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1) Self Awareness:
• • • • • Is the ability to be aware of what one is feeling? Is self understanding Is the knowledge of one’s true feelings at the moment? Is one of Goleman’s five dimensions of emotional intelligence in the workplace? Eg: Raju recognises that he is angry, so that he will wait himself to cool down and gather more information before taking an important personnel decision.
2) Self Analysis & Management/Self Monitoring:
Definition: A systematic attempt by an individual to understand and analyse one’s own personality without the help – another. • • If a person knows his skills and abilities it will help him to develop greater self confidence and enable him to present a positive image to those he deals in. Self analysis of skills will lead to: − Working effectively with others – approachability, teamwork, cooperation, rapport and adaptability” − Communication – listening, enthusiasm, clarify, pertinence, confidence. − Judgements and decision making – decisiveness, research, planning, reaching a conclusion, evaluation. − Persuading and influencing – communication, leadership, negotiation, motivation, charisma, determination, forcefulness, vision, empathy. − Ability to solve problems – critical thinking, analysis, lateral thinking, creativity. − Time management – ensuring assignments are done on time. − Use of IT – word processing report to solve problems quickly. − Achieving one’s goals – determination, commitment, will power resolution, stamina, ambition, energy, resistance. − Specialist subject knowledge. • Self analysis provides the opportunity to turn potential failures into triumphs, through appropriate interpretations.
After analysis one has to self manage. There are 12 steps of self management:
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Make a decision that you desire to achieve the goal. Believe that you will achieve the goal. Write down your goal on paper. Be honest with yourself. Analyse your present position. Use deadlines. Identify the rocks that stand in your way. Identify the skills you need. Identify those people from whom you need co-operation Make a complete business plan. Visualize the perfect outcome, emotionalise how terrific you will feel when the outcome is achieved and make the necessary affirmations consistent with achieving the goal. − Determine to back your plan with patience and persistence.
• Self efficiency refers to a person’s belief that he has: − − − − • The ability The motivation The situational contingencies. To complete a task successfully.
People strong in self efficiency have a − ‘Can do’ attitude towards a specific task. − ‘Can do’ attitude for various challenges in life.
• • • •
Social learning/observational learning increases self efficiency by observing someone else’ actions. People have the drive for self efficiency – a belief that they have the necessary capabilities to perform a task. Management should provide opportunities for meaningful involvement of people in the activities towards the achievement of organisational goals or objectives. Albert Bandura, a famous behavioural scientist says: “Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions they have little incentives to act” “They have the core belief that they have the power to produce desired results”
Bandura’s task-specific self-efficiency in ‘state like’ and specific task oriented. Bandura also states a ‘generalised self efficiency’ which reflects people’s belief in successfully accomplishing tasks across a wide variety of achievement situations – called as ‘trait like’
a) Self efficacy Vs Self-esteem: 1. Self esteem Is a global construct of one’s evaluation and belief of overall worthiness Is stable and traitlike Self efficacy Is one’s belief about a task and contact specific capability. Is changing overtime as new information and task experiences and gained and developed and is statelike. Is a current assessment of one’s future success at task.
Is aimed at any aspect of one’s current self
b) The process & impact of self efficacy: The Process: • • • • • Directly, the self-efficacy process starts before individuals select their choices and initiate their efforts. People tend to weigh, evaluate and integrate information about their personal capabilities. This initial stage of process has nothing to do with individual’s abilities or resources. It rather, depends upon how they perceive or believe they can use those abilities and resources to accomplish the given task in this context. This evaluation of perception then leads to the expectations of personal efficacy which in turn determines: − The decision to perform the specific task in this context. − The amount of effort that will be expended to accomplish the task − The level of persistence that will be forthcoming despite problems, regardless of evidence and adversity. The Impact: Self-efficacy can directly affect: • • • Choice behaviour: Decisions made based on how efficacious a person feels towards the opinion in work assignments or careers, etc. Motivational effort: People will try harder and give more effort on tasks where they have high self efficacy than those where the efficacy judgement is low. Perseverance: Those with high self-efficacy bounce back, be resilient when meeting problems or even failure, whereas those with low efficacy tend to give up when obstacles appear.
• Facilitating through patterns: People with high self-efficacy say ‘I know I can figure out how to solve this problem’. Low esteem people prone to the beliefs and behaviours of those they respect. I do not have the requisite ability’ Vulnerability to Stress: People with low self-efficacy tend to experience stress and burnout. • c) Sources of Self-Efficacy: Self Efficacy Masterly Experiences or Performance Attainments d) Applications: • • • • • Vicarious Experiences of Modeling Social Persuasion Physiological and Psychological Arousal Training and development Stress management. People with low efficacy say ‘I know I can not do that. High efficacy people enter into potential stressful situations with confidence and assurance and thus are able to resist stressful reactions. People with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external influence. High esteem people tend to choose unconventional jobs. Self managed work teams Job design and goal setting. low esteems will tend to be concerned with pleasing others. Self esteem has to do with people and self-perceived competence and self image in an organisation. . Low esteems are less likely to take unpopular stands. Low esteem people are dependent on the receipt of positive evaluations and approvals from others. This is called as organisation based self esteem (OBSE) Directly related to the desire for success. since they expect failure. In managerial positions. Leadership 4) Self-Esteem: • • • • • • • • • • • Refers to the feeling of like or dislike of one-self. People with high self-esteem believe that they have abilities to undertake challenging jobs.
satisfaction. likely to fear decision making. Our behaviour varies with the role we are playing. intelligence and persistence – it is nurtured and channeled in constructive ethical ways otherwise it can become antisocial and destructive” • 5) Roles: • • • • All group members are actors. − One study found that people with high self-esteem handle failure better than those with low self esteem. High self esteem people have more positive attitudes. less anxiety. People with low self-esteem are not confident in thinking ability. Everyone has to play a number of diverse roles. That view indicates how one is supposed to act in a given situation. − Yet another study says: “High self esteem can be a good thing. − Another study found that those with high self-esteem tended to become egotistical and faced with pressure situations and may result in aggressive or violent behaviour when threatened. but only if like many other human characteristics – such as creativity. hopelessness and depressive symptoms. Based on the interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave. . It is found that males score slightly higher in self-esteem than females. both on and off his job. we engage in certain types of behaviour. feelings. Low esteems are less satisfied with their jobs. a ii)Role Perception: • • • It is one’s view. Research results on self-esteem are mixed. lack negotiation and interpersonal skills and are reluctant unable to change. A role is a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.• • • • • High esteems are more satisfied with their jobs. a) Role Concepts: are associated with roles a i) Role Identity: • • Certain attitudes and actual behaviour are consistent with a role and they create ‘the role identity’ People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognise the situation and its demands clearly require major changes. each playing a role.
to a large part is determined by the role defined in the context in which we are acting. Supervisors particularly have to change roles rapidly as they work with seniors. How we have to behave. Role of a judge or football referee. conflicts will inevitably arise. Reaching such an understanding requires studying the available job descriptions. • a iii)Role Expectations: • • Defined as how others behave you should act in a given situation. a iv)Role Conflict: • • When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Unless roles are clarified and agreed upon by both parties. the result is role conflict. eg. as well as opening up lines of communication to discover the other’s perceptions. technical and non-technical activities. It exists when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may be more difficult than compliance with another.• Since managers perform many different roles. Manager Manager’s perception A of own role Manager’s perception B of employee’s role Manager’s perception C of the manager’s role as seen by the employee Employee D Employee’s perception of manager’s role E F Employee’s perception of own role Employee’s perception of the employee’s role as seen by the managers • • • • The key is for both parties to gain accurate role perceptions of their own roles and for the roles of the other. subordinates. The complex web of manager – employee role perception. they must be highly adaptive and exhibit role of flexibility in order to change from one role to another quickly. b) Leader/Manager Roles: by Mintzberg .
Formal Authority and status Interpersonal Roles Figure head Leader Liaison Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokes person Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator c) Some Roles Commonly Played by Group Members: (by J.A.Greenberg & B.Baron) Task Oriented Roles Initiator Contributors Recommend new solutions to group members Information Seekers Attempt to obtain the necessary facts Opinion Givers Share own opinion with others Energisers Stimulate the group into action whenever interest drops Relations Oriented Roles Harmonisers Meditate group conflicts Self Oriented Roles Blockers Act stubborn & resistant to the group Recognition Seekers Call attention to their own achievements Dominators Assert authority by manipulating the group Avoiders Maintain distance. isolate themselves from follow group members Compromisers Shift opinions to create group harmony Encouragers Praise and encourage others Expediters Suggest ways the groups can operate more smoothly .
Sometimes it is a ‘radial’ shift from the current to a new process. it has visions of revolutions. • • • • • • 7) Characteristics of Change: • • • • • • Vital if a company were to avoid stagnation. etc. • • • • . An organisation too cannot and should not remain constant/stagnant all the time. a trouble maker. Sometimes it is also a ‘mutually agreed’ plan for change in various groups of management. but pervasive too. step by step. Humans and organisms. organisational environment. To many it is threatening. Even if the management does not want to change.CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 2 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE 2) Defination: “Organisational change is the process by which organisations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness” 6) Importance of Change: • • • • Change is the only thing permanent in the world. It is dependent upon the organisational environment and or culture. If throws up also a dissatisfied person. Sometimes is an ‘incremental’ change. Life itself is almost synonymous with the concept of change. Change produces emotional reactions too. It is normal and constant. environments and expectations. Is fast and is likely to increase further in the present competitive business. Many a times it is a ‘top down’ management directive. Change is inevitable. roles of people. It is a ‘natural’ and ‘adaptive’ change as a consequence/reaction to the external circumstances and pressures. ‘grow up’ leaving behind the characteristics of earlier stages of development and adopt new behaviours with age. motivation. A process and not an event. Change encompasses leadership. the external pressures force it to change.
• • . The perception of the company that the customers are holding. − The people who work for the company • o The illustration of the 3 components and their inter-relations are shown in the sketch Changes Historical & political Corporate evolution Culture Management & Organisation Changes People 4a. The traditions and norms to which the management and employees are accustomed to. The good and bad experiences of the individuals of the company on whom the new change is vested in. The image the company likes to promote. History & Politics: The historical and political evolution of a company will have a significant bearing on its acceptance of change.8) Corporate Culture and Change Management: • All changes interface with three organisational components which constitute the organisational culture. These factors are: • • • • • • • Base & origin of the company Associated values of the company. − The management and organisation of the company. The unwritten and written long standing rights and policies existing in the company and the likely threats to them. Those three components are: − The historical and political evolution of the company. Are the value & image of the company being changed during the change? The origins of the individuals within the company.
It will also impact the structure and operation of the organisation. The likely ‘balance of power’ between the current owners and the functional experts. • • • 4b. The requirements of specialists slowly decrease. Typically with any change people expect a reward pay hike. They recognize the contribution to the achievement of business objectives. • . their acceptance and willingness and take suitable remedial measures. People: • • • • Most of the issues in change management are ‘people’ oriented. divisions and departments become blurred. measure and analyse the effect of the change on the workforce. Every decision on change ‘impacts’ the people. personal status. Both project and group work increase. etc. The ‘acceptance’ of change process by top management. The ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of power. All cautions should be exercised in the people oriented changes. and there inter-relationships. With increased harassing of technology and processes availability of jobs decrease. promotion or other type of recognition. Multi skilling of employees increase and in greater demand.Management & Organisation: • • • • • • • • • • • • Changes will impact the roles of management. • • 4c. sphere of influence. Role of line management shifts from ‘autocrat’ to that of ‘facilitator’ Senior management takes more of strategic stance.. Think carefully the impact of change in every job it affects. Senior management encourages opportunities for progress through innovation. All the activities and outputs gets customer oriented. The jobs broaden in terms of scope and of accountability. Before embarking upon the change. The boundaries between jobs.• The relationships and cordiality between the top management and the people who have been vested with the powers of change.
since any change at individual level. can resist change envisaged by management. • • b) Group Level Change: • • • • Most organisational changes have their major effects at the group level. Decisions at this level involve major programs that affect both individual and groups. Effective implementation of change at the group level. will also have repercussions in the group. Changes at the group level can affect. Informal groups can pose a major barrier to change because of the inherent strength they possess. Require considerable planning for implementation. Change in the organisational level is generally referred to as ‘organisational development’ • • • • • • . The groups could be departments or informal work groups. − − − − − Work flows Job design Social organisation Influence the status systems & Communication patterns • • Managers must consider group factors when implementing change. • • c) Organisational – Level Changes: • Changes at this level involve major programs that affect both individuals and groups. Some say that changes at the individual level will seldom have significant implications for the total organisation. group and organisational a) Individual Level Change: • Change is reflected in such developments as changes in job assignment. physical move to a different location or the change in maturity level of a person which occurs overtime. These decisions are rarely implemented only by a single manger. Others say. Decisions regarding these changes are generally made by senior management. Formal groups. This is because most activities in organisations are organised on a group basis. the above is not true. can frequently overcome resistance at the individual level. like unions.9) Levels of Change: 3 Levels – Individual. They cover long periods of time.
Radial rethinking and redesigning of business processes to obtain rapid organisational effectiveness. TQM is an example Revolutionary Change: Sudden. reduce waste. Known as Business Process Re-engineering. re-engineering is an example. Business processes Re-engineering Values & Benefits Jobs and Structures Management & measurement • • • . Continuous efficiency improvement to reducer costs. Developed by Edward Demming Broad goal of TQM is continuous improvement. Has the following components. drastic & organisation-wide. a) Total Quality Management (TQM): • • • • Evolutionary change. Ignores existing arrangement of tasks. Employees are expected to make suggestions on all aspects of processes and management. TQM is driven by statistical data. improve quality. TQM has 4 key components Systems Change Through TQM Management People Processes • • • b) Re-Engineering: • • • Revolutionary change. Orients with customer as object.6) Types of Change: • Two Types : Evolutionary Change Revolutionary Change • • Evolutionary Change : Gradual. incremental. roles and work activities.
offer a tremendously powerful recipe for building or rebuilding an organisation. Reengineering demands conceptual thinking rooted in supposition. Both stress the role of management on coaching and facilitating. measurement. performance measurement and reward schemes. bottom up. • • • • • • • • e) Dissimilarities between TQM & Reengineering: • • • • • The two differ in their approach to change. Both stress on job description and proper organisation structural relationships. TQM – a continuous. Both promote a process orientation. TQM focuses on improvement whereas reengineering focuses on customer relationships. improvement. Both demand change of people’s attitudes and their values and beliefs. lateral thinking and raw creativity associated with senior management. Both emphasize on power and accountability. Both promote empowerment and involvement high value team work in quality circles. although there is a difference in emphasis. TQM is an attitudinal change with constant focus on continuous improvement and customer. Reengineering has a program of change with an identifiable beginning and an end. Both emphasize the importance of customer. But the two approaches applied together and with understanding and sympathy. intuition. The two differ in their impact on organisational culture. • • • • . TQM and Reengineering have four identifiable founding principles and commonalities which are summarized as follows: TQM Systems Processes People Management Reengineering Management & Measurement Business Processes Values & Benefits Jobs & Structures • d) Similarities between TQM & Reengineering: • Both emphasize objectivity and this they obtain through statistical analysis and benchmarking. Re-engineering is radical reinvention and top down approach.c) Integration of evolutionary & revolutionary change – TQM & Re-engineering: • The popular approach is that the two can not co-exist. rather than pure directions. Both differ in perception too TQM has analytical thinking. comparison fact finding and reasoning.
arising from outside the organisation. 7) Forces for Change in Organisations: • • • • • Change has become the norm in most organisations. TQM can address the problems at the lower levels.• • Reengineering can address major strategic issues at top level management. Causes for change: External Causes Globalisation Work force diversity Technological change Managing ethical behaviour Government policies Competition Scarcity of resources Mergers and acquisitions Pollution/Ecological controls Calamities/Emergencies Internal Causes Organisational silence Falling effectiveness Crisis Changing employee expectations Change in the work climate Downsizing Reengineering Productivity improvements Cycle Time Reduction 8) Resistance to Changes: Organisational Level Organisational structures Organisational Cultures Organisational Strategies Over determination (Structural inertia) Sub-unit Level Differences in subcommittee Orientation Power and Conflict Group Level Group Norms Group Cohesiveness Group think Individual Level Cognitive Biases Uncertainty Fear of loss Selective Perception Habit Logical Reasons . arising from sources within the organisation. The changes stem from several factors. Some are internal. Some are external.
