: ·










ntJ Jottel» be f)afte tatm tlpon b»tn," the reprint
"of ftiiS present Jtlofte ne,ttn fot bope of n:: matlle not latDlJe of man : flut onel» fot fbe flolsome intttuccion commoll»te anll llocqne of \D»Jbome."
AluaflllnBar~lay, A.D.











"Victory, achieved by La!Jour, nonoura!Jle and useful."

Constanter et syncere. ·



u:.;;<t k ,c.•..
'/.::tJ.'f). 1153'17

ORIALS of the Elizabethan culture, like mansions in the style of the Elizabethan architecture, would soon be passing away, were it not that they are reproduced from time to time, and reinstated in the interest and perchance in the regard of the literary world. When a work curious and instructive, if not of high value, has almost perished from the ravages of age, no disservice can it be to literature to rescue it from impending oblivion and offer it again to public notice. The inheritance which has come to us from a renowned ancestry is thus maintained in honour, and a restoration though it be only of a summer-house in a pleasure-garden, or of an oratory where by succeeding generations prayer was wont to be made, betokens as much reverence and love towards the illustrious dead, as if we had power to inscribe their names in the world's pantheon or to raise some monument of grandeur that would endure for ages. Whitney's own ideas are in fact so carried out : "For writinges last when wee bee gonne, and doe preserue our name." The work of restoration and of illustration now attempted for Whitney's Emblems was entered upon with a love for it, as well as from a desire to make the emblem literature of the sixteenth century more known ; and it may be that such love may have covered a multitude of sins in the Author's style and mode both of thought and expression ; but in stating the simple fact that his labours have been lightened and repaid by the liking which he had for them, the editor does not wish a single fault to be condoned. The themes here pursued have seldom if ever been treated of to the same extent or in the manner adopted,- and the probability is that some errors have been fallen into which further researches will rectify, and that inquiries have been left unattempted which are needed for the true appreciation of the subject To place his readers as far as he can on the vantage ground both for judging his labours and for following them out to greater perfectness, the editor presents a full general Index as


To the Reader.

well as several special Indices, and has in most cases been scrupulous to name and quote his authorities. This apparatus will render the work of greater service to literary men. So far as is ascertained no similar work exists, and though very incomplete as a history outside of the period which it embraces and of the special object to which it is devoted, it will supply the student and the general reader with information respecting emblem books and authors not easily accessible, and will enable him, if sp disposed, to arrive at other stores of knowledge on the same subject. Some of the volumes consulted are of great rarity and to be found only in choice and richlyfurnished libraries. For this reason, instead of a simple reference the titles themselves are photo-lithographically exhibited, and one or more pages of the devices in each emblem-book which Whitney adopted are also given in fac-simile. This feature of the work the editor trusts will be very useful to those readers who have not opportunities for consulting the old emblematists, or who may desire to see what they really are. Philnthei A writer of the sixteenth century, Hachtenburg of Francfort, Symb. Christ. 1577, assures us with much positiveness of expression," Not one in a hundred can produce a really good emblem ; not one in a thousand is competent to pass judgment upon the emblems of others." This sentiment is repeated not in depreciation of any opinion on the editor's share in this reprint and on the essays and notes with which it is accompanied,- but as an occasion to remind readers that a fac-simile by the photo-lithographic process is very different from that by ~he engraver's art and skilL The burin can retouch what is defective in the original,- can heighten the beauty and conceal the blemishes and yet preserve an identity of outline and character,- but the sun-light, the lens, and the camera reproduce without correction or adornment ; if the original be worn and faded, -worn and faded is the copy ; as the presses of Rome, Venice, Paris, Lyons, Basle, and Antwerp left their work three centuries since,- exactly so does it reappear; and this constitutes the defect as well as the excellence of photo-lithography in the printing of books. The skill and pains bestowed by the various artists on the volume now in the reader's hands call for the editor's expression of approval. The stone has been made to give back the images, the letters and forms which the sunlight had drawn from the old

To the Reader.


pages set before it. To Mr. BROTHERS are due the photographs and their preparation, and to Mr. HARRISON the impressions themselves ; the embellished capitals and other woodcuts are by Mr. MORTON, and the letter-press printing is the work of Messrs. CHARLES SIMMS & Co. No more need I say than to express the hope that the study of the Emblem literature may be revived,:- and other similar works find a similar republication. These lines, the last as I imagined of this work, had been written and printed, and the proof awaited only revision ere my editorial labours would be ended, when, on the 14th of February I 866, I received some further information of high interest respecting the author, to which I ought at least to allude, esgecially as it comes from an American branch of the family, which under their ancestor, John Whitney, settled in New England so long ago as April 1635. His descendant, Henry Austin Whitney esq., of Boston, U. S. A., writes to me from the Hague, February 5th, 1866: "I was exceedingly gratified and surprised to-day, during a visit to Leyden, to find that you had carried into effect what has for several years been one of my dreams,- the re-production of Whitney's emblems in fac-simile. My only regret is that the work has probably so far progressed that you will not be able to make use of one or two items relating to our author which it is in my power to furnish." "The most important of my collections · is t~e Will of Geffrey Wltitney, of which I have a copy in Boston. f;~,:th It .Is ~uite curious and important as settling the date of the ~~;;: 1~~;\T: wnter s death, 1003 or 4. I think. In the testament, if I recollect righ~ly, he gives his library of Latin boo~~ to his nephew the ;: t,r:.~. If,;:: son of h1s brother Brooke Whitney, 'on condttton that he become xtv. and ztvit a scholar."' Mr. H. A. Whitney then informs me that he has a large collection of materials relating to the Whitneys of different counties, See In~. some portion of which would explain who Robert Whitney is, pp. XX.n'UI. Di••· referred to by me, and would also give data relating to Geffrey E mb. .rar; Whitney, our author's cousin, "Merchant Tailor of London." 1Dtro. Pn· IS.iii;. He sought out what escaped my inquiries in July last,-the P· zlvii. original manuscript Catalogue of the Students at the University of Leyden, and in the General Index found "Godf. Wltitncus," Vol. i. IS7s-r6r6. with reference top. 187 of the same volume, "where appears this

V Ill

To the Reader.


with lntru. 0 "'· P· hv.

entry: 'AmiO I s86, Martii I. Godfridus Whit11CIIS, JUflior, A nglus.'" This undoubtedly refers to our author, who, for several pages, is the only Englishman recorded. The same letter also remarks: "On a trip of pleasure through Amsterdam to Paris, I resolved to make a brief visit to Leyden, not only as a place of peculiar interest to a native of New England, but in order to satisfy myself on one or two points relating to the author of the Emblems. In pursuance of my purpose I sought the University, and on making known the object of my inquiries, the librarian, M. Du Rieu, stated that Mr. Green was in Leyden about July last in quest of similar information. He at once kindly showed me the specimen sheets of your new edition, and I had just time to glimpse at the interesting and satisfactory essay read before the Cheshire Arch;eological Society. I was, I assure you, pleased to find that I have been so ably and tltOroughly anticipated, and can now only regret that I had not known of your undertaking in October last, before leaving home, as it would have been my pleasure to have placed at your disposal whatever material was at my command." So courteous and valuable an expression of regard for the labours I have been engaged in and brought to a conclusion, I acknowledge with the highest respect and under a deep sense of obligation, for the true liberality of feeling which dictated it ; and I stop the press to add that should Mr. Henry Austin Whitney resolve on offering to the world the information respecting Geffrey Whitney which is in his possession, I shall most cheerfully give him every facility in my power for communicating with my subscribers. Possibly an Appendix to this fac-simile reprint might satisfy the conditions of the case and supply the admirers of emblem literature with the additional materials. I regret if my own labours interfere with those of one who by position and kinsmanship to the author had a superior claim over mine to be editor of "The Choice of Emblemes." He will not however object that in the breast of a stranger there has been kindled the admiration which in himself was a natural feeling of affection towards a writer who nearly three hundred years ago bore and adorned the Whitney mime.
Ftbntary I gtlt, I 866.


Title-page, Dedication, &c. . ..................................... .


INTRODUCTORY DISSERTATION. CHAP. I. Emblem Liltralurt. Sect ·1. Nature of Emblems............................... ix-xiii Sect 2. Early Emblem-books and their introduction into English Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • xm-x1x English Emblem-books, A.D. 1586 to 1686. xix-xxiii Sect. 3· xxiii-xxv Sect. 4- Extent and Decline of Emblem Literature... CHAP. 11. Mtnwir and Writings of Gtjfrty Wlul1uy. Sect 1. Estimation in which he was held : notices and criticism ... ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ...... . ... .. ... . xxvi-xxxv xxxv-lv Sect. 2. The Whitneys of Herefordshire and Cheshire Sect 3· The Writings of Whitney; some estimate of lv-lxxiv their worth ......... ................. . ....... .... . INDEX to the Mottoes, with Translations, and some Pro· verbial Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxv-lxxx PoSTSCRIPT to the Introductory Dissertation .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. lxxxi-lxxxviii THE PHoTo-LITHOGRAPHIC REPRINT Emblemts."

of Whilnty's "CluJiu of

Title-page, Frontispiece, Dedication, &c ... .. . ... ... ... .. .... .. . PART I. containing 112 Emblems and 31 Dedications ... PART 11. containing 135 Emblems and 61 Dedications ... Plan tin's Device, &c............. .. ... .. ............ . F.SSAYS LITERARY AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL. EsSAY I. Subjtcls and Sourus of lilt Mollots and Dtvius. Sect. 1. General view. Devices not traced to other Emblematists,-and those simply suggested by them ................................. ... .... . . Sect. :z. Devices struck off from the same wood-blocks, and therefore identical ....................... . EssAY 11. Obsoltlt Words in 1¥/ziltuy, willz parallds chidly from Clzauur, Spmur, and Shaktsptart ............................................ .







Table of Contents.



Bi()grapltita/ Notices f!! the printer~ Plantitl and Raplttlmg, and f!!tlt( Emblem-writers to wlt()m Wltitney was inikbted... ... ... ... ... Sltaluspearis Refermtes to Embltm-/xJ()ks, and ID Wltitnejs Emblems in parmular . . .

266-292 293-3 I 2


containing the first Part, from title-page to page
104 •...............•..••..•...........•...•.•......



containing the second Part, from page


to page

230 •.•...........•.....•.......................•...

Addenda • .......................................................... . Index to Illustrative Plates and other Illustrations ........... . Seventy-two Illustrative Plates, containing tigltJy-sroen titles, devices, &c., numbered from 1 to 63 ..... . General Index ............ .. .... ....... ........ .... ... . ....... ..... .
EMBLEMA FINALE ••. ••.• •.••••• .••.•• •••.• ..•• ••••••.•. • ••.•. • •..• : .

·PS-433 434 435-439

List of Subscribers ...... .. . .. ....................................... .

• •








EFFREY WHITNRY, in defining, as SeehisAddm• he does very accurately, the nature of to the Reader. • Emblems, assigns to them almost their . strictly literal meaning, as ornaments placed upon any surface, or inlaid, so as to form a pattern or device. He says: "The worde being in Greeke Jp.f3a.'Ueu8a1, vel EorrEJ.LfJ,..:FJu8a,, is as muche to saye in Englishe as To set in, or To put itt: pro• perlie ment by suche figures or workes, as ·are wroughte in plate, or in stones in the pauementes, or on the waules, or suche like, for the adorning of the place : hauinge some wittie deuise expressed with cunning woorkemanship, somethingc obscure to be perceiued at the first, whereby, when with further consideration it is vnderstood, it maie the greater delighte the behoulder." So, the article EMBLEMA, by James Yates, M.A., defines the word as denoting "an inlaid ornament," and applies it to works Smith'• DicL Gk. and Rom. Ant. n::-.ubling "our marquetry, buhl, and Florcntine mosaics,'' and &nd ed. P· +s6. to "those in which crusts (crustte) exquisitely wrought in relief and of precious metals, such as gold, silver, and amber, were fasten.ed upon the surface of vessels or other pieces of furniture." Spenser appears to have such work in view, when he describes " a throne of gold full bright and sheene :" b


Faerie Queeue, v. 9· 17.



Hen. VIII. act i•. se. i. I. 87.

" A~rned all with gemmes of e~dlesse price, As either might for wealth have g0411fn beene, Or could be fram'd by workman's rare device; And all embost with Iyons and with ftourdelice." And when Shakespeare sets forth thcw:oronation of "The goodHest woman," Anne Bullen, he avers : "She had all the royal makings of a queen; As holy oi~ Edward Confessor's crown, • The rod, and bird of peace, and all such emblema Laid nobly on her."

bztroductory Dissert1tion.


. .. ..

An early commentator on Emblem-books, Claude Mignault, ~r::;r;:= per in 1574. endeavours to establish a distinction between emblems • Minoem. p. , 1. an d symuo Is, wh" h " many persons, " h e a ffi rms, " r~s hl y an d IgnoL • Ann-. •sS•. 1c rantly confound together. The force of the emblem depends upon the symbol, but they differ as man and animaJ ; the latter • 1/1 has a more general meaning, the former a more special. .AJ.I... men are animals, but all animals are not men; so all emblem1' • are symbols, tokens, or signs, but all symbols are not emblems: the two possess affinity indeed, but not identity." We shall form, however, a sufficiently correct notion on this subject, if we conclude, that any figure engraven, embossed, or drawn,- any moulding, or picture, the implied meaning of which is something additional to what the actual delineation represents, is an emblem. Some thought or fancy, some sentiment or saying is portrayed, and the portraiture constitutes an emblem. Thus hieroglyphics, heraldic badges, significant carvings, and picture ft • writings, are emblems; besides the forms, or devices, visibly delineated, they possess secret meanings, and shadow forth, or line forth sentiments, feelings, or proverbial truths. Naturally and easily the term emblem became applicable to any painting, drawing, or print that was representative of an action, of a quality of mind, or of any peculiarity or attribute of character. Emblems in fact were, and are, a species of hieroglyphics, in which the figures or pictures, besides denotin. . natural objects to which they bear resemblances, were employed to express properties of the mind, virtues and abstract ideas, and all the operations of the soul. Excepting in the Sacred Scriptures, the earliest account we have of a work of emblematic art is the description which Homer
Syntagma de

Introductory Dissertation.


gives, so graphically, of the forging by Vulcan of a shield for llia_%;viii. Achilles. It is solid and large, decorated all over; round it is a 478 · shining rim, triple, lik~ marble bright, and from it a silver belt: on the shield itself there were five tablets, and for it many figures of skilful workmanship. Hesiod also, though not with equal ~~~~~~esiod, beauty, gives a similar description of the shield of Hercules; and the two find imitators in Virgil, when the shield of JEneas is f.;~i::. viii. spoken of as a specimen of artistic power. But a work, truly emblematical, is presented so early as about 400 years B.C. : it is The Tablet of Cebes, a disciple of Socrates. Of the numerous editions, between 1497 and our own day, we give the tit1e-page of one, which to the original Greek adds a See Plate r. translation both into Latin and Arabic, and which also contains a pretty emblematical device of the printer, "Facet spera," Work and ltope. The Tablet itself is a philosophical description of a picture which, it is said, was set up in the temple of Kronos at Athens or at Thebes, and which presents a symbolical view of Human Life-of its temptations and dangers, and of the course to be persevered in to attain the mansions of blessedness. The persons, characters and circumstances are drawn in so clear and lively a manner as to have furnished to the celebrated Dutch designer and engraver, Romyn de Hooghe, sufficient guidance for delineating the whole story of Human Life as narrated to Place lll. the Grecian sage. Of Cebes himself we need only say that he was cotemporary with Parrhasius the painter, Euclid of Megara, and Lysias the orator. Xenophon ranks him among the few intimate friends of ~:.morabilia, Socrates who excelled the ·rest in the innocency of their lives ; and Plato names him as " intimate and friendly with us all," and Epistle 'I · characterizes him in the Pluzdon as a sagacious investigator of truth, never yielding his assent without convincing reasons. The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo, or Horus Apollo, of which Place ti. the title-page to the Paris edition of 1 55 1 is given in Plate II., is professedly written in the language of ancient Egypt, and was translated into Greek towards the end of the fifth century, in the time of the emperor Zeno. It is certainly a book of emblems, and probably the most ancient we possess. With the emblem writers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries it obtained high authority, and undoubtedly served them for guidance; but very


Introductory Dissertation.

contradictory opinions are entertained of the work in the present day : some maintaining that the writer "was a native of Egypt," IUid Rom. B1og. voL ii. PP· s•1- and that he was "a person who knew the monuments well, and sra. had studied them with care ;" others averring that "his authority Kenrick'• "!>c. as an interpreter is in itself worth nothing " and "that the power Egypt, vol '·PP. f . . ~Bk9<>. o rea d'mg a h'terog1 h' 1 . yp tea mscnptlon was, not possessed b y h' tm, if it existed in his time."* It may here be observed that the symbols on the dedicationpage of this fac-simile reprint of Wlzitney are taken from one Plate xxm. of the emblems of Achilles Bocchius, edition 1574. who names them Egyptian letters ; but on Samuel Sharpe's very competent authority I learn, they may be Gipsy marks, but are not true Egyptian signs. Taking them for what they are worth, I neverHorapollo, ed. theless find the eye symbolical of Deity ; the lamp-burning, of IJJI, pp. nL life ; the tamp-ertinguis!ted, of the soul freed from the body ; the ors-!tead, of labour; and the spindle, of the thread of life. A ~orapollo, bk. feat!ter and a laurel-branclt, also occurring in the dedication-page, " · 8' ""d •1• ed. are h' . •ss•. pp. ~ a~~cl 1erogIyph'tcs, accord'mg to H orapo11 o, an d have a meanmg. ••J· The others, which remain unexplained, doubtless were significant to Achilles Bocchius, and would be to ourselves could· we but obtain his key. Whitney (as at p. 126) and the other emblematists not unfrequently had recourse to the descriptions in Horapollo. One of his Plate I!. hieroglyphics we have had figured; it is the swan,-to symbolize Horapollo, bk. ii. old age loving music,-the reason assigned being, "because this J9.rJ6. 'SS'• b' d wh en 1t 1s oId sends 10rth 1ts sweetest me lod y. " • • r • P· ed. 1r Coins and medals, the crests and cognizances of heraldry, the Eschenberg's flower-language of Persian and Hirtdoo maidens, the pictureManual, bY Fiake, pp. J 1 J, writing of the Mexicans, and the tree-and-tomahawk newspapers J49. J7S· of the North American Indians,-all would require full notice as instances of emblem art, were we attempting more than a ·sketch. A very brief statement will suffice to point out how they furSmith's Diet; Gk.

Kenrick's Anc. Egypt, vol i. p.


• "The only ancient author who has left us a correct and full account of the principle of the Egyptian writing is the learned Alexandrian father, Clemens, who wrote towards the end of the second century after Christ." So testifies John Kenrick. And whoever desires to read a brief yet admirably clear account of modem discoveries respecting the meaning of the Egyptian hieroglyphics is advised to consult his work, Anciml Egypt undw tlu Pllaraolts, two volumes Svo, London 1850.

Introductory Dissertation.


nish examples of the nature of emblems. On Grecian coins, the owl, to use heraldic language, is the crest of Athens ; a wolrs head, that of Argos ; and a tortoise, that of the Peloponnesus : and on Roman coins, the figure of a woman seated on a globe is the emblem of Italy; that of a woman solitary and weeping beneath a palm-tree, of J udea, fulfilling the prophecy-" she being desolate shall sit upon the ground." An eagle grasping Isaiah iii. s6. the thunderbolt of Jove is symbolical of Rome; and Ceres dispensing plenty from her horn of abundance, is typical of the peace which under Decius the empire enjoyed. So at much greater length might the nature of emblems be set forth with abundant illustrations ; but whoso cannot now comprehend something respecting them would still be ignorant though the heavens became his scroll and all the visions of prophecy and the fancies of poets were painted upon them, and with his divining rod an ~ngel touched each device in its order and said, "See, and understand."


ARLY emblem-books, from 1481 to 1522, are soon counted. We nearly exhaust the list when we name Gerard Leeu, Sebastian Brant, and Andrew Alciat-a Dutchman, a German and an Italian. The closing in of the fifteenth century saw the rise of a species of literature in which the graving tool was very extensively employed to illustrate, as well the proverbs and terse sayings prevalent in the world, as works of greater pretensions, in which genius took a higher flight, and accomplished more important aims. These illustrations may not have been introduced as profusely as in modem times ; but, I dare to say, they were often marked by superiority of artistic power. Dante's Inferno, published at Florence in 1481, was one of the first books thus to be embellished ; and in the same year, in Holland, as a prelude to the emblem-book Operas, which followed, that most odd of all odd books made its appearance" «bb~aeelt 1Jn' tteaturm," or Diawgt~s of t!te Creatures, by


Introductory Dissertation.

Gerard Leeu, of Gouda, near Rotterdam. The copy we consulted, in the Bibliotheca H ulthemiana at Brussels, is a small folio in Gothic characters, the pages and folios unnumbered, and with a considerable apparatus of rather coarsely-executed wood engravings. The dialogues are 122 : the first is between the Sun and the Moon ; the second, between "tOiteliflen gfjtltimttn," costly stones; the one hundred and seventh, between the Wolf and the Ass, the picture representing the two creatures sawing wood with a vertical saw; the one hundred and twenty-first, between a Man and his Wife ; and the one hundred and twentysecond, between Man and Death. The last page is almost entirely occupied by a coat of arms, and the work thus concludes: "en il bobtwtflt tn goube in "ollant fit me gfJeram leeu preter tn gou!Je opti btnbm b~ ban apra lnt tan MccccLxxxr.," i.e. Here is finislted at Gouda in Holland by me Gerard Leeu printer at Gouda upon tlze fourth day of April in tlte year 1481. The next work to be mentioned opens a direct communication in emblem literature between England and the Continental nations, inasmuch as it was soon translated, or rather paraphrased, into English by Alexander Barclay, and printed first Piet.L)iist. .~ag. by Wynkyn de Worde in 1508, then by Richard Pynson in 1509, •o m. p. 8 ~~bdq, YO1 ,Yl': p, and afterwards in 1570 by J. Cawood. Before the end of the 11. iD'•T 11, +J•. fifteenth century, in 1494- the original, by Sebastian Brant, appeared in German, and is usually referred to as "THE SHIP OF FooLs." A copy is in the British Museum; the woodcuts are rather small, but spirited, and the designs are the same with those of some subsequent editions in Latin and French. The Latin translation, bearing the title, "$tult(fn'a jllauil," or FoolPb~siV.&lldV. frei'ghted Skip, by James Locher, is a quarto volume of 156 folios, with 115 woodcuts, and underwent the revision of Brant himself. It was published at Basle, "that city of Germany most Stult. N. roi.•J6. worthy of praise," by John Bergmande Olpe, "in the year of our salvation M.ccccxcvn." The Plates, IV. and V., are from the title-page and twenty-ninth folio of the fine and perfect copy in the very choice emblem library collected by the late J oseph Brooks Yates of Liverpool, and now the property of his grandson Henry Yates Thompson.* Plate V., "~min buollu,"

• I take this opportunity of expressing my great obligations to tbe family of Samuel

Introductory Dissertation.


To serve two masters, well illustrates the saying which Whitney adopted, "Nmzo potesl dtwbus dominis seruirt•," and embellished WhitDey p. uJwith the device of a man dragging the decalogue by his right foot, and attempting to carry the globe on his left shoulder. Plate v. Brant presents the example of a hunter blowing his horn, and seeking with one dog to catch two hares at the same time. Alexander Barclay's work, "~f.Jt ~fJAJ of .;fOI!I of ~e IRorDJr,"* was in part only a translation of Brant's Stul#fera Nauis; in part it was simply an imitation. And thus, perhaps, it may be regarded as the very first attempt in our language at emblem-book art. Some may be inclined to contest the accuracy of this conclusion ; and when Brant's and his translator's works are compared with the perfected emblems of Alciat and of Giovio, the doubt may rise into a certainty: but in the progress of any branch of literature, as in other things, "there is first the blade, then the ear, and after that the full and ripe corn in the ear." The translator gives the following account of himself: that his book "was translated i the College of Saynt Mary Otery in the counte of Deuonshyre, out of Laten, Frenche and Doche into Englysshe tonge by Alexander Barclay Preste, and at that tyme Chaplen in the sayde College." He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, about 1495, and died in I 552 rector of All Hallows, Lombard-street, London. The memoir of him in the Penny Cyc/Qp(edia gives the titles of nine of his works, and shows Pe~~'!r. Cyct. him to have been a voluminous writer: it declares also that .. he vol. Ill. p. +tO· was one of the refiners of the English language, and left many testimonies behind him of his wit and learning.'' Barclay's Shyp of Polys of the Worlde contains many curious woodcuts. A good idea of them may be gained from the first in the series which "represents several vessels loaded with fools of various denominations.'' This is taken from the French trans- Dibdin. lation, "l..a gfat ntf !Jtl fOil !JU mo!Jt," and has appended to "it See Plates IV. in full the title Of the Latin translation, "$tult(ftfl jllaUfl." and XXVIII.
Thompson, Esq., at Thingwall, near Liverpool, for the extreme generosity and courtesy with which they have granted access to and free use of their emblem treasures. • The full title is: "The Shyp of Folys of the Worlde. Inprentyd in the Cyte of Lon- Dibdin's Tzy. don in Fletestre[te] at the signe of Saynt George By Richard Pynson to hys Coste and Antiq. vol. h. charge. Ended the yere of our Sauiour m.rl.ix. the xiiii day of Decembre." Folio. p. 41 '·


. Introductory Dissertatz'on.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century t'he art of pictorial illustration, either from brass or from wood, was carried to a very high degree of excellence. Italy might boast of Marc Antonio, who died in I 527; Germany, of Albert Durer, down to I 528; and Holland, of Lucas Jacobs, better known as Lucas van Leyden, until his death in I533· These "skilled artisans" left pupill, followers and worthy compeers, who did not allow their "glnrious mystery" to retrograde; and the touch, the turn, the soul-inspired power of their hand, survive in many a page of that eventful er~· Herbcrt's eel. If the recording line in Ames' A nt£quit£es of Printing be corp. 1$70. rect, namely "I55I, Alciat's Emblems, Lugduni I55I, octavo," there was an English version of "honest Alciat" at this early date. As far as I have discovered, no other trace exists of such a translation. Grant that it was made, it would, almost of a cerPlates V I. and tainty, have been a very small volume similar to Wechel's edition XVI. of Paris I 534. or to the Aldine at Venice in I 546, the one contained in I 20 pages, the other in 48 leaves. ~~e'f;:t·'Ec..nd A manuscript translation of A lciat into English, which, though P. 18.f9, pp. No. incomplete, evidently was prepared for publication, with the Society, s. :u, &J. devices drawn and coloured, is in the possession of Henry Yates Thompson, and "appears to be of the time of James the First." The manuscript thus translates Alciat's thirtieth emblem, imitated by Whitney, p. 73:
'' The stork, which is well noted for her love, In lofty nest hir naked birds doth feed ; And hopes that she the like kindness shall prove, When she, being olde, shall stand thereof in need. The gratefvl babes do not hir hope defeate, They bear their dam, and give unto hir meate."


Sketch of Books of Em b. by]. B. t&f9, p. &J.

Moxon's ed. 11 s6, p. J6o.

Sir Thomas Wyatt, the elder, who died in 1541, and Henry Howard earl of Surrey, who was beheaded in I 547,- "the two chieftains," as they are named, of the courtly poets,- were well acquainted with the literature of Southern Europe, and probably with the emblem writers of the nations dwelling there; but it appears to have been Spenser who, in I 579, in The Slteplteard's Calender, "entitled to the noble and vertuous Gentleman, most worthie of all titles both of learning and chivalry, Maister Philip Sidney," was so far acquainted with emblem writings as to give~ emblem-mottoes without devices, like songs without words. \Ve

Introductory Dissertation.



find these mottoes, termed emblems, in Italian, English, Latin, French, and et-en Greek, and after Spenser's death, the folio edition of his works issued in 1616 gives a woodcut emblematical of each month in the year, and thus _renders the Slteplterd's Calendar a near approach to the emblem-books of a former Qtntury. We may add that Spenser's Visions of Be/lay, composed about Moxon'sed. the year 1569, were derived* from J oachim du Bellay, "the r8f6, p. 417 . Ovid of France," and needed only the designer and engraver to See Lesa:uvres m~ke them as perfectly emblem pictures as were the publications r:~r:..::. ~~ouen, of Alciatus, Sambucus and Whitney. Those visions portray in words the world's vanity, which an artist might express in drawings. Take the description of the "pillers of iuorie," of "the Moxon·~ ed. . . . . chapters a 1 abaster," of "a vtctone wtth goId en wmgs," an d of p. 418, IV. "the triumphing chaire, the auncient glorie of the Romane lordes ;" and of the whole representation might be wrought a most lively and cunning emblem. Whether William de la Perriere's TMdtre des Bon.r Engin.r, See Plare xxx . Paris 1539, was rendered into English at so early a date, is doubtful ; but William Stirling, esq., of Keir, informs me that he possesses "a fragment of an English translation" of this Letter, 1rd Juae, author, without the title. From this copy therefore the date rS6s. cannot be determined, but by the cast of the type and of the rude woodcuts "it might be of the sixteenth century, and probably as early as Daniell's Jovius." The next immediate link between our own country, Britain, and the emblem writers of Italy, France, Spain, Germany and the Netherlands is supplied by Beza's Portraits mui Emblems. Plate vm. This work, published at Geneva in I sBo, is dedicated to James VI., king of Scotland, and contains, as its frontispiece, the earliest known likeness of that monarch, when in his fourteenth year. Such a portrait would probably secure attention to the book in Plates xu. and this island, and its well-executed devices would serve to foster ux. among us a taste for emblem literature. No translation however of Beza into English appeared, and his emblems still remain in their original Latin only. The Italians gave the name lmprese, i.e. Imprints, to such
vy haul

• . • Verified in Leiden by direct reference to Du Bellay's works, as uln~6 sur colomn(S d'yuoin," &c.




Introductory Dissertation.

Pl~t• v11.


" ornamentation-books" as other people indicated by the word emblem. Paolo Giovio, bishop of Nocera, wrote a discourse on the subject and entitled it, Ragumamcnto di Paolo Giovio sopra i motti e dcsiglli d'arnzi e d'amore volgormmtc chiamati imprese, Venice 1556, in 8vo, "A Discourse by Paulus Jovius on Mottoes and Designs of Arms and of Love, commonly called Imprints." Ti¥ work went through several editions, and in I 56 I was translated into French by Vasquin Filleul. An English translation was issued in I 585, the year before Whitney's Choice of Emblems: it is not indeed embellished with woodcuts or engravings, but in other respect~ is an emblem-book in English. The translator was the poet-laureat and historian, Samuel Daniel of Taunton, who was born in I 562 and died in I6I9. He entitles his work, T/u l-Vorthy Tract of Pau/us :Jovius, co!ltai1lh;g a Discourse of Rare fllvcntiotz.s . .. called lmprcsc, with a Preface:" by Samuel Daniell, London I 585, 8vo. But for the want of devices, or engravings, this may be regarded as an English emblem-book equally with Whitney's, which it preceded as a printed work, though probably not as a composition. Still, with the modifications that have been adverted to, the praise may be accorded to Geffrey Whitney of having, in I 586, been the first to present to the English public an emblem-book complete in all its parts, and showing by the union of learning and of the engraver's art how, among the nations of continental Europe, a literature had been raised up and had grown into popularity which a century before had no recognised existence. Whitney however is to be the special theme of the next chapter, and we pass on to complete, as far as is really needed, our sketch of the steps by which emblem-books were brought into Britain. To the Rev. Thomas Corser, rector of Stand, near Manchester, I am indebted, among other favours, for the loan of a ~opy of the rare translation into English of Claude Paradin's Devises Heroiqvcs. . The volume is in I 6mb, containing 368 pages, and ornamented with many woodcuts of considerable excellence. The initials only of the translator (P. S.) are given, and the date is I 591. A curiously-worded dedication follows the title-page:· "To the Right Worshipfvll the Renowmed Capteine Christopher Carleill Esquier, chiefe Commander of her MaiestiesJorces in the Prouince of Vlster in the Real me of Ireland, and Seneshall there

I lllriJJwl<,ry


oC the Count:ries ol Oandsboy. the Ro.-te. the Glen.' the Dutfre. and Kylultaugh.- The prose of Paradin is gi\-en in Engli~ prose; and there are a fe'll'" specimens of wry inferi..."\1'" '~~ .l'!: at p. 28: .. These Dartes are poce to humb~ ~ but ..-me to proud in deed
FOI" why I both life and death also from our W'OUDdes do pl'OCe'ed. •


E.\IBLDI·BOO~S, A. D. rsS6-r6S6.

ROM ~·hat sources Emblem-books were first inh'\l· duced into English literature ·has just been shown, • and there is no absolute necessity of follo\\;ng the subject to a later date; but to render our \'iew more complete we will take a rapid glance at the English books of emblems for a century after Wltitncy. Along ";th Whitnt:y are recorded the names of \Villet and Combe, as worthy to bt! c~.._.... t ;, " matched with Alciatus, Reusnerus and Sambucus. Of Thomas " 19 Combe's writings nothing is known now to exist; neither the British Museum nor the emblem collection of the marquis t.)f Blandford possesses them, and they are unknown to Mr. J. Brooks Yates and to William Stirling, esq., of Keir : they take rank therefore with the lost one of the Pkiadu, and no longer offer even a point of light to the literary world. The praise of Andrew Willct is celebrated by Thomas Fuller. His father, Thomas Willet, was \\'.>tthl.-. ,.,,, 1 . prebendary of Ely, where Andrew was born m I 56o, and where, probably, he died in I62I. He was a copious writer, according to the Bodleian catalogue. His emblem-book, printed at Cambridge by John Legate, probably in I 598, is dedicated to the Ath~'"" (',... ,, • • • llfiJIC"Il"'' • earl of Essex : rt rs a 4to, without cuts, and contams 84 pages. The title is a very long one, beginning with Sacron•m Embkmatvm Cmtvri'a v1za, &c., "A Century of Sacred Emblems," &c. As a specimen of his style we add the English to his sixtyseventh emblem in Latin ; subject-" Puerorum educatio," Tltt' education of boys,., "A Scholler must in youth be taught, And three things keepe in minde ful sure,

" .,.


Introductory Dissertation.
God's worship that it first be saught, And manners then with knowledge pure ; In Church, in scoole, at table must he Deuout, attent, and handsome be."

In these days of acrostics it may be not unacceptable to our readers to possess Willet's ingenious conceit, constituting his first emblem, "Boni Principis encomium," The praise of a g-ood Prince. ~.:'.eotp~-;~:~7- It is in Latin verses, arranged, like the curious fancies of Simias ed. •6o4, P· 2.09· the Rhodian, in the form of a tree. The sentence on which the Latin lines turn is "Eiizabetham Reginam Div nobis servet Iesvs incolvmem. Amen"- Elizabeth. Queen, long- may 7esus keep for

us safe. A mm.
" Ecce beato S. Lux nos dedisse maximE, ilia credituR, Illustris Sepitemo qure celebnida cultV, Anglia, insigni generata stirpE, Beata virgo cum regnare creperaT; Earn parem patulre dixeris arbor 1 ; Tempestate gravi subito ruentE Huius se foliis tegunt volucreS, Adeuntq. bruta procubitV Magnii iuvamen omnibuS Regina princeps: profugl Eius celebnit nomeN : Gentibus ipsa laC, Inclyta, virgO, Non ne gat, iis simuL Alma nutrix man V Miserit auxiliuM. Det deus itaquE Impleat annuM. Vivat & integrA, Nullibi vnquam deficiens supremuM Omnibus auxilium, qure exhibuit piE BIS locupletur 6 patrire columeN." Generally each of Willet's emblems has a motto, a text from Scripture, some Latin verses, and the same rendered into English. Samuel Egerton Brydges informs us he was also the author •f Au Epit!talamium in English, and says of him: "I shall only

Censura Lit. i.
p. JIJ.

Introductory Dissertation.


cite the practical character at the end of the life and death of Dr. Andrew Willet : "See here a true Nathaniel, in whose breast A careful conscience kept her lasting feast ; Whose simple heart could never lodge a guile In a soft word, nor malice in a smile. He was a faithful labourer, whose pains Was pleasure; and another's good, his gains: The height of whose ambition was to grow More ripe in knowledge, to make others know ; Whose lamp was ever shining, never hid ; And when his tongue preach'd not, his actions did. The world was least his care ; he fought for heav'n; And what he had, he held not earn'd, but given: The dearest wealth he own'd, the world ne' er gave; Nor owes he ought but house-rent for a grave." Contemporary also with Whitney was Abraham Fraunce, whose work, in 4to, was printed in London in 1588, lnsi'gni'um Artlt(}rum Emblematum Hi'croglyphi'corum et Symbowrum, lJua! ab ltali's lmprese nomi'nantur E.rplicati'o.* There are no plates to the work; otherwise it is similar in character to Valerian's H i'croglyphi'ca, si've de sacri's Egypti'orum ali'arumque genti'um li'teri's Commmtari'i',ot folio, Basle 1556 and 1567, which abounds in woodcuts. These two works, however, are rather books of heraldry, of coins, inscriptions and sacred signs, than books of emblems. Peacham's Mi'nerva Bri'tanna, a very close imitation of Whi't- See Plates IX. ney, even to the dividing of it into two parts, appeared in 1612, and x. and is dedicated "to Henry Prince of Wales." In 1618 was issued The Mi'rrour of Majestie, of which no more than two copies are said to exist, the only perfect one being in the choice library of Mr. Corser, of Stand. Quarle's Emblems, Di'vi'ne and Moral, the most popular of any in English, were published in 1635; and the same year George Withers gave to the world, with 200 fine copperplates by Crispin de Pass, A Collecti'on of
• "An Explanation of Badges, Arms, Emblems, Hieroglyphics and Symbols, w]lich are named by the Italians Imprints." ~ " Hieroglyphics, or Commentaries on the Sacred Literature of the Egyptian• and other Nations," by John P. Valerian, of Belluno.


Introductory Dissertation.

Fzom Peaclwn eo Ar:es were published in London.


Emblems Antient and Moderne, quickmed witk Metrical Illustrations botle Moral and Divine, disposed into Lotteries, folio, 'London. The year 1641 first saw Thomas Stirry's satire against Archbishop Laud, A Rot amongst tke BiShops, or a terrible Tempest in tke Sea of Canterbury, set fortlr in lively Emblems to please tke Judicious Reader; and we may again name Mr. Corser as possessing an original copy of the work almost uni'l.ue. A second edition, 4to, was issued in 1655 of Tke Art of makitrg Devices, treating of Hierog/ypkicks, Symbolcs, Emblemes, Enigmas, &c., by Thomas Blount; and in 1665, without an author's name, but with 9 copperplate engravings, was set forth in 12mo, Astrea, or tke Grove of Beatitude represmted in Emblemes witk Meditations. Philip Ayres, in 1683, was author of a small 4to, Emblemata Amatoria, "Emblems of Love," in four languages, dedicated "to the Ladies," with 44 copperplates. Hugo Hermann's Pia Desideria, Gemitus, Vota, Suspiria anima! pcenitentiS, &c.• was published at Antwerp in 1628 with woodcuts; and again in 1632 with Bolswert's beautiful copperplates. "It was Englished by Edmund Arwaker, M.A., in 1686, and illustrated with 47 copperplates; but the omissions and alterations of the original render it scarcely deserving the name of a translation. In 1680 and in 1686 also was issued a work, now of extreme rarity, The Protestant's Vade Mecum, or Popery displayed itr its proper colors in 30 Emb!nns. This date is exactly a century after Wlritney, and it is unnecessary to name any works of a later time. t Britain can advance no early claims to originality in the production of emblem-books, and scarcely improved the works of this kind which she touched upon and translated, yet she took no inconsiderable interest in emblem literature; and during the
• "Pious Aspirations, Groans, Vows and Sighs of a Penitent Soul," &c.

t There are also during the seventeenth century ten or twelve other books of
blcms in Notes and Queries.


emblems in English, which I have had no opportunity of examining. These are : Montenay's Book of Arma witll 100 gvdly Emblnm, 1619; The Suule's Solau, tw Jl Spiritual/ Emblemes, by Tb.omas Jennes, 1631 ; Colman's Deatn's Dtul; Heywood's Pleasant Dialogues, &-c., extracted from Jacob Catsius, 1637; Quarle's Hiffoglypllics of)" Lift of Man, 1638; Hall's Emblems, 1648; A Work for none buJ Angds ami Mm, 1650; Wondtiful ami stran~ Puni.rltmmts inflicted on tlu BrtJahrs of tilt 10 CommamimmtJ, 1650; Castanoza's Spiritual Conjlict, 1652; and Miller's Emhlnns, Divine, Moral, &-{., by a Person of Quality, 1673. Probably several others migh• added to the list.

Introductory D£ssertation.


century, beginning with Whitney and ending with Arwaker- if we except James or Jacob Catz,* who died in 166o in his eighty- Penn~Cycl. third year, and who to this day is spoken of familiarly yet affec- voL VI. p. l77· tionately in Holland, as "Vad er Catz"- our country may be said to have marched at least with equal steps by the side of . other European nations. We write, however, not to contest the palm of superiority, but simply to give a connected though brief view of the earlier emblem literature among ourselves. That attempt probably is not perfect in its .parts, every emblem work not being included; there may be others who will correct our deficiencies, and present to the public a fuller and more accurate 'history. The materials exist, and knowledge and power in one I could name: but public patronage as yet flows in a scanty stream towards the editors of old emblem writers, and turns aside to support newer fancies ; or perchance the ore we dig has not enough of sterling metal in it to make it worth the working.




OR how many years the Emblem literature bore an illustrious name, and to what extent over the nations of Europe it prevailed, a · sentence or two will serve to point out. With Alciat, in 1522, we may date the rise of its popularity; with Paolo Giovio, Bocchius and Sambucus, its continuance; with J acob Cats, a glory that still shines and has lately been renewed. All countries of Europe- except" Muscovie," which was Tartar, not Teutonic nor Roman- participated in the furore for emblems. The peninsulas of Spain and Italy, the distant Hungary, the Mediterranemz Germany and France, Holland,· Belgium, Britain, swelled the throng of votaries and contributed to emblem art. t
• A splendid tribute to his excellence has lately been supplied by the publication of Moral Em!Jlnn.r, fr()fiJ ')"a<1JIJ Cat: and .RIJ!xri Far/it, 4to, London 1862. The beautiful illustrations, by John Leighton, F.S.A., and the tmnslations by the editor, Richard Pigot, are contributions 'in all respects worthy of emblem art, and desern the admiration of all lovers of the old proverbial philosophy and literature. t The extent of the emblem literature will be treated of in our Appendix, where we propose to show the sources and the authors from whom Whitney made his Clloia.


Introductory Dissertation.


What are the causes, we may ask with some misgiving as to the exact reason, that a literature has almost become forgotten, which only three centuries ago was thus popular and flourishing throughout civilised Europe? It seems to have passed away from men's knowledge: it is studied as a branch of antiquities rather than of learning,- as inscriptions disinterred from the catacombs of by-gone ages, and not as the memorials of the wit and wisdom of some of the foremost scholars of Italy, France, Spain, Germany and the Netherlands. We have here a perplexity which at first we find it difficult to unravel. The early emblem-books delighted the literati of their age ; they were patronised by popes, emperors and kings ; they_ Paolo Giovio, were illustrated with a superabundance of artistic skill, and reFreitag. main unsurpassed even in modern times for beauty of execution. Their spirit became so diffused among all ranks of the people as to call for translations into six or eight languages, and for imitations wherever they were known. Now, though some of them t~~~~'/J.'ifb. within a century numbered more than fifty editions, and nearly Vatea, P· u . all of them were reprinted, they awaken a simple stare of wonder if perchance a student of typographical antiquities ventures to name them even to well-educated men. The tide of modern thought bears onward freightages of a very different kind : they are the cargoes of useful knowledge, scientific or statistical it is called,- available for competitive examinations,- rich in illustrations of history and the economic &eid i. 1. ,... calculus for the senate or the courts of law, and "studiisque asperrima belli," bristling with whatever can advance the pursuits of war. But our great-grandfather's literary recreations, like our great-grandfather's portraits, are consigned to darker shades than even Dante's limbos of oblivion; and all persons are looked upon as dreamers of inutilities, and consequently of vanities, who endeavour again to bring into light works which :!':~, ~( 1'11· Sidney did not despise, which Spenser imitated, and which x~~ice, Pericles, Shakespeare applied to the purposes of dramatic art. Without any invidious comparisons, however, we have not far to seek for a sufficient reason why the old emblem writers have
It will then be seen that he laid nearly the whole circle of emblem writers under contribution, and that the Hislt»j' of his jqray is a biographical notice of themselves and their works.

Introductory Dissertation.




been almost forgotten. The best of them, the founders and early masters in this school of poetry wedded to pictorial embellishments, excelled as Latinists, and sometimes ran wild amidst the conceits which Latin is so fitted to express. Their later imitators in the modem languages, without generally possessing their depth or their brilliancy, have followed them especially in quaint fancies, and thus have repeated and magnified their faults. Hence, as Latin was more and more disused among scholars, and as the modern languages, under skilled and vigorous cultivators, threw aside mere witticisms and affectations, men's minds grew beyond the pleasures of tracing out resemblances between pictures and mottoes ; and, with a truth laid down or a proverb uttered, gave the preference to seeing it illustrated from examples within their own knowledge to having it decked out in an obsolescent language, with imaginative parallels between emblem or symbol and the actual thoughts they were intended to shadow forth. I do not suppose that, among the most enthusiastic lovers of the old literature, there are any who desire a restoration of the very ideas and modes of expressing them, of the very fancies and fanciful delineations which characterised the sixteenth century. We could not endure to have even a second Chaucer or a second Spenser. Dante risen from the dead, or Petrarch revivified by the smiles and graces of the veritable Laura, would be repellent to the modem culture. We honour them and value them as they are and were, and their memorials we would not allow to perish ; but Creur de Lion would have been as out of place on the plains of Waterloo, or Miles Standish "the brave soldier of Plymouth" as incongruous at Wilmington or at Richmond, as Alciat in the literary saloons of Paris, or our own Whitney at some meeting of the Camden Society, or amid excursionists peregrinating to glorify scientific archa!ology. We admit that each age has its literary leaders, who seldom indeed retain the leadership for ages in succession ; but we do not add, Let them utterly fade out of men's thoughts. They did the work of their own day, and for that work we honour them : If we do not observe for them festivals of remembrance, as for the worthies of the Christian year, still, as occasion demands, what they did shall be rescued from Time's ravages, and live through another period of human regard. d


Introductory Dissertation.



Whitney'e titlepage.

ENOWN wide and large enough to fill a nation's praise, it were vain to seek for Whitney's name and work ; he possessed genius and learning, but has not left results that justify a very high eulogium. It is from his native county more especially that his labours may obtain recognition, and from others, who delight in "holsome preceptes, shadowed with pleasant deuises," they may receive the approving word. During a reign remarkable for the great statesmen, warriors, and men of letters, whom it produced, and by whom it was adorned, there were many to surpass our author, but only a few who were of purer minds or of more extensive learning. His education and attainments, however, the friendships which he formed and the estimation in which he was held, entitle him to rank among the band that lend authority to the saying : "Cheshire, chief of men;" and his principal work, A Ckoice of Emblemes, though not the very earliest in our literature, was the first of its kind to present an adequate example of the emblem-books that had issued from the presses of Paris, Lyons, Basle and Antwerp ; and it remains the first in point of intrinsic value. It may therefore, even on the ground of comparative merit, deserve reproduction, and be adduced in proof both of the author's power and of the diligence and effectiveness with which that power had been cultivated and applied.

Introductory Dissertation.


With one of his earlier admirers we shall not be able so J olm Alien of heartily to proclaim his excellencies as to say : lla!iol. Ozfonl. "Begone rare worke; what though thy Author bee Nor lord nor knight, Yet comprehendeth more In vertuous deeds, than titles as wee see, Which better is, than with all Midas store. Tell Momus and old Homer's chatterers all, Till world's end thy name shall never fall :" Nevertheless we have something to boast of in his behalf; and it is, that in an age by no means fastidious, either in manners or in language, there is not above one passage which might not be read aloud in any circle of listeners, and not more than two or three expressions, if there are so many, to which our modem taste can legitimately object. The estimation in which an author's writings and character were held is indeed reflected by a very flattering mirror when they come to us from the judgment of his immediate friends, and especially from the commendatory stanzas which, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, were attached, as well to a ponderous folio edition of Plato's works as to a thin duodecimo ~~r!:,~~ of Alciat from the press of Christian Wechel. The affection, not Parisiis, AnDo to name it the fondness, which his contemporaries expressed for ...o.xnuu. Whitney, informs us of the regard felt for the man as well as for the author ; and names of such eminence as those of Dousa, Bonaventura Vulcanius, Limbert, and Colvius, were warrants against mere adulation. Their testimony supports Anthony Wood in affirming "he was in great esteem" at Leyden "among Ath.,Oxonienses, • . vol. a p. &Jo, . h. countrymen r h'IS mgenutty. , ts tor ed. 17u. Jan Dousa, whom for learning and patriotism William the Silent appointed governor of Leyden and curator of its university, writes to the following purport "On the Emblems of tna:o<~uetinn tn ~~ . Geffrey Whttney :" . Emblems.


• ~ines. i~ manuscript from major ~erton Le~h's copy of Wllii1UJ1, which aJ_so Ou pages contams srmilar stanzas by the same wnter. This copy belonged to a John Wb1te and '71· "Anno Domini 1683," and then passed into the possession of a William White, to whom there are two manuscript memorials: "William White his band So veri a roge as ani in the Lanrl," and "William White His Name and Pen, God bless king William and all his men."



Introductory Dissertatz(m.

"Here EMBLEMS by their charms o'ercome writings of every kind, And here EUPHROSYNE. has mingled useful things with sweet ; So when on floors of marquetry the various figures meet, They hold the eyes entranced, and discipline the mind. Thus witnesses SAMBUCUs,- thus }UN IUS testifies, And ALCIATUS, who bath borne the palm iri this emprise. Now Emblems, here out-traced by hands of finest skill, · In their rich lures all writings else outvie ; And as Sambucus, Junius, Alciatus never die, , So thou, thy work, 0 Whitney, shalt with growing honours fill."• The name Geffrey, common to Whitney and to Chaucer, naturally suggested a comparison, especially at a time which preceded the full light of Spenser's genius, and when in reality no one else had arisen among our poets who had his native language more under command, or who could with equal grace express in it the sentiments which had first of all been clothed in a foreign garb. Hence we have the stanzas of Bonaventura Vulcanius of Bruges, "011 tlw Emblems of GEFFREY WHITNEY, • • wlto bore the 11amc of E11glmzd's great poet tn tlte old ttme, GEFFREY CHAUCER:" t "One ENGLAND bore two GEFFREYS,- poets both by name ; And equals too in Paa:nus' power and art ; One as his country's. HOMER hailed by fame,The English HESIOD is the other's part. And as once Victory stood with doubtful wings Between the Ma:oNIAN and old HESIOD's song ; So, when of worthy sons glad Britain sings, The palm between the GEFFREYS poises long. Rare CHAUCER's lines of gold erst Britons knew, But WHITNEY kept concealed his pen's rich ore,Until at LEYCESTER's word the EMBLEMS flew Honours to gain, and honours to restore. As shines some Indian gem encased in gold, And graven by the workman's skill-taught hand,• In the Ponm of Jo.n Dousa the younger, edited by "Gulielmo Rabo, J. U.D.," the above ode, numbered XXXIV, p. 205, is entitled "In Gulfridi Whitnei Emblemata See Ho(mann nomine Patris;" it is therefore the son's and not the father's. PeehrkaLamp:s book t Vulcanius was professor of Greek in the university of Leyden for thirty-two years. on t e un poets o(the Nether- A fine original portrait of him exists among those of other eminent men at the founda· ~~~·: Haarlem tion of the university and since to the present day. He died in 1614 at the age of 76.
Ed. Roterodami M.occtv.

Intr.oduction to Wh•tney's Embl~· tran._llon.

Introductory Dissertation.
Pursue, 0 Whitney, titles yet untold,Raise to the stars thyself and native land."


A full fruition to this wish may not have been expected, but Peter Colvius,* also of Bruges, takes up the same strain: "As Emblems twine themselves within our eyes, Traced curiously around some splendid dome ; By art adorned, they shine in various guise, Till 'mid the image lost, the mind doth roam ; So, Geffrey, thou, within thy little book, With many an image symbols dost express ; On traceries by thy verse we gladly look, Old sayings read, and deep thy genius bless. The immortal deeds of heroes far shall sound, And virtues, it is joy to bear in mind,Horatian hearts, and Curtius' soul renowned ; Fabrician faith, thou, Pyrrhus I firm didst find ; The Decii, Junii, and Metelli brave, Curius, and Fabius the Cunctator's fame,The Scipios,- bolts of war where laurels wave,And whom thy mind unequal is to name, A countless host, -hrvirtue's brightening day, Light for our light, thy conscioJJs muse reveals, For why 1 A chieftain, LEVCESTER, doth display Beneath his care the wealth thy verse unseals : 'Tis he who here heroic gifts bath shown, Each held by mighty princes forth to praise ; These we admire; and future times shall own, A DuDLEY's deeds deserve the choicest lays. So shall this book on happy pinions rise, · Through lips ~f learned men its course to fly; My augury such :-high fame herself outvies, That never WHYTNEv's praise may fade and die."
We must remember that when the foregoing stanzas were penned, Vulcanius and Colvius were in the immediate presence of Leicester's greatness at its proudest height, and perceived in it only the promise of _their country's deliverance from Spanish tyranny; we may therefore pardon them something in the ex• One of the literati whose labours adorned the Leyden press of Rapheleng. was born in 1567 and died 1594·

to Whitney's

Emblems, translation.


Ji>cher's Gelehrten·Lex. vol. i. col. ao•7·


Introductory Dissertation.

Cooper's Athen. Cantab. voL ii. p. 6r.
Introduction to Whitncy's Emblems, translation.

travagance of their eulogy. Seeing only with an Englishman's eyes, Whitney's old tutor at Cambridge speaks of his pupil's labour as one scholar in that day was accustomed to speak of another, and puts forth, "A Ten-lined Ode on Geffrey Whitney's Emblems, by STEPHEN LIMBERT, an Englishman, Master of Norwich School:" "Virtue's fair form and graces excellent Would God permit his children to behold, How great the passions kindled in our breasts For her whose beauties far outshine the gold. Not Venus' self, nor Dian, thrice a queen, Could match such glories, conquering where they shine ; But Whitney's Emblems paint her image pure, Apelles-like, or Zeuxis' art divine. Thus our great Author doth for good provide, And from his hand choice gifts with men abide."

Such are some of the praises bestowed upon Whitney by men of his own day. Following the order of time we notice, before the end of the century, that he is considered worthy of being matched with the foremost of the emblem writers; for, in A Wit'sCommon· Com~tarative Discourse of our English .Poets with the Greeke, wealth, by Tbo. 'r Merea. Latine, and Italian Poets, thus is it maintained: "As the Latines ~ns Literaria, have these emblematists, Andreas Alciatus, Reusnerus and Sam.. uy . Egerton , , Brydgesd, vol. iz. bucus, so we have these, Geffrey Whltney, Andrew W!llet and ~ 19 an Wood's · ,;,ti Ozon. P· Thomas Combe." We have here a record which was given to the public within a few years after the Clwice of Embll!t1tl!s had Plate rx. gives been written. In 1612 Peacham's Minerva Britanna "was sent the title o( the •nd part. abroad ;" and the author avers it to be, "whether for greatnes of the chardge, or that the Invention is not ordinaric: a Subiect very rare." He goes on to say: "For except the collections of Master Whitney and the translations of some one or two else beside, I know not an Englishmmz in our age that hath published any worke of this kind: they being (I doubt not) as ingenious, and happy in their invention, as the best French or Italian of them all." His defence of his country sounds very like a commendaPeacham's tion of Whitney : "They terme vs Tramontani Sempii, Simple Address to the Reader. and of dull conceipt, when the fault is neether in the Climate, nor as they would have it, in the constitution of our bodies, but truely in the cold and frozen respect of Learning and artes,

bztroductory Dissertation.


generally amongst us; comming far shorte of them in the iust valewing of well-deseruing qualities." Probably the next notice of Whitney, though without a date, is in some manuscript stanzas in major Egerton Leigh's copy* of the Emblems, to which reference has already been made, p.

"Geffry thy name subscribed with thy pen, Extractinge honor from the noblest men ; ffor by tpy Emblems thou dost moralize ffram'd Poems, fitted for all human eyes, Reflectinge on the naturall state of man, Enviinge at none, assistinge whome he cann ; Yealdinge such frutfull rarityes that all Which Whitney knew may wittely him call Honor'd of men; what can theare more be said In givinge due, wheare due ought to be paid." "Whearfore like momus 'gainst him do not cry, Though WHITNEY's dedd His name shall never dye.

1ohn Ailen of l!aliol, Oxford.

Sit cecinit .foh"ts Allm."

A long oblivion however rested on the author for whom such renown had been prophesied. For nearly two centuries, except to a very few, his name was so little known that it does not occur in some of the larger biographical dictionaries, nor in the ~ Aik~n·• • · common 1• 1terary h' 1stones of El" b et h's reign ; b ut f rom t h e Baog. Dact. 1za evidence adduced it is certain he was regarded by his contemporaries as an author of considerable attainments and genius. His Embkms are not often to be met with entirely perfect, and his Fabks and Epigrams, if ever they existed, are not found, I believe, in the most curious and extensive of libraries. In Belgium, the country where its printer (Plantin) lived, it is more rare than even in England.t
• The words, "thy name subscribed with thy pen," seem to intimate that this was a presentation copy ; unfortunately the copy is imperfect, so that the fact cannot be verified. t During the summer of 1863 I diligently inquired in the public libraries of Brussels, Ghent, Bruges and Antwerp, and did not meet with a single copy. And in the present 1ummer of 1865 I have renewed my researches through the public, and some valuable private, libraries in Rotterdam, the Hague, Leyden, Haariem and Amsterdam : but, though I found emblem-books of great rarity, as the German edition of Sebastian Brant's Fool-frrigllteti Sllip, in the Royal Library of the Hague, no copy of Whitney's

Censur: Lit. V. p. IJJ.

Introductory D£ssertation.

An eminent critic of the emblem literature, Samuel Egerton Brydges, remarks: "I have every reason to suppose that this curious work is of the greatest rarity, which may be accounted for in some degree by its having been printed abroad ; and it is very rarely (from what cause I am unable to conjecture) that a perfect copy is to be met with in this country. I refer the reader ~'!.· .Hist. o~ to Herbert's A mes for some account of it ; in addition to which nwtrn&, p. I"''S· I beg to observe, that many of the woodcuts, with which each page is adorned, display considerable ingenuity in design, and great excellence in point of execution." The ingenuity and excellence thus praised are comparative{ not in reference to the triumphs of higher art, but when placed beside the other emblem publications of the age: and being thus judged, there are none which surpass Whitney in typographical merit, or which give a truer representation of that school of literature to which he belongs. One at least of our modern writers very prettily sets forth the estimation which he entertained for Whitney: "We have known," Retn>spective he says, "those whose boyish days have been made more agreeReview. vol. p. ''+able by the embJems of Whitney, who could recollect the differ. ent prints, their situation, the details, the whole, to their then delighted minds, beautiful pictures, which adorn that most ancient ut preceptor in emblematic art. B_ the emblems of Whitney and of Quarles have given place to meaner efforts of art, both of the pen and pencil ; gaudy silly prints, and sillier illustrative verses, now occupy the juvenile library. Alas I emblems have faded,
Em6/nns was forthcoming; to not more than two persons was his name known, and only one had ever seen his work. A similar statement may be made respecting the cities in Belgium before mentioned; and in addition, respecting the University Library of Louvain,- the fine old library "de I'Abba.ye du Pare" near Louvain,- the ex ten· sive and curious collection made by M. Van der Haeghen of Ghent, -and that richlystored treasure-room '' du Grand Seminaire" at Bruges, where but for the depredators of the French revolution would now be found in greater number the choice specimens of the skill and loving labour which was bestowed on classic and christian books. Here was shown me an emblem-book in manuscript, excellently illuminated, and in workmanship probably of the thirteenth century, "Dt 1Tolucribus, llibt lit trihul QI:olumbis," i.~. Conurning Birds or tlu thr~~ Doves, by Hugo de Foliato, prior of Saint Laurence at Amiens. Many birds of many kinds are depicted, as the Hawk, the Sparrow, the Pelican and the Ostrich- their properties supposed or real pointed out, and their emblematical significations given. One of the more curious illustrations is the Cedar-tree, where, as the expression runs, the birds "nidificant" in the branches.

Introductory Dissertation.


and their poetry decayed ; and, as we have no hopes to resuscitate them, all we can do is to embalm their memory, and adorn them with a wreath of their own flowers." The reviewer then weaves his garland for Alciatus, Whitncy Ret~<><pective and Withers. The whole of the fine fable of Cupid and Death w!~·.~1:•x. . . . haney's Em .exc h angmg arrows ts presented as "at once b eautt'fuI an d stmp Ie;, PP·'''·'"· b. and the writer adds: "We shall extract a few emblems from this rare book, not, however, on account of its rarity, but the intrinsic merit of the compositions. There is a freshness about the early writers of our country, not so much, however, in the thought itself, as in the simple manner in which it is conveyed ; an almost child-like simplicity of expression, as appropriate as it is artless, which has an irresistible charm for us. Their's seems the Jan. guage in which Nature herself would unfold her beauties and her verities. It gives even the appearance of novelty, as well as strength and propriety, to the thought, and never bears the marks of effort, or constraint." A few selections are then made by the reviewer ; one, addressed to MILES HOBART1 Esq. 1 "The sou1td coltSciencc is a brazen wall·" Whitney's and Emb. pp. frT 191 one, to Sir WILLIAM RUSSELL, Knight, "The name of the braz,e •98. ' is immortal;" and a third, "to EDWARDE PASTON, Esquier," "Tl1e mind not the wealth." Of this last, for its general excellence, we subjoin the first stanza:


christall towers, and turrets richlie sette With glittering geromes, that shine against the sonne : In regall roomes of Jasper, and of Jette, Contente of minde, not alwaies likes to wonne : But often times, it pleaseth her to staye In simple cotes, clos'de in with walles of claye."

Dibdin's notice of our author is in close union of sentiment Dilxlin's lliblio~. with the Retrospective Review. "Why has my Philemon," he ~~~·fm. vol. i. asks, "forgotten to mention the 'Choice of Emblems' of Geffrey Whitney? Had he seen the delectable copy of that amusing book in the possession of my friend Mr. Bolland, it would have made an impression upon his mind, at least of no quickly-perishable nature. Whitney printed his copious quarto in 1586 at -Leyden 'In the House of Cltristopl1er Plmrtyn,' by his son-in-law Raphelengius; and this is probably tltc 011/y E11glish book which


Introductory Dt'ssertati(m.

owes its existence to the matrices and puncheons of the immortal Plantyn.* I wish it were better executed- for the love I bear towards the memory of that great typographer: but the embellishments are generally indifferent, and almost all of them are copies of what had appeared in previous p~.Jblications, especially in Paradin." See Appendix, As will afterwards be shown, this last statement is far from chap. i. being correct. Indeed there is occasionally a superficialness in Dibdin which detracts considerably from our entire trust to his authority. He is a perfect bibliolater of old books, especially if they be beautiful as well as rare, and describes them as if he would have his hearers under the same enchantment with himself; but he does not always discriminate the materials out of which the worshipped idols are made, nor remember that an exact judgment is of far greater value than an admiring veneration. r~~~l:"f.~~rvul.iii. Ormerod's account of Whitncy is chiefly taken from Anthony P· ••o Wood's Athma Oxonimses and from Dibdin's Decameron. He decides that "tlze Cltoice of Emblemes is indebted for its celebrity more to the beauty of its embellishments than to its matter." "The subjects," ' he adds, "arc chiefly treated in couples of stanzas (but the form and length of the verses . is varied occasionally), and some of them are inscribed to his relatives and friends." · Proceedings uf Our choice of ,remarks upon Wltt'tnry we will terminate 'with Liverpool Phi!. Society, 184'), those of the late Joseph Brooks Yates, esq. "It was only top. n. wards the close of the sixteenth century that any English writers turned their attention to the class of composition now under
See "Aonnles de

~/a'::f;~:~~~~ par 1585, the year before Whitney's Emblmu appeared, the following work was issued

In this conjecture Dibdin and Mr. J. B. Yates are slightly mistaken; for in the year

Jl.l;\!h DR Backe~ ~~~iereu;~i~.
p~~:f~~he ISH·•sB<J.
pp. >87, •88. Bruxelles t86s.

from the same press: and when the treasures of the Plan tin Library at Antwerp, so long hidden, shall be revealed, as probably they will be during the next year, then other English works may become known as printed by Plantin: "Th~ Explanation of the lru~ and lawful/ Ri.fhl and Tylk of Anthvni~, lh~ most a:ullmt prina, lht! first of ' .rp, . •. . n• .,. '·. .r r ., Ih a/ namt? K.mg 1?f c>rlll.frl l'' concermng niS u:arr~s agamsl~ .rnlutp, "'"'K 1?f ._astu~fior '• lh~ r~couert~ of lzis Kingdom. Translatt'd into En.flislz, and co>tftrnd witlz 1/u Frmclz and /nliru 'opr~s. Lrydm, in 1/z~ prinlin,f house of Chrislt>j>lzer P/01:/yn. 1585. "t In the absence of contrary evidence there is some probability that this translation was Whitney's work. The Latin edition was printed in 1583, and 1585 marks the time when Whitney's connection with Plantin and Rapheleng existed, or was commenced.




De S-4 pages, plus: A Pedigru, or Museum; Lowndes, Bibliogr.. Manual, i. 49-. ''
t •· Br. in-+0 .

"f gei'U'trlf'gi't•, de

(Cat. etc. of \ht British

lntroductor;' Dissertation.


review. In the year 1586 Geoffrey Whitney, a native of N amptwich in Cheshire, published at Leyden (where he was then residing) his' Cho£ce of Emblems,' printed by Christopher Plantyn, and probably the only English book which owes its existence to the types of that celebrated printer. Its merit is derived more from its being the first publication of a Book of Emblems which had appeared in our language, tha:n from the excellence of the verses, which are for the most part translations from the Latin authors whose works we have been considering. Most of the. engravings also are from the same Blocks as they had employed.* The Book is inscribed to the Earl of Leycester, lately made Governor of the Low Countries, and many of the Emblems are dedicated t to Cheshire Gentlemen." Having set forth the opinions of various writers respecting Whitney and his works, I reserve, in some degree, my own, until I have told what I have to tell respecting his family and himself.


n.- THE ·wHITNEvs



ffii~~~~~;ijn VERY question as to the ancient pedigrees of families, especially when decay has followed comparative wealth and distinction, is generally accompanied by doubts remaining to be solved, and by inaccuracies almost unavoidable. Such there are, and probably ever will be, in any memoir of Geffrey Whitney or of the members of his race. The name itself, as applicable to a family, like a vast number
• Through researches made in various libraries, I have been enabled to show fully, if not completely, from what authors and from what editions of their works the en· gravings in Wltitnry have been borrowed. This subject will be found treated of in my Appendix, chap. i., with some brief notice of the artists by whom the woodcuts were produced. t Also to members of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, to various clergymen and preachers, and to other persons of station and repute, whom Whitney counted among his patrons or friends. Several of his Leyden friends are also introduced. . Ames remarks: "Many of tlu v~ry ~at 1t10odm cuts, and v"uJ, ar~ inscribtd to lite !1';'..~~d~~;'29. grmt~st mm of tit~ agr, 6otk lt"~ and a6road."

Duncumb'i Collection!!; Herefordshire, vol. i. p.61.

Introductory Dt"ssertalt'on.

Duncumb, vol.ii. p.lSJ. Lysons' Cheshire, vol. ii. p. 471·

Athenz Oxoa .

Duncumb's Herefordshire, vol. ii. p ISJ.

Pict. History of England, vol. iii. p . .PS·

•1 Heary VII I.

of other proper names, was first given to a place. The Domesdaybook mentions Witmie, i.e. Whitney, as being in Elsedune hundred in the county of Hereford. Other places in other counties bear the same name ; but it does not follow that the resident owners of the land, though bearing that name, are of the slightest affinity in blood. Of the gms, or family, to which Geffrey Whitney belonged, there appear to have been two principal branches: the elder settled at Whitney in Herefordshire, and possessing other estates within the county; and the younger having their homestead at Coole Pilate in the parish of Acton, near Nantwich, in Cheshire. Both branches however are of considerable antiquity, and intermarried with the leading families of their respective neighbourhoods. Anthony Wood favours the notion that Geffrey Whitney, the emblematist, was closely allied to the Herefordshire family; but, if by close alliance be meant immediate relationship, this notion is unsupported by adequate testimony. General tradition, historical evidence, and family pedigrees show the Cheshire Whitneys to have been of an independent stock for several generations. The original Whitneys derived their name from t~eir place of residence : they were- Eustace de Whitney, or Roger, or Baldwin de Whitney, as the christian name might be. On the confines of Herefordshire, a little north of the point where the county touches upon Radnor and Brecknock,- that was their cradle. Here the lovely Wye enters into England, and its first work is to flow between the parishes of Whitney and Clifford. On the bank to the north was formerly the castle of Whitney, one of the Welsh border strongholds, now represented by a group of mounds and also by Whitney-court, the residence of the present proprietors. The parish church of Whitney is about four miles from the Hay in Brecon, and seventeen miles from Hereford. The parish contains nearly 1500 acres, the chief owners being T omkyns Drew, esq., and the Rev. Spenser Phillips. In the old time it was a portion of the long-stretching debatable ground, within which were one hundred and forty-one little lordships, often at war with each other, and "amenable only to their several feudal chiefs." It was not included in either of the three adjoining

Introductory Dissertation.


counties, until in I535- by act of parliament for the incorporation of England and Wales- Huntington, Clifford, Winforton, Pe1nnr. Cyclop. vo. ltlt. p. I SI· Eardesley, and Whitney were united into the hundred of Huntington. That act serves to designate both the situation of the parish and the condition of the family. As a parish Whitney was protected and oppressed by one of those castles, like Grosmont, Skeafrith and White-castle, not to mention Ragland, which in their pride of state were of far more importance than the border peels or towers in the north of England.* As a family the Whitneys were a superior class of \Vat Tinlings, doing perpetual battle in their own behalf, and, except when it suited their purposes, bidding defiance to right and law. In the earlier times, when Bohuns, Mortimers, and the bishops of Hereford convulsed the whole country, and overshadowed even the royal sovereignty, little trace of the Whitneys appears 14 Edward 1. upon record ; yet, in A. D. I 300, a Eustacius de Whyteneye was Duncumb's ' • Herefordshire, k ntghted at t he same ttme wt'th a Corb et, a L acy, an d a Marmyon; vol i. p. 79. and previous to that the same Eustace, in I 277 and I 280, acted as patron of the living of Pencomb, and in the latter year presented a Roger de Whitney. In I342 W. D. de Witenie was the incumbent; in I353 Baldwin de Whitney; and after I378 Dun.:wnb, Eustacius Whitney. The patrons of this living at various times, vol.u. p. ISJ. from I353 to I590, were, Robert de Whitney, I353; Baldwin de Whitney, I357; Robert Whitney, knt., I4I9 and I428; Robert Whitney, I539; then the Crown, during the minority of a Robert Whitney; and again in I 567, a Robert Whitney, knt.; and lastly James Whitney, knt., in I 590· In the offices of sheriffs of their county, knights of the shire in parliament, and justices in the commission of the peace, the name Whitney may be traced in Herefordshire from Henry V. (I4I3) to George Ill. (I799). Thus of Sheriffs of Herefordshire there have been:
Henry V. I4IJ. I. Robert Whitney. Henry VI. I422. 6. Robert Whitney, knt
1 I. Robert Whitney, knt 15. Robert Whitney. Edward VI. I46I. I5. Robert Whitney.
Duncumb's Herefordshire, vel i pp. I 19-149.

• For opening to me the sources of information respecting the Herefordshire Whitneys, I here confess my obligations to Thomas Heywood esq., F.S.A., Hope End, Ledbury.


Introductory Dissertation.
38. Eustace Whitney. Charles I. 1625. 14- Rob~rt Whitney, knt. 3· Robert de Whitteney, knt. Henry VI. 1422. 1. Robert Whitteney. Edward IV. 1461. 7· Eustace Whitney. Elizabeth, 1558. 1. Robert Whitney, knt.

Elizabeth. 1558. 16. James Whitney, knt. 28. J ames Whitney, knt •
Duneumb's Herefordshire, ""l.i. PP· • so-• S7.

Of Knights of the Shire in parliament :
Edward 11. 1307. 6. Eustace de Whitney. 25. Eustace de Whitney. Edward Ill. 1327. 51. Robert Whitteney. Richard 11. 1377. 2. Robert de 'Whitteney.

The Robert Whitney of the parliament of I Elizabeth had · "receaued the honorable Ordre of Knighthode in the tyme of the B ~bt1 i•ch Mu..,um, reigne of Queene Mary," and his crest, we are informed, was the 8 · ouon. Claudiu~ e. iii. head of an ox · but another sir Robert Whitney with the same Plut Ul . F. ' ' crest, is recorded to have been "dubbed at wynesore" after I 566 and before I 570. From there being a sir J ames Whitney, knt., of Herefordshire, in I574 (I6 Elizabeth), it may be conjectured that the second of the two sir Robert Whitneys, "dubbed" so near together, was of the Cheshire family, and brother to the "Master John Whitney" on whose death Roger Ascham wrote a lamentation, "which was afterwards translated by Kendall, and published in his Flowers of Epigrammcs (1 2mo 1577, fol. iii. Athenz Oxon. b)." "This was, perhaps, our author's (Geffrey Whitney's) uncle," ed. IIIJ, vol i. p. sa1. so Philip Bliss supposes, "as Ascham, or rather his translator, speaks of his dying young:"
1 .

" Yong yeres to yeeld suche fruite in courte Where seede of vice is sowne, Is some tyme redde, in some place seen, Amongst vs seldome knowne."

It must however be remembered that we possess nothing of certainty on this point. We know that our author was of Cheshire birth, and if" Master John Whitney" was Geffrey's uncle, he probably was also Cheshire born, and so would the second sir Robert Whitney his brother be. As a matter of course the name Whitney occurs in the lists of
Gent. MaJ.


• It may be mentioned that this sir James Whitney, knt., in 15!4 and 1585 sought in marriage the hand of Barbara c;ountess of Leicester.

Introductory D£ssertatio1l.


gentlemen in the commission of the peace for Herefordshire; as
temp. Elizabeth, Eustace Whitney; about 1673 Thomas Whitney • o f Wh ttney; m 1799 James Wh'ttney o f N orton Canon, re late d . to the family o f W httney-court.


Duncumb's. Herefordshue, •ol. i. PP· 101., nJ, 114. 116, 119.

The sir Robert Whitney, knt., of king James's and of Charles's reign, had four sons who all died without issue, and four daughters to whom the estate descended. They all married and enjoyed shares in the property. Robert Rodd, the only son and heir to Thomas Rodd, married Hannah Whitney, one of the four daughters, and conveyed her share to Robert Price of Foxley, by whom it was sold to William Wardour. William Wardour acquired the rest of the estate, and built the present Whitney-court, and also in 1740 Whitney church. The former church had been swept away by an overwhelming flood of the river Wye, and of the old monuments only one was spared, that to the memory of Williams of Cabalva in the neighbourhood, who married into the Whitney family. Mrs. Bourne held the· property from William Wardour, and left it to her godson, the grandfather of the present owner Tomkyns Drew, esq., and of his brother the Rev. Henry Drew, rector of the parish. · In passing from the Whitneys of Flerefordshire to those of Cheshire, we may refer again to the two sir Robert Whitneys of Mary's and of Elizabeth's reigns. According to "Amtcs itt Cltcsltire after tlte matter of tlte A !pltabctlt," we do not ascertain Ki~g's Vale , Royal, p. 111 . what the Whitney s crest was, only their shield ; neither have we evidence that the Hereford and Chester branches of the same stem bore different cognizances ; the argument therefore is inconclusive which maintains that, because the same crest is assigned
• Probably to the same family is to be assigned John Whitney, the author of a very rare book; Gmted Recreation, or tile Pltasurt of Angling, a Potm, with a Dialo~ btt-.«m Piscator and Corydon. 12mo. 1700. There was a rev. George Whitney, instituted in 18o7 to the rectory of Stretford, Herefordshire, who died in !8J6. I Gent. Mag. have read somewhere that a captain Whitney was a companion of sir Waiter Raleigh, J8J6, P· 41 8• and of the name a lieutenant fought at Worcester on the royalists' side. If Whitney the highwayman was a member of the family, it would be but an outbreak of the old spirit of the border chieftains. His exploits are narmted in " Tilt Jacobitt robbtr. Ammnt flf tlu famous lift and mtmorabk adions of mptain J. Whiltuy." London 1693. 4tO.


Introductory Dissertation.

to each of the sir Ro?ert Whitneys in question,-they were both of the Herefordshire family. Besides the christian names of the heads of the Hereford Whitneys, except at the very beginning of Elizabeth's reign, are James and Eustace, James being a knight ; and among the Cheshire Whitneys of the same period British Museum we find one Robert, if not two ; namely, Robert Whitney of t!i~t. 'sf.4t. Coole, mentioned in the Visitation of Chester in I 580, and by the Emblems, p. 91, in I$86,-and Robert Whitney, returned to Biomefield's parliament in I 585 as member for Thetford, when Geffrey WhitN orfolk, vol. I. PP· 467 • .f68. ney was at Yarmouth in the same county. The probability then is, that the knight Robert of Mary's reign was of Herefordshire, and the knight Robert of Elizabeth's reign of Cheshire; in fact of the same family as that to which our emblematist belongedthe brother of one Geffrey, the father of another, and the uncle of a third. The head of an ox, as in our frontispiece, being assigned to the two knights Robert Whitney, it may be considered as the recognised badge of the families, and therefore is appropriately introduced,* as the emblem of steady and honourable industry, to symbolize our author's genius and labours. The autograph below the print was furnished me by an eminent investigator of old documents, Mr. T. W. }ones of Nantwich, with the assurance that it is authentic and genuine,t from a signature of the same date with the Emblems, but by which of the three cotemporaneous Geffrey Whitneys of Nantwich is not ascertained. At length we come to treat more particularly of the Cheshire Whitneys ; they were established in the county, and at Coole Pilate, a township in the wide-spread parish of Acton near Nant• It is adopted from one of the emblem writers, Achilles Bocchi'!S, A. D. 1573, and the original was engraved on copper by Agostino Caracci. In this connection it may Bocchius Embl. be noted that the symbols on our title·p~e are also from Achilles Bocchius, who 147, p. 144names them Egyptian characters. They have been re-arranged to suit a title-page, and are merely a fancy of the editor's. t Of Whitney's autographs we present an unquestioned one from a book which once belonged to him, Paradin's INvuu Herciiquu. A curious paper in Nota and Qun-ia, Plate VII. "Autographs in Books," signed H. C. W., gives the following: "2. Oclandii AngioSecond series, vol. ii. p. :1.86. rum Pra!lia. London 1582, 12mo. At the bottom of the title-page occurs (in MS.) 'G. Whytney, Cestrensis ;' at the top the motto, 'Constanter et syn .... ' (the rest is missing)." "I never saw his handwriting before. It would seem from this specimen Notes and Queries, second that he was a native of Chester." On this Dr. Edward F. Rimbault remarks, "This series, Yol. ii. old poet was certainly a native of Cheshire," and cites Whitney's Emblrms, p. 177· p. IJ7.

Introductory Dissertation.


wich, almost as soon as those of Herefordshire were upon the Welsh border. "The manor" of Coole Pilate, say the Lysons, vol. u. Cbeshm:, Ma~ BriL. writing in 1810, "which was anciently parcel of the barony ofp..m. Wich-Malbank, is now the property of Lord Kilmorey: in this township were two halls, with considerable estates annexed, one of which belonged to the \Vhitneys, who became possessed of it u. '177-1199· in the reign of Richard 11. and had a seat there for many generations: this estate was purchased in 1744 of Mr. Hugh Whitney, by whose death the family is supposed to have become extinct.* The purchaser was Mr. John Darlington, whose daughter brought it in marriage to Henry Tomkinson esq. of Dorfold, the present proprietor: the hall is occupied by a farmer." . The Vale Royal of England testifies to the fact which the Lysons record. It describes where the brook Combrus, from which Combermere has its name, " meeteth shortly with the Water of Kiu,J'• ed. •616. . , h pt. u. p. 6s. Weever, about Broom ha 11 a great T ownsh tp, "near w ereunto is scituate a Demean of the Whit11eys, called the Mannour of Cole Pi/ate." This manor, in the parish of Acton, was the homestead of the family; and here or in the neighbourhood they long dwelt. Their alliances show them to have been of consideration in Cheshire in the old time. About the reign of Henry VII. Anne, och"n~.od'• t':)lllte, daughter of John Brooke of Leighton, in N antwich hundred, vol. m. p. 2-4' became the wife of Thomas Whitney of Coole. She was the Sir P. Leycester, • HisL at1d Antiq. aunt to the Rtchard Brooke, esq., who " Purchased from the p. 1a• . King the Mannor of Norton with its Members and Appur- n_.~·~~- vm tenances." t Hugh Massey, of Denfield and Audlem, also in Nantwich
• In speaking of the extinction of the Cheshire Whitneys, the Lysons are not entirely correct. Towards the end of last century, Mr. Silas \Vhitney, also a poet, or writer of verse, from the neighbourhood of Nantwich, carried on business in Knutsford as a cotton manufacturer. He was reputed to be descended from the Whitneys of Coole Pilate, and a relative of the celebrated Josiah Wedgwood. When political feeling ran high and fierce about the first French revolution, he is said to have emigrated to the United States of North America, then in their rising glory. There the name is borne by many families, among whom very probably are to be found the lineal representatives of the Cheshire Whitneys. In the county at the present time there are few persons of the same name, but their relationship, if any, to the emblematist is not claimed by them, nor ascertained. t Among the Cheshire Records of Mr. T. W. ]ones occur "the following members of the Whitney (or Whytney) family":-


sHn P aLend>-ce"•'· 1s.t Anllq

I nlroduc lory Dissertati(m.



Ormcro•:l'• Cheshire, •<>~ iii. p. 1.47

hundred, son and heir of William Massey (who came of age 3 Edward VI., A.D. IS 50, and was descended from sir Geoffrcy Massey of Tatton, near Knutsford, "who died 4 die Octobris 1457"), married" Elizabeth, sister of Hugh Whitney of Coolane in \\'renbury." He died in 1646, and was buried at Audlem.* The manor-house of Coole Pilate is pleasantly situated on the bank of the river \Veever at a short distance from the stream, and is now occupied by a farmer. Of the old structure little remains, e~cept on the side looking towards the river. This side or \\;ng is in the usual style of ancient Cheshire houses,- a frame-work of timber painted externally black, and filled in with whitened plaster or brick. Between the house and the river is an old brine spring of at least one hundred and fifty feet deep, the brine rising to the surface. In former times salt was made
name Whitne~·. in the 4th of Henry VI., A. D. 1428, relating to estates in Xant"ich and in the neighbourhood of Coole Pilate; A llugh [\\llytn~~·] of Coole Pi!3te in the reign of king Henry VIII.; A Thomas Wh:rtne~·. "no doubt an ancestor of Geoff. Wbitney, the Poet," in th~ first~·~ ofqu~ :!dary's reign, A.D. 1553; A Richard Whytney in 1562; Also the Geffre~· Wh~"tney whose autograph is gh·en on the frontispiece to this work; A Hugh \\'hytney in the 20th of king James, A. D. 1623; and lastly, Thomas \\'hitney, esq", who died at Malpas in March 1792, aged So.

!\l~r '9- r86&, =.!June J, •116s.

In the Probate Court at Chester are found th~ names of: \\'hitn~y Thomas, of Barthomley, Adm• 1598; Whitney Hugh, of Cool~. gent., Inventory 1611 ; Whitney lllichael, of Xewhall, Inventory 1617. Lane. and Chesh. Other instances also ~r. as: In the time of .Elizabeth, IIth January I 592, "Mrs. :~J:!:s,•oL ii. PP. !llargaret Whitney ;" she is named in the will of "Richard Bradshaw, servante at annes" to the queen. He was of the famiiy of" Bradshaigh of Haigh," "now represented by the .Earl of Crawford and Balcarres;" and acknowledges himself indebted "to l\1 rs. Marg:tret Wnitney ";dow" in the sum "of xxvjU xiii• iiiid." Will in the ProThomas Whitney of Barthomley, husbandman, 39 .Elizabeth left three sons, Edward, bate court, •s98. Thomas and James, and a daughter Elizabeth, to whom 45/. was bequeathed. The Thomas Whitney of Malpas, gentleman, who died in 1792, lost his wife Eliza<~rme~od's .. beth in the 2oth year of her age, December 1740. There is, or was, a monument to C heshne. "Vol. u. . p. 14S· her memory m Malpas church. Onnerod, ,·ol iii. • Four daughters were the issue of this marriage : Elizabeth, wife to John Page, pp. 9S. 1.47· esq., of Eardshaw, living in 1666; Jane, to Edward Gregge, esq., of Bradley; Anne, to Mr. T. W. lone•, Cholmondeley Salmon, esq., of Coolane; and Maria, to John Millington, esq., of MilJrd June rA6J. )'mgton. The son, \\1 Iam Massey, who died · 1668, marn'ed D orot hy, w.ug ht er of ··rr· -'m George Cotton of Combermere, esq. Thus some of the Whitney blood must be flowing in the veins of very many of the gentry of Cheshire.
lude:.: t\) the


I ntroduclory Dissertation.


here, and traces of the fuel employed are often found in the soil, but the spring has not been worked in living memory. The opposite bank of the river is elevated and covered with wood, and the whole valley is undulating, and at some distance, at Comber- see Plate x1v. mere, very picturesque. Here and there, by the rough road-side to the manor-house and close to it, are a few oaks, eacjt of which numbers up centuries of life ; and they are the only unquestionable relics of the age when Whitney the poet, in the boyhood of which he writes so tenderly, played and rambled with his brother Brooke, and his sisters lsabella a poetess, and" Mary and Ann, in the fields and pretty country around.* This homestead, or some other in the neighbourhood, it is most probable was the birthplace of our Geffrey \Vhitney ; though some lines in the Poems of his sister Isabella, published in 1573, intimate that his father at one time of his married life lived in London, for she writes in her fantastical will : t "To Smithfeilde I must something leaue, my Parents there did dwell."! There are, however, undeniable proofs that the poet's younger years were passed at Coole Pilate or the immediate neighbourhood. The ancient grammar school at Audlem, a small country town about three miles from Coole Pilate, was of a certainty the place of his early education. He addresses the youth of that school"Watche, write, and reade, and spend, no idle hower ;'' and expressly affirms it to be the place "wheare I my prime did spende." The motto, "Patria cuiquc clzara," His native land to every one is dear, he illustrates from
• The ReT. Robert S. Redfem, vicar of Acton, of whose large parish Coole Pilate
is a part, most courteously pointed out these localities to me, and I here most cordially

Emblem•. p. 171.

acknowledge my obligations to him. t Not an actual will and testament, but a work of mere fancy. :f. It may be that the poet's mother was a Cartwright, sister to the Geffrey Cart· wrighte owned as an uncle in the Embl~ms; for, before 16oo there certainly were Cart· wrights at Sheppenhall in Wrenbury, a neighbouring parish to Acton and Audlem. "A Nycholas Cartwright of Nantwich" is recorded in 1592; William Cartwright, apothecary of London, was also a freeholder of Nantwich in J 596; and a John Cart· wright is named in a post-mortem inquisition in r6JS·

Emblenu, p. 166

Letter Mr.

~.i~bs }~:.~~
•86r.' 1

Plate XIV.

bztroductory Disser tatio11.

that fame so far commendes ; A stately seate, whose like is harde to. finde ;"

This· mansion of the Cottons,* now viscounts Combermere, ha~ been superseded by a nobler edifice ; it is in the immediate neighbourhood of Coole Pilate, and is spoken of by Whitney with fond affection :
Emblems, p. :o:..

" So, thoughe some men doe linger longe away, Yet loue they best their natiue countries ground. .1\nd from the same, the more they absent bee 1With more desire, they wishe the same to see." He then adds, as if to certify of his youthful home: " Euen so my selfe, throughe absence manie a yeere, A straunger meere, where I did spend my prime. Now, parentes loue dothe hale me by the eare, And sayeth, come home, deferre no longer time : Wherefore, when happe, some goulden honie bringes : I will retorne, and rest my wearie wings." The lines addressed to "THOMAS WILBRAHAM, Esquier," of Woodhey, in the same parish of Acton with Coole Pilate, imply familiarity with that" old English gentleman's" character, wpich residence in the same neighbourhood only could in that day produce. The poet says of him :

Emblem•, p. , 99.

"---by proofe I knowe, you hourde not vp your store; \Vhose gale, is open to your frende: and puree, vnto the pore:" "Whose daily studie is, your countrie to adorne : And for to keepe a worthie house, in place where you weare borne.'~ The restoration of Nantwich from its state of ruin, consequent on the terrible fire of I 583, gave Whitney occasion for stating more explicitly the neighbourhood, if not the exact place, of his birth. The device of the phrenix, rising from its ashes, is devoted "To my countrimen of tlw Namptwiche in Clwsshire." We may note that he says his countrimm, not his townsmen. In his 'J r .l • " autograph S h e styles h'tmse If, " GU fll:YluUS un './ f'Y tzytney v&SfY&SillY, and "G. W!zyt11cy, Ccstrmsis." The registers of Acton parish, within the ample boundaries of
• It is through the permission of George Ormerod, esq.,

Emblems, p. '77. Plate vn.; and Note• and Que11. p. •86.

!"_ies, •nd ser. vol.

Ormernd, vol. iii. p.


the historian of



that the illustrative plate (XIV.) is given.

Introductory Di'ssertalion.


which Whitney most probably was born, are of too recent a date to furnish evidence of his birth or of his baptism; and those of N antwich, which is a town and territory cut out of the middle of the ancient Acton, and intervening between it and Coole Pilate, though beginning "the first Day of '.Januari'e t'n the Yeare of our See MS.. , "A Re~ster of Lord God one thousand, flue hundred seuenty & tow," are also not tt.~c1:'~-or sufficiently remote.* There exists however most satisfactory banke." testimony, that iri I 573 the family, of which Geffrey Whitney was the eldest, numbered two brothers, himself and B_rooke, and four sisters, Ann Borron (married), Isabella (the poetess), and ~o younger "seruinge in London." " Certat·n famt'lier Epistles ""=~·" and friendly Letters by tlte Auctor," Isabella Whitney, are ad- fkL 1 f7J· dressed to various of her relatives; as- "To her Brother, G. W.," i.e. Geffrey Whitney. "8crotr J3rcrtf)tr tuf)i a bacit time trotf) ca\Ur l!OU f) met tG t'J!lrt: tf)at tf)r ftrQ!l futtr.- trcr malt JIGU from tf)r ttfttft lJ!lrt ," &c. "iSut .-tvtt tG frfmtr.- I m\Ut appeatr (antr nqt our t~armtd treare) tou are antr m\Ut lr cf)fde.-t ~taflr, tf)at I .-!)all .-till! ern f)eau." &c. "tour lGUJ!n.ll (tf)crugf) tucl te.Ue) la. w ."



It would thus appear that Geffrey at this time (1573) was residing in London, probably pursuing the study of the law, or following his profession of a jurisconsult. lsabella also endites a familiar letter "To her Brother, B. W.," and enables us to identify him with "M. BR. WHITNEY," of the Emblem.r: "8ootr J3rllt{Jtr Brook• I often lDGir to t)eare Gf a~ our utumr: J3ut nonr can trtt, U J!OU lr turll nor tubrrr J!OU tro .-oiumr : mt)icf) mdd mr ftau tf)at I .-!)all f)eau a~our btaltb appatrrtr 1.-: •ntr oft I trreatr, tf)at JIOU art trratr or .-omtf)J!n.U prtf) ami!.-." &c.
"YOtW lowi"!J Sinw, le. W."

Embleau, p. 11.

• To the registers of Nantwich I had access through the kindness of the Rev. Andrew F. Chater, the rector of the parish.


Introductory Dissertation.

Emblems, p. 91 .

There is too, what is especially note-worthy from its genuine sisterly goodness and quaint simplicity, presenting quite a picture of private life in the sixteenth century, "lln orbtr pnssrrweb b!! Is. W. to two of her yonger Sisters seruinge in London;" one probably being in after-life M. D. Colley :



mtnt, lllf)m I furtbrr from I!DU lJIDen : tJrru-t tt)t-t Und, ofl-nue fbt rulelllbid.J tn tf)e -amt I telL jlo -ban J!Du mea~ po--t-, anlJ qutetne" of mJ!nlrt : <ilnlJ alJ!Dur frfmlJ- ta -~ tbt -amr, a trtflle UrJ! ~all f.l!nlrt."


Then follow six curiously-conceived, though sensible and most sisterly admonitions, in six stanzas, of from twelve to twenty lines: 1°. To obserue morning prayer; 2°. "All wanton toyes, good sisters now, exile out of your minde ;" 3°. To attend to despatch of business; 4°. To be faithful in keeping secrets; To be guided by virtue; and 6°. "When master's gon to bed, your Mistresses at rest"" jlee tf)at fbtir tJlatt fit -aft, anlJ tbat no jlpoont lJD lade, "" moan.- & Etnlrollle- flolttlr rut fDl' hart DC &nJ! IDratL"


Emblems, P·'9'·

The advice ends with enjoining prayer : "8DD1J jl~tm lllf)m I!DU praJ! ltt me remm'lflrelJ lie; jla IDJ!U Ji J!DU, anlJ tt)u I ClUe tal I J!Dur -elut• lJo .-ee." There is besides an epistle in seven stanzas, of six lines each, "To her sister Misteris A. B." i.e. Ann Borron:
" Because I to my Brethem wrote, and to my Sisters two ; Good Sister Anne, you this might note, yf so I should not doo To you, or ere I parted hence you vainely had bestowed expence."

Chester Archzological Jowual, •ol. ii. pp. 197. 191 aad •11

• The mother doubtless of Mr. William Colley of Eccleston, near Chester, to whom on "the first day of December, Ao 1643," Arthur lord Capell granted a safe conduct, and from whom the present Dr. Davies of Chester is descended.

Introductory Dissertation.
This epistle contains a notice of her sister's children : " Your Husband with your prety Boyes God keep them free from all annoyes."


Now in I 586, when the Clwice of Emblemes was published, one of these "prety Boyes" was our Geffrey's nephew, Ro. Emblem•, p .• 9 •. BORRON ; one of the "yonger Sisters" was M. D. COLLEY, to whom is devoted the device on the virtues of a wife ; and " goob Emblems, p. 9l· ti5rott.Jn Brooke" was the person whom Geffrey names "my brotlzer M. BR. WHITNEY," and whom he instructs in the apologue of a Emblems, P· aa. great heap arising from "manie little thinges." And how do we know that " Is. W." is Isabella Whitney ? In Tno. BIR's "commendation of the Authour," the writer of the "$tutet :flolga~" is expressly named :
"and sure my great good wyll must netJ<r slake From WH!TNEY : loe, herein some partie take, For in her worke is plainly to be seme 1tJhy Ladies plate in Garlands Laurel! greene."

She is also acknowledged as a near kinswoman " by one : to whom shee had written her infortunate state," whatever that may have been,-probably some heart-disappointment:
"Your Ldters (Cosin) scarsley seene, I catch/ into my hand : In hope thereby some haP!Y newes from you to vnderstantl. But whi 1 had suruaitl the same, and waid the /enqr wdl A heuy heap of soroues did, mi former ioyes expel ;"

and so on, for nearly fifty more lines, ending with"For; be lJotb J!U lJdnut I!' ~ret, 11t tuttttl not I!' tarte.
taur mdt IDul!n.U tra-'11n,
G. W."

This G. W., no doubt, was the same whom the very graphic lines, "In occasionem," on Fortune, designate, "my Kinsman M. GEFFREY WHITNEY." Such were the Whitneys of Coole Pilate in 1573; they all survived until 1586, when others of the family connections are presented to our notice. In the Clwice of Emblemes a device is dedicated "Ad Agnatmn szmm R. '\V. Coolensem," i.e. To his kinsman Robert Whitney of Coole; another, "Ad D. H. Wit.

Emblems, p.181.

Emblems, p., 9 .. Emblems, p. ~·


Emblems,p.94Emblems, p.r66.

Introductory Dissertation.

patrue/i's mei F.," i.e. To Hugh Whitney son of my father's brother;

a third, "AdRa. W.," and may mean to Ralph Whitney; also a fourth, "To my vncle GEFFREY CARTWRIGHTE," and may name his mother's brother, and so the mother of our poet would be a Cartwright. We have thus in some measure ascertained who were the kinsfolk of our Geffrey Whitney, emblematist, in 1573 and in 1586. We may now endeavour to inform ourselves of his probable age at either of these dates. Sir Philip Sidney, after leaving Shrewsbury school, entered Christ church college, Oxford, in 156<), and quitted it in 1571. It would be two or three years at least previous to this, when Whitney, "born at Namptwich in Cheshire, spent some time in this University;" for he was longer a student at Magdalen college, Cambridge, "where he had for his tutor Stephen Limbert, afterwards master of Norwich school." Now, according to information from the Rev. Augustus J.essop, head master of king Edward VI.'s school, Norwich, Limbert was appointed master in 1570: consequently Whitney must have been a member of Magdalen two or three years previously, suppose in 1567. We thus dispose of the supposition I once made, that he was a fellow student with sir Philip Sidney, and ascertain nearly the time when he entered Cambridge. In 1567, according to the usage of that day in going up to the universities, he would be not more than twenty years of age ; and thus we may consider him to have been born in 1548, or a little earlier,* near the beginning of "the happy reigne of Kinge Edward the sixt." What studies and pursuits Whitney engaged in on leaving Cambridge are not recorded ; but from the office he once held in the corporate town of Great Yarmouth they were probably such as qualified him for the profession of the law, in which, a5 men of eminence, ranked several of his friends and patrons. And singular it is, that of the early emblem writers several were


Oxonien.ses. vol. i. p. •Jo, ed. 17•1.
Athenro: Cantab. vol. ii. p.


Athenz CRDtab. vol. ii. p. :&+

Hist'!?' of • This conclusion almost coincides with the conjecture of Ormerorl, who says: CbeshLrC, •ol. iii. "Here," in Nantwich, "also in 1545 was born 'John G~rartk the herbalist, most prop. ~Jo. bably a collateral descendant of some of the great Cheshire families of his name; and here also about the same time GEOFFREY WHITNEY, an English poet of the reign of Elizabeth."

Introductory Dissertation.


jurisconsults or of kindred callings. Alciat in his twenty-second year graduated as doctor of laws; Mignault, his commentator, in early manhood explained the Greek and Roman authors ; John Sambucus deserved the praise of being "physician, historian, antiquary and poet;" Hadrian Junius excelled both as an able physician and a learned philologist ; and Barthelemi Aneau was jurisconsult and orator. ' In I 573, when Whitney had attained his twenty-fifth year, or Is. w:. Epistle. according to Ormerod his twenty-eighth, he was no longer resident in Cheshire; nor does it appear that he had returned to his "natiue countries grounde" by I586. The interval of thirteen Emblems, p. oot. years must have had a considerable portion of it devoted to various studies ; for his familiarity with classic authors, with fathers of the church, and with the poets and emblem writers of the age in which he lived, and of that which preceded him, dedares how diligently his life had been spent. He may not have taken a degree at Cambridge, but if not "Mr of Artes," as Pea- r.Bii.n,e,..,a r1 anna. cham was, he could have been no dilatory student; each day left its line on the dial-plate of his life, and marked an onward course. The preparation for a work like "the Emblemes" must have occupied the leisure of several years. There is about it a polish, a roundness of metre and of rhyme, which indicate, with as much certainty as if other writings of his were before us, that the$e are not the only verses which have flowed from his pen. Poetry no more than history can be written at one stretching forth of the hand ; there are of necessity attempts and exercises, touches and re-touches, before anything of mastership is attained, and certainly before such power of translation as Whitney evinces can be put forth and upheld. One of the emblem-books, from which Whitney made selec- Sym~Ia Hero1ca tions and of which he adopted some of the woodcuts, was printed M. Cl. Paradini. by Plan tin in I 58 3, but the copy of an earlier edition in French, bearing our author's autograph, is dated I 562 ; and we may Plate VII. reasonably conclude that his name was written in it before the issuing of Plantin's edition. The devices he borrowed from Paradin may therefore have had their illustrative verses composed as early·as I 580, or even I 575· The verses "vppon Video Emblems, p. 6r. & taceo, Her Maiesties poesie, at tlze great Lotterie in LONDON


bztroductory Dissertatioll.
bcgon M.D.LXVIII, and ended M.D.LXIX," may have been written in 1568, and probably had their origin near to that date. Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia had received its full form, if not its completion, before 1582, and at any time afterwards the lines may have been penned : "What volumes hath hee writte, that rest among his frendes, Which needes no other praise at all, eche worke it selfe comendes."
Baron Flowerdewe died in April 1586, about three weeks before the Emblems were published, but the Devises to him and to Francis Windham must have been composed some time before, and perhaps earlier than 1584, when Flowerdewe was appointed one of the barons of the. exchequer, for he was an early friend, if not patron, of Whitney. So, if we pursued the subject it might appear that several of the emblems had been written and laid aside, and dedications added as the occasion served. Once more, as a very large number of Whitney's devices and woodcuts are borrowed from Plantin's editions of Paradin (1562), of Sambucus (1564 and 1584), of Junius (1564 and 1585), of Alciat (1551 and 1581) and of Facrni (1583), many of his translations and accommodations from those writers may have taken place successively as these editions appeared, and the stanzas have been modified, added to or shortened, as taste or inclination prompted. The laws which rule other writers of selections would govern Whitney; his "Choice" would be made gradually, following out the advice of one of his own emblems: "Althovghe thy store be small, for to begin ne, Yet guide it well, and soone it is increaste;" and so he found " - - - in time abundance springes, And heapes are made, of manie little thinges." For diversion or for improvement he studied the emblem writers; and it is probably but a portion of what he "englished and moralized " that appeared in print "in the house of Christopher Plantyn." The first trace we have discovered of any special employment for our poet is as under-bailiff of Great Yarmouth, in Norfolk, an office similar in several respects to that of recorder in the present day. His connection with the corporation of that bo-

Emblem•, p. '97·


Emblem~, TU.

