. which. The philology of the . his spiritual disciple. . chief principles. that the word ". Some again have its criti while perfectly ignoring one of ". Maya. occurs later for the first (iv. a tertium quid between the Absolute and the Universe and this has made their whole criti cism cised futile it and irrelevant.
ever. and as yet I know of coherent no better have given a very Gaudapada Karikas on the Mandukya Upanisad. especially those . I In the same chapter s brief analysis of it correctly. It seems to me perfectly clear that Gaudapada was a thoroughgoing idealist and a worthy precursor of Sankara. I may hope. Some of its epigrammatic stanzas have been erroneously construed so as to counte nance either the doctrine of Sunyavada or that of the reality of the world. This has its own justification. In Chapter II I have attempted to trace the development of the I do not.Tiii PREFACE word is not within the strict scope of my essay. I have selected the most typical as well as the most difficult passages. consistent and as far as it goes . But surely it is one of the possible systematic ways of treating the Upanisads. and even those who know it cursorily do not always understand scheme. since the book is unfortunately not so well known.. etc. how conception. Then in Chapter III I have examined brief the fundamental objections of the three in other schools within the Vedanta. will remove doubts on this point. apart from the word. which. so far as they bear on the subject. claim that the internal system of the Upani- sads as sketched there. but I have collected some suitable materials which may help to give an insight into the gradual transition of meaning of the word itself. the transition of the various stages of thought. is to be looked upon as an ultimate scheme or the only possible scheme.
Berkeley. if rendered as a maydmatram mere illusion would imply this. I have given my own translation of passages which in my opinion have not been quite accurately rendered in the current translations. is not necessary for the purpose.g. and that the additional part. pretation. not a mere illusion. Plotinus. maya. There are some passages where the latter conception seems to be held. ". intended in order not to make the essay unneces I had a mind. But as I have ". These objections have never before been collected together and discussed in reference to the doctrine of Maya The brevity in this part of the work was proper. especially in the systems of Plato.. illusion the word though I am conscious of the subtle difference in the two conceptions. and But in the present volume I have out. which would have taken a considerable length Schopenhauer. however. e. Person The ally I would prefer the term appearance. and ployed the words appearance rather indiscriminately in translating * ". left it in itself. says the is Maya theory in its correct inter an appearance. The word illusion has been most current in this connexion. since the latter as such is impossible. ". Kant. ".". to append sarily long. since it was felt that the present essay is in a way complete in itself. ".PREFACE of ix the Theistic Idealism of Ramanuja. I ". world. have em ". shown in some detail with reference to passages . another chapter on the analogies of the Conception of Maya in European philosophy.
: it is my ". and their ultra-rationalistic temper is to account for that. H.". Dr. instead of starting with the the world. Bradley. A. Macdonell and Professor J. Jacks (Oxford).x PREFACE this was not exactly what was meant by the old Indian thinkers. F. Pro fessor A. . Wille. Smith (Kiel). (2) that ". also to thank Dr. C. Librarian. that the world strictly speaking the Atman itself. for their various useful suggestions. S. also grateful to Dr. they were mistaken. H. Dr. time. My sen best thanks are due to Professor Paul Deus- Rev. Rashdall. does so with same conclusion from is this standpoint as well. viz. India . who were kind enough to give me opportunities to discuss with them the subject of Maya in the light of European philosophy I have in order to remove some of my difficulties. Professor Henry Jones (Glasgow) and Professor Rudolf Eucken (Jena). Thomas. since there is no other existence but the Atman. The Brhada- from the Chandogya Upanisad. P. the I am (Oxford). A. F. and it causality is the it is an appearance. I hold that even if some of them really thought so. Estlin Carpenter.. but in its own nature Atman. and comes to the Atman. As limited by space. These two positions correspond to Schopenhauer s parallel sayings (i) that the word is my Vorstellung. L. ranyaka Upanisad emphatically proclaims that the Atman is the only reality and that all plurality is a mere matter of words the Chandogya Upanisad.". Rev. W. Schiller. F. J. Dr.
of the British and the Librarians of the Bodleian for L. D. 1911.PREFACE Office. . To Professor Barnett I am further obliged for correcting the proof sheets. OXFORD. their kind assistance with books and unpublished manuscripts. CHRIST CHURCH. Barnett. PRABHU DUTT SHASTRI. xi Professor Museum. January.
V..V.V. V. The Brahmanas The ". Rosen Sayana s Power as Witt explanations The idea of distinguished from that of Physical Power Rare occurrence of the word in Y. 129. V. ".CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE . Hymns of R. Ludwig.V.V. v CHAPTER HISTORY OF THE I ". after 33-110 Search Unity The Brahmanas and the Upani sads Importance of the Brh. CHAPTER Germs II DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTION OF MAYA. ". Reference to A. . ". where the word occurs Meaning of the word in R. Yajfiavalxiii of the Idea in*R. etc. . and S. 1-32 Introductory Bothlingk and Roth on Maya Geldner Uhlenbeck Grassmann Monier Williams The Nighantu and the Nirukta Conclusions so far The various forms of the word arranged in order of their frequency of occurrence References to R. MAYA . Up. x. BSdaUpanisads Gaudapada s Karikas rayana s Sutras Sankara s Bhsya Philo sophical and Popular meanings Etymo logy Two-fold Conception of Maya Inter connexion of the various meanings. WORD ".
Quotations in support Discussion of the Idea in the Bhagavadgita Gaudapada. Pure Idealism. . CHAPTER VEDANTA The four . Pantheism. Cosmogonism. ". III OBJECTIONS TO THE DOCTRINE WITHIN THE . and General view of the modern way tation Sankara of interpre Recapitulation. Theism and Materialism. 111-138 schools of the Vedanta -Their funda mental doctrine in relation to Maya Ramanuja s criticism of Maya Examination of arguments Their chief fallacy Stand point of Vallabha and Madhva Other more important objections to the Theory Recapi tulation Conclusion. . etc.xiv CONTENTS PAGE kya Idealism Metaphysical and Empirical Accommodation standpoints Idea of The Upanisads as a system The stages of s ". his .
MAYA".HISTORY OF THE WORD ". .
Our present contradictory is intended to bring out the connecting inquiry links various meanings as they gradu To avoid ally passed through stages of transition. the word is very fluid. The misconception and mis . fixed words If it in the meaning through out the history of Indian thought. it seems necessary to make clear the ground by first coming to terms with the word use of words hence. But as it is. and has at different times assumed various shapes of meaning. MAYA ". I WORD ". to define the concept of Maya in . MAYA ". itself.CHAPTER HISTORY OF THE ". our task would have been lighter and we should have been saved the labour of writing this chapter. all subsequent error and confusion in understand its between ing the conception of Maya. had an unalterable and What first it meant in the Vedic literature seems at sight to be almost to its later connotation. by means of a careful philo logical research. is one of the most important and prominent vocabulary of the Vedanta philosophy. is at the root of a host of fallacies we if believe that no mean part of our task is finished we are able.
V. of its meaning down to the times of Sankara. List. Tauschung. (i) : Verwandlung. Schein.4 relation THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA to its historical development. In treating ary] give the following different word Kunst. Gestalt . Phantasie. die Kunst. their Now mere juxtaposition. Zauberkunst. . . Zauberkraft. . Trugbild. which sur vives even to-day. . Schlauheit der (3) Illusion. Bothlingk and Roth (in St. angenommene sich und andere zu verwandeln. when it acquired a rigid and technical sense. Kunstgriff. Geldner * word as it assigns the following meanings to the occurs in the Rgveda and the A. die Macht Wunder zu (2) tun. Tauschung. Erdichtung . Stuttgart. these do not help us much by In order to be free from the fault of false analogy and hasty etymologizing we and we now begin shall proceed inductively to view the meanings in connexion with the context in which the word occurs. Anschlag. kiinstliches ein Blendwerk. 1907. List. Gebilde. Trug. Allwissenheit Betrug. This will furnish an insight into the Doctrine of Maya itself. Petersburg Diction philosophy. which has always been a crux to the student of of the word we shall and trace the development proceed chronologically. ausserordentliches : meanings of the Vermogen. 1 Karl F. Verzauberung. Gaukelei. Geldner. Wun- derkraft. Der Rigveda in Auswahl. in das Verborgene eindringende Geist.
5 also takes it to 2 mean Wunderkraft. word ". Clarendon Press. iii. Kunst oder Zauber-Kunst.MAYA". ". 9.V.".". magic. ch.". Sanskrit-English Dictionary.". these is of course in R..". are only extraordinary or supernatural power found in the earlier language but when he adds : that in R. The great commentator on the Nighantu. Trugbild. Wdrterbuch zum Rig-Veda. Monier Williams. Amsterdam.art.". ". ".sor cery. Grassmann. ". 19). edition. ". Yaska.HISTORY OF THE WORD Uhlenbeck 1 ".". ". 1899. ii. illusion. mentions maya as 4 one of the eleven names of prajna (intelligence).fraud..deception. i. 5 tions of Vedic ". Cf.. 1852 . Ind. the reality. ".V. Zauber- 3 Following Bohtlingk and Roth. but a hasty and erroneous generalization. Bibl. witchcraft. Grk. ".". The Nighantu. 2 3 new 1882 . of Bibl. . but to say that all these is and not accurate. which is one of the earliest collec homonyms. 189899. Oxford. Some shade of are found in R.V. mdti.. Gottingen. See The Nirukta.trick.V. ". is not correct. iii. vgl. ^ris) gives the equivalents iibermenschliche Weisheit oder : Grassmann List. Etymologisches Wdrterbuch der Altindischen Sprache. published 1885. ed. Calcutta. 4 Nighantu. ". 6 9 (p.". ". 811.". Trug. Trugbild. p. Monier Williams also says that the meanings of wisdom. 1 Uhlenbeck. gottliche bild. ". vol. Ind. (after referring it to the root ma =man. un ". 324. vol. also means he ". sec. see p. is using these words loosely. ed. Roth s ed. and their further develop ment is noticed in A.
p. 41. 5. R. meaning in his monu Without citing any us approach directly first more lists meanings. 53-9. viii. iii. 27. ". 3 2 u tu yajniyanam (Nir. mayam and visva hi may a avasi svadhavah (Nir. pi. 9. Cf. of Yaska s . 10. 1. 73. ". 39). 95-96). in. vol. ". 8 x.V. 22. vi. Roth s ed. i. 85. 58. S8. 6. p. 4). 9. 3. 5 . p. i . 7 . no less than twenty-four times. ". Cf.V. (p. 71. i. ii. published 1886. 2. After a careful examination of all the passages where the word occurs in any of its forms in the huge bulk of R. xii. 144. ii. R. . 31. 4. ". xii. Nirukta". 40. 9. ". literature let the Sanskrit and the Vedas in order to judge the meaning correctly from the usage in the context. iii. 27. ". . same sense of while ex prajna 1 carati mayayaisah (Nir. iii. ". 53. vii. 4. (p. 1. 99. vi. 9.. x. R. 6). Ibid. 20. 7.). 5. . R..V. 58. 98. 3 * 6 Cf. 6. vi. in 1.6 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA ". R. 45. 190. 40. how far Sayana of sticks to this mental commentary on R. 20 2 (p. 4). iv. 427. vi. . 124). Cf. 117. : As regards frequency of occurrence the form most commonly met with is may ah 5 (nom. 134.). x. 8 10. 4 . 2 . 22.V. and ace. i. 174). brings out the ". 16 . 27 17 32. ". 1852. 7. ii.V.V. Next p. Gottingen. sing.V. 5). 160. order comes may ay a 6 (instr. 13 (p. 6. 3. vii.V. Cf.. we arrive at the following con clusions i. which It occurs 8 . vii. 10. 17. 3. 6. Ibid. 1. Ibid. i. i. 7. 20. 8 v. I. 6 Cf.2. 6. 278. i. 3 . 10 1 vol. v. 18. plaining adhenva imam u nu kavitamasya may am (Nir. R. 80. 44. 4 We shall have occasion to see presently 2. 99.5.
iii. 7 . mdyl 7 6 mdyinam (instr. 4. 63. 3. mdyinam (ace. of these thirty-five are ad eight to Agni (R. x. 53. 7 . . 18. 5.HISTORY OF THE WORD occurs nineteen times sing. 5.V.V. viii. 64. 54. 3. . 10. R. 44. 147. i . vii. i . 80. 2. 53. R. . 4 x. 34. 6. 2.V. 54. 3. 14. which occur v. 44. occurs of mdyin}.MAYA".V. ii.V. 73. 56. 23. 38. 48. i. 41. 104. Cf. 18. 51. ii. 2.V. 3 ix. 51. i. 6 x.). ii. 6. 3 vii. n. 144. x. Cf. x. 7. x. 9). mdydvind (R. 3. 2 Cf. 9. 7 mdyinah . of mdyin} only once (R.V.V. 14 . 51. 147. 2 * 6 6 7 vi. 22. 5. 139. and each sing. 144 . 30.V. 5 ii. 6.). 78. 30. 5 . 48. 63. 60. 33. 10. x. 38. 88. 39. 2. 61. 10 . 1 Cf. its There are altogether seventy-five hymns in simple or forms. 83. viii. 48. v. 5. 32. 63. 9). v. also (nom. 54. 3 Cf. Other forms. 7. of times. the word may a * itself the forms may am * sing. R. Cf. i . ii. 5. 80. 138. i. ". vi. viii. 34. . 24. 7. R. 20.V. 85. . 99. ii. v. 8 R. mdydvinam (R. 6 vi. 23. 24 . 4 iii. 5 85. 15. and gen. 19. sing. 3. vi. . 12. 7 v. 3). Mdyinl is and mdyind once are mdyini (R. 56. vii. 3 . 33. . 63. 21 . 4 x. 9. . 71. 5). 2. 58. including compounds. 16. I. vi. 4). 32. i. 151. 6. 47. . 160 Cf. 76. 30. 177.V. ten times . ii. . iii. R. v. pi. .V. 56.V. 63. . 6 .V. 73.V. i. ii viii. x. R. 3). iv. 28. . . 3 . 83. v. 3). i. x. 30. 85.V. R. in which the word appears in compound Out 8 dressed to Indra iv. mdydvdn (R. 14 . . 4 . Vide R. and three times. (instr. occurs fifteen times mdydbhify 8 thirteen times of mdyin}. 7.V. i . v. sing three (ace. found twice (R. 14 147. 2. l (ace. n. 5. 3. 7. and mdydvinah (R. 9. 2 of mdyin) pi. . 61. . 82. j iii.
14. Jfianam (R. 40). 27). . 45. four x. 99) . x. 24) v. 104 viii. 30. dition itself bears as preserved in Sayana s commentary tells us ii. i. 117 v. vi. 53) 27 to the Asvins (R. . 56 . and Dyava-prthivyau (R. he could not be so. 20.V. . i. The Indian tra ". (R. iii. energy.V. v. 85 . 78 vi. in. .V. 5. Mayabheda (R. . . 2 vii. (R. ii. 71). x. Indravarunau (R. 61).V. 44. 39. Tradition .V. 82). iv. 99. 53 . . ix.V. Indravisnu iii. (R. 63). 138. . 16. 147. viii.. following Yaska. 23 x. 98. Mitravarunau (R. i. 159) and one each to Usas (R. 76 . 61). 31 . mental power as distinguished from physical but he is in fact. the vii. 47 vii. who were by no means all contemporary. v. Atri (R. 151 . 41). Pusan (R. vi. and Surya-vaisvanarau (R. 18. vi. two each (R. Prajapati-Vaisvamitra ". 48) three to Visve-devah (R. 64 vi. 44.V. v. . x. 73.V. 17 . 88). iii. .V. As a rule. The word Maya is not employed in one and the same sense throughout R. iii. ii. 30 . 83).V. ample testimony to this fact. 60).V. iii. vii. 28. 73. x.V.V. 100.V. 58). x. Sayana in most cases gives the meaning prajnd i.V. 22. v. 38).V. to Varuna (R.V. . THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA 20.V. . 85). 3. v. 34.V.8 iii. 58 .V. 3. 177).e. 48) . Soma v. Sarasvati (R. not always definite It would be a gratuitous assumption on our part to expect the same word to be used in one and the same rigid sense by so many different Rsis. i. i viii. .V. the Adityas (R. Rbhus Somarkau (R. 63 as well as to the Maruts (R. .
: maitat.". he renders word as karmabhih. rupa.". ". 5 Sayana adds miyante jfiayanta iti mayah karmani. 7. In 61. This meaning appears to us to of sacred rites. to measure. Kunst. Which mean artifice. Liber Primus. ". also R. List. 1838. i.". deception. 5 ".". Der Rigveda. Rigveda-Samhita. iii. even in the very first hymn (R. Germ. as prabhaIn R. the same is In R. ". be rather far-fetched. In R. miyate. 1878. n. or ma.V. But these tradition. c and kapata l are the most common.V.HISTORY OF THE WORD that the two meanings prajnd ". i. translates it as ". .".V. 53. Rosen 3 ". durch ubernatiirliche Kraft.) ". mimite. . 27. 9. Sayana seems to waver between these two meanings. etc. For instance. He explains mdyabhih by kapatavisesaih but adds by special stratagems.V. mdyd translated lit. ". power. which the word appears as mdyabhih (and mdyinam). hi. first ". (".". London.e. 4 mimite jamte Sayana derives this meaning thus : karma miyate anayeti va maya karmavisayajnanam : (root ma. are not the only meanings accepted by ". Prag. 1 glory in the form of effulgence or light. adopts the wig 2 by stratagems/ Ludmeaning. mdyayd Sayana explains 4 by knowledge by karmavisaydbhijndnena. Sanskrite et Latine. and leaves the reader to make his own choice. 7 ". i iii.MAYA". x. artifices at the same time that it may also mean prajWilson nabhih by wondrous powers/ Griffith) (lit. 7). ". ".V.". to know). 2 Ludwig. where Sayana says Karmana". Cf.. in and sometimes run parallel. cunning. 3rd conj. Betrug. 60. Kraft. 3 Fridericus Rosen. also renders it as praestigiis. ".
".v. it does not mean any necessarily goes with it ". while both the meanings ". tion and is This meaning too has its own justifica not unconnected with the other two mayd meanings. 34. In v. ". 6. woman. sakti (power). 31. are power (Prajna. are taken in v. ". and it is not .. R.". For instance. and deception". ". ii. which we would translate into such Sanskrit In expressions as sankalpa. 6 simultaneously.V. ". moment Mandalas i. and which are now supposed on good evidence to have been subsequently added to the original collection we find the same want of fixity of the meaning conveyed by the term in the other books of R. which the word is assigned in R. ".power".) (". 30. a mysterious power of the will".e. assuming many different forms. 53. ".V. ". iv. and deception Kapata/ Vanknowledge The above examination of the various pas cana). but will find its appropriate place in the sequel. but ". and so forth. In what sense a woman can be called is not to be discussed here. 9. 21.V. according to Sayana s tradition the word is used in the sense of in R. Indra is spoken of as physical ". 6. 24. . 30. 7 the word is taken to mean a young ".sakti or icchd-sakti. iii.V. The two chief meanings. ii. ". vi. 10.V. 8. ". ". power. 104. vii. for instance. 4. therefore. Sayana emphatically gives the meaning R. iii. keeping aside for a x. of ". 20. 16. and v. THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA 30. sages in which the word occurs has shown us that wherever it means power the idea of mystery i. deception Again. ". lit.o . ".".
beyond them. produced by and these nature may results being wrfra-ordinary by their very be said to set at naught the ordinary ". tion to make when we speak of the transition. limitations understanding. distinctions are to be made. results are Certain mysterious things or this mysterious will-power. however. ". the Vedic hymns. 8 and 18) it appears and Indians of the Vedic age in general were not unaware of a dis tinction between the one and the many.". 47. it is quite easy to ". WORD ". ". n his his physical power but simply by ". ". ". . will-power (aneka- He wills that he may rupagrahanasamarthya) assume such and such forms and it is realized hence Indra is very frequently termed mdyin in . the idea of mystery being com to both these meanings.HISTORY OF THE done by ". may. understand the transition from the idea of ". Still. mys to that of In terious will-power deception. of as passing that various forms assuming in vi. especially when they is help us to a clearer understanding of that which really We (cf. fact the two ideas interpenetrate each other. which because of its inherent deceived is apt to be by such pheno ".MAYA". especially 53. so much so that it seems to us rather a forced distinc ". human mena. of the possibility of the one becoming the many and of that the singers of the hymns the latter being a deceptive creation of a mysterious power. wonderful and extraordinary . mon Hence. note here is where Indra spoken iii.
while in the S. as the R.V. It was not very long before these two Vedas sprang into existence. and the absence of the word Maya from S. Now. all ideas are subservient to sacrifice (yajfia) and its various elaborate ceremonies .V. can be safely taken to be an index to the ideas and views of the ancient Indians of that age. as we shall have the opportunity to speak more of it later. This cannot sur These two Vedas contain prise us in any way. is chanting or singing the mantras the chief function. the mantras of the Rgveda which are mostly adapted and arranged to suit their particular func tions In the Y. is the chief source which along with it form what vidya..V. In fact these three Vedas seem to have been brought into existence almost simultaneously. does not affect our examination.V. to be ranked with the R.V. since we are now concerned only with the mean ings of the word so far as it can be determined by a collocation of ancient texts in a more or less chronological order. ". though it must be admitted that it took a consider- .e. Here valid. the word does not so often occur in the Yajurveda and the Samaveda.V. we cannot do anything more than simply mention it.12 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA This inference seems to us to be reasonable and The fact is very important. i. of these is two Vedas. triple knowledge.". as to their in the tradition of the importance and authority Aryans. The R. as well as some new mantras. known as trayi The comparative the Y.V.
