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1) Self Awareness:
• • • • • Is the ability to be aware of what one is feeling? Is self understanding Is the knowledge of one’s true feelings at the moment? Is one of Goleman’s five dimensions of emotional intelligence in the workplace? Eg: Raju recognises that he is angry, so that he will wait himself to cool down and gather more information before taking an important personnel decision.
2) Self Analysis & Management/Self Monitoring:
Definition: A systematic attempt by an individual to understand and analyse one’s own personality without the help – another. • • If a person knows his skills and abilities it will help him to develop greater self confidence and enable him to present a positive image to those he deals in. Self analysis of skills will lead to: − Working effectively with others – approachability, teamwork, cooperation, rapport and adaptability” − Communication – listening, enthusiasm, clarify, pertinence, confidence. − Judgements and decision making – decisiveness, research, planning, reaching a conclusion, evaluation. − Persuading and influencing – communication, leadership, negotiation, motivation, charisma, determination, forcefulness, vision, empathy. − Ability to solve problems – critical thinking, analysis, lateral thinking, creativity. − Time management – ensuring assignments are done on time. − Use of IT – word processing report to solve problems quickly. − Achieving one’s goals – determination, commitment, will power resolution, stamina, ambition, energy, resistance. − Specialist subject knowledge. • Self analysis provides the opportunity to turn potential failures into triumphs, through appropriate interpretations.
After analysis one has to self manage. There are 12 steps of self management:
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Make a decision that you desire to achieve the goal. Believe that you will achieve the goal. Write down your goal on paper. Be honest with yourself. Analyse your present position. Use deadlines. Identify the rocks that stand in your way. Identify the skills you need. Identify those people from whom you need co-operation Make a complete business plan. Visualize the perfect outcome, emotionalise how terrific you will feel when the outcome is achieved and make the necessary affirmations consistent with achieving the goal. − Determine to back your plan with patience and persistence.
• Self efficiency refers to a person’s belief that he has: − − − − • The ability The motivation The situational contingencies. To complete a task successfully.
People strong in self efficiency have a − ‘Can do’ attitude towards a specific task. − ‘Can do’ attitude for various challenges in life.
• • • •
Social learning/observational learning increases self efficiency by observing someone else’ actions. People have the drive for self efficiency – a belief that they have the necessary capabilities to perform a task. Management should provide opportunities for meaningful involvement of people in the activities towards the achievement of organisational goals or objectives. Albert Bandura, a famous behavioural scientist says: “Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions they have little incentives to act” “They have the core belief that they have the power to produce desired results”
Bandura’s task-specific self-efficiency in ‘state like’ and specific task oriented. Bandura also states a ‘generalised self efficiency’ which reflects people’s belief in successfully accomplishing tasks across a wide variety of achievement situations – called as ‘trait like’
a) Self efficacy Vs Self-esteem: 1. Self esteem Is a global construct of one’s evaluation and belief of overall worthiness Is stable and traitlike Self efficacy Is one’s belief about a task and contact specific capability. Is changing overtime as new information and task experiences and gained and developed and is statelike. Is a current assessment of one’s future success at task.
Is aimed at any aspect of one’s current self
b) The process & impact of self efficacy: The Process: • • • • • Directly, the self-efficacy process starts before individuals select their choices and initiate their efforts. People tend to weigh, evaluate and integrate information about their personal capabilities. This initial stage of process has nothing to do with individual’s abilities or resources. It rather, depends upon how they perceive or believe they can use those abilities and resources to accomplish the given task in this context. This evaluation of perception then leads to the expectations of personal efficacy which in turn determines: − The decision to perform the specific task in this context. − The amount of effort that will be expended to accomplish the task − The level of persistence that will be forthcoming despite problems, regardless of evidence and adversity. The Impact: Self-efficacy can directly affect: • • • Choice behaviour: Decisions made based on how efficacious a person feels towards the opinion in work assignments or careers, etc. Motivational effort: People will try harder and give more effort on tasks where they have high self efficacy than those where the efficacy judgement is low. Perseverance: Those with high self-efficacy bounce back, be resilient when meeting problems or even failure, whereas those with low efficacy tend to give up when obstacles appear.
People with high self-esteem believe that they have abilities to undertake challenging jobs. Low esteem people are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations and approvals from others. This is called as organisation based self esteem (OBSE) Directly related to the desire for success. Self managed work teams Job design and goal setting. People with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external influence. High efficacy people enter into potential stressful situations with confidence and assurance and thus are able to resist stressful reactions. High esteem people tend to choose unconventional jobs. In managerial positions. Leadership 4) Self-Esteem: • • • • • • • • • • • Refers to the feeling of like or dislike of one-self. since they expect failure. Self esteem has to do with people and self-perceived competence and self image in an organisation. . low esteems will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. • c) Sources of Self-Efficacy: Self Efficacy Masterly Experiences or Performance Attainments d) Applications: • • • • • Vicarious Experiences of Modeling Social Persuasion Physiological and Psychological Arousal Training and development Stress management. People with low efficacy say ‘I know I can not do that.• Facilitating through patterns: People with high self-efficacy say ‘I know I can figure out how to solve this problem’. Low esteems are less likely to take unpopular stands. Low esteem people prone to the beliefs and behaviours of those they respect. I do not have the requisite ability’ Vulnerability to Stress: People with low self-efficacy tend to experience stress and burnout.
each playing a role. Based on the interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave. likely to fear decision making. Research results on self-esteem are mixed. People with low self-esteem are not confident in thinking ability. both on and off his job. less anxiety. hopelessness and depressive symptoms. Everyone has to play a number of diverse roles. High self esteem people have more positive attitudes. . It is found that males score slightly higher in self-esteem than females. feelings. Low esteems are less satisfied with their jobs. − One study found that people with high self-esteem handle failure better than those with low self esteem. we engage in certain types of behaviour.• • • • • High esteems are more satisfied with their jobs. satisfaction. Our behaviour varies with the role we are playing. A role is a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. − Another study found that those with high self-esteem tended to become egotistical and faced with pressure situations and may result in aggressive or violent behaviour when threatened. but only if like many other human characteristics – such as creativity. − Yet another study says: “High self esteem can be a good thing. intelligence and persistence – it is nurtured and channeled in constructive ethical ways otherwise it can become antisocial and destructive” • 5) Roles: • • • • All group members are actors. lack negotiation and interpersonal skills and are reluctant unable to change. That view indicates how one is supposed to act in a given situation. a ii)Role Perception: • • • It is one’s view. a) Role Concepts: are associated with roles a i) Role Identity: • • Certain attitudes and actual behaviour are consistent with a role and they create ‘the role identity’ People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognise the situation and its demands clearly require major changes.
The complex web of manager – employee role perception. conflicts will inevitably arise. Supervisors particularly have to change roles rapidly as they work with seniors. a iv)Role Conflict: • • When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. eg. as well as opening up lines of communication to discover the other’s perceptions. It exists when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may be more difficult than compliance with another. How we have to behave.• Since managers perform many different roles. the result is role conflict. to a large part is determined by the role defined in the context in which we are acting. they must be highly adaptive and exhibit role of flexibility in order to change from one role to another quickly. Manager Manager’s perception A of own role Manager’s perception B of employee’s role Manager’s perception C of the manager’s role as seen by the employee Employee D Employee’s perception of manager’s role E F Employee’s perception of own role Employee’s perception of the employee’s role as seen by the managers • • • • The key is for both parties to gain accurate role perceptions of their own roles and for the roles of the other. Role of a judge or football referee. b) Leader/Manager Roles: by Mintzberg . Unless roles are clarified and agreed upon by both parties. subordinates. technical and non-technical activities. Reaching such an understanding requires studying the available job descriptions. • a iii)Role Expectations: • • Defined as how others behave you should act in a given situation.
A.Greenberg & B.Formal Authority and status Interpersonal Roles Figure head Leader Liaison Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokes person Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator c) Some Roles Commonly Played by Group Members: (by J. isolate themselves from follow group members Compromisers Shift opinions to create group harmony Encouragers Praise and encourage others Expediters Suggest ways the groups can operate more smoothly .Baron) Task Oriented Roles Initiator Contributors Recommend new solutions to group members Information Seekers Attempt to obtain the necessary facts Opinion Givers Share own opinion with others Energisers Stimulate the group into action whenever interest drops Relations Oriented Roles Harmonisers Meditate group conflicts Self Oriented Roles Blockers Act stubborn & resistant to the group Recognition Seekers Call attention to their own achievements Dominators Assert authority by manipulating the group Avoiders Maintain distance.
environments and expectations. Sometimes it is also a ‘mutually agreed’ plan for change in various groups of management. Change encompasses leadership. It is a ‘natural’ and ‘adaptive’ change as a consequence/reaction to the external circumstances and pressures. To many it is threatening. • • • • . step by step. • • • • • • 7) Characteristics of Change: • • • • • • Vital if a company were to avoid stagnation. roles of people. A process and not an event. Life itself is almost synonymous with the concept of change. Humans and organisms. Sometimes is an ‘incremental’ change. If throws up also a dissatisfied person. motivation. organisational environment. Change produces emotional reactions too. It is normal and constant. it has visions of revolutions. Is fast and is likely to increase further in the present competitive business. Sometimes it is a ‘radial’ shift from the current to a new process. An organisation too cannot and should not remain constant/stagnant all the time. etc. Many a times it is a ‘top down’ management directive. It is dependent upon the organisational environment and or culture. the external pressures force it to change. but pervasive too. a trouble maker. Even if the management does not want to change. Change is inevitable.CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 2 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE 2) Defination: “Organisational change is the process by which organisations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness” 6) Importance of Change: • • • • Change is the only thing permanent in the world. ‘grow up’ leaving behind the characteristics of earlier stages of development and adopt new behaviours with age.
• • . Are the value & image of the company being changed during the change? The origins of the individuals within the company. The good and bad experiences of the individuals of the company on whom the new change is vested in. History & Politics: The historical and political evolution of a company will have a significant bearing on its acceptance of change. The traditions and norms to which the management and employees are accustomed to. − The people who work for the company • o The illustration of the 3 components and their inter-relations are shown in the sketch Changes Historical & political Corporate evolution Culture Management & Organisation Changes People 4a.8) Corporate Culture and Change Management: • All changes interface with three organisational components which constitute the organisational culture. − The management and organisation of the company. The image the company likes to promote. The unwritten and written long standing rights and policies existing in the company and the likely threats to them. The perception of the company that the customers are holding. Those three components are: − The historical and political evolution of the company. These factors are: • • • • • • • Base & origin of the company Associated values of the company.
• The relationships and cordiality between the top management and the people who have been vested with the powers of change. Both project and group work increase. With increased harassing of technology and processes availability of jobs decrease.Management & Organisation: • • • • • • • • • • • • Changes will impact the roles of management. Role of line management shifts from ‘autocrat’ to that of ‘facilitator’ Senior management takes more of strategic stance. They recognize the contribution to the achievement of business objectives. Multi skilling of employees increase and in greater demand. and there inter-relationships. personal status. measure and analyse the effect of the change on the workforce. • . All the activities and outputs gets customer oriented. Typically with any change people expect a reward pay hike. Before embarking upon the change. Senior management encourages opportunities for progress through innovation. The ‘acceptance’ of change process by top management. All cautions should be exercised in the people oriented changes. It will also impact the structure and operation of the organisation. their acceptance and willingness and take suitable remedial measures. The jobs broaden in terms of scope and of accountability. The ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of power. The requirements of specialists slowly decrease. The boundaries between jobs. etc. People: • • • • Most of the issues in change management are ‘people’ oriented. • • 4c. divisions and departments become blurred. • • • 4b. sphere of influence. promotion or other type of recognition.. The likely ‘balance of power’ between the current owners and the functional experts. Every decision on change ‘impacts’ the people. Think carefully the impact of change in every job it affects.
Informal groups can pose a major barrier to change because of the inherent strength they possess. These decisions are rarely implemented only by a single manger. The groups could be departments or informal work groups. Formal groups. physical move to a different location or the change in maturity level of a person which occurs overtime. − − − − − Work flows Job design Social organisation Influence the status systems & Communication patterns • • Managers must consider group factors when implementing change. • • b) Group Level Change: • • • • Most organisational changes have their major effects at the group level. • • c) Organisational – Level Changes: • Changes at this level involve major programs that affect both individuals and groups. Require considerable planning for implementation. will also have repercussions in the group. can resist change envisaged by management. Decisions regarding these changes are generally made by senior management. the above is not true. since any change at individual level. Changes at the group level can affect. Some say that changes at the individual level will seldom have significant implications for the total organisation.9) Levels of Change: 3 Levels – Individual. Change in the organisational level is generally referred to as ‘organisational development’ • • • • • • . They cover long periods of time. Others say. Effective implementation of change at the group level. can frequently overcome resistance at the individual level. This is because most activities in organisations are organised on a group basis. like unions. Decisions at this level involve major programs that affect both individual and groups. group and organisational a) Individual Level Change: • Change is reflected in such developments as changes in job assignment.
Radial rethinking and redesigning of business processes to obtain rapid organisational effectiveness. re-engineering is an example. TQM is an example Revolutionary Change: Sudden. Developed by Edward Demming Broad goal of TQM is continuous improvement. TQM is driven by statistical data. a) Total Quality Management (TQM): • • • • Evolutionary change. Ignores existing arrangement of tasks. Employees are expected to make suggestions on all aspects of processes and management. roles and work activities. TQM has 4 key components Systems Change Through TQM Management People Processes • • • b) Re-Engineering: • • • Revolutionary change.6) Types of Change: • Two Types : Evolutionary Change Revolutionary Change • • Evolutionary Change : Gradual. reduce waste. incremental. Continuous efficiency improvement to reducer costs. Orients with customer as object. drastic & organisation-wide. Has the following components. Known as Business Process Re-engineering. Business processes Re-engineering Values & Benefits Jobs and Structures Management & measurement • • • . improve quality.
performance measurement and reward schemes. But the two approaches applied together and with understanding and sympathy. TQM – a continuous. lateral thinking and raw creativity associated with senior management. improvement. Both stress on job description and proper organisation structural relationships. Re-engineering is radical reinvention and top down approach. although there is a difference in emphasis. The two differ in their impact on organisational culture. offer a tremendously powerful recipe for building or rebuilding an organisation. • • • • . Both promote empowerment and involvement high value team work in quality circles. rather than pure directions. Both promote a process orientation. measurement. Reengineering demands conceptual thinking rooted in supposition. Both emphasize on power and accountability. comparison fact finding and reasoning. intuition. • • • • • • • • e) Dissimilarities between TQM & Reengineering: • • • • • The two differ in their approach to change. Both differ in perception too TQM has analytical thinking. TQM and Reengineering have four identifiable founding principles and commonalities which are summarized as follows: TQM Systems Processes People Management Reengineering Management & Measurement Business Processes Values & Benefits Jobs & Structures • d) Similarities between TQM & Reengineering: • Both emphasize objectivity and this they obtain through statistical analysis and benchmarking. bottom up. TQM focuses on improvement whereas reengineering focuses on customer relationships. Both stress the role of management on coaching and facilitating.c) Integration of evolutionary & revolutionary change – TQM & Re-engineering: • The popular approach is that the two can not co-exist. Both demand change of people’s attitudes and their values and beliefs. Reengineering has a program of change with an identifiable beginning and an end. Both emphasize the importance of customer. TQM is an attitudinal change with constant focus on continuous improvement and customer.
Some are external. Causes for change: External Causes Globalisation Work force diversity Technological change Managing ethical behaviour Government policies Competition Scarcity of resources Mergers and acquisitions Pollution/Ecological controls Calamities/Emergencies Internal Causes Organisational silence Falling effectiveness Crisis Changing employee expectations Change in the work climate Downsizing Reengineering Productivity improvements Cycle Time Reduction 8) Resistance to Changes: Organisational Level Organisational structures Organisational Cultures Organisational Strategies Over determination (Structural inertia) Sub-unit Level Differences in subcommittee Orientation Power and Conflict Group Level Group Norms Group Cohesiveness Group think Individual Level Cognitive Biases Uncertainty Fear of loss Selective Perception Habit Logical Reasons . Some are internal. The changes stem from several factors. TQM can address the problems at the lower levels.• • Reengineering can address major strategic issues at top level management. 7) Forces for Change in Organisations: • • • • • Change has become the norm in most organisations. arising from outside the organisation. arising from sources within the organisation.