pp. 1:1.1

Fou's Judge•,
vol. v. pp. 407,

409• .pr.

~~~~~ 0~IX.

Plates VII.

Athene C:&ntab. vol. ii. p. SJ.

bttroductory Dissertation.


rough existed in I 580, but how much earlier is not evident. It~':!~:"'· was doubtless brought about either by the earl of Leicester or Rolls. by some one of the various Cambridge and East Anglian friends of our author, and it continued until the year I 586. Sergeant Flowerdewe, in I 580, became under-steward of the borough, and Whitney probably acted as his deputy. On Flower~ dewe's resignation, in I 584, the poet for a time occupied the vacant office. Pending the election of a successor, " it was vManshi~~ ordered, in assembly, that Mr. Whitney should receive the fees YO1 .~~··· by IL p. 119· of the Court for the steward, and haue the room at the Grey Friars rent free; but upon the appointment of Mr. Stubbs, in 1585, he was required to leave the room, unless Mr. Stubbs chose to retain him as his clerk." Whitney not unjustly resented .&...etter, 1une a, ~l_r. PaJ m•r's this treatment, and went to law with the corporation, but the ' 86S· dispute was at last settled by a payment t<> him of 45/. sterling. The earl of Leicester, who as a commoner in 15 53 rep re- Manwp, vol.i. sented the county of Norfolk, and had been high-steward of Great P· 6s. Yarmouth since the year I 572, introduced Whitney to the cor- • poration, and endeavoured to procure for him the appointment of under-steward which Flowerdewe had held,-an office nearly corresponding to that of judge of the local courts both civil and criminal. Great dissensions were the result ; the earl applied to Le Grys' Letler, Mr. Le Grys, member of parliament for the borough and a man ~·,;;;J;'lj/,s86. . o f great . fl uence, to r tn ,avour Wh't ney, wh' h t o a certam extent Yannouth. 1 tc he did, but at the cost of his own position ; for Le Grys was accused to his constituents of having promised the office, and his faithful services to the borough for five successive parliaments being forgotten, he failed to regain his seat at the next election. The fine old church of St. Nicholas, and the Elizabethan mansion* on the south quay, were doubtless often entered by

• The interior of this residence furnishes illustrations to a handsome volume, printed for private distribution by the present owner, Charles John Palmer, esq., the editor of "!lfawlup's History of Grmt YarmlJutlz." "lllamcstit 'lr~iterturt in englanll, during the reign of queen Elizabeth" is the title of the work. To its author, and to those who acted with him, we are indebted for the preservation of the town-rolls and other valaable documents. Their spirited exertions rescued the corporation a few years ago from the disgrace of selling their old records, and induced the building of a suitable muniment room for their safe keeping, where they are arranged in excellent order for reference. In Gothic character~, and in Whitneian phrase, there are inscribed on the four


Introductory Dissertation.

See Plate• XII. and XIII.


Mans.hip, vol. I. pp. ros, ro6.

Swioden's H iot. Great Yannouth, PP· 68s,689.

Norfolk, vol. v. p . •694.


Whitney; and though "~fJt !tannoutf} •uttf)," or "TowN CHEST," was "t!rf}t 8fft of lllftt Uartltmt_tu" to the corporation only in 16oi, yet there probably reposed for many a year A Parchment Sheet of the Rolls of Great Yarmouth, dated z· Aug. IS8o, which was drawn up or indited by Whitney himself, and which is the earliest of his known compositions. Some have dignified it with the name of a work, as if it were a book or treatise ; but a single long and narrow folio is the extent of this offspring of our poet's pen. It describes in Latin prose a scene in his life which may be characterized as the pic-nic of the borough officers and of their friends. Manship, writing not later than 16I2 or I6I4, and speaking of this Parchment S/uet, testifies to the "careful skillfulness, and skillful carefulness of Mr. Jeffry Whitney, (sometime the under Bailiff of this Incorporation,) to set down" touching the said sand called Scratby Sand ;" "in Latin learnedly recorded, beginning 'Po"o secundo di~,· &c. Thus in English: -onobtr, on the second day of August this present year," IS8o, &c. It appears that about the 20th year of Elizabeth (I 578) one • of the sand-banks off Yarmouth became dry land, which from a small village on the shore received the name of Scratby Island. It "was so much elevated above high-water mark that grass and other vegetables grew and sea-fowls built thereon ; and in the summer season many of the inhabitants of Yarmouth usually went thither for recreation ; some feasting, bowling and using other pastimes there, according to their different inclinations. But on the Second Day of August I 580, a very elegant entertainment was prepared by the bailiffs for a select company of gentlemen, whose names are inserted in the court-roll of that year, with an account of the place and transactions of that day, by the learned and ingenious Mr. Jeffery Whitney, sub-steward to the corporation at that time." The historian of Norfolk tells us "the bailiffs, with a respectH

divisions of the ceiling of one of the principal rooms of Mr. Palmer's house the fol· !owing lines :
~1111.taming bee tbrir m:br ~earr tbat liw in

m:br ltit!J tbat lhu in mcaltbJ! lltatt, Uhaltb maintCJ!nr ;
fl,trbir tale

ISJ!lLraming bee grrat 1\icbtsst gaJ!nr.






Introductory Dissertation.


able company of gentlemen, burgesses, mariners, &c., went down to take formal possession of this spot by the name of Yarmouth Island, where they all dined and spent the day in festivity."* The excursion doubtless was pleasant enough, with knights and men learned in the law of the company, and "some odd quirks and remnants of wit " were broken at the joyous time. "But behold, exclaims Swinden, "the instability and uncertainty of all earthly acquisitions!" In I 582, when the lord of the adjoining manor, sir Edward Clere, had put in his claim, and he and the corporation of Yarmouth had commenced a law-suit in support of their respective rights, "the sea put in a more powerful claim," Blomefield, and "by a strong easterly wind and tide" swept the island away, s~i:ci.;.;,·~. "and the place became main sea" and "left not a wreck behind" whereby "to keep alive the foolish contest." t Great Yarmouth was excellently well situated for intercourse with Holland and Belgium, then as now great centres of emblem art; and during the eight or ten years of his connection with the East Anglian borough, Whitney would have frequent opportunities of holding correspondence with, or even of visiting, the learned men who distinguished Antwerp or Leyden by their residence. We may not be able to determine how early his acquaintance with the literati of the Netherlands commenced, nor to what date it was continued ; but it certainly, from the very nature of the case, must have been of some years standing when his Emblems were published. In reward of th_ bravery and e fidelity of its citizens, during the memorable siege of I 57 3, Ley- Motlcfd>utch den obtained from William the Silent the establishment of its :;P,;a~:i:.s•ol. ii. university in I 57 5. A fast friend of Whitney, Jan Dousa the elder, was the first who presided over the newly-founded academy; another friend, Bonaventura. Vulcanius, was the Greek
• The names recorded are forty-five in number. Among them, the bailiffs Ralph See the Rull• of W oolhouse and John Giles, sir R. W oodhouse, knt., Edmund Flowerdewe, esq., ~e'::~ ;;,~mouth, sergeant at law, Mr. Charles Colthorpe, steward of Yann, Mr. William Harebome, Mr. Jeffery Whitney, &c.. The whole account of the visit, as if it had been a very solemn fest.ivity, concludes with a doxology: "Soli IXo honor d gforia in IZ'IIa snnpi· t~rna. Amen." t In a note from R. H. Inglis Palgrave, eS<j., of Great Yannouth, I am informed June J, •86s that about a week before, the sandbank which once constituted Yarmouth or Scratby Island was again for a day or two raised to the surface of high water. \Vere the upheaval permanent would the lawsuit be revived that has lain dormant for 285 years!

P. Hofmanni Peerkamp Liber. pp. •o:, :lJ9t 2.48, Z.ft,

Introductory Dissertatio11.

professor at the same time; and Justus Lipsius for thirteen years, until I 590, filled the chair of histoty. Raphalengius too, by and 151. whom the Choice of Emblems was imprinted, had taught Greek in Cambridge when Whitney was a student, or short1y before ; and thus we haVe all the elements of the acquaintance and friendship between our poet and several of the eminent men by whom Leyden was adorned. In the year I 55 5 Plan tin established his printing-house in See Annales de Antwerp, and from I 562 when "Les Devises de Claude Paradi11" 1' Imprimerie Plantinienne, were published by him down to I 590, there was a continual sucBruxeUe•, 186s. cession of emblem works in Latin, French and Flemish. Four editions of Paradilz appeared, five of Sambucus, four of Faenzi, one of Freitag, eight of Hadrimz '7u11ius, and five of Alciatus. Out of all these Whitney had taken his "Choice;" so that it was but natural, considering what relations he had established with Leyden, that his Emblems should be printed in that city. At the end of November I 585 Whitney was in London, where he penned "the Epistle Dedicatorie" to his patron, but on the 4th of May I 586 he is ·found "at Leyden in Hollande" cornmending the Emblems to his readers. May be we have no absolute authority for the assertion ; but here it seems that he busied himself in literary pursuits, and passing out of the immediate knowledge of his countrymen formed one in the bands of the learned whom the new university and the new printing-office of Plantin had gathered together. If the conjecture were established, that "G. W.," the initials of the author of" A VRELIA," mean Geffrey Whitney, we could present evidence that he was writing and -publishing in London in 1 593 ; otherwise we meet with no certain mention of him as living beyond the conclusion of the sixteenth century, except it be the notice in Peacham's Mi~terva Britamza, p. 172. This we may interpret as implying that Whitney personally* gave consent to Peacham's use of the device of Love and Death. If this see Plate x. be a sound conjecture, then Whitney was surviving in the year I6I 2, at the age of 64; it depends however on the words, "cum illius venill Ab Authore." Should we understand them as merely
• "Hoc idem habet Whitnreus, quod bene cum illius veniA Ab Authore etiam mutatus sum."

Introductory Disserta tio1l.


the idiom for "begging his pardon," the evidence is inconclusive; but if we give the full meaning, "with permission for it from the author," then doubtless Whitney was living in the year r6r2. The year of his death equally with the year of his birth remains unsolved. His writings are his only monument, and neither stone nor line is known to record his passage to the immortality in which he believed.


~iiijji~j!iiijli!iil EARS, as they flow, have often brought to

light other writings of an author than those originally ascribed to him ; but in Whitney's case there are only trifling additions by Philip Bliss and the Coopers of Cambridge to the works catalogued by Anthony .. ur • • Seevol. u. vvoo d. W e Wl'11 ta k e t hem 10 t hetr order RP· •J, &+ . as t hey are presented 10 t he A'l.-·- .._mztab,. '''"'(IJ r rtgtenses andA'l.-- ed. '7"·i. p. >JO /rwn(IJ Seevol

Oxonimses :
" I. Account in Latin of a visit to Scratby Island, off Great Yarmouth 2 August rsSo. Translated in Manship's History of Great Yarmouth, ro6."

Aided by Mr. C. J. Palm er, I referred to this "Account in Latin," and found it simply an entry, on a single scroll, in the Town Records. The names of the company who were present at the festivity are appended. Swinden's History gives the original i~ii~ XII. and Latin, which we reproduce in photo-lithography.
"2. A Choice of Emblemes, ·and other Devises, for the :most part gathered out of sundrie writers, Englished and Moralized, and divers newly devised, by Geffrey Whitney. A worke adorned with varietie of matter, both pleasant and profitable : wherein those that please, maye finde to fit their fancies: Because herein, by the office of the eie, and the eare, the minde may reape dooble delighte through holsome preceptes, shadowed with pleasant de-

I vi

Introductory Dissertation.

vises : both fit for the vertuous, to their incoraging : and for the wicked, for their admonishing and amendment. Leyden (:Plantyn), 4to, I 586.* Dedicated to Robert earl of Leycester from London 28 Nov. 1585, with an epistle to the reader dated Leyden, 4th May I 586. The author speaks as if this were a second edition ; if so, no other is now known. A writer in the E1tcycloptedt"a Metropo!t"tana terms this work a remarkable imitation of Alciati." The Collection of Emblems "presented in writinge vnto my Lorde," constituted, I conceive, the "firste edition" of which Whitney makes mention; it was not a printed but a written _ edition, set forth among his friends. He afterwards added to the manuscript that had been "o.ffred vp to so ho11orable a suruaz"ghe" as that of his lordship, but he declares, "/t"ct'ttce being obtained for the publishing thereof, I offer it heare (good Reader) to thy viewe, in the same sorte as I presented it before. Onelie this excepte : That I haue now in diuerse places, quoted in the margent some senteces in Latin, and such verses as I thoughte did beste fit the seuerall matters I wratte of. And also haue written somme of the Emblemes, to certaine of my frendes, to whom either in dutie or frendship, I am diuers waies bounde: which both weare wantinge in my firste edition, and nowe added herevnto." The manuscript submitted to lord Leicester and the additional notes and L~tin sentences, together with some emblems to his friends, were now set up in type and constitute the printed edition. No prior printed edition was made, ·and no other printed edition is known to exist besides the one which is now again set forth by the photo-lithographic process. "3· Fables or Epigrams," "printed," says Anthony Wood, "much about the same time as the former, in qu. and every page hath a picture wrought from a wooden cut" No trace has been discovered of such a work; if it exists it will probably be found in the Bibliotheca Plantiniana at Antwerp, which it is said is about to be reduced out of chaos into order by
• The title and dedication, &c., occupy twenty pages, unfigured ; the emblems themselves, with a device to each, are two hundred and forty seven, contained in two parts on two hundred and thirty pages, numbered consecutively.

Whilney's Address to the Reader.

ed.1~1 .

Athen. Oxon. vol i. p. :1. JO,

.Introductory Dissertation.


its present proprietor, M. Edward Moretus, and then to be opened to the public.* It is not unlikely that Anthony Wood has confounded the two parts of Whitney's Emblems, and treated them as separate works. Both parts contain Fables, especially from Faemi, and both parts have nearly every page ornamented with a woodcut. Or possibly, except that Wood names the Fables and Epigrams as a 4to book, and the work about to be mentioned is a I 2mo, Whitney was engaged in correcting the press for "Cmttm1 Fabvlce ex A ntiqvis A vctoribvs de/cc tee, et A. Gabriele Faemo Cremonensi Carminibus explicata," "Antuerpce apud Christophorum Plantinum ~I.D. LXXXV. " It has 100 plates from wooden blocks, many of them the very same as are used in Whitney's Emblems; and so what he simply edited may have been regarded or spoken of as his own. This however is mere conjecture.
"4- Ninety English verses in commendation of his friend Dousa's Odce Britannicce. 1586."

The odes were printed at Antwerpt by Plantin, in the same year with Whitney's Emblems. The commendatory English verses are interesting, from the stanza being the same as in the greater part of the Emblems. Thus : "There needes no bushe, wheare nectar is to drinke ; Nor helpes by arte, wheare bewtie freshe doth bloome ; Wheare sonne doth shine, in vayne wee lighte the linke; Wheare sea dothe swell, the brookes do loose their roome ; Let Progne cease, wheare Philomela singes, And oaten pipe, wheare Fame her trompet ringes."

Athcnao 0 xoniens.e~, B l i ~\ • ed . vol. i.
pp. 517, 518.

" 5· Translation of some complimentary verses to the Earl of BJ;,.., vol. i. . . . L eycester I 586 , occurnng at page 53 o f D ousa ,s O.J B rztanmcce. , pp. 517, 518. "ce The degree of adulation offered to Leicester may be judged
• I must here acknowledge the very polite attention of M. baron de Borrekens, of Antwerp, a near relative of the Moretus family, in endeavouring to obtain admission for me into the library; but M. E. Morctus was absent from home and I could not await his return. t The" Odtz Bnlannictr," however, are not named in "A11nalcs d~ l'.fmprimtrit Planfinimne, par .IllM. A. IN Backer tl Ch. Rue/ens." 1865.


Introductory Dissertation.

from the fact that when in December 1585 he removed from Delft to the Hague a series of twelve engravings was published with the title, " Ddinealio pomp<l! triumpluzlis qud RobcrlttS
Dudl<l!ttS comes Leicestrmsis Hag<l! Comitiis juil reccptus."

So closes the brief catalogue of Whitney's works,- meagre in comparison of his attainments and powers, but showing how a lawyer's leisure might be bestowed, or the time of a literary man employed. Conjecture guesses, and at present it is only a guess, that another work may be attributed to our author: it is "A VRELIA: The Paragon of pleasure and Princely delights: Contayning the seuen dayes Solace (in Christmas Holydayes) of Madona Aurelia, Queen of the Christmas Pastimes, and sundry other well courted Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, in a noble Gentleman's Pallace, &c. By G. W." Device, a sweet-wiJliam, &c., as in the frontispiece. "Printed by R. Johnes,* at the Rose and Crowne, neare Holbume Bridge, I 593," 4to. We may here, not inappropriately, subjoin a notice of the published writings of Isabella Whitney, Geffrey's eldest sister; not that they possess much literary merit or poetical beauty, but are just the outpourings of a country maiden's spirit when brought into contact with the London society of Elizabeth's reign, and wiJI serve to carry our remarks nearer to completion. Her principal work is entitled llDtet jii.Oig&p, Of plta15ant

see Plate xr.
Forexcracts, •ee
pp. xlv. ' 1 uq. o{ thi• lntr~uctory

1J015pt: tontapnfng a f)un'bn'b an'b ttn 1JfJpl0150pf)ffall ..f'lolunl,

Not« and Que·

~~\1 ~ ';.ies,

After the Nosgay follow" Familyar and friendly Epistles, b y t he A uctor, wtth R ep Jyes, " a 11 m verse. Th e Jast poem m · • • • the volume 1s "The Auctors (feyned) Testament before her departing;" in which she mentions the several professions and trades of London to whom the fictitious legacies are bequeathed, and the localities where they were stationed. The date of these poems is 1573.t

• Richard Jones, or ]hones, or Johnes, was admitted a member of the Stationers' Company 7th August 1564; and books of his printing are found down to r6oo. He printed the books of Whitney's sister Isabella, and through her may have been brought into contact with him. t The Rev. Thomas Corser, the rector of Stand near Manchester, possesses a copy, perhaps unique, of this curious work.

Introductory Dissertation.


Sir Egerton Brydges, bart"J gives the title of another work pp. SJ4, SJS. Restituta, vol. attributed to the Cheshire poetess : it is, " The c11py of a letter lately written itz meeter, by a yonge Gentilwoman to her vnconstaflt lover; with an admonition to a! yong Gentilwomen, atzd to all other Mayds in general to beware of mmnes .flattery. By Is. W. Nr&ly joined to a Love letter sent by a Bacheler, (a most faithfull Lover,) to atz unconstent and faithless Mayden. lmpr. at Lont/Qn, by Rd. 7/wnes, dwelling in the upper end of Flett lane, at tlze sigtze of tlze Spred Egle." 12mo. The bachelor's verses thus terminate : " Farewell, a ditu ten thousand times, To God I thee commend, Beseeching Him His heavenly grace Unto thee styli to send.
Thy friend in wealth, thy friend in woe, Thy friend while life shall flyth me froe; And whilst that you enjoy your breath, Leave not your friend unto the death ; For greater praise cannot be wonne Then to observe true love begonne."

To another work from the same press Isabella Whit'ney con- See Ames and tributed some commendatory verses. This is the title : " A An~ vol. u. PS· HerLert's}'yp. Plaine and Easie Introduction to practical/ Musicke, Set down:~: rosr an in forme of a dialogue, &c. By T/zo. Morley, Batclzeler of Musick and one of the gen. of her Maiesties Royal! C!tappe/1. Imprinted &c. I 597·" "Commendatory verses by Ant. Halbome, A.B., and I. W.," folio. To estimate the writings of Whitney by those of his contempora;ies among literary men, as Sidney, Spenser and Shakespeare, would at the first view be considered a proper method of judgment ; but his style, his subject, the extent of his works, are all so different from theirs, that a comparison between them would be out of place, and the conclusions we might draw wanting some of the elements of justice. It is rather by selection than by comparison that we are to look at his labours; we shall thus perceive what his power as an author really was, and have the results foreshadowed, if he had left behind more abundant evidences of a poet's work.


Introductory Dissertat£on.

His dedication to Leicester, though characterized by all the diffuseness and wildness of illustration which belong to his age, nevertheless possesses much of earnestness and clear·appreciation of the kind of patronage which learning then required. A passage from it will give an idea of the stately roll of the author's ideas, as a ship well laden, but needing more press of sail to Dedication, p. u. urge it onward. " There be three !hinges," he says, "greatlie desired in this life, tlzat is healtlze, wealthe, and fame. mzd some haue made question wht'ch of these is tlze chiefe: the sick, saieth lzealth. the couetous, comendetlt wealtlze. and bothe tlzese place good name taste of all. But they be botlze partial/ iudges; for he that is of sincere and 7prighte iudgemmt, is of contrarie opinion: Bicatese tlzat healthe, and wealthe, tltough tlzey bee 1tctter so good, and so great, determine witlt tlte bodie, and are subi'ecte vnto time; But honour, fame, rmowme, a1zd good reporte, doe triumplze otter deatlze, and make men liue for f!Tzer: wlzere otlzerwise tlze greatest Princes, i1t slwrte time are wome out of memorie, and clea1ze forgotten. For, wlzat is man in tlzz"s worlde '! witlzo'ut fame to leaue behiude kim, but like a bubble of water, tlzat tUJW ,.iseth, & mzo11 is 1tof knownc where it was." Another quotation from his address, To THE READER, will, I think, confirm the opinion that Whitney had power to become a most interesting writer of prose. If Homer, if Marczes Varro, if Cicero, if Virgil, ;, and diuers others whose workes weare most singuler, if they coulde not escape the bites of such Basiliskes broode: Then howe maye I thinke, in this time which is so blessed, generallie with most rare and exquisite perfection in all knowledge, and iudgement : that this slender assaye of my barren muse, should passe the pikes without pusshing at: where thousandes are so quicke sighted, they will at the first, b~::houlde the least iote, or tittle, that is not rightly placed." " For the nature of man is alwaies delighted in nouelties, & too much corrupte with curiousnes and newfanglenes. The fairest garden, wherein is greate varietie bothe of goodlie coulors, and sweete smelles, can not like all mennes fancies : but some gallant coulours are misliked, and some pleasant smelles not regarded. No cooke, can fitte all mennes tastes, nor anie orator, please all menne~; humors : but wheare the tastes are too daintie, his' cookerie shalhc controlled: and whcare the auditors are to

Introductory Dissertation.


rashe and careles in regarding, his Rethoricke shalbe condempned: and no worke so absolute perfecte, but some are resolute to reprehende." The paraphrase of the Ode of Horace, "Scepius ventis agitatur ingens," is equal to the best in our language: " THE loftie Pine, that one the mountaine growes, And spreades her annes, with braunches freshe, & greene, The raginge windes, on sodaine ouerthrowes, And makes her stoope, that longe a farre was seene : So they, that truste to much in fortunes smiles, Thoughe worlde do laughe, and wealthe doe moste abounde, When leste they thinke, are often snar'de with wyles, And from alofte, doo hedlonge fall to grounde : Then put no truste, in anie worldlie thinges, For frowninge fate, throwes downe the mightie kinges." The verse is full of power,- not a weak expression in it; the meaning is admirably brought out, and with a polish of tone in t~e rhymes that indicate a most musical ear. So from Ovid he commences one of the finest of his poems,
Metamorph . lib. i. Carm. a, Od

Emblems, p. S9·

"Without justice, confusion:"
" WHEN Fire, and Aire, and Earthe, and Water, all weare one : EmbleJJIJ, p. m . Before that worke deuine was wroughte, which nowe wee looke vppon, There was no forme of thinges, but a confused masse : A lumpe, which CHAOS men did call : wherein no order was. The Coulde, and Heate, did striue : the Heauie thinges, and Lighte. The Harde, and Softe. theW ette and Drye. for none had shape arighte. But when they weare dispos'd, eache one into his roome: The Fire, had Heate: the Aire, had Lighte: the Earthe, with fruites did bloome. The Sea, had his increase : which thinges, to passe thus broughte : Behoulde, of this vnperfecte masse, the goodly worlde was wroughte. Then all thinges did abounde, that ser'u'd the vse of man: The Riuers greate, with wyne, and oyle, and milke, and honie, ranne." Of Anacreon's celebrated ode, which we may name The Power

of Beauty, he gives a very excellent translation :

Emblems, p. 18z.

Introductory Dissertation.

"WHEN creatures firste weare form'd, they had by natures !awes,
The bulles, their homes: the horses, hoofes : the lions, teeth and pawes. To hares, shee swiftenes gaue : to fishes, finnes assign'de : To birdes, their winges : so no defence was lefte for woman kinde. But, to supplie that wante, shee gaue her suche a face : Which makes the boulde, the fierce, the swifte, to stoope, and pleade for grace."

But the exactness of his translation, when occasion demanded, may be seen in the rendering which is given to these two lines of Alciat:
Emblems, p. IJJ.

" Quid 11U vexalis rami 1 Sum Palladis arbor, Aujerle /zinc botros, virgo fug'il Bromium." "Why vexe yee mee yee boughes 1 since I am Pallas tree ; Remoue a'l\"aie your clusters hence, the virgin wine doth flee."

His power of adaptation, of taking up the thought~ of others, and of amplifying them, if not of absolutely improving them, is no less conspicuous. From Joachim Bellay's beautiful tale* we
• See "IOACHIMI BELLAII Andini Pomtalt., LIB RI QvATVOil: Qvibvs continentvr, Elegiae, A mores. V aria Epigr. Tvmvli." "PARISIIS Apud Frtdtritum Mortllum, in uuo Btlloua(o ad vrbanam Morum M.D.LVIll." 4to, folios 62. The printer's emblem, a mulberry tree on the title· page, with "nAN 4EN4PON ArAeoN KAPnO'l'J KAAO'l'J noiEl," Every good tree brings forth fine fruit. At folio are the lines: "CVIVSDAM IVVENIS. Mularunl arma inln st Mors, atq. Cupido: Hit faktm gtslal, gtslal at ilia fattm. Affidt M( animum, (orpu.s ud (onjitil illt: Sit wwrilur iuumi.r, su mori/Jundus a mal. VI st(a/ ,., iugulos, «ulos e/K(IZ(a/ &- ilia: //la ut amart diXd, sic iubd i.rlt mori, Diut hint, lzumantZ ifU1Z sintludibria uiltr: Mors 1/za/amum sltrnil, stnnit A11Wr tumulum. Tu quoqut disu tuas, Natura, inwrltrt kgrs; Si ptrnml iuumtr, tkptrnm.IIJut smts." We could not quit the Biblwtl.equt dt r U1fivtrsile d Gand without noting down the exceedingly neat epigram in the same volume of Bellay's ; CVIVSDAM CANIS. "Lalratu furu exupi, mutus amanlts ; s;, platui domi1fo, si' pl~i dumi1fiZ." "With barking the thieves I receive, with silence the lovers: So have I pleased the master, so have I pleased the mistress."


Folio ojll, ibid.

Introductory Dissertation.

Emble1115, P· qs.

have an instance ; the subject is Cupid and Death; how ·graphically, with what simplicity, with what exquisite grace are the lines of the "French Ovid" rendered and extended :
" WHILE furious Mors, from place, to place did flie, And here, and there, her fatall dartes did throwe : ·At lengthe shee mette, with Cupid passing by, Who likewise had, bene busie with his bowe : Within one Inne, they bothe togeather stay'd, And for one nighte, awaie theire shooting lay'd. The morrowe next, they bothe awaie doe haste, And eache by chaunce, the others quiuer takes : The frozen dartes, on Cupiddes backe weare plac'd, The fierie dartes, the leane virago shakes : Whereby ensued, suche alteration straunge, As all the worlde, did wonder at the chaunge. For gallant youthes, whome Cupid thoughte to wounde, Of loue, and life, did make an ende at once. And aged men, whome deathe woulde bringe to grounde : Beganne againe to loue, with sighes and grones ; Thus natures !awes, this chaunce infringed soe : That age did loue, and youthe to graue did goe. Till at the laste, as Cupid drewe his bowe, Before he shotte : a younglinge thus did crye, Oh Venus sonne, thy dartes thou doste not knowe, They pierce too deepe : for all thou hittes, doe die : 0 spare our age, who honored thee of oulde, Theise dartes are bone, take thou the dartes of goulde. Which beinge saide, a while did Cupid staye, And sawe, how youthe was almoste cleane extinct : And age did doate, with garlandes freshe, and gaye, And heades all balde, weare newe in wedlocke linckt. Wherefore he shewed, this error vnto Mors, Wlio miscontent, did chaunge againe perforce. Yet so, as bothe some da:rtes awaie conuay'd, Which weare not theirs : yet vnto neither knowne, Some bonie dartes, in Cupiddes quiuer stay'd, Some goulden dartes, had Mors amongst her owne. Then, when we see, vntimelie deathe appeare : Or wanton age: it was this chaunce you heare." •
• It is supposed that this tale was imitated from the cuv emblem of Alciatus,


Introductory Dissertation.

These examples of happy translations into simple and expressive English it would be easy to extend, but we turn to the opportunity which the treatment of the same subject gives us for comparing Whitney with his great contemporary, Spenser. The two poets were probably acquainted through their mutual friends, Leicester and Sidney. One subject which they have ventured on in common is the pretty tale from Theocritus and Anacreon, in which Cupid is described as being stung by a bee, and as flying to Venus for comfort. The superiority in point of truth, grace and simplicity of expression is, I think, decidedly with Whitney. Thus Spenser:
Spenser's Poems, Moxon's edition, p ......

"Nathelesse, the cruel! boy, not so content, Would needs the fly pursue; And in his hand, with heedlesse hardiment, Him caught for to subdue. But when on it he hasty hand did lay, The Bee him stung therefore : 'Now out alas, he cryde, and welaway I wounded am full sore ; The fly, that I so much did scome, Hath hurt me with his little home.' Unto his mother straight he weeping came, And of his griefe complayned; Who could not chuse but laugh at his fond game, Though sad to see him pained. 'Think now (quoth she) my son, how great the smart Of those whom thou dost wound : Full many thou hast pricked to the heart, That pitty never found : Therefore, henceforth some pitty take, When thou doest spoyle of Lovers make.' " \Vhitney gives the following neat and compact version: "As VENvs sonne within the roses play'd, An angrie bee that crept therein vnseene, The wanton wagge whh poysoned stinge asay'd: Whereat, aloude he cri' de, throughe smarte, and teene.

Emblems, p. 148.

which was written by him, according to the note by Claude Mignault, on occasion of a pestilence in Italy, when many young men died and the old generally escaped safe Alciati Emblem. and uninjured. Whituey has combined thoughts both from Alciat and from Bellay.
Review, vol. i.z. p. 12.6.


Introductory Dissertation.
And sought about, his mother for to finde : To whome, with griefe he vttered all his minde. And say'd, behoulde, a little creature wilde, Whome husbandmen (I heare) do call a bee, Hath prick'd mee sore alas : whereat she smil 'de, And say'd : my childe, if this be griefe to thee, Remember then, althoughe thou little arte 1 What greeuous wounde, thou makest with thy darte."


Some peculiar expressions in their poems show that the two • poets had read each other's works, at least in manuscript ; but as the expressions alluded to occur in the Faerie Queene, of which llfox~~·sspednoe 1 r, pp. xxuc . an x '"· three books were published in I 590 and three in I 596, the probability is that Spenser had read Whitney's Emblems printed in I 586, the year before Spenser took up his residence at Kilcolman Moxon, p. uiv. in Ireland. The first passage of the kind from ~Vhitney is, "Lo, Time dothe cut vs of, amid our carke : and care;" Emblems, p. 199. thus paralleled by Spenser : He, "downe did lay His heavie head, devoide of careful carke." The second is the following: "They, doe but make a sporte, His subiectes poore, to'shaue, to pill and poll." Of this there are two imitations by Spenser : "Thereto he hath a Groome of euil guize, Whose scalp is bare, that bondage doth bewray, Which pols and pils the poore i~ piteous wize ;" and " So did he good to none, to manic ill, So did he all the kingdome rob and pill." And the third passage is : vserer, whose Idol was his goulde, Within his house, a peeuishe ape retain'd: A seruaunt fitte, for suche a miser oulde, Of whome both mockes, and apishe mowes, he gain'd"
F. Queene, I. ( . i. •. 44·

Em blem•. p. 1 Sr.

F. _9ueene, V.
C. U. I.


M. Hubberd'a Tale, I. 1197.


Emblema, p.


Of which the idea is thus given by Spenser: "And other whiles with bitter mockes and mowes He would him scorne."

F. Q~eene, VI.
C. Y1ll. I.




Introductory Dissertation.

Another bond between \Vhitney and Spenser is in the use of emblems; which, as far as mottoes go and the adopting of the word, were inserted by Spcnser in his first work, " The Sheplzeards Calender," published in 1 579· The poem is divided into twelve parts, according to the months of the year, and to each month there is added a Poesic, i.e. a short proverb or saying, supposed to be descriptive of a person and adopted by him as his device ; -such Pocsies Spenser named Emblems : they had not at first any pictorial illustration, but are as much intended Spen<er'sWorks, for it as if the pictures had been drawn and engraved. At a folio edition, · 1616. later time woodcuts were added, and the resemblance to an emblem-book rendered more complete. Some of these poesies are from Italian, one is in English, six · from the Latin, two from the Greek, and one in French. "DigMoxon'• edition, gons embleme," for September, "lnopcm me copia fecit," Plenty P· 187. made me poor, is the saying of Narcissus, when he fell in love with his own shadow in the water; and one of Whitney's emEmblems, p. '49· blems is a picture of Narcissus gazing in a running stream, with the motto "A mor mi," Self-love, and the lines : "Narcissvs lou'de, and liked so his shape He died at lengthe with gazinge there vppon."





Emblems, pp. and 19(1.

Colt'lts Embleme, that for December, " Vi1,z'tur iltgenio ,· cactera mortis enmt," i.e. Genius survives, other things are the prey of death, is also identical in spirit with one of Whitney's, " Scripta manent," Writings are permanent ; or with another, "Pennce gloria permnis," The glory of the pen never fades :
"Then, what may laste, which time dothe not impeache, Since that wee see, theise monumentes are gone : Nothinge at all, but time doth ouer reache, It eates the steele, and weares the marble stone : But writinges laste, thoughe yt doe what it can An-d are preseru'd, euen since the worlde began."

and again:
" - - - no treasure can procure The palme that waites vpon the pen, which euer doth indure."

We are not so rash indeed as to attempt to place Whitney on a level with Spenser,- they can .scarcely even be compared together; yet where a comparison is allowable, as in subjects

Introductory Dissertatt'on.


which they both treat of, the Cheshire poet is no unworthy competitor. Spenser is diffuse, \Vhitney more compressed ; the one most elaborate, the other strong by his very simplicity. Take as an example the description which both give of Envy. Spenser's certainly has a coarseness which does not belong to Whitney ; his power of imagination may be greater, but not the fineness of his perceptions. Thus he describes the hag: "Her handes were foule and durtie, never washt F. Queene, V. c. Xll . . . )0. In all her life, with long nayles over-raught, Like puttocks clawes; with th'one of which she scratcht Her cursed head, although it itched naught ; The other held a snake with venim fraught, On which she fed and gnawed hungrily As if that long she had not eaten ought : That round about her iawes one might descry The bloudie gore and poyson dropping lothsomely. Her name was Envie, knowen well thereby : Whose nature is to gric::ve and grudge at all That ever she sees doen prays-worthily: Whose sight to her is greatest crosse may fall, And vext:th so, that makes her eat her gall. For when she wanteth other thing to eat See feedes on her owne maw unnaturall, And of her owne foule entrayles makes her meat; Meat fit for such a Monsters monsterous dyeat." Now mark how Whitney, with less force it may be, but with more simplicity and naturalness, describes the hateful monster: "What hideous hagge with visage sterne appeares 1 Whose feeble limmes, can scarce the bodie staie : This, Enuie is : leane, pale, and full of yeares, Who with the blisse of others pines awaie. And what declares, her eating vipers broode 1 That poysoned thoughtes, bee euer more her foode. What meanes her eies 1 so bleared, sore, and redd : Her mourninge still to see an others gaine · And what is mente by snakes vpon her head 1 The fruite that springes, of such a venomed braine. But whie, her harte shee rentes within her brest 1 It shewes her selfe, doth worke her owne vnrest.

Emblems, p . 94·


Introductory Dissertati(m.

Whie lookes shee wronge 1 bicause shee woulde not see, An happie wight, which is to her a hell : What other partes within this furie bee 1 Her harte, with gall: her tonge, with stinges doth swell. And laste of all, her staffe, with prickes aboundes: Which showes her wordes, wherewith the good shee woundes." But Whitney, it is said, had little originality ; his ideas are many of them borrowed, and his stanzas are often translations only from Latin or French or Italian authors. True; " The Clwice of Emb!emes" is what it professes to be, "gathered out of sundrie writers ;" but the good taste, the quaint elegance, the fullness and richness of tone which his translations and adaptations evince, show that he was no common genius: and the way in which he amplifies and often improves upon the original authors, betokens an innate power, had he put it forth, of equalling the best efforts of his contemporaries. It was only in a few instances indeed that Whitney trusted to his own invention: from fifteen to twenty at the utmost are the emblems which may be claimed for him as entirely his own. He appears to have restricted his subjects to those for which illustrations could be supplied from the Plantinian printing office, and in treating these he naturally resorted to the other emblematists who had written to the same themes. Now and then, however, he "newly devised;" and an example or two will set forth his own mind, and strength or weakness of expression. "Constatzter," one of the words of his own motto, "Constattter et sy11cere," supplied him with promptings to such thoughts as these:

Plato VII.

Emblems, p. a9.


raging Sea, that roares, with fearefull sounde, And threateneth all the worlde to ouerflowe: The shore sometimes, his billowes. doth rebounde, Though ofte it winnes, and giues the earthe a blowe. Sometimes, where shippes did saile: it makes a lande. Sometimes againe they saile : where townes did stande. So, if the Lorde did not his rage restraine, And set his boundes, so that it can not passe : The worlde shoulde faile, and man coulde not remaine, But all that is, shoulde soone be turn'd to was : By raging Sea, is ment our ghostlie foe, By earthe, mans soule : he seekes to ouerthrowe.

Introductory Di'ssertatiotz.
And as the surge doth worke both daie and nighte, And shakes the shore, and ragged rockes doth rente : So Sathan stirres, with all his maine, and mighte, Continuall siege, our soules to circumuente. Then watche, and praie, for feare wee sleepe in sinne, For cease our crime: and hee can nothing winne."


The apostle's exhortation to avoid sinful anger is well paraphrased:
" CASTE swordes awaye, take laurell in your handes, Let not the Sonne goe downe vppon your ire. Let hartes relente, and breake oulde rancors bandes, And frendshippes force subdue your rashe desire. Let desperate wightes, and ruffians, thirst for blood, Winne foes, with loue; and thinke your conquest good."

Ephes. iv. •6.

Emblems, p. 016.

"Vcritas inuicta," Unconquered truth, and the Holy Book, the emblem of that truth, in the full light of the sun, with the brooding wings of God's spirit and the arm of his power supporting it in the heavens, form a device that the old Puritanism,* or rather the deep Christian religiousness of Whitney's mind delighted to contemplate. The book is open at the words, " ET VSQVE AD NUBES VERITAS TVA," Thy truth even to the clouds; a chain is suspended to it, reaching to the earth ; and the great enemy of souls, to the manifest delight of demons looking on, is endeavouring to drag down the blessed volume. Such is the picture to ~hich the fitting lines are devoted:
"THOVGHE Sathan striue, with all his maine, and mighte, To hide the truthe, and dimme the !awe deuine: Yet to his worde, the Lorde doth giue such lighte, That to the East, and West, the same doth shine: And those; that are so happie for to looke, Saluation finde, within that blessed booke."

Emble111s, p. 166.

• The traces of Whitney's Puritanism are clear enough. His patron, from no high motive it is to be feared, countenanced that party, and is spoken of by our author as "a u/Qtts fauour" oftlu Gospdl, and of IM gudli~ prttUiun '""~of." Several expressions, though in the broad sense properly applied to all truly religious men, were at that day appropriated to one section only of Christ's church, and \Vbitney appears so to employ them. A single instance will suffice to show this: "THE pastors good, that doe gladd tidinges preache, Emblems, p. B. The god lie sorte, with reuerence do imbrace: Though they be men, yet slnce Godds wo;de they teachc, \V ee honor the~r~o and giue them higheste place."


Introductory Dissertation.

Emblems, p . .,._

Our last example of original verses by Whitney shall be, "In diuitem indoctum," On a rich man without learning; they certainly possess elegance as well as truth:


LEADEN sworde, within a goulden sheathe, Is like a foole of natures finest moulde: To whome, shee did her rarest giftes bequethe, Or like a sheepe, within a fleece of goulde. Or like a clothe, whome colours braue adorn, When as the grounde, is patched, rente, and torne.

For, if the minde the chiefest treasures lacke, - Thoughe nature bothe, and fortune, bee our frende; Thoughe goulde wee weare, and purple on our backe, Yet are wee poore, and none will vs comende But onlie fooles; and flatterers, for theire gaine: For other men, will ride vs with disdaine."

The character of Whitney as a poet may be summed up briefly by saying that there is much of simple beauty and purity both of sentiment and of expression in most of his poems, whether original or translated. He shared however in the great fault of his age,* an excessive deference to classical authorities and an immoderate use of the pagan mythology. Hence, as in all writers who err in this way, there is to the modem reader, whose mind has not been so thoroughly imbued with the spirit of Greek and Roman literature, a frigidity and apparent want of
Ri!IC: of the Dutch Republic, vol. ii. pp. 484.


• For a lively picture of the extent of the fault read Motley's account of the solemnities attending the inauguration, or rather consecration, of the university of Leyden on the 5th of February 1575· Tbe procession is very graphically described, and then, "As it reached the Nun's Bridge, a barge of triumph, gorgeously decorated, came floating down the sluggish Rhine. Upon its deck, under a canopy enwreathed with laurels and orangts, and adorned with tapestry, sat Apollo, attended by the Nine M uses, all in classical costume; at the helm stood Neptune with his trident. The Muses executed some beautiful concerted pieces; Apollo twanged his lute. Having reached the landing-place, this deputation from ParnassiiS stepped on shore, and stood awaiting the arrival of the procession. Each professor, as he advanced, was gravely embraced and kissed by Apollo and all the Nine Muses in turn, who greeted their arrival besides with a recitation of an elegant Latin poem. Trus classical ceremony terminated, the whole procession marched together to the cloister of Saint Barbara, the place proposed for the new university, where they listened to an eloquent oration by the Rev. Caspar Kolhas, after which they partook of a magnificent banquet. With this memorable feast, in the place where famine so lately reigned, the ceremonies were concluded."

Introductory Dissertation.


reality in many of his verses ; as there ever must be, when a writer is rather the exponent of a painfully acquired learning than of a naturally flowing sympathy. Yet a rich vein of beautiful simplicity, far different from the over refinement, I dare to name it in many instances the degeneracy, of some of our modern poetry, pervades \Vhitney's stanzas. True, he introduces Isis and Niobe, Actceon and Diana, Apollo and Daphne, Achilles and Ajax, and a whole host of Greek and Latin worthies ; but they are seldom brought forward inappropriately to the occasion or the sentiment; his mind had been trained into intimacy with them ; their deeds were the familiars of his thoughts ; and so it was really natural for a scholar, educated as he had been, and accustomed to hear all around him continually speaking of the "Roman models and the Attic muse,"- natural to give forth of his stores and to array himself or his sentiment, now with the shield of Achilles, and now with the toga of Cicero. The wonder is that this custom or habit of expressing his thoughts did not spoil "his well of English undefiled," and make it, like the speech of Cerberus, "a leash of languages at once." That it did not do this, among m~ny instances, I appeal to the lines on Silence :
"And CATO sayeth: That man is next to Goo, Whoe squares his speeche, in reasons rightful frame : For idle wordes, GoD threatneth with his rodde, And sayeth, wee must give reckoninge for the same : Sainct PAVLE likewise, this faulte doth sharplie tutche, And oftentimes, condemneth bablinge muche.''
Emblems, p. 6o ·

And also to that stanza on the world which is above us, "Superest quod supra est:"
"This worlde must chaunge : That worlde, shall still indure. Here, pleasures fade : There, shall they endlesse bee. Here, man doth sinne : And there, hee shalbee pure. Here, deathe he tastes : And there, shall neuer die. Here, bathe hee griefe : and there shall ioyes possesse As none hath seene, nor anie harte can guesse."
Emblems, p. u6.

For pure, simple English, clothing very instructive thoughts, I would also name the fable of the Pine Tree and the Gourd to

Emblems, P·

bztroductory Dissertation.


the motto "In mome1ttaneam feli'citatem," On momentary happi~ ness. It has nearly every thing we can desire in a composition of the kind- clearness, a good conception weii carried out,. and an appropriate application of the imaginary tale:
"THE fruictfull goui'de, .;.as neighboure to the Pine, And !owe at firste, abowte her roote did spread, But yet, with dewes, and siluer droppes in fine, It mounted vp, and almoste towch'de the head: And with her fruicte; and leaues on euerie side, Imbras'de the tree, and rlid the same deride. To whome, the Pine with longe Experience wise, And ofte had seene, suche peacockes loose theire plumes, Thus aunswere made, thow owght'st not to despise, My stocke at all, oh foole, thow much presumes. In coulde, and heate, here longe hath bene my happe, Yet am I sounde, and full of liuelie sappe. But, when the froste, and coulde, shall thee assaie, Thowghe nowe alofte, thow bragge, and freshlie bloome, Yet, then thie roote, shall rotte, and fade awaie, And shortlie, none shall knowe where was thy roome : Thy fruicte, and leaues, that now so highe aspire The passers by, shall treacle within the mire. Let them that stande, alofle on fortunes wheele, And bragge, and boaste, with puffe of worldlie pride Still beare in minde, howe soone the same niaie reele, And alwayes looke, for feare theire footinge slide : And let not will, houlde vp theire heades for fame, When inwarde wantes, maie not supporte the same."

The final characteristic and not the least is purity of thought and diction ; not a single line in the whole book needs to be ob~ !iterated because of any impropriety of expression. And this merit is enhanced by the certainty that there is no affectation of prudery; the soul out of which Whitney spoke to his feiiow men was one that feared God and loved truth, and clothed its thoughts in a poetic form only that it might with more fervour recommend the justice, the right~mindedness and the virtue which it prized and endeavoured to serve. Ail who know the grievous offen~ siveness of some of the writers of this age wiii esteem it no slight

Introductory Dissertation.


claim to praise that his mind, as Spenser describes Contemplation: "His mind was full of spiritual repast." And his themes, though confined by the narrow limits which ever attend proverbs and devices and emblems, were those which chasten and improve the intellectual and moral powers: "Till oft converse with heavenly habitants Begin to cast a beam on th' outward shape, The unpolluted temple of the mind, And turns it by degrees to the soul's essence Till all be made immortal.''


Most thankful am I that the enterprise which I dared to suggest has met with encouragement and is now near its desired end, and that \Vhitney's Emblems may again occupy a place of regard in his native county. Many have aided me by unlockedfor favour, good counsel and pleasant and most acceptable recognition; but in my own neighbourhood especially have I experienced sympathizing support, and cheering assistance,all lending authority to the fine sentiment of our author: Emblems, p. 6.j. "Not for our selues, alone wee are create, But for our frendes, and for our countries good." And good I am persuaded it is to listen to our worthies of old,to glow with something of their inspiration,- to feel that life has an object, duties and motives, and that they liv~ to the highest purposes who, besides seeking " under pleasaunte deuises" to commend "profitable moralles," carry on the chivalry of their age to progress and final triumph. Good Reader! aid that work ; and then will I say, as Whitney did, respecting the words and counsels of this old-world volume: "Being abaslud that my habillitie call 11ot a.ffoorde tlum suchc, as See Epi•tle ,IT; 1 · .1 if . 1 'l Dedicatorie, arc fi t to bc o.urcd ~'P to so 1Wtzora b' ·a suruazg,tc: yet z zt S1tat. p. xiii. te like your honour to allowe of anic of them, I shall t!tinke my pm set to tlte booke i1l happie lwurc; and it shall incouragc mcc, to assay some matter of more momcntc, as soo11c as uasurc will further my desire i1l that behalfc." The excellencies of my author- his quaint, simple wisdom, and the deep under-current of devout thoughtfulness which everywhere pervade his writings- may not have been set forth in titcir k


Introductory Dissertation.

Whitney to the Reader.

proper light ; and the natural beauties which belong to the subject may be marred by the unskilfulness with which they are arranged; yet truly can I say that in love and admiration I have wrought this framework for pictures of a by-gone age ; they are apples of gold, I would they were set amid ornaments of silver. So I commend, as far as it ·is proper to be done, both Whitney's labours and my own to the candid judgment of the friends and lovers of the old literature, trusting, as our Geffrey of" Cestreshir" himself did, that "my good will shalbe waighed as well as the worke, and that a pearle shall not bee looked for in a poore mans puree, I submit my doings herein to their censures." HENRY GREEN.

October 1oth, x865.


Tpta Taina·



AD regard only to be paid to the assistance which the learned require, nothing more would be given, by way of Index, than the arrangement of the Mottoes in alphabetical order, with references to the pages. The book however may chance to interest general readers ; and for their use, to facilitate the understanding of the subjects which the stanzas treat of, and in compliance with an expressed wish, translations are subjoined.


Whitney's Mottoes, with Translations.

A BSTINENTU; •eif-C01lWol PtJgt 136 Aculei initi ; tAor!N 110 Aiadrattee :a :a

Aere quandoque ealntem redimen· dam ; lafetg flltld IO'IMtimu H ...Ethiopem lauare ; to wa~!i t!ie .£t!iiop A gentes, et coneentientee, pari pc8nt. puniendi ; tloH IICti"!J, afld tloH COMeflti~~g, to liellt' 11» eq!Hil pe-

60tlg.\# ftw fltOIIq


Amor in 6lios ; to offlpri~~g Amor sui; of Animi acrinium eeru1tus; ..,.,U,vdl t!ie cage oft!ie 10t1l Animw, non res; mitld, 1t0t ricllu Are deluditur arte; art il delvdltl

zz- ulf


149 101 198

'hN art

Auaacea fort una iuuat; forlVM !ielp1 tlte tlari~~g 117 .A.udi, taoe, fuge ; !ieaf', lie liknt, foe li 19 1 .aUy 1154 Aliena perioula, cautiones noetne; Aureae compedee; golkn fetter• 202 OtMr IMII'I tUJIIgWI, OfW tDt:fmtllgl I 54 Auri sacra famee quid non? ac· .!liquid mall propter Ticinum ma· CtWNtl lult of gold, tc!iat 1t0t ? 179 lum ; 1omet!U»g had Mew a had A uxilio diuino ; by !ielp dirine 203 Nf9Aba.f' 164 Auaritia ; covetot~~t~ell 74 Aliua peooat, aliu.s plectitur; 0t1e Auaritia huiua 8111CU!i; t!ie coveta..· ri111, a»>ther ;, heat... Mll of tllil world Amicitia, etiam post mortem du· ILINGUES cauendi; t!ie dovbk ra111 ; .frWttdlllip """' qft«" d1at!i etlduri»g 6:a t011~d mvlt lie aooidetl 160 Amicitia fuoata Titanda; pai»tld Bia dat qui citl> dat; twice Ill givu frinll,Aip to be at1oided 124 ' tcllo quickly gifJel h 190 A mico ftcto nulla fit iniuria; to a Biuium vil'tutis et vitij ; tlte double feignt!d ff'ind no t~rong u done u6 pat!i of 11irlve and 'If vie~ 40



C~ecus ojf8prit~g

Whdney's Mottoes, wdh Translatz'ons.
Fag• Fag•

of a 188 Calumniam contra calumniatorem virtus ropellit; wt"" beat. back 8lan4w agairtlt the slartderer b 1 38 Captious, ob gulam ; a captirJe 'by gluttony u Celsre potestatia species ; a t"6p't"e· 1entation of e~alted pOtoer 1 16 Ccelum, non animum ; clamate, Mt 5atut"e q8 Ooncordin ; conccwcl a 76 Const&nt~r; •teadfastly 129 • Constanti& comes vict?rite ; 1~ead1 fast'lleU the compata&Ort of tnrltu 137 / .ATUIS leuia commit.ito ; •ntnut CUm laruia non luct~ndum ; toe trijle1 to foole 81 •hould not tot"utle with pharttoms u 71 Fel in melle; gull in Aotaeg 147 Oum tempore mutamur; we at"e Fere simile in Hypocritaa · 'almolt chartgecl with t!IM 167 tlu! like, ~" Hypocrite• ' • 226 Cuncta complectt ulle, atultum ; Fere simile ex Tbeocrito ; alm01t 'tU fooluh to toi8h to compas1 all the like .from TMocritut 148 t"!"9" . b SS (Cum quo conuenit aliud ex .Ana· Curta tabea01mus omnea; ft"om care" croontc; with which agt"eu afl• we all wane away 25 ot!Jet" from .&5aet"eort) 148 Fere simile pnecodenti, ex A.lciato ; DE inuido et auaro, iocoaum; of almolt like the fot"egoirtg, .from t4e ert.,Wu and the gt"Ndy, a ..ttlciat 170 tale 95 Feriunt aummos fulmina montee; De morte, et amore: iocoaum ; of lightning• .tt"ike the highest moufldeath and l~e, a tale I 32 tain1 140 De poruia, grandis aceruua erit; Feetina Jent.C; &uten 1lotoi9 121 from little thirtgl a gt"eat Map . Fides non apparentium ; faith ill will be 88 thing11 rwt 1een 7I Desiderium ape vacuum ; dent"e rJOid Fortissima minimis interdum ceo/ lope 44 · dunt ; the ltt"onge.t .ometimu Desidiam abiioiendam ; 1loth to be , yield to the least . a 52 ctUt away 85 1 Fortiter et felicit~(; '/warJely artd Dicta septem sapientum ; 1ayir~g1 1 happily 115 of the HrJen we ~Mn z 30 , Fort una virtutem enperane; few· Disilidia inter equalea, pessima; • tu~~e "a"quuhi"!l "irltu 70 dultlfl8io;u among equals, th11 Fraus meretur fraudem; guile rMriU toCWIIt , . • . 5 , guile %I 0 Dol~r e medtcma; patll .from 1Mdr· Froutis nulla fides; faith Oft t4e csne . , a 1S6 fcwe4ead, MM 100 Dolus m suos ; tt"eacll«y to one • Fruatr&; in "aifl 12 2 7 Furor et rabies; .ftwy and madr~e11 Otort 45 Domiune viuit et l'idet; the Lewd li"" artd 1eu u9 GARRULIT.AS; cMtteri"!J a so Dum etatia ver agitur: coneule Gratiam referendam; farJOUt" . brume ; while life' 1 •pri"g lasts, to be t"epaid 73 COIIIVltfcw wiNter 159 Dum potes, viue ; wltile tho• can~t 97 .ABET et bellum euae leges ; Dum l'iuo, prosum; while I llrJe, I <9fJ61I toM luu its law1 112 do good b 77 Homines voluptatibus transformanDurn nu molliora ; hard thi"!JI be· tur; men Me tralllj'cwmed by b 156 plealtiM'el 82 come •o.fter from VIe Durum tclum necl'Ssitae; rteCtllily I Homo homini lupus; man a 1co1J a hard rcrapon 36 j to man 144

odium ; blind llatt"ed C..<ECU.Mamor prolis; blind Wf!e


I 81

£1, qui aemelsua. prodegerit, alien& credi non oportere; who luu once sqt~andwed llu OtDII, ought not to be tfowted with artoth.er'• 33 j Ex bello, pax; .o ut of to~, pe.~e a 138 Ex damno altenua, altertua vtthtas; ft"om lou of orte, the adrJantage of anotlu,. 1 19 Ex muimo minimnm; .from gt"eat· elt least b 2 29 'I Ex morbo medioina; the C1U'e .from the dUease 209 I Experientia docet ; ezperiertce 1 teache1 9






Wh£1teey's Mottoes, w£th Translations.


Hoet.j etiam eeruanda fldee; '"'en to an ~ fcHtl mut be kept

In oooasionem ; 011 occariott, M 114 fort181 In pace de bello; i11 peace,for coar b 153 In prenam eectatur et vmbra; for LLICITUM non eperandum; tle u'lllDwfol mut 110t be lwpedfor b 139 pullillme!et .-n a 1Aadoto il pur· Impar ooniugium ; tlfW!qtcal marned riage In quatuor anni tempora ; 011 tM Impuilitas; ineqvality four 1ea80fll of tle gear b 54 Importunitas euitanda; import•· Insignia poetarum ; tM badge of 191. poeu u6 nitg mut be a11o«kd Impunitas ferooie parens ; impu· In einu alere aerpentem ; i11 tle nitg tle parent Q/' crweltg b n::r. ba~om to 110t1rill a 1erpent a 189 In amore tormentum ; in l01111 torIn eortis BUlB contemptores; 011 de· 101. flle'llt 6piser1 oftMir oco11 lot Iuanis impetus; a oatll attempt Ineperatum auxilium ; 1111loolced· In astrologoe ; 011 a8trologer1 forlelp 113 In auaroe ; 011 tle at~cwiciotll In etatuam Bacohi, 011 tle ltatue In colores ; 011 colovr1 Q/' Bacclu 134 In copia minor error; i11 e~rance In etudiosum oaptum amore ; 011 tle ltudent cavgM bglotle lu1 miltalce 135 In curiosoe ; 011 tle 01111r·cvriovl Interdum requieeoendum; II>IMIn desci.scentes ; 011 tluue degeneraIimel toe flltllt relt 103 ti1f!J b 189 Interiora vide ; look coiiAin 69 In dies meliora ; better tM1f!JI daily 53 Interminabilie humane vitlll labor; In diuitem, indoctum; on tle ricA endlel1 tle labour Q/' hman life man, fflllearned Intestine simultatee; inkmal dilIndulgcntia parentum, flliorum per· lennOM nicies ; ifldtdgence i11 parent., of In victoria m dolo partam; on f1ic. IOfll tle aenr'IICtion tory gained b!J gllik 30 155 Industria naturam corrigit; itldu· Inuidia integritatis aeseola ; MW!/ tle attendant on ifltegritg 1 18 try correct. nature In eoe qui multa promittunt, et Inuidil!l descriptio; d&cription qf nihil prrestant; on tlwle colw pro· t!!Jt>y 94 mile muc,\, afld p~form notM1f!J 16::r. In vitam humanam ; on hfllan life 14 In eos, qui, proximioribue spretis, In vtrumque paratus; prqJaredfor remotiora sequuntur ; on tlwle eltm part 66 wlw de1piling tle near,folloco tle Iudicium Paridis; tle jffdgment Q/' diltant Paril 83 157 In eum qui eibi ipei damnum ap· parat ; on tle mall colw prqJarel ABOR irritue; labour ;,. OcHII loufor Mm~elf 49 Latet anguie in herba ; tle In eum qui truculentit\ suorum pe· lll<lke liu Md ill tM rierit ; 011 Mm colw trnll perill Ludus, luctus,luxus ; gamillfl, gl"iff, from lil~'s -,..,,.,-,.M, glwttong In frecunditatem, eibi ipsi damno· Luxurioeorum opes; ricw of pro· eam; on.fruitjWlMII injuriofu to dig all iu ocon •elf Infortunia nostra, alienie oollata, ALE puta male dilabuntur; leuiora ; our fllilj'orlvne1, com· badly gotten badly ~eattered pared coitl otler peopW1, made Mart-e et arte ; b!J Mar1 afld arl ligMer a 93 Maturandum; malce good lpeed lngenium superat vires ; geniu Medici icon; a plgricia11'1 portrait tzcill men!Jll b J 68 Mediocribus vtere putis ; delpile Inimicorum dona, infausta ; tle not mtxkrate po11e1rio111 39 gijb of tmMIIUI, ufllHC!cg 37 Mens immota manet; tle mifld llfl· Iniuriis, inflrmitae eubieota ; to mot~ed remain~ 43 b 51 Mihi pondera, luxus; ezce11, a tor01tf11 coealtM11 il ltlbjected 146 totigM to me In iuuentw:n; on youtl 13 Minuit pmeentia famam; prtleiiCe In momcntan!'am felicitatem ; on 1 10 lappine8s for a moment 34 i ltllelll famtJ






T¥/zitney's Mottoes, witlt Translatio1zs.

Mortui diuitile ; a dead ma11'• ric4elt 86 Mulier vmbra viri; woman 1M11'11 •hadow b JI8 Murus reneus, sana conscientia;
t4e wall

Perlidus familiarie; a


Peruerea indicia ; peroer11tJ jw.dg·
a 2I 8


brau, a •ov114


Mutuum auxilium ; m•tual llelp NEC sibi, nee alteri;
IIOt' for

Petre, imitare petram ; Petw, imi· 67 tah petre, i.e. rocl: 65 Pietas llliorum in parentes ; fot!l
qf 80M towariU pal"r//U

I6 3


Pietas in patriam ; piety to one'.




N ec verbo, nee facto, quenquam IJe. Prenn sequens ; ptlffU.\mtJnt followden dum ; nor in word, nor in ing I9 Post amara duloia; aj'Ur bitUr• dead, mvt we injve a1t9 one ~ttNet. . N eglecta virescunt; Mgktoud tiNy .ftotwiiA a z 22 Poet fata : nor morosa, etiam dis· Nemo poteat duobua dominis aer· COI'II j q/'tM' deat.\ : G - · wtftJ uire; no •an can Hrfl/1 ttDO llklll· nul contrfM"!! IS 8 ter. Potentia amoria ; p0fl1w of locle a I8 2 :123 Nil penna, sed nus ; tl!.e ICing no· Potentiuimue afl'ectue, amor; lotle, tl!.e fiiOit potDM'fol pauion thing, bvt tl!.e Nimium rebua ne lide eecundia; Prrecocia non diurturna ; precaciovlt tnm not pr011priy too muc.\ 59 thing• not lolti"9 I7 3 Noli altum sapere ; aim Mt alqft 7 8 Prrepostera lidee ; prepOIIterOVIIfaitl So Noli tuba oanere eleemoe1nam; not ·Pro bono, malum ; for .qood, tlflil o IS 3 wit.\ a trump6t •OtMCl fort.\ al.-/1 b z :14 Prouidentia;f~At 3 Non dolo, eed vi; Mt '69 M"~~j't, bvt Prudentes vino abstinent; t.\e wille force rtJ.frait~ from wine ss I33 Non locua virum, aed vir locum Pulchritude Tincit ; beolft!J con· ornat ; 110t pl~~N tile •an, b.t b IS:a man tl!.e place ~ 3S Pulchritude eine fructu ; btJGtd!l Non tibi, sed religioni ; Mt for tl!.ee, wit.\ovt~ 205 bvt religion 8 Nullue dolus contra caaum; no UA dij voce.nt, eundum; wlure craft againn miltc.wz2 tl!.e goiU call, we mm go z Nusquam tuta fides; fait.\ r~M>W Qwe ante pedes ; tAirtg• at ovr f~~t 64 llllfe ISO Qwere adoleecena, vtere eenex ;



!JOMttg mu Htlk, old man



QMNIS caro falnum; all}U11A ill

Orphei muaica; tl!.e mMIIic



Otioei semper egentes ; tile idk evw demt.U Otium aortem eupectat; idk-11 await. it• deni~ 0 vita, misero longa ; 0 lifB, long
to tl!.e ftlf'etc.\sd

pARUAM culinam, duobus ganeonibua non eufficere; a nnall kite.\en doe• 1t0t ~~Mjfice two gltd •

follow, tH foe 199 Qui me alit me extinguit ; who nov· I86 rill.\e• ~ne, emflgWAe• me Qui ae exaltat, humiliabit ur; wt\o/lo ~:ealt. .\ifi!Hlf, ~thoU be TNHnbled a z I6 I75 Quod in te eat, prome; wAat ill in z6 tl!.e~, tWCWI fori.\ Quod non capit ChriatuJ, rapit fie· cue ; wAat ClwVt take• not, tl!.e 75 ucl!.eqtur cz.tc.\u Quod potea, tenta ; try, teAat t.\ov aann I6 ass

Qwe eequimur fugimus ; wAat

Patria cuique chara; fiGtwe land to eacA one dear • Paupertatem eummia ingeniia obel· se ne prouehantur ; IJOf'erl!J Ain· der• tAe Aig.\en ganiufrom gain·
ing prorrwtioft

REMEDIUM tempeetiuum sit; ut tmtJ btJ a tit~~ely rtJm~dy b 76 zoo RAlll humanre in SQ,Illmo declinant; at tl!.eW llflmmit AtHnan affair"•
I5Z 196

Pennm gloria perennis; the pffl'• glory eternal

Respioe, et prospioe ; look be!Mnd, arul before Ridiculn ambitio ; foolilh ambition



Whitney's Mottoes, witlz Translations.


S.EPIUS in auro bibitur venenum ; o.f'tnH i• gold v poUot.

~d 79 Scribit in Dllll'IDOre lm8118 ; WS"ff i11}vred he writt8 011 marblB b 18 3 Scripta manent; wriJing1 rMJ~Gill 131 Scripta non temere edenda ; fDri. ting• mut 110t ra~!Uy be pub· luhed 185 Semper pr!Etlto esse infortunia ; ill luck v altoay• at hag q6 Ser~ sapiunt Pbryges ; too laU are Plwygiau wile 77 Sic ll'tae fugit ; 10 OtW age fou U7 ~CA semper auie ; thl bir-d 68 Sic di.sceme ; 80 WIIIIOW it tOW tsWIIB Sic probantur ; 80 are they (Jp· Vsue libri, non leotio prudentee prOfled a :u4 facit ; the "" of a book, 110 t retsdSic epectanda fldee ; 10 .foklity v to i"!! mtske• .,;., J?l Vxorim virtute&; the oirltffl of a be tuted a 139 Si Deue nobiaoum, quia contra nos P tllif6 if God fDitA u, wAD agaiut u 1 b 166 Silentium; lileftce 6o ARIJ hominum senaus; oar-iou Sine iustitia, confusio; fDitMvt}u· <We tAf OptMoM qf mill 122 Vel poet mortem formidoloei ; """ tictr, COllft,rioll (Jj'Ur df(JtA d,.•adld Si nihil attulerie, ibis Homere forae; 194 if y0t1 Aa~e brat~gAt 110tM119, Ho· Venter, pluma, venue, laudem fugi· mer, y0t1 will go Otlt of door• (J r68 Ullt; glwtto~, •loth, lun, pwt Sirenee; the Sire~~~ 10 gloty to .ftigAt Sobri~ potandum 1 toe mlllt drid Verbum emissum non eet reuocaus bile; tAl word wttHBd ca11110t bl 80ber~ Soli Deo gloria; to God aloM the r~C<JlUd 180 glory .d ,• diam n8 Veritaa inuicta ; trwtA t~IICOllqiiWfd 166 Sol non 0001 at euper uaoun V erita.e temporie fllia ; trutA dougA· veetram ; l#t 11ot thl 11111 Ht tlpOtt uroftW 4 yow f!X'atA b u 6 ViotQria cruenta ; a bloody oktory 195 Spee vana 1 oaitf Aope a 191 Video, et taoeo ; I m, alld k11p lilfM6 61 Strenuorum immorteJe nomen ; qf thl braN immorl4l v ti. fiiJfU 193 Vigilentia, et custodia ; toatc~­ Studiis inuigilandum; IN fltlllt be 120 - , (JQ guardiawhip toatcA.fvl at ntMlu• Vinoit qui patitur; toAD n.ffw• COli• Stultitia sua seipsum saginari ; to gur1 Vindice fato ; fau the a0f"9W glfU o•mlf i11 OM'• OtD1t foolvlta98 Vireeoit vulnere virtue; flirltu gai111 nr~r~gtA from w011Q, Stultorum quant~ status eublimior, taut~ manifeetior turpitudo ; t!JI Virtus vnita, valet ; flirltu IHiited, lo.ftw thl na11ding of.fooZ., thl pr~oaiU plaitfw tluM dilliDMt~r a 190 Vitm, aut morti ; for life, or for Superbim vltio; oengealiCe 011 pritk 13 deatA Supcrest quod aupr~ eat; wAat v Vita irrequieta ; a rml41• lif• aboOB ftrftOel Voluptas mrumnosa; •orrowfol pUl-e TECUM habita; abide by thy•elf 91 1.11 Temeritae ; riJIIine•• 6 ZELOTYPIA; }tal9ny

Tempora cuncta mitiora; fDith timl zo6 all tAi"!JI more m~lloto Tempus omnia terminat; tim1 Ur· 111tliiJU. all thmg• 230 Te eto.nte, virebo ; that~ 8taruling, I 1hall Jlout'VA Tunc tua res ogitur, paries cii.m proximus ardet; thifll OtDll v '" quutio11 WMII t!JI IIB.rt wall v 011 .fl,.B 1.08 Turpibue exitium ; dutnu-tiooa to the 1hamelfll 1.1



To the Reader, p. .xiY, 1. J9·
p. ""· I. 6. p.

Proverbial Expressions.


PEA.RLE shall not bee looked for in a poore mans puree.

Manie droppes pierce the atone, & with manie blowes the oke is ouerthrowen.
So maail """'• •o m1111i~ mitldl•.


l. .p.

Emb. p. 55, I. s. p. 66, I. s.

One groaue, maie not two redbreaatel aerue. The prouerbe aaieth, one man ia deemed none, And life, ia deathe, where men doo liue alone.
The prouerbe eaieth, ao longe the pott.e to water goes, That at the lengthe it broke returnea.

p. 77. I.


p. 79. I.,. p.

Not euerie one, mighte to Corinthua goe. The Prouerbe saitbe, the bounde muste still obey, And bondage bringes, tbe freest man in awe : Whoe aeruea must please, and heare what other eaye. For ouermuch, dothe dull the finest wittea.
BicaWH, it il i• "ailll, to 11t a catld.IU i• t"M So!fM.

I. 9·





p. 107, l. 19· p. 1.1, t I) .

All ia not goulde that glittereth to the eye. He founde that aweete, waa aauoed with the sower. Then like, to like : or beate alone remaiue. None meritea aweete, who taeted not the sower, Who fearea to olimbe, deeeruee no fruicte, uor dowor.
Tlwlt goodu iU got, awail

p. 147. l. • ·
p. 164, I. 18.

p. r6s, l. rr .
p. 170, t IS. p. 17), l. 9p. 191, t , . •

iU toiU gru.

Hereof the prouerbe oomee: Soon ripf, •oo• rotU. tllf'rJN. Heare much ; but little apeake; and dee from that is naught.

(From Documents supplied by HENRY A US TIN BDslon, Mass., U.S.A.)
~VH!TNE v,



REEMASONR V in literature surely exists, in virtue of which brotherhood is recognised among its votaries ; and behveen men of similar pursuits there is a spiritualism which in an inexplicable manner draws them together, though continents and oceans divide. By an all-directing Wisdom they have been subjected to the same influences at almost the same time, and they feel and confess the bond by which they are united. Under such a persuasion, therefore, I follow only the simple and natural promptings of the mind, when by this Postscript I communicate to my readers the very valuable and interesting documents entrusted to my use by a fellow-labourer, in the purpose, if not in the actual enterprise, of bringing "The Choice of Emblemes" again befort: the world. I do this the more readily because these documents at once confirm To the Reader. my conjecture that I had probably fallen into errors which further p. •· and vii. researches would rectify, and because also they display more fully the ramifications of the Whitney families which I had confined almost Intr. n;., entirely to the counties of Hereford and Chester. It appears that the PP· nxv·l•. branches spread from Bristol to York, and from Suffolk to Wales. During the very time at which I was engaged on this fac-simile reprint, and even before, Mr. Samuel Austin Whitney of Glassboro', New Jersey, Horatio G. Somerby, esq., and Mr. Henry Austin Whitney were devoting themselves to the same object, and with the clearest right, if we do not term it, with direct obligation. Two of these Docu01cnt m. gentlemen, I understand, are descendants from John Whitney of !slip, ~:~:digree Oxfordshire, who in April I635, with his wife Elinor and five sons, npp<:>site p.lxuv. embarked from London for New England, and who in June of the same year "bought a sixteen-acre home-stall" at Watertown, where



Postscript to Introductory Dissertation.

three other sons were born to him, making a goodly number for his quiver when he would "speak with the enemies in the gate." Some of the sons had a numerous offspring,- as John, with ten children,Richard, with eight,- Thomas, with eleven,- J onathan, with eleven,} oshua, with eleven,- and Benjamin, with at least four. Thus the grandchildren of the emigrant John Whitney were not less than fiftyfive. Whatever concerns the honour of the Whitney name may therefore justly be deemed the province and calling of their descendants. And the more so, because of the common origin of the various families Document Ill. of Whitney; for Mr. H. A. Whitney testifies,-" From data in my p. 11 , and p. ll. possession; or at my command, the connection of families of the name in different parts of Herefordshire, in Radnor (Wales), Cheshire, Shropshire, Worcestershire, Yorkshire, and in Ireland, is readily traced to the parent stem,-the Whitneys of Whitney in Herefordshire." Again he says, "It is not unreasonable to suppose that all bearing the name Compare with had a common origin, and that they were descended from " Turstin lntrod. Diss. • p. :uxvi. the Fleming, "the son of the follower of Wilham the Conqueror, who assumed the name of Whitney from his possessions" at Whitney in Herefordshire. A Fleming in 1086 founded the family, and after five hundred years his descendant Geffrey Whitney, in 1586, sought at &s:.ys, p. W}. Leyden the aid of a Fleming, Francis Rauelinghien, to imprint "The Choice of Emblemes." Three other centuries nearly have passed by, and the name which at first distinguished a border-chieftain is perpetuated to show how justice has greater triumphs than violence;
Em b. p. u 1. •

"That where this sncred Goddes is, That land doth llorishe still, and gladnes, their doth growe : Bicause that all, to God, and Prince, by her their dewties knowe."

Feb. ~7. r866.

The documents transmitted to me were : I 0 A manuscript copy of the Will of Geffrey Whitney the poet, lately extracted from the original, by Horatio G. Somerby ; Il 0 " Memoranda relating to families of the name of Whitney in England ;"' and III 0 "Wills relating to the name of Whitney in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, England, 1549 to J 6o3; with a Pedigree."•
• Of the "Memoranda," ten copies were printed on royal4to, pages 11, at Boston, U.S.A., April, 18S9: and of "The Wil1s'' twelve copies on royal 4to, pages :&J, were privately printed at Boston, U.S.A., October loth, r86s, -the very month and day anu year on which at Knutsford in Cheshire I dated the Introduction to this Reprint, p. lxxiv.

Postscript to Introductory Dissertatum.

Document I.

\topp of tf)e b.lill of GefTeR flmbitne», gentleman. From H" Majtsf)ls Principal Rtgislry of flu Court
of Probalt, London.

"In the name of God, Amen. I Jeffery Whitney of Ryles Greene in the Countie of Chester, gent•, being sick in bodie but of sounde and perfect memorie th:mcks be to Nantwich HuD· god therefore make and sett downe with my owne hande this my last will and Testa· drc:d. ment in manner and fourme followinge. First I bequeath my sow le to Almightie god my Creator besechinge him for the merritts of Ihesus Christe my onlie Saviour and Redemer in his great mercie to receave the same into the congregaeon of the faithefull to live with him forever. And for the buriall of my bodie to be at the nppointement of my Executor. And for such smale worldlie goodes as the Lord hath blessed me witball my will ys they shalbe disposed as followethe. First, I bequeath to my brother Brooke Whitney the residue of yeares yet remaininge in my Farme or lease which I f!r. Whitney, holde'of Richard Cotton of Cambermere esquier together v.;th the deede of the s:tme EmR'b.hassrd.Cotton, 1c Lease and all my severall parcells of bowsholde stuff remaininge within my house there Em b. aoo. as allso eleven sylver spones a silver salte a tipple pot with silver and all other my goodes there and appan!ll whntsoever. Item I bequeath unto him my Dunne nag. Item I bequeath my Liberarie of Books whole without dimishinge to Gefferie his sonne yf yt shall please God to indue him with leaminge in the lnttin tonge or else to nnie other of his sonnes which shall attnine unto the same, yf none of them prove a scholler then I leave and bequeath them to my said brothers disposinge. Item I bequeath to him a trunck with Lynnen and apparell together with my plate remaininge in the safe GeffreyWhitney, · custodie of my Cosen Jefferie Whitney of Draiton. Item I bequeath unto him all Emb. 181 • such debts as are due unto me by bond bill or otherwise. Out of which legacies so bequeathed to my brother as is remembred my will is that be shall pay unto loan Mills twentie pounds within one quarter of a yeare after my decease. Item to Jamcs Wood· gate Tenne Poundes nt his age of twentie yeares on this condi1Jon that he applie himselfe to the gettinge of some arte or trade to live bonestlie therewithnll nnd not otherwise. Item I bequeath to my sister Eldersbae five marks. Item to my sister fofrs. A. Borron, Baron Fortie shillings. Item to my sister Evans Fortie shillings. Item to my sister r9,'J~i. Emb. Margerie twentie shillings. Item to Martba Colly ten shillings. Item to Charles Mra. D. Colley, Evance ten shillings. Item to Helien Evance ten shillings. Item to Mnrie Eldershae ~mb.ii9 1~lvi. Fortie shillings. Item I bequeath my best ringe to my Ladie Nedeham. The second Ringe in goodnes I bequeath to my sister in !awe Mawdlin Whitney. Item I bequeath my third Ringe to my Cosen Elizabethe Amedell. My forth to my Cosen Mills. My seale Ringe to my Cosen Geffery Whitney. And my Brooche to my Cosen Wnlter Emb. 181. Whitney. Item I bequeath to my brother Eldershae my gowne and fustian dublett. Item to Edmond Eldersbae an other of my dubletts with n paire of best breeches and a pnire of netherstocks. And for the performance of this my will I nominate and appointe my brother to be my sole executor. In witnes whereof I have subscribed to Date or Will theise presents the eleventhe daie of September Anno Dni one thousnnd six hundred Sept. 11 • l6oo. and in the two and fortethe yeare of the Raigne of our gracious sovernigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth. By me Geffery Whitney. Witnesses hereunto Angell Baron, Waiter Whitney, John Browne." John Browne,
l:mb. an.

"Probatum fuit hiiidi (lluju.rmodi) Testamentum npud London coram vcncmhili Probate, fllay d, viro magro (magisl,.o} JOhc (Johnnnc) Gihson Legum doctorc Curie Prerogntive Cnnt' l6ol.


Postscnpt to Introductory Dissertation.

( Ctmtrrlmry) magro (magi.rtr~) Custode sive Cofuissario !time (l~gitim~) constituto vicesimo octavo die men• (mmsi.r) Maij Anno Domini rnillimo sexcentesimo primo Juramento mri (magiJtri) Thorne Browne no pubd (notarii publici) prociiris (procurat~) Brokei Whitney i7is et exrla (fratri.r rl e.r~cutari.r) Cui etc (rl crll!ra) de bene etc (rl utrra) Jurat." "Book Woodhall folio 33·"

Lyoon's Cheshire, p. J87 and 8J7.

Emb. 148.
Emb. 147.

From the marginal references which I have added, it will be seen that to several persons remembered in the will devices were dedicated in "The Choice of Emblemes." Others who are named remain unknown ; but the spelling antecedent to the seventeenth or even the eighteenth century was so unfixed that it is often nearly impossible to identify persons by their written names. loan Mills may have been of the family of Meoles, which had representatives at Sluys in Flanders, near the end of the seventeenth century, and "my Ladie Nedeham" was of a family of great influence in South Cheshire and North Shropshire, who had and have estates as earls of Kilmorey, close to the birthplace • and residence of our author ; but Woodgate, Eldershae, and Evans are undetermined. When we consider one of the Emblems, which follows up the thought that there is "Fe/ in me/le," gall even in honey, and which is dedicated to a certain LAvRA, with an intimation,
''Thy dartes do giue so great a wounde, they pierce the harte within ;"

we are tempted to ask, was this Laura " loan Mills," to whom were bequeathed "twentie pounds," to be paid "within one quarter of a yeare," or was she "my Ladie Nedeham," who was honoured with "the best ringe " 1 T".'"•l•'• Map "Ryles Greene," or as the name is now often given, Royals Green, "' ( "r>h~re,•BJo. in the parish of Dodcot-cum-Wilkesley, is in the extreme south of Nantwich hundred, where Cheshire points to the centre of Shropshire; it is near to the high-road from Audlem to Whitchurch, and if Plantin had set one leg of his compasses upon it, with a radius Plate x r. "· of three miles the other leg would go round Coole Pilate, the probable E.no P· , 7 •. place of the poet's birth, Audlem, "wheare," he says, "I my prime Ern I. P :ox. di~ spende," and "CvMBERMAIRE, that fame so farre commendes," and to which estate his own "farme or lease" belonged. A stretch
i• thus described, "a great Township, the greatest part whereof bath been the Lands of the Lord SluJvU.gltm on the ed&e of S/t;n>js/Ur•, now (A. D. J6U) Sir Rohrt N••dlwiiiU, and near whereunto T \V ] nnc~. esq. is scituate a Demean of the Wllitu~1, called the Mannour of CtHJk Pi/at,.., A correspondent i.nfonns ~i::"··~:-;•;, 66 me "my Ladie Nedeham was only Lady .by courtesy, and that her h~band was Roben Nedeham esq. : she was the youn&est dau&htor of Str Edward A.•ton of Staffordsh1re."
Kin)o!·~- V:.tle Ruy;.l, P· (,!,.

• Broomhall, within two miles of CooJe Pilate, and not more

than t.h.ree miles from •• Ryle1 Greene,"'

Postscript to Introductory Dt'ssertati'on.


of eight miles would enclose Cholmondeley, and the "Hvghe Cholmeleys," father and son,- Woodhey, and Thomas Wilbraham, the Em•b. 1 Joand IJ 8 original of" the fine Old English gentleman, one of the olden time"- Emb. , 99. Acton, the parish church of the Whitneys,-Shavington, the seat* of Plate xm.a. the Needhams, in Adderley parish, near l\larket Drayton,-and Drayton- Emb. t8t. in-Hales, where "Cosen J efferie Whitney" dwelt, -also Ightfield, named as the residence of sir ARTHVRE MANWARINGE, knight, and Emb. '''· perhaps of his son "GEoRGE MANWARINGE, esquur," "the worshipfull Emb. '19and right vertuous yong Gentylman" to whom in 1573 Isabella Whitney Plate XI. wished "happy health with good succsesse in all his godly affayres." At Ryles Green there are three farms, of which the largest contains about 200 acres, and one of these would be the " farme or lease which," the testator declares, " I holde of Richard Cotton of Cambermere, esquier." Thus in his latter days was the poet in the very midst of old friends. Tenderly, in a foreign land had he written the lines : Emb. ZOJ. "And as the bees, that farre and near doe straye.
And yet come home, when honie they haue founde : So, thoughe some men doe linger Jonge awaye, Yet loue they best their natiue countries grounde. And from the same, the more they absent bee, With more desire. they wishe the same to see ;"

And again:
"Wherefore. when happe, some goulden honie bringes! I will retome, and rest my wearie winges ;"

Emb. ZOI.

And now, amid the bright scenes of his youth, with kindred near, full of faith and resignation the soul passed to his God.
II. "fll(emotanlJa relating to families of the Name of Wlzitney, in Document 11. England." These pages, their editor observes, "are, in part, the result of a Note by H. A. w. t8S9· search made by Mr. SAMUEL AusTIN WHITNIW of Glassboro', New Jersey, in 1856, and since continued by H. G. SoMERBY, esq., to ascertain the parentage of JOHN WHITNEY, who, with his wife ELINOR and five sons, embarked at London in the month of April 1635, for New England, and who settled in Watertown in the following June, where he continued to dwell until his death in 1673·" The pedigrees, sixteen in number, exhibit great labour and intelligent
• The Need.hams, once of Cranage, eo. Chester, are ancestors in a direct liDe of the present Francis Dod's Peerage. Jack Needham, earl of Kilmorey, whose seat is at Shnington. The lint viscount, created in t6•s, was son of a military commander in the Irish war< during the reign of Elizabeth.


Postscript to Introductory Dissertation.

research, but like most other pedigrees are defective in the early dates. They are compiled from various sources of undoubted authority, as the Public Record Office, London, the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Parish Registers, and Family documents. A brief recapitulation may be useful to some of our readers.




6. 7·


Compare with p.

Of Whitney, of Whitney, in Hereford· IO. Whitneys of Shropshire, p. 7· 11. Whitney, of Brook Walden, in the shire, p. I. Of Whitney, of Clifford, in Hereford· county of Essex, p. 7· I2. Whitney, of Surrey, p. 8. shire, p. 2. I3. Whitney, of Chinner and of !slip, in Whitneys of Herefordshire, p. 3· Oxfordshire, p. 8. Whitney, of Llandbeder in the county I4 Whitney, of Bolt, in Worcestershire, of Radnor, in Wales, p. 4· Whitney, of Coole in Wrenbury, in __ p. 9· IS. Whitneys of various counties,-as the county of Chester, p. 4 Buckinghamshire, Suffolk, Oxford, Whitneys of Cheshire, p. S· Norfolk, York, Warwickshire, Whitney, of Picton in the parish of Wilts, Bristol, Northamptonshire, Plemonstall, in Cheshire, p. S· Lincolnshire, p. IO. Whitney, of Barthomley, in the county I6. Whitney, ofWatertown, in New Eng· of Chester, p. 6. land, p. 11. Whitneys of London, p. 6.



wm •• p.

Document Ill. "· "·

Of these pedigrees we give the one which as far as England is concerned traces up the Whitney family to its early settlement in Herefordshire. Following page lxxxiv. is a p~oto-lithograph, being the Pedigree of Whitney, of Whitney in Herefordshire, from the "Memoranda," and at the head of it might be placed Turstin the Fleming, the son of Rolf, the father of Eustace who "assumed the name of Whitney, from his possessions, and thus established a family of that name, which was, for over six centuries, situated at Whitney in Herefordshire."
Ill. "WILLS r~1aling to 1/u nam~ of Wltitnq in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshir~, England, 1549 to I6o3, with a Pedigr~~." Edited by Henry Austin Whitney and dedicated to his "i!tinsman, THOMAs HESTON WHITNEY, ESQUIR.E, of GlassbfJro', N~w J"s~y." The contents are :
I. 2.

Document Ill. Oct. loth, •86s.

3· 4·

Wills, p. 14-

Introductory Remarks, p. 9· Pedigree of Whitney of Chinnor and !slip, Oxfordshire, p. I4. Extracts from the Parish Register of lslip,_p. IS. Will of John Whitney, late of Stoke· Goldington, eo. Bucks, IS49, p. I7. Will of J oan Goodchild (mother of Joan Whitney) ofChinnor, Oxford· shire, IS44. p. I9. Will of John Whitney, of Henton,

parish of Chinnor, Oxfordshire, I575, P· 20. 7· Will of Richard Whitney, of !slip, Oxfordshire, I6o3, p. 2I. 8. Will of John Stapp (father of Alice Whitney)ofPitchcot,county Bucks, IOOI, p. 22. 9· Will of John Whitney, of Hinton, parish of Chinnor, Oxfordshire, I6o2, p. 23.

From this IIIrd document, just before our page lxxxv, we extract in photo-lithograph, the pedigree of Whitney of Chinnor and !slip, to




. . li4UIWDI

WJ!mlft,., . _ .. . I

a..T. ._ ... ,.

. . . . . . .......,.,fll.........,,b1'''tliM-flf''1a:\<,'I'Q

·~~ ... ..._..~.,. .. ,-.r .........
. . . . . ~ • . , . . . . . . . . .t.'!'· ....... ., •••

r- ---.---'



................. ., ........... a-. ............... .....

. . . . . ~GMIIIIt ................ ., ......... _ ...

....... .......,.., -a.-............. .,..,. .. "


.................... .._.; .. ..,.• • ,_a..,

................... ..., .........................

............ ...

.. ...... _ . ..


.... ,...........,._ ........................ Wiir . . . - .

.._., ..._,...H_. ... Oirflill._......__.... a....


a............ ""..._.................. ~~ ... ....

-·-·----··...... .

,.., ~C.jP-.Ioh 001 NN:

,......,.,,_,._., ""-


................ .._.,-

.. it.w. • C'Nlli ~ o.. ...
..,.. .. aa.-.p.•
•• , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -


. . . . . .br: .. lat,_.w.

IIBw.. ....................... ...-! r.ww ...............

.. - _, ...... ..._ ., • •-.a. """'· .... .,.... ......

. . . . . ! . . , ..... _ . . _ _ .... ""' -'!WI tl IMIIIMttww~


--.-" ........................ __. -.

.... .,. ...... -

... ,._. .................. ........ ,... .................... -..

s.. r txn

Digitized by


Postscript to Introductory Dissertation.


which are to be referred, "as is supposed," many of the Whitneys that for above two centuries have been settled in North America. To complete it there should be subjoined the pedigree of the Whitneys of Watertown, in New England, but we have already given notices of ~xi. and them sufficient to elucidate the subject. · Many are the extracts we would make from the notes• to the Pedigrees and from the subject-matter of the Wills, but time and space Of CoNSTANCE WHITNEv, one of a family of twelve both forbid. grandchildren of sir Thomas Lucy, of Charlecote in Warwickshire, Shakespeare's Mr. Justice Shallow, we must, however, give the record, which is sufficient of itself, if need were, to redeem the Lucy family from all the satirical inuendoes of the great dramatist. In St. Giles Cripplegate Church, London, there was erected to her ''a very spacious fine white marble monument," described in Stowe's "Survey of Document II. London," folio, 1633, and bearing this inscription: P. '·
of CoNSTANCE WHITNEY, eldest daugh· ter to Sir RoBERT WHITNEY, of WHIT· NEY, the proper possession of him and his Ancestors, in Herefordshire, for above 500 yeeres past. Her Mother was the fourth daughter of Sir THOMAS Lucv, of CHARLECO!TE, in Warwickshire, by CONSTANCE KINGSMELL, daughter and Heire of RICHARD KINGSMELL, Surveyor of the Court of Wards. This Lady Lucv, her grandmother, so bred her since she was eight years old, . As she excel'd in all noble qualities, becom· ming a Virgin of so sweet proportion of beauty and harmony of parts, she had all sweetnesse of manners answerable : A delightfull sharpnesse of wit ; An offencelesse modesty of Conversation ; A singular res~t and piety to her Parents : but Religious even to example. She departed this Life most Christtanly, at seventeene ; dying, the griefe of all ; but to her Grandmother an unrecoverable losse, save in her expectation shee shall not stay long after her, and the comfort of knowing whose she is, and where in the Resurrection to meet her.' "

"' ~~~ tfJe lltmtllt!!


See also Photolith. at p. lxxxiv.

So reverent a regard for the dead, as these documents manifest, betokens worthiness in the living. Fortunate do I esteem myself not
• One ia a curious use of the word " world," as if it meant a period of time, tho duratioa of a life, 111 Document It. well u a collected body of people; it is in the will of" Margn:t Whytnye,"' dated October 2<>th, I s68, Memorand<l, p, J. "Item I do hereby confesoe before God & the world that I have received of Edwarde Drax my ..,r. vante a perfect acompte of all my rents and all other receipts which he have received from tho be&in·
ninge of the world WJtill now."

lxxxviii Postscript to Introductory Dissertation.
to have sent forth my volume until it was freighted with some memorials of John Whitney, the patriarch of Watertown in New England, and the immediate successor, if not companion, of those who sailed in the Mayflower, and were "the pilgrim fathers" of 16:zo. Of them almost prophetically did our Cheshire poet speak when he illustrated in verse the old saying " Constantia comes victqrife," steadfastness is the companion of victory ;
Emb. IJ7·

"THE shippe, that longe vppon the sea dothe saile,
And here, and there, with varrijng windes is toste : On rockes, and sandes, in daunger ofte to quaile. Yet at the lengthe, obtaines the wished coaste : Which beinge wonne, the trompetts ratlinge blaste, Dothe teare the skie, for ioye of perills paste. Thoughe master reste, thoughe Pilotte take his ease, Yet nighte, and day, the ship her course dothe keepe : So, whilst that man dothe saile theise worldlie seas, His voyage shortes : althoughe he wake, or sleepe. And if he keepe his course directe, he winnes That wished porte, where lastinge ioye beginnes."

Horace, Cann. I. 4.

" 0 NAVIS ! referent in mare te novi Fluctus! 0 ! quid agis ? fortiter occupa Portum."

H. G.
March 1oth, 1866.





c H 0 IcE
A N D 0 T H E R D .E V I S E S,


For the moll:e parte gathered out of fundrie writers, EngWhed and Moralized.
A N D D l V E R S N E W L Y D E V 1 S E D,

by Geffrey Whitney .
.A ,.,k.! .JmfU wh -..nttit•f mllm, iftb pluf,rnt and profitAble: wht- nr>O"no.'" rtin tboft thAt pluft,"''IJt t1 tbtir fllllties: Bic.u~fo herein, hJ tbt .......~- ..... •ffite of tbt tit,tfltll tbt tit, tbt m"'!~' m41~ 1t4pt doobl~ tkligbtt tbrQI4- ,_OOK gbe holfortu prectpttl , fhMJnnd mth pltA[.znt tltttifts : b1tb fit ftn' thf ..-.~.-..• '"' urtfUM.(, t• t~r in,tll'aging: md tbe ~tl, for tbtir Admonifbing

ftnM fit


lllld Mntndmmt.
S•m.ifltht•ntuk'IIDt#lh,yiHJ) tMJfo.lt "iflli" "'f p.;nc..,.

,,.,,.fi ltlitb '*'"• rh. fr•ai.lil *14f•, .,,ur.,u.1 ,.fol rt{rlline.;:

. To the Reader.

Jmprjntetl At L E Y D E N, In the houfe of Chriftopher Plantyn., by Franc is . RaphClengius.



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .,



R I G HT H 0 N O-

R A B L E,

Lorde and c E s T E R, Baron of Denbighe ~ Knight of the anolle noble orders of the ganer , and of faincre Michael , Mailler of ha· Maties horfe J one ofher Highnes motl:e honorable priuie Counfailc , and Lorde Lieutenant and Captaine Gcnerall of her Maries- forceS .in the lo\Ve coumric:s• .

SI N G V L ER G 0 0 D Maifl:er, R · B E R. T Earle of L E ya


So V L DIoR oj'KjngePHIL(7ljghte ho111Jrable)f uffering fhlp~~~i;~ 'Wr4ikJ, rmd !Anguifhinge thrONghe Brufouius lib·l• ~ ~- nectjftti# DUi extreme Jtcftnes , eA. · u~a;&~.,ljlL':;;;JIIl\ tMAcedoniAn mooued -,itb compl:f fum , mofle louinglie entert9ned, . I#Ul lmge cherifhed ~ re/eeuetl him. Who being .,0 recouered, prmmftd at his dep#ture if he m~~h~. co11J1 to the prefeme of his Seueraigneto requite hi4 ftendj hip. ·.At the kngthe comillge tfl the tourte, thefouidUJr made rtpt»'te•(the f~np-..r~, 17ut not af the ftindnts {the Jv1Aced0nian: andcontrariowife,fo incenfedthe Kinge ~~tainfl ~ lollinge countryman, t~~t be o~tainerl agrll4nt of.0 hri ~ um_ges: .'1111t ~fWr~ hu 'T'~ftude Antlirecher_oU4 f!"tlifo . bemg di[colft) 'ea to thil ·go«lprmce, he reuok§d-bisguifte, ttntl in detefottim of hit dtlllingl· c4Rfotihit. to betmHI<§d -with~ hotte irl111 : T~ em~r C L A v·n I V s reductd .0 thofo Idem. tDtheirfortnn".bondige;, -,bo n«klling the bountie and louc tJ{their Lortles, in inftanchifinge-them : requitttl them in the ende -,itbanie"mkjndnls. Tbi.t fouk ~e Ingratitude bdthe bm.common i11 all agesJitnfijetfo odioll4 to the "Pertuotu· and
L I p,

of M

AcE D 0 N lA,






hefl dij}ofe_d) t!Jat tbej haue lefie behinde innumerable exampltJ to the lik! ejfeflefor the roottng out thertt{ftom allJ ocieties. Ifthe former age.s 'llhok..ne'We not theliuingeG o o, JJor hi4 holie ~ordJ, hAUe. binfo c111'efu0 herein,: Thm ought 'Wet~ muche moreJ "Who /tnQYrle no.t ~n4e ho'WI ~/soiu it i4, to rJian: but ho~e hatrfuU it cheefoe in the ftghte (God. For 'ate 11J4ie fee in the holie fcripture,ho'We often the chiltlren ofiJrael 1 ft 16• \Ware plagued for tb~il: cvnthank!/Ulnes. and ho~ the Lor~;~~~·h tk often complaineth there[, f ayinge by the tprophet IJ9, I we C3p. [. I haue nourished and exalted them and yet rney difpifed mee, the oxc knoweth his maifier, and the affe his crib be, but Ifrael kno\veth not ~~ee &c. eA/fo by the Icrem.~p.a. 'Prophetleremie, :The Storke,the Tunle, and the fwal.. lo\ve, doe obkrue their titnc : bat my people doe not knowetlie iudgetnentof the Lorde. tn the ntYPeTeflAment alfo 3 '1Phen Chrifle .hdclmfetlthe ten lepers, and but Lnecap.17. one oft~mg4/Jit thmk.!s, our[IUiiold[izti,Arenot ten denMkh. '· fed ? where bee the other nine? &c. r:By ~hiche and ma... otee IJ. , nie other !ikJ plAces, it il fiUIIi{efl, ho-.e ingratitude r.:t ~Je botbe in the Tighte of G o D Anti m~~n. Whn'(~e to cleare "!Y ft!fe of thefuipidon of"!J guilt herein~ 'Whiche your honor maye iMfllie conceiue ~ainft mee, in deferringfo longe before I prqent fome teflimonie of my bounden ilutie to yom;gootl Lordfbip, ( hauing[o rfte, anti{o-llll'gelie tajled ofjour honourAble hountieamlfauor.) I haue therefore Jlr~neti thatfm.Ul talenl J haue :~ to pkule "!Y caufe in th~ hehalfi toyour honour: .a1.ofl humblie.hefeeching the fame, to pardon the.~~~~~-. ·tes ~here~tb tbi4 rilj• {tmp~ triUI4ile ii bkmljflJtd, throughe my IM:kJ of 14afon3 4ntiltarninge. The foil~ rlenie_tb me tB perfeBe tt, ll.IJpurf.o{ed: The other;) to pDlifhe jt at it ought, tbat fbo,Jde bee pri[entedtofo n~ble a. pti-f c. '*bofe her~i.­ onag. ·,a~~ f'pertutsfo 1llll1liegrat#, DJd lurmiJ 11161lh4NC tternifod'to · allpojle-


D E D I C A T 0 R I E. ~llpofltt·itiu. For lcAUing~your natiUccountrie~ \\·~~rt:tfo 11Zd.-

nie gotilie and 'VerttiOHJ a1'e tountcmmced : So 11JifnJ<-' let~rncd adu.mnced ~ ~dfo mD~iefludJotu incor4gtd by JDUr honour. W ha otiJCr countrie in Cbriflcndome~but k..no~tiJ that your lordjbip is A Nob/4 mofle.fothfu/1 counfeUor to !xr e.wcllent c:Mtti•, A t..elolll fouorer oftbe Go{Pell~ 4nd ofthe godlie rp,-,4Chers thereof, tt lcuinge patron ~('fc4rninge, ~tnd tt bounti/ull &ecantU~to ti!J tiJt_trofe.JJorJ ~('Worthte artes, and faences : -whereof 119 fe!je i.r 4 -witne.r , -who haue ojien harde ~lie fome in other countries , to your euerlllflinge memorze. · Lean1inge 'iPouide be foone put to fdence, 'Without the aide ,end [upporte ofjuch.noble Peeres 111 your urdfbip: -which 'WM '*eO confulered by the emperors, and Princes manie hundrethyeares fmce: '*hereof eArtaxerxes the Kinge ofTerji.t h411J le{te behinde him 'thil eXAmple, ~ho 'Wr4t to 4 ruler of one ofhil dominions to thu ejfetle. Kin.ge of Kinges great Anaxerxes to Hifcanus gouemor ofHellefponte grce- Suidas. ting. The fame·of Hippocrates a Phifition is come vmo mee, therfore fee thou geue him as muche goulde as he deflreth, and all othet thinges he wanteth,and fend him to me. He fhalbee equall \Vith anie PerGan in honor , and if there be anie other famous tnan in Europe , fpare no money to make him a fiend to my courte. Al(o Phi!J!p ofMacedoniA fotwed Ariflotle,comitting hiJ Dnlle fonne ~xanrler tJ:e gre4t tB. bt4 tutor/hip~ rei,~fing Aul. Gdl.lib.,. tht# he hd afonne borne mf uche 4 t1me .., tU he rmg hte h4ue cap. J • fuch d. fomom Philofop_her to be bi4 inflrllaor. The [Amt AlliM. de vn.. Alexander fo1Jonoredthe poet'Pindttrt~~,that At the tltflru- Htll.hb.•3·'a.7• '[{wn ~(Thebes heg~ chAI'~ that the folnihe and k.inred of' . Pin!.:trtU.Jhouitk_ bet flared. Hee ~ueti fo leamin.ge that !Je ~i~~·~:·~~~:n 111 ~[ea to fAie theJ!Udes r{ Ho111t1' ('•bich helellt71ed qf.Ariftotk)


* ;




~itl1 hi! riAggeJ•

-rmder hil beJJes hed. eAlfo hailing karnea certtUne pritMie mflrutlions ofhil fiUd ScoolemAifler,after h._. uing /tno'Wledge that Ariflotle hadpubluhed the [tl1IJt to others:~

bee ).\1.-u higbty offended: andalthoughe bee \Wqe b,fted in the great 'Warres agajnfl Darim, yet in the middefl ofthofo -waigbtie affaires, bee \W-at 'Pnto eA.riflotle,hiAminge him for participating to others, that ~hich bee defo'ed to h~ proper to him Jelfe. Sayinge, Howe can I acdlothers, in any thinges I haue learned of thee: if thou make the fame common to all , for I had rather goe before them in learning., then in power and aboundance. GeUiuJ [etteth do'Wne Aul. Gcll.lib.lO. the Epiflle ofthe King to ~nflotle' wh the aun.foeare .there• "P·+ rvnto, being_ 'Worthie to bee imprinted in the minde.r ofthe honorahle,that they might htefor etln'-remembretl. Scipio .Aftic~t,. 11111 "Pfed the rpoet Ennisu '" hi4 ctanion in hUgreMe ? .foir~r, andt9fhe~ bUgritfo (or t~e .e fuc~ ll one, cAU[el. Pliaius lib, 7· the1mat1e oof€nnJIII to bee illide_Y~~Ith 1111111 hu oY,ne tfJfiJhe. cap. 30. o Idem, ibid. Augu.flsu couritinanced VwgiD~dfo lot~~ahim: thlll l[ter hi4 death, hte c~~refullitpreftruetl his Yllork.!sf"om the ftre to the HoratiUL .,hich they \WAre adiutlged__: .!Mecrznu n1llllie 'WAits fhe'Wea hi4 nobk minJe ~nto ·Hor~tte , anti Plutar~he \at~ in bighe Moffcllanusfu- .a: · b L1!---. · · J pcrGdl.lib. 1 • tn1matum 'Wit •ur;Em~rorTrllilln. Yea,.,,_ czttze..r. t~na cacr· ''·.JU Ol'llt. CfJman -wealthes h4ue imbraceJ the kuneJ~ Smwnt~ a~~tlfttxe lCCro • • • ••';/• pzo Archia. other attttsfo loued Homer, tbllJ ll{ter ·}M. tit~tthe ~ theregre-we gre~tCIJ~tro~~tr/ie amo_ngfl them, "Whitlnfthem [~ rightlie claime htm to bee theirs. eAtbe11:t h~ A lan(,etJme7JemtJ.,; ji!Jenes: 'Rpme. rtirJfedfor r.Jlie. Antiof!Aer.tzmes Floren(e Sabciucas. b04fled ofPetr~~Ami6J{'DlertXkmof€ri{mtU. 'With m~ othw. cltties thttt did the Ukt to tlMers J~ men. And thei[e ~Aine to requite their honorJJle rtg41'des, 1'lkJiie them fomol/4 tbroughe their ~ortbit ~~:to Jl llf!l) sh4J. deathe to the 'Which their bodits by nttturt ~fuhie&l, couldlrJot extinlle norburie


nfn. burie tiJeir memories: hut tbllt the fame remdinefo longe ~the Y,orlde j]Ja!l indul'e. And to fPe~kJ offome t{them, Arzftotle~gre~ttlie honored 'Phi/lip~ anJ 'Wttl no leffi carefu/1for the education ofAkxanck~. For 'When het carnt to bee k.inge;, bep... tits the houlfome preceptes bee prefcribed'Vnto him ofr_egiment_, yet haumge ltno))pledge ofhi4 earnen defoe;, to "PntierfiAnd the wtures and qruEties ofall creatures, compy{ed Jmofle ftftie. book!s' intreatznge ofther hlllting by the commaundement ll1llt: cfeA/exam/er out·ofGreece and aJJ eAfo., manie tbdifandcs of Hunters, Faulk.!ners., .Fo~rs, ~ifhers, .~e~~rdm~n, oid Aul ..Geii.Ub.r 1• fuche tll k.!P!e bees, b~rdes;, or ame otherlzumge thinte: to cap.7~ · hefpe and aide him; -with tbei1·e k.J,o'Wledge .and ex_periences;, m . flare hinge the ftcretter, natures ~tnd qualitzes of· all creatures. E.nnill4 beinge mindfuJl of the noble mclintttion of Sci.pio;, dui Pe~~riniru~ highlie extoll hiJ "Worthie af1es;, regi.flring tbem in hu lettrned de P•~m Lauaa. cromdtr to all poflerities: Vzrgill tofbe~e him felfe thank.,e{u/J to eA.UtUStUI: (}ent fll,mieyeares About bufomoru 'i!Por~ of £neiids ~ to deriue the race oftbe Emperor fom Aintm,ttntl Ideua. " the noble Troians. Horace Afll(}ngfl hi4 rare (f/r lear.ned-work.§s Macrobius. fluffed fuO of"Wifo andgr~tUC precept61, ofientimes enterlacetb the fame '*iththe birt~ the bountiethe"ieArninge,md tbe-.noble quabtiu ofMectXnttl, rt) httthe made himfor euer.fo.TMt/4,(t) reno-wmed.. Plut~trche befules hi4 priuate bookts he 'Wr~tte to · Tr4i.tn> o/counftO and gouernement : Hee ftt~med that exce~ Suidas. tent \\l.or~ of liues ;, •id comparifons bet'Wene the 'R._omAnu a.nd the Grecitun : giHing due commendAtion afoell to the ~-. 'IIJ.tnc.r, tU to hi4 o"Wne countf'imen. By -which 'IPee maiegather, that learning.grounde_d"'Pppon rvertue bath llin aM,aife enemie to ingratitUde;, and cAnnot Ue hid;, but i4 eumnore 'Work.inge;, & be-wr'!yeth it fe!fe 41 the fmok! be<!Pr~eth tbt fire:J And if 4nic tiJinge h.tppen '~Porthie memorit : by the benefit of the l~Arnedit U1111}'ttrtei/;,~'J their ir~tuailes ~o foture timt ..Tf thtre chaum£

D E J) l C A T 0 R I E.


chttUnce nothinge ~n theire age famom :~yet they[et them felues a'Work!-UJ handlingefuche..accitlentes"u h4Ue bin done in times Cornel. Nepos. ptlile. 'Dares Phrigitl4 beinge A fo"W/Jjor llt the battaile of Troye:~ mde ala'le dlfcourfe thereof:~ ,et liks one too much a.ffitiioned :~ can Jcarce ftmle An ende of the pr4ts ofHetlor. Homtr ftndingfmall matter in hu time to hantlk, Attempted Jhe[ Ame argument " heing lothe that hi4 countrymenJhoulde lilt~ their flue comrnend4iion, and therefore almost tUf ar_re on the.other fide"extoUeth the "'Palour:~andhighe pro~s" ofAchiL Pctr. Crinit. fu·: and the counfailt, mdpoUicie, of vls}Jes. Lucanfeing nothing bonorahle in :J<.!.ro to intreate of, fled to former times for 11Utter, 'Where hefound toJet hti -.orthie mufo a -.ark!." ~~.nd ~atte in_ --perft ( equa~ 'With _the haughtznes of the argument) the hattttlles and bloodieconfo£ls, bet'Wene (jfar,·andTompey. Seneca dirpazringe of the n4ture ~dinclimtcion_ of hti "'Pnta~Jrdefcholler the fame 9<.!!o: 'Wratte lAmentable Tragedies" ft) · . boolrJs. ofgreat grauitie and -wifedome. 8'4.oreouerlearninge bath that fecret "Workjn_ge that tyrauntes haue bin mittigated there~ith,ami haue djjjembled their ajfeClions for. the time. Plutarchus. Di.onyfit14 the elder defiredto heare Plato, and'Wa.t contented a ~bile to hflen "Pnto him, after 'IPhome hil fonne" hauing bothe hil nlllnC and nt1.t11re,duifeeme ontVPArdlie to loue and reuerence 'Plato, andfente him greatguiftes to Athens, andinuited him Suetonius. to hit courte. Nerofor~ time embrACed Lucan and Senec4, a!rear. Crinir. thoutbe naturallie he'WtU 'Wick!tibe incbned: but heefoone did tlegeneratefrom their tlifcipline~for there can bee no league benrtene "'Pertue m:a "'Pice,nor perfe tie ""P_nio~ ofmeere contraries: And a#hough tzme reuealea the bloodit-mmdes, of theft crue!l tirantes to'Wardu thoft fmzotu ~,yet "Wee can notfinde the lift.! outrage, and crueltie.done --pnto the learned~ by thoJC th~t are honorabk --pertuoUJ and noble minded: but byf uche ttJ bee ofcrueU "'Pile ami ba(e nAtures~ VPha are ~~ enetnia tD -vertur. ,·

D ! D I C A T 0 Jl I· .E •

.,ertlll~ 4.11a ID~~e none, nor uk; mie~ but [uch'" ue of their o'IPDe llgileftamr· For it Ud. rule that foileth Rot_, t!Mt thofo t bat M'& mofle nonourAble_, are 1110il rvtrtutUJ: b~eAU.fe honour aht:Ue.s{o!Jo-weth rvertue, a1 the fhadduwe duth the bodie: ami 11 it 111 "Pnpojfible that tt !m die foouide be 'Withcut ~ foadJo-.e in the fonne, a1 the right honourAble in tbil /ifo fooulde be rvoyde oj"Perttle. Th!U it iJ 1114ni{efl ho~ le.-ninge bath bm embr~t-, ad, and hAd in highe efl~mafion, by great Privces and 1Joble 'Petres,. md.th~t 'Worthelie :7Jict6Nje by tbe benefit thereof,The aeles ofmigbtie Monarche.s (!;) gretlt Pri11Ces,and the matterJ IUIIithinges offrmner time trortbie meTIIQrie,dtme by fAte Golltl'n!lrs >. ~ "PA!iant Cttptttines. The mAnTilrJ md La':Wet of jJr~e ~wns:~aJ cHflomes ofoultk time. The mlll4bJlitif of 'lrorldty felmtie ~ tmd hoYpt the "'ift h.ue beh~~~~td themfol«s in bothefortunts: luute-bin pre[e,uri ..,nto them ·U in AgLiffe /or their iniJrutao11 _, ftm 'IPhich they might dr.-we "P1ulerfl4ntbng ttndg10d co1111{ to inJlrllfl andgouerne them[clue 1 in tUie, Aft their ttaio11J. : ~finlk appr{)(}uerlexiUflplt.s for the 'Whole cowft oftheir .life _, rytktr to bee imitAted, or cfc!Je'Wed. Of y,hic~bft bmefo, \We lik!'lrife qepert~k!r.s: For hereby, thi4 . Qlt time behoNidetb the «ciilentes offormer times~ u ~ they hd Inn ti6111 blltye&rd4ie. wi'Wie rJIA)t behoul.Je the 11111,.,1,& ~aies",4'Dill"gre~tgrmdfothersgrttndfot~,M if they yetli.J before o~~r ties. Alid 11.1 former tit/le_, a111lpr_e{ent ti11Jl ~ hlllll rtAP!J thm/lty :J thil ineflimable J~~tU; SD bkJ'Wife:J foturt time fiJ long 111 the Jp(Jr/Je foa/J intlun ~All ttlik o/tbti blejfttzg: For o11r {Ncaff.~nlba/Jfoe "frhat -...e ht~Ht foene, And behoiiltie hereby "'Pbat fofJliJII-1 thinges 'WtAre mterprifid aTJd done in our tkieJ, u(they Yte~re tHen nti'W fttmdsng 41 "'Jho~s. Tel ho'tWgrt~ ftarning h~th bin impe~~ehuifoe~ the firs le florifoe thertOh ..,be, in fieMi uff•h lo111ng 4nli bMntifiiiJprinces Nltip~rons, the y,or/Je b,tJ~hte fwtbt;,


le!£t, Antl/umingt: LAurmtilll VJ/4(fj;- J>~rmitAnSU, -.itb

D E D I C A T 0 R 1 .E.

tlJi,n.s other tAiled ofhi4 goodnts, md found him Ar4Teex11mfle for princes, fm: hil _c~defoe to~ karninge. I m~bte liem ~Jk!y,{e bringe tn diuers other, not inferior to tbe.rn for their to. to the le~~Tneti: eAs Fredericf<! 7Juk.! of Saxon ~rince. eletlor , ADd the TArde Emefius bil br.()ther, :owbo er~ Sedt~ Yniller{itil of w ittenberge,_ andthe ail1f?ulc! nob!# ~ounttn41mceJ andJifended &artm Luther,ifainil tbtfurie of"Pope Leo the tenthe, md JJ other hil atlueif • Arie~ .Alfo L~ 8'dtdices DukJ qf Florence bono~~red<J>iau Crinirus Iib.r 1. .tMir~, Hermo1Atu714rb4Tm: Anti7Jorfm Du/r.! of ~!~~~IJS ia Ferr11r4, re~fed in Tittu Strot._r..J'. 'With mmy other ~es, Geog. Ylho for their noble#lclmati<Ais in thiJ beha'fe, amongfl theft ~hte .iufl!J hAM theitf pl«es~ B v T re111t11Jbrmg I ~te to J_OIR'goodl.Ardfbip. J 'Will



behalfi of leAmmg : "Whofe noble mitzM h#h binfo .ddsBed to the fame tbefe.f~W!Yyetll'es,that diuers, 'llbo Are no'*t .Jiu-stu men, hMJ bin throughepouertie , bmt_e jince d{co•aged fom their fludje_s : f they h.ul not fowille :JP" h~,fo /!'one to bee their flttron. B~ I co'!feffe, 1ha~~~ tht.largelie ~tttn therofto thU e11de jTbttt ifM»t other ~pe tb look! !!m't'.PfMJ,.ill k..noYrlingeyour u~ ft) honourAb/4 can ~thofe that IJJue&ood letter!: They might J{o ~no'*t thereby, thatyou bauept1fep oftiNtgrou111iefom 'Which true nobihtie forifbeth: eAriii uk.f.,ife that youfoUo-.e the good exttmp/el gfmanie Princu,mdgreat per[ OIUf,es, 'Who 41'e reno'Wmed. therefore, beyontl A1Jie other their tie[ erus. 4ntiilk!'tli[e, ifAnie k coultle )n countiniiiiCinge the leAmtti,(~ there·41't t80too mAn~, -.bofe frendfhip u(tliJmAJ llie)ftwJn, 411d{lttrkJ to'W4Tde them.) Thi4 mightt4 f#tk thA'We am/ moUifie them: and ferue
tlyow honour, in the

AmjJ!ified, k;po'Wing t"bere neetleth no eA~ie to bee mAde 'lm-

therefore abridge·of jlurpofe, tbllt Ymich might ke more~







/}IR'rt· t~ prick! them friarde, tofoUo., the Jleppu of you:g~oJLwtli!'ip· Thm be three thinguI'eAtlie t#Jired m thU "fe, th.tu Jie.l/t/,, '*tAIJhe, Did fome. Anti {flffll h~e wude. qw~" 'llhich of tbtft i.t tht chieft : the foft3 f mth heAlth. the 'outt3u.t3 commtlttb 'WAitbe. """ iotbe theft ~e good naiiU laiie t(.0. But thly be bothe partiaOitltlt!s ; for 1H that il of finare ~ ~prighte iudtemellt,il ofcontrme opiniotf: Bica.fit/,At be.!tbl:~ dna-.e4/zhe, though~~ bee,... 11:r fo go~.,dfo grtAI,tletermine Ylith the botlu,mtlllt't J ub;, 61e "nnlo time ; 'But honour, fome, rend'MIIe~ Mlli g_Boti rt~ pwte) ~Me trillmphe ouer titAthe3 4fldmJct mm Ul/4J01· e111r:

"'hm other'Mft the ~Atefl <"PrmctJ,in f bDrte ttme 6t ~e 0111 ofWI41M1'ie3 tUIIi cfeAMforgottm. For, '~thAt ilmm in tbil Y,orliie ? •ithDutfon-e to feAile behintle him , but Ukt abubblt oft,Ater3 thal no'llri{eth,& D~on il not k..no'*"' '~there it '*41· Which being -.el c'O{itimd byyo~~r honour~~~ hAM~ tnAM choice ofthe IHfl pArtepJ emlWaceti thrtmghe 'llertlll, th11t '*hjch liueth, 41Ui ne11tr tiitth. For -wrtue ( t~~1[Ilia) ~er goeth IHfore h0110111'3 rt/giMeth ~ptrpetflitit-offelititie intbii'Worltlt, ltntiin_the -.otUe to come. eAnJ Jthcifht-tlwOfllhe the;,._. quitie oft;, ( 111 il Mclmd) fwh emllmt le~trned 111m 1/U b. bin , IIT't Mt to bee_ e~/Pe 6kJ.in thil o.Jde .rge ofthe -.or!tJe3 Tet u r;~lo. c/11'1, llllddewifoU lfjfl!lion '" euer 'NI to ·their I.Arties anJ 'PIItrDIU , thm il no tiiJJ,te hhe gen~­ r.Uie florifhe .ntlil AfJP'•e: Y~henofyo• honolll' bath IMd tryaO; by thelurneil!Abows I{mAniefo-tU"""· FiDTe behinrie -w!Mme, 11IJfel{e, ( 4/JhoughofaO the me~~~~tfl) yet beinge prickplfo~ardt byyo•g~ Lowlfhipps bo1111t1e, llllli incourtged byyot~rgreAt clemmcie~e hlimblie prefmte tht(e my g~ttheringes, d1lli glt~niflgfs 0111ojoehermms har~~tfles3 'Pnto your btmO,.: A ~both p/e•{MiflltMifi,;thie 3 y,hich J hauegAmijbed'With mMiil WloriH j wh the proper ~pliratifiU

tionJ mJexpofitionsofthoft EmbltmeJ that 1fountle o6fc• re : Ojfermg jt 'VI to your hon~Ur to look! ..,ppon at fome li1ures foryo• r1crution. I hope it{ltalbee the ttiDTt delight[ ull., biUI{t 1m1t ttJ my ftno'*'edge ~ htttht aJf thef llt1ll btl)td fore: r?f. for tlw tlwers ofthe inuentits ltl'e #'~ o'Wnejlender Y,ortf!Wl{hip. 7Jut cbiefoe, hiclll{e ~ntler plell{41mte tieuifes, .#.t projit~le mordes,DIIinofbMJJD'IPts, "PW/e offubflAtJce: 'IJOT Anie conceyte, YlithoutJ ome cAM[e "W~Jrthie confttitrtttion: j(i, the~oundingo{'kkplneJ, ttntiexto/Jingofwrtut. which .rJIAie[trill, IU • mirrow:. to the ll.YHie for their m~enrlement. ft) to thegodlit,for their btttwgoinge/orYMrtle in their coiiT.;.. ft~ tb.t kdu to euerWlinge glme. ?kinge ttbifiJtd that my bJJi/Jitie c~ not 4Jfottrtle them ["'he , tU m·e fit t~ be ojfreJ "P tofo l»nortth/4 .fw~he:7et ifit fo.lJ bk! your bono,. tfl .JiD'fle ofAnit oftiJtm, I {bAIJ ibitJ.! ~pm fot to the book! inhAppie howe; mJ it fbJJ WDIII'f' mee~ ttt'll/{t!}f ome mllttlr tJj ·more m(Jfllltltf., IllJH1lt Mlellj#M y,.:JJ {1111her "!Y tleftre in thllt bebJfi. . T H 1 .lmightie Got/ fom ..home Jl bonD,. mti trill · nobililtie t1« proetetle ~ v,ho bAthe ffJ1111ie yt41'tt, mtJfle 18flinglie tmd liberAIJie, int!Metl)0111' Lordfbip "'liih the {ll11H.., bleffi Anl1 prDlo'!f,tJOIII' tltties btre;that Ytte mAil behotJde the ~onf ummllti'b tJj hAjJpie ouiJ ~,inyour honour: beforeyo11{bJbef 11111T110netl to tht t~~eriAfong honour~"hich u4hPAies perm~~.. nmt 'Withoutlnlltrlbil#ie, Amen. At Lone/on thl x x v 1 I 1. oj'Nolllmber ~ eA/ma M. D. L X X X V..
Your Honours humble &

D E D I C A T 0 It I £.

faithfull fcruant
· tjfrey Wbitney.. G





VH !

I had fini{hed this my coltettion ofEm-

in writingc vnro my Lorde , ~d.ic before hir Honour palfcd the feas into die lowc countries : I was afa:r , camcftlie required by {omme that pc:rl.llCd rhe fame, to baue it imprinted; whole reque_,...___._ llc, when I had well conudmd, althoughe I did prrceiue the charge was verie heauie- for mee, (w~gbinge my owne weak.enes) l meane my wantc oflearninge,and iudgemem, to fet fonh any thinge vnto the viewe of this age, wherein fo mmie wife & learned doe florifhe,and mull haue the.fcanninge thereof. Yet knowioge their f:mours to bee fuch t~rp mtt', as in dewtie I mighrc not denie them any minge I can: I did Jather chook: eo vndergoc any burthen, and almofte faince in fonvardoes r.o &risfie them, then ro fuewe anie wanre of gQOd. will, in denyinge theu coatinuall ddircs. wh.C'refore,lkcnce briDge obuin~ fOr the publilhing thereof. I offer it heare (go:od Reader) tO: thy -viewe, in the fame fone·as I prefentcd it before. Onelie tbis tx<epte: That l ba.ue now in diuerfe places,quotcd in the margcnc fome feRteccs in Latin ~ & k1ch verfcs as 1though~e did befte 6t the fcuerall matters I Wratte of. And alfo haue written fomme of the Emblemd,ro ceraine of my ftendes, to whome-either in dutie or fi:mdlhip, .la~ diuers waie$ bound~ which bqlh ~.are 'Inn tinge in my 6rllc edition, and nowe ad. kd hemrnto. for th({e reafons infuingc. Firfte I noted the fame in Lac. tin, to belpe and funhet Come ofmy acqaai.ncaunce w~'eare·this booke ·was imprinted, wbQ.baUingc oo rafte in the Enldrfhe tonge, yet weare eamellly· addid~ ro the vnd~lbndingc htreot: and alfo, whearc 1 toande :lllf verfe, odayinge agreablc with the marrer, 1 did gather the .fame of purpofc for my ownememetie, oor.doubtinge b11t the Came may bee alfo fiu~fuU to othen. For my inticulinge them ro U:we ofmy fiendcs! I hope it {hall not ~ millikcd, for tliat the offi«S of dow:tir and freridOlip are alwaies to bee fauored: and ~as l.fbllowe·my au&xs in Englilhinge their dc:-uifes, So I imitate dmn, in dedicaringe focne, ro fuch ~rfons,as I thin.. kt the Embl~mes doe bdl6tte and peiuinc vnto, which order,obferucd R~uf,.., 111,.,, SMtlbiiCJII, and others : as by rhc:ir wotlces are apparan~, Con£etrmgc my faulte ro bee c;hieAy rhis, in prefeqringe to famous and worthic. men, meaoe mal .. r , farre eo 6mple fOr their defcrainges: yettt11fHnge my g®d will ilialbe waighed &$well a.~ rhe worke, ADd that 2 pe'.arle fball not bee looked fori~• pQOR nwu p~ I fubmit my duing' herein to their cmfurer. Furrhennore, wheare there are diners Emblcmes written ofone matter, which may bee rhoughte fu}'(tBuous. A$ 2gaioi Pride, Enuie, Coocupifcence , Drmlk~, Cooecoumcs , Vlw:ic, and fuch llko.

~'P'A'"".,.,~ blerne~ (gendc Reader,) and prefcnted the fame


TO THE JliADIR.. ag:Unfk edet'f one of them feuer3lly, fondrie dcuifes: ihereh, the fondry inuentions of the autlours may bee deccmed • whicll I haue rollcded ag~nR: rhofe vices efpccially ,bycaufe they are growE lO mighde thar one bloe will not bc&te diem downe. but newe headdes cpringe vp like Hr lit~. thar lln't.Us wean: notable to fubdue them. But manic d~s pierce dae R:one,& with manie blowes rho oke is oaenhrowen, So with manic sqnehencions, wick~ is wounded, and linne ailiamed anci giueth place vnto verrue. It refteth now to fhewe brecftie what this worde Emblemefignifieth,and wher~ucomn~etb, which lhoughe it.bc borrowed of others,& not propc1' Jn the E.nghfhe tonge , yet that wh1ch jt 6gnifieth : Is, and hathe bin alwaies in vfe amongfr vs, which wOr-de being in Greeke ~~~~.vel~~~ is as muchc to faye in Englifhe as fot U., iiJ: properlie meot by fuche figures, or workes; as are wroughte in plarc, or in R:ones in rhe pauemenfeS, or on t~e 'W'OIUJes •. or fuchc like, .for the ~oming of the pia~·: hauing~ fome wirtie d.euife expre{[ed Wtth cunnmg woorkemanfh1p , fomethm~ obfcore to be percciued at the firft , "Whereby , when with runher ronliderarioo it it vnderR:ood, it maie the greaterdelighre the behould~. And aJthoughc the worde dothe compr~!hendc: manic thinges, and diuc:rs matters maiebethereincontaiaed;yetall Emblemes for the moll parte,maie be reduffil intothefe three kindes,which is lfilfmuii,N.ft1.0, & Mn4. JlilmKMJ, as reprefenting the: &aes offome noble pa:Cons, being matter of hitrorie. N111111111l, as in exprdl!ng the natures of creatures, for example, the loac of theyonge Srorhs, to the oulde, or of fuchc like. Pitttll Cic.W lhrMl, pcrtain}ng to venue: &nd iaftrat:bon of life, which is dfe chiefe of "lA l.m~'•· . thethric, and the other two mare bc:e in fomc:fonedrawen·inrothis ~· For, doe ccnde vncodifctpline, and m~:cepres cf liuing. l m1ghte wnte more at large &mOf, and of the di nee: of Elllllmf.f S]mbDllu5, & ~ hauinge aU (as it weue) fome allinitie one with the other. But-bicaufe mymeaningiuowrtte as briddv as I maie, for rhe auoiding of tedioufncs , I referre them that woald further inquire therof.ro bd. AkWtwl, Gllilill.Ptmritll,.4tbillls B~ecbilll & to diaersomc:n 1hu haue written thereof; wc:l knownc to the learned. For I J)tl1'pO(e zr this prd"ent , to write onelie ef this worde Embleme: Bicaule it chief• lie Jam pertaine vnto the m~tter I haae in handc, wbc:reofi hope thil muche,.fhall.giue them fome taftethat weare ignor21lnt ofthe fame. Laruieifanie dcnllfe herein fhaU delight thee, andiffome other~ nor pleafe thee , yet in m-pea of that which dom like thee, palfe oaer the fame fauoarably tO otliers , with whame perhappes ir·maie be more a2feahle: For what one likedt,an Otheroftentimes doCh notregarde: andwhat fome dothe Iorhc, fome othc:r doth chiedic:.elleeme: whereof came the Proueorbc:, So ,_,.,fo ,.,;, mindts. 'But. whatl Shoulde I chinke that my.6mple ttauaile herein ihould fcape fcor-f'ree from the ~s of the enuious, who uealwaics ra.diewicha preiudiateopi-







nion to condempne, before they vnd(;dlande the c:1ufe. No l thoughe the verfe wearc (as I mayc faye) written by the pen of ~p•llo him lclfe~ For in the fo~mer times,when the whole worlde was almofie oucrfha:dowed with the mll\tle ofignoraunce, If then, the learned and exctllerlt lhrtiAiil. worke of H'"'", ~d not iliieldt him from ~he fringe of Zlilfll. If MA'"' Vmo, was taunted by Rtmniw PAltm•"· lf cKtr•lud.Gxe bookcs Tt;rtw in ojflti». written againfre h~m, by DidJnlfll .AitxA1Ulriml4 • And ifVrrgill fta~ en.. -uied by CArbililu, who wrat a booke de Virgili.nil mfrilnu, which he inti· Pllr~. CriiJi_tf!l tu led .,.£ntUJOm~ and diners other~ whofe workes weare moll: finu fottll L~ttmll. gnla) jf they coulde not efcape the bites of fuel) Bafilisk.es broode: Then howc mayc I thinke, in this time which is fo bld~td, gener2llie · with moll: rare md cxquiiite perfodion in all knowledge, and iudge. rneot: that this 1lcnder aliaye of my barren mufe, thouJd palie the pi~s -..ithout pulihing at: wherethoutandes are fo quicke fighred, they will at the.~rft,hehoulde the leafi: ioce, or tictle ,that is not rightJr placed. And ahhougne,pemappes it rnak bee embracctl a while,for the newnes thereof.. yet fhottlie it lhalbee call: afide as thinges that are vnfauerie &: liot .ellecmed. For the nature ofman is alwaics delighted in noudties, & tOO much com~pte with curioufncs and ncwfanidenes. The fairdt gar• den , wherein is greate vatietie bothe of goodlie coulors, and !weete fmelles, can not liK.c all mennes fancies : but fome gallant roulours are miflilccd, and fome plcafant fmdles n~t ~ardcd. No cooke, can fitte all inennes ta{h~s, nor :mie orator, pleafci all mennes humors: but wheare the ~fkrs are roo daintie, his cookcrie thalbe conrroUed: and wheare the 3.udiwu are ro rafue and ca_re les in. regarding, his Rethoricke fhalbe condem pned: and no worke {o abfolute perfeete, but fome are refohue to reprehende. Ylt truftingc tht.leamed, and thofe that are of good iu~ente (whome I doe rhiefelie ddire to bee the perufers heS"COf) widi indii'"erencie will reade , and then &uor2blie yeelde their verdid:e. I o.lrrr this my wtnke, fuche as ir is, vnto them; wherein I hope the gre.1ter forte lhallfinde fornethi nge eo dclighte them, aod 'icrie fe·we of what agr:, ouondirion they bee,but may herin fce fome deuife, aunC: wer.,ble to rlteir inclinations; trolling they wil fo frendly accept thrreof, That 1 ihalbe rather incouraged tfu:rcb),to alfay fcm1e further matter, as foone as I fhall hsue leafure~ then dvoughe.their iinllter interpreting of my good wilt,to dilrorage mecJrom the fame,and w withe I hld not yet ~ommunicatcdthi!,vntoall:whkh 1 mighthane keptepriuateto a fewe. Yet hueby 1 haue fatisfied my frendes r:equdles,and haue in fame parte difchacge~my dutievntothbm: Therforc i£.dley fhalbee well pl~fed with· my paines. I fball tb! tetfe care for anie others·cauillinge. Thus wilhing thee the fruition of thy good deGres, I leaue thee Ynto tht fame. luleydcn inHollandeJthc uu.ofMaye. M. P..Jrxxx VI.




-M A



I Lltcthrli11/ti tbllci. miftllil E v Ytilt

firipti gtiiNI 11111/t' EMBLEM AT A 'IJiiiCUIII~ ·P HR o s.Y N·E.

H~& pr:ef11111t rvAri/4 Jt!finE111 V'f[.r~~..: ftgt~ril,

(.J{ptA tenere D&IIIDI., inflr,tre aptA •nimMm. SA M B VC VS teHi&, teflilmihiJ VN l V$, f7lflli Omne .111lit p1N1EIIIrltl h1c ill gtlltrt A L c 1 AT vs. SeJ ftri!li1ftU11IM111 gtlltll 111111e EM a .LE M AT A prt~Tint Illtcebril, d1!14 'Vtnilic.UIA miln•; 'I'1111111111 Dptrll, W H l T N J£ E , tlli 1111ceJi1 /n111ri1 Je!tl•lll• t.H 5'4\.M B VC Vs, .I V N l VS, A L C lA. TV S.

I.&Nvs Do vs A 1 Noomrijct.
I iN G AL FRID I W H l·T N E I 'E M B L ~ M A T A,
M A G H I I I. t I V I 0 I. Ill A 1f 4 I. I Al P.o I T .£

dnotgenuit G.tt'PR.JJJ·os AN·cu.t, Vata Nomine , PH 01. LA! o ~umin~. · & art:e pare~. Vnum • Fama (we pania: iodigimuit Ho M 1 A v M, Angbcus hie merit&· dicirur H 1 s r o D vs. Ac yeJuri dubiis quondam viaoria pennis · later M .£ON 1 o 1 N H 111 o D v a.que ftetit: Sic , quibus eXultai mOdo lzra Britannia .llumnis, G 11. t P 'Ill D as palma ett inter, {n ambiguo. C H Jt.·V c I Ill vertant dudum aurea fcripra ·Britanni: Aurca W Hl T N AI v 1 (ed fua preffit adhuc, Ntmc aufpiciis L I y c IS T JU, E)( 11. I KAT"' luatm Afpiciuot ; & dant a.ccipiuntque decus. Q!.talis gemma micat fuluo re<hmira meWio Indica, ab artificis 'fcrmicuLua mantl. Perge a~ W H IT M 1 Y tirulos fuperaJden: famz, Toilccs aftra lupcr tc pauiamcjue tuam.


G .. u


c H .l V c IJU, C'l"'ffiUtil.


BoN AV IJfTV J\.l Vy t c A• oil I V" I Bmgenfis•



R. i:njin~W~t ocllli4ft Embltm#a Q v ~~ 'Varie aglifl~ -vermicuLaa domo~ n~flril~
A L 1T £

4rtijicifp4t nitn1t o~r1 t:ttJnll#a, motfu i!JA~

, HAC modO pttha t~~tns dum flupet ef&.ie: Sic t:. a'um G A t F a I D E ltMJ boc txprijfo ubellf Symbd~ cum 'Varili et.IU imAgimhiU 3 :J0 legijJe be6t Yetmmz t/j!f" ~~:m.JA ditlil~

4& dum Sci# beUi J110 fulmina ~ fJND{qlll Efl JJis bltUII mms tnlllfltr~~n potil Jt~numer~s, ptr te "Pirtutum hie clara [il#um Opponunl noflriJ lwnitulwninilni.t.

Jntrepit~MJ riMm Cwtl Ani111111~ & Horlftia cordA~ Et :ibi Fllhric~ ~· ~he, foMs s Dum fortu Dec~, Junij, CHrJ1 1 atque t5'4ete!fl~ Et Cun!Utoris mtnJ henefud. F~tb11

{qminilnu -,lll'ie -vermicM!Da tuil, Et modo prifcor1111J Heroiml immortillia foB~~ VIrtutesq111 ani1111 commeminijfi U~Mat.

Yt qui iJk ttmlU (lt!INil ~~ Her0.C11 itm.. 'Pojfolet ~ in m-rgnri fingu!A principib.u ' Jl......~ mir41JIIIr• .rU oim uW. NiinirAbitw 4t41 rpoflutlu~ DV D L A E I i.Uus1ri. foEl• J.il. £1 ftrmJ tf'J6fltt fi&:i alite fib,.., (J/im /'!" ~ W« ..,JAre /,o,;,. A~ft·urw. hill' ttilltJI 'l~ tilli fottU PtlNI""~ . iJ_tM WH Y T N A.E E tiW'i tf illl)'f'l' pojft nlglt. f IT .. V I C o .1, V I VS Bntgrntis. IK c-.-z..

~JJIJUDdprmpiiUm ~ h«merito LEYCESTRIVS htr11 P'~nditlll aufjititi ttliu f'!Pta fuii.



N 0 ll.


L l M DE R T I A N G L I

Scboi£ .3J1~flri DecAflicbon.


formam fplendentiaque ora tuai, Si Deus·hic nobis~ tdl:e Platollc~daret: ~anros pectoribus nollris accendcret ignes Cuius vd Phcrbo pulchrius ora nitent? Non Veneris~ Triuiz nee cenetforma Dianz, Nifos here omllc:s vincit & Eu~alos. .. Huius atdligiem WHITNAEI Emblemata pingunr, Zeu:xide , vel d<>Cto dignus Apelle, Iabor•. Confulet ergo boni multum fpetl:abilis Heros Et capiet facili talia dona 1nanu.
T 0


ll E A D E ll.



11tfdes 111 ot/Hr fo1JM, {lldJt btlpt1 (.,mt fflt ofp/Mt: c1111 t;r~~« it [elf•, tbm ,.~, ,., ~rbtrgr.tU. Wb] fboul4 I tbm m] jrlittlts 1'Mfo on W H 1 T )( 1 Y s \WrlrJ, iltJfllW, Wbtrt Ytli{tll1111, lt#tlingt, I1IJ detUfo , fo pwf«lfJ 4tH jltMt • ltt gmtle Rtdtr bJ tit] UIIU, tblll ~Utbll ,.,, ,, 'lltrigDtt, Ar ont tb.zt ho,.,,s rbtft hil giftes, but JtJcts tbtm ,., t'mtligbtt. No IDngt llfto,fo, no tttfzolll'tlk, l PII¥P•fdl ""' to ttQ: Ltff tbo,.J1mudil [lf}t, "'hire il tiH IIIUU,J'" ftttlt"" ~b the [bel Got jonlf.trdt then in ~.tppie time , _, tbo• {billt f•dJ flnde, With cofft, .nd J4hq, Ytttll{tt out, A h-rw fn tbJ millde• .A ftortha•Ji fer tbJ Yil{t &01Jttiptn, A Y,bailfne for t~l \tHitt: Whnt, e.uhe m.tn mttjt Yiltb d.#llril 'IHite hil jM~cits ftlltl] fitrt.
E :J. J E C T l 0 H

For wbtrt it ftlfe,

Gillt WHIT N

IV tbm tbJ f.H~rtport,foUt iltttlc{ITim tbt/~~~~t~: LIH Ibill tbl VPift tbllt ftt.tbet Cf1Jt i tlrJ follit iufllJ b/,mu.





IN c E mlln
/IYt jiJtJl1


.a hH mog,ghtn

AnJ D{him ftlfthe &1111 no gooti: inlullt, Thtn enerie one, before th!Y tJMghte ~e!}tmf~ Sh011lti&IIU on G o o,from '»~home 11/Jgr•e u [i111: So, I beftahe, th11t he shey.,. ft•k.J., Thm,lohi4 /W"ifo 1m11uhegin•e, ·••rl111tU.



A An


Spyre, who(c toppedotbe piercetbc fkic,

iuic greene imbraceth roMdc .about,

And while idlandes, the famedOi:l._bloomcon highe, But when it fhrinlces, t;he iuie fi:an.dcs in dowt: The Piller great, our gracious Piiaces-is: ThcbraQnche,the Churche: whoe·_~ vnto hirthis. I, that of late with ftormes



And brufed fore with Tirants bluddie blocs,

'Whome fire, and fworde, with perfcx:ution rent, Am nowe fett free , and o~erlookc my fues, And whi!.es chow raignfi, oh moll: renowmed Q_tteene By thie f~pporte my bloffome !hall bee greenc.



~dij "Pount:~ e11ndt1m.

tral1aylinge Vtlcettainc where T 'When diuers wayes before his iice did be,goe,



M ercuri':JS then , the~ pat he did lhow~.

Which wheh he tooke , bee neuer went awrie, But to his wHhe,his iorneys ende dad gaine In happte how.re; by his direaion pW1lc.

This rrauatlinge man : doth tell our wandringe Rat~, Before whofe face, and eeke on eucrye fide, Bypathes , and wayes, appeare amidd our g.ue, That if the Lorde bee not our onlie guide: We ftumble, fall, and dailic goe atha~c, Then luppic chole, whomc God doth llae\1 the way'.

prouidencc: hat Sv ccreatures wilde, and bekc In
H f.

That man, A~ fame foretell, when weather faire will cl1aungt, Ofheate, ofraine, of winde,and tempdlsrage~ Some .lhowe by fignc:s,and with their fongs prdage. But leauing tl1eik, which almofi: aU ®c k:nowc:, The Crocodile, bywhome rh·i£gyptians \~;att:hc:, HO\\e fanc:that yc:arc Chall mightie N ilus Rowe, For tbeite lhee lli:es.ta laie he~gges, aod hatche, Suche fJcill deuine, and fcicnce to fOretell, Hath Natutelcme vnro this Serpc:n~fdl. · Whictl Olo\\·es, They fuould with due ~;cgardc fo~~eke, · When anie one doth, uke in handc a caufc, The drifte, md cnde,of'that tiwy· d~ de~, And longe thcreon to·poockr, and. to paufe, For after wins, are tikt a fuower of ~ync ..V/bich moiftes the iOilc, \\·hca widJ.Crcd is the grame.

n~ture kcret 'Wroughce c~ f~ch kno9.ledge 1lr4.unge, by them in ~omme thingcs maie be taughte,





Verittu ·temporis ft1jA.

furies fell, which the wor1de T Both Enuie, Saife, and Slaunder, heareappearc, ruthe.
H :RE i



In dungeon da.rke they longe inclofed truthe, But Time atkngthe, didloofe hisdaughterd.eare, And ktts aloftc, that facred ladie brighte, Whoe rhings longe hid.d, reueales, anG- brtnges to ligbtc. Thooghellrifcmakener, thoughe EmlieeatebirharteJJ The innocent though Slawuler rente, and fpoile: Yet Time will wmmc, and take tbisladies parte, And breake ·her bandcs, and bring her foes to foik._. D.ifpaire not then , thoughc trutbe be hidden ofte,. · Bycaufc at lengtbe, fhce .awL .bee fen alofte;

bcarev_nto ltcr.aefte T The S\\>allowe f'?-'ifte, dotheno daunger feare' Grafshopper, that did


For that thee tb.ought, they lOlide togeather befl:e, H;""·'b-1}~· 1"" Bycau!e they both , obfcnide one time of ycare, ••~.:-.~.~ :;::";" r-· And bothe' did ioye theirc: iarringe notes CO r~nde, ' And neare the houfethey bothe, theire dweUing$founde.




Yet time, and rune, and neighbourhood forgone, For perfect frende, a tyrant iheebecame, Which raxcth thofe, who me God dothe heareallotte L1kc gifts of grace, to wirthe a lafting name, Yet Enuic foe theire vertots doth deface, It makes them foes, to them thcie fhould imbrace.
Formic.e g;r.tll eH ftll'mu•, Cic•tl• cic44• .Et uail doClfll gAMill AptUo clmil.





d1rowen;. T Andv.:aggoner, behoulde, ·is hedlonge l]oandC', alln1 vaine doth take the raine in

If qe be dwrawen by hones fierce vnknowen, Whofe ftomacks 11:0\\·te, no taming vnderQande, They praunce, and yer~,andoatof order Hinge,

Till all the)-b.reake, and. vnr.o hauockehringe. Tqat man, whoe hath affeCtions fo.Wic vntanide, And forwarde r:unnes negied:jng realOns race; Deferues by righr·; of all men to bee bbnide, And head!Onge fa}les at lengthe to his dcf.ace, Then bridl:c will , .and rcafon make thy guide, So maillc thow fialldc, when others dounc doe Oid.e.
lllltj#fJ ..


ciuill drawen f.llcltbe, W And blwldiefworde isat homeout of thebroache, broiles, are (et a

Then furious Man with fwordedoth rage beneathe, And to the Toppe, deuowring flames incroache, None helpes ~uenche, but rather blowcs the flame, And oile doe· , and powder to the lame. Intcftinc lbite, is feaa:fuU.motle of Tbis, makes the Souuc ,.rocut his •&thcrs throate, Tilis, partedt frendes, this,.brothers makes to hr.dle, This, rohbes ~·, and fetts the t~es a Boate,


This, Rome did feele, this, Germanic did taftc, And often times, this noble. Landc did walk..


tibi ~ fctl ~ligiom.

T Thepafiors lOne, with reuerence do imbrace: 200d, that doe gladd tidinges preache, godlie

Though they he men, yet fmce Godds worde th~ tcache, Wee· honor them , and giue them highelle place, Imbaffadors of princes of the eatthc:, Haue royall &atcs , thougbc bafC they arc by birthe.
Yet, if throwghe pride the)-doethanfelues forgett, And make accompte tha~ honor , to be theires: And doe not. marke with in who~ place they feet, Let them behowlde the affe , that I S I S bcares, Whoe thowghte the men eo boner bitn, did kneele, And ftaied thafore, all he the ll:affe did tede.

For, as he pall' d ~th I SI S througlte the lheete, And bare oo backc , his bolie rite! about, · Th' JEgyptians doMte ·fell profi:ratc at his feece, Whcrca~o. , the Me , grew~ arrogantc and fi:owtc, Then (aide the guide= oh foolc not vnto thee.. Thei(c people bowe, but vnto that they fee~


Prince , in prime ofluflie JeaJeS, what \~;eamer lhoulde betide, For thaa: hec thoughte, with manie gobJ.e. Pores To palfc the tinte, on buntinge forth~ ride : Th'Aflronomer, did wiflie hym ft2ie at coune, For prefent raine, tbould hiridcr aU their fpone. Which fiaied the Prince, btlt mine did none difcende, Then , wente hcerorth with manie Gallantes braue; But when he thought the clowdes, did droppcs' pom:nd,. Hce roadc afide, a plowghmans ikill to craue, · Whoe, looking ftraighte vppen the varijng f.kie: Saide, twentic daics 1 thin.k.c it Will bee drie. Proccedinge.tbcn, his iudgement ·tnJC Wa5 fuundc~ · ThcD, {quoth the Pri.tace) weare thou- the do&urs Roabc, And gecue to him,.~anowc on the grownde, And in exchaunge, thou his Sphcare, and Gloabe: And further wed' hc~ceforthe wee will allnwf? That learninge ihall 'VDto Experic~e bowc:. B Situus.

A Woulde



:~~~;~~diw lib. r.

W VhLfes _p~eafu.\n~etunes,.t_he SY a. wife, to hftcn the1re fongc:
1 T_ HE

EN 55

did allure

But nothinge could his manlie bane procure, Nic.&curn-. Hee Glilde awaie ~ and fcap' d their charming frro"ge, ~·.:.;:,..~. · The &cc, he lik'de: 'the Dether parte, did loathe: :!~ For womans-fha_pe,and-6fhes had they bothe. .... Which lhewes to vs, when 1Jcwtie fcckes to fnare The careleffe ·man, whoe dothe no daunger dreede. That be fuoulde flie ;and fuoulde in tim~ beware, And not on lookes , his fick.l~ fancie feed.e: Suche Masremaidcs liue, .that promifc oncJie ioyes: ·But bee that yeldcs , at lengthe him fclffe dillroie~.

I.altri; ,....
·aonn IIOD~~et·
Aicon fie par Cl.tud. Mi-


111 .,,. llfiiUt~a t111r 111116r

y,.., d 1t111[11: y,..,.,,. i*"tftirt NU.pb., ;nJIJia.


Cui ""''• rnfo, wri• h• "l' 4;,;, ,,.,;: AH&f' "'" ,M . , ""' 111M illl 1W'•

Rts hu~


'1\tJ lmmantt._ in jijmmo declinant.

Perian d. pet

...., ,.,.

,,.,..,, ,,fU. .





The !howe, thatfallcs vppon tbe mountaines greate,_ ~~;~;~,~· Though on the Alpes; which feeme. theclowCiesto reachc. ~· lf'Wf"'iCan not indure the force of Phrebus heare, · ;:;~~ But \\olfi:cs· awaie, Experien~ dorh vs teache: for:;;,;:,-;1. Which wamerh all, .on Fortunes wheele that clime: I*· To bcare in minde how dtcy. haue but·a time..
P~tJiblll·.-bigtill fortlllll. Y.JMbiJil m~t:j

Ita ,,., lAtA , . , , ""'• ""~' {amit 11m~''
.il t..SiutJ &MiiMU

Et "'""''

in ,,o,. ftnA, tm11x~ /"'"
iiJ lt11i1Ati {MA lfl.

Oaidlu ,.
Trift. ,.





H E Poettes fainc, that D AN A VS daughters d.·are, lnioyned are to fi!l the fataU tonuc ! . ''here, thowghe they toile,. yet are they not the .:.eare. But as they powre • the water f~Ite dothe runne ~ ~ o paine will ferue , to 611 it to .the toppe, For, lbll at holea the fa~e doth runne1 anddroppe.


Which reprc~e~os ~ three fortes of wretrh~s vaine, The blabbc, th~ngratc; a11d tholj: that couet fnll, As fuG the blabbc., no,fecretts can retain~. Th'mgrate, not knoWC$, so vfe his frendes good will. The couetous 1uan, thowghe h~ :tbounde with !lore Is not fuffifdc, but couetts marc ;rnd more.


F N I 0 BE, behoulde dte ruthefun pligb~ Bicaufe lhce did difpife the powers daiine: Fabult11Jlobee Her children all , weare flaine within her figftte, Outcl.6. Mt• samorpb. And, while her {clfe with triddinge telll'e$ aid pine, Shcc was transfornide,. into a marble fione, De II~IDCI'O ' · liorom, •icle Which, yet v.-ith tcares, dodte fecme to waile, ancl mone. Aul. COclhu111 lib. :LO. Cif· '· This aagedie , tho,ughc Poeca firfr did fiame, Yet maie it bees to cueric one applide: That mortall men, ihoulde thinb: from whence they cune, And. not prefume , nor puliC them pride, Leilcth.'ltthe Lorde,whoehaughcy dDthbatc,(fiate. - Doth throwe them downe, when fure they thinke theyr


. c;: v

falfc and T Ditlwicked worldc,Hfo£a. cL 1Tfull of crime, . alwaics mooue vs wee pc,



The fadi.nge ioyes, and follies of that time·,. ~.:=· ·DEMo c a. tTv s did dtiue to lau~e~ deepe, .~..... Thus hcynous fmne,.and fullie did procure Theife famous tnen, fucbe paffions.to induce. . .
What if they liude , and thoulde behoulde ·this age Which oucrfiowes, with fwellinge teas of linnc: Where fooles, by fwarmes, doe prelfe vppon the Rage; With hcllilhe lmpes, that like haue J:leuer binne: I thinke this.fighce, fboulde hafteo their dec.ay.e Then helpc vs God, and Sathans furic fiaie...

D~rtn~-fo tp~itl • • .;,.,;,;, tlita J.IM ,JIJt11t. . ptUw ..,;,. tlllif

'Nfl ntf'~Urts, ,.,~ d-Ue




hcare, vnhappie man behoolde, A cWhenoinwthe well.) hee fa\\-e Diana brightt,
T .&

With grecdie lookcs, hec waxed ouer boulde., That to a 1lagge h.ee was transfOrmed rigbte, Whereac amaC&, bee tboogitt to ranne awaie, . But firaighce his howndcs did rente hym, tOr their praie.

By which is ment-, That thofe whoe do purfuc Tlu:irc fancies fonde , and thingcs vnlawfiill crauc, Like brutilhc bcatles ~ppeare vnto the wewe,
ADd lh.tll at lenghte , Ad:a:ons gucrdon haae: . And a.s his lloundes, foe theire atfetlions bafey. Shall them deuowre , and all their dc:edcs de-face.
AliMIU jilmptil. Menrbr•ti111 dirillltt'l 'tiMI. U11 tlil/~ YI'JMp#Mi?l ,.,,, flm&l t,ftp1116.
C~raib111 ia crtrutM ..,,.,


,,.,., ...,....

Horllhlt r. lplllu.


aa pOlO.

Abal••.ln pi·




Hi ht-,.Gn• ctonn cxtrc,111&1 ~g•pti

pants in ha bitant a"t•colatiolil dcrtill,

.AuL Gelliue

Subinduuaa &Nibua bclJuaa acruur. l'blliua lib. 7• ap. '· ac

H I L E,HER C V L E S, w_ithmightieclobbe in handr. In Lyons lkinne did flcepe , and t:Uce his ea~ : About him firaightc approch'de the Pig.rnc:is baode, And for to kill this conqucrour alfaies, But fuoli1he dwadfes ~ theire force was aR to finalfc, For when he wak'de, liJGegnatteshee crufh4 them ~:L

Jill.,, "" +

Wee fhoulde attempte: nor anie workc pretend~ Aboue eur power: left that with thame at lengthe \Vce weakelinges prooue, .and f.Unte befora the ende. The pore, that firiue with mightie, this doth blame ~

This. wameth vs, that nothinge· pafte


And fottes-, that feci:e the teamed to dcf.une.

tH qMotl 11ttpUM t~Ui {nilttrt plru/141, :it prljilm ;TJjltXI 111M i11r1 ·tng• ~t7114.

B Here

the fiuites of dronkcnneffe, and plaie: Propmiu,. Vi•I-,.....,,. co~;brawleswith Cutthroate for a c:afte~ .,..,.,_,.r..,... Hoc&c. I E.piQ. I 9 And ofte in e, i f ·that they lacb to pai~ Thev f\.\~ it out, or blade it at the lafie: This, fi-endlhippe breakes: this, makes vs hiuglt•d to fcome, "~~::,.~ AnJ beggeric giues·, to thofe that riche are borne.
E R 0 V X. DE


e."''-· •

The Lapithans, by drinke weare ouetthrownc, The wilell: men , wid1 follie this inflames: What lhoulde I fpeake, off.uher No A H- aloane, Or bring in LoT T, 0r H o L o FE R N a s names: This S t M ·o N, and his fonnes, did ouerrhrowe,
And B EN E D A B, made Bee before his fue. And he d.ut lik'd to lpcndc hit tim~ at dice~ Thts lawe in Rome, SE v Ea v·s did prouide: That eucrie man ,. thoulde deeme him as a vice,


ludic. t I• I Machab.lf-


And of his Landes,another fhoulde bee gmde; Like L.awcs be fide , did diuers more deuife, And wifidome fhll, againO:e Nche vntbriftes cries. TIIIIC {lfmHSilf(AIIri,fl*lit~•p«inttw aiHf, 1~, rJr m.t, (il&i11r14fJofor,
NIUI~~ ftr' t.('H.S ptltor• IIO~fll patmt,j. ir" {,biz Jtfor•c ~· MiiJf ~"f'Jt

cm..m. dnw!ll'' rrfO..t rlllmorilnu .tlhtr,
"""'"' irtttos & fibi q11ijl]"'dtos.



!11 Att4-


N~J'"' ...,.,•

,.,,.,...,.,p.. Wh'ofe liuinges large, and treafare did exceedc: .;:!~.;-.l-1 Yet to his goodes, he was fo·much in thrall, ,..w.ff-. That ftill he vfd on bee.tes, and rapes to feede: So of his fioare, the fweere he neuer knewe, And longe did robbe, his bellie of his due~ This Caitdfc 'wr~che , with ·pined corpes Io heal'e, Compared right vnto the foolifhe affe, Whofe backe is fr.aighte with c.ates,~nd daintie cheare, But to his thare com.mes neither corne ;) nor graffe, Yet beares -he s;hat,-wbich fettes_his teeth oo edge: And pipes him folfc., withthiftle and with. fedge. Pertlitljimru egill f/ml ,.,;,. ;, tmt~,
NAfll tp~id mibi Dprll 'PitA ell, qiU· IAnt- Mlri Pndidi, tp~od 'uilodiri fi~? e~oma me jAudtllli .J~ meum ge""'"'1:r """"', &t. .AI nun' defm;, ttjfllfll f4(1i.tw hull, Aln'l,:*llnlti vilftt ; , puwe, &ol#ltt• ..AIIro fldfo foJtl, Mlt'o ynu/U iura,

-l(r,. tteutRlftl.,. • .,


E.. PT

t .r J v s rite he ' a mifer mofre of all ' .


ltx fo'JIIiiiiT, "''x [me lege· pllllll'.

NE s iuile H With bended· armc ,stothe Goddeffc our dothc frandc, meafure all
E. A R E, ME I


A raine lhee houldes , with in dte other hande, With biting bltte, where with the Iewde fuee fiaics: And pulles them backc , ...-hen harme they docinten~, Or when thev take in wicked fpeeche delite, And biddes them frill beware for to offende, And £quare thcire deedes , m all thinges vnto righte: But wicked lm~, thadcwdlie runne their race, Shcc bales them backe , at Iengthe to Ulcire dc&ce•
Eft fltA: , . 'Ntlll ./'tlblitiW ;, .,, pmltrU. If fJIIIJJo {11tti8!JA wr• : fttl &AIIfli4~ f~
strl ,.~~· tlmilfll:

Polidallum.. pn1crNuu•
&J :ac

Hu /}11 _,HU preM : lrM illj'..IIA [MFI'~;, Imminn : btn, eel[M umudtre mm~es, Sl"elf•'h lhrtt111 ~ & JJimitls.rttrlhcu p~tw.,. R_IIIMI 'Vtttrtl N B 11 '! s I w &t.


ftrirl""ib'" infoiut ~tlil.


iD Mauto 0ao & UlCificiU,



IIIJff* ~tU ~ : #t fimnnil i1114 rttollllltt Jd.(cn: &•inal•ilros Yiclt~Mprrat •tt•, f7t.




o fnowe did the R And a.valleysdid ringe the·with alonehiderife: hillcs, . lowe, there d1d
E 'P TE,

Which newes • with dowtc the hartes of manic fillc:s, And ·CoWa,rdes made, fOr fearc at.home to friefe~ But thofc that went, the ttuthe hereaf to knowe, W.hen that they c.tme, ·might fafclie palfe the fnowc. For~whie, the Sonne did make the fame to wafte, And.all aQollt, difcouc~d had the grounde: So, though~ ofte. times the funple bee agaaC?, When that repones~ of this, or that, doe foundc, . Ye~ if they .6rll:e, woulde ·feeke the truthe to knowe. They oftc,fitouldefindc, the mattet. nothing foe.
.&ntid. ln dcrcr.ip.(amz. lt Oui:l. Me•


M~ Jiglt • Virltfi. Mqui( ~~ .. P""". ,.,, p;;., :llfP% fofi 11n•lli• ;,..,,,_ . 6t.

um.ll&.n. l>c: dflmo fa-



N.a, w.~ 1A~: , • .,n 1% "'' fo,.,,;, . . T•ul"""•'"''fz rtfen, iur.llrpuf'll~ Alllit,UI. . T.111'pihlll

Turpi!JIU exitiNm.


T Of fragant rofe, mofteindure the to lee ; Scarabee, cannot fence bewtifull

But filthie fmelles, hee alwaies doth frequent, And rofes fweete, doe make him pine and die: His howfc;, is donge: and wormes his neighbours are, And for his meate, his maniion is his fare. With theife hee liues, and doth reioice for aie, And bu:aeth frefhe, when night "doth take her place, From theife, he dies, and languitfeth awaie: So, whofe delites arc @.thie, vile, and bafc~ Is ficke to hearc, when cou.nfailc fwcece we giue, And nther likes, wich reprobates to hue. Vu 'll!licoKitltlpti,.pipis fr• .......
fi.ul.w , ilalf• - f ... mjl...
Nt{ritisc•pt~ IIGitis


o the B VpponwDanubius crafrie foxe , plaies,

What time throwgh frofte, both man, and beafte, Thereon did make their w.1ies. At lengthe, with P H OE B v s beames, The frofie began to flake: So that the yce with fwelling_ flre.me, To fundrie peeces brake. Where, on a pecce the foxe, Doth to his tackling ftande : And in the fighte of Regenfpurge, Came driuing by the Lande. At which, the toWilefmea laugh,de, And faied., this foxe, on ke: Doth iliewe, no fubtill ctafte will fen1e, When Chilmce doth throwe the dice. Rtgitflf fottil ,IAU I,_ :
:N" fihi tJIIilifHm f}Dtukrt plttft Firm11m • (: _(lahtlt : l"ft .c11jw

y,z,;,, vm•s ftmtn JfiJIIil

tlils ~ &&.


2." )

W And Caurum nedoth inthe frutefull .fieldes of graine, ripes, s all her pompe appeare,
H F. N

E R.l

The heaUlc care , doth breake the fialke in twaine, Wherebie wee fee, this by experience clc:are-: Hir owne exceffe, did caufe her proper fpoile, And made: he-r corne, to totte v.ppon the foile.

Soe worldlic: weal the:, and great aboundaunce, marrcs:
The iharpencs of our fences, and our wittes, And oftentimes, our vnderfianding barres, And dulles the fame , with manie carc:full fittes:

Tlren fince Exceife procures our fpoile and paine, The meane prefcrre, before immoderate gaine.
_ _ ,,, tt itlclllllltt {;,mu fefetlit Luxtlf'its tmtdtdct m4111111, qu• dtdlt.J [emptr
Mtmbr11~ Ciu4il

Corporil •rbitriil , btbrw i4ligint jt11[111 effntintn 11ai111 berbil.

L4tet AnguiJ in herhll.

F flattri"nge fpeeche, with fugred wordes bew~ie, SufpeCl: tf1e harte, whofe f.ace doth fawne, and fintl<"', 'With truiling theifc, the worlde is elog'de with care, And feWe there bee ean fcape theife v1pers vile: With plcafinge fpeeche they promife, and proreA:, When hatefull hartes lie·hidd within their breft.


The f.urhfull wight, dothe ncede no collours btaue, But thole that ·trufte , in time 1us truthe lhall trie, Where fa~ning mates, c;an not th~ire ttfdit faue, Without a cloake , to flatter, faine, and lye: No foe fo kll, nor yet foe hardc to fcapc, As is the fue, that fuwnes with freindlie lhape.

Ttnll, fttiJIInUfJ, YU tft ~ ptr

.mrici f4trt "'"""·

fck111 a.Fal.

Si&;,,,, p (qt ttlhmt, y/n


ilt}UUI, ~· ttiiA t~rAIIt.


greifcs, in brefie, I And pmmge cares, late fe1ge vntothie fame, the
F grip~g

hau~ har~ur

Or fuaunge conceiptes, doe reaue thee of thie reft, And daie, and nighte, do bringe thee out of frame: Then choofe a freinde , and doe his coun&ile craue, Leaft fecret fighcs, doe bringe vntime!ie graue. Continual! care , did P t 1 N r E s hatte polfdfe, - To knowe what caufde V E sE v vs hill to Hame, And ccafed not , now this, nowe that , to geffe: Yer, when hee coulde not comprehende the f.une, Suche ~ his fate , purfuing his defier, He headlonge fell into the Baming fier.
· Ntm Dpibw
0 Cln'M

cUDdum Srt•


lib. GeNJ.••

moucftUprta rub Alpiltu.

,n,,s bMilli, -~ lftutuw, &t.

h..... , I

'I"""""' tR ;, rtb• in4M.

Tint lib.,. cap. I·
Prr(. r•

Otiw» {ortem exf}eCfAt.

all thinges had A 'V1ndmill faire, that make, the farherto grinde, Which man coulde lcfte hts fOrme: The come was br~hte, there nothing lac:Kd, but windc, And ·Cufromc~, did frdhlie to ·it ronnc.: The fonne r.epoafdc his trufic vppon the mill, And dailie dremide on plentic at his v..ill. OGid..z.Ponr.,, Thus he fecure a whtlc his daies did n:~{fe eww. "'~- ,.,. , c- ~ _,.,ro!"' .."~' And did not feeke , for other fl:aie at aJ! : .,. =;.-:' And thoughe hce founde, howe coulde the profit was, And that foe (mall, vnto ll'l!t £hare did f.ill: Yet ilill he hoap'de, for better lucke at lafre, And put his trufie, in cache· vncertainc bla!le. Pia V nto this foole, they lll2te compared bee, 114 _,.:~ ~ .... Which idlie liue , and vainlie hoape for happc: ,;t:; JIIA ,,.,m For while they hope , with wante they pine, ·wee fee: 1/::f';:t:.. 11;. And verie fewe, are lul' de on fortunes lappe: ..,,,,.., r... ,.,•• v While gratfc doth oOTowc' the courfer faire doth ftelue , --.,...;....

And fonunc field~ the wi1hcrs tLWiedothfcrue.


7Jobu in [1101.


H 1 L E ncttes were fetre, the fimplc fow1cs to rake, Whoe .keptc rhcirc courfc alofre, and woulde not lighte~ A tamed dm:.ke, her hoamc .did firaighte forfake, And Bewe alofte, with other duckes in flighte, They dowtinge not, her traiterous harte at all, Did flie with her, and downc with her did fall.

By this is meme, all fuche as doe betraie,
Theire kindred neare, dut doe on them dependc, And ofte doe·make, the innocent a praie, By fubtiil fleighte, to them .that feeke theire ende Yea vnto thofe, they fnoulde moftc frendihip fnowe, 'They lie in waite, to wmke theire ouerthrowe.
PtrjiU eotrutt~ {i {tmguint p1Uiit lltt. offi,itfo ~, ~xizilfo fu.
And. Ale1M.
De: AllU4o



In AHr,.


a Ic v with vp H Came headlongesdowne,mountingeintoalofte, · and fell d1e Sea:
EA E, A ll

His waxed winges, the fonne did make fo fofi:e, They melted ftraighte, and feathers fell awaie: So, whdfre he tiewe, and of no dowbte did care, He mooude his ~mes, but loe, the £une were bare. Let fuche beware , which pafl:c: theire reache doe mounre, Whoe feeke the thinges, to mortal I men deny'de, And fearche the Heauens, and all the lbuTes accoumpte, And tell thercbie, what after lhall betyde: With bluahinge nowe, theue weakooelfe righdie weye Lcaft as they clime, they fiill eo theire decaye. '
JlaniaL 1 •

ollid. rdi.a.

Jlllul pH 1111ditlm efl, llltpll ;,,. . , . ,~ JI'WIIIIIIM. D""' petit ill[ntil ,.,.,. f,U,/imiA permi1 1'"''", l,llt';;, ,.;,. '";' Mfllil· Yil~~rn ,a,m, Pb.tt1n, fi·Yillnet, & '{tlll

opr• j{IIJII tMfm, ,., 'fills.


eA.mor in fi/Jos.

H E N Boreas coulde, dothe bare both buffhe, and tree) Before the Springe, the Ringdoue makes her nell:e~ And that her yonge both fofte,a.~ warme, miglue bee, Shee pulles her plumes, bothe from her backe , and brefte: And while fhee lb:yues , her broode for to prderuc, . Ofte times for cou!de, the tender dam me doth tkruc.


:M E o E A nowe , and P 1t o G N E , hiuffi1e for lhame: By whome, art: ment yow dames of cruell kinde
'Whofe intantes yonge, vnto your endlctTe blame, For mothers deare, do tyrauntes of yow fin de: Oh ferpentes feede, each b1r<le, atiJ lauage brute, Will thoLe condt:mpne, that tcudn not. dlCJ.Ic trute.

D ;

lt; vi-

Jn --,jtfOJiNn ~IJJ pAttAm.

dolefuU this in W Thi~ prowes is.,dame ismournes-grcate d.tfpaire ~ whoc on A x toombe:

What is tbe caute , fuee rentes her goulden llaire? Wrongc (encence pafre by A c A M E M N o N s doom~: But howe ~ declare, V L 1 s s E s filed tonge, Allur'de the Iudge, eo ·giuc a ~ment wronge. Fer whea, that dead AcHY L LIs was in graue, Far vali.mte hartt , did A 1 A x winne the fame: Whereby_, he datnide A c 11 Y L ·L 1 s arme.s to hauc, V L I ss E s yet, was honore-d with the tiunc: Hisfottle fj>eeche, the iudgcs d1d pret~rre, And A 1 A x wrong'de, the onelie man of warre. WherefOre , the K.nighte impatient of the fame, Did looie his wines, and ati:e1: wrougbte ·his en de : Loe, hcwe the eau{(: that mooude this {acred dame, On A 1 A x toombe , with gncfe· her time too fpende! Which wamerh vs , and thofe that after liue, To beare th~m righte, when iudgement they, do. giue.

( .-um o~m•.·

T Whofe chiefe delighte,neighboures howfe dOthe flame, H'Enuious man, when is in an others harme,
Doth fiw[[e his eics·, and will note fee th~ f.une,.

But pulle$ awaie, his ft:llowe by the armc : And Jayet.h, departe, wee are not fOr this ill_, It JS not ours, let odlers care that will Too manie liue , theM euery wheare are founde. Whoe daye and nighte doe langui£he in d.ifpitc:t When that they fee , an others v.·ealrhe abounde: But, thofe herein that mofl:e of all dehghte, Let them.repent~, for God whoe lmowestheire baru, Will them rowarde,. ac-cordinge tG defens.

t,_IMrprtM qiiM Jlil.IMrjuill &m#,

111 p(t-

Ouidot.. 1\Cfta. moaph D.!6

JuUl• ~ttriw relifM mmtfdt
1 n~~idi.t. si"tli ,.,. inflfnpc J4A;, 111-11/8,





cpall. :~..

wicked that mi bath T By murther,wrerche,or .orherfchiefe latecnme.c;,wroughte, thefie, heynous
H. E

With troubled minde, hee dowrcs hec fhalbe caughte, And leaues the waie, and ouer hedges climes: And fi:andes in fearc, of euerie bu!Ihe , and brake, Yea oftentimes, his fhaddowc makes him quake. A confciencc clearc , is like a wall of braffe, That dothe not ihake, with euerie <hum: that hittes: Eauen foe there by, our liues wee quiet paffe, When guiltie mindes, are rack' de wirh fearfull firtes: Then kecpc rhee pure, and foile thee not with finne, For afi:er guilce, thine inwardc grcifcs begi~e.

.J,ud.F :ift.t.

cllf[cU. ipft (ibi 41 fe 111t•t omniA dui. C••fiu mn.s vt cuiqMt [~U tJl , ;,, concipit ilfrrA
Ptillf A, pro f Alto .f!em1Jz ~ metum~Ji flu.

loe infante in M Whoe kil'dewith bab::s, thee her armC', loued bcfi:C".: her lhoulde haue

o.nd. li&.,.

The fwallov;e yet, whoe dtd {u(pect no harme,
Hir Image likes, and hatl'h'd vppon her brcHc: And lefi:e her younge, vmo this tirauntcs gllldc, Whoe, pccccmeale did her proper fru"-.'lc dcuidc.

Oh foolilhc bir-de, think'fie tho\v, !hcc will haue care, Vppon thy yOP.gc? Whoe h:uhc her owne dcfiroy'de 1 And 1r..1.ieit bee, that fhee.thic birdes thould fpa!'C'~ '\Vhoc ilue her owilc, in ~hu11_1c: fhce thouldc: hauc 1oy'd Tl10•.'1 artc Jeceaudc , and artc a warningc good, To pur. no trufk, in them that hate. thc1rc blood.
M 1 DE Ai flt~tll' eft: ,,~,,s cui mdil HirMd~~ En Mi•: viMI' hM IIIMttf l'l rpfA ftm !


Tn mnmentt4tleam feliatatrm.

But yet, with dewrs, and filuer droppes in fine, lb,,,cap.l"" h mounted vp, and almofre towch'de the head! And with her fruiCl:c, and k:~ues on euene fide, lmbraf'de the tree, and did the fame deride. To whome, the Pine with longe E~erience wilC, And oftc had tcenc, fuche ~cockes loofc theire plume,s, Thus aunfwere made, th.ow owght'fr not to delpile, My fiocke at all, oh foole, thow much prefumeS; In coulde, and hcate 1 here longc bath bene my happeJ Yet am I founde , and full ofhudie fappe. But, when the rroll:e, and coulde, !hall thee alfa1c, Thowgh~ nowe aioke, thow. bragge, andfreful~ bloome, Mic. h.ft.-. Yet, then thie roote, iliall rotte, and f.tde awaie, 11 c•. ,.u.., -··•· ,.. And 1hort1' nene n __ n knowe where was t hyroomC' ..-..,._.,,.,ifT,,. 1e, m•w ,..,.,_, fl••· Thyfruille ) and leaues' that nowe fo highc afDirc .. ··-fA,JI-. , .. · The palfas by~ !ball treacle within che mite.
de ·holle• fta <lifriflil1a

filum C riAi-

neighbourc the Pine, T Andfruidfull &ourde, was her roote didtofpread, lowe at tirfie, abowt


Let rhetn th~t lbncle, alone on fortunes whede, And bragge,and boatlc, with pufte of worldlie pride St1ll bcare in mindc, howc foone the fame ma1e recle, And aJ.vaycs looke, for fcare theire.footinge 1l1dc: And let not will, houlde vp the1re headcs for fame, When inwardc wantcs, maie not fllf_porte the fame~. _

that prefcnt daunger T AndBeauerf.ure, the eager howndes tofearcs, lees a hafie,


With grindingc teethe , his Ltoanes awai.e he teares, Nic.~tcllfllmlt. )4.,.~ ·'i' '"'· ... And rhrowes them do~nc , to thoie that luue him chafte: .,..,. ·...u.....~, · Which beinge foundc, the hunter clothe retire, •h~::;:::. For that he hatb, the fruu:le of his deiire. Theife, foueraigne -are difeafcs for to hcale, And for mannes hcalthe , from counrrjes f.me are broughte;


And if herein, the writers doe not taile, This beaJ.le doth knowe, that he~~aetore ts foughte: And afrenvarde, if anie doe him coudl:, He lhcwes lus wame, to moouc: them w Lcmorfe. E ~ Taus.

Thus, to his paine he dodi his tif'e prcterue: Which tcachcth vs , if foes doe vs pur!Ue, Wee lho\\ l.dc not care , tf goodes for life maie ferue, Akhoughc we giue, our treafure to a iewe : r.ram Thrha· No ntches, maie \YOith life of man cwmpate, •11• cumfpon- They are bUt uamc, and c___ •he. .J __ tr. . uurum rununc:s. bnttle ware• • rrnl<r<t, • .Jh glle Wl'th an t ho w hafic, }I ne ~buuir, Then hfe reuceme, alt ou ·~ 16 '111'";•: . ee .wn·-· ···ill\ eft Th oughe t how artc: pore:, yet fc ke ' an d thow a alte fi nde " 1 . • • • uu de. fhofl! mchcs pur-e , that euennor.e 'hall lafic, mtr,: - quam eg" a •oil" Which are the goodcs, and treafures, of the min.dc: ir''· Noc man fo pme, but god can blc:ffe rus daics, Whoe patient I oB, did trom the dunghill ratlC.
onid. lib. 1• Be keauci.


Vr corp• rtdirt~M,fmNm p•rims & ig~rn, Vr 1J•ItM A~~imo, qllitqum toltrnt lll!•bif1 Arid. r~tt. JiuCIIs ore l.auLil •'3"•. Ar prtti•IH p.us b.t" rorpt~~t lfl.t~M~ ~

'Durum telum necejfitas•

-:r~t~~~ ;,.
4 · ''

I! c E s s 1 T 1 E dod, vrge, the Popin.iaya ro prate, Aud bitdes, ro draw;: their buckctts vp,. and ptcke tbeire me ate through , grate: Which warncrh them, whoe needes mu~ eyrher ferae!, or pine~ Wuh willir.g harre. no p:1ines ro !hunne, and fn=edome eo rdigne. PlMtf· ttlli f.clillm Mitio' M J. , , fi q•1•11n Jd.JUAU ; »Nn~, Ullll WIIJ14ll , IC~NO ~ j etO•

Jnimicorttm- rima, infoufla.


F of thy reccaue, I Efieeme foe, thow doell athe fates doe lower, it not , for fearc
gif~ ~· cyme due life doe reaue, Yea giftes wee readt: , hauc iUcbe a fecrc:~ power, Thar oftcmimes,. they LY Me E vs eies doe blindc;, And he that giues, the· taker fafl:e dp[h binde.

And with .the gifte,

To A 1 A x heare, a fwordc did H f c T p 1t fcndc, A girdle fironge, to lum d1d A 1 A K. y~klc, With H s c To a s gifte, did A 1 A x w~X>rke lus end(;, And A I A X gifte" hal'dc H E c T 0 R throughe the neldc: Of mortall foos, then fee noc gifu: thow take.• Ahhoughe a while, ~ trace with them th~w make.
- - - &e. DIPU CA'Itrl tlolil D'IIPIAII#I, y/U "''";, si& titlfl•, .!Jjiq"', flU mittfi1Jt boifil:flf h11ftt M.Mn~J•, 'VIIIUIIJ 111/~/•1•' ftrunr.

LaCOOIII apuol

Vi1goliu1111lb. Jlacid.,.&c de


TroiaaU. Aklar.

E 3


ttampinge fteede,that champesthe burnilh'd T ls man nag'd braue, with ryders for the nones : bitte,

But, when the foolc vppon hi$ backe doth fette, He thiowes him downe, and ofte doth brule his bones: His cora~e feirce, dothe craue a ~tter guide, And eke fuch horfe, the foo!e fhould-= not belhidc. ,..~·. By which is ment, that men of iudgemen.t graue, ~-.- ...r,.- Of l~ing, wittc: , and. eck~ of con raence cleare, ..,_,...,..,. ... ,._. In h1ghe efbte, are fittc: thc:are featcs to haue, JJti~... And eo be flall'd, in facred iuftice cheare: Wherein they rule, vnto thc:ire endldfe &me, But fooles are foil'd, anci thrownc out of the fame.


Hor11.1, SerA.

_ _,,..,. b.c ego tl11to.
~~4 plMIIir 1ibi , flli lf111i {mr,;, lut~~fl""'·

vV Yet giues.enowghe ,eache wamemcanc efr.ate, fortune hearc allottes a for to fuffife:
H 0 ME

That wauct:ing wighte, dut hopes fur better fate, And not ~t~nt ~his caw lu~ge aor~ dcfpife, Maie vambe clime, but likelie.fiiU to fall, And liue at.lengthe, wi.rh lotfe of mainc , and aU• .And he that poafia, tu make awaie his Jandes, And credittes all , that Vw-andringe heades reporte : Maye Tagw fee.ke, and .Ganges goulden fandes, Yet come at lengthe , w 1th emptie purfe eo courre: Let fuche behoulde, the greedie dogge to moane, By brooke dcceaud, wirlL ihaddow of hi$ boanc.
N"' ,.;,, tjl vm111, q,;.,. pmA llllri, c~J• ;,eft illH, bl' ,;, Mlil Sn11ill ctna, q.U pMWo •f&iM wi. C•i , , ,11111,;, {u ru • 111 'tdtlfll olim, Si pt41 IIIAior trit, fobwrttt : (i ,;,.,, yrgtl.

Hor.a. Car.s4',
~;,o,.... ,.,... ,.-....



~~u-.r-' r~>


•••f.. .-M

-.-c.,-, SorJ*-ftn•



liteS~~~ {11111

IliA .,.,,, {,;tnm .AUJli.

H dowtfull o_f W Inclofed rounde, With .vertue , and wtthhis.
liEN E&cv LE~, was




Vlrgil. in Frasm.

With rcafons firfu: , did verru:e him alfaie, .t.u.. The other, did with pleafurcs him entice: ,..:;::.~~;"-;.:~ They longe did ilriue, befo~e he cottlde he· won~. Till at the lengthe, A L c 1 D a.s thus .begonne ~;. i.fJ;A ......_ Oh pleafure, thouahe tbie waie bee-.fmootho, and &_,n,. ·~ .J_ »-faJ.il'ff'fi'-'• And fwcete deltghtes tn all thy courtes abouuuc: .:;'n:,'fo::: Yet can I heare , ofnone that haue bene there, That after life ,. with fame h~uc bene renounide: For honor hates, with pleafutc to remaine, Then houlde thy peace, thaw waflesthiew.indein wine. But heare , l yeelde oh venue to thie will, And vowe my felfe, ~I labour to indure, For to afcende the lkepe, and craggie hill, The toppe whercof,.whoe fo attaines, is fure For his rcwa~de, to haue a crowne of fame· Thus H 1 a. c v LE s, obey•d this tacred dame.

=r. """""",.




:!....., ,_,r,,

"Ptn~tt ftqueru.

WHEN ~l~nt nighte~ did'_fcepter take in hande, And d1m de the cLue, Wtth £bade of mantle· blacke. What time the thccucs, in priuie corners llande, Aad haue noe do'A.te , to robbe fur what they Jacke: A greedie thcefe, in !h:Lmbles broke a fooppc, And fil'de 3. facke, with flelhe vp to the toppc. . .Which done, with fpeede he lifted vp the fackc, And bothe the codes , .tbo\'\·t his necke he knittcs, And ranne awaie, with burden on his backc Till afterw.trdes , as bee :Lt alehowfe fittes: The heauie loade, did weye fo harde bchlnde, Tlm while$ h~ flept, the weighte did .ftoppe.his.winde. 'Which uuelte fhowes , tQ them that doe o.ffende, '.:::~: ~!~ • 8·~--:..'!!.t:;:.:. Altho~he a while, they fcapc theire iuft defertes, Yet pumfhment, dorhe at theue backes attcnde, ,.,,.,,, . And plagues them hoame, when they haue merie.A:harres: c-;::,~~;=. And thoughe longe time , they doe efc.1pe the pikes, =::-::;->ad. Yetfoone, or late, the Lor.de in iuftice ftrikci. ~~~:,·· F P'mttr

H Y flidl chow hence ? and turn'fie awaie chie face: Thow glorie brighce,that m<'n widttame doefrcrowne:· G L o. Bycaule, I haue noc hkinge of chat phtcc, Where flothfuli men, doe flec:pe in beddcs of downe: And tkfhlic lulle, dOth. dwell.with fowl.c· cxce£fc, This is no howfc, for glorie eo poffe'lfe. But , if chow wiltc: · y prefencC' ncuer lackc, m 5 A R D A N A P A L , and all his plcafures hate,. Driue V EN v s hence, let BA cc H vs further packe, If not, behowlde I Hie out of chie gate: Yet, if from dleife, thow cumc thie face awaie, 1 will returne, and. dwell wid1 thee for aic..


ittr Ajinfh , [J dAr. miJJj gl,ti.J. Jil#l ~ K'n iMIIAI U f4tili llil.a· ,_.MA Mzl.
VI t•JWnl

Cmzil .,, i.!IJMMirl ,,..,., "" ,,_,

JiUI#IJ, 1i IIIIMUntlll' 'fl"•l

T1 Sir Ro» EJ\ r h

J\ M YN Kn~ln.

oc~derat Ceruus ad fontesaquarir. 1 ta deliderat ~ni­ ma mea :~d tc Dcus,&c.

P{iilm. 4 r. Q oemadmodum

vcrtue.-bidde, behoutdc Iwde, B The loadeftonc drawes, to;the Ironvnto the fiat1'e: poyfite

Whereby, Wi:e knowe tbc Seaman kecpcs his carde_ And rightlie fhapCS, his courfe to countries farre: And on me pole, dothe cuer keepe his eie, And withe the fame; his compaa-e makes agree.

Which fhewes to. vs, .our inward v~es lhoulde,
Still drawe our harteS J a1thoughe- the· iron wean:: The hauenlie tbrre, at all. times _to behouldc:, To fhape our courfc, fo right ·~hile wee bee· hear~ That Scylla, an~ Charybdis, wee maie miffc.:, Arul wi~e a; lengthe, the porte of endldfc bli£fe..
Cn{ciA'IM,su!lifnu ..UciA:ridlt.

V!rg. n. .£ tna.
£II - - · pr ,., """ ,..,..,,.,._~.

Ouid.+ Fait.
Ouid. de IIICJic;.

Plf'~ {1101 ntiOI hi"'

& lir.giml prohit.u· ptrdlll'llt In Dllllfl,. . , itnJer '•md. F .z.




De[Jerium f}e


T The Lyon fierce, behouldemdoth'rente his· apraie, leokes backe, hope fhare,


to hau~

And lick'd his lippes, and longe therefore did fiaie: But all m vaine, the Lion r.one coulde fpare: And yet the fighte, wir.h hope the dogge did reede, As if he had, iomme parte there of in deede.

'I' his rcprehend5, the fonnes, or grcxclic frendes, That longe do hope, for deathe of aged Sires:
And on cheire goodes, doe feede before the1re endcs, For deathe ofte rimes, doth frulttate theire defires: And takes awaic, the yongc before tbe ouide, Let grcethc heires , thts looking glaffe behouldC:-.
Olald ••• M-.




y.;a, 111(11 ,;,,.., '


,.,;.1 inqlliril il


are inAam'de witl~ ire: T W1thcrcwell kinges, thattheire furious mindesfutlife: tier, and fwordc,

And oftc ro fhowc, wbat ahie&he they dc:firc,

'i nbk Clu~-Mi' .>it f~~prrAic::amm.

W1dun them: fuetldes, they dreadefull {itapes deuife, Some Gnphins feilre, fome ram ping Lions beare, Some Tygers fell J or DCJSOI1s like to ware.

Agamcmnr>ei \.:ly,nm habilitl"c, ia

'!UO ·Leo dtp1tha.o cl'lc, ad terrorem
allis iacacicaduins

All which bcwraye., theire inward« bloodie thoughre, Suche one, behoulde ,kinge A c A M a M N o 1i was; Who had in £hic:lde, a ram ping Lion wroughu And eke this verfe , w·as grauen in the bta[c: :JrlanntJ terrtlf' this;, to fedl'e tbemth41 beho.Jde:

'!lloci qllid1111 (aa. rum •a Oltmpia fi. no per aliquot mupora pepclldil , roaa iQfcripdollca<i •c tU.

Whicb{hielt/e il bor114- bJ A G A M ,
Dllm frtrw in crtrfo tfl , ctmmi

E M N 0 N bDv~ie.

,.td, ftrmi c
F 3

od. a•.le111C4.

Di/fi.UUs .;;,. ilnptt• _,. ·blllm.


Sir HIM ay WooD H ows! K•ight.

dame, in reuerence_ofrhe dead, A Witll ~e did pbce,the lCuHes of men lhee founde,
M a~

Vppon an hiH , as in a facred bed,

But as thee toil'de, fnee fhambled to the grounde:
Whereat, downe fell the heades w~hin her lappe, And here, and there, they r.mne abo·Rt the hill : With that, quoth lhee, no maruaile is this bappe,

Since _men ali~e, in myndes do qiffcr ilill : And like as thei!C" in fundcr downe do f.1ll, So varried they, in 'their opinions all.
:Pcrlius f·

M.i111 b.,;,.,. Ji«*, & rmtm Jifi•ln 7[111. l'tBt foltm 'llilplt eft, Wt .,,, 'i•itll1 '"'·
M mib111 bu 1t.clil , lllfiUt jilb {olt reetnn

Rltgofom piper, & .p.dlntilzrnA t~~mim: Hir fatur img1111 "'4tlflll fftf'ltftnt jimn1: Hu ,_,, ulzn, biiM .JIA Jt"fMU: &t.

o.-14rte (!;) arte.

.1 ~
~~ ~~

Tl Sir \V l



A. .N D LE Y







~I~ ~
~ ~~


W With lafiingc filme,the viClorie is wonRe:
H ER 1

w.~ztqf~~u courage· great rand conlaile good doe goc.

'!h-~~~~~-~ ~ (

But fepcrate theifc, then fearc the ouerthrowe; And fireogthe ruone, dothe vnto ruine ronne: Then CaptaincsgooJ, mun ioyne thcifc: two, in one: And not.prcfume with this, or that, alone. As. valiant ham:s , and· corage higbe bdCeme, The Captaines bouide,that enterpri£e for fame: Soe mufre they fiill, of pollicie ell:ecme, And wifedomes rulrs, ro. bringe to palfe the fame: While Ca:f.u great, fubdUde the countries farre: In gowne at home , did T v L L 1 E. helpe to wam:.. V L t ss E s wife, and D 10 M" ID B s forme, Arc hcare-fet downe, for valiant wightes to vi~wc-: The one deuifde , the other did performe, Whereby, they did the Troiane force fubdue: The one , his fucs with wittc, and counfo~ile harm'de, The other, Lbll him tclfe ag.Unfic .thcm.arrride.

'Vi""'• lnt p.JIIII, llitpelltt_... ...,_
Nte ,._,



Hor.a. Carm.&o.
ltnu "'!.a• fos, .,.,,.


,.,• ..,.,_:

'" ''"''"*•·

, -'f--...... T•'J•...,_



LJHw irritiu.

Ocnus ftill H Which he did make,the roapcdo£h tume and winde, of ru11hes and of gra1fe:
£A a:E,

And when with toile,his worke was to his minde He rol'd.c it vp, and lefte it to the alfe~ Wh?C qui~kclie (poil:de, t~at longe with paine was fponne, 'Wh1ch bemg kept 1 1t m1ght fome good haue donnc. . This Ocnus lhewes, a man that workes and toiles, The A!fe declares , a wicked waftfull wifu : Whoe if: thee maie , £hee quicklie fpcndes and ipoilcs That he with care, was getting all his life, And likewife thofe, that lewdely doo bdl:owe Suchc thingcs, as £houlde vnto good vfes goe.
ProdigA , . [tnlit
ptrtfmtqn ftmitW


:dl, Ytllll IXhAMftA rtdi11i""' pu0ulel

Ntnm••., & t plt•o [mtpfT to]J.cutr


N111 'PIIIJIWII rtpMit1711 qtunti fo11 g11tldi.l 'o11iklll.

by T Yet rauening wolfe,tofierkinde my monallfoc, lo, 1 vp her wbdpe:


Who afrerwarde, as it did ftronger growe, Thoaghc as my ownc, llonge the fame did helpe: Yet, coulde I not contente it with my teate, But that my felfi: , l1tt Ienc to be his meate. No willingc minde, to .pleak him migbt fuffife, No dilligence ~ to geue the tymunte fucke, Thougll whclpithe daies, his nati1Ie did difguife, Yet time at lengthe vnto my euelllucke, Bewray'de his harte _, a. waminge good to thofe,

Nk. Reull\orn. I"'!'•' I'"' fi..JH.I~ _( . . "'fllt':. "ttrl r•JIH DtM.....,... ,.,.,, ,.;.


, •.,,. _.. r••-H.

...,. .r-·-·
'Vorrtrt _ .._

'J(.,,,...,,.. "''· ,_

Ciaudi••Wiooia ~ Cr•eo.


ADd. Alciat. I•l'.-..;.., ,,lflto fif/6.



Whoc in theire howfe , doe foller vp theire foes. For, thn.nghe drroughe necde they frc:ndlie !ecme a w.b.ik. Or childtthe yeares, do clok£ their caru.:.lccr' d minde, Althoughc fome doe, releeue them in exile, And lpend theire goodes, in hope to alter kinde:
Yet all cheire loue, and care to doe rhem good, Suchc willforgctt, and fec.b: tO tp1U thctrc blood. G G41fM..


f.(fft{rAff. zo.
mulns ni.. tur \·erbii, l~rdet



Paradiflll pofl:inu.
1lrr- ..... dut, ""' """ r.O.il ltinuuio: IIMitipliti V'tiWrll""'"


SrdtM:il"' !•I"fi ,.f }Ct m-r: l,.,_tr Pl•rU,..,&-riz.c ,11/.

Which c:tr~s rbe pratinge cre~ •. ~·hoe like ofblblinge befte: Who(e toungcs d~ make him almofte deafe, due fainc wauld take h i~ refl ............."f'ii. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




And dorh awake the wearied wighte, befOre he would arife:

when fleepe is rw~te • the ch:mrin.CJe fwJ. Uo"-e cries. b

ouicf.&. Azr., Jt I t s T yomhe dorb..la~~, with. liuelie fappe, and ll:~ngthe. o""! ~,_., ""•:'i'"' f.. Wi rh fweatc of browe • fee chador age thou toy le : ..,"':,.~.~:::!';::;. AnJ when the fame, arrelkth thee at lengme• 1 ..fowiUt·dl..· T.h~:n take rhy rcft, let younglinges W()Lke, and moyle: And vle thy goodes, wluch rhou in yowrhe ha !le· wonne.


To chc:are thy ·ban,, whU'ft thanhy glaili: fhal tolUle.


1T Hr N one flower, rwo contraries remaine,. fot proofe lxohoulde, the fpider , and rhe bee, One poilon fuck~s, the bee doth honie drnioe ~ The Scripturf' foe, hach two dfech·s we fee: Vnto the bad, it is a fivorde that llaies, Vnto rhe good,. a thidde in ghoftlie fraies.




Dr· u-•• (pin.., S. Paula• Cor. 1,

'Vfoi...a-•, ...; ....
Ptrcff&is pnltiau.


rilit.t• ftt!Jn. ~~.iOiijt

.AI- IAMt.trA Jrr•

Nil pennA >fed rvf u.t-·


Fltrr:ftt4 i lffl. l'f'-.


, make fo grett a T Of Hippocritesandrhat Religion founde, lhcrwt; SantHtie, of
H 1

Are lhaddowes meere, and with out fub(bncc gee, And beinge tn'dc, att hut diflcmblers fOt~nde. Theifc are compar'de, Ynt.o the Ofirichc.: faire, \V hoe fprcades her winges, yet (ealdome tries the ait"e'•.

~!'" a/111 ,.,... -~bt•iJ•• Jt... ••;,.,.,...,

'M•n'.tlr ••.





_, 1 .... • ,• A~~~~~ THE fcarlec cloache, doche make the bull ro feare. . ~-lh unne. ll6rialib 6 cap.u. . . The culler white, the Olephant uoche Oul.i. s.lleracd. The crowinge cocke, the Lion quakes eo heare.

::.:~""-'"_,.. The linok.e of cloath~, dothe tnake the lhgge to runne. All which doe (nowe, wee no m:m fhoulde difpife, r.:r:.";r"':'... 8ut thinke howe ha~ll\c '-eh: fi~!'~eA: maie ~ti{=-

,.r- .,..• ,~

i'"""'' ,,,..,.

Aod. Alriu.

.,,~'1* AcbJiiiM.

If vp they fwitnme, newe f~s with w:uchinge Rie, The caruoraunte , and Seamewe, fur theire praie: Becwceoe thek cwo, the fiie is frill dellroi'de, Ah feeble llat~, on eucrie fide anoi'de.

HE fifhe, deuowres frie, T If in the d8epc, thl"y venturethe littletbie, for



H E greedic Sowe fo loilge as fhee dothc finde. Some fcatteringes lcfte , of harudl: vndt't' foote She forward goes and neuer lookes behindc:. W bile anie fweete mnayneth for ro roote, Euen foe wee fhoulde, to goodnes euerie daie Still further paile~:~d not_ to tucne nor lbie.

Nk ll.eufqrr~. $)iliA i-.z l<pr•~:




craggie rockes, and haughtic mounraincs toppe, Vntimelie fruiele, one fower 6gtree growes: Whereof, no good mankinde at all doth croppe, ·


nut ferues alone, the rauens. and the ctowes: So fooles, theire goodes vnto no gOodnes vfc, But flatterers. fee de, oc ~· them on. the fiewrs. G 3


Nic. ken(nenndc

oote, rhe Spnuge wee vndc:rfl:aode~ Cuckowe comes, ere Sommer dOfh beginnc: ficcdula. The vinefinche lhowes, that haruefr is at hande: '!'"' mttlololbws .,..._. The Chaffinchc: finges ' when Wmter commeth in~ fi.., .tn: •p•Ji• . cw ,.,,"' "'"'m Which times they keepe; that man thttf'bic maie knowe, Y

B Thefwallowes





Se.UOns chaunge, and tymes do come and goe.


I N finalle, and Imle rhi11ges , is gaine at all, redbreaftesfeme,
Onegro:me.m:lle not two



but euermore th~r l>u1L


<f•·bNlttn~ ID•PJDJ,...


Andr. Alci~r.

llriue wirh all rhdre mighre, or bubbles as tht-y fall: . .tn vaine !hey feeke, for why, rhey vauifhe righre, Ycc ftill rh~ fuiue, and are Jeluuc:d all: So th~ th.1.t lik~ all acres' tb.tt C.I.O bee rhoughre, Doe oompcchcndc not a.nie. as they oughre.
1 I

little T To catcheboyes rhe

~ thar belles~



H E ingrie doggc doth mme vnto the ftone,. When it is· ca.H:e, and bytes the fame for ire, And not purfues, the Lame that bathe it throwoc; But with the fame , ful6lleth his defire: Euen fo, theyr are that doe bothc fighte, and hrall, With guiltlcffe men, when wrathe dothe them inflame, And mortall foes , they deale not with at all, -But let them paffe, to rheire rebuke, and lhame; And in a rage, on innocentes do ronne, And twne from them, d1at all. the wronge hauc donnt.


Au. Alliat.

si& pltritpN ftn-m yerot tLtbitr hoills,
Al. 'lfl''-· ~ grMAt. ,~, dmll· ,.,.



of with , the blackotmore L With walhinge painearrd wipinge moreto fkowre, : oftc, then due
E A 'I E

For thou fi1alt .6nde., that Narilre i5 ofpowre, Doe what thou, canfie) to kcepe his furmet bue: Thoughc with a forke, wee Nature thrutl:c awa1e, Shee rumes againe , if wee withdrawe our hande: And ~oughe ; wee ofce to conquer her affaic, Yet all in vaine , lhce cumes ·if full wee fiande: Then euermore , in what thou dodl: afi"aie, Lee reafon rule, and doe the thingcs thou maiq.


.;UIW,.Ailhioptm1..... If""' til[trlll r.rtl!

l1.~fmus utuci:aae.

HcwJ,,,.,,.,. cffiall
fir ., "'" , d..,.

p,,.. ... ,_,. _,,,

~out. I. Epilllo. IJI:~,..,..


N""lf'""" "' dtgrmi fin ge,nojlll t~~/iUo,
£1 1111n91111m "' ftoltdl mdAtlll



Anulus .in pttt.

Jitt 11i .-rtt.


~ dolo~

fed rui.

H E ape , did rcache for Chefinuttes in the fire, But fcaringe muche, tse burninge of his toes, Perforce was bar'de, longe time from his defire: But at tbe lengthe, he with· a whelpe did clofe, . _ And thruile his foote, into the Embers quick:, A~ha~.iie •ar. And made him, pull the Chdl:nuttes out nrrforce: Hlll.hb.s.ca..z.&. _ . _ r. Wlm:h {hcwcs, when as ambltton fowle doth pnck, The hattcs of kinges, then there is no remorce, But oftcntimc:s, to aunfwerc theire defirc, The fu hicCl:es «~de, both ~ine, f worde, and lire . Horat. lib. t




rtgtl• pllllwiMr Adlilli.

Er ill..~.

loftie Pine, that one the mountaine T Andfpreadesherarmes, with braunchcs growcs,

frdhc~& ~ne,

The raginge wi9des, on fodaine ouerthrowes; And makes her fioope, that loRg(: a f.lrre was feenc : So they, that aulle to muche in fortunes fmilc~ Thoughe worlde do laughe, and wealthe doe mofte abounde, When lefte tbey thinke, are often fnar'de with wyles, And from alofte, doo hedlonge fall to grounde: Then put no trullc , in anie worldlie thinges, For frownioge £u:e, throwes downc the mtghtiekiBges.
Tqiw Ytltil.cgililffW iJf211U

Pmw. u ulfo g,..,;.,, '"" J)laanl ,,,s.Jtrillnz1Jt4' r--~
F11lmiu m••s.


' ' mWi~ c1111Dif, ,,.. f•l"' • • Yn{f'lll llllifi~Y ttrg.c tlldne Mu. H .a.




ne laude lilrmij
Aul. Gel. hb. 11. up. zo. idem de vaniloq:lio lib. r.



v T H A G oR A s , vnto his fchollers gaue, This lc:ROn 'firfle , dut filtnce they thould keepe: And this, wee reade Philofophers mofte graue, Yea in thcirc hanes,.this .Princes printed deepe: V L 1 ss e s wordes we~re fpare, buuighdie plae'd: This, NEST oR lik' de. L Y c vac vs this imbrac'de •

. lpami;ondaa .eel~bramr ~put! P1n~a-

This famons made E I' A M I NoN D A I boulde: ' . By this, great praife did 0 ! M A RAT Vs gaine: This Athens made to rcuerence ZEN o oulde: tamen loqucbuur. • . , . S 1 M o M 1 o ! s condemned fpcaches vaioe, Locuru fu.rr: ra·~·· W hofc fayinge was 1 my ·.·wordes rent"ntance had • tun, t~c;u1tle ,er\J r- .. -. nunqq.am. But Silence yet, did ncuer .make mee fad.
rum qUJ,.,uanquua multarmec • r~uca
Caco lib. '· p,.XUflltU ;u. .w,

And C A To faycth · That man is next to G o' o• . . . . . Whoe fquares h1s fpeachc, m ~eafQns rtghrfuU frame': c,.. •· ..,., 1· For idle wordes, G o D threameth with his mddt; ,,_,., ...,.. ~·- And tayet It, wee tnlll~ gllJe reckomnge fo r .t.. 1.1m1;: r. 11. • . . ll,ae ~ ~ ... uV•r•iAp•-· De unilO<]UU. Saina p A V L B hkewik' this £1Uite dath 'lharplie tutdu~·. '?olll.T~mt~&.l.CI.f.&. And o firename~ con d emneth bl bl'mge mutehe• . .



F./I ,.,• ... '•nt•r .._


.... ti!IJ... ~""·

One calles the tounge • the gate of life • and dead1e' . Which wifelie vt'd, extolleth men on earthe: Which lewd lie y.fde,. depriueth men of breathe. And

And makes them rnourne, whoe might haue liu'de in mirrhe: For euell wordcs. pierce·lharper then a: fworde, Which ofte wee rue. thoughe they wearc fpoke in boorde. Not mat dillroyes , imo the mowthe that: goes. But that dil\royes , that fonhe therepf dC\th ct>mme: for wordes doe woun&, the inwardc man with 'roes, Then wifelie fpeake, or better to bee domme The tounge, althowghe it bee a membet'frnal~ 0f man n is the befr, or worfre of all. The foolc, is th\)ught with filence to be wife, But when he prates, him felfe he dothe bewraye: And- wife men ftill., the babler doe difpife, Then k~pe :,. watche when thouJ hafte owght to fa1e, What labour lelfc, then for to houlde my. peace, Which aged daies·, with quiet doth inaeafc. Th'..f:gyprians wife , and other nations farre, Vnto thiS eo de., HA. a P o c R AT 1 s deuil'dc:, Whofe finger , ftill did feeme his m6uthe to barre•. To bid them fpeake, no more then that fuffirde, Which fignt thoughe oulde, wee may not yet deteft: But marlCe it well, ifwee will liue in refte.

Pd. r. ,.,_ f• ~i enim vufr· tl~ UID drlir;orc, k' dica Yide1c bono1: cCu•

ccat lin&u:t :l malo • NihU. ell
. J/•'<·7·

c~f,&c:. ·

ll!lfa 4c hominr pt.

miDem iouoieni ir rum ..- quod pollir · cli .coin<JU raare,.fcd



E'"''... ,..; lllll~ ,.,,n. ,.,.,;.Jf.-t.ur•


n,..Ur: hi(~":· ,a,,_,,.IUM4,.

J.AfbCior.l ~ ,;,~Mr lff.flflf4. ,...... IIWM;"~''



,,,;..,,rt ptttvLt ,;;. •lf.fiJtlisn-

AQrau.l:p . • ~ .

l'la~an:b. ill MOAt:

'Written to tbt

lik.! effiEte, 'PP"'

Video ~

r!J' tdCefJ.


Ht! M.ritilits pe'tfu, .n rbt grtt~t Lmtrit in LoNDoN; beg11". M. D • .LX V Ill, IIM ~1fllttl M. ~ :C X I X. See, and houlde my peace: a Princelie PoeJie.righte, For euerie faulte, lhoulde not prouoke, a Prince~:.or man ofmighce. Oui•h ~rl{t•. For if that I o v 1 fooulde fhoote , fo ofte as men offende, . ~~ j.:j..::;::,:7~ The Poerres faie, his thunderboltes fuoulde foone ~ at :m ende. ,_,..er, ·~·..,,,_ Then happie wee that haue, a Princdfe fo inclin'de. ,., u.-..uil. That when as iuftice drawes hir Cworde, bath mercie in her minde, And to declare the farAe, howe prone lhee is to (aue: Her Maiefiie did make her choice , this Poelie for ro haue. Sttl. pign·•fl ptmM princtps, ~td prtrmi4 'lt/IIX: Ouid. t . J>en Cuique d11ltt, IJUDtils cogitliT tjfo ftrox. H ; Anliciti4


.Amicitia> etiam pDfl mortem aw411.1.
Tsl lt T. IIM M. C. E{tJ•itrt• .

whofe boughes v;c:are A Withered Elme,funkc with age into thebare of:leaues And was roote

A fiuiaefull vine ,. vnto her bodie dcauc:s, Whofe grapes did hange, from toppc mto the footc: And when the Elme, was rotten, dtie, and dead, His braunches full , the vine abowt it ipr~d.
•· obinnn.

Which fhowes, WCe £houlde be Jinck'de Wim fuch frende, That might reuiue and helpe when wee bee onldc: E.r lk<er, tr ...ti ~••• ' d ,. fr,,, ....,.., . And when wee fioope, an drawe vnto our ende, 11. • '"'·Net ,,., ~-,..,,· 0 ur uaggenng 11... to hc1 tor to vphou Ide: """'"'I•Jfi ,,,.. u.ate, pe c. 'rfr <!' ,~ •• , .... ""• Yea , when wee lhall be like a fenceleffe block ' '"'"" ..,..,. f-L., T"'"1*"''.... .":" That for our fakes·, will ftill imlmce QUI ftock. ,,, .... .,,..., IJf ,..,. Irt iubtt PJlluks 'h~~r~m~ peril•• o,n,.: Hi' neg•t ,in9, vu, pugrwt rtwqu ,.,.;.
VlrcilJ 11 Mlllltll.-


. _

.lxriut bo' vnum quDd "'" ""tUMrAt iRil: CAitriiJMI 'QIUOTI, eT jiM lilt filii.

Lions refine·, T But ycalde grimine, behoulde, doe notchariot drawc; them felues, and Cuptddes

And with one hande, he guydes th'em where he lifle~ With th'other bande , he kecpes them fti11 in awe: Thcyc couchc, and drawc, and do the whippe abide,

And laic .theire fierce and acwell mindes aGd.e.

Jf Cupid then, bee of fuch mightic force,
That creatures fierce, arid brutifhe kinde he tames: Oh midttic I o v E, vouchfafe to lhowe .remorfe, Helpc teeble 111a11, and pittic tender dames :

Let Africke wildc , this tyrauntes force indure, If not abs, howc can pootc man bee fure.
fl_.llml ,... milltftrl. ,
9111111 ""'

StblntldM 1!1/HI,

Rill po1,;, lMM :Pirlftrl,

y;,m Mll#r.

Ouid. Epif\. 1·


Ante pedu.

Ttt J, I. E[1f1itr.

arc create, N o for our !Clues , alone weeour countries good: But for ttendes, and for


And tbofe' d~ are \tOtO thc:ire frc:ndcs mgratc, And not regar:d.e theire oflpringe,, :;and. theire blood,.

Or hee , that wafies his fubfrancc clH he· begges, Or fdles his landes, whiche fenide his parentes well: Is like the hennc,wllen lhee hathc !ay.,de her cggcs, That fuckes du~m .vp ancl leall(s the e.rnpr-ie. fhell,Euen fo cll.c:ire fpoile, .to thcire reprQChe, and thame, Vndocth theire ·heh:eJ and. quite dccayeth. t:hci~ mu."'!le.
J2!!ifirri6 jirrnJit ,,._ mtlt~t nimil,
:flllit~ IMxu, [tmplr in{Olit.c "PPtttn~, ·Hun" ill• "'"l"" dllf'.c fortlln. tomtt S11bit' librJo: , pt~tcflif./im• dqt1. Non uQA foni.M#il',_ ,., 1U. 'Uh• : ~r.

'J't R. C 0 TT .0 N 11/tplin.

·y The-hurt ben, did dire&e- the bearars waies: hlynde, did beare rhe , .. hit back.c,



Q!.ai!U fil moqi..., llii•J oenllicu,cum ua
c6muni n:le vourhuIJUDZ foe>e~te mulria mo.ji• iotc 1lir;• po•
.hom!llis op~ rt\U1mt! i11d•g~c , •deo vr id roucrbiu n' ahicrir • omo homim De.": aum vert\ in 1pl;o •ot~ poris h•11nani toofti· ca•ione &c f•briu lu. c'alensitlime ap~rer. Ncque etum homo lubfillere vlla.ratiooe poffir, mfi membra corpuru ruutuum li·

With moruall hdre, they fe[u'd eche Others lacke, And ~uery one, t'hcit fiendly league did praife: The lame knte des, the bl-ynde dtd lend his fectJ:, And fo. they We, did palfe both feeldc ,,and !tree~

trft :

ill Otl:t· h0<110


Some lande aboundes, yet bathe the fame her 9'ante, Some yed&s he[ l;~.cke, and Wantes the others A:ore: No ntan fo ritche, but is in !Ome thiflge fcame, The greate tfl:ate, Jmdl not difpK'i! tbe pore: . Hee. workes ,-and royles, at1d ·makes his lhowldm heart, ThcJ:itche otg~yne, giues foode,. and clothes·, "o wcaro.
So without poore, the .x-ltche· a\'t likt the lame : And without ritc:he ~ the poure are like the blynde: Let rirche lend eies, poore his lcgges w.il· frame, Thus fhoulde yt bee. P\:l[fo the lotcfe arlig.n'd, Whoe at the 6[A:e, for rnuruall fr.endlhip fake. Not all gaue ·one, )lut· did thil' differ.ence make.

~i11uxilium przJten~.

efli!l', nili .oculi ped~• ~- ln~,rlliJm dingcnnt. nifi rurrum pc.


~DUll, flltllf\ltn


d .. cor pus mou11en~ .Dtli Planus on c•IIU, ·
Of vent~klllo_.atq. he· p••:i, !'cpac ~r ·~·,.• vaiuerro c'JrpN; .tJ,. al'lltt~~ IU"CfC!<U Nilti1uaque ell 'l uod pec ft~pfulb ; lir. _•""

'Whereby, with trade, a11d mtercQllde, in· fpacc .. And borrowinge heate. ;and kndinge there agaync:


Rilte • au~


Suc.h loue, fuch·tJ:Uthe,..fuch.kyndnes, .lhoulde rake place,

lie pcrpet•ir~m eo ... fti~tc poj[;._

"'11\. fuaaa

~ C-OB·



Hor.s.r~m.s. 1 bat frendfuip? , With rodetie lboulJ nigne! ?{- ,.,,.,;. ,a,.,;, · The prouerbe ~icch , one· man is deemed none.
Htnw,-!"'"'1,.,., &<.
1..•a-.. ...........,...


AlliOaiua in Epic•

And .ife • is deathe, where: tncn doo 1 .a1one. l iuc: .Nolf eft diutJ opum, diUlJ: 71« 14111" Uwfl£ · Inf!lix ; Alii ne' mAgu ~[tn tgn.
tutu rgu l'!"mil; c:;ir~Ali munm pillf". sU. .,.,. fgtnt ~... pt~~~per fi.lrli fllin11


1. f,:Cd •.cap. 4-

SA Hierulalem W With lharpe aifaulres, inN difueft, tyme:

To warre,-a.nd worke, the Iewes them fclues addrc:Jl, .luid did repairt: theire walles' with fione, and lime: One hande the t\vorde, againfi: the foe did ihake, The other hande, the trowell vp did take. Of valian~ minde3, loe here, a worthie parte, outd. ... -. 1, o~;, That qua1 cd not , w'th nu e ofthebe wr.,om.4. ··1 ·n • 'all·• N•f<l• , 1 1 """:::::. ;::..._. But Captaines ~oulde. d1d prooue the mafuns arre, ···-fi"•"Ji p., Which doth infcrre, this lelfon v11to all: That to qcfende, our countric deare from harme, For wme, or VJOrke, wee cytlt(~r hande fhould armc.

:Jdurm metU,[anllctltJfcimtit~.


M I t·ES H 0. A Jl T


o freilie; and greene, the Laurefl ftandeth founde, B Thoughe lightmnges Aanhe, and thundc:rboltesdoBte:
. . .





Where, othet trees are blaftcd to the grounde:. Yet , not one leare of it, is withered drie:. Euen fo, the man that· bathe a confcic~ clearc:, When wicked men, doe quake at euerie·blafic, D9th conftant ftand£, and. dothe no. p.errilles fc:are, When tcmpeflesragc:, doe make. the worlde agafre: Suche mttl are like vnro the Laurdl tree, The others 2·like. the blafted boughes that· die.
-"« 'VllltiUtil goid4 fo:inil,
Fllfu ,.,.._
NO!f tgct M.ri i.ce~~li& ntc ~tm~1


111r~" 'llir• ,'r«~m4t




Sit Jifcerne.
11 T R o. S TV TV I L I F.fqflitr•

N frui.Clefull- feilde the goodlie croppe, I The hurtfuU tares, and demell ofte doe growe,

And many times, doe mounte aboue the toppe Ofhighefr eome: But tkilfull man do1!h knowe, When gr~ine is ripe 1 with fme m purgs the feedes. From c.baffi:, and duftc, and all the other weedes. Jr.."" fo,;,~.;;,.~ That hardc it is, the good from 'bad to trie: ,.r:~: ;:::,..~r The pr~dent forte, fhoulde haue fuche iudgem~ founde,. That £hll the good they ilioulde from bad dcfcne: And fitte the good> a.nd to diiCemc their deedes,
o.ill.,. Trift. +

By whic.h is ment ,Jith wiek.ed men abpunck,

Aad weye the bad, noe better then the weedes.

I ~J.Jtriw•

InteriorA ~Tl G EOilG2 Bl\OOJt2


THough oucwarde -~es,doe nimme,& brauc, appcare, And 1ighces at .6dle, doe aunfwcre thie defire, Y,t, inwardc partes, if that they fliine notdeare, Sufpetl:e the iame , and backe in time retire: . For inwardlie, fuch deadlie foes maie lurke, As when wee a:ufi:, maic our dellrucaon woike.

Though bewtie rare, bee &rre ·and neare renowrldt; Though Narures gifres, and fortunes doe ez.cell: Yet, if the minde , with heinous crimes abounde, And nothing good with in the lame doe ciwell: Rcgarde it not, but thonnc the outward lhowe, Vntill, thou doe the inwarde vermes knowc.
Vir till
Pe111' il


itJ.[e bAHI, , U ~fo111 hiiW, 'lfU'II

Plauc. ia Amp h.

I 3

Fortun~. ~irtu!tm [uper4ns.
To FA. W. Efqllilf.

Simile de Aiare fe.
ipl u m interlicicnle' (fu~r cuiu1 tllmu• Jnm "irtw plor~ns Jll'll f•lfo iudicio) apparec ante, foho uicelimo. Nam CWn AchilliJ atDl,ll per Agamemftoni• iudirium,Vlylli a.li• iudiub~n(ur, Alii% iltius ialuri~ impa~
tie M, & pofic.& in· f1ow, fc,plilm ~­ terlicirbac, lie 1 .. "qaiens "' Ouid ha• le: 1 J. Mnamorph. H.Sor• JOI.u, ,_;

BR knewre, partepreuail'de, W And fawc his frendes, lie bleedingc on the gr9u1lde,

&.iflllflll " ' " ' · , _

Sue he de~dlie gnefe, his noble harrc affail'de, • '!•• ,I•. That with his Jworde, hcc did hiril felfe confoundc: ~rr-..,..,,. ..n.qw, . . But 1irfre , his frendes per(waded· l\im to flee, Whx a11t1fwer'd dUI$, IJly flighte with bGndes fhalbce. - foililtcr .._: baiRrm"l· .,;,..; vi<tt dtior ..-.ifiltn{tM: And bending then to. blade, his bared brdk, & - '- w1i efl, ., tr '-'!"'• ,.F, Hce did pronounce, theife·wordcs with courage great: VIJ.f/i.lf lht•ll, ~,;t.. .nu. Oh Prowes-- vaine, I longe did loue thee belle, ,., "'''"· '1"4·"'*" s.,.,.,.,g__..,, But nowe, l fee, thou doefi on furrone. waite. ,;.;_,.,.._ Wherefore•with paine, l nowe doe·prooueic true, .w;,: Ne 'fM'f~ .AWmz. Th~t furtunesforceJ maie v~liant hartes.fubduc.


!•fol foi'W•" 1 ruJi




PiMs non df!ltlltitlm.

r. BA a rH R.A M

CAtTHOJll' 1


fifDtc:rman , doth fea, T In hope at lengthe. ancalh: his hale totnhaue. happie
HB tlettcS

And is content, longe time to paufc , and fiaie, Thoughc, n~tbinge cUes ~ee fee,beftdes the waue: Yet, onclic trufi: for thinges vnfec:ne dothe feme, Which feedes him ofte, till he doth atmofi:c ficrue.

If 6ahcrmen, hauc dtcn fuche t:onfiant hope, For hidden dlinges, and fuch as doe dccaie, Let Chrillians then , the cies of faithe houldc ope, And thinke not longe , for that which lafies for aie, And on Gon s worde, thcirehope toanchor~· Whereofcache iote, fhalbee fulfil.'de at lafie.
Ntm b1111t lfl4llAto cttltHiA mmzinA gt~utknt,


'1"' pr,{ltlfJIII.c tfl & fmt us1t, ftdt.

Ouid. Epi!l



OrnAtij. _ . , , . Ji'Atriw G! o !l6 r r


.,;g,; F.


&he, and fweete rcnaine), T Andfurging Sea, doth working, to and froe: preferude with


And not corruptes, nor futfreth anic fiaine, . Whiles in his bounties, the fame doth ebbe , and Jlowc: But if it wafi:e , and fOrth by flufe~ fall, It foone corruptc:s • and .hath no fo~ at all .. The arrowes Charpe, that ia one theafe ~ boundc, Are hardc to brcake , while they are ioined £iueJ But feuet ili£m, theri fi:eble 1ue they founde, So where as.loue, cwd concorde, doth incfurc:: A Jitde force, doth mightilie preuaile, \V~ P[inccs powers , with hat~e and difcorde q.u~ \le.

S Andheare ·the fiorke prouid~s with tender care, bnngeth meate, vnto hatChed. broode:
'E E




They like againe, for her they doe prepare Whcn.lhec· is oulde, and can not gee her- fOode ~

Jdc:m libro t. eap. u.. ¥bi denatura Cico~ mira &»ula.

Which reacheth bothe., the paoonte and the· childc., Thetre duties ·hare, which eche to other owe: Firfi:~ fathers mufr be prouident, and mildc, Vnto theire fruiete , till they of ~e. doe gcowe : And children, mufic with dutic Gill froceede, To reuerence them, anci helpe them if they nccdt.
Dtftjf11111 fntur ,.,,, cu,;. ,m.., Jiju. iUA pill.u {A.tiA MU,_ llllt.



011id. Mctam.

s,as Poettes doe H T.his guerdon bathe , for his aftcnce indeuine, hell:

a. E


The plealance fiuite, dothe to his lippe decline, A riucr faire vnto his chinne doth fwell : Yet,~ thefe twO, for foode the wretche dothe ftemc. For bethc doe flee, when they his neede thouldc fcruc. The couetons man~ this fable reprchendcs, Far chaunge his name, and TA NT A L vs bee is, Hee dothe aboundc, yet ftaucs and nothing fi?cndes, But kccpcs his gouldc , as if it wearc not his : With flender fare, he doth his hunger feede, And dare .not touche his ftore, when hee doth needc.
Horar. fcrra.t 5 ~t. r.

:Flmnin•, fllid rillts ? ,.,., ,,,;,, de 11 E•bulA t11111Atur. &OJtglifil nditp~t foc&il llldiTmil inbiAn.s: p•r&t'fl fo"i Cl11&tril <h. -

T l!lltMIII Al•"'il jilin1 f"linlliA r.tptAt

er ,.,f'IAI'J

chain' T 0 Cawca{iu, behouldc p gripe dothe rente: de, Whofe liuer frill, a grecdic
& 0 M ET H B VS

~q~t Dfodw•

~-.ul ... i..,,

He neuer dies, and yet is alwaies pam·de, With tortures dire, by which the Poettes mcnt, That hee, tbat·fliU. amid milfortunes aaodes, Is forrowcs flaue, and botmdc in lafi:ingo·bandcs.
For, when that ·griefc doth graiC vppon ~r pll, Or furging feas, of forrowcs mofte doe fw~ · That hfe is deathc, and is no life at all, 'fhe liuer rente, it dothe the confcience teH: Which being laanch'de, and prick'd, with inward. c=, Althougll wee liue, yet. ftill wee dyinge are.
~.Utn ;, StJibieA

.A.I"*• ,;.,;, ,ra, 1.u "'"., 6-r.
K a.

rllitlltW ,


14anial.lib.a •


,...,;, ~"' b•U.. : ~

And. Alc'-r·

V1 'U#J rut'tit .,.., r•


F kingcs, and Princes gre:ne,lo, Concordchynes

; ...~., fr iffia - ·

And kl'i ue.~ th cire fubietlcs hartes in one , and weahhi~; make~ theiK' Landes.

mr hJnde(:

It bloodio broilcs dot he hate, and Enuic dounc dorbt thtullc, And makes the Souldioudeame to plowghe, and let his armoul' rufle.



'Pi4J;•.uJf di<z• a.r..:;;.~~~Y!

::.,";":,t" ~'!. Doth llrike at firlle , in dowte of further feare :

Ytfrr•""•""' fl· The prudent man, for faferie that prouides,

T Andoyet, before her poifoned head backwarde 1lydes, vt rafed wall, a (erpente appc:w;
H R H .E.

So all men fhoulde, when they to d:1.unger dreede, 'With all their force, prc:ucnt the fame with fpecdC\

Sero fapiunt Phryga.






r. . Tikl.t . .,. proner bc tatec h , r. Ionge t he potre to w:~rer goes, tO ..A6 .tfn, ir fi ""' Tharatthel~the at broker~. which is app•li'de·to thofe. ~'""'.,.,._ r.u-. L f __ .J s,. ,._, ,_;, That Ionge•Wtth· wylcs, and lluft~:'haue ·clou:-t"J wicA.cu panes, ,_.,., ,....,. Whoc haue.at lengthc bene paied~hBme, and had=theireiuil:defenes.



E.uen as the Rymie eele ~ that' ofrc' dfd .tlippe awaie, Yet, with6gge leaues at lengthe ft~ catch4 Je, & made the fiR hers praie.

. .... .. 3~

Dum t'TJSUD J pro1um.





~ :"".:i






N agc:d tree, whofe fappe is almoftc fpente, Yet yeeldes her boughes , to warme vs in the: ooulde : And while it growes , her otfalles ftill be leate, But being falne, to ir turnetb into moulde, And doth no good: foe ere to grauc wee fall, Wee maie -do good, but af~ none ar all.


,.,,fo,. '""'fo,.,, ,...,.,,,. . .....
D• ""'· 0. ,_.





Noli altum fapere.

lime, W The fowler and net, the MauisJ and tb.clarke, loe, deceaued by his ane:

But whilfle alofto, he leuel'd at his marke, And did to highe exalte, his hawghtie han:e, An adder fell , that in- the gra1fe did lurke, With poifoncd fringe, did his ddlruel:ion workc.. Claucl.~. ltuf'. _.., """ •4 ,..~., ... Let mortall· men, that are buteanbe, and dufl:e, ,.,t..., Not looke to highe, with puffe ofwordlie pride: lrt;,,I/, C711Uffi 'I'"" rw: Jttll11nt .. r Ut Alt* But fometime, viewe the place wheretoo they mufie, Y1 t.pfo moJ•" ,_,,, And not delighte, the poordl: to deride : e-•• Lefte when thcirc mindes, do mounte vnto the lkies, Their fall is wrought, by thinges rl1ey doe difpik. · C;re• Some others· are , t~t 6tlie this applie~ .Mim.,....... dn c.. To thofe, whoe doe ARronomie profclfe: '""'~~· ;"'I ........ Jil. Whoe leaue the eanhe , and fiudle on the lkie, & aliudic. SiClmilum ~·~• Ji.u, As if they couldc, all worldlie thinges cxprelfe : JMuJ1 ji "''''• rwji .. Yet, when to.knowe the fiatres they take in hartdc; Of daungcrs.ncare, they doe not vnderfrandc.





. •

De Laide Aut. Cel. L A 1 s fine , doth brane it on ihe ~e, . lib •· up.S. With mulkecancs fweeta, and all!hee coulde ddirc:: Propctliu• t:.le«.t.. Her beauties beames, did make the youthe to rage, No" ir• ""'!'/•"""' And inwardlie Corinth us [et on fire: ljhJru L..tdu•in, .A"'""'''"'*' gr• Borhe Princ~s; Peeres, ~i·h learned men, :md graue, · ·CU r.r• ft,., Wirh humble fute , dtd LA 1 s fauour craue. Hon1. !pill. lib. 1o Epilt; zl. Not eucrie one, mighte ro Corinchus goe, N;,,......,.,..,;,;_ The 1neaninge w~s, not all mighte LA 1 s 'loae: rilrtil • • c.n. The m:mchet fine,. on highe dhtC$ beflowe, The courfer cheate , th~ bafer forte mull prooue : Faire H 1 LE N leaue for M E N£ L A v 5 grace, And C 11 Ill DoN ;·let M A • t 1 1 llill imbrace. And thoughe, the poore m:Ue not prefume aloftea It is no caufe , they therefOre fhoulde difpaire ~ For with his choiCe, doth 1R V s iO}'e as ofre, As dotbe the Prince, that hat he a V 1 N vs faires No highe ell:ue, can giue a quiet life, But GoD it i.;, that blelfeth man., and wife. Then make t~Y choife, amonglle thy cqulles frill • If thou miflike D 1 A N i. 5 lle.ppes to trace : Thoughe P A a 1 5 , hacl his H E t 1t N :u his will, Tbinke howe his fatle, was l t 1 oN s fOule deface. And Me, that molle the houfe ofL A 15 hauntes, The more he lookes, the mOre her face enchaun~. . Pr'lfltrA
E A ll E


'· -------...,--



A Wpichvs , fendes his come vnto thebymill, waigbte : beinge groundc , he tri de it the
N ! LL

And finding not the mea!iuc, to his will, Hce fiudicd longe, to leame, the millers flcightc: For noe complaintes-., couldc make him leauc to fi:eale, Or Dll the facke , with fufu.e mixed mcale. Wherefore, to mill he fcnte his dearefi: wife, That nighte, and daie , fhee mighte the grindinge viewe: 'Where lhee, (kinde harcc,.) to cndc al former fi:rifC, Did dubbe her Spoufe, one of V v L c A N v s crew~ Oh greedic foole Anellus, of thy graine, And of thy wife, too prodigall, and plaino.


little childe, is cockhone T Althoughe he afke pleafde withthe befte: courfer of


Cbnf. Gait. D.,fi, tliw?jA.;..
-l:ni_..., ......

The ideot likes, with babies for to. plaie, And is dilgrac'de., when he is brauelie drefte: A motley.coate, a cockefcombc, or a belt, Hcc: better likes , then Iewelles that ex cell So fondelinges vaine, that doe· for honor fue, And feeke tor roomes, d1at worthie men deferue: The prudent Prince, dothc giue hem ofte their due, Whiche is &ire wordes, that right their humors ferue: For infantes hande , the rafor is vnfitte, ~d fooles vnmcete, in wifeclomes feate ro fitte. L. H1111i·



v~ Aea 'd
lib. t4-


hac V L 1 s-s!. s men, transformed tiraunge to beare: Some had the thapc of Goa.tcs, and Hogges, Come Apes, and Alresweare. . Who a when they mi2bt haae had their fonner fnape :againe, They did refute , and rather wUh' d , llill brutilbe ro remaine. . Which lhowes thofc: foolilhe forte, whome wicked louedorhe thrnlt, Like brutifhc he:1ftes do paffi: theire time , and haue no fence at ~n. And rhougbe that wifedome woulde , they lhoulde againe retire, Vet, they had rather C ut c IS feme , and burnein theire detirc. 'then , loue the onclie aoae' that c~es the worlde with care, Oh ftoppe yourC3CCS,andOluttc!'O'U eteS,of C1a.cls cuppes beware.
sirtniMI '9D&tl, (r CirUt p1&111A Mfti: ~ ft '11111 f«iii .flrllt-, t,;d;u~ hilliffn, suh dtnniu mtretritt fllij'n tlll'pil. & rxtwr, Yt~iffn , . ;,J•, vel Mllif• Ulto f•·


H~Xat.x. tpift.l.


o PARrs, here the Godd.effes doe T With kmgdomes large, did I v No mJke her fiue,

And P A L 1. A s nexte, with wifcdome him afl'iide, But V E N v s fairc, drd· win ne the goulden fruire. No princ~lie giftes, .norwifed~me he did wey, For Bewt1c, did :comaunde hun ro obey. The worldlie marr, whofe fighte is.alwaies dimme, \Vhote fancie fonde eache pleafure doth entice, The lhaddo~s, are like fuhfiance vnto him, And toyes more deare , them thinges of greatcfr price: But yet the wife this iudgemcnt ra{be deride, And !entcnce giuc on prudent PALL A s fide.
Btgn• Jlldl &lniRx; -rirtrttllll filiA i.ctm. Et poftea ibidem. . J>Mlte Vm• riftt, Nt& 11 P.ai rmmrr• tMJgrllt, YtrA911f fob'nfi plt11A limoril, 11:t.
Ollid. Epil\.l f• De· iudicio P..
ridis. ·



HA 1bmdcs, into H And feedes lum fdfe, withand lookesfuture the.lkyc, hope of praife:
E A 1l E N N ·O

.Aelian. de nt.
Hiftor.lib.l4• ap. JQ•

Vnro his bir<lcs, he dothe his care applie,

And trufks in tyme, that they his name f'hould raifc:: For they wearc taughte, before they fiewe ~brodc, Longc ryme to faie , that HA N N o WilS a God.

But, when the birdes from bond2ge wcare releafl:,
And in the woodes, with other bir<ks wcarc ioin'de, Then H A N N·O s rumc, theirc woonted lcffon ceal!e,

For e.tcbc did finge, accord.inge to b.is kinde: Then flee this faulce, Ambition workes our lhame, And verrue loue, wbich dothe cxtdl our name.


s and leaue thie flouthfull V Fleelabour full, which beggers A:ate dothcfeate, Idlenclfc, giue:

With fweate of browe, fee that thou get thy ma~ If thou be borne, with .labouring bande to liue·: And get , to c.tte . and cate , to liue with praifc: •Sabc1. ,,l.TIMf~.u.~ Liue nGt to eate, to liue with wanton Cafe. Ncqoc sratispa--· ~m maDdiJCII8i.o dle men JL 1 di·e, By DllACO~$. Iawes, the i woulae mus.ait allqao, •rhe Flon:"ntines, made banifhcment theire paine: ftc~ ia labore, a: In Corinthc, thofe due idlic r.hey did fee.• la &rigarioDe, , Dotle,&dico~ "W eare wam' de at firfi:e, the fccondc time were Oaine~ 1\11Ucs ate. And eke S.aintl: Paule, t~ O:othfull thus doth thrcare, ~!:!,~~~~~cruis '\Vhoe laboreth not, dcrue hun for to eatc. noa tulc operan.
acc maoJucct.

Ooi.J. r. Rcmetl.

.Ad Rtt~ntndNM mllm Dll. A1 B X A.'" D a. V M N 0 w E r. L Pllulinl ,, ,·Jt.fiA LQrulioi DlUIIIIIfl, tloitrinA 6' at~~~pll. clilr11111.


and MoMrchrs or,he earthco. Whoc, whlle they liu'Jc, rh~ worlde might &lQI; twlicc; ·~· Yet can thC)I d~c·. by gl'ftmt&fc of-their birrhc:. ,...,•...,..._ T-o beare ftoOJ hence, when· naru~ life d'enies » Noe more then they,. .who for releife did pynC'. 'Which· is but thir, a fhtoudiog thee: re. of nvyne. Pfopeni"' ur. Thoa5he fewo there bee whifc trl·L"V doe Kourutic liee~ IMNt~U..P-t.-_,.. ~ -~~'--'*'-wa/.JtlftiM: That oe rc:gacde-rhc place wqerero ~ muile: ,.3~..:!..., ilrftrN·· Yet, r:ou theirc pride like Lucims snnem,. he J'-" wy~•• ,.-,, h le "'TdT 'W&r~W~W,..n. T ey fwc at ngtbc ro rol'Be. ta ulle: The Prince , the Pocrc, the Prifoner, and the fi:um, ,.,/"'{":""' ~ · .:~:.;,=!• They .all at Jcnpe,.tlC fummon"dc .10 thcir graue.
florat.1. Car•·+ H !"Princes gt'e3~,



!ut, bee th:tt prhnes this doetteJie In hit mfncle, Althoughe be fer in mighde t: .c 1 A a • chaire, Wirhin chf.t life, lbal1 com.entadon SnM, Whea arcldiC men , ofre die In great. diCptire: . Thea, let chem bludhe dlat woulde be CbrllliiUit thou&ht, And .taiJc b.ereol', Shh Tur:kn the ramc hiiJC caagbt. As S .u .& 'D 1 M 11, that was tbe Souldaiae grate Of Babilon , when dnthe did him amfk, His fubiedes charg'd, wbal he fhouldeleaae his fear., And life re6gne, tO ~me, and aatures belle: They lnould 'Pt~are, his lhyrte •ppon a fP.eare. And all about fenhwith rim G.me lhou.lde bcare. Throaghe As c HA tow, the plac:e where he dec:aGe,
~·ith trumpn SonDdc, ancl Hcmlre to declare. Theife wor~r alowde : rb1 Kilt• tf A d1l BARI Grtilt $A t A D I N! • Hb.Ju 11 JrW• fiH: Of fd"ld~ttwgt, ltld ~~ ·-b•fi •f &if, And rbil il AU , br ~., -.,;,6 a llfiM.

JJ...uoa i1J lt efl' J'l'flll'll·


for eo reuiuc T DothPcllican ,her ba:ll, and bet younge, of her blood: pettce gcue them


Then fearthe ~.:tu brelle, aad as yovr haue with roage, Wirh penne .l'r.xeedc to doe flW' couatric ~ : Your ze'alc is great, your leami:ng is profounde, Thee hclpe our WantCS, wUh tblt roa doe abou.~d:.


Paracf. r~. ("' I'bMill

IJ[i,~u.•wf4 l'>r

....... 1



rnt fat'uU, grAndH dCtriiUI frit.
Tom) brDtb"



Ouid. a.leMtd.

,....,.J. ,_..,,,.: ,., ,,


Vr huac •acuo fpacio aliquid adiiciam,oon facilt occur m Cml f~a: rer) quod & ub1 (iam pauilami· ha~)!.: huicSym. bolo mag" tQD· ueniar. quam il.. il3tl Horariaoam ad lc:tiam.
J.Epi!l. u.

,.,r~., .,...

...... A

o v c H E thy fl:ore bee fmaU , fur to begmnc., • · · . • ~et. gwde It ~ell~ and K>one 1t 1S mc.:~alte~ For m1ght1e men, m tune the1re w~althe d1d w1no~~ Whoe had a.t fir.fte as little as the le!le: d '-L- b . . .J ____ I'! • Whac GoD ouu:: lc!fe, m ome abounuam:c 1pnnges, And hcapes al'C Inade ~of mmic little thingt:s.

FrJtlibJU A~ippt ~ufllil, quoJ nlligil Ill~ si rtlf~ Jr•ITil: n1n 1fl rt "Pi• ,.,in Jfb 11111 d111Ari pojiJ tibi • tolll qumi.. PuJ" tM na tM, C'ui m~~m (uppnit t~fo.





.Ad Dellifl. ,;,, W. M. [11111114 ttlt ;a,..

doe in breede, T St11l Apodes, which lddomcI take theire eafe: flie about, aDd

l•uea. .,_,... !11. to •... ,.,u
~Hirlhr ~rJiu zl.·

l""i ,.r~


They haue no feete, to refie them as wee rc:ade,
But with theire Righte, do compalfe lande, and fcas: Vnto this broode, thofe that about doe rome, Wee maie compare: that haue no houfe, nor home. Bothe houfcs fairc:, and citties great, they veiwe, Buc Riuers fw1fce, theire palfage ffill do let, Thetoftc looke backe, and doe theire fortune roe. Siucc that therin , they haue no feace to fet: Thus, paifc they throughe theire longe vnquiet life, Till dcathe dothc come:, the ende of worldlie fuife.


lr ,.,.,• .., 1 - ,..,
c-r.Uil wr- , , _

...... ,...............


-···-· ,.,". --.

0"'"' folum forti patriA eft • vt piflib111 ~qur~
Yl JIOlt«ri VMIIfl lJIIirqutd in llbt pAttl.





In tum qui tmctJ!cmia fuorum perierit.
Ad Affinem foum , R. E. mtdiuuit i»fi:rum.

FmunA nuJu[Uilnt jijlir in eodem fl41u. StH;ptr IIHIIUtltr, J'.trWt 1 (r tlliltllt 'Picll. Et fimmy, U. il¥um -verrit J A' vtrfo t~~igit.




Solemne feafie great I v P 1 TEll did make, And warn·d all bcaftes, and creamres to be there:. The prdfe was muche, ~he one hi& place did take: At lcngtbe, when all weare in there ch~jfell cheare: At feconde courfe , the fiWie crepte llowlie m, Whome I o v E did. blame> caufe hee io flackc had bin.

Who aunfwercd thus, oh kinge behoulde the caufe? I beare my houfe, wherefore m)' pace is flowe: Which wuneth all, in fea£Ung fur to paulC, Ana: to the fame , with pace of thaile to goe: And further telles, no p1accs maie com~, ~ our homes, where wee commeuDdas ~.

b«, ftliMIM grd11 e.,.;._., Mf"' U.. l'*lrM 4llk;. tJi llibil.




InduflriA nAtMrAm corrigit•
.4i D.
H. Wb.

p.mutlil,; F.

whofe founde doth moft deligbte the eare, T Was Lcate,afide , and Ltck'de bothe fi:nnges;aud frettcs: cafie

Whereby, no worthc within it did appeare, M E R c v R.'t v s came , and it in order fettes: 'Vhich being tun'de, fucbc Harmonic did lende, That Poeues write, the trees theire toppes did bcnde. Euen fo, the man on whome dothe Nature froune, Whereby , be liues difpifd of cuerie wightc, lndufhic yet, maie bringe him to rq:toume, And dtltgcnce , maie m:ake the crooked righte: Then haue no doubt, for arte ma1e nature hetpe. Th.nkc howe rhe beare doth forme her vglyc whelpe. s, ,,iJt.;flu/il for,.., ...,,. '"t•llit; ln.fttilo fqrnz• A~«WIIA ''l'"dl mu.

InfortUfJi~t noflr~t:, tt!lm:j CD~', .rr:; ·~ t;.ior•t.
.A J

.,.: )

( 1 •

- 1"~ ~,...-• . f'

... s-~ ..


E Alie, and Ape complaine, and rhoughr theire fortunes bad: 011i_d 9 Mmm. The Alfc J for wante of home~. the Ape ' bycaufe no taile he had. ,.,,,., tr:~!t •rfo 1' (I• $,k<iJ"' '(•, "" . /•r•r· T!1e Mole, then an{were made: I haue no eyes to fee, ,..,.r:,,,. .••. Then wherefore can you nature blame, if that you look.e on mee. ..;A'"''''":', ~·,•••, cnt11tlf;T t1f'.l.HtiU tr1 •• Which biddes vs bee contente, with lot that God dorh fc:nde, For if wee others wantes do wer~ur happ~ ~~-~n:tic CO~lmende.

·r "

