ESSAY-WRITING The word essay is defined in “The Concise Oxford Dictionary” as „a literary composition (usually prose e short) on any subject.‟ Accordingly, it is a written composition giving expression to one‟s own personal ideas or opinions on some topic, an event a situation, an object or a problem. It is a presentation based on ones experience and perceptions. Here more than the originality of an idea, the approach of the writer is valued. Essay is written in a personal style. Characteristics of a Good Essay:UNITY: - An essay must have unity, i.e. developing on them with a definite purpose. ORDER: - The essay should follow a certain ordered line of thought e come to a definite conclusion. It should not consist of haphazard reflections put down any how. These should not only the unity of subject but also unity of treatment. BREVITY: - Essays should not the exceptional long. The limit should be maintained. It should be a brief exercise, concisely expressed. STYLE: - The style of an essay should be dignified e literary. A long, colloquial terms, and free a easy instruction should be avoided. Also it is mistake to attempt any flights of fine writing. The language a sentence construction should be simple, directs natural. PERSONAL TOUCH: - An essay should serve the personal feelings of the writer. It should have the individuality of the writer. Essay is written in a personal style with the reader in mind. If a reader does not enjoy reading it, then the purpose in defeated. Essays are generally classified into the following five types: (i) Narrative Essay:- incidents or happenings are narrated chronologically in a narrative essay. We try to give a sequential account of the happenings. We adept the approach as style of a narrator or story letter, trying to


gradually move towards the main events or climax. Narrative essay may deal with (a) Historical stories or legend (the reign of Akbar). (b)Biographies (life of Babar). (c) Incidents (a street quarrel). (d)An accident or natural disaster (flood, fire). (e) A journey & voyage. (f) A story (real/imaginary). (ii) Descriptive Essay:- Here the writes describes an object, a place, an event or a natural phenomenon. One tries to create visual images and works on the subject like a painter. e.g. Organic life, My favorite film star. (iii) Expository/Reflective Essay:- it contains the thoughts of its author on some subject- an idea arising in the mind. It consists of reflections or thoughts on a particular topic, which is generally of an abstract nature for e.g. (a) Habits, qualities (thrift, cowardice, heroism). (b)Social, political & domestic topics (riches & poverty, government). (c) Philosophical subjects (reality, consciousness). (d)Religious & theological topics. (iv) Argumentative Essay:- It deals with subject on which people hold conflicting views and opinion. They are written on topics which can be debated and on which people can advance heated arguments for & against the view. e.g. (a) Should banks be privatized? (b) Should India go Nuclear? (v) Imaginative Essay:- here we imagine ourselves in a situation or take up a hypothetical position. One can indulge in flights of fancy & give expression to ones faculty of imagination. e.g. (a) The autobiography of horse. (b) If I were a multi-millionaire.


STRUCTURE OF ESSAY An essay should have an appropriate structure. If ideas are presented loosely, they will not carry conviction. Hence it is necessary to arrange ideas systematically & ensure the essay gets unity. Hence we should follow the three tier structure in essay: (i) Introduction/Beginning. (ii) Middle/Main Body. (iii) End/Conclusion. Introduction:- Should inform the reader of the topic. A good beginning is very necessary. Some ways of beginning are: (a) Define the topic. This introduction is effective in reflective essays. (b)Pose a question to arouse the interest of the reader. But later in the essay, you have to supply an answer to the question raised. This beginning in effective in reflective & argumentative essays. (c) Begun an essay with a quotation relevant is the topic. (d)Start with a personal anecdote or experience. (e) Begin by describing a scene or a situation. Introduction is followed by the Main body:- It contains ones description of an object, scene, events, natural phenomenon or ones‟ views on any problem. The ideas collected are presented in the section. The ideas are arranged in a logical order & presented in different paragraphs. One paragraph should have one main idea or theme. All the paragraphs should be connected- one leading to another. This gives unity to the essay. The ideas should be discussed properly & supported with examples illustration Discussion is the main body leads to conclusion. It must emerge naturally. The conclusion can tie a brief summary, a restatement of ones viewpoint or emphasis upon the solution to a problem. It can also be a brief reminder of the main events. PLANNING THE ESSAY First understand the topic, & decide whether one has sufficient ideas on the topics. Determine the line of thought one wishes follow. Next get down the ideas as they occur. The ideas that have been

