1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 BASIC GEOMETRY OF SPUR GEARS 2.1 Basic Spur Gear Geometry 2.2 The Law of Gearing 2.

3 The Involute Curve 2.4 Pitch Circles 2.5 Pitch 2.5.1 Circular Pitch 2.5.2 Diametral Pitch 2.5.3 Relation of Pitches 3.0 GEAR TOOTH FORMS AND STANDARDS 3.1 Preferred Pitches 3.2 Design Tables 3.3 AGMA Standards 4.0 INVOLUTOMETRY 4.1.1 Gear Nomenclature 4.1.2 Symbols 4.2 Pitch Diameter and Center Distance 4.3 Velocity Ratio 4.4 Pressure Angle 4.5 Tooth Thickness 4.6 Measurement Over-Pins 4.7 Contact Ratio 4.8 Undercutting 4.9 Enlarged Pinions 4.10 Backlash Calculation 4.11 Summary of Gear Mesh Fundamentals 5.0 HELICAL GEARS 5.1 Generation of the Helical Tooth 5.2 Fundamental of Helical Teeth 5.3 Helical Gear Relationships 5.4 Equivalent Spur Gear 5.5 Pressure Angle 5.6 Importance of Normal Plane Geometry 5.7 Helical Tooth Proportions 5.8 Parallel Shaft Helical Gear Meshes 5.8.1 Helix Angle 5.8.2 Pitch Diameter 5.8.3 Center Distance 5.8.4 Contact Ratio 5.8.5 Involute Interference 5.9 Crossed Helical Gear Meshes 5.9.1 Helix Angle and Hands 5.9.2 Pitch T21

T25 T25 T25 T27 T27 T28 T28 T28 T28 T29 T29 T29 T31 T37 T37 T38 T38 138 T39 144 144 145 145 T48 T52 T53 T53 T54 T54 T54 T55 T55 155 T55 T55 T55 156 156 T56 156

Catalog D190

5.9.3 Center Distance 5.9.4 Velocity Ratio 5.10 Axial Thrust of Helical Gears 6.0 RACKS 7.0 INTERNAL GEARS 7.1 Development of the Internal Gear 7.2 Tooth Parts of Internal Gear 7.3 Tooth Thickness Measurement 7.4 Features of Internal Gears 8.0 WORM MESH 8.1 Worm Mesh Geometry 8.2 Worm Tooth Proportions 8.3 Number of Threads 8.4 Worm and Wormgear Calculations 8.4.1 Pitch Diameters, Lead and Lead Angle 8.4.2 Center Distance of Mesh 8.5 Velocity Ratio 9.0 BEVEL GEARING 9.1 Development and Geometry of Bevel Gears 9.2 Bevel Gear Tooth Proportions 9.3 Velocity Ratio 9.4 Forms of Bevel Teeth 10.0 GEAR TYPE EVALUATION 11.0 CRITERIA OF GEAR QUALITY 11.1 Basic Gear Formats 11.2 Tooth Thickness and Backlash 11.3 Position Error (or Transmission Error) 11.4 AGMA Quality Classes 11.5 Comparison With Previous AGMA and International Standards 12.0 CALCULATION OF GEAR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 12.1 Backlash in a Single Mesh 12.2 Transmission Error 12.3 Integrated Position Error 12.4 Control of Backlash 12.5 Control of Transmission Error 13.0 GEAR STRENGTH AND DURABILITY 13.1 Bending Tooth Strength 13.2 Dynamic Strength 13.3 Surface Durability 13.4 AGMA Strength and Durability Ratings T22

T57 T57 T57 T58 T58 T59 T60 T61 T61 T62 T62 T62 T63 T63 T64 T64 T66 T66 T67 T68 T68 T70 T70 T73 T73 T76 T77 T77 T78 T78 T78 T82 T88 T88

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14.0 GEAR MATERIALS 14.1 Ferrous Metals 14.1.1 Cast Iron 14.1.2 Steel 14.2 Non Ferrous Metals 14.2.1 Aluminum 14.2.2 Bronzes 14.3 Die Cast Alloys 14.4 Sintered Powder Metal 14.5 Plastics 14.6 Applications and General Comments 15.0 FINISH COATINGS 15.1 Anodize 15.2 Chromate Coatings 15.3 Passivation 15.4 Platings 15.5 Special Coatings 15.6 Application of Coatings 16.0 LUBRICATION 16.1 Lubrication of Power Gears 16.2 Lubrication of Instrument Gears 16.3 Oil Lubricants 16.4 Grease 16.5 Solid Lubricants 16.6 Typical Lubricants 17.0 GEAR FABRICATION 17.1 Generation of Gear Teeth 17.1.1 Rack Generation 17.1.2 Hob Generation 17.1.3 Gear Shaper Generation 17.1.4 Top Generating 17.2 Gear Grinding 17.3 Plastic Gears 18.0 GEAR INSPECTION 18.1 Variable-Center-Distance Testers 18.1.1 Total Composite Error 18.1.2 Gear Size 18.1.3 Advantages and Limitations of Variable-Center-Distance Testers... 18.2 Over-Pins Gaging 18.3 Other Inspection Equipment 18.4 Inspection of Fine-Pitch Gears 18.5 Significance of Inspection and Its Implementation T23

T91 T91 T91 T92 T92 T92 T92 T92 T92 T99 T99 T100 T100 T100 T100 T100 T101 T101 T101 T103 T103 T103 T105 T105 T105 T105 T106 T106 T107 T107 T107 T107 T107 T108 T108 T108 T108

4 Design Procedure .5.7 Design Procedure .18 Mold Construction 20.16 Molded vs Cut Plastic Gears 20.2 Properties of Plastic Gear Materials 20.8 Design Specifications 20.2 Foreign Metric Gear Standards 20.3 Surface Durability for Spur and Helical Gears 20.13 Attachment of Plastic Gears to Shafts 20.Spur Gears 20.0 DESIGN OF PLASTIC MOLDED GEARS 20.5 Design Equations for Plastic Spur. Helical and Worm Gears 20.5.10 Environment and Tolerances 20.4 Diametral Pitch 20.Worm Gears 20.19 Conclusion T24 T109 T122 T124 T125 T126 T126 T126 T131 T132 T139 T139 T139 T139 T140 T141 T143 T146 T146 T147 T147 T147 T150 T150 T150 T150 T151 T151 T152 T152 T152 T153 T153 T158 .11 Avoiding Stress Concentration 20.0 GEARS.5. METRIC 19.5.5 Design Procedure Helical Gears 20.3 Metric Tooth Standards 19.5.14 Lubrication 20.1 USA Metric Gear Standards 19.5.2 Metric Design Equations 19.5 Metric Gear Standards 19.1 Basic Definitions 19.15 Inspection 20.4 Use of Strength Formulas 19.3 Pressure Angles 20.Bevel Gears 20.6 Operating Temperature 20.1 General Characteristics of Plastic Gears 20.9 Backlash 20.2 Bending Stress .5. Bevel.5.6 Design Procedure .5.19.7 Eftect of Part Shrinkage on Gear Design 20.1 General Considerations 20.17 Elimination of Gear Noise 20.12 Metal Inserts 20.Spur Gears 20.

It is intended as a broad coverage written in a manner that is easy to follow and to understand by anyone interested in knowing how gear systems function. both because it is the simplest. and because it is the form most widely used. pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called the pitch point.” Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are conjugate Curves. 4.1. 2. this material can be used selectively in random access as a design reference. Precision instruments require positioning fidelity.1.0 BASIC GEOMETRY OF SPUR GEARS The fundamentals of gearing are illustrated through the spur-gear tooth. constant ratio) motion transmission is defined as “conjugate action” of the gear tooth profiles.e. and for those already familiar with gears. For those to whom this is their first encounter with gear components. The essential features of a gear mesh are: 1.1 Basic Spur Gear Geometry The basic geometry and nomenclature of a spur-gear mesh is shown in Figure 1. in all positions of the contacting teeth. 2. Since gearing involves specialty components it is expected that not all designers and engineers possess or have been exposed to all aspects of this subject However. and hence most comprehensible. center distance the pitch circle diameters (or pitch diameters) size of teeth (or pitch) number of teeth pressure angle of the contacting involutes Details of these items along with their interdependence and definitions are covered in subsequent paragraphs.7)* for the form of the tooth profiles to provide cojugate action. it is suggested this section be read in the order presented so as to obtain a logical development of the subject. 2. ___________ *Numbers in parenthesis refer to references at end of text. for proper use of gear components and design of gear systems it is essential to have a minimum understanding of gear basics and a reference source for details. 5. which is summarized as the Law of Gearing as follows: “A common normal to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must. T25 . A geometric relationship can be derived (1. High speed and/or high power gear trains also require transmission at constant angular velocities in order to avoid severe dynamic problems. Subsequently.2 The Law of Gearing A primary requirement of gears is the constancy of angular velocities or proportionality of position transmission. 2. particularly in instruments and control systems. Constant velocity (i. 3.0 INTRODUCTION This section presents a technical coverage of gear fundamentals.

T26 .

or line-of-action in gear vernacular. 2.2. or as commonly called. Figure 1. Conjugate action is independent of changes in center distance. the pitch diameters. since at all points of contact the common normal is the common tangent which passes through a fixed point on the line-of-centers.4 the tangent to the two base circles is the line of contact.2. Figure 1 . It is imagined that a point on a string. and many different curve forms have been tried in the past. The development and action of mating teeth can be visualized by imagining the taut string as being unwound from one base circle and wound on to the other.3c. 2. The form of the basic rack tooth is straight-sided. The ratio of the pitch diameters gives the velocity ratio: Velocity ratio of gear 2 to gear 1 = Z = D1 D2 (1) T27 .3b. projects its trace onto a plane that rotates with the base circle. When the involute pairs are properly spaced the result is the involute gear tooth. This pair of involutes is conjugate. 3. This is due to three major advantages of the involute curve: 1.3a Thus. P. The base cylinder. though invisible. oppositely curved involutes are generted which can accommodate motion reversal. which is pulled taut in a fixed direction. as shown in Figure 1.4 Pitch Circles Referring to Figure 1. See Figure 1. fully defines the form of the involute and in a gear it is an inherent parameter. a single point on the string simultaneously traces an involute on each base circles rotating plane. as a generating tool ft imparts high accuracy to the cut gear tooth.3 The Involute Curve There are almost an infinite number of curves that can be developed to satisfy the law of gearing. This in turn sets the size of the pitch circles. Modem gearing (except for clock gears) based on involute teeth. It a second winding/unwinding taut string is wound around the base circles in the opposite direction. The involute curve is most easily understood as the trace of a point at the end of a taut string that unwinds from a cylinder. Where this line crosses the line-of-centers establishes the pitch point. or base circle as referred to in gear literature. One cutter can generate all gear tooth numbers of the same pitch. and therefore is relatively simple and can be accurately made.

is one that is a measure of the number of teeth per inch of pitch diameter.5.2 Diametral pitch — A more popularly used pitch measure. it is equal to the pitch-circle circumference divided by the number of teeth: pc = circular pitch = pitch circle circumference = Dπ (2) number of teeth N 2. 2. T28 . 2.5 it is the linear distance (measured along the pitch circle ar between corresponding points of adjacent teeth. although geometrically much less evident.5.2.3 Relation of pitches: From the geometry that defines the two pitches it can be shown that they are related by the product expression: Pd x Pe = π (4) This relationship is simple to remember and permits an easy transformation from one to the other.5 Pitch Essential to prescribing gear geometry is the size. or spacing of the teeth along the pitch circle.5. This is simply: expressed as: Pd = diametral pitch = N (3) D Diametral pitch is so commonly used with fine pitch gears that it is usually contracted simply to "pitch" and that it is diametral is implied.1 Circular pitch — A naturally conceived linear measure along the pitch circle of the tooth spacing. This is termed pitch and there are two basic forms. Referring to Figure 1.

6 lists pitch diameters and the over-wires measurement as a function of tooth number (which ranges from 18 to 218) and various diametral pitches.1.2. 3. Suite 201.3 lists tooth proportions common to a given diametral pitch.1 1968) T29 .6 and pertinent standards for tooth proportions in Table 1. 3. 3.6 Extract from AGMA 201. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) have jointly established standards for the USA.4.2 Design Tables For the preferred pitches it is helpful in gear design to have basic data available as a function of the number of teeth on each gear. This is given in Table 1. such as those already mentioned for tooth form. Adherence to these pitches is very common in the fine. to specialized standards. VA 22314 (Phone: 703-684-0211). Both tables are for 20° pressure-angle gears.0 GEAR TOOTH FORMS AND STANDARDS involute gear tooth forms and standard tooth proportions are specified in terms of a basic rack which has straight-sided teeth for involute systems. are listed in Table 1. They range from general and basic standards.3 AGMA Standards In the United States most gear standards have been developed and sponsored by the AGMA. most pertinent to fine pitch gearing.02 (ANSI B6. Alexandria. The list is very long and only a selected few. only a few are currently active and widely used.pitch range but less so among the coarse pitches. Symbols for the basic rack are given in Figure 1. as well as the diameter of a measuring wire. Although a large number of tooth proportions and pressure angle standards have been formulated. These and additional standards can be procured from the AGMA by contacting the headquarters office at 1500 King Street. To convert to another pitch divide by diametral pitch. Table 1.1 Preferred Pitches Although there are no standards for pitch choice a preference has developed among gear designers and producers. including most of the preferred fine pitches. Note that data in Table 1.3.1 is based upon diametral pitch equal to one. Table 1. a = Addendum b = Dedendum c = Clearance hk = Working Depth ht = Whole Depth Pc = Circular Pitch rf = Fillet Radius t = circular Tooth Thickness φ = Pressure Angle Figure 1.

0270 .002 2.0045 .7290 wire diameter basic wire system.0144 .02 20º Full Depth involute System ANSI 20° 1/P 1.1 TOOTH PROPORTIONS OF BASIC RACK FOR STANDARD INVOLUTE GEAR SYSTEMS Tooth Parameter 1.6 −− φ a b ht hk C t rf ---Class 14-1/2º Full Depth involute System ANSI & AGMA 14-1/2° 1/P 1.0170 .0120 . 1.0360 .0203 .02454 .02182 . T30 120 .0240 . 2. *For 1.0051 .0208 .01309 .0540 .300/P not specified -201.5708/P not standardized not specified B6.002 2.157/P 2.0478 .2 PREFERRED DIAMETRAL PITCHES Class Pitch Pitch Class Pitch 20 24 32 48 64 72 80 96 120 128 Class Pitch Coarse 1/2 1 2 4 6 8 10 MediumCoarse 12 14 16 18 Fine Ultra-Fine 150 180 200 TABLE 1.1 201. Fillet Radius In Basic Rack 10. 5.5708/P 1-112 X not specified B6.1 -20º Coarse-Pitch involute Spur Gears AGMA 20° 1.157/P 2.03272 Circular Thickness .200/P + 0.250/P 2.0125 .157/P 1.0295 .01638 Whole Depth .04909 .01963 .0083 . 4.0104 Dedendum .250/P 2.200/P + 0.06 TABLE 1.7 207.3 BASIC GEAR DATA FOR 20° P. Governing Standard: ANSI AGMA Symbol in Rack Fig.000/P 0250/P π/2P 0.0139 .157/P 2/P 0.157/P 2/P 0.0395 .0208 . 7.04909 .0048 .03927 .000/P 1. FINE-PITCH GEARS Diameter Pitch 32 48 64 72 80 96 Diameter of . 8.157/P 1 5708/P 1-1/3 x not specified B6.0708 .0030 .0080 .0037 200 . System Sponsors Pressure Angle Addendum Dedendum Whole Depth Working Depth Clearance.000/P 1.0145 clearance . 6. Basic Circular Tooth Thickness on Pitch Line 9.09817 . 3.0326 .0180 Measuring Wire* Circular Pitch .02 20º Fine-Pitch involute System ANSI & AGMA 20° 1.0041 Note: Outside Diameter for N number of teeth equals the Pitch Diameter far (N+2) number at teeth.000/P 0.0086 .0270 .0313 .03272 .0130 .0062 .0083 .02618 .0187 .0156 .A. Diametral Pitch Range 11.0249 Addendum .TABLE 1.00765 .002 1.06545 .0050 .0216 .200/P + 0.04363 .01571 .0364 .

T31 . (Figure 1. The term axial pitch is preferred to the term linear pitch. ADDENDUM (a) is the height by which a tooth projects beyond the pitch circle or pitch line. In a single gear. and db = pinion) is the diameter of the base cylinder from which involute tooth surfaces.8) BASIC RACK is a rack that is adopted as the basis for a system of interchangeable gears. addendum can be defined as either nominal or operating. (Figure 1. (Figure 1. As actually indicated by measuring devices. are derived. also.7) AXIAL PLANE of a pair of gears is the plane that contains the two axes. in helical gears and worms.. More advanced calculations are available in the listed references. and the base pitch is the constant and fundamental distance between them along a common normal in a plane of rotation. BASE PITCH (pb) in an involute gear is the pitch on the base circle or along the line-of-action. base radius (Rb = gear. backlash may be ______________ *Portions of this section are repented with permission from the Barber-Colman Co. 4.1). Rockford. an axial plane may be any plane containing the axis and a given point.1). rb = pinion) is one half of the base diameter. Correspcndng sides of involute gear teeth are parallel curves. the radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle (Figure 1. either straight or helical.1 GEAR NOMENCLATURE* ACTIVE PROFILE is that part of the gear tooth profile which actually comes in contact with the profile of its mating tooth along the line of action.4 SELECTED LIST OF AGMA STANDARDS General spurs And Helicals Non-Spur AGMA 390 AGMA 2000-A88 AGMA 201 AGMA 207 AGMA 2005-B88 AGMA 203 AGMA 374 Gear Classification Handbook Gear Classification And Inspection Handbook Tooth portions For Coarse-Pitch Involute Spur Gears Tooth Proportions For Fine-Pitch Involute Spur Gears And Helical Gears Design-Manual For Bevel Gears Fine-Pitch On-Center Face Gears For 20° Involute Spur Pinions Design For Fine-Pitch Worm Gearing 4. BACKLASH (B) is the amount by which the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth on the pitch circles. AXIAL PITCH (pa) is the circular pitch in the axial plane and in the pitch surface between corresponding sides of adjacent teeth. BASE DIAMETER (Db = gear.1. Ml.0 INVOLUTOMETRY Basic calculations for gear systems are included in this section for ready reference in design.TABLE 1.

There is a fixed relation between diametral pitch (Pd) and circular pitch (pc): pc = π / Pd FACE WIDTH (F) is the length of the teeth in an axial plane. CONTACT RATIO (Helical) is the contact ratio in the plane of rotation plus a contact portion a tributted to the axial advance.10) CHORDAL THICKNESS (tc) is the length of the chord subtending a circular-thickness arc. In generated this radius is an approximate radius of curvature. and worms are those in which the active portion of the profile in the transverse plane is the involute of a circle.10) CIRCULAR PITCH (pc) is the distance along the pitch circle or pitch line between corresponding profiles of adjacent teeth. and either in the direction of the pit circles or on the line-of-action.1).1) CONTACT RATIO (Spur) is the ratio of the length-of-action to the base pitch. (Figure 1.) is the radius of the fillet curve at the base of the gear tooth. HELIX ANGLE (ψ) is the angle between any helix and an element of its cylinder. CHORDAL ADDENDUM (ac) is the height from the top of the tooth to the chord subtending the circular-thickness arc. helical gears.7) INVOLUTE TEETH of spur gears.9) CENTER DISTANCE (C). In helical gears a worms. (Figure 1. DEDENDUM (b) is the depth of a tooth space below the pitch line. (Figure 1. it is at the pitch diameter unless otherwise specified. or axial planes. T32 . (Figure 1.10) CLEARANCE-OPERATING (c) is the amount by which the dedendum in a given gear exceeds addendum of its mating gear. (Figure 1. also. FILLET RADIUS (r. (Figure 1. DIAMETRAL PITCH (Pd) is the ratio of the number of teeth to the number of inches in the pitch diameter. the pitch circle and the root circle. (Figure 1.13) FULL DEPTH TEETH are those in which the working depth equals 2000" diametral pitch GENERATING RACK is a rack outline used to indicate tooth details and dimensions for the design of a hob to produce gears of a basic rack system.determined variously in the transverse. (Figure 1. the radial distance beta. Such measurements should be corrected to corresponding values a transverse pitch circles for general comparisons. Distance between axes of rotation of mating spur or helical gears. unless otherwise specified. normal. (Figure 1.1) CIRCULAR THICKNESS (t) is the length of arc between the two sides of a gear tooth on the p4 circle. dedendum can be defined as either nominal or operating.

(Figure 1.1) PLANE OF ROTATION is any plane perpendicular to a gear axis. and also the length of the arc along the normal helix between helical teeth or threads.AND SHORT-ADDENDUM TEETH are those in which the addenda of two engaging gears are unequal. (Figure 1. Also. Pcn. PITCH POINT is the point of tangency of two pitch circles (or of a pitch circle and pitch line) and is on the line-of-centers. NORMAL PLANE is the plane normal to the tooth. In helical gears. as in the threads of cylindrical worms and teeth of helical gears. T33 .1) PITCH CYLINDER is the imaginary cylinder in a gear that rolls without slipping on a pitch cylinder or pitch plane of another gear. is the circular pitch in the normal plane. (Figure 1. It is the straight line passing through the pitch point and tangent to the base circles. OUTSIDE DIAMETER (Do gear.1). diametral pitch. (Figure 1.1) The pitch radius (R = gear. NORMAL DIAMETRAL PITCH (Pdn) is the diametral pitch as calculated in the normal plane. (Figure 1. to the plane of rotation. NORMAL CIRCULAR PITCH. it is an arc of the normal helix.7) NORMAL CIRCULAR THICKNESS (tn) is the circular thickness in the normal plane. r pinion) is one half the pitch diameter (Figure 11). PITCH DIAMETER (D = gear. ro pinion) is one half the outside diameter. it is at the intersection of the line-of-action and a straight line connecting the two gear centers. MEASUREMENT OVER PINS (M). the outside radius (Ro gear. The pitch point of a tooth profile is at its intersection with the pitch circle. Factor in determination of beam strength of gears. PITCH CIRCLE is the curve of intersection of a pitch surface of revolution and a plane of rotation. (Figure 1.12) LONG. the pitch diameters can be determined directly from the center distance and the number of teeth by proportionality. For a helical gear this plane is inclined by the helix angle. and do = pinion) is the diameter of the addendum (outside) circle (Figure 1. circular pitch). it is the imaginary circle that rolls without slip with a pitch circle of a mating gear.8) LEWIS FORM FACTOR (Y.LEAD (L) is the axial advance of a helix for one complete turn. ψ.11) LENGTH-OF-ACTION (ZA) is the distance on an involute line of action through which the point of contact moves during the action of the tooth profiles. Operating pitch diameter is the pitch diameter at which the gears operate. d = pinion) is the diameter of the pitch circle. LINE-OF-ACTION is the path of contact in involute gears. for involute gears. Distance over two pins placed in diametrically opposed tooth spaces (even number of teeth) or nearest to it (odd number of teeth). According to theory. (Figure 1. In parallel shaft gears. measured at the pitch radius. yc.