6 A. 5. 27. 9. viii. occurs most twenty times the frequently. 34 3 A. here. v. 9. . And we is society from that described in the are satisfied to note that the word not missing in it. ii xix. viii. 27. The form may a occurs only once (A. 5). 4. xii. 5. n. 8) and may I 1 (v.V. i. 38. not for us to enter into the question The A. (viii. 72. 29. 2. viii. 8. 81. The instrumental singular. New-Haven. 34 . A. ii .MAYA". viii. 10.V. 5. ii. i. 4 A. 225. 4 2 Mdyinah 5 3 occurs and may ah twice each. n. 38.V. 3.V. 22 . vii. vi. 5. 6 viii. may ay a. 4 .V. 2. 29. 27. Altogether the word occurs in ten books only.e. i . JAOS. viz. 10. . 10. the Published vol. vi. The Atharva-Veda was added to the trayl-vidyd much later. vii. 5 viii. 6. 22). eight three times and may dm times. represents a different state of It is civilization of R. 5). 9. 3. .. i. 8. 24.V. iv. . 22. 23. 2. xix. i. 66. The fact has been amply proved by a critical examination of both external and internal evidence. 22 word occurring twice in each of the hymns and twice also in xiii. in sixteen hymns 1 and Maya in all (in A. A. 3. . xix. x. 66. I . 68. as a complete set of books. mdydbhih (xii. 24 x. . . iv. 2 and xix. 13 ably long interval of time to give them the shape which they are found at present.HISTORY OF THE WORD in ". 81. 24. to Cf. xii. 27. the 2 Whitney s Index Verborum . may ay ah (viii. 5 and viii. 6. 8. 24.V. 3 . iv.V. 4). Text of p.1.V. 3 .. I. i . 72. 68. ii. 4. Other forms which occur only once are mdye 10. 27). I. I xiii. 23. 6 2. xiii. Atharva-Veda. 3. 9.
v. Atharva-Veda Samhitd. viii. a wondrous or supernatural power/ supernatural ordinary skill. 18. ". 4 respectively. e.. where it means and hence illusion. 1 1878. by W. 1894 .g. 514. ". 10..14 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA From the very nature of the contents of the Atharva-Veda it is easy to judge the meaning of the Here the mysterious or power spoken of in the Rgveda is more emphasized. par Victor Henry. means an extra ". et ix. 81. Band iii.V. Paris. vii. viii. ". ". ". ". Asuras called to her. p. R.". ". ". extolling the Viraj. and that the ".V.The ! Now we have seen so far that mdyd in ". ". ". 3. ". 85.V.and Griffith s The Hymns of the Atharva-Veda. Prag. mystery ".. ii. instead of Whitney s use of the word illusion here. p. de VAtharva Veda Traduits et Commentes. i. magic With regard to the word occurring in the Brahmanas it would be useless for us to enter into any Cf. 24 are taken from R.V.. O Illusion 2 (maya).". vii. ". 24. and Ludwig s Der Rigveda. in A. and is even translated as illusion (the great controversial word in our 1 The two passages in which subject) by Whitney. vol. D. ". 9. that A. ". and there hardly seems any scope for doubting the meaning. Whitney (Harvard Oriental Series). 4. 1905. . 22. For translation see also Les Livres viii. ele ment is more strongly emphasized in A. 10. x. 507. It means magic throughout. 4932 We would rather say ". Einleitung. come It may also be stated. 2. word mdyd magical element of the ".V. ". by the way. trans. tic hymn. it is rendered so are found in the well-known Mys as used in it.
". 15). 36). So the conditions of the class i. in the Madhyandina and the Kanva-Sakha. and mayavattarah (viii.. xxx.. But before we take up the Upanisads proper. the cooking-pot and the boiling finding one grain well-cooked we infer the same with regard to all the others. prajna The Aitareya Brahmana 6 has mayaya (vi. 841. Cf. 1879.". fundamental importance for our pur pose. 7 The Taittiriya Brahmana of the Black Yafurveda. may of ". ". if the whole is made up homogeneous and similar parts. where the word clearly means supernatural or The form mayaya also occurs magical ". 2) where. mayam. * 5 Ibid. part I. (iii. 44. 728. Berlin and London.". ". ". and Mahidhara in his commentary gives the words and buddhi as synonyms of maya. Bonn. called the Upanisads. V. The White Yajurveda. Ibid. of The really philosophical treatises. p. skill. 8 . Ibid. 7. ". 184 and 230. sthalya 2 nidarsanaya. in the Taittiriya 1 Brahmana 7 of ". mayam. 23 (Vart. 69). V. 52. ".S. 23). The VajasaneyiSamhita.". i. the maxim rice. Das Aitareya Brahmana.e.. mayavant. miyate jndyate anaya iti maya. ". 3 V. are the final portions of the Brahmanas. ".. Mahidhara adds. 1852. 4.". 8. mayaya and mayayam. Weber. MAYA ". By be inferred from that of a part.S. Patanj all s MahaParyapto hi ekah pulakah bhasya. xiii. The Vajasaneyi-Samhita 3 contains 4 the forms 6 maya (xi. herausgegeben von Theodor Aufrecht. 10.S. xxiii. 420. 15 here. See p. we may quote a few references from which are the Brahmanas too 1 in the way 2 of Sthdll-pulaka- nydya.". p. with the commentary of Mahidhara.HISTORY OF THE WORD details ". p.
ii.V. 18. iii. 1906. 1859. mayam ". 237.. mayabhih (ii. and in the next passage expresses the same ". 23. 19 also in Jaim. Peters . 6. p.". * This is the famous quotation from R. p. vi. imya-Upanisad Br.". 47. which may be termed the final Upanisad or the kernel of all the Upanisads. 4. 191. These synonyms give a clear explanation. Calcutta. Br. Calcutta. in many 5. 1 iii. xiv. Further the the forms 2. herausgegeben und burg. xiii. A. by paramavyamohakarim saktih. 22. Concordance to the Principal Upanisads and Bhagavadgita. Kanda II. 5. contains the the Prasna Up. 25). the as the oldest as well most important ". Mayavant (as an adj.". i). 5. power. ed. ed. St. means The Paficaword mayaya (xiii. 3 See G. p. Jacob.. i. ways.). von O. 3 The Brhadaranyaka Upanisad. 5. See Brhadaranyakopanisad. 44. These typical examples are more than suffi cient for our purpose. The Satapatha Brahmana of the White Yajurveda. Calcutta. by Rajendra Lala Mitra. Br. 1905. vol. 4. 9) in the same sense. 119 (Bibl.16 as THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Sayana also adds. 5. 12. and in Sat. by * divine power. 1889. mayavant (xiii. with the Commentary of Sayana. vol. 4. word ". iibersetzt i. and we now hasten to quote references from the Upanisads and from the Bhagasupernatural 2 ". 4. 2 Sayana translates maya here as Aghatita-ghatanaidea saktih. 19) 4 . Br. Ind. byAcarya Satyavrata Samasrami . 12) where the word too contains ". Bohtlingk. which also occurs in Sat. ". it means ".) is seen in Ait. Satapatha-Brahmana (ii.". ". viii. Kandalll. with Sayana sCom. and maye (iii. p. and vol. vimsati Brahmana also has the vadgita.
Up. ". As these and other minor Upanisads are not easily 1871. itself mithyacararupadosa illusion. s aktim vestitam. yad iva. I6).". the later Upanisads too the word occurs Nrp.". the Svetasvatara Up. and mayaya (iv. v. 5).". vol. mayaya (i in (iii. mayamaand 5).MAYA". Indica. (Nrut i).".".".". maya. ya etam mayam ". ".". i) 5 mayam. as a sum-total of pleasure.may aya nasamvittihsvaprakaSe. Indie. may!. (the defect of hypocrisy). is The Great Lord called mayl here and in the follow ing stanza.".". Up. io). bhavati. Among i . Here Maya is spoken of jihmam (moral crookedness) and It is anrtam 2 (telling a lie). io). sukhaduhkhathe whole world maya. tram in Nrut. ". mudha iva vyavaharann aste may ay aiva. Cal. i.". 4 ".". ". natmanarn maya tram ksetram va mayaisa sampadyate. 5 The Nrsimha-Tapani Upanisad. . viii. (Nrut. He is said to create the universe only by his maya-s akti. trayam apy etat (and trayam atrapi) susuptam svapnam mayamatram. ". ca svayam eva ".". sprSati.HISTORY OF THE WORD ". 4 3 mayam. mayinam (iv.mayaya mayaya va e tat sarvam vahirvestitam. rupanubhuteh. ". : Maya Kse- va esa narasimhi. 6 For Culika and other Upanisads see the Collection of ".". and in Nrut. idam sarvam yad ayam atma mayamatram". etc. Up. mayam etam ". In his mohatmakas esaprapancarupamaya.".mayaya hy anveda. maya ca tamomaya cavidya ^aktim vidyat. (3) 6 we read 1 Bibl. ". Up. 9).e. ". available we give the following quotations in full ". 17 2 1 maya (i. maya (i. Bibl. Here maya means the great cosmic com. pain. 29. mayam tu prakrtim viddhi mayinam tu manes varam. ". 5 ..". the forms maya. 5 In Cul. ". ". on the passage Sankara adds. evam evaisa ".. (Khanda Q).". 3 Here the Prakrti of the Sankhya is spoken of as Cf. as a defect along with No. delusion.
i8 ". anirupyamane mayety ucyate. divided into two khandas. 2 The Great Lord is called may! here and in the follow and belongs to A. 1 reads ". where Maya spoken of as bringing about the exist ence of the phenomenal world. published [by Sanskrit Series. 3 which is one of the sectarian Upanisads. 587-92. 487-529.". thirty-two Upanisads.. He is said to create the universe only by his maya-sakti. Katham pratyagatrna paramatma atma may a 2 ceti.V. tato Ramo manavo mayayadhyat ".". description of maya. p.". pp. reads thus ". konaparsve ramamaye (61). Up. and the answer is given in section 4 : ". The Sarv. ". p... Poona. slokas divided into ten khandas. (17). the Anandasrama Cul.. in the last of which it gives a good See Ibid. where an inquiry is made into the meanings of these four terms including maya. THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Vikarajanamm may am astarupam ajam is dhruvam. 1895. con tains only twenty-one slokas. . contains ninety-four See ibid. The Ramap. 29. No. 230. Anadir antarvatni pramanapramanasadharana na sati nasati na sadasati svayam avikarad vikarahetau niru- pyamane asati. speaking of Rama and Sita as Prakrti and Purusa. sati laksanasunya sa where the mysterious nature of maya is described. ". The Up. Up. 3 The Ramapurvatapamya Up. 1 The Sarvopanisatsara is a small ing stanza. prose-treatise contain ing only five sections.
MAYA". namo mayamayaya ca". mayasahitabrahmasambhogavasat (Ibid. tasya maya jagat katham ". (30). also reads (5). mayaparimohitatma (Kaivalya ". (4) Alata-santi. The Krsna Up. Up. (89). Anandasrama 1890.). illusion. in sa evam and 2). ". reads ".HISTORY OF THE WORD ". 12). ". Up. In ". parts (prakaranas) Agama (2) Advaita as of this .".prokta maya tredha hy udahrta ". Harih saksan mayavigrahadharanah ". mayasabalitam Brahmasit ". ". mayavidye ye kalaparatattve ". Of the subject-matter important work we shall have occasion to speak in Chapter 1 But here we may only point two words as We are consciously using these (of synonyms here. Poona. II. A.V. (n). divided . all these passages 1 may a means sense ". 2 The Mandukya-Upanisad No. ". The Gopicandana Up. together with Sarikara Series. ". Gaudapada are (i) Karikas on the Mandukya four . (4). The same is further found ". each of (3) Vaitathya which is regarded a separate Upanisad. (6). (13).. iv. maya sa trividha. ". . (7).". appearance. ajayya Vaisnavi maya".) with s Karikas. indrajalam iva mayamayam (Maitri One of the is 2 most These : brilliant s and important works on into Advaitism Upanisad. Mayaya mohitam jagat (12). Gaudapada s Comm. etc. 10. 19 ".
the two ideas are closely allied to each . where the duality. Part IV contributing four. Part no less than six passages. power is maintained. ". Out of these. same sense ii. 12). ". ". ". 17).". anadimayaya supto yada jivah prabudhyate (i.. But. however.e.) The Karika contains in which the word may a III contributes sixteen passages altogether occurs.". where the cosmic illusion under the influence of is spoken which the individual feels as if asleep ". (In one appearance/ supernatural power/* passage. i. Mayamatram idam dvaitam advaitam paramarthatah (i- ". both of which are false. of ". Kalpayaty atmanatmanam atma devah (ii. 16). where maya is said to be the Lord s own wondrous Here the sense of such a supernatural power. the multiplicity of which the word is composed. of dreams and ". out that the word maya is here also used in the ". and each of the other two parts contributing three. is declared mere illusion. ". svapnamayasarupeti srstir anyair vikalpita. 12. where the world is likened to a world to illusion. svamayaya". ". of as beginningless. ".". as will be shown pre sently. it means ". illusion.20 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA ".
(iii. (iii. ". 10). 19). where again maya is collated with svapna. spoken of as the Lord s great illusion. mayaisa tasya devasya yaya sammohitah svayam (ii. (avidyd). ".". mayaya bhidyate hy etan nanyathajam (iii. ". samghatah svapnavat sarve atmamayavisarjitah ". ". sato hi mayaya janma yujyate na tu tattvatah asato mayaya janma tattvato naiva yujyate". ". The same thought is repeated in neha naneti camnayad indro mayabhir ity api ajayamano bahudha mayaya jayate tu sah (iii. svapnamaye yatha drste gandharvanagaram yatha (ii. ". ". and it said that the waking world has no substantiality. ". a natural development ". : ". 27). In Part IV we find . in the following two passages it is dis cussed how the world is created not from not-being but from being not in reality but as it were ".HISTORY OF THE WORD other. ". (iii. like a dreaming world or like a fata morgana. of the idea of such a power. 28). Further. ". 19). ". 21 The sense ". is". ". of illusion is ". 24). is where maya ". 3i).". ". kathamcana". where the so-called objective existences in this world are declared false and mere creations of the At- man s may a ".MAYA". where the differences or the plurality are said to be due to mere illusion.
xiii. 2. where all. etc. 61).156). 1.631. (iv.. (i. 15. (iv. For instance states are ". 7. 59).557. iii. tatha jagrad dvayabhasam cittam calati mayaya (iv. also ". (i. Cf. is finest r^njTTgJrM^ New Testament of the Upanisads. 44). 6. seeming true only in the realm of appearance.580). ". gem and which contains the essentials of all our philo in our Jsfow wfi the sophy. (iii. ".595. mayam mohimm samupasritah apsara devakanya va maya". sa ca maya na vidyate". yatha mayamayad vijaj jayate tanmayo nkurah ". of the worldly objects is described as may a.22 ". The same sense is observed in the great Mahabharata. . yatha svapne dvayabhasam cittam calati mayaya. where the creation. and the waking and the dreaming compared in this regard. mayopamam tesam 58). ". epic.janma (iii. ". the pura vikurute mayam i. destruction. an appearance. ". THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Upalambhat samacaran mayahasti yathocyate ". ". ". ". where the seeming duality is spoken of as mere vijndnamaya. maya is said to have no real existence at ". 7.029). like the where the empirical existence of the world is granted one granted to an illusive elephant.
". the same sense of ". 61). mam eva ye prapadyante may am etam Here it means on God is spoken ". occurs only in one of these thus ". 1896. J world 1 where. (iii. Daivi hy esa gunamayi mama mdyd duratyaya. ". of S.HISTORY OF THE WORD ".". p. Here. ". illusion. however. 14). Here it means ". properly so called as one of the six systems or schools of Indian philosophy. condensed formulas) which constitute this system are called the Brahma-Sutras or the Veddnta-Sutras.". taranti te ". speaking of the nature of a dream. 504 . 1887. which being dependent of as ". Max ". Vedanta-Sutras.". the dream is pronounced to be mere illusion. ". Here. Clarendon Press. too.divine. . 15).). and are 555 in number. p. 134. 6). xxxviii. Part II (vol. 23 prakrtim svam adhisthaya sambhavamy atmamayaya ". (xviii. which runs Mayamatram tu kartsnyena anabhivyaktasvarupatvat ".B. The Sutras (aphorisms. wayayapahrtajnana asuram bhavam asritah ". (iv.". Oxford.E. illusion. (vii.MAYA". Die Sutras des Vedanta.". Leipzig. Deussen. 2. ". 3). too. * will-power. bhramayan sarvabrmtam yantrarudhani may ay a ". (vii. illusive Power. it means the great Now let us turn to the System of the Vedanta. Thibaut. The word mdyd. Cf.
3 Sankara s Comm. maya found in the commentary fifteen times in the following passages. Ind. p.". The most important. that the dream ". to say here that the term 2 ". ". 2 more typical and important No doubt there are some others too. which also bear on the same subject of the unreality of the dream-world. Bibl. 3 (On i. Of the intrinsic merit of Sankara s commentary or of its relation to the Brahma-Sutras we shall have occasion to speak later on. Doubtless the word means illusion here... 17.) ". as it is quite in keeping with the spirit of the preceding two sutras. these having been quoted in ch. and it invariably has the sense of i. world is a dream. Cal. authoritative and popular.".24 Miiller 1 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA seems to be incorrect when he says that need not mean more than a dream. maydvinas carma-khadgadharat sutrena yatha adhirohatah sa eva mdydvi paramartharupo bhumistho nyah". ii. on 1. 120. illusion. We 1899. In ". which hardly has any sense. 1863. Sankaracarya) called the Sariraka-Bhasya. Longmans. The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. i. have selected here the . Suffice is it ". 243. p. akasam 1 Max Miiller. This Bhasya has so much been respected that it forms a part and parcel of the technical system of the Vedanta together with the Sutras.". i. the word that case the sutra would mean ". 1. commentary on the VedantaSutras is the one by Sankara (otherwise called as well as the oldest. ". 17. 16 of the Vedanta-Sutras. some of passages.
mdydvin it occurs and means a juggler ". 12. ". 7 (Ibid.". 7 1. ". 4. 3 11. ". Ibid."... ". ". 9. (On ii. 484.) i.. 28). (On (Ibid. ". ". ".". 472.)* jagatah. 9 )- 6 8. 13. p. Ibid. Ibid..". I.".". eka eva paramesvarah kutastha-nityo vijnanadhatur * avidyaya may ay a mayavivad anekadha vibhavyate. ". i. These are the ten passages in Sankara s Bhasya It is possible to discover in which the word occurs. mayamayi maha-susuptih. 432. 19. p. 10. Ibid. Avyakta hi sa maya. 3. 1. (On ii. Kvacin maya iti sucitam. 2 4. 343. 1. p. It is Sankara on 1.. . p. 6. 1. i.".". yatha svayam prasaritaya may ay a mayavi trisv api kalesu na samsprsyate avastutvat. 19).". 9. 2 4 5 6 8 Ibid. (On i. Ibid. 6. 406. more passages in the same on a minuter analysis of the vast and voluminous commentary.. 1. p. so too means in the following 2. Ibid.HISTORY OF THE WORD Here the word ". Ibid.. Mayavi iva mayayah prasaritasya ii.) loke pi devadisu mayavi-adisu ca svarupa-anumardena eva vicitra hasti-asva-adi srstayo drsyante. 432.) 9. samsara-mayaya na samsprsyate iti. p. 5 i. (On i.) ". i.. I. 342. 19. evam paramatmapi etc.. 3.21. 8-10. 7. p. Ibid.MAYA". p. 269. 9 ii. 1-3. yatha ca mayavi svayam-prasaritam mayam icchaya 8 anayasena eva upasamharati. 3. (Ibid. 1. 3-) 3 5. Saiikara on i. p. ". 342. 11. mayamatram hi etat. . 25 ". 3. but that would not 1 affect our problem in any way. (On ii.
Hence it will later Sanskrit texts hardly be of much use to examine the on the Vedanta in order to find ". true beyond doubt that Sankara nothing but illusion. the later Vedanta is in many cases mixed with the ideas of the Sankhya. ". the Veddntaparibhasd. etc. as we have already said. it would scarcely be of any profit. the Veddntasdra. therefore. . will this fact. ". Apart from maya philosophic use. it is do so. the word maya in the same sense of illusion which was so clearly brought out by Sankara.26 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA means by may a ". the word used in modern classical Sanskrit to convey some its . ". A glance through such works as the Pancadati. vast and undefined in extent secondly. bodha. the Atmadifficult to . and thirdly.". After his time there has not been any desire to change the meaning of the term by a different usage.. the modern usage of the term is in no way different from that of Sankara. We down is to Sarikara s time.". In the first place. ". etc. even if we were to succeed in collecting all the more important modern works on pure Vedanta and were to collate the passages containing maya in a similar way. ". out the word maya. safely close our sur the meanings of the term when we have come ". amply endorse vey of may. Buddhism. the Vivekacuddmani. ". ". since. since the later litera exceedingly ture is so varied. From of the Sarikara s time downward the phraseology Vedanta was more and more settled technic and even modern writers on the Vedanta use ally.
