CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PART A : CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 1 – PERSONAL GROWTH

1) Self Awareness:
• • • • • Is the ability to be aware of what one is feeling? Is self understanding Is the knowledge of one’s true feelings at the moment? Is one of Goleman’s five dimensions of emotional intelligence in the workplace? Eg: Raju recognises that he is angry, so that he will wait himself to cool down and gather more information before taking an important personnel decision.

2) Self Analysis & Management/Self Monitoring:
Definition: A systematic attempt by an individual to understand and analyse one’s own personality without the help – another. • • If a person knows his skills and abilities it will help him to develop greater self confidence and enable him to present a positive image to those he deals in. Self analysis of skills will lead to: − Working effectively with others – approachability, teamwork, cooperation, rapport and adaptability” − Communication – listening, enthusiasm, clarify, pertinence, confidence. − Judgements and decision making – decisiveness, research, planning, reaching a conclusion, evaluation. − Persuading and influencing – communication, leadership, negotiation, motivation, charisma, determination, forcefulness, vision, empathy. − Ability to solve problems – critical thinking, analysis, lateral thinking, creativity. − Time management – ensuring assignments are done on time. − Use of IT – word processing report to solve problems quickly. − Achieving one’s goals – determination, commitment, will power resolution, stamina, ambition, energy, resistance. − Specialist subject knowledge. • Self analysis provides the opportunity to turn potential failures into triumphs, through appropriate interpretations.

After analysis one has to self manage. There are 12 steps of self management:

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Make a decision that you desire to achieve the goal. Believe that you will achieve the goal. Write down your goal on paper. Be honest with yourself. Analyse your present position. Use deadlines. Identify the rocks that stand in your way. Identify the skills you need. Identify those people from whom you need co-operation Make a complete business plan. Visualize the perfect outcome, emotionalise how terrific you will feel when the outcome is achieved and make the necessary affirmations consistent with achieving the goal. − Determine to back your plan with patience and persistence.

3) Self-Efficiency:
• Self efficiency refers to a person’s belief that he has: − − − − • The ability The motivation The situational contingencies. To complete a task successfully.

People strong in self efficiency have a − ‘Can do’ attitude towards a specific task. − ‘Can do’ attitude for various challenges in life.

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Social learning/observational learning increases self efficiency by observing someone else’ actions. People have the drive for self efficiency – a belief that they have the necessary capabilities to perform a task. Management should provide opportunities for meaningful involvement of people in the activities towards the achievement of organisational goals or objectives. Albert Bandura, a famous behavioural scientist says: “Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions they have little incentives to act” “They have the core belief that they have the power to produce desired results”

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Bandura’s task-specific self-efficiency in ‘state like’ and specific task oriented. Bandura also states a ‘generalised self efficiency’ which reflects people’s belief in successfully accomplishing tasks across a wide variety of achievement situations – called as ‘trait like’

a) Self efficacy Vs Self-esteem: 1. Self esteem Is a global construct of one’s evaluation and belief of overall worthiness Is stable and traitlike Self efficacy Is one’s belief about a task and contact specific capability. Is changing overtime as new information and task experiences and gained and developed and is statelike. Is a current assessment of one’s future success at task.

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Is aimed at any aspect of one’s current self

b) The process & impact of self efficacy: The Process: • • • • • Directly, the self-efficacy process starts before individuals select their choices and initiate their efforts. People tend to weigh, evaluate and integrate information about their personal capabilities. This initial stage of process has nothing to do with individual’s abilities or resources. It rather, depends upon how they perceive or believe they can use those abilities and resources to accomplish the given task in this context. This evaluation of perception then leads to the expectations of personal efficacy which in turn determines: − The decision to perform the specific task in this context. − The amount of effort that will be expended to accomplish the task − The level of persistence that will be forthcoming despite problems, regardless of evidence and adversity. The Impact: Self-efficacy can directly affect: • • • Choice behaviour: Decisions made based on how efficacious a person feels towards the opinion in work assignments or careers, etc. Motivational effort: People will try harder and give more effort on tasks where they have high self efficacy than those where the efficacy judgement is low. Perseverance: Those with high self-efficacy bounce back, be resilient when meeting problems or even failure, whereas those with low efficacy tend to give up when obstacles appear.

Self esteem has to do with people and self-perceived competence and self image in an organisation. In managerial positions. . low esteems will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. This is called as organisation based self esteem (OBSE) Directly related to the desire for success. since they expect failure. Low esteem people prone to the beliefs and behaviours of those they respect. Low esteems are less likely to take unpopular stands. Leadership 4) Self-Esteem: • • • • • • • • • • • Refers to the feeling of like or dislike of one-self. People with high self-esteem believe that they have abilities to undertake challenging jobs. Low esteem people are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations and approvals from others. People with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external influence. High esteem people tend to choose unconventional jobs. • c) Sources of Self-Efficacy: Self Efficacy Masterly Experiences or Performance Attainments d) Applications: • • • • • Vicarious Experiences of Modeling Social Persuasion Physiological and Psychological Arousal Training and development Stress management.• Facilitating through patterns: People with high self-efficacy say ‘I know I can figure out how to solve this problem’. I do not have the requisite ability’ Vulnerability to Stress: People with low self-efficacy tend to experience stress and burnout. People with low efficacy say ‘I know I can not do that. High efficacy people enter into potential stressful situations with confidence and assurance and thus are able to resist stressful reactions. Self managed work teams Job design and goal setting.

It is found that males score slightly higher in self-esteem than females. − Yet another study says: “High self esteem can be a good thing. feelings. A role is a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. likely to fear decision making. Everyone has to play a number of diverse roles. less anxiety. People with low self-esteem are not confident in thinking ability. Based on the interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave. intelligence and persistence – it is nurtured and channeled in constructive ethical ways otherwise it can become antisocial and destructive” • 5) Roles: • • • • All group members are actors. lack negotiation and interpersonal skills and are reluctant unable to change. Research results on self-esteem are mixed. − Another study found that those with high self-esteem tended to become egotistical and faced with pressure situations and may result in aggressive or violent behaviour when threatened. . Low esteems are less satisfied with their jobs. each playing a role. That view indicates how one is supposed to act in a given situation. a) Role Concepts: are associated with roles a i) Role Identity: • • Certain attitudes and actual behaviour are consistent with a role and they create ‘the role identity’ People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognise the situation and its demands clearly require major changes. hopelessness and depressive symptoms.• • • • • High esteems are more satisfied with their jobs. − One study found that people with high self-esteem handle failure better than those with low self esteem. both on and off his job. but only if like many other human characteristics – such as creativity. a ii)Role Perception: • • • It is one’s view. satisfaction. we engage in certain types of behaviour. Our behaviour varies with the role we are playing. High self esteem people have more positive attitudes.

• Since managers perform many different roles. to a large part is determined by the role defined in the context in which we are acting. as well as opening up lines of communication to discover the other’s perceptions. Unless roles are clarified and agreed upon by both parties. Role of a judge or football referee. • a iii)Role Expectations: • • Defined as how others behave you should act in a given situation. The complex web of manager – employee role perception. they must be highly adaptive and exhibit role of flexibility in order to change from one role to another quickly. b) Leader/Manager Roles: by Mintzberg . It exists when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may be more difficult than compliance with another. the result is role conflict. Reaching such an understanding requires studying the available job descriptions. technical and non-technical activities. a iv)Role Conflict: • • When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Manager Manager’s perception A of own role Manager’s perception B of employee’s role Manager’s perception C of the manager’s role as seen by the employee Employee D Employee’s perception of manager’s role E F Employee’s perception of own role Employee’s perception of the employee’s role as seen by the managers • • • • The key is for both parties to gain accurate role perceptions of their own roles and for the roles of the other. How we have to behave. conflicts will inevitably arise. eg. subordinates. Supervisors particularly have to change roles rapidly as they work with seniors.

Baron) Task Oriented Roles Initiator Contributors Recommend new solutions to group members Information Seekers Attempt to obtain the necessary facts Opinion Givers Share own opinion with others Energisers Stimulate the group into action whenever interest drops Relations Oriented Roles Harmonisers Meditate group conflicts Self Oriented Roles Blockers Act stubborn & resistant to the group Recognition Seekers Call attention to their own achievements Dominators Assert authority by manipulating the group Avoiders Maintain distance.Formal Authority and status Interpersonal Roles Figure head Leader Liaison Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokes person Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator c) Some Roles Commonly Played by Group Members: (by J. isolate themselves from follow group members Compromisers Shift opinions to create group harmony Encouragers Praise and encourage others Expediters Suggest ways the groups can operate more smoothly .A.Greenberg & B.

step by step. An organisation too cannot and should not remain constant/stagnant all the time. ‘grow up’ leaving behind the characteristics of earlier stages of development and adopt new behaviours with age. Change produces emotional reactions too. Many a times it is a ‘top down’ management directive. A process and not an event. it has visions of revolutions. Even if the management does not want to change. Sometimes it is a ‘radial’ shift from the current to a new process. Life itself is almost synonymous with the concept of change. etc. environments and expectations. Is fast and is likely to increase further in the present competitive business. Humans and organisms. but pervasive too. roles of people. Change encompasses leadership. the external pressures force it to change. It is a ‘natural’ and ‘adaptive’ change as a consequence/reaction to the external circumstances and pressures. motivation. Change is inevitable. • • • • • • 7) Characteristics of Change: • • • • • • Vital if a company were to avoid stagnation. It is dependent upon the organisational environment and or culture. a trouble maker. Sometimes is an ‘incremental’ change. Sometimes it is also a ‘mutually agreed’ plan for change in various groups of management. It is normal and constant. If throws up also a dissatisfied person. • • • • .CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 2 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE 2) Defination: “Organisational change is the process by which organisations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness” 6) Importance of Change: • • • • Change is the only thing permanent in the world. To many it is threatening. organisational environment.

History & Politics: The historical and political evolution of a company will have a significant bearing on its acceptance of change. Are the value & image of the company being changed during the change? The origins of the individuals within the company. The traditions and norms to which the management and employees are accustomed to. The good and bad experiences of the individuals of the company on whom the new change is vested in.8) Corporate Culture and Change Management: • All changes interface with three organisational components which constitute the organisational culture. These factors are: • • • • • • • Base & origin of the company Associated values of the company. Those three components are: − The historical and political evolution of the company. • • . − The people who work for the company • o The illustration of the 3 components and their inter-relations are shown in the sketch Changes Historical & political Corporate evolution Culture Management & Organisation Changes People 4a. The unwritten and written long standing rights and policies existing in the company and the likely threats to them. The image the company likes to promote. The perception of the company that the customers are holding. − The management and organisation of the company.

Both project and group work increase. measure and analyse the effect of the change on the workforce. It will also impact the structure and operation of the organisation. divisions and departments become blurred. Every decision on change ‘impacts’ the people. personal status. their acceptance and willingness and take suitable remedial measures. etc. The likely ‘balance of power’ between the current owners and the functional experts. Role of line management shifts from ‘autocrat’ to that of ‘facilitator’ Senior management takes more of strategic stance. The ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of power. Senior management encourages opportunities for progress through innovation. and there inter-relationships.• The relationships and cordiality between the top management and the people who have been vested with the powers of change. Typically with any change people expect a reward pay hike. Before embarking upon the change.. People: • • • • Most of the issues in change management are ‘people’ oriented. • • • 4b. Multi skilling of employees increase and in greater demand. • • 4c. All cautions should be exercised in the people oriented changes. sphere of influence. They recognize the contribution to the achievement of business objectives. promotion or other type of recognition. The boundaries between jobs. • . The jobs broaden in terms of scope and of accountability.Management & Organisation: • • • • • • • • • • • • Changes will impact the roles of management. The requirements of specialists slowly decrease. With increased harassing of technology and processes availability of jobs decrease. Think carefully the impact of change in every job it affects. The ‘acceptance’ of change process by top management. All the activities and outputs gets customer oriented.

This is because most activities in organisations are organised on a group basis. Others say. Change in the organisational level is generally referred to as ‘organisational development’ • • • • • • .9) Levels of Change: 3 Levels – Individual. can frequently overcome resistance at the individual level. − − − − − Work flows Job design Social organisation Influence the status systems & Communication patterns • • Managers must consider group factors when implementing change. Changes at the group level can affect. since any change at individual level. Decisions regarding these changes are generally made by senior management. They cover long periods of time. physical move to a different location or the change in maturity level of a person which occurs overtime. Decisions at this level involve major programs that affect both individual and groups. The groups could be departments or informal work groups. Some say that changes at the individual level will seldom have significant implications for the total organisation. will also have repercussions in the group. Effective implementation of change at the group level. Informal groups can pose a major barrier to change because of the inherent strength they possess. group and organisational a) Individual Level Change: • Change is reflected in such developments as changes in job assignment. the above is not true. like unions. can resist change envisaged by management. Require considerable planning for implementation. Formal groups. These decisions are rarely implemented only by a single manger. • • b) Group Level Change: • • • • Most organisational changes have their major effects at the group level. • • c) Organisational – Level Changes: • Changes at this level involve major programs that affect both individuals and groups.

TQM is an example Revolutionary Change: Sudden. Radial rethinking and redesigning of business processes to obtain rapid organisational effectiveness. Ignores existing arrangement of tasks. Developed by Edward Demming Broad goal of TQM is continuous improvement. a) Total Quality Management (TQM): • • • • Evolutionary change. Known as Business Process Re-engineering. improve quality. reduce waste. re-engineering is an example. Employees are expected to make suggestions on all aspects of processes and management. incremental. Orients with customer as object. roles and work activities. drastic & organisation-wide. Business processes Re-engineering Values & Benefits Jobs and Structures Management & measurement • • • .6) Types of Change: • Two Types : Evolutionary Change Revolutionary Change • • Evolutionary Change : Gradual. Has the following components. TQM is driven by statistical data. TQM has 4 key components Systems Change Through TQM Management People Processes • • • b) Re-Engineering: • • • Revolutionary change. Continuous efficiency improvement to reducer costs.

Both emphasize the importance of customer. But the two approaches applied together and with understanding and sympathy. TQM focuses on improvement whereas reengineering focuses on customer relationships. comparison fact finding and reasoning. offer a tremendously powerful recipe for building or rebuilding an organisation. The two differ in their impact on organisational culture. TQM – a continuous.c) Integration of evolutionary & revolutionary change – TQM & Re-engineering: • The popular approach is that the two can not co-exist. rather than pure directions. Reengineering demands conceptual thinking rooted in supposition. lateral thinking and raw creativity associated with senior management. measurement. TQM and Reengineering have four identifiable founding principles and commonalities which are summarized as follows: TQM Systems Processes People Management Reengineering Management & Measurement Business Processes Values & Benefits Jobs & Structures • d) Similarities between TQM & Reengineering: • Both emphasize objectivity and this they obtain through statistical analysis and benchmarking. Both promote empowerment and involvement high value team work in quality circles. bottom up. Both promote a process orientation. Both stress the role of management on coaching and facilitating. improvement. Both differ in perception too TQM has analytical thinking. • • • • • • • • e) Dissimilarities between TQM & Reengineering: • • • • • The two differ in their approach to change. Both demand change of people’s attitudes and their values and beliefs. • • • • . although there is a difference in emphasis. Reengineering has a program of change with an identifiable beginning and an end. TQM is an attitudinal change with constant focus on continuous improvement and customer. intuition. Both stress on job description and proper organisation structural relationships. performance measurement and reward schemes. Re-engineering is radical reinvention and top down approach. Both emphasize on power and accountability.

Causes for change: External Causes Globalisation Work force diversity Technological change Managing ethical behaviour Government policies Competition Scarcity of resources Mergers and acquisitions Pollution/Ecological controls Calamities/Emergencies Internal Causes Organisational silence Falling effectiveness Crisis Changing employee expectations Change in the work climate Downsizing Reengineering Productivity improvements Cycle Time Reduction 8) Resistance to Changes: Organisational Level Organisational structures Organisational Cultures Organisational Strategies Over determination (Structural inertia) Sub-unit Level Differences in subcommittee Orientation Power and Conflict Group Level Group Norms Group Cohesiveness Group think Individual Level Cognitive Biases Uncertainty Fear of loss Selective Perception Habit Logical Reasons .• • Reengineering can address major strategic issues at top level management. TQM can address the problems at the lower levels. The changes stem from several factors. arising from outside the organisation. 7) Forces for Change in Organisations: • • • • • Change has become the norm in most organisations. Some are external. arising from sources within the organisation. Some are internal.