~~~· [~~!

eel i,
,M:~~~:!I ~

.. ~~i


rxori" vtrtutu.

lt.as.t defcripti.'h.
.Ad RA. W.

lsuidiam Ouid. ddcribit z., Mo. ta1110rph.

HAT hideous hagge with vifage ~«ne appc.-~s? ·· W hofc feeble limmes, can fcarce the bodic .fiaie: This, &nuie is: lean~, [ale. and fall of yeJres, 'Vho with the blHfe o other pine~ a<tnie• .And what declares, her eating vipers br<:Yldt'? That poyfOned tho.ght~es, bee euerrnore het foode.


{o bleated ' fore ' and redd: Her mournin~e run. to fee an oche" gaine. ,u,, .And whar is rnente. by fnakes her head? Itil!•"~'*·;, ,., The fruito that fprjnges, of fuc a vcnomed braine• ..,.,. PfF"*"' But wide , her hare.: thee rcntes within her brell: ~ It fhc-fts her felfe, doth woxke ~r owne vnrell.
,u.~.,;Ui •ffi ,,,,,..., 111.... tllifft<J•,.,, : ~ ,wre, ,,,,.,.,

Laun. •~ ]11.,..,., lowiu ell '\\'hat meanes her eies?


Whie lookes {hoe wronge? hicaufe !hee wou!~c not fee. An happie Wight, which is to he-r a hdl : 'W h:1t other partes within rhis fiuie bee? Her harte, 't\rlth gall: her tonge, with fl:inges dotb fwell. And lafle of all, her fta1fe with prickes ahoundes: Whkh fhowes her wordes, wherewith the good ibee woundes.

.Aric Am.wiJ.

Oui.i.lil-. r. De:

Itrti/w1 ftgu eft .Zitnil ~., in •gril. ruim~m~ pwu zrMiiirJ. IIAWt.

'])e lnuirl11 ft} ~tUro 3 iocofum.

God des agn:ed ~ t\V.el mtn ~their withe lhould ha~ae : who firftc demaundc did make, ·Shouldc,haue-hi~ wfihe: and he thadalt did craue, The ochqs giftc lh«tlde double ro him take. · Thc.'Couetow wrerchc ~·and the Enbious man: Theif~ .veare fW\'., that of dtis- qfe did kannc. Th~ longe ·.did fl:riae ' who lho.aldc the firl~ dcawJQde 1 :rh'" 'Couerous-illan ril!urdc.; pawe ~is miaca, Shoul.do~ue·his· gifte die~ dou~d .aut ofhandc: The-_chpught whertof, vppon his~ dia_gnate Wherdbre the Goddes, ·did plagbc-bim b his Game. And. did commaundc, rli"E.nuious man ~innt:. '\Vtu)-did· ~ cra.x~, what- M 1 D As cheifc did choofe. Bocaufc hisfrende., the fiuice thereof Uwuld finde~ Bat.anelie w.ilh'de, that he one cie 02ight look. V.oto dl!C ende, to hauc ·the other blindel Wbith J;einge foty'd, he did his Wilhe·!!!btaine: Se hut--one eye., was lefcc vnco thGm tw-Jin~. Soe lieaJC' ·how vile , rheife cayWf~s doe appeuc. To GoD •-and man: but chjcflic (as..wee fee) The Cooetoa.'s man ~ who hin"Weth farre , -aaJ neare. Whete. fpytefull men , eh~ O\V'lle rormcprors bee. But bothe be .bad, and he that.ls [he hdh; G.o~ kc:cpc: _him tbcnco, where ·houofi 1nc:n ~ tcfte.
H !-


Auth.tfeG•~u. .

And~did d~~;

ia Epil\ulu f11n.


Ad ornAtij. Virflm Dn. ·p !

T .1; Y W

W l T HIP 0


Petre :~. imitare petrttmo

}Udrianas lit~
11ius Harlrmcn.lis Mcdicus clarilf. inter Emblcfito P~rro boc:.us..


H A T I v N I Vs ·f~Qr. f).js fonne ,lo, h~e I fend to thi.-e? Bycaufc hi~ riame, and Nirure borh,. ~rh thy ne docwdi agree.

Difpife all pleaiiir!=$ v:iyne, .hould vertue by {he hand. mm fua, fiti~ .A~d as rage of ~ndes, and Seas, the Rocke doth finndy liande•.





Remembri~g ~ow

So fiaod thou ~Uwayes fut'e, that thou niaifi liue with fame,



the l.atins (ouude a Rockc {o like thy name:-.

Oltid. Epift.


rrrm4ntt m yoto .mtni' ''"" 'fitm~S foo.

'Dum potu~ 'Viut.
.Ad vtttrlm .fo•m 11micum
Dn. G u o R G r v M SAL M o N.


· filii llfAXimD l'itA pnifii/(J R,A ~fit.

Cuttlc muddie T To which,nfhe_, that hkes the at eueriecrickes, the fea clothe .Aowe tide:

For to·eftape the fi~rs ginneJ<, and tric.lres) Dame narure did this ftraung~ dcuife prouide ~ That when he feeth , his foe to lie in wayte, H ee muddes the Hreame, and &felie fcapes deceyre. Then mm: in whome doth facred reafon refte, All waics, and mcanes, lhoulde vfe to faae his life : Not wilfullie, the lame for to deteft, . ~or raf!ilic runne, when tyraumes rage with ftrife ~ But confiant fi:ande, abyding fweete or Cower, Vntill the Lorde appoynte an happie howt:r~
OJ.fi•i Wlim me ~JJdunt : "''''" ttfl•m
.Airtlllllnlt~ PNA,;I : AidUII , IIIIA tultD.

Oald. 1.An.AIIi*W.


. ,..., •:J:"'·-·

,.,.,... .... ,,._ Jtit.

I'* l•bth•r ~:.~.

b,. '"'"' ,,,,ff. y,,,..,.,,rt

?{.. ,...,,,_,...


·.: ·•.:t.;.ti-

Pand1fas p"cr•

lie Scp1a.



Stultitia fua fiipfomf agitutri.
Ad H.

s. communem vidullt'um·proCIIltl.


Foxe., that longe for grapes did leape in va~ With wc:arie.limmes, adengthe did .Gld depute: And to rum fdfe quorh bee, I doe difdayne l'hefc grapes I fee , bicaufe their tafte is ~ So rliou, that hunt' A: for that thou ·Jonge ·&.aa milt, Still makes thy boaft, thott mailHf that thou lift.


dockcs (thoaghe troden) T So vertue,thoughe it longc bcc.bid withas 'is-dailiewaxeth greene. woundiugc





lmpar coniugium.
To Apbiltu. ·
----~=-=-~~ ~~~~~~---

s , hut: in vre, v~.l~li~icf. . . .,M.,,..,_,w ,_ ee munhcred men: l'HI arftr• _,;, To binde the quicke, an4 dead, togeather fure, ~::n;.,-=:{t: And then , to throwe.the-m ·both. into a denne. Whereas .the quicke, iliould:..ftill the dead .imbrace, V~ti1Lwith pine:, hee rum~d- into that cafe. TI1ofe wedding -webbes, ·which fome doe weaue with ruthe, As when the one, with firallllge difeafe doth pine: Or when as age , bee c~led vnto youtbe, Andthofe that hate:, infort.ed:Jre tb ioyrte,, This n-prefe'ntcs: and doth ·thofc parentes lhewe, Are tyrauntes.niecre; who ioyne.their cbildrcn foe.. Yet manie ate, who.not the caufe reg~de, · The birthe , the y~; nor verti:Je5 of the-minde: . Eor goulde is firft~ with grecdie 111en prefer'de, And loue is lafte ; and likingc fei: behinde: But parentes ~de, that matches make for-goodes: Can not be free, from guilte of childrens.bl.Oodes•.·
H E E E N T 1v

tyraunt T AJl¥)ng!l thevile M z, w plagues


5l.!Am mM~ i~r~tqllAitl Vtni#nt All ArlltrA iJultnci,
Tam premitll1 m"l'l' ttJnillg~ TIIIIIA ,;,...
~ ~ ~ronl~

Ouid. Epift ;~,


Frontil nul/4 foles.
.AJ Lt[i;J;· itmtnes Dtt. Edm. Freak!, & Dn. inrh. Al(~e~

The Griphins gralpe theire tallanres in theire ire: The dogges do barke; the bulles, with hornes doe tbrel. The Serpeotes hi!fe, with eyes as redde flS bn:• .Bur ma~ is made,. of fuche a fcemdie·lbape,· That frende;or foe, is not difcern•d by face:
Then hard.c it is the wickeds wiles to fcape, Since that the- bad, doe malk.e with honeit grace And Hypocrites. haue Godlie wordes at wilL And rauening wolues, in lkinnes ofJambes doe lurkc; And C A 1 N. doth feeke, his brother for to ltiU ,· And faineks in. £hewe, with I v D A s harres doe worke. Nowe, lince the good no cognizance -doe beat:e. To reache vs , whome wee chiefJie fuoaM irnbrac:e: ·But that the fame the wicked forte dee ~. And fbeWe them fdues • like them in tucrle ,:afe. A table lo, h~in to you I fende. Wh CCC bY you m1ght t'Cm~ulJ,II;[ I ' to lVllt; . - L - ll.ill ..



lions roare : the Dares theire cuikes do whet.



ven Amicilia

I'on<ila l'aulil'us,

l__,f._ r<{.Jwil

Au~on fcribu EpiR,s H~ell#ll>•ur ..


His woe-

His wordes 1 and deedes, that beares the face Offrcnde, lkfoce.you·choofc, fucha.one for your ddite; .i\ncl if11t lengchc:, yow rrye him by his ruche, And findc llim hault, whereby you frand .in douc.. No mrtc, nor band; fee that -you ioyne wirh fud1e· But at the iir!l-. bee bould·to rafe him om. Yet if by proofe. tnf wordes , and deed~~~. Then ler:mee fHU within your rabies ·bee. .


jiMIH /,,. "''"'iJ. Ntr /!6'._, ; "'' ~


'~\:!"".,...... "'""" d• ..,., 'U~ '""' •tP. rtt... c..,..•• iiin. ,., ,...
wfhr ).o..-....,...

.. b..,.,r.-,


""'"""',;,,...D. E'L 11 s E v M Ga. v .u n r T Hi.

.A-.fainium [wuit111.·

&itpwifit~:.... jilhdm, <~"< •

JWir _..........,.,.,.;


Whoe fClllCS. mult pleaf~,

boundc T AndProuerbe &ithe, thethe freeft mufleinrun obey. bondage brin.ges ,. man awe :

and hearc what other faye, And leame to hepe • HA ll P.O c a A. T !. s his lawe: Thm bondage is the Prifon of the minde: And makes them mute', where wifcdome is by tclnde.

•s.itmty aeus
apud AeiYP'&

The Nigaringalt, dlit Ch;mn(etb aU me. fpringe, Whofe warbtinge ~, throughout the wooddcs ate Jwdc., Beingc: kcpa:·in cage, fhe.aafetb lOr to 6~, And moumes ~ ·hkaufe her fibmic is barde': Oh bond~ vile ... the worthic tnan$ deface, Bee faro: from thofe, thu lcaromg doe imbrace. N J


In forti/ f" contempt(J1'es.

ClietrO Tvrc. '"' 8t Valu. Mu. 8c Sidolo. ApolliDarla. Ub.&. epiA.IJo! ·

ddirous fortotafle, The princelie fare, of D 1 o M Y s 1 vs kingt-. ,.,.,, q•unfl jiri In royaU feate, was at dae tab~ plafte , S"' r.uio tlalmt , fl• Jm diletril, i&a Where .pages braue, all dainric catc.t did bringe: Cf1111nhol ......,, (. . . . Hb bed of e, with curious c:oueringes fpred, ...:/" r _,.... ...wl . Cl pr1111141i And cubboUrdcs ritchc, with place about his &od. "'Cr._. .u· .ar, trc. No wb~ bee ftay"'dc ~ but mu~quc fwoetc did founde; Hor.at. Car~n-J. No where bee wenr ~ but bee did odors fmell; ~.:a...llffortlifl#- Nowe ia his p01npe, when all thinges did abouade. , .,,.. Being aik."d, if tha_t this life did pleale him w.d1: ~-:::-·Hee aunfwere made, it was the: heauco alone~ D..Jw• ~ And that tO 1!, all O£her liues w.eam llOJ¥. 1'"1"'"': N··~,-.·. Then did the king· romaun.de a naked ~Word,.
Batyra 1.

Horae. Serm. 1,


H ?ml

!ll .. DAMOCLES,


That right lhoulde ban~, when hcewas.p~'d at bourdt, ,,.,.JM,.[-. Aboue his head, where he did \'fc to lit: ';,;.:;,~;,:;~:;,, ,.,,., Which when bee fawe, as one diftratle with cue, • ..,./,r<TQ r<IW. Hee had no ioyc in. minhe 1 nor daincic fare.
seatea0ed.A&. 1• ~w. !..


Vnto.dte rook, lhOnldt with a

h~ bcc,kni;~



Due did befeeeh.., the Tyrnunt for eo giu~. His former llace, a11d uke his ~mpc ag:1ine·: . By which, wee -learnh that thofc who mcauely liue, Haue ofte more ioye, them thofe who mle and raign111 But cheifelye, if liko hi m· they doe appea.re, Who night, and daye, 6£ fubicdes frOOde in feare.

Clt •d


.El.!!} f'.: _ , ltr. ~t. pt.... 11:, _ , , . ''·
(~nru..$ :1. I.'IJflrit/uiJt
M.IJ4 i l


n. {cniJ~·• rr~m•
fiP•'f"~ •···rtJJJI

~i.tAa.w o."ILC!'II,


.A• .-;piw ;,,.J.,....;. ....

'"• "'"J.·'i - ..u•.-.
Prrlandtr aped All<~ focium. M•:tw 1rmlnlit...,;.

lnterdum ~quieftlndum.
Aa D&

Co LV I. V M Brllgm(nn.



nis hh . to.cap:t. le: lib.;-6". cap. tJ. De



The daie to workc, the oighte was made to rd~e, And !tu dentes mutt haue p:dbmes ror the nones: Sometime the Lme, rhe Cbelfe, or Bowe by fittes, For ouermucb , dothe dull the finell wiaer. For lacke ~f reA:e, the fetlde dothe barren grow~ The winter coulde, not alhhe yeare doth {aigne: And dailie bent, doth weakc the ftrongeA: bOwe: Yea our delightes A:ill vrd·, wee doe difdaine. Then reft by fittes, amongtle your great :dfaires, But DOt roo muchc, lelle lloathc docbe. fet het Cnares. N1& ,,;,;, f•aluiA .Ald•ll11 dtm ft•nu '""' : "'~ fnnper ;, mnll

v not C o fometimestoile , ,and-labour, isweariebelte: But ttaCe and rrft thy
"'T 1 N At



lucw;;s ad :'i .

tn.t ,l4{ik• hmn' N~t diJq11e g~t~~il: ,~ fo"'Ptr ·c,afo• ,.,. Dtffin4 , e%tmptl ftd 1Au1 ftWm4A ntrw. _Zl gllu miles c'f Lfl• nft r~fllllil.
1110ic4 MbA

~41111! 11e~



0 F

E M B L E M E S,
gMhertJ~ Enf.{jjblt4 M~J 7/NJr~

A N D 0 T H E R D EV l S E

And diuerle newlie deuiled, by

Geffrey Whitney.


I N P RA I S E, 0 P T HE T VI 0 N 0 8 L E


r~~~~ w 0

BtllrU then tlrt, tht grttJitr,III!Ullhtlt{Jt, Wt/J klllfPIIt ltJ .rhtJfo thlu tr~tUik '{-tUrt, and

WithHt. -whD{tfigbte, tht fhip•m.f4ilts !J1 gtjJt,
~~~~:;J l{th4tthl Sl1111t,Dr NOflllt,dtJt IJII "/'Ptllrt.
~ad Auti podes-

Pes, nf"maiO-

Thq btJth ~e fh-we, u th' EqllintJtlit~ll line, t..And 111e ,-'VnltJ Jh'.A. NT I POD E S·~th {billt.



Thtfo, ht111t their ligiJtt (rim p OB BV S glt~ltlt•Tllit11 JJ-,d 11U tht 'Wflrlde, h] ~~,. l'«lJ•tl.h gud: With111t 'Wh1ft_ btlpt, "'mAll mightt p4.!Jt thtfi.u.. B111 euer flt~t~dt ;, tlt~tmgtr 1{ the fo'a; oh bltf{tJ lighies, tht "114rkt P/. hr41HniJ hmtle.,. T111. mi/li11u {dt fr1111 rt~tht if r~e¥, tltlli{tJt.Jt.
1'"w1 IHbk pttru, Y1b1 h11h J1e.Ji"! lht ~tllrt, Tw fillrlfll/4 Et~rles,..,hl{t prt~ifts pkrcetht foJ~' Wh1 koth we plac'a in htJniMrs[~~trd. cht~~rt, Whfl{t 'Worthit {ttmt (hJJ li•t ~ utl IJIMir d7t: 1 » 'E~gJ!fht. e111rtt ut /}tndt their· !Jlejfta dllits: qj!•bli'JIIt Ylt~lt ,. '"'' grt•tt~, •.,J mightit jl.itt.


Allfl M th1{t fl""'s hJ P·H OE B vs lightt •re{ttllt~ S1 , h1th tht{t EArlu h1111t hflllltJr, mighte ,: iUid prm" ; Fr1m p H O.E ,BE brightt, PIIJ" •#fie l'tiiDWI»ttJ- .fl...t1tt11t1 WhtJ{t fame., ,,, lilllt ~ nor tnllit CAII·dttiDwtr: .And vnatr htr, [!uwt ,, lthtrs,Jighu., ~nd ·d~t rtifiJce ,,.,, th1•fo»d -.;,h their fightt.


fince tlut_ .0. th•t hAM 6in.b~Tnt, hlltJt tndt, nothingt ttlll -y,;th -.#'llrts ~wts Jif)tnce i r (J'/Vchfoft Db LDTM, ungt timt :thtir UIIU f(J Ulldt, Be{Drr th11~ call tbt(t n1bJt ptrfolls hciNt: Whoft f.-e, ~hik th41 the Btt~rtl it~ flit (h.JI fhn't, Within this u11u, JJ f~~t~~rttimes fh•U-ft..nDwt.



m,. 'f

the 'Rigbte R,,,.,t~z, my g.ol1Artlt.~t~tflt£Ullt', tht Uf'u of L E v c • ' T • n.
tht StM,

vt tlfJ Ylilh1111 foiU, J1th vtntMrt 'Wh~art htt plr4(t, While rhAttht "W•ws hth· t~nti IJ*i" bu> Wt.rt btlltr f•rrt, 11 kttpt him 111 tht l.sNdt> 'Iht11 for ttJ t.skt foehtllttrpri{t i11·h411tle. FIT, ifhttiMk! hil e~mp•JJe, a11J bit .Ana •rttthetftJrt, '' fo•pt h11-."wft •righu: Or pJlltt-tl g11t1 ~ thAt tiAM»gtrs W14f rtgArtie, Whe11 forge :tiltb {#ltU, Y,J11dts Jie {h1we thei,. mighu, D1th perriU lift, throaght "Wirnton .,_,.,,Ides 'Will" .And d1th 11 fAte Ulllmte hu l•ck.f 11[ (kjll. So, lltt th4t fot~•IJt 'With "WiU,bee (Urr'J to "WrJtt, ToMr n1•k A!ltt, !''" giftts 'Vt~lllt~ rArt: Jf p.ALL A S 4Jtlt htt lAc~<$, {11r tl 111t/1tt, Htt {h,,/t/ b11t h~t bil fo!lit 11 lltclArt. \..A11J Y,ro11gtJIIIr righte-,.dt{tr•illgt V J Jt c 1 t s pt1111t1 \o.AniJ Ho M·J!. a. S f~U, if thty Y9tiJrtl he, •gapst. Thtll, bill f" {lltb H t•fr.! • ltmgt1 p4t~fo, Thtlltl ·4111111ptt A·lhingt (i '""' V11fille·: . r_,,, th!J '''"!1 k.,."tJTPt to ~rite of foch • t4*ft• · , Btftt'llltth ildf,-tht fiwt, '"" 1'ttrti1 VPittt. . Ttl 1h1ft·th•t "Wo,./de, 1 '*ifhe their. ltArflillgt fotcllt, ThAI M 1h11 {b1t1/Je-; tbiJ mighttJIIIT 'lltri.U IMtcht. AB other of the Gt~.

thAt at/irtJ H BytAM{t they__att16 pA{ft forgil!gTtt, "Wondtr{NII to





/Aftlf;, wiglne ofwitft•· S.Andcwoort"7 Jlts •fnobltpmiS,•4


.Nulf~~~a[bei bAtbt extoll'I J"" pr.#fis lfngt ~~gH, . Tbllt ltbcr (Ofllitrits jiiTf't, Alld tiUTe, J'*' 11oblt tM1III dtH ktuwt. ~lthollgbt I bo11Wt "'1 pt..u, tbro11gbe Willltt of u4111ld fkill, 1 et fblllll'"' P4"'1' f""'r 6u knmt , ~t~~d b" '"''fiPMtd ftill. Nld zht~fo tbAt b.u4tdtftrt, vppmJ11'1111'Aifo u lH~e. 1Uj finde it tr.U, ,../; hf fM~H, within btr go•ldm #wke. whm,tm thlf'""ofl frtmte of hti1Jt1Uf'l lwttieft~~gt, Sbee pldmh·,.., in tqu.Jl r~MJ~t, .,;,11 #I# ofJOtlr·.f&f· Whtrfore to fM11t 1:tteld, .:md etitfe wb~~t I begomu :. ~ic.-ft,it uin p..W., tt1.[er 1 'ADUI m Sfmu. tbt

~th rltifo.Y7111'1ht fojts •

tlm~gh• t&bt dJ"'!''' jfus;





s this my T ThefOrmer parte, nowe palle, ofinfue: booke, feconde parte in order doth

Wluch, I beginne with I A N v s double lookc, That as hee {ces , the yeares both oulde , and newe, So, with rcgarde, 1 may thc:fc panes behouldc, Perufinge ofte, the newe, ~ eeke the ouldc. And if, that faulte within vs doe appeare, W1thin the yeare, that is alreadie donne, As I A N v s biddes vs alter with the yeare, And make amendes, within the yea re begonne, Euen fo, my felfe fwuayghinge what 1s pall; _ \Vith greater heede , may take in hande the la!h:. This Im~~e l1aJ his rites, and temple fairc, . And call'd the Go o of warre, and peace~ bicaufe ~.t r.~u~'6= In wanes, hce wa(n'de of peace not· to difpaire: inil;_.~rw. And waru'de in peace,to.praaife martialll.iwc:s: ~~~:~r~;: A,nd furth~rmo_re, h.,_Iookes did tc~che this fomme; t::.r. 7 1 o bc:are m. mindc, t1mc pa.fi, and t1 me to comme. . ·


~I NC£

Tl tbf holi#rJJlt Sir pH I L 11' 1' E

Knight, of tbt GJIIri{ln., A1Ul tf~JW~e. ~I Vufmgt.



~~.,f19'::1.nl' 1 N
• ..-r.. ._,~-~·.. .-.:--.............

cE belt deferte, for valour of the mindc, And prowes great, tohe Romanes did deferue; And 6the, the worlde mighmor.their matchcl

fonner times; as atdhors yet referue-: A fewe .oftlu:m I meane for·tp recite, That valiaURt·ltliiu.les maye .baue. therein dehgh~~ And but' eo mtche the ·naked mmes of fome, As R(l111Ul114 ,·that finJ: the wafl .did Jayc: And fo; from thence to neara tim·es to come,
To CMrtlll4 boulde, that did-the gulfe atfaye: Or Cocln eeke, who did his foes withfrande, Till bridge was broke,.andarmcdfwamme to lande. Then · Po/lhr~mw., lmight with thefc repeate, That· did repulfc eh~ L.atines·, from the waules. And tMuli•, a man-of. courage grtare, Who did defc:nde &he Capitoll from Gaules: And F4bi111 name~ ofwhome this dot he remaineJ T:hrec hundredl: me . wc:aie in one battaile !laine. With thefe, by rigute comes Corio/•11111 : ~ Whofe.cruell minac did make his countrie fmarte; Till mothers ..tearcs,. and wiues , did pittie winne: F•hrid114 then·, whome bribes coulde not pcruertc. And JJJ~ej eeke ; ;md llm' voidc of drcede:; ·
With · C~; ~. r.;MntUi ,doe.f~
M•rtfll C•rir•.

~~~::Ae.:® In

.Hir•tiM ~1..

Mali111 CtaJittJinw. F•bij.

llle . it FAj;rlti.i, q~ai t dWiitililll ab · 1 "I ne'. 1 ibne, iluim $01 i cwfu fuo·&"cqf

••• C. FA#Jritlllf. l>t -·· fo/4; {ic '1',. ri>fu .,...1 f.MI...,... Dt r,,,.,;,.,.


.P•tt· 1...,.

thati ~e !Core ~ttaiiC$foughre. Who:l Romanes calfde Ac H t L L J!l s;for hi$ farce: Voto his graue so wounde behinde·bee l>i'oug~e,.



But fonie fine before, did caru~ hjs c~ TorqiiM114 eek~ ~·his foe that ouercame, And tooke his chaine~ whereby he had· his.112me. With CfAIIdiHII ·blinde, and ClA•dit~~ cuJ4X nadiile, Two brothers boulde, for valour great renowrlde:

...,.u. c.,.....

s;m.;.;iD""""" Aul1 qdllilt.a.







,.. na. Cli.-.,.u.

.A f}'iol· CIIIU'J··


..Ji,m, C~tl•ti- And C4Uti»t,
.C:Orr>d. Nq!os



tJKia(iiU c.~u-

that a1t S·t c It I A tarride, And one the Sea, Hamilcar did confounde: Luc1ttl ill6 eeke , that _,Carthage ·fteete fu bdlldel Whcreby,for peace they ·with fubmiffion fude.
And Ftthim greate, a.tid tM 1/YC MtiTaQ/M· ·bouide, That at the lengthe did S Y R A cy·s .:A facke; And eeke the a~ .of Porlill4 wee :behoulde, Whofe.life tpoughe longe, yet Rome to foonedidlaCEC:

F..biw M•ximus. MMrHs MllrCIIJ.Hs M11rU1s Pmi•s

c-'~· c,. D•iii~ts.



T.llOJJgbe they weare turn'd to poulder l()nge :agoe.

Duifljll4 -yet, and LJ11ill4 wee doe knowe,

clmiltsNn~. ·~e- ilioulde I (Fke of C/4111iilll 'JI{!ros hatte, ~~~:~U:!"uulo When HA. N.i BA:L.,·did royall Rome difmaye:

A1id 'HAs oR V~-A L did hall to.t.lke his parte, But CIJudim, lo,!did meetc him by the. -waye, And·ieaud his lire,and.put hiS hQfte ~o flighte, St#f• AfririiiJ"'•, And thrcwe his he:ld .to R A N 1 B. A t his. fighte. fiLiws#su ~f.M- Tl1en Sc1p1o comes, cl1at.C A·'R. T u:A c "E. w.aules d'd race. . . , ; ,1 , ·. l Fllt11ius N~il~;,. A noble prince, the fcconde vnto-none:' Pltul•s ~,,li,s. Fl~tminilll then · and Fuiii11M haue thek p'bce· StmfrtJII.IIIS Grll'· . • ' · &bus. . l£tmlll« aaes' an cl. 'Grtuchus' yet are knowne : .c~rntlita syB•. With. syU.z fierce , and· Cail14 M arit« lloute, CM liS MAruu p11-. Wl10 (ce aut'll warrcs, ma de Rome tenneyeaxes m do ubtc. · · ier., Appianur De Bdlo • • • ciu.J t.b.1. s ~rtorlll4 nexte, and eeke G..Jnmlll'na.me ~intus s,torilll w· l ~IT 11 . ""*Ius G~W;11 ;11 s. 1t 1 CraJJ 114, and Lucuu111, Iughe renoum:de.. z.,,;.,..,c;.,.g;,s.. And C.tfor great> that princ£ of enddclfc fume, luCfus ~~e&,.llus. Whofc a.:l:es all1andec.whileworlde dot he lafie 01all!oundc ]M/Ius. C•f•r. ' .., . . .. . ' . • oa..,.;,sA.uzuc..Au_'l.''JIM eeke, thad1appae-mo!l d1d-rargnc, fl•s. The fcourge·to them, that.had his vnkle ilai.nc.
J!nthoni111 then, that furtune
.N;.Br!'IIIS •

longe did frr.nae-.

Yet at the Iengthe, the-mofr vnhappie~a~ And Ltpidw·,'for!J.kcn in the eRde,

.;lfjjIIIJ '

With Brutll4 bouldc, and CaJSi114, pale .and wan: With.manie more, whome audhors doe repone. Whereof, cnfue. tome tutch~d in lar,ger forte.


T Dothhandc·, his harte, that fought P o furious flame; por. s and fwordc; within the fucwc sE N"N As ende:
H 1

ComeliDf N~

Whofe countries good, and eeke perpematl fame.: Before his life did S c JB voLA .commende: No paine, ~ad power hi~ eo~ hi~he to _quailc., But bouldlic fp.lkc , when fue did him atfaile.
Whidt fighte., abafh'd che lookers on' but mofte Amaz~de the kinge; who· pardoned firaighte the bigltc:-

AnJ ceafd. the fiege , and did remooue his hoftc-» When that bee fawe one man fO muche of mighte: 0 h nobl~ minde, althoughe thy- daics bee palk; Thy £une dotb liue, and ec£, for aye fuallla!lc. H...b11

C And vntO Rome
AM1l L

v s chl!n, chat did rc~ulfe ~c: ~:ltdes,

here, ltllOllgfl his acms th:lt ftill lba}}}iue. J mad<: my choicr-. ef this cnmple rare, That 01<LII fix aye his noble miude declaR:. \V herefono , in bride then this his woortbie pa.rtr. Wh.tt rime be did b<-f.tege F -A L .E Jll 1 A lttonge: ·A fcoolemafier, th:n hare: a 1 v u A s harte, ,.,._C'.-iJt ,.., Vatn the place wh~o.·re he wa' foltr4"d.longc-~ X]IAUrt Ottc walk'd Qbrode u'irh fcho~ that hce tooght~. Gt.Wuft nupit r~t \Vbichc clok.c h<:e V(de, (o that no hume was .tho'tglit.:. :01':u":;ft:.'~':u';:~~ At lenrd1e, "'''h fonnes of all [~.e bdi, and mollt, que violrn1is f~Qit Of 110oh: pcarq, that kcpce the tOW'tle by miuhce:. C<HJ6Ci.alur. & U• d _IL } ~ ·1n011ap 11c! bone» vi- Her.- ma e .his W;u&.e· into r 1e Romane hof'k, , lOS, h.-Mmuwi.al1l And. when ~ ame befOre c J. )11 1 I. V s fighrt,· :~~cq~=o~;:r'• Q!_oth hee, mv lot:.de, lo chef.:-~ thy prifOners bee. ••&u)aupeunda · Which beingc 'cept<:. FA l l k 1 A )'C't'ldes to thee. e(l.'linoafu~cnda. Wh~, a while rhis nobie captaine ftay'd, Gat oditta .quz per Cc:elu• ac !Dalni~ And pond«i~·weU the fl:raungenes of the caufc ~ elftrUIDr .ousnum V h' fi m·IJ;tn en~t" w;C lil.}'"ci. . tr_n. L- r... rninJ ;mpH,.orrm nto tS rcn ~-, fna: ""'11 ;,, n·>al·•· Tho11ghe Wmtr &re Jf, }tt go1d mtrH, 'rJfillrtS•IJ.IItt l,rf}pe,,

When th:it her

roes tnJde fpoile 'llithin he£ \\'auks~


h.xmcr 1late d1d gtuc:


,J11t\JI,r'>n~:ait bel· :m r;c.m,

r>z imprt.biutit li-

.And rr bthlloiUJ


Gentrllil go11d



W1tb "PIIlJAIM ~files~



wirb tte4,beTIIII ltllllll.

rhar. bee c:wrde ·this •s 1 N c N to hte flripte. And whippes, and rodd~, vnro the fchollers gaut: Whomc 1 backe againc, ioro the toune they whipte, 'W hith &de, once .knowne vnto their fathers graue: Wirh ioyfuU banes~ they ycelded vp their Toune: An aeke mofie rare, and gblfe of trUe renoume•

Virgil. lib. \. Atntid.