The conclusion must be stated clearly & firmly. neither is it a paraphrase. It is a gist of the passage. Complex sentence structure should be avoided. It should be lucid. should be carefully avoided. Précis is not putting in different words. Précis writing is an exercise in compression. It is a piece of continuous writing & to be effective. „A précis may be defined as a restatement in shortened form of the main idea and points in a piece of writing. Think of an attractive beginning. one idea in one paragraph. . Lastly use simple language.e. But at the same time précis is not creative writing. original & arresting. violent statement etc. views etc. succinct & full i. To conducts. It is pronounced „Pray – see‟. PRÉCIS WRITING The word „précis‟ is derived from French. Do not overload an essay with statistics. It is harmonious blending of „thought‟ & „expression‟. It is merely a condensed reproduction of the original writes ideas. Qualities of a Good Précis (i) Completeness:. The arrangement should be logical. The essay must have an impression that it is a well integrated pattern of thought. The sentences should be short & simple. Give the different aspects of the topic. It should not omit any important facts or ideas. nor a list of the main points. be concise & to the point. meaning „exact‟ or „terse‟. essay is a very sensitive form of self expression. It should be fresh.‟ There are no fixed rules about the length of a précis but ordinarily it should contain one third of the number of words in the original passage. The language should be free from grammatical & spelling mistakes. Never be irrelevant. expressed in one‟s own language. It should not be vague & shabby. including all essential points. logical sequencing of points & the use of simple language. Your thought should show logical development & must not the jumbled. It should have proper organization of ideas. Decide on the examples & illustration.A précis should cover the essential contents of the given passage. avoid difficult & unfamiliar words.4 jotted fall into a certain category try to arrange the ideas into different categories. Avoid all repetitions. Than arrange these ideas & prepare an outline. Vague generalizations.

Compare your draft with the original for any omissions. Put down the main theme in a phrase or sentence. (II) Keeps the same sequence of events. Without reading the original one should be able to get the main message through the précis. presenting the arguments logically.5 (ii) Clarity:. in the right hand corner the number of Words used. Select the essential points. Cut it down to the required length. Prepare your first draft on the basis of underlined key words. Read through the passage again. got them down. If it is more then the sequential limit. TEN STEPS TO PRECIS WRITING (I) To understand the passage. spellings.A précis must be brief & concise. read it carefully. clauses and sentences. Irrelevancies etc. Write in brackets. & reject the rest. phrases/ clauses gives a poor show. arguments etc. It should be a coherent piece of writing. ideas. Prepare the final draft neatly. A smaller version of the original by mere omission of words. as the original passage. this time underline the key words. phrases. Phrase etc. DO’S FOR PRECIS WRITING (I) Use your own language as for as possible. (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) (VIII) (IX) (X) . (iii) Conciseness:. Think of a suitable title. Write „rough‟ on the top of your first draft and cross them Out. Read the revised draft paying attention to punctuations.It should express the meaning of the original passage clarity & be free from all ambiguities. change only for the lack of clarity. and grammar. go through the draft again and delete unnecessary details. Check the length of the précis.

are called personal letters. Do not divide your précis into paragraphs unless the original passage is very long. The ability to adapt oneself to the readers‟ point of view is the basic requirement of a good letters. Do not give any title unless specifically required. customers.” Hence conversing with friends/relations by post. . Letters written to other firms and companies. has to maintain contact with the external world including other businessmen. seeking information or advice. but they can make only a temporary impression on the receivers‟ mind & they are quite expensive too. (IV) Give maximum information within the required limit. such as selling a product. telegraph etc. making an enquiry. Do not make any comments. are called business letters. With those separated by distance. A business letters must therefore appeal to the reader‟s interest & induce in him the proper mood. (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) LETTER WRITING NEED OF A BUSINESS LETTER:Correspondence is one of the chief means of keeping oneself in contact. (V) Use indirect speech and third person. examples and illustrations. Their aim is to achieve a definite purpose. big or small.6 (III) Drop figures of speech. “a piece of conversation by post. In a passage devoted entirely to illustrations. use the same in a compressed form. customers and government departments. telex. Hence despite the availability of modern means of quick & convenient ways of transmitting humans sound. govt. creating good will etc. Do not change any facts. DON’TS FOR PRECIS WRITING Avoid copying from the original. Of course there exists other means of communication. letters are as important ago. like telephone. suppliers. offices etc. A letter is really. Every business.

(a) Avoid Verbosity:. Consideration for the reader‟s interests.a study reveals that there is lot of deadwood & verbosity in business correspondence.It is more polite to directly state the information one needs or the action required. than to suggest it by a negative statement. Directness & Conciseness: Transmission of maximum information by using minimum words should be one‟s aim in letters writing. creates good will and produce a favorable response. Promptness: Respond to the letters the day it is received or else acknowledge the letter.7 PRINCIPLES: Courtesy & consideration:. etc. figures. . The language of a business letters should be familiar. Sincerity & truthfulness convince the most. Salesmanship: Every letters one sends should be an ambassador of ones firm. They should have necessary tact & courtesy. This does not mean that the writer should completely suppress his own interests. Good will is a great asset for an organization and courtesy in correspondence is one of the most natural & economical means of building it. Clear and concise letters are able to arrest the attention of the reader. It is a good practice to verify them before including it in the letters. statement.One must observe the basic principle of social relationship & regard for others feelings. (b)Positive & Direct Statement:. It must carry a message & enhance ones reputation. must be accurately mentioned. Courtesy softens the sting of an unpleasant piece of information. needs & desires is known as the you-attitude. One should avoid these & try to be direct & simple. Clarity & Precision: A simple expression & a clear thinking are the two most important virtues of effective writing. avoid using formal style. Accuracy. Completeness & Clarity: All fact.