At P1. Initially both the groups may be equal in their force. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. effective change occurs by: • • • Unfreezing the current situation. • • • • • • 10)Different change Models Lewin’s three stage model of change system: As per Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model.Developed by Kurt Lewin Level of Performance Resistance to Change Equal Arrows Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • • Refer the sketch In any organisation. Refreezing the system so that it remains in this desired state. Moving to a desired condition. Simultaneously reduce the resistance for change. . the change starts occurring in steps and reaches a level of P2. When the forces are in balance. the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change. To get the organisation to change. At P2 the forces balance between the two groups.9) Force Field Theory of Change: .
the 3 stage processes must be completed. To develop new behaviours. To change sometimes through structural changes. Management should ensure that the new organisational culture and record systems encourage a new behaviour. • • • c) Refreezing: • • The change becomes permanent. To change sometimes through organisational development techniques. departments or organisations where the changes are to take place. values and behaviours Refreezing Reinforcing new values attitudes and behaviours • The model proposes that for change efforts to be successful.a) Unfreezing: Involves • • • • • • Shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains status quo Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours. values and attitudes. Old behaviours should be discarded and new behaviours are introduced. Encouraging people to search for new solutions. Presenting the existing problem Making the people to recognise the need for change. Old ways of functioning are avoided • • • d) Lewin’s Change Model: Unfreezing Reducing the forces for status quo Moving Developing new attitudes. b) Moving: Aims • To shift or alter the behaviour of individuals. Eliminating the rewards for current behaviours and discouraging current behaviours. • • . The new way of operating are cemented and reinforced. New attitudes. values and behaviours are established as the new way of organisational approach. Failures can be traced back to anyone of the stages.
− They also explore the areas requiring change.e) Transition Management: • • • Is between any two phases of change. Still. • • Entry: − In this phase development of mutual contract and mutual expectations take place. This model follows a seven step process as in the sketch: • • Scouting Entry Diagnosis Planning Termination Stabilization & Evaluation Action • The phases are generally sequential. . Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. the business must carry on. • • • • • 11) Planning Models • • • Developed by Lippit. In the transition state. This information must be able to be translated into action. Later modified by Kolb & Frohman (1970) This model is based on the principle that information must be freely and openly shared between the organisation and the change agent. Scouting: − Phase where the change agent and the organisation jointly explore the need for change. play a great role in transition management. employees. Communication of the changes to all involved. organizing and implementing change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within an organisation. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. the organisation is neither old nor new. Watson & Westley (1958). Managing transition is essential to keep the organisation going. customer and suppliers. but the change agent can change the sequences when need arises. This is a process of systematically planning.
d) Feedback to key client or group: • • • Data gathered is passed on to the client. . Methods used-interviews. b) Consultation with a behavioral expert: • After problems are sensed and realized. questionnaire. Also analysis of organisational performance. To determine the strengths and weaknesses of the area under study. process observations. the help of an OD expert is sought c) Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis: • • • Consultant and organisational members gather the data. These problems are removed with the help of an OD practitioner. The consultant provides the client all relevant and useful data. • Action: − Indicates the implementation of the steps identified during the planning stage. • Termination: − Phase where a decision is made to leave the system or to end and begin another. 12)The Action Research Models: • • This model focuses on the planned change activity as a ‘cyclical process’ 8 main steps involved in the action research model are explained below. − The need for further action or termination is also made in this phase.• Diagnosis: − In this phase the specific improvement goals are identified. a) Problem Identification: • • A stage in which the management senses the existence of one or more problems. • Stabilization and Evaluation: − Phase where evaluation is undertaken to determine the extent of success of the planned change. • Planning: − Actual and possible reasons for resistance to change are identified. − Planning for specific improvement of goals is also made.
h) Data gathering after action: • • • Is cyclic in nature. f) Joint action planning: • • The consultant and management team jointly agree on problem – solving methods. situations re-diagnosed and new actions taken. Reinforcing new behaviours. . further diagnosis and identified the problem.e) Joint Diagnosis of the Problem: • • • • The group discusses the feedback. The group does validation. Focuses on any additional research needed. The specific action depends upon on the organisation’s cultural. Reorganizing structures and work designs. Based on the feedback. technological and work environment problems to be resolved and the time and costs associated with the desired OD intervention. Involves and includes: − − − Installing new methods and procedures. etc. New data is taken to find the effects of actions already taken. i) Schematic diagram of action research model: Perception of problems by key individuals Consultation with behavioural science experts Joint Action Planning Feedback by these experts to client group Joint diagnose of problem New data gathering as a result of action Data gathering after action Action Feedback to client group by consultants Rediagnosis & action planning by client & consultant New Action Rediagnosis of situations. Results of additional research are summarized and submitted to the group again. g) Action: • • Stage involves the actual change from one organisational state to another.
b) Planning Phase: • Planning commences once the problems facing the organisation are understood. The rules for carrying out the consulting relationships. there is a mutual assessment of the requirements. Model consists of four phases • • • a) Exploration Phase: • Organisation decides whether to plan for specific change and commit resources for it. Approval of the key decision makers is also sought during this stage. − And the consultant assesses whether the client is ready for change and has the necessary resources and commitment. Goals are set for the change efforts. Diagnosis is jointly undertaken by organisational members and OD practitioners. How much time each will invest and what it will cost.13)Integrative Model of Planned Change: • • • Developed by Bullock and Batten (1985) Describes both organisational states and change processes. The change process is undertaken after the ‘diagnoses of sources of problems and then analyzing it. In the search process. • • • • • • . This leads to search for OD resources and assistance and then contracting OD experts. • • • • The contracting phase lays the ground rules for a collaborative relationship and seeks clarification as to − − − What each party expects from the relationships. Planned movement can occur from one state to another. Appropriate actions are designed to improve the organisation. wherein: − The organisation members make judgements about consultant’s skill and competence. The basis for this model is that an organisation exists in different states at different times. And the resources for OD are committed. Organisational members who are aware of the need for change initiate the change process. Understanding of the present state of the organisation and the processes of change required to move to another state is required.
Resource dependence perspective – examines strategic change. The change activities are monitored and evaluated periodically. Population ecology perspective – looks at the limits of change and resistance to change. • • • d) Integration Phase: • This phase involves making the changes as a part and routine of regular organisational functioning after having successfully implemented and stabilized them. It includes processes aimed at transitioning the organisation from its current state to the desired future state. Also to check if any modifications and refinements are required for the process. Institutional perspective – looks at becoming and change through imitation. e) The integrative model of change is indicated in the sketch below: Exploration Stage Change Process Need awareness Search Contracting Planning Phase Change Process Diagnosis Design Decision Action Phase Change Process Implementation Evaluation Integration Phase Change Process Stabilization Diffusion Renewal 14)Perspectives on Change: • • • Four major perspectives on organisational change. This is done to assess the progress and check whether positive results are being achieved. • Slowly. • • . The new behaviour reinforced and further strengthened through: − − − • Regular feedbacks Incentives & Rewards.c) Action Phase: • • The changes derived from planning stage are implemented in this stage. Contingency perspective – focuses on structural change. professionalization and compliance. the contract with the OD professional is gradually terminated.
the job of a truck loader. Environment derived from ‘Environ’ means to ‘surround’. etc. Signifies everything that exists outside our organisation. marketing. These includes: • • • • • • • • • Customers Suppliers A society Norms Values • • • Competitors Governmental agencies An economy growth rate interest rate of Social inflation Habits • • • Customs The term phenomenon does not refer to a single phenomenon It includes a variety of phenomena in organisations. personnel.. • • b) Contingency Perspective: • • Mainly concerned with the structure of an organisation.a) Notion of Environment: • The most important notion in the four perspectives of organisational change is the idea of environment. are called as horizontal specialization or horizontal division of labour. converts them into products and services and gives these products and services back to the surroundings. accounting. Structure refers to the way in which an organisation breaks down a complex task into individual activities and integrates these separate activities to achieve its purpose. An organisation changes if the environment changes. Two central dimensions of structure-specialization and integration. Organisations divided into manufacturing. The fundamental idea is that it is the ‘environment’ which is the source of most of the major changes. Any job that consists of a single activity or very few activities is a highly specialised job eg. • Specialization: • • • • • . Refers to the member and variety of different activities that make up individual jobs in an organisation. Variety of things that exists outside yet surrounds the organisation. Specialization is also known as ‘division of labour’ In an organisation there is usually a horizontal and vertical division of labour. The term ‘environment’ means ‘the surrounding’ That is everything that surrounds the organisation.. Organisation is something that gets resources from outside.
or if they change their strategy or if they acquire new technology. These variables are: size of an organisation.Integration: • Refers to the various ways and means of coordinating the work of individuals in the organisation. Any change in these two dimensions is called as ‘restructuring’ of an organisation. Both specialization and integration are factors that are within the control of an organisation’s management. The most important aspect of contingency perspective relating to organisational change is the relationship between environment and structure. Contingent means ‘depending’. The main idea of contingency perspective is that the most effective or appropriate structure is one that is in ‘fit’ or ‘alignment’ with its contingency variables. an organisation would be inefficient. plans and targets. Organisational changes almost always involve restructuring. unproductive and chaotic. rules. In restructuring several questions arise. strategy of an organisation and environment of an organisation. or if there is a change in their environment. Lack of fit or misfit affects the performance of the entire organisation. The management can determine the extent of specialization and type of integration required within an organisation. These bring about uniformity and standardization in the activities of the organisation. The most common and familiar methods of integration are through direct supervision. Any change in one or more contingency variables results in a misfit between the structure and the contingency variable. technology of an organisation. procedures and systems and goals. they need to change their structure in order to remain effective. When an organisation grows larger. Without these coordination mechanisms. What types of structure? How specialised the jobs should be? What are the coordinating mechanisms in the organisation? Etc. These are the central questions based on the contingency perspective. • • • General: • • • • Contingency Perspective: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Contingency factors depend upon contingency variables. Misfit requires a change in the organisation structure. There are two dimensions that characterise the environment of an organisation.
‘configurational approach’ has emerged to deal with this inadequacy in the contingent perspective. necessary to study how the variables impact on one another and how these relationships affect structure. size and structure. effective organisations have a cluster of common attributes. In recent years a new approach called. strategy and environment commonly occur together. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • c) Resource Dependence Perspective: by PFEFEER & SALANCIK • Based on the simple premise that organisations need to acquire resources from the environment in order to survive. Pfeffer and Salancik profounded two strategies: internal and external. the environment is simple. then the environment is stable. Scholars say that it considers only two variables at a time: strategy and structure. contingency perspective has come under lot of scholarly criticism. The other feature is the level of stability. If they are changing rapidly. If the answer is many. environment and structure and so on. the higher the level of uncertainty. Dependence of an organisation on other external organisations for resources makes it vulnerable because it creates uncertainty. There are 7 strategies identified: • • • • Internal Strategy: • • Domain choice • Recruitment • Buffing . It is based on the assumption that attributes of size. This makes them dependent on the groups and organisations in the environments which control the resources that the organisation requires. Over the years. This cluster of attributes is called a ‘configuration’. the environment is unstable. But the contingency variables are themselves related to one another. If is therefore. If the answer is few. technology. the environment is complex. Internal strategies are aimed at adapting and changing the organisation to fit the environment. In other words. The higher the level of complexity and instability. Task uncertainty is the difference between the amount of information required to perform a task and the amount of information already possessed by the organisation. Are the different organisations in the environment changing? And if yes how fast? If the organisations in the environment are not changing or changing slowly.• One is the level of complexity – how many different organisations are there in the environment.
Those organisations that lack these capabilities are unable to get the required sources and therefore. management systems suited only for their specific niche. There are 3 types of processes for such death and births: − − • • • • • • • • − Variation: are those processes that lead to differences in organisations in terms of strategy structure. Each population occupies an ecological niche in the environment. Retention: constitutes those processes that help organisations retain the features that are required by the environment. 5 external strategies: • • Advertising Coalescing • • Contracting Lobbying • Co-opting d) Population – Ecology Perspective: • This perspective states that individual organisations can not adapt to changing environments for a variety of reasons.Environmental scanning Geographical dispersion External Strategy: • • • • • Smoothing • Rationing Are meant to alter the environment to fit the organisation. • Therefore. The environment consists of different niches. some organisations die and a few others are born into the population. There may be legal and financial barriers to entry and exit from current market or industries. Organisations survive in their niches by developing distinctive capabilities such as skills. • A major criticism against this perspective is that it does not provide any positive role for managers. Populations means organisations which are similar – restaurants. There may be political resistance to change inside the organisation. The niche provides the resources for the organisations. two wheeler manufacturers. skills and culture. Consequently. . Some of the reasons can be: − − − − • Organisational leaders may have incomplete information about the environment. textile firms. Organisational assets may be specific to its current tasks. Selection: refers to the process through which the environment selects those organisations that have the required features – some are selected out or die. fail to survive. patterns of behaviours. etc. systems. it is more useful to study a population of organisations rather than a single organisation.
They are also called as ‘symbolic elements’. Organisational Change Models: − − − − − − Work of academics. Organisations change their structures and strategies not to improve performance but to conform to the norms and standards of the institutional environment. They help organisations to change rather than learning about change. Organisational Change Tools: − Special tools and techniques intended to bring about specific types of changes in organisations. Processes? • • • Models are useful and less complex than theories and offer practical advice. unified and coherent theory. 3 separate areas of management dealing with change. − They only study organisational changes than change organisations. • • • • • • 15)Understanding the change Process: • • A manager frequently grapples with change. Organisations that lack legitimacy have difficulty in getting the requisite resources. Organisational theories: − Results of the work of scholars and academics. consultants and practitioners. Norms. lawful and proper. values and culture of the environment in which they operate affect organisations. but tend to be general rather than specific. . Prescriptive – lay down guidelines for bringing about effective change in organisations. Organisations that conform to the norms and standards are considered as legitimate. Descriptive – informs us the way in which organisations change. Such organisations are able to obtain the necessary resources. Why? How? Are there different types? Which is better? Organisational levels? Limitations? Messy & Painful? Our knowledge is fragmented. values and culture make up the institutional norms. 2 types of change models: Descriptive & Prescriptive.e) Institutional Perspective: • Social norms. − No single. Semi-theoretical and semi-practical.
The above is ‘intro organisational’ change. etc. A model of change levers is indicated below: Marketing Technology Managing People Quality Costs . Right Values Management of change Right knowledge Right action Three components of Productive Change • • We have to distinguish between two types of organisational change. quality and costs. right knowledge and right action that leads to productive change. This is truly ‘organisational’ Organisational change includes intro organisational. One type includes all the changes that take place inside an organisation – computerization. structure and people management. In order to bring about changes in these organisations need to change three other aspects. Four areas which constitute the content of change – technology. new inventory control. Another type refers to the organisation as a whole.• • If we want to change effectively we must integrate theory and practice. These are strategy. marketing. Organisation levers of change − − − − − − • • • • What to change – is content of change. It is the combination of right values. How to change – is process of change.
9 Facilitating the change process with necessary resources. • • • • • • • . Changes are implemented ‘top down’ or ‘bottom up’ approach Top down is transformational. dramatic changes as part of the overall process of transformation.16)Leading the Change Process: • • Implementation of strategic change is likely to be problematic. Top down is perceived as imposed and controlled. 10 Maintaining open communication about progress. while bottom up is participative. 5 Generating an acceptance that this type of change will require a long time to implement fully even though there may be short-term. Changes are perceived as ‘deviant or normal’ and ‘threatening or desirable’ ‘Deviants’ are those which are imposed or outside the prevailing cultural norms. Since this involves people. 6 Recognising that resistance to change is a part of the normal process of adaptation. They are: Priority Prerequisite 1 Ensuring senior management commitment to the proposed changes which needs to be visible to all participants through out the organisation. Such negative action will generate resistance and reduce necessary risk-taking behaviour. 8 Persevering with the change process and avoiding blame where an attempt to implement a fact of this process fails. 3 Creating a shared awareness of conditions to produce a common perception that change must be implemented. so that managers can be educated to be aware of this and equipped to manage this reaction. 7 Educating participants about the need for change and training them with the necessary competence to be effective. 4 Assembling a body of key managers and other important opinion – formers to gain their commitment to the change process so that this may be disseminated more widely. to overcome resistance and gain commitment. ‘BECKHARD’ suggests 10 organisation prerequisites which must exist before transformational change can be achieved. values and policies. mistakes and subsequent learning. their emotional and personal relationships are involved. Such changes are generally met with resistance and require careful implementation to overcome the fear. bottom up is incremental. 2 Producing a written statement about the future direction of the organisation that makes clear its new objectives.
but difficult to achieve. A fantastic. the HR philosophy has to be integrated with the line manager. − Seeing the people of the organisation as a ‘strategic resource’ for achieving ‘competitive advantage’ • Mabey & Salaman model has an ‘open’ approach to HR strategies. personnel and structural. • • b) Responsibility for leading the implementation of the change process: • Mabey & Salaman suggests three sources HRM is moving from HR specialist to the line manager. In strategic HRM. Line Managers: • • . These 3 contribute to the employees’ behaviour. idealistic situation. The features are: − Specific HR outcomes or desired employee behaviour has to be adapted to achieve the desired corporate strategy.a) Strategic HRM for implementing change: • Hendry & Pettigrew presented the central components of strategic HRM as follows: − The use of planning − A coherent approach to the design and management of personnel systems based on an employment policy and HR strategy and often emphasized by a ‘philosophy’ − Matching HRM activities and policies to some explicit business strategy. Corporate Strategy Culture Personnel Structure Human Resource Outcomes Change is the heart of the ‘open’ approach to HR strategies as indicated in the sketch above. Used for both top down and bottom up approaches. • • • The 3 key levers are: cultural.