". p. i. drakosa. 10 : Gautamas ca-arkabandhus ca mayadevisutas ca Cf . by Prof.). ". "..e. Calcutta. Raghuvamsa we read ". 27 Sometimes it it means ". 1808.". Calcutta. Colebrooke.". p. Sloka ii syan maya sambari mayakaras tu pratihaCf. & Dictionary in Sanskrit and English. Long Green See also ". p. ". 2 ". Ganesh Datta Shastri.HISTORY OF THE WORD other ideas also. 241. Colebrooke.". deception. by Taranatha Tarkavacaspati. 1 juggler. Buddha s mother was called maya (full name is one of as mayadevisuta maya Devi Buddha s names mentioned in the Amarakosa. 7.. 122.e. Serampur. Ibid. mayam mayodbhavya pariksito si (ii.. It also means i. : ". let both of them serve the teacher without any ". illusion in an ". ".". 2 ". Amarakosa. by Simha). also Sanskrit Dictionary. edited with an English interpretation and annotations by H. second enlarged edition.".MAYA". p. T. cal sense. in the Maha- bharata.maya". ed. ". 1832. ". Nirnaya-sagara . a female or fraud Again means ". (Dictionary of the Sanskrit Language. : rikah. technical shade in the philosophical For example. 1882 Padmacan. 3. i. ". 1899.deception".sevetam amayaya gurum (xiii. also Max s mans. e. The word is also used sometimes as a proper name. in Co. ". (kapata) or hypocrisy (chadma). 1 1 Amarakosa Amara ". ". 62). you have been tested by me creating illusion. in of an ordinary way the free unphilosophifrom the idea..g. 657 . Wilson Miiller s Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.595)- "."..e. ". Ioka sah. ".
Sanskrit English tum. so if day in India some girls are or Maya-Devi Maya-vati The chief reason why they are ". will ". named is that they their name means etc. Bopp. p. ally of clay) arranged in long especially on the outside. which is the goddess of wealth. A Laksmi wealth is recited.. actually named or Maya-Kaur. as on that day every Hindu burns a number of lamps (gener .. also means sometimes mere This is It is ". etc. ". upon or ". leads us to the next meaning of the word. p. p. ". further see F. 226 Sanskrit English Dictionary. Bombay .. ". wealth. 263 Theodore Benfrey. 1893. Lond. i Every year in the month of Asvina there is a special festival observed called the Dlpamala (lit. etc. supposed that if a girl is named maya she ever be abounding in riches. 1847. are looked ". everything bearing on wealth being In India almost all definite names mean something It is after the designations of most of them are some gods or goddesses.wealth".". In the Sankhya system Maya is identified with Press. . and it is special traditional story of hoped that the goddess of will come to all those who love light (prakasa) and not darkness. ". called Laksmi. Glossarium Sanscri. A Dictionary. Berolini. Laksmi is the presiding deity of wealth. Even ". and her riches presence 1 always desired by the Hindus.28 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA at the present ". 701. Macdonell. especially noticed in modern works in Hindi and Punjabi. ".". This idea of ". Lond. rows in all parts of his house. as auspicious a bringer of wealth/ supposed to be auspicious.". 1866.. a row of lamps).
or to measure. called Pradhdna.) as difference that the the universe. to iti. This dualism is questioned and finally solved by the Vedanta in so far as the Prakrti is transformed into Maya. ". Sattva-rajas-tamasam samyavastha prakrtih. minute jamte and adds karma miyate anayeti va may a karma visayabhij to know by which the ritual. Maya is derived from -^/ma.".. nanam.". and so the mutual opposition destroyed.". and the Purusa into Brah man. 8.V. by which is measured.e. It has a real and independent existence and brings about the evolution of the whole world in company with the Purusa. p..e. meaning thereby. the Sankhya system is based on an out-andout dualism. It is the equilibrium of the three qualities of Sattva. ". ". while explaining the form in R. 7 he derives it from ^md.. 2 to build. miyate anaya i. 27. ". iii. of the two is The word measure ". i. \/ma. i. to the idea of appearance leading ".. 1 2 ". with the distinct latter is real. as tradition has it. 29 the source of Prakrti (the primordial matter". ". 1 It is also Rajas and Tamas. 7. (i) &. For the derivations proposed by Sayana see also above. too word from mad mane (i.\/Ma. to ". ". gives further the sense of or illusion. mayaya Further on. ". in his derives the commentary on R.V.HISTORY OF THE WORD ". that illusive projection of the world by which the immeasurable Brahman appears as if measured.MAYA".lt. n. In other words. ". ". to know. measure). The same root Sayana. .e.
know etc. ". / To sum up meant (i) : we have seen that the word ".lt.e.. having any real to show. ". from ^ma. = (i.. to measure.9 too Sayana karma. wonderful skill. ". to . giving ". or per the knowledge of the object etc.". ". the conception of maya as the causal will power (iccha-sakti or prajfia) may be derived from &.lt. miyante (nom. are known (from &.". a merely interesting derivation without any principles of etymology.30 etc. This is.V.V..". mati (svat- manam) itself that which shows darsayati iti maya.mayah". are measured formed) of the ritual. (2) &.\/*M. This will be from Hence. to measure by which the ritual. i.e.) in R. jnayante iti mayah karmani.V. as the effectual state of the world as illusion.y/ma. We are inclined takes the word to mean to say that this derivation of Sayana is a little Another rather fanciful derivation far-fetched. ".". i also. ".. 53. that which appears to our view (without existence).V/ma. Supernatural power. i.. to know). adds Sayana. In R.lt. maya in R. and. Again pi. THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA are known. however.e.a. that which is not which truly is not but still appears to be. the maya = ma meaning correctly none the less is that ya. i. . A /ma. 60.". mysterious will-power. to build. and that the idea of the . x. etc.e. understood. means ritual practices because they ". Another way to derive it would be ". hence maya iii.
".V. ". The sense of may easily ". maya corresponding to the sense of appearance. illusion. till in the time of Sankara it was established beyond illusion doubt. will suffice as an . further. ". and it is this very element that in its devel ". we hope. ". ". ". it came to mean in A. in the R. illusion.supernatural". be found to exist in form even in the Vedic usage of the term. 31 underlying mystery being more emphasized later on. power and not the ordinary physical power. or creation itself (2) As the phenomenal as an effect ".". oped form gives the sense of illusion or appear ance. power or or skill it always meant ".". ".V. meant ". maya aspects (1) As we have. where ".V. already pointed out. ". ".".X The idea of mystery or wonder always was present.HISTORY OF THE WORD ". ". ". ". has been viewed principally from two principle of As the cause creation maya as a corresponding to the sense of sakti (wondrous power). The idea of in A. (2) Magic. it e. ".MAYA". meant and that this meaning was more and more fixed subsequently.. ".". illusion.wondrous". ". we saw that in the Brahmanas and the Upanisads also it (3) illusion.g. And. etc. This short summary. formed a magic link between the old meaning of supernatural and the modern one of or power appearance ".
We however. we will now attempt to trace the develop ment of the theory or the idea of Maya from its the Vedic times down to Sankara s. For the present we have to confine ourselves mainly to the historical view of the conception of Maya within the system of the Vedanta. limiting ourselves to the system of the Vedanta proper. discussed. If we were or its to attempt to trace the conception of Maya it would alternative conceptions in other systems. hope. lead us out of our present scope. to be able sometime in the near future to write a separate treatise on this doctrine with special reference to its place in modern Hindu philosophy and its analogies in other Eastern and Western Reli gions and Philosophies. when usage was finally settled. .32 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA introduction to the conception of maya in the follow The meaning of the term having been ing chapter.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTION OF MAYA .
Without anticipating any discussion on this etc. of course. phical treatises of the Hindus. The word and the idea are not to be confused is . AFTER a brief philological survey of the word maya. in this chapter will Hence our main thesis be to show. the Upanisads. occurs for the first time in 35 . an after-thought or a subsequent sugges tion of some of the later Vedantins of the purely temperament. since such a confusion doctrine of productive of various false assumptions as to the maya in relation to its place in Indian thought. its usual sense. The idea of Maya. that the idea of Maya is very old The word in certainly older than the word maya. viz. with the aid of suit able authoritative quotations from our philosophic literature. point. we now turn to the idea itself..CHAPTER II DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTION OF MAYA. we may only state that such thinkers seem to Idealistic is us to be entirely mistaken. they wholly wanting in the earlier philoso pretend. There are not a few who boldly allege that the doctrine is distinctively of a late origin and growth.
the first germs of philosophy things began to appear with an attempt to explain the . With the advance in thought.V. so much so that as early as in R. concrete realities in the environment. leitung : . Cf Schwegler. the multiplicity was felt to be due to a mode of speech only. the Uni A yearning was noticeable in the human breast to And comprehend the source of all existence.. and the Upanisads. such as water.. 10). under various names).. or various other elements. the poets speak of the One Being (". fire. i. as reflective thought. verse. the principle of unity attracted more and more attention. satisfactory explanation of its being. ". thought too followed the same course. etc. 1 did actually begin with that is to say.V. and after passing through the stages in which the as all higher development air. denkende Betrachtung der Dinge. Stuttgart. Philosophy. EinPhilosophieren 1st Nachdenken. ". though not in a systematic and organic form. or the thinking consideration of things.e.".e. the point was reached where the many was found to yield no ". already found in the R. i. We is shall endeavour to show that the con ception. the underlying unity. and a desire was felt to know the mystery. different forces of nature.36 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA the Svetasyatara Upanisad (iv. i . 164 ekarp sad vipra bahudha vadanti i. is from the concrete to the abstract. but the idea may be traced to the later stage of the Vedic civiliza tion. began to be imagined as the chief source of all existences. not real in itself. Geschichte der Philosophie.
x. zweite Auflage. As the hymn is very ". 126. the finest songs that any literature may be proud of. but P. i. It is one of the most sublime and exalted hymns in the R. and also in his Geheimlehre des Veda. J The hymn has been translated by many. but only manifestations Monotheism conquered Polytheism its exclusive sense.. important for our purpose.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 37 only the One having real existence. Berlin. 907&. 1 and has 2 into German. many of which strike a chord of the same sentiment of unity ".V. The innumeraBle Vedic gods began thus to be conceived as not war with one another. Outlines of Indian Philosophy. Deussen describes it as the most remarkable monument translated of it the oldest philosophy. p. 1907.". underlying diversity.3most of the translations seem to be incorrect in places. at of in is One God. lation as follows we give our own trans 1 Deussen. Leipzig. vol. and is of a true index to the early mystic thought of the Hindus. particularly rich in philosophic hymns. p. 129 one of the earliest records known an attempt at explaining the cosmogonic mystery by grasping the idea of unity.gt. The bold speculation of the ancient Vedic people is picturesquely portrayed in R. 1.V.V.. . 13. both from the philosophic and the literary standpoints. 2 20. To a somewhat prejudiced mind it may and a appear as a mere conglomeration of contradictions But it is one of piece of abstract sophistry. ". The last book of the R. Deussen. Geschichte der Philosophic.
1. no sky beyond enveloped all ? Where ? In whose care Were waters there. x. The world was ocean without distinction But a pregnant germ lay hidden in shell. below ? what was above ? Seed-bearers were there. Who knows. force of heat. From whom T arose this whole creation. the deep abyss ? realm of ? 2. no day s appearance . . great powers too. The One engendered by 4. it naught was in existence. .V. . When like a What was ray their being they spread. 6. neither death nor life immortal. Darkness was there at first by darkness covered. 5. One in its spontaneity did airless breathe. No What air. Within it at first arose Desire. Whether he produced it or not he W ho in highest heaven surveys it. Twas No The Beyond 3. . . Then was neither Being nor Non-Being. in sooth ? Who here can tell ? ? Whence it became ? Whence this creation The gods came later than its creation. So who can tell whence all this arose ? 7. 129.38 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA R. Spontaneity beneath and effort above. night was there. Which was the primal seed of mind The root of Being in Non-Being Sages Searching by wisdom in the heart discovered. . He knows it well or even not he.
". Xenophanes started his polemic against the anthropomorphism Greek religion and was the first among All is one. especi As in Greece.". unclear and self-contradictory trains of thought. later Parmenides too developed. p. philosophy Garbe. natural is amply shown by almost exactly the same tendencies being found in other philosophies. has unfortunately failed to realize the spirit in which the above hymn was composed by the Vedic Aryans. 1897. Richard Garbe. other philosophical hymns in the R. . The Philosophy of Chicago. A little Greek thinkers to declare in popular ". as his chief princi ple. was born as the child of wonder. i. and finds in it as well as in ally in that of Greece. ". It may be remarked i in passing that the Being and Non-Being Ancient India.V. We point out this fact simply to show that it was quite natural and legitimate that the Vedic poets should begin their philosophical specu lation with their yearning to comprehend the under That the yearning was lying unity of the world.DEVELOPMENT OF This ITS CONCEPTION of 39 marks the beginnings philosophical thought in India. the same idea of the essential oneness of being and thought. * We fail to perceive any such contradictions. The vari ous explanations are in themselves demanded by the very mysterious nature of the problem. so in India.. who has done a good deal of useful work in the Sankhya.".". The same conception of the basal unity of the world afterwards gave rise to Greek philosophy in the Eleatic monism.
Ind. was naturally a quest An attempt is made to determine where. 121. after attaining a consciousness of the one ness of all things. is said to be born of of the Non-Being former is in R. though they are two from contrary.V.Prajapati. 4). known as kdrandvasthd. and vanish as soon as the real recon ciliation (vyavastha) is made out. 129. The undeveloped state. 7-10 . see ankara 11. Now. 15. This also explains why Being x. they way of looking at them. after describ the majesty and wonder of the vast network of ing creation. Who than thou there is no other. unknown god. but they are only seeming contradictions.V. Siitras. x. 4.). the poet at last names Prajapati as the it in R. p. holds in his embrace the whole creation. of Being. x.V. is This idea of Prajapati subsequently transformed under the name of Brahman or Atman in the Upani1 On this idea i. 2-3. 72. and the root discovered in the latter (R. 376. s commentary on Vedanta(Bibl.40 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA . is spoken of as NonBeing it does not mean the negation of Being while the manifested state is called by the name our 1 . edn. ". There might appear many such contradictions im plied in the use of terms. the ultimate unity of all creation.". the next step after the nature of this unity. spoken of in the hymn do not stand in antithesis on the (as they do in early Greek philosophy) are one.
132.". 301 50 Henry W.S. x. x. resplendent as the sun. No. R. With some Die hymn is found in A. Then Being from Non-Being did . ix. In R. xxxi. which has been translated by Weber. 81 and 82 to Visvakarman. Vedic Hymns.. by knowing him that a man .. arise. i. : Muir v. Brahmanaspati Brahmanaspati like a smith Together forged this universe When gods existed not as yet.V. . Oldenberg. (1882). Logos in der Griechischen Philosophie. in another Vedic hymn (R. xv. In numerous passages Vac also appears as the consort of Pra japati. Later on.S. (1859). . p.V. x. Deusiv. 16 . Lit.. S. Oldenberg. see Weber s Indische Cf. Grassmann. also Max Heinze. Pur ma see the same power attributed to 90) is one with Prajapati in general (who.V. has been translated by Max Miiller. referred to ". . Geschichte.. variants.V. Greek ". vol. Die Lehre vom Studien. O. 41 However. 8 to Purusa : ". 125. Up. 8 . Hibbert Lectures the i . iv. this R. Hymnen des R. and as principles of 1 On the relation between the Indian conception of Vac and the Greek conception of Aoyo?. 314 f..V. Wallis. 184. 569 Muir. .V.V. Prajapati is identified with the creating in ". 948 p. 18 (=Svetas.E. ii. 1872.DEVELOPMENT OF sads. i. 90. xxxii. we believe. p. 2. p. 373) refer I know this great Purusha.) word with 1 (the ". the creator. sen. Ludwig. i.T.V. iii. 398 . x. conception). Ancient Sk. 72 the same functions are we ". Max Miiller. Cosmology of Max Miiller. JAOS. ITS CONCEPTION ". Bloomfield. Logos R. It is above the darkness. ".B. xviii. V. and in R. the sacrifice and the year x.
15. i. xix. Colebrooke s 167 and note in p. R. have the gods in many forms displayed. as it is one of the typical hymns of the Rigvedic speculation and is important for our purpose R. p. or below. With the Adityas and the Visve Devas support both. Calcutta.! Vac. offerer. The whole hymn is found with slight variants in A. 28 vat. 1 For translations of the hymn. Asiatic Researches. vol. 4. 146 f. first of the worshipped ones . 117. Griffith. or in the middle. Me the queen. swelling with juice. Weber. vol. iii. ix. No one has limited him either above. Indra and Agni. the resplendent. 1. 309. 171 . Deussen. All winkings of the eye have sprung from Muir. 473 . The first two verses of R. and the Asvins two. 7.". the showerer of riches. support Tvastr. There is no other road to go. I I . 3. 90 are given in the SvetasCf. Pusan and Bhaga Tis I who give wealth to the zealous To the sacrificer who presses Soma. Essays. Purusa. 30. 190. Ind. . xviii.S.V. 125. Essays. living everywhere and entering things. (1865). I wander with the Rudras and the Vasus.V.. ". 14. Mitra and Varuna. i. A. Stud. Misc. x. 1805.V. see Colebrooke. x. 2.. 5. xxxii.V.. i. or Miscellaneous Weber s article on Vac and Logos.V. iv. Up.42 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA the world. support Soma. I 2. . i. Cf. . i. 6. 374. I am The knowing. . Geschichte.". ever passes death. We here insert the former in our own translation. viii. x. V. all Me. p.
I create 1 My And touch yonder heaven with my 8. (Affftr. Agreeable to gods and men alike It is I .DEVELOPMENT OF 4. 1 This line is difficult to translate quite accurately.) to be credited. . Trans. p. who sees. worthy of belief. Beyond the beyond So great have by my glory become. It s I who bend his the bow for Rudra. a I 6. i.. all Spreading into being that exist this earth. 43 eats food. birth-place is in the waters. body. ITS CONCEPTION . It s I who blow sky. who fight for my peoples sake. Rsi. Father (Dyaus). I tell thee what s not easy to know. Through me he Who breathes. myself who declare this truth. The unity of existence could not be more simply and emphatically pronounced than in these hymns. who have entered both heaven and 7. ney too leaves it open to doubt in and Notes. in the ocean . The extant translations do not throw any light on it. a sage. Then I into all things existing enter. vol. whom I Him a Brahma (Brahmana). (Whitney. love. Hear thou of fame. . make him powerful. That It s I It s I arrow may strike the foe of Brahmana. I forth like the wind. Whit his Atharva-veda. 201. who hears what s spoken Not knowing me they stay by me.) 5. earth. When the goddess Vac says in stanza 3. first on the world s summit.
etc.) The One Atman is sung in many ways (Nir. since the R. x. note in passing that the same idea of the unity of being is discovered in the following stanzas from the A. idea of unity is as old as the Vedic civilization..V.".V.44 ". : ". the sages speak in diverse ways. Some of the other Vedic p. 121. We may.i. R. n). hymns in which is this conception of the underlying unity of being 90. THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Me have the gods in many forms displayed. Me. 82. we have already referred which again is expressed by the Rsi Dirghato. brought out are R. vii. 5.". . she repeats the same thought Of the one existence. however. that the ancient Indian Rsis were quite aware of the one ness of being and gave a poetic expression to the same thought in many beautiful strains. Roth s ed. living everywhere and entering all things. B. and arranged in different ways to meet the spirit and requirements of each. It is needless to multiply instances from the other three Vedas.. these is the chief source of and is in itself the oldest and most important one.C. 81. which we can only refer to.V.V.V. And the same thought was later on brought out by Yaska (who lived about the fifth century. tamas while praising Agni ". 164. instead of All this clearly shows that this translating here. Most of the hymns of the other Vedas are bodily transferred from the R.
4 For translation of A. see A.. ". the five races. 14. 7. Geschichte. flies and stands. see Muir. also A.V. 400 . 204. iv.DEVELOPMENT OF ". 8. 2 . 386 . 4. x. as the branches of a tree around the trunk. 15) see Geldner. 17. and Whit ney s A.".V. 2 is absorbed in austere fer ". In it are set whatever gods there are. ITS CONCEPTION 45 Aditi is heaven. Aditi atmosphere.V. ". 23 . 380384 .V. she son . . vii. Sechzig Upanisads. What moves. Viraj. p. Vedische Studien. A. 13.". x. and 38. vol. v. iii. yet is manifestly born. i. All the gods are Aditi. . she father. p. Deussen. 24. This is from the well-known A. that universal form sustains the earth... they know also accordingly the Skambha. The translation is taken from Up. 8. breathing. Ludwig. v. not-breathing and winking .V. x.V. 2 For a discussion on Yaksa iii. Prajapati goes about within the Unseen. Griffith. 1 Compare R. T. most exalted one and whoever know Prajapati. A.The great being (Yaksa) vour in the midst of the world. 1. ii. 6. Einleitung. 3 14-25 .". p.S. ii. Aditi is what is born. For translation see Muir s Sanskrit Texts. i. 10. i. 310 . xxv. p. they know the whoever know the most exalted one. hymn on the Skam bha or the Frame of Creation. Aditi what is to be born. vol. (cf. Deussen. 10 . that combined becomes One only. 13. For a similar sentiment in reference to ". A. pp. ". 126 ff. 3 A. 26 . on the surface of the waters.". ii. 589. . 89. ". womb * . ix. Aditi mother. x.V.V.". x.S.V. 8.A. i. also Kena Whitney.V. and M. whoever know the chief Brahmana. V. 1 Whoever know the Brahman in man. 8.
16. 2 44. not deficient in death. satisfied free from desire. die wir kennen. 44. Geschichte. Agni . plain in detail what is already given in the Veda. A. Yama. for instance. Varuna. Deussen.".V. 10.V. The transition from the earlier thought of the Samhita to that of the Brahmanas may be noticed.. Roth s ". immortal. wise.V. ii. What is al ready explicit in the mantras is sometimes only emphasized in these treatises. the exegetical treatises on the Samhitas. A.e. ix. ed.) i. 3 The Brahmanas in regard to their subject-matter are uditanuvadah i. Matarisvan. being mainly 3 guided by the Sruti.. and starting with the object of making explicit what is implicitly implied in the mantras. . they call him Agni. ". 28. p. soul. A.V. These typical passages point to a continuation of the same idea in the A. 334). ". 395 . in R.. I. may naturally be supposed not to swerve from the general spirit of the latter. Mitra. THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Knowing the respect.V. p. vol. self-existent. x.46 ". See Whitney ". p. 8. Yaska.". i. They is call him Indra.V. uditanuvadah . in der ruck: haltlos der x. die erste Compare what Deussen remarks on this passage und alteste Stelle. is asked 318 Grifnth. i.. 561.". they ex supposed by some to be (Cf. 34. The Brahmanas. likewise he the heavenly-winged eagle . 81. any one is not afraid of x A. x. what is one the sages name 2 variously . sa ^bhavati. with the essence. Nirukta. (Geschichte der Philosophie. Ludwig. 1 ".". 8. where the question p. Atman s als Weltprincip proklamiert wird. 37.
