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1) Self Awareness:
• • • • • Is the ability to be aware of what one is feeling? Is self understanding Is the knowledge of one’s true feelings at the moment? Is one of Goleman’s five dimensions of emotional intelligence in the workplace? Eg: Raju recognises that he is angry, so that he will wait himself to cool down and gather more information before taking an important personnel decision.
2) Self Analysis & Management/Self Monitoring:
Definition: A systematic attempt by an individual to understand and analyse one’s own personality without the help – another. • • If a person knows his skills and abilities it will help him to develop greater self confidence and enable him to present a positive image to those he deals in. Self analysis of skills will lead to: − Working effectively with others – approachability, teamwork, cooperation, rapport and adaptability” − Communication – listening, enthusiasm, clarify, pertinence, confidence. − Judgements and decision making – decisiveness, research, planning, reaching a conclusion, evaluation. − Persuading and influencing – communication, leadership, negotiation, motivation, charisma, determination, forcefulness, vision, empathy. − Ability to solve problems – critical thinking, analysis, lateral thinking, creativity. − Time management – ensuring assignments are done on time. − Use of IT – word processing report to solve problems quickly. − Achieving one’s goals – determination, commitment, will power resolution, stamina, ambition, energy, resistance. − Specialist subject knowledge. • Self analysis provides the opportunity to turn potential failures into triumphs, through appropriate interpretations.
After analysis one has to self manage. There are 12 steps of self management:
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Make a decision that you desire to achieve the goal. Believe that you will achieve the goal. Write down your goal on paper. Be honest with yourself. Analyse your present position. Use deadlines. Identify the rocks that stand in your way. Identify the skills you need. Identify those people from whom you need co-operation Make a complete business plan. Visualize the perfect outcome, emotionalise how terrific you will feel when the outcome is achieved and make the necessary affirmations consistent with achieving the goal. − Determine to back your plan with patience and persistence.
• Self efficiency refers to a person’s belief that he has: − − − − • The ability The motivation The situational contingencies. To complete a task successfully.
People strong in self efficiency have a − ‘Can do’ attitude towards a specific task. − ‘Can do’ attitude for various challenges in life.
• • • •
Social learning/observational learning increases self efficiency by observing someone else’ actions. People have the drive for self efficiency – a belief that they have the necessary capabilities to perform a task. Management should provide opportunities for meaningful involvement of people in the activities towards the achievement of organisational goals or objectives. Albert Bandura, a famous behavioural scientist says: “Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions they have little incentives to act” “They have the core belief that they have the power to produce desired results”
Bandura’s task-specific self-efficiency in ‘state like’ and specific task oriented. Bandura also states a ‘generalised self efficiency’ which reflects people’s belief in successfully accomplishing tasks across a wide variety of achievement situations – called as ‘trait like’
a) Self efficacy Vs Self-esteem: 1. Self esteem Is a global construct of one’s evaluation and belief of overall worthiness Is stable and traitlike Self efficacy Is one’s belief about a task and contact specific capability. Is changing overtime as new information and task experiences and gained and developed and is statelike. Is a current assessment of one’s future success at task.
Is aimed at any aspect of one’s current self
b) The process & impact of self efficacy: The Process: • • • • • Directly, the self-efficacy process starts before individuals select their choices and initiate their efforts. People tend to weigh, evaluate and integrate information about their personal capabilities. This initial stage of process has nothing to do with individual’s abilities or resources. It rather, depends upon how they perceive or believe they can use those abilities and resources to accomplish the given task in this context. This evaluation of perception then leads to the expectations of personal efficacy which in turn determines: − The decision to perform the specific task in this context. − The amount of effort that will be expended to accomplish the task − The level of persistence that will be forthcoming despite problems, regardless of evidence and adversity. The Impact: Self-efficacy can directly affect: • • • Choice behaviour: Decisions made based on how efficacious a person feels towards the opinion in work assignments or careers, etc. Motivational effort: People will try harder and give more effort on tasks where they have high self efficacy than those where the efficacy judgement is low. Perseverance: Those with high self-efficacy bounce back, be resilient when meeting problems or even failure, whereas those with low efficacy tend to give up when obstacles appear.
People with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external influence. High efficacy people enter into potential stressful situations with confidence and assurance and thus are able to resist stressful reactions. . Self esteem has to do with people and self-perceived competence and self image in an organisation. I do not have the requisite ability’ Vulnerability to Stress: People with low self-efficacy tend to experience stress and burnout. low esteems will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. High esteem people tend to choose unconventional jobs. In managerial positions. This is called as organisation based self esteem (OBSE) Directly related to the desire for success. • c) Sources of Self-Efficacy: Self Efficacy Masterly Experiences or Performance Attainments d) Applications: • • • • • Vicarious Experiences of Modeling Social Persuasion Physiological and Psychological Arousal Training and development Stress management.• Facilitating through patterns: People with high self-efficacy say ‘I know I can figure out how to solve this problem’. People with high self-esteem believe that they have abilities to undertake challenging jobs. People with low efficacy say ‘I know I can not do that. Low esteem people are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations and approvals from others. Leadership 4) Self-Esteem: • • • • • • • • • • • Refers to the feeling of like or dislike of one-self. Low esteem people prone to the beliefs and behaviours of those they respect. Self managed work teams Job design and goal setting. since they expect failure. Low esteems are less likely to take unpopular stands.
Everyone has to play a number of diverse roles. but only if like many other human characteristics – such as creativity. Research results on self-esteem are mixed. . satisfaction. feelings. likely to fear decision making. hopelessness and depressive symptoms. − Another study found that those with high self-esteem tended to become egotistical and faced with pressure situations and may result in aggressive or violent behaviour when threatened. − Yet another study says: “High self esteem can be a good thing. each playing a role. Low esteems are less satisfied with their jobs. lack negotiation and interpersonal skills and are reluctant unable to change. People with low self-esteem are not confident in thinking ability. a) Role Concepts: are associated with roles a i) Role Identity: • • Certain attitudes and actual behaviour are consistent with a role and they create ‘the role identity’ People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognise the situation and its demands clearly require major changes. intelligence and persistence – it is nurtured and channeled in constructive ethical ways otherwise it can become antisocial and destructive” • 5) Roles: • • • • All group members are actors. we engage in certain types of behaviour. both on and off his job. It is found that males score slightly higher in self-esteem than females. − One study found that people with high self-esteem handle failure better than those with low self esteem. Based on the interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave. a ii)Role Perception: • • • It is one’s view.• • • • • High esteems are more satisfied with their jobs. A role is a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. less anxiety. Our behaviour varies with the role we are playing. That view indicates how one is supposed to act in a given situation. High self esteem people have more positive attitudes.
Supervisors particularly have to change roles rapidly as they work with seniors.• Since managers perform many different roles. as well as opening up lines of communication to discover the other’s perceptions. to a large part is determined by the role defined in the context in which we are acting. the result is role conflict. Role of a judge or football referee. eg. Manager Manager’s perception A of own role Manager’s perception B of employee’s role Manager’s perception C of the manager’s role as seen by the employee Employee D Employee’s perception of manager’s role E F Employee’s perception of own role Employee’s perception of the employee’s role as seen by the managers • • • • The key is for both parties to gain accurate role perceptions of their own roles and for the roles of the other. Unless roles are clarified and agreed upon by both parties. technical and non-technical activities. It exists when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may be more difficult than compliance with another. they must be highly adaptive and exhibit role of flexibility in order to change from one role to another quickly. • a iii)Role Expectations: • • Defined as how others behave you should act in a given situation. conflicts will inevitably arise. How we have to behave. b) Leader/Manager Roles: by Mintzberg . subordinates. a iv)Role Conflict: • • When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Reaching such an understanding requires studying the available job descriptions. The complex web of manager – employee role perception.
Greenberg & B.Formal Authority and status Interpersonal Roles Figure head Leader Liaison Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokes person Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator c) Some Roles Commonly Played by Group Members: (by J.A.Baron) Task Oriented Roles Initiator Contributors Recommend new solutions to group members Information Seekers Attempt to obtain the necessary facts Opinion Givers Share own opinion with others Energisers Stimulate the group into action whenever interest drops Relations Oriented Roles Harmonisers Meditate group conflicts Self Oriented Roles Blockers Act stubborn & resistant to the group Recognition Seekers Call attention to their own achievements Dominators Assert authority by manipulating the group Avoiders Maintain distance. isolate themselves from follow group members Compromisers Shift opinions to create group harmony Encouragers Praise and encourage others Expediters Suggest ways the groups can operate more smoothly .
Many a times it is a ‘top down’ management directive.CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 2 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE 2) Defination: “Organisational change is the process by which organisations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness” 6) Importance of Change: • • • • Change is the only thing permanent in the world. etc. step by step. but pervasive too. Humans and organisms. A process and not an event. Life itself is almost synonymous with the concept of change. Is fast and is likely to increase further in the present competitive business. To many it is threatening. It is a ‘natural’ and ‘adaptive’ change as a consequence/reaction to the external circumstances and pressures. a trouble maker. Sometimes it is also a ‘mutually agreed’ plan for change in various groups of management. Change produces emotional reactions too. It is normal and constant. Even if the management does not want to change. roles of people. Sometimes it is a ‘radial’ shift from the current to a new process. It is dependent upon the organisational environment and or culture. • • • • . Change encompasses leadership. it has visions of revolutions. the external pressures force it to change. An organisation too cannot and should not remain constant/stagnant all the time. organisational environment. Sometimes is an ‘incremental’ change. Change is inevitable. • • • • • • 7) Characteristics of Change: • • • • • • Vital if a company were to avoid stagnation. environments and expectations. ‘grow up’ leaving behind the characteristics of earlier stages of development and adopt new behaviours with age. If throws up also a dissatisfied person. motivation.
The traditions and norms to which the management and employees are accustomed to. Are the value & image of the company being changed during the change? The origins of the individuals within the company. The image the company likes to promote. The good and bad experiences of the individuals of the company on whom the new change is vested in. Those three components are: − The historical and political evolution of the company. History & Politics: The historical and political evolution of a company will have a significant bearing on its acceptance of change. • • .8) Corporate Culture and Change Management: • All changes interface with three organisational components which constitute the organisational culture. The unwritten and written long standing rights and policies existing in the company and the likely threats to them. These factors are: • • • • • • • Base & origin of the company Associated values of the company. − The people who work for the company • o The illustration of the 3 components and their inter-relations are shown in the sketch Changes Historical & political Corporate evolution Culture Management & Organisation Changes People 4a. The perception of the company that the customers are holding. − The management and organisation of the company.
The boundaries between jobs. Before embarking upon the change. With increased harassing of technology and processes availability of jobs decrease. sphere of influence. Role of line management shifts from ‘autocrat’ to that of ‘facilitator’ Senior management takes more of strategic stance. They recognize the contribution to the achievement of business objectives. • • 4c. Multi skilling of employees increase and in greater demand. their acceptance and willingness and take suitable remedial measures. promotion or other type of recognition.Management & Organisation: • • • • • • • • • • • • Changes will impact the roles of management. and there inter-relationships. Typically with any change people expect a reward pay hike. The ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of power. The likely ‘balance of power’ between the current owners and the functional experts. measure and analyse the effect of the change on the workforce. divisions and departments become blurred. Think carefully the impact of change in every job it affects. • . Senior management encourages opportunities for progress through innovation.. • • • 4b. Every decision on change ‘impacts’ the people. The ‘acceptance’ of change process by top management.• The relationships and cordiality between the top management and the people who have been vested with the powers of change. All the activities and outputs gets customer oriented. All cautions should be exercised in the people oriented changes. The requirements of specialists slowly decrease. Both project and group work increase. People: • • • • Most of the issues in change management are ‘people’ oriented. It will also impact the structure and operation of the organisation. The jobs broaden in terms of scope and of accountability. personal status. etc.
physical move to a different location or the change in maturity level of a person which occurs overtime. The groups could be departments or informal work groups. • • c) Organisational – Level Changes: • Changes at this level involve major programs that affect both individuals and groups. can resist change envisaged by management. Formal groups. group and organisational a) Individual Level Change: • Change is reflected in such developments as changes in job assignment. This is because most activities in organisations are organised on a group basis. • • b) Group Level Change: • • • • Most organisational changes have their major effects at the group level. can frequently overcome resistance at the individual level. Decisions regarding these changes are generally made by senior management.9) Levels of Change: 3 Levels – Individual. − − − − − Work flows Job design Social organisation Influence the status systems & Communication patterns • • Managers must consider group factors when implementing change. the above is not true. Changes at the group level can affect. These decisions are rarely implemented only by a single manger. They cover long periods of time. since any change at individual level. like unions. will also have repercussions in the group. Require considerable planning for implementation. Informal groups can pose a major barrier to change because of the inherent strength they possess. Effective implementation of change at the group level. Change in the organisational level is generally referred to as ‘organisational development’ • • • • • • . Decisions at this level involve major programs that affect both individual and groups. Some say that changes at the individual level will seldom have significant implications for the total organisation. Others say.
TQM is driven by statistical data. reduce waste. re-engineering is an example. Radial rethinking and redesigning of business processes to obtain rapid organisational effectiveness.6) Types of Change: • Two Types : Evolutionary Change Revolutionary Change • • Evolutionary Change : Gradual. Orients with customer as object. roles and work activities. TQM is an example Revolutionary Change: Sudden. TQM has 4 key components Systems Change Through TQM Management People Processes • • • b) Re-Engineering: • • • Revolutionary change. drastic & organisation-wide. a) Total Quality Management (TQM): • • • • Evolutionary change. Continuous efficiency improvement to reducer costs. improve quality. Business processes Re-engineering Values & Benefits Jobs and Structures Management & measurement • • • . Known as Business Process Re-engineering. Employees are expected to make suggestions on all aspects of processes and management. Developed by Edward Demming Broad goal of TQM is continuous improvement. Ignores existing arrangement of tasks. Has the following components. incremental.
The two differ in their impact on organisational culture. TQM and Reengineering have four identifiable founding principles and commonalities which are summarized as follows: TQM Systems Processes People Management Reengineering Management & Measurement Business Processes Values & Benefits Jobs & Structures • d) Similarities between TQM & Reengineering: • Both emphasize objectivity and this they obtain through statistical analysis and benchmarking. improvement. TQM is an attitudinal change with constant focus on continuous improvement and customer. • • • • . Both differ in perception too TQM has analytical thinking. Re-engineering is radical reinvention and top down approach. intuition. lateral thinking and raw creativity associated with senior management. TQM focuses on improvement whereas reengineering focuses on customer relationships. Both stress on job description and proper organisation structural relationships. offer a tremendously powerful recipe for building or rebuilding an organisation. Both promote empowerment and involvement high value team work in quality circles. Both emphasize on power and accountability. Both promote a process orientation. But the two approaches applied together and with understanding and sympathy. TQM – a continuous. bottom up. comparison fact finding and reasoning. measurement. rather than pure directions. Reengineering has a program of change with an identifiable beginning and an end. although there is a difference in emphasis. Both demand change of people’s attitudes and their values and beliefs. Reengineering demands conceptual thinking rooted in supposition.c) Integration of evolutionary & revolutionary change – TQM & Re-engineering: • The popular approach is that the two can not co-exist. performance measurement and reward schemes. Both stress the role of management on coaching and facilitating. • • • • • • • • e) Dissimilarities between TQM & Reengineering: • • • • • The two differ in their approach to change. Both emphasize the importance of customer.
The changes stem from several factors.• • Reengineering can address major strategic issues at top level management. TQM can address the problems at the lower levels. Some are internal. Causes for change: External Causes Globalisation Work force diversity Technological change Managing ethical behaviour Government policies Competition Scarcity of resources Mergers and acquisitions Pollution/Ecological controls Calamities/Emergencies Internal Causes Organisational silence Falling effectiveness Crisis Changing employee expectations Change in the work climate Downsizing Reengineering Productivity improvements Cycle Time Reduction 8) Resistance to Changes: Organisational Level Organisational structures Organisational Cultures Organisational Strategies Over determination (Structural inertia) Sub-unit Level Differences in subcommittee Orientation Power and Conflict Group Level Group Norms Group Cohesiveness Group think Individual Level Cognitive Biases Uncertainty Fear of loss Selective Perception Habit Logical Reasons . arising from outside the organisation. arising from sources within the organisation. Some are external. 7) Forces for Change in Organisations: • • • • • Change has become the norm in most organisations.
the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change. Moving to a desired condition. effective change occurs by: • • • Unfreezing the current situation. Initially both the groups may be equal in their force. • • • • • • 10)Different change Models Lewin’s three stage model of change system: As per Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model. Refreezing the system so that it remains in this desired state. . When the forces are in balance. At P2 the forces balance between the two groups. the change starts occurring in steps and reaches a level of P2. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. At P1. To get the organisation to change.Developed by Kurt Lewin Level of Performance Resistance to Change Equal Arrows Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • • Refer the sketch In any organisation. Simultaneously reduce the resistance for change.9) Force Field Theory of Change: .
values and behaviours Refreezing Reinforcing new values attitudes and behaviours • The model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. To change sometimes through structural changes. values and behaviours are established as the new way of organisational approach. Management should ensure that the new organisational culture and record systems encourage a new behaviour. values and attitudes.a) Unfreezing: Involves • • • • • • Shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains status quo Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours. the 3 stage processes must be completed. New attitudes. b) Moving: Aims • To shift or alter the behaviour of individuals. The new way of operating are cemented and reinforced. To change sometimes through organisational development techniques. departments or organisations where the changes are to take place. Old ways of functioning are avoided • • • d) Lewin’s Change Model: Unfreezing Reducing the forces for status quo Moving Developing new attitudes. • • . • • • c) Refreezing: • • The change becomes permanent. Failures can be traced back to anyone of the stages. Eliminating the rewards for current behaviours and discouraging current behaviours. Encouraging people to search for new solutions. To develop new behaviours. Old behaviours should be discarded and new behaviours are introduced. Presenting the existing problem Making the people to recognise the need for change.
