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email@example.com Pg1 of 11 The following was compiled to produce a lessons learned document for Engineering Projects involving mechanical system sound reduction. 1. Determine the design goal for HVAC system noise for each critical area according to its use and construction. Specify the desirable NC level goal. 2. Relative to equipment that radiates sound directly into a room, select equipment that will be quiet enough to meet the desired design goal. 3. lf central or roof-mounted mechanical equipment is used, look at the initial design and layout of the HVAC system, using acoustical treatment where it appears appropriate. 4. Starting at the fan, appropriately add the sound attenuations and sound power levels associated with the central fan(s), fan-powered mixing units (if used), and duct elements between the central fan(s) and the room of interest to determine the corresponding sound pressure levels in the room. Be sure to investigate the supply and return air paths. Investigate possible duct sound breakout when central fans are adjacent to the room of interest or roof-mounted fans are above the room of interest. 5. lf the mechanical equipment room is adjacent to the room of interest, determine the sound pressure levels in the room associated with sound transmitted through the mechanical equipment room wall. 6. Add the sound pressure levels in the room of interest that are associated with all of the sound paths between the mechanical equipment room or roof-mounted unit and the room of interest. 7. Determine the corresponding NC or RC level associated with the calculated total sound pressure levels in the room of interest. 8. lf the NC or RC level exceeds the design goal, determine the octave frequency bands in which the corresponding sound pressure levels are exceeded and the sound paths that are associated with these frequency bands. 9. Redesign the system, adding additional sound attenuation to the paths which contribute to the excessive sound pressure levels in the room of interest. 10. Make sure that noise radiated by outdoor equipment will not disturb adjacent properties. With respect to outdoor equipment, use barriers when noise associated with the equipment will disturb adjacent properties.
2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon.) weighs about 1.2 pounds per square foot.net Pg 2 of 11 11. Acoustic duct lagging applied to the exterior of ductwork can absorb some radiated sound. When such data are not available. lf mechanical equipment is located on upper floors or is roof-mounted. 16. use flexible connectors between rotating and reciprocating equipment and pipes and ducts that are connected to the equipment. lf possible. Do not use both. vibration isolate all reciprocating and rotating equipment. In spaces where ceiling plenum returns systems exist. lf it is not possible to use flexible connectors between rotating and reciprocating equipment and pipes and ducts connected to the equipment. Comparing the 1 inch thick duct lagging to the 2 inch lagging. or ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 68-1986/ANSI/AMCA Standard 330-86. Manufacturers' test data should be obtained from either AMCA Standard 300-85. Most low pressure sheet metal ductwork (22 ga. 14. Laboratory Method of Testing Duct Sound Power Measurement Procedure for Fans. Use flexible conduit between rigid electrical conduit and reciprocating and rotating equipment. the 1/1 octave band sound power levels for various fans can be estimated. Price . 12. Reverberant Room Method for Sound Testing of Fans. Acoustic Duct Lagging Table-1 Weight Insertion loss dB Total dB loss At 500 Hz 1 inch thick 1 lb sqft 5 dB 80% 23 dB 2 inch thick 2 lbs sqft 8 db 100% 29 dB The 2” thick acoustic lagging is not carried by all distributors and is usually used in only high temperature situations. The sound power generation of a given fan performing a specific task is best obtained from the fan manufacturers test data. this generally adds another one pound per square foot for 1 inch thick lagging. 17. replace return grilles with grilles attached to lined elbows. Use either spring or neoprene hangers. use spring or neoprene hangers to vibration isolate the ducts and pipes within the first twenty feet of the equipment. It may be necessary to vibration isolate mechanical equipment that is located in the basement of a building.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. 15. 13. and two pounds per square foot for 2 inch thick lagging.