PRESSURE ANGLE (φ), for involute teeth, is the angle between the line-of-action and a line tangent to the pitch circle at the pitch point. Standard pressure angles are established in connection with standard gear-tooth proportions. (Figure 1.1) PRESSURE ANGLE — NORMAL (φn) is the pressure angle in the normal plane of a helical or spiral tooth PRESSURE ANGLE — OPERATING (φr) is determined by the specific center distance at which the gears operate. It is the pressure angle at the operating pitch diameter. STUB TEETH are those in which the working depth us less than 2.000” diametral pitch TIP RELIEF is an arbitrary modification of a tooth profile whereby a small amount of material is removed near the tip of the gear tooth. (Figure 1.13) TOOTH THICKNESS (T) Tooth thickness at pitch circle (circular or chordal — Figure 1.1). TRANSVERSE CIRCULAR PITCH (Pt) is the circular pitch in the transverse plane. (Figure 1.7) TRANSVERSE CIRCULAR THICKNESS (tt) is the circular thickness in the transverse plane. TRANSVERSE PLANE is the plane of rotation and, therefore, is necessarily perpendicular to the go axis. TRANSVERSE PRESSURE ANGLE (φt) is the pressure angle in the transverse plane. UNDERCUT is the loss of profile in the vicinity of involute start at the base circle due to tool cutter action in generating teeth with low numbers of teeth. Undercut may be deliberately introduced to facilitate finishing operations. (Figure 1.13) WHOLE DEPTH (ht) is the total depth of a tooth space, equal to addendum plus dedendurn, also equal to working depth plus clearance. (Figure 1.1) WORKING DEPTH (hk) is the depth of engagement of two gears; that is, the sum of their addenda. T34

T35

T36 T36 .

This is consistent with most gear literature and the publications of AGMA and ANSI. the pitch diameters for a meshing gear pair are tangent at a point on the line-of-centers called the pitch point.1. pinion rb base circle radus. pinion t tooth thickness.4. and for general use for tolerance pitch angle. gear testing radius tooth thickness. ψ operating helix angle) ω angular velocity invφ involute function 4.4. pinion pin diameter.2 Symbols The symbols used in this section are summarized below. Center distance = C = D1 + D2 = N1 + N2 2 2Pd (5) .2 Pitch Diameter and Center Distance As already mentioned in par. general length. linear measure along line-of-action backlash in arc minutes center distance change in center distance operating center distance standard center distance pitch diameter base circle diameter outside diameter root diameter face width factor. general lead angle. for over-pins dw measurement e eccentricity hk working depth ht whole depth mp contact ratio n number of teeth. 2. usually gear critical number of teeth for no undercutting virtual number of teeth for helical gear diametral pitch normal diametral pitch horsepower.4. gear outside radius. linear measure along pitch circle backlash. general. diametral pitch mesh velocity ratio a b c d addendum dedendum clearance pitch diameter. also lead of worm measurement over-pins number of teeth. worm gearing mean value gear stage velocity ratio pressure angle yc Lewis factor. gear or general use base circle radius. See figure 1. SYMBOL NOMENCLATURE & DEFINITION B BLA aB C ∆ Co Cstd D Db Do DR F K L M N Nc Nv Pd Pdn pt R Rb Ro RT T Wb Y Z backlash. The pitch point always divides the line of centers proportional to the number of teeth in each gear. gear beam tooth strength Lewis factor. pinion nw number of threads in worm pa axialpitch pb base pitch pc circular pitch pcn normal circular pitch r pitch radius. bevel gear rotation angle. circular pitch γ θ λ µ v φ φο operating pressure angle helix angle (Wb = base helix angle. transmitted pitch radius. pinion rt fillet radius ro outside radius.

Thus. or velocity ratio.3 and 1.4 Pressure Angle The pressure angle is defined as the angle between the line. This is further elaborated on in section 4.1. See Figure 1. for standard gears.of-action (common tangent to the base circles in Figs. (8) This basic formula shows that the larger the pressure angle the smaller the base circle. geometry of these figures. 4. It is for this reason that 14 ½° gears encounter greater undercutting problems than 20° gears. 14½° pressure angle gears have base circles much nearer to the roots of teeth than 20° gears. where D and φ are the exact operating values. in this equation is the ratio of the angular velocity of gear 2 to that of gear 1.14. Z. For this reason it is specifically called the circular tooth thickness. it is obvious that the pressure angle varies (slightly) as the cen distance of a gear pair is altered. can be obtained from several different parameters: Z = D1 = N1 = ω1 (7) D2 N2 ω2 The ratio. The base circle is related to the pressure angle and pitch dinmeter by the equation: Db = D cos φ Db = D cos φ where D and φ are the standard values or alternately. From the.8.4) and a perpendicular to the line-of-centers. Tooth thickness is related to the pitch as follows: T = Pc = π (9) 2 2Pd T38 .and the pitch-circle dimensions are related as follows: D1 = R1 = N1 (6) D2 R2 N2 4. 4.5 Tooth Thickness This is measured along the pitch circle. This is shown in Figure 1. 1.3 Velocity Ratio The gear ratio.

(10) To save computing time involute-function tables have been computed and are available in the references. as follows: T2 = T1 R2 .6. the equations can be manipulated to yield: T = D ( π + inv θc . is calculated as follows: For an even number of teeth: M = D cos θ + dw cos θ1 For an odd number of teeth M = D cos θ cos 90º + dw cos θ1 where the value of θ1 is obtained from inv θ1 = T + invθ + dw .6 Measurement Over-Pins Often tooth thickness is measured indirectly by gaging over pins which are placed in diametrically opposed tooth spaces.inv θ1) R1 where: inv θ =tan θ . or the nearest to it for odd numbered gear teeth.15.inv θ dw ) (14) N D cos θ where: cos θc = D cos θ 2Rc for an even number of teeth: Rc = M . M. For a specified tooth thickness the over-pins measurement. R2.2R2 -2R2 (inv θ2 .dw 2 and for an odd number of teeth: Rc = M . M. An abridged liting is given in Table 1. This is pictured in Figure 1. When tooth thickness is to be calculated from a known over-pins measurement. even for gears with slight departures trom standard tooth thicknesses. This provides a rapid means for calculating values of M.5. 4.dw 2 cos 90º N T39 (15) (16) (17) .π D D cos θ Ν (11) (12) (13) Tabulated values of over-pins measurements for standard gears are given in Table 1.θ = involute function.The tooth thickness (T2) at a given radius. from the center can be found from a known value (T1) and known pressure angle (θ1) at that radius (R1).

04924 0.06368 0.00281 0.00457 0.11594 0.04108 0.01272 0.07797 0.00398 0.01113 0.04013 0.14344 T40 Minutes 24 0.14097 12 0.04503 0.07199 0.00202 0.00476 0.03152 0.05612 0.01400 0.10008 0.00839 0.00214 0.02304 0.01734 0.13612 0.00750 0.11806 0.04816 0.01096 0.12683 0.00362 0.03478 0.00488 0.02849 0.01634 0.12020 0.03394 0.08597 0.09822 0.07493 0.02122 0.01357 0.θ for values of θ from 10º to 40º Degrees θ 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 0 0.02242 0.03920 0.10778 0.08270 0.01786 0.00239 0.08432 0.13375 0.00809 0.06636 0.04204 0.00312 0.01949 0.14595 36 0.00779 0.05034 0.00328 0.05492 0.00436 0.00640 0.02063 0.08765 0.00417 0.06108 0.02499 0.00615 0.02776 0.00902 0.03739 0.08934 0.02182 0.10978 0.11386 0.09281 0.01314 0.00543 0.05981 0.03074 0.04710 0.01683 0.01142 0.02635 0.05733 0.01004 0.01231 0.16237 0.02566 0.02368 0.00379 0.10388 0.09459 0.02705 0.00935 0.01444 0.01191 0.00566 0.10582 0.01039 0.00344 0.00969 0.11180 0.02922 0.00296 0.05260 0.00721 0.02006 0.01585 0.06913 0.06773 0.04302 0.02433 0.03313 0.09106 0.00590 0.00667 0.03829 0.02998 0.12238 0.06502 0.12459 0.03232 0.05375 0.01537 0.00253 0.13853 0.00191 0.03650 0.5 INVOLUTE FUNCTONS Inv θ = tan θ .07952 0.05856 0.04402 0.14850 48 0.07055 0.01076 0.07644 0.00870 0.15108 .07345 0.08110 0.01840 0.01894 0.12911 0.TABLE 1.12141 0.00520 0.03563 0.09639 0.00694 0.04606 0.01490 0.05146 0.00180 0.00226 0.00267 0.

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T41 .

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T42 f .

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T43 .

This is a ratio of the length of the line-of-action to the base pitch. but also removes some of the useful involute adjacent to the base circle.17. The ratio of the length-of-action to the base pitch is determined from: mp = (Ro² . A contact ratio between 1 and 2 means that part of the time two pairs of teeth are in contact and during the remaining time one pair is in contact. The length-of-action is determined from the intersection of the length-of-action arid the outside radii. Since addenda are standardized by a fixed ratio (1/Pd) the interference condition becomes more severe as the number of teeth on the gear increases.16 shows the geometry. Any tooth addendum that extends beyond the tangent points (T and T') is not only useless. The limit is reached when the gear becomes a rack. The result is that standard gears with T44 . as one pair of teeth ceases contact a succeeding pair of teeth must already have come into engagement.Rb²) +(ro² .2 or greater. This results in the typical undercut tooth. calculated for all tolerances at their worst-case values. It is desired to have as much overlap as possible.4.1. Figure 1. This is a realistic case since the hob is a rack-type cutter. A ratio between 2 and 3 means 2 or 3 pairs of teeth are always in contact.16) it is evident that interference is first encountered by the addenda of the gear teeth digging into the mating-pinion tooth flanks. Figure 1. but can be developed in the meshing of an internal and external spur gear pair or specially designed non-standard external spur gears. but interferes with the root fillet area of the mating tooth. A measure of this overlapping action is the contact ratio. Such as high contact ratio generally is not obtained with external spur gears. 4.8 Undercutting From Figure 1.7 Contact Ratio To assure smooth continuous tooth action.rb²) .16 it can be seen that the maximum length of the line-of-contact is limited to the length of the common tangent. shown in Figure 1. Under no circumstances should the ratio drop below 1.Csin φ (18) Pc COS φ It is good practice to maintain a contact ratio of 1. From the geometry of the limiting length-of-contact (T-T'. The undercut not only weakens the tooth with a wasp-like waist.

200 pressure angle gears with low numbers of teeth have the advantage of much less undercutting and. it is necessary to decrease tooth thickness (see Figure 1. and for high-precision applications.19). For measurement and inspection Figure 1. 3. the tooth number is. 4. particularly if the drive is frequently reversing or if there is an overrunning load. such as ten and smaller. in general. the smaller the amount of backlash. The amount of backlash must not be excessive for the requirements of the job.18. contact ratio and smoothness of action.tooth numbers below a critical value are automatically undercut in the generating process. Any error in machining which tends to increase the possibility of jamming makes it necessary to increase the amount of backlash by at least as much as the errors. In order to obtain the amount of backlash desired. If the gears are of standard tooth proportion design and operate on standard center distance they would function ideally with neither backlash nor jamming. This decrease must almost always be greater than the desired backlash because of T45 . A small amount of backlash is also desirable to provide for lubricant space and differential expansion between the gear components and the housing. helix angle and center distance — all are factors to consider in the specification of the amount of backlash. errors in profile. Undercutting for the first few numbers is small and in many applications its adverse effects can be neglected. Thus. profile-shifted gears is a large and involved subject beyond the scope of this writing. Backlash is provided for a variety of reasons and cannot be designated without consideration of machining conditions. The seventy of these faults depends upon how far below N. This is achieved by pinion enlargement (or correction as often termed).9 Enlarged Pinions Undercutting of pinion teeth is undesirable because of losses of strength. consult reference 5. mating gear design and. wherein the pinion teeth. The general purpose of backlash is to prevent gears from jamming and making contact on both sides of their teeth simultaneously. are shifted radially ourward to form a full involute tooth free of undercut The tooth is enlarged both radially and circumferentially. tooth thickness. still generated with a standard cutter. 5 and 6 offer additional information. and for 20° it is 18. the more accurate must be the machining of the gears. excessive backlash is objectionable. undercutting should be avoided. For very small numbers of teeth. therefore. On the other hand. pitch. For 14½º the value of Nc is 32. in particular. Comparison of a tooth form before and after enlargement is shown in Figure 1. The limiting number of teeth in a gear meshing with a rack is given by the expression: Nc = 2 (19) sin²φ This indicates the minimum number of teeth free of undercutting decreases with increasing Pressure angle. References 1.10 Backlash Calculation Up to this point the discussion has implied that there is no backlash. are both stronger and smoother acting.18 Comparison of such gears. Consequently. The details of enlarged pinion design. 4. but it should be sufficient so that machining costs are not higher than necessary. Runout of both gears.

20a as the excess thickness of tooth space over the thickness of the mating tooth. it is desirable to provide all of the allowance on the mating gear so as not to weaken the pinion teeth. Backlash is defined in Figure 1. For the determination of backlash in gear trains. to obtain the total backlash for a series of meshes it is necessary to take into account the gear ratio of each mesh relative to a chosen reference shaft in the gear train. There are two basic ways in which backlash arises: Tooth thickness is below the zero-backlash value. although there are exceptions. the allowance for a specified backlash will vary according to the manufacturing conditions. backlash allowance is usually obtained by sinking the hob deeper into the blank than the theoretically standard depth. it is true that any increase or decrease in center distance of two gears in any mesh will cause an increase or decrease in backlash. For details see Reference 5.20b) Tstd = no backlash tooth thickness on the operating-pitch circle. In the following we give the fundamental equations for the determination of backlash in a single gear mesh. Since the amount of the decrease in tooth thickness depends upon the accuracy of machining. Thus. this is an alternate way of designing backlash into the system. which is the standard teeth thickness for ideal gears Tact = actual tooth thickness T46 . For example. on pinions having very low numbers of teeth. it is necessary to sum the backlash of each mated gear pair. It is customary to make half of the allowance for backlash on the tooth thickness of each gear of a pair. the amount of backlash introduced in the mesh is simply this numerical difference: B = Tstd . In spur and helical gearing. If the tooth thickness of either or both mating gears is less than the zero-backlash value. and the operating center distance is greater than the zero-backlash value. Further. However.the errors in manufacturing and assembling.Tact = ∆T (20) where: B = linear backlash measured along the pitch circle (Figure 1.

as in Figure 1. is: BLA = 2(∆C)sin φ (21) This measure along the line-of-action is useful when inserting a feeler gage between teeth to measure backlash.374 ∆B for 20° pressure-angle gears T47 (22b) (22c) . a backlash space develops between mating teeth. BLA.When the center distance is increased by a relatively small amount. ∆C. an approximate relationship between center distance change and change in backlash is: ∆C= 1. The equivalent linear backlash measured along the pitch circle is given by: B = 2(∆C) tan φ (22a) where: ∆C = change in center distance φ = pressure angle Hence. along the line of action. The relationship between center distance increase and linear backlash.21.933 ∆B for 14½° pressure-angle gears ∆C= 1.

Also for fine-pitch gears the use of feeler gages for measurement is impractical. The two linear backlashes are related by: B = _____ cos φ The angular backlash at the gear shaft is usually the critical factor in the gear application. limitations. whereas an indicator at the pitch line gives a direct measure. As seen from Figure 1. and this constitutes one of the few advantages of the lower pressure angle. angular backlash is inversely proportional to gear radius. 4. and correction factors are detailed in Reference 5. Thus.20a this is related to the gear’s pitch radius as follows: B (24) BLA (23) aB = 3440 ____ (arc minutes) R1 Obviously. 20° gears have 41% more backlash than 14½º gears.11 Summary of Gear Mesh Fundamentals The basic geometric relationships of gears and meshed pairs given in the above sections are summarized in Table 1. Equations 22 are a useful relationship. an angular backlash must be specified with reference to a particular shaft or gear center. Thus. T48 . particularly for converting to angular backlash. Note that backlash due to center distance opening is dependent upon the tangent function of the pressure angle. since the two meshing gears are usually of different pitch diameters. Their derivation.Although these are approximate relationships they are adequate for most uses.7. the linear backlash of the measure converts to different angular values for each gear. Also.

To Obtain Pitch diameter Circular Pitch Diametral pitch Number of teeth Outside diameter Root diameter Base circle diameter Base pitch Tooth thickness at standard pitch diameter Addendum Center distance Contact ratio Backlash (linear) Backlash (linear) Backlash (linear) along line of acvon Backlash.2b Db=D cos φ Pb = Pc cos φ Tstd = Pc = πD 2 2N a= 1 Pd C=D1+D2=N1+N2=Pc(N1+N2) 2 2Pd 2π mp = (Ro²-Rb²)½+(ro²-rb²)½-C sin φ Pc cos φ B = 2 (∆C) tan φ B = ∆T BLA = B cos φ aB = 6880 B (arc minutes) D N= 2 sin² φ b = ½(D-DR) c=b-a hk = 2a φ =cos-1 Db/D φ =cos-1 Db/D' .7 SUMMARY OF FUNDAMENTALS SPUR GEARS From Known Number of teeth and pitch Diametral pitch or number of teeth and pitch diameter Circular pitch or number of teeth and pitch diameter Pitch and pitch diameter Pitch and pitch diameter or pitch and number of teeth Pitch diameter and dedendum Pitch diameter and pressure angle Circular pitch and pressure angle Circular pitch Diametral pitch Pitch diameters Or number of teeth and pitch Outside radii. angular Minimum number of teeth for no undercutting Dedendum Clearance Working depth Pressure angle ( standard ) Operating pressure angle TABLE 1. base radii. center distance and pressure angle From change in center distance From change in tooth thickness Linear backlash along pitch cirde Linear backlash Pressure angle Pitch diameter and root diameter ( DR ) Addendum and dedendum Addendum Base circle diameter and pitch diameter Actual operating pitch diameter and base circle diameter T49 Symbol and Formula D = N = N·Pc Pd π Pc =π= π Pd D N Pd = π=N Pc D N =DPd = D Pc Do =D + 2 = N+2 Pd Pd DR = D .

normal diametral pitch and pitch diameter Pitch diameter and pitch helix angle INVOLUTE GEAR PAIRS To Obtain Length of action Start of active profile Contact ratio Symbols ZA SAP Rc T50 Spur or Helical Gears ( g gear. p = pinion) ZA = (C² .(Rb+rb)²)½ (maximum) ZA = (Ro²-Rb²)½ (ro²-rb²-C sin φr)½ SAPp = -(Ro²-Rb²)½ SAPg = Zmax-(ro²-rb²)½ Rcg = ((SAP)² + Rb²)½.D ) = 1 Pd b = 0. . Rcp = ((SAP)² + rb²)½ Symbol and Formula Pcn = Pc cos ψ Pdn = Pd cos ψ Pa = Pc cot ψ = Pcn sin ψ tan φn = tan φ cos ψ D = N = Pd N Pdn cos ψ C = N1 + N2 2 Pdn cos ψ C= 1 ( N1 + N2 ) 2 Pdn cos ψ1 cos ψ2 θ = ψ1 + ψ2 a = 0. or outside and pitch diameters Pitch diameter and root diameter (DR) Addendum and dedendum Addendum Base circle diameter and pitch circle diameter Number of teeth.7 CONT.DR ) c = b-a hk = 2a cos φt = Db / D cos ψ = N Pn D L = π D cos ψ .5 ( D .TABLE 1.SUMMARY OF FUNDAMENTALS HELICAL GEARING To Obtain Normal circular pitch Normal diametral pitch Axial pitch Normal pressure angle Pitch diameter Center distance (parallel shafts) Center distance (crossed shafts) Shaft angle (Crssed shafts) Addendum Dedendum Clearance Working depth Transverse pressure angle Pitch helix angle Lead From Known Transverse circular pitch Transverse diametral pitch Circular pitches Transverse pressure angle Number of teeth and pitch Number of teeth and pitch Number of teeth and pitch Helix angles of 2 mated gears Pitch.5 ( Do .

teeth Number of teeth and pitch Transverse pitch and lead angle Pitch diameters Pitch. lead angle.SUMMARY OF FUNDAMENTALS WORM MESHES From Known Number of teeth and pitch Number of teeth and pitch Pitch. diameter. .7 CONT. teeth Number of teeth BEVEL GEARING From Known Number of teeth Pitch diameters Pitch angles Pitch angles T51 Symbol and Formula dw = nw Pcn p sin λ Dg = Ng Pcn π cos λ -1 nw = sin-1 nw Pcn λ = tan Pddw pdw L = nwpc = nw pcn cos λ Pcn = Pc cos λ C = dw + Dg 2 C = Pcn [ Ng + nw ] 2π cos λ sin λ Z = Ng nw Symbol and Formula Z = N1 N2 Z = D1 D2 Z = sin γ1 sin γ2 Σ = γ1 + γ2 .To Obtain Pitch diameter of worm Pitch diameter of worm gear Lead angle Lead of worm Normal circular pitch Center distance Center distance Velocity ratio To Obtain Velocity ratio Velocity ratio Velocity ratio Shaft angle TABLE 1.

analogous to the unwinding taut string of the spur gear in Figure 12. It resembles the spur gear in the plane of rotation. On the plane there is a straight line AB. Helical gears are used in two forms: 1. have a somewhat higher efficiency. Crossed-helicals (or spiral gears) for connecting skew shafts. all alike. there is an infinite series of involutes generated by line AB.5. T52 . Referring to Figure 1. Spur gears. As the taut plane is unwrapped any point on the line AB can be visualized as tracing an involute from the base cylinder. 2. tooth strength is improved because of the elongated helical wrap around tooth base support.23. two of the most important being as follows: 1. usually at tight angles. 5.22. a complete involute helicoid tooth is formed. unlike the spur gear which can be viewed essentially as two dimensional. 2. on the other hand. This design brings forth a number of different features relative to the spur gear.0 HELICAL GEARS The helical gear differs from the spur gear in that its teeth are twisted along a helical path in the axial direction. Again a concept analogous to the spur-gear tooth development is to imagine the taut plane being wound from one base cylinder on to another as the base cylinders rotate in opposite directions. However. which when wrapped on the base cylinder has a helical trace AoBo. If a reverse direction of rotation is assumed and a second tangent plane is arranged so that it crosses the first. but in the axial direction it is as if there were a series of staggered spur gears. but displaced in phase along a helix on the base cylinder. The result is the generation of a pair of conjugate helical involutes. See Figure 1. there is a base cylinder from which a taut plane is unwrapped. Thus. contact ratio is increased due to the axial tooth overlap. Helical gears thus tend to have greater load-carrying capactiy than spur gears of the same size.1 Generation of the Helical Tooth The helical tooth form is involute in the plane of rotation and can be developed in a manner similar to that of the spur gear. Parallel shaft applications. which is the largest usage. the helical gear must be portrayed in three dimensions to show changing axial features.

and an element of the pitch cylinder. tho axial twist of the teeth introduces a holix anglo. The direction of the helical twist is designated as either left or right.24.25.2 Fundamental of Helical Teeth In tho piano of rotation the helical gear tooth is involute and all of the relationships govorning spur gears apply to the helical. is related to circular pitch by the expressions: Pa = Pc cot ψ = Pcn = axial pitch sin ψ T53 (27) . the ratio between the two being equal to the cosine of the helix angle. The direction is defined by the right-hand rule. See Figure 1. Axial pitch. p1. These are defined and related as follows: Referring to Figure 1. w~ is detned as the angle between the tangent to the helicoidal tooth at the intersection of the pitch cylinder and the tooth profile. However. the normal diametral pitch is greater than the transverse pitch: Pdn = Pd = normal diametral pitch cos ψ (26) The axial pitch of a helical gear is the distance between corresponding points of adjacent teeth measured parallel to the gears axis—see Figure 1. Consistent with this. the helix angle. 5.5. In addition there is an axial pitch. the two circular pitches are related as follows: Pcn = Pc cos ψ = normal circular pitch (25) The normal circular pitch is less than the transverse or circular pitch in the plane of rotation.26.3 Helical Gear Relationships For helical gears there are two related pitches: one in the plane of rotation and the other in a plane normal to the tooth. Since the helix angle varies from the base of the tooth to the outside radnjs.

looking at one tooth. However. However. which is expressed as: tan φ = tan φn (29) cos ψ 5. in the normal plane. Hence. and usually is taken as a standard value.27.6 Importance of Normal Plane Geometry Because of the nature of tooth generation with a rack-type hob. they will differ from the standard normal values. a single tool can generate helical gears at all helix angles as well as spur gears. The value of this number is its use in determining helical tooth strength. The result of the transposed geometry is an equivalent number of teeth given as: NV = N (28) cos³ψ This equivalent number is also called a virtual number because this spur gear is imaginary. a nominal pressure angle can be considered for an individual gear. However.28 shows their relationship.5.4 Equivalent Spur Gear The true involute pitch and involute geometry of a helical gear is that in the plane of rotation. there is a resemblance to an involute tooth of a pitch corresponding to the normal pitch. The geometric basis of deriving the number of teeth in this equivalent tooth form spur gear is given in Figure 1. pressure angle exists only for a gear pair.5 Pressure Angle Although strictly speaking. this means the normal pitch is the common denominator. 5. Figure 1. there is a real need for relating parameters in the two reference planes. Since the true involute features are in the transverse plane. T54 f . For the helical gear there is a normal pressure angle as well as the usual pressure angle in the plane of rotation. the exact value depending on the magnitude of the helix angle. the shape of the tooth corresponds to a spur gear of a larger number of teeth.