Simultaneously reduce the resistance for change. At P2 the forces balance between the two groups. the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change. .Developed by Kurt Lewin Level of Performance Resistance to Change Equal Arrows Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • • Refer the sketch In any organisation. When the forces are in balance. Refreezing the system so that it remains in this desired state. Moving to a desired condition. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. At P1.9) Force Field Theory of Change: . • • • • • • 10)Different change Models Lewin’s three stage model of change system: As per Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model. effective change occurs by: • • • Unfreezing the current situation. the change starts occurring in steps and reaches a level of P2. Initially both the groups may be equal in their force. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change. To get the organisation to change.
a) Unfreezing: Involves • • • • • • Shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains status quo Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours. Old ways of functioning are avoided • • • d) Lewin’s Change Model: Unfreezing Reducing the forces for status quo Moving Developing new attitudes. Management should ensure that the new organisational culture and record systems encourage a new behaviour. values and behaviours Refreezing Reinforcing new values attitudes and behaviours • The model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. values and attitudes. To develop new behaviours. the 3 stage processes must be completed. New attitudes. Presenting the existing problem Making the people to recognise the need for change. b) Moving: Aims • To shift or alter the behaviour of individuals. Failures can be traced back to anyone of the stages. • • . To change sometimes through structural changes. Encouraging people to search for new solutions. • • • c) Refreezing: • • The change becomes permanent. The new way of operating are cemented and reinforced. values and behaviours are established as the new way of organisational approach. departments or organisations where the changes are to take place. Old behaviours should be discarded and new behaviours are introduced. Eliminating the rewards for current behaviours and discouraging current behaviours. To change sometimes through organisational development techniques.
play a great role in transition management. This model follows a seven step process as in the sketch: • • Scouting Entry Diagnosis Planning Termination Stabilization & Evaluation Action • The phases are generally sequential.e) Transition Management: • • • Is between any two phases of change. . organizing and implementing change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within an organisation. the organisation is neither old nor new. In the transition state. Still. • • Entry: − In this phase development of mutual contract and mutual expectations take place. Watson & Westley (1958). Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. • • • • • 11) Planning Models • • • Developed by Lippit. but the change agent can change the sequences when need arises. − They also explore the areas requiring change. Managing transition is essential to keep the organisation going. customer and suppliers. Communication of the changes to all involved. This information must be able to be translated into action. the business must carry on. This is a process of systematically planning. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. Later modified by Kolb & Frohman (1970) This model is based on the principle that information must be freely and openly shared between the organisation and the change agent. Scouting: − Phase where the change agent and the organisation jointly explore the need for change. employees.
• Planning: − Actual and possible reasons for resistance to change are identified. • Termination: − Phase where a decision is made to leave the system or to end and begin another. d) Feedback to key client or group: • • • Data gathered is passed on to the client. These problems are removed with the help of an OD practitioner. process observations. − The need for further action or termination is also made in this phase. 12)The Action Research Models: • • This model focuses on the planned change activity as a ‘cyclical process’ 8 main steps involved in the action research model are explained below. The consultant provides the client all relevant and useful data. the help of an OD expert is sought c) Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis: • • • Consultant and organisational members gather the data. To determine the strengths and weaknesses of the area under study. questionnaire. • Stabilization and Evaluation: − Phase where evaluation is undertaken to determine the extent of success of the planned change. • Action: − Indicates the implementation of the steps identified during the planning stage. Methods used-interviews. Also analysis of organisational performance. b) Consultation with a behavioral expert: • After problems are sensed and realized. . a) Problem Identification: • • A stage in which the management senses the existence of one or more problems. − Planning for specific improvement of goals is also made.• Diagnosis: − In this phase the specific improvement goals are identified.
e) Joint Diagnosis of the Problem: • • • • The group discusses the feedback. g) Action: • • Stage involves the actual change from one organisational state to another. i) Schematic diagram of action research model: Perception of problems by key individuals Consultation with behavioural science experts Joint Action Planning Feedback by these experts to client group Joint diagnose of problem New data gathering as a result of action Data gathering after action Action Feedback to client group by consultants Rediagnosis & action planning by client & consultant New Action Rediagnosis of situations. Focuses on any additional research needed. f) Joint action planning: • • The consultant and management team jointly agree on problem – solving methods. The specific action depends upon on the organisation’s cultural. etc. Reorganizing structures and work designs. Reinforcing new behaviours. New data is taken to find the effects of actions already taken. h) Data gathering after action: • • • Is cyclic in nature. Based on the feedback. technological and work environment problems to be resolved and the time and costs associated with the desired OD intervention. The group does validation. situations re-diagnosed and new actions taken. . Results of additional research are summarized and submitted to the group again. Involves and includes: − − − Installing new methods and procedures. further diagnosis and identified the problem.
The change process is undertaken after the ‘diagnoses of sources of problems and then analyzing it. Appropriate actions are designed to improve the organisation. wherein: − The organisation members make judgements about consultant’s skill and competence. • • • • The contracting phase lays the ground rules for a collaborative relationship and seeks clarification as to − − − What each party expects from the relationships. Planned movement can occur from one state to another. Organisational members who are aware of the need for change initiate the change process. Approval of the key decision makers is also sought during this stage. Understanding of the present state of the organisation and the processes of change required to move to another state is required. there is a mutual assessment of the requirements. Diagnosis is jointly undertaken by organisational members and OD practitioners. The rules for carrying out the consulting relationships. • • • • • • . The basis for this model is that an organisation exists in different states at different times. Goals are set for the change efforts.13)Integrative Model of Planned Change: • • • Developed by Bullock and Batten (1985) Describes both organisational states and change processes. Model consists of four phases • • • a) Exploration Phase: • Organisation decides whether to plan for specific change and commit resources for it. How much time each will invest and what it will cost. In the search process. This leads to search for OD resources and assistance and then contracting OD experts. b) Planning Phase: • Planning commences once the problems facing the organisation are understood. − And the consultant assesses whether the client is ready for change and has the necessary resources and commitment. And the resources for OD are committed.
It includes processes aimed at transitioning the organisation from its current state to the desired future state. Resource dependence perspective – examines strategic change. This is done to assess the progress and check whether positive results are being achieved. the contract with the OD professional is gradually terminated. • Slowly. Population ecology perspective – looks at the limits of change and resistance to change. e) The integrative model of change is indicated in the sketch below: Exploration Stage Change Process Need awareness Search Contracting Planning Phase Change Process Diagnosis Design Decision Action Phase Change Process Implementation Evaluation Integration Phase Change Process Stabilization Diffusion Renewal 14)Perspectives on Change: • • • Four major perspectives on organisational change. • • • d) Integration Phase: • This phase involves making the changes as a part and routine of regular organisational functioning after having successfully implemented and stabilized them. The change activities are monitored and evaluated periodically. professionalization and compliance.c) Action Phase: • • The changes derived from planning stage are implemented in this stage. • • . The new behaviour reinforced and further strengthened through: − − − • Regular feedbacks Incentives & Rewards. Institutional perspective – looks at becoming and change through imitation. Also to check if any modifications and refinements are required for the process. Contingency perspective – focuses on structural change.
Two central dimensions of structure-specialization and integration. the job of a truck loader. converts them into products and services and gives these products and services back to the surroundings. The fundamental idea is that it is the ‘environment’ which is the source of most of the major changes. Variety of things that exists outside yet surrounds the organisation. These includes: • • • • • • • • • Customers Suppliers A society Norms Values • • • Competitors Governmental agencies An economy growth rate interest rate of Social inflation Habits • • • Customs The term phenomenon does not refer to a single phenomenon It includes a variety of phenomena in organisations. accounting. Signifies everything that exists outside our organisation. Structure refers to the way in which an organisation breaks down a complex task into individual activities and integrates these separate activities to achieve its purpose.. personnel. • • b) Contingency Perspective: • • Mainly concerned with the structure of an organisation. Environment derived from ‘Environ’ means to ‘surround’. are called as horizontal specialization or horizontal division of labour. The term ‘environment’ means ‘the surrounding’ That is everything that surrounds the organisation. Any job that consists of a single activity or very few activities is a highly specialised job eg. Refers to the member and variety of different activities that make up individual jobs in an organisation.a) Notion of Environment: • The most important notion in the four perspectives of organisational change is the idea of environment. marketing. Organisations divided into manufacturing.. etc. Specialization is also known as ‘division of labour’ In an organisation there is usually a horizontal and vertical division of labour. Organisation is something that gets resources from outside. • Specialization: • • • • • . An organisation changes if the environment changes.
In restructuring several questions arise. technology of an organisation. Any change in one or more contingency variables results in a misfit between the structure and the contingency variable. Both specialization and integration are factors that are within the control of an organisation’s management. The most important aspect of contingency perspective relating to organisational change is the relationship between environment and structure. Contingency factors depend upon contingency variables. The main idea of contingency perspective is that the most effective or appropriate structure is one that is in ‘fit’ or ‘alignment’ with its contingency variables. What types of structure? How specialised the jobs should be? What are the coordinating mechanisms in the organisation? Etc. The most common and familiar methods of integration are through direct supervision. • • • General: • • • • Contingency Perspective: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Organisational changes almost always involve restructuring. Lack of fit or misfit affects the performance of the entire organisation. strategy of an organisation and environment of an organisation. Misfit requires a change in the organisation structure. procedures and systems and goals. or if there is a change in their environment. These variables are: size of an organisation. rules. unproductive and chaotic. There are two dimensions that characterise the environment of an organisation. Any change in these two dimensions is called as ‘restructuring’ of an organisation. These are the central questions based on the contingency perspective. an organisation would be inefficient. Without these coordination mechanisms. or if they change their strategy or if they acquire new technology. plans and targets.Integration: • Refers to the various ways and means of coordinating the work of individuals in the organisation. Contingent means ‘depending’. The management can determine the extent of specialization and type of integration required within an organisation. they need to change their structure in order to remain effective. These bring about uniformity and standardization in the activities of the organisation. When an organisation grows larger.
the higher the level of uncertainty. Over the years. It is based on the assumption that attributes of size. If they are changing rapidly. Dependence of an organisation on other external organisations for resources makes it vulnerable because it creates uncertainty. If is therefore. effective organisations have a cluster of common attributes. In recent years a new approach called. In other words. This makes them dependent on the groups and organisations in the environments which control the resources that the organisation requires. Pfeffer and Salancik profounded two strategies: internal and external. technology. necessary to study how the variables impact on one another and how these relationships affect structure. Internal strategies are aimed at adapting and changing the organisation to fit the environment. the environment is simple. The higher the level of complexity and instability. the environment is complex. But the contingency variables are themselves related to one another. This cluster of attributes is called a ‘configuration’. Task uncertainty is the difference between the amount of information required to perform a task and the amount of information already possessed by the organisation. strategy and environment commonly occur together. ‘configurational approach’ has emerged to deal with this inadequacy in the contingent perspective. then the environment is stable. the environment is unstable. size and structure. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • c) Resource Dependence Perspective: by PFEFEER & SALANCIK • Based on the simple premise that organisations need to acquire resources from the environment in order to survive. If the answer is many. Are the different organisations in the environment changing? And if yes how fast? If the organisations in the environment are not changing or changing slowly. The other feature is the level of stability. environment and structure and so on. contingency perspective has come under lot of scholarly criticism. There are 7 strategies identified: • • • • Internal Strategy: • • Domain choice • Recruitment • Buffing . Scholars say that it considers only two variables at a time: strategy and structure. If the answer is few.• One is the level of complexity – how many different organisations are there in the environment.
some organisations die and a few others are born into the population. two wheeler manufacturers. Consequently. fail to survive. systems. • Therefore. Each population occupies an ecological niche in the environment. management systems suited only for their specific niche. Organisations survive in their niches by developing distinctive capabilities such as skills. skills and culture. There may be legal and financial barriers to entry and exit from current market or industries. etc. textile firms. The environment consists of different niches. Retention: constitutes those processes that help organisations retain the features that are required by the environment. There may be political resistance to change inside the organisation. it is more useful to study a population of organisations rather than a single organisation. Organisational assets may be specific to its current tasks. Some of the reasons can be: − − − − • Organisational leaders may have incomplete information about the environment. The niche provides the resources for the organisations. Selection: refers to the process through which the environment selects those organisations that have the required features – some are selected out or die. • A major criticism against this perspective is that it does not provide any positive role for managers. 5 external strategies: • • Advertising Coalescing • • Contracting Lobbying • Co-opting d) Population – Ecology Perspective: • This perspective states that individual organisations can not adapt to changing environments for a variety of reasons. Populations means organisations which are similar – restaurants. Those organisations that lack these capabilities are unable to get the required sources and therefore. . There are 3 types of processes for such death and births: − − • • • • • • • • − Variation: are those processes that lead to differences in organisations in terms of strategy structure.Environmental scanning Geographical dispersion External Strategy: • • • • • Smoothing • Rationing Are meant to alter the environment to fit the organisation. patterns of behaviours.
Such organisations are able to obtain the necessary resources. 3 separate areas of management dealing with change. Organisational Change Models: − − − − − − Work of academics. Organisations change their structures and strategies not to improve performance but to conform to the norms and standards of the institutional environment. values and culture of the environment in which they operate affect organisations. Organisations that lack legitimacy have difficulty in getting the requisite resources. − No single. Semi-theoretical and semi-practical. lawful and proper. Organisations that conform to the norms and standards are considered as legitimate. Norms. Why? How? Are there different types? Which is better? Organisational levels? Limitations? Messy & Painful? Our knowledge is fragmented. values and culture make up the institutional norms. Organisational theories: − Results of the work of scholars and academics. Processes? • • • Models are useful and less complex than theories and offer practical advice. 2 types of change models: Descriptive & Prescriptive. • • • • • • 15)Understanding the change Process: • • A manager frequently grapples with change. They help organisations to change rather than learning about change. Prescriptive – lay down guidelines for bringing about effective change in organisations.e) Institutional Perspective: • Social norms. − They only study organisational changes than change organisations. Descriptive – informs us the way in which organisations change. unified and coherent theory. but tend to be general rather than specific. consultants and practitioners. Organisational Change Tools: − Special tools and techniques intended to bring about specific types of changes in organisations. . They are also called as ‘symbolic elements’.
In order to bring about changes in these organisations need to change three other aspects. quality and costs. It is the combination of right values. A model of change levers is indicated below: Marketing Technology Managing People Quality Costs . Four areas which constitute the content of change – technology. right knowledge and right action that leads to productive change. How to change – is process of change. The above is ‘intro organisational’ change. structure and people management. One type includes all the changes that take place inside an organisation – computerization. This is truly ‘organisational’ Organisational change includes intro organisational. new inventory control. etc. Right Values Management of change Right knowledge Right action Three components of Productive Change • • We have to distinguish between two types of organisational change. marketing. Organisation levers of change − − − − − − • • • • What to change – is content of change.• • If we want to change effectively we must integrate theory and practice. Another type refers to the organisation as a whole. These are strategy.
mistakes and subsequent learning. 6 Recognising that resistance to change is a part of the normal process of adaptation. their emotional and personal relationships are involved. Such negative action will generate resistance and reduce necessary risk-taking behaviour. dramatic changes as part of the overall process of transformation. 5 Generating an acceptance that this type of change will require a long time to implement fully even though there may be short-term. Such changes are generally met with resistance and require careful implementation to overcome the fear. bottom up is incremental. • • • • • • • .16)Leading the Change Process: • • Implementation of strategic change is likely to be problematic. while bottom up is participative. Changes are perceived as ‘deviant or normal’ and ‘threatening or desirable’ ‘Deviants’ are those which are imposed or outside the prevailing cultural norms. ‘BECKHARD’ suggests 10 organisation prerequisites which must exist before transformational change can be achieved. They are: Priority Prerequisite 1 Ensuring senior management commitment to the proposed changes which needs to be visible to all participants through out the organisation. 10 Maintaining open communication about progress. values and policies. 3 Creating a shared awareness of conditions to produce a common perception that change must be implemented. 7 Educating participants about the need for change and training them with the necessary competence to be effective. Changes are implemented ‘top down’ or ‘bottom up’ approach Top down is transformational. Since this involves people. so that managers can be educated to be aware of this and equipped to manage this reaction. Top down is perceived as imposed and controlled. to overcome resistance and gain commitment. 8 Persevering with the change process and avoiding blame where an attempt to implement a fact of this process fails. 2 Producing a written statement about the future direction of the organisation that makes clear its new objectives. 4 Assembling a body of key managers and other important opinion – formers to gain their commitment to the change process so that this may be disseminated more widely. 9 Facilitating the change process with necessary resources.
These 3 contribute to the employees’ behaviour.a) Strategic HRM for implementing change: • Hendry & Pettigrew presented the central components of strategic HRM as follows: − The use of planning − A coherent approach to the design and management of personnel systems based on an employment policy and HR strategy and often emphasized by a ‘philosophy’ − Matching HRM activities and policies to some explicit business strategy. • • b) Responsibility for leading the implementation of the change process: • Mabey & Salaman suggests three sources HRM is moving from HR specialist to the line manager. • • • The 3 key levers are: cultural. but difficult to achieve. the HR philosophy has to be integrated with the line manager. Corporate Strategy Culture Personnel Structure Human Resource Outcomes Change is the heart of the ‘open’ approach to HR strategies as indicated in the sketch above. In strategic HRM. Used for both top down and bottom up approaches. personnel and structural. Line Managers: • • . − Seeing the people of the organisation as a ‘strategic resource’ for achieving ‘competitive advantage’ • Mabey & Salaman model has an ‘open’ approach to HR strategies. The features are: − Specific HR outcomes or desired employee behaviour has to be adapted to achieve the desired corporate strategy. idealistic situation. A fantastic.
