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Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems
The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 130 companies that explore for, develop and produce more than 90 per cent of Canada’s natural gas and crude oil. CAPP also has 150 associate member companies that provide a wide range of services that support the upstream oil and natural gas industry. Together, these members and associate members are an important part of a $120-billion-a-year national industry that affects the livelihoods of more than half a million Canadians.
Review by June 2013
Disclaimer This publication was prepared for the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) by the Pipeline Technical Committee members. While it is believed that the information contained herein is reliable under the conditions and subject to the limitations set out, CAPP does not guarantee its accuracy. The use of this report or any information contained will be at the user’s sole risk, regardless of any fault or negligence of CAPP or its co-funders.
..................................................................…………2-2 Figure 3-1: An Example of Internal Corrosion in an Oil Effluent Pipeline........................................................................6-1 Table 7-1: Corrosion Inspection Techniques...................24 Figures Figure 2-1: Oil Effluent Pipelines —Total Incidents and Frequency per 1000km (Alberta) .......................................................21 Leak Detection Techniques .....................................Operations………………………………………………4-2 Table 5-1: Corrosion Mitigation Techniques..........................................................................................................2 Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation..Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Failure Statistics ......................................................................3-2 Table 4-1: Recommended Practices .........Design and Construction ........2 Figure 2-2: Oil Effluent Pipelines —Incidents by Cause (Alberta)…………………..........4 Tables Table 3-1: Contributing Factors and Prevention of Internal Oil Effluent Corrosion .............4-1 Table 4-2: Recommended Practices ......................................................................................................................................................5-1 Table 6-1: Corrosion Monitoring Techniques .........................................9-1 ......................23 Table 9-1: Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques ...........................................4 Recommended Practices ....................................................................16 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques ..............................................................................................................................................................9 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques...........................................................18 Corrosion Inspection Techniques........................................................7-1 Table 8-1: Leak Detection Techniques .......................................................23 Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques.................................................................................
Additional corrosion mitigation recommended practices available are: • • • • Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sour Gas Gathering Systems Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Sweet Gas Gathering Systems Best Management Practice for Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oilfield Water Pipeline Systems Best Management Practice for Mitigation of External Corrosion on Buried Pipeline Systems These documents are available free of charge on the CAPP website at www. oil effluent pipelines are defined as those constructed with carbon steel materials and transporting oil. The scope of this document does not include crude oil pipelines. mitigation and monitoring may apply. It contains a consolidation of key industry experience and knowledge used to reduce oil effluent pipeline corrosion. the CAPP Pipeline Technical Committee has developed industry recommended practices to improve and maintain the mechanical integrity of upstream pipelines. This document addresses design. They are intended to assist upstream oil and gas producers in recognizing the conditions that contribute to pipeline corrosion incidents.Overview Corrosion is a dominant contributing factor to failures and leaks in pipelines. engineering teams involved in the design of gathering systems.ca. however many of the same principles for internal corrosion. Within this document. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 1 . In the case of any inconsistencies between the guidance provided in this document and either Z662 or regulatory requirements. maintenance and operating considerations for the mitigation of internal corrosion in oil effluent pipeline systems. and identify effective measures that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of corrosion incidents. as required by CSA Z662 and the applicable regulatory agency. including both sweet and sour service systems. however it is not intended to be comprehensive overview of all practices. This document does not address the deterioration of aluminum and non-metallic materials. To deal with this issue. This document is complementary to CSA Z662 and supports the development of corrosion control practices within Pipeline Integrity Management Programs. and operations personnel involved with the implementation of corrosion mitigation programs and with operation of wells and pipelines in a safe and efficient manner. the latter should be adhered to. gas and water. This document is intended for use by corrosion specialists involved with the development and execution of corrosion mitigation programs.capp.