Conversely. 5. 5. 5. the helix directions must be opposite. the center distance of a helical gear mesh is: C = ( N1+N2 ) (31) 2 Pdn cos ψ Note that for standard parameters in the normal plane.8.8. calculated in the same manner as for spur gears (equation 18). dedendum.1 Helix angle — Both gears of a meshed pair must have the same helix angle. the contact ratio is the sum of the transverse contact ratio.8. Thus. to alter the speed ratio between parallel geared shafts without changing center distance by manipulating helix angle along with tooth numbers. it is possible a. but if the normal pitch is involved it is a function of the helix angle. Addendum..e.8 Parallel Shaft Helical Gear Meshes Fundamental information for the design of gear meshes is as follows: 5. and a term involving the axial pitch. to compensate for significant center distance changes (or erçors) without changing the speed ratio between parallel geared shafts. However. by manipulating the helix angle (ψ) the center distance can be adjusted over a wide range of values. and b. (mp)total = (mp)trans + (mp)axial (32) where T55 . Pressure angle and pitch are usually specified as standard values in tho normal plane.3 Center distance — Utilizing equation 30.5.4 Contact Ratio — The contact ratio of helical gears is enhanced by the axial overlap of the teeth. whole depth and clearance are the same regardless of whothor measured in tho piano of rotation er the normal piano. Further. but there are times when they are specified standard in the transverse plane. i.7 Helical Tooth Proportions These follow the same standards as those for spur gears. the center distance will not be a standard value compared to standard spur gears. The expressions are: D=N= N (30) Pd Pdn cos ψ 5. a left-hand mates with a right-hand helix.2 Pitch dIameter — This is given by the same expression as for spur gears.8.

5. Therefore. depending on the helix angle. 5. 5.htm [9/30/2000 10:10:44 AM] . ψ2 = the respective helix angles of the two gears θ = shaft angle (the acute angle between the two shafts when viewed in a direction parallel ing a common perpendicular between the shafts) Except for very small shaft angles. T56 file:///C|/A3/D190/HTML/D190T56.New Page 4 (mp)trans = value per equation 18 (mp)axial = F = F tan ψ = F sin ψ Pa Pc Pcn and F = face width of gear. However. the transverse pitches may not be the same. They are used for interconnecting skew shafts.1 Helix angle and hands — The helix angles need not be the same.5 Involute interference — Helical gears cut with standard normal pressure angles can have considerably higher pressure angles in the plane of rotation (see equation 29). They can be designed to connect shafts at any angle. However. their sum must equal the shaft angle: ψ1 + ψ2 = θ (33) where: ψ1.2 Pitch — Because of the possibility of ditferent helix angles for the gear pair. the normal pitches must always be identical.8.9 Crossed Helical Gear Meshes These are also known as spiral and screw gears.9. referring to equation 19.29. such as in Figure 1. the minimum number of teeth without undercutting can be significantly reduced and helical gears having very low tooth numbers without undercutting are feasible. 5.9. but in most applications the shafts are at right angles. the helix hands are the same.

since these can be altered by juggling of helix angles.30a) is worth considering. both gear helix angles must be altered consistently in accordance with equation 33.29. This is depicted in Figure 1. In some special instrument designs this thrust load can be utilized to actuate face clutches.4 Velocity ratio — Unlike spur and parallel shaft helical meshes the velocity ratio (gear ratio) cannot be determined from the ratio of pitch diameters. or other special purpose. The speed ratio can be determined only from the number of teeth as follows: velocity ratio Z = N1 (35) N2 or if pitch diameters are introduced the relationship is: Z = D1 cos ψ1 (36) D2 cos ψ2 5.5.30b) or herringbone gears (Figure 1. 5. (37) T57 . and the center distance becomes: C = 1 ( N1 + N2 ) (34) 2Pdn cos ψ1 cos ψ2 Again it is possible to adjust the center distance by manipulating the helix angle. When the helix angle is larger than about 20°. provide a friction drag. the use of double helical gears with opposite hands (Figure 1 . The magnitude of the thrust load depends on the helix angle and is given by the expression: WT =Wt tanψ where: WT = axial thrust load Wt = transmitted load The direction of the thrust load is related to the hand of the gear and the direction of rotation.9.10 Axial Thrust of Helical Gears In both parallel-shaft and crossed shaft applications helical gears develop an axial thrust load.3 Center Distance — The pitch diameter of a crossed-helical gear is given by equation 30. This is a useless force that loads gear teeth and bearings and must accordingly be considered in the housing and bearing design.9. However.

In theory the rack is a gear with infinite pitch diameter. equation 22. the larger gear must have the material forming the teeth on the convex side of the involute profile.33a. the pressure angle and the gears pitch radius remain constant regardless of changes in the relative position of the gear and rack. However. This offers considerable versatility in the design of planetary gear trains and miscellaneous instrument packages. 7. However. see Figure 1. line of action and development of the involute profiles and action are shown in Figure 1. and the tooth is of simple V form. A rack will mesh with all gears of the same pitch. T58 . As with spur gears there is a taut generating string that winds and unwinds between the base circles. Racks can be both spur and helical. The base circles. 7. one of the pitch circles rolls on the inside of the ether. In addition. it forms the basis of internal gearing. Backlash is computed by the same formula as for gear pairs.0 RACKS Gear racks (Figure 1. in which an internal gear mates with an ordinary external gear.0 INTERNAL GEARS A special feature of spur and helical gears is their capability of being made in an internal form.32. and actual contact and involute development occurs on an extension of the common tangent. such that the internal gear is an inverse of the common external gear.1 Development of the Internal Gear The gears considered so far can be imagined as equivalent pitch circle friction discs which roll on each other with external contact If instead.6.31) are important components in that they are a means of converting rotational motion into linear motion. in this case the string does not cross the line of centers. resulting in an involute profile that is essentially a straight line. See Figure 1. Only the pitch line shifts accordingly as the gear center is altered.33b. action parallels that for external spur gears. Otherwise.

T59 . the tooth parts are also reversed relative to the ordinary (external) gear. Tooth proportions and standards are the same as for external gears except that the addendum of the gear is reduced to avoid trimming of the teeth in the fabrication process. This is shown in Figure 1.2 Tooth Parts of Internal Gear Because the internal gear is reversed relative to the external gear.34.7.

dw N D Dcos φ where: Rc = cos φ R cos φ1 T60 . Thus. Also. it is the tooth space that is calculated and the internal gear tooth thickness is obtained by a subtraction from the circular pitch at that radius. (see Figure 1.36). 7. Equations 11 thru 13 are modified accordingly to yield: For an even number of teeth: M= 2 ( Rc .Tooth thickness of the internal gear can be calculated with equations 9 and 20. as shown in Figure 1. but this time the measurement is "under" the pins. tooth thickness can be measured indirectly by gaging with pins. in using equation 10 to calculate tooth thickness at various radii.3 Teeth Thickness Measurement In a procedure similar to that used for external gears.35).37.36.dw ) (38) 2 For an odd number of teeth: M = 2(Rc cos 90º .T . (see Figure 1.dw ) (39) N 2 inv φ1=inv φ + π . but one must remember that the tooth and space thicknesses are reversed. applying equation 10 to Figure 1.

for conjugate action the center distance of the mesh must be an exact duplicate of that used in generating the wormgear. 8.7. taken through the worm’s axis and perpendicular to the wormgear’s axis. Good surface endurance due to a convex profile surface working against a concave surface. usually 90º. 3. they offer the advantage of the higher load capacity associated with their line contact in contrast to the point contact of the crossed-helical mesh 8. and usually special tooling is required. Housing and bearing supports are more complicated. a worm-gear mesh is not a true involute mesh.0 WORM MESH The worm mesh is another gear type used for connecting skew shafts. 2. A central section of the mesh. Thus. 3. Lend to compact design since the center distance is less than for external gears. as shown in Figure 1.4 Features of Internal Gears General advantages: 1. and a curved involute tooth form for the wormgear.39. The mating worm-gear teeth have a helical lead. as evident from Figure 1. General disadvantages: 1. Low velocity ratios are unsuitable and in many cases impossible because of interferences. see Figure 1. Fabrication is limited to the shaper generating process. A high contact ratio is possible. 2. Worm meshes are characterized by high velocity ratios. the involute features are only true for the central section.38. Sections on either side of the worm axis reveal non-symmetric and non-involute tooth profiles. Also. Also.1 Worm Mesh Geometry The worm is equivalent to a V-type screw thread. To increase the length of action the wormgear is made of a throated shape to wrap around the Worm. However. reveals a rack-type tooth for the worm. because the external gear nests within the internal gear. T61 .39.

The standard values apply to the central section of the mesh.4 Worm and Wormgear Calculations Referring to Figure 1. the following defines the geometry of worm mesh components. three. T62 . there is one continuous tooth or thread. For slightly smaller angles them can be two. Thus.. such as addendum. etc. dedendum.5. 8.2 Worm Tooth Proportions Worm tooth dimensions. a worm is characterized by the number of threads. pressure angle. nw.40b and recalling the relationships established for normal and transverse pitches in Par.3 Number of Threads The worm can be considered resembling a helical gear with a high helix angle. follow the same standards as those for spur and helical gears. or even more threads. For extremely high helix angles. (see Figure 1.8. A high pressure angle is favored and in some applications values as high as 25º and 30° are used. 8.40a).

8.4.1 Pitch Diameters, Lead snd Lead Angle Pitch diameter of worm = dw = nw Pcn π sin λ Pitch diameter of wormgear = Dg = Ng Pcn π cos λ where: nw = number of threads of worm L = lead of worm = nwpc = nw Pcn cos λ λ = lead angle = tan-1 nw Pddw = sin-1 nw Pcn Pcn = Pc cos λ πdw (40)

(41)

8.4.2 Center Distance of Mesh c = dw + Dg = Pcn [ Ng 2 2π cos λ

+

nw ] sin λ

(42)

T63

8.5 Velocity Ratio The gear ratio of a worm mesh cannot be calculated from the ratio of the pitch diameters. It can be determined only from the ratio of tooth numbers: velocity ratio = Z = no. teeth in worm gear = no. threads in worm 9.0 BEVEL GEARING For intersecting shafts, bevel gears offer a good means of transmitting motion and power. Most transmissions occur at right angles (Figure 1.41), but the shaft angle can be any value. Ratios up to 4:1 are common, although higher ratios are possible as well. Ng (43)

9.1 Development and Geometry of Bevel Gears Bevel gears have tapered elements because they can be generated by rolling cones, their pitch surfaces lying on the surface of a sphere. Pitch diameters of mating bevel gears belong to frusta of cones, as shown in Figure 1.42. In the full development on the surface of a sphere, a pair of meshed bevel gears and a crown gear are in conjugate engagement as shown in Figure 1.43. The crown gear, which is a bevel gear having the largest possible pitch angle (defined in Figure 1.43), is analogous to the rack of spur gearing, and is the basic tool for generating bevel gears. However, for practical reasons the tooth form is not that of a spherical involute, and instead, the crown gear profile assumes a slightly simplified form. Although the deviation from a true spherical involute is minor, it results in a line of action having a figure-S trace in its extreme extension, see Figure 1.44. This shape gives rise to the name "octoid" for the tooth form of modem bevel gears.

T64

T65

9.2 Bevel Gear Tooth Proportions Bevel gear teeth are proportioned in accordance with the standard system of tooth proportions used for spur gears. However, the pressure angle of all standard design bevel gears is limited to 200. Pinions with a small number of teeth are enlarged automatically when the design follows the Gleason system. Since bevel-tooth elements are tapered, tooth dimensions and pitch diameter are referenced to the outer end (heel). Since the narrow end of the teeth (toe) vanishes at the pitch apex (center of reference generating sphere) there is a practical limit to the length (face) of a bevel gear. The geometry and identification of bevel gear parts is given in Figure 1.45. 9.3 Velocity Ratio The velocity ratio can be derived from the ratio of several parameters: velocity ratio = Z = N1 = D1 = N2 where: sin γ1 D2 (44) sin γ2

γ = pitch angle (Figure 1.45)

T66

Zerol bevels are similar to the straight bevels and thus carry the same ratings. it is possible to have the teeth curve along a spiral as they converge on the cone apex. McGraw Hill. The teeth. width. or for high static loads when surface wear is not a critical factor. Both spiral and Zerol gears can be cut on the same machines with the same circular face-mill cutters or ground on the same grinding machines. where space does not permit the inclusion of rolling-element bearings. Zerol or hypoid gears. Functionally.. The overlapping tooth action transmits motion more smoothly and quietly than with straight bevel gears.46c) have curved oblique teeth which contact each other gradually and smoothly from one end to the other. 3. Editor. from “Design of Bevel Gears” by W. As a result. N. One is the zerol bevel. Other forms of bevel gearing include the following: • Conii1ex gears (Figure 1. In fact. Older machines produce true straight elements. there are other possible variations. therefore. The result is a spiral bevel tooth.Y. where ground-tooth precision gears are generally required..57.46b) are made in special straight-bevel gear-cutting machines that crown the sides of the teeth in their lengthwise direction. these gears are capable of transmitting heavier loads than the straight bevel gears under the same operating conditions. When loads are light. Well-designed spiral bevels have two or more teeth in contact at all times. and one has a spiral bevel gear. Gear Design and Applications. Inc.. p. New York. 2. New York. and shape.Y. Chironis. straight bevel gears may be noisy. Zerols can be used in the place of of straight bevels without mounting changes.In the simplest design the tooth elements are straight radial. tolerate small amounts of misalignment in the assembly of the gears and some displacement of the gears under load without concentrating the tooth contact at the ends of the teeth. Straight-bevel gears are recommended: 1. Straight bevel gears come in two variations depending upon the fabrication equipment. ________ “The material in this paragraph has been reprinted with the permission of McGraw Hill Book Co. In addition. and they have lithe end thrust. analogous to the overlapping action of helical teeth. resulting in greater tooth overlap. Zerol bevels are widely employed in the aircraft industry.46d) have curved teeth similar to these of the spiral bevels. Most hypoid cutting machines can cut spiral bevel. However. When space. gear weight. converging at the cone apex. See Figure 1 . angularly displace one relative to the other. 1967. When speeds are less than 1000 fpm — at higher speeds. Imagine cutting a straight bevel into an infinite number of short face-width sections. In this case ground gears are a necessity. and mountings are a premium. Both are produced with localized tooth contact which can be controlled for length. • Zerol bevels (Figure 1. This includes planetary gear sets.46a. N. All current Gleason straight bevel generators are of the Ceniflex form which gives an almost imperceptible convexity to the tooth surfaces. N. T67 . however. which is a curved tooth having elements that start and end on the same radial line. but with zero spiral angle at the middle of the face width. • Spiral bevels (Figure 1. Straight bevel gears are the simplest and most widely used type of bevel gear for the transmission of power and/or motion between intersecting shafts. Coleman.

11. complex forms to produce and inspect. Helicals are superior to spurs in load capacity. Internal gears can fill a real need nicely. This gear data can be efficiently and consistently specified on the gear drawing in a standardized block format. Each offers special features and advantages if needed. limited fabrication sources. if required. and desired precision or quality level.0 CRITERIA OF GEAR QUALITY In addition to the sizing of gear parameters. Crossed helicals are an acceptable skew shaft drive only if the loads are small.10. Special gears such as spiroid. can be made to the highest precision. but an understanding of what compromises gear quality. This includes not only tolerances. face width.0 GEAR TYPE EVALUATION The choice of gear type is dependent upon a number of considerations involving physical space and shaft arrangement. the mounting design. 5.47. any special features. Formats for coarse pitch gears.8 summarizes comments and evaluations of the various gear types. but they should only be used when the application requires their unique feature. it is necessary to ensure that their specifications and manufacture result in the desired gear quality. The format varies in accordance with gear type. they offer avoidance of undercutting in small tooth number pinions. That means they are the least expensive and. load. Also. gear ratio. as they are the easiest to make. Spur gears are the first choice if they can do the job. and relative high cost. and helicals can be designed to neatly span non-standard center distances. helicon beveleid and face should be avoided as much as possible because of limited features. Helical gears are slightly more complicated than straight spurs. Worm gearing and bevels offer right angle drives for skew and intersecting shafts respectively. A general guide is to choose the simplest gear type that can accomplish the objectives. and the fundamental and essential gear data. T68 . 11. A typical data block for standard fine-pitch spur gears is given in Figure 1.1 Basic Gear Formats Specification of a gear requires a drawing that shows details of the gear body. Table 1. but are the choice if loads and speeds are demanding. helical gears and other gear types are given in detail in the appendix of Ref.

helical Internal spur Bevel Worm mesh Specials (face. High speeds ratios and for rightcomptcaled tooth form and fabrication High loads angle mashes limits achievement of precision. High sliding low speeds and Suitable for right . fair to Intersecting Suitable for 1:1 and Good choice for right-angle drive.8 SUMMARY AND EVALUATION OF GEAR TYPES Precision Comments Features Applications Rating Regarding Precision excellent Parallel shafting Applicable to all Simplest tooth elements offering max High speeds types of trains and imum precision.Type Spur Helical Crossed . High velocity High loads To be considered for average precision ratio meshes. poor Skewed shafting Relatively low To be avoided for precision meshes. also used Recommended for all high. recom and loads a wide range of mended for all gear meshes.speed Efficiency slightly wherever spurs and high-load meshes. and High loads speeds and high inspection limitations. Beveloid) TABLE 1. component must be accommodated. Helicon. A less expensive substitute for bevel light load. of point contact and high sliding action. Point contact velocity ratio. but can be of high precision with High speeds care. Spiroid. where very high speeds and loads or special features of other types. Best choice for combination high and loads velocity ratio and right. good for high capacity. fair Parallel shafts Internal drives Not recommended for precision meshes High speeds requiring high because of design. (and other angles) Should be located at one of the less critical meshes of the train. Axial thrust less than spur mesh are used. High Low efficiency sliding requires excellent lubrication.angle drive. good shafts higher velocity particularly low ratios. Most designs nonreversible poor to Intersecting and Special cases To be avoided as precision meshes. T69 f .angle drive.angle drives if low speeds light loads only. such as right . good skew shafts Angular meshes but worm gear has inherent limitations. good Parallel shafting Most applicable to Equivalent quality to spurs except for Very high speeds high speeds and complication of helix angle. cannot be avoided. except Highest efficiency velocity ratios. sliding and high stress loading. fabricabon. However. offers low used when internal feature is necessary.angle High velocity ratio Worm can be made to high precision. Should only be loads. and loads loads. Point contact limits capacity and precision. Sig fair skew shafts nificant nonconjugate action with depart Modest speeds ure from nominal center distance and and loads shaft angles. Used In planetary gears to produce large reduction ratios. Good lubrication essential because skew shafts. fair to Right . long tie. Any angle gears. First choice. Fabrication requires special equipment and inspection is limited.

Although no longer part of current AGMA standards. it is consistent with Table 1. 4. See Table 1.02).9. Theoretically. i.9 is for unassembled spur and helical gears. Combinations of all these errors cause a net position error. and index accuracy. offered a more detailed table of backlash allowance and tolerance which is still a useful design guide. and radial out-of-position. However. Most often the same tolerance is applied to each gear of a meshed pair.9. spacing errors.9. The previous issue of this specification. This information is reproduced in Table 1. angular transmission accuracy. an individual gear. pitch line runout.A88 ).e. (390. involute gears will function perfectly. convenient quality classes have been established by AGMA in Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook (ANSI/AGMA 2000 .2 Tooth Thickness and Backlash One of the most important criteria of gear quality is the specification and control of tooth thickness. T70 . This is known by several names: transmission linearity. in practice there are deviations from ideal motion transmission due to involute profile variations.10. which is transmitted to the instrument or machine involved.3 Position Error (or Transmission Error) In many precision gear applications the transmission of motion from shaft-to shaft must have a high degree of linearity. 11.10. As mentioned in Par. the magnitude of tooth thickness and its tolerance is a direct measure of backlash when the gear is assembled with its mate. Although it is possible to set the tooth thickness and tolerance to any value within a wide range.11. Backlash for a meshed gear pair due to tooth thickness tolerance will be the sum of two values from Table 1. Note that the data in Table 1.

0075 0.006 0.0 6 3.0093 0.0 8.0 0.0 20. (tT) (ALL TOLERANCE VALUES IN INCHES) FOR UNASSEMBELED SPUR AND HELICAL GEARS Tolerance Codes Quality Diametral Number Pitch A B C 0.074 0.5 3 and 4 1.0 7 thru 15 3.0 0.005 0.003 0.005 0.0 0.00017 0.2 2.019 0.019 0. This is defined simply as the maximum variation in center distance as the gear is rolled.0025 D .0003 0.0 12.0075 0.00009 0.TheTCE parameter encompasses the combination of run out and tooth-to-tooth errors as indicated in Figure 1.0 12.0 3. which is essentially the variation over a tooth cycle.0 8.012 0.019 0.9 TOOTH THICKNESS TOLERANCE.00011 0. This variation can be measured and plotted.00063 0.2 2.006 0.0024 0.2 5.00034 0.0 0.0 32.074 0.0008 0. Since TCE includes TTCE it is only necessary to specify both when a finer control of the TFCE is desired. The device has one floating center.48.00043 0.5 1. ET.0006 0.00045 0.0008 0.0024 0.2 5. where θ = angular position of the gear (45) This relationship indicates that the position error fluctuates sinusoidally between maximum lead and lag values.0012 0.012 0. is known as tooth-to-tooth composite error (TTCE).0012 0.2 5.0037 0.2 5 2.00125 0.0018 0.00067 0.0075 0.00022 0.003 0. intimately meshed with a master gear. *TABLE1.0093 0.012 0.0037 0.0 8.031 0.0012 0.003 0.019 0. Control of TCE and TTCE is achieved by specifying maximum values.0002 0. as shown in Figure 1 .0 3.031 0. and profile deviation results in center distance variation. The relationship between TCE and transmission error.031 0.00043 0.031 0.0093 0. The latter.48.00014 0.0016 0.0006 0.012 0.0009 0.005 0.0018 0.074 0.074 0. and as the gears are rolled any eccentricity.5 1. on a variable-center-distance fixture.006 0.0008 0.0025 0.5 1.0019 0.0 20.The single most important criterion of the above position errors is the total composite error of the gear (TCE).0006 0.0037 0. is adequately approximated by the expression: ET = Etc sin 2 θ .0 32.0 50.2 5.0016 0.0048 0.0037 0.0003 0. tooth-to-tooth variation.0075 0.00044 0.2 2.0 80.0 120.

Virginia 22314 T71 . with permmision of the publisher. American Gear Manufacturers Association. Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook Tolerances and Measuring Methods for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears.*Extracted from AGMA Standard 2000-ABB. Alexenderia . 1500 King Street.

