Publisher's Note
A literal translation o f t h e title o f t h e F r e n c h e d i t i o n o f this w o r k (Les Mots e t les choses) w o u l d h a v e g i v e n r i s e t o c o n f u s i o n w i t h t w o o t h e r b o o k s t h a t h a v e a l r e a d y a p p e a r e d u n d e r the title Words and things. T h e p u b l i s h e r t h e r e f o r e a g r e e d w i t h t h e a u t h o r o n t h e a l t e r n a t i v e title order o f things, w h i c h w a s , i n fact, M . F o u c a u l t ' s o r i g i n a l p r e f e r e n c e . I n v i e w o f the r a n g e o f literature r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e t e x t , i t has n o t p r o v e d feasible i n e v e r y case t o u n d e r t a k e t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l task o f t r a c i n g E n g l i s h translations o f w o r k s o r i g i n a t i n g i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s a n d l o c a t i n g t h e passages q u o t e d b y M . F o u c a u l t . T h e p u b l i s h e r has a c c o r d i n g l y r e t a i n e d the a u t h o r ' s references t o F r e n c h w o r k s a n d t o F r e n c h translations o f L a t i n a n d G e r m a n w o r k s , f o r e x a m p l e , b u t has, a s far a s p o s s i b l e , cited E n g l i s h editions o f w o r k s originally w r i t t e n i n that l a n g u a g e . The

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Foreword to the English edition
This f o r e w o r d should perhaps b e headed 'Directions for U s e ' . N o t b e c a u s e I feel that the r e a d e r c a n n o t b e trusted - h e is, o f c o u r s e , free t o m a k e w h a t h e w i l l o f t h e b o o k h e has b e e n k i n d e n o u g h t o r e a d . W h a t r i g h t h a v e I , t h e n , t o s u g g e s t that i t s h o u l d b e used i n o n e w a y r a t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r ? W h e n I w a s w r i t i n g i t there w e r e m a n y t h i n g s that w e r e n o t clear t o m e : s o m e o f these s e e m e d t o o o b v i o u s , o t h e r s t o o o b s c u r e . S o I said t o m y s e l f : this i s h o w m y ideal r e a d e r w o u l d h a v e a p p r o a c h e d m y b o o k , i f m y i n t e n t i o n s h a d b e e n clearer a n d m y p r o j e c t m o r e r e a d y t o take form. i . H e w o u l d r e c o g n i z e that i t w a s a s t u d y o f a r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d f i e l d . I n F r a n c e a t least, t h e h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e a n d t h o u g h t g i v e s p r i d e o f p l a c e to mathematics, cosmology, and physics - noble sciences, rigorous sciences, sciences o f t h e n e c e s s a r y , all c l o s e t o p h i l o s o p h y : o n e c a n o b s e r v e in their history the almost uninterrupted e m e r g e n c e of truth and pure r e a s o n . T h e o t h e r disciplines, h o w e v e r - t h o s e , f o r e x a m p l e , that c o n c e r n living beings, languages, or e c o n o m i c f a c t s - a r e considered too tinged w i t h e m p i r i c a l t h o u g h t , t o o e x p o s e d t o the v a g a r i e s o f c h a n c e o r i m a g e r y , t o a g e - o l d t r a d i t i o n s a n d e x t e r n a l e v e n t s , f o r i t t o b e s u p p o s e d t h a t their h i s t o r y c o u l d b e a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n i r r e g u l a r . A t m o s t , t h e y are e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f a state o f m i n d , a n i n t e l l e c t u a l fashion, a m i x t u r e o f archaism and b o l d conjecture, o f intuition and blindness. B u t w h a t i f e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e , at a g i v e n t i m e a n d in a g i v e n c u l t u r e , did possess a w e l l - d e f i n e d r e g u l a r i t y ? I f t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o r d i n g facts, o f a l l o w i n g o n e s e l f t o b e c o n v i n c e d b y t h e m , o f d i s t o r t i n g t h e m i n traditions o r o f m a k i n g p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e u s e o f t h e m , i f e v e n this w a s n o t a t t h e m e r c y o f c h a n c e ? I f errors (and t r u t h s ) , t h e p r a c t i c e o f o l d beliefs, i n c l u d i n g n o t o n l y g e n u i n e d i s c o v e r i e s , b u t also t h e m o s t n a i v e n o t i o n s , o b e y e d , a t a g i v e n m o m e n t , the l a w s o f a c e r t a i n c o d e o f k n o w l e d g e ? If, i n ix

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short, t h e h i s t o r y o f n o n - f o r m a l k n o w l e d g e h a d i t s e l f a s y s t e m ? T h a t w a s my initial h y p o t h e s i s - t h e first risk I t o o k . 2. T h i s b o o k must be read as a c o m p a r a t i v e , and n o t a s y m p t o m a t o l o g i c a l , s t u d y . I t w a s n o t m y i n t e n t i o n , o n t h e basis o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f k n o w l e d g e o r b o d y o f ideas, t o d r a w u p a p i c t u r e o f a p e r i o d , o r t o r e c o n s t i t u t e t h e spirit o f a c e n t u r y . W h a t I w i s h e d t o d o w a s t o present, side b y side, a definite n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s : t h e k n o w l e d g e o f l i v i n g beings, the k n o w l e d g e o f the l a w s o f language, and the k n o w l e d g e o f e c o n o m i c facts, a n d t o relate t h e m t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c o u r s e that w a s c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e m during a period e x t e n d i n g f r o m the seventeenth t o the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t w a s t o b e n o t a n analysis o f C l a s s i c i s m i n g e n e r a l , n o r a s e a r c h f o r a Weltanschauung, b u t a strictly ' r e g i o n a l ' s t u d y .
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B u t , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , this c o m p a r a t i v e m e t h o d p r o d u c e s results that are o f t e n s t r i k i n g l y different f r o m t h o s e t o b e f o u n d i n s i n g l e discipline studies. ( S o t h e r e a d e r m u s t n o t e x p e c t t o f i n d h e r e a h i s t o r y o f b i o l o g y j u x t a p o s e d w i t h a history of linguistics, a history of political e c o n o m y , a n d a h i s t o r y o f p h i l o s o p h y . ) T h e r e are shifts o f e m p h a s i s : the c a l e n d a r o f saints a n d h e r o e s i s s o m e w h a t altered ( L i n n a e u s i s g i v e n m o r e space t h a n B u f f b n , D e s t u t t d e T r a c y t h a n R o u s s e a u ; t h e P h y s i o c r a t s are o p p o s e d s i n g l e - h a n d e d b y C a n t i l l o n ) . F r o n t i e r s are r e d r a w n a n d t h i n g s u s u a l l y far a p a r t are b r o u g h t closer, a n d v i c e v e r s a : instead o f r e l a t i n g the b i o l o g i c a l t a x o n o m i e s t o o t h e r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l i v i n g b e i n g (the t h e o r y o f g e r m i n a t i o n , o r the p h y s i o l o g y o f a n i m a l m o v e m e n t , o r t h e statics o f p l a n t s ) , I h a v e c o m p a r e d t h e m w i t h w h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n said a t t h e s a m e t i m e a b o u t l i n g u i s t i c signs, t h e f o r m a t i o n o f g e n e r a l ideas, the l a n g u a g e o f action, the hierarchy o f needs, and the e x c h a n g e o f g o o d s . T h i s had t w o consequences: I w a s led to a b a n d o n the great divisions that are n o w f a m i l i a r t o u s all. I d i d n o t l o o k i n the s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y b i o l o g y (or p h i l o s o p h y o r e c o n o m i c s ) . W h a t I s a w w a s the appearance o f figures p e c u l i a r t o t h e C l a s s i c a l a g e : a ' t a x o n o m y ' o r ' n a t u r a l history* that w a s r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d b y the k n o w l e d g e that t h e n e x i s t e d i n a n i m a l o r p l a n t p h y s i o l o g y ; a n 'analysis o f w e a l t h ' that t o o k l i t d e a c c o u n t o f the a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e ' p o l i t i c a l a r i t h m e t i c ' t h a t w a s c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h it; a n d a ' g e n e r a l g r a m m a r ' t h a t w a s q u i t e alien t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l analyses a n d w o r k s o f exegesis then b e i n g carried out. E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l figures, that is, that w e r e n o t s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e sciences a s t h e y w e r e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d
1 sometimes use terms l i k e ' t h o u g h t ' or 'Classical science', but t h e y refer practically a l w a y s to the particular discipline under consideration.
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a n d n a m e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . M o r e o v e r , I s a w t h e e m e r g e n c e , b e t w e e n these different f i g u r e s , o f a n e t w o r k o f a n a l o g i e s that t r a n s c e n d e d the traditional p r o x i m i t i e s : b e t w e e n t h e classification o f plants a n d t h e theory of coinage, b e t w e e n t h e n o t i o n o f g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r a n d the analysis o f trade, o n e finds i n t h e C l a s s i c a l sciences i s o m o r p h i s m s that a p p e a r t o i g n o r e the e x t r e m e d i v e r s i t y o f t h e o b j e c t s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e space o f k n o w l e d g e w a s t h e n a r r a n g e d i n a t o t a l l y different w a y f r o m that s y s t e m a t i z e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b y C o m t e o r S p e n c e r . T h e s e c o n d risk I t o o k w a s i n h a v i n g w i s h e d t o d e s c r i b e n o t s o m u c h t h e genesis of o u r sciences as an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l space specific to a p a r t i c u l a r period. 3. I d i d n o t o p e r a t e , t h e r e f o r e , at the l e v e l that is u s u a l l y that of t h e historian o f s c i e n c e - 1 s h o u l d say a t the t w o levels that are u s u a l l y his. F o r , o n t h e o n e h a n d , t h e h i s t o r y o f science traces t h e p r o g r e s s o f d i s c o v e r y , the f o r m u l a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s , a n d t h e clash o f c o n t r o v e r s y ; i t also analyses t h e o r i e s i n their internal e c o n o m y ; i n short, i t describes t h e p r o cesses a n d p r o d u c t s o f the scientific c o n s c i o u s n e s s . B u t , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , it tries to restore w h a t e l u d e d that c o n s c i o u s n e s s : t h e influences that affected it, t h e i m p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i e s that w e r e subjacent t o it, t h e u n f o r m u l a t e d t h e m a t i c s , the u n s e e n o b s t a c l e s ; i t describes t h e u n c o n s c i o u s o f s c i e n c e . T h i s u n c o n s c i o u s i s a l w a y s the n e g a t i v e side o f science - that w h i c h resists it, deflects it, o r disturbs it. W h a t I w o u l d l i k e t o d o , h o w e v e r , is to r e v e a l a positive unconscious of k n o w l e d g e : a l e v e l that e l u d e s t h e consciousness o f the scientist a n d y e t i s part o f scientific discourse, instead o f d i s p u t i n g its v a l i d i t y a n d s e e k i n g t o d i m i n i s h its scientific n a t u r e . W h a t w a s c o m m o n to the natural history, the e c o n o m i c s , and the g r a m m a r of the C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d w a s c e r t a i n l y n o t present t o t h e consciousness o f t h e scientist; o r t h a t p a r t o f i t that w a s c o n s c i o u s w a s superficial, l i m i t e d , a n d a l m o s t fanciful ( A d a n s o n , for e x a m p l e , w i s h e d t o d r a w u p a n artificial d e n o m i n a t i o n f o r plants; T u r g o t c o m p a r e d c o i n a g e w i t h l a n g u a g e ) ; b u t , u n k n o w n t o t h e m s e l v e s , t h e naturalists, e c o n o m i s t s , a n d g r a m m a r i a n s e m p l o y e d the s a m e rules t o define the o b j e c t s p r o p e r t o their o w n s t u d y , t o f o r m their c o n c e p t s , t o b u i l d their theories. I t i s these rules o f f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h w e r e n e v e r f o r m u l a t e d i n their o w n r i g h t , b u t are t o b e f o u n d o n l y i n w i d e l y differing t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p t s , a n d objects o f s t u d y , that I h a v e tried to r e v e a l , by i s o l a t i n g , as t h e i r specific l o c u s , a l e v e l that I h a v e c a l l e d , s o m e w h a t arbitrarily p e r h a p s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l . T a k i n g a s a n e x a m p l e the p e r i o d c o v e r e d i n this b o o k , I h a v e tried t o d e t e r m i n e t h e basis o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s y s t e m c o m m o n t o a w h o l e series o f scientific ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ' xi

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or 'products' dispersed t h r o u g h o u t the natural history, e c o n o m i c s , and p h i l o s o p h y o f the C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . 4 . I s h o u l d l i k e this w o r k t o b e r e a d a s a n o p e n site. M a n y q u e s t i o n s are laid o u t o n i t t h a t h a v e n o t y e t f o u n d a n s w e r s ; a n d m a n y o f the g a p s refer e i t h e r t o earlier w o r k s o r t o o t h e r s t h a t h a v e n o t y e t b e e n c o m p l e t e d , or even b e g u n . B u t I should like to m e n t i o n three p r o b l e m s . T h e p r o b l e m o f c h a n g e . I t has b e e n said that this w o r k d e n i e s the v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h a n g e . A n d y e t m y m a i n c o n c e r n has b e e n w i t h c h a n g e s . I n fact, t w o t h i n g s i n p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c k m e : the s u d d e n n e s s a n d t h o r o u g h ness w i t h w h i c h c e r t a i n sciences w e r e s o m e t i m e s r e o r g a n i z e d ; a n d the fact that a t t h e s a m e t i m e s i m i l a r c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d i n a p p a r e n t l y v e r y different disciplines. W i t h i n a f e w y e a r s ( a r o u n d 1800), t h e t r a d i t i o n o f g e n e r a l g r a m m a r w a s r e p l a c e d b y a n essentially h i s t o r i c a l p h i l o l o g y ; n a t u r a l classifications w e r e o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e analyses o f c o m p a r a t i v e a n a t o m y ; and a political e c o n o m y w a s founded w h o s e main themes w e r e labour and production. C o n f r o n t e d by such a curious combination of p h e n o m e n a , i t o c c u r r e d t o m e that these c h a n g e s s h o u l d b e e x a m i n e d m o r e closely, w i t h o u t b e i n g reduced, in the n a m e of continuity, in either a b r u p t n e s s o r s c o p e . I t s e e m e d t o m e a t t h e o u t s e t that different k i n d s o f c h a n g e w e r e t a k i n g p l a c e i n scientific d i s c o u r s e - c h a n g e s that d i d n o t occur at the same level, p r o c e e d at the same pace, or o b e y the same l a w s ; the w a y i n w h i c h , w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r science, n e w p r o p o s i t i o n s w e r e p r o d u c e d , n e w facts isolated, o r n e w c o n c e p t s b u i l t u p (the e v e n t s that m a k e u p t h e e v e r y d a y life o f a s c i e n c e ) d i d n o t , i n all p r o b a b i l i t y , f o l l o w t h e s a m e m o d e l a s the a p p e a r a n c e o f n e w fields o f s t u d y (and t h e f r e q u e n t l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f o l d o n e s ) ; b u t the a p p e a r a n c e o f n e w fields of study must not, in turn, be confused w i t h those overall redist r i b u t i o n s that alter n o t o n l y t h e g e n e r a l f o r m o f a s c i e n c e , b u t also its relations w i t h o t h e r areas o f k n o w l e d g e . I t s e e m e d t o m e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t all these c h a n g e s s h o u l d n o t b e treated a t the s a m e l e v e l , o r b e m a d e t o culminate at a single point, as is s o m e t i m e s d o n e , or be attributed to the g e n i u s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , o r a n e w c o l l e c t i v e spirit, o r e v e n t o the f e c u n d i t y o f a s i n g l e d i s c o v e r y ; t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r t o respect s u c h differences, a n d e v e n t o t r y t o g r a s p t h e m i n their s p e c i f i c i t y . I n this w a y I tried t o d e s c r i b e the c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s that c h a r acterized the appearance of b i o l o g y , political e c o n o m y , p h i l o l o g y , a n u m b e r o f h u m a n sciences, a n d a n e w t y p e o f p h i l o s o p h y , a t the t h r e s h o l d o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e p r o b l e m o f c a u s a l i t y . I t i s n o t a l w a y s easy t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t has xii

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c a u s e d a specific c h a n g e in a s c i e n c e . W h a t m a d e s u c h a d i s c o v e r y p o s s i b l e ? W h y d i d this n e w c o n c e p t a p p e a r ? W h e r e d i d this o r that t h e o r y c o m e f r o m ? Q u e s t i o n s l i k e these are o f t e n h i g h l y e m b a r r a s s i n g b e c a u s e there a r e n o d e f i n i t e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h t o base s u c h a n analysis. T h e e m b a r r a s s m e n t i s m u c h g r e a t e r i n the case o f t h o s e g e n e r a l c h a n g e s that alter a s c i e n c e as a w h o l e . It is g r e a t e r still in the case of s e v e r a l c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h a n g e s . B u t i t p r o b a b l y reaches its h i g h e s t p o i n t i n t h e case o f t h e e m p i r i c a l sciences: f o r the r o l e o f i n s t r u m e n t s , t e c h n i q u e s , institutions, e v e n t s , i d e o l o g i e s , a n d interests i s v e r y m u c h i n e v i d e n c e ; b u t one does not k n o w h o w an articulation so c o m p l e x and so diverse in c o m p o s i t i o n actually operates. It seemed to me that it w o u l d n o t be p r u d e n t f o r t h e m o m e n t t o f o r c e a s o l u t i o n I felt i n c a p a b l e , I a d m i t , o f o f f e r i n g : t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s - spirit o f t h e t i m e , t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r s o c i a l c h a n g e s , influences o f v a r i o u s k i n d s - s t r u c k m e for the m o s t p a r t a s b e i n g m o r e m a g i c a l t h a n effective. I n this w o r k , t h e n , I left the p r o b l e m o f causes t o o n e s i d e ;
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I c h o s e instead t o c o n f i n e m y s e l f t o d e s c r i b i n g t h e

t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , t h i n k i n g that this w o u l d b e a n indispensable step if, o n e d a y , a t h e o r y o f scientific c h a n g e a n d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c a u s a l i t y was to be constructed. T h e p r o b l e m o f t h e subject. I n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e (or scientific c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) a n d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e , I a m a w a r e that I a m a d v a n c i n g i n a d i r e c t i o n that i s f r a u g h t w i t h difficulty. C a n o n e s p e a k o f science a n d its h i s t o r y (and t h e r e f o r e o f its c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e , its c h a n g e s , t h e e r r o r s i t has p e r p e t r a t e d , t h e s u d d e n a d v a n c e s that h a v e sent i t o f f o n a n e w c o u r s e ) w i t h o u t reference t o the scientist h i m s e l f - a n d I a m s p e a k i n g n o t m e r e l y o f t h e c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s e n t e d b y a p r o p e r n a m e , b u t o f his w o r k a n d the p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f his t h o u g h t ? C a n a v a l i d h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e b e a t t e m p t e d that w o u l d retrace f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d the w h o l e s p o n t a n e ous m o v e m e n t of an a n o n y m o u s b o d y of k n o w l e d g e ? Is it legitimate, is i t e v e n useful, t o r e p l a c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l ' X t h o u g h t t h a t . . . ' b y a 'it w a s k n o w n t h a t . . .'? B u t this i s n o t e x a c t l y w h a t I set o u t t o d o . I d o n o t w i s h to d e n y the validity of intellectual biographies, or the possibility of a h i s t o r y o f t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p t s , o r t h e m e s . I t i s s i m p l y that I w o n d e r w h e t h e r s u c h descriptions a r e t h e m s e l v e s e n o u g h , w h e t h e r t h e y d o j u s t i c e t o the i m m e n s e d e n s i t y o f scientific d i s c o u r s e , w h e t h e r t h e r e d o n o t exist, o u t s i d e t h e i r c u s t o m a r y b o u n d a r i e s , s y s t e m s o f regularities t h a t h a v e a d e c i s i v e
1 had approached this question in connection w i t h psychiatry and clinical medicine in t w o earlier w o r k s .
1

xiii

a s naturalist. B u t I s h o u l d n o t l i k e t h e effort I h a v e m a d e i n o n e d i r e c t i o n t o b e t a k e n as a rejection of a n y other possible approach. i t i s t h a t (one m i g h t c a l l it. xiv . n o r f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f the f o r m a l structures o f w h a t t h e y are s a y i n g . a n d w h i c h d e t e r m i n e o t h e r w o r k that i s b e i n g d o n e t o d a y . b e subject. b u t f r o m the p o i n t o f v i e w o f the rules that c o m e i n t o p l a y i n the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h d i s c o u r s e : w h a t c o n d i t i o n s d i d L i n n a e u s (or P e t t y . b u t s h o u l d . o r g r a m m a t i c a l discourse? O n this p o i n t .w i t t e d ' c o m m e n t a t o r s ' persist i n l a b e l l i n g m e a 'structuralist'. a t t h e t i m e w h e n it w a s w r i t t e n and accepted. w h i c h places its o w n p o i n t o f v i e w a t the o r i g i n o f all h i s t o r i c i t y . o r A r n a u l d ) h a v e t o fulfil. I s h o u l d b e g r a t e f u l i f a m o r e serious p u b l i c w o u l d free m e f r o m a c o n n e c t i o n that c e r t a i n l y d o e s m e h o n o u r . n o t t o a t h e o r y o f the k n o w i n g subject. It s e e m s t o m e that t h e historical analysis o f scientific d i s c o u r s e s h o u l d . and scientific discourse i n p a r t i c u l a r . label.o r .w h i c h . t h e i r p e r c e p t i v e c a p a c i t y . T h e r e m a y w e l l b e c e r t a i n similarities b e t w e e n t h e w o r k s o f t h e s t r u c turalists a n d m y o w n w o r k . T h i s last p o i n t is a r e q u e s t to t h e E n g l i s h . t o o . I f there i s o n e a p p r o a c h that I d o reject. v a l u e and practical application as scientific d i s c o u r s e . b u t rather t o a theory o f discursive practice. b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g . c o n c e p t s . in short. I a m w e l l a w a r e that I h a v e n o t m a d e m u c h p r o g r e s s .s p e a k i n g reader. but inaccurate. 5. i s s o c o m p l e x a r e a l i t y t h a t w e n o t o n l y c a n . I n short. b u t t o g i v e it. m o r e e x a c t l y . b u t that I h a v e n o t d e s e r v e d . a p p r o a c h i t a t different l e v e l s a n d w i t h different m e t h o d s . h o w e v e r . Discourse in general. n o t t o m a k e his d i s c o u r s e c o h e r e n t a n d t r u e i n g e n e r a l . I s h o u l d l i k e t o k n o w w h e t h e r the subjects r e s p o n s i b l e f o r scientific d i s c o u r s e a r e n o t d e t e r m i n e d i n their situation. their f u n c t i o n . B u t i t i s o n l y t o o e a s y t o a v o i d the t r o u b l e o f a n a l y s i n g s u c h w o r k by g i v i n g it an admittedly impressive-sounding. leads to a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h ) w h i c h g i v e s a b s o l u t e p r i o r i t y t o the o b s e r v i n g subject. i n the last resort. w h i c h attributes a c o n s t i t u e n t r o l e t o a n act. I h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o g e t i t i n t o their t i n y m i n d s that I h a v e used n o n e o f t h e m e t h o d s . In F r a n c e . I t w o u l d h a r d l y b e h o v e m e . e c o n o m i c . c e r t a i n h a l f . o f all p e o p l e . a n d their p r a c t i c a l possibilities b y c o n d i t i o n s t h a t d o m i n a t e a n d e v e n o v e r w h e l m t h e m . t o c l a i m t h a t m y d i s c o u r s e i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f c o n d i t i o n s a n d rules o f w h i c h I a m v e r y l a r g e l y u n a w a r e .F O R E W O R D TO THE ENGLISH E D I T I O N r o l e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e sciences. I tried t o e x p l o r e scientific d i s c o u r s e n o t f r o m the p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w h o a r e s p e a k i n g . o r k e y t e r m s that c h a r a c t e r i z e structural analysis.

o u t o f t h e l a u g h t e r t h a t shattered. i s the l i m i t a t i o n o f o u r o w n . T h i s passage quotes a ' c e r t a i n C h i n e s e e n c y c l o p a e d i a ' in w h i c h it is w r i t t e n that ' a n i m a l s are d i v i d e d i n t o : (a) b e l o n g i n g t o the E m p e r o r .b u t .b r e a k i n g u p all the o r d e r e d surfaces a n d all the planes w i t h w h i c h w e are a c c u s t o m e d t o t a m e t h e w i l d p r o f u s i o n o f e x i s t i n g t h i n g s . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d a n g e r o u s m i x t u r e s has b e e n e x o r c i z e d . (f) f a b u l o u s . all the f a m i l i a r l a n d m a r k s o f m y t h o u g h t . s o m e of t h e m do certainly i n v o l v e fantastic entities . a n d c o n t i n u i n g l o n g a f t e r w a r d s t o disturb a n d t h r e a t e n w i t h c o l l a p s e o u r a g e .f a b u l o u s a n i m a l s or sirens .our t h o u g h t . a s I read t h e passage. squamous epidermis. (d) s u c k i n g p i g s . I n t h e w o n d e r m e n t o f this t a x o n o m y . the stark i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i n k i n g that. (c) t a m e . ( m ) h a v i n g j u s t b r o k e n the w a t e r p i t c h e r . t h e t h i n g w e a p p r e h e n d i n o n e g r e a t l e a p . (h) i n c l u d e d in the present classification. (i) f r e n z i e d . no c l a w e d w i n g s . (b) e m b a l m e d .Preface T h i s b o o k first arose o u t o f a p a s s a g e i n B o r g e s . i t distinguishes c a r e f u l l y b e t w e e n t h e v e r y real a n i m a l s (those that are f r e n z i e d o r h a v e j u s t b r o k e n t h e w a t e r p i t c h e r ) a n d t h o s e t h a t reside s o l e l y i n t h e r e a l m o f i m a g i n a t i o n . (1) et cetera. none xv . (e) sirens. the t h o u g h t t h a t bears t h e s t a m p o f o u r a g e a n d o u r g e o g r a p h y . i s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s the e x o t i c c h a r m o f a n o t h e r s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t . t h e C h i n e s e e n c y c l o p a e d i a l o c a l i z e s their p o w e r s o f c o n t a g i o n . t h e t h i n g that. b y m e a n s o f t h e fable. (j) i n n u m e r a b l e . (n) that f r o m a l o n g w a y o f f l o o k l i k e flies'. no disgusting. p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t puts t h e m i n t o c a t e g o r i e s o f their o w n . B u t w h a t i s i t i m p o s s i b l e t o t h i n k . h e r a l d r y a n d fable h a v e b e e n r e l e g a t e d t o their o w n e x a l t e d p e a k s : n o i n c o n c e i v a b l e a m p h i b i ous maidens. a n d w h a t k i n d o f i m p o s s i b i l i t y are w e f a c e d w i t h h e r e ? E a c h o f these s t r a n g e c a t e g o r i e s c a n b e assigned a precise m e a n i n g and a demonstrable content. (k) d r a w n w i t h a v e r y fine c a m e l h a i r b r u s h .o l d distinction b e t w e e n the S a m e and the O t h e r . ( g ) stray d o g s .

T h e q u a l i t y o f m o n s t r o s i t y h e r e d o e s n o t affect a n y real b o d y . W h a t i s i m p o s s i b l e i s n o t the p r o p i n q u i t y o f t h e t h i n g s listed. after all. Axolotls. o r .FJ'. it does n o t lurk in the depths of any strange p o w e r . Aphislions. b y that o n w h o s e s o l i d i t y p r o v i d e s p r o o f o f the possibility of j u x t a p o s i t i o n . b u t the v e r y site o n w h i c h their p r o p i n q u i t y w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e . A n a c o n das. b u t t h e n a r r o w n e s s o f t h e distance s e p a r a t i n g t h e m f r o m (and j u x t a p o s i n g t h e m t o ) t h e stray d o g s . i s s i m p l y that a l p h a b e t i c a l series (a. i t i s n o t s i m p l y the o d d i t y o f u n u s u a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s that w e are faced w i t h h e r e . A m o e b o c y t e s . It w a s certainly i m p r o b a b l e that arachnids. startling t h o u g h t h e i r p r o p i n q u i t y m a y b e . ' U n t i l t h e m o r r o w . W h a t transgresses t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f all i m a g i n a t i o n .w h e r e c o u l d t h e y e v e r meet.' B u t all these w o r m s a n d snakes. e x c e p t i n the immaterial sound o f the v o i c e p r o n o u n c i n g their e n u m e r a t i o n . T h e m o n s t r o u s q u a l i t y that runs t h r o u g h B o r g e s ' s e n u m e r a t i o n c o n sists. i n the fact that t h e c o m m o n g r o u n d o n w h i c h s u c h m e e t i n g s are p o s s i b l e has itself b e e n d e s t r o y e d . a r o o f u n d e r w h i c h t o c o e x i s t . o r o n t h e p a g e t r a n s c r i b i n g it? W h e r e else c o u l d t h e y b e xvi . A n n e lids. l i k e the s y l l a b l e s w h i c h d e s i g nate t h e m . (k) d r a w n w i t h a v e r y fine c a m e l h a i r b r u s h ' . all these creatures r e d o l e n t o f d e c a y a n d s l i m e are s l i t h e r i n g . o n the c o n t r a r y . a n d annelids s h o u l d o n e d a y m i n g l e o n E u s t h e n e s ' t o n g u e . o f all p o s s i b l e t h o u g h t .m a c h i n e o n t h e o p e r a t i n g t a b l e . A m p h i p o d s . M o r e o v e r . i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s w a r r a n t e d b y that and. n o creatures b r e a t h i n g fire. W e are all familiar w i t h t h e d i s c o n c e r t i n g effect o f the p r o x i m i t y o f e x t r e m e s . . (j) i n n u m e r a b l e . A n a e r o b e s . . A n t h o z o a n s . A n g l e w o r m s . t h e interstitial b l a n k s separating all these entities f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . w i t h the s u d d e n v i c i n i t y o f t h i n g s that h a v e n o r e l a t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r . Amblystomas. n o r d o e s it p r o d u c e modifications of a n y kind in the bestiary of the imagination. q u i t e s i m p l y . It w o u l d n o t e v e n be present at all in this classification h a d it n o t insinuated itself i n t o the e m p t y space. b y that in. d ) w h i c h links e a c h o f those c a t e g o r i e s t o all the o t h e r s . I t i s n o t the ' f a b u l o u s ' a n i m a l s that are i m p o s s i b l e . A c a l e p h s . T h e a n i m a l s ' (i) f r e n z i e d . A s c a r i d s .EFACE o f those p o l y m o r p h o u s a n d d e m o n i a c a l faces. ' E u s t h e n e s said. b . A m p h i s b a e n a s . . A m m o n i t e s . c . t h e m e r e act o f e n u m e r a t i o n that heaps t h e m all t o g e t h e r has a p o w e r o f e n c h a n t m e n t all its o w n : T a m n o l o n g e r h u n g r y . since t h e y are d e s i g n a t e d a s s u c h . A c a n t h o c e p h a l a t e s . that w e l c o m i n g a n d v o r a c i o u s m o u t h c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a feasible l o d g i n g . b u t . l i k e the u m b r e l l a a n d t h e s e w i n g . o r t h e a n i m a l s that f r o m a l o n g w a y o f f l o o k l i k e flies. in E u s t h e n e s ' s a l i v a : that is w h e r e t h e y all h a v e their common locus. a m m o n i t e s . safe f r o m m y saliva all t h e f o l l o w i n g shall b e : A s p i c s .

that enables t h o u g h t t o o p e r a t e u p o n the entities o f o u r w o r l d . the l i n k i n g t o g e t h e r o f t h i n g s that are i n a p p r o p r i a t e . ' a r r a n g e d ' in sites so v e r y different f r o m o n e a n o t h e r that it is i m p o s s i b l e R a y m o n d Roussel. since the b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e . b u t m o s t c o m p e l l i n g . a n d also a table. the u m b r e l l a e n c o u n t e r s the s e w i n g . l a u g h a b l y i n d i c a t e d b y o u r a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . i n c l u s i v e d i v i s i o n h a v e its e x i s t e n c e ? A b s u r d i t y d e s t r o y s the and o f t h e e n u m e r a t i o n b y m a k i n g i m p o s s i b l e the i n w h e r e the t h i n g s e n u m e r a t e d w o u l d b e d i v i d e d u p . r u b b e r y table s w a t h e d i n w h i t e .p l a t e d . . h e d o e s a w a y w i t h t h e site.j u x t a p o s e d e x c e p t i n the n o n . ' p l a c e d ' . . £X53). g l i t t e r i n g b e n e a t h a glass sun d e v o u r i n g all s h a d o w . W h a t has b e e n r e m o v e d . T h a t passage f r o m B o r g e s k e p t m e l a u g h i n g a l o n g t i m e . and rendering to Roussel 1 a small part of w h a t is still his d u e . C f . the m u t e g r o u n d u p o n w h i c h it is p o s s i b l e f o r entities to be j u x t a p o s e d .the table w h e r e . t h e n a r e n ' t all t h e o t h e r d i v i s i o n s t o b e f o u n d i n that o n e d i v i s i o n t o o ? A n d t h e n a g a i n . o f necessities. a n d that w o r d s h o u l d b e t a k e n i n its m o s t literal. e t y m o l o g i c a l sense: in s u c h a state. t h o u g h n o t w i t h o u t a c e r t a i n uneasiness that I f o u n d h a r d to s h a k e off. P e r h a p s b e cause there arose in its w a k e the s u s p i c i o n that there is a w o r s e k i n d of d i s o r d e r than that o f the incongruous. h e s i m p l y dispenses w i t h the least o b v i o u s . is t h e famous 'operating table'.m a c h i n e . w h i c h i s t o b e t a k e n a s the c l u e (the o n l y v i s i b l e o n e ) t o the e n u m e r a t i o n s o f a C h i n e s e e n c y c l o p a e d i a . l a n g u a g e has intersected space. t h i n g s are ' l a i d ' . f o r an instant.p l a c e o f l a n g u a g e ? Y e t . o f the hetcroclite. T h e central c a t e g o r y o f a n i m a l s ' i n c l u d e d i n the present classification'. p e r h a p s f o r e v e r . in short. B o r g e s a d d s n o f i g u r e t o the atlas o f the i m p o s s i b l e .] 1 X xvii . . t o d i v i d e t h e m i n t o classes. I m e a n t h e d i s o r d e r i n w h i c h f r a g m e n t s o f a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p o s s i b l e o r d e r s g l i t t e r separately i n the d i m e n s i o n . n o w h e r e d o e s h e strike the spark o f p o e t i c c o n f r o n t a t i o n . w i t h its e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o p a r a d o x e s w e are familiar w i t h . i n w h a t space w o u l d t h a t single. w i t h o u t l a w o r g e o m e t r y . rather. the French novelist. a tabula. t o p u t t h e m i n o r d e r . M i c h e l Foucault's Raymond Roussel (Paris.[Translator's note.the table u p o n w h i c h . A v a n i s h i n g trick that is m a s k e d o r . t h o u g h l a n g u a g e c a n spread t h e m b e f o r e us. t o g r o u p t h e m a c c o r d i n g to n a m e s that d e s i g n a t e their similarities a n d their differences . I use that w o r d ' t a b l e ' in t w o s u p e r i m p o s e d senses: t h e n i c k e l . i s i n d i c a t i o n e n o u g h that w e shall n e v e r s u c c e e d i n d e f i n i n g a stable r e l a t i o n o f c o n tained t o c o n t a i n e r b e t w e e n e a c h o f these c a t e g o r i e s a n d that w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e m a l l : i f all t h e a n i m a l s d i v i d e d u p h e r e c a n b e p l a c e d w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n i n o n e o f the d i v i s i o n s o f this list. i t c a n d o s o o n l y i n a n u n t h i n k a b l e s p a c e .

Utopias afford c o n s o l a t i o n : a l t h o u g h t h e y h a v e n o real l o c a l i t y there is n e v e r t h e l e s s a fantastic. d e s t r o y i n g t h o s e t h a t s e e m clearest. T h e uneasiness that m a k e s u s l a u g h w h e n w e r e a d B o r g e s i s c e r t a i n l y related to the p r o f o u n d distress o f those w h o s e xviii language has been . t h e y d i s s o l v e o u r m y t h s a n d sterilize t h e l y r i c i s m o f o u r sentences. c o u n t r i e s w h e r e life i s easy. b e c a u s e t h e y m a k e i t i m p o s s i b l e t o n a m e this and that. heterotopias (such a s t h o s e t o b e f o u n d s o o f t e n i n B o r g e s ) desiccate s p e e c h . s u p e r i m p o s i n g different criteria. i n y e t a n o t h e r p l a c e the l o n g e s t . a n d n o t o n l y t h e s y n t a x w i t h w h i c h w e c o n s t r u c t sentences b u t also t h a t less a p p a r e n t s y n t a x w h i c h causes w o r d s a n d t h i n g s ( n e x t t o a n d also o p p o s i t e o n e a n o t h e r ) t o ' h o l d t o g e t h e r ' . in a n o t h e r t h e r e d o n e s . t h e aphasiac w i l l c r e a t e a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f t i n y .PREFACE to find a p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e m . s p l i t t i n g u p t h i n g s that are identical. when shown various differently c o l o u r e d skeins o f w o o l o n a table t o p . stop w o r d s i n their tracks.c o l o u r e d skeins. b e c a u s e t h e y d e s t r o y ' s y n t a x ' i n a d v a n c e . a n d t e e t e r i n g f i n a l l y o n the brink of anxiety. b e c a u s e t h e y shatter o r t a n g l e c o m m o n n a m e s . T h i s i s w h y Utopias p e r m i t fables a n d d i s c o u r s e : t h e y r u n w i t h t h e v e r y g r a i n o f l a n g u a g e a n d are part o f the f u n d a m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n o f the fabula. for the field o f i d e n t i t y t h a t sustains t h e m . c r e a t i n g g r o u p s t h e n d i s p e r s i n g t h e m a g a i n . b e c o m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e d i s t u r b e d . Heterotopias are disturbing. It appears that certain aphasiacs. i s still t o o w i d e n o t t o b e u n s t a b l e . h o w e v e r l i m i t e d i t m a y b e . u n t r o u b l e d r e g i o n in w h i c h t h e y are a b l e t o u n f o l d . c o n t e s t t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f g r a m m a r a t its s o u r c e . o r t h o s e that h a v e a t i n g e o f p u r p l e o r those that h a v e b e e n w o u n d u p i n t o a b a l l . t h e y w i l l p l a c e the l i g h t e s t . a n d s o t h e sick m i n d c o n t i n u e s t o infinity. i n o n e c o r n e r . s o m e w h e r e else t h o s e that are softest in t e x t u r e . f r e n z i e d l y b e g i n n i n g all o v e r a g a i n . W i t h i n this s i m p l e s p a c e i n w h i c h t h i n g s are n o r m a l l y a r r a n g e d and g i v e n n a m e s . e v e n t h o u g h the r o a d t o t h e m i s c h i m e r i c a l . f r a g m e n t e d r e g i o n s i n w h i c h nameless r e s e m b l a n c e s a g g l u t i n a t e t h i n g s i n t o u n c o n n e c t e d islets. t h e y o p e n u p cities w i t h v a s t a v e n u e s . s u p e r b l y p l a n t e d g a r d e n s . to d e f i n e a common locus b e n e a t h t h e m all. are c o n s i s t e n t l y u n a b l e t o a r r a n g e t h e m i n t o a n y c o h e r e n t p a t t e r n . probably because they secretly undermine l a n g u a g e . B u t n o s o o n e r h a v e t h e y b e e n a d u m b r a t e d than all these g r o u p i n g s d i s s o l v e a g a i n . a s t h o u g h that s i m p l e r e c t a n g l e w e r e u n a b l e to s e r v e in their case as a h o m o g e n e o u s a n d n e u t r a l space in w h i c h t h i n g s c o u l d b e p l a c e d s o a s t o d i s p l a y a t the s a m e t i m e the c o n t i n u o u s o r d e r o f their identities o r differences a s w e l l a s the s e m a n t i c field o f their d e n o m i n a t i o n . h e a p i n g u p d i v e r s e similarities.

w e see it.h o l i n g concrete contents. aphasia. is a p r e c i s e r e g i o n w h o s e n a m e a l o n e constitutes f o r the W e s t a vast r e s e r v o i r o f Utopias. Y e t o u r t e x t f r o m B o r g e s p r o c e e d s i n a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . h a v e w e b e c o m e a c c u s t o m e d t o sort o u t s o m a n y different a n d s i m i l a r things? W h a t is this c o h e r e n c e . the m o s t rigidly ordered. o f m a t c h i n g and p i g e o n . T h e r e w o u l d appear to be. the m y t h i c a l h o m e l a n d B o r g e s assigns t o that d i s t o r t i o n o f classification that p r e v e n t s us f r o m a p p l y i n g it.r e c o g n i z e a b l e i m a g e s o f t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s i n v e r t i c a l c o l u m n s . m o s t a t t a c h e d t o the p u r e d e l i n e a t i o n o f s p a c e . o v e r t h e entire surface o f a c o n t i n e n t s u r r o u n d e d b y w a l l s . secret passages. s i m i l i t u d e s . e v e n i f b o t h are t a m e o r e m b a l m e d . a n a l o g i e s . a c c o r d i n g t o w h a t g r i d o f identities. at the other e x t r e m i t y o f t h e earth w e i n h a b i t . as is i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . I n o u r d r e a m w o r l d . i t erects the m o t i o n l e s s a n d s t i l l . A t o p i a . l e a d t o a k i n d o f t h o u g h t w i t h o u t space. E v e n its w r i t i n g d o e s n o t r e p r o d u c e t h e f u g i t i v e f l i g h t o f t h e v o i c e i n h o r i z o n t a l lines. W h e n w e establish a c o n s i d e r e d classification. there is n o t h i n g m o r e t e n t a t i v e . w h e n w e say t h a t a cat a n d a d o g r e s e m b l e e a c h o t h e r less t h a n t w o g r e y h o u n d s d o . b e t t e r . e v e n i f b o t h are f r e n z i e d . n o t h i n g t h a t m o r e insistently requires t h a t o n e a l l o w o n e s e l f t o b e c a r r i e d a l o n g b y t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f xix . a n d u n e x pected c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . a c u l t u r e e n t i r e l y d e v o t e d t o t h e o r d e r i n g o f space. n o t h i n g that d e m a n d s a sharper e y e o r a surer.w h i c h . s t r a n g e p l a c e s .PREFACE d e s t r o y e d : loss o f w h a t i s ' c o m m o n ' t o p l a c e a n d n a m e . o v e r b u r d e n e d w i t h c o m p l e x f i g u r e s . t o w o r d s a n d c a t e g o r i e s that l a c k all life a n d p l a c e . e v e n i f b o t h h a v e j u s t b r o k e n the w a t e r p i t c h e r . n o t h i n g m o r e e m p i r i c a l (superficially. speak. spread and f r o z e n . w i t h t a n g l e d paths. i s n o t C h i n a p r e c i s e l y this p r i v i l e g e d site of space? In o u r traditional i m a g e r y . w h a t i s t h e g r o u n d o n w h i c h w e are a b l e t o establish the v a l i d i t y o f this classification w i t h c o m p l e t e c e r t a i n t y ? O n w h a t ' t a b l e ' . to t h a t p i c t u r e that l a c k s all spatial c o h e r e n c e . b u t are r o o t e d i n a c e r e m o n i a l s p a c e . the one m o s t d e a f to temporal events.a r t i c u l a t e d l a n g u a g e . is n e i t h e r d e t e r m i n e d b y a n a priori a n d necessary c o n c a t e n a t i o n . a t least) t h a n the p r o c e s s o f establishing a n o r d e r a m o n g t h i n g s . then. but o f g r o u p i n g and isolating. b u t o n e that d o e s n o t distribute t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f e x i s t i n g things into a n y of the categories that m a k e it possible for us to name. a n d t h i n k . S o m u c h s o that the C h i n e s e e n c y c l o p a e d i a q u o t e d b y B o r g e s . w e t h i n k o f i t a s a c i v i l i z a t i o n o f dikes a n d d a m s b e n e a t h the eternal face o f t h e s k y . n o r i m posed on us by immediately perceptible contents? For it is not a question o f linking consequences. t h e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e is the m o s t m e t i culous. a n d the t a x o n o m y i t p r o p o s e s . o f analysing.

i n s t i t u t i n g a n initial s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e m . a l a n g u a g e . w a i t i n g i n silence f o r t h e m o m e n t o f its e x p r e s s i o n . p e r c e p t u a l . its e x c h a n g e s .PREFACE qualities a n d f o r m s . the h i e r a r c h y o f its practices . a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e . causes t h e m t o l o s e their o r i g i n a l transp a r e n c y . t h a t b e l o n g t o a c e r t a i n u n s p o k e n o r d e r . i n short. its s c h e m a s o f p e r c e p t i o n . an e x a m i n a t i o n . a n d p r o b a b l y less easy to a n a l y s e . i m p e r c e p t i b l y d e v i a t i n g f r o m the e m p i r i c a l o r d e r s p r e s c r i b e d f o r i t b y its p r i m a r y c o d e s . a n d it is o n l y in t h e b l a n k spaces of this g r i d that o r d e r manifests itself i n d e p t h a s t h o u g h a l r e a d y there. lastly. the t h r e s h o l d a b o v e w h i c h there is a difference a n d b e l o w w h i c h there is a s i m i l i t u d e . that w h i c h i s g i v e n i n t h i n g s a s their i n n e r l a w .those g o v e r n i n g its l a n g u a g e . s o distant f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . It is h e r e t h a t a c u l t u r e . a n d p r a c t i c a l grids. lies a d o m a i n w h i c h .establish f o r e v e r y m a n . w h a t u n i v e r s a l l a w i t o b e y s . that o r d e r exists. t h i n g s t h a t are i n t h e m s e l v e s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g o r d e r e d . A s t h o u g h e m a n c i p a t i n g itself t o s o m e e x t e n t f r o m its l i n g u i s t i c . t h e h i d d e n n e t w o r k that d e t e r m i n e s the w a y t h e y c o n f r o n t o n e a n o t h e r . m o r e o b s c u r e . e v e n for t h e w h o l l y u n t r a i n e d p e r c e p t i o n . B u t b e t w e e n these t w o r e g i o n s . t h e empirical orders w i t h w h i c h he w i l l be dealing and w i t h i n w h i c h he w i l l b e a t h o m e . f r o m t h e v e r y first. this c u l t u r e t h e n finds i t s e l f f a c e d w i t h t h e stark fact that there exists. A n d y e t a n e y e n o t c o n s c i o u s l y p r e p a r e d m i g h t w e l l g r o u p together certain similar figures and distinguish b e t w e e n others on the basis o f s u c h a n d s u c h a d i f f e r e n c e : i n fact. and. i s nonetheless f u n d a m e n t a l : i t i s m o r e c o n f u s e d . A 'system of elements' . there are the scientific theories o r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l interpretations w h i c h e x p l a i n w h y o r d e r exists i n g e n e r a l . t h e fact. e v e n t h o u g h its r o l e i s m a i n l y a n i n t e r m e d i a r y o n e . t h e t y p e s o f v a r i a t i o n b y w h i c h those s e g m e n t s c a n b e affected. that i s n o t the result o f a p r e c i s e o p e r a t i o n a n d o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p r e l i m i n a r y criterion.a definition of the segments by w h i c h the r e s e m b l a n c e s a n d differences c a n b e s h o w n . A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m i t y o f t h o u g h t . frees itself sufficiently t o d i s c o v e r that these o r d e r s are p e r h a p s n o t the o n l y possible o n e s o r the best o n e s . a n d w h y this p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r has b e e n established a n d n o t s o m e o t h e r . O r d e r is.is indispensable for t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e v e n t h e simplest f o r m o f o r d e r . its t e c h n i q u e s . w h i c h b y this s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n b o t h r e v e a l e d a n d e x xx . there i s n o s i m i l i t u d e a n d n o d i s t i n c t i o n . its v a l u e s . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o d e s o f a c u l t u r e . and also that w h i c h has n o e x i s t e n c e e x c e p t i n the g r i d c r e a t e d b y a g l a n c e . w h a t p r i n c i p l e c a n a c c o u n t f o r it. b e l o w t h e l e v e l o f its s p o n t a n e o u s o r d e r s . relinquishes its i m m e d i a t e a n d i n v i s i b l e p o w e r s . the culture superimposed o n t h e m another kind o f grid w h i c h n e u t r a l i z e d t h e m .

o u r c u l t u r e has m a d e m a n i f e s t t h e e x i s t e n c e . t h e n . a l w a y s m o r e ' t r u e ' t h a n t h e t h e o r i e s that a t t e m p t t o g i v e t h o s e e x p r e s s i o n s explicit form. c o n t i n u o u s a n d graduated or discontinuous and piecemeal. e t c . w h i c h are t h e n t a k e n t o b e m o r e o r less e x a c t . i n w h a t w a y . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u l t u r e a n d the a g e i n q u e s t i o n . T h e present study is an attempt to analyse that experience. s i n c e the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i n natural h i s t o r y a n d b i o l o g y . organized a r o u n d i n c r e a s i n g differences. t h e n . w i l l b e c o n s t r u c t e d . m o r e solid. m o r e o r less h a p p y . b e t w e e n the a l r e a d y ' e n c o d e d ' e y e a n d r e f l e x i v e k n o w l e d g e there is a m i d d l e r e g i o n w h i c h liberates o r d e r itself: it is h e r e that i t appears. that g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s as to t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h i n g s .o f o r d e r . a s o n e traces . a n d p r a c tice a r e c r i t i c i z e d a n d r e n d e r e d p a r t i a l l y i n v a l i d . t h e r e i s t h e p u r e e x p e r i e n c e o f o r d e r a n d o f its m o d e s o f b e i n g . w i t h i n xxi . and gestures. or philosophical foundation. natural creatures as they h a v e been perceived and g r o u p e d together. I t i s o n t h e basis o f this n e w l y p e r c e i v e d o r d e r t h a t the c o d e s o f l a n g u a g e . posited. b e t w e e n t h e use o f w h a t o n e m i g h t call the o r d e r i n g c o d e s a n d reflections u p o n o r d e r itself. T h u s . I am c o n c e r n e d t o s h o w its d e v e l o p m e n t s . linked w i t h space and time.PREFACE e l u d e d t h e m a t the s a m e t i m e .a g a i n s t t h e c u r r e n t . b y this v e r y p r o c e s s . t a k e n as a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n . t h e w o r d s their s e q u e n c e a n d their r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a l u e . t o t h e m o d a l i t i e s o f that o r d e r . a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that s u c h a n o r d e r i n g i n v o l v e s . c o m p o s e d o f r e semblances w h i c h are either successive or c o r r e s p o n d i n g . p e r c e p t i o n . i n t h e s t u d y o f w e a l t h a n d p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y . less d u b i o u s . and exchanges as they h a v e b e e n p r a c t i s e d . m o r e a r c h a i c . i n e v e r y c u l t u r e . w h a t m o d a l i t i e s o f o r d e r h a v e been r e c o g n i z e d . i n the m a i n s t r e a m o f a c u l t u r e s u c h a s o u r s : i n w h a t w a y . the l i v i n g b e i n g s t h e i r c o n s t a n t s . a n d h o w . linked to space or constituted a n e w a t e a c h instant b y t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e o f t i m e . i n s o far a s it makes manifest the m o d e s of b e i n g of order.l a n g u a g e as it has b e e n s p o k e n . as it w e r e . T h i s m i d d l e r e g i o n . in order to c r e a t e t h e p o s i t i v e basis o f k n o w l e d g e a s w e f i n d i t e m p l o y e d i n g r a m m a r a n d p h i l o l o g y . can be posited as the m o s t fundamental of all: anterior to w o r d s . the e x c h a n g e s o w e d their l a w s . c a m e face t o face w i t h o r d e r i n its p r i m a r y state. s u c h a n analysis d o e s n o t b e l o n g t o the h i s t o r y o f ideas o r o f s c i e n c e : i t i s r a t h e r a n i n q u i r y w h o s e a i m i s t o r e d i s c o v e r o n w h a t basis k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e o r y b e c a m e p o s s i b l e . s o that the c u l t u r e . I t i s o n t h e basis o f this o r d e r . T h u s . perceptions. related t o a series o f v a r i a b l e s o r d e f i n e d b y separate s y s t e m s o f c o h e r e n c e s . Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y . exhaustive application. e x pressions o f i t ( w h i c h i s w h y this e x p e r i e n c e o f o r d e r i n its p u r e p r i m a r y state a l w a y s p l a y s a c r i t i c a l r o l e ) .

t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f general grammar (as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e a u t h o r s o f P o r t . e n v i s a g e d a p a r t f r o m all criteria h a v i n g r e f e r e n c e t o its r a t i o n a l v a l u e o r t o its o b j e c t i v e f o r m s . o n l y . 1 N o w . w a s p r o f o u n d l y altered. w e see that t h e s y s t e m o f p o s i t i v i t i e s w a s t r a n s f o r m e d i n a w h o l e sale f a s h i o n a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S u c h a n enterprise i s n o t s o m u c h a h i s t o r y . a n d i n the e l e m e n t o f w h a t p o s i t i v i t y . g r o u n d s its p o s i t i v i t y a n d t h e r e b y manifests a h i s t o r y w h i c h i s n o t that o f its g r o w i n g p e r f e c t i o n . the episteme i n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e . b u t r a t h e r that o f its c o n d i t i o n s o f p o s s i b i l i t y . ideas c o u l d a p p e a r . N o t that r e a s o n m a d e a n y p r o g r e s s : i t w a s s i m p l y t h a t the m o d e o f b e i n g o f t h i n g s . o n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l e v e l . T h e o r d e r o n t h e basis o f w h i c h w e t h i n k t o d a y d o e s n o t h a v e the s a m e m o d e o f b e i n g a s t h a t o f the C l a s s i c a l t h i n k e r s . e x p e r i e n c e b e reflected i n p h i l o s o p h i e s . rationalities b e f o r m e d . a s a n ' a r c h a e o l o g y ' . p e r h a p s . L i n n a e u s . t h e r e f o r e . sciences b e established.c o n t i n u i t y o n t h e l e v e l o f ideas a n d t h e m e s i s d o u b t l e s s o n l y a surface a p p e a r a n c e . despite o u r p o s s i b l e b e l i e f that t h e classifications o f L i n n a e u s . I f the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y o f T o u r n e f o r t . a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i n this a c c o u n t . a n d B u f f b n c a n b e related t o a n y t h i n g T h e problems of m e t h o d raised by such an ' a r c h a e o l o g y ' w i l l be e x a m i n e d in a later work. o n t h e basis o f w h a t h i s t o r i c a l a priori. I a m n o t c o n c e r n e d . t o d i s s o l v e a n d v a n i s h s o o n afterw a r d s . 1 xxii . m o d i f i e d t o a g r e a t e r o r lesser d e g r e e . w h a t s h o u l d a p p e a r are t h o s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e space o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h h a v e g i v e n rise t o t h e d i v e r s e f o r m s o f e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e .R o y a l o r i n B a u z e e ) i s n o t s o v e r y far r e m o v e d f r o m o u r o w n .all this q u a s i . t h a t K e y n e s w a s w e l l a w a r e o f t h e affinities b e t w e e n his o w n analyses a n d t h o s e o f C a n t i l l o n . m a r k s the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e m o d e r n a g e . this a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y has r e v e a l e d t w o g r e a t d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n t h e episteme o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e : t h e first i n a u g u r a t e s the C l a s s i c a l a g e ( r o u g h l y h a l f . c a n still l a y c l a i m t o s o m e sort o f v a l i d i t y . D e s p i t e t h e impression w e m a y h a v e o f a n almost uninterrupted d e v e l o p m e n t o f the E u r o p e a n ratio f r o m t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t o o u r o w n d a y .PREFACE w h a t s p a c e o f o r d e r k n o w l e d g e w a s c o n s t i t u t e d . t o d e s c r i b e the p r o g r e s s o f k n o w l e d g e t o w a r d s a n o b j e c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t o d a y ' s science c a n f i n a l l y b e r e c o g n i z e d . i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g o f that w o r d . a n d o f t h e o r d e r that d i v i d e d t h e m u p b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e m t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g . w h a t I a m a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i n g t o l i g h t i s t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l field.w a y t h r o u g h the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) a n d t h e s e c o n d . that C o n d i l l a c ' s t h e o r y of value can be recognized to some extent in nineteenth-century marg i n a l i s m .

t o C u v i e r ' s c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy. a n d that h e w i l l d i s a p p e a r a g a i n a s s o o n a s t h a t k n o w l e d g e has d i s c o v e r e d a n e w f o r m . a c o n f i g u r a t i o n w h o s e o u t l i n e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e n e w p o s i t i o n h e has s o r e c e n d y t a k e n u p i n t h e f i e l d o f k n o w l e d g e . a n d a s o u r c e o f p r o f o u n d r e l i e f t o t h i n k that m a n is o n l y a recent invention. a n d a b a n d o n i n g the s p a c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . analysis has b e e n a b l e t o s h o w t h e c o h e r e n c e that e x i s t e d . s e e k i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f their i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o n l y i n their o w n d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s c o m f o r t i n g .the study o f w h o m i s s u p p o s e d b y t h e n a i v e t o b e t h e o l d e s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n since S o c r a t e s .i s p r o b a b l y n o m o r e t h a n a k i n d o f rift i n t h e o r d e r o f t h i n g s . all t h e facile s o l u t i o n s o f a n ' a n t h r o p o l o g y ' u n d e r stood as a universal reflection on m a n . a s w e l l a s t h e series o f m u t a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y a n d sufficient t o circumscribe the threshold of a n e w positivity. o n e t h i n g . or to D a r w i n ' s theory of evolution. isolates a n d defines t h e m i n t h e i r o w n c o h e r e n c e . t o t h e analysis o f m o n e y a n d w e a l t h a s f o u n d i n t h e w o r k s o f L a w . B u t a s t h i n g s b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f l e x i v e . a b o v e all. i s e c l i p s e d i n its t u r n . but to Bauzee's general g r a m m a r . a n e w w r i n k l e i n o u r k n o w l e d g e . a figure not y e t t w o centuries old. Perhaps k n o w l e d g e succeeds i n e n g e n d e r i n g k n o w l e d g e . a n d t o t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t a p p e a r i n it. f r o m t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n w a r d . defines s y s t e m s o f s i m u l taneity. a d d r e s s i n g itself t o t h e g e n e r a l space o f k n o w l e d g e . i n its turn. t h r o u g h o u t the Classical age. l a n g u a g e loses its p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n a n d b e c o m e s . a n d o f w e a l t h a n d v a l u e . i t i s n o t t o b i o l o g y . W h e n c e all t h e c h i m e r a s o f t h e n e w h u m a n i s m s . i s c e r t a i n : a r c h a e o l o g y . the t h e o r y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n disappears a s t h e u n i v e r s a l f o u n d a t i o n o f all p o s s i b l e o r d e r s . m a n enters i n his t u r n . o r T u r g o t . o f the n a t u r a l o r d e r s . t o its c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . c h a n g e s e n t i r e l y . and. as an indispensable link b e t w e e n representation and things. t h e analysis o f e x c h a n g e a n d m o n e y g i v e s w a y t o t h e s t u d y o f p r o d u c t i o n . o r V e r o n d e Fortbonnais.historians h a v e n o t y e t e n l i g h t e n e d u s o n this p o i n t ) . I n this w a y . a n d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . ideas i n t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s a n d a c t i v e l y m o d i f y i n g o n e a n o t h e r ( b u t h o w ? . b e t w e e n the t h e o r y of representation and the theories o f l a n g u a g e . o r . xxiii . half-philosophical. i n a n y case. the p r i m a r y grid of things. m a n . h o w e v e r . l a n g u a g e a s t h e s p o n t a n e o u s tabula. the f i e l d o f Western knowledge. i n a n y case. i m p o s e s u p o n t h e m the f o r m s o f o r d e r i m p l i e d b y t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t i m e . I t i s this c o n f i g u r a t i o n that.PREFACE a t all o t h e r t h a n itself. a p r o f o u n d h i s t o r i c i t y p e n e t r a t e s i n t o t h e h e a r t o f t h i n g s . a h i s t o r i c a l f o r m c o h e r e n t w i t h t h e d e n s i t y o f its o w n past. half-empirical. that o f t h e o r g a n i s m takes p r e c e d e n c e o v e r t h e s e a r c h f o r t a x o n o m i c characteristics. Strangely e n o u g h .