9. . 8. ". secret doctrine. 12. hewed the earth and heaven ? ".. 9. etc. the wood from which they hewed heaven. 2. xxxiv. They mostly contain philo and discussions on some Vedic passages. however. sarvam hy ayam atma. therefore.B. ITS CONCEPTION 47 Which was the tree. near. root sad.".". with the prepositions upa. to sit.A. T. . The word is derived from the of the Brahmanas. for instance. 2. . is also sounded. Br. and by themselves form a more or less complete and comprehensive philososophical expositions. iii.S. and conveys the sense. 9 T. of which they This question is Brahmana. Cf.this soul is everything. hence. xxxi. ii. i. 8. and ni=very (adverbial). i. iv.e. 23. ii.DEVELOPMENT OF ". ". 1-6. which was the wood. the earth and The conception of Prajapati 1 also developed in the Vajasaneyi and of Purusa is Samhita and the The simple note of unity Taittiriya Brahmana.. 18-21 . ". the final positions Upanisads. be said to embody the esoteric doctrines of the Vedas. 8. 6-7 . and ".". We his teacher ". elucidations * i. The Up anisads may. mainly concerned with the which are. that which is imparted to a pupil when he sits very near are. 8-10 . as a rule.". viii. repeated in the text of the Taittiriya is followed by the answer Brahman was the tree. in the Satap. V. 36 . ".
Narayanlya Ar. 103 Svetasvatara. 565 . They trend of their thought and require no further are final authorities. 88 . nothing is is false. ii. 53 Agni-Rahasya (Sat. 809 Taittiriya. i. In other words. 1 The general towards a thorough-going germinal form existed even in is monism.). which the Vedas. x. 38 Paingi. be interesting to know that the Upanisads chief source of quotations in Sankara s SarirakaAccording to the frequency of their occurrence monumental commentary they may thus be quotations . Ar. Aitareya (Taitt. and quotations from them are held by tradition ever complete and self-sufficient support. 22 . as distich ". 9 Isa (Vaj. . 129 Katha. Prasna.". Kausitaki. 13 8 . . This is the central thought which has been so admirably i It may form the Bhasya. (Ait. Mundaka.48 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA is phical system. . xl. . Br. Their funda mental formula may be expressed in a well-known Brahma satyam jagan mithya Jivo brahmaiva naparah.. Kena. * Brahman is the Reality. . 6 . . Their idealism is the groundstone of the later Vedanta. JabSla.).). in its we have shown above. and the world around us which appears so real is not so. the universe The Atman is Brahman. They are canonical. 4-6). 142 . else. in Sarikara s arranged in order Chandogya. . 5. call it will. 40 .". there Brahman or Atman what you only one Reality. which the kernel of the whole of the later philosophy. x. . Sam. Brhadaranyaka.
DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 49 expanded and developed in various ways in the Upanisads. so that the passages which emphasize the statement that the Atman is else is the only reality mean most transparently that all (i.e. the world. The Upanisads when read through without any guiding principle seem to bristle with startling con tradictions. (i) That theory may be enunciated in two ways theory of : the world is an illusion or appearance. while at the same time it is asserted that the world is unreal . etc. These two state ments mean the same thing. while yet it is true that there is no world besides Brahman. of our present subject. the development of the Maya through the Upanisads down to We may remark at the outset that the Sarikara.". viz.) not real. and it is said that all this is Brah man.. other than the Atman. and what we call the doctrine of Maya is nothing more than an attempt to explain this fact in detail. which strictly speaking tinguished from is only Brahman.. We now come to one of the most important parts ". viz. and some readers Upanisads may consequently . and (2) That the only reality is the Atman. ". it is declared that the Atman created the world. The world is described as pervaded by the Atman. All such and other state ments would perhaps tion if baffle all attempts at explana only we looked of the at the external aspect. ".. again. to show how it is impossible for the world as dis to be anything more than an appearance Reality.
the Atman is the only reality. which are connected with the dis course of Yajnavalkya. chiefly in the first four chapters. seem to be the oldest among the collection. But it is not so. which on account of its extremely monistic conception cannot be surpassed. and he is said to have quite realized his identity with the Brahman. Up. His dialogues of his lofty utterances.. was the older. from another point of view) of Pure Idealism. x Upanisad are found certain passages. and which furnish the oldest idealistic conception as far as we know. sads a certain development degeneration. In the Brh. with his wife Maitreyi and with the king Janaka appeal to us as the clearest enunciations of the true standpoint of Idealism. a more thorough-going monism being prima facie The burden of the whole throughout impossible. and the Chan. which at once implies that the world is not real. is that ". Yajnavalkya s standpoint is purely metaphysical. There is to be traced within the Upani(". We i The Brhad Up. appears that the Brh. . especially the parallel texts. One seems to be carried away by the simple force which appear to be poured out from the very depths of his heart after a thorough realization of the truths they contain. Judging from style and other evi etc.".". He was the leader of the sages.50 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA with great impatience pronounce these books to be nothing but a mass of crude contradictions. It is rather difficult to say which of these two is the older. it dences.
nothing perishes else that is worth knowing the multiplicity and the unity asserts its sway.e. i. the conchAs by holding fast the drum. So is the Atman the key to the all. viz. ii. understanding and realiz Maitreyi ing the Atman.. meditated by seeing. The Atman . hearing. when the Atman is known then there is . 5). all this world is known. Up. all worth by When these knowing becomes already known. to the universe . 4. idealist Atma va are drastavyah srotavyo mantavyo nididhyasitavyo Mai trey i Atmano va are darsanena sravanena matya vijnanenaidam sarvam viditam (Brh. and the lyre. The follow ing ".. O This is repeated again in is iv. 5. but on taking possession of the instruments the source of all the sounds one seems to have mastered the discord and to have found the key to it all. understood. of the were caught together. is to be seen. is the passage containing these three similes sa yatha dundubher hanyamanasya na banyan sabdan . expressed by means of three drum (dundubhih). ". so all their sounds are as it knowing the Atman all is known.DEVELOPMENT OF shall ITS CONCEPTION 51 now examine some of these passages..e. 6. heard. the lyre. thing else and is confused in the multiplicity of the sounds. the conch -shell. viz.. shell. in order to give a more concrete idea of the general position maintained by the old ". instruments are being sounded one cannot hear any beaten. when they are being The same idea similes. i.
found in Brh. 8-10. there speaks another of another thing. 14. as it were. there sees another another thing. but on grasping the drum itself the sound produced by the drum-beating is also grasped. 14. Up. yatra va asya sarvam atmaivabhut tat kena kam jighret tat kena kam pasyet tat kena kam srnuyat tat kena kam abhivadet tat kena kam manvita tat kena kam vij anlyad yenedam sarvam vijanati are kena vijamyad iti. 5. also Ibid. how speak of anything. Brh. there knows but where all has become nothing another another thing but the Atman. 1 Cf.52 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA sakmiyad grahanaya.". by whom knows one this all ? By what shall one know the knower ? For where there . 15. 8. 4. there thinks another of another thing. As A most remarkable passage. . how hear anything. how think of anything. ii. 8 This famous passage reappears in Brh. Yatra hi dvaitam iva bhavati tad itara itaram jighrati tad itara itaram pasyati tad itara itaram srnoti tad itara itaram abhivadati tad itara itaram manute tad itara itaram vijanati. how know anything. ii. Up. how see anything. 4. 4. in the midst of drum-beating one is unable to grasp the outer sounds.".. which in the clearest is phraseology endorses the conception of Maya. 5.. 2 (Trans. dundubhes tu grahanena dundubhy1 aghatasya va sabdo grhltah. 4. with slight alterations. tam kena vijamyad vijnataram Brh. there how can one smell anything. in iv. ii.e. y. there hears another another thing. Up.) is duality. there smells another another thing. The same passage is again found iv. i. By what shall one know him. It runs thus ". ii.
while instructing the sage Usasta on the nature of the Atman. ITS CONCEPTION ". says ".. is found to be a nullity. since it is only a relative term. . iii.DEVELOPMENT OF ". as it were shows that duality. ". (Trans. By what knower be known ? Further on Yajnavalkya. that which was called the object disappears and only the one appearance. ". is unreal in other words. as the knower.e. The Atman being itself the Knower. But when all this otherness is found to be false. and the unreal. Atman remains the word ". ".". ". the idea of the subject it. does not require any medium to be known. That is the idea which Yajnavalkya so simply and yet so forcibly conveys when he says ". Up. 53 The word iva (= as it Where there is duality. 2. 4. na drster drastaram pasyer na sruter srotaram srnu- yan na mater mantaram manvitha na vijfiater vijnataram vijamyah esa ta atma sarvantaro to nyad arttam. ? i. In that sense even subject (in the current sense) would be inadmissible. ".} ". vijnataram are kena vijaniyat shall the ". the Universal Spirit. that which remains as the one. Thou couldst not see the seer of sight. which never did actually exist. The distinction is lost. were) is important here. and when was also goes with real the object perishes. Brh. it is only an The conception of subject and object is only possible when each of them has at least a distinguishable existence. the self-luminous. thou couldst . which refers to the multiplicity (nanatva) in the world.
therefore. known Punjabi as kuc- chad kudi sahara . child was ". The sage here . all else is full of sorrow (artta). Here one it is shown how the Atman is so near within s self search for that one does not need to go a long way to it. as truly speaking ". that this Atman in is the subject of ". A man had his little strolling about in the street. is in us different the latter would imply that we from the Atman.I . 1 In fact So exactly is the Atman always in saying not are ". At last a : child on his shoulder and was ". declares.54 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA not hear the hearer of hearing. it is ourself. All of a sudden. we are never justified in ". This thy Atman is within every being.". ". forgetting that he had the child with him. it may be said Those who go out to seek it anywhere else by external means never find it.in still on him. thou couldst not know the knower of knowing. 1 The proverb is technically dhandora.". The attempts at a rigid definition of Brahman are all futile. observing his gross error.it us. thou couldst not think the thinker of thought. he began to proclaim in a loud voice throughout the city have lost my child who has seen it. gave him a smart slap in the face and turned his eyes upward. If the idea of distance is to be used is at all (which really inadmissible) to be the nearest. This thought is like that of the popular tale so well known in India. us ".". kindly let me know. passer-by. when to his utter surprise he found that the lost ".
4. Here all the variety of forms spoken of as avidyd. ato anyat artam. the gods. i.".e. is The phrase this mantra as ". the Gandharvas. . in a dialogue Self. 5. is the sage says full of sorrow. iv. And as which ". with Kahola.. where an example of the caterpillar is given. be pointed out that similes illus trate only a special aspect of truth and should not be carried beyond their legitimate sphere.. It may. i. Up.e. Brahma. 4. mftyoh sa mrtyum apnoti ya iha naneva pasyati. such as the Pitris. is the other. Another remarkable passage that lends a decisive support to this pure idealism occurs in Brh. ". avidyam gamayitva occurs in well as in the preceding one. all else This phrase is repeated again in iii. manasaiva anudrastavyam neha nana sti kincana.The categories knowledge break down when stretched with a view to their application to the Atman. again. is again denied its reality in n.". the simile of a goldsmith is it employed. where Yaj fiavalkya is instructing Gargi (who was of a highly philosophic temperament) in the mysterious love of the Brahman. ". hence unreal.".DEVELOPMENT OF all ITS CONCEPTION 55 of all knowledge. iv. to all else. This ". hence unknowable. other than the i.. 8. Prajapati. 4. etc.. however.". so the Atman is supposed to create through Avidyd i various forms. 19 ". iii. As he by taking a bit of gold moulds into various newer and more beautiful forms. the so-called world. f In Brh.
56 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA (Trans. it were should be supplied in almost the where the Upanisads speak of passages other. When they deny in such clear and it distinct terms the existence of ". there is .\ The conception of Maya exhibits itself in such passages clearly. but is over and over subject to the pangs of birth and death in this samsdra. Abstract ". this all as ". is false is the high-sounding note here. and further emphasized by saying that he who sees as it were a plurality actually existing is never it is still saved. ing. all vanishes. the idea of the world being meaningless without all this ndnd (multiplicity).". spirit of true idealism. and yet many do not see it. ". means that they refuse to concede any reality to the world from that standpoint. the ".".) It is to be perceived by the mind alone. many and you bring the world to a zero-point. ".". That multiplicity. It would be quite in keeping with the ". the characteristic of the uni verse. All the words which we use in our every-day . the many. ". nothing remains behind . an Truly speak ". ". here no multiplicity whatever who sees here as it were many passes from death to death. only an appearance. Here also attention as it may specially be drawn to the word iva the multiplicity is were which implies that as it were. This exactly is the highest (and the truest) stand point of the Upanisads.
to express the various distinctions among objects, or the many," are mere abuses of our speech, since they are ill-spent or wasted, the many
no existence at all. Only the One and when that is known all else is known, exists, and the use of words breaks down. This idea is
expressed in Brh.
tarn eva dhiro vijnaya prajnam kurvlta brahmanah, nanudhyayad bahun sabdan vaco viglapanam hi
Knowing him alone let the wise Brahmana form
(understanding), let him not meditate on for that is simply the fatigue of vac (speech)
the spirit of Yajnavalkya
be viewed in three
The Atman The Atman
(cf. hi. 4. 2,
the subject of
knowledge in us
may be pointed out that there is no contradic tion, as many have been led to suppose, in the state and ments the Atman is unknowable by knowing the Atman all is known or the Atman
used in two different aspects. The Atman is unknowable when by knowledge is meant a
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA
synthesis of the subject and object, or when it is supposed that speech is able to describe the Self.
The knower, the
can know the known or the
the knower be
truth of the idea
difficult to grasp, if
seriously for a
things are can the
known only through the I itself be known ? The
fact of this
is ultimate in itself. Hence in knower cannot be known, while at the same time no knowledge could be more sure than that of the knower, the self. Here know is used in a ledge higher and different sense, viz.,
this sense the
or experience (anubhava). Even the greatest sceptic could not reasonably deny the existence of the and a higher knowledge of
means the realization of the falsity of the and of the oneness of the Atman. The
seeming paradox therefore disappears on a deeper understanding.
simplest and most thorough found chiefly in the Brh. Up., as
shown above, but
here and there
sads as well.
not totally ousted by the
later doctrines in revolt,
among The doctrine
and so appears scattered the others in the chief Upaniof the sole reality of
Similar analogies may be noticed in European philoso Descartes, e.g., started with this very fact, Cogito, Almost all idealists start with self-consciousness ergo sum. as the ultimate fact.
Atman hence of the has never been Many
falsity of the world,
totally given up Certainly it has been gradually obscured though at the same time shining through by its inherent
by the huge mass
realistic or anti-
Such conceptions we
hasten occasion to refer to briefly later on. to show how this supreme monistic conception runs through the other Upanisads like a string
through the beads of a garland.
Turning to the Chandogya Up., we at once meet with the famous dialogue between Aruni and his
The son having studied
Vedas, etc., for twelve years with his teacher, returned to his father a swollen-headed young
The father tested his knowledge by asking he knew anything about that by which all unheard becomes heard and the unknown
becomes the known,
son, failing to answer,
requests his father to explain to
him that know
ledge, and the sage Aruni teaches Svetaketu by the following concrete examples
yatha somya ekena mrtpindena sarvam mrnmayam vijnatam syad vacarambhanam vikaro namadheyam mrttikety eva satyam. Chan. Up. vi. i. 4.*
1 Cf. the same idea in two mantras, Chan. Up.
different similes in the following
To take a well-known technical example. The whole rests on the assumption that things like the jar. Accord ing to these views the Self transforms itself into Natura Naturata. etc. O good one. does . thought.. making the world. (". only the earth is true. = . The Sarikhya system is also based on such a theory. being an actual modification or development of real matter. pot. are actual transformations of earth.6o THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA by (the knowledge of) one ball of earth everything of the nature of earth is known . a mere name.) As. is said that by knowing the one the all is As all the forms into which clay 1 Some critics of the Vedanta discover in this passage a corroboration of the theory of Parinamavada. . and as a real cause has a real effect. or the Atman. But the passage seems to us to endorse the purely idealistic standpoint.) are transformations of the earth. not being creations of the imagination (Sat coming out of Sat only). Vivarta atattvato nyatha pratha vikara satattvato nyatha pratha.". which in no way implies any alteration in the thing itself while a vikara is the transformation of the substance itself. which makes the world a reality. They con tend that as the various things of earth (jar. the change (or modification) is an extension of words. spirit. to use later phraseology. milk is substantially transformed into curd or junket: these are two wholly different states one cannot discover any milk when it is changed into curd. matter. etc. But a jar of earth. is Here it known. so is the world as sat a development of a subtle sat. the world must be a reality. 1 (Trans. The vivarta of a substance is simply its appearance. This view appears to be based on an exclusively one sided interpretation of the passage. Some of the modern evolutionists would also urge that the world is simply a process of evolution of the one principle by whatever name you may call it. even after individuating itself as a jar. a vivarta instead of a vikara.
not of vikara. It is the mind imposing the conception of the snake on the rope. vi.vacarambhanam vikaro namadheyam".. 1 The words ". nalpe sukham asti bhumaiva vijijnasitavya iti. The former has no independent existence.) essential oneness of the Atman. supports the idea of vivarta. vii. since all reality is the Atman and the non-Atman are does not really exist. The evidence of the jar qua jar is not at all independent. Up. ". Again.". ". . So also when a rope is mistaken for a snake. it is not transformed into the latter. hence unreal. 1-3. Chan. again occur in Chan. sukham bhuma tv eva (Trans. but it is evident how the implications of the analogy of the earth correspond with those of this one. This example of the rope. where the process of creation described from the empirical standpoint. the idea of far is simply due to the limitations of name and form. 1-2. only a mere name (namadheyam) without all The is a mere name. 23. The many forms ". ". i we read yo vai bhuma tat sukham. reality. merely the beginning of speech is (vacarambhanam). it is earth inside and out. so the mani fold world is known by knowing the one Atman. vi. etc. (". 4. the plurality ". 2. words ". in ". there not cease to be earth . Hence the passage. which are decidedly mind-dependent. ". the only one ekam-eva-advitiyam second which point out the without a occur. Up. judged both from its contextual spirit and analogies.) That which is the Bhuma (the Great) is happiness. 1 In Ch.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 61 moulded are known by knowing clay. is a typical one for the vivarta-theory.
*\ The words tu eva are important. another hears. the Alpa denned as yatra anyat pasyati anyat srnoti anyad vijanatitadal(Trans. The latter is declared to ". tyam exist When be perishable (". none other hears.62 is THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA no happiness in the small. all (the Great).} pam. mainly concerned with the more realistic conception of the creation of the world The Taitt. is And ". does not contain much on the subject. (anya) will cease to and only the Bhuma luminosity. since they emphasize the exclusive knowledge of the Atman alone.^ will shine in his ever lasting Up. i) that Bhuma is denned as ". none other Bhuma. is Only the Bhuma is happi ness. ized to be false ". Where none knows.tat marthe nature of multiplicity is real the other ".". yatra na anyat pasyati na anyat srnoti na anyat vijan(Trans. tin this passage Brahman is spoken of as Bhuma . Where another is sees. Only that Bhuma is worthy (little) of being known.} ati sa bhuma. that Alpa. In the following khanda (Chan. 24.". vii. and only He is said to be bliss that is not Brahman (= the Atman) is alp am and misery. another knows. It is . that is other sees. The Bhuma therefore to be searched after.).".
but only a mere name. cows. animals. I. meant to expound the lore of the Atman so as to be acceptable even to those of who are tired too soon abstract conceptions and want Taitt Up. knowing the bliss of that Brahman. trees.. i. one of the comparatively late Upanisads.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 63 from the Atman. one never little fears. and then elephants. 9. . ". So. (Trans. 1 There is of course a famous passage on the unknowableness of the Atman. 6. \ The Katha Up. anandam brahmano vidvan na bibheti kadacana. are called the names (namadheyani) of consciousness. which is identified with Brahman (prajnanam Brahma). etc. 4 and ii. 1-3) the Atman is denned as consciousness (prajnana). too. ii. /In one place (iii. Up. 1 Cf. which is a unity hence the multiplicity which seems to exist independent all of my consciousness is not real. iii..".) Whence words return with the mind without having reached it. ii. This means that things exist only so far as they are my consciousness. . men. has very to contribute to the subject. something to etc. is one of the finest productions on the and contains many passages that are fre quently quoted by the modern Indian Vedantists. the Ait. ii. yato vaco nivartante aprapya manasa saha. subject. It is attractive moreover owing to the peculiarly fascinating and interesting legend of Naciketa.
z and taking themselves to be very learned. like blind men led by the blind. Up. 1 Cf. avidyayam antare vartamanah svayamdhirah panditammanyamanah. (Cf. because selfconceit the index to shallowness of knowledge or ignorance.B. The most satisfactory passages. ignorant go round and round. See S. also Maitr.} wise in their own Dwelling in the midst of darkness.". p..". ". 9. 5 . Up.) (Trans. mana 1 yathandhah. iv. Mund. come The one is almost identical with later in Katha ii. 2 (where we have only *jw?rRT: 8.E. . 2. they also imagine the not-self to be the self. 2. And such people in their own ignorance regard themselves very learned (panditam-manyamanah). The more one knows. Such are the people who always look to the exter nal and the immediate aspect of things and never look beyond. dandramyamanah pariyanti mudhah andhenaiva mya". Brh. the conceit. colour such notions. the humbler is one becomes. i. i. however. which has already been quoted above. 4. Imitating others blindly. xv. Katha Up. vii.64 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA In i. the god of Death points out to Naciketa how the ignorant in their avidya follow one another like the blind. 5. 2. 8 . Mund. * or ii. staggering to and fro. 8. 19.
is emphasized. is stated in the next mantra manasaiva idam avaptavyam neha nana asti kiiicana mrtyoh sa mrtyum apnoti ya iha naneva pasyati.". Here again the whatever is fact that there is no multiplicity particularly is universe.) Only by the mind this is to be obtained . 10. vi. and what in the next world. u. 4. he goes from death to death who sees any multiplicity here. is in the next world . thought ". the ".) to death.DEVELOPMENT OF ". the multiplicity he who even imagines it pronounced false be true does not attain liberation. . ii. 13 nityo anityanam cetanas cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman tam atmastham ye nupasyanti dhlras tesam santih sasvatl netaresam. 13. he who sees here. Katha Up. Here. ii. the same is here . hence the the embodiment of this idea of false.". 1 i Cf. What is (Trans. ". The same . ITS CONCEPTION 65 yad eveha tad amutra yad amutra tad anv iha mrtyoh sa mrtyum apnoti ya iha naneva pasyati. there is no multiplicity here whatsoever .". ". The conception in ii. Svet.} is here. of the Atman is further explained 5. (Trans. as differences the many it were. as is to we have already seen. Up. same ". (or goes from death ". 4. Katha Up. which multiplicity.