Internal letters or memos are used both in govt. (ii) The matter is of confidential nature. offices & business houses for internal communication. D. (V) It is used to build good will. .O. Business letters are non-personal letters. (IV) It is used as a legal document. Business letters can be classified as official letters. but save lot of time & labour. Form letters are used for correspondence of recurring or routine nature. They are used in case of acknowledgements. appointments etc. informal style. demiofficial (D.8 FUNCTION OF A BUSINESS LETTER (I) A business letter serves as a record for future reference. letters may be written if (i) The matter require personal attention of the addressee. reminders interviews. KINDS OF LETTER Broadly speaking letters can be classified as personal and nonpersonal. (III) Since it can reach anywhere. they have a standard form with some blanks left in them which are filled in and sent to the addressees. (iii) The matter is urgent and requires immediate disposal. in a friendly. Official letters are written to govt. Demi-official or D. letters are official in purpose but are addressed to a person by name. Form letters lack personal touch. form letters etc. internal letters or memos. or semi-government bodies. (II) It leaves a more lasting impression on the receiver‟s mind than an oral message.O. notices. They are written to friends/relations etc. Personal letters are informal.O.) letters. it is used to widen the area of operations. written to exchange news or to seek-favor.

g.” the appearance of a letters often reveals the characters of the writer & the organization.g. telegraphic address etc. (ii) (iii) CHAUKSE OIL MILLS . Elements of Structure:The following elements usually constitute the structure of a business letters. (xi) Identification marks. (ix) Complimentary close. 2004/ March 3.Most business organizations use printed letter heads for correspondence. the telephone no. (v) Attention line.9 STRUCTURE & LAY-OUT First as “apparel off proclaims the man. (viii) Body. Stating the reference helps quick & easy future reference. Both methods are acceptable.. The purpose of reference is to enable replies to be linked with the previous correspondence & also to send replies to these letters to the proper office or department. 2004. (i) Heading:. References:. Date:. e. (xii) Enclosure. 3 march. (vi) Salutation. month & year is indicated e. The date. (vii) Subject. It contains the name. (i) Heading.Some letters heads contains a printed line indicating where the date should be typed. (ii) Date. address. (iii) Reference. (x) Signature.It is the number assigned to a letter. (iv) Inside address.

Misses plural of Mrs. It is placed two spaces below attention line or if not below inside address. its like greeting a person when one meets another. For married/unmarried women. streets.10 Gokhale Market. firms. Bombay Road Akola . for if you misspell a name. “Colonel”. it gives an impression that you have little respect for the person. The choice of salutation depends upon the personal relationship between the writer & the reader. plural of Mr. Miss. Shetti (M. e. roads etc.D. (b)titles of rank are used as under: (i) Dr. “Rao Bahadur”. Salutation:. Messrs.The full address of the person or organization addressing to should be written two spaces below the date. (v) Attention Line:. K. Attention: The sales Manager. “Reverend”. These details should not be abbreviated. etc. This is done by writing an attention line two spaces below the inside address & two spaces above salutation. (ii) Col. Sometimes (vi) . Shri G. “Doctor”. Ms. should be written. Ph. Honolli Commerce College Gadag.444001 Your Ref:Our Ref:(iv) Inside address:.) Some titles used are: “Sir”. or Shri for men both married/unmarried Miss for unmarried women.g.To ensure prompt attention. The names of persons. “Padma Shri”. J. Mode of address: (a) Mr.C. sometimes a letters which is addressed to a firm/company is marked is a particular officer. B./ Shrimati for married women.A.It is an essential ingredient in a letter. e. And special attention should be given to spellings of names. Frani.g. “Professor”.

Yours sincerely. My dear Sri/Smt. Yours sincerely. The close must agree with the salutation.It is a courteous leave taking – a polite way of ending a letter. (viii) Body:. (vii) Subject:.The main purpose of a letter is to convey a message & the main purpose of the message is to produce a suitable response in the reader.11 sales & circular letters are addressed as „Dear Customers‟. This is done through the body of a letters. Yours obediently Yours faithfully. if any. (or) Yours ever. The paras that follow should contain further details. Dear Madams/Madam. wishes or intentions. Yours sincerely. it is important to organize & arrange the material very carefully./Kum. e./Kum.g.The purpose of subject line is to let the reader know immediately what the message is about. (iv) Dear XYZ. „Dear Reader‟. XYX. (ii) Dear sir. (iii) Dear Sri/Smt. reference to any correspondence should be given & in the second the main message should be stated. „Dear Subscriber‟. etc. My dear XYZ. (v) Dear member/Customer/ Reader/Subscriber . XYX. (or) yours truly. In the first paragraph. (ix) Complimentary Close:. Therefore. „Dear Member‟. The closing paragraph should indicate your expectation. Salutation (i) Sir Complimentary Close Yours faithfully.