.0001 0 to .035 . **Extracted from AGMA Gear Classification Manual AGMA 390.080 0. 0002 0 to .050 .015 0.004 to .0002 Zero 0 to.0004 0 to.00035 0 to .00075 .2 (47) where: subscripts 1 and 2 represent each of the meshing gears.. 0001 0 to .PITCH GEARS Tooth Thinning to Obtain Backlash Allowance Tolerance ( per gear) ( per gear ) .. If an angular transmission error.Equation 45 yields a linear position error measured in inches along the pitch circle.040 .0002 *See Reference 5 for the case of considering phase angles. In practice.030 Backlash Designation Normal Diametral Pitch Range 20 thru 45 46 thru 70 71 thru 90 91 thru 200 20 thru 60 61 thru 120 121 thru 200 20 thru 60 61 thru 120 121 thru 200 20 thru 60 61 thru 120 121 thru 200 20 thru 60 61 thru 120 121 thru 200 A B C D E FINE .030-...0005 0 to .0001 Resulting Approximate Backlash (par mesh) Normal Plane .0055 .001 0 to .030 .015 .0004 to .040 . **TABLE 1.001 0 to .003 001 to .5.0002 .10 AGMA BACKLASH ALLOWANCE AND TOLERANCE COARSE.9.080 .020 .002 .020 0.0004 0 to.003 .02.095 0.00075 0 to .020 . and R1 and R2 are the respective pitch radii.070 .. Thus: (46) aET = Etc sin q (radians) = 3440 Etc sin θ (arc minutes) 2R D The above defines the error of a single gear.025.045 .003 to .020 0..001 .0007 to .0004 .080 0.0004 to ..0005 to .030 0.0003 .00075 .070 0.010 .007 .045 0. Over 10 to 20 Over 20 to 30 Over 30 to 40 Over 40 to 50 Over 50 to 80 Over 80 to 100 Over 100 to 120 0.99 6 ...0005 0 to .001 .002 to .040 0.002 to . 00075 0 to .0008 .005 .99 0.0015 to .1.99 2 . aET.00025 0 to .060 0..010 . 0002 to . Concerning only the maximum error (in order to avoid the complexity of phase angles*).060 .110 0. as shown in equation 47..040 Center Distance ( Inches ) Up to 5 Over 5 to 10 .0002 0 to .040 0. September 1964 T72 .00013 .001 to .0005 .001 .040 0.49 3.PITCH GEARS Normal Dlametral Pitches 0. the peak total mesh error is: maximum peak error = (aET)mesh = (Etc)1+(Etc)2 3440 (arc minutes) R1.004 .025 -.025 0.060 10 .002 .002 0 to .002 .0015 0 to .030 .002 .19.055 0.00025 0 to .065 0..5 .99 0.040 .3.O50 0..008 .035-..00025 .. one is interested in the total error of a mesh arising from errors of both gears.050-.0005 .. is desired it is necessary to divide by the pitch radius of the gear.00175 .0005 0 to .5 . These yield the angular error for the respective gear center of the particular pitch radius being used.030 0. 0015 to .020 -030 0.

For this reason.02 and AGMA 236. Also presented are class tolerances of key parameters for spur and helical inspection master gears. and tooth-to-tooth composite error. however. bevel and hypoid gears. profile.11. may not have access to the tables published in previous AGMA 390.A88) is readily available to all those who wish to obtain additional information and tables related to this subject. and fine pitch worm gearing.10 C.4 AGMA Quality Classes Using criteria that are indicators and measures of gear quality. 11.10B are presented. T73 . AGMA Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook (ANSI/AGMA 2000-A88) specifically defines various gear quality parameters for these 13 classes. For all gears. This includes tolerance ranges for runout. Such a comparison giving approximate equivalence of values is given in Table 1. Tables 1.5 Comparison with previous AGMA and International Standards It is assumed that the present AGMA Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook (ANSI/AGMA 2000.10A and 1 .04 standards. lead. coarse and fine pitches. These values are for spur and helical gearing. them are separate table values for rack and pinions. Furthermore. total composite error. them am 13 classes numbered 3 through 15. In addition. Many designers. as a result of increased international trade and the influx of metric gears. the AGMA has established a convenient standardization that forms a continuous spectrum of quality classes ranging from the crudest to the most precise gears. pitch. it is useful to compare different national gear standard values.

0044 0. 2” to 3.0019 0. 2” to 3.999” 20 to200 0.00019 0.999” 20 to 200 0. 1964.0007 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.0004 0. 2” to 3.999” 20 to 100 0.0037 0. 4” &over 20 to 200 0.999” 20 to 200 0.999” 20 to200 0.999” 20 to 32 0.999” 20 to 200 0.00016 0.999” 20 to 200 0.0007 Over 20 teeth.0006 0.00014 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.00027 0.00010 Over 20 teeth.0014 Over 20 teeth. 4” & over 20 to 40 0.0010 0.999” 20 to 200 0. 2” to 3.999” 20 to 200 0.0004 0.4” & over 20 to200 0.0027 Over 20 teeth.0003 Over 20 teeth.0052 0.up to 1.0019 Over 20 teeth.0061 0.0007 Over 20 teeth.999” 20 to 200 0.00023 0.999” 20 to 200 0.0002 Over 20 teeth.0037 Over 20 teeth.0014 Over 20 teeth.0027 Over 20 teeth.0027 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.999” 20 to48 0.0019 Over 20 teeth.AGMA Quality No.0003 Over 20 teeth.00019 *From AGMA “Gear Classification Manual for Spur. up to l.0019 0.999” 20 to200 0.0037 0.0003 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.00014 0.0004 Over 20 teeth. up to1.4” & over 20 to200 0.0016 0. 2’ to 3.0023 0.0004 Over 20 teeth.0027 Over 20 teeth.00010 Over 20 teeth.0027 0.0014 0.0010 Over 20 teeth.00014 Over 20 teeth. 2” to 3.00019 0.0072 0.999” 20 to 200 0.0019 Up to 20 teeth Inclusive 20 to 200 0.00007 Total Composite Tolerance 0.00014 Over20 teeth.00007 Over 20 teeth. up to l.0027 0.0019 Over 20 teeth.0002 Over 20 teeth. 4” & over 20 to 120 0.00014 Over 20 teeth.0032 0.0004 Over 20 teeth.999” 20 to200 0. 2” to 3. 4" & over 20 to 24 0.00019 Over 20 teeth.0052 0.999” 20 to 48 0.0007 0.0003 Over 20 teeth.0009 0.0014 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.0037 0.0052 0.0004 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.0002 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.0005 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.999” 20 to 200 0.00010 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.” AGMA 390.upto 1.999” 20 to 200 0.0005 Over 20 teeth. 4” & over 20 to 200 0.0010 Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 200 0.00014 0. up to 1. up to 1. up to 1.00007 Over 20 teeth. up to l. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 TABLE 1.999” 20 to 32 0.10A FINE-PITCH GEAR TOLERANCES FOR AGMA QUALITY CLASSES No.00027 0.0005 0.0004 0. 2" to 3.999” 20 to 200 0.0027 0. 2” to 3.0005 Over 20 teeth.0007 Over 20 teeth.0005 Over 20 teeth.0014 Over 20 teeth.999" 20 to200 0. Helical and Heningbone Gears.0007 0. 4” & over 20 to 24 0.upto 1.4” & over 20 to64 0.0010 0. up to 1.0014 0.0005 0.00027 0.00032 0. 2” to 3.999” 20 to 200 0.0010 0.4” &over 20 to200 0. up to 1. Sept.0007 0. 2” to 3.00010 Over 20 teeth. T74 .0010 Over 20 teeth. of Teeth Diametral Tooth-to-Teeth And Pitch Composite Pitch Diameter Range Tolerance Up to 20 teeth inclusive 20 to 80 0.0014 0. 2” to 3.02.0005 0. 4” & over 20 to 200 0.0012 0.999” 20 to 24 0.00037 0.0010 Over 20 teeth. 4” & over 20 to 200 0.0019 0.

0027 Commercial 3 0.0007 0.0004 0. Germany Japan DIN JIS 4 0 5 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 T75 International ISO 4 5 6 7 8 9 U. Error Error No.0014 0.02.0010 0.0019 0. March 1988.0019 Commercial 4 0.0007 0.00014 0.0027 or 0. consult ANSI/AGMA 2000-A88.0004 or Precision 3 0.00025 13 or 14 0. TABLE 1.0010 10 or 11 0. AGMA 236.A.10B COMPARISON OF NEW AND PREVIOUS FINE-PITCH AGMA QUALITY CLASSES* PREVIOUS FINE-PITCH SYSTEM .10C QUAUTY NUMBER COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT NATIONAL GEAR STANDARDS W.0020 0.0014 0.0005 0.02 AGMA Tooth-to-Tooth Total AGMA Tooth-to-Tooth Total Quality Composite Composite Quality Composite Composite No.0002 or 0.0002 0.04 FINE-PITCH SYSTEM. AGMA 390.0019 or 0.0015 9 0.00027 * Extracted from AGMA Gear Classification Manual AGMA 390.0005 or 0.0040 6 or 7 0.0037 or Commercial 2 0.0015 0.0005 12 0.0052 or Commercial 1 0.0037 0.0010 or Precision 1 0.0010 0.0003 0. Sept.0004 0.0003 0. (Error) Tolerance (Error) Tolerance 0.0060 5 or 6 0.0007 Precision 2 0.TABLE 1.S.0020 8 0. For more current standard. 1964. AGMA 13 12 11 10 9 8 .

0 CALCULATION OF GEAR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA Essential to proper application of gears is the derivation of values of performance criteria Most important are: backlash. must be converted to backlash measured along the pitch circle in accordance with equation 22a prior to addition of sources such as tooth. The latter sources are associated with runout.1 Backlash In a Single Mesh All sources of backlash must be identified and combined in order to obtain the total backlash for the mesh. In evaluating a gear mesh. Also. gear body. IV. backlash can be expressed as follows: T76 . Center distance — any increase in center distance above nominal value Major tolerances 1.distance tolerance and racial shift due to eccentricities. Design backlash allowance 1. Inside-diameter and outside-diameter runout of sleeve bearing 2. Outer-race eccentricity of ball bearing b. but also on many installation and design features such as bearings. Racial clearances due to tolerances and allowances a. transmission error and total position error. Gear size tolerance (tooth thickness or testing radius) 2.12. those which contribute significantly can be evaluated and summed. and those the magnitude of which varies with gear rotation. Fixed bearing eccentricities a. shafting. Racial play of ball bearing b. and housing. Dimensional changes due to thermal expansion or contraction 2. it should be noted that all sources of radial backlash. A more complete and detailed coverage of these backlash sources is given in Reference 5. III. Gear size allowance — any reduction of tooth thickness (or testing radius) below nominal value 2. such as center. and housing II. Sources can be grouped according to the following categories: I. Fit between shaft and bearing bore c. shaft. Fit between outside diameter of beating and housing bore Backlash sources which are functions of gear rotation 1. Deflections: teeth. Center distance tolerance Gear center shift due to secondary sources 1. the total backlash for a mesh is expressed as: Bmesh = Σ B (48) When using equation 48. Total composite error 2. From the above listing of backlash sources. Eccentricity of rotating race of ball beating Miscellaneous sources 1. etc.thickness tolerances. 12. Clearance between gear bore and shaft 3. Thus. its performance depends not only on specific gear parameters. Thus. note that sources of backlash can be divided into two categories: those of constant magnitude. V. Runout at point of gear mounting 4.

Often however. Total composite error a. Some of these are also sources of backlash. backlash may be of little concern. whereas position error may be immaterial. In essence the T77 (50) . The list of usual sources is as follows: I. in a unidirectional position sensor gear-train. 12. Runout sources a. the total transmission error for each mesh is proportional to the sum of all eccentricity error sources: a(ET)mesh = ± 3440 ΣEi (arc minutes) R where: Ei = eccentricity (one half runout value) of error contributors A more detailed explanation and analysis of transmission error can be obtained from Reference 5. Clearance between gear bore and shaft b. Miscellaneous runouts: component shaft composite gear assembly 2. positional accuracy is most important in the overall accuracy of gear trains.3 Integrated Position Error Backlash and transmission error should be distinguished from functional considerations which are not necessarily related to gear performance. backlash may be very important. Eccentricity of rotating race of ball bearing d. Miscellaneous error sources a. Position error in the individual gears 1. Thus. while transmission error might be critical. For example. Alternatively. Material creep of shaft and bearings II. Runoutat point of gear mounting c. in a servomotor gear train. backlash combines with transmission error to yield an integrated position error (IPE).B = Bc + Bv where: Bc = constant backlash Bv = variable backlash 12.2 Transmission Error (49) The sources of transmission error originate both from the gears and their installation. High-frequency tooth-to-tooth composite errors (TTCE) Installation errors 1. In such cases. Single-cycle errors (pitch-line runout) b. The above errors are converted to angular-position error in the same manner as TCE is converted by equation 46. Shaft couplings b.

In this regard. there are practical limitations since cost increases exponentially with precision. 12.errors. The first is referred to as tooth strength and the latter as durability. However. a proper control must be chosen. besides being costly and not foolproof. Accordingly.5 Control of Transmission Error The methods available for controlling transmission error are much more limited than the means for controlling backlash. Details of the integration are beyond the scope of this coverage. Consult Reference 5 for an in-depth coverage of various types of backlash control and elimination schemes. this combination is not necessarily simple since many of the transmission-error sources are identical to those associated with variable backlash. An alternate means of controlling backlash is to use adjustable centers or to spring-load the gears by one of several different designs. it is possible to calibrate the gears to match pitchline runouts to provide cancellation of error. it is limited to low torque applications. this method is very limited since it requires not only a 1:1 gear ratio. and for installation components such as shafting and ball bearings. such as when the gear ratio of the mesh is unity. The direct approach of narrowing all allowances and tolerances on sources is effective. lubrication and a considerable number of empirically derived factors.1 Bending Tooth Strength Tooth loading produces stresses that can ultimately result in tooth breakage. TTCE. However. following well established formulas and procedures. but can be found in Reference 5. The basic equation for the peak value is: (peak) IPE = Ei = ±(ET + Bc ) 2 where: Bc = backlash constant with rotation ET = transmission error (± peak value) 12. the spring-loaded scissor gear has particular merit since all backlash is continually eliminated. precision gear qualities are specified. particularly with regard to testing radius (tooth thickness) and TCE. This means precision categories for TCE. However. However. Some method of circumventing extremes of precision must be used.4 Control of Backlash In the many cases in which it is necessary to minimize backlash. transmission error varies between maximum lead and lag values. In addition. The most effective is the direct control of errors by specification of close tolerances. but also identical runout errors for both gears. Durability ratings are evaluated in terms of surface stresses including the influence not only of dynamics. 13. Strength is determined in terms of tooth-beam stresses for both static and dynamic conditions. but also of material combinations. 13. In special cases.0 GEAR STRENGTH AND DURABILITY Gear failure can occur due to tooth breakage or surface failure in the form of fatigue and wear. This is not a prevalent T78 (51) .

11.type of failure because mechanical properties of gear materials are well known. The load can be resolved into a tangential force. These are shown in Figure 1. S in equation 52. which takes velocity into consideration but not wear.12 gives safe stresses for a number of engineering materials. W0. Beam Strength (Figure 1.51) Improved results can be obtained by use of Barth’s modified Lewis formula. and the design equations are sufficiently accurate.49. modified Goodman diagram. For non-metallic gears. The analysis of bending stresses is as follows: In transmitting power. it does not take into account the dynamics of meshing teeth. force acts along the line-of-action. Wb>= Wt The tangentially transmitted load is calculated from the transmitted horsepower as follows: Wt = 126.000 Pt DNr where: Pt = transmitted horsepower Nr= gear speed in revolutions per minute D = gear pitch diameter T79 (53) . Se in equation 52. causing compression. Use of a proper limiting stress value. Based upon the above static analysis. Impact and fatigue stresses become more pronounced as pitch-line velocity increases. causing bending. The formula includes a velocity factor and is satisfactory for commercial gears at pitch-line velocities up to 1. and the tooth senses a moving force acting from the tip to the base. can then be obtained by multiplying the stress given in Table 1.14.12 by two factors: a service factor given in Table 1. A safe stress level depends upon the material and the number of stress cycles to which the teeth are subjected. presented his expression for tooth beam strength which is now reknowned as the classic Lewis equatien: Wt = SFY Pd As a static beam resisting a fixed load in position and magnitude. in 1892. later investigators have modified and improved the original Lewis equation. or equivalent data. W1. and a normal force. and a function only of shape. However. as shown in Figure 1. For acceptable designs. WN.13 and a lubrication factor given in Table 1. Reference 6 contains helpful information on fatigue stress analysis. This can be evaluated from an S-N curve. the driving. Lewis factors for standard teeth are given in Table 1. this equation is usually adequate. F = face width of gear Y = Lewis factor Pd= diametral pitch V = velocity of the pitch point in feet per minute. Table 1.500 fpm: Wt = SFY Pd ( 600 ) 600+V where: Wt = transmitted load (52) S = maximum bending tooth stress.25 ) 600+V 200+V The Lewis factor is dimensionless and independent of tooth size. Wilfred Lewis.50 along the corresponding net stresses. based on beam strength. In that regard. at the root outer fibers. Soderberg line. the velocity factor is changed from ( 600 ) to ( 150 + 0. results in a calculated tooth load. An estimate for the maximum allowable bending stress.

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D190 Catalog

TABLE 1.11 LEWIS Y FACTORS
No. of Teeth 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 Full Depth Involute 14½o 0.176 0.192 0.210 0.223 0.236 0.245 0.255 0.264 0.270 0.277 0.283 0.292 0.302 0.308 0.314 0.318 0.322 0.325 20o 0.201 0.226 0.245 0.264 0.276 0.289 0.295 0.302 0.308 0.314 0.320 0.330 0.337 0.344 0.352 0.358 0.364 0.370 No. of Teeth 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 150 200 300 Rack Full Depth Involute 14½o 0.329 0.332 0.336 0.340 0.346 0.352 0.355 0.358 0.360 0.361 0.363 0.366 0.368 0.375 0.378 0.382 0390 20o 0.377 0.383 0.389 0.399 0.408 0.415 0.421 0.425 0.429 0.433 0.436 0.442 0.446 0.458 0.463 0.471 0.484

TABLE 1.12 SAFE STRESSES** Safe beam stress or static stress of materials for gears (values of sw for use in the modified Lewis equations) Material* Cast iron, ordinary Cast iron, good grade Semisteel Cast steel Forged carbon steel : SAE 1020 casehardened SAE 1030 not treated 1035 not treated 1040 nat treated 1045 not treated 1045 hardened 1050 hardened Alloy steels: Ni, SAE 2320, casehardened Cr-Ni, SAE 3245, heat treated Cr-Van. SAE 6145, heat treated Manganese bronze, SAE 43 Gear bronze. SAE 62 Phosphor bronze, SAE 65 Aluminum bronze, SAE 68 Rawhide Fabrnil Bakelite Micarta Safe Stress Ultimate Strength sw sw 8,000 24.000 10,000 30,000 12,000 36,000 20,000 65,000 18,000 20,000 23,000 25,000 30.000 30,000 35.000 50,000 65,000 67,500 20.000 10,000 12,000 15,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 55,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90.000 95,000 100,000 100,000 120,000 130,000 60.000 30,000 36,000 65.000 18,000 bending 18,000 bending Yield Stress sw

36,000 30.000 33,000 38,000 45,000 50.000 60,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 110,000 30,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

* For materials not given in this table the safe stress can be taken as 1/3 of the ultimate strength. **Repinted with permission from: Doughtie, Valiance, Kreisle: Design of Machine Members, McGraw Mill Co. 1964, p.268.

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D190 Catalog

TABLE 11.3 SERVICE FACTORS
Type of Load Steady Light shock medium shock Heavy shock 8-10 hr per day 1.00 0.80 0.65 0.55 Type of Service 24 hr Intermittent, 3 hr per day per day 0.80 1.25 0.65 1.00 0.55 0.80 0.50 0.65

TABLE 1.14 LUBRICATION FACTORS Type of Lubrication
Submerged in oil Oil drip Grease Intermittent Lubrication

Lubrication Factor
1.00 0.80 0.65 0.50

The loading conditions assumed by the original Lewis equation are very conservative. A modification that results in a more realistic situation was made by Dudley (Reference 3), that takes into account multiple teeth sharing load. When the contact ratio factor is added as well, the modified Lewis equation becomes:

Wt

=

mpSFY

Pd 600+V where the contact ratio m takes into account the fact that when the load is at the tip of the tooth, it is shared by a second pair of teeth. The following tables are useful in determining gear load ratings:
Table 1.15 Tables 1.16 & 1.17 Table 1.18 Tables 1.19 & 1.20 : Ratings for steel spur gears : Ratings for small-pitch spur gears : Ratings for hardened steel helical gears : Ratings of worms and worm gears.

(

600

)

for steel gears

(54)

13.2 Dynamic Strength Equations 52 and 54 give adequate results for gear meshes that are in a static situation. When gears are in action, however, tooth loading is greater than the static value due to dynamic effects. In a gear system, dynamic forces arise from a combination of the masses involved, their elasticity and the forcing function representing the prescribed motion. Inaccuracies in gear-tooth profiles cause accelerations and decelerations during gear action which reflect as inertia forces, and can greatly exceed static tooth loading. The severity of dynamic forces is a function of pitch-line velocity and tooth errors.An accurate prediction of dynamic forces is very difficult. Various factors and formulas have beer, devised to increase the static tooth force to a value that safety represents the dynamic condition. A T82

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000 20.000 Stress Ratio *0. TABLE 1.56 .31 .22 .15 .31 .38 . oz.000 20.60-0.26 .53 .57 .50 1.000 8.55 .19 .20 .000 p.10 .26 .12 .26 0.35 .16 .48 . For other yield stress values multiply gear by thickness matetial stress ratio.11 .40 .07 . No.04 .55 .1/4" Face 200 300 600 900 1200 1800 100 200 300 600 900 1200 1800 .68 .04 15 .60 .000-150.73 .93 1.23 .37 .67 .47 . .91 - .17 .07 .21 .27 . the final face width of 0.32 .04 1.50 .21 .81 1.66 .33 .75 .32 .98 .67 1.17 .i.08 Horsepower at Various R.68 .85 .12 . Table for 72 pitch yields 0.03 10 .54 .41 .P.85 1.23 .06 .49 .27 .37 .09 .30 1.67 - *Above ratings are for gears used on PARALLEL SHAFTS.55 . Product Engineering.000 20.000-115.47 .NOTE: All charts are based on 30.57 .07 .20 1.81 .43 .05 .12 . **By permission.75 1.18 .09 .14 1.42 .43 .77 .89 1.44 . 6.000 30.17 .35 1.000 *50.50 3.000 6. Example: 72 pitch 140 teeth brass gear torque is 200 in.65 .Cat.77 1.21 .3/8" Face 24 D.00 1.000 40.73 .37 .05 . October 1955 TABLE 1.16 .40 .86 . .11 .76 . **Reprinted by permission from Browning Manufacturing .09 .25 .23 .64 .18 RA11NGS FOR HARDENED STEEL HELICAL GEARS** Number of Teeth 100 8 .65 1.01 1.17 STRESS RA11OS FOR VARIOUS GEAR MATERIALS** Gear Material 3140 Steel Stainless Steel 416 Aluminum Alloy 24 S-T4 Stainless Steel 303 Phosphor Bronze SAE 1020 Brass Phenolic Nylon Yield Stress.14 .29 .16 1.05 16 18 20 24 25 30 32 36 40 48 50 60 72 .19 1.58 .92 1.30 .51 .12 .P.27 . T85 .062 face width for these conditions.56 .61 .M.32 .50 1.93 .43 1.36 .71 .34 .32 .41 .11 .30 .* 20 D.16 .P.41 .30 .40 .52 .75 5.05 .22 .48 .13 .08 .10 .14 .04 12 .26 .07 . psi *70.5 stress ratio.66 .s.43-0.26 .00 * depends upon heat treatment.14 .75 .05 .86 .08 1.43 .55 .68 .20 *0.48 1.093 is obtained.14 . yield stress. Perpendicular shaft applications are not recommended for transmission of power. Multiplied by 1.55 .82 .14 .