• Line managers better. Monitor the performances of the procedures. As shown in the open HRM approach sketch. External Consultants: • Besides line mangers and HR specialists working in concert. − − − − Communicate plans to their workforce Explain their relevance vis-à-vis strategy. Operate personnel procedures. the HR specialist has a ‘change maker’ role. Sells the ideas of HRM changes to other managers. structural and cultural strategies. Human Resource Specialists: • Increasing importance to the line manager does not signal the death of HR specialist. − − − − − • • Has a close awareness of the organisation’s operating environment and business plans. Devises the personnel strategies for the best HR outcomes. • • • • • • . Secures the resources necessary for change programmes. The HR specialist. Recommends course of actions Diagnoses the problems Helps managers to implement change measures. They act as catalysts to develop novel solutions. external consultants may also be called upon. Integrates personnel. Consultant has to be involved from the beginning to the implementation and stabilization stages. The external consultant provides the off the shelf recipe for the client.
III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 3 – ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE CHANGE A. 3. . Meaning & Defination: a) Culture: is a complex whole: which includes • • • • • • Knowledge Morals Other capabilities • • • Belief Law Other habits • • Art Custom And acquired by a man in society. innovative and risk seeking. Direction: • The degree to which the organisation creates clear objectives and performance expectations. Shared phenomenon – is basic to culture and implies that the cultural ethos is shared among the members of the society. freedom and independence that individuals have 2. Individual Initiative: • The degree of responsibility. Two terms are key to the concept of culture History – cultural heritage of a society are passed on from generation to generation. • b) Organisational culture/Corporate culture: • • • • • Has been defined as the: Philosophies Assumptions Attitudes • • • Ideologies Beliefs Norms • • Values Expectations That knit the organisation together and are shared by employees c) 10 Characteristics of Culture: 1. Risk Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive.
10. assistance and support to their subordinates. 9. 8. Communication Patterns: • The degree to which organisational communications are restricted to the formal hierarchy of authority. Identity: • The degree to which members identify with the organisation as a whole rather than with their particular work group or field of professional expertise. B. 6. Management Support: • The degree to which managers provide clear communication. 5. Twelve Types of Corporate Culture: Furnham & Günter in their book ‘Corporate Assessment’ (1993) classified corporate culture as follows: 1. we get the essence of culture. 2. A Humanistic – Helpful Culture: Organisations are managed in a participative. 7. conflict avoidance dominate this type of organisations. An Affiliative Culture: Interpersonal relationships are given high priority. favouritism and so on. An Approval Culture: Agreement. Conformity and adherence are valued. Control: • The number of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that is used to oversee and control employee behaviour. 4. • When these characteristics are mixed and meshed. Integration: • The degree to which units within the organisation are encouraged to operate in a coordinated manner. 3.4. consensus seeking. Conflict Tolerance: • The degree to which employees are encouraged to air their conflicts and criticism openly. A Conventional Culture: These are conservative bureaucratic and traditional organisations. . consultative and mutually supportive manner. Reward System: • The degree to which reward allocations are based on employee performance criteria in contrast to seniority.
and is worth the investment of time. hierarchical orientation. 3. research and development. all in this core group believe that the idea is a good one. arbitrariness and subjectivity prevail in the organisations of this culture. Four Practical Approaches to Cultural Change: Book Titled ‘Strategies for Cultural Change’ by S. C. McDonald’s. Egs: Motorola. 9. and energy that will be required. A Competitive Culture: Employees are rewards and for exceeding targets. incorporating. 11. A Dependent Culture: Centralisation. A Power Culture: Using positional power. hard work are valued here and avoiding mistakes is the hallmark of this type. quality emphasis behaviour is valued in this culture. and a common history begins to be built. A Perfectionist Culture: Perseverance. building and so on. 6. Wal-Mart D. o This gap is due to the excessive attention paid on cultural plans and inadequate considerations of approach strategy. A Self Actualisation Culture: Creativity. outperforming others and this culture promotes win-lose situations. That is. How Organisational Culture Starts: 1. 7. others are brought into the organisation. The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder. obtaining patents. perfection. Here. achieving targets and accomplishing their own goals and pursuing standards of excellence 12. o Managers should know that many times the gap between plans and implementation of culture is wide. The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organisation by raising funds.5. o HR managers should advocate a suitable approach for implementation of cultural change based on the type of cultural change planned and organisational environment. is workable. An Achievement Culture: It is characterised by success. is worth running some risks for. 4. members criticize each others decisions. money. locating space.Bate in 1995. An Oppositional Culture: Awarding negativism and being critical is the virtue in these organisations. 2. 10. An Avoidance Culture: Punishing mistakes and no reward to good work characterise this type of organisations. A single person (founder) has an idea for a new enterprise. 5. o The classifications below help practitioners to gain a broad perspective of approaches that are available to them. formal roles and seeking instructions from seniors all the time for all the activities are the traits of this culture. o The delivered results are frustratingly disproportionate to the efforts and costs incurred. 8. At this point. .
Gets seduced back to status quo • 2. How Culture Perpetuates Itself: 4 Hiring & socialization of members who ‘fit in’ with the culture Removal of members who deviate from culture Behaviour 1 Culture 3 Culture communications Culture . Continuous development Based on power and control Uses informal network Unseen manipulation High participation Act first. Aggressive • • • • • Characteristics Rapid change Dismantles traditional values New culture is noncomplex Top down monitored Detailed plans/actions Reasonable. breadth of support leads to crisis of change. logical network Advocates one world view • It Can Lead to a strong integrated culture. not confrontation. not ends Collusion. quiet Slow change over to new values Deals with means. Suit a situation where there is a simple source of authority Loads to a common sense welcoming of new culture Disarm opposition • • • But it usually Mobilises distant Is politically native Lacks skills. legitimize later Planned and programmed Explicit learning process Socializing Unified. Corrosive • • • • • • • • • • • Lead to genuine and large scale change initiated by small scale network Lead to wide scale changes at an informational. technical level • Is used to defined existing order and oppose change initiations.o The approaches: Appr oach 1. Does not succeed in bringing about fundamental cultural change. Indoctrinative • E. Loses sight of its radical intent. Conciliative • • • • • • • • • • 3. 4.
Make changes from top down. 5 – The way to reinforce a culture is to remove those organisational members whose behaviour deviates from the cultural values of the organisation. Involve employees in the change process. Identify aspects of the current culture that could still be valid and other aspects that need to be modified or changed. 3. Educating managers about the legal and ethical pit falls inherent in culture change. 6. Guidelines/Checklists for cultural change: 1. 4 – This step impacts the culture by hiring and socialization of members who match the culture. through direction and training. A positive and competitive tension is to be nurtured among department. 2. . demoting laggards and terminating undisciplined people lead to ethical and legal problems. Take a close look at the inner functioning of the organisation and determine if cultural change is necessary. 3 – New rituals. 5. 8. Communicate the change translated into goals. norms and behaviours needed to make it work. Check on the leadership and support processes to overcome anxiety among managers in giving up their earlier responses. 11. Promoting performers. new stories and new heroes are needed to be widely and consistently communicated. Identify the depth of culture change needed. expect certain casualties to occur – some employees may leave the organisation and a few set backs may occur to the change effort. Guidelines for minimizing such tensions would be: • • • • Setting realistic values for culture change. Defense resistance. 4. 2 – Indicates the cultural justification for the behaviour of the organisation’s members. Such removal reduces the variances in behaviour and sends to those in the organisation powerful signals relating to appropriate behaviour. 9. sub-goals. • • • • F. Not promising what the organisations can not deliver. Culture change can ignite tensions between organisational and individual interests. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity. Despite this. Providing mechanisms for member dissent and diversity. Formulate a clear picture of the firm’s new strategy and of the shared values. build momentum in terms of initial success. Monitor the progress from time to time. 7. resulting in ethical and legal problems for individual members. activities and behaviours. The top management commitment must be seen and felt. 10.• • • 2 Managers seeking to create culture change must intervene at these points 1 – The first thing to change is people’s behaviour.
industry. Management’s sayings have powerful influence on employees. o Implicit: • Culture should be an increasingly acceptable conversation topic among employees. And elements consistent with each other. o Symbolic: • • Management actions are even more important to watchful employees. • Culture depends upon the organisation’s goals. • • o Stable: • Culture should not keep on changing frequently. if not embrace the assumptions and values of culture. 10 Characteristics of Organisational Cultures: 1. 1. o Accepted: • Most members must at least accept. Integrated: • Cultures will be more easily recognised when their elements are generally integrated. Employees quickly detect manager’s lip service. They must fit together like pieces of puzzle. o Subculture: • A culture in an organisation may be made up of various subcultures. Distinctive: There is no best culture for all times. G. nature of competition and other factors of environment. o A reflection of Top Management: • • Cultures evolve from top management. o Cultures of varying strength: • • Can be characterised as relatively strong or weak. Depends on the degree of impact on employee behaviour o No one type is the best: .• Helping them develop guidelines for resolving such issues.
It also builds organisational identity. Retelling historical success stories. Stories convey a sense of tradition. They must be able to communicate to the employees. such as a manager’s error and an executive’s forgiveness. Consists of both formal and informal methods. They prove to be powerful ways to create shared meaning and purpose. Story Telling: • Managers are encouraged to engage in story telling as a way to forge a culture. Codes of ethical conduct. Is a continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organisation’s culture to employees. Socialization is functional for both workers and their employers. entertain and also teach valuable lessons. These approaches help to shape the attitudes. 1. Story telling is a key means of achieving socialization of employees. Examples of formal communication vehicles for transmitting organisational cultures are: o o o o o Executive visions of the firm’s future Corporate philosophy statements. Organisational Socialisation: • • All cultural communications are put under this umbrella. Organisational socialization is like placing an organisation’s finger prints on people by planting its own genetic code on them For employees. Good stories tap into the emotions of audience. • Unintentional communication of organisation’s culture to employees. thoughts and behaviour of employees. They enhance cohesion around key values. it is the essential process of learning the ropes to survive and prosper within the firm. Communicating and changing culture: • • • Organisations have to consciously create and manage their cultures. Stories convey how in the past problems have been solved. Publicly recognising heroes and heroines. • • • • • • • • . Memorable stories uplift people.H. • • • • • 2.
3. Deviation from norms) High Rebellion Creative individualism • • The two extremes rebellion and conformity may prove dysfunctional to the organisation. them creative individualization can infuse new life and ideas for the organisation’s benefit. The interaction between individualization and socialization is shown in the sketch: High Conformity Socialization (impact of organisational culture on employee acceptance of norms) Isolation Low Low Individualisation (Impact of employee on Organisational culture. Culture Change Methods & effectiveness: Probable Effectiveness Culture Change Method Very Great Great Moderate Minimal . Individualization: • Occurs when employees successfully exert influence on the social system around them at work by challenging the culture or deviating from it. When we assume that the culture of a certain organisation invites its employees to challenge. question and experiment while also not being too disruptive. Isolation is not productive. • • 4.
cultures. change culture. How can organisations realign culture? Architecture: • • • • • • Features of the Change There has been considerable debate as to whether culture can be managed! Lot of focus on whether or not it can be modified. Culture change programs must pay careful attention to the organisation’s power bases and opinion – leaders such as trade unions and employee’s association • • • Publicly recognise heroes & heroines Appoint a manager of culture Formulate Value statement . Top down and bottom up are two of the approaches by HRM for change of culture. prevent its change. patterns of behaviour within the organisations and strategic directions of the organisation. The reality of achieving this is very complex and organisations with similar backgrounds and similar environments develop different cultures at different situations. It can be realigned to the strategic direction on organisation wishes to take. Culture can be altered. g) Work out a desired strategy and desired culture and ensure they match and congruent. h) Identify the gap between actual and desired culture and take steps to move the actual culture to the desired culture. continuously developing phenomenon Managers can manage culture. Typical frameworks for managing culture change: As suggested by Beckhard the general principles for successful cultural change are as follows: f) Know & understand the current values. • • Prior to any culture change. once it has been achieved. Adequate resources need to be allocated to support culture change and maintain it. Culture is a dynamic.Train Employees Reward Behaviours Communicate Top Management Support Use Stories and Myths Use Slogans I. 1. it can be managed. abandon the culture. or destroy the culture. senior management must understand the implications of the new culture for their own practices. artifacts and declared values and be involved in all the main change phases.
• Culture change programs must take into account an organisation’s existing practices and approaches in recruitment. • • 2. Change of organisation structure. procedures and structures support them Spread the changes out to other areas of . performance management and employee relations. • • • 3. performance related pay are a few HR interventions for change of culture. management of office space. organisations need to decide how practices or procedures will be amended to support the new espoused values and contradictory practices removed. In order to create a change in culture. excellence. training. HRD programmes like quality.. Writes on corporate excellence follow this. selection and retention. Top Down Strategy for cultural change: • • • • Often called ‘programmatic change’ Typically initiated and led from the top. called ‘task alignment’ Task alignment could be achieved through a series of overlapping steps taken at the business level as shown below: 6 Evaluate outcomes of changes and amend vision and actions as necessary FINISH 5 4 Confirm changes by ensuring that policies. Typically looks towards organisation-wide consensus. it is crucial that employees have the necessary capabilities and behaviours to realize the necessary change. etc. Every opportunity should be taken to close the cultural gaps. reinforce the existing culture to achieve the newly espoused cultures and values. empowerment. Top-down draw backs: o Messages of initiative. and focusing on existing values and cultures. Bottom up approach for cultural change: • • • • • Focuses on incremental approach Change is developed from bottom up. To succeed. autonomy and innovation are usually conveyed through bureaucratic methods such as team briefings. o Employee believes the new culture conflicts with their existing culture. Such changes are tied to an organisation’s critical path Based on solving concrete business problems. provision of educations and training.
3 Work towards common agreements of the vision and skills and actions to carry it forward
Work jointly to develop a vision for the future of the organisation START
Start to ensure commitment to the change by involving people in defining the problems
Focuses on parts of the organisation away from the corporate headquarters level. Emphasis on individuals shared commitment and vision as a prerequisite for change. Change is enabled by developing people’s abilities and through improved co-ordination between people. Results generate stronger commitment. The appropriateness of a chosen strategy will depend upon the organisation and what an organisation wishes through cultural change.
4. Design Parameters for cultural change:
The relative importance, weight and value will differ between organisations. What is effective or appropriate in one situation may not be in another. Bate’s development of ‘design parameters for cultural change’ Parameters Expressiveness Aspect of the organisation Affective (feelings) Description
component The ability of the cultural change approach adopted to express a new symbol which captures employees’ attention and excites or converts them.
Social components The ability of the culture change (relationships) approach adopted to create a shared common understanding and sense of common purpose amongst a group of employees or the whole organisation. Demographic The ability of the culture change component approach adopted to spread through (number/depth) out all levels of an organisation and to affect employees’ basic underlying assumptions
Development component (process)
The ability of the culture change approach adopted to adjust to changing organisational and wider environmental circumstances.
Institutional component The ability of the culture change (structure) approach adopted to create a lasting culture.
At the start of a culture change process, expressiveness may be considered more important whilst commonality and penetration are considered as less important. However, as the process continues and the new culture is spread through out at all levels of the organisation, commonality and penetration may become more important.
5. Relative Effectiveness of Top-Down Approach and Bottom-up Approaches to cultural change across different Design Parameters of cultural change: Parameters Expressiveness Level of Effectiveness of Top-Down Approaches Bottom-up approaches High – deal in simple Low in short term – focus on messages and specialise in concrete problem generates communicating these lots of detail rather than a new effectively and reasonably symbol quickly at the practice/artifact level Low – promoted unifying High – operates through feeling often ceases after shared understanding and formal program ends; methods creates a culture of trust and often lead to resistance and understanding. lack of common ownership Variable – depends on ability of interventions to affect more than just practices or artifacts: highly structured programs likely to reach all employees Low – tend to be inflexible and imply instant fix programmed nature implies conformity and devalues deviance. Low in short term – involves only part of the organisation High on long term – involves discussing proposals and implications with employees High – concrete problems lead willing to accommodate new views and find best fit with organisational requirements.
Low – based on senior management’s desires; lack of ownership by employees likely to be highest with transformational change
High – employees are keen to preserve what they have created; especially high when a development of existing practices which employees own rather than transformational change.