Devises the personnel strategies for the best HR outcomes. Integrates personnel. − − − − − • • Has a close awareness of the organisation’s operating environment and business plans. Sells the ideas of HRM changes to other managers. Human Resource Specialists: • Increasing importance to the line manager does not signal the death of HR specialist. The external consultant provides the off the shelf recipe for the client. − − − − Communicate plans to their workforce Explain their relevance vis-à-vis strategy.• Line managers better. As shown in the open HRM approach sketch. the HR specialist has a ‘change maker’ role. structural and cultural strategies. Recommends course of actions Diagnoses the problems Helps managers to implement change measures. external consultants may also be called upon. External Consultants: • Besides line mangers and HR specialists working in concert. • • • • • • . Consultant has to be involved from the beginning to the implementation and stabilization stages. The HR specialist. They act as catalysts to develop novel solutions. Monitor the performances of the procedures. Operate personnel procedures. Secures the resources necessary for change programmes.
Risk Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive. Individual Initiative: • The degree of responsibility. Two terms are key to the concept of culture History – cultural heritage of a society are passed on from generation to generation. freedom and independence that individuals have 2. innovative and risk seeking. Meaning & Defination: a) Culture: is a complex whole: which includes • • • • • • Knowledge Morals Other capabilities • • • Belief Law Other habits • • Art Custom And acquired by a man in society. . 3. Shared phenomenon – is basic to culture and implies that the cultural ethos is shared among the members of the society. • b) Organisational culture/Corporate culture: • • • • • Has been defined as the: Philosophies Assumptions Attitudes • • • Ideologies Beliefs Norms • • Values Expectations That knit the organisation together and are shared by employees c) 10 Characteristics of Culture: 1.III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 3 – ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE A. Direction: • The degree to which the organisation creates clear objectives and performance expectations.
assistance and support to their subordinates. 9. • When these characteristics are mixed and meshed. Integration: • The degree to which units within the organisation are encouraged to operate in a coordinated manner. consultative and mutually supportive manner. 2. 6. 3. Management Support: • The degree to which managers provide clear communication. favouritism and so on. consensus seeking. 10. we get the essence of culture. . 8. A Conventional Culture: These are conservative bureaucratic and traditional organisations.4. 4. An Approval Culture: Agreement. conflict avoidance dominate this type of organisations. Communication Patterns: • The degree to which organisational communications are restricted to the formal hierarchy of authority. A Humanistic – Helpful Culture: Organisations are managed in a participative. Twelve Types of Corporate Culture: Furnham & Günter in their book ‘Corporate Assessment’ (1993) classified corporate culture as follows: 1. Conformity and adherence are valued. Reward System: • The degree to which reward allocations are based on employee performance criteria in contrast to seniority. 5. B. Control: • The number of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that is used to oversee and control employee behaviour. Conflict Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to air their conflicts and criticism openly. 7. An Affiliative Culture: Interpersonal relationships are given high priority. Identity: • The degree to which members identify with the organisation as a whole rather than with their particular work group or field of professional expertise.
A Self Actualisation Culture: Creativity. building and so on. An Achievement Culture: It is characterised by success. formal roles and seeking instructions from seniors all the time for all the activities are the traits of this culture. hierarchical orientation. 3. o This gap is due to the excessive attention paid on cultural plans and inadequate considerations of approach strategy. An Avoidance Culture: Punishing mistakes and no reward to good work characterise this type of organisations. 2. others are brought into the organisation. A Power Culture: Using positional power. McDonald’s. 11. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. 4. is workable. incorporating.5. Egs: Motorola. A Dependent Culture: Centralisation. 5. locating space. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. At this point. money. The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organisation by raising funds. C. o The classifications below help practitioners to gain a broad perspective of approaches that are available to them. is worth running some risks for. o Managers should know that many times the gap between plans and implementation of culture is wide. o The delivered results are frustratingly disproportionate to the efforts and costs incurred. members criticize each others decisions. quality emphasis behaviour is valued in this culture. obtaining patents. hard work are valued here and avoiding mistakes is the hallmark of this type.Bate in 1995. Here. outperforming others and this culture promotes win-lose situations. and energy that will be required. 8. Four Practical Approaches to Cultural Change: Book Titled ‘Strategies for Cultural Change’ by S. How Organisational Culture Starts: 1. 10. o HR managers should advocate a suitable approach for implementation of cultural change based on the type of cultural change planned and organisational environment. 7. . A Perfectionist Culture: Perseverance. research and development. perfection. An Oppositional Culture: Awarding negativism and being critical is the virtue in these organisations. arbitrariness and subjectivity prevail in the organisations of this culture. 6. 9. and is worth the investment of time. and a common history begins to be built. A Competitive Culture: Employees are rewards and for exceeding targets. That is. Wal-Mart D. achieving targets and accomplishing their own goals and pursuing standards of excellence 12.
Continuous development Based on power and control Uses informal network Unseen manipulation High participation Act first. breadth of support leads to crisis of change. How Culture Perpetuates Itself: 4 Hiring & socialization of members who ‘fit in’ with the culture Removal of members who deviate from culture Behaviour 1 Culture 3 Culture communications Culture . Gets seduced back to status quo • 2. not confrontation. 4. Corrosive • • • • • • • • • • • Lead to genuine and large scale change initiated by small scale network Lead to wide scale changes at an informational. quiet Slow change over to new values Deals with means. Aggressive • • • • • Characteristics Rapid change Dismantles traditional values New culture is noncomplex Top down monitored Detailed plans/actions Reasonable. logical network Advocates one world view • It Can Lead to a strong integrated culture.o The approaches: Appr oach 1. Does not succeed in bringing about fundamental cultural change. Conciliative • • • • • • • • • • 3. Loses sight of its radical intent. not ends Collusion. Indoctrinative • E. Suit a situation where there is a simple source of authority Loads to a common sense welcoming of new culture Disarm opposition • • • But it usually Mobilises distant Is politically native Lacks skills. legitimize later Planned and programmed Explicit learning process Socializing Unified. technical level • Is used to defined existing order and oppose change initiations.
A positive and competitive tension is to be nurtured among department. 3. 5. Defense resistance. Not promising what the organisations can not deliver. Check on the leadership and support processes to overcome anxiety among managers in giving up their earlier responses. demoting laggards and terminating undisciplined people lead to ethical and legal problems. 10. Involve employees in the change process. sub-goals. The top management commitment must be seen and felt. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity. through direction and training. Make changes from top down. 3 – New rituals. Monitor the progress from time to time. 2 – Indicates the cultural justification for the behaviour of the organisation’s members. Educating managers about the legal and ethical pit falls inherent in culture change. 6. 7. • • • • F. norms and behaviours needed to make it work. Formulate a clear picture of the firm’s new strategy and of the shared values. new stories and new heroes are needed to be widely and consistently communicated. Communicate the change translated into goals. activities and behaviours. 5 – The way to reinforce a culture is to remove those organisational members whose behaviour deviates from the cultural values of the organisation. Culture change can ignite tensions between organisational and individual interests. Guidelines/Checklists for cultural change: 1. build momentum in terms of initial success.• • • 2 Managers seeking to create culture change must intervene at these points 1 – The first thing to change is people’s behaviour. Promoting performers. 4 – This step impacts the culture by hiring and socialization of members who match the culture. Such removal reduces the variances in behaviour and sends to those in the organisation powerful signals relating to appropriate behaviour. . Guidelines for minimizing such tensions would be: • • • • Setting realistic values for culture change. 2. Identify the depth of culture change needed. 11. resulting in ethical and legal problems for individual members. 8. 9. Identify aspects of the current culture that could still be valid and other aspects that need to be modified or changed. Despite this. 4. expect certain casualties to occur – some employees may leave the organisation and a few set backs may occur to the change effort. Providing mechanisms for member dissent and diversity. Take a close look at the inner functioning of the organisation and determine if cultural change is necessary.
nature of competition and other factors of environment. Employees quickly detect manager’s lip service. if not embrace the assumptions and values of culture. Management’s sayings have powerful influence on employees. They must fit together like pieces of puzzle. 1. • • o Stable: • Culture should not keep on changing frequently. o Implicit: • Culture should be an increasingly acceptable conversation topic among employees. Depends on the degree of impact on employee behaviour o No one type is the best: . • Culture depends upon the organisation’s goals. o Subculture: • A culture in an organisation may be made up of various subcultures. Distinctive: There is no best culture for all times. Integrated: • Cultures will be more easily recognised when their elements are generally integrated. And elements consistent with each other. o Accepted: • Most members must at least accept.• Helping them develop guidelines for resolving such issues. G. o A reflection of Top Management: • • Cultures evolve from top management. o Symbolic: • • Management actions are even more important to watchful employees. 10 Characteristics of Organisational Cultures: 1. industry. o Cultures of varying strength: • • Can be characterised as relatively strong or weak.
They must be able to communicate to the employees. 1. They enhance cohesion around key values. Is a continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organisation’s culture to employees. • • • • • • • • . Story telling is a key means of achieving socialization of employees. Examples of formal communication vehicles for transmitting organisational cultures are: o o o o o Executive visions of the firm’s future Corporate philosophy statements. Communicating and changing culture: • • • Organisations have to consciously create and manage their cultures. it is the essential process of learning the ropes to survive and prosper within the firm.H. Stories convey how in the past problems have been solved. such as a manager’s error and an executive’s forgiveness. Memorable stories uplift people. Codes of ethical conduct. • • • • • 2. They prove to be powerful ways to create shared meaning and purpose. Stories convey a sense of tradition. Publicly recognising heroes and heroines. Organisational socialization is like placing an organisation’s finger prints on people by planting its own genetic code on them For employees. thoughts and behaviour of employees. Story Telling: • Managers are encouraged to engage in story telling as a way to forge a culture. Consists of both formal and informal methods. Socialization is functional for both workers and their employers. Good stories tap into the emotions of audience. It also builds organisational identity. • Unintentional communication of organisation’s culture to employees. Organisational Socialisation: • • All cultural communications are put under this umbrella. Retelling historical success stories. entertain and also teach valuable lessons. These approaches help to shape the attitudes.
them creative individualization can infuse new life and ideas for the organisation’s benefit. The interaction between individualization and socialization is shown in the sketch: High Conformity Socialization (impact of organisational culture on employee acceptance of norms) Isolation Low Low Individualisation (Impact of employee on Organisational culture. • • 4. Culture Change Methods & effectiveness: Probable Effectiveness Culture Change Method Very Great Great Moderate Minimal . Deviation from norms) High Rebellion Creative individualism • • The two extremes rebellion and conformity may prove dysfunctional to the organisation. Isolation is not productive. Individualization: • Occurs when employees successfully exert influence on the social system around them at work by challenging the culture or deviating from it. question and experiment while also not being too disruptive.3. When we assume that the culture of a certain organisation invites its employees to challenge.
Adequate resources need to be allocated to support culture change and maintain it. it can be managed. once it has been achieved. g) Work out a desired strategy and desired culture and ensure they match and congruent. It can be realigned to the strategic direction on organisation wishes to take. continuously developing phenomenon Managers can manage culture. Typical frameworks for managing culture change: As suggested by Beckhard the general principles for successful cultural change are as follows: f) Know & understand the current values. prevent its change. abandon the culture. Culture can be altered. The reality of achieving this is very complex and organisations with similar backgrounds and similar environments develop different cultures at different situations. 1. How can organisations realign culture? Architecture: • • • • • • Features of the Change There has been considerable debate as to whether culture can be managed! Lot of focus on whether or not it can be modified.Train Employees Reward Behaviours Communicate Top Management Support Use Stories and Myths Use Slogans I. • • Prior to any culture change. Top down and bottom up are two of the approaches by HRM for change of culture. cultures. senior management must understand the implications of the new culture for their own practices. Culture change programs must pay careful attention to the organisation’s power bases and opinion – leaders such as trade unions and employee’s association • • • Publicly recognise heroes & heroines Appoint a manager of culture Formulate Value statement . Culture is a dynamic. patterns of behaviour within the organisations and strategic directions of the organisation. h) Identify the gap between actual and desired culture and take steps to move the actual culture to the desired culture. artifacts and declared values and be involved in all the main change phases. or destroy the culture. change culture.
Top Down Strategy for cultural change: • • • • Often called ‘programmatic change’ Typically initiated and led from the top. it is crucial that employees have the necessary capabilities and behaviours to realize the necessary change. performance management and employee relations. Top-down draw backs: o Messages of initiative. To succeed. management of office space. Such changes are tied to an organisation’s critical path Based on solving concrete business problems. etc. Writes on corporate excellence follow this. reinforce the existing culture to achieve the newly espoused cultures and values. excellence. o Employee believes the new culture conflicts with their existing culture. empowerment. Typically looks towards organisation-wide consensus. provision of educations and training. performance related pay are a few HR interventions for change of culture. organisations need to decide how practices or procedures will be amended to support the new espoused values and contradictory practices removed.• Culture change programs must take into account an organisation’s existing practices and approaches in recruitment. HRD programmes like quality. procedures and structures support them Spread the changes out to other areas of . selection and retention. • • 2. autonomy and innovation are usually conveyed through bureaucratic methods such as team briefings. Every opportunity should be taken to close the cultural gaps. Change of organisation structure. • • • 3. In order to create a change in culture. called ‘task alignment’ Task alignment could be achieved through a series of overlapping steps taken at the business level as shown below: 6 Evaluate outcomes of changes and amend vision and actions as necessary FINISH 5 4 Confirm changes by ensuring that policies.. and focusing on existing values and cultures. training. Bottom up approach for cultural change: • • • • • Focuses on incremental approach Change is developed from bottom up.
3 Work towards common agreements of the vision and skills and actions to carry it forward
Work jointly to develop a vision for the future of the organisation START
Start to ensure commitment to the change by involving people in defining the problems
Focuses on parts of the organisation away from the corporate headquarters level. Emphasis on individuals shared commitment and vision as a prerequisite for change. Change is enabled by developing people’s abilities and through improved co-ordination between people. Results generate stronger commitment. The appropriateness of a chosen strategy will depend upon the organisation and what an organisation wishes through cultural change.
4. Design Parameters for cultural change:
The relative importance, weight and value will differ between organisations. What is effective or appropriate in one situation may not be in another. Bate’s development of ‘design parameters for cultural change’ Parameters Expressiveness Aspect of the organisation Affective (feelings) Description
component The ability of the cultural change approach adopted to express a new symbol which captures employees’ attention and excites or converts them.
Social components The ability of the culture change (relationships) approach adopted to create a shared common understanding and sense of common purpose amongst a group of employees or the whole organisation. Demographic The ability of the culture change component approach adopted to spread through (number/depth) out all levels of an organisation and to affect employees’ basic underlying assumptions
Development component (process)
The ability of the culture change approach adopted to adjust to changing organisational and wider environmental circumstances.
Institutional component The ability of the culture change (structure) approach adopted to create a lasting culture.
At the start of a culture change process, expressiveness may be considered more important whilst commonality and penetration are considered as less important. However, as the process continues and the new culture is spread through out at all levels of the organisation, commonality and penetration may become more important.
5. Relative Effectiveness of Top-Down Approach and Bottom-up Approaches to cultural change across different Design Parameters of cultural change: Parameters Expressiveness Level of Effectiveness of Top-Down Approaches Bottom-up approaches High – deal in simple Low in short term – focus on messages and specialise in concrete problem generates communicating these lots of detail rather than a new effectively and reasonably symbol quickly at the practice/artifact level Low – promoted unifying High – operates through feeling often ceases after shared understanding and formal program ends; methods creates a culture of trust and often lead to resistance and understanding. lack of common ownership Variable – depends on ability of interventions to affect more than just practices or artifacts: highly structured programs likely to reach all employees Low – tend to be inflexible and imply instant fix programmed nature implies conformity and devalues deviance. Low in short term – involves only part of the organisation High on long term – involves discussing proposals and implications with employees High – concrete problems lead willing to accommodate new views and find best fit with organisational requirements.
Low – based on senior management’s desires; lack of ownership by employees likely to be highest with transformational change
High – employees are keen to preserve what they have created; especially high when a development of existing practices which employees own rather than transformational change.