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D190 Catalog .

200 4.400 3.600 2. Inches 0.004 400 800 1.320 570 1.05V +(FC Cos2¥+Wt)½ (57) where: V = pitch line velocity in feet per minute F = active face width in inches C = deformation factor Values of the factor C for common material combinations and a range of tooth error (action errors) is presented in Table 1. These errors can be equated to total composite and tooth-to-tooth composite errors.300 5. TABLE 1.580 3.980 6.400 415 830 1.300 4. acceleration forces.0005 0.600 3.420 4.200 550 1. forces required to deform the teeth an amount equivalent to the tooth errors.560 830 1.003 0.005 4.720 3. Buckingham established the dynamic increment of the transmitted force as a function of: profile errors.140 2. elasticity properties.700 8.440 5.880 0.000 4.490 3.21 VALUES OF DEFORMA11ON FACTOR C Materials.800 6.280 3. and pitch line velocity.440 590 1.640 430 860 1. such that: Wd=Wt * DF and for acceptable designs: (55) wb >=wd With the aid of empirical data.160 6.000 5.001 0.600 .05V +(FC+Wt)½ (56) wd = wt + .360 3.21.150 5. Pinion and Gear Tooth Form 14½o 20o full depth 20o stub tooth T87 Cast Iron & Cast Iron Steel & Cast Iron Steel & Steel Cast Iron & Cast Iron Steel & Cast Iron Steel & Steel Cast Iron & Cast Iron Steel & Cast Iron Steel & Steel Error in Action.900 8.660 3.660 2.100 2.300 4.320 4.720 860 1.002 0.180 2.720 2.200 3.500 8. His simplified equation is: For spur gears: wd = wt + .400 800 1.dynamic factor DF is used to modify static tooth strength equations 52 and 54.05V(FC Cos2¥+Wt)Cos¥ .05V(FC+Wt ) and for helical gears: .540 4.

F KsKm J (58) Surface Durability: Sc = Cp WtCo . thereby leaving small holes or pits. due to fatigue. seizing and plastic deformation. These stresses can exceed the material limits and can result in pitting. a high local temperature due to high rubbing speeds. incompatible materials and overload.13. It can be caused by lubricant failure. size and stress parameters. Pitting — This is the removal of small bits of metal from the surface. scuffing. Scuffing — This is a surface destruction composed of plastic material flow plus superimposed gouges and scratches caused by loose metallic particles acting as an abrasive between teeth. or inadequate lubrication. approximations. It appears as if a heavily-loaded tooth pair has dragged foreign matter between sliding teeth.4 AGMA Strength and Durability Ratings The AGMA rating formulas again represent a combinations of analysis. The equations are: Tooth Strength (bending stress): St = WtKo Kv . which in turn depend on the nature of the application. In addition. 13. there are stresses generated in the surface layers of the teeth by the direct crushing action of the forces. The AGMA equations are in wide use in the United States. Pd . More details are available from AGMA literature and Chapter 11 of Reference 6. Frequently it is difficult to distinguish among the several types of failure as there is considerable intermingling. The allowable stresses are as follows: Allowable surface durability stress: St =< Sat KL KrKr T88 (60) . This is caused by high tooth loads leading to excessive surface stress. There have been many attempts to derive expressions for calculating safe surface stress. Cv dF CtCm l (59) These equations relate stress to load.3 Surface Durability The Lewis formula and its modification to Incorporate dynamic conditions is limited to beam-stress analysis. Minute cracking of the surface develops. All of the various design equations and procedures are closely related to specific empirical data and experience. A complete treatment of AGMA practices is too extensive for this discussion and only an introductory survey is offered. The Buckingham durability equations based on Hertzian contact stresses and the work of others can be found in the references. Scoring — This is a heavy scratch pattern extending from tooth root to tip. scoring. with dynamic and other effects induded. Cs . The calculated stresses must be less than the allowable stress values of the material. spreads and ultimately results in small bits breaking out of the tooth surface. and empirical data. The AGMA formulas pertain to strength and surface durability. Both scoring and scuffing are associated with welding (or seizing) and plastic deformation.

is essentially a modification of the Lewis formula. Again. coefficients in the above equations are intended to relate the theory more closely to actual gear-tooth behavior. equation 58. The effect of these errors is to cause a load concentration. The meaning of the coefficients in the above equations are as follows: Load distribution factors — Cm&Km These factors concern phenomena that cause non-uniform load distribution across the gear width: profile errors.Allowable surface durability stress: Sc =< Sac CLCH CRCT (61) Definition of terms in the above equations is given in Table 1. Overload factors — Km& Co Durability TABLE 1. eccentricity of mounting. non-parallelism of shafts and defiections and distortions. Tooth strength.22.22 DEFINITIONS OF SYMBOLS IN AGMA RATING FORMULAS Term Strength LOAD: Transmitted Load Dynamic Factor Overload Factor Wt Kv Ko -F Pd Ko Km J -- Wt Cv Co d F -Co Cm I Cf Sc Sac CP CH CL CT CR SIZE: Pinion Pitch Diameter Net Face Width Transverse Diameteral pitch Size Factor STRESS DISTRIBUTION: Load Distribution Factor Geometry factor Surface Condition factor STRESS: Caiculated Stress Allowable Stress Elastic Coetficient Hardness-Ratio Factor Life Factor Temperature Factor Factor of Safety St Sat KL Kt KR T89 --- . The extent of departure and tie improved accommodation to actual performance is dependent upon the coefficients associated with each term The surface durability equation is related to the well established Hertzian contact-stress formula.

or obtained from material testing. and the dimensional parameters of the gear. When conditions are such that a given factor is unimportant or insufficient information exists for its adequate evaluation it is usually safe to equate the factor to unity. As an outline it cannot include detail. hardness ratio and elastic coefficient rates the resistance of the gear-tooth surface to wear. tooth size and ratio of case depth to tooth size. However. Temperature factors — KT & CT These factors modify the design in accordance with adverse temperature effects on lubricant performance. Also. in this case they identify the degree of reliability sought in a clear fashion. have a different dynamic effect than runout errors. The latter include: diameter. Geometry factors — J&I These relate to the tooth proportions.and to apply the procedures the reader should refer to the references. Often this may be proprietary information. Life factors — Kv & Cv KL & CL These factors are primarily intended to take into account performance of gears the life of which can be finite. but will be available for specific use with customers’ needs. there are a host of varied design equations used by T90 Sat & Sac . Additional design equations — The AGMA beam strength and durability equations have been custom modified and refined by a number of gear designers and manufacturers. For standard tooth proportions. Numerical values of factors — Specific factor values are available from AGMA publications. Factors of safety — KR & CR Although factors of safety are old in engineering practice. elastic tooth deflections cause apparent errors. As pitch-line velocity increases.. the dynamic load increment increases linearly. primarily concerning radii of curvature and parameters controlling load sharing. face width. Evaluations of equations — The above information constitutes an outline of the procedures offered by AGMA for determining strength and durability ratings. They are somewhat akin the Lewis Y factors. Surface factors—CPCH& CP The three durability factors. Size factors — KS& CS These reflect the non-uniformity of material characteristics. Allowable stress — This is the rated stress value of the material as specified by the manufacturer or standards. This value takes into account cyclic stressing and is the nominal endurance stress rating of the material. C. or duplicated extracted information. such as hardness. the dynamic effects of tooth errors is much more complex. creating a variety of design techniques and equations. Usually this factor does not become significant until temperature exceeds 200’F. Tooth-to-tooth errors. In most cases. In addition. which arise in a variety of forms.Dynamic factors— These relate to speed and gear errors which lead to dynamic loading. these have fixed values. Procedures for determining these factors are given in the AGMA literature. C & C for surface condition. this results in a conservative or mid-value rating.

2 Steels are divided into two main divisions: plain carbon and alloy. response to heat treatment and low cost. Computer programs — The AGMA design equations involving various parameters are defined with specific detail in the standard.1. Many computer programs have been generated which efficiently handle these complex calculations. Alloy steels offer a wide range of heat treatment properties that makes the category of alloy steels the most versatile. therefore. although somewhat responsive to cold working. Programs are purchasable from a number of universities and software houses. but cast iron is superior under dynamic conditions. The gear designer and user faces a myriad of choices. because they offer high strength. Cast steels also offer this advantage together with higher tensile and yield strengths. while high capacity requires the opposite. ranging from ferrous metals. These cover a wide range from low-grade types to special high alloys offering exceptionally high strengths. 14. whereas high precision favors materials that are easy to machine and. The carbon steels offer low cost reasonably easy machining and ability to be hardened. the selection of a suitable gear material is very important. carbon steels and alloy steels are in common use. pitch. The literature offers much less about tine pitch instrument gearing. but are complexly derived. software exists for the entire gear and gear train design including the selection of gear type. to the various plastics. Thus. The final slection should be based upon an understanding of material properties and application requirements. 14. High load capacity requires a tough.1 Cast Iron is widely used for large gears where it is advantageous to save machining costs by molding the gear blank. Often not all design requirements are compatible. the user should be aware that most gear equations and empirical results pertain to coarse pitch gears. Light weight and small size favors light non-ferrous materials.1 Ferrous Metals Despite the introduction of many new exotic metals and plastics with impressive characteristics. The further significant distinction between the two series is that the 300 series generally are much more difficult to machine. geometry and materials.htm [9/27/2000 6:49:31 PM] . through the many non-ferrous and light-weight metals. life and reliability. The 400 series are magnetic. ferrous metals are still the most widely used far gears. 14. Cast iron and steel. but rather is empirical and experience dependent.lou near designers foreign gear designers. Gear materials vary widely. Stainless Steels are divided into two types: the so called 300 series true stainless steels. the steel is termed "alloy steel". When elements other than carbon are added to the iron. This multiplicity of equations underlines that gear strength and durability is not an exact engineering science.1. which although not truly stainless. Several of these equation terms are subject to design modification. A major disadvantage is the lack of resistance to corrosion. which resist nearly all corrosive conditions. non-magnetic and non-heat-treatable. hard material which is difficult to machine. Stainless steels are contained within this large category. have lower strength and hardness ratings. 14. almost every alloy is T91 file:///C|/A3/D190/HTML/D190T91. tradeoffs and compromise are required to achieve an optimum design. and the 400 series.0 GEAR MATERIALS In order for gears to achieve their intended performance. In addition to strength and durabtity design. Examples are geometry factors (I & J) which are alterable by profile modifications. offer less corrosion resistance only in certain environments (such as certain acids and salt water) and are otherwise considered stainless. providing excellent internal damping properties. Also.

Table 1. 14. This table also lists brasses that are used for low load fine pitch gears. 14. Properties of alloys suitable fOr gears are given In Table 1. or cotton cloth with relative strengths in that order. They offer relatively good strength and in cotton-canvas base are suitable for large gears and high loads. They possess favorable frictional and wear properties when mating with steel gears. Non-ferrous metals generally or selectively offer good machinability. 14. non-corrosiveness.heat treatable and have a much better index of machinability corresponding to some of the carbon steels.2. A major disadvantage is the large coefficient of thermal expansion compared to steels.4 Sintered Powder Metal This is a process of molding fine metal powder and alloying ingredients under high pressure and then firing to fuse the mass.3 Die Cast Alloys Many high-volume low-cost gears are produced by the die-cast process.28. bronzes and brasses. Gears can be directly finish molded with teeth. machining and casting. Bronzes are extremely stable and offer excellent machinability. 14. Properties for gear phenolics are given in Table 1. It is a high-production means of producing relatively high-strength gears at low cost. 14. damping. Many aluminum alloys differ in ease of forming. corrosion resistance and are non-magnetic. Properties of sintered powder alloys suitable for gears is presented in Table 127. entirely machined from bar and plate stock. These are the four alloys listed in Table 1. and moderately good strength for the low weight It is also corrosion resistant and easy to machine. and a few in bronze and brass. linen.25. On the debit side. The material can be cast. lightweight. but offsetting this the scrap losses are very small. They are particularly advantageous in worm meshes and crossed-helical meshes because of the large amount of sliding. light weight.2 Bronzes have long been used for gear materials. they are difficult to machine to high precision and are subject to large temperature-induced dimensional changes and instability. Powder metals are expensive.5 Plastics Plastics gears offer quiet operation. Phenolic laminates have bases of either paper.1 Aluminum as a gear material has the special feature of light weight. or cut from molded blanks. wear resistance. Chief disadvantages are the high specific weight (highest of the gear materials) and relatively high cost.26. but bar stock and forgings are superior.23 lists mechanical properties of typical gear steels. but only a few are extensively used for gears.2. Table 1.24 presents relative machinability of various steels. T92 .2 Non-Ferrous Metals The commonly used non-ferrous materials are the aluminum alloys and bronzes. Most are produced in alloys of aluminum and zinc. There are many bronze alloys. Metals used for gears are iron-based mixtures.25. minimum or no lubrication and low cost. Aluminum alloys respond to cold working and heat treatment Mechanical properties for several alloys are given in Table 1. 14. Zinc diecast alloys are used also.

.

.

000 17.000 19.000 70.000 31.08Mg 3.5 Si.000 40.000 38.26 PROPERTIES OF DIE-CASTING ALLOYS SUITABLE FOR GEARS Comp108 Cycles Tensile Yield Shear Elongaressive Nominal Endurance Strength Strength Strength tion (% Strength Composition (%) Limit (psi) (psi) (psi) in 2") (psi) (psi) Material Hardness (Brinell) Aluminum Alloys: 13 85 380 Magnesium Alloys ASTM-AZ91 Zinc: ASTM-xxiii (Zamak 3) ASTM-xxv (Zamak 5) 12 Si 5 Si .000 65.000 12 68.000 87.000 12 6061-T6 Cast: 195-T6 356-T6 36.000 8.2 Zn 0.000 18.000 60.900 8.B138-A Brasses: Free Cutting -B16 Yellow B-36-8 Naval . 4 Cu 8.000 73.000 47.000 33.13 Mn 3.000 25.B98B (Hard) Manganese Bronze .000 19.000 21. 3.000 35.) Endurance (%in 2") (psi) (psi) Limit(psi) Aluminum Alloys: Wrought: 2011-T8 59000 45000 18.000 50.000 22.000 60.000 55. .000 40.0.000 22.B134-6 100.000 40.000 23.5 to 4.0.000 13.000 24.000 20.0.TABLE 1..000 31.000 11 7075-T6 38.1 Cu (max).000 25.000 31.000 28.000 31.000 5 5 Hardness Brirtell 100 Brinell 120 Brinell 150 Brinell 68 Brinell 95 Brinell 75 Brinell 90 Bronzes: Aluminum Bronze-B150-2 (annealed) Phosphor Bronze.000 23.000 14.000 18.000 61.0002 25 33 10 25 32 23 25 30 Rockwell B90 Rockwell B80 Rockwell B80 Brinell 80 Rockwell Rockwell Rockwell Rockwell B75 B70 B80 B80 Data for brasses end bronzes is for 1/2 hard temper condition unless noted otherwise. 1 Endurance limit at 3x108 cycles 2 Endurance limit at 5x107 cycles TABLE 1.25 COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Tensile Yield 108 Cycles Elongation Strength Strength Material (ASTM No. Wiley 1968 T95 .000 80.W.B139C Silicon Bronze . i’redsion Gearing.000 31.3Al.B124-3 (¼H) Cartridge .03 to .000 52.000 21.000 14.000 28.5 to 4. .000 10.000 44.000 47.000 80.000 10 7 82 91 Taken from: Michalec.5 Cu 37.000 24.000 31.000 13 5025-H34 45.000 48.03 to .75 Cu .0001 22.000 6. G.000 16.000 65.000 72.3Al.200 2 4 3 80 75 80 60 9 AI.000 45.000 18 2024-T4 83.000 20.08Mg 41.000 27.

000 H-95 Comments Offers a controlled amount of porosity suitable for lubricant Impregnation Good for Gear applications subject to high impact Excellent wear resistance Copper 7-11 Iron-Copper Alloy Iron-remainder SAE Type 3 ASTM B222-58 Iron 94.5 .000 Aluminum 0.3 .000 B310-58T Other 2.5 Type 1 Class A Other 1. ASTM Tin 9.0 Min.5 Phosphor Bronze 30.50 Alloy Steel Silicon 0.20 Aluminum 0.. Taken from: Michalec.60 B-56 A-40 C-35 The highest strength sintered powder material Good gear material for impact.5 min.30 Manganese 0.15 Iron High Density Silicon 0.90 Copper 0.25 150Pt 100.25 Z2* 160.27 TYPICAL SINTERED POWDER GEAR ALLOYS Name Composition(%) Specification Designation Ultimate Apparent Tensile Hardness Strength (Rockwell) (psi) 40.5 75.5 max.A Beryllium 1. SAE Type 6 Silicon 0.10.15 Other 1.0 60. Wiley 1966 T96 . ASTM Copper-Steel Alloy Copper 1.0 Carbon 0.TABLE 1. G.0 min. High density allows it to be case hardened by carburizing or nitriding ASTM B309-58T Class A 52. Class A Type II Iron 95.0 max.4.000 AISI 4630 Nitrogen 1. "Precisjon Gearing". strength and hardness.000 B202-58T Phosphor 0.7 Molybdenum 2.000 A-60 SAE Type 1 Class A Copper 87.3 max.000 Copper balance H-75 One of the strongest sintered bronzes B-85 A maximum strength beryllium alloy * Designation of Keystone Carbon Co.0 .0. Mil B 5687A Type 1 Comp.W.5 Iron balance Iron 97. Class C Carbon-Steel Alloy 50. t Designation of The Brush Beryllium Co.000 to Beryllium Copper Cobalt 0.2 min ASTM B310-58T Other 3.

514 4.000 7.8 x 108 0.6 to 5 x 10 1.psi Water Absorption %(24 hrs) Saturation % Density. psi (Flexural) Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion oF Data at 70o F Property Yield Strength .2% 2.9 x 108 L Fine Weave Cotton Linen Fabric 14.5 % 0.000 9.000 18.000 9.04 x 10-5 1.) Saturation % Density.000 8.041 .75 x 105 5.700 13.1% deformation .lbs/in3 Modules of Elasticity.200 9.6 to 2.500 5.3 x 108 1.000 26.5 x 10-5 NYLON ASTM Type 66 ASTM Type 6 0.3 0.9 0.1 x 108 0.psi Flatwise Modules of Elasticity.000 14.25 .041 4.000 17.4 x 10-5 T97 PHENOLIC LAMINATES NEMA Grade XXX C Paper 16.22 x 10-5 .5 1.000 37.lbs/in3 Modules of Elasticity.800 11.000 1.1 x 105 4. psi (Flexural) Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion oF Data at 70o .77 x 105 1.25 .000 12.000 5.000 32.3 x 108 0. DuPont de Nemours & Co.psi Lengthwise Crosswise Flexural Strength .400 8.500 1.I.000 1.0 x 108 0.500 11.75o F Registered trade name of E.Catalog D190 TABLE 1.900 8.0 x 108 0. psi (Flexural) Lengthwise Crosswise Water Absorption %(24 hrs) Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion oF Lengthwise Crosswise DELRIN* 100 10.500 9.8 x 108 1.psi Lengthwise Crosswise Compressive Strength .2% 2.200 .5 x 10-5 500 10.5 x 105 -5 1.04 x 10-5 1.psi Compressive Stress .000 1.28 PROPERTIES OF PLASTIC MATERIALS Property Tensile Strength Yield Strength Compressive Strength.000 35.9 0.800 13.000 18.5 .000 24.4 x 10-5 Cotton Canvas Fabric 11.500 22.1 x 105 2.000 13.200 .1 x 10-5 1.000 1. psi Water Absorption % (24 hrs.200 8 9.000 23.1 x 105 4.psi Shear Strength .94 10-5 1.500 5.514 4.8% Moisture Moisture Moisture Moisture 11.9 1.1 x 105 5.4x10-5 X Kraft Paper 21.0 7.000 36. Properties Base Tensile Strength .

heat . excellent machinability Excellent machinability.commercial Magnesium Alloys Nickel Alloys Medium precision Commercial grade Medium precision applications Titanium Alloys Die-Cast Alloys Sintered Powder Alloys Nonmetalic: Delrin Phenolic Laminates Nylons Teflon (Fluorocarbon) Low-grade commercial High production. low absorption loads Quiet operation. and good compatibility with steel mates Extreme light weight. commercial gears Power gears.treatable Heat treatable.29 SUMMARY OF MATERIAL FEATURES AND APPLICATIONS Obtainable Precision Outstanding Features Applications Rating Low cost. low loads Special low friction Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial Taken from: Michalec. low-load uses Special thermal cases Special lightweight strength High production. GW. noncorrosive. no lubricant Medium loads. low friction. "Precision Gearing". no lubricant. highest strength durability High corrosion resistance. low water Long life. magnetic.Catalog D190 TABLE 1. moderate strength Mates for steel power gears High prectsion Special lightweight. low power ratings Commercial quality Commercial quality Commercial to medium precision Precision and high and precision Precision Material Ferrous: Cast Irons Cast Steels Plain-Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Stainless Steels: 300 Series 400 Series Nonferrous: Aluminum Alloys Brass Alloys Bronze Alloys Low to medium power ratings.poor corrosion resistance Low coefficient of thermal expansion. medium ratings Severest power requirements Extreme corrosion. poor machinability High strength for moderate weight. corrosion resistant Low cost. Wiley 1966 T98 .. high water absorption Low friction. noncorrosive. low quality. medium ratings Power gears. low quality. nonhardenable Hardenable. moderate corrosion High precision Extremely light-duty instrument gears Low-cost commercial equipment High precision Medium precision Light weight. low noise. low quality commercial Commercial Wear resistant. high strength Good machining. excellent machinability Low cost. good machining. low noise Long life. low strength Low cost. low noise. long life. moderate power rating. moderate stainless steel properties Large-size. highest strength plastic Low friction.high Internal damping Low cast. non magnetic. no precision.

its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of aluminum much better than the 400 series. and resistance to moisture. Finish coatings on the active surfaces of gear teeth must accomplish their objectives without altering dimensions. the 303 type of stainless steel has reasonable machinability and offers superior corrosion resistance. anodizing of precision aluminum gears is usually limited to the gear blank prior to tooth cutting. The greater the load and durability requirements. This is an artificially induced thin. Properties are listed in Table 1. In addition. Their poorer machining characteristics and greater instability make them undesirable for precision applications. fine-pitch instrument fields because of their corrosion resistance. and General Comments For large gears and power applications.0 FINISH COATINGS Thin finish coatings are often applied to metal gears for protection against the environment or for decorative purposes. stainless steels are excellent. This limits coatings to thin coverings of oxides or a substance that permanently adheres to the base. Bronze is excellent for worm gears through the full range from light loads to power applications. These comments and data apply in particular to gears machined from plastic stock. but even and hard coating of oxide. dimensional stability. and level of gear quality and precision. particularly 2024-T4. Delrin* is similar to nylon in many respects. Although the 400 series is easier to machine and can have superior properties as a result of heat treatment. Plain carbon steels are in common use for low-quality commercial gears. a greater volume of plastic gears are produced by molding. The aluminum alloys. It is also appropriate far use in spur and helical meshes that have high velocity and/or significant loading.28.Nylon has good wear resistance. or surface finish. This subject is covered in detail in Par. Aluminums have no value as a power gear material and should not be used beyond low-load instrument-type applications. The type of finish chosen is related to the material. These are predominantly used in the small-gear. Their quiet operation and minimal lubrication requirements render them particularly attractive far consumer products. 15. 20.6 Application.I. the ferrous materials are used. A major disadvantage is instability in the presence of moisture and humidity. For fine-pitch precision applications. Consequently.1 Anodize An excellent finish for aluminum gears is anodize.29. corrosive conditions. profile. T99 . and can be troublesome in the maintenance of close tolerances. 14. The thickness of the coating can be varied by process control. are excellent instrument gear materials when used within their strength ratings.2. duPont de Nemours and Co. and not all are suited to extend over the active tooth surfaces. 15. Plastic materials are best suited for small gears of the instrument and light commercial product variety. An exception in the ferrous group are the stainless steels. but is super or with regard to rigidity. * Registered trade name of E. when used in conjunction with aluminum housings. Alternately. even when operating without lubricant. A summary of material features is presented in Table 1. the more essential are the high-alloy steels.