9 11.0 6.8 Total OE Incidents 277 235 250 269 261 283 292 314 282 362 327 372 324 362 324 324 292 330 346 327 351 315 377 360 OE Length (1000's km) 19.1 Figure 1-1: Oil Effluent Pipelines —Total Incidents and Frequency per 1000km (Alberta.4 36.0 6.2 6.9 9.0 23.8 8.2 45.4 8.3 54.4 21.0 27.9 6.4 24.2 7.7 30.5 10. 30 # OE Incidents / 1000km Total OE Incidents 362 372 327 282 324 362 324 324 292 330 377 346 327 351 315 360 500 450 400 350 300 250 10.0 29.2 9.4 6.0 44. accounting for approximately 48% of the oil effluent pipeline incidents in 2008.6 7.5 11.5 11.4 38.5 11. source: ERCB) Figure 20b .4 6.8 10.4 53.2 7.5 51.5 10 5 0 198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008 0 # OE Incidents / 1000km14.9 6.911.0 28.2 7.5 41.7 49. Internal corrosion remains the largest incident cause in oil effluent pipelines.8 11.8 10.910.5 11.0 10.8 8.0 10.9 6.5 235 11.9 7.8 11.6 6.9 6.4 8.5 10.8 46.9 10.7 34. an average of 38% of the total annual incidents in Alberta have been from oil effluent pipelines.7 32.1 20.5 11.1 Failure Statistics • • Over the period 2003-2007.6 6.2 9.9 26.9 9.5 39.8 200 150 100 50 25 20 277 250 269 261 314 283 292 15 14.0 52.6 7.9 6.Oil Effluent Pipeline Incidents by Cause Corrosion (Internal) (CI) Damage By Others (DO) Corrosion (External) (CX) Unknown (UN) All Other Causes Construction Damage (CD) 250 200 150 100 50 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 2 .5 10.
source: ERCB) June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 3 .Figure 1-2: Oil Effluent Pipelines — Incidents by Cause (Alberta.
bacteria. It is applicable to both internally bare carbon steel pipeline systems and to coated or lined pipelines where deterioration or damage has allowed water contact with the steel substrate. causes.2 describe the most common contributors. The tables also contain corresponding mitigation measures commonly used to reduce oilfield water pipeline corrosion. chlorides. and effects of internal corrosion in oilfield water pipelines. O2.2 Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation Pitting corrosion along the bottom of the pipeline is the primary corrosion mechanism leading to failures in oil effluent pipelines.1 and 3. CO2. The common features of this mechanism are: • • • the presence of water containing any of the following. H2S. or solids pipelines carrying higher levels of free-water production (high water/oil ratio or water-cut) the presence of liquid traps where water and solids can accumulate Figure 2-1: An Example of Internal Corrosion in an Oil Effluent Pipeline Tables 3. June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 4 .
Table 2-1: Contributing Factors and Prevention of Internal Oil Effluent Corrosion Mechanisms Contributor Water Holdup Cause/Source • Low velocity and poor pigging practices allow water to stagnate in the pipelines Effect • Water acts as the electrolyte for the corrosion reaction Chlorides increase the conductivity of water and may increase the localized pitting rate Mitigation • Install pigging facilities and maintain an effective pigging program Control corrosion through effective corrosion inhibition practices Effective pigging and inhibition • • Carbon Dioxide • • Produced with gas from the reservoir CO2 flooding • • CO2 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid Corrosion rates increase with increasing CO2 partial pressures Hydrogen sulphide can form protective iron sulphide scales Localized breakdown of iron sulphide scales results in accelerated pitting Acid producing and sulfate reducing bacteria can lead to localized pitting attack Solid deposits provide an environment for growth of bacteria • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) • • Produced with gas from the reservoir Generated by sulfate reducing bacteria • • • Effective pigging and inhibition programs See 'bacteria' • Bacteria • • • Contaminated drilling and completion fluids Contaminated production equipment Produced fluids from the reservoir (contaminated) • • Treat with corrosion inhibitors and biocides Effective pigging program Eliminate introduction of free water into pipelines • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 5 .