PART 1 .

i s a t o n c e i n t e r i o r a n d f o r e i g n . i t has the s a m e a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n t i m e .p o i n t f r o m w h i c h i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e t h e g r e a t c h e c k e r b o a r d o f distinct identities established a g a i n s t the c o n f u s e d . g e n e r a l f o r m t h e difference that l i m i t s it. A n d i f o n e c o n s i d e r s that disease i s a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e d i s o r d e r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p e r i l o u s otherness w i t h i n t h e h u m a n b o d y . t h e n e n c o u n t e r i n g .o f that w h i c h . i n a sense. h o w i t establishes t h e tabula o f their relationships a n d t h e o r d e r b y w h i c h t h e y m u s t b e c o n sidered. a n d . a n d f r o m the latter to the order of things and the conceptions of the S a m e . its i n s t a b i l i t y . a t t h e v e r y h e a r t o f life . o n e c a n see w h a t s c o p e t h e r e w o u l d b e f o r a n a r c h a e o l o g y o f the medical p o i n t o f v i e w . t a k i n g the e n d o f the R e n a i s s a n c e a s its s t a r t i n g p o i n t . xxiv <1 . indifferent b a c k g r o u n d o f differences? T h e h i s t o r y o f m a d n e s s w o u l d b e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e O t h e r . i s b o t h dispersed a n d related. the t h r e s h o l d o f a m o d e r n i t y that w e h a v e n o t y e t left b e h i n d . r e s e m b l a n c e s . f o r a g i v e n c u l t u r e .a n d a n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n w i t h its o w n c o n s t a n t s . whereas the history of the order i m p o s e d on things w o u l d be the history o f the S a m e . faceless. relations t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n a n d a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r w o r d s . j u s t a s m y h i s t o r y o f m a d n e s s d i d . u n d e f i n e d . I t w a s u p o n this t h r e s h o l d t h a t the s t r a n g e f i g u r e o f k n o w l e d g e c a l l e d m a n f i r s t a p p e a r e d a n d r e v e a l e d a space p r o p e r t o the h u m a n sciences.o f that w h i c h . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o u n c o v e r the deepest strata o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . I a m r e s t o r i n g to o u r silent a n d a p p a r e n t l y i m m o b i l e soil its rifts. its f l a w s . t h e i r s y s t e m s o f e x c h a n g e ? W h a t h i s t o r i c a l a priori p r o v i d e d t h e s t a r t i n g . t h e r e f o r e t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y k i n d s a n d t o b e c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r i n t o identities. a n d i t i s t h e s a m e g r o u n d that i s o n c e m o r e s t i r r i n g u n d e r o u r feet. B u t w h e r e a s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f m a d n e s s I w a s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the w a y i n w h i c h a c u l t u r e c a n d e t e r m i n e i n a m a s s i v e . I a m c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h o b s e r v i n g h o w a c u l t u r e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e p r o p i n q u i t y o f t h i n g s . w h a t is available t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l analysis i s t h e w h o l e o f C l a s s i c a l k n o w l e d g e . a s i t w e r e .PREFACE I t i s e v i d e n t that the p r e s e n t s t u d y is. t h e r e f o r e t o b e e x c l u d e d (so a s t o e x o r c i z e t h e i n t e r i o r d a n g e r ) b u t b y b e i n g shut a w a y (in o r d e r t o r e d u c e its o t h e r n e s s ) . t h e i r classifications. w i t h a history of resemblance: on w h a t c o n d i t i o n s w a s C l a s s i c a l t h o u g h t a b l e t o reflect relations o f s i m i l a r i t y o r e q u i v a l e n c e b e t w e e n t h i n g s . a n d t y p e s . F r o m the limit-experience o f the O t h e r t o t h e c o n s t i t u e n t f o r m s o f m e d i c a l k n o w l e d g e . o r r a t h e r t h e t h r e s h o l d that separates u s f r o m C l a s s i c a l t h o u g h t a n d c o n s t i t u t e s o u r m o d e r n i t y . a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n e c h o o f m y u n d e r t a k i n g t o w r i t e a h i s t o r y o f m a d n e s s i n the C l a s s i c a l a g e . in short. I am c o n c e r n e d . f o r a g i v e n c u l t u r e .

N o w h e c a n b e seen. w h i l e t h e latter. i n r e t u r n . H i s d a r k t o r s o a n d b r i g h t face are h a l f . the p a i n t e r has p l a c e d h i m s e l f t o o n e side o f t h e p a i n t i n g o n w h i c h h e i s w o r k i n g . he w i l l be standing e x a c t l y in front of the canvas h e i s p a i n t i n g . B u t n o t w i t h o u t a subtle s y s t e m o f feints. h e w i l l e n t e r that r e g i o n w h e r e his p a i n t i n g . a t t h e n e u t r a l c e n t r e o f this o s c i l l a t i o n . arrested i n r a p t a t t e n t i o n o n t h e p a i n t e r ' s g a z e . T h a t is. T h e painter. takes u p t h e w h o l e o f t h e e x t r e m e left.w a y b e t w e e n the v i s i b l e a n d t h e i n v i s i b l e : e m e r g i n g f r o m that c a n v a s b e y o n d o u r v i e w . i n a m o m e n t . b e c o m e v i s i b l e o n c e m o r e . a n d the g a z e . h e r e t u r n s t o his task. t h e c a n v a s . p e r h a p s h e i s c o n s i d e r i n g w h e t h e r t o a d d s o m e finishing t o u c h . b e f o r e t h e e y e s o f t h e s p e c t a t o r . B y s t a n d i n g b a c k a little. w a i t s u p o n t h e arrested g e s t u r e . h e m a k e s a step t o t h e r i g h t . f o r h i m . t h e scene i s a b o u t t o y i e l d u p its v o l u m e . A n d t h e c a n v a s has its b a c k t u r n e d t o that s p e c t a t o r : h e c a n see n o t h i n g o f i t b u t t h e r e v e r s e side. f o r a n instant. c a u g h t i n a m o m e n t o f stillness.a i r . t h o u g h i t i s also p o s s i b l e that the first s t r o k e has n o t y e t b e e n m a d e . f o r t h e s p e c t a t o r "at p r e s e n t o b s e r v i n g h i m h e i s t o t h e r i g h t o f his c a n v a s . o r a t a n y rate. i s p e r f e c t l y v i s i b l e i n his full h e i g h t . e m e r g i n g f r o m w h a t i s v i r t u a l l y a sort o f v a s t c a g e p r o j e c t e d b a c k w a r d s b y t h e surface h e i s p a i n t i n g . r e m o v i n g himself f r o m o u r g a z e . t o w a r d s t h e p a l e t t e .C H A P T E R I Las Meninas i T h e p a i n t e r i s s t a n d i n g a little b a c k f r o m his c a n v a s f i ] . T h e skilled h a n d i s s u s p e n d e d i n m i d . h e has n o d o u b t j u s t a p p e a r e d . h e i s n o t m a s k e d b y t h e tall c a n v a s w h i c h m a y s o o n a b s o r b h i m . w i l l . free o f s h a d o w a n d 3 . w h e n . h e m o v e s i n t o o u r g a z e . b u t w h e n . t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e h u g e f r a m e o n w h i c h i t i s s t r e t c h e d . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . H e i s g l a n c i n g a t his m o d e l . b e t w e e n c a n v a s a n d paints. T h e a r m h o l d i n g t h e b r u s h i s b e n t t o t h e left. i t i s m o t i o n l e s s . t a k i n g a step t o w a r d s i t a g a i n . a t this v e r y instant. B e t w e e n t h e fine p o i n t o f t h e b r u s h a n d the s t e e l y g a z e . n e g l e c t e d f o r a n instant.

t h e spectators. its s e a l e d . I n a p p e a r a n c e . s e c o n d . b e c a u s e i t i s situated p r e c i s e l y i n t h a t b l i n d p o i n t . e y e s c a t c h i n g o n e a n o t h e r ' s g l a n c e . r e c o n s t i t u t e s i n t h e f o r m o f a surface t h e i n v i s i b i l i t y i n d e p t h o f w h a t t h e artist i s o b s e r v i n g : that s p a c e i n w h i c h w e a r e . i n t h e p a i n t i n g itself? W e c o u l d . h o w c o u l d w e fail t o see that i n v i s i b i l i t y . a n d w h i c h w e are. T h e tall. T h e p a i n t e r i s l o o k i n g . He is staring at a p o i n t to w h i c h . this l o c u s i s a s i m p l e o n e . his face t u r n e d s l i g h t l y a n d his h e a d l e a n i n g t o w a r d s o n e shoulder. i n this p r e c i s e b u t n e u t r a l p l a c e . T h e s p e c t a c l e he is o b s e r v i n g is thus d o u b l y i n v i s i b l e : first. since i t i s w e . W e . T h o u g h g r e e t e d b y that g a z e . since i t has its o w n p e r c e p t i b l e e q u i v a l e n t . i n effect. e x c h a n g e s . t h e p a i n t e r ' s g a z e . A m e r e c o n f r o n t a t i o n . h a v e n o p o w e r o f e v a d i n g : i t runs t h r o u g h t h e real p i c t u r e a n d e m e r g e s f r o m its surface t o j o i n the p l a c e f r o m w h i c h w e see the p a i n t e r o b s e r v i n g us. d i r e c t l o o k s s u p e r i m p o s i n g t h e m s e l v e s u p o n o n e a n o t h e r a s t h e y cross.i n f i g u r e . a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g the b a c k o f t h e c a n v a s w i t h i n t h e p i c t u r e . r e p l a c e d b y that w h i c h w a s a l w a y s there b e f o r e w e w e r e : the m o d e l itself. A s t h o u g h the p a i n t e r c o u l d n o t a t t h e s a m e t i m e b e seen o n t h e p i c t u r e w h e r e h e i s r e p r e s e n t e d a n d also see t h a t u p o n w h i c h h e i s r e p r e s e n t i n g s o m e t h i n g . w e are also dismissed b y it. o u r faces. this d o t t e d line r e a c h e s o u t t o u s i n e l u c t ably. w e . t h e h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l bars o f t h e stretcher. o u r s e l v e s . e v e n t h o u g h it is i n v i s i b l e . the o b s e r v e r 4 . a n d t h e o b l i q u e l y rising f o o t o f t h e easel. o u r e y e s . b e c a u s e it is n o t r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n t h e s p a c e o f t h e p a i n t i n g . F r o m t h e e y e s o f the p a i n t e r t o w h a t h e i s o b s e r v i n g t h e r e r u n s a c o m p e l l i n g line that w e . a m a t t e r o f p u r e r e c i p r o c i t y : we are l o o k i n g at a picture in w h i c h the painter is in turn l o o k i n g o u t at us. accepts a s m a n y m o d e l s a s t h e r e are s p e c t a t o r s . i n that essential h i d i n g . w h o are that p o i n t : o u r b o d i e s .p l a c e i n t o w h i c h o u r g a z e disappears f r o m o u r s e l v e s a t t h e m o m e n t o f o u r a c t u a l l o o k i n g . g u e s s w h a t i t i s t h e p a i n t e r i s l o o k i n g at if it w e r e possible for us to glance for a m o m e n t at the canvas he is w o r k i n g o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS free o f r e t i c e n c e . t h e r e i n f r o n t o f o u r e y e s . t h e s p e c t a t o r s . a n d feints. m o n o t o n o u s r e c t a n g l e o c c u p y i n g t h e w h o l e left p o r t i o n o f t h e real p i c t u r e . a n d . b u t all w e c a n see o f that c a n v a s i s its t e x t u r e . T h e p a i n t e r i s t u r n i n g his e y e s t o w a r d s u s o n l y i n s o far a s w e h a p p e n t o o c c u p y t h e s a m e p o s i t i o n a s his s u b j e c t . can easily assign a n o b j e c t . A n d y e t . are a n a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r . B u t . and links us to the representation of the picture. A n d y e t this slender line o f r e c i p r o c a l v i s i b i l i t y e m b r a c e s a w h o l e c o m p l e x n e t w o r k o f u n c e r t a i n t i e s . t h e o n l o o k e r s . addressed t o t h e v o i d c o n f r o n t i n g h i m o u t s i d e t h e p i c t u r e . H e rules a t t h e t h r e s h o l d o f t h o s e t w o i n c o m p a t i b l e visibilities. i n v e r s e l y .

and. S e e n o r s e e i n g ? T h e painter is o b s e r v i n g a place w h i c h . B u t the a t t e n t i v e i m m o b i l i t y o f his e y e s refers u s b a c k t o a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n w h i c h t h e y h a v e often f o l l o w e d a l r e a d y . f o r c e h i m t o e n t e r t h e p i c t u r e .the o n l y v i s i b l e c o r n e r . o v e r l a p p i n g b u t i r r e d u c i b l e : t h e surface o f t h e p a i n t i n g . a t t h e o t h e r base a n g l e . t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t . the p i c t u r e i s lit b y a w i n d o w r e p r e s e n t e d i n v e r y sharp p e r s p e c t i v e . the s p e c t a t o r a n d t h e m o d e l . t h e y w i l l t a k e a g a i n : t h a t o f t h e m o t i o n l e s s c a n v a s u p o n w h i c h i s b e i n g t r a c e d . l e v y their l u m i n o u s a n d v i s i b l e t r i b u t e f r o m h i m . a t o n e o f the base a n g l e s . S o that the painter's s o v e r e i g n g a z e c o m m a n d s a v i r t u a l t r i a n g l e w h o s e o u t l i n e defines this p i c t u r e of a p i c t u r e : at t h e t o p . A n d h e r e t h e g r e a t c a n v a s w i t h its b a c k t o u s o n the e x t r e m e left o f t h e p i c t u r e e x e r c i s e s its s e c o n d f u n c t i o n : s t u b b o r n l y i n v i s i b l e . A s s o o n a s t h e y p l a c e t h e s p e c t a t o r i n the field o f their g a z e . s o t h a t the f l o o d o f l i g h t s t r e a m i n g t h r o u g h i t bathes a t t h e s a m e t i m e . w e d o n o t k n o w w h o w e are. A s h o c k that i s a u g m e n t e d a n d m a d e m o r e i n e v i t a b l e still b y a m a r g i n a l t r a p . w h i c h . o r rather. T h e o p a q u e f i x i t y that i t establishes o n o n e side r e n d e r s f o r e v e r unstable the p l a y o f m e t a m o r p h o s e s established i n t h e c e n t r e b e t w e e n s p e c t a t o r a n d m o d e l . t h e p a i n t e r ' s s t u d i o . o r w h a t w e are d o i n g . never ceases to c h a n g e its c o n t e n t . t w o n e i g h b o u r i n g spaces. t h e real v o l u m e o c c u p i e d b y the s p e c t a t o r (or a g a i n . assign h i m a p l a c e a t o n c e p r i v i l e g e d a n d i n e s c a p a b l e . r e v e r s e their roles t o infinity. a n d w i t h e q u a l g e n e r o s i t y . its i d e n t i t y . w a s h i n g o v e r t h e p a i n t e r . a n d w h i c h s o o n . t h e u n r e a l site o f the m o d e l ) . i n the n e u t r a l f u r r o w o f t h e g a z e p i e r c i n g a t a r i g h t a n g l e t h r o u g h the c a n v a s . the i n v i s i b l e p l a c e o c c u p i e d b y the m o d e l . i t i s this l i g h t t o o . t h e f i g u r e p r o b a b l y s k e t c h e d o u t o n the i n v i s i b l e surface o f t h e c a n v a s . A t the e x t r e m e r i g h t . i n front o f that surface. s o sharp that w e c a n see s c a r c e l y m o r e t h a n the e m b r a s u r e . N o g a z e i s stable. f r o m m o m e n t to m o m e n t . its face. m a k e s h i m v i s i b l e t o the s p e c t a t o r a n d 5 . has a l r e a d y b e e n t r a c e d p e r h a p s . the p a i n t e r ' s e y e s seize h o l d o f h i m . for a l o n g t i m e a n d f o r e v e r . t o g e t h e r w i t h the v o l u m e i t represents ( w h i c h i s t o s a y .t h e painter's e y e s . a n d p r o j e c t i t u p o n t h e inaccessible surface o f the c a n v a s w i t h i n the p i c t u r e . its f o r m . H e sees his i n v i s i b i l i t y m a d e v i s i b l e t o the p a i n t e r a n d transp o s e d i n t o a n i m a g e f o r e v e r i n v i s i b l e t o himself. i t p r e v e n t s t h e r e l a t i o n o f these g a z e s f r o m e v e r b e i n g d i s c o v e r a b l e o r d e finitely established. A n d a s i t passes t h r o u g h t h e r o o m f r o m r i g h t t o left. this v a s t f l o o d o f g o l d e n l i g h t carries b o t h the s p e c t a t o r t o w a r d s t h e p a i n t e r a n d the m o d e l t o w a r d s the c a n v a s . B e c a u s e w e c a n see o n l y that r e v e r s e side.LAS MENINAS a n d the o b s e r v e d t a k e part i n a ceaseless e x c h a n g e . o r t h e s a l o n i n w h i c h his easel i s n o w set u p ) . a p o r t r a i t that w i l l n e v e r a g a i n b e erased. s u b j e c t a n d o b j e c t .

A n d j u s t a s w e are a b o u t t o a p p r e h e n d o u r s e l v e s . w h i l e a b o v e t h e m . b y f l o o d i n g t h e scene ( I m e a n t h e r o o m a s w e l l a s the c a n v a s . w e f i n d that w e c a n i n fact a p p r e h e n d n o t h i n g o f t h a t m i r r o r b u t its lustreless b a c k . N o w . t w o silhouettes are a p p a r e n t . a n d m a d e v i s i b l e t o his e y e s b y the s a m e l i g h t t h a t e n a b l e s u s t o see h i m . V e l a z q u e z has r e p r e s e n t e d a series o f p i c t u r e s . the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i t bears. unless i t b e f r o m a s p a c e w i t h i n itself. y e t t h e r e i s a fine w h i t e l i n e a r o u n d its i n n e r e d g e diffusing o v e r its w h o l e surface a l i g h t w h o s e s o u r c e i s n o t e a s y t o d e t e r m i n e . A m o n g all these e l e m e n t s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . i s a h e a v y p u r p l e c u r t a i n . figures. e x a c t l y o p p o s i t e the s p e c t a t o r s . a n d f o r m s . u n d e r t h e p a i n t e r ' s g a z e . o n w h i c h there s h i m m e r s t h e I m a g e par excellence. T h e o t h e r side o f a p s y c h e . o n c e t r a n s p o r t e d t h e r e . opens o n t o a perspective of space in w h i c h r e c o g n i z a b l e forms recede f r o m us in a light that b e l o n g s o n l y t o itself. f o r i t c o m e s f r o m n o w h e r e . I n this s t r a n g e l i g h t . t h e r o o m r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e c a n v a s . Its f r a m e i s w i d e r a n d d a r k e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r s . i n t h e m o d e l ' s e y e s . a n d t h e r o o m i n w h i c h t h e c a n v a s stands). t r a n s c r i b e d b y his h a n d a s t h o u g h i n a m i r r o r . T h i s particular o n e . a s i t h a p p e n s . c o n c e a l i n g t h e m because o f their 6 . o n the o t h e r side o f its all t o o v i s i b l e w o v e n t e x t u r e . a s the o t h e r i s s o l i t a r y (for n o o n e i s l o o k i n g a t it. the f r a m e o f that e n i g m a t i c c a n v a s o n w h i c h his i m a g e . establish a s p a c e as m a n i f e s t as the other is hidden. n o t e v e n t h e p a i n t e r ) . as m u c h the c o m m o n g r o u n d of painter. b y t u r n i n g its b a c k t o t h e spectators. It b a l a n c e s t h e i n v i s i b l e c a n v a s o n t h e o t h e r side o f the p i c t u r e : j u s t a s that c a n v a s . h i d i n g t h e m . T h e o t h e r p i c t u r e s r e v e a l little m o r e t h a n a f e w p a l e r p a t c h e s b u r i e d i n a d a r k n e s s w i t h o u t d e p t h .o u r s e l v e s . B u t t h a t p l a c e i s c o n c e a l e d f r o m us. on the other hand. m o d e l s . a n d w e see that a m o n g all those h a n g i n g c a n v a s e s there i s o n e that shines w i t h p a r t i c u l a r b r i g h t n e s s . t h e g r o u n d . s c a r c e l y i n d i c a t e d w i n d o w frees a w h o l e f l o w o f d a y l i g h t w h i c h serves as the c o m m o n locus of the representation. f o l d s i t s e l f i n a g a i n s t t h e p i c t u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g it. T h i s e x t r e m e . inaccessible t o us. F r o m the r i g h t . i s t o b e i m p r i s o n e d .o n t h e w a l l f o r m i n g t h e far e n d o f the r o o m . t o t h e left e x t e n d s t h e surface that c o n c e a l s .THE ORDER OF THINGS turns i n t o g o l d e n lines. t o w a r d s t h e p l a c e w h e r e his b r u s h w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e m . e n v e l o p s the f i g u r e s a n d t h e s p e c t a t o r s a n d carries t h e m w i t h it. W e are o b s e r v i n g o u r s e l v e s b e i n g o b s e r v e d b y t h e p a i n t e r . T h e l i g h t . s o d o e s t h e w i n d o w . w h i l e i m p e d i n g t h e m . there s t r e a m s i n t h r o u g h a n i n v i s i b l e w i n d o w t h e p u r e v o l u m e o f a l i g h t that r e n d e r s all r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v i s i b l e . b y t h e s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f its r e v e r s e a n d v i s i b l e side u p o n t h e surface o f t h e p i c t u r e d e p i c t i n g it. a p u r e a p e r t u r e . a n d a little b e h i n d t h e m . a n d spectators. partial.

i t o u g h t . t o w a r d s that b a l c o n y o f l i g h t w h e r e their e y e s c a n g a z e a t t h o s e w h o are g a z i n g b a c k a t t h e m . n o r t h e f i g u r e s i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e r o o m . d e s p i t e the s h a d o w s all a r o u n d it. t h e r e f o r e . this i s t h e o n l y o n e that fulfils its f u n c t i o n i n all h o n e s t y a n d enables u s t o see w h a t i t i s s u p p o s e d t o s h o w . contracted.LAS M E N I N A S p o s i t i o n o r t h e i r d i s t a n c e f r o m us. i n fact. the p a i n t e r i s u n a b l e t o see this l o o k i n g glass s h i n i n g s o s o f t l y b e h i n d h i m . o n l y inside a n u n r e a l . that t i n y g l o w i n g r e c t a n g l e w h i c h is n o t h i n g other than visibility. O n e s a w in t h e m the same things a s o n e s a w i n t h e first instance i n t h e p a i n t i n g . t h e m i r r o r i s s a y i n g n o t h i n g t h a t has a l r e a d y b e e n said b e f o r e . b u t d e c o m p o s e d a n d r e c o m p o s e d a c c o r d i n g t o a different l a w . n o t o n l y b y t h e distant p a i n t i n g s b u t also b y t h e l i g h t i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d w i t h its i r o n i c c a n v a s .w a y b e t w e e n the t o p and the b o t t o m of the painting. B u t i t isn't a p i c t u r e : it is a m i r r o r . c o n c a v e space. it hangs right in the m i d d l e o f t h e far w a l l (or a t least i n the m i d d l e o f t h e p o r t i o n w e c a n s e e ) . i t s h o w s u s n o t h i n g o f w h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p i c t u r e itself. T h e o t h e r f i g u r e s i n t h e p i c t u r e are a l s o . a n d t o e n j o y t h e s u d d e n l y r i p e fruit o f the s p e c t a c l e it offers. O f all t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p i c t u r e this i s the o n l y o n e v i s i b l e . a t t h e b a c k o f t h e r o o m . H e r e . t h e s a m e p a i n t e r . o f all that i s t h e r e i n t h e s a m e s p a c e a s itself: n e i t h e r t h e p a i n t e r w i t h his b a c k t o it. t o b e g o v e r n e d b y t h e s a m e lines o f p e r s p e c t i v e a s t h e p i c t u r e itself. D e s p i t e its d i s t a n c e f r o m us. f o r t h e m o s t part. I t i s r e f l e c t i n g n o t h i n g . It offers us at last that e n c h a n t m e n t of t h e d o u b l e that u n t i l n o w has b e e n d e n i e d us. a n d n o t t o w a r d s t h a t d a r k recess w h i c h m a r k s the far e n d o f t h e r o o m i n w h i c h t h e y are r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e are. Its m o t i o n l e s s g a z e e x t e n d s o u t i n f r o n t o f t h e p i c t u r e . t u r n e d t o face w h a t m u s t b e t a k i n g p l a c e i n f r o n t t o w a r d s t h e b r i g h t i n v i s i b i l i t y b o r d e r i n g t h e c a n v a s . it c o u l d be the perfect duplication. I t m u s t b e a d m i t t e d that this indifference i s e q u a l l e d o n l y b y the m i r r o r ' s o w n . w e m i g h t w e l l e x p e c t t h e s a m e s t u d i o . t o r e n d e r i t a c t u a l . U p r i g h t b e s i d e his c a n v a s . Y e t its p o s i t i o n i s m o r e o r less c o m p l e t e l y c e n t r a l : its u p p e r e d g e i s e x a c t l y o n a n i m a g i n a r y l i n e r u n n i n g h a l f . that s o l i t a r y m i r r o r . i n t o that necessarily 7 . I n fact. I t i s n o t t h e v i s i b l e i t reflects. modified. his a t t e n t i o n e n t i r e l y t a k e n u p b y his m o d e l . b u t n o o n e i s l o o k i n g a t it. i n t h o s e b r i g h t d e p t h s . I n D u t c h painting it w a s traditional for mirrors to play a duplicating role: t h e y r e p e a t e d t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t e n t s o f t h e p i c t u r e . s o m e h e a d s t u r n e d a w a y f r o m u s i n p r o f i l e : b u t n o t o n e o f t h e m i s t u r n e d far e n o u g h t o see. i t i s true. y e t w i t h o u t a n y g a z e able to grasp it. the s a m e c a n v a s t o b e a r r a n g e d w i t h i n i t a c c o r d i n g t o a n i d e n t i c a l s p a c e .

B u t the i n v i s i b i l i t y that i t o v e r c o m e s i n this w a y i s n o t t h e i n v i s i b i l i t y o f w h a t i s h i d d e n : i t d o e s n o t m a k e its w a y a r o u n d a n y obstacle. i n the c e n t r e o f t h e c a n v a s . t h e a c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n consists i n b r i n g i n g o n e o f these t w o f o r m s o f i n v i s i b i l i t y i n t o t h e p l a c e o f t h e o t h e r . A s t r a n g e l y literal. b u t also t h e f i g u r e s that a r e l o o k i n g a t t h e p a i n t e r (in t h a t m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y w h i c h t h e lines a n d t h e c o l o u r s h a v e laid o u t u p o n t h e c a n v a s ) . a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a d v i c e g i v e n . i g n o r e d b y all. t o his p u p i l b y the o l d P a c h e r o w h e n t h e f o r m e r w a s w o r k i n g i n his s t u d i o i n S e v i l l e : ' T h e i m a g e s h o u l d stand o u t f r o m the f r a m e . t h e u n e x p e c t e d m i r r o r h o l d s i n its g l o w t h e f i g u r e s that t h e p a i n t e r i s l o o k i n g a t (the p a i n t e r i n his r e p r e s e n t e d . a t the s a m e m o m e n t . B u t i t i s also. o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y .a t that p o l e w h i c h i s t h e v e r y h e i g h t o f its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : that o f a reflected d e p t h i n t h e far recess o f t h e p a i n t i n g ' s d e p t h . t h e s e c o n d b e c a u s e o f the l a w that presides o v e r the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f all p i c t u r e s i n g e n e r a l . it is n o t distorting a n y perspective. in so far as it is a p i c t u r e .in o t h e r w o r d s . T h e m i r r o r p r o v i d e s a m e t a t h e s i s o f v i s i b i l i t y that affects b o t h t h e space r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p i c t u r e a n d its n a t u r e a s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w h a t is e x t e r i o r to t h e p i c t u r e . t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e p a i n t e r a t his w o r k ) . it is therefore w h a t the spectator w o u l d be able t o see i f t h e p a i n t i n g e x t e n d e d further f o r w a r d . t o a p p r e h e n d t h e f i g u r e s a r r a n g e d i n that s p a c e . W h a t it is r e f l e c t i n g is that w h i c h all the f i g u r e s w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g are l o o k i n g a t s o f i x e d l y . s o i t i s said.a n d i n r e n d e r i n g t h e m b o t h . w h a t i n t h e p a i n t i n g i s o f necessity d o u b l y i n v i s i b l e . i g n o r i n g all i t m i g h t a p p r e h e n d w i t h i n that f i e l d . H e r e . b u t i n different w a y s : t h e f i r s t b e c a u s e o f a n effect o f c o m p o s i t i o n p e c u l i a r t o t h e p a i n t i n g . T h e s e t w o g r o u p s o f f i g u r e s are b o t h e q u a l l y inaccessible. since t h e p i c t u r e d o e s s t o p t h e r e . i n a n u n s t a b l e s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS i n v i s i b l e r e g i o n w h i c h f o r m s its e x t e r i o r f a c e . a n d restores v i s i b i l i t y t o that w h i c h resides o u t s i d e all v i e w . this m i r r o r cuts s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . it is addressing itself to w h a t is invisible b o t h because of the picture's structure and because of its e x i s t e n c e as p a i n t i n g . Instead o f s u r r o u n d i n g v i s i b l e o b j e c t s . a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m i t y o f the p i c t u r e . d i s p l a y i n g o n l y the p a i n t e r a n d his s t u d i o . i t a l l o w s u s t o see. a r e c t a n g u l a r f r a g m e n t o f lines a n d c o l o u r s i n t e n d e d t o r e p resent s o m e t h i n g t o t h e e y e s o f a n y p o s s i b l e s p e c t a t o r . ' 8 . t h o u g h i n v e r t e d . A t the far e n d o f t h e r o o m . i f its b o t t o m e d g e w e r e b r o u g h t l o w e r until it included the figures the painter is using as m o d e l s . o r a t least t h o s e w h o a r e l o o k i n g straight ahead.

i s m e r e l y a n artifice: i t g i v e s u s a f i n g e r t o p o i n t w i t h . K i n g P h i l i p I V a n d his w i f e . t h e y p r o v e insuperably inadequate. 'the spectators'. i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r t o say that V e l a z q u e z c o m p o s e d a p i c t u r e . m a i d s o f h o n o u r . A n d i t i s i n v a i n that w e a t t e m p t t o s h o w . T h e s e p r o p e r n a m e s w o u l d f o r m useful l a n d m a r k s a n d a v o i d a m b i g u o u s d e s i g n a t i o n s . 'the i m a g e s ' . i n o t h e r w o r d s . a n d w h i c h the p a i n t e r i s c o n t e m p l a t i n g i n f r o n t o f the p i c t u r e . t h e n o n e m u s t erase those p r o p e r n a m e s 9 . t o pass s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y f r o m t h e s p a c e w h e r e o n e speaks t o t h e space w h e r e o n e l o o k s . b u t that w e c a n see t h e m i n a m i r r o r .LAS MENINAS II B u t p e r h a p s i t i s t i m e t o g i v e a n a m e a t last t o that i m a g e w h i c h a p p e a r s i n the d e p t h s o f t h e m i r r o r . that i n this p i c t u r e h e r e p r e s e n t e d himself. in the foreground Nicolaso P e r t u s a t o . c o u r t i e r s . Rather than p u r s u e t o i n f i n i t y a l a n g u a g e i n e v i t a b l y i n a d e q u a t e t o t h e v i s i b l e fact. B u t i f one wishes t o k e e p the relation o f l a n g u a g e t o v i s i o n o p e n . b y t h e use o f i m a g e s . t o f o l d o n e o v e r t h e o t h e r a s t h o u g h they w e r e equivalents. so constantly prone to misunderstanding and duplication. W e c o u l d t h e n a d d that t h e t w o p e r s o n a g e s s e r v i n g a s m o d e l s t o t h e p a i n t e r are n o t v i s i b l e . w h a t w e see n e v e r resides i n w h a t w e say. o n c e a n d f o r all. w h a t w e a r e s a y i n g . a t least d i r e c t l y . i n t h e act o f p a i n t i n g t w o f i g u r e s w h o m t h e Infanta M a r g a r i t a has c o m e there t o w a t c h . a n Italian j e s t e r . i n this p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . m e t a p h o r s . s o a s t o a v o i d e m b r o i l i n g o u r s e l v e s f o r e v e r i n t h o s e v a g u e . w h e n c o n f r o n t e d b y the v i s i b l e .p o i n t for s p e e c h instead o f a s a n o b s t a c l e t o b e a v o i d e d . the space w h e r e t h e y a c h i e v e their s p l e n d o u r i s n o t that d e p l o y e d b y o u r e y e s b u t that d e f i n e d b y the sequential e l e m e n t s o f s y n t a x . P e r h a p s i t w o u l d b e better. i f o n e w i s h e s t o treat their i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y a s a s t a r t i n g . t h e y w o u l d tell u s i n a n y case w h a t the p a i n t e r i s l o o k i n g at. It is n o t that w o r d s are i m p e r f e c t . rather abstract d e s i g n a t i o n s . o r similes. 'the characters'. i n o t h e r w o r d s . 'the m o d e l s ' . t o g e t h e r w i t h a n e n t o u r a g e o f d u e n n a s . w i t h o u t a n y d o u b t . a n d that t h e y are. i n his s t u d i o o r i n a r o o m o f the E s c u r i a l . t o d e t e r m i n e the identities o f all t h e figures p r e s e n t e d o r i n d i c a t e d h e r e . over there N i e t o . B u t the r e l a t i o n of l a n g u a g e to p a i n t i n g is an infinite r e l a t i o n . that w e c a n a t t r i b u t e n a m e s t o this g r o u p o f p e o p l e w i t h g r e a t p r e c i s i o n : t r a d i t i o n r e c o g n i z e s that h e r e w e h a v e D o n a M a r i a Agustina Sarmiente. M a r i a n a . A n d the p r o p e r n a m e . s o a s t o stay a s c l o s e a s possible t o b o t h . a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f the characters i n the p i c t u r e a l o n g w i t h h i m . and d w a r f s . o r that. 'the painter'. Neither can be reduced to the other's terms: it i s i n v a i n that w e say w h a t w e see.

a n d i n t e r r o g a t e that r e f l e c t i o n i n its o w n t e r m s . n o r i s a n y o n e p a y i n g a n y m o r e a t t e n t i o n t o h i m t h a n t o the m i r r o r . T h e r e v e r s e . L i k e the m i r r o r . B u t t h e w i n d o w o p e r a t e s b y the c o n t i n u o u s m o v e m e n t o f a n effusion w h i c h . a t t h e far e n d o f its fictitious d e p t h . little b y little. leaps o u t f r o m t h e p i c t u r e i n o r d e r t o r e a c h that w h i c h i s o b s e r v e d y e t i n v i s i b l e i n f r o n t o f it. o r r a t h e r t h e r i g h t side. t h e c u r v e o f a c u r t a i n . b y m e a n s o f a v i o l e n t . f l o w i n g f r o m r i g h t t o left. instantaneous m o v e m e n t . A g a i n s t this b a c k g r o u n d . w i t h o n e hand he is h o l d i n g b a c k the w e i g h t of a c u r t a i n . a c o r r i d o r b e g i n s . T h i s d o o r w a y t o o f o r m s a b r i g h t a n d s h a r p l y d e f i n e d r e c t a n g l e w h o s e soft light does not shine t h r o u g h into the r o o m . or he m a y be m e r e l y o b s e r v i n g w h a t is g o i n g o n inside it. i n t h e far w a l l o f the r o o m . i t i s dissipated i n a y e l l o w d a z z l e w h e r e t h e l i g h t . a m o v e m e n t o f p u r e surprise. L i k e the w i n d o w . W e m u s t t h e r e f o r e p r e t e n d n o t t o k n o w w h o i s t o b e reflected i n the d e p t h s o f that m i r r o r . w i t h the spectacle t h e y a r e o b s e r v i n g . his e y e s are d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s the o t h e r side o f t h e s c e n e . unites t h e a t t e n t i v e f i g u r e s . o n e k n e e i s b e n t . First. w h e r e a s t h e m i r r o r . release its i l l u m i n a tions. H e m a y be about to enter the r o o m . 10 . w h i r l s a r o u n d o n itself i n d y n a m i c r e p o s e . B e y o n d t h e steps. b u t instead o f l o s i n g itself i n o b s c u r i t y . l i k e the m i r r o r itself. It w o u l d be n o t h i n g b u t a g i l d e d p a n e l i f i t w e r e n o t recessed o u t f r o m t h e r o o m b y m e a n s o f o n e l e a f o f a c a r v e d d o o r . c o n t e n t t o surprise t h o s e w i t h i n w i t h o u t b e i n g seen h i m self. F u r t h e r m o r e . a l w a y s o v e r . i s h i d i n g f r o m us. i t i s t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e g r e a t c a n v a s r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e left. t o r e n d e r i t v i s i b l e y e t indifferent t o e v e r y g a z e . his feet a r e p l a c e d o n different steps. a m a n stands o u t i n f u l l . i t i s b o t h i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the w i n d o w a n d a r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f it. cuts p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h the lateral f l o o d o f l i g h t .m e t i c u l o u s a n d r e p e t i t i v e b e cause t o o b r o a d . a n d the s h a d o w s o f s e v e r a l steps. since i t d i s p l a y s i n full face w h a t t h e c a n v a s . a n d t h e n . a n o n y m o u s l a n g u a g e . that t h e p a i n t i n g m a y .it stands adjacent to a d o o r w a y w h i c h f o r m s a n o p e n i n g . i t p r o v i d e s a g r o u n d w h i c h i s c o m m o n t o t h e p a i n t i n g a n d t o w h a t lies o u t s i d e it. h e is seen in profile. T h e c o m p e l l i n g tracer line.l e n g t h s i l h o u e t t e . j o i n i n g t h e reflection t o that w h i c h i t i s r e f l e c t i n g . w i t h o u t c o m i n g i n . L a s t l y a n d this is t h e m i r r o r ' s t h i r d f u n c t i o n . W e d o n o t k n o w w h e r e h e has c o m e f r o m : i t c o u l d b e that b y f o l l o w i n g u n c e r t a i n c o r r i d o r s h e has j u s t m a d e his w a y a r o u n d t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e r o o m i n w h i c h these characters are c o l l e c t e d a n d t h e p a i n t e r i s a t w o r k . a n d the c a n v a s . t h e p a i n t e r . a t o n c e n e a r a n d limitless. b y its p o s i t i o n . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d .THE ORDER OF THINGS a n d p r e s e r v e t h e i n f i n i t y o f the task. I t i s p e r h a p s t h r o u g h the m e d i u m o f this g r e y .

see this l i g h t o n t h e p a i n t i n g . i t i s p o s s i b l e that h e t o o i s a n e m i s s a r y f r o m that e v i d e n t y e t h i d d e n space. t h o s e s i l h o u e t t e d f i g u r e s i n t h e m i r r o r are c h a l l e n g e d b y the tall.c e n t r e c e n t r e t o t h e left. t h e reflections. b y m a k i n g v i s i b l e . B u t w e m u s t m o v e d o w n a g a i n f r o m the b a c k o f t h e p i c t u r e t o w a r d s the f r o n t o f t h e s t a g e . his b o d y e n t i r e l y i n p r o file. i n r e t u r n . w e m u s t l e a v e that p e r i p h e r y w h o s e v o l u t e w e h a v e just been f o l l o w i n g . i n fact. the palette a n d brush. t h e n t h e o p e n d o o r w a y .n o t a p r o b a b l e reflection b u t a n i r r u p t i o n . o f w h i c h . a p p a r e n t l y w e l l i n g o u t f r o m t h e c r a c k o f the f r a m e . a n d f i n a l l y . o r r a t h e r the g r o o v e i n t h e w a l l f r o m w h i c h t h e l i g h t i s p o u r i n g . h e has a p p e a r e d f r o m the o u t s i d e . w a s there i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e s c e n e . E v e n so. T h e m i r r o r . Starting f r o m the painter's g a z e . a n d t h e l i g h t that i s f l o o d i n g t h e p i c t u r e s f r o m o u t s i d e . b u t i n t h e d a r k r e a l i t y o f his b o d y . m u s t r e c o n s t i t u t e i n their o w n k i n d . t h e c a n v a s i n n o c e n t o f signs (these are the m a t e r i a l t o o l s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) . w h i c h constitutes a n o f f . O n e f o o t o n l y o n t h e l o w e r step. t h e n t h e p a i n t i n g s h u n g o n the w a l l . in its sagittal d i m e n s i o n . a n d identical species. w h o is h o l d i n g a palette in o n e h a n d a n d in t h e o t h e r a f i n e b r u s h . a n d s p r i n g i n g o u t f r o m i t a g a i n l i k e v i s i b l e . L i k e t h e i m a g e s p e r c e i v e d i n t h e l o o k i n g . i n the i n v i s i b l e r e g i o n still b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d b y all t h o s e e y e s i n t h e p i c ture. i s o p e n e d . l i k e a p e n d u l u m c a u g h t a t t h e b o t t o m o f its s w i n g . b e i n g reflected there. b u t as it w e r e freed f r o m its i l l u s o r y or truthful c o n t e n t s . passing t h r o u g h their d a r k w o o d e n f r a m e s .g l a s s . . n e w . creates. b e c a u s e o f the sharpness o f the p e r s p e c t i v e . the g a z e o f the p a i n t e r . the p a i n t i n g s . w h i c h are j u x t a p o s e d t o i t ) . the a m b i g u o u s v i s i t o r i s c o m i n g i n a n d g o i n g o u t a t the s a m e t i m e . b y m e a n s o f that l i g h t . solid stature o f the m a n a p p e a r i n g i n the d o o r w a y . t h e e y e s . w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g i n f r o n t o f the p i c t u r e . T h i s spiral shell presents u s w i t h the entire c y c l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : t h e g a z e . a s t h o u g h i t w e r e c o m i n g f r o m e l s e w h e r e . he is i n d u b i t a b l e . t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s m o v e m e n t o f those i m a g e s f l a s h i n g across t h e r o o m . on t h e t h r e s h o l d of t h e area r e p r e s e n t e d . w i t h the m i r r o r i n t h e i r centre. w e p e r c e i v e first o f all t h e b a c k o f the c a n v a s . p l u n g i n g i n t o the m i r r o r . an o s c i l l a t i o n b e t w e e n the i n t e r i o r a n d t h e e x t e r i o r . t h e real m a n (the c o m p l e t e d representation. t h e c h e e k b o n e s .LAS MENINAS p e r h a p s h e t o o . P a l e . A n d s o the spiral i s c l o s e d . a t the e x t r e m e r i g h t . t h e n m o r e p i c t u r e s . b u t t h a t t h e y . b e y o n d e v e n the w a l l s o f t h e s t u d i o itself. a n d f r o m there i t m o v e s o v e r t o t o u c h t h e b r o w . m i n u s c u l e . . t h e n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n dissolves a g a i n : w e c a n see o n l y the frames. t h e r e i s a difference: h e i s there i n f l e s h a n d b l o o d . . w e c a n see n o m o r e than t h e e d g e s o f the f r a m e s . H e repeats o n t h e spot. o r rather. a short w h i l e a g o . A n d w e d o . t h e w i n d o w .

t h e r e stands a n o t h e r m a i d o f h o n o u r . l o o k s i n t o w a r d s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p i c t u r e ) . t w o o t h e r g r o u p s m a d e u p o f t w o f i g u r e s e a c h : o n e o f these g r o u p s i s further a w a y . b e y o n d all q u e s t i o n . L i k e a d o n o r in prayer. i n f r o n t . m a d e u p o f t h e t w o d w a r f s .e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s . H e r face stands o u t i n p e r f e c t p r o f i l e against t h e b a c k g r o u n d . t h e t o p r i g h t . T h e princess i s t u r n i n g h e r h e a d t o w a r d s the r i g h t side o f t h e p i c t u r e . w h i l e h e r t o r s o a n d the b i g p a n n i e r s o f h e r dress slant a w a y s l i g h t l y t o w a r d s t h e left. t u r n e d o r i n c l i n e d . T h e frieze that o c c u p i e s the f o r e g r o u n d a n d t h e m i d d l e g r o u n d o f t h e p i c t u r e represents . l o o k s t o t h e r i g h t ) .h a n d c o r n e r t h e r e i s t h e c o r n e r o f t h e c a n v a s represented w i t h its b a c k t o w a r d s u s (or. t o t h e left. A v e r t i c a l line d i v i d i n g the c a n v a s i n t o t w o e q u a l h a l v e s w o u l d pass b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d ' s e y e s . their h e a d s m o r e o r less b e n t . w i t h her f l a r e d p i n k a n d g r e y dress. S o that h e r e . resides t h e p r i n c i p a l t h e m e o f the c o m p o s i t i o n .h a n d p o i n t o f this X w o u l d b e t h e p a i n t e r ' s e y e s . I t i s a t t h e s a m e h e i g h t a s that o f the c h i l d . also t u r n e d t o w a r d s the Infanta. l e a n i n g s l i g h t l y o v e r h e r . T h e first w o u l d b e a l a r g e X : the t o p l e f t . c a n b e t a k e n t o c o n s t i t u t e . V e l a z q u e z has m a d e use o f a traditional v i s u a l d e v i c e : b e s i d e the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e h e has p l a c e d a s e c o n d a r y o n e .h a n d o n e . b u t w i t h h e r e y e s c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s the f r o n t . t h e o t h e r t o t h e left o r t h e r i g h t . i t i s t h e w h o l e b r e a d t h o f t h e p i c t u r e itself. T h e c e n t r e o f t h e g r o u p i s o c c u p i e d b y t h e little Infanta. a m a i d of h o n o u r on her knees is stretching o u t her hands t o w a r d s the princess. b u t h e r g a z e is directed absolutely straight t o w a r d s the spectator standing in front of t h e p a i n t i n g . A little to the r i g h t . l i k e the o n e i n t h e b a c k w a l l . a c c o r d i n g t o the w a y o n e l o o k s a t t h e p i c t u r e a n d t h e c e n t r e o f r e f e r e n c e c h o s e n . B e c a u s e o f their p o s i t i o n s a n d their size.THE ORDER OF THINGS T h i s o p e n i n g i s n o t . a r e l o o k i n g s t r a i g h t o u t a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o the surface o f t h e p i c t u r e . L a s t l y . k n e e l i n g a n d l o o k i n g i n t o w a r d s t h e central one. w h o i s a t the e x t r e m e r i g h t . H e r face i s a t h i r d o f the total h e i g h t o f t h e p i c t u r e a b o v e t h e l o w e r f r a m e . T h i s a t t e n d a n t i s l o o k i n g a t t h e princess a n d o n l y at t h e princess. t w o different f i g u r e s . O n e c h a r a c t e r i n e a c h o f these pairs i s l o o k i n g straight o u t . t o w a r d s the s a m e s p o t a l r e a d y b e i n g g a z e d a t b y t h e p a i n t e r a n d t h e princess. t h e o t h e r . A s t h o u g h t o p r o v e this a n d t o e m p h a s i z e i t e v e n m o r e . a n d the l o o k s that pass across i t are n o t t h o s e o f a distant v i s i t o r . F i v e o f these. i s r i g h t i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . this i s t h e v e r y o b j e c t o f this p a i n t i n g . T h i s g r o u p o f characters. like an angel greeting the V i r g i n . the d w a r f s (the b o y . m a d e b y p u l l i n g b a c k a d o o r . these t w o g r o u p s c o r r e s p o n d a n d t h e m s e l v e s f o r m a p a i r : b e h i n d . . a r r a n g e d i n this m a n n e r . a t the b o t t o m l e f t . t h e c o u r t i e r s (the w o m a n . t h e m a l e c o u r t i e r ' s e y e s .i f w e i n c l u d e t h e p a i n t e r .

w h i c h i s r e v o l v i n g a r o u n d h e r w i t h its e d d i e s o f c o u r t i e r s . F r o z e n b y a s p e c t a c l e that w o u l d b e a b s o l u t e l y i n v i s i b l e i f t h o s e s a m e characters. W h a t i s t h e r e . f r o m e a c h o f t h e m t h e r e s p r i n g s a n i n e l u c t a b l e l i n e : t h e line issuing f r o m the m i r r o r crosses the w h o l e o f the d e p t h r e p r e s e n t e d (and e v e n m o r e . t h e n . T h e r e a r e t h u s t w o centres a r o u n d w h i c h the p i c t u r e m a y b e o r g a n i z e d . a t the b o t t o m r i g h t . the o t h e r line i s s h o r t e r : i t c o m e s f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s e y e s a n d crosses o n l y t h e f o r e g r o u n d . s p r i n g i n g o u t f r o m d i e p a i n t e d surface. a n d the p o i n t w h e r e t h e y m e e t . In depth.LAS MENINAS m o r e e x a c t l y . a n i m a l s . m o r e o r less e x a c t l y a t t h e s p o t f r o m w h i c h w e are o b s e r v i n g it.b o t h these e x t r e m i t i e s o c c u r r i n g h i g h u p i n the p i c t u r e and set b a c k f r o m its surface. B u t this p i v o t i n g m o v e m e n t i s f r o z e n . T h e s e t w o sagittal lines c o n v e r g e a t a v e r y sharp a n g l e . b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e . M o r e o v e r . a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e f l u t t e r i n g a t t e n t i o n o f the s p e c t a t o r d e c i d e s t o settle i n this p l a c e o r i n that. a d j a c e n t d o t t e d lines w h i c h also h a v e their o r i g i n inside the p i c t u r e a n d e m e r g e f r o m it in a s i m i l a r fashion. s u d d e n l y m o t i o n l e s s .h a n d c o r n e r . a t t h e c e n t r e o f the X . a n d f o o l s . T h i s c u r v e describes a s h a l l o w h o l l o w across t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p i c t u r e w h i c h a t o n c e c o n t a i n s a n d sets o f f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r a t the b a c k . v e r t i c a l l y . T h e princess i s s t a n d i n g u p r i g h t i n t h e c e n t r e o f a S t A n d r e w ' s cross. t h e d w a r f (his f o o t o n t h e d o g ' s b a c k ) . t h e y are v e r y c l o s e t o o n e a n o t h e r . since the m i r r o r f o r m s a h o l e i n the b a c k w a l l a n d b r i n g s a further space i n t o b e i n g b e h i n d i t ) . a s t h o u g h i n the h o l l o w o f a g o b l e t . the f o o t o f the e a s e l ) . y e t is p r e s c r i b e d by all t h e lines o f its c o m p o s i t i o n ? W h a t i s the spectacle. its t w o ends d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p a i n t e r o n the left a n d t h e m a l e c o u r t i e r o n t h e r i g h t . i n that p l a c e w h i c h i s c o m p l e t e l y inaccessible b e c a u s e it is e x t e r i o r to t h e p i c t u r e . I t i s a n u n c e r t a i n p o i n t b e c a u s e w e c a n n o t see it. w e r e n o t o f f e r i n g us. T h e s e c o n d f i g u r e w o u l d b e m o r e t h a t o f a v a s t c u r v e . the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e e i n g i n the d e p t h s o f a m i r r o r the unforeseen d o u b l e of w h a t they are o b s e r v i n g . y e t it is an i n e v i t a b l e a n d p e r f e c t l y d e f i n e d p o i n t t o o . W h e r e these t w o lines intersect. since it is d e t e r m i n e d b y those t w o d o m i n a t i n g f i g u r e s a n d c o n f i r m e d further b y o t h e r . t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c u r v e . t h e n i n the c o u r t i e r s ' a n d the p a i n t e r ' s . m a i d s o f h o n o u r . w o u l d c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e princess's face a n d t h e l o o k h e r m a i d o f h o n o u r i s d i r e c t i n g t o w a r d s h e r . are t h e e y e s o f the Infanta. i t i s t h e r e f l e c t i o n that i s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n the face. w e ask a t last. m u c h nearer t o us. o c c u r s i n f r o n t o f t h e p i c t u r e . it is the princess w h o i s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n the m i r r o r . w h a t a r e t h e faces that are reflected first o f all i n the d e p t h s o f t h e Infanta's e y e s . B u t . a n d f i n a l l y i n the distant g l o w o f t h e m i r r o r ? B u t t h e 13 .

t h e m o s t u n r e a l . b e c a u s e i t i s n o t i n t e n d e d . b y m e a n s o f w h i c h t h e e x t e r i o r p o i n t i s m a d e i n t o p u r e s p e c t a c l e . O f all these f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e us. I n the m i d s t o f all t h o s e a t t e n t i v e faces. t h e y are also t h e m o s t i g n o r e d . F o r i n i t t h e r e o c c u r s a n e x a c t s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f the m o d e l ' s g a z e a s i t i s b e i n g 14 . s i l e n t l y o c c u p y i n g its u n s u s p e c t e d s p a c e . t o b e a n y t h i n g b u t a n o b j e c t t o b e seen. i n s o far a s t h e y are v i s i b l e . a n d f r o m t h e Infanta t o t h e d w a r f p l a y i n g o n t h e e x t r e m e r i g h t . t h e y a r e t h e palest. t o t h e r i g h t t h e d o g l y i n g o n t h e f l o o r . O u r f i r s t g l a n c e a t t h e p a i n t i n g t o l d u s w h a t i t i s t h a t creates this s p e c t a c l e . I n t h e r e a l m o f t h e a n e c d o t e . t h e y p r o v i d e t h e c e n t r e a r o u n d w h i c h the e n t i r e representation is ordered: it is they w h o are b e i n g faced.g l a s s .a s . i n s o far a s t h e y stand o u t s i d e t h e p i c t u r e a n d are t h e r e f o r e w i t h d r a w n f r o m i t i n a n essential i n v i s i b i l i t y . t h e l o w e r f o r k o f t h e X o p e n s ) that o r d e r s t h e w h o l e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p i c t u r e t o t h e i r g a z e a n d thus m a k e s a p p a r e n t t h e t r u e c e n t r e o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . a little l i g h t . B u t i t i s s o a b o v e all b e c a u s e o f t h e t r i p l e f u n c t i o n i t fulfils i n r e l a t i o n t o the p i c t u r e . the o n l y e l e m e n t i n the p i c t u r e that i s n e i t h e r l o o k i n g a t a n y t h i n g n o r m o v i n g . w i t h its d e e p reliefs a n d t h e l i g h t p l a y i n g o n its s i l k y hair. a t t h e far e n d o f t h e p i c t u r e . it is t o w a r d s t h e m t h a t e v e r y o n e i s t u r n e d . i n t h e a s t o n i s h m e n t o f t h e c h i l d a n d the d w a r f s . there r u n s a c u r v e (or a g a i n . w o u l d b e sufficient t o eclipse t h e m . i t i s t o their e y e s t h a t t h e princess i s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n h e r h o l i d a y c l o t h e s . t h e y are t h e frailest a n d t h e m o s t distant f o r m o f all r e a l i t y .o b s e r v a t i o n . f r o m t h e c a n v a s w i t h its b a c k t o u s t o the Infanta. t h e t w o stages o f w h i c h a r e u n c o u p l e d a t t h e t w o l o w e r c o r n e r s o f t h e p i c t u r e : o n t h e left t h e c a n v a s w i t h its b a c k t o us. A c o n d i t i o n o f p u r e r e c i p r o c i t y m a n i f e s t e d b y t h e o b s e r v i n g a n d o b s e r v e d m i r r o r . t h e m o s t c o m p r o m i s e d o f all t h e p a i n t i n g ' s i m a g e s : a m o v e m e n t . T h e entire picture is l o o k i n g o u t at a scene for w h i c h i t i s itself a s c e n e . this c e n t r e i s s y m b o l i c a l l y s o v e r e i g n . I t i s t h e t w o s o v e r e i g n s . all t h o s e r i c h l y dressed b o d i e s . O n e c a n sense t h e i r p r e s e n c e a l r e a d y i n t h e respectful g a z e o f t h e f i g u r e s i n t h e p i c t u r e . t o w h i c h t h e Infanta's g a z e a n d t h e i m a g e i n t h e m i r r o r are b o t h f i n a l l y s u b j e c t . s i n c e i t i s o c c u p i e d b y K i n g P h i l i p I V a n d his w i f e . I n v e r s e l y . W e r e c o g n i z e t h e m . i n t h e t w o t i n y silhouettes g l e a m i n g o u t f r o m t h e l o o k i n g . since n o o n e i s p a y i n g t h e slightest a t t e n t i o n t o that r e f l e c t i o n w h i c h has s l i p p e d i n t o t h e r o o m b e h i n d t h e m all.THE ORDER OF THINGS q u e s t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y b e c o m e s a d o u b l e o n e : t h e face reflected i n t h e m i r r o r i s also t h e face t h a t i s c o n t e m p l a t i n g i t . w h a t all t h e f i g u r e s i n t h e picture are l o o k i n g at are the t w o figures to w h o s e eyes t h e y t o o present a scene to be o b s e r v e d .

a n d l a s t l y . A r e f l e c t i o n that s h o w s u s q u i t e s i m p l y . the artist a n d t h e v i s i t o r c a n n o t b e g i v e n a p l a c e i n t h e m i r r o r : j u s t a s the k i n g a p p e a r s i n t h e d e p t h s o f the l o o k i n g glass p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e h e d o e s n o t b e l o n g t o t h e p i c t u r e . b u t t h e o n e i n f r o n t o f u s w h i c h w e are d i s c u s s i n g ) . I n t h e g r e a t v o l u t e that r u n s a r o u n d the p e r i m e t e r o f the s t u d i o . a n ideal p o i n t i n r e l a t i o n t o w h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d . w h o a r e t h e s p e c t a c l e itself. b u t a p e r f e c t l y real o n e t o o .LAS M E N I N A S p a i n t e d .t h e r e o u g h t t o a p p e a r . T h e lines that r u n t h r o u g h t h e d e p t h o f the p i c t u r e . r e a c h e d c o m p l e t i o n . a n d i n s h a d o w . t h e v i s i t o r . are n o t c o m p l e t e . t h e m o d e l . i t c a n n o t n o t b e i n v i s i b l e . w h i c h his r e p r e s e n t e d d o u b l e i s d u p l i c a t i n g o v e r there i n the p i c t u r e . p e r h a p s i t i s h i d i n g as m u c h as and e v e n m o r e than it reveals. i n t h e k i n g ' s . b u t h e c a n see t h e r o y a l c o u p l e . w h i c h i s b e i n g finished o f f o n that s l o p e o f the c a n v a s t h a t h e c a n n o t p e r c e i v e f r o m w h e r e h e stands. T h e y a r e : o n the left. T h a t space w h e r e the k i n g and his w i f e h o l d s w a y b e l o n g s e q u a l l y w e l l t o t h e artist a n d t o the s p e c t a t o r : i n t h e d e p t h s o f the m i r r o r there c o u l d also a p p e a r . o n e f o o t o n the step. r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c a m e i n t o b e i n g . t h e c y c l e w a s c o m p l e t e . w h o s e p l a c e h e h i m s e l f has t a k e n a s t h o u g h b y u s u r p a t i o n . o n l y t o d i s s o l v e o n c e m o r e i n t o the l i g h t . T h i s g a p i s 15 . w h a t i s l a c k i n g i n e v e r y g a z e : i n t h e p a i n t e r ' s . T h e s e t h r e e ' o b s e r v i n g ' f u n c t i o n s c o m e t o g e t h e r i n a p o i n t e x t e r i o r t o t h e p i c t u r e : that is. a n d o f t h e p a i n t e r ' s a s h e i s c o m p o s i n g his p i c t u r e ( n o t t h e o n e r e p r e s e n t e d .p r o j e c t e d a n d diffracted i n t h r e e f o r m s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s o f that ideal a n d real p o i n t . t o t h e r i g h t . t h e p a i n t e r w i t h his p a l e t t e i n his h a n d ( a s e l f .p o i n t that m a k e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p o s s i b l e . r i g h t r o u n d t o the finished p a i n t i n g s . i n that o f t h e s p e c t a t o r .t h e a n o n y m o u s face o f t h e p a s s e r .p o r t r a i t o f V e l a z q u e z ) . i n t h e c e n t r e . t h a t r e a l i t y i s p r o j e c t e d w i t h i n t h e p i c t u r e . h e i s t a k i n g i n the s c e n e f r o m t h e b a c k . r e a d y t o e n t e r t h e r o o m . t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e k i n g a n d t h e q u e e n . m o t i o n l e s s . o f t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s a s h e c o n t e m p l a t e s the p a i n t i n g . t o t h e r i g h t a n d t o t h e left. f r o m t h e g a z e o f t h e p a i n t e r . f r o m t h e f r o n t . w i t h his m o t i o n l e s s h a n d a n d p a l e t t e . F o r t h e function of that reflection is to d r a w into the interior of the picture w h a t i s i n t i m a t e l y f o r e i g n t o it: the g a z e w h i c h has o r g a n i z e d i t a n d t h e g a z e for w h i c h it is displayed. his p o r t r a i t . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . t h e real c e n t r e o f the s c e n e . in the attitude of patient m o d e l s . t h e y all l a c k a s e g m e n t o f their trajectories. B u t because they are present w i t h i n the picture. W i t h i n that r e a l i t y itself.b y a n d t h a t o f V e l a z q u e z . B u t p e r h a p s this g e n e r o s i t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e m i r r o r i s f e i g n e d . a s i f b y m a g i c . s i n c e i t i s also t h e s t a r t i n g . A n d y e t . r i c h l y dressed. w h a t all t h o s e i n the f o r e g r o u n d are l o o k i n g at. I t restores.