Moving to a desired condition. . Initially both the groups may be equal in their force. effective change occurs by: • • • Unfreezing the current situation. When the forces are in balance. Simultaneously reduce the resistance for change. At P1. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change. At P2 the forces balance between the two groups.Developed by Kurt Lewin Level of Performance Resistance to Change Equal Arrows Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • • Refer the sketch In any organisation. • • • • • • 10)Different change Models Lewin’s three stage model of change system: As per Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model.9) Force Field Theory of Change: . there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. To get the organisation to change. Refreezing the system so that it remains in this desired state. the change starts occurring in steps and reaches a level of P2. the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change.

a) Unfreezing: Involves • • • • • • Shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains status quo Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours. New attitudes. values and behaviours are established as the new way of organisational approach. Old behaviours should be discarded and new behaviours are introduced. To change sometimes through organisational development techniques. To change sometimes through structural changes. Management should ensure that the new organisational culture and record systems encourage a new behaviour. Encouraging people to search for new solutions. The new way of operating are cemented and reinforced. • • . departments or organisations where the changes are to take place. values and behaviours Refreezing Reinforcing new values attitudes and behaviours • The model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. Old ways of functioning are avoided • • • d) Lewin’s Change Model: Unfreezing Reducing the forces for status quo Moving Developing new attitudes. Eliminating the rewards for current behaviours and discouraging current behaviours. To develop new behaviours. • • • c) Refreezing: • • The change becomes permanent. b) Moving: Aims • To shift or alter the behaviour of individuals. Failures can be traced back to anyone of the stages. the 3 stage processes must be completed. values and attitudes. Presenting the existing problem Making the people to recognise the need for change.

but the change agent can change the sequences when need arises. Still. This model follows a seven step process as in the sketch: • • Scouting Entry Diagnosis Planning Termination Stabilization & Evaluation Action • The phases are generally sequential. Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. the business must carry on. • • • • • 11) Planning Models • • • Developed by Lippit. organizing and implementing change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within an organisation. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. • • Entry: − In this phase development of mutual contract and mutual expectations take place. This is a process of systematically planning. Later modified by Kolb & Frohman (1970) This model is based on the principle that information must be freely and openly shared between the organisation and the change agent.e) Transition Management: • • • Is between any two phases of change. Scouting: − Phase where the change agent and the organisation jointly explore the need for change. . customer and suppliers. This information must be able to be translated into action. Communication of the changes to all involved. employees. In the transition state. Watson & Westley (1958). − They also explore the areas requiring change. play a great role in transition management. the organisation is neither old nor new. Managing transition is essential to keep the organisation going.

Methods used-interviews. . b) Consultation with a behavioral expert: • After problems are sensed and realized. • Planning: − Actual and possible reasons for resistance to change are identified. Also analysis of organisational performance. process observations. questionnaire. • Termination: − Phase where a decision is made to leave the system or to end and begin another. The consultant provides the client all relevant and useful data. To determine the strengths and weaknesses of the area under study.• Diagnosis: − In this phase the specific improvement goals are identified. a) Problem Identification: • • A stage in which the management senses the existence of one or more problems. − Planning for specific improvement of goals is also made. • Stabilization and Evaluation: − Phase where evaluation is undertaken to determine the extent of success of the planned change. • Action: − Indicates the implementation of the steps identified during the planning stage. the help of an OD expert is sought c) Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis: • • • Consultant and organisational members gather the data. − The need for further action or termination is also made in this phase. These problems are removed with the help of an OD practitioner. 12)The Action Research Models: • • This model focuses on the planned change activity as a ‘cyclical process’ 8 main steps involved in the action research model are explained below. d) Feedback to key client or group: • • • Data gathered is passed on to the client.

The specific action depends upon on the organisation’s cultural. i) Schematic diagram of action research model: Perception of problems by key individuals Consultation with behavioural science experts Joint Action Planning Feedback by these experts to client group Joint diagnose of problem New data gathering as a result of action Data gathering after action Action Feedback to client group by consultants Rediagnosis & action planning by client & consultant New Action Rediagnosis of situations. h) Data gathering after action: • • • Is cyclic in nature. Reinforcing new behaviours. New data is taken to find the effects of actions already taken. Focuses on any additional research needed. etc.e) Joint Diagnosis of the Problem: • • • • The group discusses the feedback. further diagnosis and identified the problem. situations re-diagnosed and new actions taken. f) Joint action planning: • • The consultant and management team jointly agree on problem – solving methods. Based on the feedback. Involves and includes: − − − Installing new methods and procedures. technological and work environment problems to be resolved and the time and costs associated with the desired OD intervention. Results of additional research are summarized and submitted to the group again. The group does validation. g) Action: • • Stage involves the actual change from one organisational state to another. . Reorganizing structures and work designs.

Understanding of the present state of the organisation and the processes of change required to move to another state is required. The rules for carrying out the consulting relationships. This leads to search for OD resources and assistance and then contracting OD experts. b) Planning Phase: • Planning commences once the problems facing the organisation are understood. And the resources for OD are committed. Goals are set for the change efforts. In the search process. The change process is undertaken after the ‘diagnoses of sources of problems and then analyzing it. • • • • • • . Diagnosis is jointly undertaken by organisational members and OD practitioners. wherein: − The organisation members make judgements about consultant’s skill and competence. Appropriate actions are designed to improve the organisation. − And the consultant assesses whether the client is ready for change and has the necessary resources and commitment. The basis for this model is that an organisation exists in different states at different times. Planned movement can occur from one state to another. Approval of the key decision makers is also sought during this stage. there is a mutual assessment of the requirements. How much time each will invest and what it will cost. • • • • The contracting phase lays the ground rules for a collaborative relationship and seeks clarification as to − − − What each party expects from the relationships. Model consists of four phases • • • a) Exploration Phase: • Organisation decides whether to plan for specific change and commit resources for it.13)Integrative Model of Planned Change: • • • Developed by Bullock and Batten (1985) Describes both organisational states and change processes. Organisational members who are aware of the need for change initiate the change process.

e) The integrative model of change is indicated in the sketch below: Exploration Stage Change Process Need awareness Search Contracting Planning Phase Change Process Diagnosis Design Decision Action Phase Change Process Implementation Evaluation Integration Phase Change Process Stabilization Diffusion Renewal 14)Perspectives on Change: • • • Four major perspectives on organisational change. • • . • • • d) Integration Phase: • This phase involves making the changes as a part and routine of regular organisational functioning after having successfully implemented and stabilized them. the contract with the OD professional is gradually terminated. The change activities are monitored and evaluated periodically. It includes processes aimed at transitioning the organisation from its current state to the desired future state. Resource dependence perspective – examines strategic change. This is done to assess the progress and check whether positive results are being achieved. Institutional perspective – looks at becoming and change through imitation. • Slowly. Population ecology perspective – looks at the limits of change and resistance to change.c) Action Phase: • • The changes derived from planning stage are implemented in this stage. Contingency perspective – focuses on structural change. The new behaviour reinforced and further strengthened through: − − − • Regular feedbacks Incentives & Rewards. Also to check if any modifications and refinements are required for the process. professionalization and compliance.

Variety of things that exists outside yet surrounds the organisation.a) Notion of Environment: • The most important notion in the four perspectives of organisational change is the idea of environment. • Specialization: • • • • • . Organisations divided into manufacturing. These includes: • • • • • • • • • Customers Suppliers A society Norms Values • • • Competitors Governmental agencies An economy growth rate interest rate of Social inflation Habits • • • Customs The term phenomenon does not refer to a single phenomenon It includes a variety of phenomena in organisations. Signifies everything that exists outside our organisation. Two central dimensions of structure-specialization and integration. Organisation is something that gets resources from outside. • • b) Contingency Perspective: • • Mainly concerned with the structure of an organisation. Structure refers to the way in which an organisation breaks down a complex task into individual activities and integrates these separate activities to achieve its purpose. personnel. converts them into products and services and gives these products and services back to the surroundings. the job of a truck loader. etc. The fundamental idea is that it is the ‘environment’ which is the source of most of the major changes. The term ‘environment’ means ‘the surrounding’ That is everything that surrounds the organisation. Environment derived from ‘Environ’ means to ‘surround’. Specialization is also known as ‘division of labour’ In an organisation there is usually a horizontal and vertical division of labour. marketing. An organisation changes if the environment changes. Refers to the member and variety of different activities that make up individual jobs in an organisation. are called as horizontal specialization or horizontal division of labour.. Any job that consists of a single activity or very few activities is a highly specialised job eg. accounting..

plans and targets. procedures and systems and goals. These bring about uniformity and standardization in the activities of the organisation. These are the central questions based on the contingency perspective. unproductive and chaotic. The main idea of contingency perspective is that the most effective or appropriate structure is one that is in ‘fit’ or ‘alignment’ with its contingency variables. or if there is a change in their environment. The management can determine the extent of specialization and type of integration required within an organisation. Contingency factors depend upon contingency variables. technology of an organisation. Contingent means ‘depending’. Any change in one or more contingency variables results in a misfit between the structure and the contingency variable. The most important aspect of contingency perspective relating to organisational change is the relationship between environment and structure. When an organisation grows larger. Any change in these two dimensions is called as ‘restructuring’ of an organisation. These variables are: size of an organisation. an organisation would be inefficient. they need to change their structure in order to remain effective. There are two dimensions that characterise the environment of an organisation. Organisational changes almost always involve restructuring. What types of structure? How specialised the jobs should be? What are the coordinating mechanisms in the organisation? Etc.Integration: • Refers to the various ways and means of coordinating the work of individuals in the organisation. The most common and familiar methods of integration are through direct supervision. In restructuring several questions arise. • • • General: • • • • Contingency Perspective: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Misfit requires a change in the organisation structure. Without these coordination mechanisms. strategy of an organisation and environment of an organisation. Lack of fit or misfit affects the performance of the entire organisation. rules. or if they change their strategy or if they acquire new technology. Both specialization and integration are factors that are within the control of an organisation’s management.

environment and structure and so on. The other feature is the level of stability. If the answer is many. Over the years. Pfeffer and Salancik profounded two strategies: internal and external. This cluster of attributes is called a ‘configuration’. strategy and environment commonly occur together. effective organisations have a cluster of common attributes. If the answer is few. size and structure. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • c) Resource Dependence Perspective: by PFEFEER & SALANCIK • Based on the simple premise that organisations need to acquire resources from the environment in order to survive. In recent years a new approach called. ‘configurational approach’ has emerged to deal with this inadequacy in the contingent perspective. the environment is simple. contingency perspective has come under lot of scholarly criticism.• One is the level of complexity – how many different organisations are there in the environment. technology. There are 7 strategies identified: • • • • Internal Strategy: • • Domain choice • Recruitment • Buffing . But the contingency variables are themselves related to one another. Are the different organisations in the environment changing? And if yes how fast? If the organisations in the environment are not changing or changing slowly. In other words. If they are changing rapidly. If is therefore. Internal strategies are aimed at adapting and changing the organisation to fit the environment. This makes them dependent on the groups and organisations in the environments which control the resources that the organisation requires. The higher the level of complexity and instability. then the environment is stable. Dependence of an organisation on other external organisations for resources makes it vulnerable because it creates uncertainty. Scholars say that it considers only two variables at a time: strategy and structure. Task uncertainty is the difference between the amount of information required to perform a task and the amount of information already possessed by the organisation. the higher the level of uncertainty. necessary to study how the variables impact on one another and how these relationships affect structure. It is based on the assumption that attributes of size. the environment is unstable. the environment is complex.

There may be political resistance to change inside the organisation. Each population occupies an ecological niche in the environment. etc. 5 external strategies: • • Advertising Coalescing • • Contracting Lobbying • Co-opting d) Population – Ecology Perspective: • This perspective states that individual organisations can not adapt to changing environments for a variety of reasons. systems. patterns of behaviours. Organisational assets may be specific to its current tasks. Selection: refers to the process through which the environment selects those organisations that have the required features – some are selected out or die. Some of the reasons can be: − − − − • Organisational leaders may have incomplete information about the environment. skills and culture. two wheeler manufacturers. There may be legal and financial barriers to entry and exit from current market or industries. Retention: constitutes those processes that help organisations retain the features that are required by the environment. it is more useful to study a population of organisations rather than a single organisation.Environmental scanning Geographical dispersion External Strategy: • • • • • Smoothing • Rationing Are meant to alter the environment to fit the organisation. Organisations survive in their niches by developing distinctive capabilities such as skills. management systems suited only for their specific niche. textile firms. Populations means organisations which are similar – restaurants. • A major criticism against this perspective is that it does not provide any positive role for managers. • Therefore. The niche provides the resources for the organisations. Those organisations that lack these capabilities are unable to get the required sources and therefore. There are 3 types of processes for such death and births: − − • • • • • • • • − Variation: are those processes that lead to differences in organisations in terms of strategy structure. some organisations die and a few others are born into the population. Consequently. fail to survive. The environment consists of different niches. .

Why? How? Are there different types? Which is better? Organisational levels? Limitations? Messy & Painful? Our knowledge is fragmented. Prescriptive – lay down guidelines for bringing about effective change in organisations. Organisational theories: − Results of the work of scholars and academics. Such organisations are able to obtain the necessary resources. values and culture of the environment in which they operate affect organisations. − No single. . Descriptive – informs us the way in which organisations change. Semi-theoretical and semi-practical. Organisational Change Models: − − − − − − Work of academics. 3 separate areas of management dealing with change. • • • • • • 15)Understanding the change Process: • • A manager frequently grapples with change. Organisations that lack legitimacy have difficulty in getting the requisite resources. − They only study organisational changes than change organisations. 2 types of change models: Descriptive & Prescriptive.e) Institutional Perspective: • Social norms. unified and coherent theory. They are also called as ‘symbolic elements’. values and culture make up the institutional norms. Organisational Change Tools: − Special tools and techniques intended to bring about specific types of changes in organisations. Organisations that conform to the norms and standards are considered as legitimate. They help organisations to change rather than learning about change. but tend to be general rather than specific. Norms. Organisations change their structures and strategies not to improve performance but to conform to the norms and standards of the institutional environment. consultants and practitioners. Processes? • • • Models are useful and less complex than theories and offer practical advice. lawful and proper.

Right Values Management of change Right knowledge Right action Three components of Productive Change • • We have to distinguish between two types of organisational change. The above is ‘intro organisational’ change. How to change – is process of change. right knowledge and right action that leads to productive change. A model of change levers is indicated below: Marketing Technology Managing People Quality Costs . marketing. It is the combination of right values. One type includes all the changes that take place inside an organisation – computerization. In order to bring about changes in these organisations need to change three other aspects. Organisation levers of change − − − − − − • • • • What to change – is content of change. This is truly ‘organisational’ Organisational change includes intro organisational. These are strategy. quality and costs. Another type refers to the organisation as a whole. structure and people management. etc. Four areas which constitute the content of change – technology. new inventory control.• • If we want to change effectively we must integrate theory and practice.

dramatic changes as part of the overall process of transformation. their emotional and personal relationships are involved. bottom up is incremental. Such changes are generally met with resistance and require careful implementation to overcome the fear. Since this involves people. while bottom up is participative. 6 Recognising that resistance to change is a part of the normal process of adaptation. values and policies. They are: Priority Prerequisite 1 Ensuring senior management commitment to the proposed changes which needs to be visible to all participants through out the organisation. • • • • • • • .16)Leading the Change Process: • • Implementation of strategic change is likely to be problematic. 7 Educating participants about the need for change and training them with the necessary competence to be effective. 9 Facilitating the change process with necessary resources. 3 Creating a shared awareness of conditions to produce a common perception that change must be implemented. Changes are implemented ‘top down’ or ‘bottom up’ approach Top down is transformational. Such negative action will generate resistance and reduce necessary risk-taking behaviour. to overcome resistance and gain commitment. Top down is perceived as imposed and controlled. ‘BECKHARD’ suggests 10 organisation prerequisites which must exist before transformational change can be achieved. 2 Producing a written statement about the future direction of the organisation that makes clear its new objectives. so that managers can be educated to be aware of this and equipped to manage this reaction. 4 Assembling a body of key managers and other important opinion – formers to gain their commitment to the change process so that this may be disseminated more widely. 10 Maintaining open communication about progress. mistakes and subsequent learning. Changes are perceived as ‘deviant or normal’ and ‘threatening or desirable’ ‘Deviants’ are those which are imposed or outside the prevailing cultural norms. 5 Generating an acceptance that this type of change will require a long time to implement fully even though there may be short-term. 8 Persevering with the change process and avoiding blame where an attempt to implement a fact of this process fails.

Line Managers: • • . • • • The 3 key levers are: cultural. idealistic situation. − Seeing the people of the organisation as a ‘strategic resource’ for achieving ‘competitive advantage’ • Mabey & Salaman model has an ‘open’ approach to HR strategies. • • b) Responsibility for leading the implementation of the change process: • Mabey & Salaman suggests three sources HRM is moving from HR specialist to the line manager. Used for both top down and bottom up approaches.a) Strategic HRM for implementing change: • Hendry & Pettigrew presented the central components of strategic HRM as follows: − The use of planning − A coherent approach to the design and management of personnel systems based on an employment policy and HR strategy and often emphasized by a ‘philosophy’ − Matching HRM activities and policies to some explicit business strategy. In strategic HRM. the HR philosophy has to be integrated with the line manager. A fantastic. but difficult to achieve. personnel and structural. The features are: − Specific HR outcomes or desired employee behaviour has to be adapted to achieve the desired corporate strategy. These 3 contribute to the employees’ behaviour. Corporate Strategy Culture Personnel Structure Human Resource Outcomes Change is the heart of the ‘open’ approach to HR strategies as indicated in the sketch above.