which is conventional where the main parts of the letter are punctuated. Margins in a letter add to its attractiveness.. For making a favorable initial impression. 2.It is the signed name of the writes. Generally. e. The initials of the offices who dictated the letters are put first. N. Goswami & typed by Ms. STYLE OF PRESENTATION There are several styles for writing business letters..E.12 (x) Signature:. Encl: 1. it is necessary to choose a good quality paper. a one inch margin is left on the sides & 1 ½ inches on the top & bottom. it must be indicated against the enclosure line. The last two initial slow only the typist‟s initials. Resume Apart from this some other things are to be kept in mind while writing a letter. Identification Marks:. Honey Shah. house no. then the identification marks will be as follows: LNG/HI (or) LNG:HI. Lastly the modern tendency is to omit unnecessary commas & full stops & to use Open punctuation. e. The standard size of paper used is 8 ½ by 11 inches.g. Or HI/hi. Mark sheets of B. Mixed punctuation is that where a coma is put after date. If the letter has been dictated by Shri L. They are:- ..These marks are put in the left margin to identify the typist of the letter. Secondly most business letters are typed coz typing saves time & gives a tidy appearance to the letter.g. The third style is Close punctuation. Here punctuation marks are used only in the body of the letter. Envelopes used should be of a suitable size & minimum folds must be there in a letter.If anything is attached to the letters. It is below the complimentary close. The most commonly used style by business houses is the mixed punctuation. (xi) (xii) Enclosure:. salutation and complimentary close & a full stop follows the last line of the inside address.

. Ltd.-.. .. Bhauderi Trading Co..... Closed punctuation is used.. Secretary.-.-----.......-...-----....... (2) Block style.-----.. Mathura Road.....-----...-.............-...-----...-......-----..............-..-..-----..-----..2004 The United Commercial Bank Ltd..-.-.-.-..-.... Yours faithfully XYZ. (5) Hanging-Indented style...-----.......... 434......--.....-........... New Delhi-110001 October 30.-----.......110001 Dear sir...-----. Each new element is indented (space from margin) 2 or 4 spaces.........-----..-----...-----......-.Oldest form of business letter..-----...-..........-.-----...-..-... (3) Complete-Block style.-.....---.-----..-..-----.-...-.-----......-.-We are grateful --.-.--...-..-----. Please refer to --.. (1) Indented Style:..........-----.....-... ASB/1g.....-----...-...-----..-.................. New Delhi .....--.-----.-..-----..-... 1133.......-......-...-----.........-.-..... Mahatma Gandhi Road..-----....----------................ (4) Semi-Block style..-----......13 (1) Indented style...

-----------........-----------.-. Jahangir Road Ahmedabad -380003 10 September 2004................-.. Divisions between elements & paras of body of letter are indicated by double spacing.-..-----.-----.-----....-................-----------.-......-----.......-----....-..-----.......-damaged condition -----.......I shall be -----...-.-.... I regret -----.-----........-----....-----.-........14 (2) Block Style:..-......-.......Here the date line...--------...-...-..-. complimentary close & signature are aligned...--..-......-..... Mixed punctuation is used.-----------....-----------. all other elements excepts head are set flush left........ Dear sir. Bharat Aluminum Corporation 303......-----------..... Your Ref: 43-PA/04 Our Ref: POC-30u The General Manager Shahi Cements Sarangpura Ghaziabad – 201001..--- .-....... with right margin..-...

-...........-... Letter saves more time. Coz indentation is not required........15 --------.-----..All parts.. except the printed letters head are aligned with the left margin...-.....-----. Open punctuation used..-----------.. Yours Faithfully XYZ Purchase Officer (3) Complete Block:.... But some don‟t like it for it appear imbalanced & heavy on left side. .-.-----....-..-----------.......-----.-...

recommendations. introductions. invitations. & receivers address. Promptness is the key to success in social correspondence. body. e. Social Correspondence Letters are written to fulfill social obligations or to meet personal need which may not be directly related to our official or professional activities. salutation. condolences.16 (4) Semi-Block:. The following seven parts usually constitute the structure of a social letters: senders address. casualness. letters of congratulations. Mixed punctuation used. signature. Some letters are like.g. but they have an air of ease & intimacy. Senders Address Date . etc. date. complimentary close. letters conveying acceptances & regrets.This is like the block style except that the paragraphs of the letter are indented. The format & style of these letters is same as the business letters.

..------------....-...-..-----------......-.................. TESTIMONIAL:.-----------..------------..................-....-...------------.. (v)Complimentary close Signature Receiver‟s Address.....-..........------------.....-----------...-........-...-.----------...-...-----------................ It may be written by an officer for an employee......-.. It can be referred to as a letters of recommendation from a reliable & respectable third party.-.-----------..-...-.-...------------...-----.......-.............-..-.........-............. Usually it is a statement about the experience.-----.........------------. .......-....------------....It is a recommendation made for a person in general terms..17 Salutation ( Body) -----------.-.......-----.----------..-----..-----.-............ It is a certificate testifying the character & qualifications of the person/applicant....-...-.-....------------..........-----..-----..-----......-----......-...-.-........ abilities and qualities of a person.-----------.-----------......