elbows without turning vanes. This includes: dampers. The number of decibels to be added to this is called the blade frequency increment. the noise radiating from the box may be of no concern. lf. lf the box is located away from critical areas (such as in a storeroom or corridor).5 through 500 Hz 1/'l octave band center frequencies). for the sound attenuation materials to be installed in the low pressure duct between the box and outlet. aerodynamic noise can become a major problem. There are specific sound power levels associated with fan total sound power. Pressure reducing valves in mixing and variable volume boxes usually have published noise ratings indicating the sound power levels that are discharged from the low pressure end of the box. elbows with turning vanes. the noise radiated from the box may exceed the noise criterion for the room below. if any.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. When the duct system velocities are in excess of the above or when the duct does not follow good airflow design principles.net Pg 3 of 11 Fans generate a tone at the blade passage frequency. The manufacturer may also indicate the requirements. sudden enlargements or contractions. the sound power level in which the blade passage frequency occurs is increased by a specified amount. Duct Terminal Devices Dampers in terminal devices that are used for balancing can greatly affect the sound level in the space. Some of the box manufacturers also test the noise radiated from the exterior of the box. Low frequency energy is transmitted readily. junctions. however this data is not usually published. For this case it may be necessary to relocate the box to a non-critical area or to enclose it with a construction having a high transmission loss. and 90 degree branch takeoffs. however. and most devices that cause substantial pressure drops. through the light gauge walls of ducts and through suspended acoustic ceilings. 2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. Aerodynamic noise is predominantly low frequency in spectrum (31. the box is located above a critical space and separated from the space by a suspended acoustical ceiling which has little or no transmission loss at low frequencies. . Increasing the duct size may be required to reduce the noise generated by airflow. Aerodynamic noise Aerodynamic noise is generated when airflow in the duct becomes turbulent as it passes through sharp bends. and below 800 fpm (4 m/s) in ducts serving room terminal devices. below 1500 fpm (25 m/s) in branch ducts. To account for this. Aerodynamic noise is usually of no importance when the velocity of airflow is below 2000 feet per minute (10 m/s) in the main ducts. with little loss.
Generic slot diffusers that do not have special plenum or damper systems the sound levels are generally very low. The test data is obtained in accordance with the Air Research institute (ARl) Standard 880-82 industry Standard for Air Terminals.net Pg 4 of 11 Duct Terminal Devices (continued) Room air terminal devices such as diffusers. lf the equalizer grid is omitted. Sound radiation associated with air flow through diffusers and diffusers with porous plates that terminate air conditioning ducts is similar to sound radiation associated with air flowing over a spoiler. The interaction of the airflow and diffuser guide vanes behaves as an acoustic dipole. See the manufacturer's published NC levels for a specified diffuser system and the related pressure drop. The room air terminal unit should be selected to meet the noise criterion required or specified for the room. the air flow will be turbulent and the noise generated by the device will be substantially higher than the manufacturer's published data. A flexible duct connection between the diffuser and the supply duct provides a convenient means to align the diffuser with respect to the ceiling grid. the sound power levels of a diffuser can be high. For generic rectangular and square perforated face (with round inlet) diffusers where The overall sound power level is . 2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. This does not apply to diffusers that have specially designed plenum and damper systems. grilles.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. Thus. there will be no appreciable increase in the sound power levels. lf a duct turn precedes the entrance to the diffuser or if a balancing damper is installed immediately before the diffuser. The equalizer grid provides a uniform velocity gradient within the neck of the diffuser and the sound power will be close to that listed in the manufacturer's catalog. A misalignment in this connection that exceeds 1/4 of the diffuser diameter over a length of two times the diffuser diameter can cause a significant increase in the diffuser sound power levels relative to the levels specified by the manufacturer. lf the offset is equal to or greater than the diffuser diameter over a connection length equal to two times the diffuser diameter. the sound power level of the diffuser can be increased by as much as 12 dB. the sound power levels associated with the diffuser can be increased by as much as 12 dB. When this is the case. bearing in mind that the manufacturer's sound power rating is obtained with a uniform velocity distribution throughout the diffuser neck or grille collar. This turbulence can be substantially reduced by specifying an equalizer grid to be placed in the neck of the diffuser. air handling light fixtures and air handling suspension bars are always rated for noise generation. the associated sound power is proportional to the sixth power of flow velocity and the third power of pressure. lf the diffuser offset is less than 1/8 of the length of the connection. The pressure drop across a diffuser can be specified by the normalized pressure drop coefficient.
