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Bohr and Rutherford's Atomic model

Bohr and Rutherford's Atomic model

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Published by Lorain

This gives the reader an explanation of bohr and rutherford's atomic models

This gives the reader an explanation of bohr and rutherford's atomic models

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Published by: Lorain on Jan 12, 2013
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09/17/2013

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Bohr’s And Rutherford’s Atomic Model

Presented By : Lorain Maria Manoj IX - A

How are atoms studied?
• Atoms are the building blocks of matter • Atoms are too small in size to study easily • Size of Earth : soda can = soda can : atom

Who studied the atom?
• Studied by many scientists for centuries:
– Democritus (400 BC) – phrase “atomos” – Rutherford (1911) – nucleus (gold foil experiment) – Moseley (1913) – X-rays to find atomic # – *Bohr (1913) – planetary model of the atom – *Schrödinger (1923) – electron cloud model

What they knew then…
• By the late 1800’s scientists had a working model of the atom. • Dalton proposed that the atom was a sold sphere

• JJ Thomson (remember him?) came up with another model…mmm, plum pudding

Born: 7 October 1885(1885-10-07)
Copenhagen, Denmark Died: November 18, 1962 (aged 77) Copenhagen, Denmark Nationality: Denmark Fields: Physics Known for: Copenhagen interpretation Complementarity Bohr model Bohr effect Sommerfeld-Bohr theory BKS theory Bohr-Einstein debates Notable awards: Nobel Prize in Physics (1922)

I’m an electron! I’m a proton! I’m a neutron!

I was walking along and I saw these two. I was telling jokes to the neutron. The proton and I were having fun.

They looked so happy there together. I was p o s i t i v e l y charged! I couldn’t have amassed more happiness.

The proton looked happy, so I wandered closer. I could see the electron coming near. The who? Huh?

They were HUGE next to me! The electron was so cute! Like a speck of dust, or something…

I didn’t want to seem obvious, so I kept walking. Around and around the electron goes. Hey electron, you’re making the proton dizzy.

The proton seems so happy with the neutron. I’m having fun, but I still notice the electron. It won’t bother me if the electron hangs around.

I guess I’ll just wander around out here. I’m happy hanging out here. The center is cool, but sometimes it can be a “Bohr”.

Electrons circle around the nucleus of an atom. Protons are a main part of the nucleus of an atom. Neutrons also hang out in the nucleus of an atom.

Electrons have a negative charge.  Protons have a positive charge. + Neutrons have no charge. 0

Electrons are little and have a mass of almost zero. Protons are big and have a mass of one. Neutrons are also big and have a mass of one.

Born Died

August 30, 1871) Brightwater, New Zealand October 19, 1937 (aged 66) Cambridge, England British Physics Father of nuclear physics Rutherford model Rutherford scattering Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy Discovery of proton Rutherford (unit) Coined the term 'artificial disintegration'

Nationality Fields Known for

Rutherford and Thomson
• • Rutherford was a scientist who also explored radiation.

He discovered three kinds of radiation and decided that different particles were causing each kind: 1. Alpha 2. Beta 3. Gamma

Probing the atom…again!
• 1909 – Rutherford designs an experiment where he fires radioactivity through gold foil to see what happens…

So What did Rutherford find out?
1) The nucleus is so small that the odds are overwhelmingly in favor of a given alpha particle motoring right on through the gold foil as if nothing were there. It turns out that the atom is a very empty place, indeed!

2) Some alphas, by pure random chance, will pass near some gold atom nuclei during their passage through the foil and will be slightly deflected.
3) A very, very few alphas, by pure, random chance, will hit a nucleus almost head-on. The alpha, traveling at 10% the speed of light, penetrates the atom and gets very close to the nucleus.

However, the repulsion between the alpha and the atom nucleus is so great that the atom flings the alpha back out, and it does so in a hyperbolic path. Depending on various factors, this occasionally results in the alpha being turned around 90° or more. The very heavy nucleus recoils a bit from the impact, but essentially goes nowhere.

Inferring
Rutherford inferred the nucleus of the atom like so... How could the foil repel the dense, strongly positive alpha particles? Well…the atoms must possess something that is very dense and very positive But … these things must be very small because most of the particles get through the foil. So… the atoms must have a large area that is mostly empty.

Technology break…
• Nucleur medicine uses radiation as its main tool
–X-rays –Therapy – to kill cancer cells –Radioactive injections to look inside the body and trace pathways.

But what about the Neutron?
• Rutherford calculated that GOLD must have 79 protons in its nucleus. • BUT…he also calculated that GOLD must have a mass of around double that. • Where is the missing mass??????? • Negative charge is already accounted for • Positive charge is already accounted for • Must be something neutral – ah the Neutron!

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