 Often includes recommendations. are taken on the basic of information presented or recommendations made in reports. A commission or committee. Report writing develops the power of discrimination. a study group or a panel is required to present its findings/recommendations in the form of a report. It has rightly been said that for running an industry or business efficiently the skill of report writing is as necessary as good equipment & quality raw materials.  It is presented in a conventional form. Importance:A report is a „basic management tool used in decision-making‟. Re = back + portare = to carry. letters and news items are reports. organization. Many have tried to define report: “A report is a communication from someone who has information to someone who wants to use that information.” .  Includes information about procedure of collecting data & significance of such data. . industry or govt. Thus broadly speaking many memos.  It is written for a specific audience. A report is a description of an event carried back to someone who was not present on the scene.18 BUSINESS & TECHNICAL REPORT Characteristics:The word „report‟ is derived from the Latin „reportare’ which means to carry back.C. A large no. Brown The essential points are:  A report is a formal statement of facts or information or an account of something. A report differs from other composition. judgment & communication & decision making. of important decision in business.  It contains conclusion of the writer. it is a conventional form written to meet some specific need or requirement. A.

Types of Business Report:We can classify business reports into(1) On the basis of legal formalities we can have. Oral report tends is be vague. A written report can be referred to again & again. . monthly. 2. semi-annually. weakly or daily. An oral report is a piece of faceto-face communication. fortnightly. Formal & Informal reports: Formal reports: it is prepared in a prescribed form & is presented according to an established procedure to a prescribed authority. They may be submitted annually. It is relatively more accurate & permanent. Formal reports can be statutory (presented according to the form & produce laid down by low) or non-statutory (not required under any low). An oral report can be denied at any time. But a written report is a permanent record. But a written report is always preferred. Informal reports: It is usually in the form of a person-to-person communication. Special reports: They are related to a single occasion/situation. It is simple & easy to present.19 TYPES OF REPORT Reports may be oral or written. They may be in the form of a letter. to several pages of detailed information. 3. prescribed intervals. memo etc. (2) On the basis of the frequency of issue: Periodic/Routine reports: They are prepared & presented at regular. The reporter cannot deny what he has reported first. 4. A written report can change hands without any danger of distortion during transmission. They deal with non-recurrent problems. It enjoys several advantages over oral reports: 1. it may range from a sheet. Such reports contain a mere statement of fact without any recommendation. fragmentary statement of facts on a single page. the write tries to be accurate & precise. It may be about something seen or absorbed. In written report.

In any long term project work. fact-finding report. & makes recommendations. . Laboratory Report:. draws conclusions. The following elements generally constitute a lab report: (i) Heading (ii) Experiment No. lay-out of a residential colony or installation of an equipment in a factory. put together in a logical order. if it analyses the facts. An informational report contains only the data collected or the facts observed in an organized form. findings & conclusions. A lab report is an account of the various steps. it is informative on the other hand. Types of Routine Report:Progress Report:. Inspection Report:. (iii) Date (IV) Object (v) Apparatus used (vi) Method/Procedure (vii) Observations (viii) Conclusion (ix) Signature. verify the modifications or to examine the validity of the research findings. Such a report is also called recommendation or recommendatory report. performance report.20 (3) On the basis of function: If a report merely presents facts pertinent to an issue or situation. technical report. It may have recommendations for action. The project may be construction of bridges. Whereas an interpretative report contains facts. it may be described as Analytical/interpretative or investigative report. (4) On the basis of the nature of the subject draft with.Is the experiment carried out in a laboratory to last a theory. but it also includes an evaluation/interpretation or analysis of data & the reporters conclusion. buildings. we have reports by individuals and reports by committees/sub-committees. (5) On the basis of the number of persons entrusted with the drafting of reports. we have problem determining report. the administration keeps itself informed through progress reports.They are of 2 types: (i) Inspection done on a piece of equipment to find out whether it is functioning properly or requires some repairs/replacement.

transfer etc. promotions. at regular intervals. Acknowledgements 8. Table of Contents 9. main body. It is done to determine whether a person is efficient or not. Copy Right Notice 5. 4. Introduction Discussion/Description Conclusions Recommendation.Periodic evaluation of the performance & general conduct of the employees are made at appropriate times for rewards such as increments. Back Matter:- . furniture. Preface 7. stationary etc. Forwarding Letters 6. title Page 4. back matter. ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE Reports are mainly divided into: front matter. Annual Confidential Report:. Frontispiece.21 (ii) Report which indicates the result of inspection of a product as a part of quality control. Cover 2.It is customary to take stock of equipment. 3. Front Matter:1. Abstract & Summary. List of Illustrations 10. 3. Main Body:1. Inventory Report:. 2.

memo-graphs. It contains all information given on the cover. No part of this report may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. the subtitle. number (if any). The McGraw-Hill companies.It generally appears in bound reports meant for wide circulation. Title Page:. Frontispiece:. FRONT MATTER Cover:. articles.22 Appendices List of References Bibliography Glossary Index. introduction & discussion/description are obligatory. 3. date. 1.They are of 2 types: Covering & Introductory. The cover usually contain the title of the report. hence we should not crowd it with information. the first type serves simply as a record of transmission & is not bound with the report. 4. photographs. Forwarding Letters:. It protects the manuscript from damage & gives the report a neat appearance. 5. top secret) etc. author‟s name. The introductory letters helps to establish a .It is usually made of white or some soft. and also. From the above elements.. etc. These elements are generally applicable to formal writings such as articles. neutral-colored card. It is a window display which ignites the curiosity of the reader. The cover is the first impression. The inside of the front cover & both the insides & outside of the back cover are usually left blank. research papers. The form most of times used are map. classification (secret. books etc. the title page.It is given in the inside of the title page as: @ 1999. Sometimes the following note is added: All rights reserved. Both are written for the primary recipient of the report. Copyright Notice:. drawing etc.It is usually the first right hand page of the report. job no. 2.