This vibration generates low frequency duct rumble which is then radiated into the surrounding spaces. can be used for the outer covering. Care during installation is important. a pronounced resonance effect between the duct walls and the outer covering usually occurs. flexible. For both techniques. such as sheet lead or loaded vinyl. One is associated with noise that is generated within the duct. 2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. it is necessary to determine the low frequency insertion loss. duct lagging should never be installed loosely. particularly near fan discharge sections. Breakout refers to the sound that is transmitted within the duct. porous material is used between the duct wall and the outer covering. such as sheet metal or gypsum board. There are two possible sources for duct breakout. covered with an outer impervious layer. A relatively rigid material. This phenomenon is often referred to as low frequency duct rumble. such as fiberglass. When rigid materials are used for the outer covering. Noise that is transmitted into a duct from the surrounding area and then transmitted within the duct is called "breakin". causing them to vibrate. In many situations. A more effective method for reducing duct breakout is the use of round ductwork. insertion loss duct lagging may not be a particularly effective method for reducing low frequency (<100 Hz) duct sound breakout. duct breakout may be associated with both of these sources. With limp materials the variation in the separation between the duct and its outer covering dampens the resonance so that it no longer occurs. porous material.net Pg 5 of 11 Duct Sound Breakout and Breakin Sound Breakout and Breakin Noise that is generated within a duct and then transmitted through the duct wall into the surrounding area is called "breakout". . or a limp material. With respect to the insertion loss of externally lagged rectangular ducts. The insertion loss using duct lagging is convenient however. which has a high transmission loss at low frequencies. A flexible. it is necessary to determine the resonance frequency associated with the interaction between the duct wall and outer covering. This refers to sound in the area surrounding a duct that is incident on the duct walls. This noise is transmitted down the duct and then through the duct walls into surrounding spaces.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. lnsertion Loss of External Duct Lagging External acoustic lagging is often applied to rectangular ductwork to reduce the transmission of sound energy from within the duct to surrounding areas. lf a rigid outer covering is used. The second source is associated with turbulent airflow that aerodynamically excites the duct walls. The lagging usually consists of a layer of soft. usually by a fan. different techniques must be used for rigid and limp outer coverings.
General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. it must have a minimum thickness of 1. At frequencies of 1. The data that are available are usually manufacturer's product data. Because of structure-borne sound that is transmitted through the duct wall. The thickness of duct linings associated with thermal insulation usually varies from 0. the total sound attenuation in lined rectangular sheet metal ducts usually does not exceed 40 dB.net Pg 6 of 11 Plenum Chambers The plenum chamber can be placed between the discharge section of a fan and the main duct of the distribution system. The sound attenuation associated with unlined rectangular duct can be significant at low frequencies.0 lb/ft3. The insertion loss of acoustically lined rectangular sheet metal ducts is not a function of the density of the fiberglass lining when the density of the material is between 1. Structure-borne sound that is transmitted in and through the duct wall. The insertion loss is the difference in the sound pressure level measured in a reverberation chamber with sound propagating through an unlined section of rectangular duct minus the corresponding sound pressure level that is measured when the unlined section of rectangular duct is replaced with a similar section of acoustically lined rectangular duct.0 lb/ft3. These chambers are usually lined with acoustically absorbent material to reduce noise.0 inches. .000 Hz and above the insertion loss is not a function of lining thickness.0 inch. It is believed that this attenuation should be added to the insertion loss of correspondingly sized acoustically lined rectangular ducts to obtain the total sound attenuation of acoustically lined rectangular ducts. the total sound attenuation of lined circular ducts usually does not exceed 40 dB. subtracted out from the insertion loss from measured data. in effect. For fiberglass duct lining to be effective for attenuating sound. The sound attenuation of unlined circular ducts is generally negligible. This attenuation is. Lined Rectangular Ducts Fiberglass internal duct lining for rectangular sheet metal ducts can be used to attenuate sound in ducts.5 inches to 2.5 to 3. Acoustically Lined Round Ducts There are very little data available in technical books with regard to the insertion loss of acoustically lined round ducts. 2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. The density of fiberglass duct liners ranges from 1. Available Manufacturers data should not be extrapolated beyond the range of the data provided.5 and 3. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating the values of insertion loss beyond the range of the parameters associated with Manufacturers data.