• • • •
• • • • • •
J. The Transglobal & Cross Cultural Contents:
A global economy is now a reality. The shape of international trade has changed dramatically in recent years with the emergence of European Community, revolutionary changes in the former Soviet Union & Eastern Europe and strong markets developing in China, India, Japan, Korea and many other emerging nations. Many organisations, now do business in more than one country. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. These multinational organisations add powerful new dimensions to organisational behaviour. They encompass different social, legal, political communication and economic environments. Conditions affecting Multinational operations:
People of the world are organised into communities and nations, each in its own way, according to its resources and cultural heritage. There are similarities and significant differences. a) Social Conditions:
The two approaches effectiveness differs across the parameters. No approach is the best fit any organisation. No one approach will give everything we require. Strategy for culture change should be tailored to the requirements of the organisation at a particular time. Top-down approach brings relatively rapid changes in the organisation. Bottom-up approach takes a longer time. Managing organisational culture change is extremely complex. It needs to take account of the existing culture. Also what type of change we need – transformational or developmental WHIPP says: ‘culture is a Pandora’s box’
In many countries the overriding social condition is poorly developed human resources.
customs and behaviours. These deficiencies limit the ability to employ local labour productively. scientists and technicians. d) Economic Conditions: • The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are: . Loaned skilled people develop others. Parallely vast training programs begin to prepare the local workforce. Managers in foreign countries need to become familiar with local customs and practices.• There are major shortages of managerial personnel. • • • • • • • • b) Legal & Ethical Conditions: • • • Countries around the world vary substantially in their legal systems. A significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with the advanced technology or complex organisations. Managers need to be aware of the possible differences in both laws and ethical values that define acceptable and unacceptable behaviours in foreign countries. Lending of skilled people to a nation for training their local replacements may provide a more lasting benefit to its development than lending the capital. • • • • c) Political Conditions: • The following have a significant effect on organisational behaviour: o Instability of the government o Nationalistic drives – foreigners cornered. and those trained locals become the nucleus for developing still more people. Needed skills must be imported temporarily from other countries. A major issue affecting multinational corporations has been how to deal with contrasting local practices. o Subordination of employers and labour to an authoritarian state. Another social factor on which countries are often compared is the work ethic of their employees – long/short hours. Their employment practices and their business practices vary. What is called as ‘training multiplier effect’ or ‘ripple-effect of self development’ comes into action. They need to recognise that the resolution of ethical issues are not always clear cut Another major issue revolves around the treatment of women and other minorities.
Cultural norms: • . Behaviour in organisational settings varies across cultures. Then. Differing standards of living and varied geographical conditions can also cause variations in behaviour. stories and symbols. others aggressively protest. Looking at social. As a result natives of those countries may not believe that additional effort on their part will earn associated rewards. political and economic conditions as a whole. Tremendous disparity in distribution of wealth starts. vary across cultures. − Unequal distribution of wealth • Rapid population increases coupled with a lack of national economic growth make it unlikely that family incomes will progress significantly. legal. They constrain the stability.− Low per capita income. security and trained human resources that developing countries require to be more productive. − Rapid inflation. Culture may be understood as the all encompassing: o Shared beliefs o Norms o Values that guide the everyday life of individuals. But culture is the determining factor. social unrest increases. They represent a critical environmental condition to which the managers of international operations must adapt. Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure. Human resource practices too. ethical. Money loses its value rapidly. norms and values are passed on to future generations through cultural rituals. These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly. bad condition causes hurdle in the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organisation systems. All these factors make it difficult to motivate employees. • • • These beliefs. • • • • • • • • • • • e) Culture & Behaviours: • • • • Culture determines behaviours. some workers passively accept the situation. Instead they are too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of the nation.
In many cultures. Culture not only influences behaviour and human resources but also life style like elegance. − Culture is passed on from one generation to another through its symbols. Stories and rituals: − It is important to communicate the norms. Arab culture concentrates on their own family security and relying on god for destiny. values and beliefs of a society to its members. Germany. Cultural clusters do have some differences but similarities are predominant. dividends and stock prices while Japanese companies focus more on new product development and market share. Japan. In more egalitarian culture (like US.o Prescribe behaviours and practices. In many hierarchical cultures (like India. • Cultural Values: − − − − − − − − − − Tell us what is most dear to our hearts. Americans for example value freedom most. Latin American countries Sometimes cultural differences have a direct impact on the strategic orientation of companies like USA companies emphasize on more profits. hear stories and engage in rituals. etc) the meaning and value of a job lies more in the status than in the pay packet. f) Culture Clusters: • • Countries that share cultural similarities form cultural clusters. Spain. . Italy. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: • A pioneering work done by Dutch Scientist Geert Hofsteds. etc). International business utilizes the culture clustering approach in formulating their global strategies. Japanese find a higher value in belongingness in a group. • Cultural Symbols. − Culture is continuously reinforced when people see symbols. • K. o They tell us what we can do and what we cannot. Cultural values also have a major influence on the way people relate to each other and also to what they aspire for in a job. Cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised. People also expect recognition for seniority and age in hierarchical culture. elitism and concern for form. people expect reward and compensation for their performance rather than for their seniority. cultural values of the society define the meaning and reason of business and how it is organised – high profits are not a criterion – Arabs. stories and rituals.
Managers believe that they must adopt theory X leadership style. They will have a large proportion of supervisory personnel People at low level have low of job qualifications. some are high. Have flatter organisation structures Have smaller proportion of supervisory personnel Have highly qualified people in the lower state of workforce. Canada. and must supervise their subordinates closely. Individualism and Masculinity/Feminity. The powerful are entitled to privileges. Most people should be dependent on a leader. Those at the top make most of the decisions. etc. Managers believe that they must be authoritarian. and The powerful should not hide their power • The dimension of power can be measured in a number of ways: − − − − In high power distance countries generally people dislike work People try to avoid the work. Germany. must force workers to perform.. represent cultures with lower distance. • Organisations in low distance countries: − − − − Tend to be decentralized. Everyone has a place. Australia. Countries in which people blindly obey the orders of superiors have high power distance.• He identified four cultural dimensions around which countries have been clustered with people in each group exhibiting identical behaviours. • In high power distance countries: − − − − − − Decision make is centralised. some are low. Norway. Organisations tend have tall structures. • • High power distance countries have norms. The 4 dimensions are: Power Distance. Uncertainty avoidance. values and beliefs such as: − − − − − Inequality is fundamentally good. 1) Power Distance: • • Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members of countries companies and organisations accept that power is distributed unequally. . • USA. Such structures encourage and promote inequality between people at different levels.
values and beliefs which accept that: − − − − − Conflict should be avoided. Deviant people and idea should not be tolerated. • • High uncertainty avoidance countries are characterized by norms. 2) Uncertainty Avoidance: • • Is the extent to which people threatened by ambiguous situations? Employees in some cultures value clarity and feel very comfortable receiving specific directions from their supervisors. Low labour turnover Less ambitious employees • Societies with low uncertainty avoidance cultures have: − − − − − − Less structuring of activities. • Countries with high uncertainty avoidance culture have: − − − − − A great deal of structuring of organisational activities. Mexico and Indonesia are examples of societies with a high power distance. Fewer written rules More risk taking by managers Higher labour turnover More ambitious employees Organisation encourages employees to use their initiative and assume responsibility for their actions. • . These employees have a high level of uncertainty avoidance and prefer to avoid ambiguity at work. India.• France. Experts and authorities are usually correct. Brazil. More written rules. Collectivism is the tendency of people to belong to groups and to look after each in exchange for loyalty. 3) Individualism/Collectivism: • Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their family only. Laws are very important and should be followed. Less risk taking managers. and Consensus is important.
• • Individualism is common in US. Pakistan and a number of South American countries exhibit collectivism. should be decisive. money. • In a individualistic organisation: − − − Favouritism shown to friends and relatives is considered to be unfair and even illegal. Women usually choose jobs that are associated with short term employment. before marriage. Canada. such as family. that: − − − One’s identity is based on one’s group membership. success and money are important. Highly masculine cultures have norms. • • • • • In highly masculine societies. and other material things. • Collectivist countries believe. Promotions are based on one’s performance Decision making is an individual’s responsibility. Work takes priority over other duties. 4) Masculinity/Feminity: • Masculinity refers to a situation in which the dominant values in a society are success. and Advancement. and beliefs which accept that: − − − • People are responsible for themselves. values. • In a collectivist organisation: − − − Tend to promote nepotism in selecting managers. Denmark & Sweden. Individual achievement is ideal and People need not be emotionally dependent on organisations or groups. Men are assertive and dominant. Promotions are mostly based on seniority and age. . values and beliefs that: − − − − − − Gender roles should be clearly distinguished. There are men’s jobs and women’s jobs. Countries high on individualism have norms. Important decisions are made by older senior managers. Men usually choose jobs that are associated with long term careers. jobs are clearly defined by gender. Australia. India. especially men. and Groups protect individuals in exchange for their loyalty to the group. People. Group decision making is best. People of Indonesia. Machismo or exaggerated maleness is good.
Adjustment Phase-1 Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 4 • • Time Crisis/ Culture Shock • The curve is based on psychological reactions to the overseas assignments and comprise 4 phases. and individuals vary in terms of their reactions and copying behaviours. A slow negative appraisals of location and situation leads to a crisis. Cultural Adjustment: • The process of cultural adjustment is a critical determinant of an expatriate’s performance. fear of the unknown. • • • Phase 2: • • This is a very critical time. There can be an upswing of mood upon arrival in the ‘assignment’ country that produces a ‘honeymoon’ phase. realities of everyday life in an alien land starts. • . Phase 1: • The expatriate may experience a range of positive and negative emotions such as excitement anxiety.L. sense of adventure and so on. A haunting thought. ‘failure as an early recall’ may be triggered at this point. The way the expatriate copes with the psychological adjustment at this phase has an important outcome in terms of success or failure. Then novelty fades off. The concept of an adjustment cycle or U curve shows that typical phases that may be encountered during cultural adjustment. Adjustments to a foreign culture are multifaceted.
The table below shows the motivational approaches and cultural factors for three distinct cultures. Culture shock is a natural response to the stress of immersing oneself in the new environment. personal attention. family affair.Phase 3: • Once the individual passes this crisis point. Gift for self/family. and applications reflect the culture of the country directly or indirectly. Cultural Contracts in motivation – Motivation Across Cultures: • • What are the motivations of people in international settings? In multicultural work environments. approaches. time. money Opportunity Group participation Religion. functional group activities Group harmony Arab Coaching. profit sharing social services. • • Phase 4: • • • The upswing levels off after sometime. A healthy recovery is maintained The bottom of the U-shaped curve is marked by ‘culture shock’. not everyone is motivated by the same factors. Service culture shock is often a positive sign indicating that the expatriate is becoming deeply involved in the new culture instead of remaining isolated in an expatriate ghetto • • M. company success nationalistic. parenthood Of others/ parenthood • • Independence decision making space. salary fringe benefits increase Loss of job Out of group Demotion . Motivational processes. admiration Individual Group identity Individual status contribution belonging to group class/society promotion Salary. Then. there is an upswing The person begins to adjust to the new environment. he comes in terms with the demands of the new environment. unpredictable and uncertain environment. Factor American Management Leadership styles friendliness Control Emotional appeal Recognition Material awards Threats Japanese Persuasion. commission Annual bonus. which is the expatriate’s reaction to a new.
Leaders with a high level of self-awareness exhibits self confidence. Reputation. Self regulation: is the ability to control redirect disruptive impulses and moods – the ability to think before doing. drive to achieve and optimism. • • • b) Leadership in the National Context: • • In international settings. organisational • • • • • • Empathy: refers to understanding the emotional make up of other people and skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. motivation. • • . Also in response to the cultural and institutional context of the multinational country locations. security. family taking. integrity. a realistic self assessment and a self deprecating humour. material achievements. show cross cultural sensitivity and become known for offering great services to clients and customers. religion possession. freedom belonging social status N. Leaders with a high level of empathy demonstrates an ability to build and retain talent in their organisation. Leadership Across Cultures: • A multinational leader needs to possess certain unique qualities to become successful in global settings. Leaders with a high level of self regulation exhibit trustworthiness.Cultural values Competition. • • Self awareness: is the ability to recognise and understand one’s moods. Motivation: is reflected in a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or status. Leaders high on motivation exhibit remarkable commitment. show a superior ability to build and lead teams and become known for their persuasiveness. self regulation. risk Group harmony. Social skill: refers to the proficiency in managing relationships and building networks along with an ability to find common ground and to build rapport. Such responses are required while dealing with contingency factors such as subordinates’ characteristics. Leaders with a high level of social skill are effective at leading change. empathy and social skills. they are: self awareness. Successful leadership in multinational companies requires that managers adjust their leadership styles to fit the different situations. a) EI has a set of 5 individual and social competencies. the leadership needs to be situational. An international manager emotional intelligence. comfort with ambiguity and openness to change. emotions and drives as well as their effects on other people.
T Leaders are visionary agents with a sense of mission. TL is effective in any organisation anywhere in the world. The transformational leader has following attributes: 1. Or a cultural context so that subordinates see the need to follow the leader’s ideals. Transformational leadership is projected as an approach which can cut across all cultural barriers. Articulates a vision: • • • • • • • Presents in vivid and emotional terms an idealized vision of future of the organisation What it can and should become And makes the vision clear to all in organisation. Helps subordinates envision a future state of a better organisation. Provides clear steps for followers to transform the company. Subordinates share a commitment to radical change. They are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things. • • . 3. whether or not effective leaders act similarly regardless of their respective culture. 4. Challenges subordinates to find new solutions to old problems. Universalism in Leadership/Transformational Leadership: • • Universalism of leadership is a new concept. • • 2. Provides goals and a plan: • • Has a vision that is future oriented. Gives a meaning or a purpose to goals: • • Places the goals in emotion – laden stories.O. This means. TL represents a higher level of leadership. Breaks from the status quo: • • • Has a strong desire to break from tradition An expert in finding ways to do things differently.
Conduct business first and value expertise and performance Lack of attention to these factors results in costly failures for expatriates. Korea and Japan tend to emphasize personal relationships. Is motivated to lead: • • • Seeks leadership positions. • • • • • . Displays strong enthusiasm for the leadership role. true transformational leaders are rare. 6. • • • • • • P. Jesus Christ. Transformational leaders are not new to the present century. respect and admiration of followers. Acts as a role model 7. Demonstrates high ethical and moral standards: • • • Behaves consistently and fairly with a known ethical standard. excitement regarding the leader’s ideas. reverence. Individual differences (also refer Hofstede’s theory given earlier) • High context cultures such as China. Low-context cultures such as Germany. personal devotion. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation: 1. Most people also consider MK Gandhi & Martin Luther King as representatives of transformational leadership. However.5. He called this leadership as ‘Charisma’ And noted that existed in all cultures. Muhammad were among the first transformational leaders. a German sociologist recognised the existence of this leadership throughout history. Impress upon the need to attend to social needs before business matters. focus on non verbal cues. and a willingness to sacrifice for the good of the company. Builds a Power Base: • Uses personal power based on expertise. He said. Max Weba. Takes risks: • Is willing to take more risks with the organisation than the average leader. Transformational leaders succeed because subordinates respond to them with high levels of performance. 8. Tend to rely on written rules and documents. USA and Scandinavian countries. place high value on trust.
This new social system affects the responses of all persons involved. Even if they do. Cultural distance: • Predicting the amount of adaptation that may be required when an expatriate manager moves to another country requires an understanding of the ‘culture distance’ between the two countries. they tend to conclude that the impact of those differences is insignificant. This is an appreciation of the contribution each culture make to overall success. This is the understanding of the ways in which those differences can affect business relationships. Managers and employees who come to a host country exhibit a variety of behaviours true to the citizens of their homeland. This predisposition ‘ethnocentrism’ is known as the ‘self-reference criterion’ or • • • • It interferes with the understanding of human behaviours in other cultures. Further productivity from local employees is also reduced. In order to integrate the imported and local systems. expatriate employees minimally need to develop ‘cultural empathy’ This is the awareness of differences across cultures. They fail to recognise the key differences between their own and other’s cultures. Many are predisposed to parochialism. Parochialism: • The dominant feature of all international operations is that they are conducted in a social system different from the one in which the organisation is based. They see the situations around them from their own perspective. In effect they are assuming that the two cultures are more similar than they actually are. . • • • 4. Ethnocentrism: • Another potential barrier to easy adaptation to another culture occurs when people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the best. • • • • • • • 3.2.
insecurity and anxiety caused by a strong new environment? They fail to act properly and lose their self-confidence. the new environment can appear to be chaotic and somewhat overwhelming. Cultural Shock: • Companies often assign employees to new job assignments in different areas to provide them with invaluable breadth of experience. Fourth phase: if they survive the first few weeks. They should dedicate themselves to learn the new culture and adapt to it. Cultural shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. First phase: they are excited and stimulated by the challenge of a new job. regain a sense of self esteem and respond constructively to their new surroundings at work and home. home and culture. that of ‘adaptation’. At this point. shopping or language skills. Although it is different. Such shocks are in four phases. they accept the new culture.• Cultural distance is the amount of difference between any two social systems and may vary from minimal to maximal. For unprepared employee. A cultural change does not have to be dramatic to cause some degree of shook-like moving from a big town to a small town. which is ‘insecurity and disorientation’ caused by encountering all sorts of different cultures. or emotionally upset. • • 5. The new environment may be as systematic as the culture of the employee. Cultural distance affects the responses of all people to business related issues. The employees who move to new job locations of the experience various degrees of ‘cultural shock’ Which is a feeling of confusion. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Such shock is even greater when an employee moves from one nation to another. it can be understood if employees have receptive attitudes. Ethnocentric problems may be magnified by cultural distances. may fear losing face and self confidence. Second phase: positive attitude is soon followed by. Third phase: critical stage. they will reach the fourth phase. They may not know how to act. tend to suffer cultural shock. ‘disillusionment’ as they discover various problems they had not anticipated regarding travel.