precis. A reader interested in knowing the extent of coverage will be satisfied with the abstract. A summary presents the report in a nutshell.Here we mention diligently. the memos of persons & organizations who have helped in the production of the report. There are a few differences between abstract & summary according to different writes. then he needs a summary. List of Illustrations:.Most reports contain a synopsis (also called abstract.It gives the reader an overall view of the report. of table & figures a separate listing is done soon after the table of contents. MAIN BODY . we tell the scope. The preface should not be confused with the foreword. contents & purpose of the report briefly. and a summary gives the substance of the report. Abstract & Summary:. Here page nos are carefully checked against each topic & subtopic. Acknowledgments:. It is however generally agreed that the length of an abstract should be about 2-5% of the original. whereas if he wants to know the method of analysis. It gives the information about the no. Here besides mentioning the title. epitome. important conclusion & recommendations made. without any illustration & explanations. significant findings.It introduces the report. the letter is usually written by an authority or expert in the field. title & page no. Table of Contents:.If there are large no. The main difference is that of function. While the former is written by the author himself. of each illustration. An abstract tells in concentrated form what the report is about. & help him locate a particular topic or sub-topic easily. Preface:. not the subject-matters. digest) which is a report in miniature.23 report with the reader. whereas that of the summary between 5-10%. By its nature an abstract is shorter than a summary..

Conclusion:. BACK MATTER Appendices:. The major function here is to tell what the report is about. Its function is to bring the discussion/description to an end. sample documents. It refer to the logical inferences drown & the judgments formed on the basis of analysis.  Scope/Limitation & problem & purpose. Here  Historical/Technical background. detailed calculations. It is such that the reader can safely omit it without any loss of understanding the contents of the report. Some writes follow the backward order i. Are included.It is the remarks at the end of a piece of writing. what work has already been done on the subject & what new grounds have been covered.This presents a betters starting point to the reader.The information collected is presented & related to the problem it discusses or describes the main business of the report.24 Introduction:. . discuss this significance and analysis & the result that flows there from.e. The main function of this part is to present data in an organized form.In some reports the conclusions & recommendations are combined as they are closely associated. Discussion or Description:.  Deference of special terms/Symbols etc. Generally the kinds of material included in the appendix are questionnaires. first stating the result 7 then describing how they arrived at it. derivations. needed to support the main body of the report but is too detailed or voluminous to be included in the text.  Origin/Source & method of collecting data. Thus is not set procedure for writing this. statistical data. The function of recommendation is to suggest the future course of action.An appendix contains material.. specimen. Recommendation:. definition etc.

2. Bibliography contains works recommended for further study.Glossary is a list of technical words used in the report & their explanation. the list of references is prepared while writing the reports e. they are generally explained in the footnotes. on which the information of entries is available is mentioned against it. 4.25 List of References:.g. Entries in bibliography are in alphabetical order. Mohan. Oxford University Press. Singh. Bibliography lists the works which the author has read.it serves as a quick guide to the material in the report. ELBS Editor 1964. Macmillan Indian Limited. Index:. If they are small in no. 19995. whereas.) e. . to which he is indebted for idea/information. Glossary: . they can be mentioned in the footnotes. pp 40-42 Bibliography:. whereas reference do not perform any such function.g. Warner Alan. New Delhi. This is done by citing such works in the text & listing them in sequential order. Entries here are made in alphabetical order & all page nos. 3. Here the attention is drawn by putting a printers mark (a star/asterisk.It is essential to give credit to works published/unpublished.It is a serially numbered list of published/unpublished works which are consulted before/during the preparation of a report. sub-topic or important aspects. Speaking English Efficiently. Krishna & N. A Short Guide to English Style. in references it is sequential. It is distinct from references: 1.P. in the order a suited. London. which we have used/quoted in our report. Bibliography is often prepared before writing the report. whereas list of references point to out specific location of an idea or piece of information. at the bottom of the page. If the no of words is small. It helps the reader to locate any topic.

Experience & achievements. So the letter must be distinguished enough to attract immediate attention and to arouse interest. These letters are personal letters incorporating a few features of business letters. The first objective of an application letter is to obtain an interview. It should. containing reference to the advertisement in response to which you are applying & featuring your most significant qualifications for the post. 4. Specialized training.a sheet which lists details about you and your qualifications. have all the qualities that are required in the sale of any tangible product. marital status. While writing an application we must keep the employer‟s point of view in mind. 5. & a prospective employer will form his first impression about you from your application. There are two types of letters of application. Part two consist of a Resume. There is always stiff competition for any job. Special honors & distinction 6. It generally includes: 1. 2. Personal details: age. In the first. Part one is short covering letter. Educational qualifications. We should be honest & sincere and say only what is true & what can be supported by documents. References: name/address of person who can vouch for your achievements. .26 APPLICATION LETTER Importance & Function: Application letters are written when someone needs a job. The second type of application is more effective. In the second these are two parts. all the information about qualifications. experience & personal details is given in one letters. Personal qualities 7. 3. the applicant gets a chance to reveal his personality & display his most precious merchandise. A letter of application is written to sell one‟s services. fitness. It must convince the employer that he can profit from the talents & services that the writer offers. In presenting the achievements we should highlight the tracts the employer is looking for.