} Eternal of the transient. attain immortality. still later and whole cosmic speaks of the capable of being removed (visva-maya-nivrttih) by a true knowledge of the one God Hara (i. since that is the only true know All others who will hold fast to the sense ledge. to them belongs eternal peace. 8 it is said illusion as that there no other way of conquering death except by knowing the ever-luminous Atman.66 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA (Trans. . The passage distinguishes the eternal and changeless nature of the . In iii. Up. who beyond the Purusa. adding that only those are saved who know ". That the Atman in us is the subject of knowledge and itself is consequently unknowable is clearly brought out in ". will never find rest and peace but will ever be rolling to and fro. fulfills the desires of many the wise who perceive Him residing in the Self. confused and puzzled.". 10 is it is is said that only they who know the Atman. its knowledge could save people from the clutches of death. . If the world were real or true. who though one. The Svetasvatara Up. all others for ever plunge into misery.". agryam iii. the Atman. Soul of the souls.. 19. of the fleeting shadows for eter plurality. formless and pure. Again in iii. sa vetti vedyam na ca tasyasti vetta tarn ahur Svet. composed tinged with rather sectarian ideas. taking nal realities. 10).Atman from the transient nature of the world. purusam mahantam. not to others.
he who makes the one seed manifold the wise who per . na tasya karyam karanam na vidyate (Trans. acting as power and knowledge.) . the lord of the lords of the organs.". That only god who spontaneously covered himself. the self within all beings. . This extreme idealism which refused to grant reality to the world seemed to be rather too advanced for the ordinary understanding. There is no effect and no cause of him. with threads drawn from Nature (Pradhana). In vi. Atman . the witness. 8-12. the only one. vi. not to others. There is no master of him in the world. no one is seen unto him or better his high power is revealed as mani fold. watching over all works. dwelling in all beings.) ITS CONCEPTION 67 He knows what they call is to be known. him the first. grant us the imperishable Brahman.DEVELOPMENT OF (Trans. hidden in all beings. In some it is more strongly emphasized. him within them belongs eternal happi Svet. netaresam. which could not reconcile the fact . no ruler of him. He is the one God. in others it is clouded over by more realistic tendencies. all-pervading. the great Purusa. as inherent. the perceiver. free from qualities. He is the one ruler of the many who are free from actions. but no one knows him . to ness. like . An examination of the other Upanisads also will bear out that the conception of the sole Reality of Brahman is not missing in them. Up. like a spider. 8-12 is a beautiful description of the nature of the ". . ceive their self. not even a sign of him he is the cause. and there is of him neither parent nor lord.
Moreover. since it itself is nothing different from the Atman .". Yet these minds are not totally to be ignored by the old sages. (Chan. This could be done by granting the existence world and yet maintaining at the same time that the sole reality is the Atman. they still rise up at some time and refuse to harmonize with the . metaphysical standpoint. 14. its doctrine i). and it could therefore not be explained away by being unreal.68 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA somehow or other that the world was there ". alone is real else exists besides it while the other and nothing Pantheism- holds that the world does exist and yet it does not affect the principle of the sole reality of the Atman. to the major ity who are not given to step beyond the boun daries of empirical understanding such metaphysical speculations as are contained in the pure idealism of Yajnavalkya seem hardly to convey any meaning. with of the ". The one -Idealism- maintains that Atman . . rather subtle. All this is Brahman ". iii. This was a sort of degeneration of Idealism into Pantheism. The inherent empirical tendencies called of our nature are too strong to be wholly conquered howsoever they may be subdued. they must then make room for some concession to the empirical consciousness which refuses to part with the idea of the reality of the world. observed that even in one and the same passage both these tendencies are sometimes found It may be mixed up two views is The difference between the together.
all-tasting. streams n). i. 20. Up. 12). the nyagrodha tree 13). honey (vi. ". thaka vi.. Sarvam khalu idam Brahma Tajjalan iti santa upasita. yet to satisfy the gross and empirical instincts of human beings. i. a blind man travelling towards the .". (vi..} All this is iii. The idea is chiefly represented by the Chand. ". ii. all-smelling. ending and breathing in Further on Brahman all.DEVELOPMENT OF ". From Brahman is all this born Brahman all this is reabsorbed and in Brahman all this breathes : (tasmin aniti). this is the very idea that finds expression in the greater part of the Upanisads as a whole. one with the other. Brahman. It is immanent in the world and pervades even the minutest particle. beginning. meaning thereby that all-in-all is Brahman. where Uddalaka teaches his son by means (vi. Up. (Trans. Let a man meditate on that as It. 14. Again. Chand. Up. is called the all-effecting. 14. into (tasmin liyate).wishing. iii. of the parables of a large tree salt (vi. and 4). in the very interesting narration in Prapa10). (vi. The well-known condensed word vidya. all this (Ibid. This view is strictly speaking untenable. 2 and ". ITS CONCEPTION ". called The Atman yam) the reality of this reality (Satyasya satin Brh. 69 is both are identical. 9). tajjaldn is signifi cant in the following passages from the Sandilya- and means (tasmat jay ate).
Up. Up. viii.e. Chand. the Atman is spoken of as penetrating ". It is the Self. O Sve- taketu.} That which its self. 3. esa vai visvarupa atma vaisvanarah. the subtle essence.. Chand. . above. . Athata Atmadesa Atma eva adhastat Atma uparistat Atma pascat Atma Atma eva idam purastat . ".". below.70 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA (vi. ya atma apahatapapma vijaro vimrtyur visoko vijighatsopipasah satyakamah satyasamkalpah so nvestavyah sa vijijiiasitavyah sa sarvans ca lokan apnoti sarvansca ". 13. Also 7. v. ". etc. Chand.) Self is iti. The Self which you meditate on is the Vaisvanara Self. the ". i. (Trans. before. It is it. art The following passages speak as eloquently in the same train of thought ". called Visvarupa. i. kaman yas tarn atmanam anuvidya vijanatlti ha prajapatir viii. 25. all sa ya eso anima etadatmyam idam sarvam tat satyam sa atma tat tvam is asi Svetaketo iti. i. and thou. right and left Self is all this. 2. in it all that exists has the True. behind.. 7. uvaca. Up. .". Gandhara 14)..". vii. etc. sarvam (Trans.".
It of course is found in almost all the other Upanisads as well. This Atman is the support of . Chand.DEVELOPMENT OF (Trans. a representation the very hairs and nails. . Ibid. viii. ".". ii. *Brh. that it is which we must try to understand. 5. veda tarn paradat yo anyatra atmano Brahma sarvam yad ayam atma. 16. imagines nothing but what is to be imagined. All this ". 4.. ii. Brh.". Up. ITS CONCEPTION 71 The Self which is free from sin. i. He who has searched out that Self and has understood it obtains all worlds and all desires. all creatures. sarvesam bhutanam lokah. We even to We only say that the Chan. 4. Even the Brh. Up. Ayam va atma i. ". and contributes the largest bulk of the whole Aupanisadic literature. Brh. Brahma .) both see the Self thus All. contains many passages agreeing with the pantheistic conception.e. Up.e. 5. (Trans. 2. from hunger and thirst. from death and grief. that it is which we must search out. Up. freed Prajapati said from old age.". iv. ". v..". . is Brahman. Brahmaivedam Brahmaitat i.) ". sarvam.. ". sarvam. 3. i. Up.". may be taken to be the chief representative of this stage of thought. Sarvam evedam avarn bhagava atmanam pasyava alomabhya anakhebhyah pratirupam iti. 8. Cf.". 7. 6. which we have taken to be the chief exponent of pure idealism. Up. i. Ibid. : which desires nothing but what is to be desired.
iv. 15. 5. 8-12. .".".. Brh. the He who all ". like the fire.".". vet.". pj. atmanam. Yah sarvesu bhutesu tisthan . . tisthati. iii. ii. contains passages like the following ". and who rules all beings within. he is thy Self. i. assumes manifold forms. iti Up. the air and the sun.) And as all spokes are contained in the axle and in the felly of a wheel. samarpitah. 7- 15- dwells in all beings. ii. etc.". whose body all beings are. .". Ibid. forms the subject matter of Katha ii. Brh. n. Katha 5.Om Om iti idarn sarvam. . . 6. That the one Atman.". .". 5. sarvananasirogrivah ". Ibid. ". The Taittir. .72 ". Taitt.". the Svetasvatara Up. ii. pasyati. i. 1 6. sivah. 8. Atmani eva atmanam pasyati sarvarn atmanam 4. amrtah. . Cf. (Trans. ". ii. 8. which is fundamen tally theistic. sarvatah panipadam . . i. . THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA tad yatha rathanabhau ca . Ibid. all beings and all those selves are contained in that Self. 1 6. Immortal. the ruler within. and within all beings. Even sarvavyapinam ". ii. i. following tasminl lokah sritah sarve. whom beings do not know. 23. too has the ". too says Brahma. The Katha Up.
vi ii. Yasmin . ". One has only to turn over the pages of the this idea are sure to Upanisads be found. not our object. ". Brahmaivedam Sarvam . ii. ancl passages tinged with For want of a better ". . . 16 and v. Purusa evedam visvasya etc. varistham. 5. . . ". 6. jagat. ". 14 (Cf.". . it is not too abstruse to escape the understanding of those take some pains to inquire into the knowledge of the Atman. Mund. eko devah sarvabhutesu gudhah atma.DEVELOPMENT OF A is ITS CONCEPTION of the 73 mantra from the Purusa-sukta ii. . ". In the first place. Isa. -". ". however.". to collect all such passages here. Secondly.". 2. . anupasyatah. ekam eti. ". . .itaram iv. Yas tu sarvani . Mund. parivest.". word we have named this conception Panthe ism. . Isa.". vijugupsate. it is not far from the real truth who .". Yasmin dyauh . . . ". 13.". Isavasyam idam sarvam . ii. . i. 7.) . It is 2. iv. . . To multiply such instances is in no way difficult. . . ii. quoted as ". Isa.V. By not the existence of the world it does not denying arouse the hostility or opposition of the general thinker. R. 2.". setuh.". Hand. The reason why the largest portion of the Upanisads is pantheistic in this sense is twofold. 15 sarvam. catuspat.
real truth of In this way accommodating the the sole reality of the Atman (and consequently the falsity of the world) to the empirical conscious ness which refuses to part with the grosser concep tion of the world an idea with which it has long been familiar the idealist has to come down from words intelligible his high pedestal and speak in to people in general. it boldly valkya. pure ". that the only reality that says as given in the ".. idealism. it is liable and . ".74 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA ".". the horse is the Atman.". But a further abuse of the doctrine reduces it to what we may call the lower Panthe ma to which each and every ism. terial thing is also the is Atman. ". is the Atman. according is said to be only a . for its existence ". e. even though the world may be taken to possess some kind for of existence. He will. would be the vulgar expression losing sight of the original idea on which this conception is based. the table is the the so that when a man kills a snake rider ". Granting All is the Atman. Atman ".".. for the time being. Atman way of has killed the . since the oneness of the Atman is still maintained and all this diversity in the world name depending on the Atman and as the name is unreal. that of Yajfiaas it does a world. it fol lows that even this doctrine indirectly comes to the same truth. the Atman. but will add that what ".". grant that there is a world. the Atman. etc.".g. If we Pantheism we find that it is analyse this form of not far removed from the original Idealism. ever is is the Atman.
So long as he has his body. there of the is a strange anomaly knowledge not Atman. being intoxicated with the true bliss Atman. will Others who (dnanda) At questions by the word are still ignorant of their blind ".9.g. The human made of reason and by to grasp the reality by its power use of words. he is within the world of imperfections and he. too. cannot be reached by mere reasoning.. quite the ness deny that they are blind and consequently laugh at the spontaneous utterings of such a Vedantist.". since nothing can exist (or have a satta) independent of the Atman. a man who is called jivanmukta. refuses to be chopped up into bits in order to 1 Cf. ". 1 There are limita in it.". But we must carefully note that this sort of Pantheism is not the essential doctrine of the Upanisads. man. It rests on a mere misunderstand of the position. When one has realized the true nature of the Atman. KathaUp. 2. e. has to make some concession in saying that this world (which really does not exist in his view) too is not anything of besides the Atman. its legitimate boundary. As a matter in such a intellect is of fact. which implies that all is the ing Atman. this knowledge i.DEVELOPMENT OF to be laughed at ITS CONCEPTION 75 and pooh-poohed by the man in the street. meet all Such a man. tions and imperfections inherent the It breaks down moment it attempts to go beyond a certain The ultimate reality point. ". naisa tarkena matir apaneya ". . he does not see anything besides the Atman.
our whole life. e. words have to be used for communicating truth. the world in so doing do suppose it to exist. Hence has to be content with blurred and indistinct But.76 fit THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA in with the import of language.". and to meaning demands our self-consciousness. must transcend it which its it cannot do. vision. our living will. etc. In order fully to realize such truths the intellect itself. was yet far 1 On remarks of Prof. appearance. The degeneration of the Pure Idealism Upanisads did not stop here. Hence. which may seem to be conflicting of if looked at merely the kernel in the external. though granted. 1 When we and say. in the interpretation of the passages of the Upanisads we must always confine our attention to the spirit underlying the text and to the motives which led the sages to unite various standpoints in one text. Creationism (Cosmogonism) The identity of the Atman and the world. ". which is after all inadequate. is nothing but an even so we use the term world. . ". Bergson in his the function of the intellect compare the brilliant L Evolution Creatrice. on the other hand. our whole self. though the moment we use them we land ourselves on quicksands. yield its It it is self- illuminating. Deism."..g. The natural course Pantheism was to turn into what we may call . far as to turn into ultra-Realism It went so and further on for even into Atheism. but not our speech.
i. i. i. fire the tiny the spirits of Cf. Sa iman lokan asrjata. vi. ". for ". 6. Mandukya . 2. 4. ii. ".". i. ii. viz. i.). according to which the Atman is the cause and the world proceeds from it as an effect. vii. iii. as from the all sparks fly out. vi. i. 2. ii. sarvam ".". . This stage of thought prominently appears in Taitt. . . Brh. i. So kamayata bahu syam pravisat. 3. 10. i. 4. so from this 1 Atman (tena ii. i. Up. 3. 3. i. i. example. and the world is the Many how then could the Atman be one with the world ? : . . that of causality. Yato va imani bhutani ". i.". lost its force. . 26. Ait. i (". Ibid. the chief passages are ". . . 7. iii. i. . 5. i. purusah. atmatah eva idam 9 . ii. Atmana sarvam idam 20 ii.. 2. 1 The most eloquent pas sage on the subject is the analogy of the spider and the sparks.". therefore. ". 19. i. 2. 5. They would argue thus Atman is One. . i. and was supplanted by a still more empirical conception. i. tad Brahmeti. Just as the spider goes forth from itself by means of its threads. .) Mund. Chan. tat srstva tad evanuIbid. 4. Taitt. . 4. i. not being trans parent. asrjata vi.. The notion of identity. in this Tasmat etasmad va atmanah . Such ideas are all also found scattered over almost the other Upanisads. Up.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 77 from being transparent to many who had a craze The for the concrete.
Keeping in view the remoteness of the age when the authors of the Upanisads breathed on this earth. ii. The one notable point in this connexion is that is at this stage the Atman who creates the world identical with that who lives in it. is answered as ". 7).. asi. ". iii. ". 7 and ii. v. 5). Up. ".78 life THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA spring forth. ii. idea. ". Taitt. above.". not in any is Brahman is thus the psychic principle. ". where the all is within is as soul all. i. all gods. 6. i. world. ". present as a whole within each of us.". We have already iii. It is is universal Self. 1 Brahman is the Atman. referred to a passage (Brh. It is not an aggregate of the Atmans but the whole of the but The well-known Vedantic formulas tat That art thou tvam vi. I am Brahman (Brh. way divided into so many Atmans. 4. 4. Up. and Brahman that inquiry as to the ". and aham brahmdsmi. set out at The same illustrations are further length in Mund.g. ". 10).Tat srstva tad eva anupravisat.The same has been discovered in : 1 Cf. all living beings (Brh.". be one of the fundamental postulates of all future metaphysics. all worlds. (Chand. 8. 20). . i. It is thy soul that is itself within which as the knowing subject unknow able. i. Up. amply corroborate the ". i. the creator of the not different from the individual Self within \ The each of us. it strikes us as something really wonderful to grasp this relation of identity between God and man so This is a thought that will ever clearly as they did. e. i. Atman.".
". This identity of the creative principle with our inner self was not so attractive to the hard-headed men accus tomed They failed tp understand how the great and infinite Brahman who created the world could be the same as the little Atman within us of the size of a thumb (angustha".". Now. the individual Atman). be true. ITS CONCEPTION 79 rather a circuitous way long after by Western thinkers and we believe that in spite of all the threats of materialistic. and our inefficient intellect fails to grasp this higher truth and it was held that the Atman who creates the world may be from that who is within us. The distinction . it is is not true. all of us as men do have such tendencies. Cosmogonism thus paved the way to Theism. ". this principle Take away and you destroy all meta physics worth the name. this one principle of the identity of the At- man with the Absolute will ever remain unshaken. it is the proclaimed even if meaningless to us . The former distinguished was called the Paramatman the (the Great Atman) or Isvara (the Jivatman (the Governor). beyond us to understand it. to look always to the external.DEVELOPMENT OF as well. matrah). atheistic and pragmatistic move ments the present century witnesses here and there. they would say. and the latter. or other destructive tendencies that the future may witness. the adaptation empirical of the higher truth to the understanding went still further. This necessitated a further concession to suit the innate empirical tendencies of such people in fact. identity it Oh.
. Rtam pibantau sukrtasya loke guham pravistau parame parardhe chayatapau brahmavido vadanti pancagnayo ye ca trinaciketah. and continues in some of the later Upanisads. therein he dwells. Real Theism begins with a contrast between Brah This is man and the the individual Self. being lodged in the cavity of the seat of the Supreme.8o THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA between the two Atmans begins to appear in the Kathaka Up. 3. Up. exponent at this level of thought is the Svetasvatara Up.". the knowers of Brahman call shadow and light. etc. At the bidding of this imperishable asunder.". where the distinction between these two Atmans is likened to that between light and shadow ".. 3. Brh. The two. and have as also do those who main tain five fires fire.. and prevents them from clashing Here within the heart is . enjoying the fruits of their good deeds. he is the bridge that holds the chief of the Universe asunder these worlds. Katha (Trans.} i.". the lord of the Universe. i. O Gargi. 4. Brh. together. 9. some tendencies towards this position are noticeable : ". This first appears in Katha Up. sun and moon are held ". 22. in which though the original The . Even as early as in the Brh. i. not yet Theism. the governor of the Universe. but a preparation to it. thrice propitiated the Naciketa Katha chief i. iv. a cavity.". iii. one. 8.
yet a distinction is clearly drawn out. viz. Up. bahvih prajah srjamanam sarupah. is perhaps most accept we do not hesitate to call Theism a lower conception than the Pure Idealism sketched above. iv. samane vrkse puruso nimagnah aniSaya socati muhyamanah. .. that which makes Brahman a personal god and distinguishes variety of theism Him from the individual soul. Passages exhibiting a Pantheistic and Idealistic trend of thought are not wanting in this Up. we call it a mere pictorial way of able to the masses. 7. Up. tayor anyah pippalam svadv atti anasnann anyo bhicakasiti. e. The theistic tinge comes in when it is said that the removal of this illusion depends on the grace of the Lord. 1 The type of we have indicated here. but 1 In Svet. Svet. the distinction spoken of above is explained as illusory. in the following chief passage ".DEVELOPMENT OF identity of ITS CONCEPTION Atman 81 is Brahman and the individual not denied. ajo hy eko jusamano misete jahaty ". justam yada pasyaty anyam Isam asya mahimanam iti vitasokah. These stages are set down side by side to suit the human understanding. also. Ajam ekam lohitas uklakrsnam.g. 6. enam bhuktabhogam ajo nyah. ". dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate. 6.". 5. i..
the former. This is standpoint. (called the Prakrti). and may be better word. which seemed more remote and was not witnessed by the soul. which in a clever way solved the dualism by striking out one of its components. ". One had to give way. rather believe in the existence of the soul than of the Isvara. But how long and how far could such a separa tion between the Lord (Isvara) and the soul exist ? The natural consequence was a further degeneration. and the empirical instinct in man would . common understand ing. repulsed want some truths. viz. of the soul.82 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA more concrete and simple it representing a truth in a way to let harmonize with the ". These people which will give a colouring to their imagination whenever they venture to think about the origin of the world in which they live and move. since it is perceived but one could doubt the reality . In this struggle therefore the conception of the Paramatman was ousted. ". ApsychThis denial of the soul and the belief in an Let us call those who did so ". and it is Theism which they will welcome by abstract concrete idea. The first was the denial even of the individual soul. There remained only the individual soul (named now the Purusa) and the external real world ". It called also may as the Sankhya Atheism for want of a be added very briefly itself known that the progressive realism further manifested in two more aspects. ists. .". instinctively. The existence of the world could not be denied.