• • • •
• • • • • •
J. The Transglobal & Cross Cultural Contents:
A global economy is now a reality. The shape of international trade has changed dramatically in recent years with the emergence of European Community, revolutionary changes in the former Soviet Union & Eastern Europe and strong markets developing in China, India, Japan, Korea and many other emerging nations. Many organisations, now do business in more than one country. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. They encompass different social, legal, political communication and economic environments. Conditions affecting Multinational operations:
People of the world are organised into communities and nations, each in its own way, according to its resources and cultural heritage. There are similarities and significant differences. a) Social Conditions:
The two approaches effectiveness differs across the parameters. No approach is the best fit any organisation. No one approach will give everything we require. Strategy for culture change should be tailored to the requirements of the organisation at a particular time. Top-down approach brings relatively rapid changes in the organisation. Bottom-up approach takes a longer time. Managing organisational culture change is extremely complex. It needs to take account of the existing culture. Also what type of change we need – transformational or developmental WHIPP says: ‘culture is a Pandora’s box’
In many countries the overriding social condition is poorly developed human resources.
A major issue affecting multinational corporations has been how to deal with contrasting local practices. Parallely vast training programs begin to prepare the local workforce.• There are major shortages of managerial personnel. • • • • • • • • b) Legal & Ethical Conditions: • • • Countries around the world vary substantially in their legal systems. Managers need to be aware of the possible differences in both laws and ethical values that define acceptable and unacceptable behaviours in foreign countries. Lending of skilled people to a nation for training their local replacements may provide a more lasting benefit to its development than lending the capital. What is called as ‘training multiplier effect’ or ‘ripple-effect of self development’ comes into action. customs and behaviours. They need to recognise that the resolution of ethical issues are not always clear cut Another major issue revolves around the treatment of women and other minorities. Their employment practices and their business practices vary. Loaned skilled people develop others. and those trained locals become the nucleus for developing still more people. These deficiencies limit the ability to employ local labour productively. d) Economic Conditions: • The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are: . • • • • c) Political Conditions: • The following have a significant effect on organisational behaviour: o Instability of the government o Nationalistic drives – foreigners cornered. Managers in foreign countries need to become familiar with local customs and practices. o Subordination of employers and labour to an authoritarian state. Another social factor on which countries are often compared is the work ethic of their employees – long/short hours. Needed skills must be imported temporarily from other countries. A significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with the advanced technology or complex organisations. scientists and technicians.
These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly. security and trained human resources that developing countries require to be more productive. They represent a critical environmental condition to which the managers of international operations must adapt. legal. Then. • • • • • • • • • • • e) Culture & Behaviours: • • • • Culture determines behaviours. bad condition causes hurdle in the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organisation systems. − Rapid inflation. others aggressively protest. norms and values are passed on to future generations through cultural rituals. ethical. Culture may be understood as the all encompassing: o Shared beliefs o Norms o Values that guide the everyday life of individuals. Human resource practices too. Behaviour in organisational settings varies across cultures. All these factors make it difficult to motivate employees. Looking at social. political and economic conditions as a whole. vary across cultures. Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure. Tremendous disparity in distribution of wealth starts. As a result natives of those countries may not believe that additional effort on their part will earn associated rewards. social unrest increases. stories and symbols.− Low per capita income. Instead they are too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of the nation. • • • These beliefs. Cultural norms: • . Differing standards of living and varied geographical conditions can also cause variations in behaviour. Money loses its value rapidly. But culture is the determining factor. − Unequal distribution of wealth • Rapid population increases coupled with a lack of national economic growth make it unlikely that family incomes will progress significantly. They constrain the stability. some workers passively accept the situation.
Americans for example value freedom most. f) Culture Clusters: • • Countries that share cultural similarities form cultural clusters. In many cultures. o They tell us what we can do and what we cannot. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: • A pioneering work done by Dutch Scientist Geert Hofsteds. Cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised. Japanese find a higher value in belongingness in a group. Spain. Cultural values also have a major influence on the way people relate to each other and also to what they aspire for in a job.o Prescribe behaviours and practices. Stories and rituals: − It is important to communicate the norms. stories and rituals. people expect reward and compensation for their performance rather than for their seniority. − Culture is passed on from one generation to another through its symbols. cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised – high profits are not a criterion – Arabs. elitism and concern for form. • K. • Cultural Values: − − − − − − − − − − Tell us what is most dear to our hearts. etc) the meaning and value of a job lies more in the status than in the pay packet. hear stories and engage in rituals. Latin American countries Sometimes cultural differences have a direct impact on the strategic orientation of companies like USA companies emphasize on more profits. Japan. . People also expect recognition for seniority and age in hierarchical culture. In many hierarchical cultures (like India. Culture not only influences behaviour and human resources but also life style like elegance. International business utilizes the culture clustering approach in formulating their global strategies. − Culture is continuously reinforced when people see symbols. Italy. Germany. etc). • Cultural Symbols. In more egalitarian culture (like US. dividends and stock prices while Japanese companies focus more on new product development and market share. values and beliefs of a society to its members. Arab culture concentrates on their own family security and relying on god for destiny. Cultural clusters do have some differences but similarities are predominant.
. some are high. Such structures encourage and promote inequality between people at different levels. and The powerful should not hide their power • The dimension of power can be measured in a number of ways: − − − − In high power distance countries generally people dislike work People try to avoid the work. Most people should be dependent on a leader. values and beliefs such as: − − − − − Inequality is fundamentally good. Managers believe that they must be authoritarian. Countries in which people blindly obey the orders of superiors have high power distance. Individualism and Masculinity/Feminity. 1) Power Distance: • • Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members of countries companies and organisations accept that power is distributed unequally. Managers believe that they must adopt theory X leadership style. Organisations tend have tall structures. The powerful are entitled to privileges. • Organisations in low distance countries: − − − − Tend to be decentralized. • USA. . must force workers to perform. • • High power distance countries have norms.• He identified four cultural dimensions around which countries have been clustered with people in each group exhibiting identical behaviours. Germany. Everyone has a place. Have flatter organisation structures Have smaller proportion of supervisory personnel Have highly qualified people in the lower state of workforce. etc. Norway. some are low. represent cultures with lower distance. The 4 dimensions are: Power Distance. Australia. Those at the top make most of the decisions. and must supervise their subordinates closely. Uncertainty avoidance. Canada. They will have a large proportion of supervisory personnel People at low level have low of job qualifications. • In high power distance countries: − − − − − − Decision make is centralised.
• • High uncertainty avoidance countries are characterized by norms. Fewer written rules More risk taking by managers Higher labour turnover More ambitious employees Organisation encourages employees to use their initiative and assume responsibility for their actions. Laws are very important and should be followed. values and beliefs which accept that: − − − − − Conflict should be avoided. Deviant people and idea should not be tolerated. India. 3) Individualism/Collectivism: • Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their family only.• France. Low labour turnover Less ambitious employees • Societies with low uncertainty avoidance cultures have: − − − − − − Less structuring of activities. Brazil. These employees have a high level of uncertainty avoidance and prefer to avoid ambiguity at work. Mexico and Indonesia are examples of societies with a high power distance. 2) Uncertainty Avoidance: • • Is the extent to which people threatened by ambiguous situations? Employees in some cultures value clarity and feel very comfortable receiving specific directions from their supervisors. Less risk taking managers. and Consensus is important. Collectivism is the tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each in exchange for loyalty. Experts and authorities are usually correct. More written rules. • . • Countries with high uncertainty avoidance culture have: − − − − − A great deal of structuring of organisational activities.
before marriage. Machismo or exaggerated maleness is good. • In a collectivist organisation: − − − Tend to promote nepotism in selecting managers. and Advancement. such as family. Group decision making is best. Women usually choose jobs that are associated with short term employment. Individual achievement is ideal and People need not be emotionally dependent on organisations or groups. India. • In a individualistic organisation: − − − Favouritism shown to friends and relatives is considered to be unfair and even illegal. Countries high on individualism have norms. especially men. Important decisions are made by older senior managers. Pakistan and a number of South American countries exhibit collectivism. People. Men usually choose jobs that are associated with long term careers. • • • • • In highly masculine societies. should be decisive. and Groups protect individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group. Highly masculine cultures have norms. Men are assertive and dominant. People of Indonesia. values and beliefs that: − − − − − − Gender roles should be clearly distinguished. Promotions are mostly based on seniority and age. Australia. and beliefs which accept that: − − − • People are responsible for themselves. money. Denmark & Sweden. and other material things. 4) Masculinity/Feminity: • Masculinity refers to a situation in which the dominant values in a society are success. Promotions are based on one’s performance Decision making is an individual’s responsibility. Work takes priority over other duties. values. • Collectivist countries believe. that: − − − One’s identity is based on one’s group membership. success and money are important. Canada.• • Individualism is common in US. jobs are clearly defined by gender. There are men’s jobs and women’s jobs. .
realities of everyday life in an alien land starts. Phase 1: • The expatriate may experience a range of positive and negative emotions such as excitement anxiety. A haunting thought. fear of the unknown.L. • • • Phase 2: • • This is a very critical time. Adjustment Phase-1 Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 4 • • Time Crisis/ Culture Shock • The curve is based on psychological reactions to the overseas assignments and comprise 4 phases. Cultural Adjustment: • The process of cultural adjustment is a critical determinant of an expatriate’s performance. • . sense of adventure and so on. and individuals vary in terms of their reactions and copying behaviours. Adjustments to a foreign culture are multifaceted. The concept of an adjustment cycle or U curve shows that typical phases that may be encountered during cultural adjustment. There can be an upswing of mood upon arrival in the ‘assignment’ country that produces a ‘honeymoon’ phase. ‘failure as an early recall’ may be triggered at this point. A slow negative appraisals of location and situation leads to a crisis. Then novelty fades off. The way the expatriate copes with the psychological adjustment at this phase has an important outcome in terms of success or failure.
not everyone is motivated by the same factors. Then. family affair. unpredictable and uncertain environment. Gift for self/family. admiration Individual Group identity Individual status contribution belonging to group class/society promotion Salary. Culture shock is a natural response to the stress of immersing oneself in the new environment. Cultural Contracts in motivation – Motivation Across Cultures: • • What are the motivations of people in international settings? In multicultural work environments. parenthood Of others/ parenthood • • Independence decision making space. company success nationalistic. approaches. profit sharing social services. he comes in terms with the demands of the new environment. and applications reflect the culture of the country directly or indirectly. which is the expatriate’s reaction to a new. time. Factor American Management Leadership styles friendliness Control Emotional appeal Recognition Material awards Threats Japanese Persuasion. salary fringe benefits increase Loss of job Out of group Demotion . Motivational processes.Phase 3: • Once the individual passes this crisis point. A healthy recovery is maintained The bottom of the U-shaped curve is marked by ‘culture shock’. functional group activities Group harmony Arab Coaching. there is an upswing The person begins to adjust to the new environment. commission Annual bonus. money Opportunity Group participation Religion. • • Phase 4: • • • The upswing levels off after sometime. The table below shows the motivational approaches and cultural factors for three distinct cultures. Service culture shock is often a positive sign indicating that the expatriate is becoming deeply involved in the new culture instead of remaining isolated in an expatriate ghetto • • M. personal attention.
organisational • • • • • • Empathy: refers to understanding the emotional make up of other people and skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. a) EI has a set of 5 individual and social competencies. show cross cultural sensitivity and become known for offering great services to clients and customers. Also in response to the cultural and institutional context of the multinational country locations. Reputation. Leaders high on motivation exhibit remarkable commitment. Successful leadership in multinational companies requires that managers adjust their leadership styles to fit the different situations. Leaders with a high level of social skill are effective at leading change. motivation. risk Group harmony.Cultural values Competition. freedom belonging social status N. drive to achieve and optimism. a realistic self assessment and a self deprecating humour. • • . material achievements. show a superior ability to build and lead teams and become known for their persuasiveness. religion possession. integrity. self regulation. • • • b) Leadership in the National Context: • • In international settings. Leadership Across Cultures: • A multinational leader needs to possess certain unique qualities to become successful in global settings. Motivation: is reflected in a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status. security. • • Self awareness: is the ability to recognise and understand one’s moods. An international manager emotional intelligence. Leaders with a high level of self regulation exhibit trustworthiness. the leadership needs to be situational. Social skill: refers to the proficiency in managing relationships and building networks along with an ability to find common ground and to build rapport. Leaders with a high level of empathy demonstrates an ability to build and retain talent in their organisation. Such responses are required while dealing with contingency factors such as subordinates’ characteristics. Leaders with a high level of self-awareness exhibits self confidence. they are: self awareness. family taking. empathy and social skills. emotions and drives as well as their effects on other people. comfort with ambiguity and openness to change. Self regulation: is the ability to control redirect disruptive impulses and moods – the ability to think before doing.
• • 2. This means. Challenges subordinates to find new solutions to old problems.O. Transformational leadership is projected as an approach which can cut across all cultural barriers. Gives a meaning or a purpose to goals: • • Places the goals in emotion – laden stories. They are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things. TL is effective in any organisation anywhere in the world. 4. Articulates a vision: • • • • • • • Presents in vivid and emotional terms an idealized vision of future of the organisation What it can and should become And makes the vision clear to all in organisation. TL represents a higher level of leadership. Provides clear steps for followers to transform the company. Helps subordinates envision a future state of a better organisation. whether or not effective leaders act similarly regardless of their respective culture. Provides goals and a plan: • • Has a vision that is future oriented. • • . Subordinates share a commitment to radical change. Universalism in Leadership/Transformational Leadership: • • Universalism of leadership is a new concept. T Leaders are visionary agents with a sense of mission. Or a cultural context so that subordinates see the need to follow the leader’s ideals. The transformational leader has following attributes: 1. 3. Breaks from the status quo: • • • Has a strong desire to break from tradition An expert in finding ways to do things differently.
Demonstrates high ethical and moral standards: • • • Behaves consistently and fairly with a known ethical standard. reverence.5. Conduct business first and value expertise and performance Lack of attention to these factors results in costly failures for expatriates. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation: 1. Impress upon the need to attend to social needs before business matters. Low-context cultures such as Germany. and a willingness to sacrifice for the good of the company. personal devotion. place high value on trust. Jesus Christ. However. Korea and Japan tend to emphasize personal relationships. 6. Max Weba. focus on non verbal cues. Is motivated to lead: • • • Seeks leadership positions. Displays strong enthusiasm for the leadership role. respect and admiration of followers. Tend to rely on written rules and documents. Individual differences (also refer Hofstede’s theory given earlier) • High context cultures such as China. USA and Scandinavian countries. • • • • • . Most people also consider MK Gandhi & Martin Luther King as representatives of transformational leadership. Takes risks: • Is willing to take more risks with the organisation than the average leader. excitement regarding the leader’s ideas. a German sociologist recognised the existence of this leadership throughout history. Builds a Power Base: • Uses personal power based on expertise. Transformational leaders succeed because subordinates respond to them with high levels of performance. Acts as a role model 7. • • • • • • P. true transformational leaders are rare. He called this leadership as ‘Charisma’ And noted that existed in all cultures. He said. Transformational leaders are not new to the present century. Muhammad were among the first transformational leaders. 8.
Even if they do. In order to integrate the imported and local systems. Many are predisposed to parochialism. They fail to recognise the key differences between their own and other’s cultures. Managers and employees who come to a host country exhibit a variety of behaviours true to the citizens of their homeland. • • • 4. • • • • • • • 3. Ethnocentrism: • Another potential barrier to easy adaptation to another culture occurs when people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the best. Further productivity from local employees is also reduced. This new social system affects the responses of all persons involved.2. Cultural distance: • Predicting the amount of adaptation that may be required when an expatriate manager moves to another country requires an understanding of the ‘culture distance’ between the two countries. This is the understanding of the ways in which those differences can affect business relationships. This predisposition ‘ethnocentrism’ is known as the ‘self-reference criterion’ or • • • • It interferes with the understanding of human behaviours in other cultures. they tend to conclude that the impact of those differences is insignificant. This is an appreciation of the contribution each culture make to overall success. expatriate employees minimally need to develop ‘cultural empathy’ This is the awareness of differences across cultures. They see the situations around them from their own perspective. Parochialism: • The dominant feature of all international operations is that they are conducted in a social system different from the one in which the organisation is based. . In effect they are assuming that the two cultures are more similar than they actually are.