1. one should mention it & for details refer the employer to the resume & prompt him to go through it. Its tone should be friendly but not familiar. If any outstanding contribution has been made. It should be informative. (v) Complimentary close. Those aspects of our qualities & achievements which the post requires. The introductory paragraph should attract the employer‟s attention besides saying whether you are applying in response to an advertisement or at somebody‟s suggestion or on your own initiative. One‟s immediate aim should be to respond favorably. (iii) Salutation. In the end we should try to motivate the employer to respond favorably.27 Drafting the Application:The letter of application is a special covering letter. If an effective opening paragraph has been written. (ii) Employer‟s name & Address. (vi) Signature. (iv) Body. This requires emphasizing. Now we have to show with evidence how we are a person he is looking for. It should possess the qualities of effective sales letter. . we have excited the employers‟ interest. (Details of each element is already discussed in letter-writing). Elements of Structure:The structure of the application letters contain the following parts: (i) Address of the applicant & date. 2. to the point & short. 3. (vii) Enclosures. it must be something more than a note forwarding an enclosure.

The prospective employer writes to those person for their confidential remarks about the applicants characters. 40/92 in the HT of 12 sept. experience. 2004 for a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. The interview conducted enables the employer to select a candidate but before the appointment order is sent. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. by you in T01.  Please refer to your advertisement no. Hence the applicant is generally requested to name. It is necessary to obtain the prior consent of the person you wish to cite as your references. The name of those person with whom the applicant has been associated are given. which do not usually sketch the character & competence of the applicant. conduct & job suitability. by you in HT of dated _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _. makes me confident that I can do the job of a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ advt. in their application. I wish to be considered for this post. are cited. Generally the name of the head of the institution where the applicant last studied and the name of the employers order whom he worked.28 PREPARING THE RESUME The resume or the personal data sheet is an inventory of the applications personal details. dated. These remarks are considered more suitable/reliable than the open testimonial. ability for the post and any other facts. Opening: wish to apply for the post of advertised by you in _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ ____ of Nov 3. It is necessary for the employer to obtain information about the selected candidates integrity. 2004.  I should be grateful if you would kindly consider me for the post of a _ _ _ _ _ advt. References:A reference is a person who is ready to vouch for another. references and any other relevant information‟s. educational qualifications.  My qualification & 8 year‟s experience as a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ co. persons who are willing to be a reliable source of information about them. . honestly. specialized training.

. I would appreciate an opportunity of attending an interview. I hope that my qualification will merit your consideration. I trust you will favor me with an interview.29 Closing:    I look forward to heaving from you soon.

is mentioned in the notice. This helps the group to keep to the schedule & cut down meaningless & irrelevant discussions. (v) Signature of the secretary.30 NOTICE. They are generally written by the secretary of the organizational unit. It is an official list of things to be done or dealt with at a particular meeting. Other items are arranged in their order of importance. The notice is usually circulated. MINUTES:Minutes are the official record of the proceedings of a meeting. Keeping minutes of the meetings of the board of directors. (iv) Background papers or information. At the meeting the business is normally transacted in the order in which it is listed in the agenda. date. The day. otherwise. Generally the first item on every agenda is confirmation of the minutes of the previous meeting and the last item any other matter with the permission of the chairman. they are attached in a separate sheet along with the notice. If the agenda is circulated as an annexure. MINUTES OF MEETINGS. a week prior to the meeting. executive committee. time & place of meeting & the business to be transacted (agenda). AGENDA:Agenda is a document that outlines the contents of a forth coming meeting. The notice should reach the members within a reasonable time before the meetings. time & place of meeting. It is usually sent along with the notice of the meeting. The items of business is mentioned in the notice if their number is small. Each item is numbered some organizations also indicate the time when each item will be taken up at a meeting. finance committee etc. the following elements are included: (i) Name of organization/date of circulation. to all the members. (ii) Day. AGENDA. NOTICES:The rules of procedure of every organization clearly states the notice period required for calling a meeting – both General body meeting & meetings of smaller groups such as governing body. (iii) Program of business to be transacted. . date. It is drown up by the secretary in consultation with the chairman.