Sells the ideas of HRM changes to other managers. They act as catalysts to develop novel solutions. Human Resource Specialists: • Increasing importance to the line manager does not signal the death of HR specialist. The HR specialist. External Consultants: • Besides line mangers and HR specialists working in concert. Operate personnel procedures. Secures the resources necessary for change programmes. As shown in the open HRM approach sketch. • • • • • • . Recommends course of actions Diagnoses the problems Helps managers to implement change measures. − − − − Communicate plans to their workforce Explain their relevance vis-à-vis strategy. Consultant has to be involved from the beginning to the implementation and stabilization stages. Monitor the performances of the procedures.• Line managers better. the HR specialist has a ‘change maker’ role. Integrates personnel. Devises the personnel strategies for the best HR outcomes. structural and cultural strategies. external consultants may also be called upon. The external consultant provides the off the shelf recipe for the client. − − − − − • • Has a close awareness of the organisation’s operating environment and business plans.

III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 3 – ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE A. freedom and independence that individuals have 2. innovative and risk seeking. Two terms are key to the concept of culture History – cultural heritage of a society are passed on from generation to generation. Direction: • The degree to which the organisation creates clear objectives and performance expectations. 3. . Meaning & Defination: a) Culture: is a complex whole: which includes • • • • • • Knowledge Morals Other capabilities • • • Belief Law Other habits • • Art Custom And acquired by a man in society. • b) Organisational culture/Corporate culture: • • • • • Has been defined as the: Philosophies Assumptions Attitudes • • • Ideologies Beliefs Norms • • Values Expectations That knit the organisation together and are shared by employees c) 10 Characteristics of Culture: 1. Shared phenomenon – is basic to culture and implies that the cultural ethos is shared among the members of the society. Risk Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive. Individual Initiative: • The degree of responsibility.

. conflict avoidance dominate this type of organisations. Identity: • The degree to which members identify with the organisation as a whole rather than with their particular work group or field of professional expertise. 5. consensus seeking. 10. 8. 3. A Humanistic – Helpful Culture: Organisations are managed in a participative. assistance and support to their subordinates. Reward System: • The degree to which reward allocations are based on employee performance criteria in contrast to seniority. Management Support: • The degree to which managers provide clear communication. we get the essence of culture. An Affiliative Culture: Interpersonal relationships are given high priority. 9. favouritism and so on. A Conventional Culture: These are conservative bureaucratic and traditional organisations. Integration: • The degree to which units within the organisation are encouraged to operate in a coordinated manner. consultative and mutually supportive manner. 2. Twelve Types of Corporate Culture: Furnham & Günter in their book ‘Corporate Assessment’ (1993) classified corporate culture as follows: 1. B. 6. An Approval Culture: Agreement. 7. Conformity and adherence are valued.4. Conflict Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to air their conflicts and criticism openly. • When these characteristics are mixed and meshed. 4. Control: • The number of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that is used to oversee and control employee behaviour. Communication Patterns: • The degree to which organisational communications are restricted to the formal hierarchy of authority.

3. A Perfectionist Culture: Perseverance. That is. Here. arbitrariness and subjectivity prevail in the organisations of this culture. An Achievement Culture: It is characterised by success. A Power Culture: Using positional power. . At this point. money. 4. is worth running some risks for. o Managers should know that many times the gap between plans and implementation of culture is wide. Egs: Motorola. o This gap is due to the excessive attention paid on cultural plans and inadequate considerations of approach strategy. is workable. hard work are valued here and avoiding mistakes is the hallmark of this type. A Dependent Culture: Centralisation. An Avoidance Culture: Punishing mistakes and no reward to good work characterise this type of organisations. 9. members criticize each others decisions.Bate in 1995. o HR managers should advocate a suitable approach for implementation of cultural change based on the type of cultural change planned and organisational environment. 7. An Oppositional Culture: Awarding negativism and being critical is the virtue in these organisations. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. 11. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. perfection. research and development. locating space. McDonald’s. 8. The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organisation by raising funds. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. obtaining patents. quality emphasis behaviour is valued in this culture. A Competitive Culture: Employees are rewards and for exceeding targets. A Self Actualisation Culture: Creativity. Wal-Mart D. o The delivered results are frustratingly disproportionate to the efforts and costs incurred. 6. and energy that will be required. hierarchical orientation. formal roles and seeking instructions from seniors all the time for all the activities are the traits of this culture.5. incorporating. others are brought into the organisation. 5. 2. building and so on. achieving targets and accomplishing their own goals and pursuing standards of excellence 12. 10. outperforming others and this culture promotes win-lose situations. C. Four Practical Approaches to Cultural Change: Book Titled ‘Strategies for Cultural Change’ by S. and a common history begins to be built. How Organisational Culture Starts: 1. and is worth the investment of time. o The classifications below help practitioners to gain a broad perspective of approaches that are available to them.

logical network Advocates one world view • It Can Lead to a strong integrated culture. Corrosive • • • • • • • • • • • Lead to genuine and large scale change initiated by small scale network Lead to wide scale changes at an informational. Gets seduced back to status quo • 2. How Culture Perpetuates Itself: 4 Hiring & socialization of members who ‘fit in’ with the culture Removal of members who deviate from culture Behaviour 1 Culture 3 Culture communications Culture . not confrontation. Does not succeed in bringing about fundamental cultural change.o The approaches: Appr oach 1. 4. quiet Slow change over to new values Deals with means. Conciliative • • • • • • • • • • 3. Aggressive • • • • • Characteristics Rapid change Dismantles traditional values New culture is noncomplex Top down monitored Detailed plans/actions Reasonable. legitimize later Planned and programmed Explicit learning process Socializing Unified. Indoctrinative • E. Loses sight of its radical intent. not ends Collusion. Suit a situation where there is a simple source of authority Loads to a common sense welcoming of new culture Disarm opposition • • • But it usually Mobilises distant Is politically native Lacks skills. Continuous development Based on power and control Uses informal network Unseen manipulation High participation Act first. technical level • Is used to defined existing order and oppose change initiations. breadth of support leads to crisis of change.

5. Identify the depth of culture change needed. through direction and training. Such removal reduces the variances in behaviour and sends to those in the organisation powerful signals relating to appropriate behaviour. 6. Formulate a clear picture of the firm’s new strategy and of the shared values. Educating managers about the legal and ethical pit falls inherent in culture change. 7. 2. 4. Communicate the change translated into goals. Defense resistance. 5 – The way to reinforce a culture is to remove those organisational members whose behaviour deviates from the cultural values of the organisation. norms and behaviours needed to make it work. demoting laggards and terminating undisciplined people lead to ethical and legal problems. new stories and new heroes are needed to be widely and consistently communicated. 8. Check on the leadership and support processes to overcome anxiety among managers in giving up their earlier responses. Culture change can ignite tensions between organisational and individual interests. 9. Take a close look at the inner functioning of the organisation and determine if cultural change is necessary. 2 – Indicates the cultural justification for the behaviour of the organisation’s members. A positive and competitive tension is to be nurtured among department. 4 – This step impacts the culture by hiring and socialization of members who match the culture. Providing mechanisms for member dissent and diversity. activities and behaviours. expect certain casualties to occur – some employees may leave the organisation and a few set backs may occur to the change effort. Despite this. Guidelines for minimizing such tensions would be: • • • • Setting realistic values for culture change. 10. Promoting performers. sub-goals. 11. Guidelines/Checklists for cultural change: 1.• • • 2 Managers seeking to create culture change must intervene at these points 1 – The first thing to change is people’s behaviour. Make changes from top down. 3. build momentum in terms of initial success. Monitor the progress from time to time. The top management commitment must be seen and felt. . 3 – New rituals. • • • • F. Involve employees in the change process. Not promising what the organisations can not deliver. Identify aspects of the current culture that could still be valid and other aspects that need to be modified or changed. resulting in ethical and legal problems for individual members. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity.

o Subculture: • A culture in an organisation may be made up of various subcultures. nature of competition and other factors of environment. Employees quickly detect manager’s lip service. Integrated: • Cultures will be more easily recognised when their elements are generally integrated. o Cultures of varying strength: • • Can be characterised as relatively strong or weak. o Symbolic: • • Management actions are even more important to watchful employees. Depends on the degree of impact on employee behaviour o No one type is the best: . Management’s sayings have powerful influence on employees. 10 Characteristics of Organisational Cultures: 1. o A reflection of Top Management: • • Cultures evolve from top management. G. 1. if not embrace the assumptions and values of culture. • • o Stable: • Culture should not keep on changing frequently. • Culture depends upon the organisation’s goals. And elements consistent with each other. Distinctive: There is no best culture for all times. industry. o Implicit: • Culture should be an increasingly acceptable conversation topic among employees. They must fit together like pieces of puzzle. o Accepted: • Most members must at least accept.• Helping them develop guidelines for resolving such issues.

Publicly recognising heroes and heroines. • • • • • 2. Examples of formal communication vehicles for transmitting organisational cultures are: o o o o o Executive visions of the firm’s future Corporate philosophy statements. thoughts and behaviour of employees. Organisational socialization is like placing an organisation’s finger prints on people by planting its own genetic code on them For employees. such as a manager’s error and an executive’s forgiveness. Organisational Socialisation: • • All cultural communications are put under this umbrella. entertain and also teach valuable lessons. it is the essential process of learning the ropes to survive and prosper within the firm. Socialization is functional for both workers and their employers. Consists of both formal and informal methods. They must be able to communicate to the employees. Story telling is a key means of achieving socialization of employees. They prove to be powerful ways to create shared meaning and purpose. They enhance cohesion around key values. These approaches help to shape the attitudes. Story Telling: • Managers are encouraged to engage in story telling as a way to forge a culture. Stories convey a sense of tradition. Is a continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organisation’s culture to employees. Good stories tap into the emotions of audience. Memorable stories uplift people.H. 1. Stories convey how in the past problems have been solved. • Unintentional communication of organisation’s culture to employees. Codes of ethical conduct. Retelling historical success stories. • • • • • • • • . It also builds organisational identity. Communicating and changing culture: • • • Organisations have to consciously create and manage their cultures.

When we assume that the culture of a certain organisation invites its employees to challenge. Individualization: • Occurs when employees successfully exert influence on the social system around them at work by challenging the culture or deviating from it. Culture Change Methods & effectiveness: Probable Effectiveness Culture Change Method Very Great Great Moderate Minimal .3. question and experiment while also not being too disruptive. • • 4. Isolation is not productive. Deviation from norms) High Rebellion Creative individualism • • The two extremes rebellion and conformity may prove dysfunctional to the organisation. them creative individualization can infuse new life and ideas for the organisation’s benefit. The interaction between individualization and socialization is shown in the sketch: High Conformity Socialization (impact of organisational culture on employee acceptance of norms) Isolation Low Low Individualisation (Impact of employee on Organisational culture.

once it has been achieved. h) Identify the gap between actual and desired culture and take steps to move the actual culture to the desired culture. or destroy the culture. Culture change programs must pay careful attention to the organisation’s power bases and opinion – leaders such as trade unions and employee’s association • • • Publicly recognise heroes & heroines Appoint a manager of culture Formulate Value statement . change culture. prevent its change. Culture can be altered. The reality of achieving this is very complex and organisations with similar backgrounds and similar environments develop different cultures at different situations. abandon the culture.Train Employees Reward Behaviours Communicate Top Management Support Use Stories and Myths Use Slogans I. continuously developing phenomenon Managers can manage culture. How can organisations realign culture? Architecture: • • • • • • Features of the Change There has been considerable debate as to whether culture can be managed! Lot of focus on whether or not it can be modified. Culture is a dynamic. it can be managed. g) Work out a desired strategy and desired culture and ensure they match and congruent. senior management must understand the implications of the new culture for their own practices. 1. Adequate resources need to be allocated to support culture change and maintain it. cultures. It can be realigned to the strategic direction on organisation wishes to take. Typical frameworks for managing culture change: As suggested by Beckhard the general principles for successful cultural change are as follows: f) Know & understand the current values. Top down and bottom up are two of the approaches by HRM for change of culture. artifacts and declared values and be involved in all the main change phases. patterns of behaviour within the organisations and strategic directions of the organisation. • • Prior to any culture change.

o Employee believes the new culture conflicts with their existing culture. To succeed.. etc. Typically looks towards organisation-wide consensus. Top-down draw backs: o Messages of initiative. and focusing on existing values and cultures. Every opportunity should be taken to close the cultural gaps. HRD programmes like quality. training.• Culture change programs must take into account an organisation’s existing practices and approaches in recruitment. excellence. procedures and structures support them Spread the changes out to other areas of . Writes on corporate excellence follow this. organisations need to decide how practices or procedures will be amended to support the new espoused values and contradictory practices removed. selection and retention. • • • 3. Bottom up approach for cultural change: • • • • • Focuses on incremental approach Change is developed from bottom up. Change of organisation structure. Such changes are tied to an organisation’s critical path Based on solving concrete business problems. Top Down Strategy for cultural change: • • • • Often called ‘programmatic change’ Typically initiated and led from the top. performance related pay are a few HR interventions for change of culture. management of office space. In order to create a change in culture. performance management and employee relations. reinforce the existing culture to achieve the newly espoused cultures and values. empowerment. • • 2. it is crucial that employees have the necessary capabilities and behaviours to realize the necessary change. provision of educations and training. called ‘task alignment’ Task alignment could be achieved through a series of overlapping steps taken at the business level as shown below: 6 Evaluate outcomes of changes and amend vision and actions as necessary FINISH 5 4 Confirm changes by ensuring that policies. autonomy and innovation are usually conveyed through bureaucratic methods such as team briefings.

organisation

3 Work towards common agreements of the vision and skills and actions to carry it forward

2

Work jointly to develop a vision for the future of the organisation START

1

Start to ensure commitment to the change by involving people in defining the problems

Focuses on parts of the organisation away from the corporate headquarters level. Emphasis on individuals shared commitment and vision as a prerequisite for change. Change is enabled by developing people’s abilities and through improved co-ordination between people. Results generate stronger commitment. The appropriateness of a chosen strategy will depend upon the organisation and what an organisation wishes through cultural change.

• •

4. Design Parameters for cultural change:

The relative importance, weight and value will differ between organisations. What is effective or appropriate in one situation may not be in another. Bate’s development of ‘design parameters for cultural change’ Parameters Expressiveness Aspect of the organisation Affective (feelings) Description

• •

component The ability of the cultural change approach adopted to express a new symbol which captures employees’ attention and excites or converts them.

Social components The ability of the culture change (relationships) approach adopted to create a shared common understanding and sense of common purpose amongst a group of employees or the whole organisation. Demographic The ability of the culture change component approach adopted to spread through (number/depth) out all levels of an organisation and to affect employees’ basic underlying assumptions

Penetration

Commonality

Adoptability

Development component (process)

The ability of the culture change approach adopted to adjust to changing organisational and wider environmental circumstances.

Durability
• •

Institutional component The ability of the culture change (structure) approach adopted to create a lasting culture.

At the start of a culture change process, expressiveness may be considered more important whilst commonality and penetration are considered as less important. However, as the process continues and the new culture is spread through out at all levels of the organisation, commonality and penetration may become more important.

5. Relative Effectiveness of Top-Down Approach and Bottom-up Approaches to cultural change across different Design Parameters of cultural change: Parameters Expressiveness Level of Effectiveness of Top-Down Approaches Bottom-up approaches High – deal in simple Low in short term – focus on messages and specialise in concrete problem generates communicating these lots of detail rather than a new effectively and reasonably symbol quickly at the practice/artifact level Low – promoted unifying High – operates through feeling often ceases after shared understanding and formal program ends; methods creates a culture of trust and often lead to resistance and understanding. lack of common ownership Variable – depends on ability of interventions to affect more than just practices or artifacts: highly structured programs likely to reach all employees Low – tend to be inflexible and imply instant fix programmed nature implies conformity and devalues deviance. Low in short term – involves only part of the organisation High on long term – involves discussing proposals and implications with employees High – concrete problems lead willing to accommodate new views and find best fit with organisational requirements.

Adaptability

Penetration

Commonality

Low – based on senior management’s desires; lack of ownership by employees likely to be highest with transformational change

High – employees are keen to preserve what they have created; especially high when a development of existing practices which employees own rather than transformational change.