) accelerates corrosion Mitigation • Design pipeline to exceed critical velocity Establish operating targets based on critical gas velocity to trigger appropriate mitigation requirements e. asphaltenes. scale and sand May originate from drilling fluids.g. iron sulphides etc. batch inhibition Install pigging facilities and maintain an effective pigging program Use well site separators to tank and truck water to minimize the effects of work over and completion activities on the pipeline Scale suppression • Solids Deposition • Mainly produced from the formation. workover fluids and scaling waters May include corrosion products from upstream equipment Insufficient velocities and poor pigging practices Introduction of bacteria Introduction of spent acids and kill fluids Introduction of solids • Can contribute to under-deposit corrosion Scaling can interfere with corrosion monitoring and inhibition Solids will reduce the corrosion inhibitor concentration able to protect the pipe • • • • • • • • Drilling and Completion Fluids • • • • • • Accelerated corrosion Lower pH Higher chloride concentration. pigging. which can accelerate corrosion and reduce the corrosion inhibitor dispersability • Produce wells to well site separator.Contributor Critical Velocity Cause/Source • Critical velocity is reached when there is insufficient flow to sweep the pipeline of water and solids Effect • A buildup of water and solids (elemental sulphur. tanking and trucking water until drilling and completion fluids and solids are recovered Supplemental pigging and batch inhibition of pipelines before and after work over activities • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 6 . can include wax.
Contributor Detrimental Operating Practices Cause/Source • • • • Ineffective pigging Ineffective inhibition Inadequate pipeline suspension Commingling of incompatible produced fluids Effect • Accelerated corrosion Mitigation • Design pipelines to allow for effective shut-in and isolation Develop and implement proper suspension procedures. including pigging and batch inhibition Test for fluid incompatibilities • • Management of Change (MOC) • • Unmanaged change may result in accelerated corrosion Change in production characteristics or operating practices Well re-completions and work overs Lack of system operating history and practices Changing personnel and system ownership • • • Implement an effective MOC process as part of the IMP • Maintain integrity of pipeline operation and maintenance history and records Re-assess corrosivity on a periodic basis • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 7 .
Table 2-2: Contributing Factors and Prevention of Internal Oil Effluent Corrosion Operations Contributor Detrimental Operating Practices Cause/Source • • • • Ineffective pigging Ineffective inhibition Inadequate pipeline suspension Commingling of incompatible produced fluids Effect • Accelerated corrosion Mitigation • Design pipelines to allow for effective shut-in and isolation Develop and implement proper suspension procedures. including pigging and batch inhibition Test for fluid incompatibilities • • • Unmanaged change may result in accelerated corrosion Management of Change (MOC) • Change in production characteristics or operating practices Well re-completions and work overs Lack of system operating history and practices Changing personnel and system ownership • Implement an effective MOC process as part of the IMP • Maintain integrity of pipeline operation and maintenance history and records Re-assess corrosivity on a periodic basis • • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 8 .
Clause 13 Plastic Pipelines • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 9 .1 Steel Pipe Benefit • Normalized ERW prevents preferential corrosion of the weld zone Prevents sulfide stress cracking failures Non-metallic materials are corrosion resistant Comments • ERW seams should be placed on the top half of the pipe to minimize preferential corrosion Non-metallic materials may be used as a liner or a free standing pipeline depending on the service conditions.1 Sour Service Steel Pipe for • sour oil effluent pipelines. Be aware that steel risers would be susceptible to corrosion. • • • Use CSA Z245. per requirements of the Regulations and CSA Z662 Consider use of corrosion resistant materials such as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) or fiber reinforced composite materials as per CSAZ662.3 Recommended Practices Table 4-1 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of internal corrosion in the design and construction phase of oil effluent pipelines Table 4-2 describes the recommended practices for mitigation of internal corrosion in the operations phase of oil effluent pipelines. Table 3-1: Recommended Practices – Design and Contruction Element Materials of Construction Recommended Practice • Use normalized electric resistance welding (ERW) line pipe that meets the requirements of CSA Z245.