A r o u n d t h e scene are a r r a n g e d all t h e signs a n d successive f o r m s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . i m m e d i a t e : t h a t o f t h e p a i n t e r a n d t h e s p e c t a t o r w h e n t h e y arc l o o k i n g a t o r c o m p o s i n g t h e p i c t u r e . t h e gestures t h a t call it i n t o b e i n g . a n d p o r t r a i t s . B u t this artifice b o t h conceals a n d indicates a n o t h e r v a c a n c y w h i c h is. can offer itself as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in its p u r e f o r m . t h e eyes to w h i c h it is offered. B u t t h e r e . b u t t h e d o u b l e relation of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to its m o d e l a n d to its s o v e r e i g n . is an essential v o i d : t h e necessary disappearance of that w h i c h is its f o u n d a t i o n . t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as it w e r e . A n d . T h i s v e r y subject . A n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e p r o f o u n d invisibility of w h a t o n e sees is i n separable f r o m t h e invisibility of t h e p e r s o n seeing . o n t h e c o n t r a r y . h o l l o w i n g it i n t o a fictitious recess a n d p r o j e c t i n g it f o r w a r d in front of itself.THE ORDER OF THINGS caused by t h e absence of t h e k i n g . to its a u t h o r as well as to t h e p e r s o n to w h o m it is b e i n g offered. as in all t h e representations of w h i c h it is. in t h e m i d s t of this dispersion w h i c h it is s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g r o u p i n g t o g e t h e r a n d s p r e a d i n g o u t before us.w h i c h is t h e s a m e . in this p i c t u r e . t h e manifest essence. indicated c o m p e l l i n g l y f r o m e v e r y side. reflections. this relation is necessarily i n t e r r u p t e d . freed finally f r o m t h e relation t h a t w a s i m p e d i n g it. imitations. representation u n d e r t a k e s to represent itself h e r e in all its e l e m e n t s . of Classical representation. I t m a y b e that. in this p a i n t i n g by V e l a z q u e z . as it w e r e .an absence t h a t is an artifice on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a i n t e r . w i t h its images. indeed. a n d t h e definition of t h e space it o p e n s up to us.despite all m i r r o r s . I t can n e v e r b e p r e s e n t w i t h o u t s o m e r e s i d u u m . 16 .has b e e n elided.of t h e p e r s o n it resembles a n d t h e p e r s o n in w h o s e eyes it is o n l y a r e s e m b l a n c e . it is n o t possible for t h e p u r e felicity of t h e i m a g e ever to present in a full light b o t h t h e m a s t e r w h o is r e p r e s e n t i n g a n d t h e s o v e r e i g n w h o i s b e i n g represented. e v e n in a representation that offers itself as a spectacle. P e r h a p s t h e r e exists. In t h e d e p t h that traverses t h e p i c t u r e . t h e faces it m a k e s visible.

A n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Conjunctio. and even in the early seventeenth century. notions pax. its m a n n e r o f d e c l a r i n g its e x i s t e n c e a n d o f f o r m u l a t i n g its r i g h t o f s p e e c h . Proportio. faces s e e i n g t h e m selves reflected i n t h e stars. Aequalitas (contractus. b e y o n d d o u b t . a t least. i t w a s r e s e m b l a n c e that organized the play o f s y m b o l s .w a s p o s i t e d a s a f o r m o f r e p e t i t i o n : the theatre o f life o r t h e m i r r o r o f n a t u r e . 17 . essential. f r o m t h e sphere o f c o g n i t i o n .w h e t h e r i n the s e r v i c e o f pleasure o r o f k n o w l e d g e . T h e u n i v e r s e w a s f o l d e d i n u p o n itself: the earth e c h o i n g t h e s k y . P a i n t i n g i m i t a t e d s p a c e . Consonantia. matrimonium. i n p a r t a t least. r e i n f o r c e . W e m u s t p a u s e h e r e f o r a w h i l e . o r l i m i t o n e a n o t h e r o n the surface o f t h o u g h t . that et similia). I t i s e n o u g h f o r t h e m o m e n t t o i n d i c a t e the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s that d e t e r m i n e the k n o w l e d g e o f r e s e m b l a n c e w i t h t h e i r a r t i c u l a t i o n s . Paritas. o v e r l a p . H o w . r e s e m b l a n c e p l a y e d a c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n the k n o w l e d g e o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . a t this m o m e n t i n t i m e w h e n r e s e m b l a n c e w a s a b o u t t o r e l i n q u i s h its r e l a t i o n w i t h k n o w l e d g e a n d disappear. consensus. Continuum. Similitudo. m a d e possible k n o w l e d g e o f things visible and i n v i s i b l e . other societas. c a n o n e . establish t h e f o r m s a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e y m i g h t resemble o n e another? T h e s e m a n t i c w e b o f r e s e m b l a n c e i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s e x t r e m e l y rich: Amicitia. that w a s the c l a i m m a d e b y all l a n g u a g e . a t the e n d o f t h e sixteenth century. Concertus. w a s similitude c o n c e i v e d ? H o w d i d i t o r g a n i z e the f i g u r e s o f k n o w l e d g e ? A n d i f the t h i n g s that r e s e m b l e d o n e a n o t h e r w e r e i n d e e d infinite i n n u m b e r . a n d c o n t r o l l e d t h e art o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e m .C H A P T E R 2 The Prose of the World I THE FOUR SIMILITUDES U p t o the e n d o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e a r e f o u r o f these t h a t are. A n d t h e r e are a g r e a t m a n y intersect. I t w a s r e s e m b l a n c e that l a r g e l y g u i d e d e x e g e s i s and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e x t s . a n d plants h o l d i n g w i t h i n their s t e m s t h e secrets that w e r e o f use t o m a n . Copula[i].

T h i s i s w h y i t pertains less t o t h e t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s than t o t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h they exist. their e d g e s t o u c h . influences. f o r i n this n a t u r a l c o n t a i n e r . T h e w o r l d i s simply the universal ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' o f t h i n g s . A l l s o m a n y signs o f ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' . t h e r e are t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f fishes i n the w a t e r a s t h e r e are a n i m a l s . the s o u l r e c e i v e s t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e b o d y a n d assimilates itself t o that b o d y . a n d t h e s t r a n g e z o o p h y t e . a c o m m o n r e g i m e n b e c o m e s necessary. I n this w a y . B u t t h r o u g h this p r o p i n q u i t y . o t h e r s c a l l e d Catena. there are t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f b e i n g s i n t h e w h o l e o f c r e a t i o n a s m a y b e f o u n d e m i n e n t l y c o n t a i n e d i n G o d himself. also j u x t a p o s e s t h e m [3]. B o d y a n d s o u l . there arise n e w resemblances. T h o s e t h i n g s are ' c o n v e n i e n t ' w h i c h c o m e sufficiently c l o s e t o o n e a n o t h e r t o b e i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n . t h e site u p o n w h i c h n a t u r e has p l a c e d the t w o t h i n g s . R e s e m b l a n c e i m p o s e s adjacencies that i n their t u r n g u a r a n t e e further r e s e m b l a n c e s . m o v e m e n t . o b s c u r e t h o u g h i t m a y b e . T h i s w o r d r e a l l y d e n o t e s t h e a d j a c e n c y o f places m o r e s t r o n g l y t h a n i t d o e s s i m i l i t u d e . I t i s o f the s a m e o r d e r a s c o n j u n c t i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t . a d j a c e n c y i s n o t a n e x t e r i o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h i n g s . the e a r t h w i t h the sea. o n t h e l a n d (are t h e r e n o t fishes c a l l e d Episcopus. t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f b e i n g s i n t h e w a t e r a n d o n t h e surface o f t h e earth a s t h e r e a r e i n t h e s k y . f r o m this c o n t a c t . P l a c e a n d s i m i l i t u d e b e c o m e e n t a n g l e d : w e see m o s s e s g r o w i n g o n the o u t s i d e s o f shells. a sort o f grass o n t h e faces o f m e n . t h e w o r l d . A r e s e m b l a n c e that b e c o m e s d o u b l e a s s o o n a s o n e a t t e m p t s t o u n r a v e l it: a r e s e m b l a n c e o f the p l a c e . are c o m m u n i c a t e d . their fringes i n t e r m i n g l e . a n d p r o p e r t i e s t o o . 18 . passions. t h e e x t r e m i t y o f the o n e also d e n o t e s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e o t h e r . w h i l e ' t h e b o d y i s altered a n d c o r r u p t e d b y t h e passions o f the soul'[2]. h e a v y . are d o u b l y ' c o n v e n i e n t ' : the s o u l h a d t o b e m a d e dense. a n d terrestrial f o r G o d t o p l a c e i t i n t h e v e r y h e a r t o f m a t t e r . b y m i n g l i n g t o g e t h e r the p r o p e r t i e s t h a t m a k e i t similar t o t h e plants a s w e l l a s t o the a n i m a l s . f o r e x a m p l e . m a n w i t h e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d h i m .THE ORDER OF THINGS First o f all. S o that i n this h i n g e b e t w e e n t w o t h i n g s a r e s e m b l a n c e appears. the differe n t b e i n g s adjust t h e m s e l v e s t o o n e a n o t h e r . plants i n t h e antlers o f stags. a n d o t h e r s c a l l e d Priapus?). A n d t h e n . I n t h e v a s t s y n t a x o f the w o r l d . b y e x c h a n g e . b u t the s i g n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p . a n d thus a s i m i l i t u d e o f p r o p e r t i e s . t h e p l a n t c o m m u n i c a t e s w i t h t h e a n i m a l . u p o n the simil i t u d e that w a s t h e h i d d e n r e a s o n for their p r o p i n q u i t y i s s u p e r i m p o s e d a r e s e m b l a n c e t h a t i s the v i s i b l e effect o f that p r o x i m i t y . o r o b j e c t s p r o d u c e d b y n a t u r e o r m a n . convenientia. Convenientia is a r e s e m b l a n c e c o n n e c t e d w i t h space in t h e f o r m of a g r a d u a t e d scale o f p r o x i m i t y . t h e inhabitants o f t h e f o r m e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h those o f the latter. a n d lastly.

w h o i s c o n f o r m a b l e t o t h e rest o f t h e stars b y his i n t e l l i g e n c e . reaches s o far that i f w e t o u c h o n e e x t r e m i t y o f that c o r d i t w i l l m a k e t r e m b l e a n d m o v e all t h e r e s t [ s ] . At each point of contact there begins and ends a link that r e s e m b l e s t h e o n e b e f o r e i t a n d the o n e after it. o f K n o w l e d g e and o f Love'[4]. o f P o w e r . f o r e m u l a t i o n i s a sort o f natural t w i n s h i p e x i s t i n g i n 19 . these s i m i l i t u d e s c o n t i n u e . r e p r o d u c e d their circles a t a distance f r o m o n e a n o t h e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a r e s e m b l a n c e that n e e d s n o c o n t a c t . t h a t P o r t a e v o k e s in a p a s s a g e f r o m his Magie naturelle: A s w i t h r e s p e c t t o its v e g e t a t i o n t h e p l a n t stands c o n v e n i e n t t o the b r u t e beast. a n d j u s t a s m a n ' s intellect i s a n i m p e r f e c t r e f l e c t i o n o f G o d ' s w i s d o m . n o l o n g e r c o n n e c t e d . the n o s e p r o v i d e s a n i m a g e i n m i n i a t u r e o f J o v e ' s sceptre a n d M e r c u r y ' s staff[6]. these l i n k s p r o c e e d so strictly that t h e y a p p e a r as a r o p e s t r e t c h e d f r o m t h e first c a u s e a s far a s t h e l o w e s t a n d smallest o f t h i n g s . h o l d i n g t h e e x t r e m e s apart ( G o d a n d m a t t e r ) . this r o p e o f ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' . f r o m a distance. B u t w h i c h o f these reflections c o u r s i n g t h r o u g h s p a c e are t h e o r i g i n a l images? W h i c h is the reality and w h i c h the projection? It is often n o t possible t o s a y . i n this w a y i t o v e r c o m e s t h e p l a c e a l l o t e d t o e a c h t h i n g . s p r e a d i n g its b e a m s . s o his t w o e y e s . b y this l i n k i n g o f r e s e m b l a n c e w i t h space. T h u s . s o t h r o u g h f e e l i n g d o e s the b r u t i s h a n i m a l t o m a n . R a t h e r a s t h o u g h t h e spatial c o l l u s i o n o f convenientia h a d b e e n b r o k e n . b y a r e c i p r o c a l a n d c o n t i n u o u s c o n n e c t i o n . T h e s e c o n d f o r m o f s i m i l i t u d e i s aemulatio: a sort o f ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' t h a t has b e e n freed f r o m t h e l a w o f p l a c e a n d i s a b l e t o f u n c t i o n . t h e m o u t h i s V e n u s . w i t h o u t m o t i o n . taut. f r o m afar. T h e r e l a t i o n o f e m u l a t i o n enables t h i n g s t o i m i t a t e o n e another f r o m one end of the universe to the other w i t h o u t connection or p r o x i m i t y : b y d u p l i c a t i n g itself i n a m i r r o r t h e w o r l d abolishes t h e d i s tance p r o p e r t o it. w i t h their l i m i t e d b r i g h t n e s s . I t i s this i m m e n s e . y e t b r i n g i n g t h e m t o g e t h e r i n s u c h a w a y that t h e w i l l o f t h e A l m i g h t y m a y p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e m o s t u n a w a k e n e d c o r n e r s . t h e w o r l d i s l i n k e d t o gether like a chain. a n d f r o m c i r c l e t o c i r c l e . i n s u c h w i s e that the s u p e r i o r v i r t u e . this ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' that b r i n g s l i k e t h i n g s t o g e t h e r a n d m a k e s adjacent t h i n g s similar. since i t g i v e s p a s s a g e t o kisses a n d w o r d s o f l o v e . e m u l a t e s t h e s k y . T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n e m u l a t i o n o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n a n d the m i r r o r : i t i s t h e m e a n s w h e r e b y t h i n g s scattered t h r o u g h the u n i v e r s e c a n a n s w e r o n e a n o t h e r . s o that t h e links o f t h e c h a i n . a n d v i b r a t i n g c h a i n .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D 'the S o w e r o f Existence. are a reflection o f t h e v a s t i l l u m i n a t i o n s p r e a d across t h e s k y b y sun a n d m o o n . T h e h u m a n face.

s u c h that it represents that p l a n t . M a n a s Paracelsus describes h i m is. I t pertains t o t h e f i r m a m e n t o f m a n t o b e 'free a n d p o w e r f u l ' . t h e m u r d e r e r t o t h e w h e e l . t o ' b o w t o no order'. S i m i l i t u d e t h e n b e c o m e s the c o m b a t o f o n e f o r m a g a i n s t a n o t h e r .s o w n s k y . h e c o m e s t o r e s e m b l e the o r d e r o f t h e w o r l d . b u t t h e t w o rivals are n e i t h e r o f e q u a l v a l u e n o r o f e q u a l d i g n i t y i n that t o u r n a m e n t . w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e . t h e fish t o t h e f i s h e r m a n . o f w h i c h t h e y are t h e u n c h a n g e d m o d e l . w h i c h i s thus reflected i n his p a s s i v e m i r r o r . w h i c h differs f r o m t h e terrestrial plants in m a t t e r a l o n e .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h i n g s . i m b u i n g t h e m w i t h s o m e p a r t i c u l a r virtue[8]. the q u a r r y t o t h e h u n t s m a n ' . the unalterable f o r m . O n e m a y b e w e a k e r . so also e a c h star is a celestial p l a n t in spiritual f o r m . A s C r o l l i u s s a y s : T h e stars a r e t h e m a t r i x o f all t h e p l a n t s a n d e v e r y star i n t h e s k y i s o n l y the spiritual p r e f i g u r a t i o n of a p l a n t . a n d t h e r e f o r e r e c e p t i v e t o t h e s t r o n g e r influence o f the o t h e r . t h e n the w i s d o m o f t h e m i r r o r w i l l i n t u r n b e reflected b a c k t o e n v e l o p t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h i t has b e e n p l a c e d . f o r e x a m p l e .o a r . ' c o n s t e l l a t e d w i t h stars'. t h e celestial plants a n d h e r b s are t u r n e d t o w a r d s t h e e a r t h a n d l o o k d i r e c t l y d o w n u p o n the p l a n t s t h e y h a v e p r o c r e a t e d . d o m i n a n t o v e r t h e plants o f t h e e a r t h . B u t the lists m a y r e m a i n o p e n . l i k e t h e f i r m a m e n t . and o v e r w h i c h they h a v e been secretly e m p o w e r e d t o p o u r the w h o l e d y n a s t y o f their influences? T h e d a r k e a r t h i s t h e m i r r o r o f t h e s t a r . i t s g r e a t r i n g w i l l spin o u t i n t o t h e d e p t h s o f the h e a v e n s . b u t h e i s n o t b o u n d t o i t l i k e ' t h e t h i e f t o his g a l l e y . and ' n o t to be ruled by a n y odier created beings'. a n d the u n t r o u b l e d m i r r o r reflect o n l y t h e i m a g e o f ' t w o w r a t h f u l soldiers'. i t arises f r o m a f o l d i n b e i n g . w h i c h i s also k n o w l e d g e . . a n d j u s t as e a c h h e r b or p l a n t is a terrestrial star l o o k i n g up at the s k y .o r rather o f o n e a n d the s a m e f o r m s e p a r ated f r o m itself b y t h e w e i g h t o f m a t t e r o r distance i n space. A r e n o t the stars. the p u r e f o r m o f the s k y . w i t h o u t its b e i n g p o s s i b l e for a n y o n e t o say w h i c h o f t h e m b r o u g h t its s i m i l i t u d e t o t h e o t h e r ' [ 7 ] . His inner s k y m a y r e m a i n a u t o n o m o u s a n d d e p e n d o n l y u p o n itself. . Paracelsus c o m p a r e s this f u n d a m e n t a l d u p l i c a t i o n o f the w o r l d t o the i m a g e o f t w o t w i n s ' w h o r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r c o m p l e t e l y . T h e b r i g h t c o l o u r s o f the f l o w e r s r e p r o d u c e . H o w e v e r . takes i t b a c k i n t o h i m s e l f a n d thus r e creates i n his i n n e r f i r m a m e n t the s w a y o f t h a t o t h e r f i r m a m e n t i n w h i c h h e sees the g l i t t e r o f t h e v i s i b l e stars. . t h e t w o sides o f w h i c h stand i m m e d i a t e l y o p p o s i t e t o o n e a n o t h e r . b u t o n c o n d i t i o n that b y m e a n s o f his w i s d o m . e m u l a t i o n d o e s n o t l e a v e the t w o reflected figures i t has c o n f r o n t e d i n a m e r e l y i n e r t state o f o p p o s i t i o n . I f h e d o e s this. 20 .

b e t w e e n l i v i n g b e i n g s a n d the g l o b e t h e y i n h a b i t . B u t the distance i t crosses i s n o t a n n u l l e d b y t h e s u b t l e m e t a p h o r o f e m u l a t i o n . is n e i t h e r c r i t i c i z e d n o r d i s p o s e d of by C e s a l p i n o . convenientia a n d aemulatio a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d . w h i c h i n t u r n s u r r o u n d s t h e other. b u t i t also speaks. t o a n e n d less n u m b e r o f relationships. F o r e x a m p l e . i t c a n e x t e n d . . A n d i n this d u e l . i t traverses t h e spaces o f t h e u n i v e r s e i n silence. . on the contrary. he multiplies i t b y itself w h e n h e m a k e s the d i s c o v e r y that a p l a n t i s a n u p r i g h t a n i m a l . perhaps to be enveloped once m o r e in a duplication w h i c h can c o n t i n u e a d infinitum.THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D a n d b e y o n d . In this a n a l o g y . T h e third f o r m o f s i m i l i t u d e i s analogy. t h e t w o c o n f r o n t i n g f i g u r e s seize u p o n o n e a n o t h e r . 21 . substantial o n e s b e t w e e n t h i n g s t h e m selves.b u r i e d in t h e e a r t h ) .or r o o t s . o f adjacencies. c h a n n e l l e d a l o n g a s t e m t h a t stretches u p w a r d s l i k e a b o d y a n d is t o p p e d by a h e a d s p r e a d i n g f l o w e r s a n d l e a v e s : a r e l a t i o n that i n v e r t s b u t d o e s n o t c o n t r a d i c t the initial a n a l o g y . T h e o l d a n a l o g y o f p l a n t t o a n i m a l (the v e g e t a b l e i s a n a n i m a l l i v i n g h e a d d o w n . its m o u t h . Its p o w e r i s i m m e n s e . f o r t h e s i m i l i t u d e s o f w h i c h i t treats are n o t the v i s i b l e . . A n a n a l o g y m a y also b e t u r n e d a r o u n d u p o n itself w i t h o u t t h e r e b y r e n d e r i n g i t s e l f o p e n t o d i s p u t e . he gives it added force. since i t p l a c e s ' t h e r o o t i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e p l a n t and the s t e m i n the u p p e r part. d o n o t f o r m a c h a i n b u t rather a series o f c o n c e n t r i c circles reflecting and rivalling o n e another. L i k e t h e latter. E m u l a t i o n i s p o s i t e d i n t h e first p l a c e i n the f o r m o f a m e r e r e f l e c t i o n . i t r e m a i n s o p e n t o t h e e y e . t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e stars t o t h e s k y i n w h i c h t h e y shine m a y also b e f o u n d : b e t w e e n p l a n t s a n d t h e earth. o f b o n d s a n d j o i n t s . u n l i k e t h e e l e m e n t s o f convenientia. w h o s e n u t r i t i v e p r i n c i p l e s rise f r o m t h e base u p t o the s u m m i t . they need o n l y b e the m o r e subtle resemblances o f relations. f u r t i v e a n d distant. l i k e t h e f o r m e r . f o r t h e v e n o u s n e t w o r k i n a n i m a l s also b e g i n s i n the l o w e r part o f the b e l l y . i t m a k e s p o s s i b l e t h e m a r v e l l o u s c o n f r o n tation o f r e s e m b l a n c e s across s p a c e . b e t w e e n sense o r g a n s a n d the face t h e y a n i m a t e . T h e l i n k s o f e m u l a t i o n . a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l v e i n rises u p t o t h e heart and head'[10]. m a n w i l l d i s c o v e r that h e c o n t a i n s ' t h e stars w i t h i n h i m s e l f . L i k e e n v e l o p s l i k e . b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s s u c h a s d i a m o n d s a n d the r o c k s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e b u r i e d . b u t o n e w h o s e use has p r o b a b l y b e c o m e different n o w . D i s e n c u m b e r e d thus. b e t w e e n s k i n m o l e s a n d t h e b o d y o f w h i c h t h e y are t h e secret m a r k s . A n o l d c o n c e p t a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r t o G r e e k s c i e n c e a n d m e d i e v a l t h o u g h t . f r o m a s i n g l e g i v e n p o i n t . a n d that he is thus t h e b e a r e r of t h e f i r m a m e n t w i t h all its i n fluences'[9].

t h e first c o m p a r a t i v e illustration o f t h e h u m a n s k e l e t o n a n d that o f b i r d s : i n it. s o that w e f i n d t h e m again. h e stands i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i r m a m e n t (his face i s t o his b o d y w h a t t h e face o f h e a v e n i s t o t h e e t h e r . a n d a s h e d o e s also t o t h e earth. his b l a d d e r i s t h e sea. all t h e figures i n t h e w h o l e u n i v e r s e c a n b e d r a w n t o g e t h e r . t o H e l l . I t i s n e i t h e r m o r e r a t i o n a l n o r m o r e scientific t h a n a n o b s e r v a t i o n s u c h a s A l d r o v a n d i ' s c o m p a r i s o n o f m a n ' s baser parts t o t h e f o u l e r parts o f t h e w o r l d . w e see t h e p i n i o n c a l l e d the a p p e n d i x w h i c h i s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e w i n g a n d i n t h e s a m e p l a c e a s t h e t h u m b o n the h a n d . f u r r o w e d i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n . his b o n e s are r o c k s . t o t h e d a m n e d souls w h o a r e l i k e t h e e x c r e m e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s e [ i 3 ] . i n this s p a c e . . a n d his s e v e n p r i n c i p a l o r g a n s a r c the m e t a l s h i d d e n i n t h e shafts o f m i n e s [ n ] .THE ORDER OF THINGS T h i s r e v e r s i b i l i t y a n d this p o l y v a l e n c y e n d o w a n a l o g y w i t h a u n i v e r s a l field o f a p p l i c a t i o n . s o t h e birds h a v e four fingers o f w h i c h the o n e b e h i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o the b i g toe in us[i2].c e n t u r y k n o w l e d g e . m a d e i t p o s s i b l e .c e n t u r y l e a r n i n g h a d laid o v e r t h i n g s . t o m e t a l s . a n d d r e w i n t h e greatest detail. I t i s w e l l k n o w n h o w P i e r r e B e l o n d r e w . t o the d a r k ness o f H e l l . M a n ' s b o d y i s a l w a y s t h e p o s s i b l e h a l f o f a u n i v e r s a l atlas. their r e l a t i o n s m a y b e i n v e r t e d w i t h o u t l o s i n g a n y o f t h e i r f o r c e . o n e p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i v i l e g e d p o i n t : i t i s saturated w i t h a n a l o g i e s (all a n a l o g i e s c a n f i n d o n e o f their n e c e s s a r y t e r m s t h e r e ) . . t h e s e v e n orifices i n his h e a d a r e t o his face w h a t t h e s e v e n planets a r e t o t h e s k y ) . i n his d a y . . U p r i g h t b e t w e e n t h e surfaces o f t h e u n i v e r s e . the e x t r e m i t y o f the p i n i o n w h i c h is like the fingers in us . the b o n e g i v e n as legs to the bird c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o o u r h e e l . j u s t a s h e d o e s t o a n i m a l s a n d plants. I t i s m e r e l y that t h e g r i d t h r o u g h w h i c h w e p e r m i t the figures o f resemblance t o enter our k n o w l e d g e h a p p e n s t o c o i n c i d e a t this p o i n t (and a t a l m o s t n o o t h e r ) w i t h that w h i c h s i x t e e n t h . b u t h e i s also t h e f u l c r u m u p o n w h i c h all these relations t u r n . t o stalactites o r s t o r m s . So m u c h precision is not. h o w e v e r . T h r o u g h it. it belongs to the same analogical c o s m o g r a p h y 22 as the . B e l o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n has n o c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a n y t h i n g b u t t h e p o s i t i v i t y w h i c h . in the a n a l o g y of the h u m a n a n i m a l to t h e e a r t h it i n h a b i t s : his flesh is a g l e b e . I n f a c t . T h e r e d o e s exist. h o w e v e r . j u s t a s w e h a v e f o u r toes o n o u r feet. T h i s p o i n t i s m a n : h e stands i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e h e a v e n s . their similarity unimpaired. his p u l s e beats i n his v e i n s a s t h e stars c i r c l e t h e s k y a c c o r d i n g t o their o w n f i x e d p a t h s . comparative anatomy except to an e y e a r m e d w i t h n i n e t e e n t h . a n d a s t h e y pass t h r o u g h it. his v e i n s g r e a t r i v e r s .

i n t o b l u e s m o k e . b e c a u s e i t i s w a r m a n d l i g h t . t h e f o u r t h f o r m o f r e s e m b l a n c e i s p r o v i d e d b y the p l a y o f sympathies. b u t t h e n the s k y b e c o m e s clear a g a i n . rises u p i n t o the air. i n t o c l o u d s : i t has b e c o m e air. t h e b e l l y s w e l l s . M o r e o v e r . t h e l i g h t n i n g flashes a n d t h e e y e s g l i t t e r w i t h a t e r r i b l e b r i g h t n e s s . H e i s the g r e a t f u l c r u m o f p r o p o r t i o n s . S y m p a t h y p l a y s t h r o u g h the d e p t h s of t h e u n i v e r s e in a free state. i t disappears t h e r e f o r e i n t o l i g h t v a p o u r . w h a t is light up t o w a r d s the weightless ether.t h e c e n t r e u p o n w h i c h r e l a t i o n s are c o n c e n t r a t e d a n d f r o m w h i c h t h e y a r e o n c e a g a i n reflected. I t i s a p r i n c i p l e o f m o b i l i t y : i t attracts w h a t i s h e a v y t o t h e h e a v i n e s s o f the earth. t h e a p o p l e c t i c a t t a c k a t the m o m e n t w h e n o u r t h o u g h t s b e c o m e h e a v y a n d d i s t u r b e d . i t has t h e d a n g e r o u s p o w e r o f assimilating. w i l l r e n d e r all p e r s o n s w h o s m e l l t h e m 'sad a n d m o r i b u n d ' [ 1 5 ] . t h e m o u t h f o a m s . i t also g i v e s rise t o a h i d d e n interior m o v e m e n t . It c a n t r a v e r s e t h e vastest spaces in a n instant: i t falls l i k e a t h u n d e r b o l t f r o m t h e distant p l a n e t u p o n t h e m a n ruled by that planet. i n v e r s e l y . classic i n C r o l l i u s ' s t i m e . t h e rain falls. A n d h e r e . M a n is surrounded b y i t o n e v e r y side. t h e n the c l o u d s p i l e u p . t h e t h u n d e r b o l t i s u n l e a s h e d a n d t h e spirits b u r s t o p e n b r e a c h e s i n the s k i n . b u t i n d o i n g s o i t loses its d r y n e s s ( w h i c h m a d e i t a k i n t o the e a r t h ) a n d s o a c q u i r e s h u m i d i t y ( w h i c h l i n k s i t t o w a t e r a n d a i r ) .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D c o m p a r i s o n . no distance laid d o w n .a d i s p l a c e m e n t o f qualities that t a k e o v e r f r o m o n e a n o t h e r i n a series o f r e l a y s : fire. b e t w e e n a p o p l e x y a n d t e m p e s t s : the s t o r m b e g i n s w h e n the air b e c o m e s h e a v y a n d a g i t a t e d . n o p a t h has b e e n determined in advance. B u t s u c h i s its p o w e r that s y m p a t h y i s n o t c o n t e n t t o s p r i n g f r o m a s i n g l e c o n t a c t and speed t h r o u g h space. b y d r a w i n g t h i n g s t o w a r d s o n e a n o t h e r i n a n e x t e r i o r a n d v i s i b l e m o v e m e n t . a n d i t m a k e s t h e g r e a t y e l l o w disk o f the s u n f l o w e r t u r n t o f o l l o w the c u r v i n g p a t h o f t h e s u n . h e transmits these r e s e m b l a n c e s b a c k i n t o t h e w o r l d f r o m w h i c h h e r e c e i v e s t h e m . on the other hand.a s w i t h t h o s e ' m o u r n i n g roses that h a v e b e e n used a t o b s e q u i e s ' w h i c h . o f r e n d e r i n g t h i n g s i d e n t i c a l t o o n e a n o t h e r . S y m p a t h y i s a n i n s t a n c e o f t h e Same s o s t r o n g a n d s o insistent that i t w i l l n o t rest c o n t e n t t o b e m e r e l y o n e o f t h e f o r m s o f l i k e n e s s . t h e t h u n d e r e x p l o d e s a n d t h e b l a d d e r bursts. n o l i n k s p r e s c r i b e d . a n d i n t h e sick m a n r e a s o n r e g a i n s a s c e n d a n c y [14]. it excites the things of the w o r l d to m o v e m e n t a n d c a n d r a w e v e n t h e m o s t distant o f t h e m t o g e t h e r . T h e s p a c e occupied by analogies is really a space of radiation. b u t . it drives the r o o t t o w a r d s the w a t e r . o f m i n g l i n g 23 . L a s t l y . s i m p l y f r o m their f o r m e r a d j a c e n c y w i t h d e a t h . it can be b r o u g h t into b e i n g b y a s i m p l e c o n t a c t . t o w a r d s w h i c h its f l a m e s u n t i r i n g l y s t r i v e .

l y i n g u n a w a r e f o r d e l i g h t . i t i s said that the o l i v e a n d t h e v i n e h a t e the c a b b a g e . the fact that t h e y c a n r e s e m b l e o t h e r s a n d b e d r a w n to them.a n d thus o f r e n d e r i n g t h e m f o r e i g n t o w h a t t h e y w e r e b e f o r e . a n d also the t r e e that .this i s w h a t i s assured b y the c o n s t a n t c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g o f 24 . w i t h n o distance b e t w e e n t h e m . T h i s i s w h y s y m p a t h y i s c o m p e n s a t e d for b y its t w i n . b u t i n the d i r e c t i o n o f i d e n t i t y . t h o u g h w i t h o u t being s w a l l o w e d up or losing their s i n g u l a r i t y . A n t i p a t h y m a i n t a i n s t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h i n g s a n d p r e v e n t s their a s s i m i l a t i o n . g n a w i n g t h r o u g h t h e entrails o f w h i c h .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e m . a n d ' b a t t l i n g w i t h the aspic i t o f t s o d i e s ' . T h e rat o f India i s p e r n i c i o u s t o the c r o c o d i l e . t o a h o m o g e n e o u s mass. S y m p a t h y t r a n s f o r m s . T h e i d e n t i t y o f t h i n g s . B u t t h e rat's e n e m i e s are l y i n g i n w a i t for i t i n their t u r n : f o r i t l i v e s i n d i s c o r d w i t h the spider. the w o r l d ' s b e i n g s w i l l h a t e o n e a n o t h e r a n d p r e s e r v e their f e r o c i o u s appetites i n o p p o s i t i o n t o all s y m pathy. . s o that i f its p o w e r w e r e n o t c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d i t w o u l d r e d u c e t h e w o r l d t o a p o i n t . i s s l e e p i n g w i t h its j a w s a g a p e . I t alters. l i k e t h o s e m e t a l c h a i n s h e l d s u s p e n d e d b y s y m p a t h y t o the attraction of a single m a g n e t [ i 6 ] . i t e n c l o s e s e v e r y species w i t h i n its i m p e n e t r a b l e difference a n d its p r o p e n s i t y t o c o n t i n u e b e i n g w h a t i t is: I t i s fairly w i d e l y k n o w n that the plants h a v e hatreds b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s . T h r o u g h this p l a y o f a n t i p a t h y . since N a t u r e has c r e a t e d t h e m e n e m i e s . i t m a k e s its w a y t h r o u g h t h e m and slips d o w n t h e w i d e t h r o a t i n t o t h e c r o c o d i l e ' s b e l l y . A n d s o t o i n f i n i t y . t h r o u g h all t i m e . S i n c e t h e y g r o w b y m e a n s o f the sun's w a r m t h a n d t h e earth's h u m o u r . w h i c h disperses t h e m . t o t h e featureless f o r m o f t h e S a m e : all its parts w o u l d h o l d t o g e t h e r a n d c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r w i t h o u t a b r e a k .has several r o o t s [ i 7 ] . . a n t i p a t h y . i n s u c h w i s e t h a t w h e n that v i o l e n t r e p t i l e t a k e s his p l e a s u r e i n t h e sun. i t e m e r g e s a t last f r o m t h e slain beast's b o w e l . t h e c u c u m b e r f l i e s f r o m t h e o l i v e . i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a n y t h i c k a n d o p a q u e tree s h o u l d b e p e r n i c i o u s t o the o t h e r s . p e r c e i v i n g that t h e c r o c o d i l e . t h i n g s a n d a n i m a l s and all the f o r m s o f the w o r l d r e m a i n w h a t t h e y are. makes t h e m into murderers and then exposes t h e m t o d e a t h i n their t u r n . t h e rat l a y s a n a m b u s h f o r i t o f m o r t a l s u b t l e t y . y e t d r a w s t h e m w i t h e q u a l force into m u t u a l c o m b a t . o f c a u s i n g their i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o d i s a p p e a r . . .

reflect itself. T h e s a m e r e m a i n s the s a m e . are s u p p o r t e d . T h e h u m i d i t y o f w a t e r i s h e a t e d b y the h e a t o f the air a n d b r i n g s r e l i e f t o the c o l d d r y n e s s o f t h e earth [ i 8]. n o t w i t h o u t h a v e n s o f similitude) a n d t i m e ( w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s a l l o w s the s a m e f o r m s .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D s y m p a t h y and antipathy. the w o r l d r e m a i n s i d e n t i c a l .a n t i p a t h y p a i r g i v e s rise t o all the f o r m s o f r e s e m b l a n c e . disappear. t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e s y m p a t h y . r e s e m b l a n c e s c o n t i n u e t o b e w h a t t h e y are. and sympathy tell us h o w the w o r l d m u s t fold in u p o n itself. c o l d e a r t h i s d r y . all the e c h o e s o f e m u l a t i o n . or f o r m a c h a i n w i t h 25 . fire. maintained. T h e e l e m e n t o f fire i s h o t a n d d r y . T h a t t h e y m a y b e b r o u g h t i n t o h a r m o n y . i t m a r c h e s w e l l w i t h f i r e a n d its h u m i d i t y g o e s w e l l w i t h that o f w a t e r . d e v e l o p . r i v e t e d o n t o itself. e a r t h ) b e s i m p l e a n d possessed o f their distinct qualities. t h e s a m e species. analogy. w a t e r b e t w e e n e a r t h a n d air. It explains h o w things g r o w . d u p l i c a t e itself. all t h e adjacencies o f ' c o n v e n i e n c e ' . I n a s m u c h a s t h e air i s h o t . all the l i n k a g e s o f a n a l o g y . t h e s a m e e l e m e n t s t o r e a p p e a r indefinitely). i f t h e r e w e r e n o t a further f o r m o f s i m i l i t u d e t o c l o s e the c i r c l e . aemulatio. w h i c h are ceaselessly d r a w i n g t h i n g s t o g e t h e r and h o l d i n g t h e m apart. i n short. and doubled by this space g o v e r n e d b y s y m p a t h y a n d a n t i p a t h y . air. Convenientia. w h i c h i s a n a n t i p a t h y . interm i n g l e . y e t f o r a s m u c h a s t h e C r e a t o r has o r d a i n e d that t h e e l e m e n t a r y b o d i e s shall b e c o m p o s e d o f mingled elements. T h e f i r s t three s i m i l i t u d e s are thus all r e s u m e d a n d e x p l a i n e d b y it. d i e . t h e r e f o r e are their h a r m o n i e s and discordancies r e m a r k a b l e . B y m e a n s o f this i n t e r p l a y . y e t endlessly f i n d t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n . w h i c h i s c o l d a n d d a m p . T h e w h o l e v o l u m e o f the w o r l d . H o t air i s h u m i d .t o r e n d e r i t a t o n c e p e r f e c t a n d manifest. T h o u g h y e t o f t h e m s e l v e s the f o u r b o d i e s ( w a t e r . a n d t o r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r . o r o f r e m a i n i n g h i d d e n i n d a r k n e s s . a s w e m a y k n o w f r o m their qualities. air has b e e n p l a c e d b e t w e e n f i r e a n d w a t e r . O n e a p e r t u r e r e m a i n s : a n d t h r o u g h i t the w h o l e i n t e r p l a y o f r e s e m b l a n c e s w o u l d b e i n d a n g e r o f e s c a p i n g f r o m itself. II SIGNATURES A n d y e t the s y s t e m i s n o t c l o s e d . h o w there c a n b e space ( w h i c h i s n e v e r t h e l e s s n o t w i t h o u t l a n d m a r k s o r r e p e t i tions. B e c a u s e o f t h e m o v e m e n t a n d the dispersion c r e a t e d b y its l a w s . i t has t h e r e f o r e a n a n t i p a t h y t o those o f w a t e r .

. A k n o w l e d g e of similitudes is founded u p o n the unearthing and decipherm e n t o f these signatures. A n d e v e n t h o u g h h e has h i d d e n c e r t a i n t h i n g s . I t i s useless t o g o n o further t h a n the s k i n o r b a r k o f plants i f y o u w i s h t o k n o w their n a t u r e . . i t i s all o f a p i e c e . s o m e identical a n d o t h e r s different.' t o t h e s h a d o w a n d i m a g e o f G o d that t h e y b e a r o r t o their internal v i r t u e . after all. w h i c h has b e e n g i v e n t o t h e m b y h e a v e n a s a n a t u r a l d o w r y . t h e secret w o u l d r e m a i n i n d e f i n i t e l y d o r m a n t .j u s t a s a m a n w h o has b u r i e d a h o a r d o f treasure m a r k s the s p o t that h e m a y find i t a g a i n [ i o ] . m a d e t h i n g s v i s i b l e . N o w t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that w e m i g h t m a k e o u r w a y t h r o u g h all this m a r v e l l o u s t e e m i n g a b u n d a n c e o f r e s e m b l a n c e s w i t h o u t e v e n s u s p e c t i n g that i t has l o n g b e e n p r e p a r e d b y t h e o r d e r o f t h e w o r l d . b u t i n o r d e r that this f o r m m a y b e b r o u g h t o u t i n t o t h e l i g h t i n its t u r n t h e r e m u s t b e a v i s i b l e f i g u r e that w i l l d r a w i t o u t f r o m its p r o f o u n d i n v i s i b i l i t y . T h i s i s w h y 26 . o r b y w h a t m a r k i t m a y b e r e c o g n i z e d . Paracelsus s a y s : I t i s n o t G o d ' s w i l l that w h a t h e creates f o r m a n ' s b e n e f i t a n d w h a t h e has g i v e n u s s h o u l d r e m a i n h i d d e n . there m u s t b e v i s i b l e m a r k s f o r the i n v i s i b l e a n a l o g i e s . y o u m u s t g o s t r a i g h t t o t h e i r m a r k s . T h e w o r l d o f s i m i l a r i t y c a n o n l y b e a w o r l d o f signs. I t w o u l d thus l a c k a n y c r i t e r i o n if it d i d n o t h a v e w i t h i n it . .or a b o v e it or b e s i d e it . T h e r e a r e n o r e s e m b l a n c e s w i t h o u t signatures. h o w o n e sees it. R e s e m b l a n c e w a s the i n v i s i b l e f o r m o f that w h i c h . . f o r o u r g r e a t e r b e n e f i t . W o u l d w e e v e r k n o w that t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n o f t w i n s h i p o r r i v a l r y b e t w e e n a m a n a n d his p l a n e t . f r o m the d e p t h s o f t h e w o r l d . o r that g r o u n d w a l n u t m i x e d w i t h spirits o f w i n e w i l l ease a h e a d a c h e . that i s t o b e r e c o g n i z e d r a t h e r b y its s i g n a ture'[20]. T h e y tell u s w h a t t h e paths o f s i m i l i t u d e a r e a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n s t h e y t a k e . t h e r e m u s t o f c o u r s e b e s o m e m a r k that w i l l m a k e u s a w a r e o f these t h i n g s : o t h e r w i s e . . i f there w e r e n o s i g n u p o n his b o d y o r a m o n g t h e w r i n k l e s o n his face that he is an emulator of M a r s or akin to Saturn? T h e s e buried similitudes must b e i n d i c a t e d o n t h e surface o f t h i n g s .a d e c i s i v e e l e m e n t t o t r a n s f o r m its u n c e r t a i n g l i m m e r i n t o b r i g h t c e r t a i n t y . b u t n o t w h e r e i t is. T h e s y s t e m o f signatures reverses t h e r e l a t i o n o f the v i s i b l e t o t h e i n v i s i b l e . h e has a l l o w e d n o t h i n g t o r e m a i n w i t h o u t e x t e r i o r a n d v i s i b l e signs i n the f o r m o f special m a r k s . a v i r t u e . I say. b o t h the m o s t o b v i o u s and the m o s t hidden of things? Because it is n o t m a d e up of j u x t a p o s e d f r a g m e n t s . I n o r d e r that w e m a y k n o w that a c o n i t e w i l l c u r e o u r e y e disease.THE ORDER OF THINGS i t s e l f s o that t h i n g s c a n r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r . a s i m i l i t u d e t h a t c a n b e seen a n d y e t n o t seen. I s n o t a n y r e s e m b l a n c e .

s o m e w o r d . T h i s s i g n i s easily l e g i b l e i n its s e e d s : t h e y a r e t i n y d a r k g l o b e s set i n w h i t e s k i n l i k e c o v e r i n g s w h o s e a p p e a r a n c e i s m u c h l i k e that o f e y e l i d s c o v e r i n g a n e y e [23]. w i t h ciphers a n d o b s c u r e w o r d s . t h e c i p h e r o f s y m p a t h y resides in the p r o p o r t i o n .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D the face o f t h e w o r l d i s c o v e r e d w i t h b l a z o n s . s o i t w o u l d s e e m t h a t the h e r b s s p e a k t o t h e c u r i o u s p h y s i c i a n t h r o u g h t h e i r signatures.w i t h ' h i e r o g l y p h i c s ' . a n d w h a t renders i t v i s i b l e . w h i c h e n v e l o p s all t h e o t h e r s a n d encloses t h e m w i t h i n a s i n g l e c i r c l e . trees a n d o t h e r t h i n g s issuing f r o m t h e b o w e l s o f the e a r t h are s o m a n y m a g i c b o o k s a n d signs?'[2i] T h e g r e a t u n t r o u b l e d m i r r o r i n w h o s e d e p t h s t h i n g s g a z e d a t t h e m s e l v e s a n d reflected t h e i r o w n i m a g e s b a c k t o o n e a n o t h e r is. i n r e a l i t y . i f n o t b e c a u s e w e k n o w that s y m p a t h y creates c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n o u r 27 . B u t w e m u s t p a u s e a little h e r e t o e x a m i n e this l a n g u a g e ! itself. . A l l that r e m a i n s i s t o d e c i p h e r t h e m : 'Is i t n o t t r u e that all h e r b s . T o e x a m i n e the signs o f w h i c h i t i s m a d e u p a n d t h e w a y i n w h i c h these signs refer b a c k t o w h a t t h e y i n d i c a t e . i t bristles w i t h w r i t t e n s i g n s . a s T u r n e r c a l l e d t h e m . t h e w o r l d m a y b e c o m p a r e d t o a m a n w i t h the p o w e r o f s p e e c h : Just a s t h e secret m o v e m e n t s o f his u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e m a n i f e s t e d b y his v o i c e . o r obstacles p r e s e n t i n t h e w h o l e v a s t fabric o f his life? H o w i n d e e d . e v e r y p a g e i s seen t o b e f d l e d w i t h s t r a n g e f i g u r e s that i n t e r t w i n e a n d i n s o m e places r e p e a t t h e m s e l v e s . a s i t w e r e . T h i s u n e x p e c t e d affinity w o u l d r e m a i n i n o b s c u r i t y i f there w e r e n o t s o m e s i g n a t u r e o n the p l a n t . A n d b y t h e g r a c e o f o n e final f o r m o f r e s e m b l a n c e . w i t h c h a r a c t e r s . t e l l i n g u s that i t i s g o o d f o r diseases o f t h e e y e . their i n n e r v i r t u e s h i d d e n b e n e a t h n a t u r e ' s v e i l o f silence[22]. T h e r e exists a s y m p a t h y b e t w e e n a c o n i t e a n d o u r e y e s . B u t w h a t signature can the p r o p o r t i o n itself bear in order to m a k e its e l f r e c o g n i z a b l e ? H o w i s o n e t o k n o w t h a t t h e lines o f a h a n d o r t h e f u r r o w s o n a b r o w are t r a c i n g o n a m a n ' s b o d y t h e t e n d e n c i e s .t h e shell . s o m e m a r k . A n d the space i n h a b i t e d b y i m m e d i a t e r e s e m b l a n c e s b e c o m e s l i k e a v a s t o p e n b o o k . I t i s t h e s a m e w i t h the affinity o f the w a l n u t a n d t h e h u m a n h e a d : w h a t c u r e s ' w o u n d s o f the p e r i c r a n i u m ' i s t h e t h i c k g r e e n r i n d c o v e r i n g t h e b o n e s . filled w i t h t h e m u r m u r o f w o r d s . i s q u i t e s i m p l y a n a l o g y . T h e m u t e r e f l e c t i o n s all h a v e c o r r e s p o n d i n g w o r d s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h e m . T h e s i g n o f affinity. p l a n t s . d i s c o v e r i n g to h i m . . b u t internal h e a d a i l m e n t s m a y b e p r e v e n t e d b y use o f t h e n u t itself ' w h i c h i s e x a c t l y l i k e t h e b r a i n i n appearance'[24].o f the fruit. a c c i d e n t s .