Venezuela Pacific Rim Cluster – Japan. Mexico. Canada. Brazil & India do not fall into any group • 3. Taiwan. Chile. Careful Selection: • • • • • Employees who are low in ethnocentrism and Who are less prone to troublesome characteristics. Denmark Latin European – Portugal. Different management philosophies. especially on their first international assignments. etc. China. UK. Overcoming Barriers to cultural Adaptation: 1. An attitude to learn the new culture and the family culture is necessary. NZ Nordic group – Norway. It occurs in response to: − − − − − − − − − − − − − − Dramatic differences in languages. Forms of country Customs Housing conditions Privacy Time Activity HR Practices Currency Work attitudes Strange language. Belgium Latin American – Peru. Finland. New food Separation from friends and relatives. Spain. They should have a desire to live in another nation.• • Cultural shock is virtually universal. may be chosen They should have a desire to experience another culture. Potential employees should have a capability to learn the new language quickly. Argentina. Australia. Compatible Assignments: • Adjustments to new surroundings is easier if employees. • 2. Pre-departure Training: . Korea Central European Group – Germany. Israel. are sent to nations that are similar to their own. Italy. Hong Kong. Switzerland. These are grouped into 6 socio cultural clusters: − − − − − − − Anglo American – USA. Q. France. Sweden. Austria.
power in host country best less in home country. Companies need repatriation policies. position. insecurities. Training includes – geography. • • • Forces inhibiting and supporting cultural adaptation: Inhibiting Forces Supporting Forces . Better communications. separation from relatives and friends. Creates better impression. fringe benefits. 4. coming back to their homeland culture – needs time to adjust. better positions. Better autonomy emoluments. Assistance in housing. After enjoying a new culture. Orientation & Support in the New Country: • • • • • • Efforts to quickly settle the employee and family. customs. Preparation for Reentry: • • Repatriation has to be smoothly blended.• • • • • • Learn the local language Helps to reduce. The previous job holder may also stay back for sometime and assist. A mentor may help a lot during transition. personal and organisational costs. inconveniences. lesser misunderstanding. culture. Faster cultural adaptation. Extra pay. Support for intensified need deficiencies like financial difficulties. language and political environments. The local national working for the same organisation can also assist. Often tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland – reverse cultural shock. • 5. transportation and shopping.
They include: • • • • • • Relative values for time efficiency Values of life Eye contact Posture Meaning of silence Language • • • • • • Thought patterns Personal space Physical appearance Gestures Legitimacy of touch Clusters • They are very important contingency factors. Non-verbal communication is called as cross cultural communications. non verbal communications are also important. Cross Cultural Communications: • • • Besides verbal communications. .Individual Differences Parochialism Ethnocentrism Cultural distance Culture shock Cultural Adaptation Careful Selection Compatible assignments Pre-departure training Orientation & support Preparation for reentry R.
and acquiring new relationships. Change is intensely personal. and new routines. seems to lie in making them choose it. These emotions can vary from being intensely negative to being appreciably positive. both Change is resisted as much as stagnation is Continuity without change leads to stagnation. DEALING WITH INDIVIDUALS: • The strategy for change are implemented through three change levers. Change may be perceived as an opportunity or a threat. then. Change that is internal to an individual is far better accepted than change externally imposed. Fundamental requirement for effecting change management is the understanding of: − The nature of human response to change − Overcoming individual and group resistance to change.III MBA – CHANGE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 4 – CHANGE MANAGEMENT G. which are o Structure o Process o Culture • • If people within the organisation do not change. The strategy to make people to accept change. we need to understand what factors make him prone to it and what prompts him to resist it. a) Human Response to Change: • • • • Individuals fear and seek change. Change is always a threat when done to people. accustomed and proven ways of doing things. but an opportunity when it is done by people. Managing change. feel or do something different. deny or suppress emotions at work. Organisations can not ignore. Change. to many individuals. boredom and frustration Change without continuity or stability leads to ambiguity. therefore. conflict and the inability to cope with the situation. to be avoided or coped with Individuals may not resist change. the organisation can not change. To make an individual choose change. What they resist is being changed. For change to occur in any organisation. and − Tuning the organisation to change. • • • • • • • . Change gives rise to emotions. while abandoning the familiar. means learning new skills. requires managing employee feelings to generate positive excitement for the intended change and change process. Individuals tend to perceive change as a discontinuity. each individual must think. Hence it is difficult to impose change.
Individuals can manage change well if it gives them positive emotions rather than negative emotions. behave to maximize win. Change should not be what happens to them in the organisation but what they can make happen in the organisation. It is apparent that individuals need to own their responsibilities and be clear about the results to which they are accountable. When such supportive structures exist. process and facilities. The organisational leadership has to examine the following also during the initiation of change. Employee attitudes for change: • • • • • • • • • • Individuals tend to fall into any one of the attitudinal continuums. 11. and are not afraid to think and act differently to make change happen. Build a positive imagery for its employees of the envisaged change to reflect a better future. individuals may even welcome change rather than resist it. have fear of failure and feeling of incompetence. b) Dealing with Individuals for Change Management: • • Create a culture where employees seek change. often. Individuals. Reasons for change resistance: i) • • • • • • Climbers Personal Loss: Job security Salary and income Pride and satisfaction Job nature Friendship and associations Freedom Negative Attitudes: • ii) Towards their organisations and supervisors . Support the change process with adequate resources. namely: Aggressive resistance Passive resistance Neutral Campers Passive acceptance Active involvement Quitters 12.Any change is as good as the willingness of the one affected by it. They avoid risk. The above are intrinsic to the change management process. minimize loss and want to have a control in their behaviour.
Others still find the old practices that have evolved overtime. Personal Criticism: • • • iv) Change may be considered as a personal affront. 13. Loss of Status and authority: v) • • Change may lead to the relegation of one’s job to lower levels in the hierarchy. Reasons why people accept change: • • People welcome change when it benefits them. Inappropriate Timing: vi) • • Change is generally introduced at a time when business is not good and everyone is already burdened with extra work to tide over the bad times. the best. it questions one’s capabilities and performance. personal satisfaction. status and authority. monetary and other benefits. The way that change is introduced may also not be to everyone’s liking. Or oppose disliked bosses who are in favour of change. The benefits could be: security. Their ideas have not been sought for Some others are very sensitive about ‘change’ since they have wrong or incomplete information. . Some think. Challenging Authority: viii) • • Some people resist change to challenge authority. May be loss of one’s authority and power. Cognitive Rigidity: vii) • • Some people do not see the need for change or may not be convinced about the arguments in favour of change. job nature and opportunities to contribute to and determine the change process. Seen as a challenge to one’s authority.• Lack of trust resulted from earlier bitter experiences in the organisation iii) • • • Lack of Involvement: Some people resist change because they have not been involved in the change process.
We gave to deal with an individual’s attitude to overcome his resistance to change. A feeling of dissatisfaction to be generated with the existing state of organisation. • • • . Affective refers – one’s emotional component of likes and dislikes. interviews and observation methods are useful. conative and affective dimensions. It is the individuals who work within the structures and systems and on the tasks and processes. they alone are not sufficient to bring in the change. beliefs and values Conative refers – one’s action tendencies. The idea that a change is good for everybody should be driven home. This classifies individuals into different categories in the attitudinal continuum. systems and processes are necessary. Integration: • • A number of quantitative & qualitative techniques are available. • • • • • 16. intelligence and judgement – in managing the change.14. Surveys like questionnaires. Attitude consists of cognitive. Organisations have to deal with individual attitudes and behaviours to tap individual wisdom – their experience. who make the change to happen and achieve highest levels of performance. Dealing with individual resistance to change: • • Individuals need to be motivated to accept change. we have to deal with the above components. Cognitive refers – one’s perceptions. To overcome resistance. Individual – focused approaches to managing change: • Though appropriate structures. • 15. Creative and intellectual energies of the individuals should be diverted to the change initiatives of the organisation.
task-oriented. less moralistic. optimistic. high fear of uncertainty and failure. cordial. stubborn. overbearing. conservative. . decisive. but can be positive or negative depending upon his advantage. Slow. Brave. plays to his advantage. high sense of achievement. aggressive. withdrawn. formalized. selfreliant. High in change rigid. shy. self-centrical cautious. integrative of other people’s ideas. Reckless. silent. co-operative. low conflict – tolerance Aggressive level. trustful. high fear of failure. short-term – perspective Behavioural Description Diplomatic. Natural. patient. dynamic. self-centered. dependable. warm. predictable. unambitious. moralistic. relation oriented. adventurous. respects authority. resistance to argumentative. to change defensive. low conflict – tolerance level. trustful. individualistic. skeptical. to ACCOMMODATOR OPPORTUNIST CONFORMIST OSTRICH VANQUISHER Initiator of change actively involved. stable. demanding. acceptance when sensitive to failure and punishment. he can resist it actively. respectful and fearful of authority. self sacrificing. rigid. critical. change non-companionable. patient. convincible. indecisive. cold. poised. Aggressive risky. Receptive. stable. secretive. brash. consistent. low self confidence. resistance impulsive. inclined to oversell. Passive resistance aloof. enthusiastic. independent. self change is critical. stubborn.17. forceful. predictable. persistent. Passive acceptance active involvement. systematic. impatient. determined. dogmatic. superficial. unbending. Personality types and their general response to change: Type SQUEALER BRAVADO Response Change Highly emotional. unable to face problems Receptive. retaliative. amiable. If opposing change. social. scheming. cooperative. persuasive. overly dependent.
positive. the company strategy and its competitive advantage. problem solver. This has to be done individually and in groups. integrative of other people’s ideas. Core competency required and plan of action for managing change has to be clearly stated. receptive. Cognitive changes tend to occur in individuals when information is presented in a logical and coherent. • • Cognitive Changes: Change Mechanisms: 2. c) Managing change: The Cognitive Dimension: • One’s own perceptions. equalitarian. • • STRATEGIST . fears and expectations. • • • • • • 2. capable of empathy.Inventive. realistic. his/her cognitions have to be positively influenced. Behaviours of senior managers influence employees’ perceptions and beliefs. open minded. Employees have to be aware of the focus. send signals to others in terms of their fourth and commitment to the change process. original. Top management should be committed to the intended change. Explaining the nature and direction of change: • • The change process has to be clear. well knit and integrated. opinions and beliefs often act as the precursor to one’s response to change. interpersistent Active self involvement and capable of involving others in the change process. To create readiness in an individual for change. Such a talk gets a feedback from employees regarding their hopes. but what and how they do. Employees cognize the explicit and implicit behaviours exhibited by senior managers. Responsibility of each person in relation to the company’s strategy has to be understood. self-reliant. scope and expected outcomes of change. It is important to communicate the intended change and the reasons for it in advance and as completely as possible. It is not only what managers say. persuasive convincing. Communication: • • Effective communication is fundamental to change management.
Values agreed upon should be documented. hope and a positive outcome. communication should lead to optimism. If not. These values enable and stable and trustworthy relationships. systems and processes. Non routine communications are through media. Value may be generated by discussion and active employee involvement at all levels in the organisation. Values tie together people. modify and realign their personal values. reliable and perhaps repeated and number of times to drive home its importance and the depth of the management’s commitment. Persuasive communications may be resorted to in times of urgency and crisis and when employees are either in high or low state of readiness for change. These values have to be shared and imbibed by all through out the organisation. Written communications are through specific written documents. These values are based on group and individual behaviours and also the work processes. • • • • • • o Creating a Common Value Orientation: • • Values are basic to human behaviour. Work can be soulful enchanting experience when employees strongly believe in what they do and are convinced about what the company is or should be doing. The values talked about in change management are: o What are the values to be espoused if the change needs to be implemented? o How are they similar to one’s personal value? o How to bring about changes in personal values if need be? • Organisations have to identify the values basic to the change initiative and implementation.• Communications about change have to be clear. • • • • • • • • • o Employee Training: . It employees have to be attended to change. all our vision and mission statements are only decorative pieces in the corporate lobby. they tend to form a benchmark for individuals to adopt. The messages must be credible and take a variety of forms. Oral persuasive communication is carried out through speeches. precise. Once a set of values are collectively agreed upon.
. organisation and employee competency. Urge to accomplish Preference with passion • • • • • • • o Participative Management: • Facilitates the release of one’s inherent enthusiasm and creativity for the benefit of the entire organisation. Employee training sets the supportive climate for change management when it is competency driven for the current and future demands. Current skills have to be assessed and future skills needed for the business determined and the training skills decided to bridge the gap. It provides opportunities for employees to learn by their own activities and to exercise control over the outcome. needing constant monitoring and reviewing. Training should be run like business. Desire to acquire information. Knowledge provides a competitive advantage. New ways of training employees aimed at thinking skills and multiskill development have to be planned. Vicarious learning is facilitated by study/observation trips to innovative organisations and further involving employees in benchmarking their best practices. not a cost. Building effective teams takes years. ‘Vicarious learning’ – where employees observe organisations that have benefitted from implementing new or innovative techniques and practices. Employees should be considered as a resource. To be successful a climate of interpersonal trust and open communication should prevail within the organisation.• Competitive organisations required knowledge workers who are capable of performing jobs related to corporate goals and market needs and demands. Training should bring forth: Inherent talents. knowledge and skills. • • • • • • • d) Managing change: The Affective Dimension: • • Individuals fear and seek change. both Change affects human emotion. delivering value to the work process. It prompts the people in the direction of group support and leads to acceptance of change. Participation needs to be managed carefully or else it creates more problems.
− Addressing avoidance learning – focusing on intended change as the only alternative to avoid/overcome fear or insecurity. − Focusing on the benefits of change at the individual level. • • 6. authority and accountability at work. − Demonstrating some of the benefits of change early in the change process. It is the integrating of ownership. Stock ownership may be performance based. Affective Changes – Change Mechanism 5. it has to anticipate individual feelings about the intended change and deal with their emotions in positive and constructive ways. − Creating positive feelings about the desired state and the change process. Dealing with human emotions could be in terms of: − Creating feeling of psychological safety about change.• If an organisation has to implement change. Employee as partners: • Employees tend to entertain positive emotions for the organisation and the work they do when they are also stakeholders in the company. To be successfully implemented. A personal sense of ownership motivates employees to take the initiative. Company shares may be given at concessional rates. employee empowerment depends upon a number of factors. o Commitment on the part of top management in real earnest. o Are employees suitably trained to be empowered? o Is the organisational culture & climate conducive for empowerment? o Do the employees perceive meaningfulness in what they do? o Is the information shared to empower the people? o Sustaining employee empowerment. • • • • . o How willing are superiors to share their authority down the line through out the organisation? o Willingness on the part of employees to make decisions and be accountable for their actions. and feel responsible for improving organisational performance. Employee empowerment: • • To empower is to give autonomy to an employee enabling him to make decisions on his job and accountable for his actions. generate productive ideas. The approach promotes a binding relationship.
Compensation System: • Managing change through people behaviour is possible when the desired behaviour is appropriately rewarded. Rewards should have the following characters: o Clarity and specification (expected performance and work behaviours) o Immediacy (delayed rewards lose values) o Magnitude (commensurate) o Individuality (personalization.• For success trust between the employee and management is necessary. Employees are also given to understand how much they contribute to. • • 7. Rewards are financial and non-financial. how much they cost to the company. Financial rewards and financial health are tied up. Some of the ways to do this are: o Empathy o Modeling o Shock therapy o Mentoring o Manipulation o Employee counseling • • . Rewards are effective when a certain ‘value’ is built into the rewards – a value which is a part of the performance rather than a pretension. Dealing with negative emotions: • Some employees may have negative emotions towards the intended change. These negative emotions must be understood to successfully handle. Organisations should create a meaningful reward system. not all rewards are same) • • • • • The major demotivators are perceived unfairness in dispensing rewards. Types of rewards − Power rewards (higher responsibilities) − Pay for performance − Pay for knowledge and skill • 8.
solves task related problems. Emphasis on action learning in implementing change: • • • Learning occurs with actions. Clarifying Contractual Obligations: • • Change benefits the organisation. Employees today should be enabled to perform a variety of tasks rather than a few limited jobs. Mutuality is the basis for the release of human energy for effective change management. there is a mutuality of interest. a new role relationship. The psychological contract has two dimensions: the personal goals of a human being and the organisational goals. Where the employee accepts his job duties and responsibilities. Job activities and responsibilities have to redefine due to the change management and changes in the job design and performance. a new job contract is necessary to be made which aligns with overall corporate strategy which the employee must understand and agree after discussions with the management. no actions without learning.e) Managing change: The Conative Dimension: • Resistance to change occurs due to unwillingness to deviate from habitual behaviours or from reluctance to acquire new skills and behaviours. Cross training provides a flexible force and flexible factory. Cross Training: • • Training is provision of information and skills. • • • • • • 2. Tasks or activities are the basis for learning Action learning leads to continuous improvement and performance of self leading to overall improvement of the organisation. change benefits the employee. too. Action learning is a social process. Tohat are the factors for change under conation? 1. constantans improves actions. • • • . Therefore. Cross training facilitates job rotation. starts. For every employee there is a psychological contract with the organisation – may be explicit or implicit. Now. Such skills can come by cross training. wherein an employee can switch periodically from one job to another. accepts supportive criticism for improvements • • 3.