• • • •

• • • • • •

J. The Transglobal & Cross Cultural Contents:
• •

A global economy is now a reality. The shape of international trade has changed dramatically in recent years with the emergence of European Community, revolutionary changes in the former Soviet Union & Eastern Europe and strong markets developing in China, India, Japan, Korea and many other emerging nations. Many organisations, now do business in more than one country. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. They encompass different social, legal, political communication and economic environments. Conditions affecting Multinational operations:

• •

People of the world are organised into communities and nations, each in its own way, according to its resources and cultural heritage. There are similarities and significant differences. a) Social Conditions:

Durability

The two approaches effectiveness differs across the parameters. No approach is the best fit any organisation. No one approach will give everything we require. Strategy for culture change should be tailored to the requirements of the organisation at a particular time. Top-down approach brings relatively rapid changes in the organisation. Bottom-up approach takes a longer time. Managing organisational culture change is extremely complex. It needs to take account of the existing culture. Also what type of change we need – transformational or developmental WHIPP says: ‘culture is a Pandora’s box’

In many countries the overriding social condition is poorly developed human resources.

and those trained locals become the nucleus for developing still more people. These deficiencies limit the ability to employ local labour productively. o Subordination of employers and labour to an authoritarian state. customs and behaviours. Another social factor on which countries are often compared is the work ethic of their employees – long/short hours. Their employment practices and their business practices vary.• There are major shortages of managerial personnel. • • • • c) Political Conditions: • The following have a significant effect on organisational behaviour: o Instability of the government o Nationalistic drives – foreigners cornered. Needed skills must be imported temporarily from other countries. Managers need to be aware of the possible differences in both laws and ethical values that define acceptable and unacceptable behaviours in foreign countries. scientists and technicians. A major issue affecting multinational corporations has been how to deal with contrasting local practices. They need to recognise that the resolution of ethical issues are not always clear cut Another major issue revolves around the treatment of women and other minorities. What is called as ‘training multiplier effect’ or ‘ripple-effect of self development’ comes into action. Lending of skilled people to a nation for training their local replacements may provide a more lasting benefit to its development than lending the capital. A significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with the advanced technology or complex organisations. • • • • • • • • b) Legal & Ethical Conditions: • • • Countries around the world vary substantially in their legal systems. Managers in foreign countries need to become familiar with local customs and practices. Parallely vast training programs begin to prepare the local workforce. Loaned skilled people develop others. d) Economic Conditions: • The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are: .

Behaviour in organisational settings varies across cultures. Differing standards of living and varied geographical conditions can also cause variations in behaviour. stories and symbols. some workers passively accept the situation. political and economic conditions as a whole. social unrest increases. • • • • • • • • • • • e) Culture & Behaviours: • • • • Culture determines behaviours. • • • These beliefs. ethical. Looking at social. − Unequal distribution of wealth • Rapid population increases coupled with a lack of national economic growth make it unlikely that family incomes will progress significantly. Cultural norms: • . norms and values are passed on to future generations through cultural rituals. others aggressively protest. As a result natives of those countries may not believe that additional effort on their part will earn associated rewards. But culture is the determining factor. − Rapid inflation. Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure. They represent a critical environmental condition to which the managers of international operations must adapt. Culture may be understood as the all encompassing: o Shared beliefs o Norms o Values that guide the everyday life of individuals. Instead they are too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of the nation. Money loses its value rapidly. These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly. legal. vary across cultures. security and trained human resources that developing countries require to be more productive. They constrain the stability. Tremendous disparity in distribution of wealth starts.− Low per capita income. Human resource practices too. Then. All these factors make it difficult to motivate employees. bad condition causes hurdle in the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organisation systems.

etc) the meaning and value of a job lies more in the status than in the pay packet. Cultural clusters do have some differences but similarities are predominant. values and beliefs of a society to its members. Japanese find a higher value in belongingness in a group. Cultural values also have a major influence on the way people relate to each other and also to what they aspire for in a job. Japan. people expect reward and compensation for their performance rather than for their seniority. Germany. • Cultural Symbols. Spain. o They tell us what we can do and what we cannot. Arab culture concentrates on their own family security and relying on god for destiny. In more egalitarian culture (like US. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: • A pioneering work done by Dutch Scientist Geert Hofsteds. Culture not only influences behaviour and human resources but also life style like elegance. etc). − Culture is continuously reinforced when people see symbols. − Culture is passed on from one generation to another through its symbols. dividends and stock prices while Japanese companies focus more on new product development and market share.o Prescribe behaviours and practices. elitism and concern for form. Cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised. Latin American countries Sometimes cultural differences have a direct impact on the strategic orientation of companies like USA companies emphasize on more profits. International business utilizes the culture clustering approach in formulating their global strategies. In many hierarchical cultures (like India. In many cultures. . People also expect recognition for seniority and age in hierarchical culture. f) Culture Clusters: • • Countries that share cultural similarities form cultural clusters. Americans for example value freedom most. • Cultural Values: − − − − − − − − − − Tell us what is most dear to our hearts. cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised – high profits are not a criterion – Arabs. stories and rituals. hear stories and engage in rituals. Stories and rituals: − It is important to communicate the norms. Italy. • K.

Individualism and Masculinity/Feminity. They will have a large proportion of supervisory personnel People at low level have low of job qualifications. Managers believe that they must adopt theory X leadership style. • USA.• He identified four cultural dimensions around which countries have been clustered with people in each group exhibiting identical behaviours. Such structures encourage and promote inequality between people at different levels. • Organisations in low distance countries: − − − − Tend to be decentralized. 1) Power Distance: • • Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members of countries companies and organisations accept that power is distributed unequally. represent cultures with lower distance. Germany. must force workers to perform. Uncertainty avoidance. • In high power distance countries: − − − − − − Decision make is centralised. Managers believe that they must be authoritarian. Norway.. and The powerful should not hide their power • The dimension of power can be measured in a number of ways: − − − − In high power distance countries generally people dislike work People try to avoid the work. Canada. Countries in which people blindly obey the orders of superiors have high power distance. and must supervise their subordinates closely. The 4 dimensions are: Power Distance. The powerful are entitled to privileges. Everyone has a place. Organisations tend have tall structures. some are high. Most people should be dependent on a leader. etc. . Those at the top make most of the decisions. Australia. some are low. • • High power distance countries have norms. Have flatter organisation structures Have smaller proportion of supervisory personnel Have highly qualified people in the lower state of workforce. values and beliefs such as: − − − − − Inequality is fundamentally good.

Mexico and Indonesia are examples of societies with a high power distance. Collectivism is the tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each in exchange for loyalty. Deviant people and idea should not be tolerated. • . values and beliefs which accept that: − − − − − Conflict should be avoided. and Consensus is important. • • High uncertainty avoidance countries are characterized by norms. More written rules. Brazil. Fewer written rules More risk taking by managers Higher labour turnover More ambitious employees Organisation encourages employees to use their initiative and assume responsibility for their actions.• France. Experts and authorities are usually correct. 3) Individualism/Collectivism: • Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their family only. Laws are very important and should be followed. India. • Countries with high uncertainty avoidance culture have: − − − − − A great deal of structuring of organisational activities. Low labour turnover Less ambitious employees • Societies with low uncertainty avoidance cultures have: − − − − − − Less structuring of activities. These employees have a high level of uncertainty avoidance and prefer to avoid ambiguity at work. 2) Uncertainty Avoidance: • • Is the extent to which people threatened by ambiguous situations? Employees in some cultures value clarity and feel very comfortable receiving specific directions from their supervisors. Less risk taking managers.

• In a individualistic organisation: − − − Favouritism shown to friends and relatives is considered to be unfair and even illegal. Pakistan and a number of South American countries exhibit collectivism. values and beliefs that: − − − − − − Gender roles should be clearly distinguished. such as family. especially men. People of Indonesia. Countries high on individualism have norms. • In a collectivist organisation: − − − Tend to promote nepotism in selecting managers. money. Australia. There are men’s jobs and women’s jobs. Group decision making is best. success and money are important. Men are assertive and dominant. Women usually choose jobs that are associated with short term employment. • Collectivist countries believe. . 4) Masculinity/Feminity: • Masculinity refers to a situation in which the dominant values in a society are success. Promotions are mostly based on seniority and age. and other material things. Important decisions are made by older senior managers. should be decisive. Canada. Machismo or exaggerated maleness is good. Men usually choose jobs that are associated with long term careers. People. before marriage. Individual achievement is ideal and People need not be emotionally dependent on organisations or groups. values. and beliefs which accept that: − − − • People are responsible for themselves. and Groups protect individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group. Work takes priority over other duties. jobs are clearly defined by gender. Highly masculine cultures have norms.• • Individualism is common in US. India. • • • • • In highly masculine societies. Denmark & Sweden. that: − − − One’s identity is based on one’s group membership. Promotions are based on one’s performance Decision making is an individual’s responsibility. and Advancement.

Adjustments to a foreign culture are multifaceted. A slow negative appraisals of location and situation leads to a crisis. fear of the unknown. sense of adventure and so on. A haunting thought. and individuals vary in terms of their reactions and copying behaviours. • • • Phase 2: • • This is a very critical time. Then novelty fades off. Phase 1: • The expatriate may experience a range of positive and negative emotions such as excitement anxiety.L. The way the expatriate copes with the psychological adjustment at this phase has an important outcome in terms of success or failure. • . Adjustment Phase-1 Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 4 • • Time Crisis/ Culture Shock • The curve is based on psychological reactions to the overseas assignments and comprise 4 phases. Cultural Adjustment: • The process of cultural adjustment is a critical determinant of an expatriate’s performance. The concept of an adjustment cycle or U curve shows that typical phases that may be encountered during cultural adjustment. realities of everyday life in an alien land starts. There can be an upswing of mood upon arrival in the ‘assignment’ country that produces a ‘honeymoon’ phase. ‘failure as an early recall’ may be triggered at this point.

Then. commission Annual bonus. which is the expatriate’s reaction to a new. personal attention. parenthood Of others/ parenthood • • Independence decision making space. unpredictable and uncertain environment. time. and applications reflect the culture of the country directly or indirectly. not everyone is motivated by the same factors. Gift for self/family. profit sharing social services. he comes in terms with the demands of the new environment. • • Phase 4: • • • The upswing levels off after sometime. Service culture shock is often a positive sign indicating that the expatriate is becoming deeply involved in the new culture instead of remaining isolated in an expatriate ghetto • • M. money Opportunity Group participation Religion. The table below shows the motivational approaches and cultural factors for three distinct cultures.Phase 3: • Once the individual passes this crisis point. admiration Individual Group identity Individual status contribution belonging to group class/society promotion Salary. Culture shock is a natural response to the stress of immersing oneself in the new environment. Motivational processes. Cultural Contracts in motivation – Motivation Across Cultures: • • What are the motivations of people in international settings? In multicultural work environments. Factor American Management Leadership styles friendliness Control Emotional appeal Recognition Material awards Threats Japanese Persuasion. approaches. functional group activities Group harmony Arab Coaching. there is an upswing The person begins to adjust to the new environment. A healthy recovery is maintained The bottom of the U-shaped curve is marked by ‘culture shock’. family affair. company success nationalistic. salary fringe benefits increase Loss of job Out of group Demotion .

Social skill: refers to the proficiency in managing relationships and building networks along with an ability to find common ground and to build rapport. integrity. Successful leadership in multinational companies requires that managers adjust their leadership styles to fit the different situations. • • Self awareness: is the ability to recognise and understand one’s moods. show a superior ability to build and lead teams and become known for their persuasiveness. Such responses are required while dealing with contingency factors such as subordinates’ characteristics. Motivation: is reflected in a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status. they are: self awareness. religion possession. drive to achieve and optimism. emotions and drives as well as their effects on other people. • • • b) Leadership in the National Context: • • In international settings.Cultural values Competition. Leaders with a high level of social skill are effective at leading change. risk Group harmony. a) EI has a set of 5 individual and social competencies. • • . Self regulation: is the ability to control redirect disruptive impulses and moods – the ability to think before doing. Leaders with a high level of empathy demonstrates an ability to build and retain talent in their organisation. motivation. Leadership Across Cultures: • A multinational leader needs to possess certain unique qualities to become successful in global settings. An international manager emotional intelligence. empathy and social skills. Leaders high on motivation exhibit remarkable commitment. show cross cultural sensitivity and become known for offering great services to clients and customers. freedom belonging social status N. self regulation. organisational • • • • • • Empathy: refers to understanding the emotional make up of other people and skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Leaders with a high level of self-awareness exhibits self confidence. comfort with ambiguity and openness to change. family taking. Leaders with a high level of self regulation exhibit trustworthiness. Also in response to the cultural and institutional context of the multinational country locations. Reputation. a realistic self assessment and a self deprecating humour. material achievements. the leadership needs to be situational. security.

4. • • . 3. Provides clear steps for followers to transform the company. Subordinates share a commitment to radical change. Universalism in Leadership/Transformational Leadership: • • Universalism of leadership is a new concept. This means. • • 2. Helps subordinates envision a future state of a better organisation. TL is effective in any organisation anywhere in the world. Articulates a vision: • • • • • • • Presents in vivid and emotional terms an idealized vision of future of the organisation What it can and should become And makes the vision clear to all in organisation. Challenges subordinates to find new solutions to old problems. TL represents a higher level of leadership. T Leaders are visionary agents with a sense of mission. whether or not effective leaders act similarly regardless of their respective culture.O. Provides goals and a plan: • • Has a vision that is future oriented. Or a cultural context so that subordinates see the need to follow the leader’s ideals. The transformational leader has following attributes: 1. They are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things. Gives a meaning or a purpose to goals: • • Places the goals in emotion – laden stories. Breaks from the status quo: • • • Has a strong desire to break from tradition An expert in finding ways to do things differently. Transformational leadership is projected as an approach which can cut across all cultural barriers.

true transformational leaders are rare. Transformational leaders are not new to the present century. Demonstrates high ethical and moral standards: • • • Behaves consistently and fairly with a known ethical standard. personal devotion. respect and admiration of followers. Is motivated to lead: • • • Seeks leadership positions. Transformational leaders succeed because subordinates respond to them with high levels of performance. excitement regarding the leader’s ideas. USA and Scandinavian countries.5. and a willingness to sacrifice for the good of the company. • • • • • • P. Acts as a role model 7. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation: 1. Korea and Japan tend to emphasize personal relationships. Conduct business first and value expertise and performance Lack of attention to these factors results in costly failures for expatriates. • • • • • . 8. Builds a Power Base: • Uses personal power based on expertise. Most people also consider MK Gandhi & Martin Luther King as representatives of transformational leadership. Jesus Christ. reverence. Low-context cultures such as Germany. Max Weba. He called this leadership as ‘Charisma’ And noted that existed in all cultures. place high value on trust. Takes risks: • Is willing to take more risks with the organisation than the average leader. Impress upon the need to attend to social needs before business matters. a German sociologist recognised the existence of this leadership throughout history. focus on non verbal cues. However. Muhammad were among the first transformational leaders. He said. Displays strong enthusiasm for the leadership role. Tend to rely on written rules and documents. 6. Individual differences (also refer Hofstede’s theory given earlier) • High context cultures such as China.

Managers and employees who come to a host country exhibit a variety of behaviours true to the citizens of their homeland. Parochialism: • The dominant feature of all international operations is that they are conducted in a social system different from the one in which the organisation is based. they tend to conclude that the impact of those differences is insignificant. . This new social system affects the responses of all persons involved. • • • 4. Further productivity from local employees is also reduced. Many are predisposed to parochialism. Ethnocentrism: • Another potential barrier to easy adaptation to another culture occurs when people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the best. This predisposition ‘ethnocentrism’ is known as the ‘self-reference criterion’ or • • • • It interferes with the understanding of human behaviours in other cultures. Even if they do. expatriate employees minimally need to develop ‘cultural empathy’ This is the awareness of differences across cultures.2. They see the situations around them from their own perspective. This is an appreciation of the contribution each culture make to overall success. In effect they are assuming that the two cultures are more similar than they actually are. In order to integrate the imported and local systems. • • • • • • • 3. They fail to recognise the key differences between their own and other’s cultures. Cultural distance: • Predicting the amount of adaptation that may be required when an expatriate manager moves to another country requires an understanding of the ‘culture distance’ between the two countries. This is the understanding of the ways in which those differences can affect business relationships.