t h e u p w a r d d i r e c t i o n o f a w r i n k l e a m a n ' s rise t o success. t h a t there is an affinity a n d . a s d o t h e s u n and t h e s u n f l o w e r . m a n a n d his stars. an adjacent 28 . or a p l a n t a n d t h e soil it n e e d s ) . It is s y m p a t h i e s a n d e m u l a t i o n s that i n d i c a t e a n a l o g i e s . t h e r e f o r e . a g a i n s t a b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e d i s c o v e r y that t h i n g s i n g e n e r a l a r c ' c o n v e n i e n t ' a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s . a n d transmits the m o v e m e n t o f t h e planets t o t h e affairs o f m e n . B r e a d t h i s a s i g n o f w e a l t h a n d i m p o r t a n c e . as it w e r e . a s i m i l i t u d e ) . A n d w h a t o t h e r s i g n i s there that t w o t h i n g s are l i n k e d t o o n e a n o t h e r unless i t i s that t h e y h a v e a m u t u a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r e a c h o t h e r . t o o . that the s t r o n g e s t a n d b r a v e s t a n i m a l s h a v e l a r g e a n d w e l l . R e s e m b l a n c e s r e quire a signature. b u t that m a n y b e i n g s separated in space are also ' c o n v e n i e n t ' (as w i t h a disease a n d its r e m e d y .R e s e m b l a n c e d o e s . T h e g r e a t a n a l o g y b e t w e e n b o d y a n d d e s t i n y has its s i g n i n t h e w h o l e s y s t e m o f m i r r o r s a n d a t t r a c t i o n s . for n o n e of t h e m w o u l d ever b e c o m e observable w e r e i t n o t l e g i b l y m a r k e d . d i s c o n t i n u i t y ill fortune[25]. a m i d all the aspects o f the w o r l d and s o m a n y interlacing forms. e v e r since the G r e e k s . f o r its distinct e x i s t e n c e as a s i g n a t u r e w o u l d t h e n be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m the face of w h i c h it is the s i g n . it is another r e s e m b l a n c e .THE ORDER OF THINGS b o d i e s a n d the h e a v e n s . c o n t i n u i t y d e n o t e s g o o d f o r t u n e . a s y m p a t h y between them? A n d so the circle is closed. A n d i f o n e t h e n c o n s i d e r s that c o n v e n i e n c y i s n o t a l w a y s d e f i n e d b y actual l o c a l i z a t i o n . E m u l a t i o n m a y b e r e c o g n i z e d b y a n a l o g y : t h e e y e s are stars b e c a u s e t h e y spread l i g h t o v e r o u r faces j u s t a s stars l i g h t u p the darkness. t h e n a g a i n a s i g n o f their c o n v e n i e n c y i s essential. m a n ' s face a n d h a n d s m u s t r e s e m b l e t h e s o u l t o w h i c h t h e y are j o i n e d . B u t w h a t are these signs? H o w . B u t w h a t i t indicates i s n o t t h e h o m o l o g y . I n the s a m e w a y . o r w a t e r a n d a c u c u m b e r s h o o t .d e v e l o p e d e x t r e m i t i e s t o their l i m b s . a s t h o u g h their s t r e n g t h h a d c o m m u n i c a t e d i t s e l f t o t h e m o s t distant parts o f their b o d i e s . t h e intersection o f t w o f u r r o w s a n o b stacle i n o n e ' s p a t h . T h o u g h it is apparent w h a t a c o m p l i c a t e d s y s t e m o f d u p l i c a t i o n s w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e this. a n d b e c a u s e b l i n d p e o p l e e x i s t i n the w o r l d l i k e c l a i r v o y a n t s i n the d a r k e s t o f n i g h t s . b e c a u s e t h e shortness o f a line reflects the s i m p l e i m a g e o f a s h o r t life. A n d i f n o t . I t signifies e x a c t l y i n s o far a s i t r e s e m b l e s w h a t i t i s i n d i c a t i n g (that is. I t c a n also b e r e c o g n i z e d t h r o u g h convenientia: w e h a v e k n o w n . does one r e c o g n i z e that o n e i s f a c e d a t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t w i t h a c h a r a c t e r that s h o u l d g i v e o n e p a u s e b e c a u s e i t indicates a secret a n d essential r e s e m b l a n c e ? W h a t f o r m c o n s t i t u t e s a s i g n a n d e n d o w s it w i t h its p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e as a s i g n ? . T h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f the m o s t v i s i b l e similitudes o c c u r s .

i t offers itself t o o u r c o g n i t i o n . T h e signature a n d w h a t i t d e n o t e s are o f e x a c t l y t h e s a m e n a t u r e . T o search for a m e a n i n g i s t o b r i n g t o l i g h t a r e s e m b l a n c e . o n l y in so far as this s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n 29 . a n d w h a t g u a r a n t e e s its w e a l t h o f c o n t e n t (for the m o m e n t o n e lifts aside the signs a n d l o o k s a t w h a t t h e y i n d i c a t e . T h e f o r m m a k i n g a s i g n a n d t h e f o r m b e i n g s i g n a l i z e d are r e s e m b l a n c e s .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D s i m i l i t u d e . s l i d i n g o v e r the g r e a t c i r c l e o f s i m i l i t u d e s . ' N a t u r e ' i s t r a p p e d i n the thin layer that holds s e m i o l o g y and hermeneutics o n e a b o v e the o t h e r . let u s call the t o t a l i t y o f t h e l e a r n i n g a n d skills that e n a b l e o n e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e l o c a t i o n o f the signs. w h i c h i n t u r n r e q u i r e s t h e m a r k o f s y m p a t h y for its r e c o g n i t i o n . f o r m s a s e c o n d c i r c l e w h i c h w o u l d b e a n e x a c t d u p l i c a t i o n o f the first. E v e r y r e s e m b l a n c e r e c e i v e s a s i g n a t u r e . i t i s n e i t h e r m y s t e r i o u s n o r v e i l e d . t o d e f i n e w h a t constitutes t h e m a s signs. the. y e t s o m e t h i n g that o n e m u s t n e v e r t h e l e s s s e a r c h f o r . T o search f o r the l a w g o v e r n i n g signs i s t o d i s c o v e r the t h i n g s that are a l i k e . A n d i t i s i n this respect t h a t r e s e m b l a n c e i n sixteenth-century k n o w l e d g e is w i t h o u t d o u b t the most universal thing there is: a t t h e s a m e t i m e that w h i c h i s m o s t c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . A n d w h a t t h e l a n g u a g e t h e y speak has to tell us is q u i t e s i m p l y w h a t t h e s y n t a x is that b i n d s t h e m t o g e t h e r . b u t t h e y d o n o t o v e r l a p . their c o e x i s t e n c e . o n e o f a n o t h e r t y p e w h i c h enables u s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e first. T h e g r a m m a r o f b e i n g s i s a n e x e g e s i s o f these t h i n g s . h e r m e n e u t i c s . w h a t d e t e r m i n e s the f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e (for k n o w l e d g e c a n o n l y f o l l o w the paths o f s i m i l i t u d e ) . p o i n t b y p o i n t . w e r e i t n o t for that t i n y d e g r e e o f d i s p l a c e m e n t w h i c h causes the s i g n o f s y m p a t h y t o reside i n a n a n a l o g y . the p a t t e r n f r o m w h i c h t h e y are c u t is the s a m e . A s a result. a n d t o k n o w h o w a n d b y w h a t l a w s t h e y are l i n k e d . i t i s m e r e l y that t h e y o b e y a different l a w o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . A n d that r e s e m b l a n c e i s v i s i b l e o n l y i n the n e t w o r k o f signs that crosses t h e w o r l d f r o m o n e e n d t o the o t h e r . T h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s . L e t u s call t h e t o t a l i t y o f the l e a r n i n g a n d skills that e n a b l e o n e t o m a k e the signs s p e a k a n d t o d i s c o v e r their m e a n i n g . that o f a n a l o g y i n e m u l a t i o n . that o f e m u l a t i o n i n c o n v e n i e n c e . w h i c h it s o m e t i m e s leads astray. a n d w h i c h i s r e v e a l e d i n its t u r n b y a t h i r d . b u t this s i g n a t u r e i s n o m o r e t h a n a n i n t e r m e d i a t e f o r m o f the s a m e r e s e m b l a n c e . o n e a l l o w s R e s e m b l a n c e itself t o e m e r g e i n t o the l i g h t o f d a y a n d shine w i t h its o w n inner l i g h t ) . s e m i o l o g y : the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y superimposed hermeneutics and semiology in the f o r m o f s i m i l i t u d e . since it is also t h e m o s t h i d d e n . w a y i n w h i c h t h e y are l i n k e d t o g e t h e r a n d c o m m u n i c a t e i s n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n their r e s e m b l a n c e . the t o t a l i t y o f these m a r k s .

k n o w l e d g e a n d the infinite l a b o u r it i n v o l v e s find h e r e the space that is p r o p e r to t h e m : it is their task t o w e a v e t h e i r w a y across this distance. since it resides in b o t h the m a r k and the content in identical fashion). a n d m u s t . a n d t o k n o w i n g that t h i n g o n l y a t the u n a t t a i n a b l e e n d o f a n e n d less j o u r n e y . As a result. P l e t h o r i c b e c a u s e i t i s limitless. a n d t h e w h o l e w o r l d m u s t b e e x p l o r e d i f e v e n t h e slightest o f a n a l o g i e s i s t o b e j u s t i f i e d and finally take on the appearance of certainty. A d a r k space appears w h i c h m u s t b e m a d e p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l e a r e r .c e n t u r y episteme. refers t o o t h e r s . hence their m o n o t o n y .c o i n c i d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e s e m b l a n c e s . t h e p l e t h o r i c y e t a b s o l u t e l y p o v e r t y . B y positing r e s e m b l a n c e a s the l i n k b e t w e e n signs a n d w h a t t h e y i n d i c a t e (thus m a k i n g r e s e m b l a n c e b o t h a t h i r d f o r c e a n d a s o l e p o w e r . p r o c e e d b y t h e infinite a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c o n f i r m a t i o n s all d e p e n d e n t o n o n e a n o t h e r . T h i s ancient n o t i o n w a s n o d o u b t r e v i v e d . T h e o n l y p o s s i b l e f o r m o f l i n k b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s o f this k n o w l e d g e i s a d d i t i o n . t h e m i c r o c o s m . First a n d f o r e m o s t . A n d i t i s h e r e that w e f i n d that o n l y t o o w e l l . t h e r e f o r e . w h i c h t h e n . It is therefore a k n o w l e d g e that c a n . b y a 30 . i t c a n b e f i x e d o n l y i f i t refers b a c k t o a n o t h e r s i m i l i t u d e . A n d f o r this r e a s o n . p u r s u i n g a n endless z i g z a g c o u r s e f r o m r e s e m b l a n c e t o w h a t r e s e m b l e s it. i n t u r n . sixteenth-century k n o w l e d g e c o n d e m n e d itself t o n e v e r k n o w i n g a n y t h i n g b u t t h e s a m e t h i n g . E v e r y t h i n g w o u l d b e manifest and i m m e d i a t e l y k n o w a b l e i f t h e h e r m e n e u t i c s o f r e s e m b l a n c e a n d the s e m i o l o g y o f signatures c o i n c i d e d w i t h o u t t h e slightest p a r a l l a x . d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g e s a n d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . f r o m its v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s . this k n o w l e d g e w i l l b e a t h i n g o f sand. i s the s i x t e e n t h .THE ORDER OF THINGS necessarily i n c l u d e s a s l i g h t d e g r e e o f n o n . m T H E LIMITS OF THE W O R L D Such.s t r i c k e n c h a r a c ter o f this k n o w l e d g e . T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n carries w i t h i t a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f c o n s e quences. its t r a n s p a r e n c y i s c l o u d e d o v e r f r o m t h e v e r y f i r s t . s k e t c h e d i n its m o s t g e n e r a l aspects. t h e g r i d is less e a s y to see t h r o u g h . has v a l u e o n l y f r o m t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f all t h e o t h e r s .k n o w n c a t e g o r y . e a c h r e s e m b l a n c e . c o m i n g into play. B u t b e c a u s e t h e s i m i l i t u d e s t h a t f o r m t h e g r a p h i c s o f t h e w o r l d are o n e ' c o g ' o u t o f a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h o s e that f o r m its d i s c o u r s e . a n d i t i s w h a t o n e m u s t attempt t o k n o w . T h a t s p a c e i s w h e r e 'nature* resides. R e s e m b l a n c e n e v e r r e m a i n s stable w i t h i n itself. H e n c e t h o s e i m m e n s e c o l u m n s o f c o m p i l a t i o n .

T h e fact i s t h a t i t h a d o n e . that t h e v i s i b l e o r d e r o f t h e h i g h e s t spheres w i l l b e f o u n d reflected i n t h e d a r k e s t d e p t h s o f t h e e a r t h . If. t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n o f t h e signs t h e y r e q u i r e . and. i s c l o s e d i n u p o n i t s e l f i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the d u p l i c a t e d f o r m o f t h e c o s m o s . It hardly matters w h e t h e r i t w a s o r w a s n o t . b u t i n t h e e n d t h e y c a n b e c o u n t e d . o n the other hand. a n d t h a t its p e r i m e t e r defines the l i m i t o f all c r e a t e d t h i n g s . c a n cease their endless f l i g h t .a n d . a s w a s o n c e c l a i m e d . i t p r o v i d e s all i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h a n assurance that e v e r y t h i n g w i l l f i n d its m i r r o r a n d its m a c r o c o s m i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n o n a n o t h e r a n d l a r g e r scale. As a category of thought. t h e b e i n g s t h a t reside w i t h i n i t m a y b e e x t r e m e l y n u m e r o u s . o n e i n v e s t i g a t e s s i x t e e n t h . a l w a y s rest o n e u p o n a n o t h e r . W e m u s t therefore b e careful n o t t o invert the relations here. B y this v e r y fact. t h e stars. i t c a n n o t b e infinite.f r o o f s i m i l i t u d e s r e l i e v i n g o n e a n o t h e r .P l a t o n i s t t r a d i t i o n . i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n o n e o f the m o s t f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d t e r m s i n the results o f a n y p o l l t a k e n a t t h e t i m e . B u t b y the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t h a d c o m e to play a fundamental role in the field of k n o w l e d g e . T h e y h a v e a p e r f e c t l y c l o s e d d o m a i n t o s u p p o r t a n d buttress t h e m . as it w e r e .t h e n the relations o f m a c r o c o s m a n d m i c r o c o s m a p p e a r a s a m e r e surface effect. l i k e t h e i n t e r p l a y o f signs a n d r e s e m b l a n c e s . o r r a t h e r t w o . w h i c h c o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n o n l y b y a statistical analysis o f c o n t e m p o r a r y r e c o r d s . w i t h i n its restricted d i m e n s i o n s . t h e s i m i l i t u d e s that.THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D certain n e o . t h e m o u n t a i n s . t h e i m m e n s e o r d e r o f t h e h e a v e n s . u n d e r s t o o d as a general configuration of n a t u r e . r i v e r s . It indicates that t h e r e exists a g r e a t e r w o r l d . h o w e v e r i m m e n s e the distance f r o m m i c r o c o s m t o m a c r o c o s m m a y b e . B u t w e are n o t c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h a s t u d y o f o p i n i o n s . a n d s t o r m s . i n v e r s e l y . T h e r e i s n o d o u b t that t h e idea o f t h e m i c r o c o s m w a s . a t t h e l e v e l o f w h a t m a d e i t p o s s i b l e . B u t . it poses real a n d . p r e c i s e f u n c t i o n s in t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of this p e r i o d . i t affirms.c e n t u r y k n o w l e d g e a t its a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l e v e l . a s w e say. i t applies the i n t e r p l a y o f d u p l i c a t e d r e s e m b l a n c e s t o all t h e r e a l m s o f n a t u r e . c o n s e q u e n t l y . a w o r l d v i e w o r Weltanschauung. a n d that i t i s b e t w e e n t h e e f f e c t i v e l i m i t s o f this c o n s t i t u e n t a n a l o g y that t h e i n t e r p l a y o f r e s e m b l a n c e s takes p l a c e . I t w a s n o t b e c a u s e p e o p l e b e l i e v e d i n s u c h relations that t h e y set a b o u t t r y i n g t o h u n t d o w n all t h e a n a l o g i e s i n t h e w o r l d . t a n g i b l e limits t o t h e i n d e f a t i g a b l e t o . N a t u r e . B u t t h e r e w a s a necessity l y i n g a t the h e a r t o f their k n o w l e d g e : t h e y h a d t o f i n d a n adjustm e n t b e t w e e n the infinite richness of a r e s e m b l a n c e i n t r o d u c e d as a third 3i .that is. ' i m p o r t a n t ' i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . that a t t h e far e x t r e m i t y o f this g r e a t w o r l d there exists a p r i v i l e g e d c r e a t i o n w h i c h r e p r o d u c e s .

. D i v i n a t i o n i s n o t a r i v a l f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e . I t i s this v e r y r i g o u r that m a k e s the r e l a t i o n o f m a g i c t o e r u d i t i o n i n e v i t a b l e . i t i s n o t f r o m a n insufficiency o f s t r u c t u r e that s i x t e e n t h . i t w a s essential that the r e l a t i o n o f m i c r o c o s m t o m a c r o c o s m s h o u l d b e c o n c e i v e d a s b o t h t h e g u a r a n t e e o f that k n o w l e d g e a n d the l i m i t o f its e x p a n s i o n . d o r m a n t w i t h i n t h i n g s . notions derived f r o m m a g i c a l practices. and a w h o l e cultural heritage w h o s e p o w e r and authority had been vastly increased b y the r e d i s c o v e r y o f G r e e k a n d R o m a n a u t h o r s . i t i s part o f t h e m a i n b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e itself. T o k n o w m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e t o i n t e r p r e t : t o find a w a y f r o m the v i s i b l e m a r k t o that w h i c h i s b e i n g said b y i t a n d w h i c h . i t s e e m s that sixteenth-rcentury l e a r n ing w a s m a d e u p o f a n unstable m i x t u r e o f rational k n o w l e d g e . a n d an a l r e a d y a w a k e n e d a w a r e n e s s o f that s o v e r e i g n rationality i n w h i c h w e r e c o g n i z e ourselves. w h i c h r e v e a l r e s e m b l a n c e s a n d affinities. a n d those signs. the l e a r n i n g o f that p e r i o d appears s t r u c t u r a l l y weak: a common ground w h e r e fidelity to the A n c i e n t s . w e h a v e a l r e a d y seen h o w v e r y m e t i c u l o u s the c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are that d e f i n e its space. . a n d it is n o t p o s s i b l e t o act u p o n those m a r k s w i t h o u t a t the s a m e t i m e o p e r a t i n g u p o n 32 . a taste f o r t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l .THE ORDER OF THINGS t e r m b e t w e e n signs a n d their m e a n i n g . I n fact. T h e r e i s n o m o u n t a i n s o v a s t that i t c a n h i d e f r o m the g a z e o f m a n w h a t i s w i t h i n it.t h e y are n o t selected c o n t e n t s b u t r e q u i r e d f o r m s . P e r c e i v e d thus. n o t h i n g i n t h e h e i g h t s o f t h e f i r m a m e n t that m a n i s n o t c a p a b l e o f d i s c o v e r i n g . A n d this tripartite p e r i o d w o u l d c o n s e q u e n t l y b e reflected i n t h e m i r r o r o f e a c h w o r k a n d e a c h d i v i d e d m i n d o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n it. M o r e o v e r . . w o u l d lie l i k e u n s p o k e n s p e e c h .c e n t u r y k n o w l e d g e suffers. are t h e m s e l v e s n o m o r e than f o r m s o f s i m i l i t u d e . a n d the m o n o t o n y that i m p o s e d t h e s a m e p a t t e r n o f r e s e m b l a n c e u p o n the s i g n a n d w h a t i t signified. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the d e p t h s o f the seas. T o us. w i t h o u t that m a r k . i t i s r e v e a l e d t o h i m b y c o r r e s p o n d i n g signs [26]. I n a n episteme i n w h i c h signs a n d s i m i l i t u d e s w e r e w r a p p e d a r o u n d o n e a n o t h e r i n a n endless spiral. B u t w e m e n d i s c o v e r all that i s h i d d e n i n the m o u n t a i n s b y signs a n d o u t w a r d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . T h e w o r l d i s c o v e r e d w i t h signs that m u s t b e d e c i p h e r e d . I t w a s this s a m e n e c e s s i t y that o b l i g e d k n o w l e d g e t o a c c e p t m a g i c a n d e r u d i t i o n o n t h e s a m e l e v e l . these signs that m u s t b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i c a t e w h a t is h i d d e n o n l y in so far as t h e y r e s e m b l e it. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . a n d i t i s thus t h a t w e f i n d o u t all t h e p r o perties o f h e r b s a n d all that i s i n stones. confronted o n e a n o t h e r i n e q u a l f r e e d o m .

i n o r d e r t o e x e r c i s e o u r w i s d o m . A l g o r i a . A n d let n o o n e say that this i s m e r e l y the effect o f the s o u n d m a d e b y t h e w o r d s w h e n p r o n o u n c e d : ' I f y o u w r i t e these w o r d s a l o n e o n v e l l u m . I n w h a t a c a d e m i e s d i d t h e y l e a r n them. the v a l u e o f l a n g u a g e l a y i n the fact that i t w a s the s i g n o f t h i n g s .r e f e r e n c e o f signs a n d similitudes. i n the treasure h a n d e d d o w n t o u s b y A n t i q u i t y . so that scarcely h a v e they heard the w o r d than they i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n tail i n o r d e r n o t t o hear i t a g a i n ? S c a r c e l y d o t h e y hear t h e w o r d w h e n . p a r c h m e n t o r p a p e r a t a f a v o u r a b l e t i m e . T h i s i s w h y the plants that r e present the h e a d . Paracelsus asks: T e l l m e . a n d t h e l e g i b l e w o r d s that t h e S c r i p t u r e s . t h e y r e m a i n i m m o b i l e a n d p o i s o n n o o n e w i t h their v e n o m o u s w o u n d s .' T h e project o f elucidating the 'Natural M a g i c s ' . s o w a s e r u d i t i o n : f o r . a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h a t t h e y h a v e said. . w h i c h occupies a n i m p o r t a n t p l a c e a t t h e e n d o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d s u r v i v e s i n t o the m i d d l e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D that w h i c h i s s e c r e t l y i n d i c a t e d b y t h e m . . o r t h e e y e s . T h e f o r m o f m a g i c w a s i n h e r e n t i n this w a y o f knowing. w h y snakes i n H e l v e t i a . w h e r e a s t h e Ancients h a v e already p r o v i d e d u s w i t h interpretations. O r w h i c h w e w o u l d need o n l y t o g a t h e r t o g e t h e r . m e r e l y s o w e d n a t u r e w i t h f o r m s for u s t o d e c i p h e r (and it is in this sense that k n o w l e d g e s h o u l d be divinatio). T h e r e i s n o difference b e t w e e n the v i s i b l e m a r k s that G o d has s t a m p e d u p o n t h e surface o f the earth. i n b o t h cases there arc signs t o b e d i s c o v e r e d a n d t h e n . t h e n . o r the l i v e r . B u t G o d . i t w a s r e v i v e d . little b y little. i s n o t a v e s t i g i a l p h e n o m e n o n i n the E u r o p e a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . h a v e set d o w n i n the b o o k s p r e s e r v e d for u s b y t r a d i t i o n . t h e n p l a c e t h e m i n f r o n t o f the serpent. s o that w c m a y k n o w its inner secrets. w i l l possess a n efficacity i n r e g a r d t o t h a t o r g a n . r e a d i n g their t e x t s . T h e relation t o these texts i s o f the s a m e n a t u r e a s the r e l a t i o n t o t h i n g s : i n b o t h cases there are signs that m u s t b e d i s c o v e r e d . A n d b y the s a m e t o k e n . w e r e i t n o t f o r the necessity o f l e a r n i n g their l a n g u a g e . o r the sages o f A n t i q u i t y . w h i c h w e need d o n o m o r e than gather together. S w e d l a n d u n d e r s t a n d the G r e e k w o r d s O s y . o r t h e heart. i s a v a s t s p a c e r e q u i r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . O s y . n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g their n a t u r e a n d their spirit.a s C a m p a n c l l a e x p r e s s l y tells u s [ 2 7 ] . 33 . O s y a . T h e h e r i t a g e o f A n t i q u i t y . i t w i l l stay n o less m o t i o n l e s s t h a n i f y o u h a d p r o n o u n c e d t h e m aloud.a n d f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y reasons: b e c a u s e the fundamental conf i g u r a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e c o n s i s t e d o f the r e c i p r o c a l c r o s s . l i k e n a t u r e itself. this i s w h y the a n i m a l s t h e m s e l v e s w i l l react t o t h e m a r k s t h a t d e s i g n a t e t h e m .

a n d this i s w h y n a t u r e a n d the w o r d c a n i n t e r t w i n e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r t o i n f i n i t y . w h i c h c o m b i n e s h e r e a n d there w i t h the forms o f the w o r l d and b e c o m e s i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h e m : s o m u c h s o that all these e l e m e n t s . o n e t h a t refers t o the n o t a t i o n s o f n a t u r e . real l a n g u a g e is n o t a t o t a l i t y of i n d e p e n d e n t signs. a f r a g m e n t e d mass. it is a treasury of signs l i n k e d b y s i m i l i t u d e t o that w h i c h t h e y are e m p o w e r e d t o d e n o t e . the other m o v e s f r o m the u n m o v i n g g r a p h i s m t o c l e a r s p e e c h (it restores s l e e p i n g l a n g u a g e s t o life).i s e v e r y w h e r e t h e s a m e : c o e v a l w i t h t h e institution o f G o d . f r o m t h e d e p t h o f its b e i n g . f o l l o w i n g similar f o r m s . that o f secret o r o f i n d i c a t o r . b u t this d e v e l o p s . T h e process i s e v e r y w h e r e t h e s a m e : t h a t o f the s i g n a n d its likeness. it is adjusted to t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . It is rather a n o p a q u e . divinatio a n d emditio are b o t h part o f t h e s a m e h e r m e n e u t i c s . c l o s e d i n u p o n itself. f o r t h o s e w h o can read it. a n d so express their p a r t i c u l a r truths. I n o t h e r w o r d s . a n d d o e s i n fact p l a y . o n t w o different l e v e l s : o n e m o v e s f r o m t h e m u t e s i g n t o t h e t h i n g itself (and m a k e s nature speak). t h e r o l e o f c o n t e n t o r o f s i g n . w h i c h i n t h e i r t u r n i n d i c a t e o b s c u r e l y t h e p u r e g o l d o f t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s .w h e t h e r t h e y are w o v e n i n t o n a t u r e i t s e l f o r w h e t h e r t h e y e x i s t i n lines o n p a r c h m e n t s a n d i n l i b r a r i e s . its e n i g m a r e n e w e d i n e v e r y i n t e r v a l . T h e r e i s n o difference b e t w e e n m a r k s a n d w o r d s i n the sense t h a t t h e r e is b e t w e e n observation and accepted authority. o n e v a s t s i n g l e text. 34 . IV THE WRITING OF THINGS In the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . f o r m a n e t w o r k o f m a r k s i n w h i c h e a c h o f t h e m m a y p l a y . B u t j u s t a s n a t u r a l signs are l i n k e d t o w h a t t h e y i n d i c a t e b y t h e p r o f o u n d r e l a t i o n o f r e s e m b l a n c e . a n d it possesses an ageless affinity w i t h t h e t h i n g s t h a t it u n v e i l s . It is useless t h e r e f o r e to d e m a n d its title to a u t h o r i t y . m y s t e r i o u s t h i n g . f o r m i n g . it f o r m s a m i r r o r f o r t h e m a n d e m u l a t e s t h e m . T h e o n l y difference i s that w e are d e a l i n g w i t h a t r e a s u r e . i t i s t o eternal t r u t h w h a t signs are t o the secrets o f n a t u r e (it i s the m a r k w h e r e b y t h e w o r d m a y b e d e c i p h e r e d ) . T h e t r u t h o f all these m a r k s . a u n i f o r m a n d u n b r o k e n e n t i t y i n w h i c h t h i n g s c o u l d b e reflected o n e by o n e . a n d b y m e a n s o f t h e l i g h t that has n e v e r ceased t o shine t h r o u g h it since its o r i g i n . i n r e l a t i o n t o all the o t h e r s .h o a r d o f the s e c o n d d e g r e e . or b e t w e e n verifiable fact a n d t r a d i t i o n . that i s b e c a u s e . s o t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e A n c i e n t s i s i n t h e i m a g e o f w h a t i t expresses.THE ORDER OF THINGS m a d e t o speak. i f i t has the v a l u e o f a p r e c i o u s s i g n . t a k e n t o g e t h e r . as in a m i r r o r .

i s m e r e l y the r e v e r s e a n d v i s i b l e side o f a n o t h e r transference.w i d e dissemination o f similitudes and signatures. a n d syllables letters. T h e s t u d y o f g r a m m a r i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s b a s e d u p o n t h e same e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t a s the s c i e n c e o f n a t u r e o r the esoteric disciplines. and the animals. a n d letters are d i s c o v e r e d b y a n o t h e r d i s c o u r s e w h i c h a l w a y s remains secret. i t has b e e n set d o w n i n t h e w o r l d a n d f o r m s a p a r t o f it. It is a f r a g m e n t e d n a t u r e . b u t t h e i n trinsic ' p r o p e r t i e s ' o f letters. w h i c h w a s t o h a v e s u c h i m p o r t a n c e for g r a m marians o f the s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s that i t p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h the g u i d i n g thread o f their analyses. T h e s e c o n d p a r t d e a l t w i t h s y n t a x : its p u r p o s e w a s t o t e a c h ' t h e b u i l d i n g o f w o r d s t o g e t h e r b y m e a n s o f their p r o p e r t i e s ' . o f the c o n j u n c t i o n i n t h e o r d e r o f t h i n g s c o n joined'[28]. s y l l a b l e s . its representative c o n t e n t . L a n g u a g e stands halfw a y b e t w e e n t h e v i s i b l e f o r m s o f n a t u r e a n d t h e secret c o n v e n i e n c e s o f esoteric d i s c o u r s e . b e c a u s e t h e r e are v i r t u e s p l a c e d i n i n d i v i d u a l letters that d r a w t h e m t o w a r d s e a c h o t h e r o r k e e p t h e m apart. n o t the o r i g i n a l m e a n i n g s o f w o r d s . It m u s t . a n d . the stones. b o t h because things themselves hide and manifest their o w n e n i g m a like a l a n g u a g e a n d b e c a u s e w o r d s offer t h e m s e l v e s t o m e n a s t h i n g s t o b e d e c i p h e r e d . w h e r e a s i n g r a m m a r i t i s t h e w o r d s a n d phrases o f e v e r y d a y life t h a t t h e m s e l v e s e x p r e s s their p r o p e r t i e s . a n d i t consisted ' a l m o s t entirely i n the c o n v e n i e n c e and m u t u a l c o m m u n i o n o f properties. R a m u s d i v i d e d his g r a m m a r i n t o t w o parts. the h e r b s .c e n t u r y b e i n g . w h i c h m e a n s that o n e l o o k e d i n i t t o d i s c o v e r . a s o f the n o u n w i t h t h e n o u n o r w i t h t h e v e r b . plants. the d e c i p h e r a b l e signs o f w h a t i t 35 . its e l e m e n t s h a v e their l a w s o f affinity a n d c o n v e n i e n c e . l a n g u a g e i s n o t a n a r b i t r a r y s y s t e m . L a n g u a g e partakes i n the w o r l d . L a n g u a g e is n o t w h a t it is b e c a u s e it has a m e a n i n g . e x a c t l y a s the m a r k s f o u n d i n n a t u r e also r e p e l o r attract o n e another. L i k e animals. historical s i x t e e n t h . t h o u g h near the surface. d i v i d e d against itself a n d d e p r i v e d o f its o r i g i n a l t r a n s p a r e n c y b y a d m i x t u r e . o r stars. a n d that i n the esoteric f i e l d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f w o r d s . w h i c h forces l a n g u a g e t o reside i n t h e w o r l d . has n o r o l e t o p l a y h e r e . a m o n g the p l a n t s . a n d a m u c h d e e p e r o n e . i t i s a secret that carries w i t h i n itself. be s t u d i e d itself as a t h i n g in n a t u r e . T h e g r e a t m e t a p h o r o f the b o o k that o n e o p e n s . T h e first w a s d e v o t e d t o e t y m o l o g y . t h e r e f o r e . w h o l e w o r d s . o f t h e a d v e r b w i t h all the w o r d s t o w h i c h i t i s a d j o i n e d . that o n e p o r e s o v e r a n d reads i n o r d e r t o k n o w n a t u r e . syllables.THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D I n its r a w . f i n a l l y . T h e o n l y differences a r e that t h e r e i s o n l y o n e n a t u r e a n d t h e r e are several l a n g u a g e s . their necessary a n a l o g i e s . W o r d s g r o u p syllables t o g e t h e r .

j u s t a s s t r e n g t h i s w r i t t e n i n t h e b o d y o f the l i o n . w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d i n H e b r e w o n l y i n o r d e r t o s h o w that i t w a s o n c e t h e c o m m o n l a n g u a g e o f G o d . 36 . s o g r e a t l y l a u d e d f o r its c h a r i t y t o w a r d s its father a n d its m o t h e r . a n d t h e a n i m a l s o f the n e w l y c r e a t e d earth. T h i s transparency was dest r o y e d a t B a b e l a s a p u n i s h m e n t f o r m e n . t o b e t h e l o c u s o f r e v e l a t i o n s a n d t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e area w h e r e t r u t h i s b o t h m a n i f e s t e d a n d e x p r e s s e d . a s i f i n the f o r m o f f r a g m e n t s . T h e r e i s o n l y o n e l a n g u a g e that retains a m e m o r y o f that s i m i l i t u d e . is c a l l e d in H e b r e w Chasida. L a n g u a g e s b e c a m e separated a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r o n l y i n s o far a s t h e y h a d p r e v i o u s l y lost this o r i g i n a l r e s e m b l a n c e t o the t h i n g s that h a d b e e n t h e p r i m e reason for the e x i s t e n c e o f l a n g u a g e . all o t h e r l a n g u a g e s h a v e lost these radical similitudes. r e g a l i t y i n the e y e o f the e a g l e . l a n g u a g e w a s a n a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n and transparent s i g n for t h i n g s . m e e k .f o o t e d a n i m a l s t h e h o r s e is m o s t p r o u d a n d b r a v e . e n d o w e d w i t h p i t y . t h e u n c h a n g i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f b e i n g s : T h u s t h e s t o r k . w h i c h is to say. a n d i n the space that i t left v a c a n t . i t still c o n t i n u e s . b e c a u s e i t w a s i n this l a n g u a g e that G o d addressed h i m s e l f t o t h o s e w h o listened t o h i m . i n a n o t h e r f o r m . A l l t h e l a n g u a g e s k n o w n t o u s are n o w s p o k e n o n l y a g a i n s t the b a c k g r o u n d o f this lost s i m i l i t u d e . as J o b depicts it in C h a p t e r 3 9 [29]. the m a r k s o f that o r i g i n a l n a m e . A d a m . I n its o r i g i n a l f o r m . T r u e . . unless that v e r b i s rather d e r i v e d f r o m t h e n o u n . t h o u g h t to be f r o m the v e r b Hasas. a n d i t signifies t o rise u p .g i v i n g . a n d lastly. a n d still c a r r y w i t h t h e m i n t h e i r d e n s i t y . b e c a u s e i t d e r i v e s i n d i r e c t d e s c e n t f r o m that first v o c a b u lary w h i c h is n o w forgotten. f o r a m o n g all f o u r . because G o d did not w i s h m e n to forget t h e p u n i s h m e n t inflicted a t B a b e l . T h e names of things w e r e l o d g e d in the things they design a t e d . c h a r i t a b l e . w h e n i t w a s g i v e n t o m e n b y G o d himself. b e c a u s e i t r e sembled them. b e c a u s e this l a n g u a g e h a d t o b e used i n o r d e r t o r e c o u n t G o d ' s a n c i e n t A l l i a n c e w i t h his p e o p l e . i n p a r t a t least.THE ORDER OF THINGS is t r y i n g to say. H e b r e w t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n s . j u s t a s t h e influence o f t h e planets i s m a r k e d u p o n the b r o w s o f m e n : b y the f o r m o f similitude. this d o e s n o t m e a n that i t i s separate f r o m the w o r l d . B u t these arc n o m o r e than f r a g m e n t a r y m o n u m e n t s . T h e horse is n a m e d Sus. A n d those w o r d s p r o n o u n c e d b y A d a m a s h e i m p o s e d t h e m u p o n the v a r i o u s a n i m a l s h a v e e n d u r e d . l i k e a n e m b e d d e d f r a g m e n t o f silent k n o w l e d g e . It is at t h e s a m e t i m e a b u r i e d r e v e l a t i o n a n d a r e v e l a t i o n that i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g r e s t o r e d t o e v e r g r e a t e r c l a r i t y . B u t t h o u g h l a n g u a g e n o l o n g e r bears a n i m m e d i a t e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e t h i n g s i t n a m e s . .

m a k e u p t o g e t h e r the i m a g e o f t h e truth. s h o u l d s p r e a d o v e r t h e w h o l e o f t h e terrestrial g l o b e . o r rather. t h e S y r i a n s . It is rather t h e f i g u r a t i o n of a w o r l d r e d e e m i n g itself. A n d i t i s also w h y all t h e l a n g u a g e s o f t h e w o r l d . t h e Persians.that c o m i n g w h i c h establishes its e x i s t e n c e i n its o w n t u r n t h r o u g h t h e S c r i p t u r e s a n d the W o r d .i n t h e w o r d s t h e m s e l v e s b u t rather i n t h e v e r y existence o f l a n g u a g e . t h e G r e e k s . t h e Indians. A n d thus ' b y these f i v e d i v e r s e sorts o f w r i t i n g the secrets a n d m y s t e r i e s o f the w o r l d ' s f r a m e a n d the f o r m o f the cross. j u s t a s t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e first n a m e s b o r e a likeness t o t h e t h i n g s that G o d h a d g i v e n t o A d a m for his use. t h e Serbians. b u t n e i t h e r is it a m y s t e r i o u s instrument w i t h p o w e r s k n o w n o n l y to a f e w privileged persons. a n d o f c o u r s e the R o m a n s a n d all E u r o p e a n s w r i t e f r o m left t o r i g h t . t h e A r a b s . their v a l u e a s signs a n d t h e i r d u p l i c a t i n g f u n c t i o n are s u p e r i m p o s e d . t h e P h o e nicians. C a t h a y a n s . a s i t b e c a m e p o s s i b l e t o k n o w t h e m t h r o u g h this c o n q u e s t . t h e y r e p r o d u c e i n their m o s t m a t e r i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e t h e cross w h o s e c o m i n g t h e y a n n o u n c e . i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the ' o r d e r o f n a t u r e . h o m e o f t h e s e v e n p l a n e t s ' . are p r o p e r l y d e n o t e d a n d expressed'[3o]. the E g y p t i a n s . a n d J a p a n e s e w r i t e f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m . t h e y speak the h e a v e n and t h e earth o f w h i c h t h e y are the i m a g e . t h e M o o r s . i n the i n t e r s e c t i n g o f its space w i t h the l o c i a n d f o r m s o f the c o s m o s . the S a r a c e n s . t e n d i n g t o w a r d s u n i t y ' . the C a n a a n s . the C o p t s . b u t since the disaster a t B a b e l w e m u s t n o l o n g e r seek for i t w i t h rare e x c e p t i o n s [31] . t h e u n i t y o f the h e a v e n ' s r o t u n d i t y and that o f the earth. the M a r o n i t e s . w h i c h i s m o s t p e r f e c t . C h i n e s e . i n its total r e l a t i o n t o the t o t a l i t y o f the w o r l d . w h i c h has g i v e n m e n heads a t t h e t o p s o f their b o d i e s a n d feet a t the b o t t o m ' . L a n g u a g e possesses a s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n . f o l l o w i n g ' t h e c o u r s e a n d d a i l y m o v e m e n t o f t h e first h e a v e n . H e n c e the f o r m o f the e n c y c l o p a e d i c p r o j e c t a s i t appears a t the e n d o f 37 . f o l l o w i n g ' t h e c o u r s e a n d m o v e m e n t o f the s e c o n d h e a v e n . T h e r e l a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s t o the w o r l d i s o n e o f a n a l o g y r a t h e r than o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n . C l a u d e D u r e t p o i n t s o u t that t h e H e b r e w s . 'in o p p o s i t i o n t o the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d ' . t h e P o z n a n i a n s . and the T a r t a r s all w r i t e f r o m r i g h t t o left. t h e S a m a r i t a n s . T h i s i s w h y i t w a s G o d ' s w i s h that L a t i n . a c c o r d i n g t o the o p i n i o n o f the g r e a t A r i s t o t l e . the l a n g u a g e o f his C h u r c h . the M e x i c a n s w r i t e either f r o m b o t t o m t o t o p o r else i n 'spiral lines. t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n s . l e n d i n g its ear at last t o t h e t r u e w o r d . t h e T u r k s . the C h a l d e a n s . the G e o r g i a n s . t h e J a c o b i t e s . s u c h a s t h o s e m a d e b y the sun i n its a n n u a l j o u r n e y t h r o u g h the Z o d i a c ' . T h e i r i n t e r l a c i n g a n d t h e space i n w h i c h t h e y a r e d e p l o y e d free the s i g n o f t h e r e d e e m e d w o r l d .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D it is no l o n g e r n a t u r e in its p r i m a l v i s i b i l i t y .

u n c h a n g i n g . T h e sounds m a d e b y voices p r o v i d e n o m o r e t h a n a t r a n s i t o r y a n d p r e c a r i o u s translation o f it. a n d d i v i d e d f o r m o f t h e t r e e . and w a s n o d o u b t o n e of the great events in W e s t e r n culture. B u t i n a n y case. i n a space c o m m o n t o b o t h . analogy. i t i s also t o b e f o u n d i n t h e w o r k o f L a C r o i x d u M a i n e . s u c h a n i n t e r w e a v i n g o f l a n g u a g e a n d t h i n g s . t h e p r e c e d e n c e g i v e n t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s texts o v e r t h e t r a d i t i o n a n d m a g i s t e r i u m o f t h e C h u r c h . p e r i s h a b l e . Printing. w i t h t h e result that its c h a r a c t e r s w o u l d h a v e h a d t h e p o w e r t o a c t u p o n t h i n g s d i r e c t l y . p r e s u p p o s e s a n a b s o l u t e p r i v i l e g e o n the part o f w r i t i n g .b u t to r e c o n s t i t u t e the v e r y order o f the universe b y the w a y i n w h i c h w o r d s are linked t o g e t h e r a n d a r r a n g e d i n s p a c e . t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p l a c e accorded in the W e s t to W r i t i n g .all these t h i n g s b e a r w i t n e s s . certainly in nature. F o r i t w a s v e r y p o s s i b l e that b e f o r e B a b e l . w h o c o n t r i v e s t o spatialize a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e b o t h i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the c o s m i c . and w o u l d permit the arrangement of written texts according to the forms of adjacency. t o attract t h e m o r r e p e l t h e m . A p r i m i t i v e l y 38 . and in A l s t e d i u s ' s Encyclopaedia (1630). there had already existed a f o r m of w r i t i n g c o m p o s e d o f t h e m a r k s o f n a t u r e itself. it is the primal nature of language t o b e written. their v i r t u e s . w h e n h e i m p o s e d t h e i r first n a m e s u p o n t h e a n i m a l s . or a g a i n in t h e Tableau de tous les arts liberaux by C h r i s t o p h e de S a v i g n y . m u l t i p l e . kinship. a n d their secrets. the L a w w a s entrusted t o the T a b l e s . T h i s p r i v i l e g e d o m i n a t e d the entire Renaissance.t h e use o f t h e a l p h a b e t a s a n a r b i t r a r y b u t efficacious e n c y c l o p a e d i c o r d e r d o e s n o t a p p e a r u n t i l t h e s e c o n d h a l f of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y [3 2] .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y o r i n the first y e a r s o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h : n o t t o reflect w h a t o n e k n o w s i n t h e neutral e l e m e n t o f l a n g u a g e . W h a t G o d i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the w o r l d w a s w r i t t e n w o r d s . the arrival in E u r o p e of O r i e n t a l m a n u s c r i p t s . before the F l o o d . a n d i t i s i n a b o o k that t h e t r u e W o r d m u s t b e f o u n d a g a i n . w i t h o u t its b e i n g possible t o i n d i c a t e causes a n d effects. V i g e n e r e and Duret[34] both said-and in almost identical terms-that the written had a l w a y s preceded the spoken. d i d n o m o r e t h a n r e a d t h o s e v i s i b l e a n d silent m a r k s . a n d p e r f e c t f o r m o f the c i r c l e a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the s u b l u n a r y . and subordination prescribed b y the w o r l d itself[33]. A d a m . Henceforth. w h o e n v i s a g e s a space that w o u l d b e a t o n c e a n E n c y c l o p a e d i a a n d a L i b r a r y . I t i s this p r o j e c t that w e f i n d i n G r e g o i r e ' s Syntaxeon artis mirabilis (1610). to represent their p r o p e r t i e s . t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a literature n o l o n g e r c r e a t e d for the v o i c e o r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t g o v e r n e d b y t h e m . and perhaps e v e n i n t h e k n o w l e d g e o f m e n . n o t t o men's m e m o r i e s .

B u t t h e r e a s o n f o r this w a s n o t that t h e y p r e f e r r e d t h e a u t h o r i t y o f m e n t o t h e p r e c i s i o n o f a n u n p r e j u d i c e d e y e . b y t h e c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n o f c o m m e n t a r y . V i g e n e r e a n d D u r e t tell us. nominations. b e t w e e n o b s e r v a t i o n a n d r e l a t i o n . o n l y l e g e n d . its m y t h o l o g i c a l v a l u e s .c e n t u r y k n o w l e d g e . c o i t u s a n d g e n e r a t i o n . A t all e v e n t s . B u f f o n w a s to express astonishment at finding in the w o r k of a naturalist l i k e A l d r o v a n d i s u c h a n i n e x t r i c a b l e m i x t u r e o f e x a c t d e s c r i p tions. u n b r o k e n surface i n w h i c h o b s e r v a t i o n a n d l a n g u a g e intersect t o i n f i n i t y . h i e r o g l y p h i c s . A n d t h e s e c o n d . T h e first o f these i s a n o n . a l l e g o r i e s a n d m y s t e r i e s . diet. m o d e s o f capture. Esoterism in the sixteenth century is a p h e n o m e n o n of the written w o r d . antipathy. i t i s m e r e l y t h e f e m a l e p a r t o f l a n g u a g e . A n d i n d e e d . r e m a r k s d e a l i n g indifferently w i t h an a n i m a l ' s a n a t o m y . use in h u m a n diet. w i t h o u t a n y assignable t e r m . s i m u l a c r a a n d statues. on t h e o t h e r h a n d . riddles. W r i t i n g . differences. is t h e a c t i v e intellect. t e m p e r a m e n t . it w a s all legenda things t o b e r e a d .d o r m a n t p o w e r s . T h e r e i s n o d e s c r i p t i o n h e r e . e m b l e m s and s y m b o l s .p o t c h o f w r i t i n g . m a y p e r h a p s h a v e p r e s e r v e d t h e scattered m e m o r y a n d w e r e n o w a t t e m p t i n g t o r e t r i e v e its l o n g . c o i n a g e . ' A n d i n d e e d .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D n a t u r a l w r i t i n g . m i s c e l l a n e o u s uses. b u t that n a t u r e . h e r a l d i c signs. w h i c h results i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f a s i n g l e . o f w h i c h certain f o r m s o f esoteric k n o w l e d g e . historical facts. a n a t o m y . its h a b i t a t . i s a n i m m e d i a t e d i s s o c i a t i o n o f all l a n g u a g e . fables. use i n m e d i c i n e . despite t h e i r a p p a r e n t a n t a g o n i s m . d u p l i c a t e d . m o d e s a n d signs o f p o i s o n i n g . demythology. p r o v e r b s . 39 . a n d t h e c a b a l a first a n d f o r e m o s t . gods to w h i c h i t i s d e d i c a t e d . w h e n o n e g o e s b a c k t o t a k e a l o o k a t the Historia serpentum et draconum. death and w o u n d s caused b y t h e serpent. T h i s p r i m a c y o f t h e w r i t t e n w o r d e x p l a i n s the t w i n p r e s e n c e o f t w o forms w h i c h . r e m e d i e s . p l a c e s . r e p o r t e d q u o t a t i o n s . are i n d i s s o c i a b l e i n s i x t e e n t h . m o v e m e n t s . W h e r e u p o n B u f f o n c o m m e n t s : ' L e t i t b e j u d g e d after that w h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f natural h i s t o r y i s t o b e f o u n d i n such a h o t c h . its use in h e r a l d r y . v o i c e . monsters. f o r m a n d d e s c r i p t i o n . d r e a m s . synonyms and etymologies. j u s t as its intellect is p a s s i v e . Later. fables w i t h o u t c o m m e n t a r y . the ' m a l e principle' of l a n g u a g e . m i r a c l e s . prodigies and presages. t h e i n v e r s e o f t h e first. d e v i c e s . p h y s i o g n o m y . o r t h e uses t o w h i c h i t c o u l d b e p u t i n m e d i c i n e o r m a g i c . epithets. n o t the s p o k e n w o r d . t h e latter i s s t r i p p e d o f all its p o w e r s . f o r A l d r o v a n d i a n d his c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . It alone harbours the truth. o n e finds t h e c h a p t e r ' O n the serpent in g e n e r a l ' arranged under the f o l l o w i n g headings: e q u i v o c a t i o n ( w h i c h means the v a r i o u s m e a n i n g s o f t h e w o r d serpent).d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t i s seen a n d w h a t i s read. n a t u r e a n d habits. s y m p a t h y .

since i t n e v e r ceased t o d e v e l o p . Scriptural c o m m e n t a r y . written. commentaries on A n c i e n t authors. o f discourse and f o r m s . H i s o b s e r v a t i o n w a s s i m p l y n o t l i n k e d t o t h i n g s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the s a m e s y s t e m o r b y the s a m e a r r a n g e m e n t o f the episteme. a t a l e v e l a b o v e that o f all m a r k s . T h i s r e l a t i o n e n a b l e d l a n g u a g e t o a c c u m u l a t e t o infinity. w e f i n d r e v e a l e d the a b s o l u t e l y o p e n d i m e n s i o n o f a l a n g u a g e n o l o n g e r a b l e t o halt itself. T h e function p r o p e r to k n o w l e d g e is not seeing or demonstrating. o r a n y terrestrial t h i n g w h a t e v e r . T h a t is. c o m m e n t a r j e s o n l e g e n d s a n d fables: n o n e o f these f o r m s o f discourse i s r e q u i r e d t o j u s t i f y its c l a i m to be e x p r e s s i n g a t r u t h b e f o r e it is i n t e r p r e t e d . f r o m top to b o t t o m . w e d o n o t h i n g b u t w r i t e glosses o n one another'[35]. n e v e r b e i n g e n c l o s e d in a d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t . i n m a k i n g e v e r y t h i n g speak. it is interpreting. b e c a u s e . it is useless and i m p o s s i b l e to c h o o s e b e t w e e n the p r o f e s sion o f naturalist a n d that o f c o m p i l e r : o n e has t o c o l l e c t t o g e t h e r i n t o o n e a n d the s a m e f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e all that has b e e n seen a n d heard. c o m m e n t a r i e s o n the a c c o u n t s o f travellers. the s e c o n d a r y d i s c o u r s e o f c o m m e n t a r y . i n b r i n g i n g i n t o b e i n g . T h e s e w o r d s are n o t a s t a t e m e n t o f the b a n k r u p t c y o f a c u l t u r e b u r i e d b e n e a t h its o w n m o n u m e n t s . K n o w l e d g e t h e r e f o r e consisted i n r e l a t i n g o n e f o r m o f l a n g u a g e t o a n o t h e r f o r m o f l a n g u a g e . L a n g u a g e c o n t a i n s its o w n inner p r i n c i p l e o f p r o l i f e r a t i o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS i n itself. i s t o g a t h e r t o g e t h e r the w h o l e dense l a y e r o f signs w i t h w h i c h i t o r t h e y m a y h a v e b e e n c o v e r e d . o r b y the p o e t s . u n b r o k e n plain o f w o r d s a n d t h i n g s . b y the l a n g u a g e o f t h e w o r l d . all that has b e e n recounted. P e r h a p s f o r the first t i m e i n W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . all that is r e q u i r e d of it is the possibility o f t a l k i n g a b o u t it. i t i s t o r e d i s c o v e r also all the constellations o f f o r m s f r o m w h i c h t h e y d e r i v e their v a l u e as h e r a l d i c signs. i s a n u n b r o k e n tissue o f w o r d s a n d signs. h e w a s n e i t h e r m o r e c r e d u l o u s than he. F o r A l d r o v a n d i w a s meticulously contemplating a nature w h i c h w a s . b y t r a d i t i o n . ' T h e r e i s m o r e w o r k i n i n t e r p r e t i n g interpretations than in interpreting things. o f a c c o u n t s and c h a r a c ters. W h e n o n e i s faced w i t h the task o f w r i t i n g a n a n i m a l ' s history. t h e y are a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e l a t i o n that l a n g u a g e m a i n t a i n e d w i t h itself i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . either b y n a t u r e o r b y m e n . it c a n e x p r e s s its t r u t h o n l y i n s o m e future discourse and i s w h o l l y intent o n w h a t i t w i l l 40 . n o r less a t t a c h e d t o the faithfulness o f the o b s e r v i n g e y e o r t o t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h i n g s . A l d r o v a n d i w a s n e i t h e r a better n o r a w o r s e o b s e r v e r t h a n B u t t o n . a n d t o l a y its successive f o r m s o n e o v e r a n o t h e r . i n r e s t o r i n g the g r e a t . and m o r e b o o k s about b o o k s than on any o t h e r subject. T o k n o w a n a n i m a l o r a plant. t o revise itself.

