DISTILLATION DESIGN

STAGES VERSUS REFLUX
• INCREASED REFLUX
– FEWER TRAYS
– LOWER INITIAL CAPITAL COST
– HIGHER OPERATING COST
• INCREASED NUMBER OF TRAYS
– LOWER REFLUX
– HIGHER INITIAL CAPITAL COST
– LOWER OPERATING COST
EXAMPLE
• START WITH
EQUILIBRIUM
DIAGRAM
• DEFINE OPERATING
CONCENTRATIONS
• DETERMINE FEED
CONDITIONS
• CALCULATE R
dMIN





• SELECT R
dDZN
= 2
y
0
= 0.3
• LOCATE STRIPPING
OPERATING LINE
• CALCULATE
STAGES
ACETONE(1)/BENZENE(2) COLUMN
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
X ACETONE)
Y
(
A
C
E
T
O
N
E
)
x
B
x
F
x
D
02 . 1
1
1
0
0
=
÷ =
+
=
dMIN
D
dMIN
dMIN
D
R
y
x
R
R
x
y
PROCESS IMPACTS
• REFLUX
– R
dMIN
REQUIRES INFINITE STAGES
– INCREASES REFLUX INCREASESS THE
DRIVING FORCE
– REDUCES THE NUMBER OF STAGES
• NUMBER OF STAGES
– N
MIN
REQUIRES TOTAL REFLUX
– ADDING STAGES REDUCES NECESSARY
DRIVING FORCE

STAGE VS. REFLUX RELATIONSHIP
• RUNNING A SERIES OF CHECKS FOR NUMBER OF
STAGES VS. REFLUX YIELDS
• ERBAR-MADDOX CHART GILLILAND CHART
PERRY’S FIGURE 13-41
STAGE VS. REFLUX RELATIONSHIP
• CORRELATION FOR GILLILAND BY
MOLOKANOV:
1
1
2 . 117 11
4 . 54 1
exp 1
1
5 . 0
+
÷
= +
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
÷ =
+
÷
R
R R
N
N N
MIN
MIN
http://www.hyper-tvt.ethz.ch/gif/gilliland2.gif
Molokanov, International Chemical
Engineering, 12(2), 209, 1972
COLUMN ENTHALPY BALANCES
• CONTROL VOLUMES
FOR COLUMNS
• TOP OF COLUMN
– OVERALL

– CONDENSER



– SENSIBLE HEAT
EFFECTS ARE A FACTOR
McCabe, Smith & Harriott, Unit Operations of
Chemical Engineering, 4
th
Ed., 1985, p 479.
D n n c n n
Dh h L q H V + = +
+ + 1 1
)] * ( )[ (
*)] ( [
0
1
D Pl
c Pv D a
T T c D L
q T T c V
÷ +
= + ÷ + ì
COLUMN ENTHALPY BALANCES
• BOTTOM OF COLUMN
– OVERALL

– REBOILER

• OVERALL FOR COLUMN
1 1 + +
+ = +
m m B r m m
H V Bh q h L
b b r
V q ì =
B D LOSSES r c F
Bh Dh q q q Fh + = + + +
TRAY DESIGN FACTORS
• EFFICIENCY IS APPROACH
TO EQUILIBRIUM
– OVERALL
• APPLIES FOR CONSTANT
DRIVING FORCE
– MURPHREE

• BASED ON LOCAL DRIVING
FORCES
• PROVIDES MORE ACCURATE
STAGE COUNT
– LOCAL
• CONSIDERS VARIATIONS AT
LOCATION ON TRAY
IDEAL
ACTUAL
OVER
N
N
= q
) 2 5 . 11 (
1
*
1
÷
÷
÷
=
+
+
n n
n n
M
y y
y y
q
http://www.hyper-tvt.ethz.ch/gif/tray_efficiency.gif
APPLICATION OF η
M
• USING MURPHREE EFFICIENCY RESULTS IN AN
EFFECTIVE EQUILIBRIUM LINE
“STAGES” IN PACKED COLUMNS
• HETP = HEIGHT OF THEORETICAL PLATE
• TOTAL PACKED HEIGHT