Catalog D190 Because the oxide film is somewhat porous. appearance considerations may compel a protective finish. low coefficient of friction. the thin film has little wear resistance and offers corrosion protection only against non-abrasive environments. including precision. after tooth cutting. etc. However. In addition. it prevents random staining due to "free iron" particles left from machining. susceptibility to localized buildup precludes their use on any precision part. 15. It is particularly applicable to stainless steels. 15. A chromate coating is adequate for many applications and is acceptable in many military equipment specifications.5 Special Coatings In recent years. Passivation causes no dimensional changes and does not discolor or otherwise alter the natural surface. such as cadmium. which generated the common trade name Iridite. Coating color varies with the particular metal and alloy. anti-corrosive qualities. these are low-temperature dip-bath processes that produce a chemical film of chromate which is extremely thin and does not alter dimensions. Because there is no dimensional change.3 Passlvatlon This is not a coating. All quality stainless steel gears can be passivated after complete machining since dimensions and stability are unaffected. The process is essentially a low strength nitric acid dip. in the strict sense. There are many successful applications on record. it can be impregnated with dyes of various colors. It results in an invisible oxide film that develops the "stainless" property. wear resistance. It is advisable to finish coat all gears which operate in a corrosive environment or must meet the requirements of military equipment applications. 15. bronze. Dyes can be added to produce a wide assortment of colors.6 Application of Coating. If anything. The common electroplating materials. but also other significant protection against many corrosive atmospheres and salt sprays. are not suitable for gear surfaces since they alter dimensions. chromating can be applied to all gears. Also. Some claim surface hardness. Anodized gears possess not only improved appearance. chromium. 15. but a conditioning of the surface.4 Plating. Use of these platings should be limited to the application of coatingt prior to cutting of the teeth and of any other gear dimensions requiring close tolerances. nickel and copper. special extra thin precision coatings have been developed and are available under different commercial names. Each case however should be investigated and tested. zinc and magnesium. Aluminum gears are best protected when anodized in a natural color but not on the tooth surfaces. Most often there is an iridescent color. 15. T100 . removes "tramp iron" and reduces the metal’s anodic potential in the galvanic series.2 Chromate Coatings Applicable to aluminum.

Instruments.0 LUBRICATION Lubrication serves several purposes. the outer enclosures of which must often be removed far maintenance of other items. Also. temporary or permanent inner dust covers for the gear train are recommended. T101 . The compounding of oils provides combinations and generation of various properties.2 Lubrication of instrument Gear. Open housing gear trains are subject to contamination and it is advisable to guard against excessive exposure. Depending on the magnitude of the transmitted power and speed. etc. 16. should be. Even for non-military applications. Power gear trains require sealed housings with a lubricant bath. but its basic and most important function is to protect the sliding and rolling tooth surfaces from seizing. filtering. vegitable and synthetic oils and additives are combined to yield specific properties. this is advisable to preclude discolorations from free iron particles and minimization of galvanic interaction with other parts. Often.worked on in clean and controlled environments. in these extremely low powers. the heat dissipation is not a problem. In addition. Table 1. in which a thin lubricant film is brushed on the teeth during assembly and reapplied only as maintenance and usage dictate. The most basic lubricant is petroleum to which animal. instrument gear lubrication is very different from that of power gears. the lubricant should have a minimum "Spreading" rating. Lubrication of small. In such applications. Lubricant can be supplied as a liquid bath or fine spray. and small or negligible power transmission. 16. generally lower speeds. lubrication aids all gearing in that it reduces friction and protects against corrosion. greases are often favored. the lubricants main purpose is to reduce friction. therefore the unit can be packed and sealed without concern for lubricant circulation. This is particularly pertinent to power gearing. The difference is that. For this reason. Where prolonged or uncontrollable exposure occurs. 16. and other phenomena associated with surface failure by film separation. low-power gear trains can be accomplished with a grease pack in some cases. it is important that gear speeds are not so great that the lubricant is flung away by centrifugal force. 16.1 Lubrication of Power Gear. Many consumer home products are so lubricated. followed by chromating after tooth generation. it may be necessary to use a circulating system with lubricant cooling. wear. Instrument gears that are relatively highly loaded and working near full capacity require equally good lubrication systems as power gears.Catalog D190 Passivation of stainless steels is a necessity for good practice and military equipment standards. The lightly loaded gear trains can be of the open variety.3 Oil Lubricants Oils are the most common lubricants and come in various-types. This is particularly advisable in hybrid electronic instrument boxes in which the danger of solder splatter and other debris is high. Bronze gears could be chromate coated after cutting or cadium plated in the blank state. Because of their much smaller size and capacity.30 summarizes features of the various coatings.

Catalog D190 .

These have the advantages of wide temperature range. no dispersion. 17. Finish coats are limited to certain materials and environments requiring corrosion protection or improved appearance. Deburring and cleaning is essential for all gears irrespective of method of manufacture or quality. However. The latter cannot be tolerated in quality gearing. and has a much lower evaporation rate. particularly in high-volume production. 3. the teeth and body are formed simultaneously. Hence. and no evaporation. Heat treatment is limited to gears requiring surface hardness and/or strength. most solid films alter dimensions significantly . and they are easier to use in open gearing since they do not contaminate as rapidly as oils and grease. 16. Blank fabrication Tooth generation Refining of tooth shape (shaving. 2. despite a continual eroding and wearing away of the film from the start of its use. Grease has the advantage of remaining in place and not spreading as oils.0 GEAR FABRICATION The fabrication of a complete gear normally includes most or all of the following operations: 1. Blank fabrication involves all the general and special features of the gear body. Also. Military specifications govern most types and classes of lubricants.4 Grease Grease is a combination of liquid and solids. 16. it can provide a lubricant film at heavy loads and at low speeds. they are well suited for space and other vacuum applications. The refining operation (shaving.and some drastically. they are easier to handle and are more effective because of their liquid nature. and determine the quality level of a gear. grinding. or honing) is a special means of improving quality. the basic operations 1. 5.Catalog D190 Oils offer a wider range of operating speeds than greases. honing) Heat treatment Deburring and cleaning Finish Coating Although it is not necessary to apply all six operations to every gear.5 Solid Lubricants In recent years a number of "dry fllm" lubricants have been developed. Tooth generation involves only machine-cut or around gears. Also. to which many manufacturers’ products qualify. in which the latter serve as a reservoir for the liquid lubricant as well as imparting certain of their own properties. 6. Dry-film lubricants represent a one-shot application of lubricant that must last the life of the gears.6 Typical Lubricants The choice of lubricants is very wide.31 is a list of typical gear oils and grease lubricants and their applications. 16. 2. Modern methods of producing gear teeth cover a wide variety: T103 . grinding. 4. as in other fabrication methods. Table 1.

lithium soap Solid Lubricants Molybdenum disulfide(MoS2) powder Graphite in resin binder MoS2 in resin binder MIL-G-1 5719 -A -20 to 300 -65 to 400 0 to 350 -350 to 750. MIL-G-3278A -67 to 250 Precision instrument gears.non-soap MIL-G-2501 3B Silicone oil. low speeds. radiation resistant. Suitable for oil spray or mist system. High temperature use only. High temperature only. Power gears requiring wide widest temperature range. moderately loaded gear trains.sodium MIL-L-3545 soap Silicone oil. range. Application by spray and baking up to 350oF. Light duty precision gears. useable in vacuum over wide temp. stable over a wide small machinery gears. Film thickness . temperature range. temperature ranges.> 20O0 in vacuum Good high temperature features.001 in. low starting Precision instrument gears and torque. Petroleum oil. Light to moderately loaded gears. Highly stable. -100 to 450 T104 .31 Typical Gear Lubricants Lubricant Type Oils: Petroleum oil Diester oil Military Specification MIL-L-644B MIL-L-6085A Useful Temp. and generally lightly loaded gears. Application by spray and baking up to 3500 F. Film thickness . High temperature.0003 to . at high temperature. Space gear trains and vacuum. Silicone oil Greases Diester Oil.lithium soap MIL-L-7808C MIL-G-7421A -100 to 600 -100 to 200 Particularly suited for low starting torques. Moderately loaded gears.lithium soap Diester Oil. Light loads. Diester oil MIL-L-7808C -67 to 400 Best load carrier of silicone oils. All quality gears having a narrow range of operating temperature. Range (o F) -10 to 250 -67 to 350 Remarks Applications Good general purpose lubricant. General purpose light grease. High speed gears. low temperatures.Catalog D190 Table 1.001 in.0003 to . MIL-M7866A -100 to 450 Low precision and commercial quality gears. Stable in vacuum. High speed and high loads. General purpose.

A further advantage of hobbing is that the hob can be swiveled relative to the blank axis. For internal gears. it can produce precision quality gears. Two outstanding features of shaping involve shouldered and internal gears. a given gear-shaped cutter is conjugate to all tooth numbers of that pitch. The teeth on the gear cutter are appropriately relieved to form cutting edges on one face. It is similar to rack generation except that the rack is in the form of a worm. gives an infinitely long rack so that cutting is both steady and continuous. 4. The rack cutter forms conjugate tooth profiles on the blank as the rack and blank are given proper relative motion by the drive mechanism of the generating machine. In such cases. 17. resulting in a very accurate process. in eftect. The shaping process can be used for the generation of helical gears. To generate the full Width of the gear. Uke a rack cutter.1 Generation of Gear Teeth Machining constitutes the most important method of generating gear teeth. 17. 5. each helix angle requires special tooling. 3. hobbing is superior to the other cutting processes. The differences are that the thread of the hob is axially gashed or fluted in several places so as to form cutting edges.1. Machine cut Grinding Casting Molding Forming (drawing. Referring to Figure 1. Thus.3 Gear shaper generation — This process. while the sides and top of these teeth are relieved behind the gash surface to permit proper cutting action. rolling) Stamping Each method offers special characteristics relating to quality. Thus. the hob has a basic rotary motion and a unidirectional traverse at right angles.1.1. This permits cutting helical gears of all angles with the same tooling. extruding. the hob slowly traverses the face of the gear as it rotates.2 Hob generation — This is the most widely used method of cutting gear teeth. unlike the other two. production quantity. with regard to helical gears. Although the shaping process is not suitable for the direct cutting of ultra-precision gears and generally is not as highly rated as hobbing. it is reciprocated across the blank face. Gears can be directly hobbed to ultra-precision tolerances without resorting to any secondary refining processes. It is suitable for high precision gears in both small and large quantities. 17. With regard to accuracy. This arrangement. 17. The cutting tool can be imagined as a gear that axially traverses the blank with a reciprocating axial motion as it rotates. the shaping process is the only basic method of tooth generation.39. This limits both operating speed and accuracy. employs a gear-shaped cutter instead of a rack or the equivalent.Catalog D190 1.1 Rack generation — This is the basic method of producing involute teeth. Cutting edges on the rack teeth generate mating conjugate teeth on the blank. shaping is not as convenient and is T105 . Compound gears and shaft gears frequently are designed so compactly that a hob cutter interferes with adjacent material. 2. 6. The chief disadvantage of this method is that the rack has a limited length which necessitates periodic indexing. a gear made as a cutting tool can generate the teeth of a blank when the two are rotated at proper speeds. However. cost. Both movements are relatively simple to effect. Usually it is a more rapid process than hobbing. the central section of the hob is identical to that of the worm and gear. Therefore. As the rack traverses the gear blank. shaping can be used since the stroke of the gear-shaped cutter requires very little round space on one side of the gear. material and application.

Gear grinding machinery is scarcer than hobbing machines. Residual surface stresses are minimal. These are listed as follows: 1. case hardened. 3. Pro-grind hobbing requires special protruberance hobs to provide grind wheel clearance at the root 5. 2. 2. The main advantages of topping are: 1. Hardened steel alloys can be ground. Although there are distinct advantages for ground gears.2 Gear Grinding Although grinding is often associated with quantity fabrication of high quality gears as a secondary refining operation. 3. It can be used in both the hobbing and shaping processes. Liberal tolerances can be applied to the outside diameter of the blank. A fine finish enables maintenance of a good continuous oil film versus boundary lubrication and breakthrough. 17. The gear can be nested on its outside diameter for machining modifications of the body should such a speaal need arise. Gear-tooth grinding can involve either form grinding or the generating process. The result is higher load capactry along with reduced wear and longer useful life. there are some limitations and disadvantages. it is also a basic process for producing hardened gears. such as aircraft drives. There are a number of distinct advantages to ground gears. Grinding results in a much finer surface finish than any machining process. In addition.Catalog D190 more expensive than hobbing. 2. The latter is basically more accurate because the dressing of the grinding wheel involves a straight-sided tooth. Hard metals grind better than soft ones. The deburring problem is reduced. although more prevalent in hobbing and among the fine pitches. carburized or nitrided gears offer outstanding strengths and performance. many high-precision fine-pitch gears have their teeth entirely ground from the blank state. They are typically used for the most demanding tasks. but also because of the finer surface finish. T106 . Grinding of helicals and worms has limitations that possibly involve profile deviations and removal. Achievement of high precision is possible because the process can remove very little material in the final pass. 4. Grinding is a secondary operation which increases total gear cost Despite involving higher cost and other limitations. ground gears are always superior in precision and strength.23. 3. 6.cut the outside diameter of the teeth simultaneously with the cutting of the tooth profiles.1. Being able to use heat-treatable hard steel alloys raises the bending stress and surface endurance stress levels by very significant amounts. These are: 1.4 Top generating — This is a fabrication option utilizing cutters that finisb-. Grinding is limited to ferrous materials. See Table 1. Ground gears’ superior load carrying capacity is not only due to the hardened alloys higher mechanical properties. Often it is the difference between a reliable and unreliable gear. In particular. 17. 4.

Referring to Figure 1. However.10. suitable for production gear inspection. 18. 18. mold variations. A repeatability of . the absolute readings are an indication of tooth thickness.Catalog D190 17. which will be discussed in the following paragraph. but essentially all consist of a fixture having two parallel shafts (or precision centers). Rolling of the gears is not usually relied upon for the determination of.48. See Figure 1. and flow inconsistencies. it is evident that the magnitude of runout and TTCE can be extracted. With increasing gear precision. 18. The pair is held in intimate contact by spring loading or the equivalent. the fabricator can identify the source of the difficulty and take appropriate corrective action. Thus. the method is rapid and. The latter methods are not accurate as cut gears due to shrinkage. Thus.3 Plastic Gears These can be produced by the normal hobbing and shaping processes. The test gear is mounted on one shaft while an accurate known quality master gear is mounted on the other shaft.48. and often it is even better. 18. For the measurement of TCE and TTCE. As the test gear is rotated. pitch radius. are total composite error (TCE) and tooth thickness. The unique feature of gear roll testing is that the inspection parallels the gear in its actual usage. they can be produced by various molding techniques. when parameters are out of tolerance.1.0001 inch. Sensitivity of the measurement is on the order of 50 to 100 millionths of an inch.0 GEAR INSPECTION The performance of a gear can be assured only by confirmation of its critical dimensions and parameters. amplified and displayed as a dial reading or recorded on a chart. the mean line of the trace is a measure of tooth thickness. Also. Also. and generally poorer cutting qualities. Regardless of method.1.1 Total Composite Error — The TCE is dearly revealed in roll testing and its components can be identified. In addition. in Figure 1. There are many aspects of gear inspection and the subject is too large for complete coverage in this discussion. therefore. This variation can be sensed. From this. Attainable quality is less than for metals and varies with the particular plastic. adequate and proper inspection has become a paramount requirement. size measurement is not as reliable as an absolute measure. Ability to obtain a hard copy record is also a distinct advantage. On the other hand. The high and low readings indicate the extreme variation of tooth thickness at the nominal pitch radius. roil testing gives excellent results. the gear quality can be judged. See Section 20. material flow. however.0002 inch is considered good. tooth-to-tooth errors and runout are revealed as a variation in the center distance of the pair. being in the order of . roll testing is a functional inspection. low-friction ways. This is due to the nature of the fixture and the integration of several error sources in the calibration process. one fixed arid the other floating on smooth. There are many varieties. T107 . which deals with plastic gears in greater detail.3 Advantages and Limitations of Variable-Center-DIstance Testers — The functional test of a gear is desirable as it reveals characteristics that occur in the real application.48. two of the most basic and important inspection criteria.2 Gear Size — If the center distance setting of the roll tester is carefully established. 18. Changes in center-distance are an indirect measure of tooth thickness and must be converted with the aid of equation 22. the fabrication of plastic gears suffers in comparison with metal gears due to temperature instability. Repeatability arid absolute measure are usually good.1 Varlable-Center-Distance Testers Both TCE and tooth thickness can be measured by means of roll testing with a variable-center-distance fixture.1.

1 and 18.Catalog D190 18. coarse-pitch gears. A major disadvantage of over-pins gaging is the inability to correlate precisely with variable-center-distance measurements. Because of their small dimensions. equipment is available for inspecting the position error of individual gears and the transmission error of a gear train.0001 inches. gears and working area are also very important. On the other hand. care and cost of inspection are related to the quality level. Apart from the correlation problem. Also. T1O8 .2. The effort.2 Over-Pin. This is primarily used in the fabrication process as a set-up dimension. 18. but generally are restricted to a reference measurement. This is because over-pins gaging is insensitive to pitch-line runout. This includes involute-profile form checkers. The best correlation is obtained by equating the over-pins measurement to the average value of center distance found in the roll test. It is necessary. it is a policing operation that ensures conformance to dimensional tolerances and other drawing specifications. In effect.4 Inspection of Fine-Pitch Gear. Control of temperature environment is essential for measurements on the order of . fine-pitch gears do not easily lend themselves to the kind of detailed tooth measurements suitable for large. over-pins measurements by themselves are inadequate because the undetected runout can be out-of-control causing interference with its mate. Over-pins measurements are also used. The cleanliness of equipment.0001 inch. Precision-gear inspection demands a much greater effort than that for low quality gears. rolling a gear necessarily involves the TCE and its runout component. Accuracy of the over-pins measurement is on the order of .5 Significance of Inspection and its Implementation The inspection operation is essential to obtaining a quality product. therefore. fine-pitch gears are almost exclusively inspected by functional testing on a variable-center-distance fixture. other special-purpose equipment is available. for high precision gears. 18. to control and to inspect runout. 18. tooth-spacing gages and runout checkers. calibrated periodically and restricted to use by qualified personnel.6. Hence. Gaging The equations relating tooth thickness and a measurement over cylindrical pins or rolls inserted between the teeth were given in Paragraph 4. This is a widely used method for gaging gears during fabrication (while they are still in the gear generating machine) and during final inspection. and in inspection departments which are not equipped to roll test gears.3 Other Inspection Equipment In addition to the basic inspection methods and equipments described in Paragraphs 18. Equipment must be of the best grade.

in millimeters. but also by its own unique design standard. N (63) This defines the module as analogous to the reciprocal of diametral pitch. however.interchangeable. In the metric system the module is analogous to pitch. In the inch system diametral pitch was created as a convenient means far relating pitch diameters to center distance. It is obvious that conversion results in decimal values. the preferred module sizes which exist in different countries. The best that can be done is to shift to the nearest standard module when converting from the inch system. metric gears arose as a result of a different approach to the standardization of tooth proportions and this constitutes a major obstacle to the adoption of the metric system by the American gear industry. For this reason each system (inch diametral pitch and metric module) has adopted preferred standard values which are non-interchangeable. However. that direct replacement of conventional inch gearing with metric gearing is impossible. often awkward numbers. The degree of non-correspondence between pitch and module is best measured by the circular pitch and the circular tooth thickness. In the metric system the nearest analogue to pitch is termed "module". These values are given in inches and millimeters in Table 1.32 lists the commonly used pitches/modules of both systems. One consequence is that each system (inch diametral pitch and metric module) has adopted preferred standard values which are non .METRIC 19. One should keep in mind. 32 and 64 diametral pitches. diametral pitch is defined as: Pd = N = number of teeth per inch of pitch diameter D where: N = number of teeth D = pitch diameter Pd = diametral pitch (62) From this relationship there are particular integer .4. It follows that convenient values in one system will not be convenient values in the other. we obtain: Pd * m=25. 16. It becomes obvious. If the equations for diametral pitch and module are solved for pitch diameter and these values equated by introducing the conversion factor 25. the tooth spacing measure is more accurately called "circular" pitch.32.1 Basic Definition. Corresponding equivalent values are given. whereas diametral pitch is the number of teeth to a unit length of pitch diameter. to mention only some.4 (64) This shows that inch diametral pitch and the metric module are related by the decimal factor 25.4. T109 . Thus 8.0 GEARS.Catalog D190 GEAR DESIGN . and the word pitch is reserved for tooth spacing along the pitch circle. the module is a dimension (length of pitch diameter per tooth). for one or the other measure. with preferred values in bold-face type. therefore. but these are of no help since odd valued pitches and modules are usually not tooled for. Historically. and is defined as: m = D = amount of pitch diameter per tooth. It should be noted that the term diametral pitch is associated with the inch system. METRIC 19. Metric gearing is distinguished not only by different units of length. Again convenient center distances in metric measure are obtained by choosing integer module values and/or selected fractional values. can be associated with tooth numbers which can result in center distances equal to an integral multiple of one inch and/or convenient fractions of an inch. Thus. Table 1. In the inch system.values of diametral pitch that yield integer values for center distance in inches.

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Preferred module sizes in the United States are established only for the coarser gears by means of IS( recommendation R54 (see Table 1.0.25 II 1. 1. This in turn involves new gear cutting tools.5 1.5 1.5 4 3. the following modules are expected to be preferred for the finer gears: 0.8 listed the over-wire measurements.5.75 1.4.34 was produced. The subject of measurement over pins was dealt with in section 4.6.0 To facilitate work with these modules we have computerized the basic relationship: D=m*N and created Table 1. metrification of gearing requires a completely new design with regard to gear dimensions and center distances.5 4 4.3. Judging by their acceptance by the industrialized metric countries.75) 5 4. For inch-size gears Table 1.Catalog D190 As a consequence. computerized Table 1.25) 5.5 2.33 Modules and Diametral Pitches of Cylindrical Gears for General and Heavy Engineering* (ISO Recommendation R54 1977) Modules m I 1 1.5) 2.25 1 0.33). Similarly for module-type gears.125 1.8.34 for number of teeth. This lists both pitch diameters as well as over-wire measurements in both millimeters and inches.875 0.5 2.25 2 1.5 (3.0. The pitch diameters are calculated in Table 1.375 1.5 5 5.75 3 3.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 Diametral Pitches P III I II 20 18 16 14 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 (3. TABLE 1. 0. We expect this tab to be of great help to designers in developing a feel for metric gear sizes and for determining center distances.25 2.5 3 2.75 (6.34 both in millimeters and inches.75 2 2. N ranging from 5 through 205.75 .