This is a process of systematically planning. Communication of the changes to all involved. Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring.e) Transition Management: • • • Is between any two phases of change. but the change agent can change the sequences when need arises. In the transition state. This information must be able to be translated into action. organizing and implementing change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within an organisation. • • • • • 11) Planning Models • • • Developed by Lippit. This model follows a seven step process as in the sketch: • • Scouting Entry Diagnosis Planning Termination Stabilization & Evaluation Action • The phases are generally sequential. the business must carry on. Managing transition is essential to keep the organisation going. Watson & Westley (1958). the organisation is neither old nor new. Still. . • • Entry: − In this phase development of mutual contract and mutual expectations take place. Later modified by Kolb & Frohman (1970) This model is based on the principle that information must be freely and openly shared between the organisation and the change agent. employees. Scouting: − Phase where the change agent and the organisation jointly explore the need for change. customer and suppliers. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. − They also explore the areas requiring change. play a great role in transition management.
12)The Action Research Models: • • This model focuses on the planned change activity as a ‘cyclical process’ 8 main steps involved in the action research model are explained below. questionnaire. . The consultant provides the client all relevant and useful data. b) Consultation with a behavioral expert: • After problems are sensed and realized. Methods used-interviews. • Termination: − Phase where a decision is made to leave the system or to end and begin another.• Diagnosis: − In this phase the specific improvement goals are identified. These problems are removed with the help of an OD practitioner. − The need for further action or termination is also made in this phase. • Action: − Indicates the implementation of the steps identified during the planning stage. To determine the strengths and weaknesses of the area under study. Also analysis of organisational performance. • Planning: − Actual and possible reasons for resistance to change are identified. d) Feedback to key client or group: • • • Data gathered is passed on to the client. the help of an OD expert is sought c) Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis: • • • Consultant and organisational members gather the data. a) Problem Identification: • • A stage in which the management senses the existence of one or more problems. process observations. • Stabilization and Evaluation: − Phase where evaluation is undertaken to determine the extent of success of the planned change. − Planning for specific improvement of goals is also made.
h) Data gathering after action: • • • Is cyclic in nature. Involves and includes: − − − Installing new methods and procedures. The specific action depends upon on the organisation’s cultural. further diagnosis and identified the problem. i) Schematic diagram of action research model: Perception of problems by key individuals Consultation with behavioural science experts Joint Action Planning Feedback by these experts to client group Joint diagnose of problem New data gathering as a result of action Data gathering after action Action Feedback to client group by consultants Rediagnosis & action planning by client & consultant New Action Rediagnosis of situations. . etc. technological and work environment problems to be resolved and the time and costs associated with the desired OD intervention. Based on the feedback. Reorganizing structures and work designs. g) Action: • • Stage involves the actual change from one organisational state to another. Results of additional research are summarized and submitted to the group again. Reinforcing new behaviours. Focuses on any additional research needed. situations re-diagnosed and new actions taken. New data is taken to find the effects of actions already taken.e) Joint Diagnosis of the Problem: • • • • The group discusses the feedback. The group does validation. f) Joint action planning: • • The consultant and management team jointly agree on problem – solving methods.
Goals are set for the change efforts. The rules for carrying out the consulting relationships. Model consists of four phases • • • a) Exploration Phase: • Organisation decides whether to plan for specific change and commit resources for it. And the resources for OD are committed. The change process is undertaken after the ‘diagnoses of sources of problems and then analyzing it. Organisational members who are aware of the need for change initiate the change process. • • • • The contracting phase lays the ground rules for a collaborative relationship and seeks clarification as to − − − What each party expects from the relationships. This leads to search for OD resources and assistance and then contracting OD experts. Understanding of the present state of the organisation and the processes of change required to move to another state is required.13)Integrative Model of Planned Change: • • • Developed by Bullock and Batten (1985) Describes both organisational states and change processes. there is a mutual assessment of the requirements. b) Planning Phase: • Planning commences once the problems facing the organisation are understood. • • • • • • . Appropriate actions are designed to improve the organisation. − And the consultant assesses whether the client is ready for change and has the necessary resources and commitment. Approval of the key decision makers is also sought during this stage. In the search process. Diagnosis is jointly undertaken by organisational members and OD practitioners. wherein: − The organisation members make judgements about consultant’s skill and competence. The basis for this model is that an organisation exists in different states at different times. How much time each will invest and what it will cost. Planned movement can occur from one state to another.
the contract with the OD professional is gradually terminated. The new behaviour reinforced and further strengthened through: − − − • Regular feedbacks Incentives & Rewards. The change activities are monitored and evaluated periodically. Resource dependence perspective – examines strategic change. e) The integrative model of change is indicated in the sketch below: Exploration Stage Change Process Need awareness Search Contracting Planning Phase Change Process Diagnosis Design Decision Action Phase Change Process Implementation Evaluation Integration Phase Change Process Stabilization Diffusion Renewal 14)Perspectives on Change: • • • Four major perspectives on organisational change. Also to check if any modifications and refinements are required for the process. • • . This is done to assess the progress and check whether positive results are being achieved. Contingency perspective – focuses on structural change. • • • d) Integration Phase: • This phase involves making the changes as a part and routine of regular organisational functioning after having successfully implemented and stabilized them. It includes processes aimed at transitioning the organisation from its current state to the desired future state. Population ecology perspective – looks at the limits of change and resistance to change. professionalization and compliance. Institutional perspective – looks at becoming and change through imitation. • Slowly.c) Action Phase: • • The changes derived from planning stage are implemented in this stage.
Any job that consists of a single activity or very few activities is a highly specialised job eg. Specialization is also known as ‘division of labour’ In an organisation there is usually a horizontal and vertical division of labour. An organisation changes if the environment changes.. These includes: • • • • • • • • • Customers Suppliers A society Norms Values • • • Competitors Governmental agencies An economy growth rate interest rate of Social inflation Habits • • • Customs The term phenomenon does not refer to a single phenomenon It includes a variety of phenomena in organisations. are called as horizontal specialization or horizontal division of labour. Signifies everything that exists outside our organisation.a) Notion of Environment: • The most important notion in the four perspectives of organisational change is the idea of environment. Two central dimensions of structure-specialization and integration. converts them into products and services and gives these products and services back to the surroundings. etc. Variety of things that exists outside yet surrounds the organisation. Organisation is something that gets resources from outside. the job of a truck loader. Refers to the member and variety of different activities that make up individual jobs in an organisation. The fundamental idea is that it is the ‘environment’ which is the source of most of the major changes. • • b) Contingency Perspective: • • Mainly concerned with the structure of an organisation.. The term ‘environment’ means ‘the surrounding’ That is everything that surrounds the organisation. accounting. • Specialization: • • • • • . Environment derived from ‘Environ’ means to ‘surround’. Structure refers to the way in which an organisation breaks down a complex task into individual activities and integrates these separate activities to achieve its purpose. personnel. Organisations divided into manufacturing. marketing.
Contingent means ‘depending’. procedures and systems and goals. Any change in these two dimensions is called as ‘restructuring’ of an organisation.Integration: • Refers to the various ways and means of coordinating the work of individuals in the organisation. an organisation would be inefficient. The main idea of contingency perspective is that the most effective or appropriate structure is one that is in ‘fit’ or ‘alignment’ with its contingency variables. Contingency factors depend upon contingency variables. The most important aspect of contingency perspective relating to organisational change is the relationship between environment and structure. or if there is a change in their environment. These variables are: size of an organisation. Organisational changes almost always involve restructuring. There are two dimensions that characterise the environment of an organisation. or if they change their strategy or if they acquire new technology. rules. Both specialization and integration are factors that are within the control of an organisation’s management. plans and targets. Any change in one or more contingency variables results in a misfit between the structure and the contingency variable. technology of an organisation. Misfit requires a change in the organisation structure. Without these coordination mechanisms. When an organisation grows larger. The most common and familiar methods of integration are through direct supervision. In restructuring several questions arise. What types of structure? How specialised the jobs should be? What are the coordinating mechanisms in the organisation? Etc. These bring about uniformity and standardization in the activities of the organisation. they need to change their structure in order to remain effective. unproductive and chaotic. Lack of fit or misfit affects the performance of the entire organisation. • • • General: • • • • Contingency Perspective: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . The management can determine the extent of specialization and type of integration required within an organisation. These are the central questions based on the contingency perspective. strategy of an organisation and environment of an organisation.
It is based on the assumption that attributes of size. There are 7 strategies identified: • • • • Internal Strategy: • • Domain choice • Recruitment • Buffing . Are the different organisations in the environment changing? And if yes how fast? If the organisations in the environment are not changing or changing slowly. the environment is complex. ‘configurational approach’ has emerged to deal with this inadequacy in the contingent perspective. environment and structure and so on. Over the years. Scholars say that it considers only two variables at a time: strategy and structure. strategy and environment commonly occur together. size and structure. Task uncertainty is the difference between the amount of information required to perform a task and the amount of information already possessed by the organisation. If the answer is few. The higher the level of complexity and instability. But the contingency variables are themselves related to one another. the higher the level of uncertainty. then the environment is stable. In other words. the environment is simple. the environment is unstable. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • c) Resource Dependence Perspective: by PFEFEER & SALANCIK • Based on the simple premise that organisations need to acquire resources from the environment in order to survive. If is therefore. Pfeffer and Salancik profounded two strategies: internal and external. technology. If the answer is many. Internal strategies are aimed at adapting and changing the organisation to fit the environment. If they are changing rapidly. Dependence of an organisation on other external organisations for resources makes it vulnerable because it creates uncertainty. necessary to study how the variables impact on one another and how these relationships affect structure.• One is the level of complexity – how many different organisations are there in the environment. effective organisations have a cluster of common attributes. In recent years a new approach called. The other feature is the level of stability. This makes them dependent on the groups and organisations in the environments which control the resources that the organisation requires. This cluster of attributes is called a ‘configuration’. contingency perspective has come under lot of scholarly criticism.
Consequently. Some of the reasons can be: − − − − • Organisational leaders may have incomplete information about the environment. • A major criticism against this perspective is that it does not provide any positive role for managers. patterns of behaviours. Selection: refers to the process through which the environment selects those organisations that have the required features – some are selected out or die. 5 external strategies: • • Advertising Coalescing • • Contracting Lobbying • Co-opting d) Population – Ecology Perspective: • This perspective states that individual organisations can not adapt to changing environments for a variety of reasons. There are 3 types of processes for such death and births: − − • • • • • • • • − Variation: are those processes that lead to differences in organisations in terms of strategy structure. two wheeler manufacturers. Those organisations that lack these capabilities are unable to get the required sources and therefore. • Therefore.Environmental scanning Geographical dispersion External Strategy: • • • • • Smoothing • Rationing Are meant to alter the environment to fit the organisation. systems. management systems suited only for their specific niche. Populations means organisations which are similar – restaurants. etc. Retention: constitutes those processes that help organisations retain the features that are required by the environment. fail to survive. textile firms. Organisational assets may be specific to its current tasks. The niche provides the resources for the organisations. There may be legal and financial barriers to entry and exit from current market or industries. some organisations die and a few others are born into the population. skills and culture. . Each population occupies an ecological niche in the environment. it is more useful to study a population of organisations rather than a single organisation. Organisations survive in their niches by developing distinctive capabilities such as skills. There may be political resistance to change inside the organisation. The environment consists of different niches.
Why? How? Are there different types? Which is better? Organisational levels? Limitations? Messy & Painful? Our knowledge is fragmented. They help organisations to change rather than learning about change. 3 separate areas of management dealing with change. Prescriptive – lay down guidelines for bringing about effective change in organisations. values and culture of the environment in which they operate affect organisations. Descriptive – informs us the way in which organisations change. Such organisations are able to obtain the necessary resources. values and culture make up the institutional norms. but tend to be general rather than specific. Norms. consultants and practitioners. Processes? • • • Models are useful and less complex than theories and offer practical advice. Organisational theories: − Results of the work of scholars and academics. unified and coherent theory. Organisations change their structures and strategies not to improve performance but to conform to the norms and standards of the institutional environment. They are also called as ‘symbolic elements’. 2 types of change models: Descriptive & Prescriptive. − No single. Semi-theoretical and semi-practical. Organisations that lack legitimacy have difficulty in getting the requisite resources. − They only study organisational changes than change organisations. • • • • • • 15)Understanding the change Process: • • A manager frequently grapples with change. Organisational Change Tools: − Special tools and techniques intended to bring about specific types of changes in organisations. Organisational Change Models: − − − − − − Work of academics. lawful and proper. Organisations that conform to the norms and standards are considered as legitimate. .e) Institutional Perspective: • Social norms.
marketing. quality and costs. One type includes all the changes that take place inside an organisation – computerization. In order to bring about changes in these organisations need to change three other aspects. new inventory control. How to change – is process of change. The above is ‘intro organisational’ change. structure and people management. These are strategy. etc.• • If we want to change effectively we must integrate theory and practice. Organisation levers of change − − − − − − • • • • What to change – is content of change. Right Values Management of change Right knowledge Right action Three components of Productive Change • • We have to distinguish between two types of organisational change. A model of change levers is indicated below: Marketing Technology Managing People Quality Costs . This is truly ‘organisational’ Organisational change includes intro organisational. right knowledge and right action that leads to productive change. Four areas which constitute the content of change – technology. It is the combination of right values. Another type refers to the organisation as a whole.
3 Creating a shared awareness of conditions to produce a common perception that change must be implemented. values and policies. Such changes are generally met with resistance and require careful implementation to overcome the fear. Since this involves people. Such negative action will generate resistance and reduce necessary risk-taking behaviour. • • • • • • • . 6 Recognising that resistance to change is a part of the normal process of adaptation. mistakes and subsequent learning. so that managers can be educated to be aware of this and equipped to manage this reaction. ‘BECKHARD’ suggests 10 organisation prerequisites which must exist before transformational change can be achieved. 7 Educating participants about the need for change and training them with the necessary competence to be effective. 9 Facilitating the change process with necessary resources. 2 Producing a written statement about the future direction of the organisation that makes clear its new objectives. Changes are implemented ‘top down’ or ‘bottom up’ approach Top down is transformational. bottom up is incremental. Top down is perceived as imposed and controlled. 8 Persevering with the change process and avoiding blame where an attempt to implement a fact of this process fails. 10 Maintaining open communication about progress. Changes are perceived as ‘deviant or normal’ and ‘threatening or desirable’ ‘Deviants’ are those which are imposed or outside the prevailing cultural norms. to overcome resistance and gain commitment.16)Leading the Change Process: • • Implementation of strategic change is likely to be problematic. dramatic changes as part of the overall process of transformation. while bottom up is participative. their emotional and personal relationships are involved. 5 Generating an acceptance that this type of change will require a long time to implement fully even though there may be short-term. 4 Assembling a body of key managers and other important opinion – formers to gain their commitment to the change process so that this may be disseminated more widely. They are: Priority Prerequisite 1 Ensuring senior management commitment to the proposed changes which needs to be visible to all participants through out the organisation.
In strategic HRM. • • • The 3 key levers are: cultural. personnel and structural. Line Managers: • • . Used for both top down and bottom up approaches. Corporate Strategy Culture Personnel Structure Human Resource Outcomes Change is the heart of the ‘open’ approach to HR strategies as indicated in the sketch above. idealistic situation.a) Strategic HRM for implementing change: • Hendry & Pettigrew presented the central components of strategic HRM as follows: − The use of planning − A coherent approach to the design and management of personnel systems based on an employment policy and HR strategy and often emphasized by a ‘philosophy’ − Matching HRM activities and policies to some explicit business strategy. The features are: − Specific HR outcomes or desired employee behaviour has to be adapted to achieve the desired corporate strategy. • • b) Responsibility for leading the implementation of the change process: • Mabey & Salaman suggests three sources HRM is moving from HR specialist to the line manager. the HR philosophy has to be integrated with the line manager. but difficult to achieve. − Seeing the people of the organisation as a ‘strategic resource’ for achieving ‘competitive advantage’ • Mabey & Salaman model has an ‘open’ approach to HR strategies. A fantastic. These 3 contribute to the employees’ behaviour.