e) Name of members present. The following items are listed in minutes: a) Name of organizational unit. All other sentences clarify the idea. g) Signature of the secretary & the chairman. A clear. One thing is essential have. one may have to declare it firm the paragraph. details & proof. illustrates or provide additional information. Types of Minutes:. The core idea is generally expressed in a sentences called the topic sentence/theme statement. compare & contrast it with other similar ideas. b) Date.It is somewhat similar to a report. the conclusion reached. Minutes must be precise & they are not a verbatim record of the proceedings. as a whole. In addition to the resolutions passed.Here only the resolutions passed at a meeting are recorded and no reference is made to any discussion preceding to the resolution. Sometimes however the core idea is not expressed in one sentence. Mere groping of sentences does not constitute a paragraph . the recommendations made & the tasks assigned to individual members & groups. d) Name of chairman of the meeting. PARAGRAPHING A paragraph is a group of sentences related to one core idea and arranged in a logical order. a brief account of the discussion & voting pattern is also included. time & place of meeting c) Number of meeting. accurate & well-organized summary of the business liras acted is all that is required. (ii) Minutes of Narration:. Minutes may be recorded either in a tabular/block form or in the form of continuous paragraphs. the paragraph must have unity of theme & cohesion. give supporting facts.Minutes are of two types(i) Minutes of Resolution:. Minutes usually contain the main points of discussion. concise. & general body of joint stock company is a legal requirement.31 committees of directors. f) Record of transactions.

it is advisable to very the length of sentences as well as paragraphs.32 The topic sentence may be located in to beginning. It can be short or long according to the necessity of the case. The sentence in a paragraph should be semantically linked. However to make a written material attractive.” There is no rule as to the length of a paragraph. e) A full & rounded final sentence in conclusion. or. The topic sentence occurring in the end usually summaries the contents of the paragraph. “ A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic. c) Logical sequence of thought. d) Variety. . b) A good topical sentence. end & occasionally in the middle. The essentials of good paragraph construction area) Unity. and. a group of related sentences that develop a single point.

Closing Sentence:a) We would really appreciate an early response. mode of delivery.  Give an idea of the quantity you require.large & continuous order. Hints for drafting an ‘Enquiry’  State the purpose of your letter. QUOTATION:- . so as to quote the best possible prices. c) Since our stocks are exhausted. or about the terms of sale etc. please quote your most favorable terms. packing etc.  State the details of your business. give reasons. d) Since we plan to give you regular business. b) We should appreciate details of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.  Tell the seller know you got his name. he writes a letter or enquiry to the seller. TENDERS ENQUIRY:When a buyer wishes to get some information about the quantity.  Ask for terms relating to discount credit. of goods to be purchased. price. availability etc. ability to promote sales in your area etc. c) We should be pleased to get information about the prices to terms on which you could supply _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .33 ENQUIRY. QUOTATION. catalogue etc. b) Should your terms be favorable. we would be pleased to send our first order immediately. Pleases treat this enquiry as urgent.  Ask for sample/demonstration etc. Some ways of opening: a) We would be grateful to get details of your prices _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.  Request for price-list. whether you need goods. ORDERS.  If you are asking for concession. services or information.

_ _ _ __. e) Ask for guarantee period. colour. freight. color. conditions of delivery etc. d) Indicate the mode & terms of payment. b) Request for the seller prices & terms of payment. if any. b) Place & time of delivery. The purpose is to find out the cheapest & the best source of supply of goods required. make etc. d) Give an idea of quantity required. Placing Orders:After accepting a quotation. Do not forget to a) Place a clear & firm order. terms of payment. c) Specify the quantity stating the price per unit of each item. g) State the full address & place where you want the goods delivered. . d) Charges on account of sales tax. e) Mention mode of transport. Make reference to catalogue or identification number. giving details specification regarding shape. A quotation includes details about prices of specific goods. size. next step is to place order. quality. Sending a Quotation:Give a prompt reply to a letter inviting quotations. and also locate the right seller.34 It is a specific offer for sale. It is customary for a business organization to invite quotations from several sellers before placing an order. Don‟t forget to mention: a) Mode & terms of payment. For this: a) Describe your needs clearly & precisely. c) Method of transport. b) Don‟t hesitate to repeat details as size. Drafting such a letter needs great care so as to get information we wish to collect. c) Ask for a sample. f) Ask for accessories & parts if any. made in response to an enquiry from a particular person or business house. _ _ __ e) Packing & forwarding charges. quality make & description of item. f) Tell the time-period by which you expect the goods to arrive.

to do what he has promised. It maybe construction of roads. inviting prospective sellers of services & goods to quote their rates for doing a job or supplying goods specified in the notice. When a tender is accepted the successful tenderer has to sign a contract. Inviting Tenders:While quotations are sought from a few selected sellers. Tenders are invited for jobs. magazines.  Sealed tender on work order basis or through rate system are invited from the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . notices regarding tenders are advertised in newspapers. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _. buildings. i) Goods would be _ _ _ _ _. whose execution is spread over a period of time. or needs adequate prior preparation.  Sealed tenders in duplicate are invited from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______. bridge or bulk supply of goods or rendering of service. Opening Sentences: Tenders are hereby invited for: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .  Sealed & separate % rate tenders are invited by the undersigned by date: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ up to time: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ & shall be opened on the same day at time: _ _ _ _ _ _ _______. .35 h) Give details if you wish any extra kind of packing & be prepared to pay extra. if specifically instructed. estimated cost Rs.

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