e.Element Pipeline Isolation Recommended Practice • Install valves that allow for effective isolation of pipeline segments from the rest of the system Install the valves as close as possible to the tie-in point Install blinds for effective isolation of in-active pipeline segments Benefit • Allows the effective suspension and discontinuation of pipeline segments Comments • Removes potential “deadlegs” from the gathering system Be aware of creating “deadlegs” between isolation valve and mainline at tie-in locations (i. install 12 o’clock tee tie-ins. or above ground riser tie-ins) Develop shut-in guidelines for the timing of requiring steps to isolate and lay up pipelines in each system Consider future operating conditions such as changes in well deliverability Consider the future corrosion mitigation cost of oversized pipelines operating under the critical velocity Consider the impact of crossovers. line loops and flow direction changes • • • • Pipeline Sizing • Design pipeline system to ideally maintain flow above critical velocity • Using smaller lines where possible increases gas velocity and reduces water holdup and solids deposition • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 10 .
flanges. tanking and trucking of water until completion and workover fluids and solids are recovered Benefit • Removal of completion and/or workover fluids reduces the potential for corrosion Comments • Supplemental pigging and batch inhibition of pipelines may be required before and after workover activities June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 11 .Element Pigging Capability Recommended Practice • Install or provide provisions for pig launching and receiving capabilities Use consistent line diameter and wall thickness Use piggable valves. and not excessively worn Consideration should be given to the design of bends. Use piggable valves. tees. flanges. and fittings • • Internal inspection using inline inspection is the most effective method for confirming overall pipeline integrity Proper design allows for pipeline inspection without costly modifications or downtime • • • Table 3-2: Recommended Practices – Operations Element Completion and Workover Practices Recommended Practice • Produce wells to well site separation. undamaged. and risers to allow for navigation by the inspection devices Pigging is one of the • most effective methods of internal corrosion control Pigging improves the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors • • • • • Inspection Capability • Install or provide capability for inspection tool launching and receiving Use consistent line diameter and wall thickness. and fittings Benefit • Comments Multi-disc/cup pigs have been found to be more effective than ball or foam type pigs Receivers and launchers can be permanent or mobile Use pigs that are properly over sized.
operating parameters and the mitigation program to field operations and maintenance personnel Re-assess corrosivity on a periodic basis and subsequent to a line failure • • • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 12 . methanol. well effluent and volumes) and prepare a corrosion mitigation program Communicate corrosion assessment.Element Corrosion Assessment Recommended Practice • Benefit Effective corrosion management comes from understanding and documenting design and operating parameters Comments • Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 9 – Corrosion Control Define acceptable operating ranges consistent with the mitigation program (See Section 10) Consider the effects of oxygen. bacteria and solids Consider supplemental requirements for handling completion and workover fluid backflow Evaluate operating • conditions (temperature. pressure.
Mn and solids Consider provisions for chemical injection.Element Corrosion Inhibition and Monitoring Recommended Practice • Develop and communicate the corrosion inhibition and monitoring program to field operations and maintenance personnel NOTE: Ensure personnel understand their responsibilities and are accountable for implementation and maintenance of corrosion management programs. • Develop suspension and lay up procedures for inactive pipelines Benefit • Allows for an effective corrosion mitigation program Comments • Refer to Section 5 for Corrosion Mitigation Techniques Refer to Section 6 for Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 9 – Corrosion Control Number and location of monitoring devices is dependent on the predicted corrosivity of the system Process sampling for monitoring Cl-. and sampling points Refer to Section 7 for Corrosion Inspection Techniques Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 9 – Corrosion Control • • • • • Inspection Program • • Develop an inspection program or strategy Communicate the inspection program to field operations and maintenance personnel • Creates greater “buy in” and awareness of corrosion mitigation program Provides assurance that the corrosion mitigation program is effective • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 13 . pH. Fe. monitoring devices.