2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. which is mounted external to the duct but radiates sound into the duct . the following parameters should be considered: Insertion Loss-The difference between two sound power levels when measured at the same point before and after the silencer is installed. ventilating and air conditioning systems.net Pg 7 of 11 Unlined Round Ducts As with unlined rectangular ducts. They are also effective in attenuating low-frequency. When duct silencers are used. pure-tone noise in a duct. Acoustically Lined Radius Round Elbows There are very little data available in the literature with regard to the insertion loss of acoustically lined radius round elbows. It was found to be practically impossible to locate a manufacturer of active duct silencers.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. round ducts are much more rigid and. Acoustically Lined Rectangular Duct Elbows For lined square elbows. They are very effective in attenuating low frequency. ln contrast with rectangular ducts. do not resonate or absorb as much sound energy. Airflow Regenerated Noise-The sound power level generated by air flowing through a silencer. therefore. Static Pressure Drop-The airflow pressure loss. Active duct silencers consist of a microprocessor. two microphones placed a specified distance apart in a duct and a speaker placed between the microphones. There are two basic types of HVAC duct silencers: active and dissipative. Because of this. round ducts will only provide about 1/10th the sound attenuation at low frequencies as compared to the sound attenuation associated with rectangular ducts. 104 and the corresponding coefficients in Table Duct Silencers Duct silencers (or sound traps) are often used as a means to attenuate unwanted noise in heating. Forward or Reverse Flow-Silencers have different acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics for forward and reverse flow directions. the duct lining must extend at least two duct widths. broad band noise. beyond the elbow and the thickness of the total lining thickness should be at least 10 percent of the duct width. Active duct silencers systems are rather new. unlined round ducts provide some sound attenuation which should be taken into account when designing a duct system.
The speaker noise destructively interferes with the objective noise. so the speaker signal can be adjusted. the outside shell is a solid cylindrical sheet metal shell that has a diameter equal to the open face diameter of the silencer. they can be used to attenuate objectionable noise without introducing a pressure loss or regenerated noise into a duct. Thus. they introduce a pressure drop and regenerated noise into a duct.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. The second microphone downstream of the speaker senses the attenuated noise and sends a corresponding feedback signal to the microprocessor. The data should be obtained in a manner consistent with the procedures outlined in ASTM Standard E477-84. The outside shell is solid sheet metal. regenerated noise and pressure drop of dissipative duct silencers are functions of silencer design and the location of the silencer in the duct system. Both rectangular and circular dissipative silencers come in several different pressure drop configurations. Dissipative silencers can have a rectangular or circular cross section Rectangular silencers are available in several different cross-section dimensional configurations and in 3 foot. . The space between the two shells is filled with fiberglass or mineral wool. 5 foot. All round silencers have a center body. 7 foot. These surfaces are usually perforated sheet metal surfaces that cover cavities filled with either fiberglass or mineral wool. The microphone signal is processed by the microprocessor which generates a signal that is out of-phase with the objectionable noise and transmitted to the speaker. Rectangular silencers have parallel sound absorbing surfaces. effectively attenuating it.or double-wall construction. 2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. These should always be examined when considering the use of a dissipative silencer. For double-wall construction. These data are experimentally measured and are presented as part of manufacturers data associated with their product lines. For single-wall construction. Circular Dissipative Duct Silencers Round silencers come in several different open-face diameters and usually have lengths that are a function of the open face diameter. This body is a cylindrical body with perforated sheet metal surface and filled with either fiberglass or mineral wool. the outside shell consists of two concentric cylindrical sheet metal shells.net Pg 8 of 11 Active Duct Silencers The microphone closest to a sound source that generates objectionable low-frequency noise senses the noise. However. Active duct silencer systems have no components that are located within the duct. and 10 foot lengths. if necessary. Dissipative Duct Silencers Dissipative silencers are effective in attenuating broad-band noise. Standard Method of Testing Duct Liner Materials and Prefabricated Silencers for Acoustical and Airflow performance. The outside shell of a round silencer can be either single. The insertion loss. The inner shell is perforated sheet metal and it has a diameter equal to the open face diameter of the silencer.