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However. Over-pins measurements. conversion results are still given in inch measurements. The second step is to express these results in Si units which differ slightly from the conventional metric units. by the above. Most of the kinematic design equations that appear American gear texts. there will be no problem with metrification. When this is not the case the problem of metriflcation can be approached in two steps. The standardization related to transition to metrics in the U. lf we concentrate on the large number of equations which are independent of the system of measuring units. these countries.4 m (66) Note: When converting between metric module and the inch diametral pitch..4 By this means. Some equations which are identical in both systems are: 1.2 Metric Design Equations Some of the gear design equations are dimensionless and are derived from geometric proportions and relationships. all geometric and all kinematic equations involving pitch parameters can be used. provided that a proper substitution of module (in) is made for-pitch. Profile-shifted gear-design equations: i. 2.4 m we find that for equations involving circular pitch: Pc is replaced by π 25.4 m (65) Recalling that: Pd * Pc =π 25.S. is expected to introduce the SI units as well. Metrification in the U.S.e. These equations will not be affected by the use of metric units as opposed to inch units since the units cancel. the conversion factor and relationship can be remembered from the simple product of the two pitch measures: m* Pd = 25. 4.35. enlarged gear teeth. but its use has not spread to the practical design engineering profession. Long and short addendum equations. however. in a single step. transition to the SI system represents a change which is accompanied by a degree of reluctance. 3. non-standard center distance T122 . This procedure will yield results expressed in the form presently used in engineering practice in industrialized metric countries. and are associated with inch-system gears. Basic kinematic and geometric design equations for spur gears in both metric module and inch diametral-pitch forms are given in table 1. Relationship between tooth thicknesses at different radii from gear center. that the same units are used consistently throughout. is taking place at a time when the SI (International System of Units) has been adopted in most metric countties. this is a way to adapt the metric module to kinematic design equations given in inch units. For equations involving diametral pitch: Pd is replaced by 25. The first step is to express the present inch-base units in metrics and to modify the constants and coefficients accordingly. Thls is true for stress calculations but does not affect gear dimensioning.Catalog D190 19. lt is important. For. These equations show the essence of using the modules versus inch diametral pitch. are suitable for use with metric gear dimensions. Thus.

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The deviations among these and other national metric standards are fortunately minor: the various metric standards. August 9. are normalized for module m = 1. specific size dimensions are obtained from multiplying by m (the module). ___________________________ Apart from minor changes in wording. pp. conforms to the new SI system in all respects. conforming to world-wide acceptance of 200 as the most versatile pressure angle. • Tip radius has a maximum tip-rounding specified. Major tooth parameters are described by the standard: • Tooth form is straight-sided and full-depth. defined by the DIN standard. which applies to cylindrical gears of the spur and helical varieties. Vol. 94-97. shown in fIgure 1. • Pressure angle is 200. plus similar addendum and dedendum ratios. • Addendum is equal to the module. Germany. Note that the basic racks for metric gears and for American inch gears are essentially identical. ISO standard metric gear tooth is defined by a rack of module m = 1. including figure 1. is widely used throughout Europe. However. Corresponding values for other modules are obtained by multiplying each dimension by the value of the specific module.1973. Japan. Great Britain and other major industrial countries on the metric system. differ only with regard to dedendum size and root radii. For metric gears. Currently. • Dedendum is equal to 1. the Japanese have their own version. which corresponds to American practice for coarse pitch gears (see Table 1. Tooth proportions for the standard. However. Even these minor deviations are resolved by a new unified module standard sponsored and promoted by the International Standards Organization (ISO). are given in terms of the basic rack.1).52. as shown in the illustration. this paragraph. 45. are shifting to this ISO standard. m. which do not specify rounding. is quoted or reproduced wilh the permissior of Machine Design magazine from the following article: "Shifting to Metric". Gears conforming to diametral pitch American standards are sized by dividing the basic rack dimensions by the specific diametral pitch (P).250 m. • Root radius is slightly greater than current American standards specify. American gear makers are not prevented from specifying a tip radius as near zero as possible. T124 .W. which conforms to the American practice of addendum equaling 1/P. This unified version. in millimeters. Buchsbaum Machire Design. as a maximum or limit value. This rounding is a deviation from American standards. which has been advocated as the basis for American metric gearing. Dimensions.3 MetrIc Tooth Standmrds* The metric module was developed in a number of versions that differ in minor ways. The German module. forming the basis of a family of full-depth interchangeable gears. by G. Mchalec and F. defined in JIS standards.52. ISO gears share many features with inch-size American gears: 200 pressure angle. m.Catalog D190 19.

1 to 20 module and 1 to 20 diametral pitch .Nominal dimensions Addendum modification of the teeth of cylindrical gears for speed-reducing and speed-increasing gear pairs Gear hobs .1 USA Metric Gear Standards — Metric gears designed and produced in the USA should conform to the ISO standard. This is the latest metric standard based upon SI units which have been decreed as the most precise metric measurement for standardized international use..36 ISO METRIC GEARING STANDARDS Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering — Basic rack Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering — Modules and diametral pitches Straight bevel gears for general and heavy engineering — Basic rack Straight bevel gears for general and heavy engineering-. ISO 53:1974 ISO 54:1977 ISO 677:1976 ISO 678:1978 ISO 701:1979 ISO 1122-1:1983 ISO 1328:1975 ISO 1340:1976 ISO 1341:1976 ISO 2490:1976 ISO/TR 4407:1902 ISO 4468:1982 TABLE 1. 10018 19. availability and familiarity with appropriate foreign standards have become important. ISO system of accuracy Cylindrical gears.37 offered as a listing of key gear standards in use in several major countries and geographic areas.Catalog D190 19.Accuracy requirements T-126 . and since the establishment of ISO and SI units have adopted these standards as theirs.5. The latest (1989) ISO gear standards are listed in Table 1.Single start.Information to be given to the manufacturer by the purchaser In order to obtain the gear required Straight bevel gears . New York.Y. N.2 ForeIgn Metric Gear Standards — Several of the major industrialized countries that have been dedicated for a long time to metric measurement countries have developed their own standards for metric gearing. To serve that need Table 1.36. In general they have similar standards.Information to be given to the manufacturer by the purchaser in order to obtain the gear required Single-start solid (monobloc) gear hobs with axial keyway. Modules and diarmetral pitches International gear notation — Symbols for geometrical data Glossary of gear terms — Part 1: Geometrical definitions Parallel involute gears -.5.5 Metric Gear Standards With recent increasing presence of metric geanng in the USA it is important that designers and gear users have knowledge of and ready reference to various metric gear standards used throughout the world. 1430 Broadway. With increasing international trade and worldwide manufacture of common products. They can be procured from ANSI. 19.

78 DIN 3962 Pt 3 08.86 DIN 3965 Pt 2 08.Principles [12] Master gears for checking spur gears . tooth thickness allowances.86 DIN 3966 Pt 1 08.78 DIN 3962 Pt 1 08.Gear blank and tooth system [8] Master gears for ducking spur gears .86 DIN 3965 Pt 3 08.78 DIN 3964 11 .Catalog D190 TABLE 1.61 DIN 780 Pt 1 05.86 DIN 3965 Pt 4• 08.78 DIN 3966 Pt 2 08. tooth thickness tolerances .78 DIN 3967 08.77 DIN 867 02.77 DIN 780 P12 05.74 DIN 3910 Pt 2 1114 GERMANY .Receiving arbors [4] T127 .78 DIN 3963 08.Backlash. gear pairs and gear trains [11] Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth — Bases [8] Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth — Tolerances for deviations of individual parameters [11] Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth — Tolerances for tooth trace deviations (4] Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth — Tolerances for pitch-span deviations [4] Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth— Tolerances far working deviations [11] Deviations of shaft center distances and shaft position tolerances of casings for cylindrical gears [4] Tolerancing of bevel gears — Basic concepts (5] Tolerancing of bevel gears — Tolerances for individual parameters [11] Tolerancing of bevel gears — Tolerances for tangential composite errors [11] Tolerancing of bevel gears — Tolerances for shaft angle errors and axes intersection point deviations [5] Information on gear teeth in drawings — Information on involute teeth for cylindrical gears [7] Information on gear teeth in drawings — Information on straight bevel gear teeth [6] System of gear fits .DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) Conventional and simplified representation of gears and gear pairs [4] Series of modules for gears — Modules for spur gears [4] Series of modules for gears — Modules for cylindrical worm gear transmissions [4] Basic rack tooth profiles for involute teeth of cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering [5] General definitions and specification factors for gears.78 DIN 3962 Pt 2 08.80 DIN 3965 Pt 1 08.37 FOREIGN METRIC GEAR STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Bevel gears Worm gears (inch series) Geometrical dimensions for worm gears — Units Glossary for gearing International gear notation symbols for geometric data (similar to ISO 701) ASB62 1965 AS B 66 1969 AS B 214 1966 ASB2I7 1966 AS 1637 NF NF NF NF NF E E E E E 23-001 23-002 23-005 23-006 23-011 1972 1972 1965 1967 1972 NF E 23-012 1972 NF L 32-611 1955 FRANCE Glossary of gears (similar to ISO 1122) Glossary of worm gears Gearing — Symbols (similar to ISO 701) Tolerances for spur gears with Involute teeth (similar to ISO 1328) Cylindrical gears for general and heavy engineering — Basic rack and modules (similar to ISO 467 and ISO 53) Cylindrical gears — Information to be given to the manufacturer by the producer Calculating spur gears to NFL 32-610 DIN 37 12.76 DIN 3961 08.78 DIN 3970 Pt 1 11.88 DIN 868 12.

allowances [9] Spur gear drives for fine mechanics — Indication in drawings.76 DIN 3998 P14 09.81 DIN 3978 08. West Germany: or Global Engineering Documents. tolerances.Module series Gearing . Telex 948 658.37 CONT. examples for calculation [12] spur gear drives for fine mechanics — Tables [15] Technical drawings — Conventional representation of gears NOTE: Standards available in English from: ANSI. 2806 McGaw Avenue. principal design data. NY 10018: or Beuth Verlag GmbH. Hingham. . or I.. characteristics.S.L. Telex 692 373.DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) Definitions and parameters for bevel gears and bevel gear pair [12] Reference profiles of gear-cutting tools for involute tooth systems according to DIN 887[4] Terms and definitions for cylindrical worm gears with shaft angle 90o[9] Cylindrical worms — Dimensions. correlation of shaft center distances and gear ratios of worm gear drives [6] Measuring element diameters for the radial or diametral dimension for testing tooth thickness of cylindrical gears [8] Helix angles for cylindrical gear teeth [5] Tooth damage on gear trains — Designation.79 DIN 3993 Pt 1 08. Easylink 380 124. P.O.Basic rack Spur gears — Order Information for straight and bevel gears Gearing .76 GERMANY CONT. D-1000 Berlin 30. ITALY Gearing . Symbols for geometrical data (Corresponding to ISO 701) UNI UNI UNI UNI UNI 3521 3522 4430 4760 6586 1954 1954 1960 1961 1969 UNI 6587 1969 UNI 6588 1969 UNI 6773 1970 T128 . Burggrafenstrasse 6.I.72 DIN 68405 Pt 4 05. Box 19539.76 DIN 3998 P13 09.72 DIN ISO 2203 06.81 D1N3993 P12 08.81 DIN 3993 P14 08.76 DIN 3979 07.76 DIN 58405 Pt1 05.52 DIN 3975 10. definitions.76 DIN 3976 11.Glossary and geometrical definitions Modules and diametral pitches of cylindrical and straight bevel gears for general and heavy engineering (corresponds to ISO54 and 678) Basic rack of cylindrical gears for general engineering (corresponding to ISO 53) Basic rack of straight bevel gears for general and heavy engineering (corresponds to ISO677) International gear notation -.72 DIN 58405 P12 05. MA 02018.81 D1N3993 Pt3 08.80 DIN 3972 02. 160 Old Derby Street.72 DIN 68405 P13 05. causes [11] Geometrical design of cylindrical Internal involute gear pairs — Basic r ules [17] Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs —Diagrams for geometrical limits of internal gear-pinion matings [15] Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs —Diagrams for the determination of addendum modification coefficients [15] Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs -. FOREIGN METRIC GEAR STANDARDS DIN 3971 07.80 DIN 3977 02.Catalog D190 TABLE 1. Irvine.76 DIN 3998 Pt2 09.76 Suppl 1 DIN 3998 Ptl 09. classification [7] Spur gear drives for fine mechanics — Gear fit selection.81 DIN 3998 09. 1430 Broadway. New York. Diagrams for limits of internal gear-pinion type cutter matings [10] Denominations on gear and gear pairs — Alphabetical index of equivalent terms [10] Denominations on gears and gear pairs — General definitions [11] Denominations on gears and gear pairs — Cylindrical gears and gear pairs [11] Denominations on gears and gear pairs — Bevel and hypoid gears and gear pairs [9] Denominations on gears and gear pairs — Worm gear pairs [8] Spur gear drives for fine mechanics — Scope. CA 92714.

Tokyo 107. UNITED KINGDOM . 1 to 8 metric module.JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) Drawing office practice for gears.37 CONT.Diametral pitch BS2518 Pt2 1983 Specification for rotary relieved gear cutters . pitches and accuracy (diametral pitch series) BS 436 Pt 2 1984 Spur and helical gears — Basic rack form. or International Standardization Cooperation Centre. inclusive BS2082 Pt2 1986 Specification for gear hobs — Hobs for gears for turbone reduction and similar drives BS2518 Pt 1 1983 Specification for rotary form relieved gear cutters .Hobs and cutters BS1807 1981 SpecifIcation for marine propulsion gears and similar drives: metric module BS2007 1983 Specification for circular gear shaving cutters. 1430 Broadway. New York. .. 2 & 3) BS721 Pt 1 1984 Specification for worm gearing — Imperial units BS721 Pt2 1983 Specification for worm gearing — Metric units BS978 Pt1 1984 Specification for fine pitch gears — Involute spur and helical gears BS978 Pt2 1984 Specification for fine pitch gears — Cydoidal type gears BS978 Pt3 1984 Specification for fine pitch gears .Catalog D190 TABLE 1.BSI (BrItish Standards Institute) BS 235 1972 Specification of gears for electric traction BS 438 Pt1 1987 Spur and helical gears — Basic rack form.1340 & 1341) BS436 Pt3 1986 Spur gear and helical gears-Method for calculation of contact and root bending stresses.Bevel gears BS978 Pt4 1965 Specification for fine pitch gears . Japanese Standards Association. Glossary of gear terms Involute gear tooth profile and dimensions Accuracy for spur and helical gears Backlash for spur and helical gears Accuracy for bevel gears Backlash for bevel gears Shapes arid dimensions of spur gears for general engineering Shapes and dimensions of helical gears for general use Dimensions of cylindrical worm gears Tooth contact marking of gears Master cylindrical gears Methods of measurement of spur and helical gears Measuring method of noise of gears Gear cutter tooth profile and dimensions Straight bevel gear generating cutters Single thread hobs Single thread fine pitch hobs Pinion type cutters Rotary gear shaving cutters Rack type cutters B B B 8 B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B 0003 0102 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1721 1722 1723 1741 1751 1752 1753 4350 4351 4354 4355 4356 4357 4358 1989 1988 1973 1976 1976 1978 1973 1973 1974 1977 1977 1976 1989 1976 1987 1986 1988 1988 1985 1988 1976 NOTE: Standards available in English from: ANSI.FOREIGN METRIC GEAR STANDARDS JAPAN . modules and accuracy (1 to 50 metric module) (Parts I & 2 related but not equivalent with ISO 53. Minato-ku.Metric modules T129 .54.accuracy requirements BS2062 Pt 1 1985 Specification for gear hobs — Hobs for general purpose: 1 to 2O dp. 4-1-24 Akasaka. NY 10018. 1328. limitations for metallic involute gears (Related but not equivalent with ISO/ DIS 633611.

Dudley JE Shigley Clifford E..Catalog D190 TABLE 1. Linford Wood.. ADDITIONAL GEAR DESIGN LITERATURE AND SOFTWARE From noted authorities In the field of GEAR DESIGN. or BSI. FOREIGN METRIC GEAR STANDARDS UNITED KINGDOM CONT.37 CONTD.. See complete listing with detailed description and ordering information on pages T159 and T160 T130 . such as: Earl Buckingham J W. Milton Keynes MK146LE. Adams and others is made available.. 1430 Broadway. metric module gear hobs Specification for pinion type cutters for spur gears — 1 to 8 metric module Specification for non-metallic spur gears BS 2519 Pt 1 1976 BS 2519 Pt 2 1976 BS 2697 1976 BS 3027 1968 BS 3696 Pt 1 1984 BS BS BS BS BS 4517 4582 4582 5221 5246 1984 Pt 1 1984 Pt 2 1986 1987 1984 BS 6168 1987 NOTE: Standards available from: ANSI. New York.. — BSI (British Standards Institute) Glossary for gears — Geometrical definitions Glossary for gears — Notation (symbols for geometrical data for use in gear notation) Specification for rack type gear cutters Specification for dimensions of worm gear units Specification for master gears — Spur and helical gears (metric module) Dimensions of spur and helical geared motor units (metric series) Fine pitch gears (metric module) — Involute spur and helical gears Fine pitch gears (metric module) — Hobs and cutters Specification for general purpose. NY 10018. United Kingdom.

Cost effectiveness of the injection-molding process. 4. molding is unique in many respects. therefore. 7. The most significant of these are as follows: 1. 20. low inertia. 9. Uniformity of parts. both in materials and processing. Among the various methods of producing plastic gears. Quietness of operation. 3. 8. 10. In this regard plastics contrast somewhat dramatically from metals. as an approximate figure. in that the latter materials and processes are essentially fully developed and. Plastic gears are subject to greater dimensional instabilities due to their greater coefficient of thermal expansion and moisture absorption. Elimination of machining operations. 7. At the same time the design engineer should be familiar with the limitations of plastic gears relative to metal gears. One step production. no preliminary or secondary operations. due in part to their greater resilience.0 DESIGN OF PLASTIC MOLDED GEARS Plastic gears are continuing to displace metal gears in a widening arena of applications. Low density: light weight. Relatively low coefficient of friction. the greater compliance of plastic gears may also produce stress concentrations. 3. Their unique characteristics are also being enhanced with new developments. Can be negatively affected by certain chemicals and even some lubricants. Also limited cold temperature operations. 4. 11. are in a relatively static state of development. Consistency with trend to greater use of plastic housings and other components. Plastic gears cannot generally be molded to the same accuracy as high-precision machined metal gears. it is singled out for in-depth treatment in this separate section. capability of fabrication with inserts and integral designs. operation is limited to less than 250 degreeso F. Cost of plastics track petrochemical pricing and thus are more volatile and increasing in comparison to metals T131 .1 General Characteristics of Plastic Gears Among the characteristics responsible for the large increase in plastic gear usage the following are probably the most significant: 1. 6. 2. Improper molding tools and process can produce residual internal stresses at the tooth roots resulting in over stressing and/or distortion with aging. elimination of plating. due to inherent lubricity. 2. Corrosion resistance.Catalog D190 GEAR DESIGN . For that reason. Initial high mold cost in developing correct tooth form and dimensions.PLASTIC 20. Ability to operate with minimum or no lubrication. Capability to absorb shock and vibration as a result of elastic compliance. or protective coatings. 5. 5. Tolerances often less critical than for metal gears. 12. 8. Less load-carrying capacity due to lower maximum allowable stress. 6. Reduced ability to operate at elevated temperatures.

60-.2-0.003 0.3 .20% rating means a dimensional increase of 0.46. dimensional resistance.007/ 0.007/ 0.. It is common practice to use plastics in combination with different metals and materials other than plastics.2-13.47 lists safe stress values for a few basic plastics and the effect of glass fiber reinforcement TABLE 1.07% to 2. 19603 ***Registered trademark.9-4 4. Table 1. both the raw material and gear molding. N.43A are representative listings of physical and mechanical properties of gear plastics taken from a variety of sources. 11. **Registered trademark.05-. inserts. Wilmington. 07928 T132 . see Raf. moisture absorption etc.O.38 thru 1.007 0. Celanese Corporation. Box 422. This is because plastics are subject to wider formulation variations and are often regarded as proprietary compounds and mixtures. etc.5 11. In this table. Other properties and features that enter into considerations for gearing are given in Table 1. Tables 1.40 0.15 . Thus.2 Properties of Plastic Gear Materials Popular materials for Plastic Gears are acetal resins such as DELRIN*. In general. The Polymer Corporation.0%. Note that this is only a rough guide as exact values depend upon factors of composition and processing.43A is presented. du Pont de Nemours and Co.43. Such is the case when gears have metal hubs.005 0..0076 0.2 10.002 0.25 0.5-8. nylon resins such as ZYTEL* and NYLATRON** and acetal copolymers such as CELCON***. For this reason TABLE 1 .8-1. a 0. For example. rims.10 .4 M94 R120 R80-120 R115-123 R111 M70 R112 M25-69 M29 R90 R100-120 M69-R120 D785 0.45 (Poisson’s Ratio).015 0.5 8-9.4 0. Chaitham. In these cases one must be cognizant of the fact that plastics have an order of magnitude different Coefficients of Thermal Expansion as well as Density and Modulus of Elasticity. 26 Msin St. ________________ *Registered trademark.5-12. it can be seen that the various types and grades of nylon can range from 0.0 13-14 410 4.009/0.1 8-15 16.) (oF @ 264 psi) 230-255 180-245 200 145 285-290 160-205 180-205 140-175 345 140 0.38 through 1.38 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS USED IN GEARS Material Acetal ABS Nylon 6/6 Nylon6/1O Polycarbonate High Impact Polystyrene Polyurethane Polyvinyl Chloride Polysulflon MoS2 Filled Nylon Tensile Strength Flexural Compressive Strength Modulus (psi x (psi x 103) (psi x 103) 103) 8.022/0. The physical and mechanical properties of a these materials vary with regard to strength. the information and data is less simplified and fixed than for the metals. Moisture has a significant impact on plastic properties as can be seen in Tables 1. Ranking of plastics is given in Table 1.5 5-13./in.80 07-.1 7-8.2 14. spokes. P.4 10 300-580 85 300-400 370 330 Reprinted with the permission of Plastic Design and Processing Magazine.6 10. Standardized tabular data is available from various manufacturers catalogs.44 (Wear) and Table 1.012 5. rigidly. fabrication requirements.005 0.I.004 0. E.J.003 0.5 11-13 120-200 400 400 350 Heat Water Mold Distortion Rockwell Absorption Shrinkage Temperature Hardness (% 24 hr) (in. rate refers to expansion from dry to full moist condition.22 0.5 1.015/0. Reading Pennsylvania.5 1.5-8 6-9 10. Delaware 19898.Catalog D190 20.002 inch per inch.5 7.

oF Water Absorption 24hrs.9 5 410. Rockwell Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion.3 1.5 1.1 1.4/2.50 D792 1.% Modulus of Elasticity.020 .012 . psi Shear Strength. 8 T133 .45 . (Izod) Elongation at Yield. Adams. D256 2.Y.50 1.000 ft-lb/in. D955 .69 0.016/.000 M59 R108 2.10 130 5.6 0.29 122 10. in/in.000 1.Polycarbonate 30% G.3 2 oF D648 220 150 255 290 10-5 oF D696 4.800 *10.06 In.015/. DuPont de nemours and Co.5% Moisture ASTM 500 100 Yield Strength.5 x 10-5 D785 D696 0./In.025 . Linear Thermal Expan.25 1.000 D790 M94 R120 4.03 .3 500 1.75 These are average values for comparison purposes only.Nylon6 3.13 TABLE 1.425 8.4 D638 15 410.14 1.300.000 395.15 1.Polyphenylene Sulfide 30% Sulfide 15% PTFE 7.5 varies 4. Marcel Dekker Inc.42 0.000 1.25 0. Specific Gravity Units ASTM 1.0 25 175. 24 hr *Yield Strength @264 psi #Break Notched Coeff.0 1. psi Impact Strength.Nylon 6/6 2.8 1.030 .030 .780 #5.9 1.Polyester elastomer 8. Absorption Shrinkage Strength Modulus Impact Temp.5 x 10-5 2.000 *19.000 -340.0035 psi D638 *11.2 1.000 M79 R118 4.Acetal 4.l. "Plastic Gearng".510 D256 1.13/1.2% Moisture 11.39 PROPERTY CHART FOR BASIC POLYMERS FOR GEARING Water Mold Tensile Flexural Izod deflect.55 1.007 *3.1 1.000 -.013/.08 0.14 D792 Test conducted at 73o F Reprinted with the permission of E.600 0.000 D732 9.200.200 *11.F 15% PTFE 5..000 340.000 #12.6 5.002 *8.5 8.% Saturation.Catalog D190 TABLE 1. see Ref.500 psi D790 175.2 0.500 2. Source: Clifford E.3 75 D570 1.800 9.Phenolic (molded) % D570 1.000 *17. Ref.Polyester (thermoplastic) 6.1986.000 1.3 0. psi Hardness. N. % Specific Gravity D638 10.500 #7.000 410.Units "ZYTEL" 100 .13 1.00 270 3.40 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OELRIN ACETAL RESIN AND ZYTEL NYLON RESIN "DELRIN" Properties .42 1.

