# AERODYNAMICS IIIA, Assessed Exercise 2 Integral Boundary Layer Methods This exercise is worth 10% of your year mark

1 Introduction

You will need to download the MatLab code ‘aerosolinitial.m’ from Blackboard. This code calculates the lift and drag of a two dimensional Joukowski aerofoil in three stages. First, the aerofoil shape and pressure distribution are calculated using the same formulation you have already coded into MatLab in the ﬁrst assessed exercise. The outputs from this analysis are then fed into an integral boundary layer analysis based initially on the Thwaites formulation, as given in your notes. This is used to calculate the momentum thickness and skin friction coefﬁcient on the upper and lower surfaces from the stagnation point. As an option, transition can be assumed. If this is the case, the boundary layer beyond the transition point is calculated using a power law approximation, as covered in the handout on integral turbulent methods. However, at present some of the lines of code are missing, and this part of the program is inoperative. The lines of code requiring modiﬁcation currently contain the variable ‘deletethis’ and come with some helpful comments. You are also required to add an option to use Michel’s criterion for transition, and to compare this to the original one based on the change in the sign of the pressure gradient. Sections you need to modify are between the comments ‘START MODS’ and ‘END MODS’; there are four in total.

2

Using the Code

The code may be run interactively through MatLab. Several of the inputs should only take a limited range of possible values, and if so the user is informed at the input prompt. Entering data outside of these ranges is not prohibited by the software, and hence care must be taken inputting data to ensure correct results. The code operates in two parts, ﬁrst calculating the inviscid ﬂowﬁeld, then requesting inputs required for the boundary layer calculation. Generally this process is straightforward, but note that the program automatically divides the input for viscosity (µ) by 105 , i.e. if a value of 1

Each ﬁle contains a header.ignore them). ‘Xi’ the cartesian coordinate).1. ρ = 1. otherwise the program will exit. ﬁnd the largest integer value that the percentage ratio of d to b may take for which the laminar ﬂow over a symmetrical Joukowski aerofoil of chord 1 metre persists without separation to the trailing edge. which may then be read in to Excel. Satisfy yourself that the drag coefﬁcient is indeed always negligible (roundoff and the discretisation may lead to small non-zero values.8 × 10−5 is required. Each are simply ASCII text ﬁles. Familiarise yourself with the code as it currently stands. As an initial exercise. 2 . the program generates three ﬁles.79 × 10−5 .there should be ≈ 10. How does the code identify separation. or displayed using a graphics package such as Gnuplot. and why? Include ﬁgures using sensible scales showing aerofoil shape. and you only need to include either the upper or lower surface coding. for ‘no’.dat’. It is extensively commented. these being ‘Joukowski. Reports will be automatically scanned for plagiarism.dat’.59. and µ = 1. either positive or negative). and there is no part which involves any mathematics or theory outside of the course content already discussed. 3 Your Task The tasks set out below will require you to write a report (word limit 1500). Initially (before you have added the necessary code). This part of the exercise does not need to be included in your report. and alter a limited portion of the code (the lines you have modiﬁed should be included in the report .1. Comment on the size of the incidence range for which this attached ﬂow may be maintained. at -5 and +5 degrees incidence. informing the user what each of the columns contains (note that in the boundary layer ﬁles ‘S’ indicates the surface integral from stagnation. use the program to calculate the inviscid lift and drag coefﬁcients for an aerofoil with d/b ratio of 5%. no camber. 1. ‘blupper. but not both). and momentum thickness at zero degrees. You should hand this in via blackboard. 2.dat’ and ‘bllower. zero incidence and a Mach number of 0. the input is simply ‘1. pressure distribution.225. as a word document (or pdf). As output. Use zero Mach number (if you also put in zero velocity you will cause divide by zero errors in the boundary layer output . enter ‘2’. Assuming sea level conditions of a = 340.8’. when asked if calculation of the turbulent boundary layer is required. Show that this gives a ∂CL ∂α of 6.

Make sure that you add the lines to both the upper and lower boundary layer calculations as indicated. Why are the polars u-shaped? How and why does camber inﬂuence transition? What are the limitations to the power law model for turbulent boundary layers? Which empirical result for skin friction should be used and why? 6. placed in the parts marked. why do the transition models give different results? 5. or create a different version of the code to use Michel’s transition criterion. so eight in total).1 and using default transition. Using the formulation given in the notes. Again at sea level with a Mach number of 0. include a simple turbulent boundary layer correction based on a power law. but only include modiﬁed or created lines of code. Add an option. so six in total). This should involve only four lines of code (for upper and lower. Repeat the process at only h/b of 0% using Michel transition and compare. calculate the 2D lift-drag polar (i. for zero incidence ﬂows and (a) increasing Mach number from 0. 4. Include a ﬁgure showing the boundary layer momentum thickness on each aerofoil at zero incidence.e. but with the chord reduced to 0. a plot with CL along the bottom and CD up the side) for an aerofoil of 1M chord.3.5 metres. and show all three on the same ﬁgure. with the ratio d/b at 10% and the following values of h/b: (a) 0 (b) 2% (c) 4% Use incidences from -5 to 5 degrees. for both transition models. and discuss drag coefﬁcients. investigate the effect on the second of these aerofoils. Comment on the results. Which model predicts the most drag and why? How is drag calculated in the code and what are the limitations to this? In physical terms.5 at sea level 3 . Show boundary layer momentum thickness as a function of surface distance from the stagnation point. Compare the results for turbulent and laminar ﬂows at zero incidence for the aerofoil you used in part (2) using n = 7 for the power law approximation. This should involve modifying/creating only three lines (for upper and lower. Do not forget to include these lines in your report. The base version of the code has the option to assume transition at the point where the pressure gradient changes sign (‘default transition’). Finally.1 up to 0.

Explain the trends in the coefﬁcients of lift and drag in terms of your understanding of boundary layers and the Reynolds number. Use a Mach number of 0. Consider lift and drag as well as their coefﬁcients.1 and 0. 4 .(b) Increasing the altitude to 2.5. and 10 km (ﬁnd the atmospheric properties at these altitudes from standard tables). as well as the trends in the dimensional forces. Reports submitted after this time will incur standard faculty penalties. Please aim to submit in advance of the deadline. Blackboard does not always respond immediately to submissions and it is your responsibility to allow sufﬁcient time for this process. I suggest that at the very latest you submit your work several hours before the ﬁnal deadline. Which empirical result for skin friction should be used and why? The deadline for the report is midnight on Friday the 18th January 2013 (Friday of the ﬁrst week back after the holidays). Use the default transition model. 4.