Some techniques in stretching limits manage change are: o Sensitivity training o Participative management o Behavioural modification o Job rotation o Cross training o Role play. • • Supporting climate – learning environment: . It also solves the shortage of manpower.• With this the employee brings a fresh perspective to each job in addition to what has learnt already. It could also be diagonal. Success of cross functional training depends upon employee willingness to learn new skills on the job. there should be the necessary support structure. systems. An employee’s career path need not be limited to vertical mobility. Cross training can be across different functional areas like finance and marketing. Create the right climate for optimizing employee performance: • To create the right climate for employees to take an active interest in the change process and achieve the intended results. Supportive climate – Organisational design: o Organisational processes. • • • • 5. o The people in the organisation structure. Within the limits of ‘mental elasticity’ human capabilities at work could be stretched to the optimum to meet the global business competition. the way they adapt. Stretching employee potential facilitates change management. 4. modify and develop are important. • • • • • Positive attitudes to such training is built if employees are rewarded for acquiring new skills. etc. and activities together form the organisation structure which supports the organisation. a learning environment within the organisation and the free sharing of information. Cross trained employees tend to be amenable to and willing for organisational change initiatives since a number of skills have already been built into their behavioural repertoire. Employee elasticity: Stretching the Potential: • • Good HR stretch employees to the maximum of their potential ability to work. Any kind of mental stretching should be done gradually by exposing one to changes of graded difficulties. thus slowly stepping up one’s self confidence.
The trainer plays a relatively passive role in the training process. unrepresentative of the group memberships and move quickly into an exploration of group processes and leadership. initially as strangers. perhaps ambiguous. CHANGE MANAGEMENT – DEALING WITH GROUPS: • For successful organisation change. the change management should consider individuals as well as the group in which they work. − The present day business needs speed. H. how the company is doing. situation is created and the group is encouraged to experiment with new individual behaviours and group interactions. o Sharing information raises the level of employee trust in the organisation. away from their usual roles and responsibilities. o It empowers people and performance improves. the group begins without an agenda. o Employees should know what the company plans are. a structure. and any division of labour or rules of procedures. flexibility and innovation in all activities.− Organisations should create a learning environment where people can acquire advanced knowledge and skill. The primary target of managing change would be the group itself and the relationships among its members. T-group is an ad hoc assembly of individuals who meet together. • • • • • . Initially. They enter the group as peers. The major forms of group-based changes are: o Sensitivity training. The training may vary in duration from a few weeks to few hours. An unstructured. o Team building o Self-managed teams 1) Sensitivity Training: • • • • Also called as T-group training. whey the company needs change and what they should know additionally to perform better in the changed scenario. • Supportive climate – information sharing: o The commonest way of bringing about change in employee attitudes and performance is through information sharing.
2) Team Building: • A team is a group of individuals who tend to work interdependently to satisfy organisational as well as their own individual objectives. They attain increased sensitivity to their own behaviours. Absence of an agenda initially creates a vacuum and often quite uncomfortable. • Individuals join teams for a variety of reasons: − Out of the herd instinct. The trainer initially observes: − − − − • • Problems of communication Attempted seizures of power Misunderstandings Other phenomena of interpersonal life. abilities of individuals are mutually supportive. They become sensitive to the nature of group development. Developing increased tolerances for other people’s behaviour. Understanding group processes. They become sensitive to the action of others. Encouraging one to try out new ways of interacting with people and receiving feedback. • Sensitivity training is good for change planning and implementation. They slowly correct their faults. the impact they have on others. Understanding why people behave the way they do. Thus. Interdependency – where the skills. . • • • • • • • The trainer communicates these observations to groups. brought together only by the common goal of learning more about themselves. Members emerge with a restructuring of their values about people and their operations in group settings. Commitment to and belief in working together. Members gradually begin to attend to such matters themselves. Teams have the following characteristics: − − − − • A reason or charter for working together.• The people in each group are strangers to each other. the interventions through sensitivity training aims at the following: − − − − − • Understanding of one’s own behaviour and how one’s behaviour affects others. Accountability – for their performance.
• Team values are: o Quality o Customer service o Innovativeness o People o Informality • The operational basis of a team lies in − − Synergy Interdependence • A team’s behaviour is characterised by the following elements: − − − − A Goal – is commonly agreed upon by the members Interdependence – where people have agreed to work together and are supportive of each others. Interpersonal trust. Commitment – to achieve the goal through group effort. Promotion of scientific inquiry in addressing issues and problems. . From a sense of duty. Concern for the development of individual potentialities. From the inability to say no Teams have the advantage: − Of improving up and setting goals and priorities.− − − − − − • To overcome one’s fears and insecurities. and Accountability – where one is accountable to superiors or the top management for achieving the goal. Due to a rational belief to joint effort. • The value base of team lies in: − − − − Belief in a democratic work environment. • The success of team effort depends upon: − The leadership provided to the members who constitute the team. In the hope of personal gains. − Deciding on means and methods. − Improving performance qualitatively and quantitatively. From group compulsion. Involving individuals and groups is the change process from the very beginning is one way of ensuring their commitment and accountability towards achieving the intended changes.
They do represent a broad pattern. Forming: a. and values the ideas and contribution of others. Data flow Conflict. who: − Understands and is committed to group goals and values his/her team membership − Is friendly. f. c. Also referred as: Dependence Acceptance Orientation & hesitant participation Testing inclusion Also referred as Counter dependence. External pressures interfere with the group. Storming: • • • • • . j. Jockey for position of relative control Argue about appropriate directions for the group. • • • • The stages are the result of a variety of questions. Tensions rise between the individuals. d. Start to get to know and accept one another. They may be observed and predicted in many settings a cross the team’s time together. d. Characteristics Members share personal information. k.− • Overcoming barriers to effective team functioning. These stages of team development are not rigidly followed. b. b. goals An aura of country Interactions are cautions High degree of motivation. Members compete for status. dominance & rebellion Inflighting Listening and experimenting f. concerned and interested in others. − Acknowledges interpersonal conflicts and deals with them positively. − Includes others in the decision making process. − Recognizes and respects individual differences. e. g. An effective team member is one. 3) Team Development Stages / Life Cycle of a Team: • When a member of individuals begin to work at interdependent jobs. Begin turning their attention to group’s tasks. is understanding. shows empathy. a. issues and characteristics as shown below: Key questions faced • • Developmental stages 1. − Listed to others. e. they then pass through several stages as they learn to work together as a team. h. c. i. Individuals try to assert • • • • • • Who are these people? What is their unique competence? What information should I share with them? Will they accept me? What is our mission? How to we develop team spirit? What resources are available to us? What problems do we foresee with the team? 2.
c. How will we closeness & control each cohesiveness other’s actions? • Getting organised. e. Functional roles are also smoothly exchanged as needed. Feedback for future teams. • Openness. a. c. 4) Ingredients of Effective Leadership: • • A process of dealing with members’ aspirations and expectations. Functional roles are performed. In flexible organisations adjournments are more frequent. Tasks are efficiently accomplished. b. Handles complex challenges. a. Break up is called adjournment. Transactional leadership skills include: o o o o Goal setting Assertiveness Conflict management Supervision o o o o Communication Problem solving Decision making Rewarding competency • . Group matures and learns. a. Groups norms guide individuals. Transformational leadership skills relate to: o o o o Futuristic thinking Value clarification Entrepreneurism Influencing o Envisioning o Creativity o Mentoring • & inspiring for higher motivation and achievement – how the leader regarded and respected – credibility. d. e. Group may review its performance. d. Tentative balance among competing forces. Group begins moving together in co-operative fashion b. project teams disband sooner or later. Performing contribute to our Also referred as: success? • Performance Should we take • Productivity risks? • Mature Have we been closeness empowered to • Achievement succeed? How can we change and grow? How can we 5.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Control What do we 3. Groups. d. b. c. More co-operative feelings. Norming believe in? Also referred as: What behaviours • Resolution do we expect of • Goals and each other? norms What should we • Integration be doing? • Intimacy. Adjourning celebrate our Also referred as: success? • Adjourned What connections • Terminated should we maintain? What have we learned from our experience? Where do we go from here? themselves. affection What actions will 4.
unify efforts and stimulate more cohesive teams. 6) Potential Team Problems: . Providing adequate time for meetings. • 5) Ingredients of Effective Teams: • What contributes to team success o o o o o o Careful composition Clear direction Accountability Integration & co-ordination Innovativeness Scope for learning o o o o o Information sharing Measurable goals Sufficient resources Flexibility Stimulation of openness • Four Major factors are: Supportive Environment: − − − − − Management to build a supportive environment. Demonstrating faith in members’ capacity to achieve These steps contribute to further co-operation. trust and compatibility Skills & Role Clarity: − Team members must be reasonably qualified to perform − They should have a desire to co-operate. Team Rewards: − − − − − Stimulates teamwork Recognition or financial Most powerful if they are valued by team members. Should be perceived as ‘possible to earn’. more transformational skills are required. Encouraging members to think like a team. Super-ordinate Goal: − Team members should be oriented towards their overall task. − All members carry their weight. as the group matures. − Each member should know the roles of all the others in the group with whom they are interacting. focus attention.o Enables a leader to get a job done successfully. • A leader needs to exhibit greater transactional skills in the initial stages of group formation (first & second stages) Later. Administered in proportion to the team performance.
It is a belief that workers are lazy. Interpersonal trust. They are natural work groups that are given substantial autonomy. They are asked to control specific behavioural or operational activities and produce significant results. Since team’s composition is likely to change frequently due to various reasons. Integrating new members into the team is also important. Develop a plan for team turnover right from the start. direct. The combination of empowerment and training to plan. • • • • 7) Self Managed work Teams (SMT or SMWT): • • • • An empowerment tool Also known as self reliant or self-directed teams. • • • • • Social Loafing: • When employees think that their contributions to a group cannot be measured. Participative discussions. they may lessen their output and engage in social loafing. SMTs are characterised by: − − − − − − − Goal setting through team effort. Social loafing is based on a perception of unfair division of labour.Changing composition: • Being complex and dynamic teamwork is sensitive to all aspects of organisational environment. It is a feeling of being able to hide in a crowd and therefore not be able to be singled out for blame. monitor and control their own activities distinguishes these teams from many others. Individual and mutual accountability A result focused performance • • • . They have wide ranging autonomy and freedom. A multi-skilled workforce Shared leadership through team meetings. Social loafing may also arise if a member believes that others intend to withhold their efforts and thus he would be foolish not to do the same – The Sucker Effect. Too many changes and personnel transfers interfere with group relationships and prevent the growth of team work. teams must learn to manage their internal turnover. Accept the turnover and plan for it. complied with the capability to act like manager.
− Lower absenteeism and turnover rates. − Higher level of organisational commitment and job satisfaction. suggestion systems Consensus decision making. • Areas of Job Freedom and Participation Continuum By Tannenbaum & Schmidt: “How to choose Leadership Pattern” Area of authority applied by Manager Joins Consults Sells Tells Low Amount of participation Description of typical action Manager makes & announce s decision Manager presents decision subject to change seeks ideas. • SMTs have the following disadvantages: − − − − Extended time to implement them High training investment Inefficiencies due to job rotation. − Faster synergetic performance − Enhances individual and team capacity − Lot of scope for innovations − Pushes responsibility down to the lowest levels. − Promotes collaborative work relationships. one person one vote Democratic management Manager asks group to decide Withdraws Total of Job Freedom Area of employee participation in decision making Medium High Popular terms Autocratic managem ent Consultative management. self managing teams.− Active problem solving. − More efficient operations through the reduced number of job classifications. • SMTs have several advantages: − Improved flexibility of staff. sells decision Benevolent autocracy Manager seeks ideas before deciding Manager asks group for recomme nded actions before deciding Participative commuters such as quality circles Manager decides with group. Inability of some employees to adapt to a team structure. .
empowerment 8) Cross Functional Teams: • • A type of SMT Consists of individuals from different functional areas working on the design or development of a product. I. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE & OVERCOMING IT: • Resistance to change consist of any employee behaviours designed to − Delay − Discredit − Prevent the implementation of work change. engineers and even factory workers on whom rests the total responsibility for the development and manufacture of a single product. ‘Taurus’ team at Ford Honda. in 1978. depends upon: − − − − Setting achievable goals Gaining commitment from team members Setting ground rules for team activities. − Ensuring early success to generate enthusiasm and greater belief in team effort. Effective management of relationships among people of diverse backgrounds and work cultures. inexpensive car. The success of cross-functional teams. • • • • • Most auto companies today employ ‘platform teams’ that consist of a core group of designers. • Employee resist change because it threatens their: − − − − − Need for security Social interaction Status Competence Self esteem a) Nature & Effects: • The perceived threat stemming from a change may be . Cross-functional teams are of great assistance in designing and prototyping new models and products.
. − Do not see a personal gain for themselves. some employees will try to protect themselves from its effects. People resist because of the fear of unknown. Threats to job security. set up a ‘chain reaction effect’ also. ‘Change’ does not respect blue or white collar. sometimes. Some perceive as gainers due to change.o Required o Unintended o Large • o Imagined o Direct o Small o Intended o Indirect Regardless of the nature of change. depending upon how skillfully it is managed to minimize resistance. • • b) Reasons for Resistance: (3 broad reasons) First • • • • • • Not comfortable with the nature of the change itself It may violate their moral belief system They may believe that the decision is technically incorrect May be reluctant to change the present familiar comforts to an uncertainty. This reactions may be: o Complaints o Passive resistance o Sabotage o Foot dragging o Absenteeism o Work slowdowns • • • • White and blue collared people resist change. The method by which it is introduced People may resent having been ill informed. − Dislike the method used. Second • • • • Third • • • • Their resistance will be even more intense if all the 3 reasons exist. May reject an insensitive and authoritarian approach that did not involve them in the change process May be a perception of poor timings. Particularly employees too have a desire for new experience and the accompanying rewards that come with the change. Inequity of the people’s experience Some perceive as losers due to change. Changes. − People disagree with the nature of the change. A lesson to management is: change is likely to be a success or a problem.
emotional resistances: • • • • • Fear of the unknown. Logical. full support may not be expected all time – may be weak. 7. such as skill downgrading. What is important is: create a genuine climate when people trust management. If management cannot win support. Technical. moderate or opposition – form all people. Low tolerance of change. Economic costs of change. rational objections: • • • • • Time required to adjust. human – all 3 have to be faced and solved. Questioned technical feasibilities of changes. Desire to retain existing friendships. logical. Need for security. Sociological. group resistances: • • • • • Political coalitions Opposing group values. . Psychological. If authority is overused. Extra effort to relearn Possibility of less desirable conditions. it may need to use authority. Dislike of management or other change agent. 8. d) Implications of Resistance: • • • • All 3 types of resistance must be anticipated and treated effectively. have a positive feeling towards change and feel secure enough to tolerate other changes. Parochial. narrow outlook Vested interests. We must recognise that authority can only be used sparingly. Lack of trust in others. • • • • e) Possible benefits of resistance: • Resistance is not all bad. desire for status quo. it eventually becomes worthless.c) Types of Resistance: (3 types) 6. Then only employees will accept change co-operatively. In a typical operating situation.
• • It can bring some benefits. Such a release encourage employees to think and talk more about a change so that they understand it better. Advantages Disadvantages Commonly used in situations Facilitation + Support Advantages Disadvantages Where people are resisting No other approach Can be time because of fear and anxiety works as well with consuming adjustment problems expensive and still . Resistance creates checks implementation of change. • • • • Change is necessary in a competitive environment. This approach in the long run should lead to better acceptance of change. Resistance also gives management the information about the intensity of employee emotions on an issue. There are 6 approaches to manage the resistances as given below: Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. and balances and ensures proper • • • • Resistance also identifies specific problem areas. It enables management to take corrective actions much before serious problems arise. • • • • • f) Managing Resistance: Kotter & Schlesigner “Choosing strategies for change”. Commonly used in situations Education + Communication Once persuaded. people Where there is a lack of will often help with the information or inaccurate implementation of the information and analysis change Participation + Involve ment People who participate Where the initiators do not will be committed to have all the information they implementing change need to design the change and and any relevant where others have information they have considerable power to resist will be integrated into the change plan Can be very time consuming if lots of people are involved Can be very time consuming if participators design an inappropriate change. Hurdles to change need to be managed. It provides an emotional release of pent-up feelings. it is made certain that the proposals are appropriate. Harvard Business Review. That may encourage management to communicate the change better. So that. Resistance may encourage management to reexamine its change proposals.