At this point. home and culture. Cultural distance affects the responses of all people to business related issues. or emotionally upset. They may not know how to act. Second phase: positive attitude is soon followed by. Cultural shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. insecurity and anxiety caused by a strong new environment? They fail to act properly and lose their self-confidence. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Although it is different. regain a sense of self esteem and respond constructively to their new surroundings at work and home. For unprepared employee. Cultural Shock: • Companies often assign employees to new job assignments in different areas to provide them with invaluable breadth of experience. Ethnocentric problems may be magnified by cultural distances. A cultural change does not have to be dramatic to cause some degree of shook-like moving from a big town to a small town. Such shocks are in four phases. ‘disillusionment’ as they discover various problems they had not anticipated regarding travel. tend to suffer cultural shock. The employees who move to new job locations of the experience various degrees of ‘cultural shock’ Which is a feeling of confusion. they accept the new culture. that of ‘adaptation’. First phase: they are excited and stimulated by the challenge of a new job. they will reach the fourth phase. Third phase: critical stage. Fourth phase: if they survive the first few weeks. shopping or language skills. The new environment may be as systematic as the culture of the employee. the new environment can appear to be chaotic and somewhat overwhelming. may fear losing face and self confidence. Such shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. which is ‘insecurity and disorientation’ caused by encountering all sorts of different cultures.• Cultural distance is the amount of difference between any two social systems and may vary from minimal to maximal. • • 5. it can be understood if employees have receptive attitudes. They should dedicate themselves to learn the new culture and adapt to it.

They should have a desire to live in another nation. Pre-departure Training: . China. Argentina. Korea Central European Group – Germany. Mexico. Hong Kong. An attitude to learn the new culture and the family culture is necessary. Spain. Israel. etc.• • Cultural shock is virtually universal. These are grouped into 6 socio cultural clusters: − − − − − − − Anglo American – USA. are sent to nations that are similar to their own. Compatible Assignments: • Adjustments to new surroundings is easier if employees. Taiwan. Switzerland. Q. UK. Denmark Latin European – Portugal. Australia. Italy. It occurs in response to: − − − − − − − − − − − − − − Dramatic differences in languages. especially on their first international assignments. Overcoming Barriers to cultural Adaptation: 1. Potential employees should have a capability to learn the new language quickly. France. Finland. Brazil & India do not fall into any group • 3. Chile. Careful Selection: • • • • • Employees who are low in ethnocentrism and Who are less prone to troublesome characteristics. Venezuela Pacific Rim Cluster – Japan. Different management philosophies. NZ Nordic group – Norway. Austria. may be chosen They should have a desire to experience another culture. Forms of country Customs Housing conditions Privacy Time Activity HR Practices Currency Work attitudes Strange language. Canada. Sweden. New food Separation from friends and relatives. Belgium Latin American – Peru. • 2.

separation from relatives and friends. transportation and shopping. The previous job holder may also stay back for sometime and assist. better positions. fringe benefits. Better autonomy emoluments. position. Often tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland – reverse cultural shock. language and political environments. Faster cultural adaptation. customs. Extra pay. Creates better impression. Companies need repatriation policies. • 5. personal and organisational costs. Better communications. Orientation & Support in the New Country: • • • • • • Efforts to quickly settle the employee and family. coming back to their homeland culture – needs time to adjust. lesser misunderstanding. Preparation for Reentry: • • Repatriation has to be smoothly blended. After enjoying a new culture. culture.• • • • • • Learn the local language Helps to reduce. Support for intensified need deficiencies like financial difficulties. Assistance in housing. 4. insecurities. power in host country best less in home country. inconveniences. • • • Forces inhibiting and supporting cultural adaptation: Inhibiting Forces Supporting Forces . The local national working for the same organisation can also assist. Training includes – geography. A mentor may help a lot during transition.

Non-verbal communication is called as cross cultural communications. .Individual Differences Parochialism Ethnocentrism Cultural distance Culture shock Cultural Adaptation Careful Selection Compatible assignments Pre-departure training Orientation & support Preparation for reentry R. They include: • • • • • • Relative values for time efficiency Values of life Eye contact Posture Meaning of silence Language • • • • • • Thought patterns Personal space Physical appearance Gestures Legitimacy of touch Clusters • They are very important contingency factors. non verbal communications are also important. Cross Cultural Communications: • • • Besides verbal communications.

Hence it is difficult to impose change.III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 4 – CHANGE MANAGEMENT G. • • • • • • • . Change gives rise to emotions. a) Human Response to Change: • • • • Individuals fear and seek change. means learning new skills. Organisations can not ignore. we need to understand what factors make him prone to it and what prompts him to resist it. These emotions can vary from being intensely negative to being appreciably positive. Change is intensely personal. Change is always a threat when done to people. both Change is resisted as much as stagnation is Continuity without change leads to stagnation. Change that is internal to an individual is far better accepted than change externally imposed. but an opportunity when it is done by people. and − Tuning the organisation to change. Change. requires managing employee feelings to generate positive excitement for the intended change and change process. Fundamental requirement for effecting change management is the understanding of: − The nature of human response to change − Overcoming individual and group resistance to change. to many individuals. while abandoning the familiar. boredom and frustration Change without continuity or stability leads to ambiguity. feel or do something different. and acquiring new relationships. which are o Structure o Process o Culture • • If people within the organisation do not change. Individuals tend to perceive change as a discontinuity. accustomed and proven ways of doing things. The strategy to make people to accept change. deny or suppress emotions at work. and new routines. For change to occur in any organisation. Change may be perceived as an opportunity or a threat. conflict and the inability to cope with the situation. Managing change. each individual must think. DEALING WITH INDIVIDUALS: • The strategy for change are implemented through three change levers. then. seems to lie in making them choose it. To make an individual choose change. to be avoided or coped with Individuals may not resist change. therefore. the organisation can not change. What they resist is being changed.

The above are intrinsic to the change management process. They avoid risk. Individuals can manage change well if it gives them positive emotions rather than negative emotions. Change should not be what happens to them in the organisation but what they can make happen in the organisation. Support the change process with adequate resources. b) Dealing with Individuals for Change Management: • • Create a culture where employees seek change. It is apparent that individuals need to own their responsibilities and be clear about the results to which they are accountable. and are not afraid to think and act differently to make change happen. individuals may even welcome change rather than resist it. Employee attitudes for change: • • • • • • • • • • Individuals tend to fall into any one of the attitudinal continuums. minimize loss and want to have a control in their behaviour.Any change is as good as the willingness of the one affected by it. 11. often. namely: Aggressive resistance Passive resistance Neutral Campers Passive acceptance Active involvement Quitters 12. When such supportive structures exist. behave to maximize win. The organisational leadership has to examine the following also during the initiation of change. Individuals. process and facilities. have fear of failure and feeling of incompetence. Build a positive imagery for its employees of the envisaged change to reflect a better future. Reasons for change resistance: i) • • • • • • Climbers Personal Loss: Job security Salary and income Pride and satisfaction Job nature Friendship and associations Freedom Negative Attitudes: • ii) Towards their organisations and supervisors .

Reasons why people accept change: • • People welcome change when it benefits them. monetary and other benefits. 13. it questions one’s capabilities and performance. Or oppose disliked bosses who are in favour of change. Loss of Status and authority: v) • • Change may lead to the relegation of one’s job to lower levels in the hierarchy. The benefits could be: security. Inappropriate Timing: vi) • • Change is generally introduced at a time when business is not good and everyone is already burdened with extra work to tide over the bad times. Others still find the old practices that have evolved overtime. job nature and opportunities to contribute to and determine the change process. Personal Criticism: • • • iv) Change may be considered as a personal affront. . The way that change is introduced may also not be to everyone’s liking. Their ideas have not been sought for Some others are very sensitive about ‘change’ since they have wrong or incomplete information. Challenging Authority: viii) • • Some people resist change to challenge authority. personal satisfaction.• Lack of trust resulted from earlier bitter experiences in the organisation iii) • • • Lack of Involvement: Some people resist change because they have not been involved in the change process. Cognitive Rigidity: vii) • • Some people do not see the need for change or may not be convinced about the arguments in favour of change. May be loss of one’s authority and power. Some think. status and authority. the best. Seen as a challenge to one’s authority.

The idea that a change is good for everybody should be driven home. Surveys like questionnaires. • 15. systems and processes are necessary. interviews and observation methods are useful. conative and affective dimensions. Cognitive refers – one’s perceptions. they alone are not sufficient to bring in the change. Integration: • • A number of quantitative & qualitative techniques are available. We gave to deal with an individual’s attitude to overcome his resistance to change. This classifies individuals into different categories in the attitudinal continuum. Dealing with individual resistance to change: • • Individuals need to be motivated to accept change. who make the change to happen and achieve highest levels of performance. • • • . intelligence and judgement – in managing the change. Individual – focused approaches to managing change: • Though appropriate structures. beliefs and values Conative refers – one’s action tendencies. It is the individuals who work within the structures and systems and on the tasks and processes. • • • • • 16. Attitude consists of cognitive. Organisations have to deal with individual attitudes and behaviours to tap individual wisdom – their experience. we have to deal with the above components. To overcome resistance. Creative and intellectual energies of the individuals should be diverted to the change initiatives of the organisation. A feeling of dissatisfaction to be generated with the existing state of organisation. Affective refers – one’s emotional component of likes and dislikes.14.

Slow. brash. independent. dogmatic. patient. shy. resistance to argumentative. stable. he can resist it actively. Aggressive risky. conservative. task-oriented. secretive. change non-companionable. high fear of failure. skeptical. respectful and fearful of authority. overbearing. to ACCOMMODATOR OPPORTUNIST CONFORMIST OSTRICH VANQUISHER Initiator of change actively involved. individualistic. high fear of uncertainty and failure. trustful. but can be positive or negative depending upon his advantage. dynamic. impatient. unambitious. withdrawn. resistance impulsive. High in change rigid. determined. self-centered. silent. plays to his advantage. acceptance when sensitive to failure and punishment. cooperative. decisive. Reckless. If opposing change. trustful. co-operative. Brave. indecisive. low conflict – tolerance level. stable. cold. self change is critical. integrative of other people’s ideas. less moralistic. aggressive. dependable. rigid. adventurous. . stubborn. critical. social. respects authority. forceful. self-centrical cautious. warm. short-term – perspective Behavioural Description Diplomatic. poised. low self confidence. persistent. superficial.17. Receptive. low conflict – tolerance Aggressive level. amiable. cordial. self sacrificing. enthusiastic. overly dependent. patient. optimistic. relation oriented. inclined to oversell. unable to face problems Receptive. persuasive. formalized. Personality types and their general response to change: Type SQUEALER BRAVADO Response Change Highly emotional. to change defensive. moralistic. unbending. consistent. predictable. high sense of achievement. selfreliant. demanding. scheming. stubborn. Natural. Passive resistance aloof. systematic. convincible. Passive acceptance active involvement. predictable. retaliative.

open minded. positive.Inventive. Responsibility of each person in relation to the company’s strategy has to be understood. his/her cognitions have to be positively influenced. • • • • • • 2. capable of empathy. Behaviours of senior managers influence employees’ perceptions and beliefs. self-reliant. original. Cognitive changes tend to occur in individuals when information is presented in a logical and coherent. It is not only what managers say. Core competency required and plan of action for managing change has to be clearly stated. • • Cognitive Changes: Change Mechanisms: 2. integrative of other people’s ideas. well knit and integrated. Explaining the nature and direction of change: • • The change process has to be clear. the company strategy and its competitive advantage. Such a talk gets a feedback from employees regarding their hopes. This has to be done individually and in groups. but what and how they do. • • STRATEGIST . fears and expectations. equalitarian. send signals to others in terms of their fourth and commitment to the change process. Top management should be committed to the intended change. opinions and beliefs often act as the precursor to one’s response to change. persuasive convincing. scope and expected outcomes of change. receptive. c) Managing change: The Cognitive Dimension: • One’s own perceptions. Communication: • • Effective communication is fundamental to change management. problem solver. To create readiness in an individual for change. interpersistent Active self involvement and capable of involving others in the change process. realistic. Employees cognize the explicit and implicit behaviours exhibited by senior managers. Employees have to be aware of the focus. It is important to communicate the intended change and the reasons for it in advance and as completely as possible.

Values tie together people. reliable and perhaps repeated and number of times to drive home its importance and the depth of the management’s commitment. • • • • • • • • • o Employee Training: . Non routine communications are through media. Value may be generated by discussion and active employee involvement at all levels in the organisation. These values are based on group and individual behaviours and also the work processes. • • • • • • o Creating a Common Value Orientation: • • Values are basic to human behaviour.• Communications about change have to be clear. It employees have to be attended to change. Persuasive communications may be resorted to in times of urgency and crisis and when employees are either in high or low state of readiness for change. Work can be soulful enchanting experience when employees strongly believe in what they do and are convinced about what the company is or should be doing. communication should lead to optimism. Written communications are through specific written documents. These values have to be shared and imbibed by all through out the organisation. If not. hope and a positive outcome. The values talked about in change management are: o What are the values to be espoused if the change needs to be implemented? o How are they similar to one’s personal value? o How to bring about changes in personal values if need be? • Organisations have to identify the values basic to the change initiative and implementation. modify and realign their personal values. Once a set of values are collectively agreed upon. all our vision and mission statements are only decorative pieces in the corporate lobby. These values enable and stable and trustworthy relationships. they tend to form a benchmark for individuals to adopt. Oral persuasive communication is carried out through speeches. systems and processes. Values agreed upon should be documented. precise. The messages must be credible and take a variety of forms.

both Change affects human emotion. Training should bring forth:     Inherent talents. ‘Vicarious learning’ – where employees observe organisations that have benefitted from implementing new or innovative techniques and practices. Current skills have to be assessed and future skills needed for the business determined and the training skills decided to bridge the gap. To be successful a climate of interpersonal trust and open communication should prevail within the organisation. not a cost. delivering value to the work process. • • • • • • • d) Managing change: The Affective Dimension: • • Individuals fear and seek change. Knowledge provides a competitive advantage. New ways of training employees aimed at thinking skills and multiskill development have to be planned. It provides opportunities for employees to learn by their own activities and to exercise control over the outcome. Urge to accomplish Preference with passion • • • • • • • o Participative Management: • Facilitates the release of one’s inherent enthusiasm and creativity for the benefit of the entire organisation. Training should be run like business. needing constant monitoring and reviewing. Vicarious learning is facilitated by study/observation trips to innovative organisations and further involving employees in benchmarking their best practices. Employees should be considered as a resource. It prompts the people in the direction of group support and leads to acceptance of change. Participation needs to be managed carefully or else it creates more problems.• Competitive organisations required knowledge workers who are capable of performing jobs related to corporate goals and market needs and demands. organisation and employee competency. Building effective teams takes years. Employee training sets the supportive climate for change management when it is competency driven for the current and future demands. . Desire to acquire information. knowledge and skills.

o How willing are superiors to share their authority down the line through out the organisation? o Willingness on the part of employees to make decisions and be accountable for their actions. o Commitment on the part of top management in real earnest. • • 6. It is the integrating of ownership. Dealing with human emotions could be in terms of: − Creating feeling of psychological safety about change. generate productive ideas. employee empowerment depends upon a number of factors. it has to anticipate individual feelings about the intended change and deal with their emotions in positive and constructive ways. Company shares may be given at concessional rates. − Addressing avoidance learning – focusing on intended change as the only alternative to avoid/overcome fear or insecurity. and feel responsible for improving organisational performance. • • • • . − Creating positive feelings about the desired state and the change process.• If an organisation has to implement change. authority and accountability at work. Employee empowerment: • • To empower is to give autonomy to an employee enabling him to make decisions on his job and accountable for his actions. To be successfully implemented. Affective Changes – Change Mechanism 5. − Focusing on the benefits of change at the individual level. Stock ownership may be performance based. A personal sense of ownership motivates employees to take the initiative. − Demonstrating some of the benefits of change early in the change process. Employee as partners: • Employees tend to entertain positive emotions for the organisation and the work they do when they are also stakeholders in the company. o Are employees suitably trained to be empowered? o Is the organisational culture & climate conducive for empowerment? o Do the employees perceive meaningfulness in what they do? o Is the information shared to empower the people? o Sustaining employee empowerment. The approach promotes a binding relationship.

• • 7. Rewards should have the following characters: o Clarity and specification (expected performance and work behaviours) o Immediacy (delayed rewards lose values) o Magnitude (commensurate) o Individuality (personalization.• For success trust between the employee and management is necessary. Types of rewards − Power rewards (higher responsibilities) − Pay for performance − Pay for knowledge and skill • 8. Organisations should create a meaningful reward system. how much they cost to the company. Compensation System: • Managing change through people behaviour is possible when the desired behaviour is appropriately rewarded. Dealing with negative emotions: • Some employees may have negative emotions towards the intended change. Employees are also given to understand how much they contribute to. Financial rewards and financial health are tied up. not all rewards are same) • • • • • The major demotivators are perceived unfairness in dispensing rewards. Some of the ways to do this are: o Empathy o Modeling o Shock therapy o Mentoring o Manipulation o Employee counseling • • . Rewards are effective when a certain ‘value’ is built into the rewards – a value which is a part of the performance rather than a pretension. Rewards are financial and non-financial. These negative emotions must be understood to successfully handle.