A n d i t i s this t e x t w h i c h . b y a t t e m p t i n g t o say t h i n g s a b o u t i t that are similar t o it. b u t e a c h o f these stages o f d i s c o u r s e i s addressed t o that p r i m a l w r i t t e n w o r d w h o s e return it simultaneously promises and postpones. b u t a s a g l o b a l c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e . by definition. b u t e v e n this future d i s c o u r s e itself d o e s n o t h a v e the p o w e r t o halt the p r o g r e s s i o n . l a n g u a g e sets itself the task o f r e s t o r i n g a n a b s o l u t e l y p r i m a l d i s course. a t o t a l i t y o f signs f o r m i n g the t e x t o f a n u n e q u i v o c a l m e s s a g e . t h e r e b y b r i n g i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e t h e i n f i n i t y o f adjacent a n d similar fidelities o f interpretation. I n t h e s a m e w a y . a n d w h a t it says is e n c l o s e d w i t h i n it like a p r o m i s e . b e l o w t h e e x i s t i n g d i s c o u r s e . a s i t w e r e . T h e c o m m e n t a r y r e s e m b l e s endlessly that w h i c h i t i s c o m m e n t i n g u p o n and w h i c h it can never express. i n t h e interstice o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n t h e p r i m a l T e x t and the infinity o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . b y p r o v i d i n g a f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e c o m m e n t a r y . and t h e y r e f e r r e d b a c k t o the infinite a n d necessarily u n c o m p l e t e d task o f k n o w i n g w h a t i s similar. be c o m p l e t e d . T h e necessary p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f the exegesis i s t h e r e f o r e m e a s u r e d . o n e speaks a b o u t i t t o i n f i n i t y . . a n d y e t ceaselessly a n i m a t e d . w h i c h i t sets itself t h e task o f r e s t o r i n g . B u t then. ' m o r e p r i m a l ' . T h e task of c o m m e n t a r y c a n n e v e r . A n d y e t c o m m e n t a r y is directed entirely towards the enigmatic. b e l o w the l a n g u a g e o n e i s r e a d i n g a n d d e c i p h e r i n g . T h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y u n d e r s t o o d n o t a s a n e p i s o d e i n the h i s t o r y o f a n y o n e t o n g u e . T o k n o w those t h i n g s w a s t o b r i n g t o l i g h t t h e s y s t e m o f r e s e m b l a n c e s that m a d e t h e m close to and dependent u p o n o n e another. n o d o u b t . i d e a l l y l i m i t e d . . m u r m u r e d element o f the l a n g u a g e b e i n g c o m m e n t e d o n : i t calls i n t o b e i n g . these signs t h e m s e l v e s w e r e n o m o r e t h a n a p l a y o f r e s e m b l a n c e s . t h o u g h t h e a n a l o g y i s i n v e r t e d . and e a c h o f its signs b e c o m e s i n t u r n w r i t t e n m a t t e r for further d i s c o u r s e .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D h a v e said. offers its u l t i m a t e r e v e l a t i o n as t h e promised reward of commentary. a b e q u e s t to y e t a n o t h e r d i s c o u r s e . O n e speaks u p o n t h e basis o f a w r i t i n g that i s p a r t o f the fabric o f t h e w o r l d .f o u n d itself c a u g h t . but o n e c o u l d discover the similitudes b e t w e e n t h e m o n l y i n s o far a s t h e r e e x i s t e d . b y this silent d o m i n i o n . there runs the s o v e r e i g n t y o f a n o r i g i n a l T e x t . b e t w e e n these interacting e l e m e n t s . e v e n t h o u g h the signs c a n n e v e r b e a n y t h i n g b u t 41 . I t w i l l b e seen that t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e b e l o n g s t o t h e s a m e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l n e t w o r k a s the k n o w l e d g e o f t h i n g s and nature. o n their surface. T h e r e c a n b e n o c o m m e n t a r y unless. just as the k n o w l e d g e o f nature c o n s t a n t l y finds n e w signs f o r r e s e m b l a n c e b e c a u s e r e s e m b l a n c e c a n n o t b e k n o w n i n itself. a n o t h e r discourse that i s m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l and. b u t i t c a n e x p r e s s that d i s c o u r s e o n l y b y t r y i n g t o a p p r o x i m a t e t o it. .

w i t h P o r t . w h i c h recasts t h e g i v e n signs t o s e r v e a n e w p u r p o s e . the text. T h i s arrangement. since i t requires t h e f o r m a l d o m a i n o f m a r k s . t h e s i g nified. a n d t h e ' c o n j u n c t u r e ' (the xvyyavov). instead o f e x i s t i n g a s t h e m a t e r i a l w r i t i n g o f t h i n g s . together w i t h the interplay it authorizes. This n e w arrangement b r o u g h t about the appearance of a n e w problem. i n its r a w a n d p r i m i t i v e b e i n g . At t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . a s t i g m a u p o n t h i n g s . s o d o e s t h e infinite task o f c o m m e n t a r y d e r i v e its s t r e n g t h f r o m t h e p r o m i s e o f a n effectively written text w h i c h interpretation w i l l o n e day r e v e a l in its e n t i r e t y . b u t since r e s e m b l a n c e i s the f d r m o f t h e signs a s w e l l a s their c o n t e n t . all based u p o n the s i n g l e b e i n g o f the w r i t t e n w o r d . a n d b e l o w it. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . one asked oneself h o w it w a s p o s s i b l e t o k n o w t h a t a s i g n d i d i n fact d e s i g n a t e w h a t i t s i g n i f i e d .R o y a l . a n d its l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e m i c r o c o s m t o the m a c r o c o s m . F r o m t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a s t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f a s i g n i ficant a n d a s i g n i f i e d .THE ORDER OF THINGS s i m i l i t u d e s . B u t i t also g i v e s rise t o t w o o t h e r f o r m s o f d i s c o u r s e w h i c h p r o v i d e i t w i t h a f r a m e : a b o v e it. In a senses this l a y e r of l a n g u a g e i s u n i q u e a n d a b s o l u t e . m a t e r i a l f o r m o f w r i t i n g . t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n is different. is found also. t h e t h r e e distinct e l e m e n t s o f this a r t i c u l a t i o n are r e s o l v e d i n t o a s i n g l e f o r m . 42 . I n fact. t h o u g h i n v e r t e d . since i t w a s t o b e d e f i n e d . a m a r k i m p r i n t e d across the w o r l d w h i c h is a p a r t of its m o s t ineffaceable f o r m s . w a s t o find its area o f b e i n g restricted t o t h e g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e signs. there i s c o m m e n t a r y . t h e s y s t e m o f signs i n t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d h a d b e e n a t e r n a r y o n e . l a n g u a g e exists first o f all. a n d b e c a u s e l a n g u a g e . f o r i t w a s r e c o g n i z e d a s c o n t a i n i n g t h e significant. a n d t h e s i m i l i t u d e s that l i n k the m a r k s t o t h e t h i n g s d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e m . its f o r m . I t i s this c o m p l e x i n t e r a c t i o n o f e l e m e n t s that w a s t o d i s a p p e a r w i t h t h e e n d o f the R e n a i s sance. t h e c o n t e n t i n d i c a t e d b y t h e m . A n d i n t w o w a y s : b e c a u s e t h e f o r m s o s c i l l a t i n g endlessly b e t w e e n o n e a n d three t e r m s w e r e t o b e f i x e d i n a b i n a r y f o r m w h i c h w o u l d r e n d e r t h e m stable. V THE BEING OF L A N G U A G E E v e r since the S t o i c s . A n d j u s t a s this infinite p l a y w i t h i n n a t u r e finds its l i n k . t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f signs w a s t o b e c o m e b i n a r y . and m u c h m o r e c o m p l e x : i t i s t e r n a r y . H e n c e there are t h r e e l e v e l s o f l a n g u a g e . u n k n o w n until then: in the sixteenth century. i n t h e s i m p l e . w h o s e p r i m a c y is presupposed by c o m m e n t a r y to exist hidden b e n e a t h the m a r k s v i s i b l e t o all. i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e .

T h e p r o f o u n d k i n s h i p o f l a n g u a g e w i t h t h e w o r l d w a s thus d i s s o l v e d . N o t h i n g . A n d that u n i f o r m l a y e r . b e c a u s e i t w a s r e a b s o r b e d into the s o v e r e i g n t y o f the L i k e . v a n i s h e d t o o . all l a n g u a g e h a d v a l u e o n l y a s d i s c o u r s e . T h i n g s a n d w o r d s w e r e t o b e separated f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . o f d e s i g n a t i n g i t i n t u r n b y o t h e r n a m e s that w e r e t h e d e f e r r e d p r e s e n c e o f t h e first n a m e . a t a t i m e w h e n i t w a s least e x p e c t e d . and right up to o u r o w n d a y . as it w a s c o n s t i t u t e d a n d s o d e s i g n a t e d o n the t h r e s h o l d o f the m o d e r n a g e . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g n o w . This i n v o l v e d an immense reorganization of culture. its figuration. l a n g u a g e w a s n e v e r t o b e a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r case o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (for the Classics) o r o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n (for u s ) . It m a y be said in a sense that 'literature'. a n art o f n a m i n g . o f the l i v i n g b e i n g o f l a n g u a g e . its r h e t o r i c a l p a n o p l y . a n d p r i m i t i v e b e i n g s h o n e i n a n endless dispersion. t h e p e c u l i a r e x i s t e n c e and ancient s o l i d i t y o f l a n g u a g e a s a t h i n g i n s c r i b e d i n the fabric o f t h e w o r l d w e r e d i s s o l v e d i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . its s e c o n d a r y s i g n .since it is the C l a s s i c a l a g e that separates us f r o m a c u l t u r e i n w h i c h the s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f signs d i d n o t exist. b u t i n w h i c h their e n i g m a t i c .f r o m Holderlin to M a l l a r m e and o n t o A n t o n i n A r t a u d . D i s c o u r s e w a s still t o h a v e t h e task o f s p e a k i n g that w h i c h is. the v i s i b l e a n d the e x p r e s s i b l e . o f e n c l o s i n g a n d c o n c e a l i n g it. a n d 43 . the ear t o h e a r a n d o n l y t o hear.a n d e v e n then in a fashion m o r e a l l u s i v e a n d d i a g o n a l t h a n direct. o n e b e g a n t o ask h o w a s i g n c o u l d b e l i n k e d t o w h a t i t signified. A n d y e t . e x c e p t p e r h a p s literature . a n d t h e n . that still recalls e v e n the m e m o r y o f that b e i n g . I n the s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . w e r e e n d l e s s l y i n t e r w o v e n . T h e art o f l a n g u a g e w a s a w a y o f ' m a k i n g a sign' .literature a c h i e v e d a u t o n o m o u s e x i s t e n c e . since i t w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the n e w a r r a n g e m e n t i n w h i c h w e are still c a u g h t . o f c a p t u r i n g that n a m e . b u t i t w a s n o l o n g e r t o b e a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n w h a t it said. s t u b b o r n . manifests. b y m e a n s o f a r e d u p l i c a t i o n b o t h d e m o n s t r a t i v e a n d d e c o r a t i v e .of simultaneously signifying s o m e t h i n g and arranging signs a r o u n d that t h i n g . a n d t o w h i c h m o d e m t h o u g h t w a s t o r e p l y b y t h e analysis o f m e a n i n g a n d s i g n i f i c a t i o n . A q u e s t i o n t o w h i c h the C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d w a s t o r e p l y b y t h e analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . m o n o t o n ous. a reorganization o f w h i c h t h e C l a s s i c a l a g e w a s the first a n d p e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t stage. T h e p r i m a c y o f the w r i t t e n w o r d w e n t i n t o a b e y a n c e . the r e a p p e a r a n c e .THE PROSE OF THE W O R L D f r o m the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e e y e w a s t h e n c e f o r t h d e s t i n e d t o see a n d o n l y t o see. t h e r e f o r e . either i n o u r k n o w l e d g e o r i n o u r reflection. i n w h i c h the seen a n d t h e read. B u t g i v e n t h e fact itself. t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h century.

I t i s p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e that o n e has attained the v e r y essence o f literature w h e n o n e i s n o l o n g e r i n t e r r o g a t i n g i t a t the l e v e l o f w h a t i t says b u t o n l y i n its significant f o r m : i n d o i n g so.THE ORDER OF THINGS separated itself f r o m all o t h e r l a n g u a g e w i t h a d e e p scission. since this s a m e c e n t u r y . in any circumstance. b u t i t has also. the b e i n g o f l a n g u a g e shines o n c e m o r e on the frontiers of W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . that a b s o l u t e l y initial. o n l y b y f o r m i n g a sort o f ' c o u n t e r . and n o p r o m i s e . I t i s t h e traversal o f this futile y e t f u n d a m e n t a l space that the t e x t o f literature traces f r o m d a y t o d a y . a n d b y f i n d i n g its w a y b a c k f r o m the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r s i g n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e t o this r a w b e i n g that h a d b e e n f o r g o t t e n since t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B u t f r o m the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W h e t h e r o n e analyses i t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f w h a t i s signified ( o f w h a t i t i s t r y i n g t o s a y . language was t o g r o w w i t h n o point o f departure. a s r e g a r d s o u r c u l t u r e . for at that t i m e literature r e a l l y w a s c o m p o s e d o f a s i g n i f y i n g e l e m e n t a n d a signified c o n t e n t . In b o t h cases o n e w o u l d b e s e a r c h i n g f o r i t o u t s i d e t h e g r o u n d i n w h i c h . 44 .t h e situation that p r e d o m i n a t e d d u r i n g the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . literature is that w h i c h c o m p e n s a t e s for (and n o t that w h i c h c o n f i r m s ) the s i g n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . o n e i s l i m i t i n g o n e ' s v i e w o f l a n g u a g e to its C l a s s i c a l status. a n d w h e n s i g n i f i c a t i o n w a s reflected i n the f o r m o f the r e p r e s e n t a tion.f o r it is w h a t has b e e n m o s t f o r e i g n t o that c u l t u r e since the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d f o r the s a m e reason. be thought in accordance w i t h a t h e o r y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n . literature b e g a n t o b r i n g l a n g u a g e b a c k t o l i g h t o n c e m o r e i n its o w n b e i n g : t h o u g h n o t a s i t h a d still a p p e a r e d a t the e n d o f the R e n a i s s a n c e . In the m o d e r n a g e . o r o f w h a t i t c o m m i t s one to) o r f r o m the point o f v i e w o f that w h i c h signifies ( w i t h the h e l p o f p a r a d i g m s b o r r o w e d f r o m l i n g u i s tics or p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ) m a t t e r s little: all that is m e r e l y i n c i d e n t a l . a s that w h i c h can never. S u c h m o d e s o f d e c i p h e r m e n t b e l o n g t o a C l a s s i c a l situation o f l a n g u a g e . o f w h a t i t promises.d i s c o u r s e ' . n o end. b e e n a t the v e r y c e n t r e o f w h a t W e s t e r n c u l t u r e has o v e r l a i n . T h r o u g h literature. it has n e v e r ceased for t h e past c e n t u r y a n d a h a l f to c o m e i n t o b e i n g a n d t o i m p r i n t itself. w o r d u p o n w h i c h the infinite m o v e m e n t o f discourse w a s founded and b y w h i c h i t w a s limited. so that it w a s p r o p e r to a n a l y s e it a c c o r d i n g l y . F o r n o w w e n o l o n g e r h a v e that p r i m a r y . o f its ' i d e a s ' .and at its c e n t r e . b u t e q u a l l y . w h e n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f signs b e c a m e b i n a r y . T h i s i s w h y literature i s a p p e a r i n g m o r e a n d m o r e a s that w h i c h m u s t b e t h o u g h t . henceforth.

Y e t n o t e n t i r e l y s o : f o r i n his r e a l i t y a s a n i m p o v e r i s h e d h i d a l g o h e c a n b e c o m e a k n i g h t o n l y b y l i s t e n i n g f r o m afar t o t h e a g e . h e i s w r i t i n g itself. H e i s m a d e u p o f i n t e r w o v e n w o r d s . u n p a r a l l e l e d : n o o n e i n t h e w o r l d e v e r d i d 46 . b u t rather a d i l i g e n t p i l g r i m b r e a k i n g his j o u r n e y b e f o r e all t h e m a r k s o f s i m i l i t u d e . all t h o s e e x t r a v a g a n t r o m a n c e s are. p r i n t e d p a g e s .CHAPTER 3 Representing I DON QUIXOTE W i t h all their t w i s t s a n d turns. and w h a t signs h e s h o u l d g i v e h i m s e l f a n d o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o s h o w that h e r e a l l y i s o f t h e s a m e n a t u r e a s the t e x t f r o m w h i c h he-springs. a l o n g . H i s w h o l e b e i n g i s n o t h i n g b u t l a n g u a g e . stories that h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n w r i t t e n d o w n . w i t h o u t e v e r c r o s s i n g t h e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d frontiers o f difference. D o n Q u i x o t e ' s a d v e n t u r e s f o r m t h e b o u n d a r y : t h e y m a r k t h e e n d o f the o l d i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n r e s e m b l a n c e a n d signs a n d c o n t a i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f n e w relations. H e n e v e r m a n a g e s t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e f a m i l i a r p l a i n s t r e t c h i n g o u t o n all sides o f the A n a l o g u e . T h e b o o k i s n o t s o m u c h his e x i s t e n c e a s his d u t y . t h i n g r a p h i s m . A n d e v e r y episode. a letter that has j u s t e s c a p e d f r o m t h e o p e n p a g e s o f a b o o k . H e i s constantly o b l i g e d to consult it in order to k n o w w h a t to do or say. e v e r y exploit w i l l b e y e t a n o t h e r s i g n that D o n Q u i x o t e i s a t r u e likeness o f all the signs that h e has t r a c e d f r o m his b o o k . w a n d e r i n g t h r o u g h t h e w o r l d a m o n g the r e s e m b l a n c e s o f t h i n g s . B u t the fact t h a t h e w i s h e s t o b e l i k e t h e m m e a n s t h a t h e m u s t p u t t h e m t o the test. H e t r a v e l s e n d l e s s l y o v e r that p l a i n . M o r e o v e r . T h e c h i v a l r i c r o m a n c e s h a v e p r o v i d e d o n c e a n d f o r all a w r i t t e n p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r his adventures. o r r e a c h i n g the h e a r t o f i d e n t i t y .o l d e p i c that g i v e s its f o r m t o L a w . he is h i m s e l f l i k e a s i g n . a n y m o r e t h a n h e d o e s f r o m his o w n s m a l l p r o v i n c e . A l l t h o s e w r i t t e n t e x t s . q u i t e literally. that t h e ( l e g i b l e ) signs n o l o n g e r r e s e m b l e (visible) p e o p l e . e v e r y decision. D o n Q u i x o t e i s n o t a m a n g i v e n t o e x t r a v a g a n c e . H e i s the h e r o o f the S a m e . t e x t .

o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . r e s e m b l e t h e a c t i o n o f s o r c e r y . t h i n g s still r e m a i n s t u b b o r n l y w i t h i n t h e i r i r o n i c i d e n t i t y : t h e y are n o l o n g e r a n y t h i n g b u t w h a t t h e y are. H i s w h o l e j o u r n e y i s a q u e s t f o r s i m i l i t u d e s : t h e slightest a n a l o g i e s are pressed i n t o s e r v i c e a s d o r m a n t signs that m u s t b e r e a w a k e n e d a n d m a d e t o s p e a k o n c e m o r e . y e t a n o t h e r s i g n that the signs i n the b o o k s r e a l l y d o r e s e m b l e t h e truth. similitudes h a v e b e c o m e deceptive and v e r g e u p o n the v i s i o n a r y o r m a d n e s s . I t i s i n c u m b e n t u p o n h i m t o fulfil t h e p r o m i s e o f t h e b o o k s . t h e i l l u s o r y difference that i t introduces can n e v e r be a n y t h i n g but an enchanted similitude.b u t i n a n a t t e m p t t o t r a n s f o r m r e a l i t y i n t o a s i g n . m u s t e n d o w w i t h r e a l i t y the s i g n s . t h e y c o u l d all b e b u r n e d i n their e n t i r e t y and d i e f o r m o f t h e w o r l d w o u l d n o t b e c h a n g e d . E a c h e x p l o i t m u s t b e a p r o o f : i t consists.REPRESENTING r e s e m b l e t h e m . a n d inns b e c o m e o n c e m o r e the l a n g u a g e o f b o o k s t o the imperceptible degree t o w h i c h they r e s e m b l e castles. I f h e i s t o r e s e m b l e t h e texts o f w h i c h h e i s t h e w i t n e s s . D o n Q u i x o t e reads t h e w o r l d i n o r d e r t o p r o v e his b o o k s . r e s e m b l a n c e s a n d signs h a v e d i s s o l v e d t h e i r former alliance. S o all t h e indices o f n o n . n o t i n a real t r i u m p h . a n d a r m i e s . that t h e y r e a l l y are t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e w o r l d .f o r p r o o f i n t o d e r i s i o n a n d l e a v e s t h e w o r d s o f t h e b o o k s f o r e v e r h o l l o w . theref o r e . D o n Q u i x o t e .w i t h o u t . His adventures w i l l be a deciphering of the w o r l d : a diligent search o v e r t h e entire surface o f t h e earth f o r t h e f o r m s that w i l l p r o v e that w h a t t h e b o o k s say i s true. B u t n o n .w h i c h i s w h y v i c t o r y i s n o t r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t . a n d o n e that i t imitates i n t h e m o s t s e r v i l e w a y : i t i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e transf o r m a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b y m a g i c i a n s . t h e i r timeless l a n g u a g e r e m a i n s s u s p e n d e d . w o r d s w a n d e r " . A n d the o n l y p r o o f s h e g i v e s h i m s e l f are t h e g l i t t e r i n g reflections o f r e s e m b l a n c e s . I n t o a s i g n t h a t t h e signs o f l a n g u a g e r e a l l y are i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . and. t h o u g h b y a r e v e r s e p r o c e s s : t h e epic r e c o u n t e d (or c l a i m e d t o r e c o u n t ) real e x p l o i t s . o f f e r i n g t h e m t o o u r m e m o r y . Don Quixote is a n e g a t i v e of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e w o r l d . D o n Q u i x o t e m u s t also furnish p r o o f a n d p r o v i d e t h e i n d u b i t a b l e s i g n t h a t t h e y are t e l l i n g the t r u t h . unfulfilled b y a n y s i m i l i t u d e . F l o c k s . t h e real a n a l o g u e . ladies. w r i t i n g has ceased t o b e t h e p r o s e o f t h e w o r l d . I t i s his task t o r e c r e a t e t h e e p i c . w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s difference i n t o t h e i n d u b i t a b l e e x i s t e n c e o f s i m i l i t u d e b y m e a n s o f deceit. all t h e signs t h a t p r o v e that t h e w r i t t e n t e x t s are n o t t e l l i n g the t r u t h . A n d since this m a g i c has b e e n foreseen a n d d e s c r i b e d i n the b o o k s . t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .r e s e m b l a n c e . s e r v i n g g i r l s .c o n t e n t o f t h e narrative.a p e r p e t u a l l y u n t e n a b l e r e s e m b l a n c e w h i c h transforms the s o u g h t .s i m i l i t u d e itself has its m o d e l .

D o n Q u i x o t e ' s t r u t h i s n o t i n the r e lation o f t h e w o r d s t o t h e w o r l d b u t i n that slender a n d c o n s t a n t r e l a t i o n w o v e n b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s b y v e r b a l signs. H a v i n g first read s o m a n y b o o k s that h e b e c a m e a s i g n . I n the s e c o n d p a r t o f the n o v e l . M a g i c . a s i g n w a n d e r i n g t h r o u g h a w o r l d that did n o t r e c o g n i z e h i m . B u t D o n Q u i x o t e h i m s e l f has n o t read this b o o k . t h e real m a n . a n d w h i c h resides e n t i r e l y inside the w o r d s . since h e i s the b o o k i n f l e s h a n d b l o o d . that r e c o r d s e x a c t l y all that he has d o n e and said a n d seen a n d t h o u g h t .a reality he o w e s to l a n g u a g e a l o n e . D o n Q u i x o t e m u s t r e m a i n faithful t o t h e b o o k that h e has n o w b e c o m e i n r e a l i t y . a n d d o e s n o t h a v e t o read it. I t n o w possesses n e w p o w e r s . W o r d s h a v e s w a l l o w e d u p their o w n n a t u r e a s signs. w i t h o u t r e s e m b l a n c e t o fill their e m p t i n e s s . h e m u s t p r e s e r v e its truth. a n d p o w e r s p e c u l i a r t o i t a l o n e . f r o m c o u n t e r f e i t s . i n t e r m s o f m a d n e s s . w h i c h p e r m i t t e d t h e d e c i p h e r m e n t o f t h e w o r l d b y r e v e a l i n g the secret r e s e m b l a n c e s b e n e a t h its signs. f r o m a p o c r y p h a l sequels. A n d b e t w e e n them. C e r v a n t e s ' s t e x t turns b a c k u p o n itself. D o n Q u i x o t e wanders off on his own. b e c o m e a b o o k that c o n t a i n s his truth. t h e y are n o l o n g e r the m a r k s o f t h i n g s . h e m u s t fill i n t h e details that h a v e b e e n left o u t . a n d b e c o m e s the o b j e c t o f its o w n n a r r a t i v e . Don Quixote is the first m o d e r n w o r k of literature. a n d b y their p o w e r a l o n e . Between t h e first a n d s e c o n d parts o f t h e n o v e l .THE ORDER OF THINGS o f f o n their o w n . h e has n o w . t h e y lie s l e e p i n g b e t w e e n the p a g e s o f b o o k s a n d c o v e r e d i n dust. o f w h y a n a l o g i e s are a l w a y s p r o v e d false. a s the h e r o o f the b o o k . h e m u s t p r o t e c t i t f r o m errors. T h e e r u d i t i o n that o n c e read n a t u r e a n d b o o k s a l i k e a s parts o f a s i n g l e t e x t has b e e n r e l e g a t e d t o the s a m e c a t e g o r y a s its o w n c h i m e r a s : l o d g e d i n the y e l l o w e d p a g e s o f b o o k s . > Y e t l a n g u a g e has n o t b e c o m e e n t i r e l y i m p o t e n t . b e c a u s e in it we see 48 . T h e h o l l o w f i c t i o n o f e p i c e x p l o i t s has b e c o m e the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o w e r o f l a n g u a g e . w i t h o u t c o n t e n t . despite h i m s e l f a n d w i t h o u t his k n o w l e d g e . a n d that a t last m a k e s h i m r e c o g n i z a b l e . D o n Q u i x o t e has a c h i e v e d his r e a l i t y . i n t h e n a r r o w g a p b e t w e e n those t w o v o l u m e s . T h e first p a r t o f t h e h e r o ' s a d v e n t u r e s p l a y s i n t h e s e c o n d part t h e r o l e o r i g i n a l l y a s s u m e d b y t h e c h i v a l r i c r o m a n c e s . thrusts itself b a c k i n t o its o w n d e n s i t y . the signs o f l a n g u a g e n o l o n g e r h a v e a n y v a l u e apart f r o m t h e slender f i c t i o n w h i c h t h e y represent. T h e w r i t t e n w o r d a n d t h i n g s n o longer resemble one another. i s n o l o n g e r o f a n y use e x c e p t a s a n e x p l a n a t i o n . s o c l o s e l y d o e s h e r e s e m b l e all t h o s e signs w h o s e ineffaceable i m p r i n t h e has left b e h i n d h i m . D o n Q u i x o t e m e e t s characters w h o h a v e read t h e first p a r t o f his s t o r y a n d r e c o g n i z e h i m .

b e c a u s e he is c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n that he is d e c i p h e r i n g s i g n s : for h i m . i n fact. I t i s t h e m a r k o f a n e w e x p e r i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d things. d e e p e r . h e i s D i f f e r e n t o n l y i n s o far a s h e i s u n a w a r e o f D i f f e r e n c e . A t t h e fringes o f a k n o w l e d g e that separates b e i n g s . h e i s p u t t i n g o n a m a s k . i n W e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e .REPRESENTING the c r u e l r e a s o n o f identities a n d differences m a k e endless s p o r t o f signs a n d s i m i l i t u d e s . o n l y as literature. constantly expected differences. a n d similitudes. a n d all r e s e m b l a n c e s h a v e t h e v a l u e o f signs. o n e o f m a d n e s s a n d i m a g i n a t i o n . T h i s a c c o u n t s . b e c a u s e i n i t l a n g u a g e b r e a k s o f f its o l d k i n s h i p w i t h t h i n g s a n d enters i n t o that l o n e l y s o v e r e i g n t y f r o m w h i c h i t w i l l r e a p p e a r . a s h e i s d e p i c t e d i n the n o v e l s o r p l a y s o f t h e B a r o q u e age. beneath the named. t h e m a n o f p r i m i t i v e r e s e m b l a n c e s . h e hears a n o t h e r . n o d o u b t . t h e S o v e r e i g n t y o f the S a m e . h e sees n o t h i n g b u t r e s e m b l a n c e s a n d signs o f r e s e m b l a n c e e v e r y w h e r e . H e i n v e r t s all v a l u e s a n d all p r o p o r t i o n s . i n the l a n g u a g e o f the p o e t . t w o e x p e r i e n c e s c a n b e established a n d t w o c h a r a c t e r s a p p e a r face t o face. w h i c h recalls t h e t i m e w h e n w o r d s g l i t t e r e d i n the u n i v e r s a l r e s e m b l a n c e o f t h i n g s . O n c e s i m i l i t u d e a n d signs are s u n d e r e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . has b e c o m e . u n d e r s t o o d n o t a s o n e w h o i s sick b u t as an established a n d m a i n t a i n e d d e v i a n t . a n d i n spite o f t h e m . their scattered r e s e m b l a n c e s . T h e p o e t fulfils t h e o p p o s i t e f u n c t i o n : his i s the allegorical r o l e . h e t h i n k s h e i s u n m a s k i n g w h e n . and as he w a s gradually institutionalized right up to the a d v e n t o f n i n e t e e n t h . d i s c o u r s e . H e i s the d i s o r d e r e d p l a y e r o f the S a m e and t h e O t h e r . the p o e t is he w h o . b e n e a t h t h e l a n g u a g e o f . B e n e a t h t h e established signs. t h e d i s t i n c t i o n e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n signs. b u t b r o u g h t c l o s e b y s y m metry. eclipses. b e c a u s e it m a r k s the p o i n t w h e r e r e s e m b l a n c e enters a n a g e w h i c h is. the c r o w n m a k e s the k i n g . s o difficult t o e x p r e s s . f o r h i m all signs r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r . for the c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f p o e t r y a n d m a d n e s s in m o d e r n W e s t e r n culture. i n its separated state. T h e m a d m a n . f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f r e s e m b l a n c e . h e cuts his friends a n d r e c o g n i z e s c o m p l e t e strangers. T h i s c h a r a c t e r . a n d a s t h o u g h t o l i m i t its p o w e r . I n the c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e m a d m a n that p r e v a i l e d u p t o t h e e n d o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .c e n t u r y p s y c h i a t r y . a n d p e o p l e o n e for a n o t h e r . signs. as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n . H e takes t h i n g s for w h a t t h e y are n o t . A t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e c u l t u r a l area. r e d i s c o v e r s t h e b u r i e d kinships b e t w e e n t h i n g s . B u t it is no l o n g e r the old Platonic t h e m e of inspired m a d n e s s . i s the m a n w h o i s alienated i n analogy. the m a d m a n fulfils the function o f homosemanticism: h e g r o u p s all signs t o g e t h e r a n d leads t h e m w i t h a r e s e m b l a n c e that n e v e r ceases t o p r o l i f e r a t e .

the fact that w i t h i n the s p a c e of a f e w y e a r s a c u l t u r e s o m e t i m e s ceases t o t h i n k a s i t h a d b e e n t h i n k i n g u p till t h e n and b e g i n s to think other things in a n e w w a y . f r o m that space w h i c h is. w h a t has b e c o m e i m p o r t a n t i s n o l o n g e r r e s e m b l a n c e s b u t identities a n d differences. i n t h a t case. o f resemblance.l i n e . t o b e g i n a n e w ? B u t p e r h a p s i t i s n o t y e t t i m e t o p o s e this p r o b l e m . i n this p l a c e o r that. no l o n g e r b e i n g able to think a certain thought? Or to introduce a n e w thought? D i s c o n t i n u i t y .THE ORDER OF THINGS signs a n d b e n e a t h the i n t e r p l a y o f their p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d d i s t i n c t i o n s . B e t w e e n t h e m there has o p e n e d u p a field o f k n o w l e d g e i n w h i c h . w h a t does it m e a n . o n the o t h e r side. f o r t h o u g h t . We m a y w i s h t o m a r k o f f a p e r i o d . T h e y share. w o u l d t h e cause o f its e x i s t e n c e lie? O r that o f its s u b s e q u e n t d i s a p p e a r a n c e a n d fall? W h a t r u l e c o u l d i t b e o b e y i n g b y b o t h its e x i s t e n c e a n d its d i s a p p e a r a n c e ? I f i t c o n t a i n s a p r i n c i p l e o f c o h e r e n c e w i t h i n itself. T h e p o e t brings similitude t o the signs that s p e a k it. w h e n c e c o u l d c o m e t h e f o r e i g n e l e m e n t c a p a b l e o f r e b u t t i n g it? H o w c a n a t h o u g h t m e l t a w a y before a n y t h i n g other than itself? G e n e r a l l y speaking. U l t i m a t e l y . p e r h a p s w e s h o u l d w a i t until t h e a r c h a e o l o g y 50 of thought has been . b e c a u s e o f a n essential r u p t u r e i n t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d .a marginal position and a profoundly archaic silhouette w h e r e their w o r d s u n c e a s i n g l y r e n e w the p o w e r o f their strangeness a n d the s t r e n g t h o f their c o n t e s t a t i o n . w h e r e a s t h e m a d m a n l o a d s all signs w i t h a r e s e m b l a n c e that u l t i m a t e l y erases t h e m . b u t h a v e w e t h e r i g h t t o establish s y m m e t r i c a l breaks at t w o points in time in order to g i v e an appearance of continuity a n d u n i t y t o t h e s y s t e m w e p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e m ? W h e r e . h e strains his ears t o c a t c h that ' o t h e r l a n g u a g e ' . ft II ORDER E s t a b l i s h i n g discontinuities is n o t an easy task e v e n for h i s t o r y in g e n e r a l . t h e n . A n d i t i s c e r t a i n l y e v e n less s o f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h o u g h t . that i t has its o r i g i n there. that ' f r o n t i e r ' situation . w i t h o u t w o r d s o r discourse. the l a n g u a g e . o n t h e o u t e r e d g e o f o u r c u l t u r e a n d a t t h e p o i n t nearest t o its essential d i v i s i o n s . b u t a n y l i m i t w e set m a y p e r h a p s b e n o m o r e t h a n an arbitrary division m a d e in a constantly m o b i l e w h o l e . b u t i n w h i c h i t has n e v e r ceased t o t h i n k f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g . W e m a y w i s h t o d r a w a d i v i d i n g . t h e p r o b l e m t h a t presents itself i s that o f t h e relations b e t w e e n t h o u g h t a n d c u l t u r e : h o w i s i t that t h o u g h t has a p l a c e i n the space o f t h e w o r l d .p r o b a b l y begins w i t h an erosion f r o m o u t s i d e . a n d that i t n e v e r ceases.

' w h e n w e d i s c o v e r s e v e r a l r e s e m b l a n c e s b e t w e e n t w o t h i n g s . the n o b l e . We already find a critique of resemblance in B a c o n . It is leaving n o t h ing behind it but games. o f t h e quid pro quo. b u t t h e y are r e c o g n i z e d a s c h i m e r a s . o f d r e a m s a n d v i s i o n s . b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o e n c o m p a s s t h o u g h t a n d t o i n v e s t i g a t e h o w i t c o n t r i v e s t o e s c a p e itself. t r a d i tions. t h o u g h t ceases t o m o v e i n the e l e m e n t o f r e s e m b l a n c e . G a m e s w h o s e p o w e r s of enchantment g r o w out o f the n e w kinship b e t w e e n resemblance and illusion. o f t h e c o m i c illusion. t o a t t r i b u t e t o b o t h e q u a l l y . the chimeras o f s i m i l i t u d e l o o m u p o n all sides. d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d that has b e e n t e r m e d .an empirical c r i t i q u e that c o n c e r n s . i t i s the p r i v i l e g e d a g e o f trompe-l'oeil p a i n t i n g . o r credulities. t h e n . F o r the m o m e n t . T h e y are idols. v a n i s h i n g a s o n e d r a w s near. a little further off. t h e B a r o q u e . n o t the relations o f o r d e r a n d e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n t h i n g s . then r e . A n d i t w a s also i n the n a t u r e o f t h i n g s that t h e k n o w l e d g e o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y s h o u l d l e a v e b e h i n d i t the d i s t o r t e d m e m o r y o f a m u d d l e d a n d d i s o r d e r e d b o d y o f l e a r n i n g i n w h i c h all the t h i n g s i n the w o r l d c o u l d b e l i n k e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y t o m e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e s . S i m i l i t u d e i s n o l o n g e r the f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e b u t rather t h e o c c a s i o n o f e r r o r . i t i s t h e age in w h i c h the poetic dimension of language is defined by metaphor. a n d restrictive figures o f s i m i l i t u d e w e r e t o b e f o r g o t t e n . W e are d e a l i n g w i t h a d o c t r i n e o f the quid pro quo. 'It is a f r e q u e n t h a b i t . that w h i c h w e h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t o b e t r u e o f o n l y o n e o f t h e m ' [ i ] . a n d a l l e g o r y . in t h e first lines of his Regulae. H e s h o w s t h e m . until i t i s b e t t e r a b l e t o g a u g e w h a t i t i s c a p a b l e o f d e s c r i b i n g d i r e c t l y a n d p o s i t i v e l y . until i t has d e f i n e d t h e p a r t i c u l a r systems a n d i n t e r n a l c o n n e c t i o n s i t has t o d e a l w i t h . of the p l a y that d u p l i c a t e s itself b y r e p r e s e n t i n g a n o t h e r p l a y . F r o m t h e n o n . r i g o r o u s . s h i m m e r i n g b e f o r e o u r e y e s .REPRESENTING established m o r e f i r m l y . 51 . T h e age of resemblance is d r a w i n g to a close. ' says D e s c a r t e s . A n d t h e signs that d e s i g n a t e d t h e m w e r e t o b e t h o u g h t o f a s t h e fantasies a n d c h a r m s o f a k n o w l e d g e that h a d n o t y e t attained t h e a g e o f r e a s o n .f o r m i n g a g a i n a m o m e n t later. t h e d a n g e r t o w h i c h o n e exposes oneself w h e n one does not e x a m i n e the obscure r e g i o n o f c o n fusions. r i g h t l y o r w r o n g l y . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . simile. b u t the t y p e s o f m i n d a n d the f o r m s o f illusion t o w h i c h t h e y m i g h t b e subject. B a c o n d o e s n o t dissipate similitudes b y m e a n s o f e v i d e n c e a n d its a t t e n d a n t rules. i t i s t h e a g e o f t h e d e c e i v i n g senses. let i t suffice that w e a c c e p t these d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s in the simultaneously manifest and obscure empirical order w h e r e v e r they posit themselves. e v e n o n p o i n t s i n w h i c h t h e y are i n r e a l i t y different.

i t i s C l a s s i c a l t h o u g h t excluding resemblance as the fundamental experience and primary f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e .the c o n f u s i o n s of l a n g u a g e : o n e a n d t h e s a m e n a m e b e i n g a p p l i e d indifferently t o t h i n g s that a r e n o t of t h e s a m e n a t u r e . n o r e v e n b y s e e k i n g t o l i m i t it. t h e r e f o r e all o f A i s C . if one makes an e x c e p t i o n of the intuition one m a y h a v e of a single t h i n g . f r o m its p e c u l i a r n a t u r e . w h i l e t h e r e are m a n y t h i n g s i n N a t u r e u n i q u e . ' t h a t a m o n g t h e h e a v e n l y b o d i e s all m o t i o n takes p l a c e b y perfect circles'. T . b y a s i n g u l a r a c t o f p u r e a n d a t t e n t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e . a n d relations that h a v e n o e x i s t e n c e . H o w then can c o m p a r i s o n . h e d o e s s o n o t b y e x c l u d i n g t h e act o f c o m p a r i s o n f r o m rational t h o u g h t . w i t h r e l a t i o n t o t h e k n o w l e d g e that b o t h are B ' .THE ORDER OF THINGS T h e idols of the den a n d the idols of the theatre m a k e us b e l i e v e that t h i n g s r e s e m b l e w h a t w e h a v e l e a r n e d a n d the t h e o r i e s w e h a v e f o r m e d for o u r s e l v e s . w h i c h is required for the 52 . Only p r u d e n c e o n the part o f t h e m i n d c a n dissipate t h e m . w h i c h links the o b s e r v e d e v i d e n c e together. easily supposes a g r e a t e r o r d e r a n d e q u a l i t y i n t h i n g s than i t a c t u a l l y finds.as effects a n d s o m e t i m e s as causes . i f i t abjures its n a t u r a l haste a n d l e v i t y i n o r d e r t o b e c o m e ' p e n e t r a t i n g ' a n d u l t i m a t e l y p e r c e i v e t h e differences i n h e r e n t i n n a t u r e . I n c o n sequence. H e n c e that f i c t i o n . I n d e e d .c e n t u r y t h o u g h t b e c o m i n g t r o u b l e d a s i t c o n t e m p l a t e s itself a n d b e g i n n i n g t o j e t t i s o n its m o s t f a m i l i a r f o r m s . that is. B u t i n fact.in all subjects in w h i c h t h e y m a y b e present. all o f B i s C . h o u g h D e s cartes rejects r e s e m b l a n c e . S u c h arc the idols of the tribe. o n e c a n say that all k n o w l e d g e 'is o b t a i n e d b y t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t w o o r m o r e t h i n g s w i t h e a c h o t h e r ' [ 3 ] . a n d . a n d o r d e r . a n d b y d e d u c t i o n . It is no longer s i x t e e n t h . m o v e m e n t a n d o t h e r s u c h t h i n g s ' . i t i s c l e a r that the m i n d ' m a k e s a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n the term sought and the term g i v e n . a n d q u i t e i r f e g u l a r . T h e s e a r e the idols of the market[2]. i n a d e d u c t i o n o f t h e t y p e 'all o f A i s B . b u t o n t h e c o n t r a r y b y u n i v e r s a l i z i n g i t a n d t h e r e b y g i v i n g i t its p u r e s t f o r m . o t h e r i d o l s m a k e u s b e l i e v e that t h i n g s are l i n k e d b y r e s e m blances b e t w e e n themselves. s p o n t a n e o u s fictions of the m i n d .that is to say. s i m p l e natures . t h e r e c a n b e n o t r u e k n o w l e d g e e x c e p t b y i n t u i t i o n . T h e Cartesian critique of resemblance is of another type. c o r r e s p o n d e n t s . e x t e n t . T h e h u m a n Intellect. still i t feigns p a r a l lels. m e a s u r e m e n t . m o r e o v e r . to w i t A a n d C . to w h i c h are a d d e d . difference. i t i s b y m e a n s o f c o m p a r i s o n that w e d i s c o v e r ' f o r m . A n d . d e n o u n c i n g i t a s a c o n f u s e d m i x t u r e that m u s t b e a n a l y s e d i n t e r m s o f i d e n t i t y .

in effect.REPRESENTING a c q u i s i t i o n o f a l m o s t all k n o w l e d g e a n d w h i c h . that t h e y b o t h b e a n a l y s e d a c c o r d i n g t o a c o m m o n u n i t . i s n e i t h e r an isolated o b s e r v a t i o n n o r a d e d u c t i o n . i n e v e r y case. c o m p a r i s o n a n d o r d e r are o n e a n d t h e s a m e t h i n g : c o m p a r i s o n b y m e a n s o f o r d e r i s a s i m p l e act w h i c h enables u s t o pass f r o m o n e t e r m t o a n o t h e r . w h a t t h e o r d e r is that exists b e t w e e n A and B w i t h o u t considering anything apart f r o m those t w o outer t e r m s ' . T h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t w o sizes o r t w o m u l t i p l i c i t i e s r e q u i r e s . T h e r e exist t w o f o r m s o f comparison.. a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f units c a n t h e r e f o r e ' b e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o a n o r d e r s u c h that t h e 53 . w h i c h p r o ceeds f r o m e l e m e n t s t o w a r d s a t o t a l i t y . b u t i n b o t h cases the use o f m e a s u r e m e n t p r e s u p p o s e s that. T h i s d i v i s i o n results i n a n u m b e r o f units. o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e w h o l e f i r s t a n d t h e n d i v i d e s i t u p i n t o parts. and o n l y t w o : the c o m p a r i s o n o f m e a s u r e m e n t a n d that o f o r d e r . I n this w a y w e establish series i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t t e r m i s a n a t u r e t h a t w e m a y intuit independently of any other nature. a r e the t w o t y p e s o f c o m p a r i s o n : t h e o n e analyses i n t o units i n o r d e r t o establish relations o f e q u a l i t y a n d i n e q u a l i t y . b y m e a n s o f a n ' a b s o l u t e l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d ' [6] m o v e m e n t . t h e n . i s established w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o a n e x t e r i o r u n i t : T c a n r e c o g n i z e . t h e n t o a third. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . o n e c a n n o t k n o w the o r d e r o f t h i n g s 'in their isolated n a t u r e ' . a r i t h m e t i c a l v a l u e s c a n a l w a y s b e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o a scries. t h e n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a c o m m o n unit. t h e n that w h i c h i s t h e n e x t simplest. b y d e f i n i t i o n . h e r e . o n e c a n p r o g r e s s i n e v i t a b l y t o t h e m o s t c o m p l e x t h i n g s o f all. a n d i n w h i c h t h e o t h e r t e r m s are established a c c o r d i n g t o i n c r e a s i n g differences. W h e r e a s c o m p a r i s o n by measurement requires a division to b e g i n f r o m . etc. stand as an a u t h o r i t y f o r a t r u e t h o u g h t ? ' A l m o s t all t h e l a b o u r a c c o m p l i s h e d b y h u m a n r e a s o n consists w i t h o u t d o u b t i n r e n d e r i n g this o p e r a t i o n p o s s i b l e ' [ 4 ] . b u t b y d i s c o v e r i n g that w h i c h i s the simplest. o f w h i c h s o m e are m e r e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l o r ' b o r r o w e d ' (in the case o f c o n t i n u o u s size) a n d o t h e r s (in t h e case o f m u l t i p l i c i t i e s o r d i s c o n t i n u o u s sizes) are t h e units o f a r i t h m e t i c . t h e simplest that c a n be f o u n d . N o w . s o that c o m p a r i s o n effected a c c o r d i n g t o m e a s u r e m e n t i s r e d u c i b l e . i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f sizes a n d m u l t i p l i c i t i e s i n establishing a n o r d e r . the o t h e r e s t a b lishes e l e m e n t s . i n o t h e r w o r d s c o n t i n u o u s sizes o r d i s c o n t i n u o u s sizes. M e a s u r e m e n t enables u s t o a n a l y s e l i k e t h i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o the c a l c u l a b l e f o r m o f i d e n t i t y a n d d i f f e r e n c e ^ ] . O n e c a n m e a s u r e sizes o r m u l t i p l i c i t i e s . S u c h . t o t h e a r i t h m e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y a n d i n e q u a l i t y . and a r r a n g e s differences a c c o r d i n g t o t h e smallest p o s s i b l e d e g r e e s . u n l i k e c a l c u l a t i o n . i n a n y case. O r d e r .

a t l o n g last. t h e s a m e t h i n g m a y b e placed a t differing p o i n t s i n o u r o r d e r .THE ORDER OF THINGS difficulty. R e s e m blance. A t h i n g can b e absolute a c c o r d i n g t o o n e relation y e t relative a c c o r d i n g t o o t h e r s [8]. be called ' r a t i o n a l i s m ' .m a d e concepts. t h e like is analysed a c c o r d i n g to its e v i d e n t i d e n t i t y a n d differences: differences that c a n be t h o u g h t i n t h e o r d e r o f inferences.b o t h t h e f o r m a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f w h a t w e k n o w .c e n t u r y m a n s a w as a c o m p l e x of kinships. since i t w a s n o w a c c o m p l i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r d e r laid d o w n b y t h o u g h t . o r d e r can b e a t o n c e n e c e s sary a n d n a t u r a l (in r e l a t i o n t o t h o u g h t ) a n d a r b i t r a r y (in relation t o t h i n g s ) . c o m p a r i s o n b e c a m e a function o f o r d e r . w h e t h e r indirectly b y t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y o f m e a s u r e m e n t . i n t o t h e scientific o r d e r . this o r d e r o r generalized f o r m o f c o m p a r i s o n can b e established o n l y a c c o r d i n g t o its p o s i t i o n i n t h e b o d y o f o u r a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e . o n e m i g h t say. a t t h a t archaic level w h i c h m a k e s possible b o t h k n o w ledge itself a n d t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f w h a t i s t o b e k n o w n . w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y lay i n t h e k n o w i n g o f m e a s u r e m e n t . a n d affinities. w h i c h h a d for l o n g b e e n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c a t e g o r y o f k n o w l e d g e . o r d i r e c t l y a n d . T h i s n e w c o n figuration m a y . b e g i n n i n g f r o m t h e simplest. A n d . After b e i n g analysed a c c o r d i n g to a g i v e n u n i t a n d t h e relations of e q u a l i t y or i n e q u a l i t y . A l l this w a s o f t h e greatest c o n s e q u e n c e t o W e s t e r n t h o u g h t . t h a t t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a r k s t h e disappearance o f t h e o l d superstitious o r m a g i c a l beliefs a n d t h e e n t r y o f n a t u r e .b e c a m e dissociated i n a n analysis based o n t e r m s o f i d e n t i t y a n d difference. First. a n d . T h e s e modifications m a y b e s u m m e d u p a s follows. a s i t w e r e . c o m e s f i n a l l y t o d e p e n d solely o n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o r d e r ' [ 7 ] . I suppose. lastly. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w a y i n w h i c h w e consider it. m o r e o v e r . t h e entire episteme of W e s t e r n c u l t u r e f o u n d its f u n d a m e n t a l a r r a n g e m e n t s m o d i f i e d . t h e substi54 . o n t h e s a m e f o o t i n g . i n particular. As a result. t h e e m p i r i c a l d o m a i n w h i c h s i x t e e n t h . t h e a b s o l u t e character w e r e c o g n i z e in w h a t is simple concerns n o t the being of things but rather the m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y c a n b e k n o w n . will s h o w u p all differences as degrees of c o m p l e x i t y . resemblances. A n d i t i s p r e cisely i n this t h a t t h e m e t h o d a n d its ' p r o g r e s s ' consist: t h e r e d u c t i o n o f all m e a s u r e m e n t (all d e t e r m i n a t i o n by e q u a l i t y a n d i n e q u a l i t y ) to a serial a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h . if o n e ' s m i n d i s f i l l e d w i t h r e a d y . since. p r o g r e s s i n g n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h e Simple t o t h e c o m p l e x . c o m p a r i s o n ceased t o fulfil t h e function o f r e v e a l i n g h o w t h e w o r l d i s o r d e r e d . a n d in w h i c h l a n g u a g e a n d t h i n g s w e r e endlessly i n t e r w o v e n this w h o l e vast f i e l d w a s t o take o n a n e w c o n f i g u r a t i o n . B u t w h a t w e m u s t grasp a n d a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t i t u t e a r e t h e modifications t h a t affected k n o w l e d g e itself. H o w e v e r .

Lastly. t h e interplay o f similitudes w a s h i t h e r t o infinite: i t w a s a l w a y s possible t o discover n e w ones. n o t s o m u c h because o f t h e a g r e e m e n t 55 . this interplay m a y well.a n d this i s the f o u r t h p o i n t . or. o r i n t h e f o r m o f an analysis of a certain n u m b e r of p o i n t s . f r o m t h e finitude o f a w o r l d h e l d f i r m l y b e t w e e n t h e m a c r o c o s m a n d t h e m i c r o c o s m . the interplay o f their a u t h o r s ' o p i n i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e . a n d a p p r e h e n d i n g clearly t h e inevitable c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n o n e e l e m e n t in a series a n d that w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y follows it. O n t h e o n e h a n d t h e r e w i l l b e e r u d i t i o n . t h e perusal o f w r i t t e n w o r k s .will t h e r e f o r e no l o n g e r consist in drawing things together.REPRESENTING tution o f analysis for t h e h i e r a r c h y o f analogies: i n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . t h e n t h e inevitability of t h e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h all t h e successive degrees of a series. t h e n . in sufficient n u m b e r . c o u l d . it is t r u e . achieve steadily increasing p r o b a b i l i t y . b u t i t w a s n e v e r certain. can attain to perfect certainty: t h e o l d system o f similitudes. in discriminating. in setting o u t on a quest for e v e r y t h i n g t h a t m i g h t reveal s o m e sort o f kinship. F r o m n o w o n . C o m p a r i s o n . T h e activity o f t h e m i n d . A c o m p l e t e e n u m e r a t i o n will n o w b e possible: w h e t h e r i n t h e f o r m o f a n e x h a u s t i v e census o f all t h e e l e m e n t s constituting t h e envisaged w h o l e . the f u n d a m e n t a l s u p p o s i t i o n w a s t h a t of a total system of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e (earth a n d sky. a n d t h e possibility o f assigning a t each p o i n t t h e necessary c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e n e x t . since to k n o w is to discriminate. a t t r a c t i o n . a final c o n s e q u e n c e . m o r e radically. p e r m i t a n absolutely certain k n o w l e d g e o f identities a n d differences: ' E n u m e r a t i o n alone. o r secretly shared n a t u r e w i t h i n t h e m . t h a t is. possess a n indicative v a l u e . C o m p l e t e e n u m e r a t i o n . it will n o t be a c c e p t e d u n t i l its i d e n t i t y a n d t h e series of its differences h a v e b e e n discovered b y m e a n s o f m e a s u r e m e n t w i t h a c o m m o n unit. in establishing their identities. a n d each particular similitude w a s t h e n l o d g e d w i t h i n this overall relation. t h r o u g h successive c o n f i r m a t i o n s . i n s o m e cases. o r i n t h e f o r m o f a categorical a r r a n g e m e n t that will articulate t h e field o f s t u d y i n its totality. taken a l o n g the w h o l e l e n g t h of a series. m i c r o c o s m a n d m a c r o c o s m ) . planets a n d faces. b y its p o s i t i o n i n a n o r d e r . d i s c r i m i n a t i o n imposes u p o n c o m p a r i s o n t h e p r i m a r y a n d fundamental i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f difference: p r o v i d i n g oneself b y i n t u i t i o n w i t h a distinct r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i n g s . o n t h e c o n t r a r y . a n d t h e o n l y l i m i t a t i o n c a m e f r o m t h e f u n d a m e n t a l ordering o f t h i n g s . w h a t e v e r t h e q u e s t i o n t o w h i c h we a r e a p p l y i n g ourselves. will p e r m i t us always to deliver a t r u e and certain j u d g e m e n t u p o n i t ' [ 9 ] . n e v e r c o m p l e t e a n d a l w a y s o p e n to fresh possibilities. I n this sense. h i s t o r y a n d science will b e c o m e separated f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . e v e r y r e s e m b l a n c e m u s t b e subjected t o p r o o f b y c o m p a r i s o n . that is. b u t .

m a i n t a i n s w i t h t h e mathesis. o u r historians o f ideas a r e i n t h e h a b i t o f confusing these t h r e e t h i n g s and defining Classical r a t i o n a l i s m as t h e t e n d e n c y to m a k e n a t u r e m e c h a n i c a l a n d calculable. t o o . are t h e c o n f i d e n t j u d g e m e n t s w c are able t o m a k e b y m e a n s o f intuitions a n d t h e i r serial c o n n e c t i o n . . a n d s o m e t i m e s . distinguish b e t w e e n t h r e e t h i n g s . a n d e v e n i f w e h a d ' r e a d all t h e a r g u m e n t s of P l a t o a n d Aristotle. T h e r e w a s also a n a t t e m p t . a n d g o t o a g r e a t deal of t r o u b l e to discover b e n e a t h this rationalism a p l a y o f ' c o n t r a r y forces': t h e forces o f n a t u r e a n d life refusing t o let themselves b e r e d u c e d either t o a l g e b r a o r t o d y n a m i c s . . b u t h i s t o r y ' [10]. T h e s e a n d these a l o n e are w h a t c o n s t i t u t e science.a m o r e general o n e t h a n t h e particular fortunes o f C a r t e s i a n i s m . b u t t h e y n o l o n g e r h a v e t h e r i g h t t o b e considered a m a r k o f it.' O v e r against this h i s t o r y . U n d e r c o v e r o f t h e e m p t y a n d o b scurely i n c a n t a t o r y phrases ' C a r t e s i a n influence' o r ' N e w t o n i a n m o d e l ' . B u t n e i t h e r this e n d e a v o u r n o r t h e a t t e m p t s o f m e c h a n i s m should be confused w i t h t h e relation t h a t all Classical k n o w l e d g e . t o m a t h c maticize e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e . L a n g u a g e has w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e m i d s t o f b e i n g s themselves a n d has e n t e r e d a p e r i o d o f t r a n s parency and neutrality. the w r i t t e n w o r d ceases t o b e i n c l u d e d a m o n g t h e signs a n d forms o f t r u t h . it w a s o n l y sporadic in o t h e r fields s o m e t i m e s actually a t t e m p t e d (as w i t h C o n d o r c e t ) . it is m o r e p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e w e r e f e w r a t h e r t h a n m a n y t o discover t h e t r u t h a b o u t it. O t h e r s are slightly m o r e p e r c e p t i v e . offered a t h e o r e t ical m o d e l to certain fields of k n o w l e d g e s u c h as m e d i c i n e or p h y s i o l o g y . rejected e v e n as a possibility (by Buffon. t h o u g h c o n s t a n t a n d c o n t i n u o u s i n the case of a s t r o n o m y a n d p a r t of physics. for w h a t w a s really a fairly s h o r t p e r i o d ( n o t q u i t e t h e last fifty years of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) . W e m u s t . s o m e t i m e s suggested as a universal ideal a n d a h o r i z o n for research (as w i t h C o n d i l l a c or D e s t u t t ) . l a n g u a g e i s n o l o n g e r o n e o f t h e figurations o f t h e w o r l d .c e n t u r y c u l t u r e . o r a signature s t a m p e d u p o n t h i n g s since t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e . T h i s is a g e n e r a l p h e n o m e n o n in s c v e n t c c n t h . It is t h e task o f w o r d s t o translate that t r u t h i f t h e y can. for e x a m p l e ) . T h e manifestation a n d sign of t r u t h are to be f o u n d in e v i d e n t a n d distinct p e r c e p t i o n . i n fact. i n t h e d e p t h s o f Classicism 56 . r a t h e r diverse i n t h e f o r m s i t t o o k .THE ORDER OF THINGS it p r o d u c e s as because of t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t : ' W h e n t h e question at issue is a difficult o n e . T h i s b e i n g so. t h e r e w a s t h e m e c h a n i s m that. in its m o s t general f o r m . it appears. u n d e r s t o o d as a universal science o f m e a s u r e m e n t a n d o r d e r . and thus p r e s e r v i n g . w h a t we w o u l d h a v e learned w o u l d n o t be sciences. . a n d lacking any c o m m o n u n i t o f m e a s u r e m e n t w i t h it. O n t h e o n e h a n d .