.ru. VJerhu Coruinus.
InJPtrt#flrn .u~Xilillm.

F lt T 1 1! s pen baue wriuen but the truthe, A of. Gcll &.J, And diuerfe mo, that a~$ of ould declare. · cap. 11. Then knowe, when Gaulcs did dare the Roman youthe. Euttopius rr:runa V .A L Ut 1 v· s , lo , a Roman did prepare R.omacansDa, By dinre of fword 1 the challenger tO nyo,. lib. 2.. Wh0 both in armes in.countrcd by and by. Ahd whilfi with force-, wy proou•d their weapons brigh~, And made the fearkes t9 Hie our of the.·lh:c:te, A Rauc:n , firaight , vppon V A L ~· R s.·v s ligbte, And made his foe a ncwe in counter fede: r Whome hee fo fore did damag~, and di~retre, That ac the: lengtbe., the Roman had fuccetfe. Fot, when his foe his forces at him hence, Wirh wit~ges alltpread che rauen dim'd his tighte: At lengrheo, his face hee faatch'd, and all to rente, And peck•d hi~ des. hce coulde not fee the lighre~ Whic:h fucwes, the locde in d:mngcr dorh preferuC', And naens raifc out wordlic wamcs ro {(·rue. p ..Rtgllll#l



l l..}

comcliar NcfOL

I11rropiar ll.b·&. De

~o JHlalco.

ulfimepalcbamalil tlrganulfimuq.vn:· fihu• h.mc hdloEUIT\IP.Uat.


Aol. GelliiU lib, ...


made to trembie at his name ; Who, fot. his f.&idle rt¥;eyucd this rewarde, . Two hundreth thoufande men, hee ouercame. And thrfe {core !hippes, .and eeke two hundreth townes, Yet Batninge fate, in fine vppon him &ownes. For, after by X A. N 1! 11' I' vs ouerthrowne, To CAR. T H-AG 1 broughce, in dungeon decpc was call:e; Yec, with <!elire for to redeeme their owne, Their mdfenger they 111adc him, at the lafte: And in exchaange, hee vnto Rome was fente, For prifoners there, and on his worde be wenre. 'Who promird this., hee woulde rerourne to bandes, If th_ at hee fail•d of that, they did·reLuire: BUt W hen hee r. fc . . • -L-=- _.:...J~ UlWe 0 mante ID UlC'Il' -~· Thoughe Romanes glad, did graunc him his ddire: y et cou Ide hee not tncteroo, in hllrre agr~, L-Bycaufe for him , to manie thoulde beC ~. Thus, countries loue , was dearcr then his life, \Vho backe rerourn·de, to keepe his promife true: Where hee did ta!te longe time of tormentes rife, But vet , h1> harrc no tortures cookie fubdue. I-b mangled cics, the Son ne all daye affailes; And m the cnde, was thruftc in tonne with nailes.

T That A

~ 0~~~0~!1!!!1.!!..!!!. i·C~~Iull ~ulde A ~ s .- her~-~cgarde,
T T- l L

l-ll 1 c K: J!

:tmim (?' /ili#tlr.

ARc SE R I v s recorde by righre M A Romane cboulde,nowe, I mayc coulde not difmaye: \\nome foes



Gainfre HA~ N IB :& ·L hee often fhewde his might~, Whofe righte hande ldl-c, his lefte hee did atfaye V ntill at lengthe an iton hande hee proou'd :

l''' .: • ·-···· 18.·

And after that C ll :s M oN A fiege remoou'd.

Then , did defen de P L /1 t

E N :r:·x A

in diilreffe,

And. wanne twelue houldcs, by dime of fworde in France, What.triumphes great? ·were·made for his fucce!fe, V.nco what frate did forrune him aduance1
Wbatfpcares? whatcrounest what~landes hee po£fdt:

The. hooours due..for them..that Ji<l t.lw befie.



en. r {)fi<J-

0· 7!ompilll~,
~lfo /lllkil jAr.:

' Loll


I " l"~

fdi!alll hf Hlrc..

WRI·J ~OM'PBY~t. wi'rh f0m1nelonge was blelc, And did· Wbdue bis foes. by-landc , and fea.. And conqudlcs _great obtained in the E.afte, a11Cl,1:. lablaoa. at AftbiCUIIliUlt. y(o And ~ A-i f'R·1 A~~. a.ncf: All A &I A. M s·. made ob.ye_ qu~ fUL~e•ic, ·C.C. :Aod· feu, -and ~, did it~ fubieai.on· bringC. aeuu~· 'Whofc· namct wltk fcarc;.did throughe I.v o t14.£ rin~

And ·h2d refb"c!c ldngc M As 1 w rs sA s 1igflre. And ouercame S Ill To 1t 1 v s with his powet: · And ~c the KinF of P oN TY s knowe his mighte. Y~. at tbc J~he, bee bad his luplelfc ~owcr.: For~e by C.rs.aa., Atd for.,;&, To A: c Yl'T 11'· fi:nd~; wherein bee was bc:uai'd.
Wichin whofe tiogct ws.~ aboue was.wr.Odghte. W.hereby., hi.s force , a11d noble minde .tppea~J Whidl;. With his head ro CA ~ A P being br:ooghtt-.11 Jor' ib1r~tde. griefe~ ·b.le wa:th•d the !ame wich rt11tes, Ar1d 1n a fire Wttb odours, and· pafutnes: . This princes hcsd with mowrnili& bee l'OllftJmes.

.:MArcus SeaL
Allide1 f•rtuna iMulf.


s monumente T A witnes tnie ·, ofof manhoode,Syet remaines, M c v s c v s harte:

Valeriut Ma-lJ•


Whofe valliancie, did purchafe him fuch gaines, That deat~ , nor time, can blemHhe his acfcrte. In battaile, boulde : no feare his han:e couldc wounde. When fixe. fcore .thafies within his fi1iekle weare toundc,. And. in that fightc , one of his cies bee lofro, His thighe thrUft throughe,and wounded fore be!ide: Such fowdiours, had greate C J£ s A R in his hoftc, As by him felfe , and others , is difcride. But, thofe that would more of the(e Knightes behoulde, them perufe the Roman Au&hours oulde. •. p '3 11Jflidi4



'J'n:~ ••• ~... > fi.f'<"'"' "' ••n... r • .: .ulr.us.i,


NiC.!I.curne,':'». 11H,r-r••'1..,"'

T Thatg'.llant Palrnc \\:irh bod!C fua1crhte ···"'!..,, frdbchc !howcs, With bral,mches
.. . . . . .

. fc h fi .d . Yet, at the oote t e rogges, 'an fcptentcs crall,.



and. taU. , >·.



With' erckfomc ·nqife , and eke With poifon fell : Who, as:it wearc, the tree doe ftiU annoye, And do .tbeir worfl:c , the fame for"'to ·dellrovt·.


'Vhen noble pccrcs, and~ men of high~ eltatc, By m!l:e- dekrre, doe liue in honor greatc: '"r. Yet, Enuie :fiill dothe waite on them as matt• ,....,.~ .• ,,.as:••d dotI1e h er won~e, to vn dermmc t he1r r. . 11.. · : IC:lte: l:~, f••:~·rm.•pcr to. An · lenc nrcr!fan-3 ~ A-..lM o Mvs bro ode d ot1 armc, wtt1 alJtheirmigHte, . 1 . . •L '!r.l•~vrnh·"·' in· uu 1e ;.~~~>':~~,~;~6 -~~ 1 To wou.ade their fame , w hofe life did geue.them lightc.

:. ····i "'

B:t.dllll! •


& dsmmo a!terirtJ, Alterim rvtilittU.


T TheLion fierce> and Gwage bore conrende, one, his pawes: his tulkes the other tries:
H 1.

And ere the broile, with' bloodie blowes had endc, A, vulture loe, attendes with watchinge eies: And of their ipoile, doth h~pe to przie his fill_. And ioy..:s, when they echc others bloo,d doe fpiil.

When m:!n o( mighte, with deadlic _mncor fwc-11, And moriall hate, twine mightie· Monarchcs raignes; Some. gripes doe watdte, that like the matter well, their lolfe, doe raife their priuare ga;nes: And of.. t So, SoL I M A N his Empire did increafe, When chrifhan kinges exiled louc , and- peace.
magnuo ftdet vf.ne/U ftcttm~ 'V'l'lfAl f.uenttU btlli YArios, &c . . .Et ptntltb.# ad/me btlb fort.li1M; diuqJ lm('f -;;rrumqu~ volat dubiif villori.t permis.

tlifttrJtJ pr~/i4 FtlfJ

s;, • ..a-....1"~
,...,.,., &r.,. Jj,;.

rit '»ni•·•~t•
V irg. Amcirt. r -~


·Vigi!Jntia, ~ wJlodU.

Dn. D. G v t

1 EL~

vM C

r1 ArT .E


"r o N ·V w

F.pif'opum c;tilrtnji.711.

l ~~~~~~ -

·-·------ - -

1 )..~ 1


H E Her~ul~e, that proclaimes the. daic at hande, . The Cocke I meanc:, that~wak~s vs out of lleepe, On fi:eeplc highe., dothlik.e a watchman ~: The gare beneath, a Lion flill.dorh kee~. And· why? theite two, did alder time .det:ree; That· at the Church~-, theire places Hill ihowdbee• .A'¥:,inl!Jifl.u+- That pafiors., (booldc like watchman fiill be prefle, l,f-m~!~::'~~ To wa.lre the worlde, that .fke~th.in h!s ~dna,. •· tj{iniciliU&, ita And roufc them vp, that.looge are. rock d m.Jefre, lf·i~ Daunnihil And ihewe the date ofChrifre ,··will ftr.ught.e. be~irina t eiCJUS. J.nd to forereH ,-and preachc, that light deuine, ':Wdp,rgaJlumEuen as t~ Cocke .cloth fmge, ere d~c doth fhine. ,\·,Jeq.pe-•ligni- TL . . L' n... h 11 Id f L-·.:-~nk-, .ciau!l. · ·ne tOn mewes > t ey 1Qu e o courage ~~ ..Mi~ Cuper A!- And able to dc:fendc:' thc.ar &eke frgm foes.: "UrUm Emb. ·~· If·r:l)lenmg wo.lt,. . . .~ 1 e 1 fmi•i.: es, .to t··J.C m wa1tc t 1. 1ee: tey r. ·· They fhoulde be· Rronge, anQ boaldc:, w1th them to.dQ{e; And fo be arma.de with·leamiag,·and with life, As· they might kcepe ;· their d1aJ~c, from cither:ftrifC.






..JJ Jru!Tif~e.r WIJ .0,. F~ AN c 1 ~ c ··"~ \Vi N o u A u, & D". E J:)w An 1> v.M F1 o w &RI>£ w a l.Uircl ktJtgmimm


Ist r•pi~ll•·~


lU hoc" •t .:lCI"- ,, ..

!'lm ~-;cl...,o4>•,ftd

'l"'d dr~~ pcncl<'t'tt• ,..., q<1.n· rucn lib! pctr..;t'u'ft)


T A mirror good, forvTu9ges iufte eotlroi!e, s figure, lo, A c vs rv.s did fee,




tdcm l Olli•.
!"•c a.atrt llr111p. rac <:Qntra aufwlaQo d''"' •m•o .-a11~ ,,, 1-.)Q.U fa· 't\. ""' £i ,,, !curnJ•JJI t<1t de ·po ..ni''> po:rut rn<41 ,.ulotum • m.ca <•i ·1l .r,do~h iL!tl."~ • nt:t~ ft nnar ia fa~~o.4a !\sa ..
(\Qll IIDI<~ n . ~- atniql;:at ~~

And al w htte, to bee befilre their eieS, When fcmcncc they·, of life, and deathe -4ecrec 1 Then rriulle t~~Y· balk, but vene Oowe ·aw.Ue, L.kc bum:rftie, whome ·creepinge crabbe dotbc: !late.


Tht Prince, or ludge, maie not with ligh~e reporce
ln doubcfull. chingcs 1 giue rud~menl"tauching lit~: .But me ,,-and h:arne the· truthe in euerie (one; And "tnct'tie ioync , with iuihco ·bloodie lcmfe: T'is plwed well A v G v s T.'V s noble grace, And ludgc:s all , within this ttacke 1hould.e trace..
· Cgofolirt· PJtTiA, p.rr,trt •ftfllHI , f~r• C.tdt •'fij'ltPt, I , . MfltJI ~ tl.rrt, t~!·i i;tdfflm; /ttiiiD ,.,,. _(14) HM jum"' ,,,_, pttRIIt' hA' ,,._ r;A.




flUifldt n.tl~o.

.. ,;.;.,

cr,3d.l.ti•·'· Tit~


_.... '1"' fo:1. , ..





""*' ,... tifti,CZit.

; ••,(~.,,...., , ..JJ




Sitll iuRitLI, *fufi~.


the n,ouldca worldc, th:H Poetres prai{cd mol\~:, No lwe, w~s lutbor'd thc•i at home: nor h<uch'd. in fom:nto{t .... But afrt·r, when the C'llnhe, with people did' im:reafe: Ambfuon, llraig~ began to {pnngc: and pryde, did baoiihe peace. For, as all tym~ Joe change: eut'fl fo , this age did palfc:. . Then <lid ~he liluer age in!ue. and then~ the age: 9£ braili:. n. fe ll r. d The Iron :age~·1 aK~, a areh1 cune tyme: Then , .armtes came. ofmi(chi~fc:s i~: -an~£~' d the worWc v.•ith ttyme• Then rlg<lr •.and reucsge, dtd fpnnge 10 euell.howtr: ' And m<:n of mighte,. did m:uuage~U,:mda~nn~rtftwirh power. d . • • ...J_ d' -r. . An hec:, that m1gbac was, .hts WOcqJ;·, 1 ilaRd. r }awe:. A,nd·w~~t rhc p~r~~d~he,an~fowe:~dtcha~ydiddra...ve. None mrghtc thctr·wtues mJoye, thctrdau@tcDS,·Or thetr goodes, No, northeir lmes:fuch tyraunts broode,diJ'fceke to fpilJ'.thcir bloodts. Then venues weue dcf.altd and dim'd with· rim vile Then·wronge, did ma(keinclok.eofrighre-: thtnbad)didgoocfailc Then f.Ulhood • Chadowed truthe: :md hate, laugh' d loue to tkorne: Then pi tie,. and comp..ut:ion died : and bloodlhed fowlc was bOrne. So dut no vern1es then, thcir proper !hates did bearc: Nor couldc from vices bee: decem' d, fo llraunge they. mixed wcare. That nowe, tnro··the worlde-, an other CH-AOS came: But G o.v, that o£ the fOrn'ler~pe: the M:wen~nd eanhedid frame . .And all thinges plac'd therein, hts gi6rye to d«hu~: Sente .1 v s T l c E downc vnro the earthe:.{uch loue ·ro man ~ baFC \Vho, fo.fi.tnny•d rhe wodd, with fuch an beau~nly vewe: That qoidcley vercues-lbee aduanc>d: and vices dtd fubduc. And, of i:hat worlde -did 1na~, a- par:tdice, of blilfc: By which wee doo ioferrc: Tim whcrcnhis facred Goddes is. That land doth florifhe. fti1l, and gladue$; their doth growe: Bicaufe that all, to God, and Prince, by her their dewties ki10Wt. And wl\ere her 1'refence W'lntes, theremine·raign.es, and wracke; .And_ kmgdomc~ can not .longe tndure i tlm doe this: ladie lackr:. Then bappie England DlQll, ~re I • n 1 c 1: is;, embrac'd : AuJ C'tke fo many !:1mQLJS men, WidUn htrchaircure plac'd
1 . · · . '

Tf1!~ \1·.,~


~'1.~';1,:;;· li, 'I"'J~"'rttl· s••"~'""·~"·· ,,,_,.u,..--.

r.~"'J""- ,,.,,..,.,

oald.~o Mtl'2~&


'tl,..,,. ,., ,.,_., ....

"' .er..
Fi<hcf'liDIIefa n

Ilido"·'· Frt.y.







c~iq.,elb*' ptorrialll

""~&elolllllitic. lultlu& eft ..lmi.libtrtu, niloucu vnl·

corJr•"' 11l'ii!Dri dtf<t1iaL11,~ opcrc~Q

4i&llit~tm, lllat<;ri ICUtrftltiarn, pari c~.

lllatD. fcllllt..·o pat :c~·
Iuiqo 't•linla'vll!c:-

pli.A,m1 V eo c~e~l<:­ tiam. ltbi rantlir.·o-

JDI(cr icilr'dlaar.

Jib. 1Jc Jlidc l'i Ofi. ri-U, & 1p11d Gcll.
h11.14.Cii'•4• .

••• apaol l'lbtarclt.

'!-: ;,

tibi qmd li&tAt, Jitl quid fedfft liilfil, oc"ll'rtet, m1ntmr~ tlontt~ rtJief#rll ~111Ili.

-ftl. &ornprimt , , . ,


11•1- '' f*Mr

Hor.l.m Poet.

... . ...Jf.t.-

F open foes, wee alwaies maie beware, And arme our fclaes, theire Malice to withfbride: Yea , thougbe they fmile J yet haue wee full a CU'e, Wee troll them not, althoughe they giue theire hande: Theire Foxes coatc, thes.rc: filined bane bewraies, Wee neccic not doubt, bicaufe wee knowe theire waies. But th.ofe, of whome wee Irtuft tn daungcr bee, Are dead he foes, that doe in fecretlurke.
Whoe lie m w..tite, when that wee can not fce, And vna~-:~rcs, doe our dcfhufrion worke:




A.s man ro

fell, (as B 1 As w1fe declares) m~ , whcu mifchoife hec prepare~ ·
bomG .Sttr.

Plf'W'ur hQtrJini f"~ ~l jilw

Thidne dogge, to N t L vs runnes to drinke, i A Cmcodde, - .as rc.adie .n dae. ftood: "" Which made the d~gge) "to lrw~ ha~de by the .brinkc, A_ .L_. h feare o pmu.mmg n. d : r ~one~ muc •n uoo And fparingly, bcpn to coo le hi& heate, When as hcc ~WC-t this Serpent lye 1n waite.


De Croc:od,Ae~ lian. de Animal. lib.19· eap. 3· De. lib. .cap.ts.&

ae qua, tn pnra;a panehuius )ibri,
fol. ~. idein Acl.. lib. s·cap. s~ le
lib. a. cap.+·

prz(cie~ria e~ur~

Tlus carefuH dor8e· ~odemncs thofe areles Vfighres, , ContraEbri~ Althoughc he bee of brutUllic kynde, ~ycaufc tons. G.l.u'J. i ' Thole reafon lacke, that 1pend.both da.ies ,.and nightct, ~aul. { B,..,._ s~ Without regard-, in keeping ·BA CC H Vs !awes-: ~'f::~~~~U. . Andwhenthroughedririkc,.onJCete they can oodbmde, fanimtiscft.aJ:too~ L--·· L ... ~rum YoluptaaS., YCt as t hC'f t, they 110115 .L_;_ L--1-- U1 .JIOII~mi' l-YC, \,lM;U. ~ u:rtiii conrume1

,...r,: CMttAIUI ~ ,.,,; ~ p~fiiMfz iJr f'""" 'lmit: p,,.., ,, ;ue , . er
C•,.,b•IIJ lnt Hrintl; ,,., hiM~· Mllr
W~nt. ~·JJMiric

liz, vltimum iofani:r. · N emcf. Eclog+ conu.1 potorcs.

JlfljlA WJri_,


lnflgni~· pottiii'Um.
Al ltfbilij. & dot1if. 'Pirum D11. lAw v M Do V 1 .A v A N 0 0 J\·T w I 1 c x:.

ea!&. MetaiDo&.

;:::. ".::~ :.~ But Ph.a:bu• facrtd birl~ • kt .P oettcs molle conuncndc. JJ....':/,•;- ...,, Who i as it were by lkiiL<teuinc ~ With foqge foslhoWcJ bU enck. 'DiiJbiu ,...,, ..,,, .And u hil mne dcliglucs: fOr rarmes of the Gmc•. :~:::;,:~ill. So -tbty with (wccten~ -~ ~cire vetfe. fhoaldt _.iooe:a li.aing ~ ...,,,. ,.llf't, AQd as hif. e9lour·wbire: Stnctreaes ®tb d«lare. ~fi';,. •ft· :,, - So Poettet mull bee cleatie, and pure.. aad muG of crime· lxw.re.. ~:1:/::;,,"r For which re(pea:eJ the Swune, lhotild in tbeite ~~gne fbnde: ~ ...,..._: .-. · No' foaen fowle .~ o~fup~dc kinge of ·L • G-N·a 1 " Lande. '*'fi• .... atr• 411'*' ftm••t oliirr. •. reg~ ,ot·u, hmi, ,itpli ""'l'W '"'"' eb~ri. ()aiel. ', Arr, S.trrll~ ititdtfi.M, & .,,, ?IIIITihiliM•ta ·~~~~. ,..,.,., , (? Utg• f.tpl ~-.,.,. ~,;,. ,.,,m C11l.tbril in frtlll,

TH Maman or with Griphins fierce, or..Dtagoas,infidde, fhid&a. ofre.·do inarcbe inro"the With Egla,· thcire



.......,.j/1.,_,., ...,_

c,ti• ,. stili• &cz-'lilli,



)liiW tUrA .jirf1 ·hMirf

err~ ..,~il


rigilllr1 iiiiUt, quil uffn· H.,.. lli'M 41,.,. Ji l•llljf{n (JP•·


MH.fit, . . , . fltn~tr IJun.

•1'Nf.lfz tfd{l;,.


He£\-orsfooce,duoughemorta1lwoundedid&ile, W And life bcganne , to dreadefull deathe to yeeldc: ·

The Grcckcs mofie gladde 0 his dyinge corpes .iifaile, Who late did Rce before him in 'the lielde: Which when he &we , quothc hee noweworke your fpite, . For tO , the hares the Lion dead doe byte. _

Looke here vpon , you that doe wounde the dead, With fl:m~ vile , and fpeeches of defiamc : Or bookes procure, and libellcs to be fpread, Wh_en .they bee gone , fur to deface tbeire name : Who while they lilidl: , did feare you with theire lookes, And for thcire flcill, you might not beare their bookcs.
Virg. A:nqd.n.


ftlo de fe.

~ Oyfter commes, · Where of his dcathe , he guiltie was him felfe: The Oy!kr gap'd, t~c Moufe p~t ir;t his:bead, Where he·was catch d, and cndh:d till he VJas dead.

f~h·d the At lengthe for chaungb, vnto

T Andmoufc:, thar longe did teede· 011·-daintiecrommes,. fafdie cupborck. and the fbc1fe:

IIJdoru~lib. r.de fummo bono.
oim.ia acie menris obtundit ingcniumquecu•.... acre .facit

The Gluttons fatte I that daintie &re deuourc, And feeke about, -to 1atisne thcirc taillC": And what they like, inU> theirc.bellics r---~ ~. TillS iufilie blames, mr 6ufettes come-~ h~;

And biddes them fcate, thein(~_,anchbdceunca.-.. ---s Eor oftentimcs 6 the fame -are <lcadM b.aitc£ ..

prtHiig• , •.

LMxtlries-nHif'l""'' p~~tllt "llltlfiAI.._~ It q11.jtqrrnn tmA pt!Agtltp~t.,.,. ~~~~ f•mts, & IMn• llmA ....r~


a raging Sea, that roare.s, with fearefull (oundc, And threamcth all the worldc to oucrBowc ~ The fhorc fometimes, his· billow.cs.doth rebounde, Though oftc it winncs, md~ucsthe·carthea bJowe · SoQletim~ where lhippcs· did Uile: it: makes a lande. Sometimes ~e they faile: where -.ncs.did fiandc• So , if the Lordc did not his t:age rtllr.Dne, And fet his boundes, fo that it·can not ~e: The worldc fuouldc f.We 1 -aod man -rouldc not sanaine, But 211 that is, lhouldc foone be turn'd ro was: By ~g Sea, 1S Incnt- our lthoftlie foe, By eanhc, mans foulc : be fec:1r.es to -euenbrowe. And as the JUrge ·dolb worke both daic , and nighte, And fhakcs tbC Oaote, and ragged rockcs doth rente: So Sathan fiitres,. with all his maine, and m1ghte, Continaall fitge, our. fouJes to circumucntc. Then watcbe, andpraic-,for fearc wee flcepc in &me, Ior.ccafeour aimc: and bee can nothing winoe. R Ditl•



'niBafeptem ftSJ1imtu11t.
To Sir H
r,. H E






~ ~~;;w.,.......


l'luwch. :le lib.

Cilm r.1iJua~mpia 11m1pore tiJIIDaall• Wl, foapie 1U ia KJ\aifl.
acdult auacfQf,

Sapieatiz OUJ-"f• !:Ot;. fm11: le. quo

oliofiOf d\ f2piea' ti.t, eo <ICttlUUo( in !ilo ~·rm:~.

For WlfedJ:>me grcate • .amongft thc:ire fail'lges wife: F.ache ono of them, a gouldc:n fc:nrencc bad, .And AI~, did the: pillures thul dcuUC, For ro obferue the vie of .Emblcats sigLre; Which ~fcnt the meming tt> our figbte. 'Kill' ftiD tht ....u, did c L 1"0 11 u L 'Y • le~: For ~c:afure, ~o, the bal.lauce ioya"cl tbmto. ADd K"'*' th1ftlfu, did CH I to lf; alwaiiS ~ache-; . Tllc .g\aii:. befaciq@e, that thou: dae fame snaillc: doe. ;R,nr-.. tbJ 'IPrMhu 1 dotbe P~ lt. 1,. N D 1 a. relh And lbc:~an hearic 4fiat tholler 4orhe .cxpc.U. N•tbing• ,,, nI r.r A.C Y.S cnaunaod~ Thereto • a Bowd, wbcrruf too .muche dcfiroy.c.s. And .So L·o" fii•d, ~!}f/J ~.Miu, Be: fore the which, none can laauc.pclfed ioycs: A pilkr form'd 1 dc:cliltili£C: dowoc: he: 1nowes, Which t~s that dathe .. the: firoo,gc:ft ooertbrowcs. of ~•.t.,. iiiiN~~tMM.J : This B 1 A 1 vl'd: a.nd- caufe .fOr fouJe dc:F.ame. S A • :0 I M I A . mo~c: is 1\aifted 0 as We tcad(: Oil a.ll'es hacke, bch04:1dc: ooc ot the fame. An~ TH.l L ,,. , b~of all tbc: Sap, uy'if: Fluf~YHr~iflnf:, forfcae tlaau bc:'bciuay"4. And Tndernc:arhc:, -~ birdc vpon tlaC' ntt, ~at do the: nOc rc:are, the: cr.tfne roulc:rs c.:all, Hereby wet oh, doe paic: an ahc:n delne 1 Anti 6oc our .&eiadcs., and briag~ oar felucs.in d!JaH~ 'Which 4£;nc:s_wife' who<: keep:: rhc:m io thc:u br~ By proofcJ tiadc:, they h~rboux hapjliC: gudlcs.


HE f~es

feucn, who!i: fame nf~de Grccia gla.cl,

.,. ,.,..,.

~. ~
- ~~




_ _ ___ ..-. ~· · __ .

F m1gbde T R o 1 a·, wich gares of fiede, :~nd bra!fe, Bee worne awakJ wit& traele of fiealinge rime : "PropeniUf, Jf CART-~ A~ E, nGe; ifT H ! ·BP. s be ~rownc with gr.Ufe.. ErT,.• fltrcrMit... kjtu T,,;, foil • If .BA JH 1. lloope :·tnat to the cloudes did clime: If AT"IfENS:.,·and NvKA.NTIA fitffered fp6ile: Demo !\b. in AtJlib. lo If ..£G YPT fpires. be aues:~cd with rile r~. Ckrilfimtt olim "'• !Ks.r.llll<r!ihil funr, Then., wluc maye latl.c. which· dtnc dod1c -noumpeaclw, QS1t ma:rimo nunc Since that wtt·Ue, tbeife monumenrts aru gone: fuperblant randcrn Not hinge at all , but time doth -oucr noachc2 aliquatulo tou uoalll •!fpcricnutt. It care5 1he fiedc, and weares the marble ftoa«; Ylr~.ia Maaraa&i1 But writinges bite~- thonuhe yt doe what it- can, ob11U. And are prcfem'd, cuen ancc-thc world~ ~D. M•r~~~fll'• ~f~r.ij .A.'Ki fo [~ey iball, while that tbcy l&mc<fothe bAc~ /iHIIJ: Whirh 1\aye dcdat'd 2 and fhall ro futUre age: . 'Ziiwil., j-~...u. tl• .,..,.,t:'" '"'wt. k What thin~s befOre threo thouGDdcyam "luue pafu., Owd. t. Amor.to, \Vhat manialllcnfghtes, haw: ~rch'd vpp<m this llaget l/lnJihlr wfle>, /,1111• -ft~Rl.it•r i:r ..,;;. Whofe ath:s, io bookes if writers did not fauOj (••,.,.n ~ ­ • Their fame ·had ceafle, and gone 'W'hh them to gtaue. ....,,fom• purw11io Of SA M soNS ftreogthe, ofwonhie J 0 5 V A$ tnig.bt, •il· Of D A V ID s ades, of Al. EX AND! R s rorce, Of C Ai s A 1t. greatc; and S c 1 P 1 o noble knight> Howe fhonlde we fpeake. buc bookes t~Yrco£ difcourte: Then fauoor them , dut learnc: within their vouthc : l\A~t ioao-tbem befte, that loame. and write the truche. R. A 1>1 mnr1,


t-; z.

7)e morte., ftl llmWI: loco[,.,.
nE DWAa D Dvaa E{quifr.

r L E filrious Mors. from place , to place did flie, Aa.d here , and there , her fatall dartes did throwc: .At lengthe thee mcne, with Cupid paaing by, IOicbllll. lcllciue. Wflo likewifc had. bene bufac with his bowe: ...,.,..,_ -u.m Within one lnne, they bodlC togeathtf fta)'"d. fl :::~ And for one nightc, awaie thclrc th~ la)'d. ~-·14"/;--:· The.mo~c um. they bol~ awaie doe baRe, :J:~ And c:achc· by cbaunce,. the omc:n ~iuer akcs: &ri!Nflifw--. The frozen~; on Cupidde$ baCkc wearc plat'cl, ~--- - · The fieric dartea, the bne virlago (hakes 1 · Whereby eofued, fuche alteraaoa ftraun~. As all .the wodde, did Wonder· at the 'ChaUnge. ·fot gallant yourhcs .whomc Cupid ~te eo Woandc, Ofiouc. and life. did make an cndc at oo~. And aged men, whome deathc ~ bringe to .poandc: .Begannc againe to loue, with ligbes, 'nd ~-i Thus natures lawa, this ~ in,&itap foe: That age did loue, and._youtho ~ gnac did goe. Tilt at thF lalk, as. Cnpid dr~e his OOW'e, Before he fhotte: a youngli~ thus. did aye, Oh Venus fonne, thy darres th'oadolle.not knowe, They pierce toO .dc-epe : for all thou .IUt,ta, doe die : Qh _fpare our ag~, who bonored ,th~ .of oulclc~


Thcifc daaes arc bone.,-~

thou~ dmes

ofp.Ude. Which

Which bcinge faide, 3 while did Cupid llaye, And fa we, how youthe was almofie deane ex tin~: And age did doare, with garlandes frdhe , and gaye, And h~ades all b:~.lde, weare newe in wedlocke linclct~ Wherefore he {hewed, this error vnto Mors, Who mifcontent,. did chaunge againe perforce. Yet fo • as bathe fome dartos awaie cpnuay•d, Which weare not theirs: yet vnro neither knowne, Some bonie dartes, in Cupiddes quiuer {by'd, Some goulden dartes, had Mors amongA: her owne. Then, when wee fee, vnrimelie deathe appeare: Or wanton age:: it was this chaunce you heare.


M•x.lib.6. o 1 here _the vine dothe clafpc:, to prudent Pallas tree, The: league is nought, for virgines wife, doe: Bacchus frendlhip flee, Mui1cr qu:c nm

v!um immodera-

Alciat. Q.!!id me l'tXAtil r.mri? Stlln P.tDdil #b,, Ml/ntl bin& botrll , 'irg1 f11Jil Br-1111itm1.

te apperic, &


B,gli{hea fo.
Why vexe yee mee y~ boughes ? Gnce I am Pa1l:ts tree: Rcmoue awaie your duA:cr!. henC(!., the virgin wme dorh ltee. R 5 In eo·

wubus 1.1nuam ci•~H!ir, ·& delt-


ln coloreJ.



1.oe htro, a £ewe or coloun plaine expret.re' Aad eeke the men, with wbome they i>c;ft agttc: Yet eucric one-, dOtlnhinkc his bewe the befte, And ~:hat one likes, an other lorhes to ke : For ~rure choughe ten thoo&nde colours haue ~ Y~X •~tto -.n, m~ vanijng mi~Jaue• .No~e fl~'fflnll"s., .,,. ib•lr tfllfll1ill jlia. .. .And m.lc:f .,s •fo. 'IViib t1lMIP1 ·tbt) '"*: J.lttp tbi.Jr.! '"' Wul~. fot,ta. thfifo •I bus tllill -lmtk. ~JCAIIjt .fo jrwt • 1/WA'* 'I Ue '"itt.

r et let them ~•We ~.:] ·bllb.r rbefi prefen"s,
.1,.,ghe ftl'l lh1/i-, y,h,

Bin fo;e "'ee Lu4!, tb(ir berits, rblit tJpmtzes. their flies, And 'IV.Gif tbt JJIMJN,~ tbftr glflllflll, •tfr41111. Tet !Mf.dt, b,ftb ,_ ~ gflfintt tliu. brd 1lt tllnti,. '11 D Y' a x ""If 1/ f-., w~n~., ~'"-irs IMrbt fo fl,. •ml frl/bt' 11 ~­
TbttJ ;,;

"Aft" ftiU ctmtenm.


u,us, tlil ale.! i1 11111 11 V111'-

.1n flutluJfom C4jit11111 ArJI(!fe. ·

Reuerend ~Y,~C: wtfedome moO: pr,toundc,. Beganne to ., :1nd la ye awaye his hooker. For C v 1• 1 D chm, fli-s ttnder harce did wounde, That onlie aewe:. he lik de his ladies loo lees : on VINT.S -ibie! Gnce once the price· was thmt. Tboo oughfft not thH, a~ PAL t AS dtusrepinc. · Cttmtr httmJtMt {anllt "'ediri~ tll!#ttr?s:
SQllll ~mn Jr111Tbi , 4m4 ~1jfom~.



~b flinenti4.

Ho fa are !J.c'd , in f:J.C(e>d Iull:ice roome J And haue m charge, her fiatutes to obferue:. .AasJ'•{M!""l'fi.l.J7 l et tUC'm Wit h care, behOwuc t h'IS g;;u:u~ toOinet L. __ LJ_ --:ll..•d Apud iuAu~lndicnn (ola c->ntci<Dti.l That fi1che a ORe, at lengthe they- maic. deferue:. propna umc.odacfl. Of m;&fble hard~,. fuppofe die fame to bee•• ;:;:~.D,-. An Ewer ec:ke, vppon-one corner ~andcs, Non vo• iudict~it At th"other ende ,.a bafon wee m:ue fee: malcuo1ouCfc~qui- With Towdl faire to wifce theire W.lilied handcs: · 4o ahrrtu' craaHD , • . • • • ;ud.mis: magu. Th effede whereof, et Judges prmte Jn mmde, 'l"'P~ nocerra dlis, That maie leaue a lafting name liebinde. fi. fr:urco vdtrna, . ~·n· iLidioaodo cor- The marble owes~ they mu {t bee 6rme ' and fure, ria•rt po_ua .. • aa- And not be pietc'd nor inoaued from the truthe ~ cUo pnar< pumP:· • 1aw. The rdle. declare: they muft bee deane ,.and pmc; Saoba~Jux Plurar- And not in din· d to rigor, 01.1 to ruthe. ~hi s~rm.44. _ru~&lie Bm when a caule before them fhal~ harde JCD&f,lntl audacum ' ' apud Thcbaa cft'c,. Wirh confcicnce cleare, let dxm the fame decide: he ~r~ambus, ~~ No Ritchc: ' or 'Poore ' 01' frend ,. or foe ' ·-o I'M7arde' f'um"" aG.!ICia ama&iDem rbufis OCII· For feare, they doe throughe theire affeaions flide: ha: Ed qud~ •u!hua · But ler them wafue • theire handes from euerie crime t DCC munrnba• c~ pi • nrc hom..,ua.. • That GoD maye bldfc • and here prolonge thei're rime. ---" • __ ... v~ltll llct\i drurar. .• . ,_, .' , . r. (;),.,>·--•·' ... > ,_ ._ .: N••-,_, "' -·- '"1,,.., ,..,.,.. J'-· "'--""' ..._., '1- .......,..., r'd1 ""'' ~--•• .Aur.o~. de: viro bo- o-... q•u,. l•!,i """_,.;,.a. il>n: c~r .... lo.J417frtMi•'- ;;e •• -"""'~*""'"'




fJyl<. 18.

[wr tfli

£}~ pr1Wt,"ff'*lljiOJd.(tffwm;,fmJf"'l tt..iJnn, ,;.ao •bfoit, .at I

,..1, pr•tcnlJor:e: ..,, Ire {t>r~mfio {tdi,, ~- ,..~,ou ,....,.,. foll 1 mifir•t,.. <tmtc,,



Pttfml1'*' ,...jq... m! rwr J i l t -... ""'Jil,..., D•fo,pl- ,,_.ha![,. .nl1ii t? foil• f'' ..,.j,.
lrrJ_rt<b,t, ,,..,.. ~ t•t/ftro <...0• r-lw1111,

()ffi_nf*l'-' dill ~·ar..._, t? pAmu n/h.

'"'· ..1"1- fr.II• JH•fo•f: mrnl• ~""""?

,..A fl .....,,_,..

_--i)~~~~~ - ·~WJiM\ l ~i\i~


Cnni!.t'1ti.1 comu
1'o M
J l ES



11. B ET



r-qic1ori~t. E{t;uicr.



-~ ~· ~ ~


f1i ~ --· ---- -, ! I
~~~~.10\..~h j
Boni gubrrn;;turisclt, vcnroui re

:~ ~ ~~p~l ~ ~~

· ~;'

that lunge vppon the fea dothe failc, T And.<hippe, and there, with vanijng windes is toflc: here,

~'?!~ --~~~~~~~~

On rockcs, and fandcs: in daungcr ofi:e to quailc. Yet at thc.lengthc, obtaincs the wilbed coafte: Which beingc wonnc, the trompctts radinge blaA:e, Dothe teare_ the ikie , for ioye of perill~ pafie. Thoughc mafier refi:e, thoughe Pilotte t.1ke his e.1fe, Yet nighte, and dJy, the Chip her cuurfe dot be kc-=pc: So, whilft that man dod1e faile chetfe worldlic fcas~ His voyage £hortes: althbughc be wake, or flcepe. And 1f he kcepe his courfc direde, he winnes That wifhed portc, where la..tl:ingc ioye bcginncs.
Dtmtlri,. Phil/,. Tard ~ 3ggrcJcrc, quod aggrcJfurus ~~ s perfeucramer profcquM'e. N am vc 1nqun Grc~.1ib.x. M or. Incalfuni bonum a3imr.li ante nL~ ter-mmum dr:fcrJtur: Q.!l.ia frulha nkxitercurrit ...Fi l'lin~, quam ad .!UCtas venai,, dcfiot.

modarc: viriaurem f~iElis,ani­

rni affcllibus. Arifl. apud Stob.



And when that wams, with bloodie blocs, had cnde. They, bony wroa~~wbere fouldioor was prdcru'd: Which dodt , the bldfed .fiuires of peace, How fweete lhee is, when m~rtaU warres doe ~ P.x"" cmA in plMUI•s ruruuit ;, r[111:· .Al'i"l' ,,," f•, fllilitil .,, ftri.

hclanet ftronge, did .the T Beholde, fur hyue, the bees ID qutet Ce1u d :
Jf 1


h~ d~ende,

CalumniAm co1Jtr4 c~oremtVirtlll ~flit~



fo wich force ag:1inft the marble wall~ Or piller Jlronge , doth fhooce, to pierce the fame: lt not pzeuailcs, for dou?te rhe arrowes fall, Or backc: rehounde. to him from whence they came: So fhundcrs foule , and wordes like arrowes kcenc. Nt)t venue huttc.r, but nacncs bc:r foes to teenc.

Sic j}ecundA {ull1.

r, G • o a G a M A N w ,. 1u N c E F.filld•.



:r~.:.C ~,..

to..1che dorh trye, rhc fine, and pureft go\lldc.: And not the found, or ds the ~.OO<lly fhoW"c. So, if mennes w.yc-s, :tAd vettues, vree bchoolde, The worthy men, wee by their workcs, fhall know. But gallant l01."'-~, and omward lhowes beguile, And ofec arc clokc.s to ccgitacions vile.



... ~

Chl&d.a. Su1. .&e

pn .,...,.,1,..:•

lit•..... ,...._~••

M•,filr.,...~ bt.,, ....... ·-'""'" LI
/iiW ~IC .......,,.,_.,~ No!Mi;>AIJ..,, •·fo·


.AIIIc•t•" -


-.va .


Feriunt fummcs {ul111i11a montes. ·

I. T. E{quitr•

.C~g,IX'•.10 mor. CwnqwspouNS

aye : Or to weare: turn ~tl! munt Where littetl dogges ~oe palfe theit time in playe· profpem.1s an . • ~djligatur. And ofie, are bould to barkc, and eeke to b1te, ~~ifl!o ~~:.re feeWhen as before they trembled at his fighte. bcuaus 1nrcrro• g~t vim di etlia:- yet when in bondes they fee his thrauled fbte n1s:ue_cprofpcn- t:' ·h' b ·. bcgtnnes .to 1quare, and'brall· · · r. · ta.S q~,d~m 3JT11- z.ac e .?ggmge cu_rre J • cum 1ndacar, nee The freer forre, doe wonder ar Ius fate :lducrtiras 'nk . n.....!.. uua cum eclat. inimi- A Dd t h.1 C t llCID ben..... th,1[ are 0 f U;iiW[C '"--U : IU.:, Eraf.in Epifl. For they m~i~ flccpe vpf<>n their .mi~~ bcdde, . Nihiladuerlum, And 011 the1r lappcst With dayntles full bee fedde.. nifi qupd nobis The l fti . .h . rtl obflat ·ad a-rcrQ e pme, Wlt axe lS oue lfOWilC, fllmfa:lic.itarC'm And is prcpar'd, tO lerue the lhipmans eurne: propcrannbus: Wl b IL. 11--d '11 fl b rbl 11ihil profpctu rn. 1CQ. Ulu~S u;an C , tl uormes ~e 0~ .. ~ nifi qu.od 4co And hghtmnges Aafhe, the mounClti'JIC·toppes dothbume.
in _prOfpcnnre dihsirur. incu~ 1t

T W bbandogge ,.-fitte to matche the bull or bcarct b lad d' '
H F.

-L. Uu;a-.ns greate , IS en euery drawcs the carte, and furc'd the yoke

All whicb doe th~: that pompc, and 'ROr~e ~, Make~ monarches,Jllark:es: wh= . .afl'ijnge fate doth lowq. Y

Ouid.t, Arr.


/Mill •P•f" ,.,,. ,,,,, 1'fli.

,.;,.; rt&w pltr11mq11e fuuuil,


throughe:his foes, did. lDoulJe BR As' o ~ s thrufl:e, And thought wnh force, the1r courage-to confourufc.:. Throug~ ttrgat faire, wherein he put his trufl:e, His manlie cor·pcs teceau' d a ·morr.all wounde. Beinge a~d the cauk_, before ho yeclded ghofl:e: ~h hee, my fhidde, wherein I rrulkd molle.
H 1 L 'B



d111 apdd PI.U. chu111o

J!aeu fo it ·~p~s. wee ofie our bayne doe brne, When ere wee. rrie, wee rruft· the gallantc fhowe: When frendes fuppoafd , do prooue them felues vnrrue, When S r NoN f.Ufe t in D A. M o Ns lhape ·dot he goe : Then gulfes of griefe, doe fwallowe vp our mirthe, Anthhoughres ofte times , doe lhrow'd vs in the earrhe. All is not goulde rh~t glittereth ·to the eye: Some poifon frrongc, a fagred tafre doth keepe; The crabbe ofre tin1es, is beauriJUll to fee. 11le A-dder fell, wirhin the flowers doth creepe: . l'he braueft tom be, hath ninkiog bones within: So fawninge mares, haue alwaies faithldfe bin,
Yet. ro preuent fuch harmes before they fall, Thinkc howe thy frende, maie liue to bee thy foe: Then, when your loue excecdeth mofie of all, S 3'



Looke that thy tonge, doe not at rnndonne goe :. For fcare thyfpccche, d<Je tumc 'mto tby finme, If that thy mate, doe bean: a I v J) .u ha.rtc.
-~ ftll.UIIl 64cm

tac'tl~~ ~~~eU: But, if that! dQC iniQye a faithfull frendc, See that with care, thou· keepe him as thy lik :

, ...,.p;.._,•.

And if perhappes he dat; that maye oifcode, Yet waye thy frende: and thunnc·the caufe of ftrife, =:':..n;..."':!r.~ Remembringe full, there is no greater crolfe; J/i.t_,.,..,,,fitlt•· Then ofa.ficndc. for, to fuftaioe the lolfe.

yet, if this knottc of fimdlhip be to koitte, And SctPlO yet, his LHIVS can not 6ndc1 Content thy klfe, till fome occafion fitte, Atlot thec:911e ~ acoording to thy minde: Then trie:, and· trufte: fo maifu: thonliuein re!, lhit chieBie fee, thou truftc thy. fdfe the belle?

at foxe beneatb lP saile:: boai to wearer· fa great a taile.. Then aunfW"cre made the foxe, I may.e thee more deride, Bic:tUfe thotl haA:c -no tatle at all, thy Jhamcldfe panes tohidt. Which_{heweuhe biner fruitc, that dodrof mockin_gfpringe: For fcom.ers ofte,fuch mates doe mecte,thanvorfe then ferpemcs- llinge. Vinditl

u T Andape in hte faid,


:was. a ~1dlt

T1 G.

a fenrence wronge, W was franid, to plcafe theof will, and rigor vile,minde: Emperor V s


Which fhoulde condemne SainCl: BA s 1 L to exile : -'-'d L _ • A nd nothinge laliA. , but tuat lt was not r.. 'd: ugn Th'Emperor thoughtc: to take no longer paufe, r. _ f ! _ th fc But.tooke his pcnne, ror to COunnue e eau e. "' -" m .out au . vayne, the qut·u would ._L no- inke, WL&C Yet llill herein , he lcwdlie did perftfte : Vntill his hande beganne to thake, and fhrinkc, Whereby , the penne did &11 out of his fifte: Wherefore for fearc, he rente the wr&tte in twaine,

muncul.1qlla ab. fcondirus crar,

Va!ens ~m pmfc. ll:e fam.or, ran· cicm per Goc:aos vi.:h~ • ~n d~
tor • Arnana

combll1lusann~ Domi.,i ao.
Sabel ~ Aur.


Then fcarc the Lordc, and ralhc a=mptes reframe.

Homo.borm'ni lupu.r.

Sie11t ~u il) ima~i·
~C fu~ h0110111U1:

'fit 0~\U In h\ln,•n< d•ligmor, ~ QJunr.
}1" 11

ne m uJHC', qm ctcu



am.n. nrc }'orcu
de() >marr <JD: ho.,..;ncru ,J,r.chryf.

N As man ro man, fun of m!lchicfr he pretcndcs: o mortall eo fPite· when





y CJ Lions wilde, an~ nlh~ wc:are lm trt'ndcs: !!~:/~~~~:~:~~~A::d when their dead1~, by ti:endcs ILippofd v:as fought, Aw.GcLii.s.u.•+ They kindm:ffc ihew'd, ...nd themfromdaungerbroughc.
fuprr Mauh u. JJrcm de Ariont
.IJOII •.l6. up ',.

The monfiers huge , as wucrs autl-hors wntc,




A~ 1 o N lo , who

gained !lore of goulde,

In countnes farrc: wtth harpc, and pleataat voice : Did ilupping take, and to C o 1\ 1 NTH vs woulde, And to his w.iilie , of pilottcs made his choife: Who rob'd the man, and threwe him to the fca, A Dolphm, lo, did beare him fafe .awa~c.
Q!!_iJ neflit

YAjM clim J1Jpl1in.c pn J'MM,

.Ltjbid.c ,,.,.

fo'" .,.., t11l!/i ?r.cm ~

In curiofos.

maidens fchoUers: the fchooles. L Giuc fowc; lethiJ plie :md his carde. v

R. E:

Let M A R s, h~ue armes : let V v L c A N E , vk- his tooles. ~~~ra~ !piR.ht..a • Giuc Con. Y DoN, the ploughe, and harrowc hardc. ..:.:,~,.... J...u~·-•1 ry,,,.,""'' '""'J.;, Gme P AN, the pipe : giue i1ilbowe blade, eo fwa(he. ,,~a..-p.h·..,_.~~ . Let Grim me haue coalcs: and lobbe his whippc eo b!hc. Let none prefumc an others arte to vfe, But tric the trade, to which he hac:h bene kept: But thofe tlut like a fkill vnknowne to choofe, Let ~hem behoulde : while that the workeman O~t, The toying ape, was tempringe with his blockes, Vntill his foote was crufi1'd within the fiock:es.
NA#A t/1 Yllllilj


BIIIIIIIR•I tllilu vfllltrtll;

U rAfri rwrr111 IITIII,; ptfilfT 11111·


In i11-

Two fonnes of I o Y"'E dtatbdl: of man deferue,
APOLLO ~at).and


With dn.-c.good, the. one doth healthe prcfcrue, With plcafantC"" wjnc, the other chcares our hanes. And thcif~ , the worldc immortal! Godd~ would hau~, Bicaufc longc life, with fwa:tc delighte, they gau~. But ittheife 2re fo foucraigne vnto man, That here , with ioye rl~y doe increafe his daics, And frc!lte doe make the carefidl colour waane: And k('cl~ him longe from ftcknes, and djfcafe: I~gr.mnrc, they ought to be r~~1owm~ more, 1 hen all the GodJcs, the Poetres did adore.
\!rill, ~ caf

dcm tic.

tu W.,. &IITM, .,;a,llifu Vt l111t1 ,uttdAt """" fmella ptde.

tu .


Pel in me/le.


vltt here, the honie hyes to taftc, L 0 Cwhome, the bee.,. did ftnight extende their power: On

For whilll at will be d\d their labOurs walle , He founde that tWeete, was faaced with tho fower: And till that time hee thought no little thinges, Weare of{ache force: er armceil fo with Ll:i.oges. The ~yues weare pJac·d. accord!~ to his mmde, '!'he weather warme; the honie Clid abounde, And C v '-' t D 1udg!d the bees ofhannddfe kinde, But whiUle he tri'de his naked corpes rhey wounde: And then to late his rafbc atremptc he:c ru'de, When ·after fweece ~ fo urtr. a ti(tc 1nii!'<le.

So ofte it happes) when wee out fa~ fetde, And only ioye in outwarde gallant fhowcs. The inwarde man , if that w<-'e doe not heede,
Wee ofte, doe plucke a nettle for a roie: No baite fo fwcete as beautic: ,. to the cie,

Yet oftc, it bathe worJ.e poyfon then the bee. 1' 1.


Fere [tmile e~ Thtocrito.

H r L s T C v 1' 1 n had delire [0 tafte the bonie fweere, .\nd rhruft his h1nd inrorbe ~.a boeWith htmdidmccre. 'fhe boyc oo hame did doubt, Yncill he felt the fringe: But after to his lllO[htt ran no, and ofce his handes dia wrioge. And ay' d to her for hdpc, and toulde what bap be(ell:


Howe thtl a little bcaft: ''rith prickc, did make hU 6ngcr Cwell Then V 1 N Y 1 fmilln~ fay' d. if thar a little ~ ? Doe hurre fo fare ~ .thmkC howe thou hurt'ft ~ that .,n a c:hilde to fee. For where the Doe can pace no further then the (Jeinnc: Thy dartes do gine fo great a waunde-, they pierce the harte within. : CNnt tplf ttriiiiiUt .Jbul IX .AIIMTI#Jflt. As V I! w vs fopnc withm [~~ rofes play'd, A bulic bee that crept therein \ .1feenc, The wanton waggo With poyfoncd ftiogc alrafd!
Whcreat, aloude he en· de; ~he f~Garte, and eeene. To whome, wuh gnek: be vttc:red all hlS minde. And tay' d, hehonldc ~ a. little creatUr~ wilde, Whome huJhaodmen (1 heare) doe ell· a oee, Harh prick' d mee fore alas ! whereat {h~ fmif de, And fay' d: my childe, if this be grief~: ·to thee, Remember then, a..'though~ ~ lttde ane! What grceuou~wt>Widc, thou makdl with thy t:Un~.
And fough\ about , his lll«her·I.Or so finde :

eAmar fui.
To D. E.

.., ' '. I~/\~---=~~~~~ ·N ~ c s s vs Imide, and hkcd fo his Otapc,
~) ~

I ~



ouiJ.M~u~ !it-,,.
~:c~~UI an r•tt. N~··iJ/'i.l """iJ" fo·,... J;«wioiiiM 1n •·ndJ•, ·

He died at lengthe with gazingc there vppon: 'Vhich fltcwes .fclfc loue, J fiom wl11ch there fcwe can fcapc1 • . A plague too nfe: bew1tcheth mamc a one. The ritt:he ;the pore , the learned, and the forte, .a: r. · O ncnde t 1 · : and yet t1 1ec 1t not. 1c.rem 1cy This, makes vs iudge too wdl of our defertes, When others fmile , our ignorance to fee: And whie? Bicaufc felfe Ioue doch woundc our hartes, And makes vs thinkc, our decdcs alone to bee. Whiche fecret fore, lies hidden from our eyes, And yet the fame, an other plain.lic fees. What tollle more, what dotage like to this r And Joe we fo our owne deuife dl:eemc? Or CJ.il we fee fo foonc an others mitfe ? And not our ownc? Oh blindncs moll: extreme. At1'l·tl: not chcn, but w·c, :mdJ">roouc thy dccdcs, · .Foe of fclf~ luuc , rcpro~hc, an !hamc· proceedes. T 3 N11fquam

c'"''"':"""'''"• 4•Jis

""' •Jfi, "~"""' .Jrrri. Suum cuiquc put. chrum dl. 3dl1uc n•n•iacm co,~:noui ponam, q •r i tibi ao optimus v1Jrretut, foe rr• habet, me delelUAt mca 0 te tu.J, Ci«r.s. Tufcul.

'"'""'1"'· t,. T.rent.An.!.s.k 4• ~''""' .u...-1 ,..~;. ,1,, ""'·' ' Jil·• ,.,.a, ruen,,,.,.,-t.u.• f"'''


.tqlaDo dcA11h11•'· ~~&. 1 1, cap.¥. fraiWr ·

.lilfo~o. ~r·•J·

hiD t 1· J'r-. liS lu;; ~::!J!.r:·::~· B~t~ maae fait, tho~he. lon~ the fam.chauefroode : brtoaiHii,laaialld. f, Here t;runange foes, here f.uucd frendcs are nfc:. 8c lib.n.ca,7.'Uf04 b'-bLl fi l 'l} s·mons btO~; ....1wl.a&nl ad :acaac: W' 1 pi<!kti·--L IC 1 . a&IAC$' •a LX;S, :mu l\ )[I ::~!~rS.~o. ~ Wbe1 when ~ee trutle , they worke our oucn:hrowc~ matumiro~ctci11il, And vndermu1e the groundc, whcron wee goe .
IL...-... r"" · · l~J~U:; 1U r. 1~, hO r u:ate Wit

N· · o

a~1d ilronge to i(-c, No peril! fear'd: but. thought a ilcc:pc to~ PiJ~.::!~- But foes before bad V11dcnnin'de the tree, :;.-....,. •. And downc be f~llcs; an~. fo by them was llaine: Na-Pompiliu Fuft tryc, then trolk: hkc goulde, the copper iliowcs Ac81a....,.,, And N E R. o oft.c , in N v M A ~ clothinge g~

The Olcphant fo huge,


1 •·

Ft1d1T.c tlm't~ltt "' fou11 r11mpitt ferr•, Gtd t.cfUm {nutl ;folltll: flllgtlllilnll.tilrl

n" p,;, ,,,. ' "''·

W There, couetou{nes the fcepter doth fupporte, grcedie gripes the clothe otic extoll:


Btcmfc , be knuwes they , doe but make a fporte, His fubieaes poore , to lhaue, to pill , and poll~ A!ld when be fees , that they are &tte , and full ? He cuttes them of, that he 1D3ye haue their~ woie? Vnm a fponge , theife are refembled ~ghee-: ' Which drie at firfre, when it with water fwellcs, The hande that late did wette it, being lightc: The &m~ againe, the moifiure quite expelles. And to the flood, from whence it latdic came, h runnes againc , with wringinge of the fame.

Or.,,. ;.,. ,,,,.

vill~r Rmw•• ht~btbllt, Jl!!.l11Mre, tJIIA tm•, q,;. fol• "mit Ytrllmqtlt, Nee [41i4tru trAI, grm~Ulil fret• p•l/A ,.,;,;,, lAIII 'lt,gTAbAIIIIIF , ji t[IIU fmtll Aliditlll .. ,ltrlt ~ si 'I"• '"" ''""', 1" f*"' ,;,,,,, tf!llllm, &c .

Pcu·us Arbiter.

15z. Tduptttemfummu ingeniti obejfe neprowbdntur•
.Nl Dollij. rir11111 Dn.· W. M A L lM.

N ·E hande with winges , woulde flie vnto the. fiarres, And raife mee vp to winne immortall fame: But my deure, neceffitie full barres, And in the dufi:e doth buric vp my name : That hande woulde Hie, th'other fi:ill is bounde, With heauic fionc) which. houldes it to the ground.


My wdhe and will, are ftill to mounte alofte. My wante, and woe , denie me ~y defire :

1 fuewe theire fiate, w hafe witte, and learninge , oftc Excell, and woulde to highe efutte afpire : But pouertie, with heauie clogge of care, Still pulles them downe, what they a1Cending ~·

,.,,;re emtrgunt, q11wtnn rintaibll •"ftM
iGmi' (?,.

814 .AII,flfillf

Dttodrcem hac


qucntj,, , o~ <kg:."" t~m , & "nlufta40 tetn: G. fat"tni, fa. ka11 fabt~lll film·



lbgge, that hardly tkap'd the hunters in the chafe, At lengrhe, by fhadowe of a tree, founderefugefor a fpacc. And when th~ egtr houndes had lefte their wi01ed praye, Dehoulde, with biting of the boughe·s , him fdfc hee d1d bewraye. Throughc whichs the humer lb:aight did pierce: him to th: harte: Whereat, (quoth bee) this wounde I haut>, is iull:ly my deferte. For where I good did find~, I ought not ill requite : But lo, thcte bougbes that f:tu•d my life, I did vnkindly bite. Whc:refore, ah:houghe the ttee could nor ttucnge her wronge : Yet nowc by fares, my faH ~ wrought, w-ho mighre haue liuC'd longe. -----· ..


In pace tie befla.

______________ -

I54To which, he :mfWC're made, when foes doe me hckr, They all ad~magc gladlie take, and giuc: no leaac to _whet. v.:hi~:h ~cheth vs, in peace, our fOre<' fo~ '!Vatres to.frattu:: Whereby, we either f11all fubd.ue, or loofe the nekhrith fame.

to lay. Then he with greate ~. three partes a}ike did iliarc: WhCJat, the lyon in a rage, the afie in peeces care. The foxe he charged then, for. to pcrfoime the fame: Who, all the belle, vppon one heapc, did for the lyon frame: And lincll of dle· worfie , did for him kl& rtferue: Then'bcinge afrd, what taughte hitll fo vnequally to anac~ This fp«ttacle (qn<Mh hte) which I bdloulde ll'ith dre: Which iliawes, thok happie that am btc: by othm harD1es bewv.rr-.

lyon, aff"e, and foxe, T Which done: the lyon badgoe fortbe the fp011e in pray:- . the Alfe, panes
H 1.

to huAte ~


IndJJgentia parentum,filiorum pern_icies.



ro -dye, to e!ttcUtion kad: mother.Jid beholdc:, for ioro~·e almoA:e dead. And wiUUl the kilh.i her ~nnc, whome fhe did tender deare: The tewarde ~hilde did k.iliC: with teeth? .and otf her nofe did rearc: Whcreu, t~ A:am.krs by exd&ymed. at his aetc: Then qooth· the tbecfe, my mafters marke, I will dtfend the fad:c. My mother, in my youthe, did with my f.tnTrs difpence: And c:uermorc did like me bell:, when I did moll: otfencc. So char, fbe was the caufe that made m~: doe amilfe: For if fh« had oorred:ion vf&, I h.1.d not come to this. Whcrefore, I did reuenge my wronge, in what I mighte: In hope my faae lh:Jll mothers warnc, that doe b:hOLlld thU ughtC'. For if the Children A:cale, and come: Ynro the rope : It o&:cn is the parentc:s faulte, for siuing rbcm ti&cb fcope.

condcmn'd A His wofull


rnolor emedicina.


Purblindc datne agreed. wicb one to helpe her fight; Who,daylie when he home retom'd,did fieale what fo he tnighr. At lengrhe when all was gone, the pacient gan to fee: And then,the falfe Philirion a<k'd the price • they did agree, 'Nhereat quoth ihe , alas, no rcmedie I nnde t . Bycaufe my fcnces either faile, or ells my eies bee blinde. For, where my houfe before was garnHh'd euerie nooke: I, no we can fee no goodes at all, though rounde about I looke.


Jfo mdilr~«.



In eOJ~ qui;, proximiorilm.r l}rett!~remotiorJ fl1uuntur. I 57

by beheld the fiarrrs to T Ands whatoNo chauncenightother yeare, began tOr fhine: fhould an deuine.
H' A T ll


ll ,


But··while.roo longe in lkyes, the curbus foole did dwdl, As hce was marc hinge through the fhade, he fl1pr into a well. Then crytng out for lldpe, had &endes at hand • oy chauncr; Arid nowe his periU being pail; they thm at him doe glauntt. Wlut foolil11e art is this? (<JllOth they) thou hould'ft fo dc:oare, That dorh forfhowe the perilles farre: but not the daungers ncare.
SAitlrJJIII prlnll ~~~. ;;,9ue oliM Clctll, vt. Nu pr.pe a~,erntns pud4 IApidtm:

LflttA V11Uflndil formof,. inadit "ellis, Nee nifi vir~ineu1u 1-·irg• videre potejl: Iqitw Europ~tm, MArWfJ J'tniU, &VtntremM.trs, D.tpbnm S1l, Htrfin ilfttciiTiiU reul•t: Hillc jAllwn; Aflrologt' eft,'"" cum cApit vxor AlfWitts, sidcr~t .fignifictnt vt nihil inde tiJi.






Postfota: ~xor morofaJ etiAm r/,flors.

v wife, ia was drown•d? C o slongesdid feeke raging floodagainfl: the fireame: Who corpes;


His neigbours thought his fences weare not found~ And did deride his madnes moll extreme : Who call d aloude , thy wife beneath did fall? Then dounwardc.feeke, or fecke thou nor at aiL
To whome, quoth he, the pJace belowc I lee, Yet in her life» gainft rearon lhe did ·firiue: And conttarie to euerie one·, woulde bee ; Wherefore , I knowe this way the needes mufl driuc ~ Then leaue, quoth they, and let her fiill be drown•o. For fuch. a wife is .better lofte then foWl~

7Jum 6/tliU rver agitur : con[ hrum4. ule



tree, buOte I N wintcrcoulde,. when rootesandrender; was bare, And frofi: had ·nip'd the of :

The antcs, with ioye did feedc vpon their hire, Which they had O:or'de, while fommers fealOn wa5' To whome, fo1 foode the grafhopper did ctie., And laid fhe fi:aru'd, if d1cy did ~lpe denie. Whercat , m ante , with longe experienE:e wife ? And frofi, and fuowe, had manie winters feetlC: Inquired, what •n iommer was be.r guife. Qugth ihe , I longe ,.and hop~ in meadowes greene: Then quoth the ante, content thee with thy chaWlce, For to thy fonge, nowc aEJ thou light to c4unce? Bilin-


'J3j/,jnguu cauent!J.

Satyre, and hofte , in mid ef winters rag~, At night~ did bye r~m to the fir-e, the colllci for to atfw:~g~. The man with oould that quak' d , vpon his- haode5 did hbve :. Which thinge the &aq:re mar.ked w~J,,_ ;ad crau' d tbc aufe [0 know~. 'Who anfwrre made, flcrewith my fingers I doe brace: At kngthe when fupper time was come, and bothe fat downe mntco; He likewife blewe his brothc, he ro\Jke out of the potte: Being likewife a1ked why: (quoth hee) bicaufe it is to whooe. To whicrh the Satyte tpake, and blow'll: thou whotte, and coUld,: Hereafter, with mcb c!oubl~ mQtnhes, I will no frendlhip honldt. Which warneth aU· .. to fhonne a double rongetllDatOI Asad let them neither .klppe, nor dine., DOt CO&M vlwn thy pc.


f~ekly withm. T Where, to foxe,mouthe ,her hole was hid, did bye; the the lion .fuaight

And d1d demaunde moll: frenc:Uy-, how iliec c;lid,
And faide, his ronge woulde helpe her, by and by? Bicaufc there was fuch vertue hid thercin, That all he heal'd , if he did Iicke their 1kinne.

'rhcn quoth the fuxe; my Lorde ~ I doe not douhr', But that your tonge is foueraigne, as lheare: But yet, it bath fuch neighbours round· about~ It can not helpe, I iudge, wlule they be ·neare. Wherefore, 1 wilhe you woulde them bani ihe all~
Or ells, I thinke your paciencs wilbee finall.


In tDs-·

1 G.z.

In eos qu1 mu!ta promiUIInt, & ni/;ilprJlant.

inturpitroc:omu~ Which being Jwd, the wolfc at windowe waitc:s, !a~. 'l 11 ~ And made account that child {hould bee his ownc: 1acaur~ TOualll, T·u at tue 1 1 agaync q;; hard het r.. •· cngt le, Lnon f.Jcias: im1 ~ay pia efi promiiii~J, Feare not fwcece babe thou lhalt not bcC his nr.w. quz fcelere ad, r--1'
i.mpletur Solilo. ltid.1..


. . THE crying ceafd, the 0\oulde wolfethreatcs, OO.be, mothcr.llurply Except .hC he bee throwne:


Wce wil him kill , before he fhall depart~ With that the wolfe Tetomed to the wood, And did exdayme thus wife with heauie hart: Oh Jupiter.? what people now ~oe liu~, . That promife much, and yet will nothing giUA

For , 1 e come · hope to fiuc;ke t hy blood, ·rh m

PietttJ filiqrum inpiD'enteJ.

s bc.lres ·his f.ltber Trove, A When .that the Greekcs, theout ofdid fpoile,and cacke: fame


His &ther ·might of fuche a fun ne hauc ioye, Who thr6ughe his foes, did bearc him ·on his backe: No fier , nor fworde, his valiaunt harte couldc feare, To flee awaye, witbO\U his father dea.re.
Which ihO\\'CS, that fonnes mufi: carefu.U bee., and kindc, For to releeue their parentes in difueffe : And duringe life, that dutie lboulde them binde, To reuerence them, that God their daies maie bldfe: And.reprehcndes tenne thowfande to their !hame, Who ofte difpife the frocke whereof they came.
Hinc fot• v£rtt.u : piltM Jlrlf•t• 1n ~,u : Sur• I""'~ hllm1ril: AltnA fom•, 1111#.

Fa%r prolrs, qaz tffluc vt gc~ nuilf~ htuet • ac ~encrare libea&. Mu.Jib 4·

Ouad••. ialt.





le baeJ. Pelldaa•.

111 Maaco rua.

T T h pottes,fwithinha ru nninge fi:reamef weare tofte, wo . . th. h b--Jr.
e one o






e ot er , was o

r.we :

.,.,.,_.;,llli(w•'"· The brafen potte, wbo wifh'd rhc other Jofie,

:t:':',.. ...... r..,., jll..,;,.. .,_,/:re.
Et niam apud Plautum,paupes.SUdjo
recuf3r a!finit31CIII

• ~~· .... .MAIM


D1d bid it flaie, ~d neare her fid~ to p:~ffe . Whereby- they m1ghr, togeather toyned Cure : Witho~t all doubt. the force of flood indure.

cum diu~·· Mepio. ra &ceti!lime.

I rather choofe ' mv chaunce farrc of to r.ak~. f V ~..1,1..n. '"· Then ~o thy H~, for to be ioyned neare, E~ ditiot!•c ne(o• For tf wee hitte' my parte fhalbedie .Wtufie, <Jus fueru: ~d Jt..;.J r. i...n..._ :ommunicalott C3· An d.t h011 llW'It. •cape, 'Wuc.l 1 ant all to bUH\C. UNu•d ol!l? quaft· clo enim fe colli!<· Th · 11.t ~~· r. .l !inr,cnnfrin~nur. e runnmg1ueatne, t hiS ~flu IC le.l 610the 11...- · mcWe• Orur. jnit>tlc eg;,;, 8c The pottcs prefent the mightie and the pore: , fren·.:;: pupcr •urf ' · I Iatu •• •ac•b ... I! c. Whoe here, a time are toficd too , and froe, oa,a. f· :rrift 4. But if the meane, dwell nighe the mighties dorc, 'V- .fi-M-silw, M· • . '•·1w• ,~:....... .,.,., He mate bc hurte , but cannot hurte ag.unc, Tl1Cn lik<:, tO t·ke·• or· bell. alOOC rcmame. . •,.,h'!,• · pcm. ... e•w"'' ..,,." I 1~e

The earthen potte , then thus did anfweare make , Th'IS netghbo rhood d-..L. put .me·mUC h m c..__ ') · . • lcou'e. UUI


the Rok, on etie STlut whoprickes preferuethe fame intendes, parte, in ha!te eo pull

n. I' E

cu .

Js like to pricke his fingers, till they frnarte? B11t being gorre, it makes him llraight amendes It is (o frefhe, and pleafam eo the lineU, · Thoughc he ~·as prick'd , he thinkes he ventut'J·well. And he diat fainc woulde ·gec the ga.llant ~fe, . And will not reache, for feate his 6ngets bl~ede; A nc:ttle, is more fitter f01 his nofe? . Or hanblocke mcece his appetite to fecde? None merites fw~e , who cafted not the Cower, Who feares eo dim be, deferues no fruiltc, nor Rower. Which {howes, we fhoulde not fainte for anie pamc:. For eo atchieuc the fruitlcs of our ddire: But frill proceede, and hope -:u: lengthe to gaine, The thinges wee wtfhe, and crauc with hartes entire: Wnich all our toile, and bbour, fhal requite, For after paine, comes pleafure, and delighre. When winrer endes, comes in the plea(ant fpringc. \Vhcn nighte is done, the gladfome d:~ye appeares. When greifes be gone, then ioye doth make vs finge. \V hen fiormcs be paRe, the varijng weather cleares. So afier paine~, our pleafures make vs glad, .But without Cower, the fweete is hardlie had.
X 3

ClaiiJ : illllt"p,,;, honoc ii .
~-·- -1" *(.1''-'""" twilt.t. ........



i~tt b r:,

Jttlwt,livlt, Si f-• i ,..,,..:,,1 u ·

.A>- {;i-o• ., ~ .


DoJa. ''"" t•h 11f.,..n_,.,. '


C A 1\ T W R I C )I T £,

~ Vip~Ac.­

li.lt:.lib, 13.ca.1 & &: Plin.Dcnacur.

hil't. hb.a. (3. J9• & lib.J.O. cap.6 "·
.AS. 31.


H Eucn

s fcruaume.~ Go o prdcrxs, thoughe they in d:tngl'r .F.zlf: as from vipct.s deadlie•bitco, he kept th'Arpo1Hc PUJie.

Cum ttmpore mutJmur.


loHANN Ill



And · ~n

Dut !le"ling~ rime , their hirme, and dC"acke, did ~: Fir;re NuT o a fuckd, and .H OM a R. · fir~W:A: rJ.ught~, Ismh~ hmQUS once, yet both to duft are broughte. Wee,;, rt· ~t~ younge, ~nd tbm 'CO :tge We<; .yeti«, Th~ tltt a"· aye~ as we had nor bene borne:
Ye~ w :~ndcrs once, are our of mmtori.~ lV'Otne: Thi .. .f:gypte _fpir~, and Babell, fa we in fine, Whol they dtd rnounte, and when they did decline.

W bar Monarches greate, th~t w:mne rhe chlefe1l: fame,

'w 1 s change • and wee ·doe alter in the fame, cme ftaye, there QOthi~g frill m:~yc bee~


011id. ' · F~ft. T,.,.,.. IA.....,:o, 1-.

Elfi'!..., ,,..,...,;i,., . . _

No wigat 1~ tlronge, but rirno ®th win ne the fedJ:1

.(J.!li b.ccMirJ nilfiii •
l~"' ntH

qui ,.-.priit cttttmi trAII[tgit ;;,..,;,~ lf'f4 domw ptv.r1tm q•tm YUUt iffo [mnt~;
in lf'l" uptMit


£lalld. de ScMc.
& paulo pdft.

Vniu! numtr 4t f.tcMIA Eo".~ot•· cA{.c:

vmo lU:tit f«tiiiU t,_llfl,

N .:c iliit lgnotM



,, I 1.11·

. . -r.-;;-.

/'"'" ,._, ,.,.. ......""" .,..,.,..




Si nibilttttt.lmt Wil H1111111't fortu. r, M. MAYTHtW PATTuuo~t.

N vferer. whofe Idol Wls his goulde, Within his houfe, a pceutihe ape rc:tailfd: A feruaunt iirte, for fuche a miii:r mtlde, Of whomc both mockes, and apilhe mowcs, he- gain'd. Thus, euenc: d1ie he: made hi's malkr fporte, And to his clogge, was chained in the coune~ Adengthc it hap'd? while greedie graundGc din'<k~ The ape got loofe, and founde a window~ ope: \Vhere in he leap'de, and all about did fiode, The GoD, wherein the Mifer put his hope~ Which foonc: he broch'd, and fortbc with fpecde ·di.-1 fii~, And did deHghte on llones to hcare it ringe~ The fighte • rightc well the patTers by did pleafe_, Who did rdayc-e to 6ode thefe goolden CJommcs: That all thdr ftfe, their pouenie did ea(e. Of ~oodes ill got, loe heere the fruiae that comme!. Looke herevppon, you that haae M 1 D A s mince, And bee potrc:lle with hartes as harde as Hinte. Shut windowes clofe, lefre -.apes doe enter in, And doe di(per[L: your.goulde,you·doe adore. Bunvoulde yoll leamc: to keepe, that you do winne l Then gee it well , a.1d hourde it not in fl:ore. If not: no boulres, nor brafen banes will fcruc:, For Goo Wtll w.Jfl:e your frocke,and make your llerue. y, ,,


Si nma"arilr con.
~~~1tj t!fealUS, m~ai·

m( •lu rarie>r11m gcn ij' p~R"tmum iaucnirrr'.lr I'I11Wd1. de

'f11r. yjc,

Auuilia omnu hi {~ ~hi~habn. Aut. Cell. hb. 11 c:tp.•

le idtm Jib. J. up .•

T Ae!:grecdienot brooke hi:;. late ·dcuouredcloy'dc,: kyte' fo full zorgc had coulde praic


·Wherc..-fure with grjefe, 'Vnto his d:1mmc hcc cry'de, My bo~clles lo, alas doe ~:tfte awaie. C.uo !>ere lt 1.!". 'With that quoth {het; \\·hy de fie thou make thy monc, P~iorciwscxi:li. This loife.thou hafte is nothinge oftby owne.. m.nur fix~J.ator,
Cflim ft.~.r,
. .


liue by fpoiie, l>f M.Ji fU1 <1•- By rapine} thefte} or gri};lnge soodes by Inighte, , If that with lotfc they {url(·r anie foile, They loo{c but rhat, "'hcrCin they liad no righte~ Hereof, 2t firfre the proucrbc oulde did growe: Th~t goode-s iU gor, 4WAif .u ill 'WiU got.

By .\\·hich is mentc, .dia~ rh.::y



V{111 uhri~ non leEtifJ prudentes focit.
M D. A. P.



volumes great, who. fo doth. fiiU:perufe,. And dathe turncs, ~md g~edi on .the fame, lf chat the rruicle thereof, he do not vfe, He reapcs bur toile, and ncuer·~nerh tame: Firih; rc.1dc, rhc:n marke, then pra...'lifc that is good, For without vfe_, we drinke but LET HE flood.

Of]~aife longe , experien'e dOth. proceede; An wifcdome rhcn, doth. euermore enfue: Then prince in minde, what wee ~inte do reade~ E1s loofe wee time, and boo.la:sin vainc cio vewe: Wee maie noc.hafic, our talent to befrowe,


Nor: hide it.vp,, whereby no good·iliall growe..
LclHo multorum Yo!uminum, & omuis g~neris aullorum, habet alio-]uid. · · · · · " ,.:tgum & 111 0 ~ l'• Ie: cen1s•m~emi~ immoran & 1nnun1n opo1tet, ~-1veliaaliquiduaherc;.quodw ani.mo.lidcliterfedtaE~Sencc. J. Erlfi.J.~


•,..,,,... lltt •.-t .• 0 :;,.;..~uti;: •a.,c .a 111



N Ooid.,:t'~-- Watche, write, and reade, and fpcnde no idle howcr.. Jio~~~~ Iru:itche your mindes with fome thinge, euerie daye: N• 'I"" prllfmtJ 11'. • 11'. ,.,.,,br,.,U. For loue of tlme, all other loue exceedes, ~:.:! ar. And euermore it late repentaWlCe brecdes. l!ltdou ,_ fi!fU-.

s prime of youthe, his flower. W Take houlde of time: forisitfidhe within awaye. doth hafie


;:, ,..._ •-,_. The idle forte, that ignor.lunce doe tafl:e, · Are not efteenid, when they in ycares doe growe: The fiudious, are with vnderfi:anding grac'd, And ftill prcfer'd, thoughe lirfi their caulinge lowe. Then haue regarde , to banifhe .idle nttes, And in your youthe , with £kill adorne your wines. !tudia, quit fuat io
adoltfccmi:a, un. quam io bcrbis f!&"'ficanc. qua "''' tUtis manarlw. &

quan~ fiuges indullrsa '"' fuua& Ciccroproc:a:lio.

Whereby, m time 1UC ~~ maye you a uaunce, As bOt1 your T owne , anu countne , you · maye .I!..... de. ":.I • lC m=n • For ' what I woulde vnto .tny felfe {houlde chaw1ce: To you I wifhe, wheare I my prime did fpcnde. Wherefore bchoulde this candle , booke, and glalfe: To vfc your time, and knowe- how time dothc patfe.



J.. ...,.


"Pr.tcoci.i non diuturnte.

,;,o D. S T 1 l' H A N o 1 n.1 n

~ t ....


Stb~Lc. Magiilt~.

ripes, fade T And that which (oonetl hatb hisdoth \nll not (o foone dec:lie. llou·lie time,
H 11

fruia:co that




Our writing in the dufte, can not inJure a blafie : But chat, which is in marble v;rouglue •. from age, to age:, doth lafie. Euen fo it is of wittcs, fome quic~, to put in vre: ~~~/r 1 ~~r~~ Somo dull to learrte, but often rimes the flowc: are founde,and fure. tior.e P•"•(•k q11z And thoughe the apte, and prompte: foone learnc, and foone forget. ~:cD;;·~:::;q~~ Yet olte the dull doo beare in• minde, ·what firft therein was fer. dldr.:imu~ . mediu--L' , • 11111 caone c,.m!.!f"·:att 11•• H e~ t he prouerbe comes. ,.. npt, 1r. ronen tllrnt~: Uid !ib., De rJm· And greeneft wood • thoogh.kin~ge looge , ·yet whottdl: moft it IUc ;,o,,,,. bumes.


ofniMfo purr ,·,;,;, rrt mill colm. .1lb4 l1guflra cMlunt, v.Jccinia nigr11 ltguntln'. y J


L i:;:

t .

I efiate to I F fenceall had , ,my owne hath caufeknowe. Before trees my fclfe to crie: In .eucric hedge, and· common waye , I growc, Where , I am made a praye, to paffcrs by: And when, they fcc my nuttes are ripe) and broune, My bowghes .arc broke , my leaues ~e beaten dounc.
~ 1ml• P•ff" · . .(Jri/WftiMI • • •



zaJili- ,frttll• ;.

sneron.in,ica N cr-Jnis.

Thus·cuerie yeare, "'·hen I doe yecldc mcreafe, . M y proper firuu.u.:;., my rume_ doth procure; ...0... If fruit\:ldTe I., then had I growcn in peace, Oh barreoncs, of all moll happie, Cure Which wordcs with griefe, did A G R. 1 'P.l' t N A· grone, And mothers more J wliofe children made them mone,
end ll' ji.• n1mqu• ptpnifftt~~ , t•tilr effm: Jfl.A C!Jfttrllltji" dizu 2U1Tdl fuir.



Locus(- noa:


weepc H Neareldlcnes dothwhome,amid her for Ire: familhed: labour whippes
E R. E. ,

wances ,

Here, labour fiEtcs .in ·chariot drawcn with an~s: And dothe abounde with all be ·can dcfire. The gra010ppC:r, the toyling ante derides, In Sommers h~te , caufe Ote for coulde prouides. But when the couldc of winter did incrc:afe, Out of her hill , the ante d1d looke for newcs: Whereas lbe harde the gralhopp'er to ceafe, Anc~ all her fonges, lhee nowe :with ughing rues: But all to late, for now .for foode the fiaru'd, Whereas ·the ante had Ll:orc, the hati prefcru'd. All which doe w:qne, w.hile that our Sommer IaLl:es, Which is our youtl)C: with frclhe, anc:lliuelie fircngthc. Wee mufi:e prouide, for winters bitter blafies. Which is our age : that claimcs his right~ at lengthc. Wherefore in .youtht, let vs prouide for age; r.or ere wee thinkc he fi:ealeth on the ~e.


Semperprdl~ ejfo infortuni4.

carelelfe dames, amongfic their. T Did throwethed1ce, who firfic of them wanton toies, fhouldedie:
H R. E E

And ihee that lofte, did laughe with jnwarde ioyes, For that,_ fhee thoughte hc:r terme fhoulde longer bee: But loc, a tyle ,vppon .her head did fall, That dcathc.;:, with. fpeede~ this dame.. from dice 4id· call
c:1d~, quodcUl·

Etsen fo , it falles, while careldfe times wee·fpende: · r. quam potc:n. se- TL- eucll h appes, vn1 '--d ror d oe comme. .nat OOAA; nee. ~ctranquil•• But if wee hope' that G 0 D fome good wil fende, anUJU. In eameft praie1, then mufi: wee not bee domme: For bleffing~s good; come feild before our fraicr, Bu.t eueU .thinges doe come befOre we feare.
Ludit in lnuaAnil ditlinA P'fmW re6w,
El.~erum pr~[m1

C:uiais potell a~

,;x b..Ht·b••-fok•·T11iit.t·


rare, with fc:thers fre01e of hewc:, righte • and facred to the Son ne : \V home, other birdcs Wtth wont.icr fee me to vewe , Dorhe liue vmill a thou(andc yc:ares bee ronne : Then makes a pile : whkh , when wirh Sonne it burnt:· Shee Ric:s thw·in, and fo to alhes turncs. Whereof, bchoulde, an other Phrenix rare, With fpecde dothe rife moll beaurifull and fJire : And thoughc fur truthe, this manic doe declare:, Yet therc:unto;I mc:ane not fur to fweare: Altho•1ghe I knowe that Auahors. witncs true, What here I write, bothe of rhe oulde,and nc:we. Which when I wayc:d, the ue~re, and eke the. oulde~ . I thought vppon your towne dcllroyed with fire: , And dtd in miude, th~ newe N A MP w xc n E beh:>ulde, A fpecbdc: for anic: mans deft re: Whofe buildinges braue, where cinders weare but l.tte, Did reprefenre (me thought) the Phcrnix fate. And as the oulde, was manic hundreth yeares, A rowne of fame, befc re it ft·lt rhat crolfe: F.nen fo, (I ha~} this W 1 c H 11, that nowc: appcarc:$, A Phcenix age {hall bile, and knowe no lutfc: Which Go n vouchCde, who make yon thankfllll, all: That fee this rife, and fo~.wc the ~ollhn !J.ll.


He Pha:nix A R. A .111 A s

JlandM: pott.
, ••.•~rt.. "'"•

.f.:l ... •~ .loll Mll ••·

'"'"[... .,., ••!•' , unrc •pil.


··-· ..,.,....
:l.!!ai•lll ..Ajf)F,.I

Man lib .1. Epip .~·.

folNJ. t.i_ •SM4 . (ll



<tLIZ IJiliJcm· >ili:,
Phn•um, Naroral. h•flor.lib.rc-. cap. t . •iui~ad (ex .
C<DtOS feug i nt~ J.l' • 1101. fl UO )()<0 ·:v

ab• qu:rrl1m r •..:
n ritfnl

CO'lln>t c· '
t: LO -

rlin t ur. •. nz. . 1


1'. !T). :·~·- 1 n; .

1 i1 feo ttnc~ .;. ;:,

auir.r~r , t•Ji

r.:ll ·. !1t': t"a -:

kgend a rr. rill': L!l"). & ~pud f- :. '" c:< Ao•m .ii OJ, c :. ~.: ~ .
Oui < !-kr. j:b 11. l.
1.!r..a , !l q.. r

rrr-~ ,,

Jq. r_;:_{jl«;it:" ~·-~ 1 .t!l'•
:1 • -:;.-.~ . ,,

__ .. • ..

rlf,- ~ .fu.; r . "' ~ ' L.~: f.,. ' Slli'fi'Hd14!.L. ,, _ -•J;JC"' t'

{t.il.fJJ , .1:ut





Otum~ ,.101i11Hun.
T'l R.. P.

N-• fifrai,.._(to


Propertiu .,,.

Thou dolle but alrer aire ~ thou altc:refi: not thy thoughto: No dilbnce farre can \'ripe awayc:, what Nature: firA: hath wrougbce. The foole , that farrc: fs ~nte Come wifc:do1ne to attaine: Return~ an ldeot, as he: wc:ntc: , and bringc:s the foole againe. . Where rahcor firll:e bathe: rooce, it gro'fc:s, liuc: where wc:e thaJl: And where as malice is by lcinde, no abfetlcc: helpe! at all. The cattc:, in countries kcpte, where arc: no.myfe for prayc:. Yet, being broughtc: whc:retheydoe brecde,het fdfe fhcc doch bcwrayc:. The: bc:aftts of crc:wtll. kindc:, where hate:, by natare growt'S, Thuughe parted longe, ycc when they mecte, become moll det1dlie foes, Which proaues, no rrauailc: farce, no corafte, nor countrie firaungc:: Hath anic force to abrr kindc:, or Nature~ worke to cbaungc.
Qy /Mgis .b tltrtmts ~ flillU tfl filg4: llllitlf Y{fiiC M T. . . .{tlgiM , 'Ffillll fif'IIIW . .,..

in hope. W R,.. forrc:ntholt bath aniethe to change theto alcer kinde: .foilc. force inward minde. No
ft~fr lhrou~he wotlde~

to ma'kc vs muche indurc:, D Insnauaile ,beuc,,dothclo1.bour voide of reftc: toilc and
.E 1 R. E

Jllorat.lih.r. lpift.:,
lltlflJ.Ir l•lrlmll IMr,.,.

The marchant man 1S caned with this lure, Tbrm1ghc fcot'Ching heate, to regions of the E:1fte:

,.,,.,, .. J.ilfl,

fo.t ilos I" fo.• t''

Oh tlurfi:c of goulde, what not~ but thou canft do: And make meus hartes for to con.fcnc therc.to.

The ttauailcr poorc, when.fhippe doth fuffcr wracke, Who hopes to f~;immc: vnto the wi!hcd lande, Dothe venture life, with Jardle on his backe, That if he fcape, the fame in fieede maye ftande. Thus, hope of life, <tnd loue vnto his goods, Houldcs vp his chinnc, w1th burthen in the floods. Z .z. Y trbrm~

~~~ . .
' .





Vet'bum emi.!Jum non efl reuocabile.

o lookcs , maye leapc : and [;1uc his {hinncs fwm. knockcs. ~aui licut in frnfu 'W 1 · maye trtlu~.• eIs fl attnnge firendes 11\J11 fi ndc.· 11.11 • lcuc>, na!u:uinlo10 tnes, cutior.e pr.zcip!ccs; He !aues the fteede that kccpes htm vnder lockes. Q.!!,t&'¥-'odlcutsco• ' · • · d fcicnriaconcipic, le- Who fpeakes wtth heede, maye bouldhe fpeake hlS tnlll e. UtN pronnusltn&u& B h h r. b fc 1 · · d tl prodlol. crc 1. Ho· . ut ee, w 01e tonge core us WJtte, o 1 runnc, :uil. ~. Ofte fpeakestofoone, and grecues when he bathe done. iloru.EpiQ.rl. A worde once {jpoke, 1t can retournc no more, · E:fimtlt••ff- "".., ,.,_.t·rJ. --'-· But flies awaic; and ofte thy bale doth brcede : Ei6vri!ccrt fubico A wife man then fettes hatche before the dore 6rpe <it<'Ctc, tamcn . ' . .' iltu~ •ulilu.fumpco And whtle he mawo · doth fiquare Ius fipeeche "\'\'Jth heede. •-..o ad cosua. d . J _d, . dum~:.mius,atque The bsr c m ban e, wee maye at wtl! re{h:unc, acr.,. ·t•us c!icct~. But bemgc fi owcn, wee ea11 1 bac ke lll vam~. · · · ctc.ros.oco~~·or. 1cr




creature thou? Oeca{i111 P,1wt. W On w~irling whecle declare why .dofie thou ftande? ~~~-:::=,.,..., .


Jft)l'ar;!a.; 1:!p.ar.

Why doefi thou houlde a rafor.in thy handc-~
Thllt mtn mt~it lm1we-l ,.,_,, tfln"it fide, Ana 'Yihtll 1 cornt, 1 11r•ies: ,., dt.u/e_

BtcaM{t, I

p,g Am 11jftJ 111, .,J fr~t.·



But .hercforc haft thou winges vppoi) thy fcetc ~ r_, fo'""t, h'"" Jighu I flit 'Yiith little y,;,Je. What mcaoodonge lockcs before? thiu {~~ehe • •tttt, tM4Jt h•lflJt •t frrfft, VPhtlltht] ~rc•fi•• ft•Jt. Thy head behinde :all bald<:, ·what tclles it- moret
Th•tnlllt fb111ltJt h1t~ltlt, th•tltt "'' Pipfl ~efiTt.

'\Yhy·doefi.thou fiande within an open place~ Th4t 1 rn•1t VPArnt 1111 pt1pk nllltJ fi•Je, B11t•t the ftrHt. lccafiD• ·t•.irniiTt~ct, And 'Yiht11 {htt c.mu, '' mttlt htr !J7 the "wAJt. LJfiP/"14 fo did thiNkt it 11tH 111 i1tt, W hi did tlt•ifo 111ine i•Atf, M p• foe.

Z ;


o..,,. 1/lllctl .,..,, for,_, PfJi -.&iJ ,. ., , P.Jiwit. tr Ta&m,

P.tllldius Souna..





Sir Prt{trpi••


,.,.;.. 11incl1 011111i1 ~ .~..,,, i•rbf111 'l'll]pb,_ ..





7'"" (t fliJil ..,.... -,,,.;, vi»cit .,.,•


villfit _ , , NtpiMIII ·~


tr .A.:cirt.l, ·.

ewrni~t ~a. blur.

s.J,,;,t:r Scifi• Vtili, n;,• .-rrfo,. .if,
.,..,. tliJUII #ilfttr.

OmniA vitwb-


0,.,;. ,;,,;, .,,, ,~. tr r.,,.,•• t?

ERl, na.k,:-~Jooc doth lit, with fmilings: cheare, No bende~ bowe, nac quiuer ho doth bear~ One hande, a6fhe! tae orher houldes·a flciwen Of S.el\ • and r.ande.., .to iliewc that he.bath pE>ftr.





~·•.. iu,:.Cil-.

and p;t.weJr · To hares, fhee fwifte"es gauc: to fi~t,· finRes alftgdde'~ To birdcs, theirWibges : fo no defence was ldte for woman kiade. Bau , ro fupplie that wanre, ihee gaue her fuche a face : Wllkh-makes the boulde~ tlu:&rce,tbcfwific,_to lloopc.~.nd plQI8e fo1· grace.

creatures firfteweare form•J. they had natures . W . The bulles , rhdr homes: th'e horfes. hoofesby~ liaos,laW'est : tcetb
J:1! lf.





~me Alit me extinguit.





·~ vaN as the waxe dothe feedc, arid quenche th" ·aame, So, loue giues life ;-and loue, d ifpaire doth giue: The go4lie loue, c!Qth louers croune with fame : The wicked loue, in ilia~ dothe make rhem liue. Then leaue to loue, or loue as rcafon will, For, .Jou~rs lewde doe \'aioli~ 'languifhe ltill.


Scri6it in tnArmore ~[111.

marble·hardc alwayeg I Bicau(e, wee frill willharmes the fame graue,


in minde : In duA:e wee write the henifiues wee haue, Where they are foone defacrd with rhe wmde. So, wronges wee houlde, and ncucr will lorgiue. And foone forger, that fiiU with-vs ilio~,aldc liue.


Ntc ft!Ji ~ nee· Jtni


Yet ·thew'd his faag~, and offied for .to ftie V.ppon the oxe , \\:00 hungred for .to eate, And there tluougbe fpitc,did kcepe the 9xc frOm.foode: V.ntill for wante, hee f:1ynted as hce.fioodc. .
~... an.• .~~.

s , did in the A ' Who rather cfieru'currethen made the ha.ye,liC, d?
N A 1. L 1 N 1·





!",:;!~~~~~~ Who. ham inowgbe, yet vfc thercof·dOth lacke~
w.h. Jl...

The couctous mao enuious, here behoulde,

And cloth enuic his necdie neighbour, fhoulde But get a groare, if he couldc houlde it bac.lce? Who , thoughe they doe poffcife the diu ill., and all? Y~ oue they like the dogge , in oxes fiall ~

smpttt 'ntin temir'.·tt~mt~A. All 4olliJ• .,;,. D. sT. B V L t V ••

J:l:'n i L 0, htre'Q..!;Iyounglingc ·bflimrS', a And pulles ·a :lhe

For, h.eew.irh paceoffnayle, Lell hafte fhoulde·milibim.wUhe(roolarc)itwearero write &g!linc. And rherfbre rut1 with· c:arc:, woal&t· eutrie thinge amende.: Yt<a,ofte:ec:be wordcr,ibd bne1vmayc, liefore.hee .made~cnde. And, yf be any (awe·, whG)(e. tuc 10 ~re was fmall: . To him , like wordes:.ro rhefc. J:a· vf>Cl r which bee did me~ ne to all. MJ.foiiM, what worb thou W'iiiiL'h ~,.n:forme, ~nde, Bar ifthoo like. thy firft atrayr, d~m·nOt:Q.!-z NeT 1 LI "• freodcJ. The. fiuieke :at 6rfte is fower ~ till time giaE ple:Uante ial\e : Ad~ .v.nc rare- is rhanttempte, chat is nodiann•d with ha~. P!r&d:ion comes in rime, and forme and faatm giues : SelltC. Apm, And·ttNr ~. yeeldes repmre, and moft difpifed liuer. .11-tT ,,..,... tJl<: Then, Alter ofre, and chaul)ge, perufe, and rea de, and marke. !(_...tl ,.,.. ••qwil. fo· The man that~ kttcs ·liis fteppes, goes fafe4 in the darke. 1·1-..... Birt if chat 1hiri of f.une, doe prickc rhccp£onbc too falle: Thou fua1t (w' 'D ic is lllr to we) repenretherdixurlalle. a Orplni

a~ , that did for fame defi~e. proceeded to his pen;

graue and reuen:ndc tire:

Q.!lll61lij \'ar. etll·
fura de frriptu edtllia Hoot; .An. pot'~:

, ... .,.,..,t.l.•




Ad ttuukm.

. 0, Lions ;7~-;~~b- his harpc, that faua.ge .l<.indc did tame: L The 0;; 1fiorcc,and Leoparde> wtlde,and bir"cs about him came.

·Hocae. Att. polt.

«r ;,.r...,lf9.J-,


,.,..., 1/ f-4-"' 0 • """""' 0•!"- I Ddl.. _. ,.,_.,,;_

''"•'"fitlift. E. P. Efquier.
rmpm.lib. a..de


:."::,.~":1,.~;. ~~n !"~,. rw.... co...tit{."',.
De Aruphione Ho.


DUU~tf.Uwlltt, tr~o

For, with his mufickc l\veetc, their n:nures bee fubdu•de: . But if wee chinke his playe fo wroughre,o~r felueswee d~dcludc:. For why ? bdides his !kill, hec learned was. and wife: And coulde with fweetenes of his tonge, all fortes of men fuSice. And thole th:tr "'care moll: rude, and knewe no good at 1ll: And ~·care of fierce, and cruell mindes, the worlde did brutHbe call. Yet with perfitafions founde, hoe made thetr haeres relente, That meeke,and milde thi"V did become, and followed where he weme. -, lo thC!(c, the Liom fierce, thefe, Beares, and Tigers we:lre : · The trees, and rockes, that lefic their roomes;his muftckc for to he are. Bur, you are happie mo(l, who in fuche'placedoe R:aye: [pla)·e. You needc not T HR. A c 1 A· feeke, to heare Come im~ of 0 .8.1' HE Vs Since, that fo neare your home, ApoUos d.arlinge dwelles; Who L t N v s, & A M P I'll oN tlaynes, and 0 1l P H JJ vs .farre excellcs. For, banes lik~marhle h:~.rde, his harmonic dorhe pierce: And makes them yeelding paffions fede, th:tt are by nature fierce. Bur, if his muficko-faile: his curcefie is fuche, . That none fo rude, and bafe of tninde,buc hee rcclaimes rhelri.muche. No'll'e fince you, by deferre, fOr. bmh,commendetl are': I choofe you, for a Judge-herein, if rrurhe. I doe declare. And if you findc- I doe, rhen oftc therefore reioycc: And thinke,I wouldc fuchc neighbour hauelifl might make my choice.



T See timelie m heere,

that SE ME L.E did beare, Ouid. 3• Met. t1me howe monllerous he grewc : . With drinkingc muclle ,. and dailic bellie chcare, ~~r~~.a~lld Dtog. His eics WHre dimmi:·, and ficrie was his hue: fc:rr, pnn:.1.:':. His cuppe, !hll full: his head, with grapes was croun·dc 1 laptatis,fc:cudal'll . . . r. ebnctofta tcrT bus utne he {ipent ,With -p•pe., and ra brct 1ounde. · · ciacl.mcrr~ris.



'Vhich ·carpes all- thole, that louc to much the canne, Ch!Jf.Hom.,.&. And <lothe defcribc thcirc-perfonage, and thcire.guifc: i!r~s=t:" For like a bcafte, this dodi transfurmc a mao.; aoiiDO, ,~ u.. And makes him fpeakc that moll:e in fecret lies.; corpore. Then, fhunnc the forte that bragge of drinking mucbe; Scekc other ttendes, and ioync not handes with fuc:he.
la!' M'/itifl ,Ueir• virttttil AJnm, N• YtiJifl 6' BM&bl iunil11 r1pe111t- ,.411111.
y;,., fMJIIA ptrit t Yino 'lf'f101l!itrWWM, ViM {lfl {llllm11tftil ~&A .,;,,
lobn. Samb. i•



a . .z.



~r profit.

1 T 'H kindenes.,lo, the Ape doth kill her whelpe, Throughc cla.fping harde, and lulling in her armes. Eucn_fo,the 'babes, who{c nature, Artc ilioulde hclpc;: The patents h:mdc: doe hazarde them with' bannes,_ And wock~ t~eir fpoile, and bringe them vnto naughn:, When fooliihe loueforbiddcs tbctD.to bee taughtc


----·-~liaili~. ro,ca.u.

~tlmir•t~ pittM f""'l[""' sU.U , . , : N tnlpt ft~ltr, ~u t.UijUI piAttrt. {11111r1.

,_, . SJ141•'*4Mm.


)hiuri, •ilquic, eA

dl, aeq udrttf,U., fid

Cllioc1 ntcroe tirius

Sf,umpentOm tft:
cfiarlltur, 'qnz n~•
nequecari~ca &c IIIIWU r«l• , ftd

li irl pom!J,111arura

6c in


...... ac Jmmiria...


..re adulta.;

wmporc li&o wnpc-

A.lia. cle AD,imal.
lab.&. ca.'r,.&c PUa.
lib. ,. & li&. J •· cap-.·r', \'hi muha mtrabrlia· de Echearid·pifcc ((ri• bir. & qu~dam no~ lltll dtgna qnz foa mcmoua ac"dcrur.







arrowc fwifrc, E_c H F. N!! 1 s flowc dorh foulde: h1ddes vnn our atbons hatlc. no more r'tcn rca(ott
. .

Ho v GR £, cinie ft~onge the cannollls lbotte difpifc. And deadlie foes, befeegc the fame in vaioc : Yet, in the walles if pining famine rife, Or elfe fome impe of S 1 No 'l , dierc remainc. What can preuaile your butwarkes ~ a:nd your tOWt'r,, When, all your force, _your inwarde fuc deuo11res.



~ ~~!;I


Sbee brake the fame, that ~.about it ran ne. Wherat, the maide her pacicnc~ quite forgot,



tliarwuh rnilke, the


had fil'd the pot,

And in .u~ge. me bnnifhe be:~ll:e did ban ne? Winch toye, thoughe 01orce, yet fltarply reprchendes lkginnings good, that haue vnhappic er&dcs.
:t ;

St sthorum


Stu!Jorum IJU411t~fod11JfuhlimifJr~ tmta man{eflior t'!"/'itudo.

'Whofe faultes' brilrt c:GUlde.not bee c~ne fo .d~, ' For lowe efiate did fhadowe·euery ·crime c . But fer him vp , llis folly foone is hardc, Then keepe him douue, let wife men bee prefer' de• .

the folly doth P And is a fhame Joole , his, that make him clime to them
1\ o Moo T!







not thine almes ·d~rre, when ncede doth hid. thee hafte ': Foe why, one gifte is 4oubl~ thougbt~:l.t in-due: rime is plaftc..

111 N

to tbt pore thou ·giu'ft, make fpeede the fame eo doe: BycaWe gne jpftx: .in til)le beftowed , is wonhe fomc odwr twt'.

Or .If.

eager haulke, with (odaine T Oath ftoope, in hope to Gghte of lure

haue~her~. prayc:

So, manic men· do ~re to lightes :mfure: And curtcOt&~ fpeech't. dathc k~pe them at th~· baye. Let fuche ~:u:c ,. le~ frcndliC: lookcs be like, The lure, to whiCh :the ~~g, haulke did,ftrike?


~~ '

Ro. Boaao. . w


11 ~(-,
(fo~ 'I


t :~·

~L._l9. ~





~ 1~

H Wbkh le!fons, by litdc.- lf>eah m bricfc;, thcfe formes
I A R!






~~ ,....



Bee from that-is mught: ~euery one arc t:-~ughr.

I mportemita~ euitam!A.

that his bumilh'd W On anuillwith force,prooue if it.lx; blade d.oth trie harde, fine:
.H 0



Doth Hazarde muchc, it lhoul.de in peeces flie, which clfc mightc well jndure: For, there with fuengthe. he ftrikes vppon the ftithe, That men maye knowc, his youthfull armes hauc pithe.

Which warneth cthofe:, that louinge .fiendcs mioye, With care, to keepe, and frcndlic them to tteatc, And not to trye them full, with euerie toye, N.or prelfe them dounc, w~n caufes be too greate, Nor in requcfi:s imponunate to bee: F~r ouermucbe, dothe tier the CQUtfer free~

Strenuorum immortalt nomm.
T1 tfJt !Jnwllblt Gmtleman, sir \V I t"it

J9 j

R v-; s 'f. t t Knight.

fuore, H E T I s ofte was Ceene: And for his lolfe, did feeme for to deplore, With gallant flower the lame was alwaies greene: And at the toppe,a palme did frelhclie hloome; Whofe braunches (weetc did ouerlprea~ the too mbe. Which iliewes, thoughe deatlte the valiaunt ouerthrowo, Yet after face, their fame remaines behinde~ And triumphes fiill, and dothe no conquefl: kn<JWe, But is the badge of euerie noble naindo; And wh~n in gr~ their corpcs ~do!Cd !fcJ Their famous- ad:es doe pierce the QUIO lfcyc.
I G ./£A

tom vpon A This reprefentes:bewhere T5

AJij iriR~
litcorc: feci aliter Claud. Min. IU.. per A.lciatu, Emblem. 4l.llc Elllblent. lJJ. & Plin. Natur.d. Hdor.libra S• cap. ~o.

N•mquA1ft s~:rgiM fmur 11tl vm6rM

VU /.ttlltrM•t:fid Cllfll'{iumlttls
E~rifn tlllrtu &on/ilmptA dies, lter: Ml flf.ms .gl1T1t1 pantkt.

Srn:Ha. Fur.

Ntt Ltthi.U f.uu f"

Irulyt4 virtJU: viuitt f()J'tts

oc,..tii. j.



1? + Vel po:fl mortem formiiow/!. n the "'"".rh!! s;r I 0 n N N 0 R RI s K"ight. Lord ,tfidcru
~ Mu,fltr

in Jrr[,,d,, ""J Coltmta Gt~~tr.U (If tb1 E"glijbe Inf.4'1ttrit, ;, rh1 ltf/H "llrttrits.



Secret caufe, that none can comprehende •. In nanues work.es is oftm ro b:e fecne ; As, dcathe can not the ancient difcorde. ende. That raigllCth fiill, the WoJfe, and fllecpe betwecnc: The like, beGde in many thinges are knowne, The aafc reueal'd, to none, but Goo alone.


For, as tbe wolfe , the fillye 0\ecpe did feare. And m:\de him ftill to tremble, at his barkc: So bcinge dead, which is moftc ftranngc to heare. This feare remaynes , as learned men did marke; <;la~. Nill. r11pec For with their lkinnes, if thac two dromme.t bee bounde. ~•m, E-"·' 17• That , clad w.ith 0\eepe , dorh iurc : and bathe no founde. And, if.rhar flringes bee of their intmles wroughte, And ioyned both , ro make a filner founde: No cunninge care can tunc them as they ouglue , But one is harde, the oth~t ftiU is droun'de: Or difcordes foule, the harmonic doe marre; And nothinge cail appeafc ~is inward waur. So, Z t s c A though re when deathe did fhorte his da.ie~, A5 ~rirh his voice, hee ed\e did daunte his foes i

That after deathc bt"e fhoulde newe tenor raife, And make them Bee, as when thry fdtc his bloes. Wherrfore. bee charg•d that they his lkinne fhoulde frame, To fitte a dromme, and marchc forth with the fame. So, HEcToRs lighte greate feare in Grcdces did workc, \Vhen hee was !howed on horfebacke, becinge dead : H v N 1 A o E s , the terrour of the Turkc, Thoughc lay('d in gr.tue, yet at his name they .Red: And cryinge babes» they ~afcd with the fame. The like in F 1\ AN c E,: fometime did T·A La o T s name.

..€our Silulut ,.
Commroc. 'De r«bw

&«<lia AlplwaC.

Carlius Curio, Porru , & llnt:naaimi h.tbrnd• tunc, llOD qui fac!vDr:,. fed <jUi pro?wliazu iniuri•m Cic. 1.

Viflma cruenta.


sir W lL L 1 A





!bnge T ThatOlephanre with lcgge of ferpent fdl» cralle.s: fiill about his wirh winding

Throughe ifon ftron , his bodie ( :~(well , Thar.doune he linkes, and on rhe·1erpcl :tc ~"lllts: Which cr<.":ltllre huge·, c!iJ fi\l vppur. h:m foe; That by his dcathc: » he alfo k.iH'd his foe. Thofe iharpc: confliacs • thofe broiles and hattaib mainr, That are atchicndc, wid1 !poile on either parte: Where frrearnes of blood. the hilles , and valleys lkine, AnJ what is wonne • the price is de;: the, and fma.rre : This dorhe impone: But thofe are captaines gocd, That- win~ the ticlde, w~th Jhoddingc le:1fie of blood.

NOli tfi Ullll r- I'· cllj ucdf. •~ru•,

41a.nl.:'t ~,.n ::.r rtsU!', de t:r<dfir 'vrruen: aecun~>skr•A fc• IJUi pordt r>ao-

ri.a.m , ;.unu •JDO• miDi:. pcu:~ ~i


b :..

Penn.t glori11 perennil•
. T1 E. D wA a_oa D n a. Efquil'!'.

. •hll wraulrc boob The thred of noble S v a a 1 y s lifc,made haff for to vntwinc. ofA~t~pall!iS•-· A PO L 1 o chang•d his cbea~, andJay'd awaic ·his lutt',

Th• !de ofSutrty,

W Ha Mfrowning fatall da111e, that ftoppes our courfe in fine,

.. ~ · ·




And PAL t As, and the Mufes fad, did wearea-mourninge fute. 'And then,- the_ goulden pen·, in cafe of fables claddt', 'W:1!: lock'd in chifie ofEbonic, aad·to Ptmarfus had. ·But, as all limes do chaunge, Co pafiions haue their fpace; And doudic lkies at lengdic arc clear'd,.with J?ho:bus eh~ face. For, when that b:nren verfe made Mufes Ycridc of mirthe: Be houldc, LV s I N A fwc~dic founge, of·S I D M I y s. ioyfull birthe. \\'home mightie I o v Ldid blc:lfe,. wirh graces from abouc: · On whome,did forNnc frcndlie {mile, and nature moft didloue, And then, bchoulde, the pen, was byM 11\ c v 1t 1 v. s fen re, Wherewith, hee alfo gallc to him, .tho for .ao inuentc:. ·That, when hce firfl beg:m , hif vayne 1n. verfc to flto'\\'e. More ('\\•ecte then .honic,was the Rill, that from his penne did ilowe. Wherewith,jn yoathe hce v!'d to bannlfhc idle .AttesJ That nowc, his "'orkca ofendlelfc fame, dcligha: the \\"'nruc wines. · · No~ul-


No haulting verre hce writes, but rn~tcheth former time.!,


•Hor.at. lib. 1. No•Cherillus, he can abide, nor· Poettes patched rimes. Epill. r'• .id AtV What volumes h:1th hee wrjtte,, that_ reil among .his frendcs, gufium. \V h1cb· needes QO other pr:ufe at. all, c::che worke 1t felfe comendes. So; that Jiee famoltS l~ucs,· at home,and,farr~ rand neare; F~r d1ofe that liue in.other landes, of S I.D NE v s,giftcs doeheare. And 'fudU: as Mufes feme, in darkenes meerc doe dwell; If thu thCy hane not feene .his workes, they doe fb &rre c:x1:cU. Whetet'ort', JOno extoll h.i_s riome in what. I might_. This Embkme lo,;. l did·.prefi:nc, vmo this. wooittl:iie<:Knighr. Who, dit! the fame refufe, as nut his pl'Oper·due: And at the firll ; .his fentcnce was; it did belonge ro you. Wht'refore; lo, fame with crompe; that mount'"s· vnro the ~: And,farre aboue the higheft !pire, f~tri.p.blc, to. polt dothe : d~~ · Heere houerecll at y(\UI' i6ifl , with pen a&Oin•d with'l>aies: which for you bothe,Jhee hath prepar'~ -vnto yt)ur e~dlcQe praife. The laurellleafe for you, for him , tlle goulden pen; The honours that the Mufes giu~, vnto the raieft m·en.· 'W hereforc, 'pfoccede I praye, vrito your !ailing fame; For writinges lall when wee bee gonne, ~nd doe preferue our name. · And wht1fr wee tarrye hcete, no tr~afure can procore, The p:lime that wanes VN'In 'he ~n •~:which. cuer doth i,ndurc. · . . Hcnnerunixlt~pott .,..-. "'h boo koll'lamtoliditalll, T wo t houfand } 'cares, and more,· H o M E. n :V s wrat is ke; fc.d aatu~aqct; Aid. And yet, the fan1c dOth frill remayne ~ and ke~pes· his 'JOrm~r lookc. Ocll.lib.,,.cap.&a._ Wheare JEgypte fpires-hee gonne, and RoME doth ruine feele, ~ Pliai111fcc6d•u, . Yc~. b,oth Oc:gonne !ince he.was home, rhus time doth turne thewheele. ~;;;: ~:%~~al Y~a, thoughe (ome Monarche-gr~arc 'fome ~orke 01ould rake in ~nd, llnpcracorli Ytlit a Of m:lrb~e,orof Adamant,tha~ m2nie worldes 'fhou_de fbnde, l .~.~o:~.·:::r. Yet, fhould one· orMy)m3n, \\'Hh labour of the bra~ne, HiAor: .rtc Ccdbnr Beque:uhe the world ,-a monument~ that longtr ~oulde rem~,. . ~":..":"!:;,.;i. And when that marble waules • With force of nme fhould w:\fte; ,__,It ffiowd_indure from age:, to a~e, and yet no age fh.ould tafie. ~~~:Ciihac~ Oh happre you therfore., wl\o lP.fndyour bleffed d.aaes aieoraanauc! I.G, • In fcerumg .G o D, your p nnce, yom::'1 an de, vnto your endl-rr- pra1'fc ·mara Ccribic. ere , e. riJJ"'f; HCIIDC(llaa And,, daily doe proceede,wit.h rrau~ije _ ofche minde, 1b make you fam~ms heere ~·- aod ,eeke , tO leaue a fame behinc:Jc. ~~=P:. Which·is the cheofell thinge ·· the greatdl: Pribce can haue, Nacucal.haR.hb.J 6 : For~ 'f~e ~oth. criu11_1phe oue~ de:uhe, whe? eorpes are clofd ~o graue. :Pp; ;~fia~~~~~:~ Euen f~-vour wonh1e workes • · when yoo m ~ace fha!Hleepe, col\il_aw,probab•le. 1 · ' t'· 01: bu Hccoolotus. • Shall'lllake·reporte of your de{enes, and' D r Ells name fhall keept. • Whome. I cloe reucrence fiill, as one of PALL As peares: .And pr.aye the Lorde, with· i<:>yfull dayes for ro prolonge yout ye3res. b J Antmru


eAni111111, ·nm ru.
E D wA
J\ l>

pA s T0



a~nJl the fonnc: Jn' regall ioomn: of lafper , ·and o& let~r . · · Conrcnre of min do, not alwaies likes to woane tBut ofrienrim~s, it plealerh ·her to fbye In: &nple eo~. olot\Je ia with w:1Hes ofdaye. lnfiD. ChiliAd. fa. . D;t 0 8 IN I I''· within- a tonne did dwd[, Cttllllri& L. ~ Dio- No' choice of plate', aor nore of nel~ he had • . . . , • " Cjllld per • . t . ·' yj~ doUal. . ' And all:hlf gOodes; coulde B I A f mre {lght weU, lpiica&ua. And CoD a. vs had fmaU aces, his h~ tCl gladd~t Jllll~a~~lis; . His ~re was rocxes: his· table, was a ftoole. ;:.:,!,-:~;,.. Yet rbe(c ·fol wine, did fer the worlde eo koole~ Ror•.li.b:•.tpiA·':' Who· couer~ ftill, or hee that li12n in (e2te, ·~ '1:.;,~_:; Aun.uch. ddighre is wealthe vnto his minde,

and I N chrHWl gemanes ,.. that fhine With glitteriflg

rurn:ts ricblie feae,

J.,...,..;,;.; • 0~ p~fanre fhawes, and piClures , 10 tile blinde:


.....,. A; mufKke"is to biln. that can ocx h~rr.

iZ';:.-:::,:.• ·

.lwuia Allllpai..._


Th~ f~ conren~ likes the mcane efbzr, · Whicb 1s exemp~. and.free,liom feare, aod bare-. Wbarmanis ritc.he?' not·.hc.thar doth abounde. What man is pore.? not hte that bath no ioJ:e-. But· h.c i1 '!itchc., tb_at makes content ~ r:r..,. ornande.


And he is pore, tfiat couettes more and ~Which proues: the man was ritchfi in the ronoe, Then w~ the KiPSC? chat manic laudc' had wonnc..

If then, .c:on~roc the chicfeft riches ~. .And ~ic gripes, that doe aboandc . e por~ b Since thal, inougbe allotted is to cM., Embrace conreor' men c ·A! J • R -bath no more. Giue M 1 ~ "s, goiltde: and let him pine with lhame. Vfc ·you. ~ goodes , ·ro liue, and die, ·wit!! fame.

p...... ,_~


,., - - · "!-:


Jf.l~-·-·: btti{Ap..... ()ftl

&'..,; ._

;;_~foq....fogillllll. T• THoMAs W 1t zli. A HA M E{quin•


.._... __.- _~ ,



Bec,from that ~·c:e ftcke; & followe, tha.t wee le:me: [weaue, And, whilR: wee thinke our web~ to (lean te, & larger R:ill w"uld Lo, Time dothe ntt vs. of. amid our carke : and care. Whkh Wal'D(Ih all, that haueenoughe, and not-contented are. For to inioye theit goodes, their 00\ifes, and 'their landes : Bicaufe the Lorde vnto that end, commit.s them ro·rheir handes. Yef, thofe whofegreedic mindes: enoughe, doe thinlcc too fmatl: Whilft dw w.ith care they feek.e for more. oft ;imes are ren•J of all, Wh~rcfore ill fuch (I wHhe) that fpue. where is no neede: . To1'tCtheirgoodcs~hitft: chat they may, for time apace doth fpcede. And Gnc:e, 6y proofe J knowe, you.hourdc not vp your R:ore; . Who(c ~· i.s open_ to your &en~ : .and puree , vnco _ pore: the And fpead vnto your praife, what Go 'D dothe largely ltnde: I chie8ymadc.any-choice ofdus, whiC]:ll to you t:omaneaCie. In hope, all thofe thar·fce-yourname, aboue tile hritd: \V ill at your l&mpc,their owne cOme light; within your P...eppes ro tttad. Whofe dtilr lludie is , your cou~ric to adorne:
I 1


t>laOtlli ~ud,


AQd .C. to.kcepe a wonhie boafc., in place wh~reyou weuc bo.xne.


1.0 o

Tatria tuiqtll char•.


bees at lengthe rctoume into their T When they haue fuck'd the fwccteof hiue, bloomes;

And with one minde their worke they doe contriu. , e And laden come· with honie to their roomes: A worke of arre; and yet no artc of man, Can worke,.this worke; ·thefc little crearures c::an.
~dian. de: animat.lib.r.ca.j9· &;6o. Et hb.s. ~:~p. 1 ,. Etl'lin. N.uuul. hift.lib.u.c.lp.j.


The rnaifier bee, within the m1dfi: dothe liuc:, In fairefl: rQomc, ana mofr ofJl-uurc is; A d . . d l . . n ~uenc O!J~ to .1 u.m . .ot 1e rc~er~nce ~lUe, And. m the hiue With h1m d()e hue m bliffe-: Hee bath no fiuwc J.ycc none can doe him lmm~"" r;, ...., For with their lhcng~he , the rcfi about him {warme. Lo, natures fOrce ~it bin thefe creatures fmall, Some . all the daye the .honie home doe beate. And fome) faue off on fJ()wcrs fretbe doe fall» Yet all at nighrc vnro their home repaue: And' euerie.one, her proper hiue doth knowe: Althoughc there frandc a thouf.mdc on a rov;c.




A Comon-wealthe' by this'· is right e:xpreflc ; Bothe him, ~at rules, and thofe,iliat doe obaye: Os: fuche, as are the heads aboue the .r~, Whome here.· the Lorde in highe eA:ate dothe llaye: By whofe .fuppott.e, the meaner lOne doe liue, · .And vitto them all rcuerence dulie giue. Which when I waied: i call'd vnto my mipdc . Your C-v M BE il MA· I R. E; that fame fo farre commcndes: A fi:atcly .feate , whofe like is hardc to fin de, . Where mightie I o v a the home of plentie lendes: With. nfue , and foule , and cattaile fondrie Rockes, Where chrill:all. fpringts doe gulhe out of the oockes. There, fertile neldes_ ~ere, ~eadowes large extende: ; T~1ere,Goreof grayne;. with wa~er;and with wood. And, iri this plac~_,._your gouldcn time'.you f~nde,' Vnto your praife, and to your rountrics good: This is the hiue; your tcrinaunts , are the ·bees:· And in the fame, batie places by degrees. And as the bees, that farre and· n~re doe firaye, And yet come home, when honie they haue founde·: So, thoughe fom~ men doe linger long~ awayc, Yet loue they befi their .natiue counaies grounde. And from the fame, the more they abfent bee)· With ·more ddire, ther wi!he the fai:ne to U::c. Euen fo my felfc ; throughe abfence manic a year~ A £lraunger meere, whe~} did fpen<.l my prime. Nowe, parentes loue dorhe hale- mee by t~e c;are, And &ycth ,. come home , dcferre no longer time : Wherefore, when happc,"fome gouldc:n honie ·bringcs? 1 Will retorne 1 awi fCft my \\'earie Winges.

PI i~. Natural. Hill.li.u.caf-1.

''B.Iirflll . , ~ 1ri• r•tinl ,;...~ lnuior ,..;, ~

Oold.1• POnt.·+

Pnmus gr.adus picmis e1l ifie,

quos aultom~


-dcus ,, hon~es·..

Pont. 4o

aMi.· ne.as -c~tumeliis, bee Yultu 1.-cJcn~ da ell pit-cas p...


R!!Jd meli.u Rom4 1 sqthi(l quid ji-ig111e peisu : HIU fAmm IX UU /J#bRIU Ytbt jugit.




liad. ~. Cclltur._.. All.1,. t.f•

~~~ "'"'fltkl. .T• G.. M. Efilttin.



T better i,s (wee fay} a , cocage poote to houldt, . .. , , De habitlllllllhtbci Then lOt to lye rn ~foil ftronge, wnh fcaers made ofpi~ . cap. -4- Apud(lbr~• · Which fhcwes, that.bondagc is the prifon o(thc minde.: _ ros quofum C\111& A d liL- • L_ ha . · 1 ')': ·· tr.. ftm&eulum eft au. n . oc:ruc toe pplc trc. that u ro man au..gn·•dt, rum~~~ro •iafto•oa Anc! thouf,lic that fome prefi:rre thcir bondage, fur theit'~es: a-safiula1 hebcDc. •. • . , , • • Idem aarrac ia lib· Agd ne~ y m adorn d Jn filkes • anJ prcflc Wlth maffic eo cs. D~ qiua ~i~~· Yet marrie orhers n~, that . re accomptcd wife: a l'hnardnn fonblt Who liL- . • ·d01 .&-were y ·cho0(ce , .t bougl1e C&a ID goancs or-uut,. .t..c ll".t' . '-d. . . ~t:: aurrm ill Erocico ocme ~:t.,~~c~&operhoe And waighe nor P_ p! y s. ~· nor-yet L v ~ v 1 t v s•far.e(. o), .De 'lllo ctiam Aul. So that they may aiJomc'thcirmmdes, they well ~n~mced are. Gcu. lib.u. e~p.t •· Yta, ra~her dae a.ccep.e his· dlftlling.itt ~ -mane,. · Jirar.. ~ Cbillad.r.· And for to liue.~ich ~C<>n ~ y~• c;aQ~:sj :tmc:.. aqdbarly bonne. Cemuna ~.A~' \\i here freedome ·"'-· ininve • and' vncoratrolled hue • • le~oc!co, ....., -r Then with the chiefdl fare 9f all, :U!4ndJnaJ far to geuc. And • if I fuould ~ .allCd, .which Jifc qoth pleafe mee belle: I like the goulden lil#tie, lct'~en h9na~e refte.