2 to determine extent and type of repair required Implement or make modifications to corrosion control program after repairs so that other pipelines with similar conditions are inspected and mitigation programs revised as required Develop a leak detection strategy • • Refer to Section 7 for Corrosion Inspection Techniques Refer to Section 9 for Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques Refer to CSA Z662 Clause 10.10 for repair requirements • • • • • Leak Detection • • Permits the detection of leaks • Refer to Section 8 for Leak Detection Techniques Technique utilized depends on access and ground conditions • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 14 .9. use CSA Z662 Clause 10.Element Recommended Practice Recovery of an undisturbed sample of the damaged pipeline Conduct thorough failure analysis Use the results of the failure analysis to reassess the corrosion mitigation program Benefit • Improved understanding of corrosion mechanisms detected during inspections or as a result of a failure Allows for corrosion mitigation program adjustments in response to inspection results Prevents multiple failures on the same pipeline Prevents reoccurrence of problem in other like pipelines in the system Comments • Adjust the corrosion mitigation program based on the results of the failure analysis Failure Analysis • • • • Repair and Rehabilitation • Inspect to determine extent and severity of damage prior to carrying out any repair or rehabilitation Based on inspection results.
Element Management of Change Recommended Practice • • Implement an effective MOC process Maintain integrity of pipeline operation and maintenance records Benefit • Ensures that change does not impact the integrity of the pipeline system Comments • Unmanaged change may result in accelerated corrosion. using inappropriate mitigation strategy for the conditions (outside the operating range) June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 15 .
and application interval) Should be applied between two pigs to effectively clean and lay down inhibitor on the pipe Should be used in conjunction with pigging to remove liquids and solids (i. the inhibitor must be applied to clean pipe to be the most effective) • • • Batch Corrosion Inhibitor Chemical Treating • • • Periodic application of a batch corrosion inhibitor to provide a protective barrier on the inside of the pipe • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 16 .e.4 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques Table 4-1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the mitigation of internal corrosion in oil effluent pipelines. contact time. Table 4-1 Corrosion Mitigation Techniques Technique Pigging Description • Periodic pigging of pipeline segments to remove liquids. diluent used. volume of chemical. solids and debris Comments • Pigging is one of the most effective methods of internal corrosion control Can be an effective method of cleaning pipelines and reducing potential for bacteria colonization and under-deposit corrosion Selection of pig type and sizing is important Requires facilities for launching and receiving pigs Provides a barrier between corrosive elements and pipe surface Application procedure is important in determining effectiveness (eg.
g. batch may be more effective Chemical pump reliability is important in determining effectiveness Assists in controlling bacterial growth Use in conjunction with pigging (to clean the line) will enhance effectiveness Batch application typically most effective (e. • • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 17 . application downhole leads to ongoing treatment of produced fluids flowing into the pipeline) The use of improperly selected biocides can create a foam that can be a serious operational issue • • Biocide Chemical Treating • Periodic application of a biocide to kill bacteria in the pipeline system.Technique Continuous Corrosion Inhibitor Chemical Treating Description • Continuous injection of a corrosion inhibitor to reduce the corrosivity of the transported fluids or provide a barrier film Comments • Less common technique due to the high cost to treat high volume water producing wells Corrosion inhibitor may be less effective at contacting full pipe surface especially in a dirty system.