• Line managers better. external consultants may also be called upon. The external consultant provides the off the shelf recipe for the client. Monitor the performances of the procedures. • • • • • • . Human Resource Specialists: • Increasing importance to the line manager does not signal the death of HR specialist. Devises the personnel strategies for the best HR outcomes. The HR specialist. They act as catalysts to develop novel solutions. − − − − Communicate plans to their workforce Explain their relevance vis-à-vis strategy. Secures the resources necessary for change programmes. As shown in the open HRM approach sketch. Recommends course of actions Diagnoses the problems Helps managers to implement change measures. the HR specialist has a ‘change maker’ role. Integrates personnel. Operate personnel procedures. Consultant has to be involved from the beginning to the implementation and stabilization stages. − − − − − • • Has a close awareness of the organisation’s operating environment and business plans. External Consultants: • Besides line mangers and HR specialists working in concert. Sells the ideas of HRM changes to other managers. structural and cultural strategies.
• b) Organisational culture/Corporate culture: • • • • • Has been defined as the: Philosophies Assumptions Attitudes • • • Ideologies Beliefs Norms • • Values Expectations That knit the organisation together and are shared by employees c) 10 Characteristics of Culture: 1. Meaning & Defination: a) Culture: is a complex whole: which includes • • • • • • Knowledge Morals Other capabilities • • • Belief Law Other habits • • Art Custom And acquired by a man in society. Shared phenomenon – is basic to culture and implies that the cultural ethos is shared among the members of the society. Individual Initiative: • The degree of responsibility. Two terms are key to the concept of culture History – cultural heritage of a society are passed on from generation to generation. innovative and risk seeking. . Risk Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive. 3.III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 3 – ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE A. freedom and independence that individuals have 2. Direction: • The degree to which the organisation creates clear objectives and performance expectations.
5. Control: • The number of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that is used to oversee and control employee behaviour. Conflict Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to air their conflicts and criticism openly. 8. Management Support: • The degree to which managers provide clear communication. . we get the essence of culture. A Humanistic – Helpful Culture: Organisations are managed in a participative. An Approval Culture: Agreement. Communication Patterns: • The degree to which organisational communications are restricted to the formal hierarchy of authority. • When these characteristics are mixed and meshed. consensus seeking. assistance and support to their subordinates. An Affiliative Culture: Interpersonal relationships are given high priority. Twelve Types of Corporate Culture: Furnham & Günter in their book ‘Corporate Assessment’ (1993) classified corporate culture as follows: 1. Reward System: • The degree to which reward allocations are based on employee performance criteria in contrast to seniority. 10. 3. Integration: • The degree to which units within the organisation are encouraged to operate in a coordinated manner. favouritism and so on. 4. 7. 2. A Conventional Culture: These are conservative bureaucratic and traditional organisations. Conformity and adherence are valued. 6. 9.4. Identity: • The degree to which members identify with the organisation as a whole rather than with their particular work group or field of professional expertise. conflict avoidance dominate this type of organisations. consultative and mutually supportive manner. B.
and energy that will be required. At this point. and a common history begins to be built. and is worth the investment of time. 4.Bate in 1995. 6. A Dependent Culture: Centralisation. 11. A Perfectionist Culture: Perseverance. hierarchical orientation.5. McDonald’s. perfection. A Self Actualisation Culture: Creativity. 5. That is. is workable. incorporating. achieving targets and accomplishing their own goals and pursuing standards of excellence 12. 9. The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organisation by raising funds. formal roles and seeking instructions from seniors all the time for all the activities are the traits of this culture. Egs: Motorola. quality emphasis behaviour is valued in this culture. building and so on. locating space. obtaining patents. o This gap is due to the excessive attention paid on cultural plans and inadequate considerations of approach strategy. o HR managers should advocate a suitable approach for implementation of cultural change based on the type of cultural change planned and organisational environment. o The classifications below help practitioners to gain a broad perspective of approaches that are available to them. Four Practical Approaches to Cultural Change: Book Titled ‘Strategies for Cultural Change’ by S. is worth running some risks for. An Oppositional Culture: Awarding negativism and being critical is the virtue in these organisations. A Power Culture: Using positional power. money. An Avoidance Culture: Punishing mistakes and no reward to good work characterise this type of organisations. 7. outperforming others and this culture promotes win-lose situations. arbitrariness and subjectivity prevail in the organisations of this culture. Here. hard work are valued here and avoiding mistakes is the hallmark of this type. Wal-Mart D. C. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. others are brought into the organisation. 2. 8. 3. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. How Organisational Culture Starts: 1. o Managers should know that many times the gap between plans and implementation of culture is wide. 10. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. members criticize each others decisions. o The delivered results are frustratingly disproportionate to the efforts and costs incurred. research and development. A Competitive Culture: Employees are rewards and for exceeding targets. . An Achievement Culture: It is characterised by success.
Continuous development Based on power and control Uses informal network Unseen manipulation High participation Act first.o The approaches: Appr oach 1. Aggressive • • • • • Characteristics Rapid change Dismantles traditional values New culture is noncomplex Top down monitored Detailed plans/actions Reasonable. Does not succeed in bringing about fundamental cultural change. Loses sight of its radical intent. not confrontation. Indoctrinative • E. breadth of support leads to crisis of change. Corrosive • • • • • • • • • • • Lead to genuine and large scale change initiated by small scale network Lead to wide scale changes at an informational. How Culture Perpetuates Itself: 4 Hiring & socialization of members who ‘fit in’ with the culture Removal of members who deviate from culture Behaviour 1 Culture 3 Culture communications Culture . not ends Collusion. Conciliative • • • • • • • • • • 3. Suit a situation where there is a simple source of authority Loads to a common sense welcoming of new culture Disarm opposition • • • But it usually Mobilises distant Is politically native Lacks skills. 4. logical network Advocates one world view • It Can Lead to a strong integrated culture. legitimize later Planned and programmed Explicit learning process Socializing Unified. quiet Slow change over to new values Deals with means. technical level • Is used to defined existing order and oppose change initiations. Gets seduced back to status quo • 2.
Despite this. 6. Identify aspects of the current culture that could still be valid and other aspects that need to be modified or changed. 10. Involve employees in the change process. sub-goals. • • • • F. 8. Formulate a clear picture of the firm’s new strategy and of the shared values. Identify the depth of culture change needed. Guidelines for minimizing such tensions would be: • • • • Setting realistic values for culture change. Take a close look at the inner functioning of the organisation and determine if cultural change is necessary. norms and behaviours needed to make it work. 2 – Indicates the cultural justification for the behaviour of the organisation’s members. Not promising what the organisations can not deliver. The top management commitment must be seen and felt.• • • 2 Managers seeking to create culture change must intervene at these points 1 – The first thing to change is people’s behaviour. 5 – The way to reinforce a culture is to remove those organisational members whose behaviour deviates from the cultural values of the organisation. Defense resistance. Providing mechanisms for member dissent and diversity. Guidelines/Checklists for cultural change: 1. Promoting performers. A positive and competitive tension is to be nurtured among department. 5. 11. demoting laggards and terminating undisciplined people lead to ethical and legal problems. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity. 3. Make changes from top down. resulting in ethical and legal problems for individual members. . through direction and training. 2. 4 – This step impacts the culture by hiring and socialization of members who match the culture. new stories and new heroes are needed to be widely and consistently communicated. Communicate the change translated into goals. 4. 9. Educating managers about the legal and ethical pit falls inherent in culture change. 3 – New rituals. expect certain casualties to occur – some employees may leave the organisation and a few set backs may occur to the change effort. build momentum in terms of initial success. activities and behaviours. Monitor the progress from time to time. Culture change can ignite tensions between organisational and individual interests. Such removal reduces the variances in behaviour and sends to those in the organisation powerful signals relating to appropriate behaviour. 7. Check on the leadership and support processes to overcome anxiety among managers in giving up their earlier responses.
Depends on the degree of impact on employee behaviour o No one type is the best: . o Subculture: • A culture in an organisation may be made up of various subcultures. o Implicit: • Culture should be an increasingly acceptable conversation topic among employees. o Symbolic: • • Management actions are even more important to watchful employees. Integrated: • Cultures will be more easily recognised when their elements are generally integrated. Employees quickly detect manager’s lip service. • • o Stable: • Culture should not keep on changing frequently.• Helping them develop guidelines for resolving such issues. nature of competition and other factors of environment. And elements consistent with each other. if not embrace the assumptions and values of culture. o Cultures of varying strength: • • Can be characterised as relatively strong or weak. Distinctive: There is no best culture for all times. Management’s sayings have powerful influence on employees. industry. They must fit together like pieces of puzzle. 10 Characteristics of Organisational Cultures: 1. 1. • Culture depends upon the organisation’s goals. o Accepted: • Most members must at least accept. G. o A reflection of Top Management: • • Cultures evolve from top management.
such as a manager’s error and an executive’s forgiveness. it is the essential process of learning the ropes to survive and prosper within the firm. These approaches help to shape the attitudes. • • • • • 2. Stories convey how in the past problems have been solved. thoughts and behaviour of employees. Communicating and changing culture: • • • Organisations have to consciously create and manage their cultures. Examples of formal communication vehicles for transmitting organisational cultures are: o o o o o Executive visions of the firm’s future Corporate philosophy statements. They enhance cohesion around key values. Consists of both formal and informal methods. They prove to be powerful ways to create shared meaning and purpose. Good stories tap into the emotions of audience. 1. • • • • • • • • . Stories convey a sense of tradition.H. entertain and also teach valuable lessons. Story Telling: • Managers are encouraged to engage in story telling as a way to forge a culture. • Unintentional communication of organisation’s culture to employees. Is a continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organisation’s culture to employees. Story telling is a key means of achieving socialization of employees. Socialization is functional for both workers and their employers. Organisational socialization is like placing an organisation’s finger prints on people by planting its own genetic code on them For employees. Memorable stories uplift people. Codes of ethical conduct. They must be able to communicate to the employees. Organisational Socialisation: • • All cultural communications are put under this umbrella. It also builds organisational identity. Retelling historical success stories. Publicly recognising heroes and heroines.
Isolation is not productive. Culture Change Methods & effectiveness: Probable Effectiveness Culture Change Method Very Great Great Moderate Minimal . • • 4. When we assume that the culture of a certain organisation invites its employees to challenge. Deviation from norms) High Rebellion Creative individualism • • The two extremes rebellion and conformity may prove dysfunctional to the organisation. them creative individualization can infuse new life and ideas for the organisation’s benefit. The interaction between individualization and socialization is shown in the sketch: High Conformity Socialization (impact of organisational culture on employee acceptance of norms) Isolation Low Low Individualisation (Impact of employee on Organisational culture.3. question and experiment while also not being too disruptive. Individualization: • Occurs when employees successfully exert influence on the social system around them at work by challenging the culture or deviating from it.
1. It can be realigned to the strategic direction on organisation wishes to take. Adequate resources need to be allocated to support culture change and maintain it. h) Identify the gap between actual and desired culture and take steps to move the actual culture to the desired culture. continuously developing phenomenon Managers can manage culture. change culture. it can be managed.Train Employees Reward Behaviours Communicate Top Management Support Use Stories and Myths Use Slogans I. artifacts and declared values and be involved in all the main change phases. The reality of achieving this is very complex and organisations with similar backgrounds and similar environments develop different cultures at different situations. Culture can be altered. • • Prior to any culture change. Top down and bottom up are two of the approaches by HRM for change of culture. once it has been achieved. g) Work out a desired strategy and desired culture and ensure they match and congruent. How can organisations realign culture? Architecture: • • • • • • Features of the Change There has been considerable debate as to whether culture can be managed! Lot of focus on whether or not it can be modified. Culture is a dynamic. or destroy the culture. Culture change programs must pay careful attention to the organisation’s power bases and opinion – leaders such as trade unions and employee’s association • • • Publicly recognise heroes & heroines Appoint a manager of culture Formulate Value statement . Typical frameworks for managing culture change: As suggested by Beckhard the general principles for successful cultural change are as follows: f) Know & understand the current values. senior management must understand the implications of the new culture for their own practices. abandon the culture. patterns of behaviour within the organisations and strategic directions of the organisation. cultures. prevent its change.
etc. selection and retention. Bottom up approach for cultural change: • • • • • Focuses on incremental approach Change is developed from bottom up. reinforce the existing culture to achieve the newly espoused cultures and values. Such changes are tied to an organisation’s critical path Based on solving concrete business problems. Writes on corporate excellence follow this. performance management and employee relations. management of office space. it is crucial that employees have the necessary capabilities and behaviours to realize the necessary change. called ‘task alignment’ Task alignment could be achieved through a series of overlapping steps taken at the business level as shown below: 6 Evaluate outcomes of changes and amend vision and actions as necessary FINISH 5 4 Confirm changes by ensuring that policies. empowerment. To succeed. Change of organisation structure. training. Top-down draw backs: o Messages of initiative. and focusing on existing values and cultures. performance related pay are a few HR interventions for change of culture. autonomy and innovation are usually conveyed through bureaucratic methods such as team briefings. Every opportunity should be taken to close the cultural gaps. HRD programmes like quality. Typically looks towards organisation-wide consensus.• Culture change programs must take into account an organisation’s existing practices and approaches in recruitment. excellence. organisations need to decide how practices or procedures will be amended to support the new espoused values and contradictory practices removed. procedures and structures support them Spread the changes out to other areas of . o Employee believes the new culture conflicts with their existing culture.. In order to create a change in culture. • • 2. Top Down Strategy for cultural change: • • • • Often called ‘programmatic change’ Typically initiated and led from the top. provision of educations and training. • • • 3.
3 Work towards common agreements of the vision and skills and actions to carry it forward
Work jointly to develop a vision for the future of the organisation START
Start to ensure commitment to the change by involving people in defining the problems
Focuses on parts of the organisation away from the corporate headquarters level. Emphasis on individuals shared commitment and vision as a prerequisite for change. Change is enabled by developing people’s abilities and through improved co-ordination between people. Results generate stronger commitment. The appropriateness of a chosen strategy will depend upon the organisation and what an organisation wishes through cultural change.
4. Design Parameters for cultural change:
The relative importance, weight and value will differ between organisations. What is effective or appropriate in one situation may not be in another. Bate’s development of ‘design parameters for cultural change’ Parameters Expressiveness Aspect of the organisation Affective (feelings) Description
component The ability of the cultural change approach adopted to express a new symbol which captures employees’ attention and excites or converts them.
Social components The ability of the culture change (relationships) approach adopted to create a shared common understanding and sense of common purpose amongst a group of employees or the whole organisation. Demographic The ability of the culture change component approach adopted to spread through (number/depth) out all levels of an organisation and to affect employees’ basic underlying assumptions
Development component (process)
The ability of the culture change approach adopted to adjust to changing organisational and wider environmental circumstances.
Institutional component The ability of the culture change (structure) approach adopted to create a lasting culture.
At the start of a culture change process, expressiveness may be considered more important whilst commonality and penetration are considered as less important. However, as the process continues and the new culture is spread through out at all levels of the organisation, commonality and penetration may become more important.
5. Relative Effectiveness of Top-Down Approach and Bottom-up Approaches to cultural change across different Design Parameters of cultural change: Parameters Expressiveness Level of Effectiveness of Top-Down Approaches Bottom-up approaches High – deal in simple Low in short term – focus on messages and specialise in concrete problem generates communicating these lots of detail rather than a new effectively and reasonably symbol quickly at the practice/artifact level Low – promoted unifying High – operates through feeling often ceases after shared understanding and formal program ends; methods creates a culture of trust and often lead to resistance and understanding. lack of common ownership Variable – depends on ability of interventions to affect more than just practices or artifacts: highly structured programs likely to reach all employees Low – tend to be inflexible and imply instant fix programmed nature implies conformity and devalues deviance. Low in short term – involves only part of the organisation High on long term – involves discussing proposals and implications with employees High – concrete problems lead willing to accommodate new views and find best fit with organisational requirements.
Low – based on senior management’s desires; lack of ownership by employees likely to be highest with transformational change
High – employees are keen to preserve what they have created; especially high when a development of existing practices which employees own rather than transformational change.