branch take-offs. of an individual branch divided by the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the individual branches. or a combination of these elements. at a junction is related to the sound power transmitted down an individual branch of a junction. Attenuation of sound power. differs from the cross-sectional area. the silencer's manufacturer data should be used. Diffusers can be either round or rectangular. When determining the effectiveness of a duct silencer. Data will not be available to indicate the effects of these elements. of the main duct. a correction factor must be added to the pressure drop. It is impossible to present data for a complete range of rectangular and round duct silencers.net Pg 9 of 11 Duct Silencers (continued) Active and dissipative silencers complement each other. Vibration and Manufacturer’s Data Manufacturer’s tests are probably based on straight sections of round ducts. . The second component is associated with the ratio of the cross-sectional area. elbows. Duct Branch Sound Power When sound traveling in a duct encounters a junction. The first is associated with the reflection of the incident sound wave if the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the individual branches. the sound power contained in the incident sound waves in the main duct is distributed between the branches associated with the junction. Care is required when viewing manufacturer’s data. When possible. The corresponding attenuation of sound power that is transmitted down each branch of the junction is comprised of two components. 2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. They usually have a restriction associated with them which may either be a damper. This division of sound power is referred to as the branch sound power division. This data is dependent on the manufacturer's design and will be different for each manufacturer. The pressure drops for dissipative duct silencers found in manufacturer’s material are for case’s where there are no system component effects associated with duct elements. Dissipative silencers are effective from 63 Hz to 8000 Hz. Active silencers are usually effective between 16 Hz to 250 Hz. guide vanes to direct airflow a perforated metal facing. such as fan discharge or return sections. These ducts directly terminate into a reverberation chamber with no restriction on the end of the duct or with a circular orifice constriction placed over the end of the duct. When system components effects must be taken into account. upstream or downstream of a duct silencer. Sound.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. it is necessary to take into account both the insertion loss and the regenerated sound power levels of the silencer.
2009 Trident3 w2gre@verizon. Duct End Reflection Loss When low frequency plane sound waves interact with a small diffuser that discharges into a large room. fan-powered terminal units above a lay-in ceiling. equipment items. Finally. etc. the acoustical characteristics of the room (surface treatments. a significant amount of the sound energy incident on this interface is reflected back into the duct. such as. Since there are no standard tests for determining the transmission loss through ceiling construction. Ceiling panel manufacturer’s provide single-pass transmission loss values for various ceiling materials.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16. the transmission loss of a ceiling can be significantly reduced. General Room Sound Corrections The sound pressure levels associated with a sound source that occur at a given point in a room depend on the source strength. furnishings. Sound Transmission Through Ceiling Systems When mechanical equipment is located in the ceiling plenum above an occupied room. When leaks and or flanking paths are present. The sound attenuation. data is limited. A room that has little or no furniture or floor coverings will attenuate sound more readily than a well furnished room. The effects of these configurations on the duct end reflection loss will have to be guessed. many diffusers do not have long straight sections (greater than three duct diameters) before they terminate into a room. Many duct sections between a main feed branch and a diffuser may be curved or may be short. As a result. Some caution should be exercised when a diffuser configuration differs quite drastically from normal conditions. The point source is usually associated with sound radiated from supply and return air diffusers. . These single-pass transmission loss values are for ceilings in which there are no penetrations for acoustical flanking.net Pg 10 of 11 Sound.). Reasonable accuracy for many diffuser configurations will not be available. stubby sections. Vibration and Manufacturer’s Data (continued) lt will not be known whether these elements react similar to the orifices used in the manufacturer’s tests. the room volume. associated with duct end reflection losses can be significant. the system total effects will have to be assumed. There are two types of sound sources associated with HVAC systems that can exist in a room: point source and line source. The acoustical integrity of ceilings can be greatly compromised by these factors. and the distance of the sound source from the point of observation. and other similar items. noise transmission through the ceiling can be high enough to cause excessive noise levels in that room. The line source is associated with duct breakout noise.
html Titus Diffuser models TDC or TMSA www.com/textdocs/silencerdocs/silencer_index.soundseal. A-84 or A-120 SoundChek Modular Panels http://www.titus-hvac.mcgillairsilence. A-36. CN-C or AX-C Rectangular Dissipative Silencer Model no.ruskin. B-10 LAG/QFA-9 www.com/catalog/default.com .569-1294 or 1-413-789-1770 Ruskin Rectangular Elbow Silencer Model No.com Phone # 1-800. ELBLP-10 Tubular Dissipative Silencer Model no. A-60. 2009 Trident3 firstname.lastname@example.org?folder=597 Phone # 1-816-761-7476 McGill Airsilence http://www.net Pg 11 of 11 Suggested: Products Sound Seal Duct Lagging Model no.General Procedure and Information for Mechanical System Sound Abatement Design Bill Greco April 16.
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