• • • . solves task related problems. Such skills can come by cross training. Now. Where the employee accepts his job duties and responsibilities. Tasks or activities are the basis for learning Action learning leads to continuous improvement and performance of self leading to overall improvement of the organisation. Emphasis on action learning in implementing change: • • • Learning occurs with actions. Cross Training: • • Training is provision of information and skills. Cross training provides a flexible force and flexible factory. a new job contract is necessary to be made which aligns with overall corporate strategy which the employee must understand and agree after discussions with the management. there is a mutuality of interest. Cross training facilitates job rotation. starts. Therefore. Job activities and responsibilities have to redefine due to the change management and changes in the job design and performance. The psychological contract has two dimensions: the personal goals of a human being and the organisational goals. constantans improves actions. For every employee there is a psychological contract with the organisation – may be explicit or implicit. • • • • • • 2. Clarifying Contractual Obligations: • • Change benefits the organisation. wherein an employee can switch periodically from one job to another. a new role relationship. accepts supportive criticism for improvements • • 3. Action learning is a social process. no actions without learning. Employees today should be enabled to perform a variety of tasks rather than a few limited jobs. change benefits the employee. too. Tohat are the factors for change under conation? 1. Mutuality is the basis for the release of human energy for effective change management.e) Managing change: The Conative Dimension: • Resistance to change occurs due to unwillingness to deviate from habitual behaviours or from reluctance to acquire new skills and behaviours.

Cross training can be across different functional areas like finance and marketing. It could also be diagonal. Any kind of mental stretching should be done gradually by exposing one to changes of graded difficulties.• With this the employee brings a fresh perspective to each job in addition to what has learnt already. Success of cross functional training depends upon employee willingness to learn new skills on the job. modify and develop are important. there should be the necessary support structure. Employee elasticity: Stretching the Potential: • • Good HR stretch employees to the maximum of their potential ability to work. and activities together form the organisation structure which supports the organisation. Supportive climate – Organisational design: o Organisational processes. • • • • 5. etc. Within the limits of ‘mental elasticity’ human capabilities at work could be stretched to the optimum to meet the global business competition. • • Supporting climate – learning environment: . o The people in the organisation structure. the way they adapt. Create the right climate for optimizing employee performance: • To create the right climate for employees to take an active interest in the change process and achieve the intended results. • • • • • Positive attitudes to such training is built if employees are rewarded for acquiring new skills. a learning environment within the organisation and the free sharing of information. systems. It also solves the shortage of manpower. thus slowly stepping up one’s self confidence. 4. An employee’s career path need not be limited to vertical mobility. Stretching employee potential facilitates change management. Some techniques in stretching limits manage change are: o Sensitivity training o Participative management o Behavioural modification o Job rotation o Cross training o Role play. Cross trained employees tend to be amenable to and willing for organisational change initiatives since a number of skills have already been built into their behavioural repertoire.

− The present day business needs speed. T-group is an ad hoc assembly of individuals who meet together. away from their usual roles and responsibilities. The trainer plays a relatively passive role in the training process. They enter the group as peers. An unstructured. H.− Organisations should create a learning environment where people can acquire advanced knowledge and skill. a structure. the change management should consider individuals as well as the group in which they work. The primary target of managing change would be the group itself and the relationships among its members. o It empowers people and performance improves. and any division of labour or rules of procedures. o Sharing information raises the level of employee trust in the organisation. unrepresentative of the group memberships and move quickly into an exploration of group processes and leadership. • • • • • . The training may vary in duration from a few weeks to few hours. o Team building o Self-managed teams 1) Sensitivity Training: • • • • Also called as T-group training. initially as strangers. flexibility and innovation in all activities. • Supportive climate – information sharing: o The commonest way of bringing about change in employee attitudes and performance is through information sharing. perhaps ambiguous. o Employees should know what the company plans are. CHANGE MANAGEMENT – DEALING WITH GROUPS: • For successful organisation change. how the company is doing. whey the company needs change and what they should know additionally to perform better in the changed scenario. situation is created and the group is encouraged to experiment with new individual behaviours and group interactions. The major forms of group-based changes are: o Sensitivity training. Initially. the group begins without an agenda.

They become sensitive to the nature of group development. Commitment to and belief in working together. Understanding group processes. 2) Team Building: • A team is a group of individuals who tend to work interdependently to satisfy organisational as well as their own individual objectives. • • • • • • • The trainer communicates these observations to groups. Teams have the following characteristics: − − − − • A reason or charter for working together. Accountability – for their performance. They attain increased sensitivity to their own behaviours. • Sensitivity training is good for change planning and implementation. Understanding why people behave the way they do. Developing increased tolerances for other people’s behaviour. Thus. They slowly correct their faults. abilities of individuals are mutually supportive. Interdependency – where the skills. Members emerge with a restructuring of their values about people and their operations in group settings. The trainer initially observes: − − − − • • Problems of communication Attempted seizures of power Misunderstandings Other phenomena of interpersonal life. Absence of an agenda initially creates a vacuum and often quite uncomfortable. the interventions through sensitivity training aims at the following: − − − − − • Understanding of one’s own behaviour and how one’s behaviour affects others. They become sensitive to the action of others. Encouraging one to try out new ways of interacting with people and receiving feedback. the impact they have on others. . • Individuals join teams for a variety of reasons: − Out of the herd instinct. Members gradually begin to attend to such matters themselves. brought together only by the common goal of learning more about themselves.• The people in each group are strangers to each other.

Involving individuals and groups is the change process from the very beginning is one way of ensuring their commitment and accountability towards achieving the intended changes. and Accountability – where one is accountable to superiors or the top management for achieving the goal.− − − − − − • To overcome one’s fears and insecurities. Interpersonal trust. From group compulsion. From the inability to say no Teams have the advantage: − Of improving up and setting goals and priorities. • Team values are: o Quality o Customer service o Innovativeness o People o Informality • The operational basis of a team lies in − − Synergy Interdependence • A team’s behaviour is characterised by the following elements: − − − − A Goal – is commonly agreed upon by the members Interdependence – where people have agreed to work together and are supportive of each others. Concern for the development of individual potentialities. Due to a rational belief to joint effort. From a sense of duty. • The value base of team lies in: − − − − Belief in a democratic work environment. − Deciding on means and methods. Commitment – to achieve the goal through group effort. Promotion of scientific inquiry in addressing issues and problems. In the hope of personal gains. − Improving performance qualitatively and quantitatively. • The success of team effort depends upon: − The leadership provided to the members who constitute the team. .

d. b. Individuals try to assert • • • • • • Who are these people? What is their unique competence? What information should I share with them? Will they accept me? What is our mission? How to we develop team spirit? What resources are available to us? What problems do we foresee with the team? 2. f. Forming: a. − Listed to others. dominance & rebellion Inflighting Listening and experimenting f. 3) Team Development Stages / Life Cycle of a Team: • When a member of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Characteristics Members share personal information. Data flow Conflict. d. − Includes others in the decision making process. c. External pressures interfere with the group. issues and characteristics as shown below: Key questions faced • • Developmental stages 1.− • Overcoming barriers to effective team functioning. a. shows empathy. • • • • The stages are the result of a variety of questions. They may be observed and predicted in many settings a cross the team’s time together. goals An aura of country Interactions are cautions High degree of motivation. − Acknowledges interpersonal conflicts and deals with them positively. Members compete for status. − Recognizes and respects individual differences. g. e. concerned and interested in others. i. Also referred as: Dependence Acceptance Orientation & hesitant participation Testing inclusion Also referred as Counter dependence. b. Jockey for position of relative control Argue about appropriate directions for the group. Storming: • • • • • . e. who: − Understands and is committed to group goals and values his/her team membership − Is friendly. is understanding. c. They do represent a broad pattern. j. and values the ideas and contribution of others. Tensions rise between the individuals. they then pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. Begin turning their attention to group’s tasks. These stages of team development are not rigidly followed. An effective team member is one. Start to get to know and accept one another. h. k.

Feedback for future teams. Adjourning celebrate our Also referred as: success? • Adjourned What connections • Terminated should we maintain? What have we learned from our experience? Where do we go from here? themselves. a. Performing contribute to our Also referred as: success? • Performance Should we take • Productivity risks? • Mature Have we been closeness empowered to • Achievement succeed? How can we change and grow? How can we 5. d. Norming believe in? Also referred as: What behaviours • Resolution do we expect of • Goals and each other? norms What should we • Integration be doing? • Intimacy. Groups norms guide individuals. Break up is called adjournment. c. Tentative balance among competing forces. b. project teams disband sooner or later. a. Group begins moving together in co-operative fashion b. More co-operative feelings. a. Groups. How will we closeness & control each cohesiveness other’s actions? • Getting organised. 4) Ingredients of Effective Leadership: • • A process of dealing with members’ aspirations and expectations. Functional roles are performed. Group may review its performance. e. In flexible organisations adjournments are more frequent. Handles complex challenges. e. b. Transactional leadership skills include: o o o o Goal setting Assertiveness Conflict management Supervision o o o o Communication Problem solving Decision making Rewarding competency • . affection What actions will 4. • Openness. c. d. Functional roles are also smoothly exchanged as needed. Transformational leadership skills relate to: o o o o Futuristic thinking Value clarification Entrepreneurism Influencing o Envisioning o Creativity o Mentoring • & inspiring for higher motivation and achievement – how the leader regarded and respected – credibility. Group matures and learns.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Control What do we 3. d. Tasks are efficiently accomplished. c.

Encouraging members to think like a team. Team Rewards: − − − − − Stimulates teamwork Recognition or financial Most powerful if they are valued by team members. as the group matures. more transformational skills are required. Super-ordinate Goal: − Team members should be oriented towards their overall task. trust and compatibility Skills & Role Clarity: − Team members must be reasonably qualified to perform − They should have a desire to co-operate. Should be perceived as ‘possible to earn’. focus attention. Demonstrating faith in members’ capacity to achieve These steps contribute to further co-operation. − All members carry their weight. • 5) Ingredients of Effective Teams: • What contributes to team success o o o o o o Careful composition Clear direction Accountability Integration & co-ordination Innovativeness Scope for learning o o o o o Information sharing Measurable goals Sufficient resources Flexibility Stimulation of openness • Four Major factors are: Supportive Environment: − − − − − Management to build a supportive environment. unify efforts and stimulate more cohesive teams. Administered in proportion to the team performance. − Each member should know the roles of all the others in the group with whom they are interacting.o Enables a leader to get a job done successfully. • A leader needs to exhibit greater transactional skills in the initial stages of group formation (first & second stages) Later. 6) Potential Team Problems: . Providing adequate time for meetings.

Develop a plan for team turnover right from the start. It is a feeling of being able to hide in a crowd and therefore not be able to be singled out for blame. Integrating new members into the team is also important. They are asked to control specific behavioural or operational activities and produce significant results. Social loafing is based on a perception of unfair division of labour. Accept the turnover and plan for it. They have wide ranging autonomy and freedom. direct. • • • • 7) Self Managed work Teams (SMT or SMWT): • • • • An empowerment tool Also known as self reliant or self-directed teams. Since team’s composition is likely to change frequently due to various reasons. The combination of empowerment and training to plan. A multi-skilled workforce Shared leadership through team meetings. • • • • • Social Loafing: • When employees think that their contributions to a group cannot be measured. teams must learn to manage their internal turnover. Social loafing may also arise if a member believes that others intend to withhold their efforts and thus he would be foolish not to do the same – The Sucker Effect. complied with the capability to act like manager. they may lessen their output and engage in social loafing. It is a belief that workers are lazy. monitor and control their own activities distinguishes these teams from many others. Interpersonal trust. Too many changes and personnel transfers interfere with group relationships and prevent the growth of team work. Individual and mutual accountability A result focused performance • • • . They are natural work groups that are given substantial autonomy. SMTs are characterised by: − − − − − − − Goal setting through team effort. Participative discussions.Changing composition: • Being complex and dynamic teamwork is sensitive to all aspects of organisational environment.

− Promotes collaborative work relationships.− Active problem solving. • SMTs have several advantages: − Improved flexibility of staff. suggestion systems Consensus decision making. . • SMTs have the following disadvantages: − − − − Extended time to implement them High training investment Inefficiencies due to job rotation. − Higher level of organisational commitment and job satisfaction. Inability of some employees to adapt to a team structure. • Areas of Job Freedom and Participation Continuum By Tannenbaum & Schmidt: “How to choose Leadership Pattern” Area of authority applied by Manager Joins Consults Sells Tells Low Amount of participation Description of typical action Manager makes & announce s decision Manager presents decision subject to change seeks ideas. one person one vote Democratic management Manager asks group to decide Withdraws Total of Job Freedom Area of employee participation in decision making Medium High Popular terms Autocratic managem ent Consultative management. − Lower absenteeism and turnover rates. sells decision Benevolent autocracy Manager seeks ideas before deciding Manager asks group for recomme nded actions before deciding Participative commuters such as quality circles Manager decides with group. − More efficient operations through the reduced number of job classifications. − Faster synergetic performance − Enhances individual and team capacity − Lot of scope for innovations − Pushes responsibility down to the lowest levels. self managing teams.

I. • • • • • Most auto companies today employ ‘platform teams’ that consist of a core group of designers. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE & OVERCOMING IT: • Resistance to change consist of any employee behaviours designed to − Delay − Discredit − Prevent the implementation of work change. The success of cross-functional teams. − Ensuring early success to generate enthusiasm and greater belief in team effort. ‘Taurus’ team at Ford Honda.empowerment 8) Cross Functional Teams: • • A type of SMT Consists of individuals from different functional areas working on the design or development of a product. inexpensive car. engineers and even factory workers on whom rests the total responsibility for the development and manufacture of a single product. Cross-functional teams are of great assistance in designing and prototyping new models and products. Effective management of relationships among people of diverse backgrounds and work cultures. depends upon: − − − − Setting achievable goals Gaining commitment from team members Setting ground rules for team activities. • Employee resist change because it threatens their: − − − − − Need for security Social interaction Status Competence Self esteem a) Nature & Effects: • The perceived threat stemming from a change may be . in 1978.

some employees will try to protect themselves from its effects. Some perceive as gainers due to change. Changes. . Threats to job security. sometimes. Inequity of the people’s experience Some perceive as losers due to change. − Dislike the method used. The method by which it is introduced People may resent having been ill informed. set up a ‘chain reaction effect’ also. Particularly employees too have a desire for new experience and the accompanying rewards that come with the change. A lesson to management is: change is likely to be a success or a problem. − People disagree with the nature of the change. − Do not see a personal gain for themselves. May reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process May be a perception of poor timings. Second • • • • Third • • • • Their resistance will be even more intense if all the 3 reasons exist.o Required o Unintended o Large • o Imagined o Direct o Small o Intended o Indirect Regardless of the nature of change. This reactions may be: o Complaints o Passive resistance o Sabotage o Foot dragging o Absenteeism o Work slowdowns • • • • White and blue collared people resist change. People resist because of the fear of unknown. depending upon how skillfully it is managed to minimize resistance. • • b) Reasons for Resistance: (3 broad reasons) First • • • • • • Not comfortable with the nature of the change itself It may violate their moral belief system They may believe that the decision is technically incorrect May be reluctant to change the present familiar comforts to an uncertainty. ‘Change’ does not respect blue or white collar.

• • • • e) Possible benefits of resistance: • Resistance is not all bad. Lack of trust in others. such as skill downgrading. it eventually becomes worthless. Need for security. have a positive feeling towards change and feel secure enough to tolerate other changes. emotional resistances: • • • • • Fear of the unknown. Parochial. human – all 3 have to be faced and solved. Economic costs of change. Dislike of management or other change agent. narrow outlook Vested interests. We must recognise that authority can only be used sparingly. Low tolerance of change. it may need to use authority. Desire to retain existing friendships. . If authority is overused. group resistances: • • • • • Political coalitions Opposing group values. Psychological. Then only employees will accept change co-operatively. Logical. Extra effort to relearn Possibility of less desirable conditions. Sociological. logical. If management cannot win support. Questioned technical feasibilities of changes. 8. Technical. desire for status quo. d) Implications of Resistance: • • • • All 3 types of resistance must be anticipated and treated effectively. moderate or opposition – form all people. rational objections: • • • • • Time required to adjust.c) Types of Resistance: (3 types) 6. In a typical operating situation. 7. What is important is: create a genuine climate when people trust management. full support may not be expected all time – may be weak.

it is made certain that the proposals are appropriate. Resistance may encourage management to reexamine its change proposals. Commonly used in situations Education + Communication Once persuaded. It provides an emotional release of pent-up feelings. Such a release encourage employees to think and talk more about a change so that they understand it better. • • • • Change is necessary in a competitive environment. Resistance also gives management the information about the intensity of employee emotions on an issue. Hurdles to change need to be managed. Resistance creates checks implementation of change.• • It can bring some benefits. Advantages Disadvantages Commonly used in situations Facilitation + Support Advantages Disadvantages Where people are resisting No other approach Can be time because of fear and anxiety works as well with consuming adjustment problems expensive and still . • • • • • f) Managing Resistance: Kotter & Schlesigner “Choosing strategies for change”. There are 6 approaches to manage the resistances as given below: Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. That may encourage management to communicate the change better. So that. people Where there is a lack of will often help with the information or inaccurate implementation of the information and analysis change Participation + Involve ment People who participate Where the initiators do not will be committed to have all the information they implementing change need to design the change and and any relevant where others have information they have considerable power to resist will be integrated into the change plan Can be very time consuming if lots of people are involved Can be very time consuming if participators design an inappropriate change. Harvard Business Review. It enables management to take corrective actions much before serious problems arise. and balances and ensures proper • • • • Resistance also identifies specific problem areas. This approach in the long run should lead to better acceptance of change.