• • • •
• • • • • •
J. The Transglobal & Cross Cultural Contents:
A global economy is now a reality. The shape of international trade has changed dramatically in recent years with the emergence of European Community, revolutionary changes in the former Soviet Union & Eastern Europe and strong markets developing in China, India, Japan, Korea and many other emerging nations. Many organisations, now do business in more than one country. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. They encompass different social, legal, political communication and economic environments. Conditions affecting Multinational operations:
People of the world are organised into communities and nations, each in its own way, according to its resources and cultural heritage. There are similarities and significant differences. a) Social Conditions:
The two approaches effectiveness differs across the parameters. No approach is the best fit any organisation. No one approach will give everything we require. Strategy for culture change should be tailored to the requirements of the organisation at a particular time. Top-down approach brings relatively rapid changes in the organisation. Bottom-up approach takes a longer time. Managing organisational culture change is extremely complex. It needs to take account of the existing culture. Also what type of change we need – transformational or developmental WHIPP says: ‘culture is a Pandora’s box’
In many countries the overriding social condition is poorly developed human resources.
Lending of skilled people to a nation for training their local replacements may provide a more lasting benefit to its development than lending the capital. They need to recognise that the resolution of ethical issues are not always clear cut Another major issue revolves around the treatment of women and other minorities. Their employment practices and their business practices vary. Another social factor on which countries are often compared is the work ethic of their employees – long/short hours. d) Economic Conditions: • The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are: . o Subordination of employers and labour to an authoritarian state. What is called as ‘training multiplier effect’ or ‘ripple-effect of self development’ comes into action. and those trained locals become the nucleus for developing still more people. Managers in foreign countries need to become familiar with local customs and practices. These deficiencies limit the ability to employ local labour productively. customs and behaviours. Parallely vast training programs begin to prepare the local workforce. A major issue affecting multinational corporations has been how to deal with contrasting local practices. Needed skills must be imported temporarily from other countries. Managers need to be aware of the possible differences in both laws and ethical values that define acceptable and unacceptable behaviours in foreign countries.• There are major shortages of managerial personnel. Loaned skilled people develop others. A significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with the advanced technology or complex organisations. • • • • • • • • b) Legal & Ethical Conditions: • • • Countries around the world vary substantially in their legal systems. scientists and technicians. • • • • c) Political Conditions: • The following have a significant effect on organisational behaviour: o Instability of the government o Nationalistic drives – foreigners cornered.
ethical. • • • • • • • • • • • e) Culture & Behaviours: • • • • Culture determines behaviours. Looking at social.− Low per capita income. Differing standards of living and varied geographical conditions can also cause variations in behaviour. Human resource practices too. Money loses its value rapidly. others aggressively protest. political and economic conditions as a whole. legal. They constrain the stability. stories and symbols. norms and values are passed on to future generations through cultural rituals. bad condition causes hurdle in the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organisation systems. As a result natives of those countries may not believe that additional effort on their part will earn associated rewards. security and trained human resources that developing countries require to be more productive. − Unequal distribution of wealth • Rapid population increases coupled with a lack of national economic growth make it unlikely that family incomes will progress significantly. They represent a critical environmental condition to which the managers of international operations must adapt. − Rapid inflation. Then. some workers passively accept the situation. Tremendous disparity in distribution of wealth starts. All these factors make it difficult to motivate employees. These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly. Cultural norms: • . Culture may be understood as the all encompassing: o Shared beliefs o Norms o Values that guide the everyday life of individuals. • • • These beliefs. Behaviour in organisational settings varies across cultures. Instead they are too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of the nation. social unrest increases. vary across cultures. Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure. But culture is the determining factor.
cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised – high profits are not a criterion – Arabs. hear stories and engage in rituals. Culture not only influences behaviour and human resources but also life style like elegance. stories and rituals. International business utilizes the culture clustering approach in formulating their global strategies. • Cultural Symbols. Italy. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: • A pioneering work done by Dutch Scientist Geert Hofsteds. people expect reward and compensation for their performance rather than for their seniority. Spain. • K. Arab culture concentrates on their own family security and relying on god for destiny. . Japanese find a higher value in belongingness in a group. etc). − Culture is passed on from one generation to another through its symbols. In many hierarchical cultures (like India. • Cultural Values: − − − − − − − − − − Tell us what is most dear to our hearts. f) Culture Clusters: • • Countries that share cultural similarities form cultural clusters. o They tell us what we can do and what we cannot. In more egalitarian culture (like US. − Culture is continuously reinforced when people see symbols. Cultural clusters do have some differences but similarities are predominant. In many cultures. People also expect recognition for seniority and age in hierarchical culture. Cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised. Germany. Americans for example value freedom most. dividends and stock prices while Japanese companies focus more on new product development and market share. Cultural values also have a major influence on the way people relate to each other and also to what they aspire for in a job. etc) the meaning and value of a job lies more in the status than in the pay packet. Latin American countries Sometimes cultural differences have a direct impact on the strategic orientation of companies like USA companies emphasize on more profits. values and beliefs of a society to its members. elitism and concern for form.o Prescribe behaviours and practices. Stories and rituals: − It is important to communicate the norms. Japan.
Such structures encourage and promote inequality between people at different levels. some are low. • In high power distance countries: − − − − − − Decision make is centralised. and must supervise their subordinates closely.• He identified four cultural dimensions around which countries have been clustered with people in each group exhibiting identical behaviours. Uncertainty avoidance. etc. Have flatter organisation structures Have smaller proportion of supervisory personnel Have highly qualified people in the lower state of workforce. 1) Power Distance: • • Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members of countries companies and organisations accept that power is distributed unequally. • • High power distance countries have norms. They will have a large proportion of supervisory personnel People at low level have low of job qualifications. some are high. Countries in which people blindly obey the orders of superiors have high power distance. Individualism and Masculinity/Feminity. and The powerful should not hide their power • The dimension of power can be measured in a number of ways: − − − − In high power distance countries generally people dislike work People try to avoid the work. Most people should be dependent on a leader. • USA. Canada. Those at the top make most of the decisions. must force workers to perform. Norway. Managers believe that they must adopt theory X leadership style. represent cultures with lower distance. The powerful are entitled to privileges. Germany. • Organisations in low distance countries: − − − − Tend to be decentralized. values and beliefs such as: − − − − − Inequality is fundamentally good. Australia. Organisations tend have tall structures.. Managers believe that they must be authoritarian. The 4 dimensions are: Power Distance. . Everyone has a place.
Experts and authorities are usually correct. 3) Individualism/Collectivism: • Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their family only. values and beliefs which accept that: − − − − − Conflict should be avoided. Low labour turnover Less ambitious employees • Societies with low uncertainty avoidance cultures have: − − − − − − Less structuring of activities. • • High uncertainty avoidance countries are characterized by norms. and Consensus is important. Less risk taking managers. • . Mexico and Indonesia are examples of societies with a high power distance.• France. Laws are very important and should be followed. Brazil. Deviant people and idea should not be tolerated. These employees have a high level of uncertainty avoidance and prefer to avoid ambiguity at work. Collectivism is the tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each in exchange for loyalty. • Countries with high uncertainty avoidance culture have: − − − − − A great deal of structuring of organisational activities. More written rules. India. Fewer written rules More risk taking by managers Higher labour turnover More ambitious employees Organisation encourages employees to use their initiative and assume responsibility for their actions. 2) Uncertainty Avoidance: • • Is the extent to which people threatened by ambiguous situations? Employees in some cultures value clarity and feel very comfortable receiving specific directions from their supervisors.
and Advancement. Work takes priority over other duties. Countries high on individualism have norms. such as family. Promotions are based on one’s performance Decision making is an individual’s responsibility. that: − − − One’s identity is based on one’s group membership. values and beliefs that: − − − − − − Gender roles should be clearly distinguished. 4) Masculinity/Feminity: • Masculinity refers to a situation in which the dominant values in a society are success. • Collectivist countries believe. and beliefs which accept that: − − − • People are responsible for themselves. . People.• • Individualism is common in US. should be decisive. values. Pakistan and a number of South American countries exhibit collectivism. Men are assertive and dominant. Group decision making is best. Promotions are mostly based on seniority and age. India. People of Indonesia. and Groups protect individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group. Individual achievement is ideal and People need not be emotionally dependent on organisations or groups. and other material things. Women usually choose jobs that are associated with short term employment. Highly masculine cultures have norms. jobs are clearly defined by gender. • In a individualistic organisation: − − − Favouritism shown to friends and relatives is considered to be unfair and even illegal. Important decisions are made by older senior managers. before marriage. Canada. money. Machismo or exaggerated maleness is good. especially men. • • • • • In highly masculine societies. Men usually choose jobs that are associated with long term careers. • In a collectivist organisation: − − − Tend to promote nepotism in selecting managers. There are men’s jobs and women’s jobs. Australia. Denmark & Sweden. success and money are important.
A haunting thought.L. and individuals vary in terms of their reactions and copying behaviours. sense of adventure and so on. Adjustments to a foreign culture are multifaceted. The concept of an adjustment cycle or U curve shows that typical phases that may be encountered during cultural adjustment. Cultural Adjustment: • The process of cultural adjustment is a critical determinant of an expatriate’s performance. Adjustment Phase-1 Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 4 • • Time Crisis/ Culture Shock • The curve is based on psychological reactions to the overseas assignments and comprise 4 phases. fear of the unknown. Then novelty fades off. There can be an upswing of mood upon arrival in the ‘assignment’ country that produces a ‘honeymoon’ phase. realities of everyday life in an alien land starts. The way the expatriate copes with the psychological adjustment at this phase has an important outcome in terms of success or failure. Phase 1: • The expatriate may experience a range of positive and negative emotions such as excitement anxiety. • . • • • Phase 2: • • This is a very critical time. A slow negative appraisals of location and situation leads to a crisis. ‘failure as an early recall’ may be triggered at this point.
and applications reflect the culture of the country directly or indirectly. • • Phase 4: • • • The upswing levels off after sometime. Gift for self/family. salary fringe benefits increase Loss of job Out of group Demotion . Service culture shock is often a positive sign indicating that the expatriate is becoming deeply involved in the new culture instead of remaining isolated in an expatriate ghetto • • M. A healthy recovery is maintained The bottom of the U-shaped curve is marked by ‘culture shock’. Culture shock is a natural response to the stress of immersing oneself in the new environment. profit sharing social services. not everyone is motivated by the same factors. commission Annual bonus. parenthood Of others/ parenthood • • Independence decision making space. approaches. company success nationalistic. he comes in terms with the demands of the new environment. unpredictable and uncertain environment. there is an upswing The person begins to adjust to the new environment. functional group activities Group harmony Arab Coaching. money Opportunity Group participation Religion.Phase 3: • Once the individual passes this crisis point. Then. family affair. personal attention. Factor American Management Leadership styles friendliness Control Emotional appeal Recognition Material awards Threats Japanese Persuasion. admiration Individual Group identity Individual status contribution belonging to group class/society promotion Salary. which is the expatriate’s reaction to a new. Cultural Contracts in motivation – Motivation Across Cultures: • • What are the motivations of people in international settings? In multicultural work environments. Motivational processes. time. The table below shows the motivational approaches and cultural factors for three distinct cultures.
family taking. integrity. Leaders with a high level of self regulation exhibit trustworthiness. comfort with ambiguity and openness to change. organisational • • • • • • Empathy: refers to understanding the emotional make up of other people and skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. • • • b) Leadership in the National Context: • • In international settings. Also in response to the cultural and institutional context of the multinational country locations. motivation. An international manager emotional intelligence. empathy and social skills. Leaders with a high level of empathy demonstrates an ability to build and retain talent in their organisation. Leaders with a high level of self-awareness exhibits self confidence. show a superior ability to build and lead teams and become known for their persuasiveness. material achievements. emotions and drives as well as their effects on other people. Social skill: refers to the proficiency in managing relationships and building networks along with an ability to find common ground and to build rapport. self regulation. security. Leaders high on motivation exhibit remarkable commitment. show cross cultural sensitivity and become known for offering great services to clients and customers. drive to achieve and optimism. risk Group harmony. Self regulation: is the ability to control redirect disruptive impulses and moods – the ability to think before doing. a) EI has a set of 5 individual and social competencies. Reputation. • • . religion possession. Such responses are required while dealing with contingency factors such as subordinates’ characteristics. Leaders with a high level of social skill are effective at leading change. Successful leadership in multinational companies requires that managers adjust their leadership styles to fit the different situations. Leadership Across Cultures: • A multinational leader needs to possess certain unique qualities to become successful in global settings. • • Self awareness: is the ability to recognise and understand one’s moods.Cultural values Competition. freedom belonging social status N. the leadership needs to be situational. Motivation: is reflected in a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status. a realistic self assessment and a self deprecating humour. they are: self awareness.
• • 2. This means. 3. Breaks from the status quo: • • • Has a strong desire to break from tradition An expert in finding ways to do things differently. TL is effective in any organisation anywhere in the world. TL represents a higher level of leadership. Provides goals and a plan: • • Has a vision that is future oriented. Articulates a vision: • • • • • • • Presents in vivid and emotional terms an idealized vision of future of the organisation What it can and should become And makes the vision clear to all in organisation. whether or not effective leaders act similarly regardless of their respective culture. T Leaders are visionary agents with a sense of mission. Gives a meaning or a purpose to goals: • • Places the goals in emotion – laden stories.O. The transformational leader has following attributes: 1. Or a cultural context so that subordinates see the need to follow the leader’s ideals. 4. Subordinates share a commitment to radical change. Provides clear steps for followers to transform the company. They are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things. • • . Helps subordinates envision a future state of a better organisation. Universalism in Leadership/Transformational Leadership: • • Universalism of leadership is a new concept. Challenges subordinates to find new solutions to old problems. Transformational leadership is projected as an approach which can cut across all cultural barriers.
respect and admiration of followers. Most people also consider MK Gandhi & Martin Luther King as representatives of transformational leadership. He said. Is motivated to lead: • • • Seeks leadership positions. true transformational leaders are rare. Low-context cultures such as Germany. Korea and Japan tend to emphasize personal relationships. Muhammad were among the first transformational leaders. Takes risks: • Is willing to take more risks with the organisation than the average leader. Demonstrates high ethical and moral standards: • • • Behaves consistently and fairly with a known ethical standard. 8. focus on non verbal cues. • • • • • .5. He called this leadership as ‘Charisma’ And noted that existed in all cultures. and a willingness to sacrifice for the good of the company. • • • • • • P. However. Transformational leaders succeed because subordinates respond to them with high levels of performance. Individual differences (also refer Hofstede’s theory given earlier) • High context cultures such as China. Acts as a role model 7. Impress upon the need to attend to social needs before business matters. 6. excitement regarding the leader’s ideas. Max Weba. Tend to rely on written rules and documents. Conduct business first and value expertise and performance Lack of attention to these factors results in costly failures for expatriates. Transformational leaders are not new to the present century. place high value on trust. personal devotion. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation: 1. reverence. Builds a Power Base: • Uses personal power based on expertise. USA and Scandinavian countries. a German sociologist recognised the existence of this leadership throughout history. Jesus Christ. Displays strong enthusiasm for the leadership role.
Even if they do. • • • • • • • 3. • • • 4. This predisposition ‘ethnocentrism’ is known as the ‘self-reference criterion’ or • • • • It interferes with the understanding of human behaviours in other cultures. This new social system affects the responses of all persons involved.2. Many are predisposed to parochialism. Ethnocentrism: • Another potential barrier to easy adaptation to another culture occurs when people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the best. they tend to conclude that the impact of those differences is insignificant. This is an appreciation of the contribution each culture make to overall success. In order to integrate the imported and local systems. Further productivity from local employees is also reduced. Parochialism: • The dominant feature of all international operations is that they are conducted in a social system different from the one in which the organisation is based. expatriate employees minimally need to develop ‘cultural empathy’ This is the awareness of differences across cultures. This is the understanding of the ways in which those differences can affect business relationships. . They see the situations around them from their own perspective. Managers and employees who come to a host country exhibit a variety of behaviours true to the citizens of their homeland. In effect they are assuming that the two cultures are more similar than they actually are. Cultural distance: • Predicting the amount of adaptation that may be required when an expatriate manager moves to another country requires an understanding of the ‘culture distance’ between the two countries. They fail to recognise the key differences between their own and other’s cultures.