Table 5-1: Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Technique Gas and Oil Analysis Description • Ongoing monitoring of gas composition for H2S and CO2 content.g. typically a higher watercut will lead to water wet steel surface. Mn) can indicate changes in corrosion activity Chemical residuals can be used to confirm the proper concentration of corrosion inhibitors Sampling location and proper procedures are critical for accurate results Changes in operating conditions will influence the corrosion potential. Ongoing monitoring of water for chlorides. Depending on a number of factors. temperature and flow rates Ongoing monitoring of changes in water-oil ratio (water cut) • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 18 . dissolved metals. bacteria.5 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Table 5-1 describes the most common techniques for monitoring corrosion and operating conditions associated with internal corrosion in oil effluent pipelines. If present. suspended solids and chemical residuals Comments • Acid gas content must be understood and should be periodically reassessed Water Analysis • • • Changes in water chemistry will influence the corrosion potential Trends in dissolved metal concentration (e. Production information can be used to assess corrosion susceptibility based on fluid velocity and corrosivity Increasing water-cut will lead to a higher likelihood of internal corrosion. Fe. • • Production Monitoring • Ongoing monitoring of production conditions such as pressure. the analysis of liquid hydrocarbon properties including viscosity is useful.
pitting susceptibility. and mitigation program effectiveness • • Bio-spools • Used to monitor for bacteria presence and mitigation program effectiveness • • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 19 .Technique Mitigation Program Compliance Description • Ongoing monitoring of mitigation program implementation and execution Comments • Chemical pump reliability and inhibitor inventory control is critical where mitigation program includes continuous chemical injection The corrosion mitigation program must be properly implemented to be effective The impact of any non-compliance to the mitigation program must be evaluated to assess the effect on corrosion Coupon type. and data interpretation are critical to successful application of this method Coupons should be used in conjunction with other monitoring and inspection techniques Bio-spool placement and data interpretation are critical to successful application of these methods Bio-spools should be used in conjunction with other monitoring and inspection techniques Solids pigged out of pipelines (pig yields) can be tested for bacteria levels Bacteria presence on surfaces is considered a better way to quantify type and numbers present in the system • • Corrosion Coupons • Used to indicate general corrosion rates. placement.
electrical resistance. and data interpretation are critical to successful application of these methods Continuous or intermittent data collection methods are used Electrochemical monitoring should be used in conjunction with other monitoring and inspection techniques • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 20 . placement. and field signature method Comments • The device selection.Technique Electrochemical Monitoring Description • There are a variety of methods available such as electrochemical noise. linear polarization.
6 Corrosion Inspection Techniques Table 6-1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the detection of internal corrosion in oil effluent pipelines. Table 6-1: Corrosion Inspection Techniques Options Inline Inspection Technique • Magnetic flux leakage is the most common technique Comments • • Inline inspection data should be verified using other methods Effective method to accurately determine location and severity of corrosion in steel pipelines Inline inspection can find internal and external corrosion defects The pipeline must be designed or modified to accommodate inline inspection The tools are available as self contained or tethered To run a tethered tool inspection it is often necessary to dig bellholes and cut the pipeline • • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 21 .
NDE methods may be used to measure corrosion pit growth at excavation sites. however the practical limitations of NDE methods and the factors affecting accuracy must be understood. The use of multi-film radiography is an effective screening tool prior to using ultrasonic testing Corrosion rates can be determined by performing periodic NDE measurements at the same locations Can be used to determine the presence of corrosion damage. corrosion at excavation sites and above ground piping.Options Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technique • Ultrasonic inspection. but it is difficult to determine severity This technique may be limited to short inspection distances Consideration should be given to locations where specific failure modes are most likely to occur • • • Video Camera/ Boroscope • Used as a visual inspection tool to locate internal corrosion • • Destructive Examination • • Physical cut out of sections from the pipeline June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 22 . radiography or other NDE methods can be used to measure metal loss in a localized area Comments • Evaluation must be done to determine potential corrosion sites prior to conducting NDE NDE is commonly used to verify inline inspection results.