It takes months and years. organisational objectives. Where other tactics will not It can be a relatively Can lead to future work. etc. most OD are oriented towards group. norms. if it the change initiators possess overcome any kind of leaves people angry considerable power resistance at the initiators. h) Organisational Culture: includes – accepted patterns of behaviour. Organisational Development: • • • Is a planned. e) Participation of a Change Agent: It is generally advised to avail the services of an outside expert. BUILDING EFFECTIVE CHANGE INITIATIVES: 6. or are too expensive quick and inexpensive problems if people solution to resistance feel manipulated problems Coercion Where speed is essential and It is speedy and can Can be risky. OD stresses an collaboration among all levels. motivation theory. culture of each organisation must be understood and the relations consist with that culture must be developed. d) Long-range Change: OD is not a stop gap arrangement. Negotiation _ Agreement Where someone or some Sometimes it is group will clearly lose out in relatively easy way to a change and where that avoid major resistance group has considerable power to resist Manipulation _ Co-operation Can be too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate. Change: involving total system and the entire • c) Emphasis upon Work Groups: some OD efforts are aimed at individual and organisational change. group dynamics. having a sociological flavour. .fail.. systematic process of organisational change? OD draws from psychology sociology and anthropology theory OD also relies on information from personality learning theory. J. g) Collaborative Management: unlike the traditional management. f) Emphasis on Intervention: active intervention of the change agent in the ongoing activities in the organisation. b) Comprehensive organisation. power leadership and organisational design. value systems. The basic characteristics of OD are as follows: a) Planned Change: also called as change intervention. having the overall system perspective in view.

A typical change strategies and associated HR Initiatives: Types of change strategy HR Activities Advantages Disadvantages . It is not a guarantee for success of OD But favourable environment conducive for organisational change will be created. Perceptions of organisational problems by key people and perceptions of the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems. Pre-requisites for organisational development: • • • OD must fulfill certain conditions if it were to be effective. decision making) The culture of the organisation (norms. 7. power structure) Structure and the role in organisation. Monitoring the process and the measuring of results. Intergroup collaboration. Acknowledgement of the congruency between OD and many previous effective management practices. the following criteria are to be satisfied. • • • • • • 9. educational philosophy about the theory and technology OD. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8. including the formal leader. Motivational level of employees. Participation of work teams. Development of internal OD resources and facilitative skills. Effective management of the OD process and stabilization of changes.i) Action Research: A process of identifying the organisation’s specific problems. values. The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant. Trust and support among organisational members Synergetic solutions to problems. To reduce the negative effects in an OD program. An open. The operationalising of the action research model. gathering and analyzing the organisational data and taking actions to resolve problems. Involvement of personal and IR/HR management people and congruency with personnel policy and practice. Situations appropriate for OD programs: • The organisation’s managerial strategy (communication pattern. Initial top-level involvement. Further expansion of efforts after the early successes.

But dynamic environments are the norm. labour unions. Stable environments have less change. • • Impact Speed • • Changes structures systems to and • • • • • Changes to organisational structures including employee accountabilities. Slow Expensive May meet resistance through negative attitudes to change. Changes to employee relations structures (consultation and bargaining) • • • Longer lasting change Regeneration of employee knowledge and skill Regeneration of tired systems • • Dealing with negative consequences for employees Possibly expensive Slower to have impact May be difficult to establish causal link changes to structures and systems and organisational change. Changes to career management. etc. c. communities. Implementing change successfully: a. likes change workshops Quality group programmes Joint consultation Team briefing and other forms of employee communications Performance management Employee counseling Severance Redundancy programs Recruitment and selection • • • Greater sense of employee ownership Fresh ideas introduced Longerlasting change • • • • Time consuming. customers. Some changes are through government laws. Changes to reward systems.Education & Employee Involvement • • • • • • • Changes personnel in • • • Management development Employee training. e. b. Some more are from competitors. Some changes originate within the organisation. 10. d. a) Transformational leadership & change: • Management has a key role in initiating and implementing change successfully. . Changes to performance management.

leaders still have two tasks: − To persuade the employees that the vision is urgent. but important details. To create an organisation that welcomes change. They stimulate employees to: − − − − − Rise above their narrow focus Make them to see a broader picture action. The overall plan should address behavioural issues. They articulate vision and promote in vigorously. such as difficulty in letting go of old methods. Workers’ fear of uncertainty. A vision may also integrate the shared beliefs and value that serve as a basis for changing an organisation’s culture. − And to motivate their employees to do it. • • • • d) Communicating Charisma: • After the vision. • Charismatic leaders are: . It stretches people beyond their current capabilities and thinking. It excites them to new levels of commitment and enthusiasm. A vision is a crystallized long-range image or idea of what can and should be accomplished. Be learning individuals Make a learning organisation • • c) Creating Vision: • Transformational leaders create and communicate a vision for the organisation. • • • b) Transformation Leaders: • • Are instrumental in the change process. They take bold strategic changes to position the organisation for its future. Charismatically model their behaviour.• A master strategy for change has to be made not overlooking simple. • Charisma is a leadership trait can help influence employees to take early and sustained action.

• Employees trust and respect charismatic leaders and emotionally committed to such leaders. but an organisation that will continue to change. Activities. e) Stimulating Learning: • Transformational leaders not only make a very good change in organisation. the team and the end users of the project.− − − − − − Dynamic risk takers Have depth of expertise Well deserved self confidence. In ‘single loop learning’ employees simply solve current problems and blindly adapt to changes which have been imposed on them. Establish ownership for different functions. who treat employees individually and guide them for action. Warm mentors. Relationships and Time Estimates: . but also prepare the participants to manage future changes even more effectively. Write down the change goal in a piece of paper and ask ‘Is that what you want?’ The goal should be specific and measurable and the team and the user should move in the same direction. • • b) Determine the objectives: • Objectives help to break the goal down into specific responsibilities for each team member. Express high performance expectations Use provocative symbols and language to inspire others. Some common sense principles for Change Managers: a) Set a clear goal: • • Start at the end and work backwards While setting a goal dialogue among yourself. This process is called as ‘double-loop learning’ This means that the changes handled not only reflect the current information gathered. Their critical task is to develop people’s capacity to learn from the experience of change. • • • • 11. keep change goals constantly in mind to avoid functional myopia • c) Establish check points.

yet must work together on a unique task. • • e) Reinforce the commitment and excitement of the Change Team: • Volunteering increases commitment. Be a good listener. compromising. they serve to ensure interest and create energy. • • g) Build Agreements that vitalize team members: • Conflicts are inevitable. Establish a detailed check list of activities. develop sensitivity to why people do what they do. Appropriate the position of the other person. Use them to create a synergy and unleash creativity. Use the appropriate method. let members go public with their views and choices. Treat team members as individuals with their own characteristics.• • • Check points help members monitor their own progress. Encourage transparency and visibility of the project team’s efforts. d) Direct people individually and as a Project Team: • • • One can not do it alone. • • . A strong team of supporters and collaborators are required. It is important to keep learning. There are hosts of possible approaches to conflict management like giving in. Expect differences. have different objectives and have different types of training. Logical arguments have their limits. and as teams. Create a sense of ‘ownership’. as individuals. reaching agreement in conflict situations is not only a logical but also an emotional experience. keep people informed on a regular and frequent basis. Set long-term and short-term check points for early detection of problems. persuading. The team should also discuss ‘what if’ and ‘what can go wrong’ situations. finding common good etc. smoothing over. create opportunity for people to set goals and objectives. from experiences. • • f) Keep everyone connected with the Change Program Informed of the Program: • Change involves people from different departments who use different languages.

h) Empower yourself and others in the Team: • • Influence without exercising authority is the key. experimenting. we make significant progress only when we stick our necks out. important to build personal power. . This is achieved through alliances. innovation and creativity. I failed my way to success – Thomas Alva Edison. What people want most from a change manager is credibility: Credibility = Competence + Honesty + Direction + Inspiration + Power It is • i) Encourage Risk Taking and Creativity: • • • • Failure is the stepping stone for success. Like turtles. Plan time for thinking. networks and exchanges.

− Demand changes in the structure. . Pressures like these – or the anticipation of such pressures. conflicts arise. technology.III MBA – CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 5 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE PROCESS 3) Organisational Change Process: a) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: • Becoming aware of the pressure for change Recognising the need for change Diagnosing the problem Planning the change Implementing the change Following up on the change • • • • • 1. pressure mounts as the organisation outgrows its old ways of doing things. the technological innovations act as powerful triggers for change. • • • 2. employees retire or resign. Outside the organisation. Becoming aware of the pressure for change: • Most organisational changes are carried out in response to or in anticipation of pressures from inside or outside the organisation. tasks and people in the organisation. Recognising the need for change: • • Becoming aware of the need is not enough Managers should also recognise the need for change. Within the firm.

4. Firms opting for bottom-up strategy prepare the organisation for change by involving managers and employees at all levels. Implementing the change: . Managers believe that the uncertainty associated with organisational change is best managed through incremental processes in which they continually make adjustments to their strategy and structure. Winding up of divisions or departments and downsizing are examples of this type of change. Diagnosing the problem: • • • • • • Recognizing that change is needed is not enough. Pressure may be likely economic or technical reasons. secondary data. observations. Managers must diagnose the pressures for change. What are the consequences of those pressures? For diagnosing the problems various procedures are available like: Interviews. a top-down strategy calls for intervention at the high level of an organisation. A firm that pursues revolutionary change adopts a top-down change strategy. Planning the Change: • • A strategy for change is formulated.3. • • • • • • • • • 5. Generally. Managers must determine how it may affect the company. They discuss the need for change and diagnose the problems facing the organisation. A firm that adopts evolutionary change adopts a bottom-up change strategy. Questionnaire. The organisation waits until it believes that the costs of not changing exceed the costs of overcoming organisational inertia and then introduces its master plan for change. Organisations must choose between evolutionary and revolutionary change. TQM is a method of evolutionary change. etc.

− − − − − − Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and co-operation Explicit and implicit coercion • Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. • • • • • • • • Hostility Physical abuse Loss of interest in work Excessive idling time Low productivity Tardiness Development of tension & anxiety Groups deciding fairday’s work • • • • • • • • Aggression Apathy towards work Spoilage of material Corrupting valuable software Absenteeism Resignation Tensed up on the job Imposing their individuals. And institute procedural modifications that will ensure that change continues to be implemented. There are several ways to show the resistance.• • • The next step is to implement the change. Here. • b) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: 18. wall on • There are 6 approaches for managing resistance. values and behaviours Refreeze (assurance of permanent change) Reinforcing new values. attitudes and behaviours Old Stage New State . Follow up on the change: • The final step in the change process is to evaluate the effects of the change. resistance to change surfaces. Lewin’s Process Model: Unfreeze (awareness of need for change) Reducing the forces who wants status quo Change (Move) (movement from old state to new state) Developing new attitudes. 6.

Moving means – developing new behaviours. Managing the transition is essential to keep the organisation going. Refreezing the system. sometimes through OD techniques. Moving to a desired condition. the two phases of change. New values.• • • • • • • According to Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model. • • • Transition Management: • Between. Popularly called as. values and attitudes. Transition management is the process of systematically planning. • • . New ways of operating are cemented and reinforced. Such changes are sometimes through structural changes. organizing and implementing the change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within the organisation. departments or organisation in which the changes e to take place. So that it remains in the desired state. three stage model of change system. Unfreezing: involves • Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours by shaking up the status quo situations. there is a transition which is not shown. Managers must ensure that the organisational cultures and reward systems encourage the new behaviours and avoid the old ways of functioning. attitudes and behaviours are established as the new way of life. • • Refreezing: • • Changes become relatively permanent. Highly useful in understanding the ways of managing change. Presenting a case to make the people to recognise for a change and how their jobs will be improved by the change. By unfreezing the current situation. effective change occurs. Learning theory and reinforcement theory can play important roles in the refreezing phase. Searching for new solutions. • • Moving (changing): • Aims to shift or alter the behaviour of the individuals.

Lewin’s model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. Communication of the changes to all involved. Initially the two groups may be equal in their forces. Successful change. again they balance and balanced at any time between the two opposing forces. values. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. play a role in transition management. they change. To get the organisation change. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change and reduce the resistance to change. This Lewin termed as ‘quasi stationery equilibrium’ Lewin’s theory states how the forces for change and resistance balance. • • • • • • . or do both simultaneously. Lewin’s Force Field Theory of Change: Level of Performance Resistance to Change Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • In any organisation. employees. thus requires that old behaviours are discarded and new behaviours introduced Those new behaviours have to be institutionalized and rewarded • • • • • • 19. customers and suppliers.• Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. the 3 stage process must be completed. the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change. When the forces are in balance. skills and behaviour. Failure in efforts to change can be traced back to one of the 3 stages. Organisational change can occur at three levels: o Individual – Changes in individual’s attitudes.

o Structure & Systems – Change in work design reporting relationships information systems the reward systems, etc. o Organisational Climate – Change in leadership style interpersonal relations, decision making style and other such aspects.

K. MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE – THE CONTINUOUS CHANGE PROCESS MODEL:
• • • •

Lewin’s model is very simple and straight forward. Many models of organisation change use his approach. However, it does not deal with several important issues. A more complex and more helpful approach is illustrated in the figure below:

1. Forces for change

2. Recognise & define problem Change Agent

3. Problem solving process

5. Measure evaluate control

4. Implement the change

Transition manage ment

• • •

This approach treats planned change from the perspective of top management. It indicates that the change is continuous. As change becomes continuous in the organisations, different steps are probably occurring simultaneously through out the organisation. This model incorporates Lewin’s concept into the implementation phase. In this approach, top management perceives that certain forces or trends call for a change. Such an issue is subjected to the organisation’s usual problem solving and decision making processes. Usually, top management defines its goals in terms of what the organisation or certain processes or outputs will be like after the change. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and an acceptable one is selected. Early in the process, the organisation may seek the assistance of a change agent – a person who will be responsible for managing the change efforts. The change agent: o May be a member of the organisation

• •

o An outsider, such as a consultant o Someone from company headquarters – a far away place o An outsider is preferred because of his assumed impartiality Under the direction and management of change agent, the organisation implements the change through Lewin’s unfreeze, change and refreeze process. The final step is measurement, evaluation and control. With this, the top management determines the effectiveness of the change process by various benchmarks and indicators of organisational productivity and effectiveness.

• •

L. LEADERSHIP STYLES:
(Top Down & Bottom up approaches are given in Module 3)

Laissez or free-reign leadership approaches
• • • •

In this type of leadership approach, the leader is just a figure-head. He does not give any directions. He delegates the authority to subordinates. Subordinates must plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own actions. The leader acts principally as a liaison between the group and the outside elements. He supplies necessary materials and information to group member. He lets the subordinates develop their own techniques for accomplishing goals within the organisational policies and objectives. The leader participates very little and instead of leading and directing, he just becomes one of its members. This type of leadership is highly effective when the group members are highly intelligent and are fully aware of their roles and responsibilities. This type of leadership is evident in research laboratories where the scientists are fairly free to conduct their research and make their decisions. Also true to university professors.

• •

Advantages:
• • •

Creates an environment of freedom, individually as well as team spirit. It is highly creative with a free and informal work environment. This approach is very useful where people are highly motivated and achievement oriented.

Disadvantages:
• •

It may result in disorganized activities which may lead to inefficiency and chaos. Insecurity and frustration may develop due to lack of specific decision making authority and guidance.

The team spirit may suffer due to possible presence of some uncooperative team members. Some members may put their own interests above the group and team interests. OD Definition: is the process of planned change and improvement of organisations through the application of knowledge of behavioral sciences. 3 points to remember in this definition are: i. Organisation development involves attempts to plan organisational changes. ii. Specific intention of organisation development is to improve organisation. iii. The planned improvement must be based on knowledge of the behavioral sciences such as OB, psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology and related field of study rather than financial and technological considerations.