Such shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. may fear losing face and self confidence. the new environment can appear to be chaotic and somewhat overwhelming. • • 5. Although it is different. First phase: they are excited and stimulated by the challenge of a new job. insecurity and anxiety caused by a strong new environment? They fail to act properly and lose their self-confidence. it can be understood if employees have receptive attitudes. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . they accept the new culture. They should dedicate themselves to learn the new culture and adapt to it. Cultural Shock: • Companies often assign employees to new job assignments in different areas to provide them with invaluable breadth of experience. They may not know how to act. shopping or language skills. The employees who move to new job locations of the experience various degrees of ‘cultural shock’ Which is a feeling of confusion. The new environment may be as systematic as the culture of the employee. which is ‘insecurity and disorientation’ caused by encountering all sorts of different cultures. Such shocks are in four phases.• Cultural distance is the amount of difference between any two social systems and may vary from minimal to maximal. Cultural shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. A cultural change does not have to be dramatic to cause some degree of shook-like moving from a big town to a small town. Third phase: critical stage. or emotionally upset. For unprepared employee. At this point. Ethnocentric problems may be magnified by cultural distances. Second phase: positive attitude is soon followed by. regain a sense of self esteem and respond constructively to their new surroundings at work and home. Fourth phase: if they survive the first few weeks. home and culture. tend to suffer cultural shock. they will reach the fourth phase. ‘disillusionment’ as they discover various problems they had not anticipated regarding travel. Cultural distance affects the responses of all people to business related issues. that of ‘adaptation’.
Compatible Assignments: • Adjustments to new surroundings is easier if employees. Mexico. especially on their first international assignments. China. Forms of country Customs Housing conditions Privacy Time Activity HR Practices Currency Work attitudes Strange language. Sweden. Overcoming Barriers to cultural Adaptation: 1. Potential employees should have a capability to learn the new language quickly. These are grouped into 6 socio cultural clusters: − − − − − − − Anglo American – USA. Belgium Latin American – Peru. etc. Spain. Korea Central European Group – Germany. Careful Selection: • • • • • Employees who are low in ethnocentrism and Who are less prone to troublesome characteristics. may be chosen They should have a desire to experience another culture. Taiwan. UK. Australia. Austria. Switzerland. New food Separation from friends and relatives. Israel. Argentina. NZ Nordic group – Norway. • 2. Italy. Chile. Canada. are sent to nations that are similar to their own. Q. An attitude to learn the new culture and the family culture is necessary. They should have a desire to live in another nation. Venezuela Pacific Rim Cluster – Japan. Finland. Brazil & India do not fall into any group • 3. France. Different management philosophies.• • Cultural shock is virtually universal. It occurs in response to: − − − − − − − − − − − − − − Dramatic differences in languages. Pre-departure Training: . Hong Kong. Denmark Latin European – Portugal.
Faster cultural adaptation.• • • • • • Learn the local language Helps to reduce. inconveniences. insecurities. power in host country best less in home country. better positions. The local national working for the same organisation can also assist. Companies need repatriation policies. separation from relatives and friends. language and political environments. personal and organisational costs. Support for intensified need deficiencies like financial difficulties. customs. Preparation for Reentry: • • Repatriation has to be smoothly blended. Extra pay. lesser misunderstanding. coming back to their homeland culture – needs time to adjust. Orientation & Support in the New Country: • • • • • • Efforts to quickly settle the employee and family. Training includes – geography. transportation and shopping. position. After enjoying a new culture. A mentor may help a lot during transition. • 5. Often tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland – reverse cultural shock. Assistance in housing. Better communications. • • • Forces inhibiting and supporting cultural adaptation: Inhibiting Forces Supporting Forces . Better autonomy emoluments. The previous job holder may also stay back for sometime and assist. Creates better impression. culture. fringe benefits. 4.
Cross Cultural Communications: • • • Besides verbal communications. Non-verbal communication is called as cross cultural communications. non verbal communications are also important. .Individual Differences Parochialism Ethnocentrism Cultural distance Culture shock Cultural Adaptation Careful Selection Compatible assignments Pre-departure training Orientation & support Preparation for reentry R. They include: • • • • • • Relative values for time efficiency Values of life Eye contact Posture Meaning of silence Language • • • • • • Thought patterns Personal space Physical appearance Gestures Legitimacy of touch Clusters • They are very important contingency factors.
the organisation can not change. seems to lie in making them choose it. a) Human Response to Change: • • • • Individuals fear and seek change. Managing change. The strategy to make people to accept change. deny or suppress emotions at work. Fundamental requirement for effecting change management is the understanding of: − The nature of human response to change − Overcoming individual and group resistance to change. while abandoning the familiar. requires managing employee feelings to generate positive excitement for the intended change and change process. each individual must think. to be avoided or coped with Individuals may not resist change. feel or do something different. therefore. and acquiring new relationships. but an opportunity when it is done by people. Change gives rise to emotions. Change is intensely personal. DEALING WITH INDIVIDUALS: • The strategy for change are implemented through three change levers. Hence it is difficult to impose change.III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 4 – CHANGE MANAGEMENT G. we need to understand what factors make him prone to it and what prompts him to resist it. both Change is resisted as much as stagnation is Continuity without change leads to stagnation. These emotions can vary from being intensely negative to being appreciably positive. What they resist is being changed. Change may be perceived as an opportunity or a threat. For change to occur in any organisation. conflict and the inability to cope with the situation. To make an individual choose change. Change is always a threat when done to people. Change. to many individuals. which are o Structure o Process o Culture • • If people within the organisation do not change. Individuals tend to perceive change as a discontinuity. Change that is internal to an individual is far better accepted than change externally imposed. and − Tuning the organisation to change. then. means learning new skills. boredom and frustration Change without continuity or stability leads to ambiguity. Organisations can not ignore. accustomed and proven ways of doing things. • • • • • • • . and new routines.
Build a positive imagery for its employees of the envisaged change to reflect a better future. When such supportive structures exist. Individuals can manage change well if it gives them positive emotions rather than negative emotions. Employee attitudes for change: • • • • • • • • • • Individuals tend to fall into any one of the attitudinal continuums. Reasons for change resistance: i) • • • • • • Climbers Personal Loss: Job security Salary and income Pride and satisfaction Job nature Friendship and associations Freedom Negative Attitudes: • ii) Towards their organisations and supervisors .Any change is as good as the willingness of the one affected by it. The organisational leadership has to examine the following also during the initiation of change. It is apparent that individuals need to own their responsibilities and be clear about the results to which they are accountable. 11. b) Dealing with Individuals for Change Management: • • Create a culture where employees seek change. Individuals. The above are intrinsic to the change management process. and are not afraid to think and act differently to make change happen. behave to maximize win. individuals may even welcome change rather than resist it. namely: Aggressive resistance Passive resistance Neutral Campers Passive acceptance Active involvement Quitters 12. have fear of failure and feeling of incompetence. Change should not be what happens to them in the organisation but what they can make happen in the organisation. process and facilities. often. They avoid risk. Support the change process with adequate resources. minimize loss and want to have a control in their behaviour.
status and authority. May be loss of one’s authority and power. The benefits could be: security.• Lack of trust resulted from earlier bitter experiences in the organisation iii) • • • Lack of Involvement: Some people resist change because they have not been involved in the change process. Their ideas have not been sought for Some others are very sensitive about ‘change’ since they have wrong or incomplete information. job nature and opportunities to contribute to and determine the change process. Seen as a challenge to one’s authority. Cognitive Rigidity: vii) • • Some people do not see the need for change or may not be convinced about the arguments in favour of change. Challenging Authority: viii) • • Some people resist change to challenge authority. the best. Personal Criticism: • • • iv) Change may be considered as a personal affront. Reasons why people accept change: • • People welcome change when it benefits them. it questions one’s capabilities and performance. . Inappropriate Timing: vi) • • Change is generally introduced at a time when business is not good and everyone is already burdened with extra work to tide over the bad times. Or oppose disliked bosses who are in favour of change. The way that change is introduced may also not be to everyone’s liking. personal satisfaction. Some think. Loss of Status and authority: v) • • Change may lead to the relegation of one’s job to lower levels in the hierarchy. 13. Others still find the old practices that have evolved overtime. monetary and other benefits.
• • • . conative and affective dimensions. interviews and observation methods are useful. they alone are not sufficient to bring in the change. Cognitive refers – one’s perceptions. Integration: • • A number of quantitative & qualitative techniques are available. To overcome resistance. A feeling of dissatisfaction to be generated with the existing state of organisation. • 15. The idea that a change is good for everybody should be driven home. intelligence and judgement – in managing the change. Creative and intellectual energies of the individuals should be diverted to the change initiatives of the organisation. systems and processes are necessary.14. Individual – focused approaches to managing change: • Though appropriate structures. We gave to deal with an individual’s attitude to overcome his resistance to change. • • • • • 16. Affective refers – one’s emotional component of likes and dislikes. beliefs and values Conative refers – one’s action tendencies. Attitude consists of cognitive. Surveys like questionnaires. we have to deal with the above components. Organisations have to deal with individual attitudes and behaviours to tap individual wisdom – their experience. Dealing with individual resistance to change: • • Individuals need to be motivated to accept change. This classifies individuals into different categories in the attitudinal continuum. who make the change to happen and achieve highest levels of performance. It is the individuals who work within the structures and systems and on the tasks and processes.
low conflict – tolerance Aggressive level. withdrawn. poised. stable. acceptance when sensitive to failure and punishment. determined. relation oriented. Personality types and their general response to change: Type SQUEALER BRAVADO Response Change Highly emotional. short-term – perspective Behavioural Description Diplomatic. forceful. high sense of achievement. impatient. brash. patient. scheming. plays to his advantage. trustful. aggressive. convincible. systematic. skeptical. self change is critical. overbearing. indecisive. Slow. dogmatic. unambitious. Brave. If opposing change. cooperative. social. low conflict – tolerance level. consistent. high fear of uncertainty and failure. integrative of other people’s ideas. independent. resistance to argumentative. superficial. optimistic. Reckless. unable to face problems Receptive. resistance impulsive. dynamic. stable. predictable. persistent. trustful. high fear of failure. respects authority. Natural. cordial. decisive. but can be positive or negative depending upon his advantage. self-centered. task-oriented. critical. formalized. unbending. dependable. he can resist it actively. selfreliant. predictable. less moralistic. persuasive. amiable. change non-companionable. Passive resistance aloof. cold. inclined to oversell. rigid. to change defensive. overly dependent. shy. self sacrificing. low self confidence. High in change rigid. stubborn.17. . respectful and fearful of authority. silent. adventurous. patient. enthusiastic. demanding. to ACCOMMODATOR OPPORTUNIST CONFORMIST OSTRICH VANQUISHER Initiator of change actively involved. Passive acceptance active involvement. warm. Receptive. stubborn. retaliative. secretive. co-operative. conservative. moralistic. individualistic. self-centrical cautious. Aggressive risky.
• • Cognitive Changes: Change Mechanisms: 2. integrative of other people’s ideas. the company strategy and its competitive advantage. Behaviours of senior managers influence employees’ perceptions and beliefs. self-reliant. problem solver. Cognitive changes tend to occur in individuals when information is presented in a logical and coherent. Top management should be committed to the intended change. capable of empathy. open minded. Employees have to be aware of the focus. original. scope and expected outcomes of change. positive. Core competency required and plan of action for managing change has to be clearly stated. well knit and integrated. It is not only what managers say. To create readiness in an individual for change. persuasive convincing. Employees cognize the explicit and implicit behaviours exhibited by senior managers. Explaining the nature and direction of change: • • The change process has to be clear. Responsibility of each person in relation to the company’s strategy has to be understood. c) Managing change: The Cognitive Dimension: • One’s own perceptions. opinions and beliefs often act as the precursor to one’s response to change. fears and expectations. but what and how they do. receptive. • • • • • • 2. equalitarian. Communication: • • Effective communication is fundamental to change management. • • STRATEGIST . It is important to communicate the intended change and the reasons for it in advance and as completely as possible. Such a talk gets a feedback from employees regarding their hopes. his/her cognitions have to be positively influenced. This has to be done individually and in groups. interpersistent Active self involvement and capable of involving others in the change process.Inventive. send signals to others in terms of their fourth and commitment to the change process. realistic.
hope and a positive outcome. It employees have to be attended to change. they tend to form a benchmark for individuals to adopt. reliable and perhaps repeated and number of times to drive home its importance and the depth of the management’s commitment. precise. all our vision and mission statements are only decorative pieces in the corporate lobby. The messages must be credible and take a variety of forms. These values have to be shared and imbibed by all through out the organisation. Persuasive communications may be resorted to in times of urgency and crisis and when employees are either in high or low state of readiness for change. Once a set of values are collectively agreed upon. Non routine communications are through media. These values enable and stable and trustworthy relationships. Work can be soulful enchanting experience when employees strongly believe in what they do and are convinced about what the company is or should be doing. • • • • • • o Creating a Common Value Orientation: • • Values are basic to human behaviour.• Communications about change have to be clear. systems and processes. Values tie together people. Value may be generated by discussion and active employee involvement at all levels in the organisation. These values are based on group and individual behaviours and also the work processes. communication should lead to optimism. If not. modify and realign their personal values. Oral persuasive communication is carried out through speeches. The values talked about in change management are: o What are the values to be espoused if the change needs to be implemented? o How are they similar to one’s personal value? o How to bring about changes in personal values if need be? • Organisations have to identify the values basic to the change initiative and implementation. • • • • • • • • • o Employee Training: . Values agreed upon should be documented. Written communications are through specific written documents.
needing constant monitoring and reviewing. . not a cost. Building effective teams takes years. Training should be run like business. Training should bring forth: Inherent talents.• Competitive organisations required knowledge workers who are capable of performing jobs related to corporate goals and market needs and demands. Employees should be considered as a resource. New ways of training employees aimed at thinking skills and multiskill development have to be planned. Urge to accomplish Preference with passion • • • • • • • o Participative Management: • Facilitates the release of one’s inherent enthusiasm and creativity for the benefit of the entire organisation. • • • • • • • d) Managing change: The Affective Dimension: • • Individuals fear and seek change. It provides opportunities for employees to learn by their own activities and to exercise control over the outcome. It prompts the people in the direction of group support and leads to acceptance of change. delivering value to the work process. Current skills have to be assessed and future skills needed for the business determined and the training skills decided to bridge the gap. Vicarious learning is facilitated by study/observation trips to innovative organisations and further involving employees in benchmarking their best practices. organisation and employee competency. Employee training sets the supportive climate for change management when it is competency driven for the current and future demands. knowledge and skills. Knowledge provides a competitive advantage. Desire to acquire information. ‘Vicarious learning’ – where employees observe organisations that have benefitted from implementing new or innovative techniques and practices. To be successful a climate of interpersonal trust and open communication should prevail within the organisation. Participation needs to be managed carefully or else it creates more problems. both Change affects human emotion.
Affective Changes – Change Mechanism 5. To be successfully implemented. Company shares may be given at concessional rates.• If an organisation has to implement change. employee empowerment depends upon a number of factors. authority and accountability at work. Employee as partners: • Employees tend to entertain positive emotions for the organisation and the work they do when they are also stakeholders in the company. Dealing with human emotions could be in terms of: − Creating feeling of psychological safety about change. generate productive ideas. o Are employees suitably trained to be empowered? o Is the organisational culture & climate conducive for empowerment? o Do the employees perceive meaningfulness in what they do? o Is the information shared to empower the people? o Sustaining employee empowerment. − Focusing on the benefits of change at the individual level. The approach promotes a binding relationship. • • • • . • • 6. − Demonstrating some of the benefits of change early in the change process. o How willing are superiors to share their authority down the line through out the organisation? o Willingness on the part of employees to make decisions and be accountable for their actions. A personal sense of ownership motivates employees to take the initiative. Stock ownership may be performance based. − Creating positive feelings about the desired state and the change process. − Addressing avoidance learning – focusing on intended change as the only alternative to avoid/overcome fear or insecurity. Employee empowerment: • • To empower is to give autonomy to an employee enabling him to make decisions on his job and accountable for his actions. it has to anticipate individual feelings about the intended change and deal with their emotions in positive and constructive ways. o Commitment on the part of top management in real earnest. It is the integrating of ownership. and feel responsible for improving organisational performance.
Financial rewards and financial health are tied up. how much they cost to the company. Types of rewards − Power rewards (higher responsibilities) − Pay for performance − Pay for knowledge and skill • 8. Rewards should have the following characters: o Clarity and specification (expected performance and work behaviours) o Immediacy (delayed rewards lose values) o Magnitude (commensurate) o Individuality (personalization. Organisations should create a meaningful reward system. Rewards are financial and non-financial. • • 7. Some of the ways to do this are: o Empathy o Modeling o Shock therapy o Mentoring o Manipulation o Employee counseling • • . Employees are also given to understand how much they contribute to.• For success trust between the employee and management is necessary. Rewards are effective when a certain ‘value’ is built into the rewards – a value which is a part of the performance rather than a pretension. Dealing with negative emotions: • Some employees may have negative emotions towards the intended change. Compensation System: • Managing change through people behaviour is possible when the desired behaviour is appropriately rewarded. not all rewards are same) • • • • • The major demotivators are perceived unfairness in dispensing rewards. These negative emotions must be understood to successfully handle.
