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Financial ratio formulas

Prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake

1.

Operating cycle
Inventory Inventory = Average day's cost of goods sold Cost of goods sold / 365 Accounts receivable Accounts receivable = Average day's sales on credit Sales on credit / 365

Number of days of inventory =

Number of days of receivables =

Number of days of payables =

Accounts payable Accounts payable = Average day's purchases Purchases / 365


Note: Purchases =
Cost of Ending Beginning + + goods sold inventory inventory

Operating cycle =

Number of days Number of days + of inventory of receivables Number of days of inventory + Number of days Number of days of receivables of purchases

Net operating cycle =

2.

Liquidity
Current assets Current liabilitie s

Current ratio =

Quick ratio =

Current assets - Inventory Current liabilitie s Current assets - Current liabilitie s Sales

Net working capital to sales ratio =

3.

Profitability
Gross income Sales
Operating income Sales

Gross profit margin =

Operating profit margin =

Financial ratio formula sheet, prepared by Pamela Peterson-Drake

Net profit margin =

Net income Sales

4.

Activity
Cost of goods sold Inventory
Sales on credit Accounts receivable

Inventory turnover =

Accounts receivable turnover =

Total asset turnover =

Sales Total assets Sales Fixed assets

Fixed asset turnover =

5.

Financial leverage
Total debt Total assets Long - term debt Total assets

Total debt to assets ratio =

Long - term debt to assets ratio =

Total debt to equity ratio =

Total debt Total shareholders' equity

Equity multiplier =

Total assets Shareholders' equity


Earnings before interest and taxes Interest

Times - interest - coverage ratio =

Fixed - charge coverage ratio =

Earnings before interest and taxes + Lease payment Interest + Lease payment

Financial ratio formula sheet, prepared by Pamela Peterson-Drake

6.

Shareholder ratios
Net income available to shareholders Number of shares outstanding Dividends paid to shareholders Number of shares outstanding Dividends Earnings

Earnings per share =

Dividends per share =

Dividend payout ratio =

Price-earnings ratio =

Market price per share Earnings per share

7.

Return ratios
Operating income Total assets

Basic earning power ratio = Operating return on assets = Net income Total assets

Return on assets =

Return on equity =

Net income Shareholders' equity

Financial ratio formula sheet, prepared by Pamela Peterson-Drake