So long as these are not viewed in their mutual relation and coherence.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION more found 83 external world only. which was or less a stream its of perceptions. the doc trine of the sole reality of or ". most of which are themselves found in the Upanisads. it is not to be won dered that one may accuse the Upanisads of mani fest contradictions. since we believe that its relation it may help to present our Idealism in to other stages of thought. from another standpoint. The short account subject we have sketched above on this may perhaps seem to be a digression from our subject proper. The second aspect place in Buddhism. which would even rob Buddhism of all idealistic leanings (or what tion is is called tendency). was the furthermost degeneration into gross materialism. Only matter exists. Here we may stop so far as the degeneration of the Pure Idealism is concerned it was impossible for this degeneration to go further than the Carvakas. it is quite in tentional. But a general view of the way in which the basic truth of the Upanisads. and all else is unreal. Such thoughts constituted the School of Carvaka. ". degenerated. changing and momentary. philosophy. and mind is a mere product of it. but even if so. who are regarded as the extreme realists of Indian . Percep the only way to knowledge. into the thought in order to adapt all more itself realistic stages of to the empirical tendencies innate in of . developed Brahman.
Sankara. Text and T indiEnglish Translation of the Sankhya. 95. p. we have to refer to the philosophy of another great Advaitist. 257 Indian . Heidelberg. called ". System Veddnta. 292 Essays. 233 . Contributions towards an Index. Sdnkhya-Philosophie. p. Wilson. how the great Sankara these forms of thought into a single synthesises whole. Garbe. I p.84 us THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA may bring home to us a better idea of the teach and of the place of the pure Idealism (which may otherwise be named as the conception of Maya) in Indian thought as a ings of these treatises in general. p. anticipate him. Gaudapdda. 1910. p.Karika. p. Miiller. derful expositions of the fundamentals of Advaitism. 86 . Miscellaneous Philosophy. 61 Weber. in which each has a proper place beside the shall presently see all We other. p. and how he saves the Pure Idealism by the But we must not Before we discuss his Advaitism and what he has to say on the theory of Maya. 1830. p. vol. pp. 1837. 26 . This name is in no way to be identified with the author of a commentary on 1 The Advaitist Isvara Krsna s Sankhya Karika. 178. VorL. Philosophy 1 On des . am indebted for these references to Vedanta. this point compare the views of Deussen. 104. 260 Hall. Ak. was the teacher of Govinda. help of the Sruti as well as reason. i.. of the Upanisads.". Max . W schmann. Max Walleser s Der altere . 254. etc. Gough. . Karikas on the Mandukya Upanisad. i. Zweite Auflage. 85. Six Systems of Colebrooke. Bonn. 240 . the teacher Gaudapada He has left to us one of the most won of Sankara. p. whole.
DEVELOPMENT OF The nature this work speaking these is ITS CONCEPTION 85 of our subject requires us to in some detail. Vaitathya. so it with the multiplicity only appearing but not exist ing really. is false (vaitathya). attacking Advaitism. As a stick burning at one end is waved round quickly in the air. which means the extinction of a firebrand. In the fourth are refuted all the arguments which. which in its subject-matter is chiefly based on the Mandukya Up. The example may sound rather unfamiliar to Western ears. The Karika is into four parts. The sport . themselves prove contradic and then a calm is restored and the final tory . each of looked upon as having the authority of an : The four parts are named Agama. and Aldtasdnti. word is spoken on the all else.". The first.. while . and as it hangs mainly on the Upanisad. it seems to create a circle of fire (alata-cakra) is . Sruti or the Agama (i. sole reality of the Atman and the falsity of This part is therefore aptly termed Aldta-sdnti. Advaita ". discusses the nature and significance of the secret syllable Om.. In the third are refuted the accusations against the Advaita view and then the real standpoint is main tained by reason hence it is called Advaita. The second explains by means of argument how the world.e. instead of it examine simply divided of as such. and as already observed. the Veda) it is called Agama. characterized as it is by duality. but it must not be forgotten that it appeals most vividly to the Indian. hence it is named Vaitathya. which does not really exist.
18). the multiplicity is false. both being within the body in a subtle form Sankara explains this stanza logically thus i). in sooth Advaita. the metaphysical truth is that the world does not exist. a very common in the sight in the where little boys play evening after having finished their daily school. Boldly and truly Gaudapada asserts the world does hence this Maya cannot be not exist in reality . MADE ". may a ". . Gaudapada could give an unchecked flight to his thoughts only in the other three parts. These are therefore more important for our purpose. The first part. while the dream-world is internal. . as already remarked. In other words. it is All this is mere appearance. literally removed or destroyed even. ception of Maya. hence being not a reality it does not stand in need of removal ever (i. 17). to be re as ". is (ii. illusion itself is destroyed (i. Nobody hence moved.". In the second part Gaudapada explains the un reality (vaitathya) of all multiplicity by showing that the world which people call real is no more real than a dream-world. it is it is meaningless to speak of it When the highest truth is realized the not a reality. which is permeated with the con ". But as witnessed by the same self they are the same.". We here give a brief summary of the Advaitism of this great teacher. being based on the Upanisad. The two worlds are alike in this respect.task.86 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA as Aldta-cakra is known streets. the only difference is that the waking- world external.
objects seen are false. (svapnad rsy abhavavat ) .) Reason (hetu) Because they are capable : of being seen. In ii. on account of being internal and subtle condition. since it never existed hence it could not have any . so too it is nothing at the end. (jagraddrsyanam bhavanam vaitathyam. (d rsyamanatvat. perience are finally of the same class as the mirage. For instance. the mirage is nothing in the beginning. Though. are the same is finally enun 5 From an what sarily is analysis of our experience naught at the beginning and at we end find that is neces so the middle too. the in a phenomena of dream are differ ent from those of waking. their capability of being seen is the same. ) Illustration (drstanta) : Like the objects seen in a dream. yet (the fact remains) that their being seen (drsyamdnatva) and their consequent futility (or falsity. The objects of our waking ex tertiary existence. vaitathya) common ciated. (Yatha tatra svapne drsyanam bhavanam vai tathyam tatha jagarite pi drsyatvam avisistam iti. so too in waking. since it never was a mirage. of presentation. to both. .) Conclusion (nigamana) Therefore in the waking condition too they (the : Argument (hetupanayd) As in a dream the : objects seen) are false (tasmaj jagarite pi vaitath yam smrtam iti).DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 87 Proposition (pratijna) Objects seen in the waking world are unreal.
one sees objects which are never found in the waking condition and has strange experiences. But it may be replied that all is this rests on a misunderstanding. are unreal. For instance. therefore. Mandukya Upanisad. cogniser in dreams. as the rope. but sees objects transcending the limits of experience. by the very conditions of their existence. . hence they are real in themselves. etc. the serpent. says Sankara. consequently to deduce the futility of either from its similarity to the other is not valid. It is only the ignorant. etc.. and. such as finding oneself with eight hands sitting on an elephant with four heads. the mirage. such as Indra state.88 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA hence possess no independent existence whatever. being merely the conditions of the cogniser. so the transcendent phenomena of dreams are only a result of the condition of the cogniser. trans. Further. That which ence in dreams supposed to transcend the limits of experi is not an absolute reality in itself but only a condition of the cogniser conditioned by that As those living in heaven. 8). who regard the image in the glass as real (ii. have a thousand eyes. and others. so the transcending of the limits of experience is the very condition of the Hence. p. All these are not copies of anything unreal. unreal 1 1 (ii. But it may be objected that the two phenomena in question are not quite similar. 42. In dreams one is not The always having experience in harmony with the objects of sense. etc. and so forth.. objects seen in dreams are not copies of those seen in the waking condition.. See Dvivedi. 6).
i. both are the less Even as to the phenomena in dreams. none the the facts arrange themselves under reality and (ii. ence . we variety of experience by himself. He imagines himself by himself. if might an objector come for ward to say Who is then the knower or creator of ? If you say none (ii. ".. The Atman is the only reality. ". cognition (ii. For the phenomena of dreams are time as real as those of waking. the whole of our experience in both the and the dreaming conditions is pronounced waking Now. the cogniser of experi ence. since to be an illusion. This is the last word of the Vedanta on this subject (ii. 10). 12). experience you at once destroy the reality of the Atman. n). though whole of them are known to be unreal. whose . the conception of the reality of the life Atman is the very of it. well ". which would be laying an axe at the very foot of all Vedanta. Our waking experiences are as much an illusion as those of dreams. unreality 9.DEVELOPMENT OF it ITS CONCEPTION 89 must be noted that it is only from a relative stand point that dreams are spoken of as unreal and the waking condition as unreal. brings about the reply.e. ". As the rope. is The Atman. real. He is himself the cogniser and the cognised. Truly speaking. The differ not in the nature of any of these experiences as such it is caused only by the instruments of for the is . It all subsists also in himself through the power of Maya. 15).
90 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA is not known as such at that time. is when a complete knowledge knowledge persisting attained. is mere illusion. All illusion vanishes of the rope for all time. (ii. though actually perceived. (ii. 32). a line of water. So too creation. unity. The absolute truth is that there is. an unreality. whether derived from ordinary inter course or from sacred texts. so the cosmos an illusion. etc. none in no pupilage. 17). none desirous of liberation. etc. or any one of numerous similar things. such is con firmed the right knowledge that all is one. The ". As dream and illusion are entirely unreal. no creation. 19). bondage. imaginations and is never He is the negation of the phenomenal. so is the Atman imagined to be the variety of experience. Destruction is impossible. as a fact. ". In other words. 31). when it is estab lished that the Atman alone is real and all duality is an illusion. it follows that all that forms the subject of experience. none liberated. It is only the power of illusion which makes us imagine the Atman as the variety So too of numberless visible objects (ii. because of his essential nature of But only the sages. Atman is ever in relation to free from all any conditions. a stick. viz. though experienced as real. The Scrip tural texts amply set forth the unreality of the cos mos (ii. the Atman (ii. Jiva. In the matter of absolute sense of the word. Only the is ignorant regard such illusions as real. no dissolution.. . is imagined dark to be a snake. free from attachment. therefore. 12). nature in the Prdna.
it . . is As. the limited . The third part Advaita ". etc. he will from the point of view be a sort of block of self- dead matter (ii.e. again. (iii. are able to perceive this truth (ii. 36). The division appears as real. 2). 4). though still being within the duality.. the wise man should a block of inert matter. . he will transcend of this world therefore. but that does not imply any real difference in akasa itself. though appearing to give birth to the multiplicity of things all about us. So is Jiva merged in the Atman on the dissolution of the self-imposed ad Differences are only in form. For instance. anger. 38). like be in the world world. 1 On this compare Sankara on ii. may be compared to ether (akasa) It is not different from the ether enclosed in a jar the enclosure being destroyed. ITS CONCEPTION 91 and well versed in the Scriptures.. 35). the Atman. akasa merges into mahdkdsa. i. neither a part nor an evolved 14 below. ". Having realized the Atman. being indivisible The individuation and all-pervading. name. unmoved and unattached to the being perfectly In this way. 3. fully apply to Jiva cepted by a jar ". This illustration may juncts l (iii. of the Atman into the Jivas is not a process of division.DEVELOPMENT OF fear. realization of the Atman should never (".) begins with the idea that the Atman. akasa inter 6). i. capacity. is not in the least affected is by any such thing (iii. This consciousness of the cease (ii. Multiplicity only due to self-imposed and imagined limitations.
if on the very face of it is impossible. in a metaphysical 13. eternal so and unborn. thus precluding all possibility of libera tion. the distinctionless Atman. demon strated by reason and borne out by Scriptures. cannot be taken as the cause or source of everything. effect of dkdsa. It does not would into the world of experience. etc. All duality is nothing but a creation of the mind. . The separation between Jiva and the Atman is only assumed and need only be taken sense (iii. The birth of worlds is possible only through maya. never to be realized in reality or even in illusion (iii. The son of a barren women is a concept without meaning. the immortal would in that case necessarily become mortal. It may 27).. since a thing can not be changed into anything of quite an opposite nature convert did. A sat (non-existence). which maya for. 14). it (iii. 28). Nothing can be actually born of the Atman. Again. 19. rope to the snake. but not in reality Again. the distinctions were real. 31). The Sastras praise the unity of the Atman. so is effect of the Atman 7). is The Atman itself ever unborn and one.92 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Jiva neither a part nor an evolved (iii. like the (iii. 21). appears with distinctness under many finite and mortal forms simply through . while they censure manifoldness or separateness. since it stands or falls with the mind (iii. only be supposed to give birth to things. If it go on taking birth after birth ad infinitum.
crooked. are false (iv. 45). though regarded as real (iv. 31). 46) As motion makes a fire-brand appear straight. appears as admitting of creative motion and material existence. Thought all-peace and one. those who know this are never deluded into a false consciousness (iv. called is ITS CONCEPTION 93 A Idta-sdnti. breaks 19). 22). in reason.Quench Fire-brand. The vari ous theories held by the Vijnanavadins. immovable and immaterial. cannot exist in the present . Those who maintain the etc. the Nihilists. is anything produced. are the objects . objects are all like ordinary illusions. i.". So also is it impossi ble to prove the eternity of salvation. nor. is Gaudapada. etc. (iv. ". etc. the final pronouncement of intended to destroy the illu fire-brand. non-being. cannot. That which is naught at the beginning and at the end. be shown to have an end. 28). and shown how (iv. thing it world must not forget to realize that the world. the ever-unborn. Nothing which reality of the is beginningless is non-eternal. in fact. or both (iv.. and therefore hav ing a beginning (iv.. still it appears to pass into birth.". realized only at the moment of its knowledge.e. perceived .DEVELOPMENT OF The fourth ing the part. down while applying to the is Atman or n- Nothing produced either of itself by some else. The relation it is between it cause and effect is examined. so motion makes thought appear as perceiver. whether be being. Sat is unborn and eternal. which sion of the ". being without a beginning.. Thus neither is the mind produced nor . 30).
87). When motion like the fire-brand. have attempted to show how the sage Gaudapada establishes a thorough going monist s position. 56). such from the standpoint or (iv. its apparent motion being an illusion (iv. ity. though they do not appear to enter . so is motion being unreal by appearance. 51-52). . ever unborn. to the Absolute after having realized attitude being justified an it. refuting the idea of causality. this faith one sees the world eternally present the world is nowhere (iv. analysing the notions of existence and reality. The appearances of the fire-brand in motion are not brought into it from with out and they do not appear in any other place when it is at rest. and the affected The fire-brand is is not itself its by its appearance and . never perceive the The treatise ends with a salutation duality ". ". and is ever unborn. being destroyed. appearances thought also they do not go do not come from without out anywhere beyond the motion. 48). always hold fast to truth (iv. So long as one has faith in causal . and even giving a psychological . 94). 47). is The same in applies to thought. Duality consisting of subject and object is a crea Those who tion of the external senses (iv.94 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA like (iv. 49). They are always indescribable because of their defiance to the relation of cause and effect (iv. relativity and experience In this brief survey we 100). neither do they enter thought. calling the whole world of experience as false as the dream-world. thought unaffected it (iv.
and many other expositors. may hardly be said to yield one and indisputable interpretation.. as they stand apart from Sankara tion of them. In passing. have res fixed pectively attempted to wield the Sutras as weapons for the defence and support of their own interpreta and conceptions of the chief metaphysical problems. We purposely omit in this chapter the discussion of Badarayana s Sutras for reasons which are not with out justification. The general sketch we have here given Gaudapada s idealism will suffice for our purpose. Ramanuja. but unfortun ately their names have not come down to us. None of them is prima facie open to tions reconciliation with the others. it In face of such facts far can the would indeed be worth the trouble to go deeply into the problem. how any Sutras as such be made to give definite interpretation . between the times of Gauda- pada and the Saiikara. s commentary or any other exposi definite. either in favour of or against any doctrine of the Vedanta. and without dwelling on it any more we now pass of pn to the final synthesis of the doctrine in Saiikara. including some of the very modern ones. name contributed anything worth to the development of the idea of Maya. was by him developed into a more or less systematic whole. viz. who There may perhaps have been some. which was afterwards still further elaborated by Saiikara. it may be observed that there is hardly any teacher of note. The Sutras. Saiikara.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 95 The conception of Maya genesis of appearances.
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA
yet gone into these details, and it would certainly be no mean subject for further research. Our present
purpose, however, precludes us from undertaking this additional task here, and even if any such sug
were brought forward, they would not
materially affect the position of the question at Personally, we are inclined to take Sankara
and the most satisfactory exponent of Badarayana s views on the Vedanta problems. We do endorse the view that to Sankara was handed down the tradition in its genuineness. But dog matizing on such points is of no use, and one is at liberty to hold whatever view one likes on matters incapable of any direct proof. Hence we now pass on to a discussion of Sankara s contributions on the
as the best
question of Maya.
As an Vedanta
and the Sankara found himself of the Upanisads, a difficult and peculiar situation. He observed,
interpreter of the Vedic tradition
on the one hand, the
Reality philosophical as such could not be taken as
ultimately true. Their seeming contradictions, even Yet on the as such, could not be merely ignored.
these were to him Vaidic (i.e., based and hence revelations of the Divine Sruti), Truth, which by the force of his tradition he had to He noticed, e.g., that the purely meta accept. physical standpoint of Yajnavalkya was at any
rate quite incompatible with the less advanced views the later stages in the degeneration of pure Ideal
yet each of these phases of thought claimed validity on the basis of a certain Sruti. IJe was thus in a
way on the horns
of a dilemma, from which he found an escape with caution and wisdom, acting quite in
of thought. the spirit of all great synthesisers In attaining such syntheses, sometimes a clean sweep to be made, and Sarikara was not wanting in the
asserted that knowledge
para (higher) and apara (lower), the former referring to the unqualified Brahman, and
the latter including all else that is to say, para vidya only the highest metaphysical Vedanta such as is given in the pure idealism of Yajnaval;
Gaudapada, etc. The other parts of the Upanisads, which deal with more realistic or empiri cal views, as well as the whole ritual canon of the Vedas, with its things commanded and forbidden under promise of reward and punishment in another
Smrtis, etc., are all labelled as apara
include the Vedas under this latter head
was certain to offend the masses, yet Sarikara took this course, which was indeed essential for his The thought that the empirical view of synthesis.
unable to lead us to a
final solution of
being of things, was occupying the central position in his mind. More closely examined/ as Deussen 1
System des Ved&nta, chap.
98 has so
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA
this thought is eloquently pointed out, even the root of all metaphysics, so far as without it no metaphysics can come into being or exist." This
this that led
the great dynamic force in Sankara, him to base the whole of his
x on the system as reflected in the Sarirakabhasya fundamental concept of the illusory nature of all our empirical and physical knowledge and the true nature of the higher metaphysics. That is the reason why he starts with an examination into the
erroneous transference of the things and relations of the objective world to the inner soul, the Self,
which leads to the idea of avidyd. This thought, which forms the introduction to his epoch-making book, in a way gives an idea of his whole system, and we could not do better than state the whole
position in his own words, which, if well understood, are sure to furnish a key to Sarikara s whole Advait-
Object (visaya) and Subject (visayin), he at the beginning of his work, indicated by the says are of a nature Thou (the not-I) and the
If it is certain as opposed as are darkness and light. that the being of the one is incompatible with the
being of the other, it follows so much the more that the qualities of the one also do not exist in the other.
follows that the transfer (superimposition,
atasmin tadIn his Introduction he defines it as buddhih," i.e., supposing a thing to be what it is not
All this goes to false empirical show that the is final reason of the to be sought in the nature concept of our cognitive faculty. the erroneous empirical concept is to be sought for in this subject the solely in the knowing subject . I.". . the being-in-itself ". want or excess caused thereby. and its qualities to the object. for ". p. and so saying. so that they transfer the being and qualities of the one to the untrue. If that that to which a similar is be so. it follows false transfer is thus not in the slightest degree affected by any made. a false knowledge pairing together the true and the ject inborn or natural (naisargika). This am ". 21.". Bibl. Sankara s Sarirakabhasya. 807. as repeatedly asserted. example.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION ". That the is mine. From that the ground of this it may rightly be inferred ". and. as this passage clearly brings out the unalterableness of the Self. 1 is innate (nai- * Cf. Ind. is other. i.. etc. avidyd. the transfer of the sub ". ".". 13. 10. p. not separating object and subject. although they are absolutely different. in contradistinction to it. 1. This transference thus made wise term Avidya (ignorance). 7. 99 and adhydsa) of the object denoted by the Thou its qualities to the pure spiritual object indicated by the and conversely. are logically Yet in mankind this procedure. of things. vastusvaruthis pam) Vidyd (knowledge). they call the accurate determination of the true nature of things (". I. resting on false.