Ariftipplllll (piljlo. (opb11as aultc11111) aurtis uomcompe• cl1b\ll DC pQdet Cl•

... n·aiDIIJ liL ' , •. .&ertll "






eAfiXilio diuJ,JO.
T1 .-R I C :tr A R 1l
. X>·.. A JC E

EfiJilUr, ;,

prq; ~

&~FA A.M c Is D A • .J:.!



H lt'O'V"G H ·E' .fcorch.inge ncne;

Ry miS Knighrt did~eepe his eom~. By gapmge gttlres htt-p.afi•d_, .by mpnffers oF me 8~, ~y pirane~~th.e~, and erudl foeJ, th:i.t long•d tO fpill his blood. Thatiwoncfer ~r~te~ ~apt': hnr, GoD was on his tide,. An!i chroiJghe·ffi~~{1 jDsfpjtcof aU, his fhaken !hippe did gJiide. A~ • C(f require his· paioc;s: .Bf. helptllf p1Wf1 dfllinl• .

te~ fott:e~. r~~d-rodc-S,. by .1b&lf~,&taodes:

WOOgbe_ coulde, in ftormes, aod

His happe. at lengrbe.did aonfwc:ra:hope, to .6.nde rhe goulden-minc. let G 1\ <~£ c.r A: then forbeare,. w pnife he~ h so- bg.,Ude? N Wbo th rooghe the watchfult d~nsy.t!fd,.to 1Vjo _ chc.1lc«e ofgoulde. Since by lt{ ~.D ·E :' s helpe ,4ithey w~are inchaubtcd all, . oaiiL. Me~oJH; ... Ami 1~ I f1 N without ptrrilles, pa.rde: me'·conquc:Lle th~fOre rmaU? Bur. hee, C!f whoine l , write' diis noble miode4 D-R. A K !~ Did bringe-:away hi§gocllden Hecce, when thoufaodeiesd!d wak Whete!Ore • yee wo<m.hi~ wighres , that fceke for forreiDCI tan des : Yf that you can, come alwaife home_, by G A N G 1 s ~lden fan des. Ar .!·you,lthat lioe at hqme', and can -a~ brookc: the .flood, Gcuc praife to them, tha-r paRe the waues; ro doe-chr::tr cowmie good.. Hetore which f"rre, .as- cbiefe : in temoca~ , and in caln,e, · Sit fJUNCIS DAA.~ t,®e-defertc,~y won: the goulden p:tlme.
c .Ju.eriW.

eAuaritiA ·huiili {4X,jfj.
u AarHVlll Bovllc-HII'- Elf,;,.··

duublc do W The ooc , vnro re this Pallacc loc, doth ope; the gallant roomc:s dod1
1T H



Whcrc:ts the ritchc with gouldcn giftcs hauc fcopc; . he other., to an cmptie bcndte doth goe, T And there, the pore banc 1eaJ,lc for to ·tcforte, But not ·p~fumc.vnro the other porte.

For, alwaies that is fhutte vnto the pore, But ope to them, that hauc the mina ofgouldc: ouid .. •. Arr. Then • thoughc the \l;orlde o~ PoCttcs: haue no ft..-· (ormu•• ,.,.....,..,.,{-J. ' "P'""~ ,_,n•t,.. ,_. No maruaile tho , fith .bountic. isfo,coulde; • ~b.....,.. fir-.. For, if rhcre d.d M E c o£ M A s giftes abounde~ ...,...,..••11.,-. Newe·H oR. A c.£ foori.e,& V.J R c 1 L lliQuldbefOunde.
M\rtial.Iib. 1.


~lfgtniltm {Aai ~u ueffe M.cr~lfil • . . N". fiii~MAm 1111_11• 6t1Lc fourt Jllh~: S~"'~M.cttutes.• dttrsmt. Fl.utt,. M.AI'tlntl;.


fm fU lll4 ,.,, dAQ




T• All T H v Ill S TA


x. 1 y '. Efquier.

Ciprdfe T Suaighre, taU ;
H t


is pl~ll'tge to tbe llghte, ~nd gr<:ene; and fweete vnto the

findl :

Yet,.yecld :s no fruiae vnto the tl'3uaylinge wightc:. • But naughte, and bad, experience do the vs tell : Wh~rc, other trees ·that mak~ not fuche ·a fhowe, Yeclde plcafantc fiuicte, and plcntifullie gro~c.

This gaiiante ttee· that good , -and fiuilHutl· feemcs i
In conerte forte, a Jcinde of men

Whefe curtefie, no nun but much cfiecmes ,


Who promife muchc, and faune about our ·n~cke: But if wee nie, chf.1r decdes wee barren finde·., Or yeeldc• but fiuitlc ; like: ~ the Ctprclfe kinde.
PflkbrA com# fjf,. ~igtjl., lf'tlint ft•nits; Std fiulllll ,;,dlis 11«, '""" p11Uhrlfgerit.


c }



TtniJWI. cunQ" mitior11..
lA N c Do vs .L, ~j!.l'iri, nn. lAtH D ovs ) Nfn-mj,k_ F.

T Andgrapes not ripe, the .trauaitinge .man and vndcr fuote dOth trcade , as ,


doth~a!k, naught£~

Which, being ripe, had fweete, and plealaunte tafu: Whereby, wee maic this letfon ttue be taughte. · Ho we 1implc.1ncn , doe umplic iudge of tl\iQgcs. .\nd doe not waighe that rime·pcifeebon.bringe&. For in this .w:orlcie-, tbe·thing(s moll: Ea.ire, and rare·, Arc hardc at firfie·, and fecmc both hadbe,andfower: But yet in time, they fweetc and eafic arc, Then fiaie fortime,.whicb.giues both fiuirle.and Bo\vcrt And vfc our timo, and let w full fuppofe No greater loife, then time that. wee doe lofc.·
N ~tm mor.c d.ct. vim. tlWIM ,.,~ ptr&lq'lh MM, Et.r.diMI{tzttu, ~/IUs bn!•f"'"·

T• M. WuuAM. HAIUBAOW.NE,ItConjlArrtitJaplt.

HE-f.lulcon mountcs T.And oucr hilles, and alofte vnto the lkic,her Rightcj dales~ dothc make
The duckes, and gcc(c, abo'Jt the houfc doe- t11c, And in cchc dichc, and muddic lake doe li.ghtc, They feekc their foode in puddles, and in pittes,. While that alofte, the priocdic faulcon fittcs.
Suchc dtffercnce is in mert, as maye appcare; Some, throughe the worlde doe patfe by l.mdc, and fc:~: And by defertc are famous farre ,·:md nearc, So, all their life at home, fome orhmfulie: And nothingc can to trauaile them prouokc, Beyonde the finell o~ natiue countries fmoke.
1• fobume .,,[,.,s tnn~,-fout·•~·," f.dco: .&td pllfct4mfiT /)lltlli grMttl,, ,{,, anM.


H~ .." llb.r.

!,.,,. 2.08

T1111c tuares 4f}turJJMiiescumproximu.r arde,.


.,S..tarch. iD vira Marcclli. JlllA.IIb 7• cap. ~·
V rani us. NI!QCjDim imprraror i 11 !"<i "cdu, "' non (c pr zp.~rcr bello. Er llera,ia Nato Dom Ser.,, lx conlideratione .remedij , pericu.!i

from flcepe kcure, "'hen ~rrill doth appeare: No wil~dome rhen to take our eaft>, and nor the wodho feare. SriiLA R c H 1 M Ell 1 s wr011ghte • when fOes had·.wonne rhe•cowne. A1td woulde nor leaue his worke. in hande, cill hewas-beacen downer No furetie is within , when roofe alofte d()(h 8atne: I c is a madnes then co {hye, till wee hue .don ne our game. Yea, thofe char helpe deferre, when neighbours houf~ doch bume: Are like wHh J:rl~fe, co fee their 01tne. wichfpeedeto cinders turae. Then, cur ofall·dclaies whm d:nsngc=rs are lx-gonne, Fpc if beginnings Wee wimfb."do,. the conquefl: "fooaawonne.
w A K!


•Aimatuf q~ntiial. Oaid, ~· POQt~ llo

Ttm!Ril officilnfl tft folAti.c dictr~ cmi, Du Jfln in U~Tfo tjl, a pttit •ltr , . . ··

Ex 1110rbo met.Gcina.
T1 W. Ro.


.Hont. Epill-.
lib.). Epift.I,

THE fwtfte purfute,t~~ he had done ofhis.pray-e:~ L~on.ouldc· couldenot-get Bv a·s late:
Did taign.e him-ficke,, and,in his denne did flaye, And .pra:de on thofe ," that came to fee his fiate: At lengrhe, the foxe his dutie to declare, Came te the dore·; to knowc howe he did f2.re.

Who anf\¥ered' ficke) my oulde· bcloued rrende? Come in, and fcc, and feele my pulfes bcatc:
To .whomc, quoth he, I dare not now intcnde, .Bicaufc, chele fl:cppcs (omc fe.cret mifchKfc thrcate-: For, all I fee haue gone: into thy dcnnc, But none I nude, chat: hauc rctom'd :•p;,·i-..~-



A Siclales fore, that .dothe in fecret wounde, fhowe; And gripes the harte, thoughc nothing

The force whereof, dte paciente doth cenfounde., That oftentimes, difpaire therof <lotl~ growe : And leloufie.; this fickncs hathe to name, An helliibe paine, due fufie from P L v T o came.
Which paffion fuaunge, is alwaies ~uties foe, And mofl:e of all , the married forte enuics: 0 h happie they , that hac in wedlocke foe, That in their bre!l:cs this furie ncuer· rife: For, when it on~c doth harbour in the harte, Jt foioullles fiill, ~d .doth too late departc.

LoP ll o cR. r s he arc, when wounded nherwithall, Did bteede her b:mc, who mighrc haue bath'de in bli!fc: This .corlie fharp~: fo tcddc vppl)n her gall, That all to late ik~c mourn'd., tor her .uni!fc: For, whiHl: {hec w:tr~h'dhcr hufoondcs w.ueHokuo-wc, Shce vnawares, wa.s pr.l.-yc vnto his bowe. d .z. v'l! uJi, i

Sm':i!c-m .fC'\X•'· rr- i ·:· .llli!'J'i. ' hr ;'laro!r"hu~ .11



.Ad_tnMiiJ.Yirts D.
L 0 TT V M


loANN'EM IAM~:s,
E. .M.edicos

B R o W.N


T The portrature , the...£fatne of phiflke tell.. . laurell crowne,


S C V L A P' I V S


,(~ tmt/l(Mn

Ouid.J. Pont. 4•

ItiiM "•flllit ,,, 1/1111·

The bearde, declares his longe experience well.: And grauitie thcrcwid1 that .alwaie goes. · The fcepter, tells-l1e rukth like a kinge Amongfi the ficke; commaunding euerie thinge.

The knotted fiaffe, declares the crabbed fkill . M ofte harde t'attai11e ; that doth fupporte his :ia.te: f Hitr.;.E!'il· H1s iitringe, ihewes he mufr be fetled full, Colporb dcbolir.. w· h 11. . . a,m, 1 , niau;lanimi .c conuant man de, and ra fh e proceed' mge hate:. Ylre&freDJir,~cnria The Dragon, tells he doth our age renewe, qu~IIC liiiCnllllll d · d marccr:crc r"n: And foone eccme, to.giwe the ficke his ewe.
~IIIC'}IIid c111m 1110•

.:j~ ~r,~~·

The cocke, dothe t~he hts watchinge , and his care; To vifite ofte his pacientes, in their paine: The couchinge dogge, dothe lafre of a11 declare, That faithfulnes, and'tt>ue, !houlde ftill remaine: Within their brefres, that. Phifike doe profelfe. Which partes, they all llioulde in their deedes exprelfe.


I n:mir impttm.
ftnni~ dqflrilf•


& Yirtutil l~t~~de nn.uijlm1 viro D. I v s T o L 1 P s 1 o.

B Y fhininge lighte, of wannifhe C to appeareraies, s The dogge behouldes his fhaddowe


\Vherefore; in vaine aloude he barkes, and baies, And alwaics thoughte , an other dogge was thl!re: But yet the Moone, who did not heare his quefte,. Hir woonted courfe, did- kcepe vnto the weftc. This teprehendes, thofc fooles which baule , _ nd barke, a At learned men, that fhine aboue .the refic: 'Vith due·regarde, that they their deedcs fhould marke, And reuerence them , that ~ with wifedome blefic: But ifthey~.u~;in v~~e-thcir wind~ they ~ndc, For woorthte ineri , the Lorde doth full defenClc.
Bjfo quiJ b.e di&•, viMis fuJ f..m• 111g11tm,
Ouill.r. R.nrtfd. lnJ.•~;,.,./;..r ••l!tl.
~crrtiiM H-"i


!J..."*"" "· ... i~.

Et {11A"fii.M '"'"' I"'JJIIfA llllrt Alfl•tn

a.{ R.t$!1l~

M.artial. Jib. J•

/tmt .;,.u~;. ,;,;,,. Rlgull Jll(frtl; Pr4'nA1 Mltifuts f""'n ,; ill11 nt~llis.

d }


1" :IJ-

N gould~n' fleece;· did Phryxus paffe the waue. And land~d Cafe, within the wifhed baic ~ By which is ment, the fooles that .Jiches haue, Supported arc,. and borne throl.lghe L.ande , and Sea : And thofe enrich'de by wife, or feruauntes goodds, /Uc born•.by rhcm like Phry.tus through thc:Hoodds.


t-An Dther 6f tht lilr,.t ngumtnt.
~p!:;.;i:!.C:: •.
,., - C l

~~;:;..,..,S. To whome, fuee did her rarell giftes bequethe. ·;:;~:il• Or like a ·lhcepe , within a fleece of goulde. Or hke a clothe, whome colours braue·adome, When as the· gi'OWlde, is patched,· rente, and tomo • .Sms.irz!pi/1.. For, I'ftlle· mmde t he c h'· C...{l .trearutCS 1 ke, · c._ D~co! ' r:oi cum leiC ac vcrlc in4nitur,& Thoughe nature.bothe, and fortune, bee our· frende; c:um vcfte depo- "J'l1oug·tle goulde wee wcare) an d purp1 on our backe, nitur: vr:itimc~:;ti. e eft, uon vclbt. yet arc woo poore) and none will vs comende But onlie fooles; and fhtcercrs , for theire gaine : For other men) will r£de vs with difdainc.

1•;, -

A Is hke afwordc, within aJinefr moulde : goulden theathe, foole of natures

T•· M. LE..


lvf, I oH N G 0 S T L .IN G E.

o E S 1 s Y P H vs , chat roles the refHeltc ftone To toppc of hill, with endlc!fc toilc, and pame: • . 'Vhich be_inge there, it tumblech. doune alone, And _then, the wrctche mull: force it vp againe: And as it falles, he makes it flill afcende; And yet, no. toilean bringe this worke to ende. This S I s Y P H v s .: prefcnteth ·Adams r~ce. · The reillelfe front: their trauaile, and their toile: The hill) dothe ilie~ the daye , and cc:kc die fpace, Wherein they fitl} doe laboll:r, wor.ke., and moile. And thoughe till nighte they fu,iuc the bill to dime, Yet vp againe, ·the morning nexte betime.



Ouict MeW..

Jib ....

Haat raLioaem .kua &quit or ha boniS ~ iris, qu4m ha dllc'l"'· lil I'll i• pr Z'CIIfiD reaa CjUi plua laboris ab lab esigunr, iu quibw ccrtior fpcs eft.



Vita hum3na propri~ n.i-fmum ell: Pcrrum fi c:~crcca~, cort~itur: li nooo:er- .AIIl. G•ll.ta,n. """• ca~ , tamen rubigo interficit. Item hominr-s e:~crcendo vidcmns conrcri. Si aiail ac"cas, iumia atquc torpedo plus _..ninlCllli tacit, quimcxt!rcilalio. ·




T Andboylingetobrothe, aboue the brinkc ·dothe !Well, ·comes naughte, with falhng in rbe fire;

So reaching heads that rhinke them neuer well, . Doe h~dlonge fall , for pride bathe ofte that hire: ·Ana where befote their frendes they did difpi(e, Nowe beinge falne, none· helpe them for to rife. EpllcC cap. +·

R.omau. re.

As T '- fwordes awaye, take Jaurell in your handes .. let nonh~ Sonne goe downe vppon your in:. Let hanc:s relenrc, and breakc oulde ranrors ban des, And frcndfhippes force.fu(>:dne yonr rafi1e ddirc. !otr defoerare wi~hl:es, and ru!FJ--:~. thidl: fol' blood; Wt~nc foes, with~loue; and thinke your~onqudt go,.!,


Omnil carof a:nuin.

M. El. <:: 0 c Jt B


lldhc , is gra.RC; and withereth like the haie: To daie_, manlaughes, to morrowe, lies in claie. Then. let him marke die frailrie of his kinde, For here his tearme is like a puffe of winde,_ lik<= bubbles G.nalle, rhat on tne waters rife:.. 0( like tha flowers , 'whome F t o R. A fidhlie dies. Yet, in one daie their glorie all is gone: So. worldlie pompc , ..V~ch here we gaze vp~ Which wameth all , that here dJcir ·pageantes plaie, Howe. well to liue: bat nor bow looge to wait.
t L


&t adolcfcau qui

~· tt, qilamulr

rxplot&llllll babeat fe ad yefpcrum clfc vitluruml

Seulim f111e (cl'fll zu, feucfcit, nee~
iialtito frangittlr ,fed

diuturnllalf uuocuilw, Cicllr.l'hl-

Jip.u •.

lnttr JPtm , , , , rimtWts.inttr

&. irM,

Omnem ,.,.edt tbtm tibi dj/uxi(e {upremllltl. GtMA fopf111t111lt ,·if* ""'btriiM• , bflf'tl.

c .

Peruer{a iUtki~.




Ouid. Mctam.

~~~ --------~~ P.& did-ftrjue PBut M De gaue- the palme to P w: wherefore£kill ropaffe;aS the eares·of
ft. E SV M J.'.TV.QV S




A l' o t L o gaue the·Judge: which doth allludgcs reachc ; To iudge witL knowledge. and. aduifc. in nutters pal\e thei~ re.iche!

But if wee Bie, it followeth at the hcele. So • he throughe loue that -moflc ·dotbe ferue, and Cue, Is funheft off his miR:relfe harce- is free le. But if hee Bie, ~nd mrne awaie his face; Shec followcth, firaight • and groncs to him for ·grace.

ri:.. . . . .___,. ,-. . . .-. .-. . 0

vR fuadowe flies ; if _wee ~he tame purfuc:

ln 41Jiort tormtntum.

EN ,as the g!uttes, that fl.ie- into the blaze, Doe hnrne their .wtnges and fall into the fire: So ·, thof&,-to.o,.rouche on gallant fhowe.s that gaze, Are ~apria~s caught, and- burne in their de fire: And tache as once doe feele this inwarde warre, Thou~hc· rh,ey bee cur'de, yet fiill appeares the fcarre-. For wanton L o v 1 althoughe hee promife ioies, Yet hee that yecldes in hope tO node it true; His pleaf~res tbaJbec mated with annoycs ; Andfweetc:S fuppofdc, bee! nili.'d, with bitter Ne: Bi.cauft", ·his dattes not all alike, doe wounde 1 For fo the ficndes of coye A s l' A s r A. founde. They lou•d, fhec loth' de : rhey ctau'd·, fhec ftiU deni'de~ They tigh'd, ilice fonge: they fpake, !bee ll:opt her eare. T~cy walk.·~, thee farte : they {et • awayc thee hi' de. lo this th~. bale-~ which was he.r blilfe, you heare. 0 lone, a plague, rhoughe grac' d ·with gallant gloffe, for in ~by !~res a fnak~ is in the motfc. Then iloppo your cares~ and IJke V t Is~ E s w.aulke, The S Y R £ 1 N .E s tunes, thC' cardefie ofcen heares: .. C It oc VT A killes when fhee doth frcndly taulke: Tbe Crocodile, ·bathe rr~afon in her te,tres. In gallant &nicte, the COtt' is ofce dec1y'd;


~e mali~itate· Crocuf2 fera ~1.

lib.7. cap. u. k l'l•n . .Ub, l ...p. !~.

Yea. poifon·otte in cuppc of goulde.a.Ua)'d.



Th~:n, in

your W3ics l~t rea.Cpn tl:rike the (lrob, A s r As 1 A !honne, a\thoughe her face docdlUoe : Bnt, if you liko of H Y .w'1 N A! vs yoke, 1) E N E L o r E preferre , thoughe fpinningc twine, Yet if you hke • ho\f moll ro-liue in rett, H-r l' l' o L v T v s his life: • fuppofe the beR:.

Yincit q11i p41itNr.

mightie okc, with a T But ftitJie .fiandes, th11r fhrinkes mofre dothblall:e, when Boreas bloweJ


With rage thereof, is broken downe at lafte, When bending r<Jedcs, that couchc in tempcfies Iowe W 1th ycclding frill, doe fafe , and founde appcare : And looke aiGtte , when th~t the cloudes be cleare. Er•J:,dn'EP.ifl.. When Enuic Hate Contempte' and Slaunder1 rage: Ven:·m.agnunl. • ' . • mi elt, CJU31(bm Whach are the fiormes, and tempefics, of thts ltfe; iniuri.u nc:~hge- With patience dten, wee muft the combat wage., :~ ~:n:li':; And oot with force refin their deadlic ll:rift> :~ures. vciiinBut fufier fhll, and then wee fhall 6nc, guamb.lbcre. Our t~ tubduc, when they with ihamc fuall pine,.


eAtulei irriti.


.a as do liue amongfl the W And vertuethe good, where feede of vices bad: g.rowcs, fpringcs:
111 'k

The. wicked forte to wounde the good, arc glad: And vices thruft at venue , all their fiinges": The lilce, where witte, and leMning aoe remaine, Where follic rules, and ignoraunce doth raign~


Yet as wee fee, the lillie frefhlie- bloomes, Though thornes , and briers, enclofe it rourtd aboute :_ So with the good, thoughe wicked haue their roome!, They ate pre!enid, in fpite of all their route ~ An4: learning liucs, and· v~rme ftill doth fhine, When follie dies, -and ignoraunce doth pine. e J Ntglt!lll


Negkfla "'Vircfctmt•
To M. RA
Wtl N

s Prclfclm,

difpifed growe, T Andluie greene that qothe trimme the fame at all,. none d'oth plante ,_or
H !.

In time it n1ouotes,

Althoughe a while: it fjn·eadcs it ielfe bclowe, ~·ith creepingc vp the wall. So, thoughe the worlde the vertuons men difpife, . Yet vp alofie in fpite otchein they rife:•

. --~------------------bJipunjtAIJerocu parens.

s T Ef. V ENs 0 N



worrhie men • for life, and le:::rningc gre<Hc~ Who with tlu:ir lookcs, the wicked did appal!, If fronninge fates. with pcrfecmion rhreare; Or rake them hence, or !hut them vp'in thrall: The wi,kc-d fortc· reioice, and plaic their parres, Thoughe longc: before, they clok'd thru faincd han~s.

Nemo potefl tluohUJ elominirfiruirt.
To M. K N E w s TV B Prcatbtr.

man H And .then, who--firfi fl1ould heauenl ie thinges attainc, to world his fences fhould incline :
E R E,

Firfi:, vndcrgocs the worlde with might,andmaine, And then, at foote doth dr.1v:e the lawes dcuine. Thus G o o hee bcarcs, and Mammon in his minde: But Mammon firfi:, a.nd Go o doth come behinde. Oh w~idlinges fonde, that: ioyn~:thefe two fo ill, The league is nought, chrowc doune the world which·fpeede: Take vp the lawe, according to his will. . Firfi: feeke for hcauen, and then for wordlv needc. But thofe that.firfl·iheit wordlie wifi1edoe fcrue, Their gaine, is ·loffc, and fccke their foules to fterue. Sic

"Mtllth.l. Non porcll:i~ deo feruire & M.za. monz.

Primum ~ ..z11:e
~gnum de,&~:

1..., .

Sic prc!~;.r.
'1' 0 ~1. A N D· k. = I 'd



n v T The oChrifiianstormcntes .frraun_ge , and petfr.:curions dirt, palfe '·with in their paine:.

n "


And en de their conrfe • fome.time wirb fworde, and fire, And conlhm fiand, and like to lambes are llaine. Bycaufc:, when all their marrirdome is paft, They hope to gaine a glorious Froune at laA:.
Noli tubA canere Elttmofyu.nu.



.A.n? openlie~ will th~ rewarde thet·EOre. :But. if with trompc thy almt"S :mill puhlilh'd bee, Thou giu'lhn vainc: fith thou thcrby doll: fhO\Ve, Th1 chiefc delirc is~ lhat lhe wodd maie ~
• 0

H B N [hat thou giu'll thy almes.vato the -~ . In ccret giue , for G o D th.y giftes dorh tee:·


dertiptfi'U Wf/r/dt, thy plea{um 1 deren: Pm~DW ·chrt. N•we , others wit/1 thy fbrnws dtludt; my hope;, l~tllllm filth res1, ftim~ailoqui~~&r.
D V!

l*IIArged M foUowtth. 'V EN as a flower, or like vnt~ the gralfe~ . . Which now dot he fbnde, and firaight "rich firhe clothe nll.; So is our lbte: now here, now hence wee pallc: For, time artendes with {hredding fithe for aU • And dcathe at lengthe, both Oalde , .and yonge, dcxh :fi:rib; And into dllft doche turoc vs all alike. Yet, if wee marke how fwifte oor~ce dothe rarmt'. And waighe the caufC', why wee aeatcd bee: Then llull wee know, when that this life is donne. Wee !ball bee fure our counnie right to fee. For, here wee are bur frraungers·, that muft flitte ~ The nearer home, ~he nearer to the pitte. 0 happie they, rhar pondering this arighte., Before that here their pilgrimage bt-c paft, Refigoe this worlde: and marche with ·a11 their mighte Within. that pathe, that leades where ioyes fhalllalt. Vi.a yeruasv1t~. ]IIIIJ. 14. And whil~ they Dlaye~ chere, treafure vp their !lore. lrltlllh.J." 'Vhcre, Wlthout rWl; 1t Wks for euermorc:. f ThiJ

.t,~r•l. t • . .,;IJtNIII,I/,-

1 C.rirflh.u.

c (;•rillllt. 1 •.

This worlde mut\: cbauoge : Tlut worlde, tball run iridare. Here; pJdures fade: Tnere, fhall they ~dle!fe bee. Here, man doth fmne: And t6cn:, ·bee Otalbec pure Here , dcathe bee taftes : And there, (hall neaer die. Here, hathe hae griefe: And rl_lcre. fhall ~ poifcll4 As none bath feene, .nor aoie Nn:e. can git!C. ·



c 1 fauninge lookes,. and fugred fpcache preaaile. Take heede berime : and linke thee not with theife. The gallant clokes, doe hollowe banes conccile, And goodlie iliowes, are milles before our des: But whome thou 6nd•ft wi'h guile, dilguifec:l ,fo: No wronge thou clecft, 10 vfc him as. thy fot:.

F,) fi•ilt)ill HJplcritM~
Face deronn' de , a vi[Os: ~re dothe. ~id~, That none c:an fee his vglic iha~ Within; To Ipocrit;es 7 .the fame maic bee appli~c, Witli outward Ot~.cs, who all their ~dit Yinnc: yet giue no heatc:. but like a paiitted me; And, all thcit zca1c, is :.aa .the time$ tcquito.



M, I



0 N S 0 No

doe T wo horfes isfree, a thirde other,fwiftlie chace) . The one, white, the bladce .of bewe: None, bridles haue fur to refiraine their pace, And thus, they bothe, the. other ftill purfue~ And, neuer ccafe continuall courfe to make, Vnrill at.lengthe, the firfr, they ouertakc. This .form oft horfc, that ronnes fo f.Ul awaye, . It is our time; while becre, our ·r:rce wee ronne·: The blacke, and white, pref~teth nighte, and daye : Who after bait, vntill the ·goale bee wonne; And lcaue vs not, but followe from our birthe, Vntill wee ycelde; and turne againe to eanhc.
l.Abitta mult~, fi/Ut~ 'PIWtilil


cm Mlmijfil.ubitt~r


dM, t~r#l·

Onid.J..blel.t. ·





M. Howl-rE Pre.uhtr.

man with a.{c dorh H And without him, the axe,cut the bouO'hein-.!oc cOldde noiliint,
ER. E,


Within the toole ~ there doth no force rcmaine ; But man it is, that mighte doth put thereto . Like to tlm·.axc) tS man, in all his deeds; Who hath no ftrength·~ but what from G o o proceede::
Then·, let him not.makc :vaunt.ot his dcfcrt, Nor'braggc therecif, when bee good deedeshathdonne: For, it i~ G o D that worketli in his h~ae, And w1th lliS grace.; tog~d,doth make hlnt r.onru:: And of him fdfe, hee weake therctoo; doth liuc; And C o u gtue~ power, to whome all glosie gtUe•
.DIIftimt ~·

tud. Epnt.

Th>minus <"Viuit c& ,..videt.

'fJ~r•flO••..I "~~...ti•

N'ic. Rcufam.. ,

.,, ... wpn-c!~,~~~-~: s~ •.J. "~' Jl''"'...._. ,M/... 'IITII'U(.tllttlr.

C 0 N C LV S I 0 0 P! 1l I S , eAd IlluflriJJimum Heroim D. Robertum Dudla:utn,

C01nircm Leiccfl:rix, '"Baronemde ?Jenbghe~ rt/c. 7>orm7111111 meum rvnicecoltndum.
Tcmp!Js omnia ttrminat.

T Tht l1ngeH tUJt, ill ·ti-.e re,Pglltf' t,-11!g/J.It. tJirt, i11 Jllfle Mih




Tbt .R411tn dits, the Eglt fAi/ts 1[ /lii.htt-• .
'1'/Jt PhfZtJix rArt,i.,_ tlmt
.A. (JJ .cU mMH

her filft.t&th 611r11t.

Tht princ~lie {Jttggt At lmgthe lui rAtt dfJib """'· m de, tb4t tMtr ~.- Dt.giRIIt. J1fll11 ~; I) hrr~ ritJt .lJuktlJJifi•pli Hl~t,. c...AnJ fJffer it vnt1 JIHr Lprfhippu /i(htt: Jt.JJich t if ffJII [1J4fl YCC'tiMt '~Pit/, p!tA{illgt ~1ir1 I /hAll rtilfct; ""d thinte •1 IJJu, l1ghtt. L4nd prartht LITM·J'~' h1111Mr 11 prtfir•t, 011r 111~/t ~cent, A11d ,,,,,,;, li11g ttJ firllt.


I N 1


Geffrey Whitileys Choice of E mblemes.
PbfJ/ulitJw-ny.;Ped by Alfred Brothers, Manchester.




Explanatory Notes


Tlti11king /ill/~ of Sorralu; Bulmuclt mor~ of 1/u Trullt.

Nunquam procrast£nandum.

insignia suslintl ake ; Vnguibus et p.'TJotll fer/ ava{Ja"'I."Mpiv~. Constat Alexandrum sic respondisse roganli, Qui lot obiuissetlempore gesfa breui; Nunquam, inquit, di.fferre uokns, quod d indicaf alce: Fortior hat dubiks oc;•or an ne sief.
Aldus, Yenetiis M.D.XL\'1.

ALClATAE gmlis


• •





HITNEY'S C!toice of Emblems is most truiy a representative book, - representative not of the entire emblem literature which preceded him, but of a very considerable portion. Either by way of reference, or by direct adoption, there is set before the reader a very full view, not to name it a complete one, of what had been ventured on and achieved by his fellow-labourers. Originality he does not claim, though for this he deserves more credit than is usually assigned to him ; but what he does claim to have done, was done in a masterly way, which only a man of learning and of culture could have accomplished. The word motto speaks for itself. By device is to be understood the pictorial illustration of the motto, excluding the stanzas,· and by emblem, the whole combination of motto, device and stanzas into an artistic expression of thought The motto gives the subject, the device pictures it, the stanzas clothe it in language more or less poetical, and Emblem furnishes a name for the results when the three are made one and the work is perfected. " CHOICE OF EMBLEMES" is the significant title which is prefixed to this book, and most accurately does that word "choice" describe the nature of what has been done. Whitney made a selection from the labours of earlier writers, and especially from Whi111e~ "tot!'• Reader, pp. lilY. those whose works had been imprinted "in the house of Christo- and n .


Essays Literary and Biblwgraplzical.

burghe Ballad&,

"Book or Rox·


}t;;~ eV~~:iv.

French Plate edition, xxvm. ~x_;(J9- Plate




pher Plantyn." He had access to and made use of other books of emblems, and sometimes has accommodated their- devices and explanatory stanzas to the collection which himself was forming ; but these were the accessories to his plan, and not the principals by the express aid of which his purpose was carried out. Collier informs us that in the sixteenth century it was the custom among printers to buy up the old wood-blocks which had been cut for other books, and, even without much coincidence of subject, to introduce them into their own publications. Of this practice he gives several amusing instances, but a better cannot be supplied than from the Great Folio Bible of Elizabeth's reign, to the expenses of which several of the nobility, as the earls of Leicester and Essex, contributed. Some of the large and highly-ornamented capitals belong properly to stories and anecdotes of the heathen mythology, but are heedlesly employed as embellishments of the sacred writings. The practice spoken of was very extensively adopted by emblem-printers and publishers, and without any blame to be attached. The highly graphic drawings in Locher's and Brant's ".Stultifera ji.aubs," Fool-freighted Ship, were introduced as illustrations for " l.a grit nn 1Jtl5 fOl! 1Ju mitJt," Tlze Great Ship of the Fools of the World. Again, the borders round the d~vices of Perriere's "Tltedtre des bons Engins," are the same as those in Corrozet's "Hecatomgraphie," Tlze Hundred Engrav. . . . . mgs; an d coptes of t h e same engravmgs as appear m F rettag,s "M!t!todloguzE· bEt~ica," Ethica~ MAyth_ology,,are inserted in a work 1 enttt e " s attmrot moral ues mmauz. Plantin of Antwerp possessed abundant stores of pictorial embellishments* for books of many kinds; and when woodcuts or engravings had served for a work in Latin or French, he very freely employed them for a similar work in Flemish, Dutch, or English, and perchance in Spanish and Italian. The language was changed, and in emblem-books the stanzas also, to suit differences of thought or of customs, but, with a more or less omamented border, the same woodcuts or engravings did service
• These stores, it is said, still remain In "L'Imprim~ Plantinimne" at Antwerp, and greatly is it to be desired that M. Edward Moretus should unveil the treasures of his inheritance and make them accessible to the literary world.

Essays Literary and Biblz''ographical.


over and over again. It was no more considered strange to distribute the blocks than to distribute the type, and when either was wanted it assumed its fitting place on the compositor's table. The proofs of this are very distinctly to be traced, especially in the editions of Paradin or of Alciat from the year I 562 to x6o8. A writer of great authority maintains that Whitney's emblems D ibdin.1. 1. p. 0 ec. vo .Bibliog. were chiefly borrowed from Paradin's "Heroical Devices." The analysis we are about to submit will show the inaccuracy of this statement, and that A lciat was the great source to which our author applied. Another writer, without entirely rectifying it, points out Dibdin's error, and affirms that some were taken from Paradin, others from Sambucus, Junius and A1eiatus, and some also from the sacred emblems of Beza. There are indeed a few coincidences between the emblems of ~:1 Er~· vm Whitney and those of Beza, but not above two examples of direct and immediate borrowing. Of the emblematists of Whitney's era the greater part were either directly or indirectly laid under contribution by him: not many of them escaped, and that rather because of incongruity in their subjects than because the works were unknown.* One or two of these are simply referred to, as Achilles Bocchius; and others are alluded to among divers ToXY. Reader. the p.

• Among emblem-books, neither used by Whitney nor alluded to by him, are to be included: Gerard Leeu's "DIALOG. CREATUR. MORAL!, Editio Primaria," or Dia/oguts of Biblio1h. Re g. tlu Cr«lluru, excellently moralized &c. to the praise of God and the edifica- the Hague. tion of men. Gothic letter, large 4to, unpaged, 148o. Also "Een genoechlick boeck gheheten dyalogus der creaturen. Te Delf in Holland, 1488." The last edition. A. Coelio Augustine's "HIEROGLYPHICA," or Conurning tlr~ sacral things of tk Egyptians and of otkr nations, &>c. In 70 bks. pp. 441. Folio. Basilire 1567. Jeron. Ruscelli's "Le lmprai t11vstn~" 4to, pp. 496. Venice 15!4. Alluded ~m~ f~rary of to by sir Philip Sidney. · · ompson. J. Keysersberg Geyler's "Navicula, we speculum fatuorum," &>c. Small 4to. Argent. 1511. Geyler's "Navicula P(J!nitmtia," &>c. Folio. Augsburg 1511. J. P. Valerian's "HIEROGLYPHICA," or Commentarits on the sacred c/zaract".r of tit~ Egyptians. Folio. Basilire 1556. Giovio's "Dialogu~ dts .Devi.ru d'armu et d'amour," &>c. 4tO. Lyon I 561. Maerman's "Apologi Creaturarum," &>c. 4to. Antwerp 1584 And perhaps we ought to name from the same library: Holbein's "/cones /zi.rtoriarttm vd. Ttstamenti," &>c. 4to. Lugduni 1547· Bernard's "Figurnkl V«cltio~ddnuovo Tu!." &>c. 8vo. Lione 1554


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

1'1 mp. Plant in.

See Annales de

•sss-• s89-

persons "we! knowne to the learned." Of his own skill and invention, as far as the subjects and devices are concerned, very little was produced ; in fact his aim was, not to strike out new paths, but to follow up the old. Similar emblems to those of Whitney are to be found in many writers previous to the year IS86, when "the Choice of Emblemes" appeared; and in all probability, when not copied from other sources, they were suggested by the works of Sebastian Brant, William Perriere, Giles Corrozet, Horapollo, Bartholemew Aneau, Peter Coustau, Paolo Giovio, Gabriel Symeoni, Amold Freitag, Theodore Beza and Nicholas Reusner. To these authors we may trace like thoughts and expressions and like devices. But in the vast majority of instances there is an absolute identity between the mottoes and pictorial illustrations in Whitney and those in earlier or contemporary writers ; and this identity extends to the employment of the very same wood-blocks for striking off the impressions. At various times, between I562 and I585, from Plantin's offices in Antwerp and Leyden, various editions had been published of emblems by Claude Paradin, Gabriel Faerni,* John Sambucus, Hadrian Junius and Andrew Alciat ; these are the veritable originals of a large proportion of Whitney's stanzas, and supply his work with most of the pictorial devices which adorn it. The devices not hitherto traced to other emblematists are these :
Dtscriptio~t of Droi&<.


D<SrriptU.. of D'n,iu.

The houae on fire and the en'riou.s man. 95 The envious and the oo-retou.s. 112 The schoolmaster of Faleria. 114 Regulus A.ttilius tortured. u9 An overwhelming sea. 133 The vine and the olive. 145 The ape caught in the stocks. 161 The sick fox and the lion. 166a A. Bible in the heavens and the Enemy of aoulJ. 1 67 The old man and the infant. 168a Homer and the Muses begging.

185 198
~03 ~16a

~ 18a



u8 u9a
~ 30

Quinctilian, the Author and Fame. Alexander and Diogene~. A. ship drawn by Pro'ridence. The broth boiling over. Reconciliation at sunset. Pan and Apollo, Midas being judge. A. crown for the peraeouted. A.lma by sound of trumpet. The pilgrim looking hea-renward. The ue wielded by the woodman. A.dam hiding behind a tree. The sun setting.

• Properly a book of Fables, like the editions of .IEsop, printed by Plantin in 1565, 1567 and 1581.

Essays Literary and Bibtiograph£cat.


We cannot however say with certainty that the whole of these 23 emblems are original ; further researches may lessen the number, and two or three works, to which I have not obtained access, seem likely to supply some of the missing identifications; they are from Plantin's* press, and therefore Whitney probably pnmonc dPe1 anhn· ~·.• 1"1~had seen them. It is a point undetermined, though I should ••ndn•,8 PP· 88 • 47 . ~·~ expect to find the emblems on pages I 33, I45 and I6I derived from some book of fables. For the other emblems the sources of the mottoes and devices may be arranged in two divisions : I. Devices suggested only by those of other Emblematists, or similar to theirs : 11. Devices struck off from the same wood-blocks, and therefore identical
I. Devices suggested only, or similar to those of oth-er Emblematists. Under this heading the emblems, with their description printed in italic letter, are alone really to be attributed to their respective authors as the sources from which Whitney took them ; in other instances, with the description printed in roman letter, similarity exists, -little or nothing more. When a device is borrowed the motto belonging to it is generally borrowed also. I 0 • Locher's translation in~o Latin of Sebastian Brant's "$tUl== See tifera jlaUtJ$," Fool-freighted Skip, quarto; with CLVI folios: there are I I 5 spirited though rather rough woodcuts, besides the title-page and the last page, ending with "In laudatissima Germani<e vrbe Basiliensi: nup opa & pmotione Johanis Bergman de Olpe Anno salutis nre M.CCCCXCVII. Kl. Augusti."t
• "Les Proverbes anciens Flamengs et Franqois correspondans," &c., par M. Fmnqois Goedthals. 8vo, pp. I43· Anvers I568. Estienne Perret, "XXV fables des animaux, vray miroir exemplaire," &c. Anvers I578. Fol. de 26 feuillets . .. Fabulre aliquot IEsopi, breves, faciles et jucundre," &.c. Svo. Antverpire I 58 I.

Plate 1v.

Annales&c.p.tB. P· tl7.
p. UJ

+ The German original was published in I494. thus: "DAS NAII.RENSCHYFF Gedrucht zu Basil lm jar noch Christi geburt Tusant vier hundert vier und nilntzig. Jo. B. (Bcrgman) von Olpe." It is a quarto of I 58 folios, or of I64 according to M. GraesSC, with I 14 figures in wood.

For edirion.o of


d8 u6oLibra ire," 1 1 , V0.1. tlCluoq.

Sec Plate XXVIII.

Essays Lzterary and Bibliographical.

Geoffrey de Marnef's translation into French, "l.a grat ntf !JtJI fol! !Ju mo!Je," Tlze Great Shi'p of tlze Fools of the World, large quarto, with LXXXVIII feuillets in double columns, and an index ; besides the title-page there are 1 16 woodcuts similar to those of the Latin edition, but not identical. The capital letters to each subject are ornamented. The ending is: "«~ ftn(Jit la

utf !Je• fol! !Ju mon!Je. JJremtenmrt copo1te en altman par mat1trt .Stba1ttm brant !Jorteur t1 !Jrott}. «on•emttuemmt !Jalfman m Iattn re!Jtgre par mat1trt .:Juque• loft)n. l\.eueu.e et omee !Je pluJitturJI belle• tontor!JanttJI et a!J!Jttton• par lt!Jtt brant. 6t !Jt nouurl tran1Iatee !Je lattn m frito~JI et tmprtmee pour eeoffro~ !Je mamtf libraire !Je pam. l..e btii tour !Ju mop• !Je §eburtn. I. an m.ettt.rd.r."
Plate XXIX. Four wom.
17 27

Darri;tW.. qf Dn•iu. ·

176 1 81 223

Ducri,;tiu" qfDn·iu.

Plate V. No man.


Drinking, gamiug, throat cutting. fol. XXVII. Fowlers and decoy bird. XLIX. The thief and hie mother. XVI. and LVII. The ant and the grasshopper. LXXX ..




French ed.f~il. LI. Occasion or fortune. fol. mxv. No matt ea• ""'' tt«J mtulwl.





William de la Perriere's "Le Theatre DES BoNs ENGINS,"

&c., The Theatre of Good Contri'vances, i'11 w!ti'clz are contai'ned o1te lumdred Emblems," &c., a Paris, Denys Ianot, 1539. Small octavo, unpaged, The work has 214 pages and Cl emblems, with highly ornamented borders to nearly every page. Dedication: Consult Brunet•s "A treshaulte & tresillustre princesse, Madame Marguerite de •• Manuel du Libra.ire , 186z vol. iii. 819. ' France, Royne de Nauarrc, seur vnicque du treschrestien Roy de France. Guillaume de la Perriere son treshtible seruiteur." The mottoes on the title-page are, "AMOR DEI OMNTA VINCIT,'' and "AMOR UT FLOS TRASIET ;" and the borders to the pages and emblems are the same with those in Corrozct's Hecatomgraplzi'e.

Ducri/iiDII tif Droz~~-

180 188a 192 205 208 221


of Drvic,,


Plate XXX. Plate XXXI. Diligence.

Fowlera and decoy bird. Emh. Llll. SJa The BOW and the gleaning1. XVII. 6o Pythagorae enjoining silence. VIII. 108 .Tanu. tcitll .uptr'e and miiTO,.. 1. 165 4. man plucking ,.ou1. xxx. 175 Diligence drawn b!f anta. 01. 179 Swimming tr.itll a llurdn~. r,xx.

A fowler ldtirag a bird fly. Emb. xc. TM ap1 and da,.ling tliMlp. XLVII. A sword tried on an anvil. XXXI. TM cypN•• tr-61. LXV. Playing at cMaa tcilll tM MU8tl on.ft,.,. LIX. A lilg among thorns. XIX.

Sec Plate XXXII

3°. Giles Corrozet's "Hccaf(lmgraphic,'' &c., "That 1s to say

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


the descriptions of one hundred figures and histories, containing many Apophthegms, Proverbs, Sentences and Sayings, as well of the Ancients as of the Modems, &c.;" Paris, by Denys Ianot, I 540, small octavo, pages 2o6, emblems 100; Dedication, "Gilles Corrozet Parisien avx bons espritz & amateurs des lettres."*
Pag,. Duc,.iption <!.f Dn•iu. 19 The goddess Nemesis Em b. 28 Icnru~ falling into the sea 40 Virtue, Vice and Herculea 93b A virtuous wife 156b The fox and the lion 157 The heedlesB astronomer Pag,. DescrijtW.. <!./ Dt!Tii«.

38 67 74



Occasion or furtune Emb. 41, 18311 The burning trJrch doWDwarde 195 The elephant and the eerpent 210 The lion feigning sicknees and the fox 219 Tile gnau rcnnul a caiadle



76 Plate XXXIL
The Gnats.

4°. Horapollo's "HIEROGLYPHICA," &c., Co11cerning the Sacred Plate 11. Sig!Zs and Sculptures, &c._- Paris, Keruer, M.D.LI., small octavo, pages 20 for title &c. and 242. The plates are numerous. There were five editions of Horapo/lo previous to this- the first at Venice by Aid us in I 505, and the others in I 5I 7, 1 518, I52I and I548. For the manuscripts and editions of Horapo!lo, the best work to consult is that of Dr. Conrad Leemans of N"!1'?raP?Ilini• 1 HJeroLeyden, whose own edition with a commentary may be named, r~~!l~:.,; on critical grounds, as the best of this author. See also Brunet's Mocccxxxv. "Mamtel du Libraire," vol. iii. col. 343·


DucriptW.. of DnJia.


DtscnptW.. of Droict.

35 The hunted beaver p. 162 131 73 The stork feeding her young 155 no The cock, the lion and the 159 church SS 177 u6 Tile noa11, a poef' l:uulse 136 188a

Buildi"9' in rvi111, boob


p. I 24

The ant and the gl'1111shopper The phronix from the flames The ape and her whelp Bees seeking their hive

75 52 r63 Plate 11. 87 Swan.

5°. Bartholomew Aneau's "PICTA POESIS," &c., "Pictured Plate xxxm. Poetry. As a picture poetry will be." Motto "From Labour, Glory_-" Lyons, Bonhomme, I552, octavo, folios II9, containing IOo emblems. The woodcuts are small, but well executed. The same year and from the same printer appeared a French translation" L'IMAGINATION POETIQUE, traduction en vers fran- 'f'O l. p. '1.8800. BrLu~et, J. ~ois des Iatins et grecz par l'auteur mesme d'iceux."

Actreon St'ized by bounds 29 A bird brooding 74 Tantalus, water and fruit


D<scriptW.. of Droict.


fol.u8 73 108

D'scrijti#" •f Droicw; 7s Prometheus and the vulture fol. 90 121 RepreHttlation of 0Aao8 49 Plate XXX!ll. 141 Brasidll8 and his false shield 18 Chaos.

• Consult Brunei's "ManU<!! du Librairt," Paris 1861, tome ii. col. 299·Jo8; and Dibdin's Bib!• .Dtc. i. 2S6.


Essays L£/erary and Bibliographical.
DtS<·ri;timl of D<T!kt. Pag<. D<l<ri;tio,. of D111i<'.

149 Narci.asus and his shadow fol. 48 19::1a UrgitJg a fool to climb a Ire• 6o 211 TMJ•al-. tDif• 77
Plate XXXIV.

215 Sisyphus rolling the stone 2186 The shadows 2296 A human skull



Plate XXXV.

6°. Peter Coustau's "PEG MA, Cum narrationibus p!tilosophicis," " Repository, with philosophical narrations ;" Lyons, Bonhomme, I 555· The ornamented title-page has, like the Picta Poesis, a Mercury with the Gorgon's head, and the motto "EK DO NOT KAEOZ," From Labour, Glory. The dedication is, "PETRVS COSTALIVS ANTONIO CoSTALIO FRATRI S.D." Small octavo, pages I6, 336 and 8, or 36o. The emblems count 92, with elaborate borders to each, but not well executed. The French translation has every page highly embellished. "LE PEGME de Pierre Covstav," &c.; "from Latin into French by LANTEAVME de Romieu Gentleman of Aries;" Lyons, Molin, I 500- Dn the ornamented title-page is a figure of Minerva standing erect within a medallion having the motto around, "LITERAE ET ARMA PARANT (QVORVM DEA PALLAS) HONOREM." The woodcuts of the French translation are very similar to those of the Latin original, bue the borders are not the same. Small octavo, pages 420. The emblems are 94

Plato XXXIV.

Pl:lte XXXV.

38 40 6o 62

Ducri;timl of Drviu. .A warrior on a wnr-horeo p. 251 Virtue, Vice and Herculoe 92 Pythfi8oru enjoining ei.Jence Withered elm and fruitful vine


Dtl<ri;timl of Droiu.

76a 131 186 230

Two warriors shaking hands p. 162 Ruins and writings 178 OrplHw a.d tM animoZ. 315 The setting ann (Pegme) 374

Plate XXXVI.

Manuel du Libraire, 18~ vnl v. col. 391

7°. Paolo Giovio's and Gabriel Symeoni's "LE SENTENTIOSE IMPRESE," &c., i.e. Devices for Sayings, &c.; Lyons, Roville, I562; quarto, pages I34. emblems 126. The devices of Gabriel Symeoni are 36 on pages 9-44; those of Vescovo Giovio are <)0 on pages 45-134- The whole work is also named "TETRASTICHI MORALI," Moral Four-lined Stanzas. The clear woodcuts are the same as those which were used for the French translation of the "Ragionamento diM. Paolo Giovio sopra i Motti & designi d'armi & d'a1n0re," &c., and which was printed at Lyons in 1561; the same blocks were used again for a reprint of the original Italian at Lyons in 1574- For an account ofGiovio's works consult Brunet's "Manuel du Libraire," iii. col. 582-584Brunet names a work of Symeoni's : it is "Les Devises et Emblemes Mro'iqucs et 11-fora!es, i11ventecs par le seigneur Gabriel

Essays Literary and Bibliograpltical.


Symeon;" Lyons, Guil. Roville, I 559, quarto, in 50 pages, with very pretty woodcuts.

of Droia.


Dnt:rijliolt of Droice.

35 9811 110 12 1 1681l 169 177

The hunted bea-..er p. The trodden·down dock A rampant lion with a sword The crab and the bntterfty Bending the-croas·bow The ape and the miser's gold The phwnix from the fl.ames

126 32 77 11 34 40 14

183a 18311 1901l 219 226 n7

Burning torch downwards Wrongs cut on marble Gi'fing alms quickly The gnats round a candle The cloak and mask Two horses cha.si.ug a third

P·35 24 Pl>te XXXVII 43 Wrong•.


8°. Arnold Freitag's "MYTHOLOGIA ETHICA," &c., "Etlzical Plate XXXVIII' Mythology, that is, A very pleasant garden of Moral Philosophy, delivered through fables attributed to brute animals: In which, the labyrinth of human life being made clear, the path of virtue is taught in very beautiful precepts as by the thread of Theseus. With most artistic imitations of very noble sculptures by Arnold Freitag, explained in Latin, and engraved on brass. Antwerp M.D.LXXIX." Small quarto, pages 251, plates 125. Dedication: •• CLARISSIMIS OPTIMISQVE VIRIS ABRAHAMO 0RTELIO HISPANIARYM REGIS GEOGRAPHO, ET ANDREIE XIMENIO LvSITANO, ARNOLDVS FREITAGHIVS S.D." The above work is doubtless the same as that of which the title is given by M. A. A De Backer and Ch. Ruelens, with the addition "Philippo Gall<l!o Christophorus Plantinus excudebat ·" l'Imprimerie "Annalcs de ' thus fixing who the printer was. The copy used by me has Plantinienne,'' pp. >os,"''· written in it, by Mr.]. Brooks Yates, "The engravings by Gerard · de J ode and others. The Rev. Thomas Corser has a work entitled Esbatimcnt moral des A nimaux, with engravings from the same plates, but the explanations are in French sonnets." By whom the beautiful engravings were wrought is not exactly ascertained, for the PlaNtinian Annals say: "Pas de nom de Page"''· graveur : mais les planches sortent evidemment de !'atelier de Galle, ce qui. est constate d'ailleurs par la mention faite au titre. Elles pourraient bien etre l'ceuvre de Gerard de Jode."
Page. D.scri)tw11 of D<f't!iu. Page. Descrijtiatt of Dntice.

39 58 73 98a 128 159 16o

The dog and the shadow p. The ape and the whelp'• paw The stork feeding her young The fox and the grapes The mouse and oyster The ant and the grasshopper A. satyr and his host

113 177 The phcenix from the flames P• 249 Plote XXXIX. 69 Pha:nix. 129 184 The oz a.d the"'" 251 188a The ape and het' whelp 15 127 189 The snake warmed by the tire 177 169 195 The elephant and the dragon 145 S Plate XL. 29 210 The lion feigning sickness The Ant. 167

Plate VIII. Beza.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

vo\. i. p.

Bib!. Decam.

9°. Theodore Beza's "!CONES id est VER.tE IMAGINES," &c., Images, i.e. True Portraits of Mc11 illustrious for learni1tg and piety, &c., to which have been added some pictures which are named EMBLEMS; Geneva, Laonius, M.D.LXXX., quarto, unpaged, the emblems are 44 The dedication is, "SERENissnro PER DEI GRATIAM SCOTliE REGI IACOBO EIVS NOMINIS SEXTO, THEODORVS BEZA GRATIAM AC PACEM A DOMINO." The work is remarkable as containing the earliest known portrait of our James I. There was a French translation by Simon Goulart printed at Geneva in IS8I, quarto. "These emblems," says Dibdin, "are of peculiar delicacy of execution, but being heavily printed on a thin and coarse-grained paper, they lose much of the merit of their execution. The borders are elaborate, and perhaps of rather too much importance for the subjects contained within them,- so as in some degree to impair the effect."

Pagt. Dtto'iflilm .j Dtt•ict. Pagt. Dtl&f'i;ti<m of Dt11it:t. Plate XLI . Man. 32 Man BDd Shadow Emb. 13 214 Phryxus on the golden fleece Emb. 4 23 u86 Man, woman and thndow& 14 Plote LIX. Dog. u3 Dog barking d the moon

Plate XLII.

Nicholas Reusner's "EMBLEMATA," &c., Emblems, &c., partly ethical a11d physical, but partly lzistorical and lzieroglypltical, &c., to which is added a book of sacred images or emblems by Jeremiah Reusner; Franckfort, John Feyerabend, 158r, small quarto, pages 371. The engravings on wood were by Virgil So lis and J ost Am m on. The emblems are comprised in four books of a general nature, and one book of sacred images; also three books of family pedigrees without any pictorial illustrations. Nearly all have dedications,- some of them very curious: as Em b. IIX. p. uo, "To Jesus Christ, God-man," entitled "Christ the ladder to heaven;'~ Em b. XXVI. p. 236, "To Jesus Christ, Pontifex and King, best and greatest," with the words "The stars shew the way to the king;" and Emb. XXXVI. p. 248, "To Peter an apostle of Jesus Christ." In the family pedigrees are celebrated "J~hn Sambucus the learned physician," p. 297 ; "Christopher Plan tin, the renowned printer," p. 328 ; and "Sigismund Feyerabend, the well-known bookseller," p. 329. There is at the end of the volume a remarkable ornament, occupying the whole page; it is a figure of Fame, with a trum10°.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


pet in each hand, one of which the goddess is sounding. The device is surrounded by the motto," SI CVPIS VT CELEBRI STET TVA FAMA LOCO: PERVIGILES HABEAS OCVLOS, ANIMVMQVE SAGACEM "-If thou desires/ that tlty fame slumld stand in a noble place, t!tott slwuldst have tlze eyes watchful and the mind alert. There is also a poetical work by Reusner to which Whitney SI, 7J, 87, PP· so. Emblems, 97, frequently refers ; it is "POLY ANTHIA, sive Paradisus poeticus," ' 44 • ••1· '77· in VII books; BlUe I 579, octavo. Consult also Brunet's "JY!amtel," vol. iv. col. 12 55·

of Droiu.


Dnrrijtio11 of Droic•.

The dog and his ahadow p.S~ Cresar and Cicero 16 An us eating gl'a!d ropes 88 30 Cupid drawn br lions 37 75 Promet.heua and the TUlture 87 The pelican feeding her young 73 n6 The poet'a badge, the swan 91

39 47 48 63

127 174 177 186 188a 189

We Dl118t not light with ghosts p. 87 Arion and the dolphin 14~ Plate XL!II. 98 Arion. The phcenil: from the flames Orpheus and the animals 129 The ape and her whelp 70 81 The enako warmed by the fire

Thus the devices in Wltit1ley, which are similar to those of other emblem writers of his own era, and which might be suggested by them, are 103,- to be thus distributed : to Brant, 7 ; Perriere, 13, Corrozet, I I ; Horapollo, 9; Aneau, I 2 ; Coustau, 8 ; Giovio and Symeoni, I 3 ; Freitag, I 3 ; Beza; 4 ; and Reusner, I 3· Probably, however, he did not borrow from these sources above 23 emblems.




far Devices and Mottoes that are similar to his own were really suggestive to Whitney of the subjects which he has chosen for illustration may be very questionable, but there can be no doubt wit h respect to those which are idmtical In these the devices coincide stroke for stroke, line for line and figure for figure- the sole difference being a border of another pattern, which we know was easily effected, because the centre constituted a block by itself, and the framework in which it was set might be changed as propriety or fancy dictated.


Essays L£terary and B£bliograpltical.

Plate XXI.

Plate VI.

J . B. Yatet.

Plate XVI.

Plate XVII .

The authors between whom and Whitney the idetttity existed of which we are speaking all found editors among the learned men) whom Plan tin gathered around him, and were sent forth from Antwerp or from Leyden. We shall arrange them rather in the order of their relative importance to Whitney's purpose than to their time or their merit. The names of the ten authors in Section I. who have similar emblems will be printed in italic letter. 1°. Andrew Alciat: "OMNIA AND REtE ALCIATI V. C. EMBLEMATA," &c., "All the Emblems of Andrew Alciat, with Commentaries, in which, the origin of every emblem being laid open, the meaning of the author is explained, and all obscurities and doubts cleared up, by Claude Mignault of Dijon. The third edition by far more richly stored than the others. Antwerp, from the office of Christopher Plantin,* chief printer to the king, M.D.LXXXI." Octavo, pages 782, emblems I97, trees I6, total 213. Each emblem has an ornamented border, and to each there are copious notes. The references are to this edition, unless an earlier be mentioned, but the arrangement and paging of it are very defective. "AND RE£ ALCIA TI EMBLEMATVM LIBELL VS;" Paris, Wechd M.D.XXX1111., small octavo, pages I20, emblems 112. On the title-page and at the end is the printer's symbol, with the motto "VNICVM ARBUSTU NO ALIT DVOS ERYTHACOS," One tree does not support 11vo Redbreasts. The woodcuts are very curious and repeated from the same blocks in the Paris editions of 1 5 36, I 540, I 542 and I 544"ANDRE.tE ALCIATI EMBLEMATVM LIBELLVS," &c. ; Aldus, Venice M.D.XLVI. "With tlze privilege of Pope Paul Ill. and of the Senate of Venice for ten years." Small octavo, folios 47, emblems 84- The Aldine symbol is on the title-page and at the end, and the volume was printed by the sons of Aldus. "DIVERSE !MPRESE," &c., Various Designs adapted to various Morals, with verses which declare their significations, together with many others in the Italian language not often translated, taken from the emblems of ALCIAT; Lyons, Roville, I 55 I, octavo,
• The editions of Alciat which Plantin himself issued were in 1566, 1574. 1581,

!A6: u6, zs8 and 1583 and 1584. all in Latin.

Annates, pp. 64.

Essays Lt"terary and Bt"b/wgraplucal.


pages 19I, emblems 180. Every page is richly ornamented with a border, and there are Italian stanzas to each emblem. " EMBLEM AT A D. A. ALCIA TI," &c., " Emblems of A. Alciat, Plate XIX. lately revised by the Author, and, what were desired, enriched with designs. Some new emblems by the Author remarkable for their designs are added." Lyons, Roville, 155 I, octavo, pages 226, emblems 2 I r. This Latin edition contains 3 I more emblems than the Italian, but in each edition 18o of the emblems are from the same blocks, the borders being changed. Both editions are most profusely embellished.
Durri)tio11 of D.-via.

D•.scrijtio11 of Dn·iu.


6 S 10 13 14 16 IS 19 27

:aS 29 30 33 34 35 37 3S


Mercury instructing the traveller, ea. 1551 Emh. S,p. 14 The swallow and graashopper 179, 617 A charioteer with fierce hones, Oon-. '9 ss, :123 An ass bearing Isis, F~ 7, 4S Sirens and Ulyssee 115, 410 Slaying of Niobe'a children 67, :ass Heraclitua and Demooritua '5'· 535 Pigmies and Hercules sS, :a3:a Laden ua eating thistlee S5, 3' 3 The goddeaa Nemesis, Oorr. E. 3S :a7, uS Fowlers and decoy bird, B,.a,t. ed. 1497, E. 49, Perr. E. 53 so, 209 learns t'alling into the sea, Oon-. E. 67 103, 363 A bird brooding, .&Maw, P· 73 193, 667 Prowees monrning for Aju. 4S, 202 Swallow's neet and Medeia 54. 221 The gourd and the pine 12~ 44S The hunted beaver, Giorio, u6, Horap. 162 152, 53S Hector and Ajax exchang· ing gifts !67, 579 A warrior on his war horse, ~.p.:asr 35, t6o Agamemnon, with sword 1111d shield 57, 230 Oeesar and Oicero, H.6w. St. i. !6 41, !SI

4S 49 soa ph

5 311


6 ssa 56
57 6o

6:a 63 65 70 73

74 75

An ll88 eating graas ropes, R6w. p. SS Emb. 9'• p. 32S She-goat and wolf's whelp 64, 247 W e&J7 man and swallows 70, :a6S Small fish and their enemies 169, sss The sow and the gleanings, Perr. E. '7 45, 196 Sour 1lg tree on the mountain 73. 276 Trumpeter aaking forgivenee• 17 3, 596 Swallow, onckoo, &c. 100, 352 Two redbreasts fighting 93, 333 The dog biting the stone, Plate XVIII. Itali<111 ea. 102 174. 599 Dog. Washing the 1Ethiop 59, 235 Pythagoras enjoining silence, Lat.ecl.I55'·P·'7•Pm. E. S, Oout. p. 109 Withered elm and fruitful 159, ss6 vtne, ~.p.:aoo Oupid drawn by lions, R6w. 15, i. :ao 105, 370 The ·blind carrying the lame t6o, 559 Brntua f'alling on his sword 119, 430 The stork feeding her young, Horap. p. 155, Frftt. p. 251 30, 142 Tantalns, water and fruit, .&Mav, P· 101 S-4, 310 Promethens and the Tnlture, H.6w. :17, i. 37 • .&MCIW, p. 90 102 1 35S


Essays Literary and Bibliograpkical.
Pag1. D1scripli4tl 'If Droicl.

Plate XXII .

Plate LV!Il.


Plate LIX. Dog.

DescripliP" tif Droic1. 7611 Two warriors reconciled, Oowt. p. 161., Samll. p. 16 Emb. 39, p. 17 S 1.1, 101. na Fisherman and eel 78 Archer stung by an adder 104. 367 79. 1.94 79 Laia with her muak·cat 81. Transformation into swine, lhtu. 1.4, iii. 134 76, 1.84 81, 300 ss To cast oft" aloth 166, S77 90 The dolphin aground 71, 1.71 94 Envy feeding on vipers 197. 681 99 The tyrant Mezentiua ns, 4S2 119 Lion, boar and vulture no Cock, lion and church, Ho· IS, 78 t"ap. P·SS n6 The poet's badge, a awan, HMap. P· 136, :R#tu. P· 183, 63s 91 U.7 Hares and dead lion, lhtu. p. 87 153,542 n8 Mouee and oyster, Fnit. P· 169 94.33S 130 Emblem& or the eeven wise 186, 646 men I 32 Love &Ud Death exchanging arrows •ss. 547 117,420 134 A dyer at his cauldron 13S A sage, Cupid and the lady 108, 379 31, 146 136 Ewer &c. and tomb 137 Ship driven on its courae 43, 188 177, 6o8 13811 Helmet becomes a hive 1396 Nemesia and Hope 46, 198 144 Arion and dolphin, lhtu. p. 142 89, 323 146 Apollo &Jld Bacchna 99· 349

147 148 149 IS I IS:l 163 164 170 174 176


18211 187 1886 1896 193 194
200 202

207 213 214

Cupid and the bees El!lb. 111, p. 391 Cupid complaining to VeDUB 112, 394 Narcissus and his shadow, 69, 1.61 .tf.Ma• 48 The king and the sponge 147. 546 The winged and weighted hands no, 43S ..Ene~~;~ rescuing An eh iaea 194. 670 Braas and earthen pots, FaM11a i. p. 7 16s, S74 Gorged kite and dam 128, 462 The fruitful wayside tree 19 1., 66s Three careleu dames at dioe, Bf"a.t', St. NafJ. lxuv. n9, 46s Occaaion or fortune, Bra.t xlvii, CoN". E. 41 and 84. Pef"f". E. 6 3 121, 438 Cupid's emblems 106, 374 Baochua and his emblema as, The lamprey and the arrow :ao, 99 Goat ove.rturning milk 140, sos Thetia at Achillea' tomb 13S· 483 The drum, terror after death 170, s87 Bees seeking thei~ hive, HMap. p. 87 • 4 8, s28 Courtier in the atocke 86, 316 nleon, geese and duck& 139· S02 Dog barking at the moon, Bna E . 23 164, S71 Phryxua and golden fleece, B6HE.4 18 9, 6s8


Thus there are 86 of Whitney's emblems, the sources of which are
Plate VII.

identical with

those of Plan tin's edition of

A lciat

in r 5


2°. Claude Paradin's " LES DEVISES HEROIQVES," &c., "The

Heroical Devices of


Claude Paradin, Canon of Beaujeau, of Antwerp, Plan-

Signor Gabriel Symeon and of other authors."

tin, M.D.LXII., in r6mo, folioed but not paged; with many wellexecuted woodcuts, and with notices of persons' and events of much interest. The copy to which our references are made contains the autograph of our author Geffrey Whitney.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


The earliest edition of Paradin was printed at Lyons in 1557,* thus: "Devises hero"iques. Lyons, Ian de Tournes et Guill. Gazeau, vo. IV. eo. H . Brun,. et, •86,J,8 1557, in 8°, de 261 pp. avec 180 grav. sur bois." The printers, Plantin and Latius, issued several editions in Latin and French ; there was in fact "une foule d'editions, sortant de presses diffe- ~A;s~Jes," 1 rentes ;" as the Latin one, "SYMBOLA HERO.iCA M. Claudii Paradini Belliiocensis Canonici et D. Gabrielis Symeonis. Multo quam antea, fidelius de gallica lingua in latinam conversa. Antverpi<E, ex officina Christophori Plantini, 1567." In r6mo, pages 316; the figures an! on wood, 1'.'1~les~e . mpnmcne or rather "clichees en metal," stereotyped. The translator into IP86J, pp. p, lantinienne," Latin was "Jean le Gouverneur, de Gedinnes." This Latin 1s. 76. &st>. edition was repeated in 15 83· "THE HEROICALL DEVISES of M. Claudius Paradin Canon Plate LVI. of Beauieu. Whereunto are added the Lord Gabriel Symeons and others. Translated out of Latin into English by P. S. London. Imprinted by Will. Kearney dwelling in Adlin streete, I 591." 24mo. ·With devices neatly cut in wood. We give a fac-simile of the title-page from a very rare copy Plate LVI. lent for the purpose by the Rev. Thomas Corser.' It is this English translation which FranciR Douce supposes Shakespeare Vol. ii. p. 117. to have used when composing the triumph scene in Peric!es. The dedication is curious: "To the renowmed Capteine Chr. Carleill Esq., chief Commander of her Maiesties forces in the prouince of Vlster, Ireland, and Seneschall there of the counties of Clandeboy, the Rowte, the Glens, the Duffre, and Kylultaugh."
Dt~t:rijtitm o/ Dt11kt. Pagt. Ducrijti<m 'If Dnd&t. Ivy an.d obelisk, H. JVft. 86 A. shroud on a epear fol. 31 88 Ears of corn, handeful, and E.14 fol.43 ebea( The tun pierced with boles n6 89 The beetle on a rose 986 The down trodden dock, Ears of corn brw.king on a Giot:M, P· 31 sheaf 101 A. eword banging by a thread Snake and strawberry plaot 41 111 8C8!'t'ola'a hand over the fire 73 28 113 Valeriue and the crow Ostrich with outspread wings 63 Sword and trowel, Re... St. The garlands o( Marcue Sergiue 13 2 Rampant lion and sword, i. 4 The sifting of corn Giooio, P· 77

12 11

13 14

66 68

• Dibdin however has the following note: "In the collection of the marquis of Bibl. Decam. Blandford the earliest edition of the devices of these authors is of the date of 1551, at ~- '· PP· 164· Lyons, 18mo, in the French language."


1 17

Dcscn-ptu,,. oJ D<fli<l•

17 7

Dcsc,.ipli<>ll "./ D<fli<l.


1 38b

1 390 143
1 66b


Arrows in the shield of M. Scmn fol. 76 Crab and butterfly, (}ioflio, p. 11 An arrow shot at marble Gold OD the to11ohatoDe The pen of ValeDs 93 A snake shaken oTer the fire 112 Beni)ing ~be bow, (Jioflio, p.

The phooniJ: from the flames,

HOf"op. p. 52, Giofto, p. 14, F,.eit. p. 249, &w. p. 98 fol. 53
18 30 The burning torch downwards, Giorio, p. 35, COf"r. E. 65 169 b Wrongs cut on marble, Gio· 16o "io, P· ~4 19ob Gh-ing qwckly, Giooio, p. 43 '7~ 1910 The hawi.'al•1re 93 2 17 Hay OD a pole 135 J6J 226 Cloak aDd mask, (JiofJio, p.~6 2 27 Two horeee chasing a third, GiOt>io, p. 30


Ape and miser's gold, (Jioflio,

Plantin's edition of Paradin for 1 562 supplies 32 wood-blocks to illustrate Whil1tey.

r · 3o. John Sambucus: "EM BLEMATA," &c., "Emblems, with some coins of ancient work, by John Sambucus of Tomau in Hungary. Antwerp, from the office of Christopher Plant in, M.D.LXIV." Octavo, pages 240, emblems 166, and coins 23. The title is set in a framework representing the nine Muses, and the well-known compasses are wrought into the composition. Liverpool Lit. There are fine borders to the engravings. Mr. J. Brooks Yates andPhil.Society, • h'ts copy that the woodcuts were by GL Jd •149,No.V.p . .a. marked m ~rard de o e. The monograms on some of the embellishments are an I inAnnalesdel'lmp. serted into a C, an A and a G ; the first, it is said, denotes the Plant. P·-4S· work of Jean Croissant, the next that of Assuerus Van Londerzeel, and the third that of Hubert Goltzius. Sambucus dedicated his emblems to "Maximilian II. Emperor-Augustus, king of Bohemia, Dalmatia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria, Count of the Tyrol," &c. The symbolical device represents the emperor enthroned upon the temple of Janus, of which the gates , are closed ; at his feet is the wolf suckling Rem us and Romulus; he is extending an olive branch to an eagle which presents him three crowns- one in each claw and one in its beak; on the left hand are three persons in attendance on the emperor: and the picture is followed by three pages of laudatory and descriptive verses. This work is certainly the most elegant of all the emblem-books of the age. Annale•del'lmp. From Plantin's press there issued in 1566 both a Latin and a Plant. •86s, pp. ~7 6 ,9s,a.66. Flemish edition; in 1567 a French translation by Jacques
Plate XXIV.

Essays Literary mul Bibliographical.

Grevin; and in 156<) and 1584 also a Latin edition. We close the list with "EMBLEMATA, et Aliqvot Nvmmi Antiqvi operis, loan. Sambvci, Timaviensis Pannonii Q11arta Editio Cum emendatione & auctario copioso ipsius auctoris E% Officina P/antiniana Apvd Christophor. Raphel. Academire Lugduno-Bat. Typograp. cb.b.rc." 16mo, pages 352, a portrait, emblems 2o6, coins 43Page. Descrlf>lio" of Droice. Page. Descriptio" of Droice.

p.106 7 Incendiary and usasain 9 Prince, ut:ronomer and hus28 band man 11 The gallant ship and the ann 46
A.ctteOn seized by the hounds, 4.lciat. E. 5:1, p. 114, 4· u8 tw~a•, p. 41 17 Drinking, gaming, throat cut· tiug, ed. I s66, Bra•t', Stult. 11:l Navi.J, 1497, fol. 17 20 The aun over hills of snow 44 12 A. fox on ftoating ice 98 15 Pliny over-curious 159 :J.6 Miller sleeping under his mill 107 J1 Murderer and h..ia shadow, ed.

1566 J6 Popinjay, bird and bucket 41 Thief strangled by h..ia own

241 101

oord 209 84 43 A.atronomer and oompaaa 46 Aged dame and akulla 6s 510 Bull, elephant, &c., ed. 1599 215 ss Ape using whelp's paw, Fre;t. 110 129 59 Whirlwind and trees, llfl.1569 179 64 Hen &Ucking her own eggs 30 67 Thunderbolt and the Inure! 14 69 Well and curtained window 69 71 Outing nets into the sea 230 71 Sea-water through a sluice 70 76'6 Killing the anake in the wall 47

77'6 Old tree yielding B.re-wood p.154 So Anellus and his wife, ed. I 599 253 81 King, child and idiot, llfl. 1599 158 83 Paris and the three goddeaees 152 84 (76) Hanno and his birds 6o Plate XXV. IJl Actoeon. 89 The apodes of India ftying 91 Mercury mending the lute 57 76 97 The cuttle fish escaping lOO Dog, bull and painter 177 103 Minena watching and resting '37 114 Friendship in a fox's skin 198 ns Crocodile, dog and baoohanal 41 140 Ban-dog and lap-dog 183 141 The ape and the fox 19 150 Elephant and undermined tree 184 61 171 Reading and pi'IICtiaing 173 Student and child gathering fruit "7 178 Lion &c. and travelled fool 104 1hb Bull, horae and fair woman 144 195 Poiaoned elephant and aerpent, ed. 1569, Oorr. E. 56, 218 Freit. p. 145 199 Time cutting oft' man and wo· man 23 104 Palace with two doors 197 206 Unripe grapes trodden down 104 :109 Sick miaer and his gold, llfl. 119 1569 22211 The climbing ivy 140

Forty-eight are the emblems in Whitmy to be attributed to Sambucus.
4°. Hadrian Junius of Hoorn: "Hadriani Junii medici Emble- Plate xxv1. mata," &c., "The Emblems of Hadrian Junius, physician, to M. Amold Cobel. A book of his Enigmas to M. Arnold Rosen-

2 50

Essays Ltlerary and Bt'bliogf"ajJhical

berg. Antwerp, from the office of Christopher Plantin, M.D.LXV." Octavo, pages I5 I, emblems 58 in 65 pages. This volume is the most elegant that had hitherto issued from "Annaies de the presses of Piantin. Each page in the emblem part has a l'lmp. Plant." pt. i. p. +8. border, in. the midst of which is a pleasing vignette, and the dedications are nearly all to persons eminent in politics or in literature. The engravings or woodcuts appear to be of Italian origin, and are of remarkable delicacy. The ornamented borders are the same as those used for Whitney's Emblems. "AnnaJes."" pp. The edition of I566 is less beautiful, and that of I56g a repe6o, 9S, >79tition. The edition of I58S is in 32mo. "HADRIANI IUNII EMBLEMATA eivsdem .IENIGMATVM LIBELLVS, Cum noua & Emblematum & ./E1zigmatum Appmdii:e. Lvgdvni Batavorvm Ex Officina Plantiniana Apud Franciscum Raphelengium, cl::>.l::>.xcvi." In I6mo, pages I67. The emblems are 62 on as many pages, with a Latin stanza of four lines to each; there are notes to the emblems pp. 6<)-I5 I; of enigmas there are 53· The emblems are from the same blocks as former editions. "Annales de "EMBLESMES de Adrian le Jeune, faicts Franr;ois et sommai!'Imp. Plant." ?6, 87 and 166. rent expliques, Anvers, Christophe Plant in, 1 567," is the title of a French translation attributed to Jacques Grevin. This edition was repeated in 1568 with Grevin's name as translator, and again in I575· AMaJes" "EMBLEMATA Adriani Junii Medici. Overgheset in nederpp 166 ..,;d 64. lantsche talc, deur M. A. G. T'Antwerpen, ghedruct by Christoffel Plantyn, M.D.LXXV. Met privilegic." In I6mo, emblems pp. 5-62. There is an engraving on wood at the head of each emblem. The translator of '.}u1zitt.r also translated SambucZtS into Flemish : both versions were undertaken by the advice of the celebrated geographer Abraham Ortelius and at Plantin's expense.
• 1


D11criptiq~~ of Dtt~ia. 3 Crocodile and her eggs Em1J. 4 Envy &c. imprison tn1tb 40 Virtue, Vioe and Hercules, C'o!T.E.74. C'owt.p.91 41 Glory ll.eeing the Blothfw 44 The lion and dog sob Youth working, age fooating sra Spid!'r and bee on one ll.ower


'9 53

DucriptiMJ of D"'iu. .u1J Boys blowing bubbles Em1J. 16 87 Pelican feeding her young, Reu. P·73 7


93"6 The virtues of a wife, OotT.

E. 96, PMT. E. 18 The rock and raging winds
The ceged nightingale Frog•, I!OI"penh and palm troo

so 59

35 33



Essays Literary and Bibliographz'cal.

2 51

17 :~ 1916 196 :11:1

Ducrijtitnl o/ Dt11iu. Pa~~. D~scrij>titnl o/ D,.,Ut. Candle, book and hoW' glass Emb.s :119 The gnata round a candle, 6:~ C01T.E. 76, Parad, fol.161, Hear, be atill, llee Mercury armed with a pen 6o ~.p.25 1Wn6.49 The inaignia of .lEIIOUI.apius, uo Reed, oak and tempeet 43 Sarnh. S9 25 2nb Cate in traps, rata at Jllii.Y 4

Whitney has to be debited with 2oemblems derived from '.Junitts. Gabriel Faerni: "FABULJE C. ex antiquis auctoribus de- dBrunL~bt'•!'-lanucl u 1 r.ure. lecta! et a Gabriele Faerno carminibus explicata! (a Silvio col. 116o. ii. vot. ii. pt. Antoniano edit<~!) Romte Vin-Luchinus, 1564-" Quarto. "Les planches faitcs sur de bons dessins qu'on a attribues au Titien, sont gravees ~ l'eauforte." Plantin's first edition of Faerni's Fables appeared in 1563 in :~~:.'J·,~· 16mo; a second edition in 12mo in 1567, and a third, also in 12mo, in 1585, with 100 plates on wood. The copy of the edition of 1585, belonging to William Stirling esq., of Keir, has the following title : "CENTVM FABVL£ ex Antiqvis Avctoribvs Delect:cc, et a Pl:\le.Xxvu. Gabriele Faerno Cremonensi Carmitliblts explicala. ANTVERPI..£ Apud Christophorum Plantinum, M.D.LXXXV." In 16mo, pages 173, emblems 100. Several traces ~f portions of the borders round Whitney's plates occur, as on pp. 16, 25, 34 and 44; also some of the ornaments are the same, as on pp. 27 and 118. The impressions in Whitney, even when from the same blocks, are on the whole clearer than those in this edition of Facrni.
Png;. D•scri!titm •/ D...nc~. Pa£t. D;scrij>ti•n •/ Dtviu.


39 The dog and hia ahadow, ~. 15S5, Freit. p. 113, &tu. :13, ii. p. h Emb.s3.P·9o 91 Jupiter, the beaata and snail 57, 95 93a .A.a, ape and mole 43, s6 9S The fox ud grapee, Frftt. P· 1:17 '9• 36 153a The stag biting the bougha 70, 117 b The fox and the boar 7S, 132 154 Lion, aall,and fox, hunting 3t I I 155 The thief and hia mother, Brallf• St.U.Natn.,foll. 16 and 57 71, 11 9 rs6a Lady IUld phyaician 68, 113

1566 Fox and lion, C01T. E. ss lWnh. ,s,p. 35 157 The hoodleee aatronomer, C01T. E. 7:1 15S ThedrowningofColaamua' wife '59 The aut and the grasshopper, Freit. p. 29, Brat'• St. N. fol. So, Horap. P• 75 7. 17 16o Satyr and boat, heit. p.167 sS, 96 16:1 Wolf, mother and babe 76, uS :110 The lion feigning aiokneaa, hrit. P•S C01T.E. SS 74, 124

So Whitney has borrowed from Faerni 16 emblems.


Essays Lt"terary and Bibliograpltual.

Now, ascertaining the results of inquiry after the devices in
fVhitttey, struck off from the same wood-blocks, and therefore

£dmtical with those of other emblem writers, we count up- for Alciat 86 instances, Paradin 32, Sambucus 48, Junius 20, and Faerni 16; in all, 202.

Title-page of Whitney.

In Whitney's work there are 248 devices, and we have accounted for the whole; 23 were original, 23 suggested, and 202 are identical with those of the five emblematists last named. Thus in "The Choice of Emblemes" 225 have been" gathered out of sundrie writers," and 23 is the number of the "divers newly devised." · It is certainly an amount leaving little to the credit of the inventive or imaginative power bestowed on the mottoes and devices of a book often regarded, from its completeness, as the earliest work in the English language expressly on emblems. But this was of no great consequence, for the entire volume would be a novelty in England, except to the few who were versed in its mysteries. Whitney's fame rests on having so well executed what he undertook to accomplish,- to present to his nation a full and correct view of a species of literature which in a few years had grown into high favour and been the instruction and amu.sement of the monk in his cloister and of the pontiff in his chair of supremacy, engaged the talent of some of the foremost men in law, medicine and theology, and entertained alike Fleming, Frenchman and Spaniard,* the Hungarian on the Danube, and the Dutch by Utrecht, Leyden and the Zuyder Zee.

• A translation of Alcia.t's Emblnm into Spanish was published about the middle of the sixteenth century. "Los EMBLEMAS de Alcia.to traducidas en thimas Espaiiolas aliadidas di figuras de nuovas emblemas &c., En Lyon por Girlielmo Rovillio 1549"Francisco Guzman's "Trivmphas Morales," at Medina 1587- Horosco Couaruvias' " EMBLEMAS MORALES," at Segovia I 589 - and Hemando de Soto's " EM BLEMAS MoRALl!ZADAS," at Madrid 1599, -attest that Spanish gravity WlLS not slow to yield to the new infatuation as to emblems.

N collecting from the Emblems of Whitney the words that are obsolete we do not confound them with words that are archaic, of old forms but still in use though modernised in orthography. However strange the spelling may appear, as caruoraun/e for cormo- Emblemass,JrVr, .JJ:' . d , J:' , 97, 184, H, I.P, rant, cottc=mpne .or con emn, gtnncs .or gms, 86, xm, 164, •67. ,...,, 16o and itwughe for enough, randonne for random, slta!be for shall be, suruaighe for survey, ~~arifnge for varying, wanne for won, wlwlle for hot, and year/he for earth,- still, if the words remain in use, they will not be admitted into the following list. Again, some words will be given which, though spelled in the same way with others now current, were made use of by Whitney with a meaning that has passed away.*

ACCIDENTES : events, occurrences, deeds. 1¥lz it. Such accidentes, as haue bin done in times paste. This present time behouldeth the accidentes of former times.

Ded. viii. I. s.
Ded. ix. I.


• In the following references:Wlzil. Whitney; E. page of Emblems; I. line. Cluzu. Chaucer(Moxon'sedition, 1!47); p.pageandcolumn; /.line; willu!ulanyollt.nlnt", the Canterbury Ta!es; B. K. Complaint of JJ!ack Knight; C. L. Court of Love ; L. W. Legend of Good Women ; P. Persones Tale; .N. Romaunt of the Rose ; T. C. Troilus and Creseide. Spm. Spenser (Moxon's edition, 1856); p. page and column; willzollt any otlt.n- /dl"• the book, canto, stanza and line of the 7aerie Queene; C. Shepheardes Calender; M. H. Mother Hubbard's Tale; V. G. Virgil's Gnat. SW. Shakespeare (Cambridge and London edition, as far as published 1863-1865); act, scene and line.

Temp. v. i. JOJ. 1 Heu. IV. 1. iL 199.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.
And the particular accidents gone by (aho I. 250). And nothing pleaseth but rare accidents.


E. zo,l.9. E. tq, L 8. p. 18, i. I. 1J4J.


46, z.,

i. 9,





terrified. So, thoughe ofte times the simple bee agaste. When tempestes rage, doe make the worlde agaste. For which so sore agast was Emelie, That she was wel neigh mad, and gan to crie. - - they gan espy An armed Knight towards them gallop fast, That seemed from some feared foe to fly, Or other grisly thing, that him aghast Gasted by the noise I made. misfortune, wrong.


Spm. • Shak.
Whit. Chau. Spen. Shak.

E. 111, L 16. p. 1.f{>, ii. L

p. (n, I, ii. I.

19,1. .._ Ham. rv. v.


That all too late shee mourn'd for her amisse. 0 rakel hond, to do so foule a miss. · How that same Knight should doe so fowle amis. Each toy seems prologue to some great amiss. Then, gentle cheater, urge not. my amiss.

Chau. Spen. Shak.


R. p '-41, i. +104."

p. JZ.,


i 6, 17, 9·


Rich. Ill. v. iii.

trouble, hurt. His pleasures shalbe mated with annoyes. Well more annoie is in me Than is in thee of this mischaunce. For griefe whereof the lad n'ould after ioy, But pynd away in anguish and selfe-wild annoy. Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy. poison, mischief, sorrow.

E.18o,l. 7E. 119, 16.
p. 1++, i. I 16c}.w.

p. 10. I. L 16, 71 Hen. VI. v. iv.

Cor.'· i.



A worde once spoke, it can retourne no more, But flies awaie, and ofte thy bale doth breede. Lo this their bale, which was her blisse you heare. --for ended is my tale God send every good man bote of his bale. For light she hated as the deadly bale. By sight of these our baleful enemies. The one side must have bale.


Chau. Spen. Shak.


E.I,.O, I. I.

Sir T. More,

p. s86. V. G. p. 419, I. S-40-

the mastiff. The bandogge, fitte to matche the bull, or beare. And haue bandedogges to driue them out of the come. Then greedie Scilla, under whom there bay Manie great bandogs, which her gird about.


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.
The time when screech-owls cry and ban-dogs howl.
s HeD. VI. 1. iv.

E...... L 7·

BANE, or BA YNE : injury, destruction. Whit. Euen so it happes, wee ofte our bayne doe brue. Lo PROCRIS heare, when wounded therewith al~ Did breede her bane, who mighte haue bath'de in blisse. " But I was hurt right now thurghout min eye Chau. Into min herte, that wol my bane be. -.- it is all his joye and appetite To ben himself the grete hartes bane. " To bane thee when thou bite. Tubervil/e. There caughte his bane (alas) to sonne. Surrey. Shak. Lest Rome herself be bane unto herself. Ana I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats To have it bain'd.





p. 9, i. 1. '099-

p. 11, l. r6b.


Titus v. iii. 71·




i. 4S·

BANNE, or BAN : curse. Whereat, the maide her pacience quite forgot, And in a rage, the bruitishe beaste did banne. 'Gan both envy, and bitterly to ban. With Hecate's ban thrice blasted. Fell banning hag, enchantress, hold thy tongue l And ban thine enemies, both mine and thine !

Whil. E . 18c}, I. 9· Spen.. p. u.a, s, ;.,, 9,9, 7· Shak. Ham. m . ii.

HeD VI. v. iii.


f"He~>o VI. u, iY.

BILBOWE : a rapier made at Bilboa, or one who uses it; the stocks. Giue PAN, the pipe: giue bilbowe blade, to .swashe. Whit. E.r4s,t. s. I combat challenge of this latten bilbo. Shall. M .w.w. '· i. r46- - methought, I lay Worse than the routines in the bilboes. Ham. v. ii. " An honest bilbow-smith would make good blades. BenJonson. - - our bilbows are as good, As his,- our arms as strong. Dray/on. Polyolbion. BOORDE, or BouRn: jest, sport. For euel wordes, pierce sharper than a sworde, Which ofte wee rue, thoughe they weare spoke in boorde. My wit is gret, though that I bourde and play. That that I spake, I sayd it in my bo~rde. They all agreed ; so, turning all to game And pleasaunt bord, they past forth on their way. BROACHE : break into, tap, spread abroad. And bluddie broiles, at home are set a broache.

Whit. Chau.

E. 6s, I. ...
p. 97, i. 1. rs7ro. 14S, 17010.


p.so6,s, ;,..4,'1•'·

E. 7.!. s.

Rom.&J. 1.i. 1oz.
~Hen.IV.1v.ii 14.

Essays Literary a11d Bibliographical.
Who set this ancient quarrel new ab roach. Alack what mischiefs might be set abroacll. Right as who set a tonne a broche, He perced the harde roche. Broach a better tappe. Shak.

Cower. Gascoigm.


E. •99. 1. 9·
p.ta, '· i.


trouble, anxiety. Lo, Time dothe $:Ut vs of, amid our carke, and care. Whit. His heavie head, devoide of careful carke. ~pm. The wight, whose absence is our cark. " In house, for wife and child, there is but cark and care. Unurlain. Whit. Chau.


E. "9· 1. s

s. i.I J+7·

p 49. a, i. 9, s4. ...

Cymb. v.

a hardy, country fellow, or churl. At lengthe, this greedie carle the Lythergie possesste. The MILLER was a stout earl for the nones. Which when the carle beheld, and saw his guest This earl, a very drudge of nature.


E. JO,I. I·

E. 117, l 7·

+ ii. L .f76.



Timon. IV. m. so6.

blame, talk at or about. Which carpes the pratinge crewe, who like of bablinge beste. Which carpes all those. that loue to much the canne. In felawship wel coude she laughe and carpe Of remedies of loue she knew perchance. Do hourly carpe and quarrel. - - shame not these woods By putting on the cunning of a carper.


Chau. Shak.


E. 18,1. 9·



L 4.

•98. I.

Com E. m. L ..a. 1 Hen. IV. 111. i. 16J. 1 Hen. VI. n. ill. 79-

delicacies, food. Whose backe is fraughte with cates and daintie cheare. Whit. Where pages braue, all daintie cates, did bringe. ,. And ConRvs had small cates, his harte to gladde. (202, 12.) , But though my cates be mean, take them in good part Shak. Than feed on cates and have him talk to me. " Taste of your wine and see what cates you haue.


E. 87, L J. i. IJ6.

content, contentment. Within this life, shall contentation finde. To the great cotentacion of the country.

Whit. Fahyan.

E ...... I. IJ.

bird of prey. This corsie sharpe so fedde vppon her gall

Essays Literary and Biblt''ographical.
CREATE : created.

E.64, I.

Not for our selues, alone wee are create. Whit. And al be it so, that God hath create all thing in right Chau. ordre. And the issue there create, Ever shall be fortunate. Shak. Being create for comfort. " With hearts create of duty and of zeaL
DEFACE : disfigurement, disgrace.

P. p.1so, ii. 1.6 1• M.N Dr.v.i.J94· John,
IV. i. 107.

Hen V.n.ii.JI.

And headlonge falles at lengthe to his deface. But wicked Impes, that lewdlie runne their race, ' Shee bales them backe, at lengthe to theire deface. Think how his facte, was IuoNs foule deface. Oh bondage vile, the worthie mans deface. That heate might it not deface. Broke be my sword, my arms torn and defaced.
DEFAME : infamy.


E. 6, I. ro.







E.79, I. u.



Chau. Shak.

H:11r F. m. I. 14s He11. VI.1v. i.4&.

With slaunders vile, and speeches of defame. This BIAs vs'd : and cause for foule defame, SARDINIA moste is stained. That to his body, when that he were ded, Were no despit' ydon for his defame. It is a sinne, and eke a great folie, To apeiren any man, or him defame. In remembrance of thy defame.
ETERNISED : rendered eternal.


E. "'· L ••


E.rJo, 1. ao.
p. ~&s, i, 1.


p :Lf, i.l. )l.j9.

Gowtr. ·
Dtd. iv. I.

Learned men haue eternised to all posterities. There his name who loue and prize Stable stay shall eternize. But in them nature's copy not eterne.

Stilney. Shak.

Macb. m. ii. Jl.

F ACTE : deed, action.
Thinke howe his facte, was !LIONS foule deface. 11/hit. Then quoth the theife, my masters mark, I will defend the fact e. " In hope my facte shall mothers warne, that doe behould this sighte. " As you were past all shame, Shak. Those of your fact are so,- so past all truth.
E 79, I. ••·
E. rss, I. 6.

E.rfS,I. u.
W.Tale, m ii. h.

E 179, LCJ.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.
Doth venture life with fardle on his backe. Then goeth fardels for to beare, With as good chere as he did eare. - - who would fardels bear 1 The fardel there 1 what's i' the fardel 1

FARDLE: a burden, a package.

Whit. Chau. Shak.


Ham. m ~ W. Tale, IV. ;.,. 714·


FEARE : terrify.
E. 4S, l.n.

E. '"7• I."· E. 16J,I. S·
p. IJS, ii. I. ISJ9"-

I,.SJ. p. JJO, I, vi. 8, 47,

Ani. &: Cl. n. Yi. M. for M. n. i. 1. T.Shrew, 1. ii.sos.

Mannes terror this, to feare them that behoulde. Who while they liu'de, did feare you with theire lookes. No fier, nor sworde, his valiaunt harte coulde feare. Ran coward calf, and eke the veray hogges So fered were for berking of the dogges. And thus he shall you with his wordes fere. Ne ought was feared of his certaine harmes. Thou canst not fear us, Pompey, with thy sails. We must not make a scarecrow of the law, Setting it up to fear the birds of prey. Tush, tush ! fear boys with bugs.
FONDE: foolish.




Chau. Spm. Shak.

Whit. Chau. Spen.

E...J,I.7. R. p.

•so, i. L

p.68,s, ii. 1, JO, r.

p. &88,

Y, II,I),C).

M. for M. v. i. 104M N. Dr. m. i~ Jl7· J Hen. VI.n.ii.JI.

Oh worldlinges fonde, that ioyn~ these two so ill. The rich man full fond is ywis, That weneth that he loved is. Certes, said he, well mote I shame to tell The fond encheason that me hither led. The better to beguile whom she so fond did finde. By hc:aven, fond wretch, thou know'st not what thou speak'st. You see how simple and·how fond I am. My careless father fondly gave away.
GATE: going, way.


Whit. Chau. Shak.

E. s,l. CJ. R.p.SJS,i.lJJJl,




M.lii.Dr.v.i.404Hen. VIII. m. ii.

Bypathes, and wayes, appeare amidd our gate. With that word, Reason went her gate. Go your gait. With this field-dew consecrate, Every fairy take her gait. Springs out into fast gait; then stops again.
INGRATE: ungrateful.

" "
Whit. Spen. Shak.

E. 64, I. J.
~ Jll,l,

vi. ,, •. s.

T.Shrew, 1, ii.s66.

And those, that are vnto theire frendes ingrate. Yet in his mind malitious and ingrate. Will not so graceless be to be ingrate.

Essays Literary and Bt'blt"ographual.
LET : hinder, prevent.

But riuers swifte, their passage still do let But when that nothinge coulde OPIMIVS sleepinge let. Now help, 0 Mars, thou with thy bloody cope, For love of Cipria, thou me naught ne let Leave, ah I leave o~ whatever wight thou bee, To let a weary wretch from her dew rest. I'll make a ghost of him that lets me. What lets but one may enter at her window,1 Therefore thy kinsmen are no let to me.
LOBBE : a lazy, stupid person.


E. le}, I. 8.


m. L PS·


P· 19S. a,

sp~n. P.?O. '· ii. '• 47,6.


" ,.

Ham. 1. iv. TwoGen.Ver.m. i. IIJ. R.om&:J.n.ii.6<).

Let Grimme haue coales : and lobbe his whippe to lashe. UllziJ. Shall. Farewell, thou lob of spirits; I'll be gone. --and their poor jades Lob down their heads, dropping the hides and hips. " But as the drone the honey hive doth rob : Gascoigm. With worthy books, so deals this idle lob. Bion therefore was but a very lob and foole in saying P. Holland. this.
MANCHET : fine bread, or flour.

E. 14J. I. 6.


Hca. V.


ii. 4{>.

The manchet fine, on highe estates bestowe. Thyrtie quarters of manchet fioure.
MISLIKE : for dislike.

U17z il.
.Bible. Ed. J 555·

E. 79, I. 9o
J KiDss iv.

I hope it shall not bee misliked. .Some gallant coulours are misliked She asketh him anon, what he misliketh. Setting your scorns and your mislike aside.

WhiJ. Ded.

aiv. L Jl •

Ded. xvi. u.

Chau. Lepcy o( Dido. Shall. J Hen. VI. IV. i.t+ Whit. Chau.

the old positive of more.
E.90,l u ..

and thousandes moe beside. A manciple, and myself, ther n'ere no mo. To tell in short without words mo. Sing no more ditties, sing no moe. If I court mo women, you'll couch with mo men.

s. i. L s-16.


M. Ado, u. iii. 6s.

WhiJ. Shall.

Otbel. IV, iii.


a colour mixed or meddled, of various colours.
E. St, L J.

A motley coate, a cockescombe or a bell, Hee better likes, then iewelles that excell A motley fool Motley's the only wear. (Sap~.) I wear not motley in my brain.

Like it, u. vii. J4o T. Ni&ht,





Essays L£terary and B£bli.ographual.
Of whome both mockes, and apishe mowes, he gain' d. Then laugheth she, and maketh him the mowe. And other whiles with bitter mockes and mowes He would him scorne. Sometime like apes, that mow and chatter at me. Ay, do, persever, counterfeit sad looks, Make mows upon me when I turn my back. Whit. Chau. Spen. Shak.

MOWES: mouths.
E. 16<}, L +


iv.l. 7· JJ6, I, vi. ,,.9,

Temp u. ii. 9· M. N. Dr. m. ii. SJ7•

MOYLE: defile, dirty with work and dust.
E. so, L 8,
E. Slf, L 10. Hymn, p. .f9J, I. uo.

Wiz it.

T.Shrew, IY.i.66.

Then take thy rest, let younglinges worke and moyle. Wherein they still doe labour, worke and moile. And doest thy mynd in durty pleasures moyle. How she was bemoiled
MUSKE CATTEs·: an animal yielding musk.

" Spm. Shak.

E.79,L1. All's W. v. ii. 18, M.W.W.m.iii.ll,

Heare LAis, fine, doth braue it on the stage, With muske cattes sweete, and an·shee coulde desire. Whit. Fortune's cat,- but not a musk-cat Shak. How now, my eyas-musket ! what news with you 1! " What a coyle these musk-wormes take to. Ben JonsQfl.
NEWFANGLENES: attempt at something new.

Ded. xvi. I. 19.
p. 8J, ii. L IOCJS4. p.IJ, ii. I. 10912.

Too much corrupte with curiousnes and newfanglenes. Men loven of proper kind newefangelnesse. So newefangel ben they of her mete And louen noueltees of proper kind.
N ONES : occasions.

Whit. Cltau.


E. Jl, 1.1.



p. 4. i. I. Jls.

Ham. JV. vii. 1 Hen.IV, 1.i~

The trampinge steede, that champes the burnish'd bitte, Is mannag'd braue, with ryders for the nones. And studentes must haue pastimes for the nones. A CoKE they hadden with hem for the nones, To boile the chickenes and the marie bones. A chalice for the nonce. I have cases of buckram for the nonce.
PASSIONS : sufferings, commotions of mind.

Chau. Shak.

Whit. Sltak.

E. 14. L f·

lllacb. m. iv. f7· J Hen. VI, t. iv.


Timon, rn. i. B·

Thus heynous sinne, and follie did procure Theise famous men, such passions to indure. You shall offend him and extend his passion.. Beshrew me, but his passion moves me so. - - 0 you gods, I feel my master's passion.


Essays Lt'terary and Bib!wgraphica!.

officious parasites. With pick-thankes, blabbes, and subtill Sinons broode. By smiling pick-thanks and base newsmongers. · Base pick-thank flattery. rob, plunder. His subiectes poor, to shaue, to pill, and poll. And pill the man, and let the wenche go. So did he all the kingdome rob and pill. Which pols and pils the poore in piteous wize. The commons hath he pill'd with grievous taxes. Large-handed robbers your grave masters are, And pill by law. forejudging. With a preiudicate opinion to condempne. - - wherein our dearest friend Prejudicates the business, and would seem To have us make denial.

Whit. Shak. Daniel. Whit. Chau. Spen.

E. IJO, I. ..

!s~cn. IV

m. ii.

Chi! Wan, ii.


E IJI, ~. •.
p. n. i. L 6<}.H.

!':9s~· P·4Jo,


2.48. ~.

v. ~ 6, a.

Sha k.

Rich. ll. u i. ~~·


Timoa. zv. i. u.


Ded. xv.l.4.f.


All's w.


ii. 7·

RooME :

place. And shortlie, none shall knowe where was the roome. 1¥hit: E. J.f. I. 16. She placeth you, in equall roome, with anie of your age. E. 107,!. J+ " The trees, and rockes, that lefte their roomes, his musicke E. 186,1. u. for to heare. " - - and hath roume and eke space C~au 1... w. p • .ps, ;, To weld an axe or swerde, staffe, or knife. • L 19'17· 7}ndal. Luke lliY. Hyest roumes.
Ded. xv. L 4 J.


free from scot, i.e. a reckoning, or payment. My simple trauaile herein should scape scot-free. 1¥lzii. He cannot scape yet scot-free, vncontrolled. Mir. ofMag. That hot termagant Scot had paid me scot and lot too. Shak.

:.~en. IV. v. iv.


modesty. And little boies, whome shamefastnes did grace, The Romaines deck'd, in Scarlet like their face. Whit. Of hunting and of shamefast chastitee. Chau. And ye, sire clerk, let be your shamefastnesse. , Shamefast she was in maidens shamefastnesse. , Uttered at last with impudency and unshamefastness. H.Sidney. In like manner also, that women adome themselues in modest apparell, with shamefastness and sobrietie. Biblt. Er/. 1611.

E. 114. L • 7• p. 16, i. L &aJ7.
p. 7, ii. L "'·

p. 91, ii. L May rB,

n<J19. •s66.

• Tim. ii. 9·

26 2
E. a6, L 18.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.
And fortune sield, the wishers turne doth serue. For blessinges good, come seild before our praier. 0 God (quod she) so worldly seliness, Which clerkes callen false felicite. That he hath very joy and selinesse. A seeled doue. Come, seeling night, Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day.

SIELD : ,happy.


E. 176, L n. T. C. p. :1<)6, ii.
L 81J,


T. C. p. :1<)6, it
l 8s7. Arcadia,

" St'dney.



ii. ,..S.

SILL YE : harmless, simple.
E. 194. L 7·

p. JI, j,l, ...,SS.
p. JI, i. I, 41o6,

p. ,..S, i. I. J9JJ.. p. t68, :r., iii. 8,



For, as the wolfe, the sillye sheep did fear, And made him still to tremble, at his barke. These sely clerkes han ful fast gronne. W ery and wet as bestes in the rain Cometh sely John, and with him cometh Alein. But if a sely wif be on of tho. The silly Virgin stroue him to withstand. My revenue is the silly cheat
SITHE : since, time.

Whit. Chau. -

" " Spen.
Shak. Whit.

E. 68, L 7·
E. 109, I. J. E. "'+• I.

p. 1... ii. L 1817.
p. J... i. L #?8· p. t,S, 1, iii. to,

l!: J p. J64. ii. ;..., L Jl.
M forM.I.iii.JJ. M.W.W.u.ii.


IV. jy,

By which is ment, sith wicked men abounde. And sithe, the worlde might not their matches finde. No maruaile tho, sith bountie is so coulde &c. And therfore sith I know of loves peine. And sithen hath he spoke of everich on. And humbly thanked him a thousand sith. And eke tenne thousand sithes I bless the stoure. Sith 'twas my fault to give the people scope. Sith you yourself know how easy it is to be such an offender. Sith I have cause.
STITHE : anvil.

" Chau.


" Spm. " Shak. " "
Whit. Chau. Shak.

E. up, L 5.
p. 16, i. L :aos7.

Ham. m. ii.
Tr. &

c. 1v. v.

For there with strengthe he strikes vppon the stithe. Th'armerer, and the bowyer, and the smith That forgeth sharpe swerdes on his stith. Vulcan's stithy. The forge that stithied Mars his helm.
TEENE : grief, vexation.


E. IJB,I. ,.._

So slaunders foule, and wordes like arrowes keent>, Not vertue hurtes, but turnes her foes to teene.

Essays Lz"terary a1zd Bibh"ographical.
That neuer was ther no word hem betweene Of jalousie, ne of non other ten e. 'Gainst that proud Paynim king that works her teene. To think o' the teen, that I have turn'd you to. Of sighs, of groans, of sorrow and of teen l
UNNETH: scarcely, not easily.

Chau. Spen. Shak.
p. •1. ii. 1. 1 1<:6. p. 6\\,z, i. 1&,18,8. Temp.





At lengthe, this greedie carle the Lethergie posseste: That unneth hee could stere a foote, with sleepe, so sore oppreste. So faint they woxe, and feeble in the folde, That now unnethes their feete could them uphold. Uneath may .she endure the flinty streets.
UNREST : trouble.

Spm. Shak.

E "'9. l. S·

f's!an. p. !64.
E. 94. t ...
p. 66, i. L


s Hen.VI.u.iv. 8,

It shewes her selfe, doth worke her owne vnrest She shewed we!, for no worldly unrest Many vain fancies working her unrest Witnessing storms to come, woe and unrest Rest thy unrest on England's lawful earth. And so repose sweet gold for their unrest The more is my unrest
UNTHRIFTES: wasters.

Chau. Spen. Shak.



Rich.II.n iv.u Rich,Il T .iv,'9.IV
TiL A. n. iii. 8. Rom.&j.1. v.n8,

" "

And wisedome still, againste such vnthriftes cries. Unmanly Murder, and unthrifty Scath. Given away to upstart unthrifts. And with an unthrift love did run from Venice. What man didst thou ever know unthrift that was beloved after his means 1
URE : use, destiny.

E 17, !. 18.

Spm. P."+> s, ~ 4.JS.J. Shak. Rich.II.n.iii,JSJ,

" "

Mer.V.v.t 16,

Timon. IV. iit Jo8.

The tyrant vile MEZENTIVS, put inure. Euen so it is of wittes, some quicke, to put in vre. On his fortune, and on ure also. My goddesse bright, my fortune and my ure, I yeve and yeeld my herte to thee full sure.
WHOTTE : hot.

E. 99. I.••


E,17J,l. S· B. K. p.JS6, i. • L 152..


Being likewise asked why: (quoth hee) bicause it is to whotte, To which the satyre spake, and blow'st thou whotte, and coulde 1


E. 16o, !. 8, 9·

E. '7J, I.

Essays Literary and B£b!£ographical.
And greenest wood, though kindlinge longe, yet whottest most it bumes. Whit. Spen. Nether to melt in pleasures whott desyre. Nath'lesse now quench thy whott emboyling wrath. " When then counter waxed somewhat to whot Goldinge.


P.7'·'· ii.r, JS, ,.
p.86,r,ii.pS,s. Czsar, s 16.

E. r'}B, 1. 1. p.s9. i. 1. n•sp. s. ii. 1. 6o8.

dwell, dwelling.

ii. ,,so,J.

p.•SCJ.•. iii.1, 1,s.

In regall roomes of Iasper, and of Iette, Contente of minde, not alwaies likes to wonne. Wher as ther woned a man of gret honour. His wonning was ful fayre upon a heth. Or where hast thou thy wonne, that so much gold Thou canst preserve from wrong and robbery 7 Where daungers dwelt, and perils most did wonne, To hunt for glory and renowmed prayse.
WoRLDE: 1°.




orbis terrarum, compass of the earth.


Ded. xii. L so.


E. ISJ, L '·
E. 197, I. '7·

E. su, L S·
He b. i. 8

Rev. uii. J.
Matt. llii. J:&.

Heb.i.:&. Heb. :ri. I•

E. 197, L '9.


•ss. I. 10.

p. s1,li.


sr, ii. 1. 1149.

Matt. i·..s.
- E. 6, L s.
p. 1ss,s, vi.7,-u.6.

A perpetuitie of felicitie in this worlde, and in the world to come. Whit. This was the goulden worlde, that Poettes praised moste. " Yea, thoughe some Monarche greate some worke should take in hand Of marble, or of Adamant, that manie worldes shoulde stand. , So thoughe the worlde, the vertuous men dispise, &c. " Thi throne is in to world of world. el~ TOll aiowa ToV alCJvov. Wicklijft. Thei schulen regne in to worldis of worldis. , Neither in this world (aiaw£) nor in the world to come. Auth. V. --made the worlds (aicdva~). All Engl. V. The worlds (To~ aicdva~) were fo~ed. , Yet, should one only man, with labour of the braine Bequeathe the world a monument, that longer shoulde remain e. Whit. Behoulde, of this vnperfecte masse, the goodly worlde was wroughte. " That knew this worldes transmutation As he had seen it chaungen up and doun. Char~. This world n' is but a thurghfare ful of wo. " Kingdomes of the world (ToV ICO<rJUJu). AuJh. V. They praunce, and yerke, and out of order fiinge. --who, having in his hand a whip, Her therewith yirks. Whit.

YERKE: jerk.

Essays Lt"terary and .Bt"bli'ographical.

26 5

It is, we conceive, ever useful for the elucidation of our old words thus to bring together the phrases and expressions in which they agree, but which have passed out of the current language. The list might be extended without difficulty, if we included also words that are undergoing a change of meaning, or that may be regarded as old-fashioned, though still retained in use. We should however be pursuing too wide a field, if we ventured farther into this subject. They who enter upon it will not fail to perceive how pure was the English which Whitney wrote. He abounds indeed in Latin quotations in his marginal notes, and scarcely ever spares an opportunity of making classical allusions ; but he never offends us by the intrusion of idioms or phrases foreign to our language. As his style is simple and unaffected, so his words are of native birth,- the English of the old time ; they are rich in expressiveness, and they have strength in themselves.

Fortune Valour's


in the sixteenth century boasts three celebrated names, in Venice, Paris and Antwerp. Aldo Manuzio printed his first work in 1490 ; Paolo Manuzio, his son, succeeded to the printing office in I 5I 5, and continued it to o Manuzio for a time gave promise of excelling father and grandfather, but becoming negligent, he died in poverty at Rome in I 597· The earliest work printed by Henry Stephens of Paris was in I 502 ; his celebrated second son Robert, and more celebrated grandson Henry, extended the renown of the office until I598; and other members of the family, as late as 1661, carried on the art with fame if not with profit. It may not be that CHRISTOPHER PLANTIN excelled those who bore the names of Aldus and of Stephens, but he was no unworthy coadjutor; and to him at least emblem writers are especially indebted for bringing so completely into unison the arts of printing and engraving. From the time when he commenced his business at Antwerp in I555, until his death in I589, there issued from his press nearly tltirty editions of the chief emblem-books of the day, all executed with care, some possessing great beauty of execution, and one or two equal if not superior to any similar work of that age. But for these editions, out of which chiefly Whitney made his choice, the English reader must have waited some years before seeing any adequate representation of the learning, wit and skill, which on the continent of


Plate XLIV.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


Europe had been bestowed upon emblem-books. It is therefore not inappropriately that these biographical notices begin with the name of the princely printer of Antwerp. Christopher Plantyn, or Plantin, was born in 1514, at Mount Louis in Tourain, of poor and humble parents. He was very young when he came to Paris. There he worked for some time as a bookbinder; but afterwards, having learned the elements of printing with Robert Mace, of Caen in Normandy, he visited the chief printing offices of France, and more especially those in Lyons, where several emblem-books were printed. He now returned to Paris with the intention of establishing himself in business in that city. The religious troubles which prevailed decided him to go to the Netherlands. Soon after, about I 546, he married Joanna de la Riviere and fixed his abode in Antwerp, and the first book which issued from his press was "La Annalesdcl"lmp. institutione di una fanciulla nata nobilmente. L'institution d'une ii6~.\,B;.u•cll«. fille de noble maison, traduite de langue Tuscane en Fran~ois. En Anvers, de l'Imprimerie de Christofle Plantin, avec privilege. I 555·"* Here for forty-four years, except when he retired to Leyden in consequence of the war in the Netherlands, Plan tin pursued his calling with an increasing reputation. The correctness and beauty of the works published by him spread abroad his fame, and in a little time he acquired a considerable fortune. Of that he made a very noble use ; his house, like the house of the Aldi at Venice, or of the Stephens at Paris, became the asylum of the learned, of whom there were always several entertained at his table. Those who were in need received succour from him, and he sought to attach them to himself by offering them honourable maintenance. He had also constantly in his printing office, for correctors, men of rare merit, such as Cornelius Kilian, Theodore Pulman, Victor Goselin, Justus Lipsius and Francis Rapheleng; and to this day with pride are shown the desks and benches where these learned sat to aid in giving learning to mankind. If we trust the testimony of Malinkrot, Plan tin, after the ex- Typo~aph. De Ortu ample of Robert Stephens, exposed his proof-sheets at his gate,
• Plantin is named as a master·printer in the registry of Saint Luc in rsso; but he was probably then in the office of John Bellerus, or in partnership with him.
PP· U8, IJS.


Essays Literary and Biblt"ographical.

promising a reward to those who should discover in them any errata Because of the account rendered to him of the talent and carefulness of Plantin, the king of Spain (Philip II.) named him his A rclti-typograpltus or Prototypograpltus, i.e. Chief Printer, and charged him to bring out a new edition of the Polyglctt Bible of Alcala, that of Cardinal Ximenes, the Complutensian, commenced in I 502 and finished in I 5 I 7, and of which the copies began to be rare. This edition, in Hebrew, Chaldaic, Greek and Latin, is justly regarded as Plantin's master-work ; it was issued, the first volume in I569 and the last in 1573, in 8 volumes folio, and, except some little carelessness in the paging, is a very splendid example of typographic art and labour.* The famous Guillaume Lebe was induced to come from Paris to cast the letters and characters intended for the impression, and Philip II. sent from Spain the learned Arias Montanus to direct the important enterprise. While however adding greatly to Plantin's reputation, this magnificent work was almost the cause of his ruin, for the Spanish ministers with excessive rigour demanded the repayment of the sums which, during the prosecution of the work, had been lent him from the royal treasury. Annale•del"lmp. The catalogue of Plantin's publications ' compiled by MM • A. Plant. pp. I•J4o De Backer etCh. Ruelens, gives the titles of nearly 1030 works which had their origin from his types and presses, and as some are known to be omitted, though unintentionally, future inquiries may increase their number. The French historian, De Thou, on a journey to Flanders and Holland in I576, visited the workshops of Plantin, and saw twenty-seven presses in action, although, as he remarks, this famous printer was embarrassed in his affairs ; but carrying out his well known motto, "Labore et Constantia," By work and steadiness, he re-established his fortunes.t Plantin died the Ist of July I589, having bequeathed his library to his grandson, Balthasar Moretus, and was buried in the cathedral of Antwerp, where his gravestone is still pointed out.
• For an account of the eight volumes, "Annales de l'Imprimerie Plantinienne" may be consulted, published at Brussels 1865. t To this day (1865) his descendants are among the wealthy families of Helgium, and the library and printing office art now the property of M. Edward Moretus.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


Besides the printing office at Antwerp he possessed two others, one at Leyden, a second at Paris. These were assigned as portions to his three daughters, Margaret, Martine and Jane: the eldest, married to Rapheleng, had the Leyden printing office ; that of Paris fell to the youngest, who had married Gilles Begs ; and the Antwerp business devolved on the second daughter, married to John Moereturf or Moretus. Moretus carried on the office in partnership with his mother-in-law. She was placed in a large house, which Guicciardini, who died in Antwerp in I 589, See his Descrip• • lion of the regarded as one of the principal ornaments of the ctty, and whtch Netherlands. after nearly three centuries is still owned by a Moretus, and still possesses the very treasures of the olden time, besides a vine in full bearing which Plantin himself planted. There are stored his types and presses and all the appliances of his noble art, which in modern days queenly hands have not disdained to work. Conrad Zeltner says this printer had types of silver and implements of ivory, but the same thing had already been reported of Robert Stephens, and with as little foundation. We may however name with absolute certainty ·Piantin's typographic ensign,- it may not have braved a thousand years the battle and the breeze, - but it indicates, as long a!j man shall be upon the earth, what the elements of his success are. The ensign is a hand holding an open compass and striking a circle ; and around the device we read the significant words" LABORE ET CONSTANTIA." A better could not have been chosen, and Rapheleng and Moereturf religiously preserved it, and it still stands over the old mansion in Antwerp. See Biographic Utziverselle, a Paris 1823, vol. XXXV. p. 19; Timperley's Dictionary of Printers and Printing, pp. 408, 409; Aikin and Enfield's Biog. Diet., vol. viii. p. 227 ; and Dibdin's Bib. Decameron, vol. ii. p. 151-57· "In the house of Christopher Plantyn by Francis Raphelengius" were Whitney's Emblems "imprinted;" and we take for our second biographical notice, FRANCIS RAPHELENGIUS, or RAULENGHIEN, whose portrait is preserved in the university of Leyden. He was born at Lanoy near Lille, the capital of the pre-;cnt department of the North, formerly French Flanders, February

:2 70

Essays Literary



27th 1539, and died July 2oth 1597· He was from his boyhood intended for one of the learned professions, and was sent to school to Ghent, but his father's death compelled the interruption of his studies, and commerce seemed his destination. Business led him to Nuremberg, where he devoted his leisure hours to the ancient languages, and such rapid progress did he make that his mother no longer opposed his inclination, and literature became his pursuit. He went to Paris to perfect himself in Greek and Hebrew, but the civil wars, which desolated France about 1500-63, caused him to leave that country, and he passed over to England. Here, for some time, he taught Greek in the university of Cambridge, but his stay could not have been long ; for on his return to the N ctherlands he engaged as corrector of the press for Plantin, who was so charmed by his gentleness and ability as to offer him in marriage his eldest daughter Margaret, a most estimable woman; and the marriage took place in 1565. Rapheleng rendered great services to his father-in-law, especially in the printing of the famous Polyglot Bible, issued between the years 1569 and 1573. Of this splendid work he corrected the proofs with great care ; and besides, added to the sixth Annal«uel'lmp. volume a Hebrew Grammar and an Epitome of Pagnini's ThePlant. llru•elle•, • tK6s . pp. 119, saurus of t he H eb rew 1anguage ; an d m t h e seven th vo 1ume h e 'Jo, 'll· assisted Montanus and the brothers Guido and Nicholas Fabricii in the Latin interpretation of the Hebrew Books, and gave the various readings and annotations by which the Chaldee paraphrase of the Book of Daniel was illustrated and amended. During the civil wars of the Netherlands, or rather during part of them, Plantin retired to Leyden with his family. Rapheleng remained in Antwerp, charged with the direction of the printing office. During the famous seige, from July 1584 to Augu~t 17th ~titney'• 1585, Rapheleng was present, and shared its dangers. He then Emblems, p. 189. betook himself to Leyden to superintend and finally to own the printing office which his father-in-law had established there. He now learned Arabic and rendered himself a very able scholar in that language. John Dousa the elder, curator or rector of the university of Leyden, charged him in 1586 with the teaching of Hebrew, and in this employ he acquitted himself for some years with much distinction. Grief for the premature death of his wife, and a paralysis with which he was seized, rendered life almost

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

27 I

insupportable, .and his career ended in I597. with as fair a name as any in the republic of letters.* See Biographic Univcrsel!e, vol. xxxvii. p. 89, Dibdin's Bib. Dccam. vol. ii. p. I 58, and Cooper's A tltmce Cantabrigicnses, vol. ii. p. I 26, where is a list of his works. A worthy descendant from Rapheleng's only grand-child, Maryhe Christoffella, is now resident in Leyden, namely, M. John T. Bode! Nyenhuis, who from I829 to I850 was printer to the university of Leyden, and who among his ancestors reckons four others that held the same office. On the 27th of July I865 I was enjoying his hospitality, and he then wrote out for me the genealogy of himself and his family traced back to Christopher Plantin, and also gave me an autograph of which the following is a copy:

~ 'L~~~ ~ '«f ~~~ -v~~ ~I)~ a~~ lrjj

c~~ ~~~~


This Christopher Rapheleng was the second son of Francis, and appointed typographer to the university of Leyden in I589; he was living in 1645. The other sons were Francis the eldest, eminent for early genius, who died in I643, and Justus, named after Justus Lipsius · there was also a daughter Cornelia · but Accunliag 10 the ' • Genealo~ by these do not appear to have left any descendants. M . .] ohn T. ~~i•~od. yen· Bode! Nyenhuis is the author of a learned work, "Dissertatio 1-Iistorico-Juridica, De Juribus Typographorum et Bibliopolarum in Regno Belgico. 8vo, pages 447; Leyden, M.D.CCCXIX." At the end of his book he quotes the famous words of Renouard appended to his catalogue in 18I9 of the library of an amateur: "Otez-lui ses liens, et /aissez-le aller; c'est pour le commerce la plus facile et la plus efficace de toutes les protections." The portraits we are giving are from various sources : that of Plantin is from Dibdin; those of Brant, Giovio, Alciat, Junius
• One of the later books which issued from his press bears the title: "DEN LVST· HOF vAN Bctfianla &c. GEDilVCT TOT LEYDEN. 131! StaniGJ!I ban ltabrJm«im. cl:>.I:>.XCVL" 4to, pp. 155. The ornament on the title-page is a Dutch garden; in the centre is a lady holding in each hand two coats of arms; and below is the oftrepeated motto, '' Lahore et Constantia." F


Essays Lt"terary and Bi'bliographical.

and Sambucus are from De Bry ; Beza's is somewhat uncertain ; and Reusner's is from the edition of his own emblems. Of THEODORE DE BRY we may remark that he was a celebrated portrait or miniature p<tinter of the sixteenth century, who projected a work to contain the portraits of those illustrious for learning and erudition, with their lives written by J. J. Boissard. Of this work he lived to publish only Part I. in IS97 at Frankfort ; but his heirs carried on his enterprise, and between IS98 and 1631 brought out three other parts, making four in alL The work is in quarto, and contains 198 portraits. A fifth part was added in 1632 by William Fitzer, but it comprises only 32 pages, with 20 portraits chiefly of English bishops and learned men. In his Preface, De Bry affirms that the portraits were taken from the life, but this has been questioned and probably is not true in the full extent. The portraits are accompanied by biographical notices by John James Boissard, a highly esteemed antiquary, who was born at Besanc;on in IS 28 and died at Metz in 1002. These notices are absent from some other editions, and render the first, which has besides the earliest proofs:of the portraits, far superior to those which follow. The work of Boissard and of De Bry and his heirs is the primary source frorn which the portraits and biographical notices ·of the emblem writers are derived, but not the only source, as the following pages will show. Cebes, the disciple of Socrates, u.c. 390, Horapollo, about A.D. 410, and Hugo de Foliato, prior of St. Lawrence near Amiens, in the thirteenth century, are among the earliest writers of emblematical works ; but Whitney makes no allusion to them, though he appears to have been acquainted with the Hieroglyp!tica. We shall therefore begin our notices with

Plate XLV.

Plate XLVI .

C lc·n~ent"< Bibl. CurietL-.e, vol. v. pp. 18 &c.

MS. De Volu· cri bus..

See p. •19 nnU.