Cultural distance affects the responses of all people to business related issues. ‘disillusionment’ as they discover various problems they had not anticipated regarding travel. Such shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. it can be understood if employees have receptive attitudes. which is ‘insecurity and disorientation’ caused by encountering all sorts of different cultures. they will reach the fourth phase. Fourth phase: if they survive the first few weeks. that of ‘adaptation’. They should dedicate themselves to learn the new culture and adapt to it. or emotionally upset. They may not know how to act. Ethnocentric problems may be magnified by cultural distances. • • 5. may fear losing face and self confidence. A cultural change does not have to be dramatic to cause some degree of shook-like moving from a big town to a small town. tend to suffer cultural shock. At this point. shopping or language skills. regain a sense of self esteem and respond constructively to their new surroundings at work and home. they accept the new culture. home and culture. Cultural Shock: • Companies often assign employees to new job assignments in different areas to provide them with invaluable breadth of experience.• Cultural distance is the amount of difference between any two social systems and may vary from minimal to maximal. Such shocks are in four phases. Second phase: positive attitude is soon followed by. insecurity and anxiety caused by a strong new environment? They fail to act properly and lose their self-confidence. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . The new environment may be as systematic as the culture of the employee. Cultural shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. For unprepared employee. the new environment can appear to be chaotic and somewhat overwhelming. The employees who move to new job locations of the experience various degrees of ‘cultural shock’ Which is a feeling of confusion. Although it is different. Third phase: critical stage. First phase: they are excited and stimulated by the challenge of a new job.
Careful Selection: • • • • • Employees who are low in ethnocentrism and Who are less prone to troublesome characteristics. An attitude to learn the new culture and the family culture is necessary. France. especially on their first international assignments.• • Cultural shock is virtually universal. Overcoming Barriers to cultural Adaptation: 1. China. Belgium Latin American – Peru. Finland. Taiwan. Compatible Assignments: • Adjustments to new surroundings is easier if employees. are sent to nations that are similar to their own. • 2. Forms of country Customs Housing conditions Privacy Time Activity HR Practices Currency Work attitudes Strange language. It occurs in response to: − − − − − − − − − − − − − − Dramatic differences in languages. Switzerland. Argentina. Different management philosophies. Potential employees should have a capability to learn the new language quickly. NZ Nordic group – Norway. may be chosen They should have a desire to experience another culture. Chile. They should have a desire to live in another nation. Hong Kong. UK. Sweden. Mexico. These are grouped into 6 socio cultural clusters: − − − − − − − Anglo American – USA. Australia. New food Separation from friends and relatives. Q. Italy. Korea Central European Group – Germany. Pre-departure Training: . Denmark Latin European – Portugal. Israel. etc. Spain. Austria. Canada. Venezuela Pacific Rim Cluster – Japan. Brazil & India do not fall into any group • 3.
The local national working for the same organisation can also assist. A mentor may help a lot during transition. position. language and political environments. Better autonomy emoluments. Creates better impression. insecurities. lesser misunderstanding. Assistance in housing. Companies need repatriation policies. transportation and shopping. 4. fringe benefits. Better communications.• • • • • • Learn the local language Helps to reduce. Extra pay. inconveniences. Training includes – geography. • 5. power in host country best less in home country. separation from relatives and friends. coming back to their homeland culture – needs time to adjust. personal and organisational costs. • • • Forces inhibiting and supporting cultural adaptation: Inhibiting Forces Supporting Forces . better positions. Faster cultural adaptation. The previous job holder may also stay back for sometime and assist. Support for intensified need deficiencies like financial difficulties. culture. customs. After enjoying a new culture. Preparation for Reentry: • • Repatriation has to be smoothly blended. Orientation & Support in the New Country: • • • • • • Efforts to quickly settle the employee and family. Often tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland – reverse cultural shock.
Non-verbal communication is called as cross cultural communications. Cross Cultural Communications: • • • Besides verbal communications.Individual Differences Parochialism Ethnocentrism Cultural distance Culture shock Cultural Adaptation Careful Selection Compatible assignments Pre-departure training Orientation & support Preparation for reentry R. non verbal communications are also important. . They include: • • • • • • Relative values for time efficiency Values of life Eye contact Posture Meaning of silence Language • • • • • • Thought patterns Personal space Physical appearance Gestures Legitimacy of touch Clusters • They are very important contingency factors.
Change is intensely personal. while abandoning the familiar. To make an individual choose change. Individuals tend to perceive change as a discontinuity. therefore. which are o Structure o Process o Culture • • If people within the organisation do not change. Organisations can not ignore. deny or suppress emotions at work. Change gives rise to emotions. but an opportunity when it is done by people. For change to occur in any organisation. Change that is internal to an individual is far better accepted than change externally imposed. means learning new skills. and acquiring new relationships. conflict and the inability to cope with the situation. DEALING WITH INDIVIDUALS: • The strategy for change are implemented through three change levers. to be avoided or coped with Individuals may not resist change. requires managing employee feelings to generate positive excitement for the intended change and change process. the organisation can not change. What they resist is being changed. feel or do something different. The strategy to make people to accept change. Fundamental requirement for effecting change management is the understanding of: − The nature of human response to change − Overcoming individual and group resistance to change. Change may be perceived as an opportunity or a threat. each individual must think. boredom and frustration Change without continuity or stability leads to ambiguity. These emotions can vary from being intensely negative to being appreciably positive. then. and − Tuning the organisation to change. Change. both Change is resisted as much as stagnation is Continuity without change leads to stagnation.III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 4 – CHANGE MANAGEMENT G. accustomed and proven ways of doing things. • • • • • • • . we need to understand what factors make him prone to it and what prompts him to resist it. and new routines. Managing change. a) Human Response to Change: • • • • Individuals fear and seek change. to many individuals. Hence it is difficult to impose change. seems to lie in making them choose it. Change is always a threat when done to people.
Build a positive imagery for its employees of the envisaged change to reflect a better future. Individuals can manage change well if it gives them positive emotions rather than negative emotions. The organisational leadership has to examine the following also during the initiation of change. often. process and facilities. The above are intrinsic to the change management process. have fear of failure and feeling of incompetence. and are not afraid to think and act differently to make change happen. b) Dealing with Individuals for Change Management: • • Create a culture where employees seek change. Support the change process with adequate resources. behave to maximize win. Employee attitudes for change: • • • • • • • • • • Individuals tend to fall into any one of the attitudinal continuums. 11. Individuals. They avoid risk. individuals may even welcome change rather than resist it. When such supportive structures exist.Any change is as good as the willingness of the one affected by it. Reasons for change resistance: i) • • • • • • Climbers Personal Loss: Job security Salary and income Pride and satisfaction Job nature Friendship and associations Freedom Negative Attitudes: • ii) Towards their organisations and supervisors . namely: Aggressive resistance Passive resistance Neutral Campers Passive acceptance Active involvement Quitters 12. It is apparent that individuals need to own their responsibilities and be clear about the results to which they are accountable. Change should not be what happens to them in the organisation but what they can make happen in the organisation. minimize loss and want to have a control in their behaviour.
the best.• Lack of trust resulted from earlier bitter experiences in the organisation iii) • • • Lack of Involvement: Some people resist change because they have not been involved in the change process. Loss of Status and authority: v) • • Change may lead to the relegation of one’s job to lower levels in the hierarchy. Seen as a challenge to one’s authority. Their ideas have not been sought for Some others are very sensitive about ‘change’ since they have wrong or incomplete information. 13. Or oppose disliked bosses who are in favour of change. Others still find the old practices that have evolved overtime. . job nature and opportunities to contribute to and determine the change process. Challenging Authority: viii) • • Some people resist change to challenge authority. Some think. The benefits could be: security. monetary and other benefits. May be loss of one’s authority and power. personal satisfaction. Cognitive Rigidity: vii) • • Some people do not see the need for change or may not be convinced about the arguments in favour of change. it questions one’s capabilities and performance. Inappropriate Timing: vi) • • Change is generally introduced at a time when business is not good and everyone is already burdened with extra work to tide over the bad times. status and authority. Personal Criticism: • • • iv) Change may be considered as a personal affront. The way that change is introduced may also not be to everyone’s liking. Reasons why people accept change: • • People welcome change when it benefits them.
• • • • • 16. Dealing with individual resistance to change: • • Individuals need to be motivated to accept change. Organisations have to deal with individual attitudes and behaviours to tap individual wisdom – their experience. we have to deal with the above components. A feeling of dissatisfaction to be generated with the existing state of organisation. they alone are not sufficient to bring in the change. • • • . Creative and intellectual energies of the individuals should be diverted to the change initiatives of the organisation. conative and affective dimensions. • 15.14. beliefs and values Conative refers – one’s action tendencies. interviews and observation methods are useful. To overcome resistance. who make the change to happen and achieve highest levels of performance. Affective refers – one’s emotional component of likes and dislikes. Cognitive refers – one’s perceptions. Surveys like questionnaires. This classifies individuals into different categories in the attitudinal continuum. We gave to deal with an individual’s attitude to overcome his resistance to change. Attitude consists of cognitive. It is the individuals who work within the structures and systems and on the tasks and processes. Integration: • • A number of quantitative & qualitative techniques are available. The idea that a change is good for everybody should be driven home. systems and processes are necessary. intelligence and judgement – in managing the change. Individual – focused approaches to managing change: • Though appropriate structures.
demanding. optimistic. task-oriented. predictable. systematic. Natural. brash. silent. secretive. self-centered. consistent. but can be positive or negative depending upon his advantage. plays to his advantage. low conflict – tolerance level. If opposing change. stubborn. acceptance when sensitive to failure and punishment. Reckless.17. Passive acceptance active involvement. change non-companionable. Slow. skeptical. stable. stable. relation oriented. scheming. forceful. conservative. Personality types and their general response to change: Type SQUEALER BRAVADO Response Change Highly emotional. High in change rigid. enthusiastic. withdrawn. superficial. low self confidence. overly dependent. high sense of achievement. overbearing. shy. . adventurous. determined. co-operative. Brave. poised. indecisive. short-term – perspective Behavioural Description Diplomatic. impatient. unable to face problems Receptive. resistance impulsive. cold. stubborn. patient. to ACCOMMODATOR OPPORTUNIST CONFORMIST OSTRICH VANQUISHER Initiator of change actively involved. cordial. selfreliant. aggressive. rigid. less moralistic. self-centrical cautious. Passive resistance aloof. moralistic. he can resist it actively. respectful and fearful of authority. amiable. high fear of uncertainty and failure. independent. dependable. critical. Receptive. resistance to argumentative. individualistic. unambitious. retaliative. trustful. patient. Aggressive risky. cooperative. warm. predictable. social. persistent. high fear of failure. dynamic. integrative of other people’s ideas. inclined to oversell. to change defensive. persuasive. trustful. formalized. unbending. respects authority. self change is critical. decisive. dogmatic. self sacrificing. convincible. low conflict – tolerance Aggressive level.
the company strategy and its competitive advantage. This has to be done individually and in groups. Employees cognize the explicit and implicit behaviours exhibited by senior managers. Explaining the nature and direction of change: • • The change process has to be clear. Responsibility of each person in relation to the company’s strategy has to be understood. open minded. capable of empathy. original. problem solver. interpersistent Active self involvement and capable of involving others in the change process. opinions and beliefs often act as the precursor to one’s response to change. well knit and integrated. Top management should be committed to the intended change. It is not only what managers say. • • Cognitive Changes: Change Mechanisms: 2. • • • • • • 2. his/her cognitions have to be positively influenced. c) Managing change: The Cognitive Dimension: • One’s own perceptions. Communication: • • Effective communication is fundamental to change management. Core competency required and plan of action for managing change has to be clearly stated. Employees have to be aware of the focus. Cognitive changes tend to occur in individuals when information is presented in a logical and coherent. scope and expected outcomes of change. realistic. To create readiness in an individual for change. send signals to others in terms of their fourth and commitment to the change process. It is important to communicate the intended change and the reasons for it in advance and as completely as possible. persuasive convincing. equalitarian. Such a talk gets a feedback from employees regarding their hopes. integrative of other people’s ideas. • • STRATEGIST . fears and expectations. Behaviours of senior managers influence employees’ perceptions and beliefs. self-reliant. positive. receptive. but what and how they do.Inventive.
Once a set of values are collectively agreed upon. It employees have to be attended to change. These values have to be shared and imbibed by all through out the organisation. reliable and perhaps repeated and number of times to drive home its importance and the depth of the management’s commitment. precise. These values enable and stable and trustworthy relationships. modify and realign their personal values.• Communications about change have to be clear. These values are based on group and individual behaviours and also the work processes. they tend to form a benchmark for individuals to adopt. systems and processes. Oral persuasive communication is carried out through speeches. communication should lead to optimism. Work can be soulful enchanting experience when employees strongly believe in what they do and are convinced about what the company is or should be doing. Values agreed upon should be documented. Value may be generated by discussion and active employee involvement at all levels in the organisation. • • • • • • • • • o Employee Training: . hope and a positive outcome. The messages must be credible and take a variety of forms. Written communications are through specific written documents. If not. The values talked about in change management are: o What are the values to be espoused if the change needs to be implemented? o How are they similar to one’s personal value? o How to bring about changes in personal values if need be? • Organisations have to identify the values basic to the change initiative and implementation. Values tie together people. Persuasive communications may be resorted to in times of urgency and crisis and when employees are either in high or low state of readiness for change. • • • • • • o Creating a Common Value Orientation: • • Values are basic to human behaviour. all our vision and mission statements are only decorative pieces in the corporate lobby. Non routine communications are through media.
‘Vicarious learning’ – where employees observe organisations that have benefitted from implementing new or innovative techniques and practices. needing constant monitoring and reviewing. Urge to accomplish Preference with passion • • • • • • • o Participative Management: • Facilitates the release of one’s inherent enthusiasm and creativity for the benefit of the entire organisation. Training should bring forth: Inherent talents. To be successful a climate of interpersonal trust and open communication should prevail within the organisation. It provides opportunities for employees to learn by their own activities and to exercise control over the outcome. Knowledge provides a competitive advantage. It prompts the people in the direction of group support and leads to acceptance of change. • • • • • • • d) Managing change: The Affective Dimension: • • Individuals fear and seek change. Training should be run like business. delivering value to the work process. organisation and employee competency. Building effective teams takes years. Employee training sets the supportive climate for change management when it is competency driven for the current and future demands. both Change affects human emotion. Participation needs to be managed carefully or else it creates more problems. New ways of training employees aimed at thinking skills and multiskill development have to be planned. Vicarious learning is facilitated by study/observation trips to innovative organisations and further involving employees in benchmarking their best practices. not a cost. Current skills have to be assessed and future skills needed for the business determined and the training skills decided to bridge the gap.• Competitive organisations required knowledge workers who are capable of performing jobs related to corporate goals and market needs and demands. Employees should be considered as a resource. Desire to acquire information. knowledge and skills. .
it has to anticipate individual feelings about the intended change and deal with their emotions in positive and constructive ways. employee empowerment depends upon a number of factors. − Focusing on the benefits of change at the individual level. It is the integrating of ownership. Stock ownership may be performance based. − Addressing avoidance learning – focusing on intended change as the only alternative to avoid/overcome fear or insecurity. − Creating positive feelings about the desired state and the change process. Affective Changes – Change Mechanism 5. Company shares may be given at concessional rates. • • • • . o Commitment on the part of top management in real earnest. To be successfully implemented. and feel responsible for improving organisational performance.• If an organisation has to implement change. • • 6. generate productive ideas. − Demonstrating some of the benefits of change early in the change process. o Are employees suitably trained to be empowered? o Is the organisational culture & climate conducive for empowerment? o Do the employees perceive meaningfulness in what they do? o Is the information shared to empower the people? o Sustaining employee empowerment. Dealing with human emotions could be in terms of: − Creating feeling of psychological safety about change. authority and accountability at work. A personal sense of ownership motivates employees to take the initiative. Employee as partners: • Employees tend to entertain positive emotions for the organisation and the work they do when they are also stakeholders in the company. o How willing are superiors to share their authority down the line through out the organisation? o Willingness on the part of employees to make decisions and be accountable for their actions. Employee empowerment: • • To empower is to give autonomy to an employee enabling him to make decisions on his job and accountable for his actions. The approach promotes a binding relationship.
These negative emotions must be understood to successfully handle. Rewards are financial and non-financial. Dealing with negative emotions: • Some employees may have negative emotions towards the intended change. Some of the ways to do this are: o Empathy o Modeling o Shock therapy o Mentoring o Manipulation o Employee counseling • • . Rewards should have the following characters: o Clarity and specification (expected performance and work behaviours) o Immediacy (delayed rewards lose values) o Magnitude (commensurate) o Individuality (personalization. how much they cost to the company. Financial rewards and financial health are tied up. Types of rewards − Power rewards (higher responsibilities) − Pay for performance − Pay for knowledge and skill • 8.• For success trust between the employee and management is necessary. Employees are also given to understand how much they contribute to. Organisations should create a meaningful reward system. Rewards are effective when a certain ‘value’ is built into the rewards – a value which is a part of the performance rather than a pretension. not all rewards are same) • • • • • The major demotivators are perceived unfairness in dispensing rewards. Compensation System: • Managing change through people behaviour is possible when the desired behaviour is appropriately rewarded. • • 7.