(arambhana origin arambhana is used ". 31. its being a wrong conception. 9. ii. the passages which appeared to be typical on this point are found in the com mentary on i. ". 11.. ii.". 4. 6. 9. p.3. How ". ch. 7.. 19. 2.. which sums up Sarikara (". Brahman alone is the reality ". made of name merely being j a that Cf. 33. so ? On account of ". i. Ibid. ". 4. i. i. has no existence apart from the cause. 3. ii. 14 ) (". ii. ii. 2. ii. i. Ind. i.". the scriptural word others. i. 3 It is mithya-jnana-nimitta. 7. Chand. 2. is 4 and Brahmavyatirekena karyajatasyabhavah tadananfound in his commentary on ii. all ". Calcutta. s view. 4. 4 is : As. 444. See Deussen. understood that in reality it is i. 4 .ioo sargika) is . THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA its cause is a wrong perception 2 l . Now we proceed to an examination of some of 3 the typical passages in Saiikara which sum up his whole position with respect to Maya. i. 3.". 9. System. ! viz. ii.e.) The word ". the modification ". In going through the whole book. p. . ether and so on ". 1863. 20.. 14. 2. 21. p.) runs thus yatvam arambhanasabdadibhyah The effect is this manifold world consisting of the cause is the highest Brahman. in a passage undertaking to show how through the knowledge of one thing every thing is known. vol. Veddntasutras with Stinkard s Commentary. i. mithya-pratyaya-rupa. viz. and con in nexion with a simile. Up. O good one clay 1 2 by one clod of clay is known. ii. Qf the effect it is non-different from the cause. i. 2. i. vi. 11-12. i. Bibl. i. One of the most important passages.
all of clay for their true nature. ii. iv. vi. Mund. water and earth are the effects of Brahman. n. 8. maintains that the effects of these three elements have no existence apart from them (Chand. dishes. ". Later on again the text. 4. i). which agree in For these modi and effects are names only. fications and so on. is passage clay merely. This parallel instance is given with they . Byhad. we understand has no that the entire existence apart from body of Brahman. they are names (individual effects distinguished by in so far as they are clay names) they are untrue are true. any other assumption it would not be possible to maintain that by the knowledge of one thing every thing becomes known. 25 . 25. vii. Up. 4. are to be quoted here in accordance with the others of the Sutra. thus. Brahman ". effects ". On ". . while the truth etc. 2 . pails. reference to ambhana quoted. that if there really The meaning of this known a lump of clay which known having nothing but clay. Other sacred texts 1 also.". We therefore must adopt 1 Cf. ii. applying the phrase vdcdrto the case illustrated by the instance . 6 . after having declared that fire. 2. is. while in reality there In so far as exists no such thing as a modification. 7 . Chand. such thereby is and truly as jars.DEVELOPMENT OF which has it is ITS CONCEPTION is 101 that its origin in speech. exist through or originate from speech only. intimate the unity of the Self. there are likewise all things made of clay. whose purpose is to 4. vi.
Die Sutras des Vedanta. Ind. it is not to be perceived by its own nature (i..e. enjoyers.". Cf.B.E. i. 320-321.. etc. Sankara says Sankara on ii.. the distinction of teacher is and pupil on which depends not real. 281.. become . a mirage is not for really different from the surface of the desert the nature of that water is that it is seen in one the following view moment and has vanished in the next. Brahman. lute unity (1) The ordinary means of ception. i. A tions that if we replying to the pluralists objec acquiesce in the doctrine of abso right knowledge. p.. apart from the surface of the desert) so this mani l fold world with its objects of enjoyment. etc. S. has no existence apart from little further. ". p. 14.102 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA : In the same way as those parts which are limited by jars and waterof ethereal space pots are not really different from the universal ethereal space.. 1 . p. See Thibaut s Translation.". and. validity depends does not really exist (3) The entire body of doctrines if which it refer to final release will collapse. because the absence of manifoldness deprives them of their objects All the texts embodying injunctions and pro hibitions will lose their purport if the dis (2) tinction on which their . per invalid. 444-445. moreover. and as the water of. Bibl. Deussen.
DEVELOPMENT OF ". no reason why the ordinary course of secular and religious activity should not hold on undisturbed. exertion. Gaudapada.. and up to the moment of waking is convinced that his ideas are produced by real perception without suspecting the perception to be a merely apparent one. knowledge and its results of actions is untrue . and before we refer to his other passages let us see what he says in his comments on ii. we reply. and it is defended against the charge of its stopping all possibilities of activity. do not damage our position. The unity of the Self is the maxim. forgetful of Brah man being in reality the Self of all. looks on mere effects as forming part of and belonging to his Self. because the entire complex of phenomenal existence is considered as true as long as the knowledge of Brahman being the Self of all has not arisen just as the phantoms of a dream are considered to be true until the sleeper awakes For as long as a person has not reached the true knowledge of the unity of the Self. These eloquent passages speak for themselves. i. and hardly call for any further discussion.". in the world. etc. ITS CONCEPTION 103 These objections. . who in his dream sees manifold things. . we With regard to the case referred to in the ^ruti-passages. 9 ". etc. Hence there is as long as true knowledge does not present itself. in consequence of his ignorance. refute the assertion of the cause being affected by the . The case is analogous to that of a dreaming man. so long it does not enter his mind that the world of effects with its means and objects of right he rather. other similes used by Sankara in There are two describing the nature of Brahman. Here Sarikara by making use of appropriate analogies endorses and develops the same metaphysical truth as was held by Yajnavalkya.
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA
and its qualities by showing that the latter are the fallacious super-impositions of nescience, and the
very same argument holds good with reference to reabWe can quote other examples in favour of our doctrine. As the magician is not at any time affected by the magical illusion produced by himself, because it is unreal, so the highest Self is not affected by the illusory visions of his dream because they do not accompany the waking state and the state of dreamless sleep so the one permanent witness of the three states (the highest Self) is not touched by the mutually exclusive three states. For that the highest Self appears in those three states is a mere illusion, not more substantial than the snake for which the rope is mistaken in the darkness. On
knowing the true tradition of the Vedanta have declared When the individual soul which is held in the bonds of slumber by the beginningless Maya awakes, then it knows the eternal, sleepless, dreamless nonthis point teachers
then that Sankara
very anxious to con
vince us of the truth of his doctrine, and to explain it in a picturesque way for the sake of the uninitiated,
some very appropriate
The rope and the snake. 3 The magician or juggler (mayavin) and
(3) The desert and the mirage. (4) The dreamer and the dream. The last of these has been already made use
1 2 8
Ref. Gaudapada. Gaudapada, Kdrika, See also Sankara on
exhaustively by Gaudapada. It has been shown that experiences of the waking condition are no less
unreal than those of dream.
Both are illusions
Sankara works out the same idea in the passage quoted above, and only touching upon it briefly leads us to see that the Atman is not affected in any way by the assumed existence of the world. If we just think for a moment about the subject of dreams, we perceive that we can hold without any fear of
as real as the
so long as the dream lasts i.e., so long as the consciousness to distinguish the dream
as such from the
waking condition has not
But as the illusory nature of a dream is deter mined only on waking up from the sleep, which prepared the way for it so too on
acquiring a knowledge of the Atman the sole reality waking up from the slumber of
ignorance, the truth that the world
illusion is clearly perceived.
only relatively the dream-world
1 Mr. F. H. Bradley, the well-known author of Appear ance and Reality, once told us that there could be no diffi culty whatever on speculative grounds in holding this position. Socrates (in Plato) discussed the same view, and Dreams are true while they last." Tennyson said,
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA
both are unreal.
difference does not
very nature of things, since the fact stated above under the first head is indubit
ably true. the ultimate reality is nothing but the One Atman, how is it that we perceive multiplicity here ?
do we find so many Jivas ? Are they different from the Absolute, or are they parts of it, or what ? What is this differentiation due to ? What is the
? To all such questions Sarikara answers with the aid of the theory of Maya. All these differences are only due to the imposition
principle of individuation
name (nama) and form
Here he says
the course of his exposition on
Belonging to the Self, as it were, of the omniscient Lord, there are name and form, the creations of Avidya, not to be defined either as being Brahman nor different from it, the germs of the entire expanse of the phenomenal ruti and Smrti the power of Illusion world, called in Thus the Lord depends (mayas aktih) or Prakrti. as Lord upon the limiting adjuncts of name and form, the while in reality none of these products of Avidya ; qualities belong to the Self whose true nature is cleared, by In this right knowledge, from all adjuncts whatever. ... manner the Vedanta-texts declare that for him who has reached the state of truth and reality the whole apparent
world does not
19, refuting the
view that the
not identical with the Universal,
are of opinion that the individual soul, as such,
5. in his on the distinction between the empirical emphasis . 1. 2. 12. 1 343.133. 483. 689. 518. 12. 807. 1. 787. 10. In general for the doctrine of Avidya 455. Bibl. 433. 837. 488. II.!. 473. 10. 860. 342. 15- . 13. 491. 1 Sankara lay. 2. 5. 3. in the s greatness as a synthesiser of Advaitism : we have already remarked. ". ". 112. 4. is and who by means of nescience (avidya) mani ways. 452. 6.133. 8. I.132.DEVELOPMENT OF is real.056. 205. 12. 98. 660. 15. 692. 455. 454. I. 1. 507. 269. 4. avidyakalpitam lokaprasiddham jivabhedam. compare p. (vyavahariki) and metaphysical (paramarthiki) exist some way an improvement The distinction is implicitly upon Gaudapada. 185. 10. a rational explanation of all the so-called conflicting statements in the Vedas. between in two things and useful distinction he drew important and apard". 2. p. 353. 17. just as a juggler appears in different shapes by means of his magical powers. 182. ITS CONCEPTION 107 way To refute all these speculators who obstruct the to the complete intuition of the unity of the Self this Sariraka-Sastra has been set forth. but nowhere is it more clearly and emence. etc. fests himself in various difference of Jiva and Brahman is again set forth in the same place as being only due to avidya The ". 14. 690. as first. secondly. 13. 507. 680. which was in On the same subject compare pp.". 12. vidyd. i. 682.". 3. 267. 199. 1. which gave para ". 804. observed in the Upanisads and in Gaudapada s Karikas too. 360. whose aim it is to show that there is only one highest Lord ever unchanging.. i. who cognition. Ind.
io8 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA For in phatically brought out than in Sankara. he remarks on page 488 ". and consequently the Vedanta is mism. and on the other hand leaves out of All empiric action is the Self consideration their original Brahman-Selfhood therefore before the consciousness of identity w ith Brahman awakens. under a designation of I and mine. r all worldly and Vaidic actions are l justified. objections are simply due to a misunderstanding or ignorance of passages like these. is true.". . but every creature. stance. leading charged with fostering inaction. one does not have a consciousness of the unreality of the procedure connected with standards and objects of knowledge and fruits of works. Gaudapada and Sankara were still further elaborated. just as the action in dreams before As long in fact as the knowledge of awaking takes place. pessi Such finally to a zero-point. though the style of expression The spirit of such passages is exactly analogous to Kant s axiom that the transcendental ideality of the world does not exclude its 1 empiric reality. so long as the knowledge of not reached. . etc. This fact is often ignored. this theory was again revived with full force and vigour though it has never been dead in its influence The same ideas of by modern writers on the Vedanta. been made the object of polemics from different quarters. mistakes mere transformations for the Self and for charac teristics of the Self. With Sankara closes our survey of the doctrine of Maya. unity with the true Self is not reached. The theory as held to-day is in no way con After having flicting with the views of Sankara.
In all parts of India are still found in large numbers people who. it is monotheistic. esoteric ally. since monotheism has no place to final truth the only meta of the Absolute. conception of mind. (Mayavddadarpand) lately added to the Bodleian Library.". . which has two aspects : exoterically. especially to the Advaita school of Saiikara. and all exertions The are directed towards realizing this very fact. The doctrine of Maya is the foundation-stone on which they rear the whole super structure of their philosophy of life.DEVELOPMENT OF ITS CONCEPTION 109 It is became more and more laboured and technical. Cit and Ananda. 1 1 From an unpublished MS. acquire a peculiar attachment to the Vedanta. itself in means ". of attaining the Atman not the (sadhanas) or symbols this is the lower aspect of hold. Maya has comforted many a perplexed Ekasyanekamurtitvam yugapat paramatmanah. after having thoroughly studied the various schools of Indian philosophy. ". The religion of the cultured Indians in with their modern times is identical philosophy. saccidanandarupasya sidhyen mayam rte katham. physical reality is held to be no other than the Self. the one Atman manifests are taken as ". the two . not the aim of this chapter to enter into the forms in which it is exhibited in the present day. with the belief that various forms. which ". Sat. Oxford. it is .
THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA (Trans.} is it possible to explain the manifold simultane ous manifestations of the Absolute being nothing but Sat (being). cit (intelligence) and ananda without (bliss) How having recourse to Maya ". ? .no ".
OBJECTIONS TO THE DOCTRINE WITHIN THE VEDANTA .
viz. most are based on a mere misunderstanding of the real significance and the correct attitude of the It is doctrine. \ easily divides itself into four These are represented chronologically by and Sankara.CHAPTER III OBJECTIONS TO THE DOCTRINE WITHIN THE VEDANTA AMONG the many objections that have been. as we propose to show presently. because some of them are merely childish ation.. from time to time. because in their very enunci it falls outside our scope. and shall subsequently weigh briefly the in order principal theories commonly held to rebut the doctrine. urged against the doctrine of Maya. not our purpose here to take into account all such objections. by Indian thinkers not belonging to Sarikara s school and by various other writers of the East and the West. up to-day The Vedanta system schools. We will chiefly discuss those that lie within the sphere of the Vedanta proper. those that have been raised by some of the other Vedantic schools. Ramanuja. \ their four corresponding types of interpretation are 113 . first. and destroy themselves and secondly. and Vallabha . Madhva.
and each attempts to give its own interpretation of the principal passages of the Upanisads and of Badarayana s Sutras to suit its own pre-conceived plan of ideas.H4 known THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA as Advaita. Dvaita. choice is ever going on in our every-day selection or life in all its activities. Our whole personality enters into the formation of our philosophic or religious systems. Each of these schools presents a different type of relation thought on the problem of the between the Absolute and the Universe. will ever prevail. and such diversity. demanded a variety in the philosophic and religious beliefs. Visistadvaita. that at a certain time the world will have one expect is form of religion. Hence it is not in any way a . and each of us accepts the one and rejects the other in so far as it is in harmony or otherwise with his cognitive experiences The psychological process of or general interests. It is vain to expect all the Vedantists to conform to the absolute rational istic type of Saiikara. or will think in one set groove of Vedanta repre thought. or to the theistic type of Ramanuja. sent four stages of the development of thought. which no less true of human nature than of the external world. or to the other types. which carry with them the philosophic and religious These four schools in the beliefs. and Suddhadvaita. The existence of these different schools within the Vedanta needs no apology. Variety. at least in types It is an idle dream to or groups.
Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. p. (ii. analysis was essential final synthesis. That the universe is Maya. i. just as the phantoms of a dream are considered to be true until the sleeper awakes". That was the only way one could reconcile the seeming reality of the world with the idea of the absolute reality. In tracing the development of the conception of Maya. 14). 202. we have already described in brief the main features of Sankara s school. 3. That the only true existence is that of Brahman. Hence its characteristics may be summed up 1. and says. though Sankara looks upon the Self of all ". Max Miiller seems to have been a surprised. 1 To deprive the 1899. as 2. the theory of Maya. he nevertheless allows it to be real for all practical pur poses ( vy a vaha rartham ". But as we have already nothing to be surprised pointed out above. there is at in this conception. judging by his observations on Sankara : The entire complex or phenomenal existence is considered as true so long as the knowledge of Brahman and the has not arisen. little ". whole objective world as the result of nescience. having only a phenomenal or relative existence. To recapitulate very we may add that the whole of it centres round briefly. 1 ) .OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA drawback four in the 115 Vedanta that This it split itself up into for a systems. But it is very curi ous to find that. . That Brahman is identical with the Atman. Max Miiller.
and many others.. is hold that whatever other weaknesses there may have been in Kant s system. in this respect. world totally of even for practi cal purposes.000 years later.). i. H.. e. ch. and reality.g. Space. on ". by a thorough-going critical analysis of Reason itself came to the inde it is pendent conclusion that the world.).Things-in-Themselves". Kant. Things-in-Themselves to cism has been preferred against Sarikara s conception 1 We refer.e.n6 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA all relative reality. ". Green (see Pro legomena to Ethics. i. 1 seem to them to stand and so supposing a cleavage phenomena. empirically his point lians We an appearance. qualified as by Time. was true beyond question. since it will not in any way explain the problem but will simply ignore it. ". Prichard (Kant s Theory of Knowledge. Sarikara s views were exactly similar to those of Kant. to the works of T. Moreover. too. . chap. has no metaphysical less is but none the real. while strongly inveighing against the Dogmatism and Scepticism of his times. opposed between the two worlds they infer that it is impossi The same criti ble to bring these two into relation. would be to propose a doctrine that would soon destroy itself. who appeared on the world s stage about i . Causality. Many Hege of modern times have come forward with a well- arrayed attack against the fundamental doctrines of Kant. but unfortunately they have started with gratuitous premises and consequently their criti Kant s cisms have mostly missed the mark.
We now give a summary of the other three schools in the Vedanta. or His body as it were.) the Isvara. denying that the deity is void of form or quality. before dealing with the objections. the As we are now concerned with the examination of main objections to the Maya theory. and the gross one (the : The word Isvara is used in a pantheistic sense. was not due to any aberration of his thought. 2 Vorstellung. . regard him as endowed with all good and auspicious qualities. ". or cause). 2 Cf Schopenhauer. ". ) This short digression is meant simply to point out that Sankara s concession of phenomenal reality ". Die Welt ist meine ". when he ". spirit 1 j \ and with a two-fold form the supreme (Paramatma. and. it is need ^ The Ramanujas represent the Vedanta.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA of ". ". ". in opposition to Sankara s Nirguna Brahman. 1 corresponding to Kant s Phenomena/ or the Vedantic idea of Maya. as . less to theistic school of the 1 They worship Visnu as their Brahman. such would regard the whole world as pervaded by Isvara. 117 Nirguna Brahman (unqualified Absolute. or Schopenhauer s fundamental conception of the unreality of the world. but quite consonant with even the result of the modern critical philosophy of Kant and others.". \ I dwell longer on its constructive side. says. or a manifestation of Him. The point has been worked out in some detail by Deussen in his Elemente der Metaphysik. corres Noumena or Schopenhauer s ponding to Kant s Will and Saguna Brahman (qualified Absolute. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung.
(cit). intelligent. iii.. sums Three up the tenets of Ramanuja in the formula categories are established. 1. 46. and Lord or as subject. God Soul (Hari). as soul. 3. God. Sarvadarsanasamgraha. Ind. This differ distinct The relation between God and the universe (matter and soul) is that of cause and effect. Trans. London. object. Cf.. 43. and in its gross condition the created universe 1 itself.. . Individual. 1 882. which again is distinct from non-intelligent matter. viz. sum the to introduction to calls He starts with what he three primary and ultimate Universal certainties known philosophy. vol. 3 Cf. Geschichte der Philosophie. and Supreme Disposer. 66. Sarvadarsanasamgraha.n8 effect. the Supreme Soul of the Universe.". personal. Matter and soul form the body of ence is intrinsic and natural. or matter). us with a 3 Ramanuja himself has furnished mary of his main teachings in the* his Veddntadipa. p. Religious Sects of i. Cowell and Gough. Matter Each other : (acit). Bibl.. Their doctrine is consequently known as Visistddvaita. Soul. 1861. Hindus. 1858. not-soul. Deussen. Non-intelligent. 2. Calc. is from the individual soul. p. ff. p. Madhava 2 ". THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA the universe. which in its subtle condition is the universe in its causal state. of these three entities is distinct from the God. or the doc trine of 1 Unity with attributes. and intelligent. The individual the soul enters into See Wilson. 261. . 2 p.
trans. matter. duality of ultimate principles. ". not through the knowledge of non-duality.e. 1 God is exactly analogous to matter without is Brahman (which system) is identified with Hari in this i. regarded as having svagatabheda. 119 and. 2 See Madhava. Madras. has differences within the shape of its branches. differences within itself in its threefold aspects re It is imagined to be like a tree. p. Difference was a The relation of the individual to God. ch. is won only through the know ledge of his excellence. in the thirteenth century. Analytical Outline. similarly. i. real entity in itself. Sarvadarsanasamgraha.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA . v. note. ".". was that of a slave and the latter was the former s object of obedi is Maya of The grace Visnu only the will of the Lord (Visnu). 3 Visnor dehaj jagat sarvam avirasit Wilson. : Supreme Lord. the master ence. p. 144. which he named the independent and the dependent. ferred to above.. itself in Madhva 2 (also known as Anandatirtha prajfia ). though one. 3 1 was manifest from Cf. Rarigacarya and Varadaraja. i. 1899. ". Religious Sects. . etc. The whole world the body of Visnu.. and Purnaproposed an other system in the Vedanta. Ramanuja s Sribhasya. which. The universe without soul. and thereby makes it live God enters into matter and soul and gives them their powers and their peculiar characters. which he called the It is so called because he believed in the Dvaita.