M. OD INTERVENTIONS:

• •

Several OD interventions also called techniques, have evolved over a long period: Good interventions have 3 characteristics: (i) (ii) (iii) They are based on valid information about the functioning of the organisation, usually collected by the employees. The intervention under the guidance of the change agent, provides employees with opportunities to make their own choices regarding the nature of the problems and their preferred solutions. Interventions are aimed at gaining the employee’s personal commitment to their choices.

Organisation confrontation meeting f. Strategic change v. Reward systems p. Quality circles k. Goal setting n. Total quality management l. Team building e. The OD Paradigms & Values: • • • • • • Organisational Level Affected Individual Group Organisation √ – √ – – – – – √ √ – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ √ – – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – – √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ – √ – – – √ √ – – √ √ √ √ Values human & organisational growth Collaborative and participative process A spirit of inquiry Strong emphasis on collaboration The change agent as a catalyst Important factors in OD efforts: a) Respect for people: . Managing workplace diversity r. Work design Human Resource Management: m. Self designing organisations 10. Employee wellness Strategic: s. Integrated strategic management t. Differentiation & integration i. Different types of OD interventions and the level of their impact: Interventions: Human Process: a. T-Group/Sensitivity Training b. Formal structural change h. Third party intervention d. Performance appraisal o. Career planning & development q. Inter-group relations Technostructural: g. Cooperative union management projects j. Culture change u. Process consultation c.9.

• They should be treated with dignity and respect b) Trust & support: • • The effective and healthy organisation is characterized by trust. The more we involve.Individuals are perceived as being responsible conscientious and caring. e) Participation: • • All those who are affected by the change should be involved in decision making surrounding the change. c) Power Equalisation: • Effective organisations deemphasize hierarchial authority and control d) Confrontation: • • Problems should not be swept under the rug. The OD specialist (behavioral scientist) creates the opportunity for participants to express their ideas. To develop greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. 3. 5. 2. A behaviour scientist directs the discussions. The individuals learn through observing and participating rather than being told. encounter group or T-groups (Training groups) All refer to a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interactions. Increased ability to empathies with others. To develop increased understanding of group processes. Members meet in a free and open environment and discuss about themselves and their interactive processes. Improved listening skills. the more will be committed to implementing those decisions 11. They should be openly confronted. openness and supportive climate. authenticity. • • • • • • . 4. The objectives of T-groups are: 1. Explanations on a few OD Techniques: a) Sensitivity Training: • Also known as laboratory training. beliefs and attitudes. Provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them.

Even though every employee in an organisation can participate in survey feedback. Work flow. A questionnaire is usually filled by all employees of the organisation. informal relationships among unit members. He understands and suggests the processes which the manager must act upon. Managers often sense that their unit’s performance can be improved. But they are unable to identify what can be improved and how. • • • • • • d) Team Building: . Identifying discrepancies among perceptions and Solving these differences. but more task oriented.6. Greater openness 7. Similar to sensitivity training. Improved conflict resolution skills b) Implications of Resistance: • • • • It is a tool for assessing attitudes of organisational members. An outside consultant to assist the manager to perceive is employed. The questionnaire seeks to find out the perceptions of the employees on a range of topics like − − − − − Decision making practice Communication effectiveness Coordination between units. Increased tolerance of individual differences and 8. it is important that the organisational family – the manager and those employees who report directly to him participate. Satisfaction with the organisation Job peers and immediate supervisors • • • The steps involved are as follows: Data Collection Feedback to organisational unit Action Decision Consultants c) Process Consultation: • Is a technique concerned with the interpersonal relations and dynamics operating in work groups. formal communication channels are some of the areas.

• • • • • • . role clarification. the other group and how it believes the other perceives it. Through this process. The support and trust of group members enhance the implementation of change. organisational structure and interpersonal relations. These work groups focus on solving actual problems in building efficient management teams. Hence change efforts are directed towards the group to change their attitudes. Team building process involves the following steps: Step-1 Step-2 • • • • • • • • • The team leader defines a problem. Aimed at helping groups to become effective at task accomplishment. Determines underlying cause in such areas as communication. A major area of concern in OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exist between groups. Engineers accountants production engineers maintenance engineers Such stereotypes can have obvious negative impact on the coordinative efforts between the departments. It utilizes high interaction group activities to create trust and openness among team members. The group proposes several solutions. stereotypes and perceptions that groups have with each other. Eg. OD consultant also helps in assessing group tasks. Team building includes OD consultant feedback in such areas as communication and conflict resolution. leadership style. the participants are likely to be committed to the solution and interpersonal support and trust are developed. Step-3 • • • • e) Intergroup Development: • Seeks to change the attitude.• Is a conscious effort by management to develop effective work groups through out the organisation. Then selects the most appropriate solution. ‘Problem solving’ is one of the popular approaches for improving intergroup relations. The group analyses the problem. stereotypes and perceptions through intergroup development. In this method each group meets independently to develop lists of its perceptions of itself. member roles and strategies for accomplishing work tasks.

OD consultants help the parties resolve their differences through such techniques as problem solving. The trained managers bring their new understanding of managerial grid concepts relationships and team effectiveness so that the team operates at 9. They assess their own managerial styles and work on improving such skills as team development. Differences are clearly articulated and the group look for the cause of disparities. Team Development Intergroup development . This phase focuses on the relationship between the organisation’s work groups to improve coordination & cooperation. Black & Mouton proposed a multi step process for improving organisations by attempting to cultivate these skills. Or may be caused by sub optimal interpersonal relations. these key managers will work to implement the grid program through out the organisation. The steps in grid OD are shown below: Steps 1 Training Activities In a week-long seminar. Seeks to promote organisational excellence by fostering concern for production and concern for people.• The groups then share lists. Intergroup tensions are dealt with openly and joint problem solving procedures are developed. and communication. Most organisational problems stem from poor communication and inadequate planning. groups or departments. after which similarities and differences are discussed. • f) Third Party Interventions: • • • • This is concerned with helping individuals. group problem solving. • • • • • 2 . To resolve serious conflicts those are related to specific work issues.9 grid level. 3 . After appropriate introduction. key managers learn about grid concepts and how they are applied. bargaining and conciliation. g) Grid Training: • Grid organisational development is an extension of the managerial / leadership grid concept developed by Blake & Mouton Carried out on an organisation-wide basis.

Stabilization Eventually. but the goal of ‘humanizing the work place’ is of paramount importance. the results of all the phases are evaluated to determine which areas of the organisation still need improvement or alteration. 6 Organisational Top managers together create an ideal model of goal setting the organisation. . evaluated and refined by managers and subordinates working together throughout the organisation.4 . QWL programs focus strongly on providing a work environment conducive to satisfying individual needs. They set goals to be tested. Richard Walton’s categories of programs are shown below: • • • Adequate & fair Compensation Development of Human capacities Social Integration Total Life Space Safe & Healthy work Environment Growth & Security Constitutionlism Social Relevance • There are a few popular approaches to humanize workplace. h) Quality of Work Life: (QWL) • Is defined as the degree to which members of a work organisation are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organisation. Each submits proposals on how their activities should be carried out in order to achieve excellence and they proceed to take whatever corrective actions are necessary. The programs vary. Goal Organisation members seek to make the ideal attainment model a reality. Efforts are made to stabilize positive changes and to identify new areas of opportunity for the organisation. 5 .

The first step is Discovery: − The idea is to find out what people think are the strengths of the organisation. Organisational commitment Reduced turnover among workers Increased productivity Profitability and goal attainment for the organisation. i) Appreciative Inquiry: (AI) • • • • Most OD approaches are problem oriented. Often played out in large group meetings over two or three days and overseen by a trained change agent. QWL programs benefit the organisation in these ways: − − − − − Increased job satisfaction. AI process essentially consists of four steps. This allows the organisation to change by playing to its strengths and competitive advantages. • • • • The hurdles are − − Both management and labour must cooperate in designing the programs Plan agreed by all must be implemented. Another approach in Quality Circles These are small groups of employees who meet regularly on voluntary basis to identify and solve problems related to the quality of work they perform. They identify a problem and then look for solutions. this approach seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organisation.• One such is ‘work restructuring’ – the process of changing the way jobs are done to make them more interesting to workers. Rather than looking for problems to fix. • • • • • • . employees are asked to recount times they felt the organisation worked best. − For instance. − Or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. Appreciative inquiry is positive. Job enlargement and job enrichment are two such. These qualities are further built on to improve performance It focuses on organisations success and abilities than on its problems.

− For instance people are asked to envision the organisation in five years and describe what different is going to happen. CREATIVITY IN ORGANISATIONS: • Organisational culture promotes creativity and innovation 12. − This typically includes the writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies. Nature of Creativity: • Creativity refers to the process by which novel but situationally appropriate outcomes are brought about. 12. have increased their sales and profits by several crores of money. • .• The second step is Dreaming: − The information from the discovery phase is used to speculate on possible futures of the organisation. The fourth step is Destiny: − In this final step. participants discuss how the organisation is going to fulfill its dream. The essence of creativity is the element of freshness. participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organisation will look and agree on its unique qualities. • • Companies who used this OD technique. Benefits & Limitations of Organisational Development: Benefits • • • • • • • • • • • • Limitations • • • • • • • • • • • Organisation-wide changes Higher motivation Higher productivity Better quality of work Higher job satisfaction Improved team work Better resolution of conflict Commitment to objectives Reduced absence Lower turnover Creation of learning Individuals and groups Time consuming Expensive Delayed pay-off period Possible failure Possible invasion of privacy Possible psychological harm Potential conformity Emphasis on group processes rather than performance Possible conceptual ambiguity Difficulty in evaluation Cultural incompatibility N. • The third step is Design: − Based on the dream articulation. originality and novelty that is also appropriate to the context.

− Incubation assists in divergent thinking and generating different approaches to the issue. − They might come at any time of the day or night. The Creative Process: • Researchers have developed a model that outlines the various stages of the creative process. The social and technological changes that organisations face require creative decisions. − It is an experience of suddenly becoming aware of a unique idea. − But the problem is still simmering in one’s mind − But it is not at the forefront of his attention. . the act must be unique and appropriate to the context. − Involves developing a clear understanding of what one wants to achieve through a novel solution Step-2 Incubation Step-3 Insight Step-4 Verification • • • Incubation: − Is a process of reflective thought and is often conducted subconsciously. The process of creativity occurs in the following four stages: Step-1 Preparation Preparation: − An important condition for creativity. − The problem or issue not forgotten. − The flashes of inspiration have no definite schedules. − Plays powerful role in dissolving previously held notions about a problem.• To call anything creative. The ability to promote creativity in organisations is an important competence to face the turbulence of dynamics of changes in the organisations. − During incubation. • • 13. • Insight: − Individuals experience insight at some point during the incubation stage. the mind constantly considers the problem and works on it. − The problem is only put in the back burner.

These are the supporting environments and facilities to encourage people to search for new ideas: Creative People Organisational Support Organisational Culture Enhanced Creativity . • 15. Lateral thinking 16. Grid analysis c. 14. but verification of their value is important. A great amount of energy. − The new idea has to be subjected to evaluation and experimentation. Characteristics of Creative Individuals: • It is said that creative people posses intellectual and personality characteristics different from their less creative counterparts. High intellectual abilities. Brainstorming b. • Verification: − Ideas are generated at the insight stage. Creativity Inducing Factors: a. Methods of Enhancing Creativity: a. Belief that fantasy and day dreaming are not a waste of time.− It can also be lost if not documented. − At this stage. Inventive thinking style. tenacity is very important. An irritation with status quo Perseverance A pursuit of hobbies and specialised interests. Some of the traits of creative people include: − − − − − − − − Willingness to give up immediate gain to reach long range goals. − It is not sufficient we have come up with an idea. • Creative processes do not always follow an order. since other people may resist or reject the creative ideas.

g. • . Creative People: Exposure Time & Resources i. Selecting creative people is the starting point in enhancing creativity in organisations. − People need enough resources O. research. development. − Break out of the shell and take risks. extended leave. etc. Organisational Support: − May come in many ways. − Lavishness does not work. − Like foreign assignments. − Make the job intrinsically motivating.Diversity b. e. if any. Diversity: − Diverse ethnic and cultural groups. − Sets goals for creativity − Encourage employees to take risks and accept failures. processes and services. information and time. Innovation involves every aspect of organisation. manufacturing and marketing. facilities. materials. Exposure: − Expose employees to various kinds of experience. INNOVATIONS IN ORGANISATIONS: • Innovation is the process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the market place as products. Time & Resources: − People are more creative when they have funds. c. seminars. d. Organisational Culture: − − − − − Openness to new ideas. Friendly supervision Team building Participative decision making Flexible organisation structures. − Divergent thinking is key to creativity f.

• • Step-2 : Diagnosing the situations and generating ideas • Diagnose the situation and generate new ideas. 1) Types of Innovation: • • Radical innovation – major break through – eg: xerox System innovation – creating new functionalities by assembling parts in new ways – eg: automobile Incremental innovation – continues the technical improvements – applicable to radical and systems also – forces organisations to continually improve products. Do not focus only on immediate problems. Hold periodic sessions with senior/junior managers and elicit suggestions. . • 2) A Six Step Model for Planned Innovation or Change: • The process followed by managers when they engage in planned innovation and change are illustrated in the sketch Step-1 Perceiving an opportunity or a problem Step-2 Diagnosing the situation and generating ideas Step-3 Presenting a proposal & adopting the change or innovation Step-6 Monitoring and evaluating results Step-5 Implementing the change or innovation Step-4 Planning to over come resistance to change or innovation Step-1 : Perceiving an opportunity or a problem • Look ahead for opportunities to solve current and anticipated problems.• The greatest challenge is to bring the innovative technology into the market in a cost effective manner.

Do not overlook the status of ongoing activities relative to the competition. Step-5 : Implementing the innovation or change • • Moment of truth when the change is put into operation. If the planning is carefully done. perceptual. cultural and emotional blocks as shown in the sketch. implementation will be smooth Step-6 : Monitoring the results • Monitor and evaluate what happens after the change has been implemented. • P. Preparation of a business plan is necessary for budget proposals. There are three broad categories of obstructions for creativity. Otherwise good ideas will be rejected when they are proposed. Perceptual Blocks Cultural Blocks Emotional Blocks Need for Creativity & Creativity & Innovation .• • This will fix the problems and take advantage of the opportunities. Overcome the resistance. • • Step-4 : Planning to overcome resistance • • Understand the reasons and resistance for change. It is also essential to guard against ways which hinder creativity. BLOCKS FOR CREATIVITY & INNOVATIONS: • • • It is not enough to take positive steps to promote creativity. Feedback for improvements in successive innovations. Step-3 : Presenting a proposal and adopting the change • Establish the fact that innovation and change are important to the organisation.

43. 2. A good idea but… 2. Ahead of the times. Be practical 6. Too many projects now 13. The drive to be practical and economical. Overemphasis on competition or conflict avoidance and smoothing. Perceptual Blocks: Include such factors as: − − − − The failure to use all the senses in observing Failure to investigate the obvious Difficulty in seeing remote relationships Failure to distinguish between cause and effect. Too old fashioned 46. A belief that indulging in fantasy or other forms of open-ended exploration is a waste of time. Too soon 47.Innovation 1. We have not the time − − − − . 4. Too much paper work 45. We have been doing it this way for 48. Can you put into practice? 7. The union won’t go for it. Too academic 41. We have not the manpower 50. Too hard to administer 42. Long time and it works 49. It is not good enough 18. I know it won’t work 11. Have you considered 10. It is not budgeted 17. The boss won’t go for it. They won’t go for it. Let me add to that 32. 3. Against company policy 3. Cultural Blocks: Include: A desire to conform to established norms. Too hard to implement. The timing is off 37. Don’t start anything yet 9. It does not fit human nature 14. That is not our problem 33. − Fear and distrust of others − Fear of grabbing the first idea that comes along Sixty-One Ways to Block Creativity: 1. 39. 36. Costs too much 8. All right in theory 5. The new people won’t understand 35. It has been done before 15. The old times won’t use it. Emotional Blocks: Include: − The fear of making a mistake. 34. It needs more stud 16. Too late 44. It can’t work 12. It is not part of your job 19. There are better ways. 38. 40.

What will the customers think? 57. Let us make a survey first 23. What will the union think? 58. Who do you think you are? 60. Let us sit on it for a while 26. it won’t work 29. Why has not someone suggested it before if it is a good idea? You are off base! . Let us think it over for a while 27. Let us not step on toes 24. We can too small 53. Not ready for it yet. What bubble head thought that up? 56. Let us form a committee 22. Some other time 31. Let us put it off for a while 25. Let us discuss it 21. Surely you know better 51. Of course. What you are really saying is? 59. We have tried it before 55.20. We are too big 52. 28. Who else has tried it? 61. Our Plan is different 30. we have never done it that way 54.

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