Employees today should be enabled to perform a variety of tasks rather than a few limited jobs. Now. Tasks or activities are the basis for learning Action learning leads to continuous improvement and performance of self leading to overall improvement of the organisation. Cross Training: • • Training is provision of information and skills. Clarifying Contractual Obligations: • • Change benefits the organisation. Cross training provides a flexible force and flexible factory. Emphasis on action learning in implementing change: • • • Learning occurs with actions. accepts supportive criticism for improvements • • 3.e) Managing change: The Conative Dimension: • Resistance to change occurs due to unwillingness to deviate from habitual behaviours or from reluctance to acquire new skills and behaviours. a new job contract is necessary to be made which aligns with overall corporate strategy which the employee must understand and agree after discussions with the management. Mutuality is the basis for the release of human energy for effective change management. no actions without learning. Tohat are the factors for change under conation? 1. Job activities and responsibilities have to redefine due to the change management and changes in the job design and performance. • • • . constantans improves actions. • • • • • • 2. Cross training facilitates job rotation. change benefits the employee. there is a mutuality of interest. The psychological contract has two dimensions: the personal goals of a human being and the organisational goals. starts. Action learning is a social process. Such skills can come by cross training. Where the employee accepts his job duties and responsibilities. a new role relationship. solves task related problems. For every employee there is a psychological contract with the organisation – may be explicit or implicit. wherein an employee can switch periodically from one job to another. too. Therefore.
modify and develop are important. etc. o The people in the organisation structure. a learning environment within the organisation and the free sharing of information. the way they adapt. Within the limits of ‘mental elasticity’ human capabilities at work could be stretched to the optimum to meet the global business competition. there should be the necessary support structure.• With this the employee brings a fresh perspective to each job in addition to what has learnt already. • • Supporting climate – learning environment: . It also solves the shortage of manpower. 4. thus slowly stepping up one’s self confidence. Employee elasticity: Stretching the Potential: • • Good HR stretch employees to the maximum of their potential ability to work. Stretching employee potential facilitates change management. Supportive climate – Organisational design: o Organisational processes. It could also be diagonal. Some techniques in stretching limits manage change are: o Sensitivity training o Participative management o Behavioural modification o Job rotation o Cross training o Role play. Any kind of mental stretching should be done gradually by exposing one to changes of graded difficulties. Cross training can be across different functional areas like finance and marketing. • • • • 5. • • • • • Positive attitudes to such training is built if employees are rewarded for acquiring new skills. Success of cross functional training depends upon employee willingness to learn new skills on the job. systems. and activities together form the organisation structure which supports the organisation. Cross trained employees tend to be amenable to and willing for organisational change initiatives since a number of skills have already been built into their behavioural repertoire. An employee’s career path need not be limited to vertical mobility. Create the right climate for optimizing employee performance: • To create the right climate for employees to take an active interest in the change process and achieve the intended results.
unrepresentative of the group memberships and move quickly into an exploration of group processes and leadership. o It empowers people and performance improves. whey the company needs change and what they should know additionally to perform better in the changed scenario. − The present day business needs speed. An unstructured. away from their usual roles and responsibilities.− Organisations should create a learning environment where people can acquire advanced knowledge and skill. They enter the group as peers. and any division of labour or rules of procedures. o Sharing information raises the level of employee trust in the organisation. T-group is an ad hoc assembly of individuals who meet together. situation is created and the group is encouraged to experiment with new individual behaviours and group interactions. CHANGE MANAGEMENT – DEALING WITH GROUPS: • For successful organisation change. H. flexibility and innovation in all activities. how the company is doing. perhaps ambiguous. The major forms of group-based changes are: o Sensitivity training. o Employees should know what the company plans are. the change management should consider individuals as well as the group in which they work. The trainer plays a relatively passive role in the training process. • • • • • . o Team building o Self-managed teams 1) Sensitivity Training: • • • • Also called as T-group training. a structure. initially as strangers. Initially. The training may vary in duration from a few weeks to few hours. The primary target of managing change would be the group itself and the relationships among its members. • Supportive climate – information sharing: o The commonest way of bringing about change in employee attitudes and performance is through information sharing. the group begins without an agenda.
the impact they have on others. Absence of an agenda initially creates a vacuum and often quite uncomfortable. • • • • • • • The trainer communicates these observations to groups. Developing increased tolerances for other people’s behaviour. Thus. brought together only by the common goal of learning more about themselves. Members emerge with a restructuring of their values about people and their operations in group settings. • Individuals join teams for a variety of reasons: − Out of the herd instinct. They slowly correct their faults. They become sensitive to the action of others. . Understanding why people behave the way they do. the interventions through sensitivity training aims at the following: − − − − − • Understanding of one’s own behaviour and how one’s behaviour affects others. Interdependency – where the skills. Commitment to and belief in working together. Understanding group processes. They become sensitive to the nature of group development. • Sensitivity training is good for change planning and implementation. Members gradually begin to attend to such matters themselves.• The people in each group are strangers to each other. Accountability – for their performance. 2) Team Building: • A team is a group of individuals who tend to work interdependently to satisfy organisational as well as their own individual objectives. Encouraging one to try out new ways of interacting with people and receiving feedback. abilities of individuals are mutually supportive. Teams have the following characteristics: − − − − • A reason or charter for working together. The trainer initially observes: − − − − • • Problems of communication Attempted seizures of power Misunderstandings Other phenomena of interpersonal life. They attain increased sensitivity to their own behaviours.
− − − − − − • To overcome one’s fears and insecurities. From a sense of duty. Commitment – to achieve the goal through group effort. − Improving performance qualitatively and quantitatively. • The success of team effort depends upon: − The leadership provided to the members who constitute the team. Interpersonal trust. and Accountability – where one is accountable to superiors or the top management for achieving the goal. Involving individuals and groups is the change process from the very beginning is one way of ensuring their commitment and accountability towards achieving the intended changes. In the hope of personal gains. Concern for the development of individual potentialities. From the inability to say no Teams have the advantage: − Of improving up and setting goals and priorities. Promotion of scientific inquiry in addressing issues and problems. • The value base of team lies in: − − − − Belief in a democratic work environment. • Team values are: o Quality o Customer service o Innovativeness o People o Informality • The operational basis of a team lies in − − Synergy Interdependence • A team’s behaviour is characterised by the following elements: − − − − A Goal – is commonly agreed upon by the members Interdependence – where people have agreed to work together and are supportive of each others. From group compulsion. Due to a rational belief to joint effort. − Deciding on means and methods. .
b. An effective team member is one. Data flow Conflict. e. k. who: − Understands and is committed to group goals and values his/her team membership − Is friendly. Forming: a. • • • • The stages are the result of a variety of questions. 3) Team Development Stages / Life Cycle of a Team: • When a member of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Jockey for position of relative control Argue about appropriate directions for the group. and values the ideas and contribution of others. issues and characteristics as shown below: Key questions faced • • Developmental stages 1. They do represent a broad pattern. dominance & rebellion Inflighting Listening and experimenting f. h. goals An aura of country Interactions are cautions High degree of motivation. Members compete for status. Characteristics Members share personal information. They may be observed and predicted in many settings a cross the team’s time together. d. Individuals try to assert • • • • • • Who are these people? What is their unique competence? What information should I share with them? Will they accept me? What is our mission? How to we develop team spirit? What resources are available to us? What problems do we foresee with the team? 2. i. concerned and interested in others. Start to get to know and accept one another.− • Overcoming barriers to effective team functioning. a. External pressures interfere with the group. − Includes others in the decision making process. j. − Listed to others. is understanding. These stages of team development are not rigidly followed. they then pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. d. Storming: • • • • • . g. c. Also referred as: Dependence Acceptance Orientation & hesitant participation Testing inclusion Also referred as Counter dependence. shows empathy. e. b. f. − Recognizes and respects individual differences. − Acknowledges interpersonal conflicts and deals with them positively. Begin turning their attention to group’s tasks. c. Tensions rise between the individuals.
Functional roles are performed. How will we closeness & control each cohesiveness other’s actions? • Getting organised. Transformational leadership skills relate to: o o o o Futuristic thinking Value clarification Entrepreneurism Influencing o Envisioning o Creativity o Mentoring • & inspiring for higher motivation and achievement – how the leader regarded and respected – credibility. c. Transactional leadership skills include: o o o o Goal setting Assertiveness Conflict management Supervision o o o o Communication Problem solving Decision making Rewarding competency • . Break up is called adjournment. c. a. 4) Ingredients of Effective Leadership: • • A process of dealing with members’ aspirations and expectations. More co-operative feelings.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Control What do we 3. Functional roles are also smoothly exchanged as needed. In flexible organisations adjournments are more frequent. a. Norming believe in? Also referred as: What behaviours • Resolution do we expect of • Goals and each other? norms What should we • Integration be doing? • Intimacy. c. Adjourning celebrate our Also referred as: success? • Adjourned What connections • Terminated should we maintain? What have we learned from our experience? Where do we go from here? themselves. d. Tentative balance among competing forces. Group may review its performance. Feedback for future teams. • Openness. Group matures and learns. d. Handles complex challenges. Performing contribute to our Also referred as: success? • Performance Should we take • Productivity risks? • Mature Have we been closeness empowered to • Achievement succeed? How can we change and grow? How can we 5. e. a. b. b. e. Group begins moving together in co-operative fashion b. Tasks are efficiently accomplished. Groups. project teams disband sooner or later. Groups norms guide individuals. d. affection What actions will 4.
unify efforts and stimulate more cohesive teams. trust and compatibility Skills & Role Clarity: − Team members must be reasonably qualified to perform − They should have a desire to co-operate. − Each member should know the roles of all the others in the group with whom they are interacting. Encouraging members to think like a team. Should be perceived as ‘possible to earn’. Super-ordinate Goal: − Team members should be oriented towards their overall task. Providing adequate time for meetings. − All members carry their weight. Administered in proportion to the team performance. • 5) Ingredients of Effective Teams: • What contributes to team success o o o o o o Careful composition Clear direction Accountability Integration & co-ordination Innovativeness Scope for learning o o o o o Information sharing Measurable goals Sufficient resources Flexibility Stimulation of openness • Four Major factors are: Supportive Environment: − − − − − Management to build a supportive environment. focus attention. more transformational skills are required. Team Rewards: − − − − − Stimulates teamwork Recognition or financial Most powerful if they are valued by team members. Demonstrating faith in members’ capacity to achieve These steps contribute to further co-operation. as the group matures. • A leader needs to exhibit greater transactional skills in the initial stages of group formation (first & second stages) Later. 6) Potential Team Problems: .o Enables a leader to get a job done successfully.
It is a belief that workers are lazy. The combination of empowerment and training to plan. SMTs are characterised by: − − − − − − − Goal setting through team effort. monitor and control their own activities distinguishes these teams from many others. Since team’s composition is likely to change frequently due to various reasons. Individual and mutual accountability A result focused performance • • • . They have wide ranging autonomy and freedom. • • • • • Social Loafing: • When employees think that their contributions to a group cannot be measured. Develop a plan for team turnover right from the start. Too many changes and personnel transfers interfere with group relationships and prevent the growth of team work. It is a feeling of being able to hide in a crowd and therefore not be able to be singled out for blame. Social loafing is based on a perception of unfair division of labour. Integrating new members into the team is also important. teams must learn to manage their internal turnover. A multi-skilled workforce Shared leadership through team meetings. Interpersonal trust. They are natural work groups that are given substantial autonomy. complied with the capability to act like manager. direct.Changing composition: • Being complex and dynamic teamwork is sensitive to all aspects of organisational environment. They are asked to control specific behavioural or operational activities and produce significant results. they may lessen their output and engage in social loafing. • • • • 7) Self Managed work Teams (SMT or SMWT): • • • • An empowerment tool Also known as self reliant or self-directed teams. Social loafing may also arise if a member believes that others intend to withhold their efforts and thus he would be foolish not to do the same – The Sucker Effect. Participative discussions. Accept the turnover and plan for it.
− Active problem solving. − More efficient operations through the reduced number of job classifications. self managing teams. . − Lower absenteeism and turnover rates. Inability of some employees to adapt to a team structure. suggestion systems Consensus decision making. sells decision Benevolent autocracy Manager seeks ideas before deciding Manager asks group for recomme nded actions before deciding Participative commuters such as quality circles Manager decides with group. • SMTs have the following disadvantages: − − − − Extended time to implement them High training investment Inefficiencies due to job rotation. • SMTs have several advantages: − Improved flexibility of staff. − Higher level of organisational commitment and job satisfaction. one person one vote Democratic management Manager asks group to decide Withdraws Total of Job Freedom Area of employee participation in decision making Medium High Popular terms Autocratic managem ent Consultative management. • Areas of Job Freedom and Participation Continuum By Tannenbaum & Schmidt: “How to choose Leadership Pattern” Area of authority applied by Manager Joins Consults Sells Tells Low Amount of participation Description of typical action Manager makes & announce s decision Manager presents decision subject to change seeks ideas. − Faster synergetic performance − Enhances individual and team capacity − Lot of scope for innovations − Pushes responsibility down to the lowest levels. − Promotes collaborative work relationships.
inexpensive car. The success of cross-functional teams. I. engineers and even factory workers on whom rests the total responsibility for the development and manufacture of a single product. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE & OVERCOMING IT: • Resistance to change consist of any employee behaviours designed to − Delay − Discredit − Prevent the implementation of work change. • • • • • Most auto companies today employ ‘platform teams’ that consist of a core group of designers. in 1978. Cross-functional teams are of great assistance in designing and prototyping new models and products. ‘Taurus’ team at Ford Honda. Effective management of relationships among people of diverse backgrounds and work cultures.empowerment 8) Cross Functional Teams: • • A type of SMT Consists of individuals from different functional areas working on the design or development of a product. • Employee resist change because it threatens their: − − − − − Need for security Social interaction Status Competence Self esteem a) Nature & Effects: • The perceived threat stemming from a change may be . depends upon: − − − − Setting achievable goals Gaining commitment from team members Setting ground rules for team activities. − Ensuring early success to generate enthusiasm and greater belief in team effort.
May reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process May be a perception of poor timings. People resist because of the fear of unknown. Inequity of the people’s experience Some perceive as losers due to change. A lesson to management is: change is likely to be a success or a problem. set up a ‘chain reaction effect’ also. The method by which it is introduced People may resent having been ill informed. − People disagree with the nature of the change. some employees will try to protect themselves from its effects. depending upon how skillfully it is managed to minimize resistance. Particularly employees too have a desire for new experience and the accompanying rewards that come with the change. Changes. sometimes. Threats to job security. This reactions may be: o Complaints o Passive resistance o Sabotage o Foot dragging o Absenteeism o Work slowdowns • • • • White and blue collared people resist change. Second • • • • Third • • • • Their resistance will be even more intense if all the 3 reasons exist. ‘Change’ does not respect blue or white collar. Some perceive as gainers due to change. − Do not see a personal gain for themselves. • • b) Reasons for Resistance: (3 broad reasons) First • • • • • • Not comfortable with the nature of the change itself It may violate their moral belief system They may believe that the decision is technically incorrect May be reluctant to change the present familiar comforts to an uncertainty.o Required o Unintended o Large • o Imagined o Direct o Small o Intended o Indirect Regardless of the nature of change. − Dislike the method used. .
emotional resistances: • • • • • Fear of the unknown. it eventually becomes worthless. it may need to use authority. Questioned technical feasibilities of changes. narrow outlook Vested interests. desire for status quo. logical. If authority is overused. Low tolerance of change. rational objections: • • • • • Time required to adjust. Then only employees will accept change co-operatively. human – all 3 have to be faced and solved. If management cannot win support. Logical. full support may not be expected all time – may be weak. Parochial. Dislike of management or other change agent. Sociological. We must recognise that authority can only be used sparingly. Lack of trust in others. Extra effort to relearn Possibility of less desirable conditions. Technical. have a positive feeling towards change and feel secure enough to tolerate other changes. In a typical operating situation. 8. group resistances: • • • • • Political coalitions Opposing group values. d) Implications of Resistance: • • • • All 3 types of resistance must be anticipated and treated effectively. Need for security. Psychological. • • • • e) Possible benefits of resistance: • Resistance is not all bad. such as skill downgrading. Economic costs of change. 7. . moderate or opposition – form all people. Desire to retain existing friendships. What is important is: create a genuine climate when people trust management.c) Types of Resistance: (3 types) 6.