. BUILDING EFFECTIVE CHANGE INITIATIVES: 6. b) Comprehensive organisation. It takes months and years. motivation theory. . having a sociological flavour. Where other tactics will not It can be a relatively Can lead to future work. having the overall system perspective in view. f) Emphasis on Intervention: active intervention of the change agent in the ongoing activities in the organisation. The basic characteristics of OD are as follows: a) Planned Change: also called as change intervention. or are too expensive quick and inexpensive problems if people solution to resistance feel manipulated problems Coercion Where speed is essential and It is speedy and can Can be risky. systematic process of organisational change? OD draws from psychology sociology and anthropology theory OD also relies on information from personality learning theory. J. Organisational Development: • • • Is a planned. Change: involving total system and the entire • c) Emphasis upon Work Groups: some OD efforts are aimed at individual and organisational change. power leadership and organisational design. e) Participation of a Change Agent: It is generally advised to avail the services of an outside expert. h) Organisational Culture: includes – accepted patterns of behaviour. culture of each organisation must be understood and the relations consist with that culture must be developed. most OD are oriented towards group. if it the change initiators possess overcome any kind of leaves people angry considerable power resistance at the initiators. etc. organisational objectives. group dynamics. Negotiation _ Agreement Where someone or some Sometimes it is group will clearly lose out in relatively easy way to a change and where that avoid major resistance group has considerable power to resist Manipulation _ Co-operation Can be too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate. norms.fail. d) Long-range Change: OD is not a stop gap arrangement. g) Collaborative Management: unlike the traditional management. OD stresses an collaboration among all levels. value systems.
decision making) The culture of the organisation (norms. Involvement of personal and IR/HR management people and congruency with personnel policy and practice. Perceptions of organisational problems by key people and perceptions of the relevance of the behavioural sciences in solving these problems. Trust and support among organisational members Synergetic solutions to problems. A typical change strategies and associated HR Initiatives: Types of change strategy HR Activities Advantages Disadvantages . • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8. 7. including the formal leader. Monitoring the process and the measuring of results. power structure) Structure and the role in organisation. Pre-requisites for organisational development: • • • OD must fulfill certain conditions if it were to be effective. gathering and analyzing the organisational data and taking actions to resolve problems. the following criteria are to be satisfied. Acknowledgement of the congruency between OD and many previous effective management practices. Initial top-level involvement. Effective management of the OD process and stabilization of changes. To reduce the negative effects in an OD program. values. The introduction into the system of a behavioural science consultant. Situations appropriate for OD programs: • The organisation’s managerial strategy (communication pattern. educational philosophy about the theory and technology OD.i) Action Research: A process of identifying the organisation’s specific problems. Further expansion of efforts after the early successes. Motivational level of employees. Development of internal OD resources and facilitative skills. The operationalising of the action research model. • • • • • • 9. An open. Intergroup collaboration. Participation of work teams. It is not a guarantee for success of OD But favourable environment conducive for organisational change will be created.
d.Education & Employee Involvement • • • • • • • Changes personnel in • • • Management development Employee training. • • Impact Speed • • Changes structures systems to and • • • • • Changes to organisational structures including employee accountabilities. b. Stable environments have less change. communities. Changes to performance management. But dynamic environments are the norm. a) Transformational leadership & change: • Management has a key role in initiating and implementing change successfully. Some changes are through government laws. Implementing change successfully: a. Slow Expensive May meet resistance through negative attitudes to change. labour unions. e. customers. likes change workshops Quality group programmes Joint consultation Team briefing and other forms of employee communications Performance management Employee counseling Severance Redundancy programs Recruitment and selection • • • Greater sense of employee ownership Fresh ideas introduced Longerlasting change • • • • Time consuming. c. 10. etc. Some more are from competitors. Changes to career management. . Changes to reward systems. Changes to employee relations structures (consultation and bargaining) • • • Longer lasting change Regeneration of employee knowledge and skill Regeneration of tired systems • • Dealing with negative consequences for employees Possibly expensive Slower to have impact May be difficult to establish causal link changes to structures and systems and organisational change. Some changes originate within the organisation.
leaders still have two tasks: − To persuade the employees that the vision is urgent. such as difficulty in letting go of old methods. A vision is a crystallized long-range image or idea of what can and should be accomplished. They take bold strategic changes to position the organisation for its future. To create an organisation that welcomes change. A vision may also integrate the shared beliefs and value that serve as a basis for changing an organisation’s culture. − And to motivate their employees to do it. but important details. • Charismatic leaders are: . Workers’ fear of uncertainty. They stimulate employees to: − − − − − Rise above their narrow focus Make them to see a broader picture action. The overall plan should address behavioural issues. Be learning individuals Make a learning organisation • • c) Creating Vision: • Transformational leaders create and communicate a vision for the organisation. • • • b) Transformation Leaders: • • Are instrumental in the change process. • Charisma is a leadership trait can help influence employees to take early and sustained action. They articulate vision and promote in vigorously. It stretches people beyond their current capabilities and thinking. Charismatically model their behaviour. • • • • d) Communicating Charisma: • After the vision. It excites them to new levels of commitment and enthusiasm.• A master strategy for change has to be made not overlooking simple.
e) Stimulating Learning: • Transformational leaders not only make a very good change in organisation. but an organisation that will continue to change. Activities. keep change goals constantly in mind to avoid functional myopia • c) Establish check points. • • • • 11. • • b) Determine the objectives: • Objectives help to break the goal down into specific responsibilities for each team member. Their critical task is to develop people’s capacity to learn from the experience of change. • Employees trust and respect charismatic leaders and emotionally committed to such leaders. Establish ownership for different functions. Express high performance expectations Use provocative symbols and language to inspire others. In ‘single loop learning’ employees simply solve current problems and blindly adapt to changes which have been imposed on them. Warm mentors. Some common sense principles for Change Managers: a) Set a clear goal: • • Start at the end and work backwards While setting a goal dialogue among yourself. Write down the change goal in a piece of paper and ask ‘Is that what you want?’ The goal should be specific and measurable and the team and the user should move in the same direction. the team and the end users of the project.− − − − − − Dynamic risk takers Have depth of expertise Well deserved self confidence. This process is called as ‘double-loop learning’ This means that the changes handled not only reflect the current information gathered. but also prepare the participants to manage future changes even more effectively. Relationships and Time Estimates: . who treat employees individually and guide them for action.
Expect differences. persuading. they serve to ensure interest and create energy. • • e) Reinforce the commitment and excitement of the Change Team: • Volunteering increases commitment. A strong team of supporters and collaborators are required. yet must work together on a unique task. Use the appropriate method. develop sensitivity to why people do what they do. and as teams. • • f) Keep everyone connected with the Change Program Informed of the Program: • Change involves people from different departments who use different languages.• • • Check points help members monitor their own progress. Logical arguments have their limits. There are hosts of possible approaches to conflict management like giving in. • • g) Build Agreements that vitalize team members: • Conflicts are inevitable. Establish a detailed check list of activities. let members go public with their views and choices. Set long-term and short-term check points for early detection of problems. compromising. d) Direct people individually and as a Project Team: • • • One can not do it alone. Create a sense of ‘ownership’. Use them to create a synergy and unleash creativity. reaching agreement in conflict situations is not only a logical but also an emotional experience. from experiences. smoothing over. as individuals. create opportunity for people to set goals and objectives. Be a good listener. Treat team members as individuals with their own characteristics. It is important to keep learning. • • . finding common good etc. Appropriate the position of the other person. Encourage transparency and visibility of the project team’s efforts. The team should also discuss ‘what if’ and ‘what can go wrong’ situations. have different objectives and have different types of training. keep people informed on a regular and frequent basis.
Plan time for thinking. I failed my way to success – Thomas Alva Edison. This is achieved through alliances. networks and exchanges. .h) Empower yourself and others in the Team: • • Influence without exercising authority is the key. important to build personal power. Like turtles. innovation and creativity. What people want most from a change manager is credibility: Credibility = Competence + Honesty + Direction + Inspiration + Power It is • i) Encourage Risk Taking and Creativity: • • • • Failure is the stepping stone for success. we make significant progress only when we stick our necks out. experimenting.
Becoming aware of the pressure for change: • Most organisational changes are carried out in response to or in anticipation of pressures from inside or outside the organisation. Pressures like these – or the anticipation of such pressures. technology. pressure mounts as the organisation outgrows its old ways of doing things. − Demand changes in the structure. Outside the organisation. tasks and people in the organisation. • • • 2. . conflicts arise. the technological innovations act as powerful triggers for change. employees retire or resign. Recognising the need for change: • • Becoming aware of the need is not enough Managers should also recognise the need for change.III MBA – CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODULE 5 – ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE PROCESS 3) Organisational Change Process: a) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: • Becoming aware of the pressure for change Recognising the need for change Diagnosing the problem Planning the change Implementing the change Following up on the change • • • • • 1. Within the firm.
a top-down strategy calls for intervention at the high level of an organisation. A firm that pursues revolutionary change adopts a top-down change strategy. observations. What are the consequences of those pressures? For diagnosing the problems various procedures are available like: Interviews. Implementing the change: . They discuss the need for change and diagnose the problems facing the organisation. Firms opting for bottom-up strategy prepare the organisation for change by involving managers and employees at all levels. 4. The organisation waits until it believes that the costs of not changing exceed the costs of overcoming organisational inertia and then introduces its master plan for change. Winding up of divisions or departments and downsizing are examples of this type of change. • • • • • • • • • 5. Organisations must choose between evolutionary and revolutionary change. secondary data. Planning the Change: • • A strategy for change is formulated. Pressure may be likely economic or technical reasons. A firm that adopts evolutionary change adopts a bottom-up change strategy. Diagnosing the problem: • • • • • • Recognizing that change is needed is not enough. Managers must determine how it may affect the company. TQM is a method of evolutionary change. Managers must diagnose the pressures for change.3. Generally. etc. Questionnaire. Managers believe that the uncertainty associated with organisational change is best managed through incremental processes in which they continually make adjustments to their strategy and structure.
resistance to change surfaces. Here. • b) The entire change process can be summarized in six stages: 18. wall on • There are 6 approaches for managing resistance. Follow up on the change: • The final step in the change process is to evaluate the effects of the change. attitudes and behaviours Old Stage New State . values and behaviours Refreeze (assurance of permanent change) Reinforcing new values. • • • • • • • • Hostility Physical abuse Loss of interest in work Excessive idling time Low productivity Tardiness Development of tension & anxiety Groups deciding fairday’s work • • • • • • • • Aggression Apathy towards work Spoilage of material Corrupting valuable software Absenteeism Resignation Tensed up on the job Imposing their individuals. Lewin’s Process Model: Unfreeze (awareness of need for change) Reducing the forces who wants status quo Change (Move) (movement from old state to new state) Developing new attitudes.• • • The next step is to implement the change. There are several ways to show the resistance. 6. And institute procedural modifications that will ensure that change continues to be implemented. − − − − − − Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and co-operation Explicit and implicit coercion • Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
departments or organisation in which the changes e to take place. By unfreezing the current situation. sometimes through OD techniques. Managing the transition is essential to keep the organisation going. • • . Learning theory and reinforcement theory can play important roles in the refreezing phase. • • Moving (changing): • Aims to shift or alter the behaviour of the individuals. • • Refreezing: • • Changes become relatively permanent. three stage model of change system. So that it remains in the desired state. Moving means – developing new behaviours. Refreezing the system. organizing and implementing the change from the disassembly of the current state to the realization of a fully functional future state within the organisation. Moving to a desired condition.• • • • • • • According to Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Model. Popularly called as. Unfreezing: involves • Encouraging individuals to discard old behaviours by shaking up the status quo situations. effective change occurs. Managers must ensure that the organisational cultures and reward systems encourage the new behaviours and avoid the old ways of functioning. New ways of operating are cemented and reinforced. Searching for new solutions. Transition management is the process of systematically planning. Presenting a case to make the people to recognise for a change and how their jobs will be improved by the change. New values. there is a transition which is not shown. • • • Transition Management: • Between. Such changes are sometimes through structural changes. values and attitudes. attitudes and behaviours are established as the new way of life. the two phases of change. Highly useful in understanding the ways of managing change.
again they balance and balanced at any time between the two opposing forces. customers and suppliers. employees. An interim management structure or interim positions may be created to ensure continuity and control of the business during transition. Failure in efforts to change can be traced back to one of the 3 stages. Communication of the changes to all involved. Lewin’s model proposes that for change efforts to be successful. managers must adopt a change strategy to increase the forces for change and reduce the resistance to change. values. or do both simultaneously. Successful change. thus requires that old behaviours are discarded and new behaviours introduced Those new behaviours have to be institutionalized and rewarded • • • • • • 19. Organisational change can occur at three levels: o Individual – Changes in individual’s attitudes. skills and behaviour. there are people who push for change and there are individuals who resist for change and desire status quo. Initially the two groups may be equal in their forces. • • • • • • . they change. Lewin’s Force Field Theory of Change: Level of Performance Resistance to Change Change Resistance to Change P2 P1 Forces for change Time • In any organisation.• Transition management ensures that business continues while the change is occurring. To get the organisation change. the 3 stage process must be completed. play a role in transition management. When the forces are in balance. This Lewin termed as ‘quasi stationery equilibrium’ Lewin’s theory states how the forces for change and resistance balance. the organisation is in a state of inertia and does not change.
o Structure & Systems – Change in work design reporting relationships information systems the reward systems, etc. o Organisational Climate – Change in leadership style interpersonal relations, decision making style and other such aspects.
K. MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE – THE CONTINUOUS CHANGE PROCESS MODEL:
• • • •
Lewin’s model is very simple and straight forward. Many models of organisation change use his approach. However, it does not deal with several important issues. A more complex and more helpful approach is illustrated in the figure below:
1. Forces for change
2. Recognise & define problem Change Agent
3. Problem solving process
5. Measure evaluate control
4. Implement the change
Transition manage ment
• • •
This approach treats planned change from the perspective of top management. It indicates that the change is continuous. As change becomes continuous in the organisations, different steps are probably occurring simultaneously through out the organisation. This model incorporates Lewin’s concept into the implementation phase. In this approach, top management perceives that certain forces or trends call for a change. Such an issue is subjected to the organisation’s usual problem solving and decision making processes. Usually, top management defines its goals in terms of what the organisation or certain processes or outputs will be like after the change. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and an acceptable one is selected. Early in the process, the organisation may seek the assistance of a change agent – a person who will be responsible for managing the change efforts. The change agent: o May be a member of the organisation
o An outsider, such as a consultant o Someone from company headquarters – a far away place o An outsider is preferred because of his assumed impartiality Under the direction and management of change agent, the organisation implements the change through Lewin’s unfreeze, change and refreeze process. The final step is measurement, evaluation and control. With this, the top management determines the effectiveness of the change process by various benchmarks and indicators of organisational productivity and effectiveness.
L. LEADERSHIP STYLES:
(Top Down & Bottom up approaches are given in Module 3)
Laissez or free-reign leadership approaches
• • • •
In this type of leadership approach, the leader is just a figure-head. He does not give any directions. He delegates the authority to subordinates. Subordinates must plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own actions. The leader acts principally as a liaison between the group and the outside elements. He supplies necessary materials and information to group member. He lets the subordinates develop their own techniques for accomplishing goals within the organisational policies and objectives. The leader participates very little and instead of leading and directing, he just becomes one of its members. This type of leadership is highly effective when the group members are highly intelligent and are fully aware of their roles and responsibilities. This type of leadership is evident in research laboratories where the scientists are fairly free to conduct their research and make their decisions. Also true to university professors.
• • •
Creates an environment of freedom, individually as well as team spirit. It is highly creative with a free and informal work environment. This approach is very useful where people are highly motivated and achievement oriented.
It may result in disorganized activities which may lead to inefficiency and chaos. Insecurity and frustration may develop due to lack of specific decision making authority and guidance.
The team spirit may suffer due to possible presence of some uncooperative team members. Some members may put their own interests above the group and team interests. OD Definition: is the process of planned change and improvement of organisations through the application of knowledge of behavioral sciences. 3 points to remember in this definition are: i. Organisation development involves attempts to plan organisational changes. ii. Specific intention of organisation development is to improve organisation. iii. The planned improvement must be based on knowledge of the behavioral sciences such as OB, psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology and related field of study rather than financial and technological considerations.