~~~ORAPOLLO, who, according to the best authorities, was a distinguished Greek grammarian of ;,'dit~~~8i~,. Phenebethis in Egypt, flourishing in the reign of and Conr Th eo d OS IUS, A. D. 408-so, an d teach'mg fi rst • • Leemani m :.o:tif.' ed. ISH, Alexandria and then in Constantinople. The age at which he flourished does not appear to have been ascerPlate 11.

Essays Literary and Bibliograpkual.

?7 3

tained ; and of his translator from the Egyptian tongue into Greek nothing is known beyond the name, Philippus. From the barbarous words introduced, and other marks of a corrupted Greek, the translation is of a comparatively late age, and some bring it down even to the fifteenth century. However this may be, the work enjoyed very considerable popularity in Whitney's =•' time, and between· the first Aldine edition in I 505 and that PL••1 roegomena. at Rome in I 599 there were at least eight editions. A separate PP· xxv-xxxvi. French version was issued in I 543, a Latin in I 544, an Italian in 1548, and a German in I 554-* Several of Whitney's emblems may be traced up to the Hieroglyphica,t not that they were adopted unchanged or immediately, but their sources were here, and they have been accommodated to suit modified thoughts and circumstances. Champollion passes a disparaging judgment on Horapollo. EHieroglyph. gypt. p. 147· He avers: "The study of this author has given birth only to vairi theories, and the examination of the Egyptian inscriptions, book in hand, has produced only very feeble results. Would not that prove that the greater part of the symbols described and explained by Horapollo did not exclusively make part of what we call hieroglyphic writbtg, and belonged primitively to some other system of representing thought?" He then shows that the system is atzaglyphic rather than hieroglyphic,- not sacred characters or sculptures, but allegorical representations, which abound on the Egyptian buildings. He afterwards admits, however, that he found on monuments information of many of the hieroglyphics Leeman•' . Prole~omena, o f H orapo11 o,-mdeed of a great part o f those wh'tch are fi gured PP· xu ""d xv. in Leemans' edition. An emblem writer is seldom very critical in judging the
• For a full account consult Dr. Conrad Leemans' Prolegomena to "HoRAPOLLINIS NILOI HIEROGLYPHICA," 8vo, Amstelodam~ 1835. t The title "Hieroglyphica" was borne by other works of that age; as "HIERO· GLYPIIICA, sive De Sacris IEgyptiorum aliarumque Gentium &c. A Ca:/io A11gwlino." In 6o books, pages 441, folio, Basilire, M. D. LXVII. In a later age there was the most splendid work of Romein de Hooghe, "HIEROGLYPHICA of Merkbeilden Der oude Volkeren &c.," large4to, Amsterdam, M.o.ccxxxv.; and another still more excellent for its fulness, learning and beauty of the printing and illustrations, Martin us Koning's "LEXICON HIEROGLYPHICUM SACRO·PROFANUM," &c. 1 large folio, 6 vols., Amster· dam, 1722; also "Scimu Hirr(lg/ypltiqut," small4to, pages 128, with many plates, "/I la llaye, M.D.CCXLVI."



Essays Literary and Bibliographical

De Bry. Pl>te XLVII.


sources of his devices, or their exact meaning ; it is sufficient for his purpose if they are currently received and understood ; he adopts them because they are known, and not because they are authoritative or authenticated expressions of human thought.

lliographi< Vni\·erselle, Paris 1811, vol. Y. p. -498.


!'lares IV. and

RANT, Sebastian, or Brandt, surnamed Titio, was born at Strasburg in 1458, and died at BAle in 1 520. The lines on his portrait say of him, that" he was equally skilled in law and in sacred poetry, noble in genius, but rude in art." His early studies were pursued in BA.Ie, where he enjoyed the titles of doctor and professor. His ability in business soon obtained for him a high reputation and the favour of many princes, especially of the emperor Maximilian I., who often consulted him and bestowed on him the title of imperial counsellor. Afterwards he was syndic and chancellor in his native land. He devoted his leisure to classic literature and poetic composition of various kinds. An edition of Virgil, ornamented with engravings, was published by him, and a translation into German verse of the Disticha, or Catechism ct1nceming lrfora/.s, by Dionysius Cato. Indeed it has been said of Brant that he composed verses to infinity. The chief of his poems was in German iambics, a satirical work, entitled The Ship of Fools, which acquired great popularity, and was translated into Latin, French, Dutch and English. Of the Latin and of the French translation we present the title-pages and one of the emblems,from which probably Whitney took the motto, "No man can serve two masters," though he has not treated it in the same way. Some idea may be gained of Brant's work from his lines
" CQnctrning Qbtdima /() two Masters.


Plate V.

" Two hares at one time may the swift hunter take Whose single dog hunts the wild woods through ; But who aims to two masters his service to make, And oft strives to please each, - 'tis far harder to do. Most foolish is he who would serve thundering Jove And equally seek this bright world for his own ; Most rare 'tis accomplished,- two masters to love With heart-service to each acceptable shown."

Essays Lt'terary and B£bl£ographual.

2. 75

Between these stanzas the device is introduced, and at the side quotations chiefly from the Holy Scriptwres, thus:


•me tmo.
ML aktt. vt. '+
u e :z:VJ. 9·

"No man can serve two masters : for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon." " He who makes haste to each finisheth neither well. A thought for many things is less intent on each single one. The heart going two ways will have no successes."

In exemplification of Brant's work and of Whitney's adoption of similar thoughts we may refer to the French translation, l.a Plate• xxvm. and XXIX. grat mf bn fol? bu mobt, where four women are playing at dice. Whitney (p. 176) names only "three carelesse dames;" but in Brant we have the origin of the tale; and there may be seen in what spirit and in what way the Stultifera Navis has been furnished with its cargo. Brant's object plainly was to turn into ridicule and also to reprove the vices, eccentricities and follies of the time ; and we Biographie • • Universelle, • • may accept thts JUdgment passed upon hts work: "It ts a col- Pari• •Bn., vol. " · p. 491'· 1 • of p1 ect10n easantries, sometimes whimsical, sometimes gross, which might be piquant in their day, but which at present have no other merit than that of having enjoyed much success three hundred years ago." For the editions of Brant consult Brunet's "Manucl du Libraire." Paris, 186o. Vol. i. coL I 202-9. IOVIO. Paolo, bishop of Nocera, in order of time Plate XLVIII. nex t t .ak es preced ence. H e was b orn at Como • Oettinter's m Bib!. B"iogT. • Italy April 19th 1483, and died at Florence De- col. 67s. cember I Ith 1552, his epitaph says aged 6g years, 7 months and 23 days. The lines beneath his portrait say of him: . " Thou art beloved of Cosmo, honoured also of Leo ; Thou wast a learned physician, thou wast a learned historian." He was an accomplished scholar, of considerable eloquence, and of acute as well as refined intellect. His first profession was that of medicine, which he practised with happy success. Afterwards he applied himself to history and biography, and besides the


Essays Lz'terary and Biblwgraphical.

lives of pontiffs and princes of Italy, especially of the viscounts of Milan, he collected the eulogies and the portraits of the illustrious men who had become famous, whether for arms or literature. He wrote also a history of his own time, embracing a period of fifty years, and narrating the chief events in Italy, Hungary, Asia, Africa, and other regions. At the storming and De _ Bry's Icones, pillage of Rome by the Spaniards under Charles de Bourbon, 8·:&.p. pt. l . pp. J May 6th 1527, Giovio suffered great losses of valuable silver vessels, but from a Spaniard who had taken possession of them he obtained the restoration of his books and manuscripts. As a reward for his learning and virtues the pontiff bestowed upon him the bishopric of Nocera,* and "the mighty Cosmo, prince of the Florentines,'' invited him to his court and made him one of his counsellors. On his death in 1552 he was buried in the church of St Lawrence, and before a more illustrious monument was raised to his memory the somewhat boastful inscription was painted on the wall : " Of Paul us Jovius the most famous writer of histories, here are deposited the bones until a sepulchre be erected worthy of his eminent virtues." A later inscription recorded that he was the glory of the Latin tongue and the equal of Livy himself. See pp. xviii. and As an emblematist his writings have already been mentioned. LfD ani,. Plates XXXVI. Of the work which Whitney sometimes follows the title and and XXXVII. an illustration are given, which serve also for the next author Manuel du whom we mention, Gabriel Symeoni. Bntnet again may be conLibraire, vol. v. pt. i . col. J9f.. suited for an account of Giovio's writings.

Plate XXXVI. Bib!. BiogT. col. t681.

""RR~~~"¥YMEONI, Gabriel, an Italian historian, was a Flo-

rentine, born in 1 509· His emblems and those of Giovio are collected into one voluP1e, of which the running ti tle is, Tetrastichi Morali, Moral Stanzas. ~~~e~;a As a literary man, Symeoni possessed both powers and accomplishments, but he was of a haughty, capricious and exacting disposition. His early years were very precocious; at the age of six he was presented to Leo X. as a very extraordinary child ; and his natural abilities were so .well cultivated
• Oettinger names another Paolo Giovio, as bishop of N ocera, who was born about 1530 and died in 1585. But Boissard's testimony to the contrary appears very decisive.

Bib!. Biogr. Bruxelle•, 1854, col. 67~.

Essays Literary




and improved that before reaching his twentieth year he was employed by the republic of Florence on a mission in which he had for colleague the celebrated Gianotti. Feted at the court of Francis I. he endeavoured to gain that king's favour by flattering the vanity of the royal mistress, and his first verses, addressed to the duchess D'Etampes, were worth to him a pension of a thousand crowns. On his return to Florence he filled several employments, but after being imprisoned by the Inquisition he withdrew to Lyons in 1556, where and at Paris his Devices and Emblems were published in Italian, French and Spanish. He closed his career at Turin in 1570. There was published by J. Burchard Mencke in Leipsic in 1727, A Dissertation on the Life and Writings of G. Symeoni, 4~0, but I have not seen it. As examples of Whitney's translations of Giovio and Symeoni we give their text to his emblems, p. 98 and p. 1686.


Tetra. Morali,
p. Jl.



Qual wpo verd~ p~r campagna o /Jalza, Che fimanlo villain col pietkjreme, Tal (cosijorle &-prelioso e il seme) Virtute oppressa remm~rdendo, i11alza."

And again:


"Dt CONSALVO FERNANDO. CQmt cQrrmle lilz dur' arco sjorza, El fallro leso 11el c11ruo osso i11comr, Che poi con danno allrui souenle scocca, Cosi fingegnQ supera lajorza."

T etra. Mur:o li,
~· )4.

LCIATUS, Andreas, if not in priority of time, yet See plate XLIX. from superiority of genius, must be placed first in • the ranks of emblem writers of the sixteenth century. He was born at Alzato in the duchy of Milan, Bib.!. Biog-r. UmveTSCI!e, . May 8t h 1492, or, accord mg to O ettl'mger, May Ist, col. ••· the same year with our English printer Caxton, and died January 12th 1550. Boissard's estimate of his powers and attainments was most favourable, reflecting indeed the opinions of his contemporaries: "Not only was he the most noble jurisconsult, but De.Bry's Icones, • • • • • m a 11 l'b eraI 1 1 earnmg, an cl especta11y m poetry, so expenenced pt. IL p. I J+ that he could vie with the very highest geniuses." Whether he •


Essays LzkraYJ' and Bibliographical.


was the son of a merchant, or of more exalted birth, it is recorded of him that from early years he applied himself diligently and very successfully to the study of jurisprudence. In his "fifteenth year he composed his " Paradoxes of tlte Ch/il Law," and in his twenty-second graduated as doctor of laws. It was not long before he became the most eminent in his. profession. In I 52 I, when lecturer on law in the university of Avignon, his auditory numbered eight hundred persons ; but his honoraria or fees were paid so inexactly that he returned to Milan. Here however he raised up enemies, and in I 529 found refuge in France. The king himself was one of his hearers, ~nd bestowed on him a pension of six hundred crowns, which was increased the next year to one thousand two hundred. Dut Alciat was avaricious, and Francis Sforza, duke of Milan, used means to recall him to his native Italy. Sometimes at Pavia or Bologna, and sometimes at Ferrara, he pursued his profession, and his fame continued to increase. He enjoyed the favour of duke Hercules d'Este; the ·pope, Paul Ill., gave him the office of prothonotary ; Charles V. created him count-palatine and senator ; and wherever he might lecture numerous scholars crowded around him. His writings are very numerous and extensive, embracing a great variety of subjects, from Weigltts and Measures up to Tlte most ucellent Trinity. The Lyons edition of I 56o occupies five folio volumes, and that of BAle in I57I the same number. These we pass over for that particular species of literature of which he may be regarded, if not the founder, as the most successful cultivator, and which under the name of emblem writing, from the year I 522, when at Milan he published his Book of Emblems, to beyond the middle of the seventeenth century, for nearly one hundred and fifty years occupied so important a position in the estimation both of the learned and of that wider public who read "for delight and ornament." Besides other instances in our illustrations of the text of Alciat, and which are referred to their proper place in Wltitney, we append a short specimen of the stanzas of A lciat translated or adopted at page 138 of Wltitney: Emb. 177. Ex bello, pax. En galea, intrepidus quam miles gesserat, & qure
S::epius hostili sparsa cruore fuit:

Essays Literary and Bibliog·raphical.
Parta pace apibus tenuis concepit in vsum Alueoli, atque fauos, grataq; mella geril Arma procul iaceant : fas sit tunc sumere bellum, Quando aliter pacis non potes arte frui.


Of the various editions, above fifty in number, we present the Plate• vr. xv1. XVII. XVIII. title-pages and illustrative plates from the editions of W echel x1x. xx. XXI. XXU. (Paris I534), of Aldus (Venice I546), of Roville (Lyons 1550 and I 55 I), and of Plantin (Antwerp I58I). Nearly all have a motto, a device or. woodcut, and explanatory stanzas of Latin elegiac verse. Roville's editions of I 5 50 and I 55 I, in Latin and Italian, are the most ornate; and dedicated "To the most illustrious Maximilian duke of Milan." They present the text without comment or remark, but each page has a very elaborate border. To the editions which included and followe? that of Plantin in-\ I 574, the very learned and abundant comments of Claude Mignault were often appended or interwoven. Mignault was born near Digon in I536 and died March 3rd I6o6. Like our king Alfred, he was twelve years of age before he began learning, but by great aptitude and diligence he soon surpassed his schoolfellows. In early manhood, successively at Rheims and in Paris he explained the Greek and Roman authors, and gained a very high reputSttion for erudition and skill ; and to these it is recorded that he joined "a rare probity." His commentaries display great learning,- certainly needed to trace out, as he does, the numerous sources from which Alciat had derived his mottoes and devices, and to illustrate by references to classic and other authors the frequent allusions in Alciat's stanzas to the mythology and history of past ages. Indeed the praise which Mignault beNota: stowed upon Alciat might be equally applied to himself: "Let ad Ale.Posteriores Em b. us carefully note and fondly praise his ancient learning; let us p. 81J. •6•+. Leiden, . wonder at his knowledge of law ; let us emulate his eloquence; let us, with the common consent of learned men, approve his concise way of speaking ; let us venerate his most dignified yet most pleasing variety ; in these we possess a treasure to be matched neither with gold nor with gems;- and by so much the more admirable, if we compare the choice jewels of learning that were his own with the ornaments of many others." __; Alciatus, however, had serious defects; vanity, avarice and


Essays Literary and Bibliog·raphical.

self-indulgence tarnished his moral reputation: but as a lawyer and a man of learning his glory was continually increasing. To his professional studies and pursuits he always added the culture of literature ; and it is said "few men ever united so many branches of knowledge or carried them to higher perfection;" or, as it is noted on his portrait,
"Andrew to their ancient splendor restored the laws, And thence made counsellors more learnedly to speak."

To the same purport is the record on his tomb in the church of the Holy Epiphany at Pavia: "Qui om1tium orbem absoh•it, primtts legum studia antt'quo rcstituit dccori," He completed the whole circle of learning, and was the first who replaced the study of the laws in its ancient dignity. Materials for a much fuller biography of Alciat are mentioned by Oettinger. We have chiefly made use of Claude Mignault's Life, Boissard's, and the Biographic Unh•trsel/e of Paris; also Chambers's Gm. Biog. vol. i. p. 348.

Hrunet. P3ri~, s86J. tome iY. col. JS8.

Plate VII.

ARADIN, Claude, from whom Whitney bor_ rowed several of his emblems, was an ecclesiastic, a canon of Beaujeu, whose birth and death are alike unascertained. His brother William, however, was born in I 5 10 and died in I 590· Claude published at Lyons in I557 a Selection of Emblems, in French, from Gabriel Symeon and other authors. After several editions had appeared it was reprinted by Plan tin in I 562, with the title "LES DEVISES Hf:ROIQVES," which we have reproduced, because the copy used once belonged to Whitney, and contains both his autograph and his motto. Were the question gone into it might, perhaps, be ascertained with the same certainty as in Whitney's case which were the authors from whom Paradin's selection was made. Paradin generally explains his devices by a prose narrative or remark; but to show his style we subjoin an example in which both prose and verse are combined, and which form the substance of Whitney's emblem, p. 88.


P.radin, fol u6.

De l'Espic,

a la

G/emu, &-de la Glenne,

a la

Gerbe. Ainsi le paurc,

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


bien auiu, bim conscilte, &- diligent, se peul aiser &- mo;•mer des biens. Esq~ls Ntanlmoins Duu lui faisant la grace de panmeir, jaut qtiil s'arreste &- md/e son but, a la /res luureuse sujisall(t: qui est le comNe de riclusse. Se souuman/ tousiours a ce propos d'vn bear1 huilain, qui I mjuit: Duq~l loute jois, si il saUQyt le 11()111 tie I'Auleur, ne seroil cy non plus te111 que partie du Ios qtl il merite.

De moins que rien, l'on peut a peu venir: Et puis ce peu, n'a si peu de puissance, Qu'assez ne face, a assez paruenir, Celui qui veut auoir la sufisance. Mais si au trop (de malheur) il s'auance, Ne receuant d'assez contentement, En danger est; par sa foie inconstance, De retourner ason commencement" ORROZET, Giles, a man of genius and learning, who was born in·Paris January 4th I5IO, and died July 4th 1568. He carried on the business of a bookseller, but seldom affixed his own name to his writings. In early youth he enjoyed few, if any, advantages from study; but, besides other attainments, he mastered the Latin, Italian and Spanish languages. Thirtyfour works are said to have been composed or translated by him, of fourteen of which Brunet gives the titles and editions. As a Manuel du86 t, Libraire, 1 French poet he was equal to any of his time, and his tale of the tome ii. col •w"Rossignol" possesses very considerable beauty. The Tablet of 1o"d. Cebes and the Fables of Aisop were rendered by him into French rhymes, and he compiled also a work of considerable repute on the Antiquities of Paris. He amassed a large fortune by his business, and his son and grandson sustained his reputation as booksellers. The Hecalomgrapltie, "an interesting little volume," says Dib- Plate xxx11. din, is a good specimen of his writings. By way of introduction he addresses an octain, "AVX BONS ESPRITZ & AMATEURS DES LETTRES." It is to the following effect: " Whenever you shall be at your good leisure, And neither care nor business longer find ; Whenever you shall wish to take some pleasure, And give delight, by reading, to your mind :


Essays Literary a1ld Bt'bliographical.
When good examples you shall wish to know, The morals sound of true philosophy,And what is needful in thy life to show;Read here, within this Hecatomgraphy."

UNIUS, Hadrian, who "conquered envy by study, uprightness and labour, and who at last had praise accorded to him worthy of his merit," was born at Hoorn in Holland in I 5 I 1. He pursued his studies at Haerlem, Louvain, Paris and Bologna, and in after life justified the titles bestowed upon him of P. Hofmanni . being an able physician and a learned philologist. Whether he Pecrlkamp I ~iber, &c. Harlemi, excelled as a poet may admit of a doubt, though, beside his 18J8, p. liS. emblems, he wrote verses on sacred subjects and an heroic poem on the marriage of Philip of Spain to Mary of England. He resided in England from I 543 to 1548, and dedicated to Edward VI. a Greek Lexicon, printed at Basle, to which he contributed above six thousand words. Holland was now his residence for a while, but he revisited England in 1553 or 1554 and remained only a short time. A few years afterwards he was appointed physician to the king of Denmark. Finally he settled at Haerlem, and received the appointment of "historian of the states of Holland." He presided over the college; but the loss of his library, consequent on the siege in 1573, greatly afflicted him, and he died in r 575· His works were numerous and on De Bry"s lcom, a variety of subjects, and the chief of them are enumerated by pt. •• P· ' 7'· Boissard. Plate xxvt. In addition to the specimen of the stanzas of Hadrian Junius given before, we present another, translated by Whitney,
Put• L.

Had. J uniu.< Emh. S9·

.. FlLIO



En· tibi quas, jili, genitura (tmsecro testes Ceras, auduras nomina amidttlz.

Sperne voluptates, iuwnis, constanter; vt iras Ventorum, assultrl!que maris .Marpesia cautes. Nate, tuo lepide lurlms in nomine, tlidas Symbfllico dogio, tu, Pdram imitare Iuumlus.''

ERR IERE, William de la, was a native of Toulouse. Of his birth and education we possess no information. His only literary monument appears to have been "Le Tltldtre des bons Eng-ins," published at Paris in 1539 by Plate XXX. Denys Janot, the same printer as printed Corrozet's emblems. Both works "were composed in the quaint French verse of the J. B. Yates, · •849. p. •stime, and were accompanied by very beautiful woodcuts on a small scale. They were extremely popular." The passages from Perriere are emblems I. and Cl., from which Plate xxx1. a good idea may be gained of the work itself. The writer dedicates his work to the queen of Navarre, and speaks of himself "as a christian man writing to a christian princess." Of books like his own he declares : " It is not alone in our time that emblems are in renown, value and veneration, but from all antiquity, and almost from the beginning of the world." Several ancient authors are named by him (Cha:remon, Horapollo and Lucan), and some modem (as Polyphilus, Celian Rogigien and Alciatus), thus: "In our time Alciatus has written out certain emblems and illustrated them with Latin verses," "and we, in imitation of the before-named, think we have well employed and appropriated our good leisure in the invention and illustration of our present emblems." We may compare Whitney's, p. 205, with the following from Perriere: "Pukhritudo sine jructu. Le Theatre, &e.
LE Cypres est arbre fort delectable, Droict, bel, & hault, & plaisant en verdure : Mais quit au fruict, il est peu proffitable, Car rie ne vault pour doner nourriture. Beaucoup de gens sont de telle nature: Qui portet tiltre, & no de grand sci'ece: Mais s'il aduient d'en faire experience: ne cognoist eulx que le seul bruict. C'est grand folie en arbre auoire fiance, Dot ne peult cuillir quelque bo fruict."


Essays Lz"terary and Bibliograpkical.






ll!li!!!!!ii!IOCCHIUS, Achilles, is simply named by Whitney in his Address to the Reader, and might be omitted from our notices, but our title-page and frontispiece are made up from his emblems ; and therefore we

Plate LII.


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

Liverpool Lit. and Phi I. Soc.,


I'late XXIII .

repeat what has been said of him by Joseph Brooks Yates: " Five years after the death of Alciato, a most beautiful book of emblems was presented to the world by another eminent'Italian scholar, Achille Bocchi, commonly called Philerote. He was a native of Bologna, and sprung from a noble family of that city. Being equally distinguished for his scholarship and knowledge of public affairs, he served several Princes, and filled important offices in the court of Rome. In 1546 he instituted at Bologna an Academy, called after its founder Academia Bocchiana, and also (from the device of Mercury and Minerva, which it assumed) Hermatltena. Bocchi's work, which was published in 1555, is entitled, 'Symbo!icarum Qucstionum de universo genere quas scrio ludebat, libri quinque.' The copper-plates, comparatively of a large size, are engraved by the celebrated artist Guilio Bonasone, after designs partly by himself and partly by Bocchi, aided by Parmigiano and Prospero Fontana, many ideas being taken from· Michael Angelo and Albert Durer. On the publication of the second edition (1574) these plates, being much worn, were most of them retouched by a still more celebrated engraver, Augustino Caracci, then almost a boy. Both editions are scarce and much prized. The Latin verses of Bocchi are more remarkable for their beauty than their terseness.'' The portrait of Bocchius is from his works, in which are emblems, pp. 91 and 183, dedicated, "To the best of friends, Andrew Alciat," and "To Paulo Jovio, bishop of Nocera." In Bocchius himself, it is said there is more to be understood than is expressed, and that while others could paint the features he could paint the mind, for that pure mind alone can comprehend mind.

OUST A U, Peter, or Costalius, issued at Lyons in 1552, and again in 1555, his rare and curious book, Plate xxx1v. entitled " PEG MA, cum narratio1zibus pltilosoplti'cis." The specimen given is "On the wretchedness of the human lot;" to which a few verses are added and then a dissertation, with each page elaborately ornamented, setting forth the nature of that wretchedness. Moral and religious reflections are interspersed. In 1 56o the Pegma was translated from Latin into French by Plate xxxv _Lanteaume de Romieu, a gentleman of Aries. An emblem, p.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

28 5

374, "Time does all," may have furnished Whitney with his last motto, "Tempus omnia terminat." One of the octains, addressed to the s\van, and almost literally translated, possesses much simplicity: " Honour nouris!us the arts. The swan melodious chants no lay, Attempts no song of worth to sing, Should zephyrs, breathing~graciously Over the fields, no sweetness bring: And who desert from letters seeks, Or undertakes some poet's theme, If praise on learning never breathes, Nor honours over labour beam1" Whitney gave a very wide extension to his "Music of Orpkeus," p. I 86, but its substance is contained in Coustau's simpler lines: " LA FORCE o'ELOQUENCE. De S(111 genii/ 0,.. for/ melodieux .D'vn instrument, Orpluus feit mouUQir .Ro(S &- pafiiz de leur p/a(es 0,.. lieux. C'esf eloquen(e ayantjor(e &- pouUQir .D'tbler les fueurs de /ous part son S(aUQir C'est fora/eur qui aujorf d'eloqueNe Prmzkrement souz meme demouraNe. Gens bestiaulx, &-par ferodte Les assembla: 0,.. qui a bienueil/aft(e Les reUQqua de leur ferodle."
Le Pegme, p. Jllc].


EZA, Theodore, occupies a large space in the lite- Plate LJ. rary and theological history of his times, and according to the religious bias of his early biographers is spoken of with bitter aversion or with high regard. There can be no doubt that at one period of his life he was guilty of excesses and immoralities, but that in after years he becaine distinguished for his indefatigable zeal and labours in behalf of the Reformation, and deserved the respect which he obtained when Balzec named him "the great Histoi"' sur 1a · • Vie ll:c. de m1mster of Geneva. " T. de Heze. He was born at Vezelai in Burgundy June 24th 1519, and died I 3th October 1005; and for above forty years occupied a


Essays Literary and Bz"bliographical.

high position among the Reformed in Switzerland. Nearly the whole of his works were of a religious and theological kind ; and . on these his renown rests, and not on the small volume of emPlate• XLI. and blems contained in about <)0 pages, though these are beautiful in LIX. , execution and illustrated by verses of constderable neatness and piquancy. At a very early age he was brought to Paris, and the care of his education was undertaken by his uncle Nicholas de Beze ; and in his tenth year he was sent to Orleans J.o be instructed by MelchiorWolmar, an excellent Grecian, with whom he remained about seven years in Orleans and in the university of Bourges. Like some others, who in after life wrote emblems, his first studies were those of law, but he soon began chiefly to attend to classical literatur~. In I 539 at Paris he obtained his degree of licentiate of civil law, and passed several of the succeeding years amid the gaities of that capital, externally conforming to the Catholic church, in which he enjoyed some valuable benefices. A severe illness induced serious reflection; he fled from France, avowed his faith, and was married at Geneva in I 548. In I 549 he received the appointment to the Greek professorship at Lausanne, and here, by the addition of one hundred psalms, completed Marot's translation into French verse, and made the translation of the New Testament into Latin, which passes by his name; it was published at Paris in I557· He was admitted as a Protestant minister in I559, and soon after became Calvin's assistant in lecturing on theology; and in I 56 I he was delegate from the university of Geneva to attend the conference of Poissy to effect, if possible, a reconciliation between the Catholic and Protestant churches of France. On Calvin's death in I 564 he succeeded to his important offices, and until I597 continued to discharge them with eminent zeal and ability; the infirmities of ·age then came upon him, though to the very last his mind continued bright and clear. He died at the age of 86. Manuel du His works are very numerous, though now almost forgotten. Libraire, tome t · pp. B+•-1+4For the titles of these Brunei may be consulted ; and for biographies of Beza, Oettinger's list, the Paris Biograpltie Universe/le, or the article Beza in the Pmny Cycloptedia. Bib. Biogr. Univ. The twenty-four lines in Wltitney, p. I65, appear founded on tBs... eo!. 149. these four lines in Beza:

Essays Literary anti Bibliographical.
Ieone<, Emb. JJ.


In caulo quicunqut rosas, colkgtril vnRut, Vi.x vnquam illaso ltgtril vngut rosas. Hoe sapilt t.xtmplo locupltlts, plurima namqut Hisct la/m/ vtslris sptcula mi.xla rosis."

NEAU, Barthelemi, latinised into Anulus, whose device was a signet ring, was a Latin and French poet, a jurisconsult and an orator. He was born at Bourges at the beginning of the sixteenth century and died in 1565. In the year 1530 he was professor of rhetoric in Trinity College, Lyons, and principal of that institution in I 542. Among his works arc-" Tlze Mystery of the Nativi!J'," and "The .Merclumt of Lyc~~ts;" the latter is a French satirical drama, in which nine characters are introduced and the events of Europe narrated from I 524 to 1540. An eau, in 1549, translated into French the emblems of Alci:ltus verse by verse, and also the Utopia of sir Thomas More. His own emblem-book, "PICTA POESIS," Pictured Poetry, was collected by him and published at Lyons in 1552. A French translation was set fcrth at Paris in the same year. The original has some Greek stanzas interspersed with the Latin. The first of his emblems bears the inscription, "DIVINJ SPIRITVS !NVOCATIO," A u Invocation to the Diviue Spirit, and may be accepted as a fair specimen of the author's power and method :
" Every gift that is good,- perfect in ·blessedness, From the Father of Light cometh down from the sky ; Let therefore the Poet who his work would set !n order, Invoke first of all divine help from on high. We, verses adorning with pictures, most earnestly pray, That God may shine on us, with fires of the heavenly day."



Aneau's death was very tragical. On the 2Ist of June 1565, being the Fete de Dieu, a stone had been thrown from one of the college windows as the Holy Sacrament was passing: it hit the priest who was carrying the Host, and the irritable populace broke into the college and massacred Aneau, believing him to be a Protestant and the author of the outrage. Whitney's emblem, p. 141, shows how greatly on some occaH


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

sions he amplified the text of his author. Whitney gives thirtysix lines, Anulus only four; but those four are correctly rendered in Whitney's first stanza:
Picta Poe•is,
p. 18.


medium Brasidas dypeum traiech1s a/J lwsle; Quoque ford lasus ciue rogante modum. Cuifidebam (inquil) penetrabilis vmbo feftllit, S1c A V I sape fides credita: prodtior est.''

Oettinger, col S"9·

AERNO, Gabriello, an Italian poet, was born at

Cremona, and died 17th November 1561 in the prime of life. He was a man much beloved and admired. His scholarship was sound and extensive, and even the fastidious Bentley republished Plate xxvu. entire his notes on Terence. Though the name of Emblems is given to one of his works, it is, more properly, a book of very elegant Latin fables. They were written at the request of pope . :Pius IV., by whom the author was highly regarded. They are remarkable for correct Latinity, and for the power of invention which they display. Indeed the charge was made, though altoRoscoe·, Leo x. gether groundless, that his fables "are written with such classic :.0~7~--cd vol.ii. purity, as to have given rise to an opinion, that he had discovered and fraudulently availed himself of some of the 'unpublished works of Phredrus." F.mh 7 •• p. 168. We subjoin one of his fables, with which the translation by Whitney, p. I 57, may be compared :
" A strologus. OBSCURA astrologus graditur dum noctes in umbra Intentus crelo, & tacite labentibus astris, Decidit in pu.teum : casuque afflictus iniquo Implorabat opem, Divosque hominesque ciebat. Excitus accessit pictei vicinus ad oras Salsus homo : & Qure nam hrec tua tarn prrepostera, dixit, Dissita tarn longe profiteris sidera nosse. Quid rerum caussas, flaluraeque a/Jdila quaeris, Ipse lui ipsius propriaeque ob/ile salulis."

Essays Literary and B£bliograph£cal.


A MBUCUS, John," physician, antiquary and PL1te LIII. poet," "both stirs up the sound by his writings, and mighty in skill restores the sick by his medical art." He was born in the town of Tornau in Hungary in the year I 531. He studied with great credit to himself in several of the academies of Italy, France and Germany ; and as in his special profession of medi- pt m. . re::::••· De.~ry'eds ts.,... cine so in the knowledge of. ancient philosophy and in the pur- PP· 76-BJ. suit of literature generally he attained high repute. He was patronised by the emperors Maximilian II. and Rudolph II., and under them he held the offices of counsellor of state and of historian of the empire. After a life of usefulness and honour, he died at Vienna on the 13th of June " in the year of salvation M.D.LXXXIII." at the age of 53· The catalogue of his works, as prepared by himself and set forth in Boissard's life of him, is very extensive and of great variety,- from a simple exposition of the Lord's prayer to the harangues of Thucydides and Xenophon artistically explained. His principal or more important works were: Lives of th€ Roman Emperors; A History of Hungary; Portraits of Plzysician.s and Pllilosophcrs, sixty-seven in number, with their lives; and translations into Latin of Hesiod, of the Battle of tlze Frogs, and of portions of Plato. His emblems, of which there are at least five editions from Bnmct's~Ianuel, J8(~ tflme v. Plan tin's press, here chiefly demand our notice. They contain col. •<>+ much that is original, but are not equal to those of Alciat in purity of style and in vigour of expression. With respect to Whitney's translations and appropriations from Sambucus, it is to be especially remarked they are very far from approaching the literal meaning; they are paraphrases, or accommodationsthe carrying out of thoughts and hints which the Hungarian supplied. This may be illustrated from Whitney's emblem, p. 2o6, of which we give the original :

quidam vites, mmdumque ea/ore Malurtlm arripiens J:tiSiat, damna/que raccmum. Quineliam pedibus co11triuil, nul/us 7'1 inde Austcro imbucrel sacco sua labra z•ialor.

F.mb. J.Sambuci, cd. t 1&~, p. 104.


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.
Judicium prattum est hominum, nee tmpora norun/ Exp«tare, minus cupitmt subiisse /aborts. Ardua sunt aditu prima, qua pukhra.fatemur Tempore sed .ftunt opt'ra, & post milia cuncta .. Std rifugil penitus botrum .formosa pudla, Casta & aOLVOl mim, sidus IICC palmiti amimm est.''

Or, in reference to
Emb. j.Sambuci, cd. 's64. p. 'n·




.Jfortalibus tugatus. Vt mme quis bonus sit, Neqtuas, tibi a maliJque Dum tempus est cauere Dextra tenet label/am Rasam, no/is ne( vllis Insignem, amicus vi sit Quales /uus, eo/is quem Tot sedulus per annos. Scribas mihi poles si, Num candide, dolo ne Tecum egit, a/ recusas. "*


CrNCTIS Deus creauil, Quacunque terra, & z•ndis, Si[.,''flUm dedit, pateret, Nalt1ra singulorum vi. Latratibus cams sic Sua indium dal ira! Taurus monel.furorem QuOd cornu is pelendtJ Ladat, venena (audes Serpens geril, timendus Et scqrpius cauelur Est nuda .frons, sed iridex

REIT AG, Arnold, is a name to be recorded with honour, if we have respect to the beautiful work to • which he contributed the descriptions and remarks l:'latc'XXXVlll. in Latin, "MYTHOLOGIA ETHICA," or },fora/ Philosophy taught ;,, Fables; but the notices of him with 'which we have met are very brief and unsatisfactory. There have been several distinguished physicians of the name Freitag, and Arnold seems to have been one of them. He was born at Emmerick, and, if a little before rs6o, was very young when he wrote the Latin expositions of the engravings by Gerard de Jode and others which adorn his work. Foppens makes him professor of medicine at Groningen, but the university there was not founded untilr615, and the honour came to him therefore at a late period Biog. Univer· of his life. Among his works are mentioned some translations ~lie, vol. xvi. p. S9· from Italian and Spanish treatises on Food and Dri11k, and The 11-'Iedicine for lite Soul, or lite Art of Dying. He also translated Duplessis-Mornay's work, On the Truth of tl1e Christian Religion.
• See



Biograplzical Dictionary, vol. xxvii. p. 86.

Essays Literary a1zd Bibliog·raphical.


Two plates set before the reader the nature of the illustrations and XL. Plates XXXIX. in the Et/eical Mythqlogy: the one is the phrenix, applied as a type of Jesus Christ and as an emblem of the resurrection ; and the other, in the fable of the Grasshopper and Ants, "the opposite rewards of industry and sloth," sets forth the proverb, "The sfuggard refused to plouglt by reason of t/ee cold, t/ecrifore will lte beg in /earvest and it shall 1101 be givm ltim." (Prov. xx. 4-) EUSNER, NichoJas, like others of the emblem Plate uv. writers, was a man of extensive learning, a jurisconsult and a poet. He was born at Lemberg in Silesia February 2nd I 545, a little before Whitney, and he died at Jena April 12th 1002. He was a member of one of the most distinguished families of ·his native province. His law studies were pursued at Leipsic, and in 1565, at the age of 20, he lectured, or rather gave lessons, on Latin literature at Augsburg. The duke of Bavaria named him professor of Belles Lettres at the college of Launingen, of which afterwards Reusner became rector. He filled in succession several literary offices at BAle, Spires and Strasburg ; and in 1589 his reputation called him to Jena, a university founded in 15 so, and to which he rendered important services. In a solemn assembly the emperor Rudolph II. decreed to him the poetic crown, and created him count-palatine. From the electorate of Saxony in I 595 he was deputy to that diet in Poland where the German princes formed a league against the Turks. He died during his second rectorate in 1002, and was buried in a tomb which he had caused to be constructed for himself, and of which the inscription gave little evidence of a humble, christian mind. His funeral sermon was preached by Mylius. Dominik Animreus Oettinger, rss.., col. rsrs. and Thomas Sagittarius collected and published the facts of his parentage; and John Weitz set forth his life, in a quarto, at Jena in 1003. Reusner's works are fifty-eight in number; and we might say, more or less, for the number signifies little, when so many have passed away from observation. It is with his poetical works we have to do,-the first of which is entitled "PoLYANTHIA, sive Paradisus poeticus," from which Whitney makes several quotations. These flowers of poetry are given in seven oooks, printed

Plate XLII.

Essays L£terary and Biblwgraphical.

at BAle, in octavo, 1579· The second poetical effusion was edited by his brother Jeremiah, and issued by the celebrated printer John Feyerabend of Frankfort in 1581. The emblem XXX., p. 142, "Man is a wolf_to man," may have given Whitney his motto, p. 144, but supplies very few of the thoughts. Another emblem writer, whose name has escaped my memory, adopts the contrary sentiment, and heads his device, Homo ltomini Deu.s, Man is a God to man. A better instance is the following, which Whitney, p. 48, renders with some degree of accuracy :

Emb. Reusneri, p. 88.

Ctrnis, vt obliquo funtm vir torqutl ocno : Quo rahidtm pascit turpis astlla famtm. Stdulitas quorsum prodtst, & cura mariti: ProdiJia si coniux ut sint fmgt domi 1 Non minor tst virtus, quam quO!rtrt, parta tutri: Ht~c opus tst viri: coniugis istud opus. Magnum vtcligal, 11xortm viutrt parce : Stmptr ltabd, stmptr quo: sibi duu puiat. Strual fida domum coniux, & cmsibus augd: Paulatim magnas prodiga carpit opts: Quodq' magis miurum tst, vrit rint torrt maritum : 0 ptrtat, gaudd kzdtrt si qua virum."

The number of emblem writers of the sixteenth century is by no means exhausted, but we are restricted by our subject to those who are supposed or proved to have contributed to Whitney's selection. Their biographies, brief though they are, suffice to show them as men of culture, of learning and of genius,trusted and honoured in their respective countries, and still deserving of some record in the literature of modern times.

OVELTIES respecting Shakespeare's genius may naturally expect 'to be looked ·upon with suspicion, and fresh NOTES upon his writings are a trouble to us,-we ~an scarcely endure them; yet, though seldom alluded to and never systematically carried out, his knowledge of emblem art, as applied in books, is a truth not to be questioned by any who have examined the evidence. His peculiar aptitude for the appreciation of art of every kind, even of the highest, is proved by his exquisite judgment of the supposed statue of Hermione, of the adorn- Wi_ Tale, n_rer's ment of Imogen's chamber, of the pictures introduced into The~;~~:.~-~~-; Taming- of the Shrew, and of the wonderful charms of melody T. of s~rew, I 1Jduct1011, and song when Lorenzo discourses to Jessica ; and no man ii. 47-Ss. · ,j: • Mer. u 4-u.ll, couId h ave wntten t h e cask et scene • T,'l .ir~ ereIta nt oJ V.emce, 111. ;;_of Venice• m 1te ~A" nor the triumph scene as it is named in Pericles, who had not vP.encs._ u. u. i.. 1 .. et, read and studied the emblem literature of the sixteenth century. To accomplish this two sources were open to him, for both of Drake'• Sha~e­ which, in the opinion of Douce, Drake and Capel Lofft, he pos- ¥im":,":o'l.1~· sessed competent seh o1 sh tp : t h e one was, to read " h" ar . 10r tmse lfPP·""''•ns1. ss. u ~~. ""''· the emblem-books of France, Italy and Belgium ; the other, to make use of our English Whitney, a work representative of the chief emblematists of those countries, and published at the very time when Shakespeare commenced his wonderful dramatic career. There were also open to him a translatiop into English by Daniell of the Worthy Tract of Paulus lovius, printed in 1585, and by P. S. of Paradin's Heroical! Devises, printed in



11 .

Essays L£terary and B£bli.ograplt£cal.

7, 9·

Act 111. s.

It is also in the full spirit of emblematic art that the whole scenes are conceived and set forth in the M erclumt of Vmicc, where are introduced the three caskets of gold, of silver, and of lead, by the choice of which the fate of Portia is to be determined: " The first of gold, who this inscription bears, 'Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire;' The second silver, which this promise carries, 'Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves;' This third, dull lead, with warning all as blunt, 'Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.' " And when the caskets are opened, the drawings and the inscription on the written scr~lls, which are then taken out, examined and read, are exactly like the engravings or woodcuts and the verses by which the mottoes and emblems are set forth. Thus, on unlocking the golden casket, the prince of Morocco exclaims: "0 hell! what have we here 1 A carrion Death, within whose empty eye There is a written scroll ! I'll read the writing. All that glisters is not gold ; Often have you heard that told : Many a man his life hath sold But my outside to behold : Gilded tombs do worms infold. Had you been as wise as bold, Young in limbs, i.n judgment old, Your answer had not been inscroll'd; Fare you well; your suit is cold." The prince of Arragon also, on opening the silver casket, receives not merely a written scroll, as is represented in all Symeoni's DISTICH~ MORALI, or Moral Stanzas, but corresponding to the device or woodcut, "the portrait of a blinking idiot," presenting him with the schedule or the explanatory rhymes: " The fire seven times tried this ; Seven times tried that judgment is, That did neuer choose amiss. Some there be that shadows kiss ; Such have but a shadow's bliss :

For Example Plate XXXVII.

Essays Literary a11d Bibliographical.
There be fools alive, I wis, Silver'd o'er; and so was this. Take what wife you will to bed, I will ever be your head : So begone : you are sped"

29 5

Shakespeare's emblems are thus complete in all their parts; there are the mottoes, the pictures, " a carrion Death," and "a blinking idiot," and the descriptive verses. The words of Portia, when the prince of Arragon declares, " I'll keep my oath, Patiently to bear my wroth," are moreover a direct reference to the emblems which occur in Giles Con·ozet, Gabriel Symeoni, Claude Paradin and Geffrey Wltitney. The first adopts the motto, "La guerre doulce aux Plate XXXII inexperimentez," "1-Var is sweet o~tly to tke imo.rperimced, with a butterfly fluttering towards a lighted candle. The other three, with the same device, make use of Italian proverbs: Symeoni, of ;, COS! TROPPO PlACER CONDUCE A l'.lORTE ;" Paradin, of " Cosi viuo Piacer conduce 8. morte ;'' and Whitney, of " Cosr Emb. p. " 9 DE DEN AMAR PORTO TORMENTO ;"-Too muck, or too lively a pkasure leaJs to deatlz, and Tleus love of happiteess brings tormmt. In close agreement with these devices are Portia's words: " Thus hath the candle singed the moth. 0, these deliberate fools! when they do choose They have the wisdom by their wit to lose." The opening of the third of the caskets, that of lead, is also as much an emblem delineation as the other two,-surpassing them indeed in the beauty of the language as well as in the excellence of the device. " What find I here ? " demands Bassanio, and answers: " Fair Portia's counterfeit! What demi-god Hath come so near creation 1 Move those eyes_1 Or whether, riding on the balls of mine Seem they in motion 1 Here are sever'd lips, Parted with sugar-breath : so sweet a bar Should sunder such sweet friends. Here in her hairs The painter plays the spider, and hath woven A golden mesh to entrap the hearts of men, Faster than gnats in cobwebs: but her eyes,1


Essays Lt"terary and Bt"bliograpleical. .
How could he see to do them 1 having made one, Methinks it should have power to steal both his And leave itself unfurnish'd. Yet look, how far The substance of my praise doth wrong this shadow In under-prizing it, so far this shadow Doth limp behind the substance. Here's a scroll, The continent and summary of my fortune." [Reads.~ "You that choose not by the view, Chance as fair, and choose as true ! Since this fortune falls to you, · ' Be content and seek no new. If you be well pleased with this, And hold your fortune for your bliss, Turn you where your lady is, .And claim her with a loving kiss."'

In these scenes of the casket, therefore, Shakespeare himself is an emblematist, and only the woodcut or the engraving is needed to render those scenes as perfect examples of emblem writing as any that issued from the pens of Alciat or of Whitney. The dramatist may have been sparing in his employment of this tempting kind of illustration ; yet, with the instances before us, we must conclude that he knew well what emblems were, and, most probably, had seen and was bearing in mind the emblem literature of that age. But the probability rises to certainty when with Knight and shavk•1 other writers we believe that Pericles was, in the main, Shake• o. supptemen ~.!. speare's composition, or, as Dryden expresses the fact, pp. I J 11 8 1U1U "9· "Shakespeare's own muse his Pericles first bore."
Pict. speare.

Books of emblems indeed are not mentioned by their titles and names, nor so quoted as we are accustomed to make quotations, by direct and specific references ; but the allusions are so plain, the words so exactly alike, that they cannot be misunderstood. The author of Pericles was of a certainty acquainted with more than one emblem writer in more than one language, and very probably possessed greater familiarity with Geffrey Whitney's "Choice of Emblemes" than with any other. We may reasonably conclude that he had them before him, and copied from them, when he prepared the second scene of the second act of Pericle.s.

· Essays Literary and Bibliographical. 'l91
Pericles, n. it

The whole of that second scene we will give, and then cornment upon the parts. The dialogue is between Simonides, king of Pentapolis, and his daughter Thaisa, on occasion of the "triumph" or festive pageantry which did honour to her birthdey: .
"Enftr a K11iglll: ltt passes ovtr fltt slagt, and leis Squire prtstnfs his sllitld lo flu Princtss. Sim. Who is the first that doth present himselft Tkai. A knight of Sparta, my renowned father; And the device he bears upon his shield Is a black iEthiop, reaching at the sun: The word, Lux tua vifa mini. Sim. He loves you well that holds his life of you. [ Tlu St(ond Knight passts. Who is the second thatpresents himself~ • Thai. A prince of Macedon, my royal father; And the device he bears upon his shield Is an armed knight that's conquered by a lady: The motto thus in Spanish, Pi• per duJvura que ptr futr94[ Tk fllird Knigltf passes. Sim. And what o' the third t Tllai. The third of Antioch, And his device a wreath of chivalry: The word, Mt pompm provtxil apex. [Tiufourlh Knight passts. Sim. What is the fourth t Tkai. A burning torch, that's turned upside down : The word, Quod mt a/it, me t.xfinguil. Sim. Which shows that beauty hath this power and wil~ Which can as well inflame as it can kill. [Tilt fifth Knight passts. Thai. The fifth, an hand environed with clouds, Holding out gold that's by the touchstone tried: The motto this, Sic spt(fanda fides. [Tilt sixth Knight passts. Sim. And what's the sixth and last, which the knight himself With such a graceful courtesy delivered~ Thai. He seems a stranger~ but his present is A wither'd branch, .that's only green at top: The motto, In hac spt vivo.


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.
From the dejected state wherein he is, He hopes by you his fortune yet may flourish."

Sim. A pretty moral:

l'late LVII. Paradin.

It needs but a simple act of comparison between this dialogue in Pericles and the pages of an emblem writer to establish the indebtedness of the dramatist to those who, in setting forth their fables or oth~r allegories, were aided by the skill of the designer and the art of the engraver. Take either page I 38 of Whitney or page 35 of Gabriel Symeoni: the torch engraven and the motto displayed are identical - except in a single word, qui for quod- with those of the fourth knight in the triumph scene of Pericks; and the writer of that scene must have known them. The copying is so evident, that it does not even require an acknowledgment. Let us however pursue the subject in due order, and we shall see the fact brought out even more clearly.

After considerable research, through above twenty different books of emblems preceding the time of Pericles, I have met with none containing the devices of the first and of the sixth . knight ; and we may assign these to Shakespeare's own invention. The motto of the old family of the Blounts, Lux tua vita mea, Thy light my life, is very close to that of the first knight ; but their crest is an armed foot on the sun, not a black .tEthiop reaching towards him. Emblems of Hope are found in great abundance ;* but the source of the device and motto of the sixth knight also remains undiscovered. We may conjecture !<foxon'•Spenser, that Shakespeare, having read Spenser's "Shepluard's Calender," 16 P f published in I 579, did- from the line, January (1. 54), "Ah, God ! that love should breed both ioy and paine;" and from the Italian emblem, as Spenser names it, "A11chora speme," Hope is my anchor,- did compose for himself the sixth knight's device, "In hac spe 1.1ivo," In this hope I live. The step from applying the emblems of other writers to the construction of new ones would be but small, and the dramatist would find
• In a little later age (1636) there issued "from the Plantinian office of Ralthasar Moretus at Antwerp" a volume containing no less than thirty emblems of Hope alone: the title is, .. GVILIELMI H~si Antverpiensis, e Societate lESV EMBLEM AT A SAC RA DE FIDE, SPE, CHAR!TATE." 24mo, pages 404

Essays L£/erary atzd Bibliographical


it no trouble to contrive for himself what was needed for the completion of his "triumph." The case is different with respect to the other four emblems ; for these we can trace to their sources. The second motto Shakespeare gives in Spanish, More by gmtleness tha1z by force. The Spanish emblem-books, by Francisco Guzman in 1587, by Hernando de Soto in I 599 and by Don Orozco in 1610, do not contain the motto in question, and could not be adduced as testimonies even if they did ; but a near approach to it exists in "Los EMBLEMAS DA ALCIATO traducidas en rhimas Espaiiolas." "EN l.voN por Girlielmo Rovi/lio, 1549,'' 8vo; The Emblems of Alciatus translated into Spanish Rhymes, &c. On page 124. corresponding with Alciat's 18oth emblem, occurs the motto, ~t,;f.s 1 • Antv. " Que mas puede la eloquemjia que la fortali'za," Eloquence or persuasion rather than force prevails,- the very idea which the second knight expresses. But, although I fail to discover Shakespeare's Spanish motto in a Spanish emblem-book, I meet with an exactly literal expression of it in a French work of extreme rarity, Corrozet's Plate XXXII. ".HECATOMGRAPHIE," published at Paris in 1540. There, at emblem 28, "Plus par doulceur qu' par force,'' More by gentleness than by force, is the saying which introduces the old fable of the sun and the wind, and of their contest with the traveller. A symbolical woodcut is appended; and the stanza" Contre la froidure du vent, L' homme se tient dos & se serre, Mais le Solei! le plus souuent Luy faict mettre sa robe a terre ; " which may be pretty accurately translated thus: "Against the wind's cold blasts Man dra~ his cloak around; But while sweet sunshine lasts, Be leaves it on the ground." Now as the motto of the second knight existed in French so early as I 540, and as emblem-books were translated into Spanish nearly as early, it is very probable, though we have not been successful in tracing it out, that the author of Pericles,- Shakespeare if you will,- copied the words from some Spanish emblembook that had come within his observation, and which applied


Essays Lt"terary and Bibliographical.

the proverb to woman's gentleness subduing man's harsher nature. Future inquiries will, perhaps, clear up this mystery and name the very work in which the Spanish saying, "Piu per dult;ura que per fuer~,'' is original. Three or four sources are open to which we may trace the mottoes and devices of the third, fourth and fifth knights. Shakespeare may have handled, probably did handle, some one of the various editions of Claude Paradin's and Gabriel Symeoni's "Devises H!ro"iqves," which appeared at Lyons, at Paris and at Antwerp between the years 1557 and 1590; or, as Francis Dousa supposes, may have seen the English translation, published in L ond on . 1591; or, Wl'th greater prob a b'l' m 11ty, may h ave used t he emblems of his own countryman Geffrey Whitney, bearing the date 1586.* The third knight, he of Antioch, has for his device " a wreath of chivalry," " The word, illt pompa prove::il apex," i.e. The crown at the triumph carried me onward. Les Devises H!ro'iqves contains the wreath and the motto exactly as Shakespeare quotes them ; but in Paradin a long account follows of the nature of the wreath and of the high value accorded to it in Roman estimation. "It was the grandest recompense or the greatest reward which the ancient Romans could think of, to confer on Chieftains over victorious armies, or Emperors, Captains, or victorious knights."
• We must not however forget another English source which was open to the dramatist, and which I have named in my account of Early Embkm-!KxJiu and tluir introdudinl into Englisll Literature; it is "THE worthy Tract of Paulus Iovius contayning a Discourse of rare inventions both Militarie and Amorous ca//(1/ Imprefe, wllenunto is added a Pre.fau contayning the Arte of composing them with many o/Mr 11()/alJ/e tkvisu. By Samuel Daniell late Student in Oxenforde. At London Printed for Simon Waterson 1585." In octavo, unpaged, 72leaves in all including the title. This rare work, of which Mr. Stirling of Keir possesses a copy, and which Is also In the British Museum, Is without prints or cuts of any kind, except two or three initial letters of no great merit. It is therefore not so likely to have attracted the notice of Shakespeare as Paradin, Symeoni or Whitney. Indeed it is evident from Shakespeare's graphic lines, that he was describing from some picture or device actually before him. Nevertheless, as \vill he shown on pages 302 and 303, there is a very sound reason for concluding that Daniell's translation of Yovius was also known to the great dramatist.

PP· 1os, 191·

Plate LVI.

Fol. 146, or
P· l9'·

Introductory Dissertation, p. 11.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.


Shakespeare does not add a single word of explanation or of amplification, which it is likely he would have done if he had used an English translation ; but simply, without remark, he adopts the emblem and its motto, as is natural to a person who, though not unskilled in the language by which they are explained, is not perfectly at home in it. But in the case of the fourth and fifth knights it is not the simple adoption of a device which we have to remark ; the ideas, almost the very expressions in which those ideas are clothed, are also presented to us, pointing out that the dramatic poet had something more than stanzas or narratives in an unfamiliar tongue. The fourth knight's device is thus described in Pericles: Pericles, 11. ii. "A burning torch that's turned upside down, The word, QUQ(/ me alii, me exlinguil; Which shows that beauty bath this power and will, Which can as well inflame as it can kill" Now the Italian stanza in the "TETRASTICHI MORALI" of p. JJ. Imprese, Seoten. Symeoni and Giovio is: "Nutrisee ilfweo a lui la eera inlwno, Qui Die a· Et/a eera f eslingue, 6 quanJi sono, Ut, me ea· Clu tfqpo vn riteuulo 0,.. largo dono, liDgWI. ·• Dal don a/or ri&tUQn danno 0,.. sewno I"


To the following purport in English: " The wax here within nourishes the flames, And the wax stifles them ; how many names, Who after large gifts and kindness shown Gain for the giver harm and scorn alone." Reed's edition of Sluzkespeare presents the following note: Vol. xxi. p. us. "A llurning lorell, C,.e. This device and motto may have been taken from Daniel's translation of Paulus Jovius, in •585, in which they are found." The passage referred to is the following : "An amorous gentleman of Milan bare in his standard a Torch Tract of JWorthy D1111ieU'• o.;us u. fi"""·
• The idea of a torch extinguishing itself is also given in the lines : " Here dies the dusky torch of Mortimer, Choked with ambition of the meaner &ort."
1 HeD. VI.
11. Y. li:U.


Essays Lt'terary and Bt'bli'ographical.

figured burning, & turning downeward, whereby the melting wax falling in great aboundance, quencheth the flame. With this Poesie thereunto, Quod me alii me exlinguil. Alluding to a Lady whose beautie did foster his loue & whose disdain did endamage his life." Certainly if Daniell's translation had, like Wltitney, presented a pictured emblem, there would scarcely be any way of escape from the conclusion that his work was the actual source of the fourth knight's device ; but Shakespeare's description possesses so much apparent reality th~t we are upheld in supposing there was a pictorial model before him, and not simply a dead-letter narrative. His inventive power however was great, and Daniell's work may have taught him how to use it. One fact decisively favours the conjecture that the motto, as quoted by Shakespeare, Quod me alit me c.rtinguit, was derived from Daniell. The other emblematists, as Syme6ni, Paradin, Paradin's translator, and Whitney, all read Qui me alii &c., but Daniell gives Quod me alit. And therefore, as far as the motto is concerned, Daniell may be regarded as the source to Shakespeare of "the word" to his fourth knight's device. To the same motto, ~VIzo nom·islus me exti1zguishes me, Paradin adds this little piece of history, amplifying Giovio: " In the battle of the SWiss, dl!feated near Milan by the late King Francis, M. de Saint Valier, the old man, father of Madame Diana of Poictiers, Duchess of Valentinois, and Captain of a hundred Gentlemen, bore a standard whereon was a painting of a lighted torch turned downwards, and full of wa:s: which kept flowing in order to stifle it, an~ the words, Qui me alii, me exlinguit. Which device he feigned for love of a lady, wishing to show just in this way that her beauty nourished his thought, and also put him in danger of his life." Paradin's translation of 1591, P. S., has been advanced as the source whence Shakespeare's torch-emblem was derived ; but it is very note-worthy that the torch in the English translation is not a torch "that's turned upside down," but one held uninve~ed, with the flame naturally ascending. This contrariety to Shakespeare's description seems therefore fatal to the translator's claim. Let us next consider Whitney's stanza of six lines to the same motto and the same device, premising that Plantin has used for

Dev. Hero'iq. fol. 16Q. Plato LVII.

tration!\, pp.

Douce'• Illus·
J~ and 191·

Plato LVII.

Whitney's Emb.
p. tBt.

Essays L1'terary and BiMiographical.


the Whit11ey in IS86 the identical woodcut which he inserted in the Paradin in I 562 : "EUEN as the wax dothe feede, and quenche the flame, So loue giues life, and loue, despaire doth giue : The godlie loue, doth louers croune with fame : The wicked loue, in shame dothe make them liue. Then leaue to loue, or loue as reason will, For louers lewde doe vain lie languishe still." Here placing in comparison Symeoni, Giovio's translator Daniell, Paradin, Paradin's English translator, and Whitney, as illustrative of the fourth knight's emblem, can we fail to perceive in Perides a closer resemblance both of thought and expression to Whitney than to the others ? Whitney wrote, "So loue giues life, and loue, despaire doth giue :" and Pericks thus amplifies the line: "Which shows that beauty bath this power and will, Which can as well inflame as it can kilL'' From this instance then we infer that Whitney's book WjS known to the author of Pericles, and that he has simply carried . out the idea which had there been suggested to him. But

the device" and "the word " of the fifth knight, 11 an. hand environ.ed with clouds, Holding out gold that's by the touchstone tried, The motto this, Sit spttlantla jidts; "

So fidelity is to be proved,- may be regarded as identical with the device and the word presented by Whitney, and which he Emb. , 19. copies from Paradin. This emblem is in fact that which was Place LVI. appropriated to Francis I. and Francis Il., kings of France from I 5 I 5 to I 500, and which appears among the 11 HIEROGRAPHIA .Symbola Diuin:a, ' ' &c., vol.l R EGVM F RANCORVM,"* mscn'be d ' 1 F ranCISCUS 11 . V a 1 ' Rex 17 and 88. pp. estus Francorum XXV Christianissimus." The device then follows and the comment: 11 Coronatum aureum nummum ad Lydium lapidem dextra h~c explicat & sic, id est, duris in rebus fidem explo* See 11 SVMBOLA DIUINA &. HUIIUNA PONTIFICVM, IMPERATORVM, REGVM Accessit breuis &. facilis lsagoge lac. Typotii Fanckfvrti Apvd Godifridvm Schonwellervm, • M. D. c. tn." Three volumes folio in one. K


Essays Literary and Bi!Jliographical.

Plate LVI.

randam docet ;" This right hand extends to the Lydian stone a coin of gold wreathed round (with an inscription) and so, that is, teaches that in times of difficulty fidelity is to be put to the proof. The coin applied to the touchstone in the "HIEROGRAPHIA" bears the inscription, "FRANCISCVS Il. FRANCORVM REX ;" but the engravings or woodcuts in Paradin and in. Whitney have the inscription," FRANCISCVS DEI GRATIA FRAN. REX." Whitney, in which he is followed, though briefly, in Pericks, describes the emblem itself, and says:

Emb. p. tJ\'.


touche doth trye, the fine and purest goulde: And not the sound, or els the goodly showe. So, if mennes wayes and vertues, wee behoulde, The worthy men, wee by their workes, shall knowe. But gallant lookes, and outward showes beguile, And ofte are clokes to cogitacions vile."

The comparison thus instituted b€tween the authors who use · the motto, ''Sic spectanda fides," makes it appear, I think, that there is greater correspondence between Shakespeare and Whitney than between Shakespeare and Paradin, and therefore that Shakespeare did not derive his fifth knight's device either from the French emblem writer or from his English translator, but from the English Whitney, which had lately been published. Indeed if Pericles were written, as Knight conjectures, in Shakespeare's early manhood, previous to the year 1591, it could not be the English translation of Paradin which furnished him with the three mottoes and devices of the "triumph" scene.* The fine frontispiece to Whitney's Emblems represents the arms of Robert Dudley: it is a drawing, remarkably graphic, of a bear grasping a ragged staff, with a collar and chain around him, and standing erect on the burgonet ; a less elaborate drawing gives the same badge on the title-page of the second part of the Emblems. Most exactly, most artistically does Shakespeare ascribe the same crest, in the same attitude and on the same standing-place, to Richard Nevil, earl of Warwick, the king• Paradin in a great measure compiled his work from Symtoni, and therefore to old editions of Ciovio we may look for further elucidation of this subject.

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

30 5

maker of history. Here is the dialogue between him and old Clifford, just after Warwick's taunting·remark: "War. You were best to go to bed and dream again,

To keep thee from the tempest of the field. I am resolved to bear a greater storm Than any thou canst conjure up to-day, And that I'll write upon thy burgonet, Might I but know thee by thy household badge. War. Now by my father's badge, old Nevil's crest, The rampant bear, chain'd to the ragged staff, This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet (As on the mountain top the cedar shows That keeps his leaves in spite of any storm} Even to affright thee with the view thereof. Clif. And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear, And tread it under foot with all contempt, Despite the bearward that protects the bear."

s Hen. VI. V. i. f. 1<}6.

A closer correspondence between a picture and a description of it can scarcely be imagined. Shakespeare's lines and Whitney's frontispiece exactly coincide :
"like coats in heraldry, Due but to one, and crowned with one crest."
Ill .

Mid. N. Dream, ii. I. &IJ .

A remarkable instance of similarity is found between Whitney · and Shakespeare in the description which ·they both give of the commonwealth of bees. In this case Whitney's stanzas, dedicated "To RICHARD CoTTON Esquier" of Combermere are original writing, not a translation, and the plea is inadmissible that Shakespeare went to the same fountain head, except in a single phrase; neither he nor Whitney follow Alciat,* who con- Plate LVIII. fines himself to four lines. The two accounts of the economy of these "creatures small" are almost equally excellent and offer several points of resemblance, not to name them imitations, by the more recent writer. Whitney speaks of the "Master bee"• Alclat's subject is "the mercifulness of a Prince," and, almost literally rendered,
his expressions are in reference to his device of a bee· hive:

" That their ruler never will wound with the stings of the wasps, And that greater he will be than others by a double-sized body; He will make proof of mild empire and well ordered kingdoms And that inviolable laws to good judges are entrusted."


Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

Emb. pp. zoo,

Hen. V. I. 178.



Shakespeare of the king or "emperor;" both regard the head of the hive, not as a queen, but a "born king" or general, and hold forth the polity of the busy community as an admirable example of a well-ordered kingdom or government. Referring carefully to Whitney's verses, bearing the motto in mind which he uses, "Patri'a cuique cluzra," Native land to each one dear,-by their side let us place what Shakespeare wrote on the same subject, the commonwealth of bees, and we shall perceive a close similarity in the thoughts, if not in the expressions. In Ki11g Henry V. the duke of Exeter and the archbishop of Canterbury enter upon an argument respecting a well-governed state ; and the duke remarks : " While that the armed hand doth fight abroad, The advised head defends itself at home; For government, though high and low and lower, Put into parts, doth keep in one consent, Congreeing in a full and natural close, Like music. Cant. Therefore doth heaven divide The state of man in divers functions, Setting endeavour in continual motion ; To which is fixed, as an aim or butt, Obedience! for so work the honey-bees, Creatures that by a rule in nature teach The art of order to a peopled kingdom. They have a king and officers of sorts; Where some, like magistrates, correct at home, Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad, Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings, Make boot upon the summer'a velvet buds, Which pillage they with merry march bring home To the tent-royal of their emperor; Who busied in his majesty surveys The singing masons building roofs of gold, The civil citizens kneading up the honey, The poor mechanic porters crowding in The heavy burdens at his narrow gate, The sad-eyed justice, with his surly hum, Delivering o'er to executors pale The lazy yawning drone."

Essays L£terary and Bt'bliographical.


In a small way a strict correspondence exists between an expression in the quarrel scene of Brutus and Cassius and the emblems by Whitney and Beza of a dog barking at the moon. Whitney copied his motto and device and the first stanza from Alciatus, but his method of applying the fable from Theodore Beza. Alciat's lines are:
"By night, as at a mirror, the dog looks at the lunar orb: And seeing himself, believes another dog to be there ; And barks: but in vain is the angry voice driven by the winds, For Diana in silence pursues her course onward,- still on.''
Ed. •si•, Antv. Em b. I 64, p. 571.

But Beza's lines have the exact aim of Whitney's-to reprove detractors and to declare that cavillers at right and truth chiefly succeed in showing their own perverseness. Thus Beza :
"The full orb'd moon, that views wide lands outspread, Despises barking dogs,- on high her zone : So who Christ's servants blame, or Christ their Head, Scorn's finger point to folly all their own."
Plate LIX.

Alciat's and Beza's thoughts are both united in Wltitney, with additions of his own :


shininge Iighte of wannishe CVNTHIAS raies, The dogge behouldes his shaddowe to appeare: Wherefore, in vaine aloude he barkes, and baies, And alwaies thoughte, an other dogge was there: But yet the Moone, who did not heare his queste, Hir woonted course, did keepe vnto the weste. This reprehendes, those fooles which baule, and barke, At learned men, that shine aboue the rest: With due regarde, that they their deedes should marke, And reuerence them, that are with wisedome bleste : But if they striue, in vaine their winde they spende, For woorthie men, the Lord doth still defende.''

.Emb. I'· IIJ.

The variations or the agreements among the three emblematists as to the dog baying at the moon we need not determine ; from one or from all of them Shakespeare probably took the expression which marks the hottest part of the contention of Brutus and Cassius. Brutus demands :
" What shall one of us, That struck the foremost man of all this world,
Julim ez... r,

iii. 1.



Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

But for supporting robbers ; shall we now Contaminate our fingers with base bribes 1 And sell the mighty space of our large honours, For so much trash as may be grasped thus 1" and instantly exclaims, as if the device were before him, "I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon Than such a Roman." Correspondences almost in scores might be given between Shakespeare and the emblem writers.* We close our account with one which we may trace through the English of W!titney, the French of Paradi11, and the Italian of Symeoni. The device is a sculptor, with mallet and chisel, cutting a memorial of his wrongs into a block of marble, and above his head is the scroll and its motto, " Scribit in marmore ltEsus," Being wronged he writes on marble. The stanza from the Italian is: · " Each one that lives may be swift passion's slave, And though a powerful will at times delight In causing others harm and terror's fright; The injured doth those wrongs on marble grave." In that scene of unparalleled beauty, tenderness and simpli 7 city, in which there is related to queen Katherine the death of "the great child of honour," as she terms him, cardinal Wolsey, Griffith describes him as "full of repentance, Continual meditations, tears and sorrows, He gave his honours to the world ,again, His blessed part to heaven, and slept in peace." And just afterwards, when the queen had been speaking with some asperity of the cardinal's greater faults, Griffith remonstrates:
• This assertion. is not made unadvisedly. I went pretty thoroughly into the subject before aunouncing Whitney's Emblmzs for republication, and I have the results, illustrated by about 140 photographs from emblem writers, in a manuscript volume of nearly 400 pages, 4to, which I have entitled "THE EMBLEM WRITERS of the Fifkmt" and Sixtmlllt Centuries, with the CORRESPONDENCES ~{ Thought and Expres· sion in SHAKESPEAU's Works." Were I a younger man I might hope to set thi$ volume before the public in a manner worthy of the authors between whom so many similarities and identities can be established.

Whitney, p. rs 1.


Plate. XXXVII.

VI. ii.

Hen. VIII. l 17.

Essays L£terary a11d Bt'bliographical.
"Noble Madam, Men's evil manners live in brass; their virtues We write in water. May it please your highness To hear me speak his good now."


Lavinia's deep wrongs were being written by her on the sand to inform Marcus and Titus what they were and who had inflicted them. Marcus was for instant rev:enge, but Titus counsels: TitusAnd. IV. 1. " You're a young huntsman, Marcus; let it alone, And come, I will go get a leaf of brass, And with a gad of steel will write those words, And lay it by: the angry northern wind Will blow these sands, like Sybil's leaves, abroad, And where's your lesson then 1'' How like the sentiments thus enunciated to the lines in Wkilney:


N marble harde our harmes wee alwayes graue, Bicause, we still will beare the same in minde : In duste wee write the benefittes wee haue, Where they are soone defaced with the winde. So, wronges wee houlde, and neuer will forgiue, And soone forget, that still with vs shoulde liue."

Emb. p. J8J.

"The famous Scenicke Pqet, Master W. ~akespeare," may have been intimate with the Italian and French emblem-boo~s, and from them have been supplied with the thought of "a leaf of brass," and of the records of "men's evil manners," and of "their virtues ;'' but there is a far closer similarity between him and Whitney·: and allowing for the easy substitution of "brass" and "water" for "marble" and "dust," the parallelism of the ideas and words is very exact, and fully justifies the conclusion that Whitney's emblems were well known to Shakespeare. For the sentiment of engraving our wrongs there may have been a common origin to which the emblematists and the dramatist had recourse,- it is a sentence written by sir Thomas More about the year I 516. Speaking of the ungrateful returns which Jane Shore experienced from those whom she had served in her Hlst.ofKich. IIf. prosperity, More remarks: "Men use, if they haue an evil tume, to write in marble, and whoso doth us a good tume, we write it in duste." The expressions are however of higher antiquity than any of

Jeremiah xvii.
J, 1).

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

these quotations. The prophet Jeremiah sets forth most forcibly what Shakespeare names "men's evil manners living in brass," and Whitney, "harms grauen in marble hard." "The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, and with the point of a diamond : it is graven upon the table of their heart and upon the horns of your altar." And the writing in water or in the dust is in the exact spirit of the words, " they that depart from me shall be written in the earth," i.e. the first wind that blows over them shall efface their names,," because they have forsaken the LORD, the fountain of living waters." It is but justice to Shakespeare to notice that at times his judgment of injuries rises to the full height of christian morals. The spirit Ariel avows that were he human his "affections would become tender" towards the shipwrecked captives, and Prospero enters into his feeling with a strong conviction :
"Though with their high wrongs I am struck to the quick, Yet with my nobler reason 'gainst my fury Do I take part : the rarer action is In virtue than in vengeance : they being penitent The sole drift of my purpose doth extend Not a frown further."

Tempest v. i.
1. SJ.

J\nd so I would end this subject by repeating those noble lines of a later writer, furnished me by a friend, the Rev. T. A. Walker, M.A., of Filey, late of Tabley, in which the sentiment of a free forgiveness of injuries is ascribed to the world's great and blessed Saviour :
"Some write their wrongs on marble, He more just Stoop'd down serene, and wrote them in the dust, Trod under foot, the sport of every wind, Swept from the earth, quite banished from His mind, Ther.e secret in the grave He bade them lie, And grieved they could not 'scape the Almighty's eye."

The references and coincidences adduced, and which I know of a certainty may be very easily enlarged, cannot be regarded as entirely accidental. I would not urge them all with full confidence, and I do not pretend to say that my examples must of necessity carry conviction with them. Their conclusiveness is a matter of opinion only,- if you will, a dogma, and not a doctrine,

Essays Literary and Bibliograplzitai.

31 1

of my Shakesperian and Whitneian faith,-yet what I have thus opened is a very curious and interesting subject of inquiry.* I am but a pioneer, or rather a miner digging for precious stones ; and possibly I may verify the experience of the jet-seekers at Whitl>.y, cast up a whole mountain of rubbish to bring to light two or three pieces of ornament, or a single specimen of crystallized charcoal.
• Were it necessary I might go into a fuller and more critical examination of the question to which emblem writet specially certain of Shakespeare's devices are to be traced. We may affirm generally that the ultimate resort must be to Symeonl, Giovlo, or Alciat. From their stores and instructions, and from those of Girolamo Ruscelli Plate LXI. on the Itrvmlwn of .Droius, Coals of Arms, MlllltMs alfli Livn-W, and of Lodovlco Domenichi "on what are 11D11Ud .lk-vius of Arms alfli of Low," emblem writers of a later date than 1556 very frequently borrowed or invented. Indeed Ruscelli and, by implication, Giovio were the teachers to sir Phlllp Sidney See Note te of the "Gentle Art " of attaching p~/Qrial illustralwns to pouiu, and of making an ::!:~·~. Jl. emblem complete by motto, device and stanza; and what that noble cavalier c:om· mended and followed would find a ready entrance to his countrymen. Through him the Imprese of the Italians became known In England, and it la not unlikely were communicated to Spenser in 1579, a.nd afterwards to his snc:c:es10rs Daniell. Whitney and Abraham Fraunce. Paolo Giovio's work on emblems bears the two titles of Dialol", Dialogue, and Plate LXI. Ragio11ammlo, Discourse; but they are easentially the same. The latter however, in the editions of 1556 and 156o has seven or eight pages of additional matter. Pictorial Ulustrations appeared at a later time. It was not from these fuller editions that Daniell executed his translation, but from Plate LX. the Roman edition of 1555, or from some similar edition, to which the translator has appended '' c:ertaine notable deuises both militarie and amorous, Co//ttted by Samud Dank!I." It is in this additional part that the torch la named, "burning, a.nd turning · downeward," with the motto QUOD me alii, b-t. Of four editions of Giovio's Dialol" or RagionamMio- 1555 by Antonlo Barre, Plate LX. 1556 and 156o by Giordano Ziletti, and another of 1556 by Gabriel Giolito-no one &Dd LXI. contains the motto which Daniell quotes. That motto appears In 1561 In Symeoni's Plate LXII. DxvrsES ov EMBLEMES Hl!a.oiQVES ET MoRALES, p. 244; in 156:zln SEMT&NTIOSE Plate XXXVI. biPRESE, p. 35; and In 1574 in DlALOGO DEL L'IMPRESE MILITARI ET AMOilOSE, Plate LXIII. p. :zoo : but, as in Paradin and Wllilney, the motto reads, not Quod, but QtU 1111 alii. Daniel! seems therefore to have made the alteration without authority. It could not however be from Daniell that Shakespeare derived any of his other emblems, for the burning torch is the only one which the translator of Gi4vio names. We return therefore to the conclusion, that Shakespeare read other emblem writers ; and what work so likely to be read as one by his own countryman Whitney, selected and culled from the choice devices of French and Italian art! For this note the reader is really indebted to William Stirling, esq., M.P. for Perth· shire; for without the generous loan from his richly-stored library, of seven volumes bearing dates between 1555 and 15Ss, the editor would not have had the materials accessible for compiling what he has now put together.

JI z

Essays Literary and Bibliographical.

However, I would have scholars work for every rational elucidation of "the sweet swan of Avon's" noble minstrelsy. If no other good be done, they who undertake such labours have their own spiritual perceptions enlarged ; further light enters the mind's dark chamber, and the beauteous images there impressed may take such fixure that they can be reproduced for other men's instruction. But seldom have literary labours so confined an influence : their ramifications are almost infinite, and, though begun in curiosity, may end in a more perfect development of the writings of the great masters of human thought. Our loved teachers and instructors God's providence calls away from earth, but the diligent learners in after ages reap the fruits of patient study, and thus the seeds of genius wisely scattered grow up a richer harvest for the world.