REPRESENTING itself. so t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h i n g s b y m e a n s o f signs constitutes all e m p i r i c a l f o r m s o f knowledge as knowledge based u p o n identity and 57 difference. the n a t u r a l resources o f t h e n o n . or t h a t t h e latter b e c o m e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n for all possible k n o w l e d g e . analysis w a s very quickly t o a c q u i r e t h e v a l u e o f a universal m e t h o d . o n the o t h e r h a n d . w i t h its s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of a semiology u p o n a hermeneutics. In this sense. In n o n e of these fields. T h i s link has t w o essential characteristics. or a l m o s t n o n e . this relation to t h e mathesis as a g e n e r a l science of o r d e r does n o t signify that k n o w l e d g e is a b s o r b e d i n t o m a t h e m a t i c s . a n d yet t h e y all rely for their f o u n d a t i o n u p o n a possible science of o r d e r . R a y a n d C u v i e r . a n d t h e L e i b nizian project of establishing a m a t h e m a t i c s of qualitative o r d e r s is situated a t t h e v e r y h e a r t o f Classical t h o u g h t . T h e first is t h a t relations b e t w e e n beings are i n d e e d to be conceived i n t h e f o r m o f o r d e r a n d m e a s u r e m e n t . So t h e r e f i r s t a p p e a r e d general g r a m m a r . A n d j u s t as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n in t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . all sciences o f o r d e r i n t h e d o m a i n o f w o r d s . e v e n n o n . a n d t h e analysis o f w e a l t h .r a t i o n a l i z a b l e . n o r t h e right t o m a t h e m a t i c i z e o r t h e impossibility o f m a t h e m a t i c i z i n g n a t u r e . in c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e quest for a mathesis. u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century. its g r a v i t a t i o n a l centre. r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t a n d u n a l t e r e d . c o u l d h a v e b e e n f o u n d e d w i t h o u t t h e relation that t h e entire episteme o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e m a i n t a i n e d at that t i m e w i t h a universal science of o r d e r . o n t h e c o n trary. n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . their p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t w a s n o t t h e algebraic method b u t t h e system of signs. P e t t y a n d R i c a r d o .e x t e n s i v e w i t h it in d u r a t i o n (their c h r o n o l o g i c a l frontiers are m a r k e d by L a n c e l o t and B o p p .m e a s u r a b l e ones. n e w i n t h e Classical p e r i o d a n d c o . that it is always possible to r e d u c e p r o b l e m s of m e a s u r e m e n t t o p r o b l e m s o f o r d e r . we p e r c e i v e t h e a p p e a r ance o f a certain n u m b e r o f e m p i r i c a l fields n o w b e i n g f o r m e d a n d defined for t h e v e r y first t i m e . T h e s e t w o f o r m s o f analysis are equally i n a d e q u a t e . S o t h a t t h e relation o f all k n o w l e d g e t o t h e mathesis is p o s i t e d as t h e possibility of establishing an o r d e r e d succession b e t w e e n t h i n g s . but r a t h e r a link w i t h t h e mathesis w h i c h . is i t possible t o find a n y trace o f m e c h a n i s m o r m a t h e m a t i c i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e all d e p e n d e n t u p o n analysis in general. This relation to Order is as essential to t h e Classical a g e as t h e relation to Interpretation w a s to t h e Renaissance. a n d n e e d s . B u t . w a s essentially a k n o w l e d g e based u p o n similitude. beings. b u t w i t h this f u n d a mental i m b a l a n c e . for t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e l e m e n t o f t h e Classical episteme is n e i t h e r t h e success or failure of m e c h a n i s m . t h e first g r o u p w r i t i n g a r o u n d 1660 a n d the second a r o u n d 1800-10). a n d n o n e o f these e m p i r i c a l studies. The .

t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y exercise their strange f u n c t i o n . a n d classifications. Second.w a s t h e e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f signs. keys for a t a x o n o m y . split d o w n t h e m i d d l e : o n t h e o n e side. t h a t causes t h e m t o e m e r g e s u d d e n l y as signs. t h e empirical a n d m u r m u r i n g r e s e m b l a n c e o f t h i n g s . it is this. a n d . T h i r d . b u t n o t a n a l o g o u s to it. e v e n t h e n a t u r a l sign does n o t r e q u i r e t h a t : a c r y is a s p o n t a n e o u s sign of fear. w e shall find t h e signs that h a v e b e c o m e tools o f analysis. On the t h r e s h o l d of t h e Classical age. or again. N o n e o f these forms of relation necessarily implies r e s e m b l a n c e . as it w e r e . divisions. t h e sign ceases t o b e a f o r m o f t h e w o r l d . t h e n e w forms o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t o c c u p y t h e area o p e n e d u p b y this n e w split. t h e c e r t a i n t y of t h e r e l a t i o n : a sign m a y be so c o n s t a n t that. o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s m o v e m e n t o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . visual sensations a r e signs of t o u c h established i n u s b y G o d . t h e o r i g i n of t h e relation: a sign m a y be n a t u r a l (in t h e sense t h a t a reflection in a m i r r o r d e n o t e s that w h i c h it reflects) or c o n v e n t i o n a l (in t h e sense that a w o r d m a y signify a n idea t o a g i v e n g r o u p o f m e n ) . as B e r k e l e y p u t s it. o f n a t u r e ' s repetitions.'one can be sure of its accuracy (in t h e sense that b r e a t h i n g d e n o t e s life). III THE REPRESENTATION OF THE SIGN W h a t is a sign in t h e Classical age? F o r w h a t w a s altered in t h e first half of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y .THE ORDER OF THINGS s i m u l t a n e o u s l y endless a n d closed. a n d i t ceases t o b e b o u n d t o w h a t i t m a r k s b y t h e solid a n d secret b o n d s o f r e s e m b l a n c e o r affinity. full a n d t a u t o l o g i c a l w o r l d o f r e s e m blance n o w finds itself dissociated a n d . 58 . t h a t u n r e a c t i n g similitude t h a t lies b e n e a t h t h o u g h t a n d furnishes t h e infinite r a w m a t e r i a l for divisions a n d distributions. it is their v e r y b e i n g . First. Classical t h o u g h t defines it a c c o r d i n g to t h r e e v a r i a b l e s [ i i ] . o n t h e o t h e r . t h e p r o b l e m o f i m m e d i a t e resemblances. A n d b e t w e e n t h e t w o . y e t t h e y d o n o t r e s e m b l e i t i n a n y w a y [ i 2 J .p e r h a p s r i g h t u p t o o u r o w n d a y . a m o n g so m a n y o t h e r t h i n g s o n e k n o w s o r sees. b u t it m a y also be simply p r o b a b l e (in t h e sense that pallor p r o b a b l y d e n o t e s p r e g n a n c y ) . t h e general t h e o r y o f signs. principles w h e r e b y t h i n g s can b e r e d u c e d t o o r d e r . o n t h e o t h e r . t h e t y p e o f r e l a t i o n : a sign m a y b e l o n g t o t h e w h o l e t h a t i t d e n o t e s (in t h e sense that a h e a l t h y a p p e a r a n c e is p a r t of t h e health it d e n o t e s ) o r b e separate f r o m i t (in t h e sense t h a t t h e figures o f t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t are distant signs o f t h e I n c a r n a t i o n a n d R e d e m p t i o n ) . a n d for a l o n g t i m e to c o m e . O n t h e o n e h a n d . m a r k s o f i d e n t i t y a n d difference.

I n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . b u t t h e y d i d n o t n e e d t o b e k n o w n i n o r d e r t o exist: e v e n i f t h e y r e m a i n e d silent. F r o m the seventeenth century o n w a r d . a n d n o d o u b t t h e best. I t w a s n o t k n o w l e d g e t h a t g a v e t h e m their signifying function. s h o u l d find its area o f b e i n g w i t h i n k n o w l e d g e . t h e r e can n o l o n g e r b e a n u n k n o w n sign. he is m a k i n g use o f o u r k n o w l e d g e . in natural j u d g e m e n t . sign. a n d t h a t t h e object o f its divination w a s divine. b u t this d i s c o v e r y w a s m e r e l y t h e u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e o f signs. T h e sign does n o t w a i t i n silence for t h e c o m i n g o f a m a n capable o f r e c o g n i z i n g it: i t c a n b e c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y b y a n act o f k n o w i n g . a n d o b l i g a t o r y k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e serving a s signs for discursive k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h w e h u m a n s . in feeling. or secretly t r a n s m i t t e d . it is in this sense t h a t it was t h e d i v i n a t i o n o f a n essential i m p l i c a t i o n . T h i s is n o t because m e n a r e in possession of all t h e possible signs. a m u t e m a r k . signs w e r e t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n placed u p o n t h i n g s s o t h a t m e n m i g h t b e able t o u n c o v e r their secrets. because w e are n o t p u r e intelligences. b u t t h e v e r y l a n guage of things. F r o m n o w o n . t h e justification o f their p r e s e n c e . w h a t w e a r e dealing w i t h are h a s t y a n d confused. Its task w a s t o u n c o v e r a l a n g u a g e w h i c h G o d h a d previously d i s t r i b u t e d across t h e face of t h e e a r t h . A n d t h o u g h G o d still e m p l o y s signs to speak to us t h r o u g h n a t u r e . Such is t h e r o l e of feeling in M a l e b r a n c h e or of sensation in B e r k e l e y . T h e sign. the w h o l e d o m a i n o f t h e sign i s d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h e certain a n d t h e p r o b a b l e : that i s t o say. i n e v i t a b l e . b u t pressing. h o w e v e r . i t w a s a possible w a y o f using t h e m . a n d in t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t h i r d d i m e n s i o n . b u t because there can be no sign u n t i l t h e r e exists a known possibility of substitution b e t w e e n t w o known e l e m e n t s . n o l o n g e r h a v e t h e t i m e o r t h e p e r m i s s i o n t o attain t o ourselves a n d b y t h e u n a i d e d s t r e n g t h o f o u r o w n m i n d s . in o r d e r to establish in o u r m i n d s a relation of signification. their n a t u r e o r their v i r t u e s . It is h e r e t h a t k n o w l e d g e breaks off its o l d k i n s h i p w i t h divinatio. T h e latter always p r e s u p p o s e d signs a n t e r i o r to it: so that k n o w l e d g e a l w a y s resided entirely in t h e o p e n i n g up of a discovered. i. it is f r o m k n o w ledge t h a t i t w i l l b o r r o w its c e r t a i n t y o r its p r o b a b i l i t y . since it is a l w a y s either certain or p r o b a b l e . t h e y w e r e j u s t a s m u c h there.REPRESENTING These t h r e e variables replace r e s e m b l a n c e in defining t h e sign's efficacity in the domains of empirical k n o w l e d g e . i t i s w i t h i n k n o w l e d g e itself that t h e sign is to p e r f o r m its signifying f u n c t i o n . I n M a l e b r a n c h e a n d B e r k e l e y . a n d o f t h e relations t h a t a r e set u p b e t w e e n o u r i m pressions. e v e n i f n o o n e w e r e t o p e r c e i v e t h e m . affirmed. t h e sign a r r a n g e d b y G o d i s t h e c u n n i n g a n d 59 . in visual impressions.

T h e s e c o n d v a r i a b l e o f t h e sign: t h e f o r m o f its relation w i t h w h a t i t signifies. for i t w a s w i t h i n t h e p o w e r o f t h e sign t o d r a w t h i n g s t o g e t h e r a n d u n i t e t h e m .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h o u g h t f u l s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f t w o kinds o f k n o w l e d g e . i s n o w able t o a c c o m m o d a t e p r o b a b i l i t y : b e t w e e n o n e i m pression a n d a n o t h e r t h e relation will b e t h a t o f sign t o signified. F o r t h e sign to be. will p r o g r e s s f r o m t h e w e a k e s t p r o b a b i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e greatest c e r t a i n t y . b u t t h e m a r k that f o r e w a r n s m e o f it[i3J. a n d sacred area of signs . A n d i t will also b e seen h o w . b u t o n l y of a m a r k or sign w i t h t h e t h i n g signified.no insertion of k n o w l e d g e in t h e e n i g m a t i c . a s a n e l e m e n t . k n o w l e d g e . T h e ^ i r c w h i c h I see is n o t t h e cause of t h e p a i n I suffer u p o n my a p p r o a c h i n g it. t h e sign b e c o m e s characterized b y its essential dispersion.b u t a b r i e f a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d k i n d of k n o w l e d g e : the contraction of a long sequence of j u d g e m e n t s into the r a p i d l y assimilated f o r m o f t h e sign. h a v i n g enclosed t h e signs w i t h i n its o w n space. T h e circular w o r l d o f c o n v e r g i n g signs i s replaced b y a n infinite p r o gression. it m u s t be p r e s e n t e d as an object of k n o w l e d g e at t h e s a m e t i m e as t h a t w h i c h it signifies. T h e c o n n e c t i o n o f ideas does n o t i m p l y t h e relation o f cause a n d effect. like t h a t o f succession. W i t h i n this space. T h e t r u t h is. h o w e v e r . As C o n d i l l a c p o i n t s o u t . w h a t it is. s i m i l i t u d e w a s able i n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y t o t r i u m p h o v e r space a n d t i m e . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f Classical t h o u g h t . m u s t b e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n insertion in t h a t w h i c h it signifies a n d also distinct f r o m it. e m u l a t i o n . i t m u s t b e differentiated qua c l e m e n t a n d be distinguished f r o m t h e total i m p r e s s i o n 60 . i n o r d e r t o function. a r e l a t i o n w h i c h . B u t if o n e e l e m e n t of a p e r c e p t i o n is to b e c o m e a sign for it. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . at random. since t h e sign. the sign can h a v e o n e o f t w o p o s i t i o n s : either i t c a n b e c l a i m e d . b y a reversal o f d i r e c t i o n . t o b e p a r t o f that w h i c h i t serves t o d e s i g n a t e . o p e n . 2 . a n d a b o v e all s y m p a t h y . i n o t h e r w o r d s . T h e r e i s n o l o n g e r a n y divinatio i n v o l v e d . H u m e has b e c o m e possible. T h e k n o w l e d g e that d i v i n e d . a s o u n d c o u l d n e v e r b e c o m e t h e v e r b a l sign of s o m e t h i n g for a child unless t h e child h a d h e a r d i t a t least o n c e a t t h e m o m e n t o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e o b j c c t [ i 4 ] . in effect. that this a l t e r n a t i v e is n o t a radical o n e . it is n o t e n o u g h m e r e l y for t h a t e l e m e n t t o b e p a r t o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n . or else it is really a n d actually separated f r o m w h a t it serves to designate. signs t h a t w e r e absolute a n d o l d e r t h a n itself has b e e n r e p l a c e d by a n e t w o r k of signs built up step by step i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t i s p r o b a b l e . B y m e a n s o f t h e i n t e r p l a y o f c o n v e n i e n c y .

W e s t e r n reason is e n t e r i n g t h e age o f j u d g e m e n t . from Condillac to Destutt de Tracy and G e r a n d o . since w i t h o u t analysis t h e sign c o u l d n o t b e c o m e a p p a r e n t . a n d o f t a k i n g u p f r o m that p o i n t t h e endless d e p l o y m e n t o f t h e substitutes in w h i c h we c o n c e i v e of it. it is t h e result of it. t o dissociate themselves or b i n d themselves t o g e t h e r . A n d it is by this m e a n s t h a t it is offered s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o analysis a n d t o c o m b i n a t i o n . i n o r d e r t o isolate o n e o f t h e m . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . 3 . a n d in relation to t h e m it plays t h e r o l e of a g r i d . I t h a d l o n g b e e n k n o w n . c o n s e q u e n t l y . It is t h e r e f o r e strictly limited. It is understandable w h y . t h e sign appears. t h e values allotted t o n a t u r e a n d c o n v e n t i o n i n this field are i n v e r t e d : if n a t u r a l . t h a t total i m p r e s s i o n itself m u s t h a v e b e e n d i v i d e d u p . a sign is no m o r e t h a n an e l e m e n t selected f r o m t h e w o r l d of things a n d c o n s t i t u t e d as a sign by o u r k n o w ledge. e v e n at a r e m o v e . B u t it is also t h e i n s t r u m e n t of analysis. it is d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t t h e sign. F r o m the s e v e n t e e n t h century-. o n t h e c o n t r a r y . w e r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n of all others. t o p r e s e r v e themselves w i t h i n their o w n identities. T h e s e latter. analysis n e v e r ceases. W h e n t h e Logique de Port-Royal states t h a t a sign c a n be i n h e r e n t in w h a t it designates or separate f r o m it. T h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e sign i s thus inseparable f r o m analysis. in t h e Classical age. t h e general t h e o r y o f signs a n d t h e definition o f t h e p o w e r o f analysis o f t h o u g h t w e r e s o e x a c t l y s u p e r i m p o s e d t o f o r m a single a n d unbroken theory of knowledge. B u t t h e artificial signs o w e d their p o w e r o n l y to their fidelity to n a t u r a l signs. since o n c e defined and isolated it can be applied to further impressions. Because t h e m i n d has signs at its disposal. i n c o n v e n i e n t .a n d well before Plato's Cratylus . is c h a r g e d no l o n g e r w i t h t h e task of k e e p i n g t h e w o r l d close t o itself a n d i n h e r e n t i n its o w n f o r m s . N o r w a s t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y i g n o r a n t o f this fact. rigid. b u t . o n e establishes a 61 . as it w e r e . a n d a t t e n t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s o n e o f t h e i n t e r m i n g l e d r e g i o n s c o m p o s i n g it. a n d can b e o r d e r e d f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d . a n d impossible for t h e m i n d t o m a s t e r . Because t h e m i n d analyses. since i t r e c o g n i z e d h u m a n l a n g u a g e s t o b e instituted signs. o f j u x t a p o s i n g i t o v e r a n indefinitely o p e n surface.REPRESENTING w i t h w h i c h it is confusedly l i n k e d . T h e sign i n Classical t h o u g h t does n o t erase d i s tances o r abolish t i m e : o n t h e c o n t r a r y . It is t h e sign that enables t h i n g s to b e c o m e distinct. Indeed. T h e r e r e m a i n s a t h i r d variable: t h e o n e t h a t can assume t h e t w o values o f n a t u r e a n d o f c o n v e n t i o n . W h e n . w i t h that o f s p r e a d i n g i t o u t . i t enables o n e t o u n f o l d t h e m a n d to traverse t h e m step by step.t h a t signs c a n be either g i v e n by n a t u r e or established b y m a n .

N a t u r a l signs are m e r e l y r u d i m e n t a r y sketches for these c o n v e n t i o n a l signs. a n d p e r m i t t h e ideal genesis o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i n g s . applicable t o a n indefinite n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s . a n d instinct i n t o rational k n o w l e d g e [ 1 5 ] . a b l e t o m a k e n a t u r e visible f r o m its p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s r i g h t t o t h e s i m u l t a n e i t y o f all t h e i r possible c o m b i n a t i o n s . It is no l o n g e r t h e task of 62 . absolutely t r a n s p a r e n t l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s c a p a b l e o f n a m i n g w h a t i s e l e m e n t a r y . M o r e precisely. s p o n t a n e o u s a t t e n t i o n i n t o reflection. I n t h e Classical age. a n d retained. t h a t transforms i m a g i n a t i o n i n t o v o l u n t a r y m e m o r y . as it w a s in p r e c e d i n g centuries.m a d e sign i s t h e sign a t t h e p e a k o f its activity.'natural' o n l y i f o n e i s a t t e m p t i n g t o designate t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h signs h a v e b e e n established. ' A r b i t r a r y ' stands i n o p p o s i t i o n t o . this search for origins a n d this calculus o f c o m b i n a t i o n s a p p e a r i n c o m p a t i b l e . A n a r b i t r a r y s y s t e m o f signs m u s t p e r m i t t h e analysis o f t h i n g s i n t o t h e i r simplest e l e m e n t s . t h e m a n . t h e final t e r m s of its analysis a n d t h e laws of its c o m p o s i t i o n . t h e s y s t e m of signs is t h a t s i m p l e . t h e v a g u e a n d distant design t h a t c a n b e realized o n l y b y t h e establishment o f arbitrariness. t h e r e exists a single. i t m u s t b e c a p a b l e o f d e c o m p o s i n g t h e m i n t o their v e r y o r i g i n s . to a t t e m p t to rediscover b e n e a t h t h e m t h e p r i m i t i v e t e x t o f a discourse sustained. f o r e v e r . I t i s t h e m a n . b u t i t m u s t also d e m o n strate h o w c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h o s e e l e m e n t s a r e possible. T o o u r eyes. susceptible o f subdivision w i t h i n itself a n d o f c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r signs. i t i s a n a t t e m p t t o discover t h e a r b i t r a r y l a n g u a g e t h a t will a u t h o r i z e t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f n a t u r e w i t h i n its space. it is a l w a y s possible (and i n d e e d necessary) to c h o o s e it i n s u c h a w a y t h a t i t w i l l b e simple. for t h a t v e r y reason.m a d e sign t h a t d r a w s t h e d i v i d i n g . T h e same is true of the interaction between the system and nature. B u t this arbitrariness is m e a s u r e d by its f u n c t i o n . it is also t h a t c o m p l e x of o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h defines all possible c o n j u n c t i o n s . necessary a r r a n g e m e n t r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e of t h e Classical episteme: t h e association of a universal calculus a n d a search for t h e e l e m e n t a r y w i t h i n a system t h a t is artificial a n d is. t h e r e i s n o c o n t r a d i c t i o n a t all for t h o u g h t a t t h a t t i m e . a n d has its rules v e r y e x a c t l y defined b y t h a t f u n c t i o n .and eighteenth-century thought. I n fact. to m a k e use of signs is n o t .at t h e level of p r i m a l impressions a n d in all t h e possible f o r m s of t h e i r c o m b i n a t i o n . I t i s also w h a t I t a r d f o u n d l a c k i n g i n t h e ' w i l d m a n o f A v e y r o n ' [ i 6 ] . B u t this arbitrariness is also t h e g r i d of analysis a n d t h e c o m b i n a t i v e space t h r o u g h w h i c h n a t u r e is to posit itself as t h a t w h i c h it is .THE ORDER OF THINGS c o n v e n t i o n a l sign.l i n e b e t w e e n m a n a n d a n i m a l . a n d w e are o n l y t o o r e a d y t o i n terpret t h e m as an ambiguity in seventeenth. easy t o r e m e m b e r . In its perfect state.

T h e Logique de Port-Royal states this a s f o l l o w s : ' T h e sign encloses t w o ideas. T h e relation of t h e sign to t h e signified n o w resides in a space in w h i c h there is no longer any intermediary figure to connect t h e m : w h a t connects t h e m is a b o n d established. it w i l l really b e t h e l a n g u a g e o f calculation. B e r k e l e y . analysis. I t w a s t h e sign s y s t e m t h a t g a v e rise s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o t h e search for origins a n d t o calculability. c o m b i n a t i o n . a r c h a e o logically. b e t w e e n t h e idea of one thing a n d t h e idea of another. a n d t h e justified arbitrariness o f t h e system. a n d s o u g h t to replace all l a n g u a g e s w i t h a s y s t e m of artificial s y m b o l s a n d o p e r a t i o n s of a logical n a t u r e . t h e p r o p e r t y o f signs most fundamental to t h e Classical episteme has n o t y e t b e e n m e n t i o n e d . inside k n o w l e d g e . a n d c o m b i n a t i o n . n o t a s successive t h e m e s e n g e n d e r i n g o n e a n o t h e r o r d r i v i n g o n e a n o t h e r o u t . a n d universal l a n g u a g e s y s t e m . I n d e e d . as an i n s t r u m e n t of analysis a n d c o m b i n a t i o n . t h e v e r y fact t h a t t h e sign can b e m o r e o r less p r o b a b l e . I t w a s this s y s t e m t h a t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o k n o w l e d g e p r o b a b i l i t y . B e r k e l e y . or Condillac. analysis. b u t as a single n e t w o r k of necessities. Leibniz. m a d e i t possible. a n d t o fabricate it w e l l . I t i s n o w possible t o define t h e i n s t r u m e n t s laid d o w n for t h e use o f Classical t h o u g h t b y t h e sign system.REPRESENTING k n o w l e d g e t o d i g o u t t h e ancient W o r d f r o m t h e u n k n o w n places w h e r e i t m a y b e h i d d e n . At t h e level o f t h e h i s t o r y o f o p i n i o n s . t h e o t h e r of t h e t h i n g r e p r e s e n t e d . a s a t a n g l e d n e t w o r k o f influences i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s p l a y e d b y H o b b e s . w e p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e dissociation o f t h e sign a n d r e s e m b l a n c e in t h e early s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y caused these n e w f o r m s p r o b a b i l i t y . t h a t i t can b e either n a t u r a l o r a r b i t r a r y . C o n d i l l a c . o n e o f t h e t h i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g . all this w o u l d a p p e a r . B u t i f w e q u e s t i o n Classical t h o u g h t a t t h e level o f w h a t .all this s h o w s clearly e n o u g h that the r e l a t i o n o f t h e sign t o its c o n t e n t i s n o t g u a r a n t e e d b y t h e o r d e r o f t h i n g s i n t h e m selves. its j o b n o w i s t o fabricate a l a n g u a g e .so t h a t . m o r e o r less distant f r o m w h a t i t signifies. IV DUPLICATED REPRESENTATION However. n o d o u b t . t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f tables t h a t w o u l d fix t h e possible c o m p o s i t i o n s . w i t h o u t its n a t u r e o r its v a l u e as a sign b e i n g affected . H u m e . a n d t h e ' I d e o l o g u e s ' w o u l d b e r e vealed. a n d t o t h e restitution of a genesis on t h e basis of t h e simplest e l e m e n t s . a n d its n a t u r e consists in e x c i t i n g t h e first 63 . it w a s t h e sign s y s t e m that linked all k n o w l e d g e to a l a n g u a g e .to e m e r g e . A n d it w a s this n e t w o r k t h a t m a d e possible t h e individuals w e t e r m H o b b e s .

m u s t also be r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n it. t h e t h e o r y o f t h e sign i m p l i e d t h r e e q u i t e distinct e l e m e n t s : that which was marked. n o function. a n d that w h i c h is signified resides. w h i c h m o v e s b a c k w a r d iri relation t o itself a n d c o m e s to reside e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e signifying e l e m e n t . T h i s d u a l t h e o r y o f t h e sign i s i n u n e q u i v o c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e m o r e c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Renaissance. h o w e v e r . In fact. in a d d i t i o n . t h e idea of its r o l e as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . W h a t we are faced w i t h h e r e is n o t .t h e d r a w i n g as m a p or p i c t u r e . b u t that r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In its simple state as an idea. t h e idea signifying. that which did the marking. n o r t h e s y m b o l . h a d been 64 . b u t t h e spatial a n d g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . in t u r n . t h e signifying e l e m e n t is n o t a sign. a s u r r e p titious r e t u r n to a t e r n a r y system. a s i t appears i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B u t this c o n t e n t is indicated o n l y in a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t posits itself as such. a n d is r e p l a c e d by a strictly b i n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS b y m e a n s o f t h e s e c o n d ' [ 1 7 ] . b u t r a t h e r an inevitable-'displacement w i t h i n the t w o . B u t t h e r e is o n e c o n d i t i o n that m u s t be fulfilled if t h e sign is indeed to be this p u r e duality. a n d y e t t h a t c o n t e n t is m a d e visible o n l y because it is represented by a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e r e l a t i o n t h a t links it to w h a t it signifies. t h e signifying c l e m e n t has n o c o n t e n t . w i t h i n this second t e r m . T h i s appears t o g i v e u s t h r e e t e r m s : t h e idea s i g n i fied. w i t h o u t r e s i d u u m a n d w i t h o u t o p a c i t y . a t t h a t t i m e . a n d o n e that t h e Logique de Port-Royal sets forth e v e n b e f o r e telling us w h a t a sign is: ' W h e n o n e looks at a certain object o n l y in so far as it represents a n o t h e r . of course. T h e signifying idea b e c o m e s d o u b l e . w i t h i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e sign. associated w i t h o r substituted for a n o t h e r . t h e idea o n e has of it is t h e idea of a sign. T h i s is because t h e p i c t u r e has n o o t h e r c o n t e n t i n fact than that w h i c h i t represents. T h i s is a c o n d i t i o n indispensable to t h e b i n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e sign. in different m o d e s . It is characteristic that t h e first e x a m p l e of a sign g i v e n by t h e Logique de Port-Royal is n o t t h e w o r d . It m u s t r e p r e s e n t . or a p e r c e p t i o n . r e s e m b l a n c e : t h e sign p r o v i d e d a m a r k exactly in so far as it w a s ' a l m o s t t h e s a m e t h i n g ' as t h a t w h i c h it designated. or an i m a g e . and that which m a d e it possible to see in t h e first t h e m a r k of the s e c o n d . a n d n o d e t e r m i n a t i o n o t h e r t h a n w h a t it represents: it is entirely o r d e r e d u p o n a n d t r a n s p a r e n t to it.t e r m figure. since s u p e r i m p o s e d u p o n t h e idea t h a t is replacing a n o t h e r t h e r e is also t h e idea of its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o w e r . It is this u n i t a r y a n d t r i p l e s y s t e m that disappears a t t h e s a m e t i m e a s ' t h o u g h t b y r e s e m b l a n c e ' . replaces an o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h . T h e b i n a r y a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e sign. n o r t h e c r y . a n d this last e l e m e n t w a s . It c a n b e c o m e a sign o n l y oh c o n d i t i o n t h a t it manifests. a n d that first object is called a sign'[18]. a n d .

all t o g e t h e r . t h e n signification c a n n o t c o n s t i t u t e a p r o b l e m . Before. O r again. C o n d i l l a c ) . t h a t is. as it w e r e . i m a g i n i n g s are signs o f t h e p e r c e p t i o n s f r o m w h i c h t h e y arose ( H u m e . b u t also because this r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c a n a l w a y s b e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n t h e idea that i s r e p r e s e n t i n g . a relation to an object a n d a manifestation of itself. w h e n D e s t u t t c o u l d r e p r o a c h G e r a n d o for h a v i n g created a t h e o r y of signs before defining the idea[io]. as it w e r e . it is possible t h a t sensations m a y t h e m selves be (as in B e r k e l e y ) signs of w h a t G o d wishes to tell us. B u t if p h e n o m e n a are p o s i t e d o n l y in a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t . A second c o n s e q u e n c e : this universal extension of t h e sign w i t h i n t h e field of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n precludes e v e n t h e possibility of a theory of signification. this meant that one to that their i m m e d i a t e link w a s a l r e a d y b e c o m i n g confused. T h i s has v e r y considerable consequences. All representations are i n t e r c o n n e c t e d as signs. F o r to ask ourselves questions a b o u t w h a t signification is p r e supposes t h a t it is a d e t e r m i n a t e f o r m in o u r consciousness. F r o m t h e Classical a g e . t h e y f o r m . t h e y are c o . sensations are signs o f o n e a n o t h e r (Berkeley. An idea c a n be t h e sign o f a n o t h e r . W h e n e v e r o n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s linked t o a n o t h e r a n d r e p resents that link w i t h i n itself. t h e general idea is no m o r e t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r idea serving as a sign for o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r ideas ( B e r k e l e y ) . t h e y w e r e m e a n s o f k n o w i n g a n d t h e keys t o k n o w l e d g e . n o w . t h e y reside w i t h i n it b u t t h e y r u n t h r o u g h its e n t i r e e x t e n t . for I d e o l o g y t o raise t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e idea o r t h e sign s h o u l d b e a c c o r d e d p r i m a c y . in itself a n d because of its o w n representability. and when the day came. Analysis of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t h e t h e o r y o f signs i n t e r p e n e t r a t e o n e a n o t h e r a b s o l u t e l y . t h e sign is t h e representativity of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in so far as it is representable. C o n d i l l a c ) . t h e r e is a sign: t h e abstract idea signifies t h e c o n c r e t e p e r c e p t i o n f r o m w h i c h i t has b e e n f o r m e d ( C o n d i l l a c ) . is w h o l l y a sign. a n d this n e w b i n a r y a r r a n g e m e n t p r e s u p p o s e s that t h e sign is a duplicated r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d o u b l e d o v e r u p o n itself. n o t o n l y because a b o n d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can b e established b e t w e e n t h e m . finally. a n d . w h i c h w o u l d m a k e t h e m . the i m p o r t a n c e of signs i n Classical t h o u g h t . because r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in its peculiar essence is a l w a y s p e r p e n d i c u l a r to itself: it is at the s a m e t i m e indication a n d appearance. idea and sign w o u l d s o o n cease t o b e perfectly another. M o r e o v e r . w i t h t h o u g h t as a w h o l e . signs for a c o m p l e x of signs.e x t e n s i v e w i t h representation. First.REPRESENTING t e r n a r y ever since t h e t i m e of t h e Stoics. it is n o t e v e n visible. a n d e v e n since t h e first G r e e k g r a m m a r i a n s . an i m m e n s e 65 transparent and . a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .

it is also w h y n a t u r a l h i s t o r y manifests itself as an analysis of t h e characters of living beings. h a v e n o o t h e r laws t h a n t h o s e t h a t m a y g o v e r n their c o n t e n t s : a n y analysis o f signs i s a t t h e s a m e t i m e . i s c o n d u c t e d o n t h e basis o f a n abstract t h e o r y o f v e r b a l signs a n d i n t h e f o r m o f a general g r a m m a r : b u t i t a l w a y s takes t h e m e a n i n g of w o r d s as its g u i d i n g t h r e a d . T h e r e w i l l t h e r e f o r e b e n o t h e o r y o f signs separate a n d differing f r o m a n analysis o f m e a n i n g . therefore. a n d w i t h o u t n e e d for further i n q u i r y . 'semiology' and 'hermeneutics' a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d . T h e table o f t h e signs will b e t h e image o f t h e t h i n g s . T h o u g h t h e m e a n i n g itself is entirely on t h e side of t h e sign. t h e d e c i p h e r m e n t o f w h a t t h e y are t r y i n g to say. i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t Classical p h i l o s o p h y . h a v e s o m u c h t r o u b l e . a n d y e t . Signs. a n d w h y . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . N o m e a n i n g e x t e r i o r o r a n t e r i o r t o t h e sign. Inversely.b u t in a different f o r m . w a s t h r o u g h a n d t h r o u g h a p h i l o s o p h y of t h e sign.or r a t h e r . o r a t least to dissociate it as little as possible. f r o m M a l e b r a n c h e t o I d e o l o g y . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . since it does n o t a c c o r d t h a t w h i c h is signified a n a t u r e different f r o m t h a t a c c o r d e d to t h e sign.THE ORDER OF THINGS n e t w o r k . artificial t h o u g h t h e y m a y b e . t h e d i s c o v e r y of w h a t is signified is n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a reflection u p o n t h e signs that indicate it. As in t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . its f u n c t i o n i n g is entirely on t h e side of t h a t w h i c h is signified. w h o c o n c e i v e o f signs o n l y u p o n t h e basis o f s u c h a n analysis. t h e c o m p l e t e n e t w o r k o f signs i s linked t o g e t h e r a n d articulated a c c o r d i n g t o p a t t e r n s p r o p e r t o m e a n i n g . B u t . No d o u b t it is because Classical t h o u g h t a b o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n excludes a n y analysis o f significat i o n t h a t w e t o d a y . each o n e posits itself in its t r a n s p a r e n c y as t h e sign of w h a t it represents. it is also w h y t h e analysis of w e a l t h 66 . Y e t the system does g r a n t a certain p r i v i l e g e to t h e f o r m e r o v e r t h e latter. nevertheless. n o implicit p r e s e n c e o f a p r e v i o u s discourse that m u s t b e r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n o r d e r t o reveal t h e a u t o c h t h o n o u s m e a n i n g o f t h i n g s . it will be g i v e n in t h e c o m p l e t e table of signs. t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n lies i n t h a t p o w e r p r o p e r t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t i n g itself. m e a n i n g c a n n o t b e a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n the* totality o f t h e signs a r r a n g e d in their p r o g r e s s i o n . N o r .no specific activity of consciousness c a n e v e r c o n s t i t u t e a signification. are always i n t e n d e d t o u n i t e w i t h t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r . T h i s is because there is no intermediary element. by this v e r y fact . no opacity intervening between the sign a n d its c o n t e n t . T h i s is w h y t h e analysis of l a n g u a g e . f r o m L a n c e l o t t o D e s t u t t d e T r a c y . a n y act c o n s t i t u t i v e of signification or a n y genesis i n t e r i o r to consciousness. I n t h e Classical age t h e y n o l o n g e r m e e t a n d j o i n i n t h e t h i r d e l e m e n t o f r e s e m b l a n c e . despite t h e e v i d e n c e . t h e t a x o n o m i e s used.

w h i c h p r o b a b l y e x t e n d s u p t o o u r o w n t i m e : t h e b i n a r y t h e o r y o f t h e sign. Finally. t h e n t h e relation can b e established o n l y w i t h i n t h e general e l e m e n t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : t h e signifying e l e m e n t a n d t h e signified e l e m e n t a r e l i n k e d o n l y in so far as t h e y are (or h a v e b e e n or can b e ) represented. V THE IMAGINATION OF RESEMBLANCE S o signs a r e n o w set free f r o m t h a t t e e m i n g w o r l d t h r o u g h o u t w h i c h t h e Renaissance h a d d i s t r i b u t e d t h e m . It was also necessary t h a t Saussure. v o l u n t a r y o r i m p o s e d . A n d y e t similitude i s still a n indispensable b o r d e r o f k n o w l e d g e . a t h i r d c o n s e q u e n c e . t h e p u r e science of signs has v a l u e as t h e direct discourse of t h a t w h i c h is signified. in t h e interstices of ideas. T h e y are l o d g e d h e n c e f o r t h w i t h i n t h e confines of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . it is n o w a spent force. a general analysis of all f o r m s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . r e d i s c o v e r i n g t h e project of a general s e m i o l o g y .REPRESENTING i s c o n d u c t e d o n t h e basis o f m o n e y a n d e x c h a n g e . s h o u l d h a v e g i v e n t h e sign a definition t h a t c o u l d s e e m ' p s y c h o l o g i s t i c ' (the l i n k i n g of a c o n c e p t a n d an i m a g e ) : this is because he w a s in fact r e d i s c o v e r i n g t h e Classical c o n d i t i o n for c o n ceiving o f t h e b i n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e sign. For n o equality o r relation o f o r d e r can b e established b e t w e e n t w o t h i n g s unless their r e s e m b l a n c e has at least occasioned their c o m p a r i s o n . unless it has first b e e n erased in its i n e x a c t f o r m of r e s e m b l a n c e a n d t r a n s f o r m e d b y k n o w l e d g e i n t o a relationship o f e q u a l i t y o r o r d e r . t h e t h e o r y u p o n w h i c h t h e w h o l e general science of t h e sign has b e e n f o u n d e d since t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In t h e Classical age. outside t h e r e a l m of k n o w l e d g e . a n d in so far as t h e o n e actually represents t h e o t h e r . f r o m e l e m e n t a r y sensation t o t h e abstract and c o m p l e x idea. I f t h e sign i s t h e p u r e a n d simple c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t signifies a n d w h a t is signified (a c o n n e c t i o n t h a t m a y be a r b i t r a r y or n o t . It is m e r e l y e m p i r i c i s m in its m o s t u n refined f o r m . for h i m . w h e r e a s . It w a s t h e r e f o r e necessary t h a t t h e Classical t h e o r y of t h e sign s h o u l d p r o v i d e itself w i t h an ' i d e o l o g y ' to serve as its f o u n d a t i o n a n d philosophical justification. b u t value i s a l w a y s based u p o n n e e d . o n e can no l o n g e r ' r e g a r d it as b e i n g a p a r t of p h i l o s o p h y ' . H u m e placed t h e relation o f i d e n t i t y a m o n g those ' p h i l o s o p h i c a l ' relations t h a t p r e s u p p o s e reflection. individual o r collective). As for similitude. t h a t is. r e s e m b l a n c e b e l o n g e d t o n a t u r a l 67 . in t h a t n a r r o w space i n w h i c h t h e y interact w i t h themselves i n a p e r p e t u a l state o f d e c o m position a n d r e c o m p o s i t i o n . like H o b b e s . is l i n k e d a c c o r d i n g to a f u n d a m e n t a l relation w i t h a general t h e o r y of representation.

b u t i n a n e w w a y . t o t h o s e that constrain o u r m i n d s b y m e a n s o f a n inevitable b u t ' c a l m force'. Similitude in Classical p h i l o s o p h y (that is. W h e r e a s similitude o n c e r e q u i r e d a m a r k in o r d e r for its secret to be u n c o v e r e d . a n d t h e h i n g e o f t h e w h o l e w o r l d . c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r representations t h a t m a y b e similar t o it. T h i s results in a d o u b l e reversal: first. o r . b u t w h i c h c o n t i n u e s . a n d i m a g i n a t i o n . I nevertheless d a r e defy h i m to m a k e a single step in his p r o g r e s s w i t h o u t t h e aid o f r e s e m b l a n c e . A n d . t h e species a n d all abstract n o t i o n s . a n d t h e n tell m e w h e t h e r t h e g e n e r a l i n d u c t i o n s that are d e r i v e d f r o m particular facts. m o r e exactly. c o m b i n e d w i t h those representations that m a y present partial identities. A t t h e b o r d e r o f k n o w l e d g e . because it is no l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n o f m a k i n g a p r e v i o u s c o n t e n t manifest t o k n o w l e d g e b u t o f p r o v i d i n g a c o n t e n t t h a t will be able to offer a g r o u n d u p o n w h i c h f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e c a n b e applied. a n d its identities. i n t u r n . r e s e m b l a n c e i s situated o n t h e side o f i m a g i n a t i o n . It i s t h r o u g h r e s e m b l a n c e t h a t representation can b e k n o w n . shifting. W h e r e a s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e s e m b l a n c e w a s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l relation o f b e i n g t o itself. t h a t is. unstable base u p o n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e can establish its relations. r e s e m b l a n c e a n d sign r e s p o n d inevitably t o o n e a n o t h e r .THE ORDER OF THINGS relations. t o reside b e l o w k n o w l e d g e i n t h e m a n n e r of a m u t e and ineffaceable necessity. its m e a s u r e m e n t s . that r u d i m e n t a r y relation w h i c h k n o w l e d g e m u s t o v e r l a y t o its full e x t e n t . second. i n effect. indefinitely. . or r a t h e r t h e kinds themselves. A s i n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y .a n d w i t h it t h e w h o l e of discursive k n o w l e d g e t h a t requires a basis of similitude. in t h e Classical age it is the simplest form in w h i c h w h a t is to be k n o w n . a n d w h a t is furthest f r o m k n o w l e d g e itself. i f w e suppose i n t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d chain o f 63 . analysed i n t o e l e m e n t s (elements c o m m o n t o i t a n d o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) . can b e exercised o n l y w i t h t h e aid o f r e s e m b l a n c e . a n d . Let the p h i l o s o p h e r p r i d e h i m s e l f o n his precision a s m u c h a s h e w i l l . similitude i s t h a t b a r e l y s k e t c h e d f o r m . i t can b e manifested o n l y b y v i r t u e o f i m a g i n a t i o n . it is n o w t h e undifferentiated. in a p h i l o s o p h y of analysis) plays a r o l e parallel to t h a t w h i c h will be p l a y e d b y diversity i n critical t h o u g h t and t h e philosophies o f j u d g e m e n t . because it is t h e sign . T h r o w b u t o n e g l a n c e u p o n t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l aspect o f t h e sciences. . c a n b e f o r m e d o t h e r w i s e t h a n b y m e a n s o f resemblance[2o]. and finally laid o u t i n t o an o r d e r e d table. appears. e v e n t h e least abstract o f t h e m . I n this l i m i t i n g a n d c o n d i t i o n a l position (that w i t h o u t w h i c h and b e y o n d w h i c h o n e c a n n o t k n o w ) .

t h e v e r y simplest that can be. r e a n i m a t e a f o r m e r o n e . A n d . t h a t t h i n g s a r e g i v e n in an o v e r l a p p i n g m i x t u r e . t h e m e c h a n i c s o f t h e i m a g e in t i m e . since n o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w o u l d be able to i m m o b i l i z e itself in o n e place. and thus a u t h o r i z i n g its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . e v e n t h a t t i n y o v e r l a p of i d e n t i t y necessary for all differentiation w o u l d n o t be p r o v i d e d . o f all t h a t i n v o l u n t a r y b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h is. on t h e o t h e r h a n d . consistently d r a w i n g closer a n d closer t o g e t h e r until finally. p e r h a p s a l o n g t i m e a g o . v a g u e similitudes. in an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g j u m b l e in w h i c h their essential o r d e r is confused. t o exist. the t a b u l a r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f their u n o r d e r e d similitudes. those i m pressions w o u l d succeed o n e a n o t h e r in t h e m o s t total differentiation . w e find t h e analysis that p r o v i d e s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e inversion o f t h e scries o f representations t o f o r m a n o n . in the t h i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d . w h i l e t h e o t h e r has ceased. w h i c h c o m p l e t e s a n d confronts it. A n d n e i t h e r o f these requisites can dispense w i t h t h e o t h e r . a n d j u x t a p o s e itself to it so as to g i v e rise to a c o m p a r i s o n . W h y i s it. their d e c o m p o s i t i o n i n t o identical a n d different elem e n t s . t h e y w e r e able t o express their c o m m o n t r u t h i n I d e o l o g y . o f i m a g i n a t i o n . 69 .so total that i t c o u l d n o t e v e n b e perceived. w i t h o u t t h e slightest d e g r e e o f r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e m . causing it to r e a p p e a r .REPRESENTING r e p r e s e n t a t i o n certain impressions. T h e d o u b l e requisite is p a t e n t . in t h e second half o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d allusive o p p o r t u n i t i e s for a m e m o r y o n t h e alert? T h e first scries of p r o b l e m s c o r r e s p o n d s r o u g h l y w i t h theanalyticof imagination. W i t h o u t imagination. H e n c e t h e t w o directions o f analysis f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e Classical age.of their r e s e m b l a n c e before their r e d u c t i o n t o o r d e r . existing in a l m o s t t h e s a m e w a y ) w h e n o n e o f those impressions o n l y i s present. T h i s p o w e r o f recall implies a t least t h e possibility o f causing t w o impressions to a p p e a r as quasi-likencsscs (as n e i g h b o u r s or c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . I f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n did n o t possess the o b s c u r e p o w e r o f m a k i n g a past impression present o n c e m o r e . i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e n n o impression w o u l d ever a p p e a r as either similar to or dissimilar f r o m a p r e v i o u s o n e . T h e r e m u s t b e . y e t still visible e n o u g h t o s h o w t h r o u g h i n t h e f o r m o f resemblances. there w o u l d be no resemblance between things. t h e insistent m u r m u r o f r e s e m b l a n c e . t h e n t h e r e w o u l d b e n o possibility w h a t e v e r of t h e second recalling t h e first. P e r p e t u a l c h a n g e w o u l d pass before u s w i t h o u t guidelines a n d i n p e r p e t u a l m o n o t o n y . t h e r e m u s t b e . O n t h e o n e h a n d . t h e r e is t h e analysis t h a t gives an a c c o u n t of t h e r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n t h i n g s . t h e p e r p e t u a l possibility o f i m a g i n a t i v e recall. a s i t w e r e . o f m e m o r y .a c t u a l b u t s i m u l t a n e o u s table o f c o m p a r i s o n s : t h e analysis o f i m pressions. o f reminiscence. t h e n .

M a l e b r a n c h e . T h e i r solutions w e r e strictly c o n t r a d i c t o r y . b o t h a s t h e locus o f e r r o r a n d a s t h e p o w e r o f a t t a i n i n g t o t r u t h . t h a t C o n d i l l a c a n d H u m e s o u g h t for t h e link b e t w e e n r e s e m b l a n c e a n d i m a g i n a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e t h a t Descartes. duplicates itself q u i t e n a t u r a l l y . causes a l m o s t identical impressions to arise a g a i n a n d again. It w a s in j u s t this p r o l i f e r a t i o n of a n a t u r e that is m u l t i p l e . t o its catastrophes. t h e positive stage o f i m a g i n a t i o n c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o shifting resemblances a n d t h e v a g u e m u r m u r o f similitudes. resemble one . I t i s i n a n y case u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e s e c o n d t y p e o f analysis s h o u l d h a v e s o easily b e e n d e p l o y e d i n t h e m y t h i c a l f o r m o f t h e f i r s t m a n (Rousseau). T h e p o w e r o f i m a g i n a t i o n i s o n l y t h e inverse.THE ORDER OF THINGS as a positive p o w e r to transform into a simultaneous space the linear virtual time of representation the second containing elements. a t t h e s u t u r e o f b o d y a n d soul.c r e a t e d . o r t h a t o f t h e s t r a n g e r s u d d e n l y t h r u s t i n t o t h e w o r l d ( H u m e ) : this genesis f u n c t i o n e d e x a c t l y instead o f a n d i n place o f Genesis itself. o f its defect. t h e identities a n d differences o f t h i n g s . t h e disorders t h a t confuse t h e t a b u l a t i o n of beings a n d scatter it i n t o a series o f representations t h a t v a g u e l y . N o w . o r p e r h a p s m e r e l y t o its j u m b l e d p l u r a l i t y . they r e c o g n i z e d i n i t t h e s t i g m a o f finitude. a n d f r o m another. o r that o f t h e a w a k e n i n g consciousness ( C o n d i l l a c ) . b u t t h e y w e r e b o t h a n s w e r s t o t h e s a m e p r o b l e m . i n c l u d i n g t h e lacunae. E i t h e r t h e n e g a t i v e stage (that of d i s o r d e r a n d v a g u e r e s e m b l a n c e ) is a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i m a g i n a t i o n itself. recalls itself. 70 a distance. So that representation. a n d S p i n o z a analysed it. a n d e n g e n d e r s i m a g i n a t i o n . w h i c h t h e n exercises a d o u b l e function: if it is able to r e s t o r e o r d e r solely by d u p l i c a t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a n d i n t h e i r a n a l y t i c t r u t h . repeats itself. w h i c h i s n o l o n g e r capable o f p r o v i d i n g representation w i t h a n y t h i n g . c o r r e s p o n d s r o u g h l y w i t h t h e analysis of nature. t h e o t h e r t h e p o s i t i v e o n e o f t h e p o w e r t o r e c o n s t i t u t e o r d e r o u t o f those impressions) are u n i t e d i n t h e idea o f a 'genesis'. y e t obscurely a n d irrationally r e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y . w h e t h e r as t h e sign of a fall outside t h e area of intelligibility or a s t h e m a r k o f a l i m i t e d n a t u r e . I t exists w i t h i n m a n . A n d this i n t w o possible w a y s . t h e o t h e r side. these t w o o p p o s i n g stages (the first t h e n e g a t i v e o n e o f t h e d i s o r d e r i n n a t u r e a n d i n o u r impressions. e v e n m a t h e m a t i c a l t r u t h . I t i s t h e disorder o f n a t u r e d u e t o its o w n h i s t o r y . in t h e e n i g m a t i c fact of a n a t u r e that p r i o r to all o r d e r resembles itself. b u t t h i n g s t h a t resemble one another. perpetually b o u n d to contents so v e t y close to o n e a n o t h e r . it is able to do so o n l y in so far as it w o u l d p r e v e n t u s f r o m p e r c e i v i n g directly.

p e r m i t t h e reconciliation o f r e s e m b l a n c e a n d i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n for. effectively a n d uninterruptedly. as indeed it w a s . b u t i f w e f o l l o w t h e archaeological n e t w o r k t h a t p r o v i d e s Classical t h o u g h t w i t h its laws. o f difference. this is n o t because t h e h i d d e n a n d i n e x h a u s t i b l y r i c h s o u r c e o f p o w e r w h i c h w e call n a t u r e h a d s u d d e n l y b e e n discovered as a field for e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y . from Locke to the 'Ideologues'. a n d i t w a s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f those signs that o p e n e d u p t h e field o f concrete knowledge. T h e p r o j e c t of a science of o r d e r . a n d m a k e s possible. towards the humblest and basest o f its frontiers. b e t w e e n i m a g i n a t i o n a n d r e s e m b l a n c e . w e see q u i t e clearly t h a t h u m a n n a t u r e resides i n t h a t n a r r o w o v e r l a p o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h p e r m i t s it to represent itself to itself (all h u m a n n a t u r e is t h e r e : j u s t e n o u g h outside r e p r e s e n t a t i o n for i t t o present itself again. these t w o c o n c e p t s function in s u c h a w a y as to g u a r a n t e e t h e k i n s h i p . I n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e . I n fact. it implies a genesis t h a t leads f r o m t h o s e u n refined f o r m s o f t h e S a m e t o t h e g r e a t tables o f k n o w l e d g e d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e forms o f i d e n t i t y . resemblance was pushed out to the boundaries of knowledge.REPRESENTING O n e further r e m a r k . a n d c o m p l e x s u b r e g i o n called h u m a n n a t u r e h a d b e e n isolated w i t h i n this vast field o f n a t u r e . i t links u p w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n . singular. and resemblance o n e o f t h e effects o f n a t u r e . w i t h a f o u n d a t i o n s u c h as it h a d in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d t h a t n a t u r e i s n o t h i n g b u t t h e i m p a l p a b l e confusion w i t h i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t m a k e s t h e r e s e m b l a n c e t h e r e p e r c e p t i b l e before t h e o r d e r o f t h e identities i s y e t visible. r e s e m b l a n c e w a s linked t o a system o f signs. It is t r u e t h a t i m a g i n a t i o n is apparently only one of the properties of h u m a n nature. T h o u g h t h e n o t i o n s o f n a t u r e a n d h u m a n n a t u r e h a v e a certain i m p o r t a n c e in t h e Classical a g e . w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e episteme. t h e reciprocal b o n d . a t h e o r y of signs analysing r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . carried t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t h a d t o b e paralleled b y a n a c c o m panying genesis of consciousness. N a t u r e a n d h u m a n n a t u r e . VI MATHESIS AND ' T A X I N O M I A ' T h e project of a general science of o r d e r . n o r is it b e cause a t i n y . w i t h d o u b t f u l repetitions.' o f its r e p e t i t i o n ) . w i t h misty analogies. t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f identities a n d differences i n t o o r d e r e d 71 . i n t h e b l a n k space that separates t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t h e ' r e . A n d instead o f o p e n i n g u p t h e w a y t o a science of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . a n d o f o r d e r . F r o m the seventeenth century. all t h e empirical sciences of o r d e r .

a p l e n i t u d e o f b e i n g ) a n d a certain p o w e r o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n that renders a p p a r e n t w h a t i s n o t . the signs established b y t h o u g h t itself constitute. W e t h e r e f o r e h a v e the arrangement s h o w n b e l o w : B u t that is n o t all. a n d s o t h i c k l y o v e r l a i d b y t h e s y s t e m o f positivities t o w h i c h o u r o w n k n o w l e d g e b e l o n g s . W h a t m a k e s t h e t o t a l i t y o f the C l a s s i c a l cpisteme p o s s i b l e i s p r i m a r i l y the relation t o a k n o w l e d g e o f order.THE ORDER OF THINGS tables: these c o n s t i t u t e d a n area o f e m p i r i c i t y i n the Classical a g e that h a d n o t e x i s t e d until t h e e n d o f the Renaissance a n d that w a s destined t o d i s a p p e a r e a r l y in t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . that i t has f o r l o n g passed u n p e r c e i v e d . i s a m e t h o d o f p r o v i d i n g s i m p l e natures w i t h signs a n d o f o p e r a t i n g u p o n those sigrA. Taxinomia also i m p l i e s a certain c o n t i n u u m of t h i n g s ( a n o n . w e r e .a n . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s c i e n c e of empirical orders requires. b u t m a k e s possible. a s t h e y are g i v e n i n e x p e r i e n c e ) . w h i l e i t i s q u i t e s i m p l y f o r g o t t e n that m a n a n d life a n d n a t u r e are n o n e o f t h e m d o m a i n s that present t h e m s e l v e s t o the c u r i o s i t y o f k n o w l e d g e spontaneously and passively. o n the o t h e r h a n d . S i m i l a r l y . since the p e r c e p t i o n o f p r o o f s i s o n l y o n e particular case o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . o f w h i c h the u n i v e r s a l m e t h o d i s a l g e b r a . i n v e r s e l y . i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries. o n e has r e c o u r s e t o a mathesis. B u t i n s o far a s e m p i r i c a l representations m u s t b e a n a l y s a b l e i n t o s i m p l e natures. o n e has t o c o n s t i t u t e a taxinomia. therefore.d i s c o n t i n u i t y . a n d to do that o n e has to establish a s y s t e m of signs. a n a l g c b r a ^ o f c o m p l e x representations. A n attempt i s apparently b e i n g m a d e t o reconstitute w h a t the 'sciences o f l i f e ' . a s i t w e r e . W h e n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r d e r i n g o f c o m p l e x natures (representations i n g e n e r a l . o n e can e q u a l l y w e l l say that mathesis is o n l y o n e p a r t i c u l a r case of taxinomia. W h e n dealing w i t h the ordering o f s i m p l e natures. it is c l e a r that the taxinomia relates w h o l l y t o the mathesis. t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f that c o n t i n u i t y . a n d a l g e b r a . T h e s e signs are t o the o r d e r o f c o m p o s i t e natures w h a t a l g e b r a i s t o t h e o r d e r o f s i m p l e natures. b y this v e r y fact. 72 a n analysis o f k n o w l e d g e . It is so difficult f o r us to reinstate n o w . I t i s d i s t o r t e d a n d m a s k e d b y t h e use o f c a t e g o r i e s a n d patterns that are o u r own. o f ' n a t u r e ' o r ' m a n ' .