M. OD INTERVENTIONS:
Several OD interventions also called techniques, have evolved over a long period: Good interventions have 3 characteristics: (i) (ii) (iii) They are based on valid information about the functioning of the organisation, usually collected by the employees. The intervention under the guidance of the change agent, provides employees with opportunities to make their own choices regarding the nature of the problems and their preferred solutions. Interventions are aimed at gaining the employee’s personal commitment to their choices.
Reward systems p. Career planning & development q. Integrated strategic management t. Total quality management l. Self designing organisations 10. Culture change u. Organisation confrontation meeting f. Managing workplace diversity r. Strategic change v. Formal structural change h. Performance appraisal o. The OD Paradigms & Values: • • • • • • Organisational Level Affected Individual Group Organisation √ – √ – – – – – √ √ – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ √ – – √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ – – – – – √ – – – – √ √ √ √ √ – √ – – – √ √ – – √ √ √ √ Values human & organisational growth Collaborative and participative process A spirit of inquiry Strong emphasis on collaboration The change agent as a catalyst Important factors in OD efforts: a) Respect for people: . Employee wellness Strategic: s. Work design Human Resource Management: m. Goal setting n. Differentiation & integration i. Quality circles k.9. T-Group/Sensitivity Training b. Different types of OD interventions and the level of their impact: Interventions: Human Process: a. Team building e. Process consultation c. Third party intervention d. Cooperative union management projects j. Inter-group relations Technostructural: g.
encounter group or T-groups (Training groups) All refer to a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interactions. Members meet in a free and open environment and discuss about themselves and their interactive processes. openness and supportive climate. • • • • • • . Improved listening skills. The more we involve. e) Participation: • • All those who are affected by the change should be involved in decision making surrounding the change. 2. The objectives of T-groups are: 1. A behaviour scientist directs the discussions. c) Power Equalisation: • Effective organisations deemphasize hierarchial authority and control d) Confrontation: • • Problems should not be swept under the rug. 5. beliefs and attitudes. 3. They should be openly confronted. To develop increased understanding of group processes. authenticity. • They should be treated with dignity and respect b) Trust & support: • • The effective and healthy organisation is characterized by trust. 4. Increased ability to empathies with others. Explanations on a few OD Techniques: a) Sensitivity Training: • Also known as laboratory training.Individuals are perceived as being responsible conscientious and caring. the more will be committed to implementing those decisions 11. Provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them. To develop greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. The OD specialist (behavioral scientist) creates the opportunity for participants to express their ideas. The individuals learn through observing and participating rather than being told.
Satisfaction with the organisation Job peers and immediate supervisors • • • The steps involved are as follows: Data Collection Feedback to organisational unit Action Decision Consultants c) Process Consultation: • Is a technique concerned with the interpersonal relations and dynamics operating in work groups. But they are unable to identify what can be improved and how. The questionnaire seeks to find out the perceptions of the employees on a range of topics like − − − − − Decision making practice Communication effectiveness Coordination between units. Improved conflict resolution skills b) Implications of Resistance: • • • • It is a tool for assessing attitudes of organisational members. An outside consultant to assist the manager to perceive is employed. He understands and suggests the processes which the manager must act upon. Work flow. Even though every employee in an organisation can participate in survey feedback. but more task oriented. Greater openness 7.6. A questionnaire is usually filled by all employees of the organisation. it is important that the organisational family – the manager and those employees who report directly to him participate. formal communication channels are some of the areas. • • • • • • d) Team Building: . informal relationships among unit members. Identifying discrepancies among perceptions and Solving these differences. Similar to sensitivity training. Managers often sense that their unit’s performance can be improved. Increased tolerance of individual differences and 8.
stereotypes and perceptions through intergroup development. the participants are likely to be committed to the solution and interpersonal support and trust are developed. A major area of concern in OD is the dysfunctional conflict that exist between groups. Determines underlying cause in such areas as communication. The support and trust of group members enhance the implementation of change. the other group and how it believes the other perceives it. OD consultant also helps in assessing group tasks. role clarification. Team building process involves the following steps: Step-1 Step-2 • • • • • • • • • The team leader defines a problem.• Is a conscious effort by management to develop effective work groups through out the organisation. Engineers accountants production engineers maintenance engineers Such stereotypes can have obvious negative impact on the coordinative efforts between the departments. It utilizes high interaction group activities to create trust and openness among team members. Hence change efforts are directed towards the group to change their attitudes. Eg. Aimed at helping groups to become effective at task accomplishment. Team building includes OD consultant feedback in such areas as communication and conflict resolution. Through this process. These work groups focus on solving actual problems in building efficient management teams. leadership style. member roles and strategies for accomplishing work tasks. The group analyses the problem. ‘Problem solving’ is one of the popular approaches for improving intergroup relations. stereotypes and perceptions that groups have with each other. Step-3 • • • • e) Intergroup Development: • Seeks to change the attitude. Then selects the most appropriate solution. The group proposes several solutions. In this method each group meets independently to develop lists of its perceptions of itself. organisational structure and interpersonal relations. • • • • • • .
after which similarities and differences are discussed. • f) Third Party Interventions: • • • • This is concerned with helping individuals. group problem solving. and communication. Seeks to promote organisational excellence by fostering concern for production and concern for people. OD consultants help the parties resolve their differences through such techniques as problem solving. Intergroup tensions are dealt with openly and joint problem solving procedures are developed. Or may be caused by sub optimal interpersonal relations. They assess their own managerial styles and work on improving such skills as team development. Team Development Intergroup development . g) Grid Training: • Grid organisational development is an extension of the managerial / leadership grid concept developed by Blake & Mouton Carried out on an organisation-wide basis. bargaining and conciliation. Differences are clearly articulated and the group look for the cause of disparities. Most organisational problems stem from poor communication and inadequate planning. 3 . After appropriate introduction. The steps in grid OD are shown below: Steps 1 Training Activities In a week-long seminar. To resolve serious conflicts those are related to specific work issues.• The groups then share lists. these key managers will work to implement the grid program through out the organisation. This phase focuses on the relationship between the organisation’s work groups to improve coordination & cooperation. key managers learn about grid concepts and how they are applied. • • • • • 2 . groups or departments.9 grid level. Black & Mouton proposed a multi step process for improving organisations by attempting to cultivate these skills. The trained managers bring their new understanding of managerial grid concepts relationships and team effectiveness so that the team operates at 9.
QWL programs focus strongly on providing a work environment conducive to satisfying individual needs. Richard Walton’s categories of programs are shown below: • • • Adequate & fair Compensation Development of Human capacities Social Integration Total Life Space Safe & Healthy work Environment Growth & Security Constitutionlism Social Relevance • There are a few popular approaches to humanize workplace. Each submits proposals on how their activities should be carried out in order to achieve excellence and they proceed to take whatever corrective actions are necessary. . evaluated and refined by managers and subordinates working together throughout the organisation. but the goal of ‘humanizing the work place’ is of paramount importance. The programs vary. 6 Organisational Top managers together create an ideal model of goal setting the organisation. the results of all the phases are evaluated to determine which areas of the organisation still need improvement or alteration. Stabilization Eventually. Efforts are made to stabilize positive changes and to identify new areas of opportunity for the organisation.4 . Goal Organisation members seek to make the ideal attainment model a reality. They set goals to be tested. h) Quality of Work Life: (QWL) • Is defined as the degree to which members of a work organisation are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organisation. 5 .
i) Appreciative Inquiry: (AI) • • • • Most OD approaches are problem oriented. Often played out in large group meetings over two or three days and overseen by a trained change agent. These qualities are further built on to improve performance It focuses on organisations success and abilities than on its problems. Rather than looking for problems to fix. − Or when they specifically felt most satisfied with their jobs. • • • • The hurdles are − − Both management and labour must cooperate in designing the programs Plan agreed by all must be implemented. Appreciative inquiry is positive. • • • • • • . Job enlargement and job enrichment are two such. QWL programs benefit the organisation in these ways: − − − − − Increased job satisfaction. The first step is Discovery: − The idea is to find out what people think are the strengths of the organisation. employees are asked to recount times they felt the organisation worked best. They identify a problem and then look for solutions.• One such is ‘work restructuring’ – the process of changing the way jobs are done to make them more interesting to workers. AI process essentially consists of four steps. This allows the organisation to change by playing to its strengths and competitive advantages. Another approach in Quality Circles These are small groups of employees who meet regularly on voluntary basis to identify and solve problems related to the quality of work they perform. − For instance. this approach seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organisation. Organisational commitment Reduced turnover among workers Increased productivity Profitability and goal attainment for the organisation.
have increased their sales and profits by several crores of money. • . • • Companies who used this OD technique. participants discuss how the organisation is going to fulfill its dream. − For instance people are asked to envision the organisation in five years and describe what different is going to happen. Nature of Creativity: • Creativity refers to the process by which novel but situationally appropriate outcomes are brought about. The essence of creativity is the element of freshness. − This typically includes the writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies. • The third step is Design: − Based on the dream articulation. 12. CREATIVITY IN ORGANISATIONS: • Organisational culture promotes creativity and innovation 12.• The second step is Dreaming: − The information from the discovery phase is used to speculate on possible futures of the organisation. originality and novelty that is also appropriate to the context. The fourth step is Destiny: − In this final step. Benefits & Limitations of Organisational Development: Benefits • • • • • • • • • • • • Limitations • • • • • • • • • • • Organisation-wide changes Higher motivation Higher productivity Better quality of work Higher job satisfaction Improved team work Better resolution of conflict Commitment to objectives Reduced absence Lower turnover Creation of learning Individuals and groups Time consuming Expensive Delayed pay-off period Possible failure Possible invasion of privacy Possible psychological harm Potential conformity Emphasis on group processes rather than performance Possible conceptual ambiguity Difficulty in evaluation Cultural incompatibility N. participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organisation will look and agree on its unique qualities.
the mind constantly considers the problem and works on it. − Incubation assists in divergent thinking and generating different approaches to the issue. The Creative Process: • Researchers have developed a model that outlines the various stages of the creative process. − Plays powerful role in dissolving previously held notions about a problem. The ability to promote creativity in organisations is an important competence to face the turbulence of dynamics of changes in the organisations. − The problem or issue not forgotten. the act must be unique and appropriate to the context. − The flashes of inspiration have no definite schedules.• To call anything creative. • Insight: − Individuals experience insight at some point during the incubation stage. − They might come at any time of the day or night. − During incubation. − Involves developing a clear understanding of what one wants to achieve through a novel solution Step-2 Incubation Step-3 Insight Step-4 Verification • • • Incubation: − Is a process of reflective thought and is often conducted subconsciously. • • 13. The social and technological changes that organisations face require creative decisions. . − But the problem is still simmering in one’s mind − But it is not at the forefront of his attention. − The problem is only put in the back burner. − It is an experience of suddenly becoming aware of a unique idea. The process of creativity occurs in the following four stages: Step-1 Preparation Preparation: − An important condition for creativity.
Characteristics of Creative Individuals: • It is said that creative people posses intellectual and personality characteristics different from their less creative counterparts. Creativity Inducing Factors: a. but verification of their value is important. • Verification: − Ideas are generated at the insight stage. Inventive thinking style. An irritation with status quo Perseverance A pursuit of hobbies and specialised interests. Some of the traits of creative people include: − − − − − − − − Willingness to give up immediate gain to reach long range goals. Grid analysis c. − It is not sufficient we have come up with an idea. tenacity is very important. High intellectual abilities. • 15. These are the supporting environments and facilities to encourage people to search for new ideas: Creative People Organisational Support Organisational Culture Enhanced Creativity . since other people may resist or reject the creative ideas. 14. Brainstorming b. Lateral thinking 16. − At this stage. Belief that fantasy and day dreaming are not a waste of time. • Creative processes do not always follow an order.− It can also be lost if not documented. − The new idea has to be subjected to evaluation and experimentation. Methods of Enhancing Creativity: a. A great amount of energy.
c. Time & Resources: − People are more creative when they have funds. Friendly supervision Team building Participative decision making Flexible organisation structures. e. − Break out of the shell and take risks. facilities. etc. − Make the job intrinsically motivating. information and time. − Sets goals for creativity − Encourage employees to take risks and accept failures. • . INNOVATIONS IN ORGANISATIONS: • Innovation is the process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the market place as products. Creative People: Exposure Time & Resources i. d. Exposure: − Expose employees to various kinds of experience. extended leave. Diversity: − Diverse ethnic and cultural groups. − Divergent thinking is key to creativity f. materials. g. seminars. Selecting creative people is the starting point in enhancing creativity in organisations. if any. manufacturing and marketing. development. Organisational Culture: − − − − − Openness to new ideas.Diversity b. Innovation involves every aspect of organisation. processes and services. research. − Like foreign assignments. Organisational Support: − May come in many ways. − People need enough resources O. − Lavishness does not work.
• The greatest challenge is to bring the innovative technology into the market in a cost effective manner. Hold periodic sessions with senior/junior managers and elicit suggestions. • 2) A Six Step Model for Planned Innovation or Change: • The process followed by managers when they engage in planned innovation and change are illustrated in the sketch Step-1 Perceiving an opportunity or a problem Step-2 Diagnosing the situation and generating ideas Step-3 Presenting a proposal & adopting the change or innovation Step-6 Monitoring and evaluating results Step-5 Implementing the change or innovation Step-4 Planning to over come resistance to change or innovation Step-1 : Perceiving an opportunity or a problem • Look ahead for opportunities to solve current and anticipated problems. • • Step-2 : Diagnosing the situations and generating ideas • Diagnose the situation and generate new ideas. . Do not focus only on immediate problems. 1) Types of Innovation: • • Radical innovation – major break through – eg: xerox System innovation – creating new functionalities by assembling parts in new ways – eg: automobile Incremental innovation – continues the technical improvements – applicable to radical and systems also – forces organisations to continually improve products.
perceptual. It is also essential to guard against ways which hinder creativity. Step-3 : Presenting a proposal and adopting the change • Establish the fact that innovation and change are important to the organisation. • P.• • This will fix the problems and take advantage of the opportunities. • • Step-4 : Planning to overcome resistance • • Understand the reasons and resistance for change. Do not overlook the status of ongoing activities relative to the competition. implementation will be smooth Step-6 : Monitoring the results • Monitor and evaluate what happens after the change has been implemented. cultural and emotional blocks as shown in the sketch. Step-5 : Implementing the innovation or change • • Moment of truth when the change is put into operation. Otherwise good ideas will be rejected when they are proposed. There are three broad categories of obstructions for creativity. Overcome the resistance. Perceptual Blocks Cultural Blocks Emotional Blocks Need for Creativity & Creativity & Innovation . Preparation of a business plan is necessary for budget proposals. BLOCKS FOR CREATIVITY & INNOVATIONS: • • • It is not enough to take positive steps to promote creativity. If the planning is carefully done. Feedback for improvements in successive innovations.
Too hard to administer 42. 36. 40. It is not part of your job 19. Too old fashioned 46. It is not budgeted 17. Too much paper work 45. Emotional Blocks: Include: − The fear of making a mistake. It needs more stud 16. A belief that indulging in fantasy or other forms of open-ended exploration is a waste of time. We have not the manpower 50. The union won’t go for it. Overemphasis on competition or conflict avoidance and smoothing. That is not our problem 33. The drive to be practical and economical. 2. It does not fit human nature 14. We have not the time − − − − . We have been doing it this way for 48. 34. All right in theory 5. 38. It can’t work 12. I know it won’t work 11. 4. − Fear and distrust of others − Fear of grabbing the first idea that comes along Sixty-One Ways to Block Creativity: 1.Innovation 1. Too late 44. It has been done before 15. It is not good enough 18. There are better ways. Let me add to that 32. Can you put into practice? 7. Costs too much 8. Too soon 47. The old times won’t use it. 39. A good idea but… 2. Be practical 6. Have you considered 10. Too many projects now 13. 43. Too hard to implement. Ahead of the times. The new people won’t understand 35. Too academic 41. Cultural Blocks: Include: A desire to conform to established norms. Don’t start anything yet 9. 3. The timing is off 37. The boss won’t go for it. Long time and it works 49. Perceptual Blocks: Include such factors as: − − − − The failure to use all the senses in observing Failure to investigate the obvious Difficulty in seeing remote relationships Failure to distinguish between cause and effect. Against company policy 3. They won’t go for it.
we have never done it that way 54. Who else has tried it? 61. Let us sit on it for a while 26. Let us discuss it 21. Not ready for it yet. Let us not step on toes 24. Let us think it over for a while 27. What will the union think? 58. We can too small 53. We have tried it before 55. Let us make a survey first 23. Who do you think you are? 60. Of course. Some other time 31. Let us form a committee 22.20. Let us put it off for a while 25. We are too big 52. 28. What you are really saying is? 59. Why has not someone suggested it before if it is a good idea? You are off base! . What bubble head thought that up? 56. Surely you know better 51. Our Plan is different 30. What will the customers think? 57. it won’t work 29.