P-I.GE 104-

~~~==:t MBLEMS,-some of them,-not all; for only a few possess any immediate historical interest, or are attached to names that can confer celebrity. In the preparation of this work the editor indeed has traced to their originals in Latin, Italian, French, or German, above two hundred See Essay I. , Section• r. and 11. and twenty of Whitney s woodcuts and PP· SJ7~s•. mottoes, and has collected and transcribed an equal number of passages from their respective authors, whose stanzas Whitney translates or imitates ; but these correspondences are useful chiefly to the thorough student of the emblem writers, and by far the greater part of them are altogether passed over in these notes without being presented to the reader. Sufficient however will be retained to set forth the nature of the subjects, and to give an adequate idea of the manner of growth which the "Choice of Emblemes" passed through. Though it would be a work of labour, it might not be very difficult to rival Claude Mignault in his very learned Commentary otz tlte Emblems of Andreas Alciatus, the father of this kind of literature. In these literary and biographical notices on Whitnty, we might explain each of his phrases and allusions,-fortify the text by numerous and full quotations from the poets, historians and orators of Greece and Rome,- bring in the Christian fathers_ as auxiliaries,- and occasionally press into the service


Notes Literary a11d Biographical.

the hieroglyphics of Egypt and the customs of Jews and Arabians ; yet, in the present day, to do this would be to abuse the privilege of an editor, and to make the reading of our book a burden rather than a recreation. We shall therefore endeavour to confine our elucidations to· points of interest ; not indeed entirely eschewing the curious, but at times contenting ourselves with simply indicating the sources of fuller information, and not attempting to compile memoirs and histories in the entire completeness to which each subject might lead. Besides, we presuppose that readers of education are sufficiently familiar with classic literature and general history not to· need telling anything about heathen divinities and heroes, nor requiring special narratives carried out into particulars concerning persons who are famous in the annals of their respective countries.
Page [s).

Ames' Typ. Ant. p. 981.

Ducdale, edit.
17JO, pp. ~

and 410.

Vol. ii. pp. 115 aud SJI, alJO 16and 149-

THE FRONTISPIECE.-Annoria/ bearings of "Robert Earle of Leycester." These are said to have been the subject of eight Latin hexameters in Morel's Commentary on Latin Verbs, published in 1583. The crest, The bear and ragged staff, may be traced out in Dugdale's Warwicksltire to Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, who died in 1434, and to one of the Nevilles, also earl of Warwick, in 1438. Among the monuments in the Lady chapel at Warwick there is a full-length figure of "Ambrose Duddeley," who died in 1589 earl of, Warwick, and a muzzled bear is crouching at his feet. His brother Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, died in 1588, and on his magnificent tomb in the same chapel is also seen the cognizance of ·the bear and ragged staff. The arms however are a little different from those which Whitney figures. At an earlier date than 1586, the right-hand supporter, apparently a lioness, is represented with a single tail If, as some say, the double tail be a mark of sovereignty, this frontispiece may lend support to the idea that Leicester really did make pretensions to supreme dignity in the Netherlands, and had even assumed one of its insignia. Motley, in his History of tlte United Netlterlands, represents Deventer as urging that Leicester "might at once seize upon arbitrary power." DEDICATION.-"ROBERT Earle of LEYCESTER, Baron of Den-

Page IJJ.

Notes Literary a1zd Biographical.


bighe," &c. A name of renown as the favourite of his queen, but rather of dishonour, because no ties, domestic or social, were allowed to stand in the way of his ambition. He was born in 1531, and died suddenly, it has been said of poison, September 4th 1588. His grandfather Edward Dudley, born in I462, was one of the favourites of Henry VII., but through the fury of the people executed in ISIO. John Dudley, the son of Edmund, was born in I 502, and his attainder in blood being removed he was created baron Malpas, viscount L'Isle, earl of Warwick, and finally duke of Northumberland, suffering death in I553 for his disloyalty to Mary. Of his eight sons Guildford Dudley married the unfortunate lady Jane Grey, and the two were heheaded in 1554; Ambrose, Robert and Henry obtained distinction at the siege of St. Quentin in I 557, and for their services were received into Mary's favour. When about nineteen years of age Robert Dudley married the ill-fated Amy Robsart, who died in I s6o j in his twenty-first year he represented the county of Norfolk in parliament, and that same year, on the death of Edward VI., assisted to proclaim lady J ane Grey as queen, for which he was tried and received judgment of death, but was pardoned in October I 554- Soon after Elizabeth's accession in I 558 he obtained her favour, being constituted master of the horse, elected knight of the garter in IS59, and created baron of Denbigh and earl of Leicester in 1564- Many offices and honours were' poured upon him. The university of Cambridge elected him high steward in 1563; the university of Oxford appointed him chancellor in I 564; the city of Chester made him their chamberlain in I 565 ; and the town of Great Yarmouth their high steward in I 572. The king of France conferred upon him the order of St. Michael in 1566. In July 1575 he entertained the queen for ten days at Kenilworth'; and in 1578 he married the widow of Waiter Devereux earl of Essex. In December IS85 he was sent as "Lorde Lieutenant and Captaine Generall of her Ma'i" forces in the !owe countries." The nature of his administration is most graphically described in the pages of Motley's History of the United Netherlands. That See •ot ii. administration soon came to an end, for he surrendered his authority and was again in England at the end of November 1586; but in June 15 87 he conducted a considerable force for the relief


Notes Literary and Biographical.


of Sluys in Zealand, but the town was lost and the queen recalled him November 9th 1587, and appointed lord Willoughby in his place. The year 1588 saw him named lieutenant-general of the forces assembled at Tilbury to resist the invasion threatened by the Spaniards; but the same year in September also witnessed his splendid funeral in our Lady's chapel at Warwick. His character belongs to the historians of his time. His praise and his dispraise have employed many pens in his own day and Suc.:ce~sion ()( ever since. As Speed records ; " He ha<i been a Peere of great England's Monarchs, p. 1119. estate, but lyable to the common destiny of most Great ones, us. . whom all men magnifie in their life time, but few speake weil of A Paris, •JQS, after their death." Against "Discours de la vie abominable du lvo. Ultraj, •Jk, 4ro. my kJrd de Leicestre," we may set "Eulogium Rob. comitis LeyLondon, •6ss, cestrii," by Arnold Eickius; should we meet with" Traditional l.4n10. Memoires in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and king 7ames," and note how bitterly Robert Dudley is spoken of,- or take up London, •?06. Drake's "Secret Memoirs," we may correct their prejudicial conLondoa, '72.7. demnation by consulting "The Life of Robcrt Earl of Leicester, lvo. the Favourite of Queen Elizabeth, drawn from Original Papers and Records." For a fair and just view of his life and actions ~~N.·i~~~·~~~~ the A tlzenm Cantabrigienses may be read, or Aikin's General BioLon~~n, tlos, graphy. •ol. 111. p. 477· Most of the events of his residence in Holland are set before us in the following works : RetrMpective "A briefe report of the militarie services done in the I..ow Countries Review. New Scric~, ,o1. i. by the erle of Leicester. Written by one who served in' good place p. •77· there, in a letter to a friend of his." 4t0, 1587. "Journal of Robert Earl of Leicester." " Correspondence of Robert Dudley Earl of Leycester during his Government of the Low Countries in the years 1585 and 1586, edited LouJon, 1114+. by John Bruce F.S.A'' Camden Society, 4to. Leicester affected to be the patron of the fine arts, of literature, and of religion in the strict form of puritanism·; and numerous and often curious, if not odd, are the books which asked favour from him. In the matter of Dedications there appears to have been a rivalry between himself and Essex, or rather between their respective partisans. If Whitney's praise of Robert Dudley seems to us excessive, that which Willet addressed to Devereux is scarcely under more restraint ; for he

Notes Literary and Biograpltical.
speaks of him, as "noble, learned, the Mecrenas and most excel- Wilblemlet's atum, sac Em lent patron of all students, renowned not so much for the splen- Ce~~turia una dor of his race, as for the remarkable eminence of his own virtue." An authentic portrait of Robert Dudley exists at Knole, the old seat of the Sackvilles, now the residence of the earl Amherst. It has been engraved, and occurs among Birch's "Heads of //Ius- Vol. i. p.•,. tn'~us P~rsons of Great Britain." Thomas Newton, a Cheshire poet, celebrated the earl's return from Belgium, and likened him to Solon, Nestor, Numa and Cato. A dozen Latin lines conclude with invoking him as Leland't Anti"Mighty count, of Britain's land the ornamebt immortal, , qnaria, vol . v. p. tls. Deservedly to be numbered among magnanimous powers."• As chancellor of Oxford or high steward of Cambridge, Leicester may have had Whitney's merits placed before him, for the poet was of both universities; but it is suggestive of the way in which the patron and the poet became acquainted that for Ormer<><.l'• , Cheahire, twenty-three years, from I 565, the earl had been chamberlatn of vol. i. p. $6. Chester. During this time, about the year I 578 or 1579, Leicester's good offices had been sought in a dispute between several Cheshire gentlemen and the dean and chapter of Chester cathedral. After something very like bribery the quarrel was settled by both parties joining in a surrender of the estates to the queen, ;;,";,::rsons, who regranted them to the fee farmers subject to certain rents to p. .... vol. i. Onnerod, be paid to the dean and chapter. · In 1 S8 3 the corporation of Chester received the earl of Leicester with almost regal honours. He was accompanied by the earls of Derby and Essex and lord North, and was met by most of the gentry of the county. There were fifteen hundred horse T~ Ly'!On•, in his train, and the numerous cavalcade was welcomed at the ~nn:~oc1. vol. i. High Cross in Chester by the mayor and the whole council of P· '99the city. A present of forty angels of gold \\!aS made to the earl in a cup valued at 18/. It is· easy to see how Whitney, a Cheshire man, with near relatives among the gentry of the county, might gain introduction to Leicester ; he might be admitted even as one of his retinue, and in his service make the acquaintance, and probably secure the friendship, of Sidney, Russell, N orris and Jermyn.


Comes, terra: decus immortale Brilannz Magnani!llll.!. inter merito numerant!e Dynastas."

P•ge l 1 7l

Notes Literary and Biographical.

VERSES CONGRATULATORY.- Of the five sets four are by persons to whom Whitney dedicated each an emblem, and of them a notice will be given in the proper place. BoNAVENTURA VULCANIUS of Bruges is the only one whom we need here to DeedVirlta&:dc. He was born in 1538 and died in 1614- "Whoever," N e an orum mention. t~~~~a .u· says Peerlkamp, "''has read the remarkable oration of Peter ~~·P:~'f 1 · Curiaeus on the death of Bonaventura Vulcanius, of necessity and J.40. will love him, as well for the choice virtues of his mind as for his attainments in literature of various kinds." After laying the foundation of learning at Ghent and Louvain, while yet a youth he went to Seville, and for eleven years was curator of cardinal Mendoza's library. Then he presided over the Gymnasium or Grammar school at Antwerp; and finally, about 1582, he was invited to the university of Leyden, and there taught Greek for s~e lntro:cJuctory the long space of thirty-two years. Here Whitney became Da15Crtatlon, pp.xniii.andliii. acquainted with him, and was honoured by him with the complimentary stanzas in which the Geffrey of Elizabeth's reign is compared with the great poet of a former age, Geffrey Chaucer. In the library of the university there is a very fine portrait of Bonaventura Vulcanius, and also a manuscript by him of the Poemsta Hymfts of Callimachus. Among the Poems of James Dousa the Roterodami, 17<>4, p. 1u. younger are some Latin iambics on Bonaventura's publishing a work of Aristotle's and another of Apuleius. The Hymns of Callimachus and the Idylls of Moschus and Bion were printed at Antwerp by Plantin in I 584.....,.... or rather at Leyden, where AnnaJesdel'lmp. the great printer, fleeing before Famese, had just established his Plant. p, ~ • I • • o ffi ce. A n ed'ttlon of Bonaventura's A pu,etus was prmted by Rapheleng at Leyden in 1594Page [aoJ

Emblematum Centuria una.


"D. 0. M." Deo, Optimo, Maximo, To God, bestandgreatest.In our modem times we shrink from such dedications; but it was with deepest reverence that the early emblem writers adopted them. There is a beautiful one by Willet,- his thirty-seventh emblem,-" Recte precanti praesto adest Christus," Christ instantly is present to him who prays ari'glzt. Of some Latin elegiacs on Exodus xxvi. I, he adds this English translation, admirably expressing how we ought to pray:
" The curtaines wrought with pictures were, hanging in holy place ;

Notes Literary and Biographical.
The Cherubs did with wings appeare, and gave a goodly grace. The house of prayer Angels frequent, and 'Christ him selfe is there, Then seeing these are alwayes present We ought to pray with feare." EMBLEM, p. 1.-"Te stante, virebo," While thou standest I shall flourish. According to the purport of Whitney's stanzas, the name and titles of queen Elizabeth should head this. emblem ; but probably, as the entire work had been dedicated to a subject, it was not considered a courtly thing'to devote simply a page to the sovereign. · The device is from Hadrian Junius, but the motto from Claude Plate xxviu. Paradin. The object of Junius is to illustrate the saying, that "the wealth of princes is the stay of the people," and he applies to that saying a four-lined stanza : " The pyramids of Pharaoh-kings are monuments lasting for ages, With wandering arms around them clasps the creeping ivy ; By the steadfast wealth of kings sustained are the needy people, And the mind's constant steadfastness secures age-lasting powerS." Paradin gives us the origin of the device of the pyramid and pevises Hero· • • • t h e tvy. The card'ma l o f L arrame, on gomg to h'ts abbey of Jqves, Auvcrs, •s6s. Cluny, erected his device at the gate: it is a pyramid with a crescent on the top, and surrounded from the base to the summit by a beautiful verdant ivy. The whole was accompanied by the following inscription : ' " Quel Memphien miracle se haussant Porte du ciell'argentine lumil~re, Laquelle va (tant qu'elle soit entiere En sa rondeur) toujours croissat 1 Quel sacre saint Lierre grauissant Jusqu'au plus haut de cette sime fiere, De son apui (o nouuelle maniere) Se fait l'apui, plus en plus verdissant ! Soit notre Roi la grande Pyramide, Dont la hauteur en sa force solide Le terme au ciel plante de sa victoirc:


Notes Literary and Biographical.
Prince Prelat, tu sois le saint Lierre Qui saintement abandonnant la terre De ton soutien vas soutenant la gloire."

London, 1 S9J, p. 17.

The English translation from Paradin, by P. S., gives the following version : "0 Readern tell what thing is ment By tombes in Memphis towne, Which on the top doth beare on high The bnght beames of the moone 1 The moone which doth continually Increase in light so bright, Till that night come wherin her shine, From world doth take her flight And what doth meane the sacred Iuy Which creeps and binds about This tomb, to whose high top he climbs, Although it be full stout, And what new fashion is this also That leaning to it stickes, Making his stay about the same, That greenely ouer creepes. This tombe it is that mightie king, Whose maiestie honer craues, For he in heauen triumphes for vs To sathan that were slaues, And the Iuie a bishop signifies Euen thee most famous prince, Who in a godly life doest yeeld Not to the best an inch. For though thy bodie lie in graue Yet such thy vertue was, That it beares vp our laud and praise That neuer awaye shall passe."*

• Though restraining the application of this emblem, with the crescent moon, to the family of the Guises, namely to Claudius de Guise, cardinal deacon of S. Clement, and Frankfort, t6so, brother of Charles duke de Guise, the "Symbuls Divine and Human of Pontiffs, Emvol. ii. p. 6. perors," &-(. gives an account rather different from that of Paradin, but combining Hierographia C>rdinaliwn. essent!&lly the same sentiments and setting forth the sovereign as the source and support of the glory of the subject. Mention is also made of the crescent moon being a military standard of the Turks, but assumed both saucily and foolishly, "fllr the moon which increases also grows old," "quo: (f'"~sdt, unes(i/."

Notes Lt'terary and Biographical.

It will be seen that the ideas are adopted in some measure by Whitney; and this emblem of his supplies a good example of what is frequent with him, namely the accommodating of the thoughts of other writers to a subject not originally intended. Here he makes the device of the cardinal of Lorraine subservient to the praise of the English queen and of the Protestant church of England. EMBLEM, p. 3.-Prouidentia, Providence. A motto and woodcut from Hadrian Junius, whose few lines simply inform us "Where the sacred Nile shall flow upon the fields, there the Plate xxvid. prescient Crocodile lays its eggs away from the flood, with good reason admonishing us to see beforehand what the fates may threaten." The monogram G is in the centre of the cut from APnnaJlan.esdel'Imp. tin. pp. 4• Yunius, and is said to- mark the workmanship of Hubert Goltz- and.f8. ius; but this is doubtful, though it certainly denotes an artist who frequently engraved for the printers of Antwerp. The reader will observe how the borders in this edition of Ytmius are the originals of those in Whitney, and also how Whitney amplifies and improves upon the Latin stanza. EMBLEM, p. 4 - "Veritas tempora .filia,'' Truth the daughter of Time. A variation from the motto of Junius to the same de- PI~te xxvJ c. vice, "Truth by time is revealed,. by discord is buried." Whitney's lines bring out the meaning much more effectually than those of Junius-" Why, 0 winged Saturn, dost thou drag the naked maiden into the air? Why does the assembly of women overwhelm the furrow with piled up earth ? Truth, daughter of Time, issuing forth from the cave, a three-fold plague appears to overwhelm,-Strife, Envy and Slander." This device was the badge of Mary Tudor when she succeeded to the throne. EMBLEM, p. 1 5·-" Vo/uptas cerumnosa," Sorrowful pleasure. The sad fate of Actreon furnishes a subject to at least three of ~d~X~~- xx. the emblem writers previous to Whitney; namely to Alciat, Aneau and Sambucus. Alciat adopts for motto, "In receptatores sicariorum," 011 tlte !lllrbourers of assassins, and thus carries out his thought :


Notes L£terary and B£ograplz.ica!.

"Unlucky for thee a band of robbers and thieves through the city, Goes as companion : and a troop girded with direful swords. And so thou a prodigal judgest thyself generous in mind, Because thy pot of meat entices many of the bad. Behold a new Actreon, who after he took up the horns Himself gave himself a prey to his own dogs."
Picta Pocsis, P- 4'·

Aneau applies the fable of Act:eon to him who, "Ex domino servus," From a master becomes a slave, and proves his text in Latin elegiacs: " CoRNIBVS in ceruum mutatum Actreona sumptis, Membratim proprij diripuere canes. Nu; miser est Dominus, Parisitos quisquis edaces Pascit, adulantum prreda parata canum! Se quibus irridendum suggerit, & comedendum, Seruus & ex domino corniger efficitur." Thus, if we please, to be rendered : " Horns being assumed by Actreon changed into a stag, Member from member his own hounds have torn him. Verily, wretched is the master who feeds parasites voracious, A prey·is he made ready for those fawning dogs. Himself he offers to whoever would mock and devour him, And out of a master is he made a horn-bearing slave."



Sambucus however supplies the motto which Whitney follows, and seems himself to have borrowed some of his 'thoughts from the Greek of Palrephatus, Concerning incredible Histories.* We give the sense of his stanzas : "He, who follows the chase too eagerly, drains his paternal riches and lavishes them on dogs : so great the love of the vain sport, so great the infatuation continually becomes, that he puts on the double horns of the swift deer. Actreon's fate happens to thee, who having horns from thy birth hast by thine own dogs been torn in pieces. How many, whom the quick scented faculty of the dogs delights, does the passion for hunting finish and devour. Postpone not serious things for sports, advantages for losses, - regard whatever things remain as if thou wert destitute."

De Incr. Hist.
Editiobn C anta . r67o, p. ro.

• "To Actseon indeed, caring nothing about domestic affairs, and busied only with hunting, the means of livelihood failed; and when he had nothing left, people said: 'Poor Act~on! he has been eaten up by his own dogs.'"


Notes L£/erary and Biographical.


It must be confessed that Whitney's treatment of the tale is Emb. p. •s superior to that of the other three j and the comparison thus carried out to some length may serve to vindicate for him greater clearness and unity of purpose. EMBLEM; p. 32.- "In p(Efl(lm sec.tatur & vmbra," Even a shadow is pursued for punishment. Beza's fourteenth emblem also treats of men pursuing shadows, but in a way considerably different from the method adopted by Whitney. The simple giving of Beza's meaning will make this apparent :
"As a shadow flees those pursuing it and presses on those fleeing,a shadow you know being added to bodies as their companion ; So glory flees those coveting rewards of undeserved praise, and on the other hand is joined as companion to the humble in mind. And yet do these thoroughly prove by no false trial, what all this praise will be 1 Truly, but a worthless shadow."

Plate XLI.

On comparing the two the advantage will, I think, again be awarded to Whitney. EMBLEM, p. 38.-" To tlt.e Honorable Sir PHILLIP SIDNEY Kni'gltt :" whom Spenser named- - "the President Of Nobleness and Chevalree ;"
Shephearu's Calender.

and whom, in his verses "To the Right Honourable and most vertuous Lady, the Countess of Pembroke," he lamented as- - "that most heroicke Spirit, The hevens pride, the glory of our daies Which now triumpheth (through immortall merit Of his brave vertus) crown'd with lasting baies Of hevenlie blis and everlasting praies ; Who first my Muse did lift out of the flore, To sing his sweet delights in· lowlie laies."
Spe11$er'l W orks,

Moa:on's Edition,
p. 7·

The world-renowned and ever-worshipful Philip Sidney was the son of sir Henry Sidney and of his wife Mary, the eldest daughter of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. At the time of his birth, November 29th 1554, his mother was wearing Pear'aMemoin, • , London, •14J. mournmg for her father, her brother, and her s1ster-in-law the lady Jane Grey, who had all died on the scaffold. He was born

Notes Literary and Biographical.
at Penshurst in Kent, where still exist the ruins of the oak* planted at his birth. On Elizabeth's accession in I558 sir Henry became lord president of the marches of Wales, and kept his court at Ludlow with much magnificence down to I568. Hence his· son Phi lip in I 566 was sent as a scholar to Shrewsbury school, and the very day, on which he and Fulke Greville (lord Broke) together entered, commenced the friendship between them which death alone terminated, and of which a loving memorial remains ;.~~~~~';i~ts;: in Greville's Life of Sidney. At an early age, in I569, when only ~~6~vnDrydge•, fifteen, his student life began at Christ church college, Oxford, which he left in I 57 I to travel for four years in France, Germany and Italy. It was only by taking refuge in the house of the English ambassador in Paris that he escaped the massacre on St Bartholomew's day in I572, when his friend and frequent correspondent Hubert Languet found shelter with Andrew Wechel The Corresponu· the celebrated printer. .. · A letter to Languet, written during this ence of Sidney and Languet, tour, shows that Sidney had made acquaintance with some of the p. 9· emblem writers, for he mentions Girolamo Ruscelli's "lmprese illtt.Stri, co11 esposi'zioftc e.discorsz"," which was published in I566;t and it may be that on his return to England he imparted his knowledge to Spenser, and to Whitney who was of the same university with himself.t In IS76 the queen appointed him her ambassador to the court of Rodolph, the new emperor of Germany. Spenser's acquaintance began about I 578, and probably
• Endenred to me especially BS the centre of the scenes in which my boyhood was passed. "Turn vero in numerum FauncSsque ferasque videres Ludere, tu m rigidas motare c:u:umina quercus." t Ziletti's edition of Giovio's Ragi'onnmmto, in Venetia, MDLVI., has appended to it Ruscelli's "DISCORSO, inlorno air inumtioni tkll' lmpr~u, adr lnugM, tit? Motti, & ddl~ Liur«." 16mo, pp. IIJ·2J6. :t His acquaintance with and practice of emblem art appear also from his conduct when, in 1579, a son wBS born to the earl of Leicester by his wife Lettice, the widow of Waiter, earl of usex. Sidney had hitherto been reputed the heir of his uncle's large possessions; but " on the first tilt after the birth of this child he bore on his shield the word spravi scored through." In the Arcadia also the"'llottoes and devices on the shields of the knights show both rich fertility of invention and a full knowledge of emblem writers. Besides, to denote that he persisted in any course of action once decided on he adopted as his device "the Caspian sea, surrounded with its shores;" :md, alluding to this body of water neither ebbing nor flowing, his motto was, "SINE REFLEX V." IVilhc>Jt/ tilt chb, I.,·. N n going back.

Virgil• Ed. Yi. 17.
Plate LXI

Pear's Corre•pondence, p.riJ,
· . " 01' 1 M Gen. aJ.Ume, r8r9; YoL•i. p.JI.

• •
Notes Literary and B£ographzcal.
in that year the poet of the Facrie Qucmc visited Sidney at Penshlirst, and there wrote a portion of the Shcpheard's Cakuder, Mox~n·,spcn•cr. , pp. x1. and JOO dedtcated "To the noble and vertuous Gentleman, most worthie of all titles both of learning and chivalry, Maister Philip Sidney." From 1579 he lived in retirement for two or three years either at Penshurst or at Wilton with his sister the countess of Pembroke. During this time he wrote what he entitled "The Cou1ltess of Pembroke's Arcadia :" it was not published until I 590, four years after his death ; and it owes its fame rather to the great renown of its author than to any peculiar excellence of its own. In this poem under the name of "Phi/oc/ca," and in his other poems under that of "Ste//a," he celebrated the virtues and charms of the lady Penelope Devereux, to whom he was fondly attached. The year 1581 numbered him as one Of the knights of the shire for his native county, and a manuscript in Dihl. Cotton the British museum records: "Sir Philippc Sidney dubbed at Claud. cm. Windesor on Sonday the 13 of January I582, and was that day Plut....... lykewise installed for Duke John Casimir counte Palatine and Duke of Bavaria." In 1583 Frances, only daughter of sir Francis Walsingham, became his bride, and in her arms his noble spirit was breathed forth on the 7th of October I586, after the fatal wound at Zutphen which has immortalized his memory. One daughter was the issue of this marriage, born in I 585, and afterwards wife to Roger, earl of Rutland. Sidney's widow was mar- Collier'•Mcmoir• • • ned to R obert, ear1 of E.ssex, b ehead ed • I 6oo, an d agam to of the Sidncyo. m Richard, earl of Clanricarde and St Albans. It seems that in 1584 he had been listening to a project by sir Francis Drake for engaging in an expedition against the Spaniards in the West Indies, but the queen herself forbad him, and conferred on him the office of "Gouernour of the Garrison and toune of Vlissing." Old Fuller's quaint, fond, ·admiring testimony might very excusably detain us, but we give only a single sentence:
"This knight in relation to my book may be termed an ubiquitary, F~llcr's W.?r· L · W. p . thae., vol. u. • an d appear among Statesmen, SoIdters, awyers, nters, yea, nnces PP· , 41 and , 41 . themselves, being (though not elected) in election to be king of Poland, which place he declined, preferring rather to be a subject to queen Elizabeth, than a sovereign beyond the seas."

Whitney celebrates "the valour of the minde," "and prowes Emb. pp. , 09


Notes Literary and Biograplz£cal.

F.mb. p.


great," of a long array of Roman worthies, and to his stanzas affixes the title "To the ltonourable Sir PHILIPPE SIDNEY Knight." He had intended to place the same name to the lines on "Penme gloria perennis," The glory of the pen is everlasting,- but Sidney himself did not consider this renown as his due, and declined it in favour of" EDWARDE DIER;" for, "At the firste, his sentence was, it did belonge to you." The fancy is embodied in these verses, that on the death of the earl of Surrey"APOLLO chang'd his cheare, and lay'd awaie his lute, And PALLAS, and the Muses sad, did weare a mourninge sute. And then the goulden pen, in case of sables clad de Was lock'd in chiste of Ebonie, and to Parnassus had." Sidney however is born, gladness and brightness again pervade the seats of Apollo and the Muses, and to him- - "behoulde, the pen, was by MERCVRIVS sente, Wherewith, bee also gaue to him, the gifte for to inuente, That, when bee first began, his vayne in verse to showe, More sweete than honie, was the stile that from his penne did fiowe." The profound grief for Sidney's untimely death may be judged of from the writings of his contemporaries and from the magnificent public funeral with which his remains were honoured. "His rare and never ending laudes" were the theme of many pens.* It will be enough in our brief notice to quote from Bamfield's epitaph printed in I 598 : "Here lyes the man; lyke to the swan, who knowing shee shall die Doeth tune her voice unto the spheares, and scornes mortalitie."

London, 1747, vol. 11. p.IJ.

A portrait of him is given in Birch's Heads of lllustrwus Persons in Great Britain, and also one from Diego Velasquez de

• Oettinger may be consulted for the various memoirs and biographical notices of Sidney; to which we add a work published at Leyden in 1587: "Epithaphia in Mortem 1 Nobilissimi et Fortissimi Viri D.Philippi Sidneji Equitis ex Illustrissilna Wiuuicensiwn • Familia, Qui incomparabili Damno Reip. 13elgicre Vulnere in proelio contra Hispanos England's fortiter accepto paucis post diebus interiit." Speed's record of him testifies he was ~~~~~i. "that worthy Gentleman, in whom were compleat aJJ vertues and valours that could Amstelodami, be required or residing in man;" and Baudart's pq{mUJgrapMa Auriaco Na.rs011icti r6u, vol.ii. p.Bs. names him "the hero of thirty years, exceedingly weJJ learned in languages and sciences"- "eloquent· and courteous, one born for choicest honours."


Rib!. Bi

. Uni-

Notes Literary and Biographical.


Silva in Zouch's Memoirs of !tis Life and Writings. To form York, 18o8, 410, an estimate of his worth, two papers by J. Payne Collier should PP. Jlc). be consulted-"·Sir Philip Sidney his Life and Death," and" Sir Philip Sidney and his Works." One of the most interesting and well-written memoirs of Sidney is by Steuart A. Pears, M.A., prefixed to T!te Correspondence of Sir P!tilip Sidney and Hubert London, •14s Languet. I believe all Biographical Dictionaries, without exception, contain his history and praise.
EMBLEM, p. 43·*-"To Sir ROBERT }ERMYN Knig!tt." He was the second son of sir Ambrose J ermyn, who was knighted "in the tyme of the reigne of Queene Mary." His university education commenced at Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, and was completed at the Middle Temple. He was sheriff of Suffolk 11. p. Jl.4~thenzCantab in 1574. and again (according to Suckling, vol. i. p. xlii.) in I579; and by the death of his father April 7th I578, and of his elder brother John," he succeeded to Rushbrooke and other estates in Suffolk." It was during one of Elizabeth's progresses that he ~aK':igh':.dr:· "was dubbed at Bury St. Edmund on Saturday the first day of lfu!.1 'Bri~s. August Anno IS 78." On a former progress in I 57 I he enter- wsodderspoon'• ufrolk, p. 194· tained the French ambassadors who attended the queen "so exceedingly sumptuous," that it is said they "marvelled most exceedingly." He was knight of the shire on two occasions, in IS8S and IS86. . Sir Robert was one of those who served under the earl of Leicester in I585 and 1586, and is mentioned by him with high commendation. " I have founde him," writes the earl, "to be ~;:~~~;:,•· very wise and stowt, and most willing and ready to this service, PP· 114 ud 410' and he bath come hither as well appointed as any that hathe commen ouer." And again: "Good Mr. secretary, this good

• Whitney's 'l'ersion departs from the original, and is inferior to it: . "DICITUR inltrna vi Magnesfn-ra f1WIIn'e: Pn-petuo nautar tkrigrre i11f1it viam, Semper mim sld/am fn-me aspicil i/lt j>o/armz. Indical .i<u- !~was, MS varitrjue monel. Mms vlinam ;, ctelum tuJ6U immola manerel, Ntc .rubi/q tiuhiis jluclutt ilia malis. Pax co'iallamltm, Clzrislt, """"' dautial ouik, Lisqut llli """; iam dirimalur opt. 1Ja, sitims anima txa/sas sic apptlalarru: Fvnlis z•t ortiui ctr11us anhdus aquas."

Sambucus, Antv. •s64. p. ..._


Notes L£terary a11d Biographical.

gentleman, Sir Robert J ermin, one that bath declared euery way his hearty zeale and loue both to religion and to her majestic." His zeal for religion indeed had before this caused Freake the bishop of Norwich to exhibit articles against him, and sir John Higham knt., and Robert Ashfield and Robert Badly esqs. The complaint was that they favoured puritanism, to which in "A true answer," sent to lord Burghley, they replied that the charge was " old, weak, untrue, and malicious." The family of the J ermyns was seated at Rush brook at the Worthies, vol. iii. beginning of the thirteenth century. Fuller speaks of Robert p. ' 9s. J ermyn as "a person of singular piety, a bountiful benefactor to Emanuel college, and a man of great command in this county (Suffolk). He was father to sir Thomas J ermin (privy councillor and vice-chamberlain to king Charles the First), grandfather to Thomas and Henry Jermin, esquires: the younger of these being lord chamberlain to our present queen Mary, and sharing in her majesty's sufferings during her long exile in France, was by king Charles the Second deservedly advanced Baron, and Earl of St. Albans." In the Magna Britannia it is asserted "there is hardly a man in England of the name of J ermyn." Vol. ii. PI'· JlJ· The only connected biography of sir Robert J ermyn that I Jlf. have met with is in the Atkenee Cantabriginzses. EMBLEM, p. 46.- To Sir HENRY WOODHOWSE Knig/11. The Woodhouses or Wodehouses of Kimberly in Norfolk u were Gentlemen of good Ranke, in and before the Time or King Jokn." Members of the family, either attended the Black Prince into Spain, or fought with Henry V. in I4I S· at the battle of Agincourt, or served under Edward IV. at the fight of Tewkesbury;- and one was slain at Muselborough 1oth September I 547· They were of a stock that bore very abundantly the honours of knighthood, when that dignity was almost a sure test :'\a me,• and Arms of personal merit By nearly twenty descents we arrive at " Sir of Km~:ht~ from •..as tu •6l.f. William Woodhouse belonging to the shippes," who was knighted in the "triumphant reigne of Kinge Henry the eight" " on the I I day of May Sunday after the destruction of Edenborouge and other townes ;" he bore for his crest a woodman with a club. "In the happy reigne of Kinge Edward the sixt," sir Thomas \Voodhouse received the same hono(lr "by the handes of Edward
Dlomncld'• Norfollc, Yol. i. pp.7faand76•.

1Votes Literary and Biographical.


Duke of Somersett Lord Protector." . Sir Roger Woodhouse graces "the tyme of the reigne of Queene Mary ;" and his second brother, the sir Henry Woodhouse of Whitney's Emblems, was "dubbed" "on tuesday the 26 of August 1578 ;" and "on the 27 of August 1578" another ~ir Roger Woodhouse, who died in 1588. Sir Henry Woodhouse "was born 3 7an. 1546." The time of his deatli is not ascertained. At his baptism "SIR }OHN Blomfiold, ROBSART and his Lady answered for him ; he was (as all his Tot i. P· 76 '· Ancestors for many Generations always were) Justice of the Peace, and twice Member for the County of NORFOLK, viz. in the 14 and 3 I Eliz." A Mr. Ralph Woodhouse was one of the bailiffs of Great Yarmouth in I58o, and sir Roger Woodhouse, knt., in that year ~m~:xu. and was one of "the respectable company" whom Whitney names as joining in the pic-nic to Scratby island. From Camden's Elizabeth, anno I590. we learn that "Philip Woodhouse was very active at the taking of Cadiz, and for his good service was there knighted by the earl of Essex." This Philip, in I6I I, was the first baronet of the family. The fifth baronet represented Norfolk in five parliaments, and the sixth was also the first peer, · being created baron Wodehouse in 1797. His grandson is the present lord Wodehouse, educated like sir Philip Sidney at .Christ Church, Oxford, and now representing her majesty queen Victoria as lord lieutenant of Ireland. EMBLEM, p. 4('.-" To Sir WILLIAM STANDLEY Knight." The long renowned family of the Stanleys are descended from L)"'n<'Che•hire, the ancient baronial family of Audley, and took their name from ~;.6 n. 167 and Stanleigh in Staffordshire, where they were sometime settled. The elder branch of the house has its direct representatives in the Stanleys of Great Storton and Hooton, Cheshire ; and to a younger branch may be traced the Stanleys, earls of Derby, the Stanleys of Alderley park, Cheshire, and the Stanleys of Cumberland. Sir Rowland Stanley of Storeton and Hooton, knt, who was Onnorod'svol ii. Cheshire, sheriff of Cheshire in I576, and who died April 5th 1613, in his p.&&<}. ninety-sixth year, was the father of the sir William Stanley Webb, p.no. whom Whitney commemorates, and " lived to see his son's son's son settled at Hooton."


Notes Literary and Biographical.

In "Names atzd Arms of Knig-hts made from 1485 to 1624" there are two sir William Stanleys, one knighted at Leith in the time of Henry VIII., and the other in the first year of Edward the Sixth's reign, but neither of these could be the sir William Stanley to whom Whitney offered two of his emblems ; it is Ormqod'svol 11. therefore uncertain where he obtained his knighthood, but "he Cheohire, P· •Jr. was originally engaged in the service of the king of Spain," and afterwards in I 578 distinguished himself for his gallantry in reducing the rebellious province of Munster, and under either service may have received the honour. Heywood, however, says H 1 Y~oodD'~ A 1•en 1 e1ence, in 1579 "he was for his conduct knighted by Drury, at WaterP· v. ford." See Leicester Under the earl of Leicester, who often mentions him in his Corn:spondeuce, • ••s. &c. 101, • letters, he was appomted to the command over the strong fortress •so, &c. of Deventer, very much to the discontent of the States General of Holland. This trust he betrayed in January 1587 into the hands of the Spaniards, and continued in their service for many ~~!~i.~~ol. aii. years. He died March 6th 1630, being then governor of Mechlin P· +fl. or Malines for the Spanish king. See Ormcroc!'s From Watson's History of Pltilip /I. we may learn some of Cheshire, Yol. ii. I' P· •1• andsJ&. the particulars of this dark treachery, but it is a subject we need not pursue here ; the whole is set forth in one of the Chetham Society's publications, so well edited by Thomas Heywood esq. of Ledbury; it is "Cardinal Alien's Defence of Sir WiUiam Stanley's Su"mder of Devmter, :January 29, 1586-7." Here, Page• Hx i. too, we have in the INTRODUCTION the best account extant of Stanley's life and character, with most of the circumstances attending his career, from his birth in 1534 to his death. Allen's Defence appeared in the form of a letter which was hastily printed by J oachim Trognresius at Antwerp in I 587. The antidote or reply bears the title, "A short admonition or warningvpon t!ze detestable treason, wlzerewith sir William Stand/ey, and Row/and Yorke ltaue betrayed and deliuered for monie, vnto t!ze Spaniards, t!ze towneof Devmter and tlte sconce of Zutp!zen." 4to. Licensed 1587. His wife was Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of sir John Egerton of Egerton and Oulton knight, who died in· 1590. Her monument, which was probably that of her husband also, was near the high altar of the church of Notre DAme in Malines,

Notes L£terary and B£ograpkical.

33 I

and Thomas Heywood says' "the inscription is still to be seen." AUen a Defence, Int~uction to This last summer, I 865, I failed to find it there, and when I p. xuvii. mentioned the circumstance to the librarian of the university of Louvain, M. Edm. Rcusens D.D., he referred me to a book printed at Brussels in 1770, "Provincie, Stad, ende District van Mcc/ulen," in which I found this inscription,- very like the one given by Heywood :
"Iti gist la noble Dame ELIZABETH EGERTON, jadis Espeuse du tre prudent Chevallier Messire GuiLLAUME STANLEY Coronel & du Conseil de guerre de Sa Mate d'Espaigne laquelle trespassa de ceste vie le 10 d'Avril161<4 priez Dieu pour son ame."

A note was added, stating that her body with many others* was removed from the church of Notre DAme in Malines when it was repaired in 1762, and the inscription copied in the- above book.

Page s6. -"A/ius peccat, a/ius pkctitur ,... One sins, another is beaten. From Wechel's edition of Alcial, p. 74- The Latin text is here added : "Arripil ut lapitlem calulus morsu'q,- fah"gal Nee percussori mutua damna facil. Sk plariq,- sinunl ueros elallier lzosleis, El quos nuDa graua/ noxia, den/e petunl."




With this may be compared the Italian version published by Plate xv111. Roville at Lyons in 1551, and also Whitney's English version of Emb. p. J6. 1586. It will be seen that Whitney's version combines expressions both of the Latin and of the Italian, and yet · differs from them both.
EMBLEM, p. 61.-Hcr Maiesties poesie, at the great Lollerie in See N. R. s. LONDON. The badges and mottoes used by our sovereigns are ~.6:·::.~;~· • of great vanety. W e wt'11 name on 1 t hose of t he T udor race. SOJ-SOS; iL PP· y ,.,9. pt. also • • • H enry VII. sometimes a d opted t he wh'tte an d re d roses m umon; IJo-IJI. at other times a crown in a bush, in allusion to Bosworth field. • The margin says: "Met 8 Schilden sonder Namen ofte Wapens," Will! 8
willltJt•lnamts ttr aniiJ.


Notes L£terary and Bt"ographii:al.

Henry VIII., among other devices, used an archer drawing his arrow to the head, and also a flame of fire. Edward VI. chose a sun shining, and a phrenix on the funeral pile, with the scroll, "Nascalttr ut alter," That another may be born, &c. Mary, when princess, preferred the white and red rose and a pomegranate knotted together ; when queen, Time drawing Truth out of a pit, and the words as in Whitney, p. 4, " Veri/as temporis jilia,'' Truth the daughter of Time. Elizabet~ badges were "her mother's falcon, or rather dove, crown and sceptre ; and her devices were very numerous, most commonly a sieve without a motto." From the same authority we learn that Elizabeth made use of several heroic devices and mottoes ; among the latter are "Semper eadem," Always the same ; and ·" Video et taceo," I see and am silent. Cent. M:~p.rine, " Lotteries were the inventions of the Romans during the li&J,pl. i.p.SJI . Satumalia. Augustus much re1' 1shed t hem. N ero was t he fi rst who made a public lottery, of a thousand tickets a day, all prizes, some of which made the fortune of the holder. Elagabulus added blanks, i.e. ridiculous tickets of six flies, &c." Emb. p. 61 . " The great Lotterie in London,'' to which Whitney alludes, is regarded as the first held in England. The proposals for it were published in 1567-8, and it was intended to be drawn at the house of Mr. Derricke, the queen's jeweller, in Cheapside, but was actually drawn at the west door of St Paul's cathedral. "The drawing began on the IIth of January 1569, and continued incessantly drawing, day and tzight, 'till the 6th of May folBuhn'• Political towing." There were forty thousand chances or tickets at tm lJiction~. voJ. iii. p. a7s. shillings each,- the prizes being articles of plate and .probably c,77o, PMagaziDe, jewellery. The profits were devoted "towards the reparation of e'!t. · 470. the Havens and strength of the realme, and towards such other public good workes." A Virginian state lottery is named in I 567, and when the Great Yarmouth corporation were in want of funds for the works of their harbour, they endeavoured to replenish them by submomfietd's scriptions to the visionary scheme. The whole town was "eleN orfolk, vol. v. P· •6oo. vated to the enthusiasm of poetry," and various doggerel lines were attached to the tickets which were purchased ; thus "THE GENTLEMEN's POSY" was,

Notes Literary and Biographical.
" The fyrste, ne second lott I craue, The thyrde yt ys that I wolde haue." The LADIES' Posv was not quite so covetous ; it read : "A small stocke with good successe, May shortly growe to good incresse."


Not daunted by failure the town again, in 1614. entrusted rlllomficiJ, >vi v. . r6or. twenty-five pounds to the same lottery, and bemotto'd their adventure with so rite most pitiful rhymes, as"Great Yarmouth haven, now in great distresse Expects by lotterye some good successe." For a fuller history consult "A~CH.IEOLOGIA," vol. xix. pt. i. article x., "Account of the Lottery of I 567, being the first upon record. By Will. Bray Esq." EMBLEM, p. 65.-" To RICHARDE COTTON Esquier' of Combermere. "The Cottons of Cumbermere Abbey," we are I.ysons'Cheshirc, informed, "are descended from the ancient family of Cotton of P-J?9· Cotton in Shropshire,* and settled in Cheshire in the reign of Henry VIII. ; they are the representatives in the female line of the Calveleys, Tattenhalls, Harthills and other ancient Cheshire families." Collateral branches of the same stock, ·or gens, settled also in Lysons'Cheshire, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire, Sussex and Gloucestershire; p. m. those of Gloucestershire being represented by the earl of Derby~ At the latter end of the sixteenth century, in I 596, a worthy of the race, Roger Cotton, published "A Spiritual/ Song, contain- London, 410. ittg atl Historical/ Discourse from t!te lnfande of tlte World until/ t!tis present Time," and also "An Armour of Proofe brought from tlte Tower of Dauid, to fight agaitut tlte Spaniardes, and all tlte Enimit's of the Troet!t." Of another of the family, ROWLAND thac:"i, Yol.m . F'!Uer's w.~!· COTTON Miles, it is testified, " Incredible are the most true p. er.. relations which many eye witnesses still alive do make of the valour and activity of this most accomplished knight ; so strong, as if he had been nothing but .bones; so nimble, as if he had been nothing but sinews." Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, of Cheshire descent, was born at A!kin'spGehner.U 8 y, 1
logr:l YO .

iii. p. 176.

• There were however Cottons in Cheshire as early as the reign of Henry HI. (1216-72) and Edward Ill. (See Orm.erod's Chuhin, vol. ii. p. 428; vol. iii. p.J72.)


Notes Literary and Biographical.

Great Connington in Huntingdonshire, in 1570, and possessed estates also at Harley St George, in Cambridgeshire. He was the founder of the celebrated collection or coins, manuscripts and books, now in the British museum, and known as the Cotton library. He died in 1631, almost from vexation and grief at being debarred from the free use of his literary treasures. The, sir George Cotton who was knighted " on Thursday the 19 day of Octobre Anno Dm. 1536," was t~e father of Richard Cotton named by Whitney, and received the grant of Combermere in the thirty-second year of Henry VIII.; and the uncle was the sir Richard Cotton,* one of the "Knightes of the carpett dubbed by the kinge (Edward the sixt) on tuesday the 22 day of ffebruary in the first year of his reigne." Richard Cotton, esq., the heir to Combermere, married for his first wife Mary the daughter of sir Arthur Mainwaring of Ightfield in Shropshire, whom Whitney commemorates ; and the descendants of this Emb. p. IJI. marriage in a direct line have well sustained and increased the Onnerod's honours of their family. Robert, the great grandson of Richard Cheshire, vol. i. pp. 68 and 69; and Mary Cotton, born in 1635, was created a baronet in 1677, vol. m. p. &11. and with the exception of one parliament represented the county from the thirty-first of Charles II. to the death of William III. Sir Thomas Cotton, his son, was sheriff in 1713, and sir Robert Salusbury Cotton of Combermere, his grandson, was elected to the first parliament of George II.; and from 178o to 17c;y;J another sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, bart., was also the knight in parliament for the county of Chester. In the peninsular war sir Stapleton Cotton gained great distinction, and was created lord Combermere in 1814, an honour which he held for fifty years, attaining the rank of field marshal in the British army and viscount Combermere. He died in this present year, 1865. His sister Sophia was the mother of the present sir H. Mainwaring, bart, of Peover. Emb. p. :&01, The natural beauties of Combermere, and of the country around, Whitney celebrates with much tenderness and truth of feeling ; they were those amidst which his youth was spent,
• This sir Richard Cotton was of Bedhampton in·Hampshire and of Warblington in Sussex. He held under Edward VI. the offices of privy councillor and comptroller of the household; and in the first parliament of Philip and Mary was returned knight of the shire for Cheshire along with Richard Wilbraham of Woodhey, esq.

Notes Lt'terary and Bt'ographical.


and time has by no means impaired them. The mansion is "a stately seate"" With fishe, and foule, and cattaile sondrie flockes Where christall springes doe gushe out of the rockes." One who knew the place in the generation which followed ~~n~;~ ~~alii. Whitney confirms to the full his testimony. "Upon the very P· 6s. Brow or Bank of the Mere is the Abby scituate, with the Park Plate XIV and all other parts for profit and pleasure surpassing, and environed on all sides to a large Extent, with such goodly Farms," "as that I know none for number and largenesse comparable to them in all these parts." "It is possessed by a branch of that renowned name of the Cottons, who have been of great accompt in many Shires, and of whom this Race bath now succeeded here unto the present owner thereof Gcorge Cotton Esquire,* a man of singular accompt for his wisdome, Integrity, gentlenesse, godlinesse, facility, and all generous dispositions." A more stately mansion occupies the site where the old abbey stood ; and the historian of Cheshire thus describes its locality : "On the banks of a natural lake, in a rich and well-wooded ?.hrmehr.nd·, "" 1re, country, undulating sufficiently for picturesque effect in the im- vol. iii. P· su . mediate vicinity of the abbey, and rising at a short distance into elevations which command noble and extended prospects over Cheshire, Shropshire and North Wales." What the abbey was in Whitney's time may be judged of from a vignette which was Plate x1v. drawn at the beginning of last century, and which is reproduced in this fac-simile reprint.

EMDLEM, p. 66.- To }OHN PAYTON Esquier. Very little more than conjectures can be made with respect to this gentleman. Payton and Peyton appear interchangeable names. There were Gent. M":iazine, · Peytons ofi sIeh am, Cam b n'dgesh' b aronets of t h e fi rst creation JIS+,pt.r.p. .pr. 1re, in 161 1 ; and a sir Edward Peyton, knighted in I6Io, who mar- Betham'• ried a daughter of sir ] ames Calthorp, knight. ~.f~~~':-::6.· An estate in Norfolk, of which sir Thomas Mildmay was Biomfield'• ' • Norfolk owner m IS 67, was conveyed b y h' • I 58 I to F ranc1s Gaw d y, p. srs. ' vnl. iY. 1m m afterwards chief justice of the common pleas; from him it passed to sir Robert Rich, who conveyed it to sir John Peyton, in whose
• Who was in possession ofCombenncrc in 1615, and died in 1649.


Notes Literary and Biographical.

family it remained in 1620. This sir John Peyton, may be the Dome~tic Senes, •m·•sSo. p. 6&11. same with John Payton, esq., and against whom and the bishop of Ely in I 579 a memorial to the council was presented that they might be required to attend to the river of Wisbeach. EMBLEM, p. 67.- To MILES HOBART, Esqui'er. The writers in the Gentleman's Magazine have settled who the sir Miles Hobart was, the patriot member for Great Marlow, who died 29th June 1632; but do not appear to recognise the MILES HOBART, Esquier, whom Whitney honours, and who must have been a man of repute in 1586. From the authorities quoted it appears the Hobarts were settled at Leyham in Norfolk A.D. 1488. James, the second son, became attorney-general to Henry VII., and died in 1525. " From him are descended the Hobarts of Blickling, represented by the earls of Buckinghamshire, those of Plumstead and those of Intwood." William, the eldest brother of the attorney-general James, inherited Leyham, and among his descendants are Miles Hobart of London, the father of sir Miles Hobart, knight, the renowned member for Great Marlow. As far as the time is concerned the former of these may have been our Miles Hobart, esq. But the name was "already common in the more distinguished or legal branch of the family," and among them probably is to be identified Whitney's Miles Hobart. EMBLEM, p. 68.- To THO. STVTVILE ESQUIER. With the enviable liberty of former times the name is written Stutteville, Stutevyle and Stutevil. It belonged to a Suffolk family, and had among its members a Roger in 1240, a sir Nicholas in 1291, a Robert in 1310, a John and a Richard in 1414. a William in 1495, and a Charles in 1574 A sir Martin Stutevile appears to have reigned over the manor of Kimberley from 16oo to 1644 There is room to insert Thomas between Charles in I 574 and Martin in 16oo. EMBLEM, p. 69.- To GEORGE BROOKE Esquier. The writers of the A thefU1! Cantabrigienses make this George Brooke to have been the fourth and youngest son of William Brooke lord Cobham, K.G., and to have been "born at Cobham in Kent 17th

18J1, pt. li. pp. SI7·SJ4 and )77• JBJ.

·~· pt.l.pp. J7S an..J JV;

Blomfidd's Norfolk, vols. i. iv. and v.

Vol. ii. pp. H9 and J6o.

Notes Literary and Biographical.


April 1568." When only twelve years of age "he was matriculated as a fellow-commoner of King's college in May I58o, and created M.A. 1586." He was mixed up with the supposed plot of sir Walter Raleigh, Henry lord Cobham &c., against James I. and his children, and was beheaded at Winchester December 5th et:a.ge. vo1.R.~rou· Betham's u. 1003. A sir William Brooke, knight of the honourable Order of P· ns. the Bath, was son to this George Brooke. Camden mentions a sir Robert Brooke, of Suffolk, who was lord chief justice of common pleas in I 554 and died in 1558, and George Brooke may have been of his family. The Whitneys and the Brookes of Cheshire intermarried. Geffrey Whitney's brother was named Brooke, and ,_.e may therefore consider if it is not from Cheshire rather than from Kent that the patron of this emblem is to be sought, especially as lord Cobham's youngest son was only eighteen years of age when the Choice of Emblemes was published. Adam, lord of Leighton, near N antwich, in the reign of king SHi~ P · ~!.cAes~e_r'• 1 nU· John, was the common ancestor of the Brookes of Cheshire. His quitics, p. J26. son took the name William DE LA BROOKE of Leighton, 33 Henry Ill.; for "under the said Manour-House in Lei.ghton a Brook runneth,* from whence their Posterity assumed the ·Sirname del Brook." The elder branch, the Brookes of Leighton, became extinct in ;r';6~Yoons. the male line in or about the reign of queen Elizabeth ; a younger branch settled at Norton in Cheshire, having purchased lands there from the king, 37 Henry VIII. An. Dom. 1545; and from this younger branch are descended the present Brookes of N orton and those of Mere. Richard Brook of Norton, the king's feoffee in 1545, was Sirl I.ey~ter 0 sheriff of Cheshire in I 563, and died in 1569 ; his son Thomas :~. i. ;~•.' was twice sheriff, 1578 and 1592, and had a son George who was drowned in Warrington water. From relationship and from being of the same age and county this George Brook has some claim to be regarded as the person intended by Whitney. It is however only conjecture.

• Were it not for this express testimony we should derive the name from the old word, Bnx~, a badger, especially as a badger was and is the crest of the family. Brocklebank, Brocklehurst, &c., are also names of the same origin.

33 8

Notes Literary and Biographical.

EMBLEM, p. 71.- To BARTHRAM CALTHORPE Esquier. The Calthorpes are a family of old standing in Norfolk, for in 1241 one of them, sir William de Calthorpe, aided in founding a Name;; and Arm• monastery of Whitefriars. Among "the knightes of the carpett of Kmshts, , •4Ss·•CI1.4· dubbed by the kinge on tuesday the 22 day of ffebruary' 1547-8 is "sir Philippe Calthorpe ;" and in the reign of queen Elizabeth 1566, "sir Willm Calthorpe." Barthram Calthorpe would probably be of this family, and brother to Charles CalEmb. p.tJ6. thorpe whom Whitney afterwards mentions, and in connection with whom some other observations on the Calthorpes will be made.

EMBLEM, p. 72.- To tlu very accomplislt.ed youtlu nine brothers the sons of GEORGE BVRGOINE Esquier. That nine brothers should leave no impress as nine upon the history of their age is rather surprising, but as yet they have not been identified. The name has belonged to the county of Bedford for several cenJ'J:iii.'~~~den, turies. There is a tradition, not indeed to be implicitly believed, that the township of Sutton in Bedfordshire was bestowed on Roger Burgoyne by John of Gaunt, "time honour'd Lancaster," in terms as follow : "I, John of Gaunt, Do give and do graunt Unto Roger Burgoyne And the heirs of his loyne Both Sutton and Potton Until the world's rotten." A Robert Burgoyne of Sutton, and of Wroxall in Warwickshire, was high sheriff of the county of Warwick 39 Elizabeth, An. Dom. I 597· There have been ten baronets of Sutton park, of whom the first was erected in 1641. EMBLEM, pp. 86, 87.-To t/t.e Reverend man Mr. ALEXANDER NOWELL, Deat~ of Saint Paufs Church, London, famous for lcaming- and for character. The first of the devices here assigned to Dr. Nowell was originally, as Whitney intimates, the standard which in view of death the renowned Saladin ordered to be borne throughout his army:

Notes Literary and Biographical.
"With trumpet Sounde, and Heralte to declare, Theise wordes alowde: Tlze Kinge of aD 1/ze Easle
Great SALADINE, belzoulde is stripped bare: Of kingdumes large, and /yes in lwuse of claie, And 1/zis is all, lze bare willz lzim awaie."


In Symbols divine and human of Pontiffs, Empwors and Ki11gs Vol. i. p. s8 this device is figured, as in Whitney, and named, " The Simple Hierograph of Mahometans." It is headed by the lines " Saladin Sultan Ottoman of the Turks Emperor,- of Babylon, Damascus, Egypt King." A scroll bears the words, "Restat ex Victore Orientis," What remains of the conqueror of the east The explanation is added : " Of Saladin, who destroyed our kingdom of Jerusalem, thou seest the equipment, even his banner or standard. For as he was dying he ordered to be proclaimed around, ' Let no one who worthily may stand up in our place, or who may rise in our Commonwealth, grow proud from the prosperit)· of his affairs."' A work of great research and authority worthily sets forth the biography and labours of this very excellent dean of St Paul's. It is "THE LIFE OF ALEXANDER NOWELL," "chiefly compiled from Registers, Letters, and other authentic Evidences. By Ralph Churton, M.A." 8vo, Oxford, I8og. We cannot pretend to abridge it, and they who would fully appreciate what a man of worth and learning Nowell was must have recourse to Churton's volume. Some few gleanings from other sources may be allowed ; and first from old kind-hearted Isaak Walton, who as a fisherman The Complete • An&ler. h1mself had a deep sympathy with Dr. N owell. He speaks of him as " the good old man (though he was very learned, yet knowing that God leads us not to heaven by many nor by hard questions), like an honest angler, made that good, plain, unperplexed catechism which is printed with our good old Service Book." Next we have the matchless Fuller to be our interpreter, and ~~~J.ii. he tells us," ALEXANDER NOWELL was born 1510 of a knightly PP·""4•odoos. family at Read," in the county of Lancaster, "and at thirteen years of age being admitted into Brazen-nose College in Oxford, studied thirteen years therein. Then he became schoolmaster


Notes Literary and Biographical.

of Westminster. It happened in the first of queen Mary* he was fishing upon the Thames, an exercise wherein he much delighted, insomuch that his picture kept in Brazen-nose College is drawn with his lines, hooks and other tackling, lying in a round on one hand, and his angles of several sorts on the other. But, whilst Nowell was catching of fishes, Bonner was catching of N owell ; and understanding who he was, designed him to the shambles, whither he had certainly been sent, had not Mr. Francis Bowyer, then Merchant, afterwards sheriff of London, safely conveyed him beyond seas." "Without offence it may be remembered, that leaving a bottle of ale, when fishing, in the grass, he found it some days after, no bottle, but a gun, such the sound at the opening thereof: and this is believed (casualty is mother of more inventions than industry) the original of bottled ale in England." " Returning the first year of queen Elizabeth, he was made dean of Sl Paul's ; and for his meek spirit, deep learning, prudence and piety, the then parliament and convocation both chose enjoined and trusted him to be the man to make a catechism for public use, such a one as should stand as a rule for faith and manners to their posterity." "He was confessor to queen Elizabeth, constantly preaching the first and last Lent sermons before her. He gave two hundred pounds per annum to maintain thirteen scholars in Brazen-nose College. He died, being ninety years of age, not decayed in sight, February I 3, 1001." There appear to have been three catechisms which owe their origin to his labour and countenance ; first, the catechism in the Book of Common Prayer; second, "A Catechisme or Institution of Christian Religion to bee leam'd of all youth next after the little Catechisme appointed in the booke of common Prayer,"
Vul. ii. p. J9'·

• Bishop Bumet testifies that N owell was elected to serve in the first parliament under queen Mary in 1553· On the second day of the session there was a debate, "whether he, being a prebendary of Westminster, could sit in the Houset and the committee being appointed to search for precedents, it was reported, that he, being represented in the convocation house, could not be a member of that House, so he was cast out." The portrait, as described by Fuller, still exists at Brazen-nose. The engraving in Churton's Lift of NUUM/1 bears the inscription "Alexander Nowell D. D. Dean of St. Paul's Ob. Feb. 16o1/2 An ..£t 95 Piscator Hominum."

Notes Literary and Biographical.
London, "with the grace and privilege of the queen's majesty, Anno 1572 ;" and tllird, "KATHXIZMOZ, ~'TT'~ 'TT'a,Uvcn~ ~ ')(pWT£aiiMII Euref3ela~, Tfi EU~vow, ICal ru POJp.alt,v Sw"M:JeTrp e~e&Oe&a. Catechismus Gra!ce et Latine explicata." London, An. Dom. 1573. This catechism was translated into Greek by William Whittaker,* and dedicated to sir William Cecil. The catechism in Latin was written some years before it was printed, as appears from the Calendar of State Papers, 1547-1580; "June ~~~cSeries, 16, 1570. Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's, to sir Wm Cecil. The Latin catechism which he wrote about seven years since, and dedicated to him; is now at lengthe printed, by Appointment of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York." Dr. William Cleaver, bishop of Chester from 1788 to 1799, republished, with notes, dean Nowell's "Prima Jnstitutio Disciplinaque Pietatis Cltristt'ana," and appointed to be used in his diocese by candidates in theology. There is an engraving of Dr. Nowell in Holland's Horoalogia; and an excellent account of him in Bliss's edition of Wood's Vol i. pp. 1•s· A tlzena Oxonimses. See also Chalmer's Gen. Biog. Diet. vol. ?'9xxiii. pp. 224-265. EMBLEM, p. 93.-To my sister M. D. Colley. Generally in the biographical notices I have passed over the several members of the Whitney family, because they are treated of in the Introduc- Chap.It..Secc. u . p. s:uv. tory Dissertation. This name Colley however is suggestive of the fact that in Elizabeth's reign it was borne by the ancestors of the now world-wide celebrated Wellesley family. Sir Henry Colley was knighted in I 56o, and his second son, also sir Henry, in 1576. "Cowley (or Colley as it has been more generallyGe••· pc. u. p. J•s: 8 nt. M~prine, t spelt) is well known to have been the original name of the family rss~, pt. i. p. s. of W ellesley or Wesley. The latter name was assumed by the first lord Mornington." These Colleys were of English origin, ~~ P~i~~~: at one time possessing "large property in Rutland." In Betham's Baronetage are named a Roger Colley and a Thomas Colley. pt. iii. P· •9: pt. iv. p. 14• His father married a sister of dean N owell's, and from that stock, through Charton's Life William's elder brother Robert, descended doctor Whitaker the historian, and from (f.,~~M!:;~u~, ISoc} until his death in 1821 vic:LI' of Whalley in Lancashire. Of William Whitaker, tiro, Jt. i. pp. who died in 1595, bishop Hull said: "Never a man saw him without reverence, or •s an "''· heard him without wonder."

Gent. M~_gazlne. t8u, PL n. p. 416.

Notes L£/erary and Biographical.

The earliest notice in Ormcrod of Cheshire Colleys is in the time of Charles II., when the township of Church-en-Heath, or Churton, "was purchased by Mr. Colley, a nonconformist minisSee also The ter, ancestor of Mr. Colley, the present proprietor of this little Lysons, p. 6&o. township, which contains only I20 statute acres, forming one farm." It is however known that the Colleys were settled at Eccleston, near Chester, in the time of the civil war, and that of this family Whitney's sister was a member. Dr. Davies, a physician, now of the Whitefriars, Chester, is descended from M. D. Colley, and possesses a "safe conduct," granted December I, I643, to his JAoumh a&l orSocth~ ancestor, Mr. William Colley of Eccleston, by Arthur lord Cape), n: . c. tet;r of Chester, vol. it. in which the "Lieutenant Generall of the fforces" charges all pp. •n and J09· under his command "not to doe nor willingly permit or suffer to bee done any hurt, vyolence, damage, plunder, or detriment whatsoever unto the person, house, family, goods, chattels or estate of William Colley, of Eccleston in the Countie of .Cheshire, gentleman." There were too Colleys of Audlem, for in the register of Acton church, the parish church of the Whitneys, under the date I659, is the entry, "Thomas Colley of Audlem and Elizabeth Harrison of Poole were married 18UI July,'' and 1662, "Samuell Colley & Maria Venables Septr 15." EMBLEM, p. 95·- "De lnuido et Auaro, iocosum," Of the envious and the greedy : a tale. This tale, as Whitney states in his margin, is from the epistles, i.e." The Golden Epistles" of Guevara. Antony De Guevara was a Spaniard, bishop of Guadix in Granada, and known as the historiographer of the emperor Charles V., and for his "Dial of Pn'nces, or the Life of M. A. Antoniu.r." He was the author of several other works; amoag which are "The Golden Epistles," of which there was a translation into Italian-" Delle Lettere Dell' il/n Signore Dtm Anttmio Di Guevara, &c. Nuouamente tradotto dal S. Alfonso Ulloa. In Venetia, M.D.LXXV. Appresse g# Hcredi di Vinccn.so Valgrisi," 4to,- in four books or volumes, containing respectively 230, 270, I8I and I 87 pages. Gu evara died in I 544EMBLEM, p. g6.- To the very accomplished Mr. PETER WITHIPOLE. The Coopers supply the following notice: "PETER

Athen:eCantab. vol. ii. p. IJ.

Notes Literary and Biographical.


WITHVPOLL, son of a person residing at Ipswich, was educated in Trinity hall, where he was admitted a fellow 1st June 1572, proceeding LL.B. 1579· He was commissary of the bishop of Norwich for the archdeaconry of Suffolk 1580, and vacated his fellowship at Trinity hall on or shortly before 25th February 1582-3, and his commissaryship in 1586." Blomefield p. ·+sS : also vol. 1. Norfolk, votiil.. mentions "Sir William Wythypole of Christ Church in Ipswich p. •78. in Suffolk descended from Robert Wythypole of Wythypole in Shropshire." Hadrian Junius by no means gives so complete a play upon Emblellll1t.a,liz. Had. Imii • the words as Whitney does, but very tamely says, " Petram imitare iuuentus," Youth imitate the rock, and thus addresses his son Peter: "En tibi quas, jilt, genitune consecro testes Ceras, auctura.r nomina amicitia," "Behold what tablets as witnesses of thy natal hour I consecrate to thee, my son, which shall increase the renown of friendship." The stanzas of Junius may here be compared with those of Whitney: " Sp"ne r•Q/uplalts, iuuenis; tfJ11Sianler: vi iras VtniiJrum, assui/Wque maris Marptsitz caults. Nalt, luiJ lepid~ ludms in nomine, tiiclas Sym!JIJiiciJ tiiJgiq, tu, Ptlram imilart Iuuenlus."'
EMBLEM, p. 97·- To his old friend Mr. GEORGE SALMON, wlto escaped from Rome at the great peril of life. As a Cheshire

name Salmon boasts a considerable antiquity and a curious ongm. It is the name of a Norman proprietor, Robert Salmon, Onner:oct'• who "remitted and quit-claimed" to Randle Blundeville, earl ~~~~~~u6. of Chester (anno u8 1-1232) "all the lands which his father held in Normandy," and received in exchange the township of Lower Withington, near Macclesfield, and in addition "xx• rent out of the mills of Macclesfield."* Robert's daughter Mary was married to Roger de Davenport.
• Ormerod adds in a note: "There is no regular descent of the SALMONS in the Cheshire collections, but their name occurs from a very early period among the mar· riages given in pedigrees of the families in the neighbourhood of Nantwich, and many respectable branches are yet in existence which, in all probability, derive their origin from this source." The Lysons name Mrs. Dighton Salmon, Messrs. Salmon, Mar· garet Salmon, the Rev. Richard Lowndes Salmon, &c.; and an obituary, "George Salmon Esq. of Nantwich, formerly Governor of Fort Marlborough in the East Indies." p

~7~;, ~j~;tl.
and 8Jt.

See also The

GenL M'\Pzine,


PLn. P·SS+

BritishMuseum MS. 1~ PluL Ivi. 1.

Notes Literary and Biographical.

The Visitation of Cheshire, 1580, names a William Salmon among the freeholders in N~ntwich hundred; and the occurrence of the name renders it probable that Whitney's old friend was gh:..j;';'~:"vot iil. from the same neighbourhood with himself. He was probably P-.41· rector of Baddiley, near Nantwich, for on the list of rectors for that parish occurs the entry: "1605, 13 Ap. George Salmon," the patron," Edmund Mainwaring." In queen Mary's reign, on the accession of a new pope in 1555, the populace in Rome broke open the prisons of the inquisition, and set free the prisoners. Among the captives thus liberated were sir Thomas Wilson and Craig the Scottish reformer, who protested against the marriage of Mary and Bothwell in 1567. Might it not be that on occasion of the above named tumult George Salmon also escaped from Rome at the extreme peril of his life ? EMBLEM, p. 98.-" Stultitia sua seipsum saginari," To glut one's self on one's own foolishness. This fable is translated from one of the fables of Gabriel Faerni, and should be compared with it. EMBLEM, p. Ioo.*- To the very learned youtlt.s Edm. Freake and Antlt. Akock. The father of one of these youths was Edmund Freake, born in Essex about 1516, and successively bishop of Rochester 1571, of Norwich 1575, and of Worcester 1584, dying in 1590. His widow Cecily,.died full of days 15th July 1599· The bishop left three children, John, archdeacon of Norwich, born about 1545; Edmund, noticed here by Whitney;
• Compare Whitney's version with the original in Sa~: CVNCTIS lJrus crmuiJ Murtalibus nqaius, Qu<z&ufiiJ~ /""a, d 'lmdis, VI Mtu fJUis bonus sil Sigwum dedit, patn-d N~iJ~mU, ti6i a ma/Qf{l« Natura singulurum vi. Dum tnnpus ~si caun-~. Latratibus canis sic J:Nxtra lmrl ta!J,IIam Sua indicnn tlat ira Rasam, nqfis n« vllis Insigwm~, amicus vt sil Taurus moMI forurnn QuOd curnuis petmtiu Qualis tuw culis fJUml i..Atlat, vmma cauais Tul setiulus I" annus. S"pms grril, timmtfut Scri!Ja.r mihi putts si, Et scurpius cattdur. Num candid~, tfulu n' ~si nuda fruns, s~tf ind'x Tm~m ~gil, at rmuas.

Plate XXVII.

Atb. Cantab. •ol. ii. pp. 96 and 97·

EdiL Antv. 1s6+. p. '77· '



Notes Literary and Biographical.


and "Martha, wife of Nathaniel Cole, sometime senior fellow of Trinity college." There were persons of the same name "of Biomefieid'• tv. Norfolk, vol. . good repute in Somersetshire." Ralph Freake, esq., "was for p. 411•· many years auditor of the treasury in the reigns of King Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, and died worth upwards of one hundred thousand pounds." His first son, sir Thomas Freake, was ancestor of the Freakes of Dorsetshire, and his second son, Willi~m, of the Freakes of Hampshire. There were Alcocks of Cheshire and of Yorkshire, but I have not been fortunate enough to identify the very learned youth Anthony Alcock. EMBLEM, p. 101.-To tlte accomplished Mr. ELLIS GRYPHITH. A name to be left Uf2determined. Were it allowed, from the transmission or repetition of the pnenomen Ellis, to conclude that the Gryphith mentioned was of the same family as that which once bore both the names, we might decide to what stock this Ellis Gryphith should be assigned. We should then say Ormerocl's . . . th at he was a ehes h'tre man of a W elsb ongm, prob a bl y t h e Che•hire, vol i. P· 168. Matthew Ellis, or Ellis Gryphith, of Overlegh, near Chester, gentleman, who died 31st July 1613. He was grandson to Matthew Ellis, one of the gentlemen of the body guard to king Henry VIII., the son of Ellis ap Dio, ap Griffith, lineally de- ~.:,:so~e618 , scended from Tudor Trevor earl of Hereford. ¥acd 1'7°· EMBLEM, p. 103.- To Mr. PETER COLVIUS, of Bruges. Several ~~~ni.eneUe, learned men of Holland and the Netherlands have borne the name of Colvius, as Andrew Colvius, born at Dordrecht in 1549· Peter Colvius, whom Whitney addresses, was born at Bruges in r,:~S::,t1567, and killed by a blow from a mule at Paris in 1594- His :~l~· PP· •s9" untimely fate was much lamented, and Dousa deplored it in an epitaph of considerable elegance, beginning with
"Colvius hie situs est, Fla~dris generatus Athenis, Illecebris pessum quem dedit aula suis," "Colvius here lies buried, born in the Athens of Flanders, Whom by its allurements the court gave to perdition -:'

but ending with a punning allusion both to his editing the Golden Ass of Apuleius and to the manner of his death:




Notes Literary and Biographical.
"I nunc Luci Asino nativum redde nitorem, Nata asino rumpat ut tibi mula caput," " Go now to Lucius Asinus the native splendor restore, As a mule born from an Ass broke in pieces thy head."

For one so young he distinguished himself among the scholars of the sixteenth century. We owe to him, at Leyden in IS88, "Ex officina Plantiniana Apud Franciscum Rapltelmg-ium," an edition of all the works of APULEIUS, of Madaura, in Africa ; an 8vo volume of 43 I pages. He added to it from the same press and in the same year abundant notes, occupying 294 pages, to which are appended 38 elegiac verses by Janus Dousa the younger. Oudendorp and Ruhnken reprinted these notes at Leyden in I786. The learned notes on Sidonius Apollinaris, published at Paris in I 598, were also written by Col vi us. Of his Latin poetry, which he cultivated with some success, besides the Page [18). ode to Whitney, there are specimens in the Delitiae C. Poetarvm Francorntl, 1 Belgi&orvm: but the choice of words is occasionally incorrect. M . DCXI~:A tom. . PP· 798-<J~~J. }&her says he passed the year I 59 I as a .common soldier at ~fe\~~01 the siege of Rouen, and was killed in his twenty-seventh year at !:.~.COD, 1' col. Paris. Of the ode by Colvius, on the emblems of Geffrey Whitney, Pace uia. an English version is given in the Introduc;:tory Dissertation.

'• SlatJJ

V lW

capil o,.nia julu/Q."

Notes Literary a111i Bwgrapkical.





iiii~iiiiiiil OKED together as are the two parts of

Whitn ey's Emblems in one continuous volume, no real necessity for separating them exists, but it is of some advantage to have a break in a long series of notes, and therefore we follow the division which the author himself adopted. There is no essential difference between the first and second parts, except it be that more references are made in "the latter to the celebrated men of classical antiquity.
EMBLEM, p. 100. - " In Praise of the two noble Earle.r, WARWICKE and LEYCESTER." The badge of both earls is the bear and ragged staff, and therefore the allusion which Whitney makes to " Two Beares,- t!te greater, and the /esse" is appropriate to " Two no6/e peeres, wluJ !Join doe giue 1/u 6eare, Two famuus Earles, whose praises pierce 1/u skye."

We have already given a sketch of the life and character See Pace ••s. of one of the brothers, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, and rejoice that a much brighter picture may be given of his elder brother, Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick. The chivalry, the courtesy, the honour and the love of literature which distinguished the Sidneys, father and son, sir Henry and sir Philip, also eminently belonged to him. The respective qualities of the two brothers are very quaintly but very forcibly and truly drawn by our old friend Thomas Fuller: "John Dudley, duke of Northum- Worthies, Y<>L iii. p. IJ4berland, left two sons who succeeded to great honour; Ambrose earl of Warwick, heir to all that was good, and Robert earl of Leycester, heir to all that was great in their father." There is so excellent a memoir of the "good earl" by the Ath. Cantab. Coopers of Cambridge, that were their work as widely known •oliipp. 66-7<>. and as accessible as it deserves to be, we should simply refer to its pages; but a brief account is required here. Ambrosc was the fourth son, born about the year I 530, and knighted in 1 549·


Notes Literary and Biographical.

He maintained a high place in king Edward's regards, but with the fortunes of his father and brother his own declined at the beginning of Mary's reign; in 1557 however he accompanied king Philip into Picardy, and in consideration of his faithful services his family was restored in blood. On Elizabeth's accession he early became one of the most distinguished at her court, and was created first baron L'Isle and then earl of Warwick, in 1562. The queen having determined to assist the Huguenots, Ambrose Dudley led the English forces, and received a severe and lifelong troublesome wound at the siege of New-haven, or as now named Havre de Grace. He filled many high offices, and had many honours conferred upon him, but never joined in the inChatme ... 'sGeD. trigues of this busy reign. One historian says of him, "he was a Biocr. •ol. xii. P· 4"S· man of great sweetness of temper and of unexceptionable character, so that he was beloved by all parties and hated by none." The wound which he had received in I 562 occasioned him at times great pain and inconvenience, and he died from the effects of amputation February 21st 1589-90, and a splendid tomb was erected over him in Our Lady's chapel at Warwick. He was married three times, but left no child. His portrait and the portraits of his father and of his brother Robert are at Knole, near Sevenoaks, Kent; his portrait is also at Woburn abbey and Hatfield house.* Many of his original letters exist, and sir Henry Orrigin_al LettMe,.. Ellis gives one, entitled, "Ambrose Earle of Warwick's Experio Em~nent en, P· ss. ence of Archers, penned with his owne hand." For particulars respecting him Bliss's edition of A thente Oxonicnses ·may be consulted, and Fasti Oxonimses, 1566; also Chalmers's General Biography, London, I8IJ, vol. xii. p. 405. EMBLEM, p. I I 5.-Fortiter et feliciter. This device, which Whitney assigns to the Roman Marcus Sergius, properly belongs to the dukes of Milan. With the motto, "ESTE DUCES," Be ye leaders, it was borne by John Galeas Sforza, who in some accounts is named the sixth duke.t EMBLEM, p. I 19.-" Ex damno alterius, alterius vtilitas," From
Dialogue, p. )6, a Lyon, •s61.

• Also in Holland's HmiOiogia. t The duke Francis Sforza, -according to Paolo Giovio, adopted for his device a greyhound seated under a pine-tree, yet on the watch, with the expressive motto,

Notes Literary and Biographical.·


loss of one, the advantage of another. The George Sabine, to whom Whitney refers, was a Latin poet and man of learning in the sixteenth century. His principal poems are "Res Ges/0! CO!sarum Romanorum," Exploits of the Roman emperors. He was born in Brandenburg in I 508, and died in Italy in I 56o. His wife was Melancthon's eldest daughter. EMBLEM, p. I2o.-To tlte very reverend Dr. WILLIAM CHATTERTON Bisltop of Cites/er. In reference to the device here given it may be mentioned that John Alcock, bishop of Ely, rejoicing probably in his name, published in I498 a work in 4to, which bears the whimsical and punning title, " Galli Cantus :Joltann is A /cock episcopi E liensis ad fratros suos," The crowing of the cock to his brethren. At the beginning is a print of the bishop preaching to his clergy, with a cock on each side ; there is also a cock on the first page.* In modern times there has been written an "Alectrop!tonia ae,~L M~guiae, •. - · pt.u. P·•7•· Ecclesiastica,'' or "The weathercock's Homily from the Church Steeple," but not to be compared to Whitney's, either for force of expression or for the quaint beauty of the sentiments. The opening lines however have considerable excellence: "The mimic Cock, that crests yon hallow'd spire, What means he 1 well the churchman may inquire. Deem not our pious ancestors would dare Exalt a bauble on the House of Prayer ! If right we listen to the mystic bird, 'WAKE TO REPENTANCE,' is his watch-note heard, ' Repent r within those walls the preacher cries ; ' Repent !' the shrill-voic' d herald still replies,Perch'd high, and seen afar, that all may view How free the general call, and hear it too.'' Bishop Chatterton's name is usually written Chaderton, but the Cheshire historians scarcely touch on the origin of his family, which must be learned from other sources. Fuller supplies a Wonhies, ..oi. i brief notice : "William Chaderton, D.D. Here I solemnly p. a6cJ.
• The Italian emblematist Lodovico Dominichi adopted a watchdog, nther than Ragioaamento, the cock, as the symbol of vigilance and guardiauship over the churches of Christ, ~·.J!:,'~';~6~ J-4. and gave the motto ".Non dl!r111il qvi rostodit," which will be mentioned again in the Addenda.


Notes Literary and Biographical.

Cent. M~e.
llf4o pi.IL p.JIIII.

Nl>tesand Queries, vol. ,;, p. 17J. Historical Antiquities, p. 187.
Baronctage; vol. ii. p. JJ f.


tender deserved thanks to my manuscript author, charitably guiding me in the dark, assuring that this doctor was 'ex pr.eclaro Chadertonorum Cestrensis co~itatus stemmate prognatus' (descended from the famous stem of Chadertons of the county of Chester). And although this doubtful direction cloth not cleave the pen, it cloth not hit the white ; so that his nativity may with most probability (not prejudicing the right of Lancashire when produced) here be fixed. He was bred first fellow, then master of Queen's, and never of Magdalen College in Cambridge (as the Reverend Bishop Godwin mistaketh), and chosen first the Lady Margaret's, then the King's professor in divinity; and doctor Whitacre succeeded him immediately in his chair. He was, anno 1579, made bishop of Chester, then of Lincoln 1594; demeaning himself in both to his great commendation. He departed this life in April 16o8." An authority in every way competent, the Rev. F. R. Raines, of Milnrow parsonage, Rochdale, decides against Fuller's "manuscript author," thus : "There is little if any doubt that William Cha d erton, B' hop o f L'mco ln, an d L awrence Ch a d erton, Master IS of Emanuel college, Cambridge, were of one family." "In lOOS· there were only two families of heraldic rank of this name in Lancashire, represented by George Chaderton of Lees in Oldham, and Edmund Chaderton of Nuthurst in Manchester, the former the brother of Dr. Lawrence Chaderton and the latter the great-nephew of the Bishop of Lincoln. The precise degree of relationship between Dr. Lawrence Chaderton and the Bishop has not been discovered ; but they are presumed to have been descended, one in the third and the other in the fourth degree, from the two sons of Edmund Chaderton of the Lees, living there in 1428, the Bishop being of the younger branch." The pedigree of bishop Chaderton's branch generally. agrees with sir Peter Leycester's statement that "he had onely one Daughter and Heir, called :lone, the first Wife of Sir Rickard Brooke of Norton in Cheshire;" and that their only daughter and heiress Mary, or Elizabeth, for this is uncertain, was married to Torrell Jocelyne esq., of Essex or Cambridgeshire, of which marriage also the only issue was a daughter Theodora. To this Theodora was addressed that beautiful little book, beautiful for its spirit of deep love and devotion, " Tlze Motlzer's

Notes L£terary and B£ographual


Legacy to Iter Unborn Child." With a sad presentiment it had been written; the daughter was born October 12th 1622, and the mother having thanked God that she had lived to see her child a Christian, in a few days, as the appendix to the work recites, "ended her Prayers, Speech and Life together, rendring Mother'~Lep:y, · h h Append1x, p. 19. her Sou I mto t e Hand of er Redeemer." The bishop was a man of earnest mind and had a leaning towards puritanism in religion ; to him Whitney's lines were very appropriate, for he was "arm'de with learning, and with life." During his abode in Cambridge he and Dr. Andrews, afterwards bishop of Ely, and Mr. Knewstubb, to whom Whitney devotes an em- Emb. P .. ,. blem, and others united in the observance of weekly meetings for conference upon Scripture; and thus by nearly two centuries anticipated the small association of students formed by Charles Wesley in Oxford for setting apart Sunday evenings to the reading of divinity.* King's Vale Royal gives two instances of the bishop's wit or Chronicon humour, of which one brought on him a severe rebuke. "This ~.·~~n-e, Doctor, while at Cambridge preacht a Wedding-Sermon, and used therein this merry Comparison: The choice of a Wife (said he) is full of hazard, not unlike to a man groping for one Fish in a barrel full of Serpents : if he scape harm of the Snakes, and light on the Fish, he may be thought fortunate, yet let him not boast, for perhaps it may be but an Eele." Again, it is recorded: "He preached the Funeral Sermon of Henry S tanky, Earl of Derby, at Orms-Church in Lancashire, An. 1593; wherein having given large commendations of the deceased person, turned his Speech to Fcrdinando the then present Earl. You (said he) noble Earl, that not onely inherit, but exceed your Father's virtues, learn to keep the love of your Countrey, as your Father did. You give in your Arms three Legs,t signi• From information furnished by the Rev. R. Brook Aspland.

t Arms very similar to those of the lords of Man were borne by the Signor Count R:.gionamento, Battista da Lodrone, who died at the taking of Casale in Monferrato. Lodovico Venice, •ss6, Domenichi says that his special device was a ca!trop, or tn'fJulu.r, a ball armed with p. 9 s. three projecting points of iron, one of which remains upright however the ball be tl'lrown; the motto is, In tdrtJfuefmuno, Good luck on every side. So the motto to the Legs of Man, QN«unpe jtu~, slabit, Whichever way you cast, it will stand, has the like meaning. Q


Nous Literary and Biographical.

fying three Shires, Cheshire, Derbyshire, and Lancashire: stand fast on these three Legs, and you shall need fear none of their Arms. At which, the Earl somewhat moved, said in a heat, and sinfully sealed it with an Oath, This Priest, I believe, hopes one day, to make him three Courtesies ;" i.e. three bendings of the knees on being appointed by the queen to higher dignities. A more connected view of bishop Chaderton's life and chaVol. ii. pp.4b racter may be gathered from the Atllmtl! Calltabrig'imses, where and48J . a list of his works is given, and his portrait and arms noticed. A Vol.i. bk. wl. I. considerable number of his letters are contained in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. In 1 568 William Chaderton was appointed chaplain to the earl of Leicester, and there is a curious letter from the earl to his chaplain when the latter requested advice as to his own marriage. Vol. ii. pp. Js6Ba,ines's History of Lancashire may be consulted for many partis6o. . culars respecting him.
Plate XXXIII .
FO<S's]udges of Eoalacd, voL " · pp. 41'7, 4.:19 and


S.tham's llarollete,e, .al. I. p. 16.

Norfolk, -...1. L p. 711.


VoJ: I. p. 186.

Vol. ii. p. 114·

EMBLEM, pp. 121, 122.- To the very MtlOUrab/e FRANCIS WINDHAM, and EDWARD FLOWERDEWE, most upright }t1dges. In 1579 Francis Windham was appointed one of the justices of the common pleas, and Edward Flowerdewe in 1584 one of the barons of the exchequer. Sir Francis Wind ham, knt., married Ja ne, one of the daughters of sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal in Elizabeth's reign, and thus was closely allied to the great philosophical writer, Francis Bacon, viscount St. Albans. The name has its origin, like so many others, from the possessions and residence of the family, whose estates were principally in Norfolk, and who in later times have been associated chiefly with Felbrigge, a portion of their property. The township name or the parish name and the family name were one, though variously written, as Winmuntham, Wimundhan, Wimondham, and Windham or Wyndham. In 1466 :loltn Wind!Uim, the father, settled the manor of Banningham on Joltn his son and Margaret, daughter of sir :loltn H owrird, knt., and their issue, from which time it has passed with Felbrigge. Palmer's Manship's Yarmoutlt gives some account of Francis Wyndham ; but a much more complete biography is to be found in the A tluna! Cantabrigimses, from which it appears that he was

Notes Literary and Biographical.


the second son of sir Edmund Wyndham, of Felbrigg in Norfolk, represented his native county in parliament in 1 572, and after filling several offices of importance, died at Norwich in July 1592. Edward Flowerdewe succeeded to J. Clench as third baron ofFou'sJ~~<~~t•s. vol."· p• .f86. the exchequer October 23rd, IS84- He was one of the sons of John Flowerdew, esq., a large landed proprietor of Hethersett in Norfolk, entered at Cambridge without taking a degree, and was admitted a member of the Inner Temple October I Ith 1552, and was very successful in his profession. His reputation as a lawyer is attested, as was that of lord keeper Egerton, by several Blomefield'• . • • • • • Norfolk, Yol. 1. annUities which hiS grateful clients, as Thomas Gnmesdiche, p.7t.l; vol. ... p . •••• Simon Harecourt, and sir Thomas Gresham, granted to him by way of rent charge on their estates "for his good and faithful counsel and advice." From Flowerdewe's friendship for Whitney we may mention that he was counsel to the town of Great Yar- ~~'!'••:• Ma~~· . . mouth in I573, was chosen to sett1 th e1r d'1sputes With the Cinque s tpoGreatvol.ii. e Yarmouth, • • • pp. 117·119· Ports May 1575 , and appomted under-steward 10 I58o. In the hst of the pic-nic party which visited Scratby island Aug. 2nd I 580 he is named by \Vhitney, "Edmd Flowerdewe esqr Sergeant at law." Plale , 1. At one time Whitney a{lpears to have acted as Flowerdewe's deputy. Foss records that Flowerdewe was a correspo'ndent of Lady Amye Dudley, the Amy Robsart of Scott's Kmilw01'th. Baron Flowerdewe's death was occasioned by the fearfully unhealthy state of Exeter gaol. A letter from Walsyngham to Leicester, I Ith April I 586,• testifies: "Sir Ant. Basset and Sir ......m eo aety, ~~d.pnaSoc~ce. • • • • Jhon Ch1chester, and three JUStices more 10 Devonshire, are dead p. '+ thorrowghe the infectyon of the gaole. Baron Flowerdewe, one of the justyces of that cyrcute, is also dead. The takyng awaye of well affected men in this corrupt tyme sheweth that God is angrye with us." See also Holinshed's Chrollicle, vol. iv. p. 868. These gatherings by the wayside may be supplemented from the ampler and better arranged stores of the Atl~nUC Cantabri- Vol. ii. p. s. gienses, or of Palmer's edition of Manship's Hi.rt01'y of Great Vol.;;. pp. m· Yarmouth, where a short life of the judge is given. ll9EMBLEM, p. 126.-To tlte very LORD OF NOORTWIICK.

noble and learned ]AN DOUSA

The poet's badge derives its origin from Egyptian times, when


Notes Literary and Biographical.

Ag:amemnon, vv. IJJ.I, 1.f.4+

Anth. Gk. -;6.

"an old man musical" was denoted by the bird fabled to sing the sweetest when power to sing is nearly over.* Through the whole course of Greek and Roman literature we find comparisons and illustrations taken from the supposed qualities of the swan, as in Aischylus and Antipater of Sidon; in Virgil, .tEn. vii. 700; Horace, Carm. iv. 2, 25; and Ovid, Met. xiv. 430; but we will give only one instance in full, lest the lines should be applied,
"Swans sing before they die ; 'twere no bad thing, Did certain persons die before they sing."

r.::.to'•rWo~k•, r ranco urtt, 1001,

v. ~··

ll.,:lc mi 18J8,
p p. 101,
~ :6.
J 78


We refer to the conversation of Socrates as recorded by Plato. His friends were fearful of causing him trouble and vexation, but he reminds them that they should not think him inferior in foresight to the swans, for these "fall a singing as soon as they perceive that they are about to die, and sing far more sweetly than at any former time, being glad that they are about to go away to the God whose servants they are." Both for his attainments and general excellence Whitney's friend deserved to wear this badge of fame. J AN DousA, or Van der Does, was a man of highest repute and patriotism in the war which achieved his country's independence. He was lord of Noordwijck, in Holland, a village domain situated between Leyden and the sea. Here he was born December 6th 1545. He passed his youth in study, chiefly at Louvain, but spent some time in England and France. In 1565 he married Elizabeth de Zwylen, by whom he had twelve children. Of these four were sons, all illustrious like their father for the love of literature and for worth of character. To estimate these it will be sufficient to read P. Hofmanni Peerlkamp's "Liber De vita, doctrina et facultate Nederlandurum, qui Carmina Lati11a composuerunt," and the Oration of Daniel Heinsius in commemoration of the virtues of the elder Dousa on his death in 1004At the celebrated siege of Leyden in 1574 Jan Dousa devoted himself to his country's cause, and therefore was selected by · William the Silent to be governor of the town and curator of
• It Is singular that the bulky tome, "PleilostJ}Ieia Ima/(Uium," Svo, pp. 847, by C. F. Menestrerius, contains no reference to the swan. The eagle, the phreiiU, the pelican, the ostrich, &c. are very frequently introduced, but Apollo's bird is unnoticed. No less than two hundred symbolical applications of the eagle are numbered and catalogued, besides seventy specially devoted to the bird of Jove.

Amstclodami, ' 68 S· PP· 6 '9"6S9·

Notes Literary and Biographical.


the recently formed university, destined in a very few years to occupy a high station among the seats of learning and science. Van der Does distinguished himself as a philologist, an historian and a poet, as well as a magistrate. He was the historian of his native land, and besides wrote very learned notes on Sallust, and critical remarks on Horace, Plautus, Tibullus, &c. Theodore De Bry presents his portrait to us as Plate LV. "poet and orator," and Boissard's brief notice of his character styles him "A man and a hero most worthy of memory as well from the merits of his ancestors as from his own virtues." His sons will be named hereafter in the note to Whitney's emblem, p. 2o6. For other particulars consult Iocher's Allg-e- Letpolc. mo. meines Geleltrten Lexicon, vol ii. col. 205 ; also "Biograpltie Universe/le," vol. ii. p. 619. EMBLEM, p. 130.- To Sir HUGHE CHOLMELEY Kni~rltt. cBtaibudl~""· 0' IUS CUI. "Of those that were honoured with the order of knighthoode in Ptut. ui. F. •· the tyme of the triumphant reigne of Kinge Henry the eight," are numbered three Cholmeleys: sir Roger Cholmeley knighted anno Dom. 1536, sir Hugh Cholmeley of Cheshire, and sir Richard Cholmeley of Yorkshire."* These two are styled "Knightes made in Scotlande," " after the destruction of Edenborough and other townes" in the year I 544The knight to whom the emblem of the seven wise men is w~tes, inscribed receives from Fuller a high meed of praise. "Sir p. ...,. vot. i. HUGH CHOLMLEY, or CHOLMONDELEIGH. This worthy person bought his knighthood in the field at Leigh in Scotland. He was five times high sheriff of this county, i.e. Chester (and sometimes of Flintshire), and for many years one of the two sole deputies lieutenants thereof. For a good space he was vicepresident of the marches of Wales under the Right Honourable Sir Henry Sidney, knight, I conceive it was during his absence in Ireland. For fifty years together he was esteemed a father of
• Of the Yorkshire Cholmleys there was lllso a sir Hugh, distinguished as a royalist under Charles I. See "The Memoirs of sir Hugh Cholmley addressed to his two sons; in which he gives some account of his family, and the distress they underwent in the civil wars, and how far he himself was engaged in them ; taken from an original manuscript in his own handwriting, now in the possession of Nathaniel Cholmley, of Whitby and Howsham, in the county of York." London, 1787, 4to.


Notes Lt'terary and Biographical.

King'• Vale Koyal, pt. ii. pp. ss IUld s6.

his country, and dying an no 1s- was buried in the church of Malpasse, under a tomb of alabaster, with great lamentation of all sorts of people, had it not mitigated their mourning, that he left a son of his own name, heir to his virtues and estates." In the main features Fuller borrows his account from Webb's Itinerary, but does not speak of sir Hugh Cholmondeley's "admirable gifts of Wisdome, Temperance, Continency, Liberality, Hospitality, and many virtues of his life, and godly departure at his end," nor record the Encomium in his memory which Webb presented to sir H ugh the younger:
" Then for the last adieu ID his pure Soul, Which leaves us gain for l4ss, and mirlh for fiU)an; I wish the Title might his Fame inroU, And bt mgrav'n with Gold upon his Slt11U. We have inter' d his revermd .Body here, Thai was our C()fln/ries Father so. Year."

Ormerod'• Cheshire, Yol. ii. pp. J ~6 and 78: YOI. 1ii. pp. lgl and 199.

From his only surviving son are descended the noble families of Cholmondeley castle and of Vale Royal, in Cheshire ; and from his only daughter Frances, the wife of Thomas Wilbraham, of Woodhey, celebrated by Whitney at p. 199, the excellent Lady Done, of Utkinton, and that branch of the Wilbrahams which finally became merged by the marriages of the coheiresses . about r68o, into the families of Middleton, of Chirk castle, and of Lionel Tollemache, lord Huntingtour and earl of Dysart in Scotland. p. 131.-To Sir ARTHURE MANWARINGE Knight In the reign of Henry VIII. two" John Maynwaringes," each bearing for crest an ass's head, obtained the honour of knighthood, one in France in I 5 I 3, the other along with William Stanley, of Hooton, and John Stanley, of Hondford, natural son of the bishop of Ely, probably in the same year, though not on the same occasion. The first of the sir John Maynwaringes thus knighted was of Over Peover in Cheshire, the second of "Ichtfeild" in Shropshire. The fine and very curious qartbtannn ll'afntuarfngfanbm," compiled by William Dugdale, Norry King of Arms in 166<), and preserved at Over Peover hall, records:

Plate XXXIV.
Jlibl. Cotton. Claudius cm. Plut. xxL F.
Ormerod, Yol. i. p. J7J; Yol. ii. p. a19: Yol. iii. p. Jas.


• This Main willing Chartulary begins in the seventh year of Willlam Rufus,

A. D.

Notes Lt"terary and Biographuat.'


"Hereafter foloyn the names of the Captayns and pety Captayns wlh the Bagges in ther standerts of the Aremy and vantgard of the Kigns Lefftenant enteryng into France the xvib day of Iune in the fift yere of the Reign of Kyng Henry the Eight George Erie of Shrouesbury, the Kyngs Leftenant, Thomas Erie of Derby, Sr William Perpoynt ;" and then follows "Sir John Maynwaryng o( Eghtfeld, (Shropsh.) bayryth gold a Asse-hed haltered S.abul and a cresscent upon the same: And Rondell Maynwaryng hys pety Captayn. The said Sr John made Knyght at Lysk." The Mainwarings of Over Peover' of Kermincham ' and of qmlltS, p. I:U. Hi~orieaJ AntiIghtfield, as sir Peter Leycester assures us, were descended from a common ancestor in the reign of Richard I I., "Randle Manwari1lg of Over-Pever Esquire,"" stiled commonly Honkyn Manwaring in the Language of those times." "He was a Courtier, stiled Armiger Regis, the King's StrVa1lt & Sacillarius d4 Corona, 21 Ri&lt. 2." At a remote period of the Ightfield Mainwarings was Roger Gent. pt. p.•ine, MacaL 18&1, &IJ. Mainwaring, bishop of Hereford, confessor to Henry IV.; and in later times, 1668, Arthur Mainwaring a poetical and political writer. "Sir John Maynweringe of Ichtfeild" was the father of the Bc't·aau1us cur. ~:~~· "Sir Arthure Manwaringe" whom Whitney celebrates, and Ptu&. ui. F. ... whom "the handes of Edward Duke of Somersett Lord Protector'' made a knight at Newcastle, October 1st I 547, on the return from the invasion of Scotland, as "Sir Arthure Manwerynge." Sir Arthur married Margaret, the eldest daughter of Chart. MaU.war. sir Rand le Manwaring,* of Over Peover, knight "The Lady Margaret" died in November 1574. and her husband at the end ofAugust 1590. He had been sheriff of Shropshire in 1561 and 1575, and had served his native county in parliament in 1558-9. A daughter of sir Arthur Mainwaring, Mary, was married to the Richard Cotton of Combermere, to whom, as we have seen, Whitney dedicates two emblems. After a long descent, and after Eu•b. 6s and JOO.
• This sir Randle died in 1557· His nephew, the second sir Randle, rebuilt the hall of Over Peover in 1585-6, at the very time when ~ Cl~Nt of E.Wimus was a printing, and named his eighth child, born May 17th 1585, Arthur, the godfathers being " Sir Arthure Maynwnringe of Ightfelde," and " George Brereton of Ashley Esquier," and "Mystris Anne Tankarde of Burroe-b~e Godmother."


Notes L£terary and Biograpkual.

Historical Antiquities, p. JJI.

History of Chcslure, vol. I. pp. &I·Ja, not~ ••

in fact the old line of the Mainwarings of Over Peover had become extinct in I 797, a Cotton of Combermere, Sophia, daughter of sir Robert S. Cotton, hart., in I 803, became the wife of sir Henry Mainwaring Mainwaring, hart., of the second creation, and thus their son, the present sir Harry Mainwaring, hart., re-enters into the blood of the old line, first through the Mainwarings of Ightfield, and then by a common ancestry in Randle Manwaring of the reign of Richard 11. Thence sir Peter Leycester traces the pedigree to William Manwaring during the reign of Henry Ill., and sir Thomas Mainwaring, sir Peter's stout opponent, carries up the stream through Roger de Mesnilgarin (one of the old ways of spelling* Mainwaring) to Ranulphus, who held Warmincham and Over Peover &c. in fee from the Conqueror himself. The old feudal wars had ceased, but as exciting a contest raged from the year 1673 to 1679 as to Amicia, the daughter of Hugh Cyvelioc, earl of Chester, IIS3-II8I, and "wife of Raufe Manwaring, sometime judge of Chester," under Henry the Second, and Richard the First. Five hundred years after her birth no less than twelve books issued from the press on behalf of, or against her legitimacy. " Sir Thomas Mainwaring of Peover in Cheshire" claimed her to be in the line of his ancestry, and that she was born in wedlock ; "Sir Peter Leycester, baronet," maintained the contrary. The whole controversy is summed up with great impartiality by Ormerod. "The essential question" "was long argued with great ability on the part of Sir Peter Leycester, but some of his arguments are ascertained to rest on the authority of incorrect transcripts, and it is probable that few will read the last book of his opponent" "without allowing the victory to Sir T. M. The opinions of the greater part of (if not all) the judges who were consulted, were given in favour of Amicia's legitimacy, and the authorities of the College of Arms have also been in her favour, under the. express sanction of Sir William Dugdale."

Plate X.

132.-To EDWARDE DIER Esquier.

• Between the years 1093 and 1669 there have been established by autographs or valid legal documents ont llundrtd and tllirly-oM ways of spelling the name ; " to which are added," in a paper at Peover hall, "263 other variations," "making together the Number of 394 Diversifyings thereof."

Notes Literary and B£ograpltical.


In the reign of Elizabeth the name of Dier or Dyer was celebrated for eminence both in law and in literature. Sir Thomas NraKm~ ahnd A'!"• o "'(( t.s, lint. Dyer and sir J ames Dyer had indeed been knighted at the cB1ibLd~ouon. au tus cur. beginning of Edward the Sixth's reign, and sir Richard Dyer, l'lut. xxi. F.+ son and heir to sir James, was "dubbed I585 the 4th of Aprill." Sir James is mentioned as "Sergeant at the Lawe" and speaker of the house of commons in 1552. Edward Dyer, so praised by Whitney, a poet and a courtier Emb. p. tu. of the Elizabethan age, was born about 1540, and educated at Oxford. After travelling abroad he obtained considerable celebrity in Elizabeth's court, and was held in much respect. He was the friend of sir Philip Sidney, and if the little poetical narrative on Whitney's 197th page be true, as there is no reason to doubt, Sidney held Dyer in the highest esteem. This too is Zouch'• Memoin • "d · • especla11y ev1 enced m S'd ney 's wt'11, m wh'1ch he b equeat hed orSidney, P- J&+1 one-half of his books to sir Fulke Greville, and the other half to Mr. Edward Dyer. In the emblem to Dyer, designated "The glory of the pen," Emb. p. •96our Cheshire poet declares his high admiration of Sidney : "Wherefore, for to extoll his name in what I might, This Emblem Io, I did present, vnto this woorthie Knight, Who did the same refuse, as not his proper due : And at the first, his sentence was, it did belonge to you." "The laurell leafe," Whitney affirms, had been prepared for Dyer ; -for Sidney, "The goulden pen ; The honours that the Muses give, vnto the rarest men." Sir Edward Dyer, who was knighted in I 5<)6, was several times employed by his sovereign on embassies of importance, particularly to Denmark in 1589. The chancellorship of the order of the garter was conferred upon him, but like most of the courtiers he experienced some of Elizabeth's caprices. He partook of the credulity of the age, especially with respect to the power of chemistry to transmute the base into the noble metals. His death is said not to have taken place until 1610, but an GefO, PL u. p. Jvy. nt. M~uin~ I8 extract from the burial register of St. Saviour's, Southwark, decides the point: "I6o7, May I 1, Sr Edward Dyer, Knight, in the Chancel."


Notes Literary and B£ographical.

a!Hl Queries, vvl. ii. I'· liS·
N(1tc ...

His name as an English poet will never be forgotten while the beauty, force and simplicity are appreciated of the noble stanzas beginning "My mynde to me a kyngdome is, Such prcasente joyes therein I fynde, That it excells all other blisse, That earth affordes or growes by kynde." He was the author of certain pastoral odes and madrigals in "England's Helicon," and of other poems both printed and in manuscript. The A/hence Oro1limses gives an account of these and of his life. Sec also Gentleman's Magazine, 1813, p. 525, and Chalmers's Gen. Biog. Diet. vol. xii. pp. 543, 534-

Bliss':rt Edition, vvl. i. pp. 74"· 74J·

EMBLEMS, pp. 134. 198.-To EDWARD PASTON Esquin', The family of the Pastons of Paston, in Norfolk, "is said by most historians to have come into England three years after the conquest," A.D. 1o6<). The name is of very frequent occurrence in v.,J. 6J9. iii. PP 68B- Blomefield's voluminous Norfolk, in which there is a long account of the family. The Edward Paston whom Whitney celebrates appears to have been the grandson of sir William Paston, knt., of Oxnead in Norfolk, who was an eminent barrister and judge, and who, living to a great age, died in 1554- He had five sons, Erasmus, Henry, John, Clement and Thomas. Clement was a distinguished man under Henry, Edward, Mary and Elizabeth, and died February 18th 1599, appointing Edward Paston one of ~aK~i~~Ann· his executors. Thomas was knighted by king Henry VIII. in Blomoficld. volv. I 544 "at Bolleyne after the conquest of the towne," and he was p. 788 ' father of sir Edward Paston who died in 1630. This Edward appears to have been the one whom Whitney distinguishes by devoting to him two of his emblems; and the conjecture is rendered very probable from the fact that Whitney held the office of under-steward in the town of Great Yarmouth, and consequently so become acquainted with the Norfolk Pastons. It was by this family, as is well known, that the celebrated "Paston Letters" were written ;* and some brief information reBlon>ofield's Norfolk, vol. iii. P- 6c)o.
Dec. t, t86s, p. 10,

• The doubts as to the authenticity of these letters have been entirely removed at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, recorded in The Times, and presided over by earl Stanhope. "The appearance of the originals of the fifth volume from custody beyond nil suspicion virtually ended the controversy."

Notes Lt"terary and Bwgrapkical.

36 I

specting their authors will reveal enough for us to know about Pict. Eng. the ancestors of Edward Paston. "The Paston Letters consist bk. v. HisLviii. eh. principally of the correspondence, from about 1440 to I 505, P· m. between the members and connexions of the respectable Norfolk family of that name, afterwards Earls of Yarmouth, of which the head, till his death in 1444. was Sir William Paston, Knight, one of the justices of the Common Pleas, and popularly called the ' Good Judge ;' and afterwards, in succession, his eldest son, John Paston, Esq., who died in 1466; and the eldest and next eldest sons of the latter, Sir John Paston, a distinguished soldier, who died in 1479; and John Paston, Esq., also a military.man, and eventually made a knight banneret by Henry VII., at the battle of Stoke in I487, who survived till I 503."
EMBLEM, p. I 36.- To the very honw~ CHARLES CAL THORPE, Deputy of tlze Quem's .Majesty in Ireland a gmt/nnan in every way to be most highly respected by me. "Charles Calthorpc Esq., was a member of the Norfolk family vMansbip'hs, armout of that name who had been seated at Calthorpe from the con- Yol. i. p. S<Js. quest. He was appointed steward of Yarmouth in I573 and resigned in I58o, being employed by the Queen in Ireland." With Windham, Flowerdewe and Harbrowne he was, 31st May I575, named on a commission to settle some disputes between Yarmouth and the Cinque Ports, and he was one of the company whom Plate xm. Whitney records as visiting Scratby island August 2nd I580. It is from sir William Calthorpe, knight, born in 1404 and ~~~::,~r.:::s. dying in 1494. and from his four sons, that "several distinct branches are derived of this honourable and knyghtly family." Among the knights of Edward the Sixth's and of Elizabeth's creation were "Sir Philippe Calthorpe," and "Sir Willm Calthorpe ;" there was also in 1589 a sir Martin Calthorpe, knight, lord-mayor of London. Whitney's emble·m is evidence of the high office which Charles Calthorpe held in Ireland under the queen ; and sir John Perrot's Government of Ireland, a work published in 1624, records the same fact.* The name appears as the author of "The Relation between a Lord of tlze Manor and the Copyholder his Tenant" in

• The name however is not recorded iu sir Peter Leycester's Caialogru of tlu Cluer ofIrtland, p. 82.


Notes Literary and Biographical.

1635, and is printed 'fith Sir Edward Coke's Copykolder in 1650, but probably it is nPt the same person as the "Deputy of the Queen's Majesty in Ireland." EMBLEM, p. I 37.- To MILES CORBET Esquier. From Henry Ill. 1247 to Elizabeth 1592 the office of sheriff Phillip'• shre..- of Shropshire was held by a Corbet on twenty occasions, and bury, pp. •l<r:LKfrom the time of the conquest, when Roger Corbet held lands Hubert'• Salop, under the earl of Shrewsbury, their possessions descended to sir p ..... Andrew Corbet, hart, by twenty-three generations. It is far from unlikely that Miles Corbet was of the Shropshire family, and a schoolfellow of Whitney's at Audlem, just on the borders of Cheshire and Shropshire. Among the Corbets mentioned by Cheshire, vol. ii. Ormerod however there is not one bearing the name Miles ; neiP· 911: vol. iii. PP· 1 7+- 17S· ther, as far as appears from Burke's Ext£nct Baronetage, is there among the Corbets of Stoke, of Moreton Corbet, or of Stoke and Adderley. The knightage under Henry VIII. furnishes "Sir Richard Corbett, 1523 ;" and under Edward VI. sir Andrew Corbet and sir Richard Corbet, 1547. The heir of John Corbet of Sprowston, in Norfolk, living in the reign of Henry VII., was sir Miles Corbet, knight, and he Burke's Extioct left a son, sir Thomas Corbet, whose second son was Miles Baroaetage. Corbet, of Lincoln's Inn, one of the registrars of chancery, but he lived at too recent a period to be Whitney's Mt'/es, for he was Noces and one of the judges of the ill-fated Charles 1., and suffered death Queries, vol. xi. P· +'J· as a regicide April 19th, 1662. He was of an ancient Norfolk family, as appears from Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. v. p. 1372. EMBLEM, p. I 38.- To HVGHE CHOLMELEY Esquier. Historians tell us, "The Cholmondeleys and Egertons are descended from the same stock ; Robert, ancestor of the Cholmondeleys, being a younger brother, and Philip, ancestor of the Egertons, a younger son of David, Baron of Malpas, who, in or about the reign of Henry Ill., took their family names from the places of their respective residences. Robert de Cholmondeley was the lineal ancestor of Sir Hugh Cholmondeley, Knight" (£.e. of Whitney's "HVGHE CHOLMELEY Esquier"), who died in 1001. From Hugh the third son of this sir Hugh the present marquis

p. ~-·


Notes L£/erary and Biograpkical.


of Cholmondeley is descended, and from the fourth son, the lord Delamere of Vale Royal. Of the daughters, Mary, married sir~~· George Calveley of Lea, knight ; Lettice, sir Richard Grosvenor Antiquities, P. J4S· of Eaton, hart. ; and Frances, Peter V enables, baron of Kinderton. The helmet which here enters into Whitney's emblem is doubly King's symbolical. It appears from "A rmes i"n Clteski"re after tlte maner Royal, Vale p. IOJ. of tke Alpkabetk," that the squire's helmet, the badge of war, was borne generally by the warlike race of the Cholmondeleys, and was appropriated by the various families of that ancient house.* Cheshire was not represented in the parliament of England until the year 1546, when Thomas Holcroft was elected. "Hvghe ~i:::•vo~. i. Cholmeley Esquier" was chosen to serve as one of the knights PP· 67-6). for the county, along with Thoinas Egerton, then solicitor-general to the queen. This was in the year 1585, the year when Whitney presented his emblems to the earl of Leicester. His descendants since then have represented Cheshire in no less than twelve parliaments, and, with one short interval, the office of lord-lieutenant of the county was held from 17o8 to 1783 by four earls of Cholmondeley in succession. Our Hugh Cholmondeley was born in I552, and obtained his gh':.t"::•voL ii. knighthood at the Spanish invasion in I 588. He was sheriff of p. 7&. Cheshire in I 589, and died in I6oi. His wife was "Mary, Daughter and sole Heir of Cltristoplter Holford of Holford," near
• The Italian version of AkiaJ gives the following stanzas:
EdiL Lyons, ISSI, p. 165.

elmq, otule r sold4to Qnna/(1 Spargmdolo tii sangw allnli feria, Hora tier A pi t.jatJo al6ergp gral#. E tlmlro il md si patorisu e tria. PMggnsi r arme, fuor (M allwr (M gia&e Morto il riposo, e 1Wfl si grxle j>aee. The original Latin was, according to W echel's edition, p. 49,



En gglm intnpitius 9110111 miles gtsseral, d ptz Stzpius Mstile sparsa erwore fuil.

Parta pate apibus tmuu (M(UsiJ tn usum, Al-Ii a(fuefauos grataq; mdla grril. A nna J>rtKul iaemnt, fas sit tune sum~re /Jdl11m, Quando alikr paeis non potu arte frui. It may be noticed that the Italian version, as was to be expected, is closer to the original than the Englilh.


Notes Literary and Bwgrapkical.

Hist. Antiq. p. HS.

King's Vale Royal, vol. ii. pp. 8f and f-4-

Knutsford. "The Lady Mary Ckolmondlcy survived her Husband, and lived at her Manor-House of Holford, which she builded new, repaired, and enlarged, and where she died about 1625, aged 63 Years, or thereabouts. King :lames termed her The Bold Lady of Cites/tire." Webb styles her "a Lady of great worth, dignity and revenue," and records that in the church of Malpas are memorials of the two sir Hughs and of the lady Mary, "erected of Alabaster, cut and richly adorned, according to the degrees and deserts of these worthy persons."

EMBLEM, p. 139.....:....To GEORGE MANWARINGE Esquier. Geffrey Whitney's sister Isabella, in I 573, addresses her $bJtft fJ,o&g4! to this same "bJontJfpfull anb rigfJt bn1UOUI 10ng 8mt1lman ;" and after sundry disparagements to herself, in which she avers that she is "like the pore man, wlticlt ltauing no goods, came witlt ltis ltandsful of water to meete the Persian Prince 'lf'illtal ;" she concludes : "I also ltaue good ltope tltat you will accept this my labour for recompmce of al tltat wltitlt you are unrecompmced for, as knozvcth god: wlto I besetclte giue vnto you a longe and a lucky lyfe witlt encrease of all your vertuous studies." "iB! !OUt bJtltDfi(»ng ~ouuttftDoman" IS. W. CharL Mam• In Dugdale's splendid Peover manuscript, under the date 23rd waringianwn. of Elizabeth, i.e. 1581, the names of" Sr Arthr Maynwar. of Ightfield, knt.," and of "George Maywaringe Esq." his son and heir, occur in the same document. There too we find the record that he was knight of the shire for Salop in 1572, and that his wife was Anna, daughter of Edward Mare of Loseley. The wife was buried in the church of Ightfield in 1624. and the husband in Vol. iv. p. 171· 1628. According to Betham he had ,become sir George Manwaring, knt. ; and his daughter Anna bore ten sons and ten daughters to John Corbet of Shropshire, who was created a baronet in 1627. This emblem has a remarkable history ; it was adopted from Plate LVI. I 515 to 1500, by Francis I. and Francis 11., kings of France, as their device, teaching, "duris in rebus fidem explorandam," That ~::nr:~~f."' pp. 87 and 81. fidelity must be put to the proof in times of difficulty.. It is, Pericles, vol. ii. moreover, one of the emblems to which Shakespeare expressly p.&. refers, for he represents " the device " and " the word " of a Essay, p. JOJ. certain knight as almost identical with those of Whitney; thus
Plate XI.

Notes Literary and Biographical.
"an hand environed with clouds, Holding out gold that's by the touchstone tried, The motto this, Sic spectanda jitks."

EMBLEM, p. I# -Homo homini lupus, Man a wolf to man. The motto is the same with that of Reusner, but the device altogether different

Plate XLIII.

EMBLEM, p. I 52.- To the very learned W. MALIM. In emblem p. 89 the initials W. M. probably belong to the same name.* From the Coopers of Cambridge we learn that vol. u. .p. 17f· Ath~.n Cantab. William Malim was born in IS33 at Staplehurst in Kent, and that after having studied at Eton he was admitted a scholar of King's college in I 548, and a fellow in I 55 1. "During the time he held his fellowship he travelled into various countries of Europe and Asia. He himself states that he had seen Antioch, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and other eastern cities." In I56I he was appointed master of Eton school and discharged the duti~s of it for ten years, and from IS73 to 1580 or 1581 he was headmaster of St. Paul's school. His death occurred, it is said, about August 15th, 1594Respecting his works, of which a list is given in the A thciue Cantabrigienses, it may be said that Ames marks the Famagosta Typ. Antiq. . . . . as pnnted at A ntwerp, an d notes stx L attn verses on str Thomas pp.6nand•O?O· Chaloner de Republicd A nglorum instaurandd. EMBLEM, p. 159-- The Grasshopper and the Ants. Freitag's beautiful illustration of the opposite rewards of indus- Plate XL. try and slotk may be compared with this; Whitney's ideas here have their source. EMBLEM, p. 164--ANGELO POLITIANO, quoted in the margin, was a native of Tuscany, born in 1454. a man of great learning, and for a time tutor to the children of Lorenzo de' Medici. He is the author of one "of the most celebrated Italian poems of the fifteenth century, the Giostra of Giuliano de' Medici. The character of his Latin poetry is thus given by
• The .AIIIma CaniiW. however assigns this emblem to William Master, LLD., born 1 532 and died I 589.
Vol. ii. p.6f.


Notes Literary and Biographical

Life of Lorenzo de' M., Bohn's Edition, p. o66.

Roscoe, when speaking of the reputation acquired by the Florentines in the cultivation of that branch of Roman literature : "Though some possess a considerable share of merit, not one of them can contend in point of poetical excellence with Politiano, who in his composition approaches nearer to the standard of the ancients than any man of his time." Of his character, erudition and misfortunes, a· most interesting account is presented by the historian of Lorenzo de' Medici, and to that history we refer our readers. His death took place in 1494. in the fortieth year of his age. An edition of his works in folio was printed at Brixia, Brescia, M.CCCC.LXXXVI, and at BAle, 8vo, 3 vols. 1550, folio I 553· Of course the Biographical Dictionaries do not omit to mention so eminent a scholar.

EMBLEM, p. 165.- To M. THOMAS MVNORS. The name belongs both to Gloucestershire and Hertfordshire. Rudder'sGiouc. Rudder, in his Gloucestersltire, mentions a Gilbert de Myners pp. JIJ, 79 ud a. about the end of the reign of king Stephen, and Henry de Myners of Westbury under king John purchasing a licence to Hertrordsbile, enclose a park. Clutterbuck records how "Ralph Minors of vol. i. p. 17J· Hertford, Gent., schoolmaster, gave to the Parish of All Saints £10, the interest to be yearly disposed of, half in the purchase of three pairs of white gloves for the Mayor, Justice of the Peace, and Minister of All Saints, if they come to the breaking up of the scholars of the said school at Christmas, and the other half to the best deserving scholars there." Of Thomas Mynors however I have gleaned no certain information. One of the name, the Rev. Willoughby Mynors, M.A., curate of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, preached a seditious sermon l;~!ri'e~~riesii. June 1oth 1716, and was committed to custody to answer for it, vol. iv. P· •oa. but whether of the same family no evidence is adduced to show. EMBLEM, p. 166.- To my vncle Geffrey Cartwrighte. The conjecture has been made that Whitney's mother was of the family of Cartwright. It is a great puritan name, Thomas Cartwright, born in 1535, and dying in 1003, having borne it with high honour through much persecution. There appears however no real evidence to determine that Geffrey Cartwright was of this stock ; it is most probable that he was of the same

lntr. Dissert. p.xlviii.

Notes Literary and .Biograpleical.


neighbourhood with the Whitneys, for Sheppenhall, in the town- The Lysons, ship of Newhall, a few miles from Nantwich, was owned by the p. J99Cartwrights before the year 16oo. In the registry of marriages at Acton church we find, 1662, "Inter Thomam Cartwright et Ann Roe Decembris 23." Sir Peter Leycester records, in 1666, p.JSt..Antiq. Hist among the landowners of Sal~, " Geffrey Cartwright Gentleman. His lands in Sale were formerly bought from Massy of Sale." Ralph Churton supposes that Geffrey Cartwright belonged to " a Life of Nowen. branch of the Cartwrights of Aynho, Northamptonshire, some of whom were seated at W renbury (Bridges' Northamptonshire, voL i. p. 137), and are recorded among the benefactors of the church." Whalley, in his History and Antiquities of Northamptonshire, VoLI.p.tJ7. gives the pedigree of Hugh Cartwright, from which it appears that of his descendants one was John Cartwright of Aston in Wrenbury, whose son Richard, that died in 1637 at the age of 74 married Mary, the daughter of sir John Egerton of Egerton, and was contemporary with, if not a relative of, Geffrey Whitney. EMBLEM, p. 167.- To Mr. JOHN CROXTON. The manor of Ravenscroft, a small township about one mile ormerod's , Cheshire, from Mtddlewich, passed by the marriage of Margery Ravenscroft and m. PP uo vol. 111. with Roger Croxton to the Croxtons, and after five generations was vested with other lands in William Croxton, who died June 21st 1579- His son and heir," John Croxton, of Ravenscroft, gent, who died April 24 1599, leaving a son George fourteen years of age," was probably the friend to whom Whitney in 1586 devoted the emblem of a child in the cradle and of an infirm man on crutches. This John Croxton owned a third part of the manor of Bexton, near Knutsford, which he sold "to the lady Sir P. Leycester, Mary Cltolmondley of Holford;" the Cholmondeleys sold their P· :us. share, and the whole manor vested in the Daniel family, passed Chesh•re, Orme~od's to the Duckenfields and Astleys. From John Astley, the painter, vol. i. P· 190· "it was purchased by dame Catherine Leicester, for her son sir J. F. Leicester hart," and it is now the property of lord de Tabley. John Croxton's grandson Thomas was colonel Croxton, 11 a OChrmeh~oo·. es 1re, distinguished political and military character in Cheshire during vol iii. p. JIO. the civil disturbances of the seventeenth century. He had for a time the office of governor of Chester castle on the part of the



Notes Literary and Biographical

parliament; and in 1650, when four regiments were raised in the county, he had the colonelcy of one of the regiments, composed of the men of Northwich hundred, and part of Nantwich. The castle of Chester was also under his care at the time of sir George Booth's attempt in 1659, and was summoned by sir George Booth and sir Thomas Middleton; to which the governor replied, ' That as perfidiousness in him was detestable, so the castle which he kept for the parliament of England was disputable ; and if they would have it, they must fight for it ; for the best blood that ran in his veins, in defence thereof, should be as a sluice to fill up the castle trenches.'" The consequence of Croxton's steadiness was the division of the forces of the insurgent royalists, which led to the defeat of Middleton at Prees heath, and of Booth at Winnington. Colonel Croxton's wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Holland of Denton, Lancashire. EMBLEM, p. 168.- To M. MATTHEW PATTENSON. I am informed that a notice of Matthew Pattenson will appear in the forthcoming volume, vol. iii. of the A tlznue Canlabrigienses, which is now in the printer's hands ; and to that I refer the reader. Did the distance of time between 1586 and 1623 allow we should suppose that Whitney's Pattenson was the autho.r of "The Image of Botlte Cltvrclus, Hiero.ralem and Babe/, vnitie a"d Confvswn, obedience attd seditum /' but it is by no means clear that the Pattensons of 1586 and of 1623 were the same person. EMBLEM, p. 172.-To llu youth at the school of AUDLEM ;, E11gland. AUDLEM, or as it was anciently written, Aldelime or Adelym, is a small market town, with a fine old church on the crest of a hill, about six miles from Nantwich on the line of railway from Nantwich to Market Drayton. The whole parish comprises an area of above 12,000 acres, bounded on the south by Shropshire, on the north by Acton, to the east by Wybunbury, and to the west by Wrenbury. Though Whitney's birth-place was in the parish of Acton, yet that homestead on the banks of the Weaver is nearly six miles

Tournay, 16aJ, s6mo.

and Xllla.

Plate• Xla

Notes L#erary atzd Biographical.


from Acton church, and under two miles from Audlem church and school. We have in this fact the reason why his earliest instruction was obtained at Audlem ; that town was near his home, and by pleasant Weaver's banks he would morning and evening pursue his way for the learning which in after life he used so well. Taking Whitney's home or Audlem's church of St 1ames as centres, there are spreading round them the various places with which the poet would be chiefly familiar,Combermere, Woodhay, Shippenhall, Wrenbury, Nantwich, Acton, Wybunbury, and perchance Ightfield and Cholmondeley. Here dwelt his friends and relatives, or those whom his youth had been taught to hold in honour. The present grammar school of Audlem was founded or rather Ormerod's Cheshire, endowed in 1655 by sir William Bolton and Mr. Gamull, citizens voL ;;;. P· ~of London ;· but it is evident from this emblem that the school existed for at least a century before ; and not unlikely is it from its central situation that here the schoolboy Geffrey Whitney formed acquaintance if not friendship with R Cotton, G. Salmon, H ugh Cholmeley, George Manwaring, 1ohn Croxton, Arthur Starkey, and others of the country round.


The venerable church of St. 1ames, when Ralph Sand ford was vicar, 1557-1582, doubtless often heard the tread of young Geffrey's feet ; and there rests one, a scholar of the same school, whose gravestone records as "the Modest Charitable and Duti-


Notes Literary and Biographical.

full Daniel Evans, Son to Mr. Evans School Master. He departed aged 14- 1712. God's Will be done." The father's grave is close by,· and were it but to show that men of worth and learning have presided over the school where Whitney was trained, we add his epitaph, in Latin, as becomes a scholar's fame: "GuLIELMUS EvANs A. M. eruditus Theologus Ecclesia: de Barlhomky per sex Annos Pastor fidus et sedulus Scholre prius Audkmtnsis per Annos xxxv. Moderator Pr::estanlissimus Mira in illo emicuit Urbanitas, Comitas, Lepos Vultus tamen Hilantatem, vitre Severitate, Colloquiorum Facetias, morum Simplicitate Temperavit Pauperum Fautor, Divitum monitor l._ { Optimis charus, Pessimis venerabilis f Animam, puram, probam, piam Deo reddidit, Aprilis xv Anno Sal.. M.DCCXXXlX. iE* LXXut." The Masseys, who held Tatton, near Knutsford, from the reign of Henry Ill. to 1475, possessed lands in Audlem down to 1457, e~ni: ~~ 'when "Sir Gejfrey Massy of Tatton, Knight," settled his lands in &48. Audlem and Denfield on his illegitimate son John Massy, with whose descendants they remained until 1666 or later. H ugh Massey, the fifth in a direct line from John, married Elizabeth, sister of Hugh Whitney of Cool-lane in Wrenbury, near Audlem, and she in all probability was one of the same family with Geffrey Whitney. This Hugh Massey died in 1646, and was buried at Audlem.
SirP. Leyces~

YoJ. iii. p. SJO.

EMBLEM, p. 173·- To tke very karned STEPHAN LIMBERT Master of tke School at Norwich. On the supposition that "Nordovicensis'' was Northwich in\ Cheshire it has been conjectured that Limbert had been Whitney's tutor, first at Audlem and next at N orthwich, before the poet went to Oxford The Latin name means Norwich in Norfolk, and through the courtesy of the Rev. Augustus J essopp, head master of king Edward VI. school in that city, I have been


Notes Literary and Biographical.

37 I

informed that for thirty-two years, from 1570 to 16o2, Stephen Limbert was master of that school. As to dates this account differs very materially from the epitaph which Blomefield and ~~~~~~~~t ;;. the Coopers give, namely, thirty-five years of service, and dying p.SJ•. • B ut t h' • • vol. ii. Cantab. 10 15 89· trty- fi ve years mak e t h e service commence 10 Athen. p. 6r. 1554 some years before his matriculation at Cambridge as a sizar of Magdalen college. We stay not to reconcile the dates; certain it is he was head master of Norwich school, and on one of Elizabeth's progresses, in August 1578, made an oration in Latin "to the most illustrious Princess Elizabeth, Queen of England, France and Ireland." Little is known of his success as a teacher, but "a grateful and eminent pupil," Robert de Naunton, "many years afterwards" set up a memorial of one whom he names "an excellent Master and a most beloved Preceptor," and averred that he died "full of Dayes and of Comfort in the Multitude and Proficiency of his Scholars." His power of. writing Latin verses may be judged of by the ~l:~i;~.~: ten elegiac lines which are prefixed to Whitney's emblems, and P· zu. of which the translation in the Introductory Dissertation is a free approximation. EMBLEM, p. 175.-" Otiose semper eg-mtes," The idle ever destitute. A very fine amplification of a similar subject in "Le TMdlre .Plate xxxr. des bons Eng-ins." Whitney's power and genius will appear by comparing together the simple beauty of the French verses with the no less simple and beautiful lines of the English, in which the thoughts are carried out, rounded and polished without losing anything of natural grace. In the French the reader may notice the contrivance for indicating e silent. EMBLEM, p. 176.-" Semper praslo esse inforlunia," Ill luck is always at hand. The subject treated of by Whitney is undoubtedly the same Plate xxtx. with that of Brant, namely, the gamblers, the difference being that the Englishman speaks of "three carelesse dames," the German, in his French translation, folio 50, of four. It is merely as suggestive to Whitney of his subject that Brant's emblem is adduced ; the devices agree, but not the methods of illustration.

37 2

Notes Literary and Biographical.

The woodcut of the gamblers is at folio Ss of the $tultifna jlaUUs, but at folio SO of "l.a gtit ntf IJtl folt IJU mobt." EMBLEM, p. 177.- To my cou11trimm of t/te Namptwiche in Chesshire. As we have seen in the Introductory Dissertation, it was in the parish of Acton, by which Nantwich is nearly surrounded, that Whitney was born, yet "the Namptwiche" is a term which comprehends the district round, and the people truly were the poet's "countrimen." The fearful calamity with which the town was visited is thus described by an eye-witness. On the 10th of December IS83, "chaunced a most terrible and vehement fyre, beginninge at the Water-lode, aboute six of the clock at nighte, in a kitchen, by brewinge. The wynde being very boysterouse, increased the said fyre, whiche verie vehementlie burned and consumed in the space of fifteen houres six hundred bayes of buyldinges and could not be stayed neither by laboure nor pollice, which I thoughte good to commende unto the posteritie as a favoureable punishment of the Almightie in destroying the buildings and goodes onlie, but sparinge the lyves of man ye people, which, consideringe the tyme, space, and perill, were in great jopardie, yet by God's mercie, but onlie two persones that perished by fyre." One who not long after the fire in sober prose described "the newe NAMPWICHE," scarcely departed from Whitney's fond eulogium, "A spectacle for anie man's desire." That writer says: "The Buildings within the same Town are very fair and neat, and every street adorned with some speciall mansions of Gentlemen of good worth, the middle and the principal parts of the Town being all new buildings, by reason of a lamentable fire which happened there in Anno IS83, that consumed in one night all the dwellings from the River side, to the other side of the Church, which Church it self by the great mercy of God escaped, and was left standing naked without neighbours, saving onely the school-house, in a few hours ; yet such were the estates of many the Inhabitants, and so graciously did Queen Elizabetk of blessed memory favour them, with her own earnest farthering of a Collection through the whole Kingdom, and the

Ch. ii. sect. ii. pp. 41 and .fJ.

The Register of lhe Church.

King's Vale Royal, pL li. p. 68.

Notes Literary and Biographical.

37 3

businesse so well managed by the care and industry of Si(Hugk Clwlmly, Mr. :John Master/on, and other chief agents in the same, that the whole scite and frame of the Town so suddenly ruined, was with great speed re-edified in that beautifull manner that now it is." Our author adds: "The Church is very large, and of so beau- Plates xv. and tifull a structure composed in form of a crosse, like the great xva. Minsters or Cathedrals, and the Steeple erected in the middle Juncture of the Crosse, with fair lies on each side." To all its original beauty that fair church has lately been restored by the munificence and zealous love of many hearts, the widow's mite vying with the rich man's offering; and to all who have contributed to this worthy work there cannot be a better thought, that the veneration and regard of the present day have re-established and renewed the temple which the piety of a past age had founded. The poet's words are again fulfilled : " an other Phrenix rare