Tasks or activities are the basis for learning Action learning leads to continuous improvement and performance of self leading to overall improvement of the organisation. Action learning is a social process. Employees today should be enabled to perform a variety of tasks rather than a few limited jobs. wherein an employee can switch periodically from one job to another. Clarifying Contractual Obligations: • • Change benefits the organisation. Where the employee accepts his job duties and responsibilities. The psychological contract has two dimensions: the personal goals of a human being and the organisational goals. a new job contract is necessary to be made which aligns with overall corporate strategy which the employee must understand and agree after discussions with the management. too. no actions without learning. constantans improves actions. a new role relationship. For every employee there is a psychological contract with the organisation – may be explicit or implicit. there is a mutuality of interest. change benefits the employee. solves task related problems. Tohat are the factors for change under conation? 1. starts. accepts supportive criticism for improvements • • 3. Cross Training: • • Training is provision of information and skills. Cross training provides a flexible force and flexible factory.e) Managing change: The Conative Dimension: • Resistance to change occurs due to unwillingness to deviate from habitual behaviours or from reluctance to acquire new skills and behaviours. Emphasis on action learning in implementing change: • • • Learning occurs with actions. • • • . Therefore. Now. Mutuality is the basis for the release of human energy for effective change management. Cross training facilitates job rotation. Job activities and responsibilities have to redefine due to the change management and changes in the job design and performance. Such skills can come by cross training. • • • • • • 2.
• • • • • Positive attitudes to such training is built if employees are rewarded for acquiring new skills. Success of cross functional training depends upon employee willingness to learn new skills on the job. Create the right climate for optimizing employee performance: • To create the right climate for employees to take an active interest in the change process and achieve the intended results. It could also be diagonal. It also solves the shortage of manpower. • • • • 5. the way they adapt. 4. and activities together form the organisation structure which supports the organisation. Stretching employee potential facilitates change management. Cross trained employees tend to be amenable to and willing for organisational change initiatives since a number of skills have already been built into their behavioural repertoire. An employee’s career path need not be limited to vertical mobility. there should be the necessary support structure. Supportive climate – Organisational design: o Organisational processes. modify and develop are important. Within the limits of ‘mental elasticity’ human capabilities at work could be stretched to the optimum to meet the global business competition. • • Supporting climate – learning environment: . thus slowly stepping up one’s self confidence. Some techniques in stretching limits manage change are: o Sensitivity training o Participative management o Behavioural modification o Job rotation o Cross training o Role play.• With this the employee brings a fresh perspective to each job in addition to what has learnt already. etc. o The people in the organisation structure. systems. Employee elasticity: Stretching the Potential: • • Good HR stretch employees to the maximum of their potential ability to work. Cross training can be across different functional areas like finance and marketing. Any kind of mental stretching should be done gradually by exposing one to changes of graded difficulties. a learning environment within the organisation and the free sharing of information.
initially as strangers. − The present day business needs speed. The major forms of group-based changes are: o Sensitivity training. flexibility and innovation in all activities. • Supportive climate – information sharing: o The commonest way of bringing about change in employee attitudes and performance is through information sharing. The primary target of managing change would be the group itself and the relationships among its members. away from their usual roles and responsibilities. whey the company needs change and what they should know additionally to perform better in the changed scenario. how the company is doing. situation is created and the group is encouraged to experiment with new individual behaviours and group interactions. o Sharing information raises the level of employee trust in the organisation. the group begins without an agenda. H. perhaps ambiguous. and any division of labour or rules of procedures. The trainer plays a relatively passive role in the training process. o It empowers people and performance improves. CHANGE MANAGEMENT – DEALING WITH GROUPS: • For successful organisation change. T-group is an ad hoc assembly of individuals who meet together. unrepresentative of the group memberships and move quickly into an exploration of group processes and leadership. The training may vary in duration from a few weeks to few hours. the change management should consider individuals as well as the group in which they work.− Organisations should create a learning environment where people can acquire advanced knowledge and skill. • • • • • . o Team building o Self-managed teams 1) Sensitivity Training: • • • • Also called as T-group training. Initially. o Employees should know what the company plans are. They enter the group as peers. a structure. An unstructured.
• The people in each group are strangers to each other. Accountability – for their performance. abilities of individuals are mutually supportive. the impact they have on others. Members emerge with a restructuring of their values about people and their operations in group settings. Commitment to and belief in working together. . • • • • • • • The trainer communicates these observations to groups. • Individuals join teams for a variety of reasons: − Out of the herd instinct. 2) Team Building: • A team is a group of individuals who tend to work interdependently to satisfy organisational as well as their own individual objectives. They become sensitive to the nature of group development. Thus. Understanding group processes. Encouraging one to try out new ways of interacting with people and receiving feedback. • Sensitivity training is good for change planning and implementation. Teams have the following characteristics: − − − − • A reason or charter for working together. They become sensitive to the action of others. Members gradually begin to attend to such matters themselves. Interdependency – where the skills. the interventions through sensitivity training aims at the following: − − − − − • Understanding of one’s own behaviour and how one’s behaviour affects others. They slowly correct their faults. Understanding why people behave the way they do. Absence of an agenda initially creates a vacuum and often quite uncomfortable. Developing increased tolerances for other people’s behaviour. They attain increased sensitivity to their own behaviours. The trainer initially observes: − − − − • • Problems of communication Attempted seizures of power Misunderstandings Other phenomena of interpersonal life. brought together only by the common goal of learning more about themselves.
Due to a rational belief to joint effort. Involving individuals and groups is the change process from the very beginning is one way of ensuring their commitment and accountability towards achieving the intended changes.− − − − − − • To overcome one’s fears and insecurities. − Deciding on means and methods. In the hope of personal gains. and Accountability – where one is accountable to superiors or the top management for achieving the goal. From a sense of duty. • The success of team effort depends upon: − The leadership provided to the members who constitute the team. Promotion of scientific inquiry in addressing issues and problems. Concern for the development of individual potentialities. From the inability to say no Teams have the advantage: − Of improving up and setting goals and priorities. Commitment – to achieve the goal through group effort. • Team values are: o Quality o Customer service o Innovativeness o People o Informality • The operational basis of a team lies in − − Synergy Interdependence • A team’s behaviour is characterised by the following elements: − − − − A Goal – is commonly agreed upon by the members Interdependence – where people have agreed to work together and are supportive of each others. • The value base of team lies in: − − − − Belief in a democratic work environment. From group compulsion. . − Improving performance qualitatively and quantitatively. Interpersonal trust.
they then pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. Storming: • • • • • . Characteristics Members share personal information. Begin turning their attention to group’s tasks. k. a. Data flow Conflict. 3) Team Development Stages / Life Cycle of a Team: • When a member of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. − Acknowledges interpersonal conflicts and deals with them positively. d. f. h. d. is understanding. b. dominance & rebellion Inflighting Listening and experimenting f.− • Overcoming barriers to effective team functioning. An effective team member is one. who: − Understands and is committed to group goals and values his/her team membership − Is friendly. Members compete for status. and values the ideas and contribution of others. Also referred as: Dependence Acceptance Orientation & hesitant participation Testing inclusion Also referred as Counter dependence. b. These stages of team development are not rigidly followed. issues and characteristics as shown below: Key questions faced • • Developmental stages 1. g. − Includes others in the decision making process. goals An aura of country Interactions are cautions High degree of motivation. They do represent a broad pattern. concerned and interested in others. j. Forming: a. External pressures interfere with the group. e. Jockey for position of relative control Argue about appropriate directions for the group. − Listed to others. • • • • The stages are the result of a variety of questions. Start to get to know and accept one another. They may be observed and predicted in many settings a cross the team’s time together. e. Individuals try to assert • • • • • • Who are these people? What is their unique competence? What information should I share with them? Will they accept me? What is our mission? How to we develop team spirit? What resources are available to us? What problems do we foresee with the team? 2. c. i. c. shows empathy. Tensions rise between the individuals. − Recognizes and respects individual differences.
c. Transformational leadership skills relate to: o o o o Futuristic thinking Value clarification Entrepreneurism Influencing o Envisioning o Creativity o Mentoring • & inspiring for higher motivation and achievement – how the leader regarded and respected – credibility.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Control What do we 3. Adjourning celebrate our Also referred as: success? • Adjourned What connections • Terminated should we maintain? What have we learned from our experience? Where do we go from here? themselves. d. How will we closeness & control each cohesiveness other’s actions? • Getting organised. Tentative balance among competing forces. Group may review its performance. Tasks are efficiently accomplished. Groups. affection What actions will 4. Norming believe in? Also referred as: What behaviours • Resolution do we expect of • Goals and each other? norms What should we • Integration be doing? • Intimacy. d. Handles complex challenges. d. e. a. project teams disband sooner or later. Feedback for future teams. In flexible organisations adjournments are more frequent. Transactional leadership skills include: o o o o Goal setting Assertiveness Conflict management Supervision o o o o Communication Problem solving Decision making Rewarding competency • . 4) Ingredients of Effective Leadership: • • A process of dealing with members’ aspirations and expectations. Functional roles are also smoothly exchanged as needed. a. Groups norms guide individuals. e. Functional roles are performed. More co-operative feelings. Break up is called adjournment. c. • Openness. c. Performing contribute to our Also referred as: success? • Performance Should we take • Productivity risks? • Mature Have we been closeness empowered to • Achievement succeed? How can we change and grow? How can we 5. b. Group begins moving together in co-operative fashion b. a. b. Group matures and learns.
trust and compatibility Skills & Role Clarity: − Team members must be reasonably qualified to perform − They should have a desire to co-operate. − Each member should know the roles of all the others in the group with whom they are interacting. Administered in proportion to the team performance.o Enables a leader to get a job done successfully. • A leader needs to exhibit greater transactional skills in the initial stages of group formation (first & second stages) Later. Super-ordinate Goal: − Team members should be oriented towards their overall task. Should be perceived as ‘possible to earn’. Encouraging members to think like a team. focus attention. 6) Potential Team Problems: . Team Rewards: − − − − − Stimulates teamwork Recognition or financial Most powerful if they are valued by team members. − All members carry their weight. more transformational skills are required. Providing adequate time for meetings. • 5) Ingredients of Effective Teams: • What contributes to team success o o o o o o Careful composition Clear direction Accountability Integration & co-ordination Innovativeness Scope for learning o o o o o Information sharing Measurable goals Sufficient resources Flexibility Stimulation of openness • Four Major factors are: Supportive Environment: − − − − − Management to build a supportive environment. unify efforts and stimulate more cohesive teams. Demonstrating faith in members’ capacity to achieve These steps contribute to further co-operation. as the group matures.
Individual and mutual accountability A result focused performance • • • . • • • • • Social Loafing: • When employees think that their contributions to a group cannot be measured. teams must learn to manage their internal turnover. Integrating new members into the team is also important. It is a belief that workers are lazy. Social loafing is based on a perception of unfair division of labour.Changing composition: • Being complex and dynamic teamwork is sensitive to all aspects of organisational environment. A multi-skilled workforce Shared leadership through team meetings. monitor and control their own activities distinguishes these teams from many others. SMTs are characterised by: − − − − − − − Goal setting through team effort. The combination of empowerment and training to plan. Accept the turnover and plan for it. complied with the capability to act like manager. • • • • 7) Self Managed work Teams (SMT or SMWT): • • • • An empowerment tool Also known as self reliant or self-directed teams. Social loafing may also arise if a member believes that others intend to withhold their efforts and thus he would be foolish not to do the same – The Sucker Effect. Too many changes and personnel transfers interfere with group relationships and prevent the growth of team work. Since team’s composition is likely to change frequently due to various reasons. They are natural work groups that are given substantial autonomy. they may lessen their output and engage in social loafing. They have wide ranging autonomy and freedom. Participative discussions. Develop a plan for team turnover right from the start. It is a feeling of being able to hide in a crowd and therefore not be able to be singled out for blame. Interpersonal trust. They are asked to control specific behavioural or operational activities and produce significant results. direct.
− More efficient operations through the reduced number of job classifications. − Lower absenteeism and turnover rates.− Active problem solving. self managing teams. sells decision Benevolent autocracy Manager seeks ideas before deciding Manager asks group for recomme nded actions before deciding Participative commuters such as quality circles Manager decides with group. • SMTs have several advantages: − Improved flexibility of staff. • SMTs have the following disadvantages: − − − − Extended time to implement them High training investment Inefficiencies due to job rotation. one person one vote Democratic management Manager asks group to decide Withdraws Total of Job Freedom Area of employee participation in decision making Medium High Popular terms Autocratic managem ent Consultative management. suggestion systems Consensus decision making. − Higher level of organisational commitment and job satisfaction. − Promotes collaborative work relationships. . Inability of some employees to adapt to a team structure. − Faster synergetic performance − Enhances individual and team capacity − Lot of scope for innovations − Pushes responsibility down to the lowest levels. • Areas of Job Freedom and Participation Continuum By Tannenbaum & Schmidt: “How to choose Leadership Pattern” Area of authority applied by Manager Joins Consults Sells Tells Low Amount of participation Description of typical action Manager makes & announce s decision Manager presents decision subject to change seeks ideas.
‘Taurus’ team at Ford Honda. Effective management of relationships among people of diverse backgrounds and work cultures. depends upon: − − − − Setting achievable goals Gaining commitment from team members Setting ground rules for team activities. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE & OVERCOMING IT: • Resistance to change consist of any employee behaviours designed to − Delay − Discredit − Prevent the implementation of work change. inexpensive car. in 1978. I. − Ensuring early success to generate enthusiasm and greater belief in team effort. • • • • • Most auto companies today employ ‘platform teams’ that consist of a core group of designers.empowerment 8) Cross Functional Teams: • • A type of SMT Consists of individuals from different functional areas working on the design or development of a product. engineers and even factory workers on whom rests the total responsibility for the development and manufacture of a single product. Cross-functional teams are of great assistance in designing and prototyping new models and products. • Employee resist change because it threatens their: − − − − − Need for security Social interaction Status Competence Self esteem a) Nature & Effects: • The perceived threat stemming from a change may be . The success of cross-functional teams.
. People resist because of the fear of unknown. − Dislike the method used. • • b) Reasons for Resistance: (3 broad reasons) First • • • • • • Not comfortable with the nature of the change itself It may violate their moral belief system They may believe that the decision is technically incorrect May be reluctant to change the present familiar comforts to an uncertainty. − People disagree with the nature of the change. Inequity of the people’s experience Some perceive as losers due to change.o Required o Unintended o Large • o Imagined o Direct o Small o Intended o Indirect Regardless of the nature of change. − Do not see a personal gain for themselves. Changes. ‘Change’ does not respect blue or white collar. Second • • • • Third • • • • Their resistance will be even more intense if all the 3 reasons exist. depending upon how skillfully it is managed to minimize resistance. Some perceive as gainers due to change. This reactions may be: o Complaints o Passive resistance o Sabotage o Foot dragging o Absenteeism o Work slowdowns • • • • White and blue collared people resist change. The method by which it is introduced People may resent having been ill informed. Particularly employees too have a desire for new experience and the accompanying rewards that come with the change. set up a ‘chain reaction effect’ also. May reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process May be a perception of poor timings. A lesson to management is: change is likely to be a success or a problem. sometimes. some employees will try to protect themselves from its effects. Threats to job security.
We must recognise that authority can only be used sparingly. Parochial. moderate or opposition – form all people. it eventually becomes worthless. rational objections: • • • • • Time required to adjust. Sociological. What is important is: create a genuine climate when people trust management. group resistances: • • • • • Political coalitions Opposing group values. If management cannot win support. Lack of trust in others. narrow outlook Vested interests. Low tolerance of change. Psychological. Desire to retain existing friendships.c) Types of Resistance: (3 types) 6. Questioned technical feasibilities of changes. If authority is overused. . Dislike of management or other change agent. 7. Economic costs of change. Extra effort to relearn Possibility of less desirable conditions. 8. it may need to use authority. In a typical operating situation. desire for status quo. human – all 3 have to be faced and solved. logical. have a positive feeling towards change and feel secure enough to tolerate other changes. such as skill downgrading. emotional resistances: • • • • • Fear of the unknown. full support may not be expected all time – may be weak. • • • • e) Possible benefits of resistance: • Resistance is not all bad. Then only employees will accept change co-operatively. Need for security. Logical. Technical. d) Implications of Resistance: • • • • All 3 types of resistance must be anticipated and treated effectively.