In this m a n n e r t h e table o f identities and differences m a y b e d r a w n u p . o f q u e s t i o n i n g t h e o r i g i n o f k n o w l e d g e . w e h a v e a n analysis o f t h e m a r k s p r o g r e s sively i m p r i n t e d i n t h e m i n d b y t h e resemblances b e t w e e n things a n d t h e r e t r o s p e c t i v e action of i m a g i n a t i o n . these empirical analyses are n o t in o p p o s i t i o n to t h e p r o j e c t of a universal mathesis. desires. c o n s t a n t l y manifested t h r o u g h o u t t h e Classical age. m a k e s p a t e n t their k i n s h i p a n d reinstates their relations of o r d e r w i t h i n a p e r m a n e n t area. these signs m u s t h a v e a v a l u e as characters. w e h a v e t h e area o f t h e table. B e t w e e n t h e mathesis a n d t h e genesis t h e r e e x t e n d s t h e r e g i o n o f signs .o f signs that span t h e w h o l e d o m a i n o f e m p i r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . o u t s i d e c h r o n o l o g y . t h a t is. w h i c h . these t h r e e d o m a i n s existed in t h e Classical a g e o n l y in so far as t h e f u n d a m e n t a l area o f t h e o r d e r e d table w a s established b e t w e e n t h e calculation o f equalities and t h e genesis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Lastly. 73 . t h e y w e r e a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d in t h e requisites of a k n o w l e d g e that is n o l o n g e r posited a s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e S a m e b u t a s t h e establishment o f O r d e r . t h e y m u s t articulate the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as a w h o l e i n t o distinct s u b r e g i o n s . b u t n e v e r e x t e n d b e y o n d it. t h o u g h t s .REPRESENTING analysis t h a t m u s t s h o w h o w t h e h i d d e n (and a s i t w e r e confused) c o n tinuity of being can be reconstituted by means of the temporal connection p r o v i d e d b y d i s c o n t i n u o u s representations.a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e n e t w o r k . their adjacency and their separateness . T h u s . it is also in this r e g i o n t h a t we find general grammar . In fact. O n t h e o n e h a n d .t h e science of t h e characters t h a t articulate t h e c o n t i n u i t y and t h e tangle of n a t u r e . D e s p i t e their differences. in t h e sense that scepticism is to r a t i o n a l i s m . o n t h e o t h e r .t h e science of t h e signs by m e a n s o f w h i c h m e n g r o u p t o g e t h e r their i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s a n d p a t t e r n t h e c o n t i n u o u s f l o w o f their t h o u g h t s . H e d g e d i n b y calculus a n d genesis. It is in this area t h e we e n c o u n t e r natural history .t h e science o f t h e signs t h a t a u t h o r i z e e x c h a n g e a n d p e r m i t t h e establishm e n t of equivalences b e t w e e n m e n ' s needs or desires. T h i s k i n d o f k n o w l e d g e involves t h e a l l o t t i n g of a sign to all that o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can p r e s e n t us w i t h : p e r c e p t i o n s . It is also in this area t h a t we e n c o u n t e r t h e theory of money a n d t h e theory of value . w e h a v e a mathesis as t h e science of calculable o r d e r a n d a genesis as t h e analysis of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f o r d e r s o n t h e basis o f e m p i r i c a l series. in this w a y t h e y a u t h o r i z e t h e establishment of a s i m u l t a n e o u s system a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e representations express their p r o x i m i t y a n d their distance. H e n c e t h e necessity. w e h a v e a utilization o f t h e s y m b o l s o f possible o p e r a t i o n s u p o n identities a n d differences. all separated f r o m o n e a n o t h e r b y assignable c h a r a c t e r istics. a t t h e t w o e x t r e m i t i e s o f t h e Classical episteme.

t h e Classical episteme c a n be defined in its m o s t g e n e r a l a r r a n g e m e n t in t e r m s of t h e articulated system of a mathesis. B u t u n d e r s t o o d in t h e strict sense mathesis is a science of equalities. 74 . c o n f r o n t e d b y genesis. b y t h e f o r m e r ) u n i t e d t o f o r m t h o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e disciplines w h o s e p o w e r has e x t e n d e d f r o m S c h l e i e r m a c h e r to Nietzsche and Freud. as a s y n t a x . it is t h e science of truth. taxinomia.mathesis. on t h e o t h e r h a n d . t h e fact t h a t such an a r r a n g e m e n t has disappeared so c o m p l e t e l y t h a t later ages h a v e lost e v e n t h e m e m o r y of its existence. a n d i t i s i n this f o r m t h a t i t has d o m i n a t e d t h e f o r m a l disciplines r i g h t u p t o o u r d a y . H e n c e . genesis . t h e g e n e r a l l a w o f beings. a taxinomia. it is t h e science of articulations a n d classifications. t h e first treats of signs in their spatial s i m u l t a n e i t y . it functions as a s e m i o l o g y c o n f r o n t e d by h i s t o r y .a qualitative mathesis.THE ORDER OF THINGS It is p a t e n t t h a t these t h r e e n o t i o n s . t h e n . In a n y case. a n e w t y p e o f division w a s Established: o n t h e o n e h a n d mathesis w a s r e g r o u p e d s o a s t o c o n s t i t u t e a n a p o p h a n t i c s a n d a n o n t o l o g y . taxinomia functions a s a n o n t o l o g y c o n f r o n t e d b y a n a p o p h a n t i c s . t o o . genesis p r e s u p p o s e s a p r o g r e s s i v e series. t o w a r d s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f s i m p l e e l e m e n t s a n d t h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e c o m b i n a t i o n . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . It defines. for it t o o is a science of o r d e r . t o o . in t h e c o u r s e of t i m e . h o w e v e r r e m o t e it m a y be. a n d t h e r e f o r e of a t t r i b u t i o n s a n d j u d g e m e n t s . h i s t o r y a n d s e m i o l o g y (the latter a b s o r b e d . t h e y a r e a l w a y s directed. a n d all t h a t o c c u r r e d i n W e s t e r n c u l t u r e a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h i t i s possible t o k n o w t h e m . a n d a t their c e n t r e t h e y f o r m a table on w h i c h k n o w l e d g e is displayed in a s y s t e m c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h itself. or at least finds in it its p r i m a r y possibility. b e c a m e m o r e a n d m o r e n o m i n a l i s t a n d m o r e a n d m o r e sceptical. Taxinomia is n o t in o p p o s i t i o n to mathesis: it resides w i t h i n it a n d is distinguished f r o m it.d e s i g n a t e n o t so m u c h separate d o m a i n s as a solid g r i d of kinships t h a t defines t h e general c o n f i g u r a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e in t h e Classical a g e . In relation to mathesis. But taxinomia establishes the table of visible differences. In t h e s a m e w a y . it is t h e k n o w l e d g e of beings. H e n c e t h e fact t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f signs in t h e Classical p e r i o d w a s able to s u p p o r t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b o t h a science w i t h a dogmatic approach. w h i c h . this is because after t h e K a n t i a n critique. genesis is c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n taxinomia. a n d a genetic analysis. T h e sciences a l w a y s c a r r y w i t h i n themselves t h e project. as a c h r o n o l o g y . of an exhaustive ordering of the w o r l d . which purported to be a knowledge of nature itself. treats of identities a n d differences. m o r e o v e r . t h e second divides t h e m up i n t o an a n a l o g o n of t i m e . Taxinomia. a n d a p h i l o s o p h y of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .

I t m a y b e o b j e c t e d t h a t t h e m e r e fact o f a t t e m p t i n g t o analyse general g r a m m a r . O n e m u s t r e c o n s t i t u t e t h e general system o f t h o u g h t w h o s e n e t w o r k .REPRESENTING T h e c e n t r e o f k n o w l e d g e . t h a t is. a n d before o r g a n i z i n g t h e series o f causality a n d history. and finally m e n t h e m s e l v e s . as t h o u g h m e t h o d s . a n d e c o n o m i c s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n d en bloc . i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries. m i n d s .by relating t h e m to a general t h e o r y of signs a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A c q u i r e d l e a r n i n g s p a n n e d f r o m o n e e n d t o t h e o t h e r a 'space o f k n o w ledge' which had suddenly appeared in the seventeenth century and which w a s n o t to be closed again until a h u n d r e d a n d fifty years later.p o i n t s o r t h e m e s . a n d m o n e y .presupposes a q u e s t i o n that c o u l d o r i g i n a t e o n l y in o u r o w n c e n t u r y . is t h e table. a n d preferences o f o p i n i o n . As for t h e great controversies t h a t o c c u p i e d m e n ' s m i n d s . 75 . t h a t is. It is this n e t w o r k t h a t defines t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m a k e a c o n t r o v e r s y o r p r o b l e m possible. it w a s because. e n v i r o n m e n t s . n a t u r a l history. after dispersing t h e u n d e f i n e d circle o f signs a n d resemblances. A n d w e see t h e m a r k s o f this m o v e m e n t o n t h e historical surface o f t h e t h e m e s . W e m u s t n o w u n d e r t a k e t h e analysis o f this t a b u l a t e d space. I f t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d d i d b a t t l e w i t h itself i n o r d e r t o k n o w w h e t h e r life was n o t h i n g b u t m o v e m e n t o r w h e t h e r n a t u r e w a s sufficiently w e l l o r d e r e d t o p r o v e t h e existence o f G o d . I f o n e wishes t o u n d e r t a k e a n archaeological analysis of k n o w l e d g e itself. i t w a s n o t because a p r o b l e m h a d b e e n o p e n e d u p . these are a c c o m m o d a t e d q u i t e n a t u r a l l y i n t h e folds o f this o r g a n i z a t i o n . i n t h o s e s u b r e g i o n s in w h i c h it is visible in its clearest f o r m . types of analysis. f r o m t h e calculable f o r m s o f o r d e r t o t h e analysis o f t h e m o s t c o m p l e x representations. in t h e theories o f l a n g u a g e . r e n d e r s a n interplay o f s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y o p i n i o n s possible. acquired experiences. it is n o t these celebrated controversies t h a t o u g h t t o b e used a s t h e guidelines a n d articulation o f s u c h a project. B u t t h a t s y s t e m w a s i n fact sufficiently c o n s t r i c t i n g t o cause t h e visible forms o f k n o w l e d g e t o trace their kinships u p o n it themselves. controversies. B u t o n e w o u l d t h e n b e w r i t i n g o n l y a h i s t o r y o f o p i n i o n s . c o n c e p t s . p r o b l e m s . i n its positivity. It is t r u e t h a t t h e Classical age w a s n o m o r e able t h a n a n y o t h e r c u l t u r e t o c i r c u m s c r i b e o r n a m e its o w n general system o f k n o w l e d g e . social g r o u p s . a n d t h a t bears t h e historicity o f k n o w l e d g e . o f t h e choices o p e r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to individuals. a n d a w h o l e m e t h o d o f i n q u i r y i s t h e r e b y i m p l i e d . t h e episteme o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e h a d o p e n e d u p a n area t o f o r m a table o v e r w h i c h i t w a n d e r e d endlessly. classification. It is q u i t e possible to w r i t e a h i s t o r y of t h o u g h t in t h e Classical p e r i o d using these controversies a s s t a r t i n g .

Ibid. 76 . C o n d i l l a c a n d D e s t u t t i n c l u d e d i n their t h e o r y o f k n o w l e d g e a n d l a n g u a g e that o f t r a d e a n d e c o n o m i c s . i t i s well k n o w n t h a t T u r g o t w r o t e the article o n ' E t y m o l o g i e ' for t h e Encyclopedic a n d t h e first systematic parallel b e t w e e n m o n e y a n d w o r d s . t r a c e d o u t .. 182. as it w e r e . o f signs. NOTES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Descartes.q u a n t i t a t i v e o r d e r s . CEuvres philosophiques (Paris. he a i m e d at (and in p a r t carried o u t ) a w h o l e reorganization of writing in terms of the phonetic data of language. 168. a n o m e n c l a t u r e t h a t w a s b o t h artificial a n d c o h e r e n t . book I. w r o t e a treatise o n t h e origin of languages. xlv and lix). C o n d i l l a c .R o y a l p r o d u c e d its Grammaire as a c o m p l e m e n t a n d n a t u r a l sequel to its Logique. w h i c h for t h e m possessed political a n d also m o r a l v a l u e . t h e f o r m e r b e i n g c o n n e c t e d to t h e latter b y a c o m m o n analysis o f signs. w a s trie g^eat g r i d of e m p i r i cal k n o w l e d g e : that o f n o n . X I V . H i s t o r y has p r o v i d e d u s w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e e x a m p l e s o f these displacements. R o u s s e a u left a m o n g his p o s t h u m o u s w o r k s s o m e r u d i m e n t s o f b o t a n y a n d a treatise on t h e o r i g i n of l a n g u a g e s . i n t h e b o t a n i c a l field. D e s t u t t d e T r a c y .. Regulae. Bacon. t h a t A d a m S m i t h . A n d p e r h a p s t h e d e ferred b u t insistent u n i t y of a Taxinomia universalis a p p e a r e d in all clarity in the w o r k of Linnaeus.THE ORDER OF THINGS h a d all b e e n displaced at t h e behest of a f u n d a m e n t a l n e t w o r k defining t h e implicit b u t inevitable u n i t y o f k n o w l e d g e . Descartes. i n ' a d d i t i o n t o his g r e a t w o r k o n e c o n o m i c s . a n d t h e reflection u p o n t h o s e signs o f w h i c h l a n g u a g e forms o n l y t h e m o s t visible a p p l i c a t i o n a n d use. F. p. 168. XIV. w h e n he conceived the project of discovering in all t h e c o n c r e t e d o m a i n s o f n a t u r e o r society t h e s a m e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a n d t h e s a m e o r d e r [21]. 1 . and of grammar were t r o d d e n so m a n y t i m e s : P o r t . T h e c o n n e c t i n g paths b e t w e e n t h e theories o f k n o w l e d g e . a n d G e r a n d o articulated o n e u p o n t h e o t h e r the d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e i n t o its c o n d i t i o n s o r ' e l e m e n t s ' . p. T h e r e is a connecting path between the theory of n a t u r a l classifications a n d theories o f l a n g u a g e : A d a n s o n d i d n o t m e r e l y a t t e m p t t o create. p. T h e l i m i t o f k n o w l e d g e w o u l d b e t h e perfect t r a n s p a r e n c y o f representations t o t h e signs b y w h i c h t h e y are o r d e r e d . 1 . Ibid.t r o d d e n c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e analysis of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d signs a n d t h e analysis o f w e a l t h : Q u e s n a y t h e p h y s i o c r a t w r o t e t h e article on ' E v i d e n c e ' for t h e Encyclopedic. X I V . in d o t t e d lines. 7 7 ) . T h e r e is also a w e l l . Novum Organum (1620. p.. / / S u c h . 1963 edn.

b u t o n l y . that duplicates a n d reflects itself in a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t is its e q u i v a l e n t . T o constitute l a n g u a g e or g i v e it life f r o m w i t h i n . that is. R e p r e s e n t i n g m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d in t h e strict sense: l a n g u a g e represents t h o u g h t a s t h o u g h t represents itself. t h e r e is no essential a n d p r i m i t i v e act o f signification. n o w o r d i s s p o k e n . 78 . b u t t h o u g h t itself. n * p r o p o s i t i o n i s ever directed at a n y c o n t e n t e x c e p t by t h e action of a representation that stands b a c k f r o m itself. fabricating a material d o u b l e t h a t will b e able. t h e y recall t h o u g h t . a m o n g all those representations t h a t represent o t h e r representations. T h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Classical age i s m u c h closer to t h e t h o u g h t it is c h a r g e d w i t h expressing t h a n is generally s u p p o s e d . o n t h e external surface o f t h e b o d y .CHAPTER 4 Speaking I CRITICISM AND COMMENTARY T h e existence o f l a n g u a g e i n t h e Classical a g e i s b o t h p r e . f o r m a t h i n film t h a t duplicates t h o u g h t on t h e o u t s i d e . It is n o t an e x t e r i o r effect of t h o u g h t . Representations are n o t r o o t e d in a w o r l d t h a t gives t h e m m e a n i n g . w h o s e internal n e t w o r k gives rise t o m e a n i n g . n o sign ever appears. t h e p o w e r t h a t it possesses to represent itself. " b u t . t h e y indicate it. a n d to delegate itself in t h e f o r m of a substitute that will be an e x t e n s i o n of it. t h e n . P r e . by t h a t v e r y fact. In t h e Classical a g e . g i v i n g a visible version of. W o r d s d o n o t . to analyse itself by j u x t a p o s i n g itself to itself.e m i n e n t . t o r e p r o d u c e t h o u g h t in its e x a c t i t u d e . because w o r d s h a v e b e e n allotted t h e task a n d t h e p o w e r o f ' r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o u g h t ' . b u t it is n o t parallel to it. u n d e r t h e eye of reflection. p a r t by p a r t . t h e y o p e n of themselves on to a space that is their o w n . b u t i n w a r d s first of all. A n d l a n g u a g e exists i n t h e g a p t h a t representation creates for itself.e m i n e n t a n d unobtrusive. w o v e n into t h e v e r y fabric it is u n r o l l i n g . n o t h i n g is g i v e n t h a t is n o t g i v e n to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . B u t representing i n this case does n o t m e a n translating. it is c a u g h t in t h e g r i d of t h o u g h t . a t t h e h e a r t o f representation.

t h a n i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . i n exhaustible f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e w o r d s w h o s e m u t e b e i n g w a s inscribed i n t h i n g s . it m a k e s itself invisible. h o w else i s o n e t o speak o f t h e m b u t i n t h e f o r m o f c o m m e n t a r y ? F r o m t h e Classical a g e . t h e entire. exegesis. a n d h e n c e b e c o m i n g discourse. marks m a d e u p o n manuscripts or t h e pages o f b o o k s . e r u d i t i o n . a n d w i t h it. F o r t h e e n i g m a of a speech w h i c h a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e m u s t i n t e r p r e t is substituted t h e essential d i s cursivity o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : t h e o p e n possibility. u n f o l d i n g in t h e v e r b a l signs t h a t manifest it. or a l m o s t so. it is this massive a n d i n t r i g u i n g existence of l a n g u a g e that is eliminated. L a n g u a g e has n o o t h e r locus. w h a t o n e c o u l d read i n i t a n d t h e w o r d s t h a t g a v e i t s o u n d . In this w a y . F r o m a n e x t r e m e p o i n t o f v i e w . i f t h e w o r l d i s a n e t w o r k o f m a r k s a n d w o r d s . is l i m i t e d precisely to t h a t r o l e a n d finally exhausts it. B u t t h a t it functions: its w h o l e existence is l o c a t e d in its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r o l e . a g r a p h i s m m i n g l i n g w i t h things or flowing beneath t h e m . b u t w h i c h i t will b e t h e task o f discourse t o fulfil a n d t o d e t e r m i n e . t h e existence of l a n g u a g e p r e c e d e d . t h e l a n g u a g e of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s in a p o s i t i o n of p e r p e t u a l c o m m e n t a r y . t h e p r i m a r y T e x t i s effaced. l a n g u a g e i s d e p l o y e d w i t h i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d i n that d u p l i c a t i o n o f itself w h i c h h o l l o w s itself o u t . as if it w e r e a l a n g u a g e enclosed u p o n itself. In a n y case. t h e r e can b e n o c o m m e n t a r y w i t h o u t t h e a b s o l u t e p r e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t e x t . o n e no l o n g e r a t t e m p t s t o u n c o v e r t h e great e n i g m a t i c s t a t e m e n t t h a t lies h i d d e n b e n e a t h its 79 . because of this. F r o m t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i n t h e h o l l o w i t has b e e n a b l e t o f o r m . as if by a m u t e s t u b b o r n n e s s .SPEAKING A n d . H e n c e f o r t h . Classical l a n g u a g e discovers a certain r e l a t i o n w i t h itself w h i c h h a d h i t h e r t o b e e n n e i t h e r possible n o r c o n c e i v a b l e . n o o t h e r v a l u e . b u t this c o m m e n t a r y c a n t a k e place o n l y i f there i s l a n g u a g e .l a n g u a g e t h a t silently pre-exists w i t h i n t h e discourse b y w h i c h o n e tries t o m a k e t h a t l a n g u a g e speak. all t h a t r e m a i n s is representation.in o r d e r to stir t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t lay d o r m a n t w i t h i n t h e m a n d t o m a k e i t speak a t last. W h e n this discourse b e c o m e s i n t u r n a n object o f l a n g u a g e . i t has n o t y e t a p p e a r e d i n t h e t h e o r y o f signification. a s y e t n e u t r a l a n d u n differentiating. It no longer appears hidden in the enigma of the m a r k . I n r e l a t i o n t o itself.t h a t of c o m m e n t a r y . it is n o t q u e s t i o n e d as if it w e r e saying s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t actually saying it. i t has b e c o m e s o t r a n s p a r e n t t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t its v e r y existence ceases t o b e a p r o b l e m . a n d . o n e m i g h t say t h a t l a n g u a g e i n t h e Classical era does n o t exist. A n d all these insistent m a r k s s u m m o n e d u p a s e c o n d a r y l a n g u a g e . inversely. T h e Renaissance c a m e t o a h a l t before t h e b r u t e fact that l a n g u a g e existed: i n t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e w o r l d .

to t h e representative r o l e of l a n g u a g e . B u t n o d o u b t this o p p o s i t i o n w a s consolidated o n l y at a relatively late d a t e . w o r d o r d e r . that is. t h e essential o r t h e accessory. its t r a n s p a r e n c y or o p a c i t y . w i t h o u t dissociation and. It t h e n assumed four forms. I n t h e Classical p e r i o d . t h e different relations that w o r d s m a y h a v e w i t h t h e s a m e representative c o n t e n t (designation b y a p a r t o r t h e w h o l e . o r expressive v a l u e . It is on t h e basis of this d o u b l e . w h a t e l e m e n t s i t cuts o u t a n d r e m o v e s . a n d therefore as to exactly h o w w h a t it says is present in t h e w o r d s by w h i c h it represents it. t h e n e e d t o b u i l d u p t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f a perfectly analytic l a n g u a g e . o n e asks h o w i t functions: w h a t representations i t designates. w i t h t h e expressive v a l u e of each. b u t . T h i s n e w r e l a t i o n that l a n g u a g e establishes w i t h itself is n e i t h e r a s i m p l e n o r a unilateral o n e . at t h e s a m e t i m e . w h i c h . t h e e v e n t o r t h e c i r c u m stance. t h e t h i n g itself or its a n a l o g u e s ) . It w a s d e p l o y e d first. criticism was applied. t h e analysis of tropes. a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . in t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a d e n u n c i a t i o n in g e n e r a l t c i m s w h i c h confused w h a t w a s distinct i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e abstract t e r m s w h i c h separated w h a t s h o u l d r e m a i n u n i t e d . B u t since this f o r m is that of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . as/a c r i t i q u e of words: t h e impossibility of c o n s t r u c t i n g a science ^r ^ar'philosophy w i t h t h e received v o c a b u l a r y . w h e n . faced w i t h existing a n d 80 .THE ORDER OF THINGS signs. it c a n n o t fail to q u e s t i o n it as to its t r u t h or falsehood. Commentary has y i e l d e d to criticism. as it w e r e . t h a t is. H e n c e t h e c o m b i n e d r o l e o f criticism a n d a m b i g u i t y t h e f o r m e r n e v e r succeeding in freeing itself f r o m t h e latter. en bloc. Is a l a n g u a g e in a h i g h e r state of perfection w h e n it has declensions or a s y s t e m of prepositions? Is it preferable for t h e w o r d o r d e r t o b e free o r strictly d e t e r m i n e d ? W h a t system o f tenses best e x presses relations of sequence? C r i t i c i s m also e x a m i n e s t h e f o r m s oirhetoric: t h e analysis of figures. precision. a totality of m e c h anisms. h o w i t analyses a n d c o m p o s e s . in t h e reflexive o r d e r . w e r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t a n d articulated u p o n each o t h e r . Lastly. C r i t i c i s m w o u l d a p p e a r t o c o n t r a s t w i t h c o m m e n t a r y in t h e s a m e w a y as t h e analysis of a visible f o r m w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y of a h i d d e n c o n t e n t . a great a u t o n o m o u s play of signs. f u n d a m e n t a l necessity that t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n c o n t e n t a n d f o r m g r a d u a l l y e m e r g e d a n d finally assumed t h e i m p o r t a n c e w e k n o w i t t o h a v e . a n d sentence c o n s t r u c t i o n . t h e types of discourse. w h a t p l a y of substitutions enables it to a c c o m p l i s h its r o l e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C r i t i c i s m questions l a n g u a g e as if l a n g u a g e was a p u r e function. It w a s also expressed in t h e g r a m m a t i c a l o r d e r as an analysis of t h e representative values of s y n t a x . t h e critical relation h a d itself been w e a k e n e d . criticism can analyse l a n g u a g e o n l y i n t e r m s o f t r u t h . t h o u g h distinct.

a n d requires t h e r e f o r e a s e c o n d a r y l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s n o l o n g e r i n t h e f o r m o f criticism. of r e p e a t i n g w h a t h a d already b e e n said in t h e m . criticism j u d g e s i t a n d profanes it. T h i s is because since M a l l a r m e . B y s p e a k i n g o f l a n g u a g e i n t e r m s o f representations a n d t r u t h . j u s t a s t h e exegeses o f t h e Classical p e r i o d w e r e i m b u e d w i t h critical m e t h o d s . i t w a s n o l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n . b u t o f c o m m e n t a r y . b y critical m e t h o d s i n t h e exegesis o f religious texts. a n d i n o r d e r t o declare w h a t t r u t h . A n d i n fact e v e r y critical l a n g u a g e since t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y has b e c o m e i m b u e d w i t h exegesis. literature. h e n c e t h e i m p o r t a n c e assumed.SPEAKING a l r e a d y w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . in fact. is t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t y of these signs.a n d w h i c h m a y e v e n be s h a r p e n i n g as t i m e passes. T h e s e t w o w a y s b y w h i c h l a n g u a g e establishes a r e l a t i o n w i t h itself w e r e n o w t o e n t e r i n t o a rivalry f r o m w h i c h w e h a v e n o t y e t e m e r g e d . B u t w h a t . a n d q u e s t i o n i n g it as to its secret. all s e c o n d a r y languages will b e i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f criticism o r c o m m e n t a r y . a n d to reccombine it? W h a t is t h e peculiar p r o p e r t y possessed by l a n g u a g e and n o t b y a n y o t h e r system o f signs? 81 . II GENERAL GRAMMAR O n c e t h e existence of l a n g u a g e has b e e n eliminated. c o m m e n t a r y a n d criticism h a v e b e e n i n p r o f o u n d o p p o sition. F o r discourse is m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself r e p r e s e n t e d by v e r b a l signs. A n d i n their indecision t h e y w i l l proliferate ad infinitum. t h e n . t o w h a t expressive ends. b u t o f defining t h r o u g h w h a t figures a n d i m a g e s . has d r a w n closer a n d closer t o t h e v e r y b e i n g o f l a n g u a g e . b e t t e r t h a n a n y others. b y f o l l o w i n g w h a t o r d e r . or at least t r a n s c e n d e d . t h e p r i v i l e g e d object o f criticism. criticism sets o u t to define its relation w i t h w h a t i t represents. Since t h e Classical a g e . H o w e v e r . a n d this s t r a n g e p o w e r t h a t enables t h e m . S u c h is t h e diversity of t h e critical d i m e n s i o n t h a t is necessarily e s t a b lished w h e n l a n g u a g e questions itself on t h e basis of its function. N o w a s l a n g u a g e i n t h e i r r u p t i o n o f its b e i n g . all that r e m a i n s is its function in r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : its n a t u r e a n d its virtues as discourse. c o m m e n t a r y halts before t h e precipice o f t h e original text. u n t i l t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n is b r o k e n . t o analyse it. in o u r culture. t o signalize r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . since t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d assumes t h e impossible a n d endless task of r e p e a t i n g its o w n b i r t h w i t h i n itself: it sacralizes l a n g u a g e . G o d o r t h e P r o p h e t s h a d g i v e n a discourse t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m in w h i c h it w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d t o us.

g e s tures. t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t 'it w o u l d express t h e m all a t t h e s a m e t i m e ' [ s ] . in fact. language cannot represent t h o u g h t . B u t t h a t i s precisely w h a t i s n o t possible. i n a n y case. W h a t distinguishes l a n g u a g e f r o m all o t h e r signs a n d enables i t to p l a y a decisive r o l e in r e p r e s e n t a t i o n is. I f t h e m i n d h a d t h e p o w e r t o express ideas 'as i t perceives t h e m ' . t h a t m u s t b e s o r t e d o u t i n t o f t n e a r p r o p o s i t i o n s : t o m y gaze. it is nevertheless t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) a n d f r o m signs (to w h i c h i t b e l o n g s w i t h o u t a n y o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r p r i v i l e g e ) . b y m e a n s o f these m a r k s t h e y are able t o recall representations. m i m e . for. I t does n o t stand i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h o u g h t a s t h e e x t e r i o r does t o t h e interior. I c a n n o t a v o i d i t c o m i n g either b e f o r e o r after i t [4]. c a n be articulated only o n e by o n e . A t its p r i m a r y r o o t . t h o u g h ' t h o u g h t is a s i m p l e o p e r a t i o n ' . it does n o t s t a n d in o p p o s i t i o n to all t h e o t h e r signs . p a r t by p a r t . n o t so m u c h t h a t it is i n d i v i d u a l o r collective. b u t each o n e forms a u n i t y . o r expression to reflection. I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e p e c u l i a r p r o p e r t y o f l a n g u a g e resides. l a n g u a g e i s m a d e u p . instantly. as H o b b e s says. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h o u g h t s succeed o n e a n o t h e r i n t i m e . w h e t h e r o n e agrees w i t h Condillac[2] t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s of a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n are g i v e n i n a n instant a n d t h a t o n l y reflection i s a b l e t o u n r o l l t h e m o n e b y o n e . a n d o p e r a t e u p o n t h e m .THE ORDER OF THINGS At first sight. in its t o t a l i t y . o r w h e t h e r o n e agrees w i t h D e s t u t t d e T r a c y [3] t h a t t h e y succeed o n e a n o t h e r w i t h a r a p i d i t y so g r e a t t h a t it is n o t practically possible to o b s e r v e or to retain t h e i r o r d e r .as t h e a r b i t r a r y to t h e n a t u r a l or t h e collective to t h e singular. It is these r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s / p r e s s e d in on o n e a n o t h e r i n this w a y . t o a n y t h i n g b u t each i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . in its t u r n . b u t t h a t i t analyses r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to a necessarily successive o r d e r : t h e s o u n d s . it is possible to define w o r d s a c c o r d i n g to their a r b i t r a r i ness o r their collective character. s u c h a n o r d e r i s foreign t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . ' a r e t h e ideas o f t h e s p e a k e r : n o r c a n a n y o n e a p p l y t h e m a s m a r k s . n a t u r a l o r a r b i t r a r y . a n d e v e n t h o u g h i t m a y b e a c c e p t e d b y e v e r y o n e i t has n o o t h e r existence t h a n i n t h e t h o u g h t o f individuals t a k e n separately: ' T h a t t h e n w h i c h w o r d s a r e t h e m a r k s of. in a linear o r d e r . e m b l e m s [7] . it is b o u n d to a r r a n g e it. b u t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s does n o t p e r t a i n . p a i n t i n g s . link t h e m t o g e t h e r . 'its expression is a successive o p e r a t i o n ' [ 6 ] . translation. N o w . of a system of n o t a t i o n s t h a t individuals first chose for t h e m s e l v e s . B u t it does stand in relation to all 82 . t o a n y t h i n g else h u t t h e ideas t h a t h e h i m s e l f h a t h ' [ i ] . t h a t w h i c h distinguishes i t b o t h f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (of w h i c h . dissociate t h e m . I t i s these n o t a t i o n s t h a t b y c o v e n a n t o r v i o l e n c e w e r e i m p o s e d u p o n t h e collecti v i t y . t h e r e f o r e .' says L o c k e . i n m y discourse. i m m e d i a t e l y . ' t h e brightness i s w i t h i n t h e r o s e ' .

A d a m Smith pointed out. It is not so m u c h the instrument of men's intercommunication as the path by w h i c h . Its p r o p e r object is t h e r e f o r e n e i t h e r t h o u g h t n o r a n y i n d i v i d u a l l a n g u a g e . T h i s sequence is artificial in relation to t h e s i m u l t a n e i t y of representations.a n d t h e f i r s t reflective d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h o u g h t : one of the most primitive breaks w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e . o t h e r s a t t h e e n d . In fact. I t i s equally. n a t u r a l . It c o n s t i t u t e d . B u t it w o u l d be e q u a l l y nonsensical to a t t e m p t to i n t e r p r e t it as a sort of p r e figuration of a linguistics. a p h i l o s o p h y i n herent in the m i n d . necessary.a k i n d of logic n o t c o n t r o l l e d by t h e m i n d [9] . as it w e r e . it is. was an essential i n g r e d i e n t in t h e f o r m a t i o n of e v e n t h e least of adjectives [10] a n d o n e t h a t a n y p h i l o s o p h y h a d t o w o r k t h r o u g h i f i t w a s t o rediscover.o u t . t h e necessary a n d e v i d e n t o r d e r o f 83 . as it w e r e . T h i s is w h y general grammar a s s u m e d so m u c h i m p o r t a n c e for p h i l o s o p h y d u r i n g the eighteenth century: it was. l a n g u a g e is s p o n t a n e o u s a n d u n . as t h e Encyclopedie p o i n t s o u t . A n d y e t t h e sequence is n o t t h e s a m e in all l a n g u a g e s : s o m e o f t h e m place t h e a c t i o n i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e sentence. as w h a t is reflected u p o n is to w h a t is i m m e d i a t e . u n d e r s t o o d as a s e q u e n c e of v e r b a l signs. I t w o u l d b e n o n s e n s e t o see this p u r e l y a n d simply as the application of a logic to the theory of language. a m o n g s o m a n y diverse choices.t h o u g h t . I t i s h e r e t h a t w e find t h a t n e w epistemological d o m a i n t h a t t h e Classical age called ' g e n e r a l g r a m m a r ' . o t h e r s t h e accessory c i r c u m s t a n c e s . it is t h e c o n c r e t e link b e t w e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d reflection.SPEAKING that as the successive to t h e c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s . It is to t h o u g h t a n d to signs w h a t a l g e b r a i s t o g e o m e t r y : i t replaces t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s c o m p a r i s o n o f p a r t s (or m a g n i t u d e s ) w i t h a n o r d e r w h o s e degrees m u s t b e traversed o n e after t h e o t h e r . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t e s w i t h reflection. the spontaneous f o r m of science . is n o t s o m u c h t h e differences b e t w e e n t h e w o r d s a s t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f their s e q u e n c e s [ 8 ] . I n relation t o t h e e v i d e n t . General grammar is the study of verbal order in its relation to the simultaneity that it is its task to represent. It is in this strict sense t h a t l a n g u a g e is an analysis of t h o u g h t : n o t a s i m p l e p a t t e r n i n g . universal o r d e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y science. a n d b y a l g e b r a i n p a r ticular. w h a t r e n d e r s foreign l a n g u a g e s o p a q u e to o n e a n o t h e r . a n d in so far as this is so l a n g u a g e m u s t be in o p p o s i t i o n to t h o u g h t . b u t discourse.metaphysics. s o m e n a m e t h e principal object o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n first. an already analysed r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d a reflection in t h e p r i m i t i v e state. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o i n t o f v i e w f r o m w h i c h o n e l o o k s a t it. a n d so difficult to translate. necessarily. at one and the same time. b u t a p r o f o u n d establishment o f o r d e r in space.

THE ORDER OF THINGS representation. t h a t is. As for universal discourse. i t w o u l d also b e capable o f i n d i c a t i n g iri w h a t m a n n e r t h e e l e m e n t s i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n are c o m p o s e d a n d h o w t h e y are l i n k e d t o o n e a n o t h e r . t h e p r i m a r y t h e m e of a n y c r i t i q u e . e v e n t h e m o s t p r i m i t i v e a n d s p o n t a n e o u s ones. expresses t h e relation m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e latter w i t h universality. t h a t general grammar takes as its object. a s reflection u p o n l a n g u a g e i n g e n e r a l . g r a m m a r defines i n t h e case o f each i n d i v i d u a l l a n g u a g e t h e o r d e r t h a t distributes t h a t spatiality in t i m e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . a n d e ^ e r y e l e m e n t of e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . r h e t o r i c . T h e first is t h a t it is easy to see h o w t h e sciences of l a n g u a g e are d i v i d e d u p i n t h e Classical p e r i o d : o n t h e o n e h a n d . y e t a l w a y s i n t e r i o r to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t o be rhetorical in n a t u r e . B u t a certain n u m b e r o f consequences m u s t a t o n c e b e d r a w n h e r e . w h a t w a s d e n o t e d b y t h e t e r m universal l a n g u a g e w a s n o t t h e p r i m i t i v e . A t o n c e characteristic a n d c o m b i n a t i v e . t h a t is. a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r o n e takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e possibility of a universal language or t h a t of a universal discourse. it is r a t h e r t h e possibility of defining t h e n a t u r a l a n d necessary p r o g r e s s o f t h e m i n d f r o m t h e simplest r e p r e sentations t o t h e m o s t refined analyses o r t h e m o s t c o m p l e x c o m b i n a t i o n s : this discourse is k n o w l e d g e a r r a n g e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e u n i q u e 84 1 . T h i s r e lation can t a k e t w o f o r m s . to restore t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t r e i g n e d before B a b e l . It is this a m b i g u o u s t h i n g . R h e t o r i c defines t h e spatiality of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as it c o m e s i n t o b e i n g w i t h l a n g u a g e . g r a m m a r . b y t h a t v e r y fact. a s y n t a x . g r a m m a r . a n d since i t w o u l d possess t h e necessary i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h w h i c h t o i n d i c a t e all t h e possible relationships b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s s e g m e n t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . L a n g u a g e is t h e original f o r m of all reflection. b e able t o a c c o m m o d a t e itself t o all possible o r d e r s . p u r e . o n t h e o t h e r . as we shall see. 2 . t h a t t o o is by no m e a n s t h e u n i q u e t e x t t h a t preserves in the c i p h e r of its secret t h e k e y to u n l o c k all k n o w l e d g e . w i t h t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n is a r r a n g e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a sequential series. T h i s is w h y . w i t h t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h l a n g u a g e is spatialized i n v e r b a l signs. t h e universal l a n g u a g e does n o t re-establish t h e o r d e r of days g o n e b y : it invents signs. w i t h t h e sign by w h i c h it c o u l d be* m a r k e d in a u n i v o c a l m a n n e r . 1. It refers to a t o n g u e t h a t w o u l d h a v e t h e ability t o p r o v i d e e v e r y representation. if it w e r e rediscovered b e y o n d the p u n i s h m e n t of oblivion. a n d u n i m p a i r e d speech t h a t w o u l d b e able. w h i c h deals w i t h figures a n d tropes. a n d a g r a m m a r . w h i c h deals w i t h articulation a n d o r d e r . this l a n g u a g e w o u l d also. in w h i c h all c o n c e i v a b l e o r d e r m u s t find its place. g r a m m a r presupposes languages. as b r o a d as k n o w l e d g e . I n t h e Classical p e r i o d .

b e f o r e t u r n i n g his t h o u g h t s t o p h i l o s o p h y . for his desires. t h e totality o f t h e w o r l d . I t traverses t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f k n o w l e d g e . always tends t o w a r d s t h e nearest a n d m o s t pressing result. i n its totality. on t h e basis o f representation. a l a n g u a g e that duplicates t h e s p o n taneous t h r e a d o f k n o w l e d g e a l o n g t h e w h o l e o f its l e n g t h : M a n . B u t their a i m a n d their c o m m o n possibility reside i n a p o w e r t h a t t h e Classical age attributes t o l a n g u a g e : t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e signs for all representations. for his discourse. m u s t be able t o b e c o m e . T h e universal characteristic a n d i d e o l o g y stand i n t h e same o p p o s i t i o n t o o n e a n o t h e r a s d o t h e universality o f l a n g u a g e i n general ( w h i c h arranges all possible o r d e r s in t h e simultaneity of a single f u n d a m e n t a l table) a n d t h e universality o f a n exhaustive discourse ( w h i c h reconstitutes t h e single genesis. he prescribes rules for his j u d g e m e n t . b u t h e perceives t h a t all these o p e r a t i o n s h a v e ' a c o m m o n s o u r c e ' a n d t h a t 'this sole c e n t r e of all truths is t h e k n o w l e d g e of his intellectual faculties'[i i ]. w h i c h is g r a m m a r . T h i s c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r . as t h e totality of w h a t is representable. w i t h practical politics. t h e possibility o f t h a t k n o w l e d g e . w h i c h is ethics. t h e n w i t h p o e t r y a n d t h e arts. . inversely. c o m p o s e t h e i m m e n s e Library of the Universe or the true Universal Encyclopaedia. T h e r e m u s t exist w i t h i n it at least t h e possibility of a l a n g u a g e t h a t w i l l g a t h e r i n t o itself. w h i c h is logic. this o r i g i n expressed in a c o n t i n u o u s discourse is I d e o l o g y . A n d Charles B o n n e t ' s great d r e a m m e r g e s a t this p o i n t w i t h w h a t l a n g u a g e i s i n its c o n n e c t i o n a n d kinship w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : I delight in envisaging t h e i n n u m e r a b l e m u l t i t u d e of W o r l d s as so m a n y b o o k s w h i c h . linear. a n d universal link. w i t h m e d i c i n e . I c o n ceive that t h e marvellous g r a d a t i o n that exists b e t w e e n these different 85 . H e thinks f i r s t o f his needs. . w h e n collected t o g e t h e r . a n d o f establishing possible links b e t w e e n t h e m . t o reveal its origin.SPEAKING o r d e r laid d o w n for i t b y its o r i g i n . He t h e n believes h i m s e l f t o h a v e reached t h e s u m m i t o f t h e o r y . H e occupies h i m s e l f w i t h agriculture. a n d its natural. a n d w h e n h e turns b a c k u p o n himself a n d begins t o reflect. . b e t w e e n its w o r d s . t h o u g h as it w e r e in a s u b t e r r a n e a n m a n n e r . a n E n c y c l o p a e d i a . b y his n a t u r e . w h a t e v e r t h e y m a y b e . In so far as l a n g u a g e c a n r e p r e sent all representations it is w i t h g o o d reason t h e e l e m e n t of t h e universal. a n d . in o r d e r to reveal. w i t h w a r . this f o u n d a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g all k n o w l e d g e . t h e n o f his pleasures. c o m m o n t o t h e w h o l e sequence o f all possible b r a n c h e s o f k n o w l e d g e ) . t h e w o r l d .

B u t l a n g u a g e is k n o w l e d g e o n l y in an unreflecting f o r m . h u m a n b e i n g s constitute intermediary forms of a composite and limited universality: alphabetical encyclopaedias. a n d . i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 04a t h e o t h e r h a n d . s o m e possess o n l y a f e w b r a n c h e s o f it. h a v e e t e r n i t y i n w h i c h t o increase a n d perfect their l e a r n i n g a n d d e v e l o p all their faculties [ 1 2 ] . 3 . t h a t is. I t i s i n o n e a n d t h e s a m e m o v e m e n t t h a t t h e m i n d speaks a n d k n o w s : 'It i s b y t h e s a m e processes t h a t o n e learns t o speak a n d t h a t o n e discovers either t h e principles o f t h e w o r l d ' s s y s t e m o r t h o s e o f t h e h u m a n m i n d ' s o p e r a t i o n s . w h a t e v e r t h e e m p i r i c a l circumstances o f such u n d e r t a k i n g s . B u t these celestial Encyclopaedists d o n o t all possess t h e E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f t h e U n i v e r s e t o t h e s a m e d e g r e e . finally. r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n t h e i r m o s t g e n e r a l f o r m . w h i c h i t encompasses. it i m p o s e s itself on individuals f r o m t h e o u t s i d e . t o w h o m i t has b e e n g i v e n t o traverse o r r a t h e r t o r e a d t h e m . rational encyclopaedias. K n o w l e d g e a n d l a n g u a g e are r i g o r o u s l y i n t e r w o v e n . t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f their possibility i n t h e Classical episteme is t h a t . W h a t e v e r t h e partial c h a r a c t e r o f these projects. t h e s a m e o r i g i n a n d t h e s a m e functional p r i n c i p l e . t h o u g h l a n g u a g e h a d b e e n e n t i r e l y r e d u c e d to its function w i t h i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . b u t all. o t h e r s possess a g r e a t e r n u m b e r . a n d instils i n their u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t o r d e r a n d t h a t c o n c a t e n a t i o n w h i c h a r e its p r i n c i p a l b e a u t y . a n d criticize o n e a n o t h e r incessantly. t h e y s u p p o r t o n e a n o t h e r . c o m p l e m e n t o n e a n o t h e r . t h e acquisition o f t r u t h s o f e v e r y k i n d . a n d t h e possible sequences a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e y can b e u n folded. t h e causes t h a t m u s t h a v e g i v e n rise t o t h e m a n d t h e characteristics t h a t distinguish t h e m ' [ 1 4 ] . w h i c h m a k e i t possible t o t r a n s c r i b e all t h e l a n g u a g e s o f t h e w o r l d b y m e a n s o f a single s y s t e m o f figures[i3]. h a d n o r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e universal e x c e p t t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y o f l a n g u a g e .THE ORDER OF THINGS w o r l d s facilitates i n s u p e r i o r intelligences. t o w a r d s n o t i o n s 86 . w h i c h c l a i m t o ' e x h i b i t a s far a s i s possible t h e o r d e r a n d c o n c a t e n a t i o n o f h u m a n l e a r n i n g ' b y e x a m i n i n g ' t h e i r g e n e a l o g y a n d their f i l i a t i o n . w i l l y nilly. p o l y v a l e n t lexicons. w h i c h a c c o m m o d a t e t h e greatest possible q u a n t i t y o f l e a r n i n g i n t h e a r b i t r a r y o r d e r p r o v i d e d b y letters. g u i d i n g t h e m . A g a i n s t this b a c k g r o u n d o f a n a b s o l u t e E n c y c l o p a e d i a . i n t h e establishing o f t h e relations t h a t c o m b i n e t h o s e e l e m e n t s . i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f its e l e m e n t s . pasig r a p h i e s . w h i c h establish s y n o n y m i e s b e t w e e n a g r e a t e r o r lesser n u m b e r o f l a n g u a g e s . o t h e r s g r a s p e v e n m o r e still. all that i s s u b l i m e i n o u r k n o w l e d g e ' [ 1 5 ] . b o t h k n o w i n g a n d s p e a k i n g consist f i r s t o f all i n t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e y share.

i n o t h e r w o r d s . T o k n o w i s t o speak c o r r e c t l y . I t i s t h u s p a r t o f t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f g r a m m a r t o b e prescriptive. n o t s o m u c h their discourse a s t h e e l e m e n t t h a t m a d e it possible. a n d its v o c a b u l a r y is a sufficiently faithful a n d a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e c o r d of all t h e k n o w l e d g e of t h a t p e o p l e . w e r e w r i t t e n by g r a m m a r i a n s : this is because t h e prescriptions o f g r a m m a r a t t h a t t i m e w e r e o f a n analytic a n d n o t a n aesthetic o r d e r . b u t t r u e ideas leave i n t h e m t h e indelible m a r k o f a n o r d e r t h a t c h a n c e o n its o w n c o u l d n e v e r h a v e created. K n o w l e d g e . S o m e t h i n g like a history of k n o w l e d g e b e c o m e s possible.SPEAKING t h a t m a y b e c o n c r e t e o r abstract. t h o u g h imperfect k n o w l e d g e themselves. t h a t i t will b e b r o u g h t n e a r e r t o perfection b y k n o w l e d g e . b u t because i t refers t h e radical possibility o f speech t o t h e o r d e r i n g system o f r e p r e sentation. if l a n g u a g e is a s p o n taneous science. All languages m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e r e n e w e d . this also m e a n s . explained a n d j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h a t analytic o r d e r w h i c h n o n e o f t h e m n o w follows exactly. are t h e faithful m e m o r y o f t h e progress o f k n o w l e d g e t o w a r d s perfection. w h i c h c a n n o t l o d g e itself in t h e w o r d s it needs w i t h o u t l e a v i n g its i m p r i n t i n t h e m . a n d readjusted i f necessary s o t h a t t h e c h a i n o f k n o w l e d g e m a y b e m a d e visible i n all its clarity. t h e s o u n d s o f their languages r a t h e r t h a n t h e w o r d s t h e y s p o k e . 87 . in r e t u r n . to speak is to k n o w as far as o n e is able. In their chaotic o r d e r . A n d this l i n k b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d k n o w l e d g e o p e n s u p a w h o l e historical field t h a t h a d n o t existed in p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s . L a n g u a g e s . T h e y lead i n t o e r r o r . their syntaxes. t h e y g i v e rise to false ideas. because. exact o r w i t h little f o u n d a t i o n . b u t t h e y r e c o r d w h a t has b e e n learned. a n d . T h e sciences are w e l l . a n d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m o d e l i m p o s e d by those w h o s e b i r t h o n e shares. o b s c u r e to itself a n d unpractised. D e s t u t t d e T r a c y o n c e o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e best treatises o n logic. t h e discursivity of their l a n g u a g e . n o t b y a n y m e a n s because i t i s a n a t t e m p t t o i m p o s e t h e n o r m s of a beautiful l a n g u a g e o b e d i e n t to t h e rules of taste. T h e l a n g u a g e of a p e o p l e gives us its v o c a b u l a r y . on t h e o t h e r h a n d . s i m p l y by c o m p a r i n g t h e different states of a n a t i o n ' s v o c a b u l a r y at different times o n e c o u l d f o r m an idea of its p r o g r e s s . a n d as t h e steady progress of t h e m i n d dictates. W h a t civilizations and peoples leave us as t h e m o n u m e n t s of their t h o u g h t is n o t so m u c h their texts as their vocabularies. j u s t a s languages a r e sciences l y i n g fallow. a s i t w e r e . is like a l a n g u a g e w h o s e e v e r y w o r d has b e e n e x a m i n e d a n d e v e r y relation verified. t h e e m p t y m o u l d o f its c o n t e n t . in t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .m a d e languages. w i t h o u t a n y s h a d o w s o r lacunae.

t h e relation t o t h e p u r e e l e m e n t o f the language.w a y line t h a t m a r k s t h e adjacency o f science t o p e r c e p t i o n a n d o f reflection t o i m a g e s . within the space o p e n e d up in w o r d s themselves. i n t e r p r e t t h e m . s o t h a t e v e n t h e discovery o f t h e secret d i d n o t escape this a r r a y o f obstacles. i n their r o u g h l y h e w n state. since w o r d s . T h e ' A c a d e m y ' w a s a closed circle w h i c h p r o j e c t e d the' essentially secret f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e o n t o t h e surface o f social c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . a n d retranscribe t h e m bym e a n s o f o t h e r g r a p h i c signs w h i c h t h e n h a d t o b e d e c i p h e r e d i n their t u r n . t h e h i s t o r y o f m a n k i n d a n d t h e sciences o f l a n g u a g e freely c o m m u n i c a t e . t o o . on the o t h e r h a n d . w h i c h w a s the Renaissance definit i o n o f e r u d i t i o n . it is a question of p r o v i d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e signs b y m e a n s o f w h i c h i t can u n f o l d itself in o b e d i e n c e to a necessary a n d visible o r d e r . i n t h e Classical a g e . F o r t h e p r i m a r y task o f t h a t k n o w l e d g e w a s t o d r a w speech f r o m m u t e signs: i t h a d t o r e c o g n i z e their f o r m s . prejudices. k n o w l e d g e i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries is discourse w i t h a veil d r a w n o v e r it. a n d t o o l s [ 1 6 ] . t h a t w h a t w e k n o w b e c o m e s w h a t w e represent t o ourselves e v e r y d a y . e v e r y t h i n g k n o w n in n a t u r e is designated. E v e n w h e n i t was i n t e n d e d for p u b l i c a t i o n . since w h a t is w r i t t e n on these subjects is a l w a y s of less v a l u e as e v i d e n c e t h a n a r e t h e w o r d s t h e m s e l v e s [ i 8 ] . s u p e r stitions. k n o w i n g a n d speaking are i n t e r w o v e n i n t h e s a m e fabric. H e n c e . e v e r y n o t i o n w i t h i n a science has its n a m e t o o . as is e v e r y t h i n g i n v e n t e d in t h e arts. and.THE ORDER OF THINGS E v e r y science has its n a m e . t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e Renaissance w a s a r r a n g e d w i t h i n a n enclosed space. are distributed a l o n g that m i d . for t h a t is w h e r e future ages w o u l d h a v e t o l o o k t o find w h a t w e h a v e k n o w n o r t h o u g h t . w h i c h w o u l d n o t f o l l o w t h e c o n n e c t i n g links o f k n o w l e d g e itself but w o u l d be a c c o m m o d a t e d in the form of the language. w h i c h h a d r e n d e r e d it at o n c e so difficult a n d y e t so p r e c i o u s . T h e old relation t o t h e text. c o r r e c t discourse a n d k n o w l e d g e . a n d beliefs of all k i n d s . t h e p r o j e c t o f c r e a t i n g a n e n c y c l o p a e d i a ' o f t h e sciences a n d arts'. in t h e case of b o t h k n o w l e d g e a n d l a n g u a g e . has n o w b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d : i t has b e c o m e . universal l a n g u a g e a n d analysis o f t h o u g h t . E v e n w h e n h i d d e n . I n t h e Classical a g e . k n o w l e d g e in t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y w a s still a secret. o r e v e n a h i s t o r y o f o p i n i o n s . albeit a shared o n e . E v e n w h e n stated. as w e l l as p h e n o m e n a . It is in t h e m that w h a t we imagine becomes w h a t we k n o w . H e n c e t h e possibility o f w r i t i n g a history o f f r e e d o m a n d slavery based u p o n l a n g u a g e s [ i 7 ] . T h u s w e see g l o w i n g i n t o life t h e l u m i n o u s e l e m e n t i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e a n d learning. m a n u a l tasks. T h i s is because it is of t h e v e r y 88 .

t h a t is . or outcasts f r o m . i t i s languages t h a t u n f o l d representations a n d w o r d s in a sequence of w h i c h t h e y themselves define t h e l a w s . a n d F r e n c h . i n that reciprocal k i n s h i p b e t w e e n k n o w l e d g e a n d l a n g u a g e .s o m e t h i n g t h a t has b e e n called. in c o n f r o n t a t i o n .o u r e v i d e n c e . b o t h k n o w l e d g e a n d l a n g u a g e . w a s H e b r e w . t i m e is its i n t e r i o r m o d e of a n a lysis. a n d w e r e t o r e a p p e a r i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h . since that t i m e . Because it h a d b e c o m e analysis a n d o r d e r . B e t w e e n t h e t w o . w e r e replaced b y 89 . T h e k i n d s o f series t h a t existed i n t h e sixteenth century. its e x t r e m e l y e x o t e r i c character. Fontenelle's p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f a s t r o n o m y . H e n c e t h e p a u c i t y o f interest s h o w n b y t h e Classical age i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l filiation. of the same order. T h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s t o dissolve t h a t link. V o l t a i r e r e a d i n g N e w t o n . t h a t each l a n g u a g e defines its specificity. a n d t o leave b e h i n d it.SPEAKING n a t u r e o f science t o e n t e r i n t o t h e s y s t e m o f v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s [19]. T h e oldest w e r e t h e m o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . since i t w a s t h e t o n g u e o f t h e E t e r n a l w h e n h e a d dressed h i m s e l f t o m e n . in n a t u r e a n d function. a n d H e b r e w w a s t h o u g h t t o h a v e g i v e n rise t o Syriac a n d A r a b i c . a n d o f t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f l a n g u a g e t o b e k n o w l e d g e f r o m its v e r y first w o r d . a n d n o l o n g e r b y m e a n s o f its place in a historical series. t h e relation o f l a n g u a g e t o t i m e is i n v e r t e d : it is no l o n g e r t i m e that allots l a n g u a g e s their places. E n g l i s h .t h e k i n s h i p of Italian or F r e n c h w i t h L a t i n [ 2 i ] . t h e p u b l i c i t y a c c o r d e d to its controversies. l a n g u a g e e n t e r e d i n t o relations w i t h t i m e u n p r e c e d e n t e d h i t h e r t o . its o p e n i n g u p t o t h e uninitiated. e n i g m a t i c . a n d k n o w i n g a r e . o n e b y o n e . t h e n c a m e G r e e k . F o r l a n g u a g e . c o n t r a r y to all t h e ' e v i d e n c e ' . Spanish. T h e m o s t archaic o f all. S p e a k i n g . Literature. 4. T h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c c e p t e d t h a t l a n g u a g e s succeeded o n e a n o t h e r i n h i s t o r y a n d w e r e c a p a b l e o f e n g e n d e r i n g o n e a n o t h e r . a n d Flemish [20]. i n w o r l d h i s t o r y . e n l i g h t e n i n g . Latin w a s t h e c o m m o n ancestor o f Italian. t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y languages . I t explains n o t h i n g . e x c e p t o f c o u r s e o n t h e d o x o g r a p h i c level w h e r e it s h o u l d be situated. lastly.descendants of.w e r e to proliferate to infinity. o r m o d i f y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f k n o w l e d g e o n e j o t . ' T e u t o n i c ' h a d g i v e n rise t o G e r m a n . T h e interest s h o w n by t h e Classical a g e in science. all this i s doubtless n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a sociological p h e n o m e n o n . i n t h e strict sense o f t h e t e r m . a k n o w l e d g e closed in u p o n itself a n d a p u r e l a n g u a g e t h a t h a d b e c o m e . It is b y m e a n s o f this internal o r d e r . n o t its place o f b i r t h . f r o m w h i c h b o t h C o p t i c a n d E g y p t i a n w e r e d e r i v e d . b u t its c o n d i t i o n of possibility is n e v e r theless t h e r e . t o t h e p o i n t o f d e n y i n g . I n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t did n o t p r o v o k e t h e slightest alteration i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h o u g h t . a n d t h e positions i t allots t o its w o r d s .