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20-0.07 0.alkyd glass-woven cloth glass premixed.10-0. Ref 13 T138 0.01 <0.06-0.alkyd glass filled .15 0.40 0.09 0.60 0.asbestos filled Polycarbonate . New York.07 0.15-0.25 0.29 030 Rate of change % 0.0 <0. chopped Nylon 12 (30% glass) Polycarbonate (10-40% glass) Styrene acrylonitrite copolymer(20-33% glass filled) Polyester thermoplastic: thermoplastic PTMT (20% asbestos) glass sheet molding Polycarbonate < 10% glass Phenolic cast .01 <0.20 0.05-0.05-0.22 0.22 0.50 0.30 0.05-0.mineral filled Polyester alkyd .25 0.20-0.15-0.0 1-0.0 0.36 0.50 0.07-0.02-1.01 . 1986.46 MATERIAL RANKING BY WATER ABSORPTION RATE Material Polytetrafluoroethylene Poly ethylene: medium density high density high molecular weight low density Polyphenylene sulfldes (40% glass filled) Polyester: thermosetting and alkyds low shrink glass-preformed chopping roving Polyester: linear aromatic Polyphenylene sulfide: unfilled Polyester: thermoplastic(18% glass) Polyurethane: cast liquid methane Polyester synthetic: fiber filled .28 0.20 0. Inc.14 0.10 0.25-0.35 0.05-0.20 0.12-0.rigid Acetal: TFE Nylon 6/12 (30-35% glass) 6/10 (30-35% glass) Polyester alkyd vinyl ester thermoset Styrene acrylonitrite copolymer: unfilled Polycarbonate ABS alloy Phenolic cast : unfilled Acetal copolymer homopolymer Nylon 12 (unmodified) Acetal (20% glass) Poly(ancide-imide) Acetal (25% glass) Nylon 11 (unmodified) Source: Clifford E.12 0.01 <0.25 0.02 0.08-0.01-1.02 0.20 0.5 0.29 028 0. Marcel Oekker.20-0.25 0.18 0. Adams.unfilled Polyester cast .015 0.20 0.alkyd mineral filled .Catalog D190 TABLE 1.20 0.02-0. "Plastic Gearing".

90 0.3 Pressure Angles Pressure angles of 14½o. "Plastic Gearing".46 (CONTINUED) Material Polyester elastomer Poly imide Nylon 6/12 (unmodified) 6/10 (unmodified) Polyester-thermosetting and alkyds (cast flexible) Nylon 6 (cast) Poly urethane elastomer thermoplastic Nylon 6/6: MOS2 30 . as shown in Table 1.5 0. tend to provide greater load sharing due to the compliance of plastic gears. A good procedure is probably to size the pinion first.90 1. A smaller pitch number is associated with larger and stronger teeth. but should not be overdesigned.1 0. Inc. which is determined either by bending fatigue strength or wear(surface durability). The latter is measured by contact stress.4 Diametral Pitch The determination of the appropriate diametral pitch is a compromise between a number of different design requirements. However. Helical and Worm Gears 20. On the other side of the coin. The choice is dependent on the application. 13 20. It should be proportioned to support the required loads.50-2.35% glass unmodified nucleated Nylon 6 (30-35% glass) unmodified nucleated Nylon 6/6-6(copolymer) Rate of change % 0.3 1. Ref.48 T139 . The 25o pressure angle has the highest load-carring ability.5 Design Equations For Plastic Spur.40 0. a limiting condition would eventually be reached when mechanical interference occurs as a result of too much compliance.1 General Considerations—The load-carrying capacity of a plastic spur gear is reached under a limiting load. 20o and 25o are used in plastic gears. however. New York.3-1. Marcel Dekker. since it is the more highly loaded member.3-1. 20. Smaller teeth are also more sensitive to tooth errors and may be more highly stressed. which are associated with smaller teeth. but is more sensitive to center-distance variation and hence runs less quietly.5-2.5 1.Catalog D190 TABLE 1. For a given pitch diameter.5.60-1.9 1.5 1. The 20o pressure angle is usually preferred due to its stronger tooth shape and reduced undercutting compared to the 14½o pressure-angle system. The character of the limiting load depends on the presence or absence of lubrication and its nature. Bevel. larger pitch numbers.32 0.70-0. Adams.0 Source: Clifford E.9 1.80-1. Larger teeth are generally associated with more sliding than smaller teeth. this also means a smaller number of teeth with a correspondingly greater likelihood of undercut at very low tooth numbers.60 0.1-1.30-0.40 0.1-1.2 0. 20. 1986.

is used also for plastic gears with suitable modifying factors.Catalog D190 TABLE 1. in.2 Bending Stress -Spur Gears—The basic Lewis Formula. the remaining notation is as follows: Wt = tangentially transmitted Load lbs S = maximum tooth bending stress . the use of which for metal gears has been described in Section 13. Y = Lewis form factor f (Table 1.ially transmitted load as follows: Torque (in.). We first consider the design for bending fatigue strength and follow this with a discussion of design for surface durability (contact stress). plastic spur gears are the most prevalent type and also the easiest to design in regard to stress level. The design procedure for helical and bevel gears is analagous to those for spur. 20.01 which is devoted to plastic gearing. = WtDn 126050 where D = pitch diameter of gear. In regard to standards it should be noted that the AGMA standards have been generated around metal gears. For a given spur gear Table 1.) are specified. these are related to the tangent.P. inches n = gear speed in revolutions per minute T-140 (71) (72) . An exception is AGMA 141.) = (1/2)WtD and H. ACEIAL RESIN (DELRIN) AND NYLON RESIN (NYLON ETC. lbs/in2 F = face width of gears. differing mainly in the values of the various equation modification parameters. It can be expressed in the form: Wt = SFY KLKvKt Pd where (70) KL = lubrication factor Kv = velocity-dependent dynamic factor Kt = temperature factor As already explained in Section 13. Natureof Lubricant Limiting Load Determined by: Continuous lubrication Bending fatigue strength Initial lubrication only No lubrication Celcon and Zytel: Bending fatigue strength Delrin: Wear (contact strength) Wear (contact stress) Like metal gearing.5.1.-lbs.49) ln the event torque or horsepower (H. LUBRICATION OF SPUR GEARS FOR ACETAL COPOLYMER (CELCON).4 LOAD-CARRYING UNIT VS.P.48 determines which of these should be used.

651 0.588 0. see Ref.713 0.553 0.566 0.3 Surface Durability for Spur and Helical Gears —Excessive contact stresses can cause wear of the tooth surface and can be a limiting factor in the performance of a plastic gear. 5.49 LEWIS FORM FACTOR.672 0.587 0.698 0.779 0. For spur gears which are not lubricated or (in some cases) only initially lubricated. the smaller load being the limiting load.622 0.575 0.714 0.830 0.578 0..757 0.628 0.688 0.660 0.603 0.534 0.512 0.Catalog D190 TOOTH FORM FACTOR LOAD NEAR THE PITCH POINT Number of Teeth 20o Stub 14½o 20o Full Depth TABLE 1.613 0.648 0. DuPont de Nemours and Co.540 0. I.540 0..650 0.5.735 0.739 0.678 0.801 0.664 0.855 0.566 0. For spur gears the Hertzian contact stress. in the elastic range is given by: .597 0.628 0.572 0.808 0.823 0.758 0.616 0.544 0.729 0.606 0.635 0.535 0.522 0. Y 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 34 38 43 50 60 75 100 150 300 Rack 0.521 0.881 Reprinted with the permission of E. 20.509 0.792 0.604 0.774 0.694 0.588 0.559 0. both contact stress and bending stress should be checked. 8.

The most reliable information on -this point is likely to be that obtainable from the plastics manufacturer. T142 . The allowable contact stress is a function of lubrication. (73) and (74) it is not always easy to predict the values of the elastic moduli. If the temperature does not vary too much. For bevel gears the determination of contact stresses is beyond the scope of this treatment and the cited references at the end of this section can be consulted for further information. the contact stress is given by the equation: The other symbols have the same meaning as in the case of spur gears.54 are functions of temperature. ambient temperature and cycles of operation during the life of the gear. speed of operation. The values given in the literature such as figures 1.53 and 1. the ambient temperature can be used for a first estimate. gear and pinion material.Catalog D190 For helical gears. In applying eqs.

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61). which do not arise in the design of spur and helical gears. to 0. Nt where Nt = N (77) cosý and ý = pitch angle 3. 20. T147 .6 Operating Temperature As a general guideline plastic gears should be used only for temperatures below 250oF. the pitch diameter after molding will be reduced by (2)(0. loads.1.49 the number of teeth should be the formative Numberr of teeth. These include the stresses associated with the theoretical line contact between the teeth of the worm and gear . gear geometry. nature of operation (continuous or intermittent) and the material properties of the plastics involved. Gear shrinkage depends upon mold proportions. material.0025 in/in. The combination of a plastic and a metal gear improves heat dissipation. 20.44" and becomes 1.38 and Fig.OO1in. Sometimes shrinkage rates are expressed as a percentage. 3.030 in/in. ln determining the Lewis form factor from Table 1.Catalog D190 2. as either type of stress may be limiting.Worm Gears—The design of worm-gear drives involves consideration of a rumber of factors.956" after it leaves the mold. Plastic worm gears meshing with either with a plastic worm or a metal worm have been used.54).25% shrinkage rate./in. thermal expansion. if a plastic gear with a shrinkage rate of 0. taking into account the reduction in tensile strength and elastic moduli with temperature (Figures 1. which are the scope of this discussion. In order to estimate the operating temperature limit it is recommended that the bending stress and contact stress can be calculated. speeds. If space permits. The subject of contact stresses in bevel gears is an Involved subject for which the reader is referred to the references. the reader is referred to the references. The actual recommended maximum temperature can be considerably below 2500o F.53. depending upon the application. For example.22)" or 0. occur in (see Tablet 1.022 in. 1.7 Design Procedure. For example a shrinkage rate of 0. From the design point of view the most important effect is the shrinkage of the gear relative to the size of the mold cavity. Both bending stress and contact stress should be checked for all bevel gears regardless of lubrication./in. can be stated as a 0. as their load carrying capacity decreases with temperature.and the wear associated with the relatively high sliding velocities at the tooth interface. the plastic can be proportioned so as to maximize the rate of heat transferred to its surroundings.5.7 Effect of Part Shrinkage on Gear Design The nature of the part and the molding operation have a significant effect on the molded gear. Depending upon the material and the molding process shrinkage rates ranging from about 0. Limiting factors include the nature of the lubrication. has a pitch diameter of 2 inches while in the mold. In either case the load-carrying capacity of the combination is substantially less than that of metal gears and worms. For design calculations. ambient temperature and is usually expressed in inches per inch.

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For injection-molded gears TCE can readily be held within a range of roughly 0. lubrication. It a small change in center distance is necessary and feasible.0. In addition to thermal expansion changes there are permanent dimensional changes as the result of moisture absorption. if required. The coefficient of thermal expansion of plastics is on the order of four to ten times those of metals (see Tables 1.47). one should make sure that meshing gears do not bind in the course of service. Higher accuracies can be obtained if the more expensive filled materials. Sudden changes in section and sharp corners should be avoided. Perhaps the simplest is to enlarge center distance. It is possible also to thin out the tooth profile during manufacturing. The information required for plastic injection-molded gears is very similar.003" . At the same time. would include fillet radius and whole depth. which also included a typical data block for spur gears (Figure 1. 20. T150 . if the humidity is sufficient As a result.0.11 Avoiding Stress Concentration In order to minimize stress concentration and maximize the life of a plastic gear the root fillet radius should be as large as possible. however. Other data. moisture/humidity data. To some extent the flexibility of the bearings and clearances can compensate for thermal expansion.e.1. 20.002". mold design.10 Environment and Tolerances In any discussion of tolerances for plastic gears it is necessary to distinguish between manufacturing tolerances and dimensional changes due to environmental conditions. consistent with conjugate gear actiotn.Catalog D190 20. tooling and quality control are warranted. operating temperature.1% or more can develop in the course of time.9 Backlash Due to the thermal expansion of plastic gears. one should attempt to make sure that a tolerance which is specified is not smaller than the inevitable dimensional changes which arise as a result of environmental conditions. and annealing. with a corresponding TTCE of about 0. 20. but this adds to the manufacturing cost and requires careful consideration of the tooth geometry. if desired.43A).40 thru 1. In addition. plastic gears can be made to high accuracy. Additional information. which may have occurred in the course of the molding operation. absorb moisture) and dimensional changes on the order of 0.40. Care must be taken.OO1 . In addition.005". Several means are available for introducing backlash into the system. 1. includes the following: material and pitch diameter of mating gear.. This procedure is described in Section 4. most plastics are hygroscopic (i. there are dimensional changes due to compliance under load.8 Design Specifications Basic gear formals have been discussed in Section 11.10. which is pertinent to the function of the gear and which the design engineer may wish to add to the data block. to ensure that the contact ratio remains adequate. especially in view of the possibility of additional residual stresses. it probably represents the best and least expensive compromise. the greater compliance of plastic gears as compared to metal gears suggests that the necessity for close tolerances need not always be as high as those required for metal gears. which would be useful.43A) and the effects of tolerances. which is significantly greater than that of metal gears (see Tables 1 . As far an manufacturing is concerned.

is also.12 Metal Inserts Injection-molded metal inserts are used in plastic gears for a variety of reasons: (a) To avoid an extra finishing operation (b) To achieve greater dimensional stability.13 Attachment of Plastic Gears To Shafts Several methods of attaching gears to shafts are in common use. set screws. Table 1. because the metal will shrink less and is not sensitive to moisture. When metal inserts are used generous radii and fillets in the plastic gear are recommended to avoid stress concentration. keys.53 lists some of the basic characteristics of each of these fastening methods: TABLE 1. a better heat sink. It is advantageous to attempt to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plastic to the materials used for inserts. Inserts are usually produced by screw-machines and made of aluminum or brass.53 CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS SHAFT-ATTACHMENT METHODS Nature of Torque Gear Shaft Cost Disassembly Comments Capacity Connection Set Screw Limited Low Press fit Knurled Shaft Connection Spindle Key Integral Shaft Limited Fair Good Good Good Low Low High Reasonably Low Low T151 Not good unless Questionable reliability. press fits and knurled inserts. It is also possible to use other types of metal inserts. 20. threaded metal particularly under insert is used vibration or reversing drive Not Possible Residual stresses need to be considered Not Possible A permanent assembly Good Good Not Possible Suited for close tolerances Requires good fits Bending load on shaft needs to be watched . (c) To provide greater load-carting capacity (d) To provide increased rigidity (e) To permit repeated assembly and disassembly (f) To provide a more precise bore to shaft fit Inserts can be molded into the part or subsequently assembled. and plain and knurled press fits. In this case the material actually melts into the knurling at the insert periphery. integral shafts. also proper minimum wall thicknesses around the inserts must be left. The insertion of inserts can be accomplished by ultrasonically driving in the insert. The interference limits for press fits must be obeyed depending on the material used. One advantage of the first two of these is that they permit repeated assembly and disassembly without part failure of fatigue.Catalog D190 20. self-tapping screws. This will reduce the residual stresses in the plastic part of the gear during contraction while cooling after molding. such as self-threading. By subsequent insertion of inserts stress concentrations may be present which can result in cracking of the parts. These include splines.

33-35). (b) a light spindle oil (SAE 10) is generally recommended as are the usual lubricants. Simplicity is the plastic gears inherent feature. graphite. 1968. molded gears.Catalog D190 20. plaslic gears can operate with continuous lubrication. September. Molding temperature can have an effect. Plastics Design and Processing. August. Part 2. as the stress level is increased there is a tendency for localized plastic to plastic welding which increases friction and wear. However Vespel for molding is not available in SP3 formulation another similar Vespel resin must be substituted. T152 . In view of the hygroscopic nature of plastic gears. Differences occur due to subtle causes.pp 38-45. these include silicone and hydrocarbon oils. Also. body features that may favor molding. both thermosetting and thermoplastic plastic gears can be readily machined. with some plastics this approach can encounter problems. 20. polyvinyl chloride and ABS resins. the dimensional accuracy of such gears is determined by a variable-center-distance fixture (see Section 18. care should be taken to minimize dimensional changes between inspection and use of the gear. However. Molybdenum disulfide in nylon and Delrin are commonly used. And finally there is the impact of shrinkage with molding which may not have been adequately compensated. Vespel SP3. If such a system is contemplated then the choice of plastic gearing is in question. Cut Plastic Gears Although not nearly as common as the injection-molding process. According to LD. can be used to reduce tooth friction. Also. Materials requiring caution are: polystyrene. a good high temperature polyamide plastic available in rod form. polyethylene and polypropylene. A key advantage of plastic gearing is that for many applications running dry is adequate. and (c) under certain conditions dry lubricants. Martin lnjection Molded Plastic Gears. such as molybdenum disulfide. In no event should there be need of an elaborate sophisticated lubrication system such as for metal gearing. The machining of plastic gears can be considered for high-precision parts with close tolerances and for the development of prototypes for which the investment in a mold may not be justified. initial lubrication or no lubrication. and investment in molding tools is deferred until the product and market is assured. An example is Dupont's.pp. Least likely to encounter problems with typical gear oils and greases are: nylons.1). phenolics. Pert 1. relative to the materials rating plastic gears can be meshed together without a lubricant However. cut plastic gears is usually determined on the basis at production quantity. (a) all gears function more effectively with lubrication and will have a longer service life. Ample experience and evidence exists that substantiates plastic gears can operate with a metal mate without the need of a lubricant so long as the stress levels are not exceeded. When to use molded gears vs. The performance of molded vs.15 Inspection In view of the compliance of injection-molded gears. This type of gear testing is both functional and utilizes a much more consistent measuring contact force than an over-wires measurement. cut plastic gears is not always identical.15 Molded vs. It is also true that in the case of a moderate stress level. using the proper lubricant will provide a safety margin and certainly will cause no harm. 20. quality level and unit cost Often the initial prototype quantity will be machine cut. Bar stock and molding stock may not be precisely the same. polycarbonates.14 Lubrication Depending on the application. Standard stock gears of reasonable precision are produced by molding blanks with brass inserts. and in some cases cold water is acceptable as well . surface finishes will be different for cut vs. The level of this problem varies with the particular plastic type. The chief consideration in choosing a lubricants chemical compatability with the particular plastic. When a situation of stress and shock level is uncertain. An alternate to external lubrication is to use plastics fortified with a solid state lubricant. delrins. which are subsequently hobbed to close tolerances. coloidal carbon and silicone are used as fillers.

____________ *Not visible due to its small size.VENT is a miniscule opening through which the air can be evacuated from the cavity as the molten plastic fills it. 5-CORE PIN is the element which by its presence restricts the flow of plastic. T153 .18 Mold Construction Depending on the quantity of gears to be produced a decision has to be made to make one single cavity or a multiplicity of identical cavities. 3— SPRUE is the channel in the sprue bushing through which the molten plastic is injected. but does not fill up with plastic. Furthermore. Figure 1. It has a spherical or flat receptacle which accurately mates with the surface of the nozzle. hence.17 Elimination of Gear Noise In complete conjugate action and/or excessive backlash are the source of noise. To avoid noise. more resilient material. 4— RUNNER is the channel which distributes material to different cavities within the same mold base.63 shows several gears made of Urethane which in mesh with Delrin gears produce a practically noiseless gear train. The face width of the Urethane gears must be increased correspondingly to compensate for lower load carrying ability of this material. 8.GATE is the orifice through which the molten plastic enters the cavity. Since special terminology will be used we shall first describe the elements shown in Figure 1. 1 — LOCATING RING is the element which assures the proper location of the mold on the platen with respect to the nozzle which injects the molten plastic. If more than one cavity is involved these are used as "family molds" inserted in mold bases which can accommodate a number of cavities for identical or different parts. 7-FRONT SIDE is considered the side on which the sprue bushing and the Nozzle are located.Catalog D190 20. 20. 2— SPRUE BUSHING is the element which mates with the nozzle. These have a relative motion with respect to the cavity in the direction which will cause ejection of the part from the mold. such as Urethane can be used. The Vent is configured to let air escape.64. due to the presence of a larger TCE there is more backlash built into the gear train. * . 6-EJECTOR PINS are pins-operated by the molding machine. a hole or void will be created in the molded part. Plastic-molded gears are generally less accurate than their metal counterparts.

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Catalog D190 .

Catalog D190 .

W."Mechanical Engineering Design". Pt.E. However. it is imperative that a thorough knowledge of disciplines such as: gear design. Knut 0. if technical applications and stringent requirements are involved. John Wiley & Sons. 1979 10. N. In many instances taking this position is justified . G. 11. Inc. DuPont de Nemours and Co. Chironis.. "World Metric Standards for Engineering". 1967 13. New YorK 1986 Literature of general interest: R. El. 1978 5. "Design and Production of Gears in CELCON Acetal Copolymer"... It is a fact that many gears are produced by molders for whom a gear is not any different from a "fancy door-knob".19 Conclusion In this section we have attempted to highlight the procedure for proper design of plastic gears as well as illustrate the difficulties and complexities involved in the production of molded plastic gears for technical applications. 1935 2. Chatham. a slide-gated gear or rotating part will be somewhat elliptical rather than round. Adams.P.69 can serve as an illustration. as well as create uniform shrinkage in all directions. New York. New Jersey. Manual of Gear Design". ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF REPRINTS References: 1."Precision Gearing: Theory and Practice".D. Delaware.W. 1958 D. mold design. London. "Injection Molded Plastic Gears". NewYork. Celanese Plastics and Specialties Co. Martin.67). but most elaborate way is "multiple-pin-gating" (Figure 1. "Plastie Gearing" Marcel Dekker. In order to eliminate this problem. Inc. DuPont de Nemeurs and Co. 12. Michalec. Industrial Press. The best. August 1968. To compare the complexity of a 3-plate mold with a 2plate mold which is used for edge gating. this way of molding is a must.1 . "Gear Handbook". J.66). New York. particularly it the gears are of a larger diameter. Shigley. L.W. the shrinkage of the material in the direction of the flow will be different from that perpendicular to the flow As a result. "Gears of DELRIN and ZYTEL’". Kverneland (Editor). tool-making. Technology Press Cambridge.so called 3-plate molds (Figure 1. Pa. 1963 7. NY. "Nylatron Nylon Gear Design Manual’. McGraw-Hill. Willinggton.such as toys etc. 1967 3..68) accompanied by high costs. 1969) T-158 .W. DELRIN Design Handbook". Earle Buckingham. NY. Reading.Catalog D190 Furthermore. "diaphragm gating" can be used which will cause the injection of material in all directions at the same time (see Figure 1. New York.. The problem is the elaborate nature of the mold arrangement.I. 990. The Polymer Corp. Delaware.(Editor): "Gear Design and Application". Industrial Press. If precision is a requirement."Involute Gears. Green and Co. Plastic Design and Processing Magazine . The disadvantage of this method is the presence of a burr at the hub and no means of support of the core pin because of the presence of the sprue. McGraw-Hill. 9. 1948 8. Mass.T.3 Vols. Clifford E. 20. McGraw-Hill Book Co.pp. Dudley.1962 4. Longmans. E. Wilmington. New York... 38-45. Steeds. This will assure reasonable viscosity of plastic when the material welds. molding and machining (for secondary operation) is used in order to produce a superior or even an acceptable product. Figure 1. 1966 6.Dudley: "The Evolution of the Gear Art" AGMA Paper No. New York.Woodbury: "History of Gear Cutting Machines" M. D.W.l. In this case the plastic injected at several places symmetrically located.14 (Published in book form by AGMA Jan.

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