Proactive leak detection can be an effective method of finding small leaks and mitigating the consequences of a major product release or spill. or mounted to a helicopter Capable of detecting pinhole leaks that may be otherwise non-detectable • Production Monitoring • Volume balancing or pressure monitoring to look for indications of leaks • • Infrared Thermography • • Thermal imaging is used to detect temperature change on Right-of-Way due to escaping gas and liquids • Flame Ionization Survey • • • Electronic instrumentation used to detect very low concentrations of gas Odor Detection • Odorant detection using trained animals and patented odorants • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 23 . soil. or vegetation discoloration Can be used in combination with infrared thermography and flame ionization surveys Changes in production volumes or pressure can indicate a pipeline failure This is a more effective tool for finding large leaks and ruptures Need sufficient volume of escaping gas to create an identifiable temperature difference Normally completed using aerial techniques Equipment is portable and very sensitive Equipment may be hand held.7 Leak Detection Techniques Table 8-1 describes common techniques that should be considered for the detection of pipeline leaks caused by internal corrosion in oil effluent pipelines. gas bubbling. and water. Table 7-1: Leak Detection Techniques Technique Right-of-Way (ROW) Surveillance Description • Visual inspection by ground access or aerial surveillance to look for indications of leaks Comments • Indications include soil subsidence. mounted on an ATV.
including: • • • CSA Z662 Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems.10 Permanent Repair Methods CSA Z662.8 Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques Table 8-1 describes common techniques used for repair and rehabilitation of pipelines damaged by internal oil effluent corrosion. thermoplastic-lined.10 Temporary Repair Methods CSA Z662 Section 13 Reinforced composite. consider the extent of the corrosion and as well as the extent and severity of damage or degradation of any internal coatings or linings along with the condition of the remaining pipeline Impact on pigging capabilities must be considered (use same pipe diameter and similar wall thickness) The replaced pipe section should be coated with corrosion inhibitor prior to commissioning or coated with an internal coating compatible with the existing pipeline For internal corrosion it may be possible in some circumstances for the damaged section to remain in the pipeline as per the requirements in CSA Z662 Clause 10.10 Table 8-1: Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques Technique Pipe Section Replacements Description • Remove damaged section(s) and replace • • Repair Sleeves • Reinforcement and pressure• containing sleeves may be acceptable for temporary or permanent repairs of internal corrosion as per the limitations stated in CSA Z662 • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 24 . Prior to the repair or rehabilitation of a pipeline the appropriate codes and guidelines should be consulted.10 along with proper corrosion control practices to prevent further deterioration Different repair sleeves are available including composite. weld-on and bolt-on types. Section 10. and polyethylene pipelines Comments • When determining the quantity of pipe to replace. The sleeves must meet the requirements of CSA Z662 Clause 10. Section 10.
corrosion monitoring and inspection Reduction of inhibition programs may impact the integrity of connecting headers and facilities constructed from carbon steel A variety of materials are available with different temperature and chemical resistance capabilities Freestanding plastic pipelines may be limited to low-pressure service Freestanding composite pipelines may not be permitted for gas service Impact on pigging capabilities must be considered Composite or plastic pipelines may eliminate the need for internal corrosion mitigation. or pulled through old pipelines This pipe must be designed to provide full pressure containment • • • • • • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 25 . corrosion monitoring and inspection Reduction of inhibition programs may impact the integrity of connecting headers and facilities constructed of carbon steel • • • Composite or Plastic Pipeline • Freestanding composite or plastic pipe can be either plowed-in for new lines.Technique Polymer Liners Description • • A polymer liner is inserted in the steel pipeline The steel pipe must provide the pressure containment capability Comments • A variety of materials are available with different temperature and chemical resistance capabilities Impact on pigging capabilities must be considered Polymer liners may eliminate the need for internal corrosion mitigation.
Technique Pipeline Replacement Description • Using internally coated steel pipeline systems with an engineered joining system should also be considered The alteration or replacement of the pipeline allows for proper mitigation and operating practices to be implemented Comments • • Must be pig and inspection tool compatible Refer to Section 4 “Recommended Practices ” in this document for details Ensure that when replacements in kind occur. the alteration or replacement of the pipeline allows for proper mitigation and operating practices to be implemented • • June 2009 Recommended Practice for the Mitigation of Internal Corrosion in Oil Effluent Pipeline Systems Page 26 .
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