Hurdles to change need to be managed. Harvard Business Review. • • • • Change is necessary in a competitive environment. So that. Resistance also gives management the information about the intensity of employee emotions on an issue. Advantages Disadvantages Commonly used in situations Facilitation + Support Advantages Disadvantages Where people are resisting No other approach Can be time because of fear and anxiety works as well with consuming adjustment problems expensive and still .• • It can bring some benefits. • • • • • f) Managing Resistance: Kotter & Schlesigner “Choosing strategies for change”. Resistance creates checks implementation of change. it is made certain that the proposals are appropriate. and balances and ensures proper • • • • Resistance also identifies specific problem areas. Such a release encourage employees to think and talk more about a change so that they understand it better. people Where there is a lack of will often help with the information or inaccurate implementation of the information and analysis change Participation + Involve ment People who participate Where the initiators do not will be committed to have all the information they implementing change need to design the change and and any relevant where others have information they have considerable power to resist will be integrated into the change plan Can be very time consuming if lots of people are involved Can be very time consuming if participators design an inappropriate change. Resistance may encourage management to reexamine its change proposals. Commonly used in situations Education + Communication Once persuaded. There are 6 approaches to manage the resistances as given below: Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This approach in the long run should lead to better acceptance of change. It provides an emotional release of pent-up feelings. It enables management to take corrective actions much before serious problems arise. That may encourage management to communicate the change better.
OD stresses an collaboration among all levels. etc. culture of each organisation must be understood and the relations consist with that culture must be developed. It takes months and years. power leadership and organisational design. or are too expensive quick and inexpensive problems if people solution to resistance feel manipulated problems Coercion Where speed is essential and It is speedy and can Can be risky. Negotiation _ Agreement Where someone or some Sometimes it is group will clearly lose out in relatively easy way to a change and where that avoid major resistance group has considerable power to resist Manipulation _ Co-operation Can be too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate.. most OD are oriented towards group. d) Long-range Change: OD is not a stop gap arrangement. Where other tactics will not It can be a relatively Can lead to future work. organisational objectives. value systems. g) Collaborative Management: unlike the traditional management. motivation theory. f) Emphasis on Intervention: active intervention of the change agent in the ongoing activities in the organisation. e) Participation of a Change Agent: It is generally advised to avail the services of an outside expert. BUILDING EFFECTIVE CHANGE INITIATIVES: 6. . systematic process of organisational change? OD draws from psychology sociology and anthropology theory OD also relies on information from personality learning theory. h) Organisational Culture: includes – accepted patterns of behaviour. b) Comprehensive organisation.fail. J. Change: involving total system and the entire • c) Emphasis upon Work Groups: some OD efforts are aimed at individual and organisational change. The basic characteristics of OD are as follows: a) Planned Change: also called as change intervention. if it the change initiators possess overcome any kind of leaves people angry considerable power resistance at the initiators. group dynamics. having a sociological flavour. norms. Organisational Development: • • • Is a planned. having the overall system perspective in view.
the following criteria are to be satisfied. Acknowledgement of the congruency between OD and many previous effective management practices. Development of internal OD resources and facilitative skills. Involvement of personal and IR/HR management people and congruency with personnel policy and practice. 7. • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8. Effective management of the OD process and stabilization of changes. Situations appropriate for OD programs: • The organisation’s managerial strategy (communication pattern. It is not a guarantee for success of OD But favourable environment conducive for organisational change will be created. Initial top-level involvement. values. Participation of work teams. To reduce the negative effects in an OD program. Monitoring the process and the measuring of results. Motivational level of employees. Further expansion of efforts after the early successes. Trust and support among organisational members Synergetic solutions to problems. including the formal leader. The operationalising of the action research model. educational philosophy about the theory and technology OD.i) Action Research: A process of identifying the organisation’s specific problems. A typical change strategies and associated HR Initiatives: Types of change strategy HR Activities Advantages Disadvantages . gathering and analyzing the organisational data and taking actions to resolve problems. An open. • • • • • • 9. The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant. Pre-requisites for organisational development: • • • OD must fulfill certain conditions if it were to be effective. Perceptions of organisational problems by key people and perceptions of the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems. decision making) The culture of the organisation (norms. power structure) Structure and the role in organisation. Intergroup collaboration.
e. labour unions. likes change workshops Quality group programmes Joint consultation Team briefing and other forms of employee communications Performance management Employee counseling Severance Redundancy programs Recruitment and selection • • • Greater sense of employee ownership Fresh ideas introduced Longerlasting change • • • • Time consuming. Some changes are through government laws. Changes to performance management. Slow Expensive May meet resistance through negative attitudes to change. Stable environments have less change.Education & Employee Involvement • • • • • • • Changes personnel in • • • Management development Employee training. Changes to reward systems. communities. d. c. a) Transformational leadership & change: • Management has a key role in initiating and implementing change successfully. • • Impact Speed • • Changes structures systems to and • • • • • Changes to organisational structures including employee accountabilities. etc. 10. customers. . But dynamic environments are the norm. Changes to career management. Changes to employee relations structures (consultation and bargaining) • • • Longer lasting change Regeneration of employee knowledge and skill Regeneration of tired systems • • Dealing with negative consequences for employees Possibly expensive Slower to have impact May be difficult to establish causal link changes to structures and systems and organisational change. Some changes originate within the organisation. Implementing change successfully: a. b. Some more are from competitors.
• Charisma is a leadership trait can help influence employees to take early and sustained action. • Charismatic leaders are: . The overall plan should address behavioural issues. They articulate vision and promote in vigorously.• A master strategy for change has to be made not overlooking simple. but important details. A vision is a crystallized long-range image or idea of what can and should be accomplished. Workers’ fear of uncertainty. They stimulate employees to: − − − − − Rise above their narrow focus Make them to see a broader picture action. such as difficulty in letting go of old methods. • • • b) Transformation Leaders: • • Are instrumental in the change process. leaders still have two tasks: − To persuade the employees that the vision is urgent. To create an organisation that welcomes change. They take bold strategic changes to position the organisation for its future. It excites them to new levels of commitment and enthusiasm. Charismatically model their behaviour. • • • • d) Communicating Charisma: • After the vision. It stretches people beyond their current capabilities and thinking. − And to motivate their employees to do it. A vision may also integrate the shared beliefs and value that serve as a basis for changing an organisation’s culture. Be learning individuals Make a learning organisation • • c) Creating Vision: • Transformational leaders create and communicate a vision for the organisation.
Warm mentors. This process is called as ‘double-loop learning’ This means that the changes handled not only reflect the current information gathered. e) Stimulating Learning: • Transformational leaders not only make a very good change in organisation. the team and the end users of the project. Express high performance expectations Use provocative symbols and language to inspire others. Establish ownership for different functions.− − − − − − Dynamic risk takers Have depth of expertise Well deserved self confidence. Their critical task is to develop people’s capacity to learn from the experience of change. In ‘single loop learning’ employees simply solve current problems and blindly adapt to changes which have been imposed on them. Relationships and Time Estimates: . Write down the change goal in a piece of paper and ask ‘Is that what you want?’ The goal should be specific and measurable and the team and the user should move in the same direction. keep change goals constantly in mind to avoid functional myopia • c) Establish check points. but an organisation that will continue to change. but also prepare the participants to manage future changes even more effectively. • Employees trust and respect charismatic leaders and emotionally committed to such leaders. • • • • 11. who treat employees individually and guide them for action. Some common sense principles for Change Managers: a) Set a clear goal: • • Start at the end and work backwards While setting a goal dialogue among yourself. Activities. • • b) Determine the objectives: • Objectives help to break the goal down into specific responsibilities for each team member.
Set long-term and short-term check points for early detection of problems. A strong team of supporters and collaborators are required. create opportunity for people to set goals and objectives. Expect differences. Use them to create a synergy and unleash creativity. Create a sense of ‘ownership’. reaching agreement in conflict situations is not only a logical but also an emotional experience. Be a good listener. compromising. yet must work together on a unique task. and as teams. It is important to keep learning. • • e) Reinforce the commitment and excitement of the Change Team: • Volunteering increases commitment. • • f) Keep everyone connected with the Change Program Informed of the Program: • Change involves people from different departments who use different languages. finding common good etc. Logical arguments have their limits. d) Direct people individually and as a Project Team: • • • One can not do it alone. let members go public with their views and choices. • • g) Build Agreements that vitalize team members: • Conflicts are inevitable. from experiences. smoothing over. There are hosts of possible approaches to conflict management like giving in. Appropriate the position of the other person. they serve to ensure interest and create energy. keep people informed on a regular and frequent basis. Use the appropriate method. persuading.• • • Check points help members monitor their own progress. Encourage transparency and visibility of the project team’s efforts. • • . The team should also discuss ‘what if’ and ‘what can go wrong’ situations. have different objectives and have different types of training. Establish a detailed check list of activities. Treat team members as individuals with their own characteristics. develop sensitivity to why people do what they do. as individuals.
I failed my way to success – Thomas Alva Edison. . experimenting. networks and exchanges. innovation and creativity. important to build personal power. we make significant progress only when we stick our necks out.h) Empower yourself and others in the Team: • • Influence without exercising authority is the key. What people want most from a change manager is credibility: Credibility = Competence + Honesty + Direction + Inspiration + Power It is • i) Encourage Risk Taking and Creativity: • • • • Failure is the stepping stone for success. This is achieved through alliances. Like turtles. Plan time for thinking.
employees retire or resign. tasks and people in the organisation. Outside the organisation. . Recognising the need for change: • • Becoming aware of the need is not enough Managers should also recognise the need for change. Within the firm.III MBA – CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 5 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE PROCESS 3) Organisational Change Process: a) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: • Becoming aware of the pressure for change Recognising the need for change Diagnosing the problem Planning the change Implementing the change Following up on the change • • • • • 1. conflicts arise. the technological innovations act as powerful triggers for change. technology. pressure mounts as the organisation outgrows its old ways of doing things. Pressures like these – or the anticipation of such pressures. Becoming aware of the pressure for change: • Most organisational changes are carried out in response to or in anticipation of pressures from inside or outside the organisation. • • • 2. − Demand changes in the structure.
3. Questionnaire. Generally. A firm that adopts evolutionary change adopts a bottom-up change strategy. They discuss the need for change and diagnose the problems facing the organisation. Managers believe that the uncertainty associated with organisational change is best managed through incremental processes in which they continually make adjustments to their strategy and structure. Diagnosing the problem: • • • • • • Recognizing that change is needed is not enough. A firm that pursues revolutionary change adopts a top-down change strategy. Managers must determine how it may affect the company. Planning the Change: • • A strategy for change is formulated. Pressure may be likely economic or technical reasons. • • • • • • • • • 5. secondary data. etc. Winding up of divisions or departments and downsizing are examples of this type of change. 4. Managers must diagnose the pressures for change. Firms opting for bottom-up strategy prepare the organisation for change by involving managers and employees at all levels. observations. What are the consequences of those pressures? For diagnosing the problems various procedures are available like: Interviews. a top-down strategy calls for intervention at the high level of an organisation. Organisations must choose between evolutionary and revolutionary change. The organisation waits until it believes that the costs of not changing exceed the costs of overcoming organisational inertia and then introduces its master plan for change. Implementing the change: . TQM is a method of evolutionary change.
values and behaviours Refreeze (assurance of permanent change) Reinforcing new values. • • • • • • • • Hostility Physical abuse Loss of interest in work Excessive idling time Low productivity Tardiness Development of tension & anxiety Groups deciding fairday’s work • • • • • • • • Aggression Apathy towards work Spoilage of material Corrupting valuable software Absenteeism Resignation Tensed up on the job Imposing their individuals. Lewin’s Process Model: Unfreeze (awareness of need for change) Reducing the forces who wants status quo Change (Move) (movement from old state to new state) Developing new attitudes. Here. wall on • There are 6 approaches for managing resistance. 6. − − − − − − Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and co-operation Explicit and implicit coercion • Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.• • • The next step is to implement the change. resistance to change surfaces. Follow up on the change: • The final step in the change process is to evaluate the effects of the change. attitudes and behaviours Old Stage New State . And institute procedural modifications that will ensure that change continues to be implemented. There are several ways to show the resistance. • b) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: 18.
effective change occurs. Highly useful in understanding the ways of managing change. • • .• • • • • • • According to Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model. Refreezing the system. Managers must ensure that the organisational cultures and reward systems encourage the new behaviours and avoid the old ways of functioning. Such changes are sometimes through structural changes. New values. • • Refreezing: • • Changes become relatively permanent. sometimes through OD techniques. departments or organisation in which the changes e to take place. So that it remains in the desired state. Searching for new solutions. the two phases of change. three stage model of change system. attitudes and behaviours are established as the new way of life. Learning theory and reinforcement theory can play important roles in the refreezing phase. Unfreezing: involves • Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours by shaking up the status quo situations. Managing the transition is essential to keep the organisation going. By unfreezing the current situation. organizing and implementing the change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within the organisation. there is a transition which is not shown. New ways of operating are cemented and reinforced. • • • Transition Management: • Between. Presenting a case to make the people to recognise for a change and how their jobs will be improved by the change. Moving means – developing new behaviours. • • Moving (changing): • Aims to shift or alter the behaviour of the individuals. values and attitudes. Popularly called as. Moving to a desired condition. Transition management is the process of systematically planning.
or do both simultaneously. To get the organisation change.• Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. When the forces are in balance. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. Initially the two groups may be equal in their forces. skills and behaviour. Lewin’s model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. values. again they balance and balanced at any time between the two opposing forces. Lewin’s Force Field Theory of Change: Level of Performance Resistance to Change Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • In any organisation. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change and reduce the resistance to change. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. Failure in efforts to change can be traced back to one of the 3 stages. This Lewin termed as ‘quasi stationery equilibrium’ Lewin’s theory states how the forces for change and resistance balance. play a role in transition management. employees. Successful change. thus requires that old behaviours are discarded and new behaviours introduced Those new behaviours have to be institutionalized and rewarded • • • • • • 19. the 3 stage process must be completed. Communication of the changes to all involved. • • • • • • . Organisational change can occur at three levels: o Individual – Changes in individual’s attitudes. customers and suppliers. they change. the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change.
o Structure & Systems – Change in work design reporting relationships information systems the reward systems, etc. o Organisational Climate – Change in leadership style interpersonal relations, decision making style and other such aspects.
K. MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE – THE CONTINUOUS CHANGE PROCESS MODEL:
• • • •
Lewin’s model is very simple and straight forward. Many models of organisation change use his approach. However, it does not deal with several important issues. A more complex and more helpful approach is illustrated in the figure below:
1. Forces for change
2. Recognise & define problem Change Agent
3. Problem solving process
5. Measure evaluate control
4. Implement the change
Transition manage ment
• • •
This approach treats planned change from the perspective of top management. It indicates that the change is continuous. As change becomes continuous in the organisations, different steps are probably occurring simultaneously through out the organisation. This model incorporates Lewin’s concept into the implementation phase. In this approach, top management perceives that certain forces or trends call for a change. Such an issue is subjected to the organisation’s usual problem solving and decision making processes. Usually, top management defines its goals in terms of what the organisation or certain processes or outputs will be like after the change. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and an acceptable one is selected. Early in the process, the organisation may seek the assistance of a change agent – a person who will be responsible for managing the change efforts. The change agent: o May be a member of the organisation
o An outsider, such as a consultant o Someone from company headquarters – a far away place o An outsider is preferred because of his assumed impartiality Under the direction and management of change agent, the organisation implements the change through Lewin’s unfreeze, change and refreeze process. The final step is measurement, evaluation and control. With this, the top management determines the effectiveness of the change process by various benchmarks and indicators of organisational productivity and effectiveness.
L. LEADERSHIP STYLES:
(Top Down & Bottom up approaches are given in Module 3)
Laissez or free-reign leadership approaches
• • • •
In this type of leadership approach, the leader is just a figure-head. He does not give any directions. He delegates the authority to subordinates. Subordinates must plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own actions. The leader acts principally as a liaison between the group and the outside elements. He supplies necessary materials and information to group member. He lets the subordinates develop their own techniques for accomplishing goals within the organisational policies and objectives. The leader participates very little and instead of leading and directing, he just becomes one of its members. This type of leadership is highly effective when the group members are highly intelligent and are fully aware of their roles and responsibilities. This type of leadership is evident in research laboratories where the scientists are fairly free to conduct their research and make their decisions. Also true to university professors.
• • •
Creates an environment of freedom, individually as well as team spirit. It is highly creative with a free and informal work environment. This approach is very useful where people are highly motivated and achievement oriented.
It may result in disorganized activities which may lead to inefficiency and chaos. Insecurity and frustration may develop due to lack of specific decision making authority and guidance.
The team spirit may suffer due to possible presence of some uncooperative team members. Some members may put their own interests above the group and team interests. OD Definition: is the process of planned change and improvement of organisations through the application of knowledge of behavioral sciences. 3 points to remember in this definition are: i. Organisation development involves attempts to plan organisational changes. ii. Specific intention of organisation development is to improve organisation. iii. The planned improvement must be based on knowledge of the behavioral sciences such as OB, psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology and related field of study rather than financial and technological considerations.