• • It can bring some benefits. This approach in the long run should lead to better acceptance of change. There are 6 approaches to manage the resistances as given below: Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. It enables management to take corrective actions much before serious problems arise. • • • • Change is necessary in a competitive environment. • • • • • f) Managing Resistance: Kotter & Schlesigner “Choosing strategies for change”. That may encourage management to communicate the change better. and balances and ensures proper • • • • Resistance also identifies specific problem areas. Harvard Business Review. Hurdles to change need to be managed. Resistance may encourage management to reexamine its change proposals. it is made certain that the proposals are appropriate. It provides an emotional release of pent-up feelings. people Where there is a lack of will often help with the information or inaccurate implementation of the information and analysis change Participation + Involve ment People who participate Where the initiators do not will be committed to have all the information they implementing change need to design the change and and any relevant where others have information they have considerable power to resist will be integrated into the change plan Can be very time consuming if lots of people are involved Can be very time consuming if participators design an inappropriate change. Advantages Disadvantages Commonly used in situations Facilitation + Support Advantages Disadvantages Where people are resisting No other approach Can be time because of fear and anxiety works as well with consuming adjustment problems expensive and still . Resistance creates checks implementation of change. Commonly used in situations Education + Communication Once persuaded. Such a release encourage employees to think and talk more about a change so that they understand it better. Resistance also gives management the information about the intensity of employee emotions on an issue. So that.
systematic process of organisational change? OD draws from psychology sociology and anthropology theory OD also relies on information from personality learning theory. The basic characteristics of OD are as follows: a) Planned Change: also called as change intervention. organisational objectives. having the overall system perspective in view. Negotiation _ Agreement Where someone or some Sometimes it is group will clearly lose out in relatively easy way to a change and where that avoid major resistance group has considerable power to resist Manipulation _ Co-operation Can be too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate. It takes months and years. group dynamics. d) Long-range Change: OD is not a stop gap arrangement. g) Collaborative Management: unlike the traditional management. most OD are oriented towards group. norms. Organisational Development: • • • Is a planned.. Where other tactics will not It can be a relatively Can lead to future work. culture of each organisation must be understood and the relations consist with that culture must be developed. power leadership and organisational design.fail. f) Emphasis on Intervention: active intervention of the change agent in the ongoing activities in the organisation. BUILDING EFFECTIVE CHANGE INITIATIVES: 6. Change: involving total system and the entire • c) Emphasis upon Work Groups: some OD efforts are aimed at individual and organisational change. etc. having a sociological flavour. J. if it the change initiators possess overcome any kind of leaves people angry considerable power resistance at the initiators. or are too expensive quick and inexpensive problems if people solution to resistance feel manipulated problems Coercion Where speed is essential and It is speedy and can Can be risky. h) Organisational Culture: includes – accepted patterns of behaviour. value systems. e) Participation of a Change Agent: It is generally advised to avail the services of an outside expert. OD stresses an collaboration among all levels. . b) Comprehensive organisation. motivation theory.
Situations appropriate for OD programs: • The organisation’s managerial strategy (communication pattern.i) Action Research: A process of identifying the organisation’s specific problems. Intergroup collaboration. Effective management of the OD process and stabilization of changes. Acknowledgement of the congruency between OD and many previous effective management practices. Monitoring the process and the measuring of results. • • • • • • 9. including the formal leader. Motivational level of employees. The operationalising of the action research model. The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant. A typical change strategies and associated HR Initiatives: Types of change strategy HR Activities Advantages Disadvantages . educational philosophy about the theory and technology OD. Involvement of personal and IR/HR management people and congruency with personnel policy and practice. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8. Development of internal OD resources and facilitative skills. values. decision making) The culture of the organisation (norms. power structure) Structure and the role in organisation. To reduce the negative effects in an OD program. Further expansion of efforts after the early successes. Trust and support among organisational members Synergetic solutions to problems. Perceptions of organisational problems by key people and perceptions of the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems. Pre-requisites for organisational development: • • • OD must fulfill certain conditions if it were to be effective. the following criteria are to be satisfied. Participation of work teams. Initial top-level involvement. It is not a guarantee for success of OD But favourable environment conducive for organisational change will be created. 7. An open. gathering and analyzing the organisational data and taking actions to resolve problems.
likes change workshops Quality group programmes Joint consultation Team briefing and other forms of employee communications Performance management Employee counseling Severance Redundancy programs Recruitment and selection • • • Greater sense of employee ownership Fresh ideas introduced Longerlasting change • • • • Time consuming. Stable environments have less change. But dynamic environments are the norm. . customers. Some more are from competitors. b. Changes to reward systems. Slow Expensive May meet resistance through negative attitudes to change. Changes to employee relations structures (consultation and bargaining) • • • Longer lasting change Regeneration of employee knowledge and skill Regeneration of tired systems • • Dealing with negative consequences for employees Possibly expensive Slower to have impact May be difficult to establish causal link changes to structures and systems and organisational change. Some changes originate within the organisation. Implementing change successfully: a. • • Impact Speed • • Changes structures systems to and • • • • • Changes to organisational structures including employee accountabilities. Changes to performance management. communities. Some changes are through government laws. Changes to career management. d. 10. etc. a) Transformational leadership & change: • Management has a key role in initiating and implementing change successfully. c.Education & Employee Involvement • • • • • • • Changes personnel in • • • Management development Employee training. labour unions. e.
A vision may also integrate the shared beliefs and value that serve as a basis for changing an organisation’s culture. such as difficulty in letting go of old methods. It excites them to new levels of commitment and enthusiasm. • Charisma is a leadership trait can help influence employees to take early and sustained action. It stretches people beyond their current capabilities and thinking. Workers’ fear of uncertainty. but important details. • • • • d) Communicating Charisma: • After the vision. They take bold strategic changes to position the organisation for its future. Be learning individuals Make a learning organisation • • c) Creating Vision: • Transformational leaders create and communicate a vision for the organisation. − And to motivate their employees to do it. • Charismatic leaders are: .• A master strategy for change has to be made not overlooking simple. They articulate vision and promote in vigorously. To create an organisation that welcomes change. A vision is a crystallized long-range image or idea of what can and should be accomplished. They stimulate employees to: − − − − − Rise above their narrow focus Make them to see a broader picture action. Charismatically model their behaviour. • • • b) Transformation Leaders: • • Are instrumental in the change process. leaders still have two tasks: − To persuade the employees that the vision is urgent. The overall plan should address behavioural issues.
keep change goals constantly in mind to avoid functional myopia • c) Establish check points. but also prepare the participants to manage future changes even more effectively. the team and the end users of the project.− − − − − − Dynamic risk takers Have depth of expertise Well deserved self confidence. • • • • 11. Write down the change goal in a piece of paper and ask ‘Is that what you want?’ The goal should be specific and measurable and the team and the user should move in the same direction. Activities. Relationships and Time Estimates: . Establish ownership for different functions. • Employees trust and respect charismatic leaders and emotionally committed to such leaders. Some common sense principles for Change Managers: a) Set a clear goal: • • Start at the end and work backwards While setting a goal dialogue among yourself. who treat employees individually and guide them for action. This process is called as ‘double-loop learning’ This means that the changes handled not only reflect the current information gathered. but an organisation that will continue to change. In ‘single loop learning’ employees simply solve current problems and blindly adapt to changes which have been imposed on them. e) Stimulating Learning: • Transformational leaders not only make a very good change in organisation. • • b) Determine the objectives: • Objectives help to break the goal down into specific responsibilities for each team member. Express high performance expectations Use provocative symbols and language to inspire others. Their critical task is to develop people’s capacity to learn from the experience of change. Warm mentors.
A strong team of supporters and collaborators are required. and as teams. finding common good etc. develop sensitivity to why people do what they do. The team should also discuss ‘what if’ and ‘what can go wrong’ situations. • • g) Build Agreements that vitalize team members: • Conflicts are inevitable. • • e) Reinforce the commitment and excitement of the Change Team: • Volunteering increases commitment. create opportunity for people to set goals and objectives. Appropriate the position of the other person. It is important to keep learning. Be a good listener. • • . Use them to create a synergy and unleash creativity. keep people informed on a regular and frequent basis. Treat team members as individuals with their own characteristics. Establish a detailed check list of activities. compromising. • • f) Keep everyone connected with the Change Program Informed of the Program: • Change involves people from different departments who use different languages. persuading. Logical arguments have their limits.• • • Check points help members monitor their own progress. smoothing over. reaching agreement in conflict situations is not only a logical but also an emotional experience. d) Direct people individually and as a Project Team: • • • One can not do it alone. Encourage transparency and visibility of the project team’s efforts. have different objectives and have different types of training. let members go public with their views and choices. they serve to ensure interest and create energy. Use the appropriate method. There are hosts of possible approaches to conflict management like giving in. Set long-term and short-term check points for early detection of problems. Create a sense of ‘ownership’. as individuals. Expect differences. yet must work together on a unique task. from experiences.
experimenting. we make significant progress only when we stick our necks out. This is achieved through alliances. innovation and creativity. Like turtles. important to build personal power. . networks and exchanges. Plan time for thinking. What people want most from a change manager is credibility: Credibility = Competence + Honesty + Direction + Inspiration + Power It is • i) Encourage Risk Taking and Creativity: • • • • Failure is the stepping stone for success.h) Empower yourself and others in the Team: • • Influence without exercising authority is the key. I failed my way to success – Thomas Alva Edison.
conflicts arise. Recognising the need for change: • • Becoming aware of the need is not enough Managers should also recognise the need for change. tasks and people in the organisation. Becoming aware of the pressure for change: • Most organisational changes are carried out in response to or in anticipation of pressures from inside or outside the organisation.III MBA – CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 5 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE PROCESS 3) Organisational Change Process: a) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: • Becoming aware of the pressure for change Recognising the need for change Diagnosing the problem Planning the change Implementing the change Following up on the change • • • • • 1. employees retire or resign. pressure mounts as the organisation outgrows its old ways of doing things. technology. . Outside the organisation. Within the firm. the technological innovations act as powerful triggers for change. − Demand changes in the structure. Pressures like these – or the anticipation of such pressures. • • • 2.
Questionnaire. Winding up of divisions or departments and downsizing are examples of this type of change. Planning the Change: • • A strategy for change is formulated. 4. Diagnosing the problem: • • • • • • Recognizing that change is needed is not enough. The organisation waits until it believes that the costs of not changing exceed the costs of overcoming organisational inertia and then introduces its master plan for change. Managers must diagnose the pressures for change. TQM is a method of evolutionary change.3. etc. Organisations must choose between evolutionary and revolutionary change. Managers must determine how it may affect the company. Implementing the change: . A firm that pursues revolutionary change adopts a top-down change strategy. Generally. They discuss the need for change and diagnose the problems facing the organisation. a top-down strategy calls for intervention at the high level of an organisation. • • • • • • • • • 5. observations. A firm that adopts evolutionary change adopts a bottom-up change strategy. Managers believe that the uncertainty associated with organisational change is best managed through incremental processes in which they continually make adjustments to their strategy and structure. secondary data. Pressure may be likely economic or technical reasons. Firms opting for bottom-up strategy prepare the organisation for change by involving managers and employees at all levels. What are the consequences of those pressures? For diagnosing the problems various procedures are available like: Interviews.
Here. − − − − − − Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and co-operation Explicit and implicit coercion • Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. attitudes and behaviours Old Stage New State . Lewin’s Process Model: Unfreeze (awareness of need for change) Reducing the forces who wants status quo Change (Move) (movement from old state to new state) Developing new attitudes. • b) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: 18.• • • The next step is to implement the change. resistance to change surfaces. Follow up on the change: • The final step in the change process is to evaluate the effects of the change. There are several ways to show the resistance. And institute procedural modifications that will ensure that change continues to be implemented. values and behaviours Refreeze (assurance of permanent change) Reinforcing new values. wall on • There are 6 approaches for managing resistance. 6. • • • • • • • • Hostility Physical abuse Loss of interest in work Excessive idling time Low productivity Tardiness Development of tension & anxiety Groups deciding fairday’s work • • • • • • • • Aggression Apathy towards work Spoilage of material Corrupting valuable software Absenteeism Resignation Tensed up on the job Imposing their individuals.
Transition management is the process of systematically planning. Presenting a case to make the people to recognise for a change and how their jobs will be improved by the change. • • . New values. Moving means – developing new behaviours. So that it remains in the desired state. values and attitudes. sometimes through OD techniques. • • Refreezing: • • Changes become relatively permanent. • • Moving (changing): • Aims to shift or alter the behaviour of the individuals. Managing the transition is essential to keep the organisation going. attitudes and behaviours are established as the new way of life. Refreezing the system. effective change occurs. three stage model of change system. • • • Transition Management: • Between. Learning theory and reinforcement theory can play important roles in the refreezing phase. Unfreezing: involves • Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours by shaking up the status quo situations. organizing and implementing the change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within the organisation. Moving to a desired condition. Such changes are sometimes through structural changes. Managers must ensure that the organisational cultures and reward systems encourage the new behaviours and avoid the old ways of functioning.• • • • • • • According to Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model. Searching for new solutions. the two phases of change. departments or organisation in which the changes e to take place. New ways of operating are cemented and reinforced. Highly useful in understanding the ways of managing change. there is a transition which is not shown. Popularly called as. By unfreezing the current situation.
the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change.• Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. the 3 stage process must be completed. employees. they change. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change and reduce the resistance to change. or do both simultaneously. Successful change. again they balance and balanced at any time between the two opposing forces. Organisational change can occur at three levels: o Individual – Changes in individual’s attitudes. Lewin’s Force Field Theory of Change: Level of Performance Resistance to Change Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • In any organisation. thus requires that old behaviours are discarded and new behaviours introduced Those new behaviours have to be institutionalized and rewarded • • • • • • 19. • • • • • • . An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. Failure in efforts to change can be traced back to one of the 3 stages. To get the organisation change. Lewin’s model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. values. This Lewin termed as ‘quasi stationery equilibrium’ Lewin’s theory states how the forces for change and resistance balance. When the forces are in balance. Communication of the changes to all involved. play a role in transition management. skills and behaviour. Initially the two groups may be equal in their forces. customers and suppliers.
o Structure & Systems – Change in work design reporting relationships information systems the reward systems, etc. o Organisational Climate – Change in leadership style interpersonal relations, decision making style and other such aspects.
K. MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE – THE CONTINUOUS CHANGE PROCESS MODEL:
• • • •
Lewin’s model is very simple and straight forward. Many models of organisation change use his approach. However, it does not deal with several important issues. A more complex and more helpful approach is illustrated in the figure below:
1. Forces for change
2. Recognise & define problem Change Agent
3. Problem solving process
5. Measure evaluate control
4. Implement the change
Transition manage ment
• • •
This approach treats planned change from the perspective of top management. It indicates that the change is continuous. As change becomes continuous in the organisations, different steps are probably occurring simultaneously through out the organisation. This model incorporates Lewin’s concept into the implementation phase. In this approach, top management perceives that certain forces or trends call for a change. Such an issue is subjected to the organisation’s usual problem solving and decision making processes. Usually, top management defines its goals in terms of what the organisation or certain processes or outputs will be like after the change. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and an acceptable one is selected. Early in the process, the organisation may seek the assistance of a change agent – a person who will be responsible for managing the change efforts. The change agent: o May be a member of the organisation
o An outsider, such as a consultant o Someone from company headquarters – a far away place o An outsider is preferred because of his assumed impartiality Under the direction and management of change agent, the organisation implements the change through Lewin’s unfreeze, change and refreeze process. The final step is measurement, evaluation and control. With this, the top management determines the effectiveness of the change process by various benchmarks and indicators of organisational productivity and effectiveness.
L. LEADERSHIP STYLES:
(Top Down & Bottom up approaches are given in Module 3)
Laissez or free-reign leadership approaches
• • • •
In this type of leadership approach, the leader is just a figure-head. He does not give any directions. He delegates the authority to subordinates. Subordinates must plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own actions. The leader acts principally as a liaison between the group and the outside elements. He supplies necessary materials and information to group member. He lets the subordinates develop their own techniques for accomplishing goals within the organisational policies and objectives. The leader participates very little and instead of leading and directing, he just becomes one of its members. This type of leadership is highly effective when the group members are highly intelligent and are fully aware of their roles and responsibilities. This type of leadership is evident in research laboratories where the scientists are fairly free to conduct their research and make their decisions. Also true to university professors.
• • •
Creates an environment of freedom, individually as well as team spirit. It is highly creative with a free and informal work environment. This approach is very useful where people are highly motivated and achievement oriented.
It may result in disorganized activities which may lead to inefficiency and chaos. Insecurity and frustration may develop due to lack of specific decision making authority and guidance.
The team spirit may suffer due to possible presence of some uncooperative team members. Some members may put their own interests above the group and team interests. OD Definition: is the process of planned change and improvement of organisations through the application of knowledge of behavioral sciences. 3 points to remember in this definition are: i. Organisation development involves attempts to plan organisational changes. ii. Specific intention of organisation development is to improve organisation. iii. The planned improvement must be based on knowledge of the behavioral sciences such as OB, psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology and related field of study rather than financial and technological considerations.