• HETP DEPENDS ON
– TYPE OF PACKING
– HYDRODYNAMICS
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= =
V L
m
V L
m
HETP HTU z NTU HTU z
OG OG OG
ln
1
HETP DATA
• PACKING VENDORS PROVIDE DATA FOR
ESTIMATES OF HETP
• VALUES ARE SPECIFIC
TO MEASURED
SYSTEMS
• CAN SHOW
FLOODING LIMITS



http://www.jaeger.com/Brochure/500.pdf
OTHER HETP VALUES
• HETP COMPARISON
– INDUSTRIAL COLUMNS
• 5 – 100 PLATES
• LARGE DIAMETERS
– CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMNS
• 1000 – 100,000 PLATES
• SMALL DIAMETERS AND CAN BE AFFECTED BY FLOW RATES
http://www.chem.usu.edu/~sbialko
w/Classes/361/GC/GC.html
D. C. Harris Quantitative
Chemical Analysis 4th Ed., W. H.
Freeman and Company, New
York 1995 Chapters 22 and 23.
HETP CORRELATIONS
• GENERAL CORRELATIONS FROM TEXT
SECTION 11.5E:
f t f t f t a f t HETP
m m m a m HETP
STRUCTURED
f t in d f t HETP
m mm d m HETP
VACUUM RANDOM
in d f t HETP
mm d m HETP
RANDOM
P
P
P
P
33 . 0 ) / ( / 100 ) (
10 . 0 ) / ( / 100 ) (
) 13 5 . 11 ( :
5 . 0 ) ( 5 . 1 ) (
15 . 0 ) ( 018 . 0 ) (
) 12 5 . 11 ( :
) ( 5 . 1 ) (
) ( 018 . 0 ) (
) 11 5 . 11 ( :
3 2
3 2
+ =
+ =
÷
+ =
+ =
÷
=
=
÷
STABLE (EFFICIENT) OPERATION
• STABILITY EXISTS
BETWEEN FLOODING
AND WEEPING
• FLOODING IS THE
UPPER LIMIT FOR
FLUXES
– BASED ON EXCESS ΔP
– NORMALLY GAS
PHASE CONTROL
– ENTRAINMENT CAN
LIMIT EFFICIENCY
http://texasiof.ces.utexas.edu/PDF/
Presentations/Mar3_05/srp%20dzya
cky%20finite%20reflux.pdf
PACKED COLUMN STABLITY
• HETP VALUES CHANGE WITH
HYDRODYNAMICS
Douglas L. Bennett and Kenneth W. Kovak, Optimize Distillation
Columns, Chemical Engineering Progress, May 2000
STABLE OPERATING RANGES
• CAN BE EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF ΔP
DESIGN FLUX
• FLOODING RESTRICTIONS FOR TRAY COLUMNS


– VALUES ARE BASED ON ENTRAINMENT
• OTHER LIMITS FROM WEEPING MUST BE
DETERMINED THROUGH NORMAL OPERATION
– CAN USE RECYCLE TO RUN AT MINIMUM FLUX – AT
A PRICE.
– SIEVE TRAYS HAVE NARROW RANGE OF OPERATION
– CAP AND VALVE TRAYS CAN OPERATE AT LOWER
TURNDOWN RATIOS
– VALVES HAVE LESS OPEN AREA WITH REDUCED GAS
FLUX


) 14 . 5 . 11 (
20
v
2 . 0
µ
µ µ o
v l
v MAX
K v
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
FOAMING IMPACTS
• FOAMING CAN ALSO
IMPACT STABILITY
• DIFFICULT TO
PREDICT
• A CHALLENGE TO
ELIMINATE
• LESS OF A PROBLEM
WITH PACKED BEDS

http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?c
ategoryId=4005991&contentId=7010506
http://www.cheresources.com/distgroupnewsone.pdf
MULTIPLE FEEDS/DRAW-OFFS
• INTERNAL COLUMN
FLOWS CHANGE
DUE TO -
– FEEDS
– DRAW-OFFS
– HEAT EXCHANGES
PERRY’S 7
th
, SECTION 13, P. 13-94
MODIFIED McCABE DIAGRAM
• OPERATING LINES CHANGE FOR EACH
SECTION
ACETONE(1)/BENZENE(2) COLUMN
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
X ACETONE)
Y
(
A
C
E
T
O
N
E
)