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Softening Finishes

Softening Finishes

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Published by özgür Dal
Softening Finishes
Softening Finishes

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Published by: özgür Dal on Jan 12, 2013
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Softening finishes

Xiaoli zhang

some smoothness.3. . textiles can achieve an agreeable. more flexibility and better drape and pliability. soft hand(supple. sleek and fluffy). pliant.1 Introduction  With chemical softeners.

3. .2 Mechanisms of the softening effect    Softeners provide their main effects on the surface of the fibres ; The physical arrangement of the usual softener molecules on the fibre surface is important ; It depends on the ionic nature of the softener molecule and the relative hydrophobicity of the fibre surface.


but most have 18 corresponding to the stearyl residue. About one-third of the softeners used in the textile industry are silicone based. paraffins and polyethylene softeners. Exceptions to this molecular structure are the special categories of silicones. sometimes branched. .3. of more than 16 and up to 22 carbon atoms.3 Product types and their chemistry    The softener molecules typically contain a long alkyl group.

Inherent ecological disadvantages of many conventional (unmodified) quaternary ammonium compounds (quaternaries) are fish toxicity and poor biodegradability. Cationic softeners attract soil.4. . may cause yellowing upon exposure to high temperatures and may adversely affect the lightfastness of direct and reactive dyes.1 Cationic softeners      Cationic softeners have the best softness and are reasonably durable to laundering. provide a hydrophobic surface and poor rewetting properties. usually not compatible with anionic products.3.

provide strong antistatic effects and good rewetting properties. easily be washed off. compatible with other components of dye and bleach baths.2 Anionic softeners     heat stable at normal textile processing temperatures.4.3. .

Examples of the betaine and the amine oxide type .3 Amphoteric softeners      good softening effects. have fewer ecological problems than similar cationic products.4. low permanence to washing . high antistatic effects (because of their strong ionic character).3.

4.3. and are reasonably priced and compatible with most textile chemicals. .4 Non-ionic softeners based on paraffin and polyethylene     high lubricity (reduced surface friction) . not durable to dry cleaning. stable to extreme pH conditions and heat at normal textile processing conditions.

abrasion resistance and tear strength. high lubricity. crease recovery. show good temperature stability and durability. special unique hand.3. elastic resilience. good sewability. .5 Silicone softeners   very high softness. with a high degree of permanence for those products that form crosslinked films and a range of properties from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.4.



3.7 Evaluation and testing methods   Important components of the sensory perception are the smoothness. compressibility and elasticity of the textile sample. As the hand of fabrics is primarily a subjective feeling – similar to the impression of colour – there have been many efforts to find methods for objective evaluation of the fabric hand. .

 Relatively simple methods to evaluate only the bending properties of fabric (flex rigidity) are the cantilever method and a similar device called Softometer. .

Handle-O-Meter  The Handle-O-Meter is another method in which different kinds of deformation have a simultaneous effect on the sample. . resulting in a total value for the hand.

.KES-F  The most comprehensive but most expensive method of objective hand evaluation was developed by Kawabata and co-workers21–23 and is called KESF(Kawabata Evaluation System-Fabrics).

FAST   FAST (Fabric Assurance by Simple Testing) is another well known system. extension and dimensional stability at a few given points in a simplified form. bending. FAST is less expensive and much quicker than the KES-F because it measures only some aspects of the fabric hand such as compression. .It was developed for quality assessment in the wool garment industry.

8 Particulars of and troubleshooting for softening finishes        Emulsion stability Softeners and thermomigration of dyes Reactive softeners Volatility Yellowing Deeper colour. darker black Mechanical softening .3.

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