This was Prakrti or Maya. which. quite silent on shall not give here any detailed the subject. account of Vallabha s doctrines. alone in the Goloka.. is a very scanty literature on the teachings of Valla The Sarvadarsanasamgraha has no place for bha. 1 Hence the name of the system as Vallabha held that Krsna was devoid of all qualities. he said. self-sufficient.".". This account of Wilson As a matter of fact. der Philosophic. while Ramanuja had all alleged before his times that Visnu possessed p. and thence the primary agent in creation. ". auspicious qualities. . it. but we must state Max Muller too is We their essentials in so far as they affect the general conception of Maya. i. ing destroyed the body in which there lives a spark of the Supreme Spirit. deprecat kinds of self-mortification. there is too scrappy and vague.120 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Vallabha. gave origin to a being of a female form endowed with the three gunas. the founder of another Vaisnava school of the Vedanta. According to him. z Religious Sects of the Hindus. Visuddhddvaita. 123. and even Deussen. omits it altogether from his Geschichte est reality ". The creation of the world was by a pro Krsna being cess of evolution and involution. the high was Krsna. and the supreme soul of the world. and medi tating on the waste of creation. as Wilson 2 says. flourished in the fifteenth century and taught a non-ascetic view all of religion. vol. following closely the plan of this book. exempt from all qualities l eternal.
should be in inseparable union with acit (non-intelli Brahman is sat. After this very brief summary of the chief doc trines of the schools within the Vedanta. in order. 1899. we come to Ramanuja s is This embodied criticism of the theory of Maya. reproduce the with a criticism of our own. others. Rangacarya and Varadaraja.~cSinmentary on Badarayana first s Brahmasutras. trans. We The charge is What 1 See Srlbhasya. in his greatest work. He attempted to purify the visistadvaita of said it Ramanuja and all cit. whatever involution it by the evolution (avirbhava) and Whereas (tirobhava) of its properties. pp. the same division. Madhva by manifestation body. Madras. the dsraya (seat) of Maya (or avidya) ? Residing in what does it produce illusion ? Surely i. 1 Sutra occupies the largest and this criticism appears under Ramanuja brings seven charges gist of each.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA 121 Vallabha was preceded in his line of thought by Nimbarka and Visnuswami. and becomes . wills Sankara explains the phenomena adhydsa. Vallabha does so by the process Brahman of evolution and involution of Brahman. 156-241 . The Sribhdsya. - against the doctrine of Maya. He was a contradiction that in terms to suppose with intelligence Ramanuja Brahman . of of the universe Ramanuja by s qualitative by and inherent differences in Brahman. His exposition of the space in his treatise. jada) exhausts the possibility of all being. and dnanda gent matter. of Asraydnupapatti. cit. a".
illusion : and consequently demands a seat for this or Avidyd is decidedly not ignorance / a reality it is only the negation of vidyd. our spiritual principle. do not admit such a difference between the two. not in the individual the individual neither could it because the selfhood of projected self is itself by avidyd . after Safikara. i. self-imposed limitations of manas. this demand of Ramanuja seems to be unjustifiable and . Criticism. Brahman becomes the individual soul only by upddhis. if at all con ceived as such. In stating the position of the Advaitin he has no right to colour it with his own conceptions. we may meet him by saying that it must. and is This objection rests upon a two-fold In the first place. Ramanuja makes an unwarranted differentiation between Brahman and the individual soul.e. reside in Brahman. reside in the upddhis the mind (manas). ". so is the upddhis. If. etc. thus opposed to avidyd (ignorance). the senses. or the obscuration of it. As the fire is latent in the wood. subtle body. since He has the essential nature of self-luminous intelligence. We. Karma. These upddhis may as limiting the Atman aspects of the Highest Atman (Brahman) individual Atman. we are figuratively be spoken of and resolving it into the two and the pressed by Ramanuja to state the residence of Avidya. etc. Ramanuja misinterpretation. ten senses. hidden by In the second place.122 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA self. starts with the idea that Maya (or Avidya) is some thing real.. our godly nature. therefore. As a matter of fact.
Our ignorance has no positive existence to be able to conceal anything else in the strict sense. in no way be said to be able to conceal the same in Brahman ask Kant. ". ". of the origination of luminosity.itself Why he would at once reply. (das Ding-an-sich ) ? Because bet ween that and ourselves are the intel lectual forms (upddhis] of Time. or (b) the destruc tion of existing luminosity.". but we fail to see it only through our own avidyd. amounts to the destruction of the essential nature of Brahman. is merely negative. In the same way. as main ignorance tained by its upholders. Space. therefore. if ". lity. the concealment of luminosity must mean the destruction of luminosity. ". in the sense of destroying its luminosity. Maya. 2. The Charge The supposed cannot. conceal Brahman. its Brahman is ever splendour and luminosity. which. culty Thus we are not explaining away the diffi pointed out by Ramanuja when we say that . which can. a follower of Ramanuja were to do we not see the thing-in. It 123 wholly rests upon his supposition of Tirodhdndnupapatti. whose essential nature is self-luminosity.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA inadmissible. in other words. The conceal ment of luminosity means either (a) the obstruction ". But as it is held that the luminosity of Brahman is incapable of being a produced thing. nuja of It s This objection is based upon Ramalosing hold of the real position of the upholders ". and Causa ". Criticism. of the reality of Avidyd.
different from Brahman Himself. most logic ally. as long as a real misguiding error. What is it is of Svarupdnupapatti. but at once again makes a great confusion and becomes inconsistent when criticizing the theory on the basis of the assumed reality of Maya. self to explain the theory of illusion.124 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA the concealment (tirodhana) of we deny 3. But as a rule these of the dilemmas have one two horns already broken. and draws since he generally starts with self -assumed premises. is not admitted. The question in the sense in as to what it is is the cause of Maya is. but it Maya. it must either have the nature of But it is not admitted to be reality or of unreality. his own inferences from them. an illegitimate one. so long it is not possible a reality 1 . The Charge ? As long a thing at all. corner us Ramanuja is too anxious and tactful to by his dilemmas. but at the same time we do not hold that it is unreal from the empirical Empirically is it is sat (existing) : standpoint as well. . Brahman by ignorance (avidya). Certainly we do not admit the reality of Maya. then. of course. there self. the world is. owing to would be no final release to the individual Criticism. 1 Here Ramanuja rightly understands the standpoint. which asked. If Brahman Him have the character of the misguiding error. his eternity. for. the essential nature of Avidya as and it cannot be an unreality. The whole difficulty is purely facti tious.
because entity (sat) nor a non-entity (asat). anirvacariiya.e. but Maya has no cause. our whole theory falls with it a real dualism between the two realities (facing each other) . fact is has a cause.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA 125 Causality is the general law in the world (in Maya). the universal law of the empirical Hence the question as to causality being meaningless in the present context. any meaning. so long it is not possible to explain the the suggestion seems to us to convey hardly theory. and this will in no way afford even the slightest explanation of the theory.". The Charge of Anirvacanlyatvanupapatti. as long as a real misguiding error. is not admitted. and at once applies breaks down when stretched out of it. it is neither an To hold such a view is impossible. be at once created. would be stated by Kant in the words Causality world". What is the cause of ". We will wonder how Ramanuja himself would try to explain the theory even on these dualistic premises. Maya ? within Maya The same ". therefore. but it has no warrant to transcend itself and ask. All cognitions relate to entities or non-entities . we are not obliged to answer it. The category only within the phenomenal world.. Everything ". different from Brahman. incapable of definition. and if it be held that the object of .. The whole of this charge. is The Advaitins says that Maya i. is imaginary and futile. Again. since the moment we grant a real exist ence to Maya. when Ramanuja suggests that ". 4.
ach case. Criticism.). since appears at least. Maya. and to say that a thing an object of cognition (".. ". then of all cognitions.126 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA a cognition has neither the positive characteristics of an entity nor the negative characteristics of a non-entity. all things may become the objects This difficulty viz. we entity neither sat nor asat. any means by which this curious avidyd brought within the range of our cognition ? It can neither be proved by perception nor by infer Neither can it be established by revelation. is ".is in e. say.) is neither sat nor asat all. ence. is not to say anything about it at different aspects. Criticism. misconception. as it were ". clever and catchy way. maintains itself as an (". neither an It is nor a alone non-entity. is couched in a very Yet the whole rests on a the want or perceiving clearly ". Where is the contradic tion now ? Does not this very fact allow us to speak of Maya as something mysterious. But the thing is thought of in two wholly and the tertium comparationis is to both. not sat. or in other words. and it is not asat. ". as the scriptural passages can be explained other wise. what the tertium comparationis Sat and asat sound two contradictory conceptions. In the light of what we have said . common ". not ". since it the Atman iva is real.". Is there is The charge of Pramdndnupapatti. incapable of a strict definition ? 5.
then indeed of its knowledge perception. revelation. that defy all such attempts at a forced. as we have shown after Sarikara. are in reality no other and that the Atman is the and yet we feel that we are different only reality from the Absolute and that the world in which we live. to prove the validity of our conception we do not require any marshalled arguments or formal It is as clear as anything. inference. 127 When we do not logic is believe in the real existence of Maya. infers that all such passages can be so explained as not to corroborate the theory of Avidya. that we Spirit. when we syllogisms. which. etc. so long as he is untenableness of Maya.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA above this objection stands self-condemned. Further. passages. far-fetched and perverted interpretation. is an erroneous transfer of the things and relations of the objective world to the Self in the strictest sense of the word. He might Ramanuja examines a few scriptural and giving them another interpretation. but there few passages he has bent upon showing the number of passages. draw any meaning out gone of the still remains a which the meta large among physics of Yajfiavalkya occupies a prominent place. recall to our mind the nature of avidyd. into. to what shall attribute this clash between our knowledge and . is real. what there in requiring us to If we had granted its it ? we could be called upon to name the source of prove the existence reality. However. we move and have our being. When we know than the Absolute .
This difficulty is in relation to the idea that the cessation of avidyd takes place solely by means of the knowledge which has the attributeless Brahman for its object. Criticism.). further pointed out by Ramapassages of the Sruti prove this s Advaita.128 feelings ". since there are many passages which prove that He is possessed of these. ". such as Tattvam asi That art Thou do not denote the oneness of any attribute". Brahman is not without it is nuja that many In the light of Sankara thesis. The and force of this objection lies mainly ". the gram matical equations. stultification of they are not intended to give any illusion due to avidyd is rise to . Brahman is not without attributes and qualities. avidyd postulated by the Advaitins. THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA ? not a mystery ? And what else could we say but that this is due to our ignorance.". less thing. soul . The Charge of Nivartakanupapatti. 6. (". The universe is the of body all which Brahman is the soul. the knowledge which has an attributeless Brahman for its object is impossible and cannot be and obviously the complete knowledge of truth such an impossible knowledge of the oneness of the attributeless Brahman cannot be the remover of the the three entities God. ". in the supposition that attributes. as briefly to see the force of we fail . He is Himself and matter. Con sequently. described in Chapter II. Moreover. the erroneous transference spoken of above ? Is it ". the but they simply show that Brahman capable of existing in two different modes or forms.
but the ultimate truth remains attributes. at once make his non. and holds that it simply brings out Brahman s capability of existing in two forms or modes. Brahman may. (limited) that which aparic".". Tat denotes the oneness of the individual with denies that the attributeless Universal. If. destroy very nature by is making paricchinna chinna (without Again. limits). All passages which speak of the qualified Brahman may be placed under Apard vidyd. To say that there are some equally be met by the counter-proposition that there are also passages countenancing the attributelessness of tural passages bearing out the assertion may Brahman.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA this 129 scrip argument.". What then is the real trend and pur It seems to us that port of the Vaidic thought ? this question could not be better answered than by repeating the doctrine of Sarikara when he attempted to synthesize the whole of the Sruti by taking a wide conspectus of its purport. ". Impose any the Absolute and you i.. That Brahman exists . the conception of the Absolute in the strict sense leaves hardly any room for attributes ". both these assertions neutralize each other from the scriptural point of view. from a lower standpoint. one may well ask.".".".absolute.attributes. Now. while para will include only those that expound the metaphysical truth as it is. that He is really without Besides. ". the text. this seems to us to be an ambiguous use of language.e. then. be conceived as ". Ramanuja tvam asi. with attributes.
consciousness. Rama nuja uses many all speaking of but take tions. that God is good. hence the universe must be good. ".130 in THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA two opposite forms will be meaningless if one of the forms were not supposed to be due to Avidya. is no explanation. the expression darkness knowledge of Brahman is strictly inadmissible. Jnana light comes As we have already pointed out above. but he has not succeeded in reconciling their existence by merely saying that they are two modes of the Absolute. .". analogies and metaphors while Brahman. which hardly makes the matter even a jot clearer. as did Plato. but the Advaitist cannot these as mere mythical representa Hence. but a mere shirking of the question. How can a being exist in two contradictory forms ? Cit and acit are two opposite notions in the system of Ramanuja. ". of a metaphysical truth is linked the denial the impossibility of the knowledge which has an attributeless Brahman like for its object/ is itself expelled when Avidya being is the remover of ajnana. of course since Brahman is itself knowledge (Jndna) of the term being used in the higher sense pure ". in. Like Plato. with our denial of the qualified aspect of Brahman as ". how will Ramanuja account auspicious attri for the existence of evil ". Even by investing God with all butes. To picture the universe as the body of Brahman is after all a mere analogy.(moral) or error (psychological) ? Simply to say.
its determinations. 131 The Charge ". and with it everything else. ing that such a reality is after all We do not hold the efficacy of Karma in the case of one who has attained the knowledge of Brahman such a man. concrete reality. ignorance is determined by soul s bondage of ignorance Karma and is a concrete reality. Our struggle with Karma is undoubt of edly real so long as our consciousness of the true nature of Brahman has not arisen. as he calls it. . but with the explicit understand ". of the Advaitin ". which is capable . s quite impossible. and the known is unreal and even that knowledge. The laws of are valid within the phenomenal.". passages from Sankara where he clearly and quoted ".e. is sup posed to be We have already real. all springs of action. The removal ". is The hypothetical individual fore be removed by any abstract knowledge but only by divine worship and grace. Criticism. (i. knowledge. according to the Advaitins the differentiation be tween the knower. but only so far. from the practical or empiric point of ally It may therefore be called a view). of Nivrttyanupapatti. phenomenal. but in no Karma way do . being free from all desires and motives. ". vydvahdricunequivocally makes this concession.". Karma.. is pari passu beyond the con trol of Karma in so far as he is not creating any fresh and new Karma for himself.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA 7. removing avidya has to be unreal and has to stand in need of another real removing knowledge. ". It cannot there ". Moreover.
we have and it is real for all our practical purposes. is of and a relation between object subject course unreal. The idea of divine worship and grace may be sup ported for the sake of the ordinary minds unable to go round the higher path of pure knowledge. avidya if we are at all to say is knowledge ". but such knowledge is unable to give a deathblow to avidya. ".". mate nature of man and God is So long as our ignorance is not ". ". Consciousness. ". when there Truly speaking. ".132 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA they produce any real knowledge to the Atman. As to the differentiation between the knower acquirement of which (jnata). tion or deeds will never lead one to the same goal. not unreal.and the known (jneya). removal ". whose very nature forbids all such bondages. knowledge (jnana). The metaphysical the world in truth its does not attempt to devour removing of avidya The practical aspect. mere devo possible. Unreal knowledge cannot Knowledge in the lower sense of ". is not an exalted conception. etc. cast away by the alone is knowledge capable of ousting its opponent liberation is im Without such a knowledge. too. knowledge the artificial distinction between ".. On the dawning of true ". to repeat that the distinction is certainly It is made by us fictitious in the absolute sense. between the two forms other words. sub- . ". shows that the ulti of consciousness. destroy unreality. grace is only possible is a direct and perfect communion in ". But surely the idea of grace. an identity This fact.
dent that Sankara further than s analysis of seems evi went much Reality to us it tion of the Absolute. etc. Ramanuja s. By what shall we ". Now. devotion. short of furnishing a really adequate explana tion of the relation between God and the Universe.". if real ".OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA ". all knowledge) ? was so These are in will forcibly asked by Yajnavalkya. Ramanuja s criticism rests on the whole on a misunder standing of the genuine Advaita standpoint. Be as it may. who will therefore naturally prefer his philosophy to that of Sankara. s premises. there is is any how we will This meaning in personality. brief the seven difficulties in the doctrine of which Ramanuja perceived Maya. even perhaps existing in space. is apt to appeal strongly to many Christian theologians.. coming to the objections of the Purnaprawho hold the absolute separateness of the jfias doctrine to be the ultimate individual soul and Brahman it is obvious that the general drift of their attacks must be directed against . even because he attempted to Sankara falls consistency. The impersonal concep we hold. All through he has been treating Maya as if it were a We do not accuse him reject concrete reality. But we fail to see his when even on his own premises he His doctrine of divine grace. etc. is truly personal. ". As appear from what we have said above. the knower (the subject of ". meet those who cannot hold any such if it destroys the idea of the divine personality. 133 ject know as and object vanishes. ".
then there would be an identity between thee and me thy wealth.). Sloka 87-88. To show and in empiric reality all the distinctions are observed. they say. only qualified the origi- (JRAS. . We understanding of the Advaita standpoint it are not surprised that a mis may lead as are one to urge such silly charges against bodied in the quotation just noted. us. If I and all this Universe were Brahman. sons and wife would be mine. deceived themselves and deceiving the world. Jiva. xv. and mine would be thine. trans. the futility of such arguments it is suffi them as such. This criticism quite s repeated warning that the ideal ignores Sankara unreality of the world does not deprive it of its empiric cient only to state reality. I am Brahman. logic. filled with a hundred imagin ations of idle babble. by Cowell vol. but it has pointed out the untenableness of Ramanuja s standpoint. who say. sunk in a sea of false addicted to an evil way. for there would * be no distinction between ".. See Tattvamuktavall of Purnananda.134 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA s doctrine of the identity of the two. em con The school flict of Vallabha has not entered into with the theory of Maya.". which is now shown to be an empty desire. part ii. and all this universe also is Brahman. as Ramanuja. . One of the followers of the Advaitist The this school of Madhva speaks of the Advaitins in the following contemptuous and polemic fashion There are certain disputants. being limited (paricchinna) is distinct from Brahman. The criticism is further couched in rather crude language. 1 we have seen.
Vaisesikas (ii. and was content to establish his own views in reference to a criticism of Ramanuja s. this does not mean that he endorsed the theory. p. Now. See Dvivedi. this tendency to question the validity of Ramanuja s standpoint went so far as to keep the school of Vallabha away from dis cussing the theory of Maya. Jainas (33-36). which acit. 135 It could but Vallabha thought of purifying it not be held that Brahman. has attempted a thorough-going inquiry into the various objections preferred Sankhyas (ii. become by its will. 104. In Adhyayai. special charges preferred by him against Maya. by the Budd 218-32). Of course. . While Ramanuja made it a point to use all means at his disposal to the doctrine of Maya into discredit (and so too bring did Madhva after him). i-io). and in Adhyaya ii. 2.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA nal Advaita altogether. That is why we do not find any ". hists (ii. . tion of Hence we now pass on of the other objections.". 11-17). Vallabha stood up to criti cize Ramanuja. but simply that he did not meddle with the right or wrong of the question. to some an examina which are not raised strictly within the Vedanta. he has established the main principles of Vedanta. and would have soiled the doctrine of the 1 Brahman was therefore supposed to Upanisads. 1 Monism or Advaitism. is all cit. 2. Pasupatas (37-41). should be in inseparable union with This would have been a contradiction in terms. Saiikara has discussed at length the controversy between the Sankhya and the Vedanta.
136 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA Pancaratras (42-45). Hence motion can be reconciled with the doctrine of a sists of name and form non-intelligent first cause. cannot enter into this question at any length. It may be objected that on the Vedantic premises there is no room for a moving power. gent principle. an equilibrium of the three gunas) cannot evolve itself spontaneously into multiform modifications. The physico-theological proof is first taken up. as regards the nature We of Brahman as the Cause of the world and the possi bility or otherwise of assuming this conception of causality". as we have already said. as in conse quence of the non. etc.. which con presented by Avidya. is not tenable in the . says Sankara. any other such cause. The motive-power of intelligence is incontrovertible.duality of Brahman no motion is But. the potter. From the impossibility of the viz. but in every case it results from an intelli is not to be inferred. such objections have possible. since. because it exists when the latter is present and not otherwise. been refuted by pointing to the fact of the Lord being fictitiously connected with Maya. orderly arrangement of the world and the impossi bility of activity a non-intelligent cause of the world Activity may of course to those non-intelligent things in which it is belong observed. and it is shown how the Pra- dhana (non-intelligent matter. An earthen jar though springing from clay does not itself come into exist ence without the co-operation of an intelligent being.
due either to the difference of the views main tained by Buddha at different times. be distinguished (1) Realists. After a careful criticism of the atomic theory of the Vaisesikas Sankara proceeds to discuss the doctrine of the Buddhists (ii. unreal) Sunyavddins (Madhyamikas). vol. viz. our subject only indirectly.OBJECTIONS WITHIN THE VEDANTA 137 purely idealistic sense. Nihilists. 2. xxxiv. and the moment any such category is introduced the Absolute (Brahman) is conceived as Phenomenal (mayopahita) . That is presented in a variety of forms. Even the criticism of Thibaut in his introduction to the Vedan- tasutras (S. (2) Idealists. or else to the doctrine.) rests of misconception. upon the same sort It is exceedingly difficult to free one s mind from a theistic bias when approaching . difference of capacity on the part of the disciples of Buddha. who maintain ( the reality of thought only (3) vijndnavddins Yogdcdras] . to take it as a reality. Three principal opinions may. as he observes. who maintain Sarvdstitvavdda the reality of every (Sautrdntikas thing and Vaibhdsikas). The criticism of each of these is set forth with great perspicacity in Sankara..E.B. and it is needless for us to go over the same ground again. who maintain that everything is sunya (void. 18-32).. however. All this bears on All the chief objections to Maya rest upon a mis conception.
Sankhya. we have at tempted to show how the in itself is Maya existed much sense) earlier than the word Maya the technical and that a refutation of the main thesis of scholars like Thibaut and others who sup pose that the conception of Maya was a late offshoot in the Vedanta. etc. may also be possible to all critically the views of the other systems of Indian philosophy on the question of the relation of the Absolute to the Universe.138 THE DOCTRINE OF MAYA In Chapter II idea of (in the doctrine of Maya. being specially fabricated by Sankara. . That will be a proper occasion for recapitulating a criticism of Buddhism. we hope to supplement the treatment of Maya by an examination of present the various analogies of the concept in the philo a future occasion On sophy It of the West and some other eastern summarize countries. Jainism.
Prabhu Dutt The doctrine of Maya in the philosophy of the Vedanta .PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 132 M3S45 Shastri.
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