With speede clothe rise most beautifull and faire."

That fable of the phrenix indeed is one with which all ages and many nations have been familiar. Herodotus, Pliny, Horapollo, among the ancients; Gabriel Symeoni, Claude Paradil), Amold Freitag, Reusner, and Whitney, with some others among Pia!• xxxrx., the emblematists, serve to swell the wonder and the praise. We Frcuag. are told, "in honour of Queen J ane, who died willingly to save Gent. Mapzinc, . 'ld her ch 1 , Ed ward VI ., a p h remx was represented on a r ,unera11819, pt. " · fire, with this motto, NASCATUR UT ALTER, That anotkcr may be born." As the phrenix is always alone, and the only bird of its kind in the world, so are excellent things that are of marvellous rarity ; hence it was somewhat proudly borne as the device of Madame Elenor of Austria, queen dowager of France. Also, "My Lady Bona of Savoy, the mother of John Galeaz, Duke of Milan, in her widowed state, took the phrenix for her emblem. with the words,* 'being made lonely I follow God alone.'" The
• The original text, as given in Symeoni's Ikvius ov Em6/nnes H~s et moro/~s, Plate LXII. 4 Lyon 1561, p. 238, is: "Maaam~ Btme tk Sauoy~ mn-~ tk Imn Galmz, Due d~ Milan, u trouuant -wfw, fnt fair~ VM tkuis~ m s~s Tutons d'vM Fmix llJI milim d'vn ftu auec cu paroks: SOLA FACTA SOLVM DEVM SEQVOR. Vou/ant signijin ¥W comm~ il n'y a au mond~ ¥u'vM Fmix, tout ainsi utanl tkmn1ru sNidtt, ne vouloit aymn- sino lt sml Duu, po11r 1•iure m apru dn"11tllnnmt."


Notes Literary and Biographical.

The Lay of the Pha:ni.~:, translated by G.



phcenix too is typical of long duration for the soul, and of the resurrection of Christ and of all mankind.* An Anglo-Saxon poem of the eleventh century embodies both the legends and the applications of this ancient fable. After describing the process by which "As from round eggs he Eagerly crept him Sheer from the shell," the author goes on to narrate the final production of the marvellous creature : " Soon then thereafter, Bird waxing quickly With feathers rich fretted, Fresh as to-fore, and He soars as at first-all Fitly in all things Blooming and brightsome, Sunder'rl from sin." It is then nothing wonderful that, on hearing of the town of his " countrimen" rising from its ashes to a glory it had never before attained, Whitney should assume as its device, " The Phcenix rare, with fethers freshe of hewe."
EMBLEM, p. 183.- The inverted torch. This device is found in Symeoni and Giovio's Tetrasticlti Morali, and also in Paradin's Devises Hiro'iqzgs, but the plate in illustration is from the English translation of Paradin, published in I 591, which curiously enough differs from the original as well as from Whitney, in presenting the torch nearly upright instead of inverted. The invention of the device is thus accounted for: "In the exile or banishment of the Helvetians neer Millan, after the decease of Francis their king, the Lord of Saint Valier, the father of the Ladie Diana of Poitiers Dutchesse of Valentinois, and gouernour ouer an hundreth noble knights carried a standard about, wherein was pictured a burning Torch turned vpside downe, the waxe melting and quenching the same with this sentence, Qui me alii me extinguit, that is, He that feedeth me, killeth me. Which simbole was framed for a certain noble woman's sake,
• So in the device on the title-page of Giovio's Dialoil', printed by Giolito at Venice in 1556, the phrenix appears rising above the world; the mottoes being "SEMPER. EADEM," Always llzt Stffllt, and "DE LA MlA MORTE ETERNA VITA," Frotfl my tkrz/11 llivr etn-nallift.

As in Plate


Plate LVII .


Hcroicall De-

l..ondon, IS91, pp. JS7 and Jfll.

Plate LXI.

Notes Literary and Biographical.

37 5

willing to insinuate thereby that as her beautie and comelines did please his minde, so might it cast him into danger of his life." On pages 301, 302 and 311 of the Essays Literary and Bibliographical the subject of the inverted torch and its motto is treated of; and we now refer to Symeoni's text to show that !_'~d1'Li'r~li. Daniell is far from accurate in the information he professes to give as to the origin of the device ; and that Paradin omits the not unimportant fact that Saint Valier's motto was but an imitation of that of the king his master,-" NVTRISCO ET EXTINGVO." EMDLEM, p. 183.-Engraving wrongs on marble. Whitney's device is identical with that of Paradin's, but may be compared with the similar lmpresa in the Tetrastichi Morali, or rather in the Devises Hero"iqves et Morales, from which Paradin copied, without however taking the highly omamented border. The Italian stanza is to the following effect: "Each one that lives may be swift passion's slave, And through a powerful will at times delight In causing others harm and terrors fright : The injured doth those wrongs in marble grave.''


If comment be required we may resort to Symeon's Emblemes Plotc LXII. Heroi'qvcs et Morales, p. 230, "Povr vn homme inivstemcnt offense."

EMBLEMS, pp. 185, 186.- To the very learned STEPHEN BULL. A name the echoes of which have sounded through the chief libraries of Holland and Belgium without obtaining any reply. St. or Stephen Bull seems to have been one that has left no mark on Whitney's century. The name however is not unknown Tindal's Rapin, to history. On the expedition into France in April I 5 I 3 it is ;.d;~,' 741 ' '·ot i. mentioned that the admiral Howard, among other persons of note, was accompanied by sir Stephen Bull. And of Flodden field, September 9th I 5 I 3, it is recorded : " In this Battle the Vanguard was led by the Lord Thomas Howard, who had with him," along with several lords and knights who are named, "Sir Stcphen Bull." Whitney's Stephcn Bull may have been this knight's son or grandson. In Elizabeth's reign there were also Bulls in Hertfordshire, for Clutterbuck registers among the Hertford, vol. ii. bailiffs of Hertford "In I 578 Richard Bull, Gent." P· ' 47 ·

Notes Literary a11d Biographical.
If we might resort to the last refuge of a discomfited critic, we would suggest a misprint. In conformity with the subject of the second emblem devoted to this learned man, namely, tlzc Music of Orpheus, he should be one who was skilful, learned and wise, and
" if his musicke faile, his curtesie is suche That none so rude, and base of minde, but hee reclaimes them muche."

VP· 171 and S7J.

Now there was an Englishman of \Vhitney's century, one in whom these qualities were united, and to whom there was great propriety in dedicating as well the Quinctilian emblem as that which celebrates the praise of Orpheus. He was a native of Somersetshire,* born about the year 1 565, and in 1586 admitted bachelor of music at Oxford, and doctor at Cambridge. He possessed remarkable skill and power, and filled the offices of organist in the Queen's chapel and professor of music in Gresham college. He died in the year 1615. The memoir of him may be consulted in Chalmers.

EMBLEM, p. I 89.- To the 'llef'J' learned FRANC IS RAPHELENG, famous nt tlze siege of Antwerp. E•ur iii. p. 2.69· A notice of Rapheleng has been given in connection with Plantin in a former part of this work. We shall therefore simply confirm the truth of Whitney's testimony to the internal treachery in Antwerp, at the famous siege of 1585, by an extract from Werke, Band Schiller's history, "Die Regierung dieser Stadt war in allzuviii. PP· 4»4S7· viele Hiinde vortheilt, und der stiirmischen Menge ein viel zu grossen Antheil daran gegeben, als dasz man mit Ruhe hiitte iiberlegen mit Einsiecht wiihlen und mit Festigkeit ausfiihren konnen." " The government of this town was shared among too many hands, and too strongly influenced by a disorderly populace to allow any one to consider with calmness, to decide with judgment, or to execute with fairness." As we have observed Plantin retired to Leyden during the siege of Antwerp, but Raphcleng remained, and won at least the admiration of \Vhitney by his conduct.
Fosbrooke's Gloucester, p. 1"9.

• George Bull, bishop of St. David's, born March 25th 1634. and so celebrated in the controversy on the Trinity, was also a native of the 61Ulle county. "He was," says Fosbrooke, "descended from an ancient and genteel family, seated at Shapwtch."


Notes Lt'terary and Bt'ographicai.


EMBLEM, p. 191.-To my Nephew, Ro. BORRON. The Introductory Dissertation shows that Ro. Borron was one P· X 1vu.sccc. ;;. Ch. ii ... of the "prety Boycs" of Whitney's sister Ann. The name belongs to Cheshire, but is not met with in the county histories.

p. 193.- To the /wnorab/e Gentleman Sir WILLIAM Knight. Sir William Russell, from whom the dukes of Bedford arc descended, was the fourth son of Francis Russell, the first earl of Bedford, whom Henry VIII. favoured, and Mary sent ambassador to Spain to conduct king Philip to England. He was educated with his brothers at Magdalen college Oxford, "at the feet," it is said, "of that excellent divine Dr. Humphreys." From of Ru...,u, Wifl'en'• House travels through France, Germany, Hungary and Italy he re- vol.;. P· so6turned, "not merely accomplished in languages and improved in his address and range of knowledge, but uninjured by the affectation of foreign fashions, and uncorrupted in his moral and religious principles." His first campaign was served with reputation in the Netherlands, where he obtained the honour of knighthood. In IS83 he married Elizabeth, the daughter and heiress of sir Henry Long of Cambridgeshire. Again in the N etherlanas he served under Leicester, and a cLeice<~er dcnce , orrespon letter from the captain-general to Walsingham thus testifies to P· us. his character: "This gentleman is worthy to be cherished, for he is a rare man of courage and government : it were pitty but he should be encouraged in this service, where he is like to leame that knowledge which three yeres perhaps in other places wold not yeld to him. In few words, there canot be to much good said ofhim." He was afterwards, in I 594. lord-deputy of Ireland. In I002, a few months only before her death, he was visited by queen Leycc.cer's Elizabeth at Chiswick ; and on the 2 I st July I 003 he was created HISt. Ant. P· a.. Wiffen'li Howe by Jamcs I. baron Russell of Thomhaugh. He died in I6I3, or 1 ~!'sscu,7J, pp. soon after prince Henry. There is a portrait of him at Wobum 91 and,.._., abbey. His brother Edward, earl of Bedford, was succeeded in his style and honours by Francis, "the only son of the heroic William, baron of Thornhaugh," and Francis was the father of lord William Russell, beheaded in I68J Thomas Newton, a Cheshire poet, contemporary with \VhitEMBLEM, RV SS ELL
TO • 11•

Le land'• Antiqu:arii, '0'01. "· p.174.

Notes Literary a11d Biographical.

ney, inscribed in r 589 one of his ENCOMIA of illustrious Englishmen " to the very valiant and magnificent knight, William Russell." He speaks of his talent, his comeliness, eloquence, industry, bravery and warlike prowess, and concludes with the exhortation, in Latin not altogether classical, " Opergas rutilam Bedford is arldere lucem Francisci patris facta imitando tui ;" "Add to Bedford's red golden light, by imitating the deeds of Francis thy father." EMBLEM, p. 194- To t/u /wnorable Sir }OHN NORRIS Kni'gltt, Lord presidt'1Zt of Munster in lrclande, and Colonel/ General/ of the Englislt i'nfantcrie, in the /owe countries. Briefly are his character and services sketched by the editor of S i'dney and Lauguct's Correspondence: " Sir John N orris, second son of Henry, first lord N orris, an excellent soldier, who had served under Coligny in France and Essex in Ireland. He was continually employed on foreign service, and was Commander in Chief of the English forces sent afterwards to relieve Antwerp, and still later of the troops sent by Elizabeth to assist Henry IV. in Bretagne." So brave a leader deserves for himself as well as his ancestry more than this passing notice. He was descended from that Henry Norris, groom of the bedchamber, present at the private marriage of Henry VIII. with Anne Boleyn. The absurd jealousy of the king charged him and four others with familiarities with the queen ; but when pardon was offered on condition of confessing to the supposed truth of the charge, he answered with utmost honour of mind, "and as it became the progenitor of so many valiant heroes, that in his conscience he thought her guiltless of the\.objected crime, and that he had rather undergo a thousand deaths than betray the innocent"* The portrait of sir John Norris is at Knole, and his character is painted by Fuller with great truth and fervour: "He was a most accomplished general, both for a charge, which is the sword, and a retreat, which is the shield, of war. By the latter he purchased to himself immortal praise, when in France he brought off
• From so honourable a stock is descended the earl of Abington.

London, •84J, p. 169.

Pkl. Hist Eng.
vol. iii. p. J'P·

WorthiesofEng. vol. iii. pp. 17 and 18·

Notes L£terary and Bz'ograph£cai.


a small handful of English from a great armful of enemies ; fighting, as he retreated, and retreating as he fought ; so that always his rear affronted the enemy; a retreat worth ten victories got by surprise, which speak rather the fortune than either the valour or discretion of a general. "He was afterwards sent over with a great command into Ireland, where his success neither answered his own care, nor others' expectations. Indeed hitherto Sir John had fought with righthanded enemies in France and the Netherlands; who was now to fight with left-handed foes, for so may the wild Irish well be termed (so that this great master of defence was now to seek a new guard), who could lie on the coldest earth, swim through the deepest water, run over what was neither earth nor water, I mean bogs and marshes. He found it far harder to find out than to fight his enemies, they so secured themselves in fastnesses. Supplies, sown thick in promises, came up thin in performances, so slowly were succours sent to him. "At last a great lord was made lieutenant of Ireland, of an opposite party to Sir John ; there being animosities in the court of queen Elizabeth (as well as of later princes), though her general good success rendered them the less to the public notice of posterity. It grieved Sir John to the heart, to see one of an opposite faction should be brought over his head, insomuch that some conceive his working soul broke the cask of his body, as wanting a vent for his grief and anger; for, going up into his chamber, at the first hearing of the news, he suddenly died, anno Domini 1597." So burst the mighty heart that could not brook undeserved disfavour from his queen. A writer of that day, on "The Gouemment of Ireland vnder Londoo, sm. 4co, the Honorable I vst and wise Gouernour Sir John Perrot Knight :tsf.P· ' 9 &c. beginning 15 84 and ending I 588," speaks of "Generall Norreys Lord President of Mounstcr &c." as "braue hearted • N orreys," " neuer enough praysed N orreys ;" an d t h us ts S pen- Moxon's Edition, p. 7. ser's eulogium justified: "To tlu Right Nobk Lord and most valiaunt Captaine Sir JoHN NoRRIS,
Knight, Lord Pnsidmt of Mounst(r. Who ever gave more honourable prize To the sweet Muse then dirl the Martiall crew,


Notes Literary a1zd Biographical.
That their brave-deeds· she-might immortalize In her shril tromp, and sound their praises dew ! Who then:ought more to favour her then you, Most Noble Lord, the honor of this age, And Precedent of all that armes ensue ! Whose warlike prowesse and manly courage, Tempred with reason and advizement sage, Hath:fild sad Belgicke with victorious spoile; In Fraunce and Ireland left a famous gage ; And lately shakt the Lusitanian soile. Sith then each where thou hast dispredd thy fame, Love him·that hath eternized your Name."

Vol. ii. pp. llo and 191.

Some letters from sir John Norris are printed in Wright's Quem Elizabetk and Iter Times.
EMBLEM, p. 199.- To THOMAS WILBRAHAM Esquier. "Sir Richard Wilburgham, or Wilbraham," says Ormerod, "the earliest known ancestor of the family, ·is supposed to have derived his name from the manor of Wilbraham in Cambridgeshire, where a family, bearing the local name, was settled about the time of Henry 11." Thomas Wilbraham, or Wilbram, of Woodhey, near Nantwich, was sheriff of Cheshire in I 585, the year of the dedication of Whitney's emblems. ·He ranked third in the list of the gentry of his hundred, and appears well to have deserved the respect universally accorded to him by his contemporaries. William Webbe, who knew him intimately, pays a warm tribute to his worth in the Itinerary of the Hundred of Namptwicke: "And so we come to Faddiley, another member, or rather entire Lordship of it self, divided between the houses of Peever and Handford; and hereunto lyeth adjoyning the Demain and Hall of WoodllC)', which as it was the first place where my feet had some rest after the variable courses of my youth, so I could here long dwell upon the remembrances of that ever worthy honoured owner of it, and of me his most unworthy servant, Tlwmas Wilbrakam Esquire, if even here my Ink were not forced to give place to the tears that fall from my eyes. But what need I think upon the commending of him, the world takes knowledge of his worth. The God whom he served is the God of his Seed, the

H i•t??" or ... Cheobtro, \'01 m . . P· 11}6.

King's Vale Royal, p. $7.

King'• Vale Royal, p. 71·

Notes Literary and Biographical.

38 I

blessing of Heaven is upon his house, and so I hope and pray it may long continue." Need we wonder, since Geffrey Whitney was born in the same parish of Acton in which Woodhey is situated, that he should make its owner the model of the English gentleman,
"Whose daily study is, your country to adome, And for to keepe a worthie house, in place where you weare borne."

But alas! of that Cheshire-renowned Woodhey, except the extensive stabling, and the garden wall and the fas:ade of the chapel, not a brick remains. The entire structure has been cast down and removed. The green sward, in this very spring of I 86 5 as beautiful as the rich-hued emerald, alone is spread over the foundations of hall and bower; yet still out of that green sward springs the remembrance of one, " Whose gate, was open to his frende : and puree, vnto the poor.'' • And at the distance of about two centuries another of our great Cheshire writers speaks almost as lovingly as did Whitney and Webb, the one of his neighbour, the other of his "old master:" "The memory of private worth seldom survives the Onnerod, vol. m . contemporaries of its possessors, but this is not the case with the p. •91'· Wilbrahams of Woodhey. Wherever it is possible to glance beyond genealogical deductions, and obtain a knowledge of the individual representatives of the family, they appear to have been graced with every social virtue that could render rank endearing to their equals, and venerated by their dependants, and their family is rarely noticed in the Cheshire collections, without evident expressions of respect and affection." Thomas Wilbraham's first wife was Frances, daughter of one sir Hugh Cholmondeley, and sister of the other. His second wife was Mary, eldest daughter and coheiress of Peter W arburton esq. of Arley, Cheshire. From the first marriage were born his heir sir Richard Wilbraham of W oodhey hart., and among other daughters Dorothy, who was married to sir John Done of
• In the spirit of the row1del of Eliaabeth'& time"Content thy selfe withe thyne estat, And sende no poore wight from thy gate : For ,why this councell I the giue, To leame to dye, and dye to lyue."


Notes Literary and Biographical.

Utkinton knt., and of whom, according to Pennant, "when a Cheshire man would express excellency in the fair sex, he will say, 'there is a lady Done for you.'" ghe'.hr::·..ol. ii. Thomas Wilbraham died in 1610 at his seat of Tilston Fearp. 'J~vol. iii. nail, in Edisbury hundred, and his numerous estates descended pp. r,....rw. in his family in a direct line until, in 16<)2, a coheiress conveyed them to her husband, Lionel Tollemache earl of Dysart, in whose family they stiii remain, the present owner being John To11emache esq. of Peckforton castle. Gent. Mapzine, Like the name Mainwaring, this name Tollemache sets all 111.1, p. i. PP· anan rules of orthography at defiance. It is Talmash, Tollmash, Ta11emache, To1lemache, and in the Domesday book Toedmag. The family possessed lands at Bentley in Suffolk long before the Norman conquest, and there, until very lately, was to be seen in the old manor house the fo11owing inscription : "When William the Conqueror reign'd with great fame Bentley was my seat and Tollemache was my name."

l:h':::=-: [~om

For the ramifications of the Wilbrahams of Cheshire and Lancashire, i.e. of Wilbrahams of Woodhey, of Townend, of Dorfold, of Delamere, of Rode and of Latham, where they bear the title of the lords Skelmersdale, see Tlte Lysons, p. 369, and Ormerod in various places. George Fortescue Wilbraham esq. of Delamere house is the present head of the gens Wilbraham.

Plate LVIII.

Plate XIV.

p. ~00.- To RICHARD COTTON Esquier. For the account of the Cotton family refer back to p. 333· The device of the bee-hive is traceable to Horapollo or to Alciatus, from the latter of whom we present the emblem as given in the edition of 1551. Combermere is mentioned in Whitney's stanzas, and is represented in its old form in one of the illustrations.
EMBLEM, EMBLEM, p. 203.- To RICHARD DRAKE Esquicr, i1z praise of Sir FRANCIS DRAKE Knight. A manuscript note to Mr. Swinnerton's copy of Whitney's emblems supplies the following inf~mation : "This is the Crest of the Drake's family, viz. : a Ship under reeff drawn round a Globe with a Cable Rope by an hand out of the Clouds. It shou'd have this motto over it, AuxiHo divit~o, & under it, Sic

See Collins's Baronetage, vol. i. p. JJJ.

Notes Literary and Biographical.


parvis mau'1la." Also' "Sir F. Drake after his great voyage took thles or Devon, P~nce's Worib for his device the Globe of the world with this motto, Tu primus P· 2.4" and '-+S· circumdedisti me. But not excluding his former motto, 'Divino Auxilio.'" This voyage round the world was accomplished between the 15th of November 1577, when Plymouth was left, and the 26th· of September 1580, when Plymouth harbour again was entered. An account of the voyage was published by the nephew of the circumnavigator, with the significant title, "THE WoRLD ENCOMPASSED," and doubtless gave origin to Whitney's device and stanzas. The preface declares that the work itself was compiled "out of the notes of Master Francis Fletcher, Preacher in this employment, and divers others his fellows in the same : Offered now, at last, to publique view, both for the honour of the actor, but especially for the stirring up of heroick spirits to benefit their countrie and eternize their names by like noble attempts." Whitney's stanzas and some of the sentiments and expressions in" Tlte World E1zcompassed" are in close accord. Thus thenarrator of the voyage declares: "We safely, with joyful minds and thankful hearts to God, arrived at Plimouth, the place of our first setting forth, after we had spent two years ten months and some odd days besides, in seeing the wonders of the Lord in the deep, in discerning so many admirable things, in going through with so many strange adventures, in escaping out of so many dangers, and overcoming so many difficulties in this our encompassing of this nether globe, and passing round about the world which we have related." "To the sole worker of great things, To the sole governor of the whole world, To the sole preserver of his saints, To God alone be ever glory." The Richard Drake named by Whitney was a cousin of sir Emblems, p . ..,,. Francis the navigator, being the brother of sir Bernard Drake, who was knighted in 1585. Richard was born in 1534. and was equery to queen Elizabeth. The Cheshire Drakes of Malpas ormerod'•vol. ii. Cheshire, and Shardeloes "are descended from Richard Drake of Esher m p. Jb. Surrey, a younger son of the ancient family of Drake of Ash in Devonshire." u
a •

P~cer'• Worth IC5 0 0 CYOn,
Ed. ,,.,,, p. '"+S·

Notes Literary and Biographical.

There is an anecdote of sir Bernard and sir Francis Drake, which may find a not inappropriate place in connection with Whitney's adoption of the circumnavigator's badge and device. Sir Bernard's crest was a naked arm grasping a sword, which sir Francis had unduly assumed. A quarrel on the subject arose between them, and was carried to such a height that sir Bernard boxed the ears of sir Francis within the verge itself of the royal court. "The displeasure of the queen was shown in a grant of a crest to Sir Francis, wherein the coat of the Ash family was suspended inverted in the rigging of a ship." " Unto all which sir Bemard coolly replied, that though her majesty could give a nobler, yet she could not give him an ancienter coat than his." The coat in question is a dragon, or as it called in heraldry a wyvern, which with the battle axe is also borne by the Drakes of Malpas in Cheshire. The family name therefore is not from drake, a male bird, but from draco, a dragon. The contrary supposition however is made in the epigram, written in 1581, on occasion of queen Elizabeth going on board" the Golden Hind," at Deptford, and there knighting the now famous captain : "0 Nature, to old England still Continue these mistakes, Give us for all our Kings such Queens, And for our .Dux such Drakes." Hayman (Epigrams, published in 1628) takes the other derivation and avers, "Drake like a dragon through the world did fiie, And every coast thereof he did descrie ; Should envious men be dumbe the spheres will shew, And the two poles, his journey which they saw, Beyond Cades pillars far he steered his way, Great Hercuks ashore, but .Drake by sea." Of course Drake's glories were in his own time sung in Latin as well as in English. Our Cheshire poet, Thomas Newton, in I 589, published sixty-one Latin verses addressed to John .tElmer, bishop of London, "concerning the return of the magnanimous knight Francis Drake after his three years' voyage;" and H. Holland has some elegiacs to his memory. Camden's Annals and Stowe's Chronicle give accounts of his exploits: "RICHARD


Analica. p. uo.
London, J Yol•. oflo, 1 S99 and J6oo.

Notes Literary and Biographical.
HAKLVYT Preacher, and sometime student of Christ-Church, Oxford," in his "PRINCIPAL NAVIGATIONS, VOYAGES, TRAFFIQVES AND DISCOVERIES of the English Nation," records for Vnl. us "The famous voyage of Sir Francis Drake into the South Sea, 7-fS· ill. PP. noand therehence about the whole Globe of the earth, begun in the yeere of our Lord, 1577." Thomas Fuller in his "Holy State" wrote his life at large ; Dr. J ohnson compiled that life for the Gentleman's Magazine; and passing by other lives of the cir- ?.:t;.~Txf"e, cumnavigator, it will be sufficient to refer to the long biography in Betham's Baronetage, and to" The Life, Voyages and Exploits Vol. i. p. s6o. of Admiral Sir Francis Drake, Knt. &c., by John Barrow Esq." London, Murray, 1843. Portraits of the admiral exist at Knole, the seat of earl Amherst, and at Knowsley, the equally well-known seat of the earl of Derby. Among the "penny sights and exhibitions in the reign of James I." was the good ship "The Golden Hind," in which the encompassing of the world was performed, and which for a long time was preserved at Deptford as an object of admiration. A portion of this ship was made into a chair for the Bodleian library, to which in 1662 Cowley attached some verses, and a friend, George E. Thorley esq. of Wadham college, informs ~&er, May as, me the heart of oak is still in its sanctuary, "with Cowley's 1 f . stanzas attached, but the metal plate* on which the stanzas are engraved is worn almost smooth by age." The astrolabe which Drake used came into the possession of Bigsby, the author of
• Cowley's verses in {act are undecipherable, but were engraved "in an old. fashioned sort o{ italic hand, with a good many flourishes and capital letters." They are thus given in a Lifto./ Drah: "To this great Ship which round the Globe has run, And match'd in race the chariot of the Sun; This Pythagorean Ship (for it may claim Without presumption, so deserv'd a name) By knowledge once, and transformation now, In her new shape this sacred port allow. Drake and his Ship could not have wish'd from Fate An happier station, or more blest estate; For, lo! a seat of endless rest is given, To her in Oxford, and to him in Heaven." AsllAHAM Cowu:v, r66:l. Sent to the University of Oxford by order of John Davis Esq• the King's Commissioner at Deptford."



Notes Literary and Biographical.

Penny Cyclopoodia.

'' The Triumph of Drake," and the walking cane, "a bamboo, discoloured by time, 2 feet 10 inches long, with an ivory head and a hole in it," remained in the possession of Drake's family from 1581 to 1821, or 240 years, and was then given to Captain William Henry Smith, R.N. Sir Francis Drake, the eldest of twelve sons of a poor yeoman, was born on the banks of the Tavy in Devonshire in 1 545, and died at sea in 1 595· His body was buried in the ocean, and one of his contemporaries wrote of the funeral the rough expressive lines: " The waves became his winding sheet The waters were his tomb ; But for his fame the ocean sea Was not sufficient room."
EMBLEM, p. 204-- To ARTHVRE BOVRCHIER Esquier. This was the author of the commendatory verses " To the Reader" prefixed to the emblems, and ending with the lines: " Giue WHITNEY lhn lhy good report, since hee deserws llu same: Lesllhallhe wise lhal see thee coye, lily follie iuslly blame."

v. p. H+

Biogr. Univ. Yol.

F="• Select
Poetry of Eliza· !>eth's n:isn, vol: 1. p. xxv.; vol u. P· scn.

But it is uncertain to what family he belonged. The name was one of renown, for Thomas Bourchier, cardinal-archbishop of Canterbury, is said to have introduced printing into England, and John Bourchier, who was chancellor of the exchequer to Henry VIII., translated La Cltronique of Froissart. Arthur Bourchier published a fable of .tEsop versified, and is the writer of a poem which appeared in the edition of The Paradisc of Dayntic Deuiscs in 16oo. It is entitled "Golden Precepts," f h" h h r ll . f h 0 W IC t e 10 OWlllg are two 0 t e stanzas : " Perhaps you thinke me bolde That dare presume to teach, As one that runs beyond his race, And rowes beyond his reach, Sometime the blind doo goe, Where perfect sights do fall ; The simple may sometimes instruct The wisest heads of all."

p. 205.- To ARTIIVRE STARKEY Esquier.

Notes Literary and Biographical.
We may naturally look for some of the persons to whom Whitney devotes his power of song in the neighbourhood where he was himself born and brought up. The Starkeys, bearing for their crest a stork, as a Cheshire family were settled at Stretton in Budworth at least as early as the reign of Henry II. A.D. 1154. ~~J~s.Leyc:ester, and at Over about 1287, and on April 4th 1382, under the seal Galfridi De Warburlatz, a release was granted to Tlwmas Starkey of Strel/on. Two Starkeys in Richard H.'s reign married two coheiresses of the Oultons of Oulton and Wrenbury ; of the one -:;eJ~i::'.i7•9was descended sir Humphrey Starkey, chief baron of the exchequer, and members of this family may be traced to 1728; of the other are derived the Starkeys of Wrenbury, who became extinct in 1803. Now Wrenbury is very near to the place of Whitney's birth, and to Audlem where he went to school. Contemporary with him was Arthur Starkey of Wren bury, who was buried there in &!'.~~:·vol. m. October 1622. His father Thomas Starkey died in 1566, and pp.IQ4andzos.. his mother was Katherine, daughter of sir Richard Mainwaring of lghtfield in Shropshire. In the three generations preceding his father the Starkeys of Wrenbury became allied with the Egertons of Oulton, the Mainwarings of Peover, and the Warburtons of Arley.
p. 2o6.-To ]AN DOVSA, son of t/te very noble ]AN lord of NoortwiJck. Janus Dousa, or John Vanderdoes the elder, and John Vanderdoes the younger, were among the most celebrated of the literary men of Holland in an age which abounded in famous Dutchmen. John Vanderdoes the younger, born January 16th 1571, and dying 21st December 1598, was the most renowned of four brothers- himself, George, Francis and Theodore. George was an accomplished linguist, and undertook a journey to Constantinople, of which he published an account, and added to it Leyden, . . . . . vanous anc1ent mscnptlons from d"tr. 1uerent parts of G reece. cl>.i>.ic. (1S99·l Francis, like his eldest brother, was a poet and a man of considerable learning; and Theodore, born in 158o and dying in Labn Poets, Pee!lkamp's 1663, a man of knightly rank and judge of the supreme court, PP· 406-408. was recognised among the Latin poets of his country, and known also for his edition of Logothcta's Chro~ticott and other learned Francr. rs98.


Notes Literary and Biographical.



p. uvii.

Intr. Dissert.

works. It was .however John Dousa the younger, on whose untimely death Joseph Scaliger composed a long poem, an "Epiccdium" or funeral dirge, and to whose memory, in modern times, Mattby's Sigenbeek has presented a warm "Laudatio,'' or offering of praise. At the time when Whitney dedicated this emblem to him he had not reached his fourteenth year, but his extraordinary acquirements at a very early age gave him a place among those who were remarkable for learning even in their childhood. The Latin stanzas bearing the name "J ANVS DovsA ~ N oortwijck" prefixed to the emblems, and attributed to the father, were really the composition of the son.* In his sixteenth year he wrote commentaries on Plautus, and at the age of nineteen he had made annotations on several learned works. He was in fact even then a poet, critic, mathematician and philosopher. His moral character was not less excellent than his intellectual faculties were admirable. He had been preceptor to Henry Frederic prince of Orange, and was cut off in his twenty-sixth year, leaving a name still fondly remembered in his native land, and highly estimated in the annals of learning. Considering his youth Whitney's emblem to him is very appropriate. It represents a man gathering grapes, treading the unripe bunches under his feet, but presenting the ripe fruit to a woman standing by his side. In the distance appears the bow of promise and Iris, the messenger of the gods, seated in expectation at its feet In the university library of Leyden is a curious relic, regarded as having belonged to John Dousa from his fourth year to his death in 1598, and then continued by some other member of the fa~ily down to February 14th 1628. It is a quarto manuscript, bearing on the binding the date 1575, with borders to the pages of which more than one-half are not written on. Among the entries one is, "A memorial relating to the marriage of Ysbrandt van der Does, when he married, whom he married, and the birth of his children by his wife." A good account of John Dousa the son, is given in Peerlkamp's
• As appears in the edition of the poems of John Dousa, the son, "]ANI Dousu;. PoEMATA" Roterodami Cl:> !XCIV. 8" pp. 212; where, at p. 205, occur these very stanzas, "In Gulfridi Whitnei Emblemata nomine Patris."

Notes Literary and Biographical.


"Book, concenting tlte Life, Leanzingand Genius of tlte Latin poets PP. 178-s&t.. of tlte NetllCYiands." Harlem, M.DCCCXXXVII. 8vo, pp. 575·
EMBLEM, p. 207.- To M. WILLIAM HAREBROWNE, at Con-, stantinople. In connection with the county of Norfolk, and with Yarmouth, one of its towns, we find this name variously written, as Harborne, Harbrown, Harebome, Harbrowne, Harbourne, but all referring to persons of the same family. Were there not numberless instances of similar variations we should doubt whether Whitney's "William Harebrowne at Constantinople" was Hak- Hakluyt, vol. ii. luyt's "master William Hareborne," "her maiesties Ambassadour PP· 157 and :J.89. or Agent, in the partes of Turkie"from 1582 to 1588. Manship's History of Great Yarmoutlt however removes all uncertainty, for PaJ":'~r'sEdition, 'll' t hat work says express1 " W 1 tarn H arb orne of M un dh am was YOI. u. p. 1.8J. y, sent Ambassador by Queen Elizabeth to the Grand Seignior in 1582." * The name of this William Hareborne is among the names of those who joined in the pic-nic to Scratby island August 2nd 1580. Sir Anthony Harborne, a knight in the army of Edward Ill., is regarded as the ancestor of the Yarmouth family of this name, !'i!l~~~~lrf:'..S 1 . and the arms which he bore were granted in 1582 to " William Harborne of Yarmouth and London, son of William Harborne of Yarmouth, who married Joan Piers," cousin of John, archbishop of York. William Harebrowne, the father, was one of the bailiffs of !;,~~~~i. ~an-. Yarmouth in 1556, and in 1571 and 1572, and one of the bur- vo1.7.tandll'C; J6, pp. 199 gesses in parliament in 1575· William Harebrowne the son is and JOS. first mentioned in 1580 and 1582. The revival of the interrupted trade of England with the Levant is attributed "/Q tlte special/ industrie of tlte worsltipful/ and wortlty Citizens, Sir Edward Osborne, Knigltt, M. Richard Staper, and M. William Hareborne." In the "Queenes Commission under her great seale" it is recited, "that wee thinking Hakl;yt, vol. ii. well, and hauing good confidence in the singular trustinesse, obe- p. •s · dience, wisedome, and disposition of our welbeloued seruante

• "His great-grand-daughter married Edward Ward of Bexley. She-was created a baroness in 166o. This was an elder branch of the family of Lord Ward."


Notes Literary and Biographical.

William Hareborne, one of the Esquiers of our body, towards vs, and our seruices, doe by these presents, make, ordaine and constitute him our true and vndoubted Orator, Messenger, Deputie, and Agent." The sovereign to whom Harebrowne was accredited was "the most renowned, and most inuincible Prince Zuldan Murad Can," the same with Amurath Ill., who reigned from 1575 to 1595Hakluyt, Yol. ii. " The voyage of the Susan of London to Co~tstantinople, wherein p. 16J. the worshipfull M. William Haroorne was sent first Ambassadour vnto Sultan Murad Can, the great Turke," is an account well worth the reading. The ship left Blackwall the 14th of November 1582, and arrived at Constantinople on the 29th of March 1583, and on "the 11 day of April came to the Key of the Custom house." From his mansion, "Rapamat in Pera," Mr. Harebrowne dates several letters and consular documents. He remained in charge of English trade and English interests until his return " from ColtSialltinople ouerland to London, 1588." · In a brief but interesting narrative of his journey we are told that he left the city of the sultan "with thirty persons of his suit and family" the 3rd August 1588, passing through Romania, Wallachia and Moldavia, and by the middle of September entering Poland, with the chancellor of which he had an interview on the 27th of September. The exact ·date of his arrival in England is not noted down, but he was at Hamburg the 19th of November, "and at Stoad the ninth of December." Rlomefield, It appears that soon after his return, 16th September I 589. he vol. i. p. Jl9· was married to Elizabeth Drury of Besthorp, in Norfolk. He now joined with sir Edward Osborne knt and others in setting Hakluyl, vol. ii. open "a trade of merchandize and trafficke into the landes, p. S9J. Ilandes, Dominions and territories of the great Turke," and is several times named in "the second letters Patents graunted by the Queenes Maiestie to the Right worshipfull companie of the English Marchants for the Leuant, the seventh of Januarie I 592." Pict. His~ EnsThe Turkey company was incorporated in 1581, and it was to (and, bk. Yi. C. IV. vot iii. P· '"'· promote its interests chiefly that Mr. Harebrowne had been sent to Constantinople ; and by that same company various attempts were made to open a direct English trade with India, until on the 22nd of September 1599 about a hundred of the merchants

Notes L£terary and Bwg·raph£cal.


of London united themselves into an association known as "The Governor and Company of the Merchants of London trading into the East Indies."
EMBLEM, p. 208.- To M. THOMAS WHETELEY. The name Whitley, or Wheteley, exists among Cheshire names ;* but no identification of Thomas Wheteley with any family in the county has been made. There was a puritan vicar of Banbury in Oxfordshire, William Whateley, during the greater part of the reign of J ames I. ; and an interesting account of him, with a portrait, is given in Clarke's Marrow of Ecc/esi- E<lition r614, aslical History. In 1570 the Domestic Series of Stale Papers, p. 9'-9· p. 381, mentions a Mr. Wheteley of Norwich as one who might "well be charged with the whole or part of the loan assessed on him by Privy Seal." This may have been Mr. Thomas Wheteley, or of his family. EMBLEM, p. 212.-To the very accomplished and very celebrated physicians, JOHN, J AMES a11d LANCELOT BROWN E. Doubtless a most celebrated name among physicians; but Benjamin Hutchinson's Biograpltia Medici, or Lives and Wri- aLvodb. ho, on on, 1799. tings of the most eminntl Medical Characters &c. from earliest account of lime to the present period, contains no mention of John, James and Lancelot Sir Thomas Browne, the author of Religio Medici, though born in London in 16o5,t was of a family long settled at U pton, near Chester, and if the three physicians whom ormerod, vol.;;. Whitney distinguishes were not brothers, one or two of them p. +++might have been of the same family ; but as to Lancelot Browne, the Coopers decide that he was a native of York, "matriculated Arh~~· p. ~1. Cantab. vol IL as a pensioner of St. John's college in May 1559, proceeded B.A. 1562-3, and commenced M.A. 1566." In 1570 he received his licence to practise physic, was created M.D. in 1576, and "on 10 June 1584 was admitted a fellow of the college of physicians." • Peele hall, near Tarporley, was the residence of that zealous royalist, colonel Ormerod, vol. ii. Roger Whitley, who accompanied Charles II. in his exile, and who entertained p. r8o. William Ill. here on his passage to Ireland. An heiress of the Whitleys in 17o6 ;.h~ysons, brought the estate to Other Windsor, second earl of Plymnuth. +."Hie-situs est Thomas Browne M. D. Miles A• 16o5, LoNDINI natus, Generosi, Blomefield, Familii apud Upton in Agro Cestriensi oriundus," &c. vol. ii. P· zt4.


Notes L£terary and Bwgrapht'cal.

Smith's Gr. and Rom. Biog. vol.i. pp. 45 and


"He was principal physician to queen Elizabeth, king J ames I. and his queen. It appears that he died shortly before I I Dec. 1005." He was the author of an Epistle prefixed to Gerard's Herbal, or Gmeral History of Plants, I 597·* The emblems which Whitney assigns to .tEsculapius are very correct. The sanctuary of the god, at Epidaurus, "contained a magnificent statue of ivory and gold, the work of Thrasymedes, in which he was represented as a handsome and manly figure, resembling that of Zeus. He was seated on a throne, holding in one hand a staff, and with the other resting upon the head of a dragon (serpent) and by his side lay a dog." A cock was sacrificed to him by those who had experienced healing. EMBLEM, p.213.-To tlteveryfamous }USTUS LIPSIUS, adonud witlt alltlte glory of learning a11d wortlr. About the time that Whitney penned this dedication, the youthful Latinist John Dousa had strung together above a dozen elegies, odes and juvenile epigrams on the illness, or the garden, or the image, or the various praises of J ustus Lipsius, who then filled a very large space in the affection· and admiration of literary men. The emblem assigned to him, taken from Beza's Portraits &c., represents a dog barking at the moon and stars, and figures in the dog those who attacked the great luminary of the university of Leyden. In learning indeed he had few, if any, equals,- it was both extensive and profound ; and at this date (1586) he was at the very height of his reputation, not having manifested the inordinate vanity, mixed with narrowness of mind, which in 1591 induced him to dedicate a silver pen to the Virgin of Hall in a copy of verses filled with his own praises. In spite however of his errors and weaknesses he must be regarded as a man of great literary powers. Lipsius was born at Isch near Brussels 18th October 1547, and died at Louvain 24th March 1007. His school learning was acquired at Brussels, Aeth and the Jesuits' college of Cologne: in I 567 he went to Rome and then passed to Louvain and Vienna. Soon after, in I 572, he accepted the professorship of history in
• A Lancelot Brown, who died in 1783, rendered himself famous for his skill in landscape gardening.

Poemata, pp.

Plate LIX.

Oettinger's Bib. Biog. p. J76.


Riog. U nivervol. xxiv.

PP· ss•-ss7Drer's Cambridge, vol. j, p . >p.

Notes Literary and Bi'ographual.


the Lutheran university of Jena, and acknowledged the Lutheran faith. In 1574 he was again a Roman Catholic in the retirement of his native place, but about 1 577 he filled with great renown the chair of history at Leyden, where for thirteen years his external religion was Calvinistic. At the end of this period he returned to Louvain, and publicly abjured the Protestant religion. So many changes of course exposed him to the charges of inconsistency and want of conscientiousness, and doubtless he is to be censured for teaching in a Protestant college that no state ought to allow a plurality of religions, and for manifesting such extreme credulity when he re-adopted the profession of his youth. He was however a great scholar and a sound critic, as his works testify.* An entire edition of his works was published at the Plantin press in Antwerp, four vols. in folio, in 1637, and justifies Oettinger in naming him "philologue beige du premier ordre." For a Bib. Bior fuller account of his life and writings the reader may consult Chalmcrs's Ge11. Biog. Diet. vol. xx. pp. 314-319, and Biographie Universe/le, vol. xxiv. pp. 55 I-557·
EMBLEM, p. 215.-To M. JOHN GOSLINGE. Whitney had established friendships with several persons of • Several of his works issued from the Plan tin press at Antwerp, as "Justi LipsH variarum lectionum libri iiii. Ad illustrissimum et nmplissimum Antonium Perrenotum, S. R. E. cardinal em. " Cl:>. !:>. LXIX., -the first work which Lipsius published. "Corn. Taciti opera cum notis Jusli Lipsii." 8vo. 1574"Justi LipsH anliquarum lectionum commentarius, tribulus in libros quinque," &c. "Plauti prrecipue," &c. 8vo. M. D. LXXV. "Justi Lipsii epistolicarum qwestionum libri v." &c. "Ple~Zque ad T. Livium notre." 8vo. M. D. LXX VU. cc Titi Livii Historiarum liber primus ex recensione J usti Lipsii." 8vo. 1579· "C. Comelii Taciti opera omnia qure exstant. Quorum index pagina sequenti J. Lipsius denuo castigavit et recensuit." 8vo. M. D. LXXX!.; also Cl::>. I:>. LXXXV. cc Justi Lipsii Satumalium sermonum libri duo qui de Gladiatoribus." 4to. 1582; also 1585. "J usti Lipsii Electorum libri duo." 4to. 158:z. "Jusli Lipsii de Constantia libri duo," &c. 4to and Svo. 1584; also Cl::>. I:>. LXXXV.

p. 176.

Ann de !'Imp. :.~;~inienne,
p. 149.

p. r6s.
p. rh.
p. , 99.

pp. , 4 pp. 4•
p. 41.

and •77. and 181.

pp. o6s and •Sa.

And from the Plantin press at Leydtn. "Justi Lipsii antiquarire lectiones. Epist. qurest. Electa varile lect. Satyra Menipp. p. 188· De amphitheatro in et de eo extra Romam." 1585. "Justi Lipsii politicorum sive civiles doctrinae libri sex." 4~0. 1589. v J•J

3 94

Notes Literary and Biographical.

Blomefield'a Norlollc, vol. ii. pp.ll6andll.f.

repute in East Anglia. This Mr. John Gostlinge, or Gostlin, was a native of Norwich, and chosen Fellow of Gonvile and Caius college, Cambridge, in 1591. He was appointed Proctor in 16oo, graduated as Doctor of Pltysic in 1002, and became Wartinz February 16th 1618. On that same day and year he was also elected Vice-cltancellor. "This learned and excellent Gouemor of the College," records Blomefield, "died October 21, 1626, and is still commemorated on that day." There is this inscription to the memory of Dr. Tomas Legge,* in which he is named,

Dr. Gostlin was one of the executors to his old friend and predecessor in office.
EMBLEM, p. 217-- To M. ELCOCKE, Preacher. At Poole, a township in the parish of Acton, about two and a quarter miles N.N.W. from Nantwich, a family of the name of Elcocke possessed the estate of White Poole in the reign of Edward VI., and resided there for more than two centuries and a half, until the death of Mrs. Ann Elcocke in 1812, when under her will the property passed to her nephew William Massey, and is now enjoyed by Francis Elcock Massey esq. The Elcockes were originally of Stockport. Alexander ~lcocke, who died November 15th 1550, left four sons, of whom the eldest, Francis, died October 14th 1591, and the fourth son was named Thomas. A Thomas Elcocke occurs as rector of Barthomley in Cheshire before 1005, and this is the Mr. Elcocke, preac!ter, whom Whitney commemorates. " Preacher," says the Rev. Canon Raines in a communication with which he favoured me, "would be the highest style of commendation and address in an age when there were very few of the sacred calling able to preach." He also supplies me with the following facts: "1576-7, March 24- Mr. Thomas Elcocke presented to the Rectory of Barthomley by Robert Fullerhurst of Crewe on the death of Robert Kinsey, Clerk, the last Parson. He afterwards gave bond to the Bishop of Chester on being in• See Atltmtr CanlabrigimstJ, vol. ii. pp. 454·457·

The L)·sons, pp. 181, 4"1 and 47f·

Ormerod, vol. iil. pp. 188 and 164, Lane. MSS. vol. xii.

June •s,


Lane. MSS.
vol. xxxii. pp.

nand 41.

Notes L£terary and Biograplz:ical.


stituted." .Elcocke's ministry at Barthomley probably terminated about I6I7. In that age, as we learn from Shakespeare's sir Hugh Evans, Not~ and • • • • • Quenes, vol •· tt was not unusual to gtve the title szr to clergymen who had not and sJ., S99 PP· 401. proceeded to the Master of Arts' degree. The Rev. Edward History of Hinchliffe names Thomas Elcocke, clericus, but records a little L~~~~;6?'i>P. bit of gossip respecting him, the very year in which Whitney's 4 J' 44 and JSJ. emblem is dedicated to him, " I 586." In this year the parishioners of Barthomley preferred numerous complaints against their parson, sir Thomas Elcocke (inter alia), "That he greatly abused his Parishioners, and patron of the church, and that his curate, sir Robert Andrew, was a brawler and a drunkard, and was so drunk returning from Nantwich that had it not been for Robert Lant and Robert Yard!ey drawing him out of the water, he had been in danger of his life." The tenor of the narrative shows that if there was truth there was no less malice in some of the witnesses. EMBLEM, p. 2 I 9-- "In amore tormentum," In love torment The gnats round the candle are favourites with the emblem writers. Whitney borrows the device from Corrozet's Hecatom- Plare xxxu. graphie, printed at Paris in I 540, and it occurs also in Le Sen- Essay i. P·S4' · tentiose Imprese of Symeoni and Giovio ; but neither of these writers gives more than a stanza of four lines, and Whitney, according to his wont, extends the subject thirty lines, with many examples by way of warning to the inexperienced. The device and the Italian motto are both claimed by Symeoni Dn. Her. et . · r TT ·n_ . as hIS own · mventton, 10r he says, " "n gen/tuwmme mzen amy Morales,sJ• . •s6•, p. Edit. estant amoureax, me pria de luy trouuer vne deuise, pourquoy ie luy feis pourtraire vn Papillon a t'entovr d' vne chandelle allumee auec ces paroles: "COSI VIVO PlACER CONDVCE A MORTE." EMBLEM, p. 222.- To MR. RA WLINS, Preacher. As there is no Christian name added, and there were in Mary's and Elizabeth's reigns many preachers of the name of Rawlins, or Rawlinges, we have some license in considering whom Whitney intended. "A brief discours off the troubles begonne at Franckford in Germany Anno Domini I 554; abowte the Booke off common prayer and ceremonies," published in I575, contains


Notes Literary and Biographical.



Parker Society, i. pp Ill

Martyn'a Diary,

Ormerod, Yol i. p. :161.
Edit. 1741), p. IJSS.

Biomefieid,...,J.i. PP· US aod &J7·

the names "off such as subscribed" to "the Discipline reformed and confirmed by the authorities off the churche and Magistrate," and among the names is William Raulinges, elsewhere in the same book spelt Rawlinges. The date of the subscription is about I 557· Erkinald Rawlins and Dorothy his wife, Mr. Raines infonns me, were friends of Bradford the martyr, and there is an interesting letter from Bradford addressed to them, and also a letter from Rawlins to Bradford, dated Antwerp, July 3 I st I 554 The two Rawlins and others were sent to the Tower by queen Mary 18th March I555-6. Among the vicars of St Peter, Chester, is entered, " I 570 January 9, Edward Rawlins," who remained vicar unto March 14th 1573, when he resigned; and in the "Typographical Antiquities of Jost:ph A mes" is mentioned " I 59 I R Rawlins consort of the creatures with the creator, and with themselves." But not one of these is the Rawlins of Whitney's emblem; that was a Norfolk friend of the poet's, John Rawlyns, who on the 8th March I581 was presented by the earl of Sussex and Henry Gurney esq. to the united rectory of Atleburgh. In Mortimer's chapel against the east wall of the church is or was a mural monument, with the Rawlins' anns, and beginning "luf Ja~annd llat\llJ!nl, flartl)ampt&fnfru~." From the inscription we learn that he was born at Paston, and educated at Spalding in Lincolnshire ; that he was a scholar of St John's college, Cambridge, and that he was rector of Atlebnrgh for thirty-three years, dying May 2nd 1614. in the 67th year of his age. " etallum m(bf (&m Eam(t{lfum." His eulogy is set forth in two elegiac stanzas, it being premised that he had only one wife, by name Mary, dear, prudent, frugal, faithful, buried here beside him, and that he left four sons and two daughters, well brought up:

"If, Reader, thou seekest why this stone should speak,
Here are entombed the vast riches of his genius ; The praises of Rawlings living, living tongues did praise, His duties of life discharged, the rocks cannot be silent."



To MR.



Notes L-iterary and Bi'ographt'cal.


There was a Mr. William Stevenson, prebendary of Durham, I56I-I575• a friend of bishop Pilkington; whether he left a son also a preacher is not known, but himself died in 1575. I do not find the name either in the Atkence Ozonienses or the Atkence Cantabrigienses, at the time in question, I s86. Ormerod's Cheshire is silent, and so is Blomefield's Norfolk. The device from Hadrian J unius, edition I 564 is noteworthy Plate xxvia. for the spirited execution of it ; the rats indeed are triumphant, and the cats very subdued. To the beautiful border there is nothing superior in the whole compass of emblem literature. · Note also the border of the plates XXVIb, XXVIc, and XXVId. These, as we have before remarked, p. 2 50, are the sources of the borders for Whitney's devices. EMBLEM, p. 223.- To MR. KNEWSTVB, Preacker. Were Whitney addicted to satire, we might conjecture that PtatcV. both the device and the stanzas were an indirect reproof of the preacher whom he names. This was John Knewstub, B.D., at the time of the emblems being published chaplain to the earl of Leicester, and frequently mentioned in the histories of the day. He was born at Kirby Stephen, W estmoreland, in I 540, and probably educated there until he entered at Cambridge. Like many from the north of England he was chosen fellow of St. John's college, and afterwards ranked among its benefactors. During his residence in the university he united with Dr. Andrews and Dr. Chadderton in the observance of weekly meetings for conference upon Scripture. There is "A Sermon preached at Paules Crosse the Fryday before Easter, I576, by I. Knewstub ;" and a work, which passed through several editions, I577-I6oo, authorized by the bishop of London, and dedicated "to the Lady Anne, Countesse of Warwick," the wife of Ambrose Dudley; "The LECTVRES of John Knewstub, vpon the twentieth Chapter of Exodus, and certeine other places of Scripture." , 4t0. On his removing from Cambridge, in I579• Knewstub became rector at Cockfield in Suffolk, and gained distinction as the leader of the Puritan and Non conformist clergy in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge. When the earl of Leicester was sent into the Netherlands, Knewstub accompanied him as

~~ce·s Edit.

Notes Literary and Biographical.

chaplain, and a note on a letter from Walsyngham to Leicester, 25th April I 586, narrates the celebration of St. George's day in the earl's court at Utrecht, and informs us "then began prayers and a sermon by master Knewstubs my lords chaplaine, after which my lord proceeded to the offering, first for her majesty and then for himself, &c." NEd•:U•'• Puritanl.~' In I003 Knewstub was one of the Puritan divines who took tt.J 8U, VO lJ. P· •s. part in the Hampton court conference before James 1., and maintained that "rites and ceremonies were at best but indifferent, and therefore doubted, whether the power of the church could bind the conscience without impeaching Christian liberty." He died May 29th I624 at the age of 84* EMBLEM, p. 224- To M. ANDREWES, Preacher. Fain would we make out that this was the celebrated Lancelot Andrews, in succession bishop of Chichester, Ely and Winchester; but as he was only born in I 565, he would be only a student, not a preacher, in IS86. As far as name and locality are concerned, the Andrewes of the emblem may have been in 1586 Elcocke's curate at Barthomley, not far from Nantwich, and whom Hinchliffe names "a brawler and a drunkard," "Si.r Robert Andrew." The History of Great Yarmouth however shows very decisively who was Whitney's Andrewes the preacher: In "I 585 Mr. Andrews, a learned and godly preacher, was appointed by the corporation, with a salary of £so a year, and a house was built for his residence." Bartimreus Andrewes was his name, and he was the author of A Catechism witk Prayers, 8vo, London, 1591. This Mr. Andrewes seems to have been a very pains-taking and deserving clergyman, for in I 591 the corporation agreed to give him £so a year" if he be not put to silence;" but if he were silenced they mark their sense of his merit by still promising to pay him £25 a year. In 16oo they paid him £32 10s. "for his pains and labour, he giving the town a general acquittance."
• To those desirous of pursuing this subject the references by C. H. Cooper may be useful : Brook's Lives of the Puritans, voL ii. p. 3o8 ; Strype's Lif~ of Wllitgift, pp. 328, 572, 575; Strype's Annals, vol. i. p. 625, vol. ii. p. 6o8, Append. p. 16o, vol. iii. p. 471, Append. p. 188; Page's Supplmunt lo Suffolk Travdkr, pp. 9, 35 ; Peck's Drsidn-ata Curiosa, lib. vi. numb. 8.

Palmer's Man· ship, vol. ii. p. ISI·

Notes and Queries, •ol xii.

Notes Literary and Biographical.


EMBLEM, p. 227.- To M. lAMES IONSON. Previous to I593 there was a Mr. Hamnet Johnson, merchant of Chester, and a fair tomb existed to another of the same name "untimely deceased, and thus writ upon" : "Htrt /idn tilt Body tifWilliam Johnson, Muduznl; sometime Alderman tif this City, who dud tilt 12th day ofJanuary Anno Dom. 1607. Vivit post funera virtus."

KU!a'• Vale Royal, p. ....

Among the rectors of Church Coppenhall, which is about five ~~~~r..o1. iiL miles N.E. from Nantwich, Ormerod places Anthony Johnson, P· s76. who occupied the rectory from I583 to I62I. Whether James Jonson was of either of these families remains altogether uncertain, but the vicinity of Coppenhall to Nantwich suggests that he may have been allied to Anthony J ohnson. EMBLEM, p. 228.- To M. HOWLTE, Preaclter. The name Halt is of high antiquity in Cheshire. The manor of Wimbersley, or Wimbaldesley, near Middlewich, with Lea hall, belonged to the family of Halt for several generations; and the manor of Sale, once "the property of Geffrey, son of Adam ~J'r.:i~ Dutton, ancestor of the Warburtons," was bestowed by him "in PP year I I 87 on two of his gentlemen, Richard Mascie and Thomas Holte," and "their descendants continued to hold it in moities in the reign of Queen Elizabeth." From this family of Halts therefore might be Mr. Howlte the preacher. But the name Halt is not unfrequent in Lancashire, and a Y lliY. p. $0. Lanol.c•• Mss. Mr. William Holte, second son of Robert Holte of Ashworth hall, is mentioned in the Ist of Elizabeth. In I589 he is described as brother of Holte of Ashworth, a :Jesuit, and in league with cardinal Allen and others against queen Elizabeth. It is not however probable that Whitney, himself of puritan leanings, would entitle such a man a preacher. A curious old book, before quoted p. 396, in the library of Mr. x:suer, Oct. •J. Toulmin Smith of Highgate, near London, among the names 1 s. "off such as subscribed," in I 557 at Francfort, "The Discipline reformed and confirmed by the authorities of the churche and Magistrate," records " 7okn 0/de ;'' not very like indeed to Holte, but opposite is marked in pencil by some one who made


Notes Literary and Biographical.

inquiry into the fact the name Howlte, and thus, one of the confessors under Mary's reign, may claim to be Whitney's " Howlte · the Preacher" in 1586.
EMBLEM, p. 230.-"Tempus omnia terminat," Time terminates all things. With the final device of Whitney's emblems we place by way Plate xxxv. of contrast the device from Coustau to the motto "Le Temps fait tout," Time accomplisltes every thing. It is a quaint and curious ditty, that old French of his:

"The man well advised plucks hair after hair At his leisure from tail of his horse ; Be it good, be it bad, the foolish by force At one jerk leaves the animal bare. Time and labour conjoined, together work well;All things they bestow, as all people must know Whom despair never grieves here below ; Time and labour together, they ever excell."

P" ctuum vidd omnia punt:lum.


still remain unconsidered ; but here, in the Addenda, only a few of them will be introduced.
l.NTRODUCTORV DISSERTATION, p. xiv."Gerard Leeu." An earlier work from Leeu's Diu. Hist. Jurid. . "I uyden. press 1s date d 22nd Apn 1472, b ut I have p. 419· •••9. not seen it : the title, as given by M. Bode! Nyenhuis, is, Spie:el tier Sassm. WHITNEv's AUTOGRAPHS, p. xi. (note t).-Since this note was written, the courtesy of George W. Napier esq. of Alderley Edge, Cheshire, has supplied me with the means of giving a photo-lithograph impression Plate XLllla. of the title-page of the very book mentioned in Notes and Queries, and of which he has lately become the purchaser; it is Ocland's Ballles of lhe English, • a Latin hexameter poem of about 3420 lines, dedicated "AD ILLVSTRISSIHAM, PoTENTISSIMAMQVE PRINCIPEM, D. ELIZABETHAM, ANGLIA:, FrandtZ, C,.. HihrnitZ Reginam, fidei propugnalricem," and preceued by her anns. A comparison between the autographs on Plate XLIII6. Plate VII. and Plate XLIIIa will justify the conclusion that they were written by the same hand. Whitney's writing also appears, I think, on Plate XIII. in the words "Soli tlei MfUir tl gloria in tZua sempilerna. Amen."

• "The Tenour of the Letters," "ftam tbt &urt at Grmuwicll, tbt 21 of ~priiL 1582," "directed by the Lords of hir highnesse priuie Counsell to her Maiestit;s high comissioners in causes Ecclesiasticall," enjoins, "the publike receyuing and teaching of Cll. Ocklantks Booke in ILl! Grammer and freeschooles within this Real me." The letters are signed by Ambrose Warwicke, Robert Leicester, and others, and assign as a reason that "in tOIIUIUin ~ooU., illbnt lliums btatf)m l,9orts an otll!narilJ! nall

anll taug!Jt," " tbt poutf)t of tbt nalnu llatl; mtf)n tmu!t infutwn in mannms tban alluaunummt in bntut.'' Bound up in the same volume is Ocland's "EIPHNAPXIA,"
on the peaceful state of England under Elizabeth, a Latin poem of 1096 lines; and Alexander Neville's Kmvs, a history in Latin prose of Kett's insurrection in Norfolk.

Plata X la. and XII la.

INTRon. DISSER. pp. xli-xliL-"Coole Pilate, in the parish of Acton." A drawing of the house which tradition assigns as Whitney's birthplace is presented among the illustrations, and also of the church of the parish of Acton in which " the Mannour of Cote Pi/ate" is situated. The old portion of the house has most of the characteristics of a Cheshire home of Elizabeth's time, and the tradition therefore possesses some of the elements of authenticity; yet as Whitney writes of the phcenix,
"And thougbe for truthe, thia manie do declare, Yet thiii'IIIUito, I meane not for to aweare."

Plata XII. aad XIII.

INTR.on. DISSER. p. lv. - "Account in Latin of a visit to Scratby Island," from Whitney's entry on the rolls in the archives of Great Yarmouth, August 2nd 158o.

Auo 1s1<>. Plate XIL

1"' cum venerabili consortio tam Millitum quam generosorum et aliorum
expertorum hominum associati, unAcum quibusdam Burgensibus pru· dentissimis et maxime discretis, In insulam quandam novam, Tria. milliaria de villA distantem, nuper ex borialiali parte e contra Scrotbie crescentem, Et continuis ventorum motibus ex arenA conglomeratam et exaggeratam, transfretabant. ullt omnrJ insimull prandebant et postea super eandem globulabantur, Et nomen de §nmouff) Ilande eidem imposuerunt. et quia speraverunt eandem, tempore futuro ventorum continuis flatibus auctam fore, Et idcirco piscatoribus, nautis et omni· bus per eundem cursum navigantibus maximo adiumento et sublevamini esse: llJeo superiorem eiusdem partem cum Sepe cinxerunt, per quam, arenA tardatA, citius acervus et congeries eiusdem in molem accumu· latus esset, et paulatim in firmam terram crescerett et corroboraretur, bt lJto !lUJpfcante parvo Temporis spatio ab vehementissimis Tem· pestatum incursionibus, naves cum quaque eandem commorantes, quasi in tuto portu ab omni periculo preservati[~] essent, et custodirentur. ~utusquflJam Insuhe Longitudo tunc per estimationem continebat ferme unum milliarium, Et latitudo idem [1]

:notto .SrcunlJo lJie mensiJ llupstt Knno

presenti, Domini Ballivi

Plate XIII.

Nomina eotum tram 8rnnoJotum
quam Burgensium et Nautarum, qui prredicta Insula tunc ingrediebantur, sequuntur; viz.
Nomina miliium : Arthurua Heuiningham } { Radulphua Shelton militee. Bogerua Wudhowee Edwardua lBowerdewe aergentua ad legem. . . { Thomas Taaberowe } N omma Armlgerorum : Thomaa Blowerhauet A..rmigeri. Philippua Wudhowee

H8DJ'icua Appleyard J ohannee Bhelton Ichingham Evered Owenua Bowee Richardua Louedaie Nomina Generoaonun : &nmcia Traver Willielmua Downinge J ohannee Kunytt Thomu Bobimon ThomuBeman { Badulphua Wulhowae Nomina Ballivoram: } Ballivi. Johannee Gilee Carolua Calthorpe armiger BeDeecellua. Seneec: DOm. To:'!uaJ.=:11'D8 Badnlphua Tomp10n J ohannee ffelton Tbomu Damett J ohannee Greenewoodd

Nomina BIIJ'gensium :

J ohannee Boulden
Thomu Cottie 'nlomu Houiman J ohannee B.eede Richardua Smith N utarum · 'Hatth•n• ~bbe • • laoobua Bobmaon Richardua D&li

Galtridua Whit11111 lohanDee Bmithe, .mar





~~::;h'ual>f:!haml Naut..

Nau•--m · ~illielmua Cheene Na11.t.. ._.. • R•chardua Newton Henriou l'uller



&U tUi Mllor n glorio i• -



Note.- The last line, "Soli tin" &-(.,appears to be in Whitney's own handwriting,- the rest to have been copied upon the roll by his clerk, who certainly was not a perfect Latin grammarian, or he would not have written naves, prtstrVati tsstnl. A translation of Whitney's "Account" is printed in Palmer's Manship's History of Great Yarmouth, but as the exact designations of the original Latin are not given, nor the order and spelling of the names observed,• I here append another version :
'§rat (now) present, the Master Bailiffs associated with a worshipful! company as well of knights as of gentlemen and other men of experience, together with certain most prudent and highly discreet Burgesses,

Vol i. p. •os-6.

.;f'uttf)nmon, on tfJr snonlr lra» of tfJf montfJ of august in tfJr A. D. • ,ao.

• The original has forty·three names: Manship's translation gives forty·five, two additional being inserted-" John Bladded gent.," and "Mr. Henry Manship." The probability is that Whitney's clerk had inadvertently omitted these two names, and that Manship, who wrote his history not later than 1614. knowing of their presence at lntrod. Diu. the corporation's gipstying, therefore placed them on his list. p. s•.

crossed over the channel to a certain new island, Three miles distant from the town, lately growing up on the northern part opposite to Scrotbie, And by the constant movements of the winds gathered out of the sand and heaped up. fllllbete an at the same time dined ftnlr afterwards played at bowls upon the same, And to the same gave the name of §etmoutb Island. Knlr because they hoped that the same in future time would be increased by the constant blowing of the winds, and so be of the greatest help and succour to fishermen, sailors and all persons sailing by the same course, ti:betefote they girded the higher part of the same with a Hedge by which the sand being retarded, the heap and gathering together of the same might be the sooner accumulated into a huge mass, and by little and little might grow and be strengthened into firm ground, tf)at, fl» 8ob'l fabout, in a small space of time, ships, whenever tarrying at the same, might be kept and guarded from the most violent assaults of Tempests, as in a harbour safe from every danger. Of \Dbitb lslanb the Length by estimation then contained almost a mile and the breadth about the same. The names of the knights, esquires, gentlemen, bailiffs, burgesses and sailors may easily be made out from the Latin original, to which readers are referred. INTROD. DJSSER. p. lxxiv. - "Ta Tpla Taiira." Faith, Hope and Charity, here symbolized by the cross, the anchor and the dove, were also symbolized, though in a different manner, by Lorenzo the Magnificent Giovio's Diakgo, pp. 42, 43, as translated by Daniell, gives us the following account : "Iou. I canol go beyond the three Diamiits which the great Cosimq did beare, which you see engrauen in the chamber wherein I lye. But to tell you the trueth, although with all diligece I haue searched, yet canot I find precisely what they signifie, & thereof also doubted Pope Clemet, who in his meaner fortune lay also in the selfe same chamber. And trueth it is that he sayd, the Magniji&O Lorenzo vsed one of them with greate brauerie, inserting it betweene three feathers of three sundrie colours, greene, white, and red : which betokened three vertues, Faith, Hope and Charitie, appropriate to those three colours: Hope, greene: Faith, white : Charitie, red, with this worde, Sempu, belowe it Which Impresa bath bene vsed of all the successors of his house, yea, and of the Pope : who did beare it imbrodered on the vpper garments of the horsmen of his garde, vnder that of the yoke."
WHITNEY's MoTToEs, pp. lxxv-lxxx.- In general, Whitney has given

Piale LXX.

the same mottoes as the authors whose devices he has appropriated, but in several instances-probably in upwards of sixty-while imitating and adopting the devices, he made some changes in the mottoes; thus : Par•· MDtiD. A11tM<-. P11r•· MDttD. A11tiiDr.
1S4 &tuaila inuidim nooendi libido. Mgtlt. Eti.. 69 93 Aliena si ..timaria inforfortunia, Tune aequiore menteperfere1 tua. F"""' p.s6 211 A matrimonio ab4it snpi· cio. P. Po..U, 77 29 Amor flliorum. Ale. 193, 667 19o6. Bia dat qui tampcative donat. Dft. Hw. 172 140 Canis queritur niJnium no· cere. SIHIII. p. rS3 S2 Cauendum a meretricibua Ale. 76, 2S4 102 Coelitua impendet. Dft. Hw. h 17S Coelum, non animum mu· tant. Samb. p. 104 67 Conacientia integra, lau· rua. SIHIII. p. 14 98 ConiiU811ere hominea,euentu ai qua ainiatro Vota ea· dunt, iia aeae &e. Fatlf"'li, p. 36 156 Corrumpunt muUi, atque hominum de pectore aolent Olfenais aua llllpe novia &c. ~. p. ll4 214 Dine indoetus. Ale. 189, 658 153G. DiTina ~to• hominea Ylciaeitur 11'11. F<JW~~i, p. uS s Doetoa doetia obloqui ne· (aa - · Ak. 179, 617 147 Dulcia quandoque amara Ak. 111, 391 fieri. 68 Eoquia dieeernit utrum· 9ue. Dft. Hw. 88 115 Etwn Fortunam. Dft. Hw. 132 111 Et pati fortia. Dft. Hw. 7 3 37 'Exlpllo" Uaopa B&pa. Ale. 167, 579 •ss Exitium uatis parit indul· gentia patrum. FIUnli, 120 124 Fiotuaamious. &mb. p. 19S u Hac illao perfluo. Dft. Hw. 89 57 Imposaibile. Ak. 59, 235 38 In adulari neacientem. d.k. 35, 160 202 In auliooa. .J.le. S6, 316 14-4 In an.roa, vel quibua melior oonditio ab extranei& of· fertur. .dk. S9, 323 77G. In deprehenaum. Ak. 21, 102 94 Invidia. .dk. 71, 271 16 In eoa qui aupra Yirea qui· quam audent. Ak. sS, 232 79 LuciTia. Ak. 79, 294 J62 Lupus et Mulier. Fatlrfl;, p. 128 %10 Magna mala ex leuibus vitnt mena prouida 1ignis. Fae-r11i, p. 125 1S9 Maleficio beneficium com· penaatum. Mgtll. Etlt. 177 170 Male parta, male dilabun· ter. Ak. 12S, 461 15S Moroaa, & discora vel mortua litigat uxor. FIUnli, p. 49 39 Ne ineerta certia anteponantur, veto. F<JW~~i, p. 91 sS Non dolo, aod vertute. Safllh. p 110 99 Nupta eontagioao. Ale. 197, 6S1 52b. Obnoxia inflrmitaa. Ak. 169, sSs 4S Ocni eiBgie~ de iis qui meretricibua doneut quod in bonos usus nrti debent. Ak. 91, 328 ISJII. Paratus animo contra ini· qua euuum, Aut vineet ilia, aut &o. FIJW!Ii, p. r33 540· Parem delinqueutia et auaaoria culpam eaae • .dk. 17 3.596 117 Parce Imperator. Dee. Hw. 76 196 Pennm gloria immortalia. J11rt. 6o, 66 96 Petram imitare iuuentua. J11rt. 59,65 149 +w--t.. .dk. 69, 261 9 Pluaqu&m Diomedia & Glauci permutatio. Samb. p. 28 200 l'rincipia clementia. Ak. 148, 528 roB Prudent.. Ak. 18, 91 7s Qum supra nos, nihil ad nee. .dk. 102, 358 16o Quem bilinguem uoati; ami· cum ne tibi huno adacia· cito. FGtlf"rti, p. 97 78 Qui alta oontemplantur, oadere. Ak. 104, 367 157 Quid rerum cauaaa, na· turmque abdita queria, &c. F<JW~~i, p. 123 S6 Bestat ex Tictore Orientia. DR.Hw. 31 227 Solua pro meretia. Dft. Hw. 161 191 Spe alleetat inani. Dft. Hw. 93 IJ-7 Bpea proxilna. Ale. 43, 1S8 1S6 BurlaHarped'Orpbeus. Pe-.9fiW',389 143 Ulteriua ne teudeodija. IHo. Ht~r. 93 47 Unum nihil, duoa pluri· mam poaae. Ak. 41, 185 171 Vaua, DOD leetio prudentea facit. Samb. p. 62 4 Veritu tempore reuelatur, dieaidio obruitur. J.,.. 53, 59 91 Vicinitaa mala inatar infortunii est. FatmJi, p. 95 172 Vita mortalium vigilia. Jv.n, s, 11


Plate xv1. THE FRONTISPIECE. p. 2J2.-Armoria/.&arings of Andreaa Alciatus, emblazoned in 1546, from the edition of his emblems by Aldus:
"NliVD PBOCBAITDU.TE. Of Aleiat'a race the elk the motto bean, 'Prooraetina.tion fiVMy moment ahun.' The conqueror anewered one who longed to lmow How be 10 much in time 10 abort bad done; 'NeTer of will defer;' the elk declaree, That swift aa strong his OOUJ'IIe ahall onward go."

EsSAY I., p. 233.- Whitney made a sekclim from the labours of earlier writers, and especially from those whose works had been imprinted "in the house of Christopher Plantyn." This statement furnishes the reason why there should be so very many correspondences and resemblances between Whitney and his predecessors for nearly a century in the same art, and yet that absolute identities should be confined to the circle of writers that were patronized at Antwerp and Leyden. Looking at his work, and Pages 1·16. particularly at the " Epistle Dedicatorie" and the address "to the Reader," we can scarcely admit that he was unaware of the Trtalists on Droim ofArms and Lovt, by Giovio, Ruscelli and Dominicho. In the Clwkt ·of .Em61tmes so many counterparts exist, set forth with word, device and stanza, to the descriptions and mottoes of these three Italian writers, that it is only reasonable to infer Whitney's knowledge of them, and unconscious if not direct use of the materials which they supply. We will therefore, so far as relates to Whitney, trace out some correspondences and resemblar.ces, and the more so because the principles, history and construction of emblems which Giovio's Trtafist develops possess high value in themselves, and present many points of interest in connection with emblem art. Besides this plan will afford a suitable opportunity for introducing some of the historical anecdotes with which certain devices and mottoes are accompanied. For this purpose we take the seven emblems from Whitney, o.n pages 111, 121, 139a, 140, 153a, t66 and 195, which correspond in their Plate LX. mottoes or general nature with seven others in Giovio's Dialogo, edition in Roma M.D.Lv.• Emb. P. m. Whitney's motto, "Pit/as in palriam," and the device of Sca:vola's Dialogo, p. 6+. hand thrust into the flame, correspond with Giovio's "fortia factrt d pati Romanvm tsl," To do braue deeds and to suffer belongs to a Roman.
• We give the references to the Italian of Giovio, Ed. 1 Daniell, I 585.

sss, and the translation by

This motto was placed by S. Mutio Colonna on the "vpper Armour and Ensignes" of his "companie of an hundred Launces," with the device of "an hande burning in the fire vpon an Aulter of Sacrifice." The allusion is to Mutius Screvola, who burned his hand because it had failed to strike Porsenna dead,- thus expressed by Paradin : " Tt/l'le,vi'!!'• rtgrtt &- dtsplaisir rtt;ttd M. ScatJ()/a Rommain, d'auoir failli a occirt ~,er;•qves, k Tirant, qui opprimoil sa patrit, qut lui mtsmu dans vn ftu, m voulu/ punir sa main propn." The next motto, "Ftslina lmte," with its appropriate device of a but- Emb. P. m. terfiy held captive by a crab, is expressed in Giovio by the synonymes Dialogo, p. f. "proptra tardt," Hasten slowly. Giovio takes this as an example of Imprtsas known to the ancients, and. records among others how "Piu/arch see WhnDey, For n":mple, reporteth that Pompey the great d1d beare for his Enseigne a Lyo with P· u6. a sword clasped in his claw. We find also in the remaynes of old antiquities many to haue like signification to our moderne Imprtus, as appeareth in that of Vtspasianus, which was a Dolphin intangled with an Anchore, with this posie: Ftslina lmte, Make soft speede." Daniell adds to the text of Giovio, "A sentence which Octavianus Augustus was wont often to vse." • Giovio and Symeoni's &ntmtios! Imprtst Edit. . 1 sM· p. 11 gives the following Italian version :

4w.gwto priG eol Gra~~e!No la Far:falla F~c. i~t ()lf0 IOOlpir~ il/ul fX~f~Utto, QIIIUi diciue i• eoli oario oba.tta, OM bin pn~~~, Ja tOito, ..,, -Jalla."


Festina !en·
1 ~·


"Sic sptctanda fidts," and gold on the touchstone, find their counter- Emb. p. IJ9of. part in Giovio's "Fidts hoc vno, virtvsq1tt probantur," Fidelity and valour Dialogo, p. ~ •. are proved by this one thing ; where the allusion is to Fabril~ Colonna who took for his Impnsa a touchstone, "to importe that his vertue & faith should of a! men bee knowne by touch and trialL This did he weare,at the coflict of Raumna, where his valiant courage was manfully shewen, albeit he was there wounded and taken prisoner." Previous notices at pp. 303, 304 and 364 ghow that other persons
• The addition to Giovio's text is probably from Symeoni's .Devius H<r~u d Plate LXII . Moraks, p. 218, edition 6 Lyon 1561, which is also the source of Paradin's and of Whitney's emblem. We there read of the "bon Princ~ ~~ Emp"~ur August~," that wishing to show that the first reports and informations are not lightly to be believed, "f~il frapper mtr~ plu.rimrs autru m v~ sim~ mtdailk tl'or vn Papillon tf vn~ Escr~isu, sig'nijianl la vistuu par I~ Papillon, d par r Escrmiss~, la par~su, l~s'lu~lks dnu: ellos~s font t•n fnnprnntnl n~ussair~ a VII Prina."




Emb. p. 140.
Dialogo, p.

Edit. ADtv.

IS~. p. 18J.

Emb. p. 'SI"·

Dial<>&o, p. I U.

Fable 70.

also adopted the same devict>. Paradin, from whom Whitney borrowed it, merely remarks : "Si pour esprormtr le fin Or, ou autn metaus, Ion Its raporlt sus la Totl(nt, sans qtlon se conjit de kurs tinftmens, ou de kurs sons, aussi pour connoitrt Its gtns de bitn, & verlueus personnages, se faul prendre gardt a la splmdmr dt leurs auures, sans s'arresftr au babll." The motto, " Feriunl summos fulminn monies," was adopted by Cresar Borgia's brother Don Francisco duke of Candia, "who had for his lmpresa the Mountaine Chimera, or Acroceraunts strike with the lightning of heauen." "Which likewise was verified in his vnhappie end, being strangled and throwne into Tibtr by C..asar his brother." Whitney has nothing in common with Giovio but the motto, and the last of his three stanzas. The device in the Choice of Embkmts is identical with one in Sambucus, and the first two stanzas are founded on the ten elegiac lines of the sa::ne author, whose motto, "Canis queritur nimium nocere," is far more suitable to the subject than the one adopted through Giovio from Horace. Again in the motto only, Pro bono malum, is there a correspondence between Whitney and Giovio. The illustrations given are widely different, though both appropriate: "Master Lodouico Aristo," says Giovio, as translated by Daniell, "inuented a notable Imprwz, figuring a Hiue of Bees with their home, whom the vngratfull peasant doth stiffie with smoke, bereauing them of life, to recouer their honie and waxe : with this mot, Pro bono malum : signifying thereby as it is thought how he had beene ill intreated of a certaine Nobleman, which may also bee gessed by his Satyrs." Whitney's device is from Faerni's Fables, and pictures the hind that injured the branches which concealed her, and thus returned evil for good, and brought vengeance on herself; for "DiriiUI ingrat~ Aomi- vkilcitw trtJ." Whitney applies the motto, "Si Deus nobiscum, IJUis contra nqs," so as to suit a device for the apostle Paul; • but Giovio, in a passage which Daniell omits, appropriates it to one of the kings of France. After describing the device of Louis XII., a hedgehog crowned, Giovio says: "I have passed by the Impnsa of Charles VIII., because it had neither shape nor subject; though it had a motto very beautiful in spirit, 'If God bt for u.s, wlto against us.' On the standards and the coats of the
• Thus given by Paradin: "Saint Paul, m rul~ tl~ Malk fut trwrdu ti'flll Viper~: ntanl111oins ( quoip~ ks Barbaru tlu /im I~ milasu autrtmnll) M VQ/uJ fo tk 14 fltonun, strouant dt sa fltaill la B~st~ dans ~~ f~: t'ar vmtab/-ml d pi Dinl vnd aid" il 11'y a rim qui puisu nuir~."

Emb. p, 1666.
Di•IOIJO, p. s6.

Devises Hero'iques, fol.rn.

archers of the guard there was nothing but the letter K sunnounted by the crown, which indicated Charles's own name." Our last instance is of similarity of devices between Whitney and Emb. P· •9s. Giovio, but of dissimilarity of mottoes. The device was invented by Dialoao, p. 79· Giovio himself,- an elephant crushing a dragon. The mottoes are, in the dialogue, a Spanish one," NoN vos ALABEREis," You need not boast; and in the Choice of Emblemes, " Victoria cruenta," A bloody victory, from Plantin's edition of Sambucus, 1569, p. :z:z8. Giovio is rehearsing three Impresas of his own, which he made "at the request of two Gentlemen of the house of Flisca, Sinibaldo &- 0/to/nJQno, whereof one was to signifie the revenge, which they had of the death of their Brother Girolamo, cruelly murdered by the Fre_(osi copetitors of the state : for the which these lost their liues, Zaccaria Fregoso, S. Fregosino, Lr,douvico and Guit/Q: which reuenge did something recomforte them for the losse of their Brother." " I therfore figured :an Elephant assalted of a Drago, who twinding about the legges of his enemie, is wont by his venomous byting to empoyson him, wherewith he dieth. But the Elephant by nature knowing the daunger, trayleth him along the grounde till he come to some stone or blocke, whereunto leaning himself he rubbeth there against the Dragon that he dieth." Ruscelli's Disc()Urst furnishes little, if anything, to be remarked upon Plate LXI. in immediate connection with Whitney : the case is somewhat different with regard t~ the "Ragionamento," or Treatise, by Lodovico Domenichi, edition Venice 1556. Here we find the germs at least of several of Whitney's emblems. I name two for example's sake : one, the withered elm and the fruitful vine supported by it • - illustrating Em b. PP· 6a the motto, "Amicilia post morlem dvralvra:" the other, a wakeful dog ;~·=~•eato, (Whitney says a lion) keeping guard over a flock, or at the gate of a PP· 101 and,,._ church t - a device suiting the motto, Non dormil qvi cvslodit, He sleeps
• Domenichi's text is: "Qu~slo nt'M fa//() rnordar~ UIUJ Impresa d~/1' Akialo ne Plate LXI. suoi Em61~, /iZfUil/~ ~ una 1/i# fr~s(a &- uiua a66rauiata sopra uno 0/mD ucco, con p. aoa. un mollo, AMICITIA POST MORTEM DVRATVRA; ildu si j>olr~6~ approjJriar~ a ./Jonna ua/orosa &- puti~a, la IJUIZI~ si (flm~ in uila ka di (on/inw amalo, &- manlmula fttl~ a/ marilo, cosi lama &- /z()1IQI'a ancko doj>o morte, con f"""' proponinunlo di non Uun-si mai piu S(ordar di /ui, &- dd/a sak promessagli."

t "Pn- li Cani an(/zora," says Domenichi, "sono intn-prdali i pr~/ali dd I~ sacr~ Ckim di Clzristo; ifuali si prowggono I" difmd"~ I~ gr~ggU da/1~ insidz~ d~ gli au· rursari &-I" cuslodir sicur~ I~ fr(ordl~ da ogni ingiuria d~ lupi. If allri6uila anclz~ a/ Cane la mnnoria, la ftd~, &- lamicitia. Pm mi parzu (Onumini qursta lmprtsa .ri konoralo J"sonaggio, col motto NON DOR.\IIT Q\'1 C\'STODIT."

pp. , 11 and


not who watches, or "Vigilanlia tl custodia," Watchfulness and guardianship. A comparison of the two writers, and an investigation into the two emblems, will reveal how close the relations are between emblem writers generally, and how we may often trace out their resemblances and imitations. The first example we have in Alciat's lines, followed by Whitney, p. 6:z:
".A.Jl:lln'l!H ~.

Edit. •sBr, Emb. lf9·

tttldam qvotJ; .frottdilJIII .,z.um, Complu11 ell fliridi flitU optJCII COfllll : Agtt01citq ; tlict~l fllltur~, 4' gr~ pMtntti Ojftcij reddil mutu iur11 1110. Ezt~mploq; •out, tlllu 1101 q1141'Wtl -itw, Quo~ uqu diliMf1911! ftrd.ert! IUIIIIIIII diu."
I 20 :

Edit. JS81, Emb. If.

The second also from the same author, Whitney, p.

quOd lig'lliJ Cllllftl tUI gllllu Eoi, Et ,.~ fGmultu ad IIOUG ptllllll taGIIU: Turribu tll 1IJCI'il fffifl9il•r -•~~ pt~l.U, .4d IUJHf'OI mtnlttllll quOd f'tiUOOtlt ~ En Z.o : 1ed cut01 ocvlil quitS clorlllil Clptlf"ti1, Temploru• idcWco pomtw 11ttU foru."




This joint work is the only one of theirs to which we have given special references for devices copied by Whitney; but if the inquiry had not been limited to such books as were the probable or the undoubted sources of his emblems, a much fuller notict: of Giovio and Plates r.x. LXI. of Symeoni would have been given. The omission lllight in part be and LXII. supplied by references to the titles of some of the earliest editions both of the "Dialogo," and of the "Dtvists HeroltJr«s," to which first Paradin and then Whitney were largely indebted. From the records of Giovio's death, December nth I552, and the Essays, p. •H· date of Antonio Barre's Roman edition of the .Dialogo, October 8th . I 555, it appears that nearly three years elapsed between the one event and the other; and Ruscelli, writing in February ISS6, in some degree confirms this by speaking of the bishop of N ocera as "the very reverend Paolo Giovio of happy memory." Plates LX. To the want of the author's own supervision it is to be attributed a11d LXI. that, between the editions of Antonio Barre in I555 and of Gabriel Giolito in I556 and the editions of Giordano Ziletti in 1556 and IS6o, there should be a difference amounting to eight or nine pages. The pages thus added are however omitted from Roville's French edition of I56I, and from his Italian edition of I574, which agree with Barre's and Giolito's. The titles of Roville's French and Italian editions have

not been given, and are here subjoined, because, through Paradin, they are the undoubted originals of many of Whitney's devices. DIALOGVE DES DEVISES D'ARMES ET D'A.MoVRs Dv S. PAOJ.O IoviO, Au~c vn Discours d~ M. LJys Dominique sur I~ ~sm~ su!Jid. Traduit d'Italien par S. Vasquin Philieul. AUtJt«l auons adiousl~ Its D~uists H~ro'iqt«s &- Moralts du Stignmr GABRIEL SYMEON. A LYON, PAR GVILLAVME RoVILLE. I56I. At«c Priuiltgio du Roy.'• 4to, pp. 255, devices 136, ovals with highly ornamented borders. DIALOGO DELL' IMPRESE MILITARIA d AmtJ1"ose di Monsignor Giouio Vescouo di Nocera, El tftl S. Gahiel Sym~oni Fiortnlino. Con vn ragionamento di M. Lodouico Domenichi, nel medesimo aogetto. Con la Tauola. IN LYON/ Appresso Guglielmo Rouillio, 1574·" 8vo, pages 280, besides the tables. The devices are I a6, also ovals, but without borders, yet evidently from the same blocks with the French edition of r56r, though considerably worn by use.• We will just add, respecting "the Worthy Tract of Paulus Iouius" Plate LX. "by Samt«O Dani~O /ale Sludml in Oxenforde," that it is dedicated "To THE RIGHT WORSHIPFVL SIR EnwARD Dimmock, Champion to her Maiestie," to whom "SAMVEL DANIEL wisheth happie health with increase of Worship." In ro pages "To his Good Frend Samvel Daniel N. W. Wisheth health ;" and in 1.~ pages S. D. makes an address "To THE FRENDLV READER;" then writes the translator, "HERE BEGIN THE Discovrses of Pavlvs Jovivs Bishop of Nocera, in the forme of a Dialogue had .betweene him and Lodouicus Dominicus. Dedical~d lo S. Cosimo Duh of Flurence." The translation comprises 99 pages; and then in r 2 pages "HERE FOLLOW tovching the Former subiect, certaine notable deuises both militarie and amorous, Colltcl~d by Sam~«l Daniel." The rarity of these editions almost demands the notice which has been given of them ; but that notice is the more required because the works themselves opened up the principles on which devices and emblems are formed, and furnished the students and scholars of the latter half of the sixteenth century with examples of emblem art to guide as well as to instruct. Indeed any general history of the subject
• "LE SENTENTIOSJ: lMP~E," also published by Roville in 1562, makes use of Plate XXXVI. 126 of the same blocks, with an ornamented but different border. Discarding the Euayo, p. lofO. borders altogether, Plantin's artist, in executing the devices for the Antwerp edition of Paradin, followed Roville's woodcuts very closely; and thus, as we have shown, 32 of Whitney's emblems are, for the designing at least, to be ascribed to the artists of Essays, p. J.tl. Lyons or of Italy.

would bestow marked attention on the Italian writers who, in discoursing of Imprints military and amorQUS, have collected and preserved information full of interest and value. And now, having brought my labours as editor to a close, I may be allowed to say that I feel far less confident than I did when I began them, of having sufficiently prepared myself by reading and study for the work. With every research that I have made, the extent, and I may add the worth, of emblem literature has grown upon me ; and if I had known as much then as I do at this time, probably I should have retired from the ,enterprise, deeming myself unequal to it : but having once in earnest put my hand to the plough I determined not to look back : the fallow ground has been upturned, and such seed cast in as research and opportunity supplied. His task accomplished is of course a creation of joy to the writer; much more would he have it, for his readers, a creation of regard in behalf of a class of authors long neglected, and especially of interest in those combinations of artistic skill and poetic imagery which at the revival of learning in Europe contributed so much both to amuse and instruct the literary world.

Janu&q! %iiitb, m.lrcu.hbi.

Pag,. DutrijtU,.

1 2 3 4

TABUU Cebeti8, Lflg. Bat. 164o,




7 8

orapoJlo'a HIDOGLYl'HIOA, Pa{ : rinu, 1551 0 :ri, 1391 272. o. p. 136, the Swan, xii, 126, 239· Tableau to Cebea, by Bom.rn de Hoogbe, 167o, xi. Brant'a jotuUiffra :f!au~, BtUk, 1497, xiT, xv, 234. 237, 274. Do. fol. nix, To sern two Mutera, xiv, rr, 223, 238, 274. 397· Alciat'a LITTLE BOOit o:r EHBLI:li:B, { ParViU 1534. xvi, 244, 279, 363. Do. p. 99, Acteon and hia doga, IS, 321· Parad.in'a DBTIB:U HnorQnB, { Aaeer• rs62, uiii, :dix, l, lTiii, 246, 280. Do. fol. 146, Wreath or Chinlry,

19 20 21

23 24



Idem, p. 161, One sin11, another ia punished, 56, 24.~, 279, lJI. Aloiat'a EKBUKATA, .Lvgtl. ISSI, 1, 245· 279· Do. p. 6o, Actlllo:a a:ad hia doga, 15, 321. ALL Alciat'a ExBLliKB, bt~ 1581, I, 244. 179. Do. p. 542, Harea and dead Lion, 127, 246. Ach. Bocchii SYKBOL. BOIIOffiM 1574. xii, 284ExBLJ:KI of Sambuci181 A~ 1564. 1, 248. Do. p. 128, Actaeon a:nd his doga, 15 0 249 0 321 0 322, EKBUKI of Had. JuuiUf1 Aat·


Beza'a PoBTJUITB .AJm ExBLDB1 G - 1580, xvii, 235, 241. 9 Peacham'e MDfliBv.A. BBIT.t.mu., 2nd part, 1612, u.i. 10 Do. p. 172, Death and Cupid, ui, llv, 132, 358. sabella Whitney'e -b:ltd fl#-· ll lllJio Lowloft 157 30 1Tiii, Do. Dedication to George Main· waring, 364, The Route where Wbitn91 ia aupuat poeed &o have been born, from a photol{raph, 1865, 368, 402. Reduced fao-aimile of Whitney'a Entry, August 2, 158o, on the 12 Rolls in the Archives or Great l3 Yarmouth, from a photograph, 1865, lii, lv, 329, 361, 402. 13a The Church of Acton, :near Na:atwich, from a pbo&ograph, 1865, 368. 14 Combermere about 1725, from Ormerod'e CAuiinl, xlili, xliT, 335. 3h. 15 Nantwich Church, exterior, built 14th century, 373· r sa Do. interior rea&orcd, from plate& lent b1 Mr. E. H. GriJJithe, Nantw1ch, 373· Aloiat'a EKBLI:li:B, Aldue, VnNIW { 1546, rri, 244. 279, 406. 16 Do. fol. 33, Terminue. 17 Alciat'e DIVJ:JISJ: lKPBJ:BJ:, ia Lio'IN 1551, 244, 279·

L us.


261J Do. p. 10, Em b. i.J.i, Cate in trape, rate at play, 222, 251, 397· 266 Do. p. 20, Emb. xiii, Iv7 a:nd Py· ramid, 1, 247, 319. 26o Do. p. 59, Em b. liii, EnyY .to. and Truth, 4. 250, 321. 26tl 25, Emb, :six, Crocodile an Egge, 3, 250, 321. aerni's Ht71fDUD FDLBB, ..dat· -~ rs8s,l, 251, 288. 27 Do. p. 36, Fox a:ad Grapee, 98, 251, 344· 28 ra:at'e fltf lrh IIJl,, PIJIV 1499oli.V, 234.238,274. 275• 29 Do. fol. 16, The Gameaten, 176, 238, 275. 371· erriere'e Ta:uTllll :oa Bo:n Ell'• all'!s, aPon. rH9· :svii, 234. 28 3· 3o Do. Emb. i, J8nl18, two beaded, roB, 238, 283. 31 Do. Emb. oi, Induetry draw:a by ants, 175, 238, 371. Corrozet'e HJ:OATOXGJU.l'llm, a { Paril 15401 234. 238, 281, 299• 32 Do. Butterdiea and lighted Ca:adle, 219, 239, 295, 395• Aneau'• PICTA Poars, Legdni { 1552· 239· 287. 33 Do. p. 49, Chaos, rn, 239, 352. P. Coatalii PI:GKA, Lflgtlii'M ISSSo { 240, 28434 Do. p. 178, Ruins, 131, 240, 356. Couatau'a PI:GKll, a L,Ott 156o, { 240, 28435 Do. p. 174. Fool and wile ma:a, 230, 2401 400·




Index to tlu Illustrative Plates.
DIKTijliMI. Pa11. D1KTi'jliMI.


4I 42 43


Giovio and S,rmeoni'e S:llfDNTIOSll lKPBmlll, tJJ ~- I562, 240 1 276, JII. Do. p. 24, Engraving wronga on marble, I8J, 24I, :a;;6, 294, 308, 375. 4"· Freitag'e MYTKOLOGI~ ETHI<a, .&1ttHrpia IS79o 234, :a.op, 290. Do. p. 249, ThePhcenix, I77, 24I, 29I, 373. 374Do. p. 29, The Gruahopper and the Anh, 159, 24I, 29I, 365. Beza'a Emblem xiii, Men and tha· dows, :nii, 24:r; :a86, 32 3· N. Ren5ner'a EOL.XB, FraJtCO· forli ISBI, 242, 292· Do. p. I42, Man a wolf to man, I44. 243, 365. Ocland'f .!li'GLO:atnl PliCBLU, Lo. dofa ISh, 40 I. Do. Elizabeth's arms, 40I. Plantin'e Portrait, :a66. Do Bry's Po:aTJU.ITII, part i, ha•· coftWti IS97• 272. · Do. part iii, htlftCj'ordU I598, :a ,:a. Do. Brant's Portrait, 274Do. GioYio's , 275. Do. Alciat'• , :a 77. Do. Junine' , :aS:a. Beza'• Portrait, :aSs. Portrait of .Ach. Boochiua, BOMM<u IS74. 283. Do. of Bambucue, Do Bry, 289.




Portrait of Beuener, Fra.coforli IS8I, 29Io Do. of Janua Douaa, De Bry, 355· HliBOIO~DBVIBliB,Lolldotl IS9I, :niii, 247 · Do. p. 213, Gold ou the touch· atone, I 39, 303, 304. 364Do. p. 309, Wreath of chivalry,

Do. p. 357, the burning torch fiOI innrted, r8 3, 298, 302. Hive of B-, A.lciat, p. I6r, Edi· tion ISSI, 20"• :a~, 305, 382. Besa'e Emblem :n.i.i, Dog baying at the moon, :~vii, :a I 3, :a 35, 242. :a~, 286, 307, 392· Giovio'e DI..t..LOGO &c., ilt R-, ISSs. Jn, 404. 406. Daniell'• Wo:aTHY Tlu.OT of Pau· lUI Jouiua, LoftdOfl IS8S, 3I I, 404, 4IO, 4"· Giovio'a R.AGION.&JONTO, with Ruacelli'e DIBCORSO, Ziletti, iJJ V~ ISS6, JII, 324, 409· Giovio'a Dux.ooo, with Domeni· chi'e Ragiouamento, Giolito, ilt V~ ISS6, JI I, 37+ Symeoni'• DBVIDB &c., RoYille d ~Ort I561, JII, 373o 375o 407, 410. Do. p. 244. The burning torch in·

sS 59



6:a 63




D,Kri;ti<n<. D1Krijli<n<.

Title Page composed from Symb. 147 o( the Emblems of Achillea Boocbiua, B0t10rtiM 1574Whitney'a Badge, appropriated from Booohilll, lib. i. p. :n, with autograph and motto. · The Eye, tlwowgll 11 darT& poirtt il viii , _ all tlli"!JI, p. 48, Heat Em b. & Baora. .4.~ I6J6. 400 lu.iv The Croae, the Anchor and the Don••• a compoeition for Faith, Hope and Charity,- tllue tile

Border from H. Juniua, Emblems,
.4.flhlwpia IS6s.

Reduced from Sententioae Impreae, p. 127, in L!/Ofle I562. Autograph of Christopher Baphel· ing, IS99· From V eridioUI Chri.Jtianua, p. 59.
A.rttoerpia I6oi.

From Veridious ChriatianUI, p. 33, .drtteerpia I6oi. 23011 Plantin'a Device, from 0Yid'a Metam • .drtttoWp IS9I• Pegaeua and the CaduCOUB, We2JI chell'a Cebea, PM"iliW ISS2· The Arms of AloiatUI, Edition by 232 Aldne, Col. 47, Vettmil I546.

The Phceni:l, Horapollo'a Hierogl. p. s:a, Ptwimlrssr. Lon "standing at. one,point takee in all," P· n8, Heat Emb. Sao. .dflhlerpaa I6 36. The church of St. Jamee at .Aud· lem, where Whitney ,.. at aohool,.fro•ta pAotograpfl. I86s. A cipher from letters in f)tf lrd :f.alt, I499· From VDIDICUB Cx:aiBrUJI1180 349, ..bttlerpia I6or.

Arabice, Latine.




P Y T RAG 0 R .tE~

Cum paraphrafi Arabica,





S A L M A S I I.



Typis I o



xs M

A 1

R E,

c I~

c • X11.



!lPOY ACl o'A A .0 N 0 ::t NI! lA





0 T

N'I L lAC It DE SAC RI S aotit &fc:ulpturislibri duo,vbi :hi fidCOI vetdfii codkfs· manu"Tcnpti reftituta (ubt loca pcrmW.• ta,corrupta mte ac deplorata.
~'" tlta/itlln(io mnu.,-Io.~ Vtic({tlll iDIIUIIliAU1CI" ob{mw;.IICIIIOII i11fitlf.ifrrte.
0 c.O ;:::;: N (I) n.


)'e«~oiiG"IrolVPt :>1' ~ Jd..\~

n{;" ,leor• /ofJI61.M· }'. r4tcmc (A.ltG"Idr /MAoi-'trOI n~rcupatrer(•
f..t..a )'lr •


Apudlacobum Keruer ,via lacob2a, fub duobut Galli.J. Q!!.o modo fenem Mu6c:am. Senem mu6cum volentes comonl\r.lre. cygnum pingunt : quod hie fenefcc:ns fuauiC.imu cd.lt conceorum.





0 0

M. D. LI.

Flai~ ,, J


§tultiftra ilauie.

f w lllldara NaUls : per Scbaltianu Braf\t: •erna.culo vul=gMtci.J ft.rm one & rh wh mo/ .p ciilto~ moktt1tti faturtatis : .·m1tas cffL1gcn: cuplttltl dtrdtionclfpeculo /fc;nnodoq; 8G !',tlu re: proqJ incni s tgnaurq; ilulcitt~ I? pccua·Infamia.' exe=cr.ttione,&confurattonc;nul? fabricata: AtqJfampridem per Iacobum Locher:cognomcto Philomufum:Sufuu;in latinii traductl etoqu!f1: &. per Sebafhanu Brant: denuo feduloqJ reuifa/~noua qda exatl:a<p emendatoc elimata: atqJ ful?additis q,bufdi nouisladmiradif<F fatuo~ generi:: bus fu pplera :fa= lid exorditur principio •

lflarragonlrr JJftcrioniG nuntp

.• +? 7•
Nihil finecaufa.

Io. de.Oipe.

De obfequio duo~ diio~m Ill e duos lepores venator cap tat in vno ' Tempore :per fyluas quos canis vnus agit Quicupitardenter dominis feruire duobus: Hie plu~poterit:frpe agitare volet.



Nemo pt duob91 dfiis feruire: aut eni vuii odtet & alterii dil_ aut iget vnt adherebit & alterii cotemnet ,,

No potefiis deo
feruire-& mamo/ ~~;::;~~ ne.Qui ad vnii~ <J fefimat neu [rii: bene peraglt. piu r1bus intentus mr ..._,...,.,,,_ nor efi: ad fingu :o ~~~~~~~ lafenfusCorigre

I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ habebitfuccdTu~ diesduasviasnQ. l
Stultus & is.fun1o qui vult magn.ocp to.nanri: Et m undo paritrr q Ufrit feruirc ,pphano. Nam vel uti do minis qui feruire duo bus Raro fit:vt tailS femper fit gratus. vtri~ ..
Math.vi. Lncc:.XVJ·.






In rmptlttorcl {turiMWL-


,, {cllto s.fi/emfi.- ri'O IMoHo ..ltllltfl
M. D. XXX Ji'11,

Cbri,.,... wma.,

~Atrot~• ~ ~ tihi S"114f'n' ur6tm It eomn~er diris cirlt& cobors glM~s.

it4te- mmtis gtnero(•mprodigc ccnfcs11 Q..lkld tM4 c.rtis ~tBicit oU. .Ios.

l!n ,.,..., Aff~orr.ttw polt~m conu&llt {1111Pfit, J• lW""- UINM {e dedit ip{t Jilis.




"" ro











~ i;:j


trts ../fuiln4rs.


s eL/i;nrer~



HER 0 I Q_V E S. De M.Qa.ude Paradin, Chanomf" cl.e Beav.jeu • JJuSI'f!'tur G•brui.fymton &- •K-

• W .1. 0 I Cl, T W.

1 ...



AN V ER !l,

<6 ;:;:;·

01" 1'1 mprimetie de Chriftophle
M. D.


0. '<


~ ,...._
v. .. , r' n t: .._"' ~ •; " ~ ~' -



,... {#, . . , , , . , R....a.s ,_~for-

z.. ,_~,.,..,.,.-,.,

:ru •• f«•


- · Wflwirtt~,t'~il J. k1 &Nl~r & ,.,.,,., T 1. rn


-~~.c.,u.;.,,~, cl"'"'

I C 0

iJ tft


'\l E R AE I M A G I N E .S

cipue minifterio partim bonarum literarum fi:udia funtreftiruta;partim vera Rcligio invar~is orbisChri ll:iani region.ibus,nofi:ra patnimque memoria fuic in~ fiaurata: additis corundem vitz& oper:E defcriptionibus , quibus adieCl:z funt nohnulbJ piewrz quas Ew B L E M A T A vocant.

C eN E V"/£,

~t :- D-. .6 .i· X .Y:

c AL



OR A GARDEN OFHEROYDevices: fumi{hed. ·' and adorJ}ed with Em111Wttliutl, utl~tl,

blc:mes, and l111prcfir of fun dry narur~s • Newly dcvifed,




D EAT Hroomc once,\\, togeither bothinthey!:1,-:e, meeting ith an Where fcant •


~tC"'t" : ' :-.ll h:abcc \\··hitr.zou~. !.a ,i

:Embl· qvoJ ~.nu

Both w~rie , (for they roving botf1 had heene , ) Now on the morrow when they tbould away, C r PI D Death's quiver at his back'had throwpe, And .DE .AT H tookc C Y PI D S, dUnking it his OWnc ._ By this o're-fight , it fhortl y came to paffe , That young men died,\'· ho readiewere towed: And age did rcvcll with his bonny-laffe, "Compofing girlonds for his hoarie head: Invert not Nature , oh ye Powers twainc , Giue C Y P 1 D •s dartes, and DEATH take thine againe~

· ab Aatlwc n ial!\


c_. iUuH vcn ~ .t



aCb.tttt ~ol'gap~ a
.,,. PleaCant 10ar,e:concatnm;
tJunrmD anD trn pbflo~ll

full anD riaiJt.llnrDDas P08fJ c5tn-

~0 tbt luo~llJfp~
,I..,, Gi.tiRGE MAINI/YAfl.LNG
.Cfquier: IS. \'V. lut"'enJ-..PHI .,_,, lritb ptJ.jMuftff• U.·cll
!Ji1 g•4')





N. ""

tactJ ftnllbrt IJ blot bm ibten ,UOJe ioptt&_l bJ &t:IUidnl'· Claul Cben tbak tnb~lJ eaec PJeCk art
an~» Darlt11~ euus

c ltte I· 11•~~tr.

~ttt!J(.pob4il},MA.Uf-. 4RlNG )64/IIJdt~tf.. ftlhifb n~WJbtr I but g~IJ"11'4ttU• fiotJJO' tltrt11lp1 ~~~ chit(•: ft•1 lr.,;,g frlfi,rh4Nitholl9,b •IH-Fio"tttr( /JouJ-l, t!H~ "1f;tr'tgood :yttfu lilllt of mJ. 14b 6Jir"hs t&ttt 'thty not(fll.l 111y{b1 tlll){li'eMfd )"rAt• ~tJ •srreo,pmciflr-lbr lt6(1tf4l'~ ..... J" of~•IH(itt; 11bit~ btltnf,t titlft'Jitf!,.(.#lk"

f1l~ .,,., {.rfVttOrr folfl~'t {'li..J..


NQ{rg•yt: l'Jii'.ri ;, ..,...,.

_necrag. a




f[DJJm pitpJSS.tJ1rrarr PJefent, ~ea bOCIJ abcen'e lletpt tbte free: . bneas,tfdjllt ttJou p:trtntwm





mfmbt ~»e~;n! ttatJt on CUrt.
!Cbt :tl1.


CliOr PJe(aiA


lboueJteiJGDr" Pttfence;fol

"Cbe mn.l maiiJI DO wu:

ac tane DoCIJ at ucell~

froitl our Cbi/Jh~ hff-ittlt1 r~«w•l4'tfJtfl&tl INII ~'1-*·'Yo•• IJelle•rr..fiairtloto fo'f,~..4'N· 'f'IPJTER.-fl~ DBMviDES',tf.Aflltttr,"'6•• ft {hMN 11t11tJ ntti',g,l "llo-!& 1~ "fJfolft ~'Fotyl6t f~ ~'mi(I{Jf¥¥1ri~· ~Y _ Jmla w•*'~~Mrd•ptr.Utl/ltfin:11bKhM PIG G'E.NE.S


fi .!f!N1;g~~~~-fJ•ifil, .,d




/'la?/ /.?•

... ...





J"L ?





~dr.tr.411J mfotl.irwr finmlfimll ttJTn• ~, St.1t cirr~~U {upn ptllort im1go t~
V£NITliS 1



0 <D"

C.. f"t'i~Te PAIIIi I I I • P. . . M.tt. f!7'


s,..._ vnaQi, u..., J«cm.

EJf ~ dlrs, pritfiU:,; ttmporll. fiub, Dc1; [rnutt tri~teis tJti.4 illclidiiM.

Et {t(e nulli profiumr wlrrr . uUJ TnnWJKf tjl 1 bemi!t(l 1Nl {c"f"S ICIIIIS I.gir.





















''-""~~ ~-'..ur"' J .tiY011NitJ friYumrj.. mttnii-J ti[;.i Sau.t prr"'PYbtm lr comu:& diru cinCl.c coiJors g/adijs . ..;{t? H( ittf tr mtntU .~rnf'YO~I'!' prodi~( ccnfos, ~od rutt comp/M·fu .Jitnt o,U.c n1.Jos. Fn nouiii.Afl~ton,tfui P'·fi'lu:rm nrnu;. ft~mp/ir,
ln pr.td.nnc.mibus ftdtdit



A L C lA T I V. C.


f.roblematum omnium aperraodgme,mens audoris e:tplicatur,& ob[cura ommadubia CfUc.lllulhaoiUH


Editiocertia atij5 mulco locuplet19r.


Ex officina Chri!lophori Planrini, Arch irypogr•phi. Regij.

A M D 1.1 41


Cum laruis non lu&ndum.
E N.Br. E N

c r.

J I I.

A: A c i

D A •ori1•1 pm•ffli cillfpidit ~j totftl hoflti4 Pktr•t , . ,foos;

H 1fi(Jr,

{-111pri,_, ht111J p•t•it fi#C"!f; i~tflllt•lltibiU i/W, CZlt~t~~ cllrlli & pttlibwtUOtrl 'fiUid.A·ftlrtil't, 7)ijlr•hi" Pt li.bir•• 1jl:fie ttt{si l11t1 ,,,;, CortlltiJat illl'flw.HI tiflliJii1P"n•


D ft~rrprom clfe liqaet Homericz iiiadotx. C: I ltorcm :ab Achillc iam ni11tcrfctlam drcom{bam r.rci Hc:impr-t~· bant, & monoo iafulrabanr. nc:ccrat quifquam qw c::uindo

• • · -~wausnooiA!iJCtct, Sic:c:aim &.lllcnas~

Q_V AE S T I 0 N V lvJ,

De vniuerfo genere,quas ferio

B 0 N 0 NIAEt .Apud Socictatem TypographicBonooil:afJS..
Cllri.t Epifo.(j- S.I•flliJu111ttffM• ·


"S A I" Jl y C 1 T l ll N A. V I·

.ll.flll P 'A N N 0 tf lt,

£ N 1'1'11. PI A. I, ! X

0 P P I C I N A.

C H A. t•

S 1' o PH 0 Ill P I. fl. N TI N lo M. D. I. XI V.

C 1' M P lt 1 1' I t ! 0 I Oo




Voluptas zrumnofa.

Q_v I nimH txn-ctt 'W1141111, .« fint fint
HtUWit opts p4lriM, prodi~Dicf.tt c.u~es: T Alltus amor -v.u~i~ t4ntNS foror -vftpic rec~trfot~ Indu~t 11t crki-U cbrtrlltt. bina fn-tt • .A'ccidzt .A'8~ori nl;i~ lflli ror1U1t11s ab ortll, .A' ~ib11s propn11 Ji!«tr~~tlll n-.u. Q!.bn m11ltos bodit, q11os p•fcit odora can11m -vU~ VenA~~di {htdiNm conficil, atqut 'Wrat. Scria nt btJ;,·po{lpon.u, commoda dDmru~ ~od fopn-tft'l'erum fie 11t t§1111S hab(. S.tpe ttiam f"Of"it$ qui inttrdllm iiXort rtlifla Depn-it txttrn~ cornger zftt$ l11it.


Confueo ..


A '

E. M 8 LE M -\TA,

D· A RN 0 L DV M

C 0 BE L t V M.

.Af.N l ' !,!/ l"VM Llbl:L LVS,




r V:!! lt P I A:,

E.t v.u.;:n~Chrtltop:1on Plantiui. M. n. LXV.

lnfo!t.mt pauid.a h;c tWio mufcH!i Clauji's mufiipultt carcere fthbUI. Sltblato'qHt maufortt pmwli

Crrfiu tJmc a»inuu eitgmrri inflkm.

fln/e ' ..:Y'cl

eAJ Iacobum Enr/UI,mpNb.HoO.
ct&Mjf41Nm t~imJictm.

Qio ftctr e"c""et Niilu;, arnlf,

P_r«fciHJ ,~tliMHit lwe[ll ponit ONil, WUJnms merito nos Cr(lfodJUu R!!_~fot a rmmine1111t Allte vitkre.








IT. · VV.4.





GAlln.tELE FA!!RN(.) C>ttr.DTJ~Dfi CMmiJii"'" o;a.~UictUi.

- Vv L PJS rf.-, •IMilt'Vitt r4ttlntS PotdDrta """ aw yrarfm mr -u•ltmJ


•~gilifotolhn fol~t~,

0 <.0' ;:+ N.

1.1 ;,ifolU M{ttdms,.,._/Ccrlm, .tgtdifot~. dixit,

'I.Wcff,g.U.9f infNGU Merft.


A "' r v a a

P 1 .i!.

Confueuere homiacs.euentu 6 qua !iniilre
Votac.ld~anrJ iis fc:fc alicoos vc:Ilc:


ApuJ C!aiil:ophamm Plantiww.
ll • .D. J.X.X.X V.

lN• I•




H~tqt~~ ~ ~P


g grit nef ocs fol; ou mode

/'kd~ .}-;!



gios , auqud f<mt contenus ce.e t I:.mble-.

Auec priuHege.
1 Qn b "~nd.! l'nu t!l 11 rue nebmc no.stre m~ ,D.ut~c a f. eafcoap.e.lauiEl tc:h;o .B.a ~:un:lc 0t"::cU:~des Ardto.s:

0 c6 ;=;: N.
(]) Q_



00 ,.........

Jntzuuy_ ·71?0' p

0 0



<0 ;:;:;·








lri?Lhlt" / ..l/


He· atorhc
1~, de£Ctlfciom de figures & ~-Oouc.s , CODtmantca
~Juficurs Appophtegme3 Pro ucrbe.!,~C:tC\."'e.f 8c di~ dc.!AuCJen~qtte.

dl adire



da mocb.ccs.








' ..

0 0



, o E. .r-r s.


P 0 E SI S.


~ r Tl! Ill. A E (t~/um ft111i{c~tlt:.:;' JNJ¥trtt!,_
s~t Fnh,. Tm(br;.s[umin.1,.Tt?~tn>ol,.

Jl!!.lllttWCT M 1111Ji ,j:~tim f"7lfll.fii~tJ'•:f?k"t• .Aridtt rNm /ircil ,J~;~ c~tm c.tkdi,~

In cbttos

0 <-0" ;:+ N.


1!fl 'Mundlll'lttrllmlb cmfoJi•.rtr~~m. . Jl.!o ;itrjtu L.ut T rmtrirt I HjUu..:

""'UJ"""' ,.,.;., J~ tu: c..n[111ldJnt11r: JT t cNmi[lkll"' dh11c mms.lktHflrbu rr.:i.

cAplltl Mathiam 7Jonhommt.
lJ J z
~Vt.t Pl.lVl i.~GIO.






lllltnt.~'f' _.o /.?.2--


[um r,.:~. : rationibt.U phdofop /;iciJ.

frltlJbus (u ,.,Lt,"s J,,m:in11m i"f4tllt(iu,

L vcn-..·N•
•• ptd Manh :am Bc-•tll0ntil'l.e
r ) ) )

J rdHo~r in Jtcugu morriJ Jlltrn pt ?14•-: .• 1 J~rr: 11cl nri[mf {~tbit~ /,err t/JciJC .ltN: ,~~.1~•1ui ~lmt ,credo nrJuprr1Jt Y:ii: .





~ ,.._

C) 0


L f.

CovsTAV', :~.uec lesN \kR.ATION S PHrt.oso PH 10..::: as,
Mis d(' Luin en Fr.an~o)"~ p.u LA N T! A vM 5

de R.oiDJc:U Grntilhome d'Arlc:s.

L' homme lltti:l poi/ Af"TJ poil ~~rrA•he




ttA LTOzx_, 'l'•r_ B.:~rrheltm.J UJio/~.
D. Lr.

ducbtUAi· Mm.-s l'imrudit d'vneffon,blioumA/, FfWv»~ 'l:k ffmporttrfJIIrVUJftnct Nche. Ti-mJ & /Abtur ciioinu &mu rnfimble~ (onft'rnlt tout:n'.J• NeN.lJMe ne fiche ~IM.'Y Al41J•Il'6lpmtnce ne foe he. s,Jc l.:~be~ltiUC Le ttmr 4Jfomble.

~fin /~,:fir /11 qH~u~




0 0



SENT E ·N T I 0,

S Y M E 0 N I, R I D 0 T T E I N

eA/fereniji. Duea di Sauoia.





Cm1>riuiltgif Jtl Rt.





Temprilir*'Utl«t fJl"lim,cht 'Viw~ Scribit io- Etpere/JtrpfJttntt 111n h.ew,. marmO.te Dif•r Altrui tAibor Unfl() 0'""4'. ~zr~a Che loffefo f int"'ri" in ""'rmo fmw .

E T H I C A,

Iuuenilia B:udia cum proue~iori etatc pcrmutata.


· Dtponite tVDJ /t&~~ntlsm prifSIIII•ton~~~r[Mtitt­ nem, ~·tterem hominem, !"i eorr~~mpitsrftlflndum dejideri11 erroris.

Ephl[. +, 22.



Contraria indufiriz ac defidiz • pra:m1a.

Propter fig~M piger JJr11re ~ol11it: mmtlitR~il ergo msto, 6-- non allbitMr.iUi. Prouerb. zo, 4• ·
TJ7tim131 7 zJ.9



Stl14nttJ 'T.Jtlut't•,J;.,tfoglt ,f(gimtibmJ injlttt, ....;t~JJiu c~rp~ribJHjcilictt'l.Jmbr~t comtJ, Sicfogitirmmrir.e c~tptttntnpumi~tl~tudi!~ Drmifi1 contrA glori~t iunll~t com~. _ t~tmm h~tudfolfo trutin~tt4 rx~tminr, 'iuiJnttm . l41H luc omnu trit rfcilicrtvmbr" ltt~u.

Mm. ij.


1+2 N • .REVSNERl
Sfd hftlt, P•lltuJi~ep1odfer*or 1111mt1U dtxtr~:

Ptrdium m ejr(oi/li&ofirit IIIW'J.

I M I! L £.. M A X..X X.


C!Ad Hitronyrnum Reufurum Ltorinum.

L r,,,. rtx Scythi~fir• ,.Artdi~ L,,.,,

~lun btnt nomm h•ilet,[U~M111Wf• IMpi. Ptr11•Jit h~cfle!erit: n•m~t hoj)es, vt lloHil, vttrlr

Dum p•r•t hojjitibwilttmn~t,jitintit INpm. LAut homini:DtN4 .t fl bom.qifibo11w: at l11p1M herr/e, Si mAIIM: O .fJIIIUitiUII. H :jft homilltm, UfrDlllfll . t


L fJ1f Jtttnter er ~~~

ab anno Domini.13 2 7 .anno
nimirum primo indytifsimi Prind·
pisEduarchetusnominiUerttj,vfqaead ann\i
Domim.IU'-C:trmioc Cummatim pcrftrit\:a.


2>1 pt~M~iffi• .A"gl•~ ftr~~•. m.pw•t• EJju.
IHIIM,c-fl""iofo 'l'{.Cf7.AUt, Authorc CH a. 1 s T o P H o a. o 0 c t A N D <>, prim&
Scholz Southwlrkicr.lis pro~ Loodinurn,dcin Chclrennamcnfis,'iu:c funt i fcrr:nifsi.nU iua M=idb.te fuoc4tz,Modcruotc.

H4e-d.o Poemat4j .JAm Dh •'!.""''",;gr~t~~ttAtl"'­
~c.,.;,;, faciliwm, ~bi6J!imi Rtgu M.iffl.U.
Con~ in

,,,;s,., h11;... rtgrli Scholilp«.; llt,tnd.c P"";, p•.r{cripfinmt,

Hijs Alc:r.mclri Ncuilli K 1 TT v w : tUrn propter argqmcnti fimilirudioa~,wm propter ormoms c:lcganri.etl adiunximus.

Apud Radulphum Nubc:r~, ex afsignationc:
Hauici Byancm.u1 Typographi.A N N o.x JS:t..


~J;i,q (;fl,rj~~




tlltrftrmt.n doCfnna & tione pndfantmm ad..,.,"'"...,_ . ~,cum eortnn vHu


Ian.Iac.BorlSa't'do ....... ,4JHJL . KII





~ TAlis tr11m,f~ttm /Mj!ri.tj/11e kllttptrttl1i4:

. ~.~~~
.fl!!od fop~f:tH, ~11111111-M rtge # CH R1STE. , 'f'lltllm.


v •. Non. Fcbr. M. o. Act. x ·x x v.



Tom. J Y.

• RahJ6"


D :l Y S 2"5.

D E VI SES 0 F M..
CLAVDIVS PAkADIN Clnon· of Hcautcu. Wl11reM11t• •~III4JeJ !ke l .ord Gllln-iJ

SieJPtiillllllA {iMr,
So is fo~itb lObe tried.




Traulbtcd I);Jt t:.f L~rin1r.co Eut;hlh by P ..S.



1~ ··

0 c.O ;:::;: N (I) n.

Imprinted byWilllam Keam~ .iwd~g 1n Adhns11· l j 9 ),

"11le gttOdnes of gold is oor ondy tty ub1rinpg,buralfo by thct(IUCb.ftOIIt! (o lbc uiairofg~linca ar.d faith i• to bee: made: nor ofworiks aucly,buulfobJ the.aaiguJJe

pcrformuc.c o£ chc dccdcs•







0 0

lntdneyp /Jf

rv \

ftak J)'

DEVISES. ~, M~ p0111p~ pr#ll~xiiA/'Xo ·The ddirc ofrmownc bacb proiDOCCcl me~
or (et me forward.



far,·( from(~ lri•Jg le:'~ hit poJJjc ic w\sich hte
vlerl tl.n Id l...c cJp . ~:d , char Le gauc fer ht~ (:m.

bole a bow •!!lch wa~ wont 10 bee bent wtrt& iri3S' orce~da,this apothq;me b:cing;ad· dcd tllc!tro.l"t~"""" {Hptr4t vlrtt1 Pelicic i• ofgrcattr fl)tCC CO ell fireR&tb.

!!..f!,i muJit,muxtmguit.
He d1:uaourdhctb mc,killcduue.

0 <D"







The Romamos fi!ppOfeci it the cbiefcfi reward ..,( bmow clccdes, ihbey adorned t. c.it h F.mpcron,upcmc•,knighu,& othcr ccmcu fold.icrs,cucry one ncxwlill~dlllgaccordmg cochciJ di&nity,dcJrce &. pl:acc,w.Kb aownca VJ «

lar.bctailc:« b~mtmnftlll 1-f..JueriZJ



Uluih~ _71 /,/J

V t fl"'~ I) 11 ~ ehwlJ.nniJu.un IVl.' (fir 11Lt fi:,tt:

fl...NoJtj,,Ji/J duflo(orporrrftllior rrit . .Art,urr ;,,Jftrlt~m clrr"t'N:I'f~Jrrlllllfj1 rtt,n~t, s1111 fl.c1, ;,Jit ib ,a atJittt iw11itoPis. ·



Lun.:t.)le/ut totfJ colluftr~tm lumint ttrrlll, Fruftr4 ~tU.~ttr~tnrn J1jicir ~tlt4 c~tnts: · Sic 1uifituis (hrtftum ~tU~ttr~tr Chrijlf'llt miniftros, Indexjlultitite/jn-nitor vfiJutfo~.


Worthy tra& of
P~ulus Iouius, contayning a
Difconrfe of rareinuentions..both
.Miliu.rie and Amorous rallrd lmprtji.


Monfigrwr Paolo GiouioV~

fiouo di

con Gr4titt i:r Priuilegio.

VVIm·cutJto is added a'Pre.foce ,cotJtay•
ning the Artc of compoftng them, witl\ PIUII'I) •ther n•t•ill MHijis.

~ ~

'By Saf»MfU""DanieUwe St~dent
in o,.enforde.



!'rintc:d for Sin-on Waterfoa.








s 8 S•

(]) Q_




~ ~

• •





~ :::::--


,. ""'
D E L L' I M P R E S E
~1ILITARI ET A .M 0 R 0 S E,

foprtti motti, &difogni d'.trme, &d'amott: ,che commu· nemtnte chi:tmdlto

PR. E S E.





Girol.rmo Ru{ccUi, ifltorno aUo fteffo foggetto.


C E .R. A,

a s

C 0

V 0


H 0

C Of! Prtuilegio.


C 0 N



T A V 0 L A,











1 N V E N T £ E S PAR. L E S.

A MONSEIGNEVR LE ConeO:abJe de France•


L raN.

R 0 V J L LE,

's ()


1'riMikgt J11 ~'.J•




V A L I E R.

ft• R'.} F,.A,f'M~InjitMr Jt SAiN U ~/irrlt }Jitilft1't Jt

. E•winnllt J,,s,iffo~. Jtsfoi8s ,,.,sJt .Mu•/'~"lt

.M~JAmt DI~MJt1'1ititrs.ZJ~~&htffi Jt u~ltMiMill @'

(ApitAillt J; "'" qmtilsblm""tSIIrlll lln Ejlt,Jt~rJJ~ 111 lfl'it'"f'iM•rnw twc/,t ~tliNmtt. C.lln't "•~(;- tiNttki• Jt~irl 'flli.t~U/#Ill' ftJititHJrt~ AMit ttl fArlkl: et_V t .e a AuT, Ms a x T n• G v 1T. SN)N""! '" Jn~ift J• 1?.1) fin mt~iftt~ 4fo111i1'1 N V TIllS C 0 S T EX 'T I ~­ G v o.Er!AutNrttit /11 ciriiJNirHII,.,.itltfiN~ttJ f tHtin~ 'I" ~,J tilt tllllt Jtjf•!"" ,,,,gr•Jt ""'"""Mt. L~'f"''­
lt JtNifliJftittiNYAmiiiY d"'111 ZJA11ft1 'VIIIfllllf jgnijn'
'fill filii Amji f11t

fo btAMtt1H.mJiiit fo ft11flt mtttoit trJ J~"l" J,fo 'VN. ·


llillj /t

Roman numerals refer to the Introductory Dissertation; Arabic with [ ] to Whitney's Dedication &c., ll!ld without a bracket to the Emblems, Essays and Notes; 0. L., omamented letter; Ed. edition; Ef116., emblem ; PI., plate.
L. ii. A • 0. 1499· Nd

.fol2, xvi 6, P4N


AlrT. a t>ery ucelkwt 9o.a,

0. L. an, Aloiat's EKliLDIII a, P4N 15340. L. aS7, of uncertain origin. Aoroetio, double, by .A.ndrew Willet, u. A.ctleon'a fate, Emb. 15 1 compare with PI. 6, ao and as, p. 3u, a; .A.lciat's linea, Aneau''• and thoae of Sambuoua, 3u; Whitney's lineaeuperior, 3a3. Acton pariah, aeat of the Whitneye, sl and xli ; the registere reoeut, xliv 1 church, PI. 1311, p. 40a. bDliNDA, p. 4Q1•4!a• Adulation of Leicester, h·iii. lEeculapina, insignia o~ Em b. :u :a, p. 39a . .A.lciat'a Emblem Editiona,-OKNI.l .A.lm. A.Lcun EKliUKATA &c., .4!ltt>. ISSI, PL a1, p. a44- Of Whitney'a Emblems S6 identical with thia edition, a45, 6. Hares and lion, PI. u, Whitney, p. n7. - - .A.lm. A.Lcun EKliL:IKATVK Lt· BBLLVB, p.,;, 15 34. PI. 6, Aoteon'a fate, Whitney, p. 151 curious wood· cuta, p. a44- - AND. ALOIATI EKBLBKATVK LI· BJ[LLVB, &c., VniN 1546, PI. 16, The Aldine symbol, a44- - DIVBUB lKPBBIIll

&c. Dn;L' ALci· ATO, .LgoM 1551, PI. 17, a44; Two of Whitney's devioee identical, a45. PI. 1S, aouroe of Whitnete, p. s6. - - RKliLDIATA D. A.. A.Lcun &c., L!/oM 1551, PL 19, a45. Actmon's fate, PI. ao, Whitney's, 15. .A.lciat'a Emblems, versions of,-French 1549, p. aS7; Spaniah 1549, p. asa, a99 1 Italian 1551, p. a44; English 1551, p. xvi, and Jamea I. M.S.p. xvi• .A.loiatue, A.ndrea•, born 149a-died 1550· Portrait PI. 49-flrat in the ranlr. of emblem writers, Life. character and writings, an·aSo. Boissard'a eatimatco of hia powers, an ; numerous worlr.a, a7S; above editions of hia em· blema,-aome o their title-pages &c., P1.6, 16, 17, 1S, 19, ao, a1, u, p. a79• Emblems pu.bliahed at Milan in 15u, a7S; Mignault'a comments, a79; defects of .A.lciat'a character. Sourcea of information, aSo. Armorial bearings, p. a3a and 406.


Emb. 100, unidentified, P• 344. 5· .A.lcoolr., John, bishop of Ely, 149S,-hia "GALLI C.LifTUB" "ad Cratrea auoa," p. 349· .A.ldi'a edition of .A.lciat, 1546, PI. 16, with device of :r'erminus, p. a# Aidi,-printera, 149o-1597, p. a66. .A.r.EOTBOPBOlfiA EcCLliBIJ.BTIOA,-quota• tion, P· 349· .&liu fHCCal, aliu pkctit•r, Emb. s6, from Roville'a DiNrH I•~· PI. 11, P· 33 1 • Alien, John, of Baliol,-linet on Whituey, uvii and nxi. .A.lleu, cardinal,-Defence of air William Stanley'a surrender of Deventer, 15S7, P· 33°· .A.mea' Typographical Antiquities, :m, xnv•. 365 • .&flticitia po.t morlMia d.,.attwa, Em b. 6s, from Domenichi, p. 409· .A.mmon, Joat, an engraver of ReUIDer, p. 242. Amplificntion by Whitney,-instanoca, p. bii, 2S6, aSS. .A.lmBliWlls, M., Preacltw, Em b. 2241 of Great Yormouth, p. 39S . .A.neau'a PIOTA PoasiB, .LgOM 1552, title, PI. 33, p. a39, 2S7. DeTice, chaos, PI. 33, Emb. 49, Nine instancea of aimi· larity in Whitney'a devieea, three of copying, 239, 40; Invocation to the Divine Spirit, aS7. The perfldiona friend, Emb. 141, p. aSS. --French version, 1552, p. a39, :aS7 • Aneau, Barthelemi, or .A.nulua, 15oo-166s. DeTice a signet ring ; notice of hia life, trasical death, and of eome of hia worlr.a, 2S7, 2SS. Angelo, Michael,-some devioea in Bocchlua from him, aS+ Al!JU.LU Dll L' lKPBilB1WI l'l:.4xTnu· ll!fNII par MM. de Beclr.er et Ch. Ruelena, p. :u:r.iv, 267, a6S, a7o, 321, 393· .A.ntonio, Marc, famous Italian engraver xvi. Ariato, L., hia notable It~tf'"la, 40S. "Armee in Cheshire after the mancr of the Alphabeth," Whitncy'a shi~ld, u:xix;
Chohnt•l,,,.•" rrr•t. 1"1·

General Index.
enoe in dosoription between Wbitoey and Shakespeare, 305 ; origin of tbe deTice, PI. ss, p. 382.. Bellay, Joachim, Spenter't Tiaious from him, xvii; worb, Paril rss8, p.lxii; Fable uf Death and Cupid, Em b. p. 132, lxii, b:iii; neat epigram on a dog,lxii. Jk&a'd PORTIUITB .urn EllBLliKS, G 1sSo, title, PI. S, p. 2.42., 2S6; containl portrait of J a mea I., 2.42. ; oonnect1 Britain with emblem writert, uii. DeTices of peculiar deli~cy. 2.42. ; Speci· mens, PI. 41 1Eu:.b. p. 32., Man and abadow, p. 32.3; PI. 59, Emb. p. 2.13, Dog barking at; the moon,-coneep()ndcmoe with Shakespeare, 307, 8 ; Four ol Wbitney'a similar, p. 242 ; Fr-t.nch 'fe!'aion, rsSr, 2.-42.. Beu, Theodore, 1519-16os, Portrait, PL 51 ; biographical notice, 2.S5; IOUI'I.'et of information, 2.86, BIOGUPKIC.U. J(OTIClll of Plantin, Bapheleng, and of the emblem writers to whom Whitney waa indebted, Euay Ill., p. 2.66-2.92.. Blonnt's ART OJ' JUXI:NQ DliVlc:a &c., x6ss, P· :u:ii. Booohiua, A.chilles,-Olf BYIUIOLIC Q1TDTIOlf81 Ed. 1574. title, PI. 2.3, p. a84; Source of the aymbob on the title Pit!' to the reprint o! Wbitney, p. xii; the deTioee engraven by Bonaaone and Caracci, 2.S4; no ooincidenoee with Wbitney, 2.35, 2.S3. . Bocchiua, Achillee; Portrait. Pl 52., and biographical notice, p. 2.84Boittard, J. J.,-author of biographical P· "7'· noUoee to De Bry'• portrait.s, title Ayre's " EIUILliJUT~ AJUTOBU.," .Lo.dott r6S3, p. uii. pages, PI. 45 and 46, p. 2.72.. Bolewert'a copperplate. to Pia Desideria, 0. L. p. 2.74. 2.85, nnoertain. P· :u:ii. BOnuone, Giulio,--engraved the derioe1 • 0. L. p. 2.83, nnoertain. Badg1111,-Whitney'a, p. iv, xl; Mary Tu· in Boocbius, p. 2.84dor'•, 32. 1 1 of the Tudor raoe, 331, 2. : Bordera to Whituey'a de'fioea, from the emblems of Juniua, Ed. xs6s, Pl 2.6, of the Dudleys [p. 2.], ros, 314. 3471 26 o, 2.6 b, 2.6 er, 2.6 d, p. 2.50; and ofthe Poete, 353; of theBroolr.ea, 337; of Saladin, 33S, 9; Pompey the great, Faerni'a Fabl1111, Ed. rs8r, PI. 2.7, p. Vespatianand Augustna, 407; Tarioua, :asr. Bordera, the aame, in Perri~re and Oorro407-410. Bamfleld's epitaph on Sidney,y. 32.6. &et, 2.3S; di!'erent in editions by BoBarclay's ~IJI!P of .fotrs of tf)c mcrtllJ, Yille, p. 411. 1509, nrious editions; tlrtt attempt at; Borgia, Don Franciloo. his motto, 40S. an English emblem· book 1 woodcut. Borron, Mn. A.,-Whitney'a aiater,eimilar to Pl4 and 2.S, p.u. ttanua to by Ie.Whitney, 157 31 p. xl'fi. Barclay, Alexander, died rss,,-aome ac- Bouolf, Ro., Emb. 1916, p. 377; Whitcount of him and hie book, n. ney't nephew, p. xiTii. Bear and ragged etalf', on the burgonet BoVIWlllJIR, ABTHVBB, EI'Jf'Wr, Emb. [2.]; on title·page, ros; Shakespeare's 204 ; Commendatory nreea to Whit· alluaion to, 304. 5 ; some account of, ney [19]; nameoneofrenown; author of Golden Precepts, p. JS6. 314. 347· Beebive,-Emb. 2.oo, PI. sS. Correspond- Brant's N.l.IIJUU(801I'fl1'1 1494. 81ip of Arms of the lords of Man,-eimilar in meaning borne by count Battiata da Lodrone, p. 351. Armorial bearings; Wbitner'•frontispiece, p. i'f ; Leicester'• front1epiece [p. 2.] ; Alciat't frontispiece, p. 2.32. and 406; queen Eliubeth'a, PI. 43 b, p. 40 r. .AllT OJ' IU.li:ING DEVIO:a &c., by Thoma• Blount, r6ss, p. nii. Arwabr's ~SUTIOlf of Hermann's Pia Deaideria, r686, p. xxii. .AITBU, or the Gro'fe of Beatitudea &o., r66s, p. xxii. "ATBBli.E OxOl'DilfUS," by Wood and Bliaa, p. uTii, nni, xxniii, xl'fiii, lii, l'fi, !Tii, J41, 348, 360. "ATBD.E CuTABBIGillliiBES," by the Coopert, m, XXX, xi'fiii, l,lii, 2.71, 3161 32.7, 32.8, 34"• 344. 347, 352., 353, 365, 37•· 391, 394Audlem, Oheehire,-tha plaoe of Whitney's early education, Emb. 172., p. :lliii and 368; woodoutofthechureb, p. 369; epitaph•; Maaaeys of Audlem,-one marned to a Whitney, died 1646, p. J70. A.uguatinu, Cc:eliu, HieroglyphiC~~, or De 8acria ..Egyptiornm &c., Ba.rilia 1567, p. 2.73· . Auguatua, the emperor'• motto and deTioe, P· 407• AVULU, a work conjectured to be Whitney'•• p. liv and lviii. Autopspha, of Whitney'a-fronUspieoe, p. l'f 1 PI. 7 and 4/ a, p. sliT, 2.46, xl and 401 1 403 ;-o Ch. RaTelinghiao,


General Index.
Foou, p. :UY, ~37 1 Locher'a .55tultifml f).auis, 1497, Title, PI. 4. :Qy 1 tpeci· men of, PI. 5, Emb. ~~3, p. ~74; Mar· nera flirat nrl' brs Col) bu mabe, 1499,
GBJ'PDY,- Whitney'l uncle, Emb. r661 may be brother of Whitney'a mother, xliii, xl'fili, 366 1 in r666 a Gellrey Oartwrigbt of Sale 1 Cbnrlon'a conjecture; Richard Cartwright (1563-1637) married a daughter of Sll' John Egerton, and waa a relative of Whitney, 367. Oat.z, Jacob,-I577-166o,-" Vader Catz," :uiii. Moral Emblems from,-Lo~ r86~, :uiii •· OJma, TABLBTOP, B.O. 390, p. ~7~; tiUe, Ed. 1640 PI. 11 numerou editions since 1497 1 p. xi. Delineation of the Tablet by de Hooghe, PI. 3• p. xi ; character of Cebea, p. :U. Champollion'a judgment of Horapollo, P· 273. Cbarle1 VIII., his Impreea and motto, 408. Cbater, BeY. Andrew F., rector of Nantwich, xlv. Qtl)artblarlnn fllainfuari1tlian1mt, ro93r669, compiled by Dug(lale, 356. Ex· tracts from, 357, 364; record., 364; diYersifyinga of the name Mainwaring, 358•. 0BJ.TTliBTON or CuwB'BTON, Bulop of Clukr,died r6o8,Emb.r~o. Bemarb on the device, 349 ; Fuller's notice, 349; that. by the Rev. F. R. Raine1; pedigree, daughter and grand-daughter, 350 1 the bishop's character 1 instances of hie wit, 35 1 ; Chaplain to Leicester in 1568 1 Sources for mfonnation, 35~. Cheehire gentlemen and the dean and chapter of Cbester,-Leioester's good offioes between them, 317. Cbeater,-Robert Dudley, entertained there, p. 317. CBOICB 011' EHBLBIDII1 Eel. 15861 WhitneJ. CBOLHBLBY, Sir HVGIIB, Kt~ig'U, Emb. 130. Knighted with others; how named in Fuller's Wortbiee, 3551 Webb'a encomium ; deaoendante, 356. Cholmley, air Hugh, of Yorkshire, 355 •·
CBOLHliLliY,HVOBJI,E~q•ier, 155~-r6o1, Em b. 138 ; deeoent of the family, 36~ 1

title, PI. ~ 8, xv, ~ 38 1 specimen of, PI. 2~9' Em b. 176, ~75 1 Barolay'a .55bJJv o( .folpl o[ ti)e Mlndll, 1509; - Barclal. Hrant, Sebastian, 1458-15~0; Portnut, PI. 47; notioe of, and works ~74.S· Britain,-ita interest in emblem literature, :uii, :uiii. ' BROOJ:ll, GBOBGJI, Elqf'iw, 1568-r6o3, Em b. 69, aon oflord Cobham, beheaded at Winchester, 337; or one of the Cheshire Brookea, 337 ; who intermarried with the Whitneya ; branches of the tiunily,-Brookea of Norton, 337. BBOWN:J, Jom,, J.uns alld L.uroBLOT, ftliant pl~lici<J,.., Em b. ~ 1~,-name celebrated among physicians ; Brownes of Cheshire; Lancelot a natin of York· shire, 391; landiiCIIpe Brown, 39~ •· Bry, Theodore De,-his Icons or Portraits, title, Ed. 1597 PI. 45; Ed. 1598, PI. 46, p. ~7~. Account of the work;IOurce of aeyeral of the portraits, p.

Brydgee, Samuel Egerton,-notice ofWil· let, n; Retroapecti'fe Review on Whit· ney'a emblcma, p. :nxii and xuili. Brydgea, air Egerton,-fiCOOunt oflaabella Wbitney, p. li1. Buu., BT., t.U Hry 'kartNd, Emb. 185 and 186, no oertain information of, P· 315· A air Btephen Bull,-Bulla m Hertfordlhire, p. 37 5 ; Conjecture of a misprint, and John Bull,-r565-r6r5, the mruician, auggeated, p. 376. BVBGOINB, GBOBGB, E~q.U,.,-hia Nine Bona, Emb. 7~; not identified, 338 ; Name belongs to Bedfordshire,-tradi· tion in the township of Sutton,-ten baronets of the familJ, 338. Butterfly and crab, the derioe of Augua· tua, Emb. nr, p. 407 aud 407 •·


0. CALTHOII.PI, BABTHBAK, Lq•i«", Emb. 71. The Calthorpee of old standing in Norfolk,- Barthram probably a brother to Charles, Emb. 136, p. 338. CJ.LTUOBPll, CBJ.BLEII, tluJ """ b6l", Emb. 136, brief notioe of, 361; at Boratby island, PI. 13, p. 403; Mem· beN ofthis "knyghtly family;" Charles in high office in Ireland, 361. Candia, duke of, hie Imprua, 408, Caracoi, Auguatino,-in 1514 retouched the derioe of Boochiu, ~84.

~8r, Aloiat's EHliLBXS, Alii~ 1581. L. ~84. of uncertain origin.


[p. 38]

arms, 363; memberforCheabire; wife, the bold Ladye of Cheshire, 364; lords· lieutenant., 363; tomb, 364Cbolmondeleys and Egertons of the aame stock, 36~. Clemens on EcPtian writing, xii "· CoLLIY, Mrr.-D:, Whitney's sister, xvii, x!Yi, Emb. 91, 341 ; name borne by the WeUealey family, 341 1 Colley of Aud· lem, 34~. Collier, J. l'ayne,--"Sm PBILil' Bmlfn' BIB LIFJI J.Im DBATH," 327.

General Index.

PlmtB, of Brtlflu, 1567-1594> Emb. 103; at.an&ae to Whitney [19l, xm; works and untimely fate, 345,61 epitaph by Dolllla, 345· Colonna, Mutio,-hi& moUo; Fabritio, 407· Combe, Tbomu, ms EllliLKJIB ngt bo'Wll to ni&t, xiJ:. Combermere, Emb. p. 201, PI. 14,-ita natural beauti~ .tc., :rJi, xliii, J:iiY, 334. 5· Combermere, Yiaoount, field manbal, died 1865,-of tbe Cotton family, p. 334Couta..tw, Emb. 129, part of Whitney's motto, luiii, PI. 7 and PI. 43 o, p. 401. Coole Pilate, manor of,-Whitney'a birth· place, PI. 11 o, p. d. :rJi, J:!iii, 402 ; aituation deac:ribed, xlii. Copiee of Whitney,- major Egerton Leigh'e, :r.nii 1 Mr. Swinnerton'e, 382. Correepondenoea and l'e88mblancee in Wbitney to earlier Emblemati&te yery numerous, 406 ; many fully traced out, 237-2521 othen not so euctly copied or imitated, from Gio•io, Ruecelli and Domenichi, 406 ; aeYen inetancee, 406409· Col'l'O&et't .HJICJ.TOKGUPHill, Ed. 1540, title, PI. 32, p. 2 3?, ; and Deyice, Gnata J"Ound a canale, illuatnting Whitney, Emb. 219, end Shakespeare's Pericles, p. 299. Souroe of DIN deyioe in Whit· ney, suggestiye of U., 239. Col'l'Ozet, Giles, rs1o-1568, a boobeller,brief notice of, and of hi& worke, 281. Coner, BeY. Thomaa,-has in hi& poseeeaion Engliah translation of Paradin, PI. s6, uiii, 247; Mirrour of Majeetie, ui; Stirry's Satire, mi 1 Esbatiment moral dee .Animaux, p. 2411 Is. Wbitney'• Sweet Nospy, PL r r, p.xJ.,.:rJ.,iii; lYiii; Feyned Testament, p. Jyiii. Cori dtr bmt omar porlo eor-to, Emb. 219, illuatntin of Shakeapeare, p. 195; similar motto~, and PI. 32, p. 295 and
Cost.Uiua; He Coustan. Cotton, Roger, Rowland, -sir Robert Bruce, founder of the Cotton libnry, 333· 4CorroN, RrcH.umB, E~quier, Emb.6s and 200; collateral branohee of the family, 3331 his father and descendants, 334; DeYioe of the Beehin, Emb. 200, PI. 58, p. 382; old Combermere, PI. 14. 3h. Couatau's PBGKJ., Ed. 1555, PL 34; and PBGKB, Ed. 156o, PI. 35, p. 240· Remote 'ource of , _ of Wbitney's deYicee, direct of OM, 240 ; an ocain on the swan, and the force of eloquence, 285; Em b. 131 illustrated by PI. 34. p. 284. and Em b. 230, by PI. 35, p. 285.

Couttau, Pierre, or Coet.aliua, author of Pegma, 1555; translated into French 156o, p. 284. 5· Create, often emblematical, p. xii, xii.i ; Lion, PL 9, p. :u:i ; Bear and ragged stall', [2] and 105, 304. 5, 314. 347; unarmed foot in the sun, 298 ; the Badger, 337 tt; the Swau, Emb. u6, PI. 2, p. 354 ; the .AM's head, p. 356 ; the Helmet, Emb. 138, p. 363; Ship under reeif, 3h; a Stork, p. 387 ; a naked arm gruping a aword, 384 ; the Elk, 232 and 406; Varioua, 4Q6-41o. Crispin de Pau,-fine copperplates &o Wither'e emblem, p. m. Croi&sant, Jean,-an engrayer for eome deYices in Sambucus, p. 248. ClwXTON, Mr.JOH!i, Emb. l67; hi& rather "John Croxton of Rannacroft," who sold a third part of Bexton " to the lady Mary Cholmondley," 367; the grandson Thomaa, the oelebrated colonel Croxton, goyernor of Cheater oaatle, 1659. P· 367, 8. Cupid and Death. Emb. 132,-a fine (able, xxxiii 1 from Joacbim Bellay, lxii; eimply giYen by Whitney, hili ; on what occaaion written. hi• tt; copied from WhitDey by Peacham, PL 10. p.liy,

Daniell's "WoBTHY TBJ.OT of Pan· 1ua Iouiue" &o., Ed. 1585, PI. 6o, an emblem-book witbou~ pictorial illustrations, uiii, 300 • ; bOWil to Shakeepeare, 300, I, 2, 3 j source or "Quod tiN alil" in Periclea, 302 ; but only one of Shakespeare's emblema from thia source, 31 1 tt ; tbe transl.. tion from the Roman edition of 1555. PI. 6o, p. 311; dedica~ion, 411; pu· ~ea from, 407•409· Dan1ell, Samuel, 1562-1619, poet·lau~t and historian, :uiii ; extraoU from, 404. 407. 409· Dante's llfl'BJUI"O, Ed. 1481,-one of the fi.rat booke to be embellished, xiii. Duies, Dr., of Chester, a desoendant of Whitney'e aister (Ml'l. Colley), xlYi, p. 342 ; eafe oonduct to Wllliam Colley from Arthur lord Cape), r643, p. 342. Dedications:-to the marquis of Chol· mondeley, iii; Sidney, m; Jamea I., p. uii, 241 ; the earl of EeseJ:, xix ; capteine Chri&topher Carleill, niii, 247; Henry prince of Wales, :u:i; Rober~ earle of Leyceeter [3]; Marpretqaeen of Navarre, 238, 283; Orteliua, 241; Maximilian II., 248 ; George Manwaringe, 364; sir Edward Dimmod:, 411. DeYice, meaning, :133.


General Itzdex.
Doricee,-appropriated to or by incli'ri· obap. I. Emblem literature, ix·uv ; duals: M. de Saint V alier, 302; oardi· oba_p. II. Memoir and writings of nal of Lorraine, 319; Mary Tudor, Gelfrey Whituey, uvi·lxxiv. 321 ; sir P. Siduey, 324; the Tudor DrsTIOHI MoB.ALr, p. 294> abould be raoe, 331; Francia Sforza, 348 •; biabop Tetrutichi Morali; He Giovio and A.loook, 349 ; oouut Battiata da Lo· Symeoai'a Seutentiocse Imprecse, p. 240. drone, 351; Mutio Oolonna, Pompey Drvnu. IHPBSSB, Italian tranalation the great, Vespuian, Ali{Uitua, Fafrom A.lciatua, PL 17, p. 2441 1H britio Oolonna, 407 ; Fran01100 Borgia, A.lciatua. Lodovioo Ariato, Louia XII., Cbarlea Dog barking at the moon, Emb. 2 r 3, PI. VIII., 408; Flisca, 409; Lorenao the 59; illuatrative of Sbakeepeare, p. magni1lcent, 404; Kdward VI., madame 307, 8. Elenor of Auatria, and my lady Bona of Domeaiobi, Lodovico,-bia treatiae on Savoy, 373· emblema, PL 6r, p. 3rr, 349, 351 1 contains the germa of aeveral of WbitDevices usumed by printers OD title pagee: Morellus, rss8, lxii; Maire, ney'a emblema, u 'be withered elm, r640, PI. r; Keruer, rss r, PI. 21 De Em b. 6::a, and the watchful dog, or lion, Ope, 1497, PI. 4; Weobel, 1534. PI. Emb. no, p. 409· 6; Plantin, rs6::a PI. 7, rsBr PI. ::ar, DouBA, luf, Lord. Q/ Nooritlliiclt, 1545rs64 PI. 24, rs6s PI. ::a6, rs8s PL 27; r6o4; Portrait, PI. 55, p. 354.5; Em b. n6,-the poet.'a bedp, PI. ::a, 354; De Bry, 1597 PL 45, 1598 PI. ~; Laoniua, rs8o, PI. 81 A.ldua, Ij46, SW!zu OD Whitney Lr7] and trauslaPl. r6 ; Borille, r 55 r PI. r 7, PL r 8, tion xxviii ; literary and biographical 1562 PL 36, rs6r PI. 6::a; Bononial, notice, 355, aourcee of information PI. 23; Nef des folz du mooe 1499· PL 355. IODI 355· 387. 28; Ianot, 1539 PL 30, 1540 PI. 32; Douu, w, rs7 r-1598, tu_. qf w Bonbomme, 1552 PI. 33, 1555 PI. 34; Douu, of Noorlutijclt, Emb. 2o6,Molin, rs6o, PI. 35; Freitag, 1579, early eminence 388, early death 3881 PI. 38; Feyerabend, rs8r, PL 42; Douaa, the four brotbere 387; relic of Kearney, rs9r, PI. 56; Barre, rsss, the family 388; Souroee of information PI. 6o; Waterson, rs8s, PI. 6o; Zi· 389. letti, 1556, PL 6r; Giolito, 1556, Pl DlUXll, Rr01UBD, EM}fiNf-, Emb. p. 203, 6r. p. 382,-cousin of air F. Drake, 383; Devioea in Whituey, not traoed to other the Cbeabire Drakee, 383 ; oreat of the emblem writers, 236, 7, and 252; family, 38::1. eimpl,Y auggeeted by them, 237-243; Drake, air Francis, IS4S-IS9So p. 382; identrcal with theirs, i.e. from the aame Voyage,-" world encompaacsed," 383; blocb, 243-252; having their remote anecdote of air Bernard Drake, 384; or ultimate origin with them, 406family name and origin 384. Encomium 4rr. 384. Barrow'a Life 385, other accounts DBvta.ll HlmorQVBB &o., PL 7 1 - Pa· 384> 5; portrait and relics, 385; Cow· radin. ley'a linea, 385. Drake'a fi.'.IIeral and D.BTI8a liT EKBLmOB &c.; - Symeoni. epitaph, 386. Dew, Tomkyne, Eaq., owuer of Whitney Drew, correct to Dew, :n:.r:vi, uxix. oourt, :s:uvi, mix. , DUDUY, RoBBBT, "Ear/4 qf IAycuUt-," IDialogua of tbe Q!:natuns, r48r, p. xiii · rnr-rs8S; armorial bearin~ frontis· He ne Leeu. pieoo [ 2], P· 3 r4; dedication to by Dialogo &o., PL 6o, 6 r; He Giovio. Wbitney of hia Emblema, [3-r 3], 314; Dibdin'a relll&l'b,-Stultifera Nanis, :siv, who bad preeented them to him in :svca; notice of Wbitney, :s:s:siii; inac· rs8s, p. [r4]; brief memoir of hia life curate u to the aouroee of Whitney'a and character, 314-317; worb ralaemblems, :s:s:siv, 235; Beza'e emblema, ting to him,-reaidenoe in Holland,242; Paro.din, 247; Oorrozet, 28r. numerous dedications of boob to him, Daa, EDWABD:I, ~. 1540-I6o7, 316; portraitaexieting,andwbere,3r7; Emb. 132 and 196, p. 358; oelebrated Tbomu Newton's Latin linea, 317 1 name,-a poet and a oourtier,-beld in how acquainted with Wbitney; con· high eateem by Sidney, 359; noble nection with Cbeehire,-reoeption in etanue,-aourcee of information, 36o. Obeehire, 317. Drsoouo, intorno all' inuentioai &o.; DUDLrr, A.KBIIOIIB, "Earl4 Q/ WarRneoelli. 1 tvich," 153o-IS90o armorial bearings, DIS8.1KTJ.TIO.If llfTBODtiai'OKY, i:s-Luiv: 314. 347; account of bia life, and ex·

General Index.
ex~on in ShakespEare's worb, 293oelleat cbaNcter, 347, 4ll; portraiU at Knole and obum, :WI ; IOUI'Cel or 312. information, :J4ll. EIDILDlA.H,-titlee; Aloiat, Sambu· cua, Reamer, .Juuiua. Dudleya, Tbe, p. 315. Durer, AlbeTt, xvi ; 10me or his ideu in Emblema and Symbol-, diatinction t tween, p. x. Booohiu, p. z8+ Dutch emblem boob,-Leeu'a xiv, 401 ; EKBLIUU, JrATUU 07, ix-xili, definition and illustratious, ix, x 1 a speciel of Oat.l' xxiii. Brmt'a tram1ated, 274. hieroglyphica, x ; early worb truly em blema, xi ; varieties of, in flowen, 0. L. :rill, uucertaiu. medab .to. :cii, xiii. • 0, L. xxxv aud 3 13. Plato's EKBLIIKB m SB.A.XEBPKA.ll• : Merchant of WORill p. 710, Fra-.eo.forli 16o2. ~T EIOILDl BOOJrS aud their iutroVenice, 294-2~; Perioles, 297-304; Bear and ragged ataB', 305; :s-, duction into English Literature, xilixix. 305, 6; Dog and Moon, 307; Wrunga Egcrton, Elizabeth, wife or air W. Stauley, OD Marble, 308-310. EIDIUilll, DIVIIB A.JrD XOJUL, by Quarlea, P· 330, I. Egertou, Thomu, kuight for Chelhire, 1635. p. xxi. Eogliah Emblem·boob: Barclay, · 1508, 1585, P· 363. Egertona and Cholmondeleya, of the aame p. xiv, xv; tranalationa, of Alciat, atock, 362, 155 I' xvi, o( Perriere xvii, of Giovio Egyptian Letten, oertaiu l!igna 10 Dallied by Daniell, 1585, xviii, 31 I, 404. 41 I ; by Booohiu, Title p. i,-their mean· of Paradiu, by P. S., 1591, xviii, 247, ing, xii. 374;-Whituel, fint in all reBpeCt. ELoocu, Mr., .PNacW, Emb. 217,complete, xvih ; Combe aud Wi.llet, Elcockes or Poole and of Stockport m-xxi; Varioua, from .a..D. 15861686, xix-xxii and x:cii._ 394,-of Barthomley 395. Elephant Ol'UIIhing a dragon,-Emb. 195, Eugravera, famous at the beginuiog of the 16th ocutury, rri ; who.e work a device by Giovio himaeiC, 409· appears in the old Emblem·boob,EUUB:rrx, Queen, - Willet's double IIC!'Oitio to her DaJDe, xx ; Em b. 61, Joat Ammon and Virgil Solia, 1581, Devices and mottoe. 331, 2. Oclaud's 242 ; Bona10ne, 1555, p.284; Ovaoci, dedication 40 1, her Arm.~ PL 4 3 a. 1574. p. 284; Crciaaant, Golb:iua, de Emblema, or Embleru,-meaniog, ix, x, .J ode and Van Londerzeel, I s64. P· 248; Gerard de Jode, 1579, p. 241, 290; 233· Emblem·boob, the early onee, xi, xili-xv, Italian or French, 411 •; in tbe 17th century, Bolawert, 16 32, x:cii; CriJpiD 4C»-411. Emblem·boob, original or translated ; de PUt~, 1635, xxi. used by Whitney, or alluded to by him, Bugravinga and woodcuts used over .gain, 237-243, 243-252; uot used by him 234, 240,241, 250, 411· nor alludl!(l to, 235 ; iudirectly Ulled, Euvioua, the, and avaricioua, Emb. 95, 406; other emblem·boob, He Dutch, P· 342. English, Flemish, French, German, Envy, deecriptioua of, by Whitney and Greek, ltaliau, Latin, and Spanish. Spenaer, Emb. 94, lxvii. EKBLBK Lrrn..a.TUU, Sect. 1. Nature of EBTJlU.TIOll' Ilf WHICH WmTli'H W.ll Emblems ix-xiii 1 Sect. 2. Early em· OLD, xxvi, XXXV ; ftnt of English blem books &c. xili-ili ; Sect. 3· Eug· Emblem·boob iu value, xxvi; Allen'a liah Emblem books, A.D. 158&-1686, admiration, xxvii, xxxi; Commendaxix-xxili ; Sect. 4- Extent and Decline tory stanzaa,-Douaa [17] xxvii, Vu!· of Emblem Literature, xxiii-:sxv. cauiua [r7] sxviii, Colvius [18] x:cix, Emblem-book operaa in Holland, p. Limbert [r9] xxx, Bourchier [19]. xili. Wit's commouwealth,-Peacham, xxx; Emblem-writers of the 15th and 16th oen· S. Egerton Brydeee, xxxii ; Dibdiu, turiee,-more or lesa connected with xxxiii; Ormerud,-J. B. Yatea, xxxiv. Whituey, 233-252, 26&-292, and 406- Ez da111t10 alhriu, alhriu wtililM, Em b. 411 ; He alao Aloiat, Aneau, Beza, 119, 348, 9· Brant, Oorrozet, Couatau, Domenichi, RxPLANATOBY Ncins, LITl!BllT .t.JrJ) Faerui. Freitag, Giovio, Horapollo, BIOGB.U'KICA.L, p. 313-400; Addenda, .Junius, Paradin, Perrierc, Beuaner, 401-412. Ruaoelli, Sambucus, and Symeoui ; - ExTBli'T .um DEOLilfJI o• EKBLDl LI· with corrcapondencM of thought and TBIU TURll, xxili-xxv.



General Index.
L. s.ix, and 290, Corrozet'a H•· f. 51, Pari~ 1540. 0. L. :rxiii and 288, fUf bas J'Olh f, xxv, Pllf'V 1499· Fables and Epigrame, a work by Whitney,-no trace of it known, !vi, con· jecture respecting it, l•ii. Fables by Perret, dllllef'l, 1578; of &aop, .J.~tlN-rpial 1581, p. 237. Faemi'e ''F.t.BUL.!I: 0." &o., Rottue 1564.desigue from Titian, p. 25 1 ; Plautin'a editions 1563-1585, p. 251 ; "Cn'TUK FABvx..a;:" &o., .&~ttoerpial 1585, PI. 27, p. 251; Fox and Grapes, PI. 27, Emb. 98, p. 344; Whib18J has MHII iden· tical derices,-eome of hia bordel'll from this edition, 251. The hind injuring the lea•es, 408, Faerno, Gabriello, died 1561 ; bia fables written at the request of Piue IV.correot Latinity 1 noLice of the author, :aSS. Fmw!U n111mo. .JVl•i- fiiOrUu Emb. 140,-adopted by Fl'&Doiaco duke of Candia, p. 408. FutifllJ kttt~ Emb. 122,-the m