M. OD INTERVENTIONS:
Several OD interventions also called techniques, have evolved over a long period: Good interventions have 3 characteristics: (i) (ii) (iii) They are based on valid information about the functioning of the organisation, usually collected by the employees. The intervention under the guidance of the change agent, provides employees with opportunities to make their own choices regarding the nature of the problems and their preferred solutions. Interventions are aimed at gaining the employee’s personal commitment to their choices.
The OD Paradigms & Values: • • • • • • Organisational Level Affected Individual Group Organisation √ – √ – – – – – √ √ – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ √ – – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – – √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ – √ – – – √ √ – – √ √ √ √ Values human & organisational growth Collaborative and participative process A spirit of inquiry Strong emphasis on collaboration The change agent as a catalyst Important factors in OD efforts: a) Respect for people: . Different types of OD interventions and the level of their impact: Interventions: Human Process: a. Cooperative union management projects j. Performance appraisal o.9. Differentiation & integration i. Career planning & development q. Reward systems p. Goal setting n. Integrated strategic management t. Managing workplace diversity r. Third party intervention d. Culture change u. Work design Human Resource Management: m. Self designing organisations 10. T-Group/Sensitivity Training b. Total quality management l. Strategic change v. Inter-group relations Technostructural: g. Process consultation c. Organisation confrontation meeting f. Employee wellness Strategic: s. Formal structural change h. Team building e. Quality circles k.
A behaviour scientist directs the discussions. the more will be committed to implementing those decisions 11. The individuals learn through observing and participating rather than being told. 2. Explanations on a few OD Techniques: a) Sensitivity Training: • Also known as laboratory training. 3. The more we involve. encounter group or T-groups (Training groups) All refer to a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interactions. Provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them. 5. To develop greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. beliefs and attitudes. openness and supportive climate. They should be openly confronted. Improved listening skills. To develop increased understanding of group processes. Increased ability to empathies with others. The objectives of T-groups are: 1. Members meet in a free and open environment and discuss about themselves and their interactive processes. 4. • • • • • • . authenticity. c) Power Equalisation: • Effective organisations deemphasize hierarchial authority and control d) Confrontation: • • Problems should not be swept under the rug. e) Participation: • • All those who are affected by the change should be involved in decision making surrounding the change. The OD specialist (behavioral scientist) creates the opportunity for participants to express their ideas.Individuals are perceived as being responsible conscientious and caring. • They should be treated with dignity and respect b) Trust & support: • • The effective and healthy organisation is characterized by trust.
Work flow.6. A questionnaire is usually filled by all employees of the organisation. Even though every employee in an organisation can participate in survey feedback. Satisfaction with the organisation Job peers and immediate supervisors • • • The steps involved are as follows: Data Collection Feedback to organisational unit Action Decision Consultants c) Process Consultation: • Is a technique concerned with the interpersonal relations and dynamics operating in work groups. The questionnaire seeks to find out the perceptions of the employees on a range of topics like − − − − − Decision making practice Communication effectiveness Coordination between units. Improved conflict resolution skills b) Implications of Resistance: • • • • It is a tool for assessing attitudes of organisational members. informal relationships among unit members. Identifying discrepancies among perceptions and Solving these differences. it is important that the organisational family – the manager and those employees who report directly to him participate. but more task oriented. But they are unable to identify what can be improved and how. • • • • • • d) Team Building: . An outside consultant to assist the manager to perceive is employed. Increased tolerance of individual differences and 8. Similar to sensitivity training. Greater openness 7. He understands and suggests the processes which the manager must act upon. formal communication channels are some of the areas. Managers often sense that their unit’s performance can be improved.
leadership style. The support and trust of group members enhance the implementation of change. Team building process involves the following steps: Step-1 Step-2 • • • • • • • • • The team leader defines a problem. the other group and how it believes the other perceives it. • • • • • • . The group proposes several solutions. ‘Problem solving’ is one of the popular approaches for improving intergroup relations. Engineers accountants production engineers maintenance engineers Such stereotypes can have obvious negative impact on the coordinative efforts between the departments. role clarification. Team building includes OD consultant feedback in such areas as communication and conflict resolution. The group analyses the problem. Step-3 • • • • e) Intergroup Development: • Seeks to change the attitude. stereotypes and perceptions that groups have with each other. OD consultant also helps in assessing group tasks. member roles and strategies for accomplishing work tasks.• Is a conscious effort by management to develop effective work groups through out the organisation. Aimed at helping groups to become effective at task accomplishment. It utilizes high interaction group activities to create trust and openness among team members. Eg. In this method each group meets independently to develop lists of its perceptions of itself. Hence change efforts are directed towards the group to change their attitudes. A major area of concern in OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exist between groups. organisational structure and interpersonal relations. Then selects the most appropriate solution. stereotypes and perceptions through intergroup development. the participants are likely to be committed to the solution and interpersonal support and trust are developed. These work groups focus on solving actual problems in building efficient management teams. Determines underlying cause in such areas as communication. Through this process.
To resolve serious conflicts those are related to specific work issues. OD consultants help the parties resolve their differences through such techniques as problem solving. • • • • • 2 . groups or departments. Black & Mouton proposed a multi step process for improving organisations by attempting to cultivate these skills. group problem solving. Seeks to promote organisational excellence by fostering concern for production and concern for people.• The groups then share lists. bargaining and conciliation. key managers learn about grid concepts and how they are applied.9 grid level. They assess their own managerial styles and work on improving such skills as team development. Intergroup tensions are dealt with openly and joint problem solving procedures are developed. 3 . • f) Third Party Interventions: • • • • This is concerned with helping individuals. after which similarities and differences are discussed. and communication. Differences are clearly articulated and the group look for the cause of disparities. these key managers will work to implement the grid program through out the organisation. After appropriate introduction. Team Development Intergroup development . Most organisational problems stem from poor communication and inadequate planning. The steps in grid OD are shown below: Steps 1 Training Activities In a week-long seminar. g) Grid Training: • Grid organisational development is an extension of the managerial / leadership grid concept developed by Blake & Mouton Carried out on an organisation-wide basis. Or may be caused by sub optimal interpersonal relations. This phase focuses on the relationship between the organisation’s work groups to improve coordination & cooperation. The trained managers bring their new understanding of managerial grid concepts relationships and team effectiveness so that the team operates at 9.
Goal Organisation members seek to make the ideal attainment model a reality. evaluated and refined by managers and subordinates working together throughout the organisation. QWL programs focus strongly on providing a work environment conducive to satisfying individual needs. Richard Walton’s categories of programs are shown below: • • • Adequate & fair Compensation Development of Human capacities Social Integration Total Life Space Safe & Healthy work Environment Growth & Security Constitutionlism Social Relevance • There are a few popular approaches to humanize workplace. Efforts are made to stabilize positive changes and to identify new areas of opportunity for the organisation. The programs vary. They set goals to be tested.4 . . Stabilization Eventually. 6 Organisational Top managers together create an ideal model of goal setting the organisation. Each submits proposals on how their activities should be carried out in order to achieve excellence and they proceed to take whatever corrective actions are necessary. 5 . but the goal of ‘humanizing the work place’ is of paramount importance. h) Quality of Work Life: (QWL) • Is defined as the degree to which members of a work organisation are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organisation. the results of all the phases are evaluated to determine which areas of the organisation still need improvement or alteration.
Another approach in Quality Circles These are small groups of employees who meet regularly on voluntary basis to identify and solve problems related to the quality of work they perform. Rather than looking for problems to fix. • • • • The hurdles are − − Both management and labour must cooperate in designing the programs Plan agreed by all must be implemented. Appreciative inquiry is positive. this approach seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organisation. i) Appreciative Inquiry: (AI) • • • • Most OD approaches are problem oriented. − For instance. This allows the organisation to change by playing to its strengths and competitive advantages. QWL programs benefit the organisation in these ways: − − − − − Increased job satisfaction. AI process essentially consists of four steps.• One such is ‘work restructuring’ – the process of changing the way jobs are done to make them more interesting to workers. employees are asked to recount times they felt the organisation worked best. Job enlargement and job enrichment are two such. − Or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. Organisational commitment Reduced turnover among workers Increased productivity Profitability and goal attainment for the organisation. They identify a problem and then look for solutions. • • • • • • . These qualities are further built on to improve performance It focuses on organisations success and abilities than on its problems. Often played out in large group meetings over two or three days and overseen by a trained change agent. The first step is Discovery: − The idea is to find out what people think are the strengths of the organisation.
participants discuss how the organisation is going to fulfill its dream. • The third step is Design: − Based on the dream articulation. have increased their sales and profits by several crores of money. • . CREATIVITY IN ORGANISATIONS: • Organisational culture promotes creativity and innovation 12. The essence of creativity is the element of freshness. − This typically includes the writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies.• The second step is Dreaming: − The information from the discovery phase is used to speculate on possible futures of the organisation. 12. − For instance people are asked to envision the organisation in five years and describe what different is going to happen. participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organisation will look and agree on its unique qualities. originality and novelty that is also appropriate to the context. • • Companies who used this OD technique. Benefits & Limitations of Organisational Development: Benefits • • • • • • • • • • • • Limitations • • • • • • • • • • • Organisation-wide changes Higher motivation Higher productivity Better quality of work Higher job satisfaction Improved team work Better resolution of conflict Commitment to objectives Reduced absence Lower turnover Creation of learning Individuals and groups Time consuming Expensive Delayed pay-off period Possible failure Possible invasion of privacy Possible psychological harm Potential conformity Emphasis on group processes rather than performance Possible conceptual ambiguity Difficulty in evaluation Cultural incompatibility N. Nature of Creativity: • Creativity refers to the process by which novel but situationally appropriate outcomes are brought about. The fourth step is Destiny: − In this final step.
the act must be unique and appropriate to the context. The social and technological changes that organisations face require creative decisions. − But the problem is still simmering in one’s mind − But it is not at the forefront of his attention. the mind constantly considers the problem and works on it. • Insight: − Individuals experience insight at some point during the incubation stage. − During incubation. . − Incubation assists in divergent thinking and generating different approaches to the issue. The ability to promote creativity in organisations is an important competence to face the turbulence of dynamics of changes in the organisations. − Involves developing a clear understanding of what one wants to achieve through a novel solution Step-2 Incubation Step-3 Insight Step-4 Verification • • • Incubation: − Is a process of reflective thought and is often conducted subconsciously. − It is an experience of suddenly becoming aware of a unique idea. • • 13. − Plays powerful role in dissolving previously held notions about a problem. − The problem or issue not forgotten. − The flashes of inspiration have no definite schedules. − They might come at any time of the day or night.• To call anything creative. The process of creativity occurs in the following four stages: Step-1 Preparation Preparation: − An important condition for creativity. The Creative Process: • Researchers have developed a model that outlines the various stages of the creative process. − The problem is only put in the back burner.
• Creative processes do not always follow an order. Belief that fantasy and day dreaming are not a waste of time. • Verification: − Ideas are generated at the insight stage. Inventive thinking style. • 15. tenacity is very important. Creativity Inducing Factors: a. These are the supporting environments and facilities to encourage people to search for new ideas: Creative People Organisational Support Organisational Culture Enhanced Creativity . Brainstorming b. Characteristics of Creative Individuals: • It is said that creative people posses intellectual and personality characteristics different from their less creative counterparts. but verification of their value is important. A great amount of energy. High intellectual abilities. 14. − At this stage.− It can also be lost if not documented. Some of the traits of creative people include: − − − − − − − − Willingness to give up immediate gain to reach long range goals. − It is not sufficient we have come up with an idea. An irritation with status quo Perseverance A pursuit of hobbies and specialised interests. − The new idea has to be subjected to evaluation and experimentation. Lateral thinking 16. Grid analysis c. Methods of Enhancing Creativity: a. since other people may resist or reject the creative ideas.
g. development. Organisational Culture: − − − − − Openness to new ideas. if any. c. − Lavishness does not work. • . manufacturing and marketing. Time & Resources: − People are more creative when they have funds. − Divergent thinking is key to creativity f. − Like foreign assignments. INNOVATIONS IN ORGANISATIONS: • Innovation is the process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the market place as products. − People need enough resources O. Friendly supervision Team building Participative decision making Flexible organisation structures. etc. processes and services. extended leave. Selecting creative people is the starting point in enhancing creativity in organisations. Creative People: Exposure Time & Resources i. d. facilities. information and time.Diversity b. Diversity: − Diverse ethnic and cultural groups. Innovation involves every aspect of organisation. seminars. − Break out of the shell and take risks. Organisational Support: − May come in many ways. Exposure: − Expose employees to various kinds of experience. e. − Sets goals for creativity − Encourage employees to take risks and accept failures. − Make the job intrinsically motivating. materials. research.
1) Types of Innovation: • • Radical innovation – major break through – eg: xerox System innovation – creating new functionalities by assembling parts in new ways – eg: automobile Incremental innovation – continues the technical improvements – applicable to radical and systems also – forces organisations to continually improve products. • 2) A Six Step Model for Planned Innovation or Change: • The process followed by managers when they engage in planned innovation and change are illustrated in the sketch Step-1 Perceiving an opportunity or a problem Step-2 Diagnosing the situation and generating ideas Step-3 Presenting a proposal & adopting the change or innovation Step-6 Monitoring and evaluating results Step-5 Implementing the change or innovation Step-4 Planning to over come resistance to change or innovation Step-1 : Perceiving an opportunity or a problem • Look ahead for opportunities to solve current and anticipated problems.• The greatest challenge is to bring the innovative technology into the market in a cost effective manner. Hold periodic sessions with senior/junior managers and elicit suggestions. . Do not focus only on immediate problems. • • Step-2 : Diagnosing the situations and generating ideas • Diagnose the situation and generate new ideas.
Step-5 : Implementing the innovation or change • • Moment of truth when the change is put into operation. • P. perceptual. If the planning is carefully done.• • This will fix the problems and take advantage of the opportunities. Perceptual Blocks Cultural Blocks Emotional Blocks Need for Creativity & Creativity & Innovation . Overcome the resistance. • • Step-4 : Planning to overcome resistance • • Understand the reasons and resistance for change. cultural and emotional blocks as shown in the sketch. Step-3 : Presenting a proposal and adopting the change • Establish the fact that innovation and change are important to the organisation. implementation will be smooth Step-6 : Monitoring the results • Monitor and evaluate what happens after the change has been implemented. Feedback for improvements in successive innovations. Do not overlook the status of ongoing activities relative to the competition. Otherwise good ideas will be rejected when they are proposed. BLOCKS FOR CREATIVITY & INNOVATIONS: • • • It is not enough to take positive steps to promote creativity. Preparation of a business plan is necessary for budget proposals. There are three broad categories of obstructions for creativity. It is also essential to guard against ways which hinder creativity.
That is not our problem 33. A belief that indulging in fantasy or other forms of open-ended exploration is a waste of time. Costs too much 8. Long time and it works 49. Perceptual Blocks: Include such factors as: − − − − The failure to use all the senses in observing Failure to investigate the obvious Difficulty in seeing remote relationships Failure to distinguish between cause and effect. Don’t start anything yet 9. All right in theory 5. Too many projects now 13. Too late 44. 34. Too academic 41. − Fear and distrust of others − Fear of grabbing the first idea that comes along Sixty-One Ways to Block Creativity: 1. The timing is off 37. Emotional Blocks: Include: − The fear of making a mistake. 3. There are better ways. 4. Too old fashioned 46. The boss won’t go for it.Innovation 1. It has been done before 15. The old times won’t use it. 40. Against company policy 3. 39. It is not good enough 18. Ahead of the times. We have not the manpower 50. Too soon 47. 36. It is not budgeted 17. Too much paper work 45. They won’t go for it. It needs more stud 16. Can you put into practice? 7. The new people won’t understand 35. It can’t work 12. It is not part of your job 19. It does not fit human nature 14. The union won’t go for it. The drive to be practical and economical. Cultural Blocks: Include: A desire to conform to established norms. I know it won’t work 11. 2. 43. Have you considered 10. 38. Too hard to administer 42. Be practical 6. Let me add to that 32. A good idea but… 2. We have not the time − − − − . Too hard to implement. We have been doing it this way for 48. Overemphasis on competition or conflict avoidance and smoothing.
Let us think it over for a while 27. Let us sit on it for a while 26. What will the union think? 58. Let us not step on toes 24. What bubble head thought that up? 56. Of course. Who else has tried it? 61. What will the customers think? 57. it won’t work 29. We can too small 53. Why has not someone suggested it before if it is a good idea? You are off base! . Not ready for it yet. Who do you think you are? 60. Let us put it off for a while 25. What you are really saying is? 59. Some other time 31. Let us form a committee 22. we have never done it that way 54. Let us discuss it 21. Our Plan is different 30.20. We are too big 52. 28. Let us make a survey first 23. We have tried it before 55. Surely you know better 51.
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