M. OD INTERVENTIONS:
Several OD interventions also called techniques, have evolved over a long period: Good interventions have 3 characteristics: (i) (ii) (iii) They are based on valid information about the functioning of the organisation, usually collected by the employees. The intervention under the guidance of the change agent, provides employees with opportunities to make their own choices regarding the nature of the problems and their preferred solutions. Interventions are aimed at gaining the employee’s personal commitment to their choices.
Employee wellness Strategic: s.9. Process consultation c. Formal structural change h. Self designing organisations 10. T-Group/Sensitivity Training b. Career planning & development q. Different types of OD interventions and the level of their impact: Interventions: Human Process: a. Organisation confrontation meeting f. Work design Human Resource Management: m. Integrated strategic management t. Cooperative union management projects j. Quality circles k. Team building e. The OD Paradigms & Values: • • • • • • Organisational Level Affected Individual Group Organisation √ – √ – – – – – √ √ – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ √ – – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – – √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ – √ – – – √ √ – – √ √ √ √ Values human & organisational growth Collaborative and participative process A spirit of inquiry Strong emphasis on collaboration The change agent as a catalyst Important factors in OD efforts: a) Respect for people: . Goal setting n. Differentiation & integration i. Performance appraisal o. Inter-group relations Technostructural: g. Strategic change v. Third party intervention d. Total quality management l. Culture change u. Reward systems p. Managing workplace diversity r.
Increased ability to empathies with others. 3. the more will be committed to implementing those decisions 11. openness and supportive climate. e) Participation: • • All those who are affected by the change should be involved in decision making surrounding the change. 2. The OD specialist (behavioral scientist) creates the opportunity for participants to express their ideas. A behaviour scientist directs the discussions. To develop greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. Members meet in a free and open environment and discuss about themselves and their interactive processes. authenticity. Explanations on a few OD Techniques: a) Sensitivity Training: • Also known as laboratory training. encounter group or T-groups (Training groups) All refer to a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interactions. Provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them. The more we involve. c) Power Equalisation: • Effective organisations deemphasize hierarchial authority and control d) Confrontation: • • Problems should not be swept under the rug. They should be openly confronted. 4. • They should be treated with dignity and respect b) Trust & support: • • The effective and healthy organisation is characterized by trust. The individuals learn through observing and participating rather than being told. • • • • • • . beliefs and attitudes.Individuals are perceived as being responsible conscientious and caring. 5. The objectives of T-groups are: 1. Improved listening skills. To develop increased understanding of group processes.
He understands and suggests the processes which the manager must act upon. The questionnaire seeks to find out the perceptions of the employees on a range of topics like − − − − − Decision making practice Communication effectiveness Coordination between units. Improved conflict resolution skills b) Implications of Resistance: • • • • It is a tool for assessing attitudes of organisational members. An outside consultant to assist the manager to perceive is employed. Greater openness 7. But they are unable to identify what can be improved and how.6. Similar to sensitivity training. informal relationships among unit members. formal communication channels are some of the areas. Identifying discrepancies among perceptions and Solving these differences. Increased tolerance of individual differences and 8. it is important that the organisational family – the manager and those employees who report directly to him participate. Managers often sense that their unit’s performance can be improved. but more task oriented. A questionnaire is usually filled by all employees of the organisation. Work flow. • • • • • • d) Team Building: . Even though every employee in an organisation can participate in survey feedback. Satisfaction with the organisation Job peers and immediate supervisors • • • The steps involved are as follows: Data Collection Feedback to organisational unit Action Decision Consultants c) Process Consultation: • Is a technique concerned with the interpersonal relations and dynamics operating in work groups.
role clarification. Step-3 • • • • e) Intergroup Development: • Seeks to change the attitude. In this method each group meets independently to develop lists of its perceptions of itself. organisational structure and interpersonal relations. Team building includes OD consultant feedback in such areas as communication and conflict resolution. Determines underlying cause in such areas as communication. member roles and strategies for accomplishing work tasks. stereotypes and perceptions through intergroup development. Hence change efforts are directed towards the group to change their attitudes. The group analyses the problem. It utilizes high interaction group activities to create trust and openness among team members. These work groups focus on solving actual problems in building efficient management teams. OD consultant also helps in assessing group tasks. the other group and how it believes the other perceives it. Aimed at helping groups to become effective at task accomplishment. leadership style. The group proposes several solutions. The support and trust of group members enhance the implementation of change. Through this process. • • • • • • . A major area of concern in OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exist between groups. Team building process involves the following steps: Step-1 Step-2 • • • • • • • • • The team leader defines a problem. stereotypes and perceptions that groups have with each other. the participants are likely to be committed to the solution and interpersonal support and trust are developed. Engineers accountants production engineers maintenance engineers Such stereotypes can have obvious negative impact on the coordinative efforts between the departments.• Is a conscious effort by management to develop effective work groups through out the organisation. Then selects the most appropriate solution. Eg. ‘Problem solving’ is one of the popular approaches for improving intergroup relations.
Seeks to promote organisational excellence by fostering concern for production and concern for people. Black & Mouton proposed a multi step process for improving organisations by attempting to cultivate these skills. OD consultants help the parties resolve their differences through such techniques as problem solving. 3 . group problem solving. Differences are clearly articulated and the group look for the cause of disparities. They assess their own managerial styles and work on improving such skills as team development. groups or departments. Team Development Intergroup development . these key managers will work to implement the grid program through out the organisation. To resolve serious conflicts those are related to specific work issues. Most organisational problems stem from poor communication and inadequate planning. The trained managers bring their new understanding of managerial grid concepts relationships and team effectiveness so that the team operates at 9. This phase focuses on the relationship between the organisation’s work groups to improve coordination & cooperation. g) Grid Training: • Grid organisational development is an extension of the managerial / leadership grid concept developed by Blake & Mouton Carried out on an organisation-wide basis. After appropriate introduction. key managers learn about grid concepts and how they are applied. after which similarities and differences are discussed. • f) Third Party Interventions: • • • • This is concerned with helping individuals. bargaining and conciliation. and communication. The steps in grid OD are shown below: Steps 1 Training Activities In a week-long seminar.• The groups then share lists. • • • • • 2 . Intergroup tensions are dealt with openly and joint problem solving procedures are developed. Or may be caused by sub optimal interpersonal relations.9 grid level.
. The programs vary. Efforts are made to stabilize positive changes and to identify new areas of opportunity for the organisation.4 . the results of all the phases are evaluated to determine which areas of the organisation still need improvement or alteration. evaluated and refined by managers and subordinates working together throughout the organisation. QWL programs focus strongly on providing a work environment conducive to satisfying individual needs. Richard Walton’s categories of programs are shown below: • • • Adequate & fair Compensation Development of Human capacities Social Integration Total Life Space Safe & Healthy work Environment Growth & Security Constitutionlism Social Relevance • There are a few popular approaches to humanize workplace. Goal Organisation members seek to make the ideal attainment model a reality. h) Quality of Work Life: (QWL) • Is defined as the degree to which members of a work organisation are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organisation. Stabilization Eventually. 5 . 6 Organisational Top managers together create an ideal model of goal setting the organisation. but the goal of ‘humanizing the work place’ is of paramount importance. Each submits proposals on how their activities should be carried out in order to achieve excellence and they proceed to take whatever corrective actions are necessary. They set goals to be tested.
These qualities are further built on to improve performance It focuses on organisations success and abilities than on its problems. i) Appreciative Inquiry: (AI) • • • • Most OD approaches are problem oriented. The first step is Discovery: − The idea is to find out what people think are the strengths of the organisation. this approach seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organisation. Organisational commitment Reduced turnover among workers Increased productivity Profitability and goal attainment for the organisation. AI process essentially consists of four steps. Rather than looking for problems to fix.• One such is ‘work restructuring’ – the process of changing the way jobs are done to make them more interesting to workers. − For instance. • • • • • • . Appreciative inquiry is positive. − Or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. Often played out in large group meetings over two or three days and overseen by a trained change agent. • • • • The hurdles are − − Both management and labour must cooperate in designing the programs Plan agreed by all must be implemented. They identify a problem and then look for solutions. Job enlargement and job enrichment are two such. QWL programs benefit the organisation in these ways: − − − − − Increased job satisfaction. This allows the organisation to change by playing to its strengths and competitive advantages. employees are asked to recount times they felt the organisation worked best. Another approach in Quality Circles These are small groups of employees who meet regularly on voluntary basis to identify and solve problems related to the quality of work they perform.
The fourth step is Destiny: − In this final step. • • Companies who used this OD technique. • . The essence of creativity is the element of freshness. Nature of Creativity: • Creativity refers to the process by which novel but situationally appropriate outcomes are brought about. originality and novelty that is also appropriate to the context. 12. CREATIVITY IN ORGANISATIONS: • Organisational culture promotes creativity and innovation 12. have increased their sales and profits by several crores of money. − For instance people are asked to envision the organisation in five years and describe what different is going to happen. participants discuss how the organisation is going to fulfill its dream. participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organisation will look and agree on its unique qualities.• The second step is Dreaming: − The information from the discovery phase is used to speculate on possible futures of the organisation. − This typically includes the writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies. Benefits & Limitations of Organisational Development: Benefits • • • • • • • • • • • • Limitations • • • • • • • • • • • Organisation-wide changes Higher motivation Higher productivity Better quality of work Higher job satisfaction Improved team work Better resolution of conflict Commitment to objectives Reduced absence Lower turnover Creation of learning Individuals and groups Time consuming Expensive Delayed pay-off period Possible failure Possible invasion of privacy Possible psychological harm Potential conformity Emphasis on group processes rather than performance Possible conceptual ambiguity Difficulty in evaluation Cultural incompatibility N. • The third step is Design: − Based on the dream articulation.
− During incubation. The social and technological changes that organisations face require creative decisions. − The problem or issue not forgotten. − The problem is only put in the back burner. − Plays powerful role in dissolving previously held notions about a problem. . the act must be unique and appropriate to the context. − They might come at any time of the day or night. − But the problem is still simmering in one’s mind − But it is not at the forefront of his attention. • Insight: − Individuals experience insight at some point during the incubation stage. • • 13.• To call anything creative. − Incubation assists in divergent thinking and generating different approaches to the issue. the mind constantly considers the problem and works on it. The process of creativity occurs in the following four stages: Step-1 Preparation Preparation: − An important condition for creativity. The ability to promote creativity in organisations is an important competence to face the turbulence of dynamics of changes in the organisations. The Creative Process: • Researchers have developed a model that outlines the various stages of the creative process. − Involves developing a clear understanding of what one wants to achieve through a novel solution Step-2 Incubation Step-3 Insight Step-4 Verification • • • Incubation: − Is a process of reflective thought and is often conducted subconsciously. − It is an experience of suddenly becoming aware of a unique idea. − The flashes of inspiration have no definite schedules.
Lateral thinking 16. − At this stage.− It can also be lost if not documented. but verification of their value is important. • Verification: − Ideas are generated at the insight stage. Methods of Enhancing Creativity: a. since other people may resist or reject the creative ideas. Characteristics of Creative Individuals: • It is said that creative people posses intellectual and personality characteristics different from their less creative counterparts. These are the supporting environments and facilities to encourage people to search for new ideas: Creative People Organisational Support Organisational Culture Enhanced Creativity . High intellectual abilities. An irritation with status quo Perseverance A pursuit of hobbies and specialised interests. • Creative processes do not always follow an order. Inventive thinking style. Brainstorming b. − It is not sufficient we have come up with an idea. Some of the traits of creative people include: − − − − − − − − Willingness to give up immediate gain to reach long range goals. Creativity Inducing Factors: a. • 15. Grid analysis c. tenacity is very important. Belief that fantasy and day dreaming are not a waste of time. − The new idea has to be subjected to evaluation and experimentation. A great amount of energy. 14.
research. Organisational Support: − May come in many ways. g. if any. d. Creative People: Exposure Time & Resources i. INNOVATIONS IN ORGANISATIONS: • Innovation is the process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the market place as products. e. development. − Sets goals for creativity − Encourage employees to take risks and accept failures. extended leave. processes and services. Selecting creative people is the starting point in enhancing creativity in organisations. facilities. − People need enough resources O. Organisational Culture: − − − − − Openness to new ideas. Innovation involves every aspect of organisation.Diversity b. materials. − Like foreign assignments. etc. − Break out of the shell and take risks. − Lavishness does not work. seminars. information and time. Exposure: − Expose employees to various kinds of experience. Friendly supervision Team building Participative decision making Flexible organisation structures. Time & Resources: − People are more creative when they have funds. manufacturing and marketing. − Make the job intrinsically motivating. c. • . Diversity: − Diverse ethnic and cultural groups. − Divergent thinking is key to creativity f.
Hold periodic sessions with senior/junior managers and elicit suggestions. Do not focus only on immediate problems.• The greatest challenge is to bring the innovative technology into the market in a cost effective manner. 1) Types of Innovation: • • Radical innovation – major break through – eg: xerox System innovation – creating new functionalities by assembling parts in new ways – eg: automobile Incremental innovation – continues the technical improvements – applicable to radical and systems also – forces organisations to continually improve products. • • Step-2 : Diagnosing the situations and generating ideas • Diagnose the situation and generate new ideas. • 2) A Six Step Model for Planned Innovation or Change: • The process followed by managers when they engage in planned innovation and change are illustrated in the sketch Step-1 Perceiving an opportunity or a problem Step-2 Diagnosing the situation and generating ideas Step-3 Presenting a proposal & adopting the change or innovation Step-6 Monitoring and evaluating results Step-5 Implementing the change or innovation Step-4 Planning to over come resistance to change or innovation Step-1 : Perceiving an opportunity or a problem • Look ahead for opportunities to solve current and anticipated problems. .
implementation will be smooth Step-6 : Monitoring the results • Monitor and evaluate what happens after the change has been implemented. Otherwise good ideas will be rejected when they are proposed. There are three broad categories of obstructions for creativity. • P. Step-5 : Implementing the innovation or change • • Moment of truth when the change is put into operation. perceptual. cultural and emotional blocks as shown in the sketch. Perceptual Blocks Cultural Blocks Emotional Blocks Need for Creativity & Creativity & Innovation . If the planning is carefully done. Overcome the resistance. Feedback for improvements in successive innovations. Do not overlook the status of ongoing activities relative to the competition. Step-3 : Presenting a proposal and adopting the change • Establish the fact that innovation and change are important to the organisation. Preparation of a business plan is necessary for budget proposals. • • Step-4 : Planning to overcome resistance • • Understand the reasons and resistance for change.• • This will fix the problems and take advantage of the opportunities. BLOCKS FOR CREATIVITY & INNOVATIONS: • • • It is not enough to take positive steps to promote creativity. It is also essential to guard against ways which hinder creativity.
Be practical 6. Too much paper work 45. 43. Overemphasis on competition or conflict avoidance and smoothing. Don’t start anything yet 9. Cultural Blocks: Include: A desire to conform to established norms. It is not budgeted 17. Have you considered 10. Too hard to implement. 3. A belief that indulging in fantasy or other forms of open-ended exploration is a waste of time. Emotional Blocks: Include: − The fear of making a mistake. Too academic 41. Too late 44.Innovation 1. The union won’t go for it. − Fear and distrust of others − Fear of grabbing the first idea that comes along Sixty-One Ways to Block Creativity: 1. It does not fit human nature 14. 39. Too soon 47. Too old fashioned 46. Too many projects now 13. We have not the time − − − − . The timing is off 37. It is not good enough 18. It needs more stud 16. It is not part of your job 19. We have not the manpower 50. The old times won’t use it. All right in theory 5. 36. They won’t go for it. Can you put into practice? 7. Perceptual Blocks: Include such factors as: − − − − The failure to use all the senses in observing Failure to investigate the obvious Difficulty in seeing remote relationships Failure to distinguish between cause and effect. It has been done before 15. 4. A good idea but… 2. 34. Costs too much 8. There are better ways. That is not our problem 33. The drive to be practical and economical. Too hard to administer 42. It can’t work 12. We have been doing it this way for 48. Long time and it works 49. 38. Against company policy 3. Let me add to that 32. 2. 40. I know it won’t work 11. Ahead of the times. The boss won’t go for it. The new people won’t understand 35.
Some other time 31. What will the union think? 58. Let us put it off for a while 25. Let us sit on it for a while 26. Let us think it over for a while 27. Let us make a survey first 23. Who do you think you are? 60. 28. it won’t work 29. We are too big 52. we have never done it that way 54. What bubble head thought that up? 56. Who else has tried it? 61. Surely you know better 51. We have tried it before 55. What you are really saying is? 59. Let us not step on toes 24. Let us discuss it 21. Why has not someone suggested it before if it is a good idea? You are off base! . Let us form a committee 22. Of course.20. Our Plan is different 30. We can too small 53. Not ready for it yet. What will the customers think? 57.