s o m e t i m e s t h e object. H o w . w o r d s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e E n g l i s h a n d t h e 90 . t h e y n e e d o n l y indicate t h e n u m b e r a n d g e n d e r o f substantives b y m e a n s o f a n article. T h e history o f t h e v a r i o u s languages i s n o l o n g e r a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n a q u e s t i o n o f e r o s i o n o r accident. T h o s e l a n g u a g e s t h a t f o l l o w t h e o r d e r ' o f i m a g i n a t i o n a n d interest' d o n o t d e t e r m i n e a n y c o n s t a n t p o s i t i o n for w o r d s : t h e y are o b l i g e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e m b y m e a n s o f inflections (these are t h e ' t r a n s p o s i t i v e ' l a n g u a g e s ) . n o t b y their positions. n o necessity p r o p e r t o it. a n d b a n d s o f exiles o r fugitives w h o l o a d e d t h e first s t r a t u m o f t h e G r e e k l a n g u a g e w i t h s o m a n y k i n d s o f i n n u m e r a b l e particles a n d s o m a n y dialects [24]. for instance. a n d t h e m i n g l i n g o f v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s . n o p r o g r e s s . i n w h i c h t h e function o f w o r d s i s indicated.THE ORDER OF THINGS t y p o l o g i e s . e x t e r n a l d a t i n g i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e internal f o r m s o f analysis a n d o r d e r . Gallic c o n s t r u c t i o n s . i n fact. s o m e times t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o r c i r c u m s t a n c e first': for e x a m p l e Latin. E n g l i s h . If. from M a c e d o n i a a n d Illyria. t h a t t h e m o s t s p o n t a n e o u s o r d e r (that o f i m a g e s a n d passions) m u s t h a v e p r e c e d e d t h e m o w c o n s i d e r e d (that o f l o g i c ) . b u t b y their inflections. i n t r o d u c t i o n . F r e n c h . B u t it m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t it is n o t t h e presence or absence of inflections that defines t h e possible o r necessary o r d e r o f t h e w o r d s i n each l a n g u a g e . n e x t t h e a c t i o n u n d e r t a k e n o r u n d e r g o n e by t h a t subject. Spanish. i t has n o l a w . ' w h i c h h a v e s o m e t h i n g o f b o t h t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . Arabic articles a n d n u m e r a l s . t h e r e i s t h e t h i r d g r o u p m a d e u p o f m i x e d l a n g u a g e s (such a s G r e e k o r T e u t o n i c ) . O p p o s e d t o these i s t h e g r o u p o f languages t h a t places ' s o m e t i m e s t h e action. b u t suggests w h i c h w e r e t h e m o s t a n c i e n t l a n g u a g e s . possessing a n article a s well a s cases'[22]. L a n g u a g e s a r e related t o a n d distinguished f r o m o n e a n o t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o a table o f possible t y p e s o f w o r d o r d e r . a n d last t h e object u p o n w h i c h it is exercised: as witness. or ' S l a v o n i a n ' . Scythians. Finally. T h e r e i s t h e g r o u p o f l a n g u a g e s that places the subject b e i n g dealt w i t h first. Galatians. t h e y f o l l o w t h e u n i f o r m o r d e r o f r e f l e c t i o n . It is o r d e r as analysis a n d a sequential a l i g n m e n t of representations t h a t constitutes t h e p r e l i m i n a r y f o r m a n d prescribes t h e use o f declensions o r articles. F r e n c h i s m a d e u p o f L a t i n a n d G o t h i c n o u n s . i t m a y b e a d m i t t e d . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . adventurers from Phrygia. w a s t h e G r e e k l a n g u a g e f o r m e d ? It was Phoenician merchants. m e e t i n g s . t y p o l o g i e s o f o r d e r . p o s i t i o n i n t h e analytic o r d e r i n g o f t h e sentence has a functional v a l u e in itself: these are t h e ' a n a l o g i c a l ' l a n g u a g e s [ 2 3 ] . T h e table s h o w s t h e m all s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T i m e has b e c o m e i n t e r i o r t o l a n g u a g e .

w h i c h designates w h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d . Since i t m a k e s l a n g u a g e visible as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t is t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n of a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w a r s . G e n e r a l g r a m m a r is n o t at all t h e s a m e as c o m p a r a t i v e g r a m m a r : t h e c o m p a r i s o n s it m a k e s b e t w e e n different l a n g u a g e s a r e n o t its object. eneral g r a m m a r m u s t s t u d y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e function o f w o r d s i n 9i . t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e function of discourse . B u t since t h a t articulation c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d i n m a n y different w a y s . Latin. c o m m o n t o all linguistic d o m a i n s . I n e v e r y l a n g u a g e . b u t t o e x a m i n e e a c h p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e . G e n e r a l g r a m m a r does n o t a t t e m p t t o define t h e laws o f all languages. t a k e n i n isolation. Since discourse links its parts t o g e t h e r in t h e s a m e w a y as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n does its e l e m e n t s . for t h e possibility o f discourse. it is i n d i s p u t a b l y ' g e n e r a l ' . o r t h e h o r i z o n t a l function. a n d c o m m e r c e . I t m u s t establish t h e taxonomy o f e a c h l a n g u a g e . It is n o w possible to c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l field of general grammar. English. b u t n o t u n d e r t h e i m p u l sion o f a n y historicity possessed b y t h e l a n g u a g e s themselves. T h i s is because its g e n e r a l i t y does n o t consist i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f peculiarly g r a m m a t i c a l laws. i n t u r n . G e r m a n . t h e basis. w h a t it treats of is t h e i n t e r i o r d u p l i c a t i o n existing w i t h i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . i n t h e f o r m left b y discourse. w h i c h appeared d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d half o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d faded a w a y again d u r i n g t h e last years o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y . H e n c e t h e t w o directions t h a t i t necessarily takes. w h i c h c o u l d t h e n b e used t o display t h e s t r u c t u r e of a n y possible l a n g u a g e in an ideal a n d c o n s t r i c t i n g u n i t y .w h e t h e r it be t h e v e r t i c a l function. t h e r e m u s t b e . i n each o f t h e m .SPEAKING Italians . p a r a d o x i c a l l y . i n t h e s p h e r e o f h i s t o r y . they simply unfold representations a n d their e l e m e n t s in a linear sequence. I n o t h e r w o r d s . If t h e r e does exist a t i m e for l a n g u a g e s t h a t is positive. r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e s itself w i t h ' c h a r a c t e r s ' . fashions. G e n e r a l g r a m m a r i s i n t e n d e d t o define t h e s y s t e m o f identities a n d differences t h a t these s p o n t a n e o u s characters p r e s u p p o s e a n d e m p l o y . T h i s is b e cause l a n g u a g e s e v o l v e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e effects o f m i g r a t i o n s . if it is i n d e e d general. etc. b u t i n t h e o r d e r i n g o f their w o r d s . T h e y d o n o t o b e y any internal principle of d e v e l o p m e n t .as j o u r n e y s . b e l o w t h e level of g r a m m a t i c a l rules. b u t at t h e s a m e level as their f o u n d a t i o n . a s a m o d e o f t h e articulation o f t h o u g h t u p o n itself. v a r i o u s general g r a m m a r s : F r e n c h . or t r a d e a g r e e m e n t s d i c t a t e d ^ ] . t h e n it is so to t h e e x t e n t t h a t it a t t e m p t s to m a k e visible. [26]. victories a n d defeats. t h e n it m u s t n o t be l o o k e d for o u t s i d e t h e m . w h i c h links w h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s a m e m o d e a s t h o u g h t . t h e y are m e r e l y e m p l o y e d as a m e t h o d .

t h e n a n analysis o f t h e v a r i o u s types o f w o r d s a n d o f t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e y p a t t e r n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d are disting u i s h e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r ( t h e o r y o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ) .THE ORDER OF THINGS r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r . t h e y h a d a c q u i r e d n o p r o p o s i t i o n a l v a l u e . I f t h e w i l d m a n o f A v e y r o n d i d n o t attain t o speech. B e l o w t h e p r o p o s i t i o n w e d o i n d e e d find w o r d s . W h e n o n e says ' n o ' . III THE THEORY OF THE VERB T h e proposition is to language w h a t representation is to thought. b u t these d i d n o t b e g i n t o b e l a n g u a g e until t h e y c o n t a i n e d . o f t h e vessel c o n t a i n i n g it.t h e o n e t h a t it is in fact r e p r e s e n t i n g general g r a m m a r m u s t also s t u d y t h e w a y i n w h i c h w o r d s designate w h a t t h e y say. o r r e a d y . b u t a d u p l i c a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t d e n o t e s a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . o n e is 92 . first o f all i n their p r i m i t i v e v a l u e ( t h e o r y o f origins a n d o f t h e r o o t ) . l a n g u a g e begins n o t w i t h expression. b u t t h a t w a s m e r e l y ' t h e confused expression o f that a l i m e n t a r y liquid. w h i c h presupposes in t h e first place an analysis o f t h e links t h a t c o n n e c t w o r d s t o g e t h e r ( t h e o r y o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r o f t h e v e r b ) . It is t r u e t h a t i n t h e b e g i n n i n g m a n e m i t t e d o n l y s i m p l e cries. W h a t c o n stitutes a w o r d as a w o r d a n d raises it a b o v e t h e level of cries a n d noises i s t h e p r o p o s i t i o n concealed w i t h i n it. t h e n i n their p e r m a n e n t capacity for d i s p l a c e m e n t . since discourse is n o t s i m p l y a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w h o l e . b u t w i t h discourse. H o w e v e r . o n e is n o t translating o n e ' s refusal i n t o a m e r e c r y . b u t it is n o t in t h e m t h a t l a n g u a g e is created. a n d o f t h e desire p r o d u c e d b y it' [28 ] . o r e x p e c t e d . F o r Classical t h o u g h t . i t i s t r u e . and reorganization (theory of rhetoric and of derivation). t h e w o r d n e v e r b e c a m e a sign r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t h i n g .i f o n l y w i t h i n their m o n o syllable . T h e yell of t h e p r i m i t i v e m a n in a s t r u g g l e b e c o m e s a t r u e w o r d o n l y w h e n it is no l o n g e r t h e lateral expression of his pain. I t i s i n fact t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t detaches t h e v o c a l sign f r o m its i m m e d i a t e expressive values a n d establishes its s u p r e m e linguistic possibility.a r e l a t i o n that w a s of t h e o r d e r of a p r o p o s i t i o n . e x t e n s i o n . pronounce the w o r d 'milk' w h e n a b o w l of milk was p u t in front of h i m . since as s o o n as it is b r o k e n d o w n w e n o l o n g e r e n c o u n t e r t h e discourse b u t o n l y its e l e m e n t s . for a t n o p o i n t d i d h e e v e r w i s h t o say t h a t t h e m i l k w a s h o t . at once its m o s t general a n d m o s t e l e m e n t a r y f o r m . i n t h e f o r m o f s o m u c h scattered r a w m a t e r i a l . i t w a s because w o r d s r e m a i n e d for h i m m e r e l y t h e v o c a l m a r k s o f t h i n g s a n d o f t h e impressions t h a t those t h i n g s m a d e u p o n his m i n d . H e c o u l d . a n d w h e n it has ^validity as a j u d g e m e n t o r a s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t y p e ' I a m choking^[2v7*].

t o t h e different persons o f t h e v e r b . I t i s o n t h e fringe o f discourse. 93 . a n d t h a t all t h e o t h e r parts o f discourse b e c a m e d e t a c h e d f r o m this o r i g i n a l verbal c o r e a s s o m a n y d e r i v e d a n d s e c o n d a r y details. In t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . T h e v e r b is t h e indispensable c o n d i t i o n for all discourse. all t h e functions of l a n g u a g e are led b a c k to t h e t h r e e e l e m e n t s that a l o n e axe indispensable to t h e f o r m a t i o n of a p r o p o s i t i o n : t h e subject. I t i s this function t h a t w e m u s t n o w e x a m i n e . t h e essential object o f g r a m m a r ' [ 3 0 ] . it is n o t possible to say t h a t t h e r e is l a n g u a g e . in a r e g i o n w h i c h is n o t that o f t h e s p o k e n . E v e n t h e n . w h e r e a s n o u n s d e n o t e t h i n g s . l a n g u a g e w a s c o m p o s e d o n l y of i m p e r s o n a l v e r b s (such as 'it is r a i n i n g ' or 'it is t h u n d e r i n g ' ) . w h i c h are t h e subject a n d t h e predicate. at t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t is said a n d . is that manifested by t h e irreducibility o f t h e v e r b : a s H o b b e s [ 3 1 ] says: I n e v e r y p r o p o s i t i o n t h r e e things a r e t o b e considered. T h e o n l y difference. viz. W e m u s t n o t s t o p . a d v e r b s . b u t r a t h e r t h a t f r o m w h i c h o n e speaks. t o e x c h a n g e functions. b u t t h e c o p u l a t i o n m a k e s u s t h i n k o f t h e cause for w h i c h those n a m e s w e r e imposed on that thing. a n d w h e r e v e r it does n o t exist. a n d A d a m S m i t h [ 3 2 ] t h i n k s t h a t . . a n d t h e link b e t w e e n t h e m .SPEAKING c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o t h e f o r m o f a single w o r d 'an entire p r o p o s i t i o n : . it is t h e r e fore possible for t h e m . i n its p r i m i t i v e f o r m . a s Aristotle did. at least by i m p l i c a t i o n . subjected t o t h e s a m e rules o f case a n d a g r e e m e n t a s o t h e r w o r d s . o r I d o n o t believe t h a t ' [ 2 9 ] . T h i s v e r b m u s t therefore be treated as a c o m p o s i t e e n t i t y . I d o n o t feel t h a t . b o t h w h i c h n a m e s raise i n o u r m i n d t h e t h o u g h t o f o n e a n d t h e s a m e t h i n g . N o r m u s t w e a t t a c h i m p o r t a n c e . a n d y e t set a p a r t f r o m all o t h e r w o r d s . adjectives. exactly a t that p o i n t w h e r e signs are i n t h e process o f b e c o m i n g l a n g u a g e . . N o r m u s t we s t o p .w h a t is saying itself. at t h e s a m e t i m e a w o r d a m o n g o t h e r w o r d s . All n o m i n a l p r o p o s i t i o n s conceal t h e invisible presence of a v e r b . t h a t can c a r r y t e m p o r a l significations). t h o u g h it is a decisive o n e .a n d p e r m a n e n t t h i n g s (for t h e r e i s precisely t h e v e r y n o u n ' a c t i o n ' t o b e c o n s i d e r e d ) . t h e subject a n d p r e d i c a t e are o f the s a m e n a t u r e . t h e p r e d i c a t e . at t h e fact that it expiesses actions or passions.b y s t r i p p i n g t h e v e r b o f all that has c o n s t a n t l y o v e r l a i d a n d o b s c u r e d it. T h e t h r e s h o l d o f l a n g u a g e lies a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e v e r b first appears. a s B u x t o r f did. as Scaliger did. u n d e r certain c o n d i t i o n s . ' L e t u s g o directly t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . since t h e p r o position affirms that t h e o n e is identical to or akin to t h e o t h e r . n o u n s . a n d their copulation. at t h e fact t h a t t h e v e r b signifies tenses (there a r e m a n y o t h e r w o r d s . t h e t w o n a m e s .

e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d h a v e r e m a i n e d silent. it indicates ' t h a t t h e discourse in w h i c h this w o r d is e m p l o y e d i s t h e discourse o f a m a n w h o does n o t m e r e l y c o n c e i v e o f n o u n s . ' t h e r e is o n l y t h e v e r b to be .v a n i s h e d f r o m sight. W i t h o u t it. o n its o w n . r e n d e r s i t susceptible o f t r u t h o r e r r o r . w h e n w e say t h a t this i s t h a t [ 3 4 ] . since h i s ' b y m e a n s of a w o r d t h a t l a n g u a g e expresses b e i n g a n d is u n i t e d to it. certain l a n g u a g e s h a v e i n t e g r a t e d t h e subject itself i n t o their verbs. All t h e o t h e r s secretly m a k e use o f this u n i q u e function. b u t l a n g u a g e itself entenecLihto n e w relations w i t h b e i n g . t h e r e w o u l d b e n o l a n g u a g e a t all. In this respect it is different f r o m all t h e signs t h a t m a y or m a y n o t b e consistent w i t h . . faithful t o . T h e e n t i r e species o f t h e v e r b m a y b e r e d u c e d to t h e single v e r b t h a t signifies to be. 94 . l a n g u a g e in its r a w state . like certain animals. w h i c h i s o n l y o n e p a r t o f l a n g u a g e . . sustaining all possibility o f discourse. In t h e Classical p e r i o d . b u t it is e q u a l l y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b e i n g of l a n g u a g e . w e say ' I s a n g ' . A p r o p o s i t i o n e x i s t s . w h a t t h e y designate. w e r e n o t . a n d it is so by v i r t u e of this singular p o w e r of a w o r d to leap across t h e s y s t e m o f signs t o w a r d s t h e b e i n g o f t h a t w h i c h i s signified. b u t t h e y h a v e h i d d e n i t b e n e a t h a layer o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n s : attributes h a v e b e e n a d d e d t o it. w h o l l y a n d entirely. t h e r e w o u l d b e n o v e r b t o be. t h e essential function of t h e v e r b : t h e v e r b affirms. w o u l d h a v e b e e n able t o m a k e use o f their voices w e l l e n o u g h .t h a t w h i c h .a n d discourse t o o w h e n w e affirm t h e existence o f a n a t t r i b u t i v e link b e t w e e n t w o t h i n g s . by e n a b l i n g l a n g u a g e t o affirm w h a t i t says. ones m o r e difficult to g r a s p . a n d instead o f saying ' I a m s i n g i n g ' . n o t ego vivit. L a n g u a g e is. in all clarity. y e t n o t o n e o f those cries h u r l e d t h r o u g h t h e j u n g l e w o u l d e v e r h a v e p r o v e d t o b e t h e f i r s t link i n t h e g r e a t chain o f l a n g u a g e . a n d t h o u g h m e n . T h e e n t i r e essence o f l a n g u a g e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h a t singular w o r d . t h a t has r e m a i n e d i n this state o f s i m p l i c i t y ' [ 3 6 ] . it affirms b e i n g f r o m w i t h i n itself. lastly. W i t h o u t a w a y o f designating b e i n g . b u t t h a t a r e n e v e r t r u e or false. discourse.THE ORDER OF THINGS for these c a n also b e designated b y certain p r o n o u n s . a n d instead o f saying ' b e f o r e n o w I a m s i n g i n g ' . W h a t w e m u s t d o before all else is to reveal. o r w e l l a d a p t e d t o . w e say ' I s i n g ' [ 3 5 ] . b u t w i t h o u t l a n g u a g e . b u t j u d g e s t h e m ' [ 3 3 ] . b u t vivo. All of this is m e r e l y accretion a n d s e d i m e n t a t i o n a r o u n d a n d o v e r a v e r y slight y e t essential v e r b a l function. indications o f t i m e h a v e b e e n a d d e d . T h i s simple w o r d i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b e i n g i n l a n g u a g e . a n d t h u s we find t h e R o m a n s saying. a n d y e t i t c o u l d n o t exist a s l a n g u a g e i f t h a t w o r d . i n a d v a n c e .t h a t mass of signs impressed u p o n t h e w o r l d i n o r d e r t o exercise o u r p o w e r s o f i n t e r r o g a t i o n .

a n d h e also takes i t t o b e o n e reason w h y variations o f t i m e h a v e b e e n c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o t h e f o r m o f t h e v e r b : for t h e essence of t h i n g s does n o t c h a n g e . So that t h e essential function of t h e v e r b to be is to relate all l a n g u a g e t o t h e representation t h a t i t designates. in fact. or m o s t of. t h e impressions I receive. A n invisible canvas. forms t h e basis o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n ? T h e g r a m m a r i a n s of Port-Royal said t h a t t h e m e a n i n g of t h e v e r b to be w a s affirmation . a n d t h a t t h e v e r b can affirm d e a t h as w e l l as existence. w h a t t h e v e r b to be p r o v i d e s is r a t h e r t h e affirmation of t h e idea. adjectives as c o l o u r s . C o e x i s t e n c e is n o t . W h a t t h e v e r b designates. b u t o n e t h a t p r o v i d e s l a n g u a g e w i t h t h e site o n w h i c h t o display its p a i n t i n g . those o f a tree a n d greenness.w h i c h i n d i c a t e d w e l l e n o u g h in w h a t r e g i o n of l a n g u a g e its absolute p r i v i l e g e lay. T h e b e i n g t o w a r d s w h i c h i t spills o v e r its signs i s n e i t h e r m o r e n o r less t h a n t h e b e i n g o f t h o u g h t . it is o n l y t h e i r existence that appears a n d disappears. it is no m o r e t h a n a f o r m of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : to say that t h e greenness a n d t h e tree coexist is to say t h a t t h e y are linked t o g e t h e r in all. T h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t t h e v e r b affirms i s t h e coexistence o f t w o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : for e x a m p l e . e n t i r e l y overlaid b y t h e brightness a n d design o f t h e w o r d s . one late-eighteenth-century grammarian defines n o u n s as f o r m s . b u t a relative system of a n t e r i o r i t y or s i m u l t a n e i t y b e t w e e n different t h i n g s [3 9 ] . w h i c h it traverses t h r o u g h o u t its l e n g t h : to speak is at t h e s a m e t i m e to represent b y m e a n s o f signs a n d t o g i v e signs a synthetic f o r m g o v e r n e d 95 . a n d t h e v e r b as t h e canvas itself. C o m paring language to a picture. b y o v e r f l o w i n g t h e w o r d s c o n t a i n i n g it. t h e n . To w h i c h C o n d i l l a c can o b s e r v e in r e p l y t h a t if existence can b e w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h i n g s . B u t is t h e affirmation of an idea also t h e expression of its existence? T h i s i s i n fact w h a t B a u z e e t h i n k s . c o n t a i n it equally w e l l [ 3 7 ] . S o t h a t t h e function o f t h e v e r b i s f o u n d t o b e identified w i t h t h e m o d e o f existence o f l a n g u a g e . o r o f m a n a n d existence o r d e a t h . this i s w h y t h e tenses o f v e r b s d o n o t indicate t h e t i m e w h e n t h i n g s existed in t h e absolute. t h e fact t h a t i t has its place i n t h o u g h t .SPEAKING B u t f r o m w h e r e does this p o w e r derive? A n d w h a t i s this m e a n i n g . a n d also t h e w o r d yes. it is o n l y their existence t h a t has a past a n d a future [3 8]. for t h e w o r d affirmation itself. u p o n w h i c h t h e c o l o u r s are visible. w h i c h . an a t t r i b u t e of t h e t h i n g itself. W e m u s t n o t i m a g i n e t h a t t h e v e r b t o h e c o n t a i n s t h e idea o f affirmation. is t h e representative character of l a n g u a g e . b u t n o t at all in w h a t it consisted. a n d t h a t t h e o n l y w o r d c a p a b l e o f crossing t h e frontier o f signs a n d p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h a f o u n d a t i o n i n t r u t h n e v e r attains t o a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself. this m u s t m e a n t h a t i t i s n o m o r e t h a n a n a t t r i b u t e .

A n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . on either side. this a s t o n i s h m e n t in t h e face of t h e relations of being and language was to counterbalance the reintroduction of the v e r b i n t o t h e h o m o g e n e o u s o r d e r o f g r a m m a t i c a l functions. t h e p o w e r o f m a n i festation o f l a n g u a g e w a s t o r e a p p e a r i n a n a u t o n o m o u s q u e s t i o n . i t i s t h e general a n d c o m m o n a t t r i b u t e [40].t h e judicandum . 96 . T h e s e sites a r e still n e u t r a l . w h a t is g i v e n to representation. o f t r a n s m i t t i n g o r g i v i n g effulgence t o its f u n d a m e n t a l m e a n i n g . o f r e n d e r i n g i t absolutely m a n i fest. it is a l w a y s t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d t h e basis o f the a t t r i b u t e . a s s o o n a s t h e u n i t a r y d o m a i n o f general g r a m m a r itself disappeared.THE ORDER OF THINGS by t h e v e r b . F r o m H e g e l to M a l l a r m e . a m i x t u r e of a t t r i b u t i o n a n d affirmation. . As D e s t u t t says. the v e r b is a t t r i b u t i o n . T h e v e r b was m e r e l y t o figure i n i t a l o n g w i t h all t h e o t h e r w o r d s . a n d t h e f o r m o f all attributes: T h e v e r b to be is f o u n d in all p r o p o s i t i o n s .t h e judicatum [41]. H o w can this p u r e design of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o distinct sentences? H o w can discourse express t h e w h o l e c o n t e n t of a representation? Because it is m a d e up of w o r d s t h a t name. t h e sustaining p o w e r . Beside it. inflections.a n d t h e t h i n g j u d g e d . a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e . a r e e l e m e n t s : parts of discourse or ' o r a t i o n ' . the proposition was t o b e c o m e n o m o r e t h a n a syntactical unit. a n d cases. l a n g u a g e w a s to be e x a m i n e d in its e n i g m a t i c n a t u r e as verb: in t h a t r e g i o n w h e r e i t i s nearest t o b e i n g . h a d n o o t h e r course b u t t o b e c o m e dissociated. A n d a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e . because we c a n n o t say t h a t a t h i n g is in such a n d such a w a y w i t h o u t at t h e same t i m e s a y i n g t h a t it is . y e t central figure designating b e i n g .^ IV ARTICULATION T h e v e r b to be. a n d d e t e r m i n e d solely by t h e slender. a n d also t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l . o n c e i t h a d r e a c h e d this p o i n t o f generality. defines t h e first constant of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . m o r e archaic t h a n g r a m m a r . t h e j u n c t i o n of discourse w i t h t h e p r i m a r y a n d radical possibility o f speech. p a r t by p a r t . w i t h its o w n s y s t e m o f a g r e e m e n t . on either side of this j u d i c a t o r ' as t h e t h i n g to be j u d g e d . I t will b e seen h o w t h e function o f t h e v e r b . m o s t capable o f n a m i n g it. W h e n t h e dimension of the purely grammatical was opened up. . B u t this w o r d is w h i c h is in all p r o p o s i t i o n s is a l w a y s a p a r t of t h e a t t r i b u t e [predicate] in those p r o p o s i t i o n s . t h e y function.

such a n articulation t h e n f o r m s a sequential generalization of g r o u p s g r o w i n g g r a d u a l l y larger a n d larger (and less a n d less n u m e r o u s ) . i n o u r ideas. t h a t is. c o n s e q u e n t l y .that o n e can n e v e r m e e t i n a n i n d e p e n d e n t state: d e e p d o w n . B u t each n a m e w o u l d t h e n b e s o s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e single r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i t designated t h a t o n e c o u l d n e v e r f o r m u l a t e e v e n t h e slightest a t t r i b u t i o n . a spaniel [44]. for each is indispensable to t h e o t h e r .SPEAKING T h e w o r d designates.modifications. g r o u p i n g t o g e t h e r individuals t h a t h a v e certain identities in c o m m o n a n d separating those t h a t a r e different. t h e n f r o m the species to t h e g e n u s a n d on to t h e class. w h o s e g r e a t n u m b e r would overburden our memories. l i n k e d to t h e first. a n d all o u r discourse w o u l d b e i n t h e greatest state o f confusion [42].is manifested i n discourse b y t h e presence o f adjectives. this t a x o n o m i c function is manifested in l a n g u a g e by t h e substantives: we say an a n i m a l . or characteristics . would produce no order in t h e objects o f o u r learning. a q u a d r u p e d . T h e generality of t h e n o u n is as necessary to t h e parts of discourse as is t h e designation of b e i n g to t h e f o r m of t h e p r o position. So. i t w o u l d b e necessary t o create a n infinite m u l t i p l i c i t y o f t h e m . t h e entire o r d e r o f t h e resulting c o o r d i n a t i o n s and s u b o r d i n a t i o n s is c o v e r e d by a g r i d of l a n g u a g e . since it is directed a l w a y s t o w a r d s a particular r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .this m e t a p h y s i c . n o u n s proliferate i n endless differentiation. accidents. w h i c h designate 97 . a n d t o w a r d s n o o t h e r . substances. this division . T h i s generality m a y b e a c q u i r e d i n t w o w a y s . N o u n s c a n n o t function in a sentence and p e r m i t a t t r i b u t i o n unless o n e o f t h e t w o (the a t t r i b u t e a t least) designates s o m e e l e m e n t c o m m o n t o several representations. i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e v e r b . A p r o p e r n o u n . it m a y also s u b d i v i d e t h e m a l m o s t to infinity b y m e a n s o f fresh distinctions. T h e r e o u g h t t o b e a s m a n y o f t h e m a s t h e r e are things t o n a m e . T h e s e w o r d s . a d o g . and thus r e t u r n t o t h e p r o p e r n o u n f r o m w h i c h i t b e g a n [43]. this s e c o n d articulation distinguishes t h e things t h a t subsist by themselves f r o m those . a n d l a n g u a g e w o u l d fall b a c k to a l o w e r level: I f w e h a d n o o t h e r substantives b u t p r o p e r n o u n s . features. qualities. E i t h e r b y a h o r i z o n t a l articulation. a n d each o n e of these p o i n t s will b e f o u n d u p o n i t t o g e t h e r w i t h its n a m e : f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l to t h e species. l a n g u a g e is articulated precisely u p o n t h e d i m e n s i o n of increasing g e n e r a l i ties. n o r . as A d a m S m i t h called it . Or else by a vertical articulation. w h i c h i s n e v e r m o r e t h a n t h e universal expression o f a t t r i b u t i o n . in its v e r y n a t u r e it is a n o u n or n a m e . o n t h e surface.

A t t h e i r p o i n t o f intersection stands t h e c o m m o n n o u n . A n d . w i t h itself a n d i n its o w n density. w h e n w e speak o f ' h u m a n s ' w e are e m p l o y i n g a n adjective t o designate individuals t h a t subsist b y themselves. A s t h e a u t h o r s o f Port-Royal p u t it: w o r d s ' t h a t signify t h i n g s are called substantival n o u n s . sun. just. i n their m a n n e r o f signifying. a t t h e o t h e r t h e adjective. T h e relations b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a r e identical w i t h t h o s e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w e are c e r t a i n l y d e s i g n a t i n g a q u a l i t y . B u t these t w o types o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c a n d i s t i n g u i s h w o r d s f r o m o n e a n o t h e r o n l y t o precisely t h a t d e g r e e t o w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s analysed a c c o r d i n g t o this s a m e m o d e l . w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e i n d i c a t i n g t h e subject w i t h w h i c h t h e m a n n e r s a g r e e . b e c o m e s adjectival. Because substance is t h a t w h i c h subsists of itself. t h e n o u n . T h o s e that signify m a n n e r s . t h e o t h e r p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e substance t o t h e q u a l i t y . t h a t i t has relations. T h e p r i m a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n of l a n g u a g e (if we leave aside t h e v e r b to be. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . w h i c h is as m u c h a c o n d i t i o n of discourse as it is a p a r t of it) is t h u s a l i g n e d a l o n g t w o o r t h o g o n a l axes: o n e p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i t t o t h e g e n e r a l . b u t w e are design a t i n g i t b y m e a n s o f a s u b s t a n t i v e . o n t h e c o n t r a r y . a d u p l i c a t e d k i n d of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . W h e n w e speak o f ' w h i t e n e s s ' . t h e t e r m substantive has b e e n g i v e n to all t h o s e w o r d s t h a t subsist by t h e m s e l v e s in d i s course. t h e t e r m adjective has b e e n g i v e n t o t h o s e w o r d s t h a t signify substances w h e n . t h e r e does exist a certain a m o u n t of p l a y b e t w e e n t h e articulation o f l a n g u a g e a n d t h a t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . s u c h as earth. F o r is it n o t . w h i c h b e h a v e s w i t h i n t h e sentence like a n accident. as h i t h e r t o . round'[4$]. e v e n t h o u g h it is d e s i g n a t i n g substances. in fact. This d i s p l a c e m e n t i s n o t a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t l a n g u a g e o b e y s o t h e r laws t h a n those o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e n t h a t adjective b e c o m e s s u b s t a n t i v a l . a r e called adjectival n o u n s . t h e y m u s t b e j o i n e d i n discourse t o o t h e r n o u n s [46]. b u t . a n d thus able t o c o m b i n e w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s o f its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n distinct f r o m t h e first. H o w e v e r . b u t this i d e n t i t y i s n o t carefully a r r a n g e d p o i n t 98 .THE ORDER OF THINGS e v e r y t h i n g i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that c a n n o t subsist b y itself. t h a t are identical w i t h t h o s e o f r e p r e sentation. e v e n t h o u g h t h e o n l y f u n c t i o n a n d m e a n i n g of t h e s e c o n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n is t h e representation t h e first? If discourse seizes u p o n t h e adjective d e s i g n a t i n g a modification a n d gives it w i t h i n t h e s e n t e n c e t h e v a l u e o f t h e v e r y substance o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . a t o n e e x t r e m i t y t h e p r o p e r n o u n . e v e n t h o u g h t h e y m a y signify accidents. s u c h as good.

b u t i t possesses t h e p o w e r t o articulate t h e r e p r e sentation i t t r a n s f o r m s i n t o discourse i n m o r e t h a n o n e w a y . circulating a m o n g t h e n o u n s a n d the v e r b s .t h e m o s t superficial or in a n y case t h e m o s t a p p a r e n t . H e n c e all t h e w o r d s . T h e y establish a n e w articulation in l a n g u a g e . e v e n letters. declension e n d i n g s . e v e r y t h i n g c a n b e c o m e discourse. it is articulated a c c o r d i n g to t h e s a m e m o d e s a s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a n d t h o s e o f d e p e n d e n c e o r case [48]: m a r k s o f p l u r a l i t y a n d g e n d e r . i n itself. b u t in t h e f o r m of a still r a t h e r undifferentiated l a n g u a g e : w e still h a v e n o t h i n g b u t t h e m o n o t o n y o f t h e v e r b t o b e a n d its a t t r i b u t i v e function t o link o u r n o u n s t o g e t h e r . there m u s t b e syntactical signs i n d i c a t i n g t h e relations o f i d e n t i t y o r a g r e e m e n t . these w o r d s . finally. T h e i d e n t i t y h e r e i s t o t a l a n d a m a t t e r o f n a t u r e : t h e p r o p o s i t i o n is a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e y c a n n o t c o v e r an idea . t h o u g h w i t h o u t either o f these t w o o r d e r s b e i n g able t o f i t e x a c t l y o v e r t h e o t h e r . syllables. t h e r e m u s t b e prepositions a n d c o n j u n c t i o n s . t h e r e m u s t b e w o r d s relating c o m m o n n o u n s t o t h e individuals t h e y designate . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . a n d i n a n isolated state. m a k e s t h e i n t e r i o r n e t w o r k o f these relationships visible.u n t i l t h e y h a v e b e e n linked t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r w o r d s . a t o n c e representative a n d g r a m m a t i c a l . w h i c h . w i t h a possibility o f d i s p l a c e m e n t t h a t constitutes a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e f r e e d o m o f discourse a n d t h e differences b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e s . h a v e n o p o w e r o f signification except in a relative m o d e . t h e y exist o n l y in so far as t h e latter. t h e n . in t h e process of analysing itself. I t is. s u b o r d i n a t i o n . O n c e this has b e e n established. t h e e l e m e n t s o f representation a r e articulated a c c o r d i n g t o a w h o l e n e t w o r k o f c o m p l e x relations (succession.e v e n an accessory o n e . o n e of a c o m posite n a t u r e . are g i v e n t h e task of d e s i g n a t i n g those ideas t h a t in Port-Royal w e r e t e r m e d ' a c c e s s o r y ' [ 4 7 ] .t h e articles o r d e m o n s tratives t h a t L e m e r c i e r called 'concretizers' or ' d i s a b s t r a c t o r s ' [ 4 o ] . S u c h a scattering o f w o r d s constitutes a n articulation inferior t o t h e u n i t y o f t h e n a m e ( w h e t h e r substantival o r adjectival) a s r e q u i r e d b y t h e n a k e d f o r m o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n : n o n e o f t h e m possesses i n its o w n r i g h t . w h e r e a s n o u n s a n d v e r b s are 'absolute s i g n i f i c a n t s ' . It is t r u e t h a t t h e y a r e addressed to r e p r e sentation. a n d . At this stage. so t h a t e v e r y substance is designated by a substantive a n d e v e r y accident b y a n adjective. a fixed a n d d e t e r m i n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n t e n t .SPEAKING by p o i n t . t h e sentence is p e o p l e d w i t h syntactical e l e m e n t s c u t 99 . b u t t h e y themselves h a v e v a l u e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e g r a m m a t i c a l w h o l e o f w h i c h t h e y are a p a r t . S u c h is t h e first s t r a t u m of articulation . c o n s e q u e n c e ) that m u s t b e b r o u g h t o v e r i n t o l a n g u a g e i f i t i s t o b e c o m e t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . N o w . a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o v i d i n g t h e articulation for a n o t h e r .

similarly.v e r b . L a n g u a g e m u s t be treated like a m e c h a n i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n susceptible o f g r a d u a l i m p r o v e m e n t ^ 1 ] : i n its simplest f o r m . a v e r b . to syllables. T h e r e is a ' m e c h a n i c s ' p r o p e r to a g r e e m e n t s . a n d n o representative v a l u e can p r o v i d e u s w i t h a n a c c o u n t o f that mechanics. t h e m e a n s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s n e w a n d m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d p a t t e r n i n g presents g e n e r a l g r a m m a r w i t h a necessary. t h e p o i n t s of a p p l i c a t i o n . like t h e b o d y . a n d a p r e d i c a t e . Shall we suppose. t o r e c o g n i z e its existence w i t h i n m o r e restricted units.THE ORDER OF THINGS o u t a c c o r d i n g t o m u c h m o r e delicate patterns t h a n t h e b r o a d figures o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . a n d to find its efficacity as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b e l o w t h e level o f w h o l e w o r d s . to cases.as soon as t h e t h e o r y of languages takes as its object discourse a n d t h e analysis of its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e values. r a w materials t h a t are n o t articulated u p o n t h o u g h t and w h o s e links c a n n o t be r e d u c e d to those of discourse. a n d t o b r i n g i n t o p r o m i n e n c e . T h e y define t h e point of heresy t h a t splits all e i g h t e e n t h . B u t as t h e y are perfected. all o f w h i c h certainly e n t e r i n t o t h e s u b j e c t . t h e m o s t r u d i m e n t a r y m a c h i n e s p r e s u p p o s e principles o f m o v e m e n t t h a t differ for each of their o r g a n s . a n d o f localization. themselves divisible to infinity? T h a t w o u l d b e a n a b s u r d i t y . In a single c o n t i n u o u s sentence it is possible t o indicate relations o f t i m e . o f i n d i c a t i n g its actual d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . t h e sentence i s c o m p o s e d o n l y of a subject. that all "signification is. o f c o n s e q u e n c e . t h e insignificant e l e m e n t s of w h i c h it is c o n s t r u c t e d . so t h e y s u b o r d i n a t e all their o r g a n s t o o n e a n d t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e . a n d to s o u n d s . t h e y are prescribed . w e m u s t therefore necessarily a d m i t that t h e r e are significant sounds o f w h i c h n o p a r t can possess signification of itself [50]. a n d e v e r y a d d i t i o n of m e a n i n g requires a fresh a n d entire p r o p o s i t i o n . in their i n d e p e n d e n c e . o f linking its elem en ts t o g e t h e r . t h e y t r a n s m i t t h e sense of a p r o p o s i t i o n by m e a n s of g r a m m a t i c a l o r g a n s that d o n o t i n themselves possess a n y representative v a l u e . H e n c e t h e i m p o r t a n c e a c c o r d e d since Bauzee[s2] t o t h e theories o f t h e c o m p l e m e n t . Signification disappears as soon as t h e representative values of w o r d s are dissociated or s u s p e n d e d : instead. b u t c a n n o t b e p i n n e d d o w n b y s o b r o a d a distinction. t h e r e a p p e a r . b u t p e r f o r m t h e tasks o f m a k i n g i t m o r e specific. H a r r i s asks. o f possession. o f w h i c h t h e o r g a n s are t h e n o n l y t h e intermediaries. T h e s e possibilities are p r e s e n t e d i n d e e d . to inflections.c e n t u r y g r a m m a r . as languages perfect themselves. divisible i n t o an infinity of o t h e r significations.c h o i c e : either to p u r s u e its analysis at a l o w e r level t h a n n o m i n a l u n i t y . in particles. in the same w a y . 100 . or to r e d u c e that n o m i n a l u n i t y b y m e a n s o f a regressive process. before signification.p r e d i c a t e series. i n syllables. a n d even in single letters themselves.

SPEAKING

o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n . H e n c e , t o o , t h e g r o w i n g role o f s y n t a x ; a t t h e t i m e o f P o r t - R o y a l , s y n t a x w a s identified w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o r d e r i n g o f w o r d s , a n d t h u s w i t h t h e interior d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n [ 5 3 ] ; w i t h Sicard it b e c a m e i n d e p e n d e n t : it is s y n t a x ' t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e p r o p e r f o r m o f each w o r d ' [ 5 4 ] . T h e s e w e r e t h e p r e l i m i n a r y sketches for t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a u t o n o m y t o b e defined later, a t the v e r y e n d o f the c e n t u r y , by Sylvestre de Saci, w h e n he b e c a m e t h e first - t o g e t h e r w i t h Sicard - to distinguish b e t w e e n t h e logical analysis o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a n d t h e g r a m matical analysis o f t h e s e n t e n c e [ 5 5 ] . It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e w h y analyses of this k i n d s h o u l d h a v e r e m a i n e d in suspense as l o n g as discourse r e m a i n e d t h e object of g r a m m a r ; as s o o n as a s t r a t u m o f a r t i c u l a t i o n was reached w h e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e values c r u m b l e d a w a y , t h e r e w a s a m o v e m e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r side o f g r a m m a r , w h e r e g r a m m a r n o l o n g e r h a d a n y p o w e r , i n t o the d o m a i n o f usage a n d h i s t o r y - s y n t a x , in t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w a s t h o u g h t of as t h e locus of t h e a r b i t r a r y i n w h i c h t h e habits o f each p e o p l e w e r e d e p l o y e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h i m [56]. I n a n y case, s u c h analyses c o u l d n o t , i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b e a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n abstract possibilities; n o t prefigurations o f w h a t w a s t o b e p h i l o l o g y , b u t t h e n o n - p r i v i l e g e d b r a n c h o f a choice. O p p o s i t e , a n d w i t h t h e s a m e p o i n t of heresy as its s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , we see d e v e l o p i n g a reflection, w h i c h , for u s a n d t h e science o f l a n g u a g e w e h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d since t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i s v o i d o f all v a l u e , b u t w h i c h a t t h a t t i m e e n a b l e d all analysis of v e r b a l signs to be retained w i t h i n discourse itself. A n d w h i c h , b y m e a n s o f this exact o v e r l a y i n g , c a m e t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e positive figures of k n o w l e d g e . T h e r e w a s a search for t h e o b s c u r e n o m i n a l function t h a t w a s t h o u g h t t o b e invested a n d concealed i n those w o r d s , in t h o s e syllables, in those inflections, in those letters t h a t t h e o v e r generalized analysis of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n was a l l o w i n g to pass t h r o u g h its net. Because, after all, as t h e a u t h o r s of Port-Royal p o i n t e d o u t , all c o n n e c t i v e particles m u s t h a v e a certain c o n t e n t , since t h e y represent t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h objects a r e linked t o g e t h e r , a n d i n w h i c h t h e y are c o n n e c t e d i n o u r representations [ 5 7 ] . M a y o n e n o t suppose that t h e y h a v e been n a m e s like all t h e others? B u t that instead of s u b s t i t u t i n g themselves for objects t h e y h a v e t a k e n t h e place o f those gestures b y w h i c h m e n indicated t h e m o r s i m u l a t e d their c o n n e c t i o n s a n d their s u c c e s s i o n ^ ] ? I t i s these w o r d s t h a t h a v e either g r a d u a l l y lost their o w n particular m e a n i n g ( w h i c h w a s n o t a l w a y s visible, in a n y case, since it w a s l i n k e d to t h e g e s tures, t h e b o d y , a n d t h e situation o f the speaker) o r i n c o r p o r a t e d themselves 101

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stable s u p p o r t ,

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w h i c h t h e y g a v e i n r e t u r n a w h o l e s y s t e m o f modifications [59]. S o t h a t all w o r d s , o f w h a t e v e r k i n d , are d o r m a n t n a m e s : v e r b s h a v e j o i n e d adjectival n a m e s t o t h e v e r b t o b e ; c o n j u n c t i o n s a n d p r e p o s i t i o n s are t h e n a m e s o f gestures n o w frozen i n t o i m m o b i l i t y ; declensions a n d c o n j u g a tions are n o m o r e t h a n n a m e s that h a v e b e e n a b s o r b e d . W o r d s , n o w , can o p e n u p a n d restore their f r e e d o m o f f l i g h t t o all t h e n a m e s that h a v e b e e n l o d g e d w i t h i n t h e m . As Le Bel said, stating it as a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f analysis, ' t h e r e i s n o g r o u p o f w h i c h t h e p a r t s h a v e n o t existed separately before b e i n g g r o u p e d together'[60]; this e n a b l e d h i m t o r e d u c e all w o r d s t o syllabic elements i n w h i c h t h e old f o r g o t t e n n a m e s at last m a d e t h e i r r e a p p e a r a n c e - t h e o n l y vocables t h a t possessed t h e possibility of existing side by side w i t h t h e v e r b to b e : Romulus, for e x a m p l e [ 6 i ] , c o m e s f r o m Roma a n d moliri (to b u i l d ) ; a n d Roma c o m e s f r o m ro, w h i c h d e n o t e d s t r e n g t h (robur) a n d ma, w h i c h d e n o t e d m a g n i t u d e (magnus). In t h e s a m e w a y , T h i e b a u l t discovers t h r e e latent significations in ahandonner: a, w h i c h 'presents t h e idea of t h e t e n d e n c y or destination o f o n e t h i n g t o w a r d s a n o t h e r ' ; ban, w h i c h 'gives t h e idea o f t h e totality o f t h e social b o d y ' , a n d do, w h i c h indicates ' t h e act w h e r e b y o n e relinquishes something'[62]. A n d i f o n e i s forced t o descend b e l o w t h e level o f i n d i v i d u a l syllables t o t h e v e r y letters o f t h e w o r d s , o n e c a n still f i n d t h e values o f a r u d i m e n t a r y f o r m o f n o m i n a t i o n . A task t o w h i c h , t o his g r e a t e r - t h o u g h e v e n m o r e perishable - g l o r y , C o u r t d e G e b e l i n really applied himself: ' t h e labial c o n t a c t , t h e easiest t o b r i n g i n t o p l a y , t h e gentlest, t h e m o s t gracious, served t o designate t h e f i r s t beings m a n c o m e s t o k n o w , t h o s e w h o s u r r o u n d h i m a n d t o w h o m h e o w e s e v e r y t h i n g ' (papa, m a m a ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , ' t h e t e e t h are as firm as t h e lips are m o b i l e a n d flexible; t h e i n t o n a t i o n s t h a t p r o c e e d f r o m t h e m are s t r o n g , s o n o r o u s , n o i s y . . .' It is by m e a n s of dental c o n t a c t t h a t o n e expresses t h e ideas t h a t lie b e h i n d such v e r b s as tonner (to t h u n d e r ) , retentir (to r e s o u n d ) , etonner (to astonish); it is by this m e a n s t o o t h a t o n e d e n o t e s tambours ( d r u m s ) , timbales ( t i m p a n i ) , a n d trompettes ( t r u m p e t s ) . V o w e l s , t o o , in isolation, are able to u n f o l d t h e secret o f t h e a g e - o l d n a m e s t h a t usage has b u r i e d w i t h i n t h e m : A for possession (avoir, to h a v e ) , E for existence, I for puissance ( p o w e r ) , O for etonnement (astonishment, eyes opened wide), U for humidite ( h u m i d i t y ) a n d therefore for humeur ( m o o d ) [63]. A n d p e r h a p s , in t h e v e r y oldest s t r a t u m o f o u r h i s t o r y , c o n s o n a n t s a n d v o w e l s , differentiated o n l y a s t w o still v a g u e g r o u p s , f o r m e d a s i t w e r e t h e t w o sole n a m e s u p o n 102

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w h i c h h u m a n speech i s u l t i m a t e l y articulated: t h e s i n g i n g v o w e l s s p e a k i n g o u r passions; t h e r o u g h c o n s o n a n t s o u r n e e d s [ 6 4 ] . It is still possible to distinguish t h e r o c k y t o n g u e s o f t h e N o r t h - a forest o f g u t t u r a l s , o f h u n g e r a n d c o l d - f r o m t h e S o u t h e r n t o n g u e s t h a t a r e all v o w e l s , b o r n o f early m o r n i n g e n c o u n t e r s b e t w e e n s h e p h e r d s w h e n ' t h e first fires o f l o v e w e r e b u r s t i n g f r o m t h e p u r e crystal o f t h e s p r i n g s ' . T h r o u g h o u t its density, e v e n d o w n t o t h e m o s t archaic o f those s o u n d s t h a t first rescued it f r o m its state as p u r e c r y , l a n g u a g e preserves its r e p r e sentative f u n c t i o n ; i n each o n e o f its articulations, f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f t i m e , it has a l w a y s named. It is n o t h i n g in itself b u t an i m m e n s e rustling o f d e n o m i n a t i o n s t h a t are o v e r l y i n g o n e a n o t h e r , c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o o n e a n o t h e r , h i d i n g o n e a n o t h e r , a n d y e t p r e s e r v i n g themselves i n existence i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t t h e analysis o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e m o s t c o m p l e x representations. W i t h i n sentences, i n t h a t v e r y d e p t h w h e r e signification seems t o b e r e l y i n g u p o n t h e m u t e s u p p o r t o f insignificant syllables, t h e r e is a l w a y s a d o r m a n t n o m i n a t i o n , a f o r m t h a t holds i m p r i s o n e d w i t h i n its v o c a l walls t h e reflection o f a n invisible a n d y e t indelible r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F o r n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p h i l o l o g y , s u c h analyses r e m a i n e d , in t h e literal sense o f t h e w o r d , ' a d e a d letter'. B u t n o t s o for a w h o l e w a y o f e x p e r i e n c i n g l a n g u a g e - at first esoteric a n d m y s t i c at t h e t i m e of S a i n t - M a r c , R e v e r o n i , F a b r e d ' O l i v e t , O e g g e r , t h e n literary w h e n t h e e n i g m a o f t h e w o r d r e - e m e r g e d i n all its density o f b e i n g , w i t h M a l l a r m e , Roussel, Leiris, o r P o n g e . T h e idea that, w h e n w e d e s t r o y w o r d s , w h a t i s left i s n e i t h e r m e r e noise n o r a r b i t r a r y , p u r e e l e m e n t s , b u t o t h e r w o r d s , w h i c h , w h e n p u l v e r i z e d in t u r n , will set free still o t h e r w o r d s - this idea is at o n c e t h e n e g a t i v e o f all t h e m o d e r n science o f languages a n d t h e m y t h i n w h i c h w e n o w transcribe t h e m o s t o b s c u r e a n d t h e m o s t real p o w e r s o f l a n g u a g e . It is p r o b a b l y because it is a r b i t r a r y , a n d because o n e can define t h e c o n d i t i o n u p o n w h i c h i t attains its p o w e r o f signification, t h a t l a n g u a g e can b e c o m e t h e object of a science. B u t it is because it has n e v e r ceased to speak w i t h i n itself, because it is p e n e t r a t e d as far as we can r e a c h w i t h i n i t b y inexhaustible values, t h a t w e c a n speak w i t h i n i t i n t h a t e n d less m u r m u r i n w h i c h literature i s b o r n . B u t i n t h e Classical p e r i o d t h e relation w a s n o t a t all t h e s a m e ; t h e t w o figures fitted o v e r e a c h o t h e r exactly: in order that language could be entirely comprised within the g e n e r a l f o r m o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , e a c h w o r d , d o w n t o t h e least o f its molecules, h a d t o b e a m e t i c u l o u s f o r m o f n o m i n a t i o n .

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A n d y e t , t h e t h e o r y o f 'generalized n o m i n a t i o n ' reveals a t t h e e x t r e m i t y of l a n g u a g e a certain relation to t h i n g s t h a t is of an entirely different n a t u r e f r o m that of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l f o r m . If, f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h e function of l a n g u a g e is to n a m e , that is, to raise up a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or p o i n t it o u t , as t h o u g h w i t h a finger, t h e n it is indication a n d n o t j u d g e m e n t . It is l i n k e d to t h i n g s by a m a r k , a n o t a t i o n , an associated figure, a g e s t u r e of d e s i g n a t i o n : n o t h i n g that c o u l d b e r e d u c e d t o a relation o f p r e d i c a t i o n . T h e principle o f p r i m a l n o m i n a t i o n , o f t h e o r i g i n o f w o r d s , i s balanced b y t h e f o r m a l p r i m a c y o f j u d g e m e n t . A s t h o u g h , o n either side o f l a n g u a g e , u n f o l d e d in all its articulations, t h e r e lay its b e i n g , in its v e r b a l r o l e as a t t r i b u t i o n , a n d its o r i g i n , in its r o l e as p r i m a r y designation. T h e latter p e r m i t s t h e substitution of a sign for that w h i c h is indicated, t h e f o r m e r m a k e s possible t h e l i n k i n g o f o n e c o n t e n t t o a n o t h e r . A n d t h u s w e e n c o u n t e r o n c e again, in their o p p o s i t i o n y e t also in their affinity, t h e t w o functions o f c o n n e c t i o n a n d substitution t h a t h a v e b e e n allotted t o t h e sign i n general w i t h its p o w e r o f analysing r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T o b r i n g t h e o r i g i n o f l a n g u a g e b a c k i n t o t h e light o f d a y m e a n s also t o rediscover t h e p r i m i t i v e m o m e n t i n w h i c h i t w a s p u r e designation. A n d o n e o u g h t , b y this m e a n s , t o p r o v i d e a t t h e s a m e t i m e a n e x p l a n a t i o n for its arbitrariness (since t h a t w h i c h designates c a n be as different f r o m t h a t w h i c h it indicates as a g e s t u r e f r o m t h e object t o w a r d s w h i c h it is d i r e c t e d ) , a n d for its p r o f o u n d relation w i t h t h a t w h i c h it n a m e s (since a particular syllable or w o r d has a l w a y s b e e n chosen to designate a p a r t i cular t h i n g ) . T h e first o f these r e q u i r e m e n t s i s f u l f i l l e d b y t h e analysis o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f action, t h e second b y the s t u d y o f r o o t s . B u t these t w o t h i n g s are n o t i n o p p o s i t i o n t o o n e a n o t h e r i n t h e s a m e w a y as, i n t h e Cratylus, are e x p l a n a t i o n in t e r m s of ' n a t u r e ' a n d e x p l a n a t i o n in t e r m s of ' l a w ' ; o n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y are absolutely indispensable t o o n e a n o t h e r , since t h e f i r s t gives a n a c c o u n t o f t h e substitution o f t h e sign for t h e t h i n g designated a n d t h e second justifies t h e p e r m a n e n t p o w e r o f designation possessed b y t h a t sign. T h e l a n g u a g e o f action i s s p o k e n b y the b o d y ; a n d y e t , i t i s n o t s o m e t h i n g g i v e n f r o m t h e v e r y f i r s t . All t h a t n a t u r e p e r m i t s i s t h a t m a n , i n t h e v a r i o u s situations i n w h i c h h e f i n d s himself, s h o u l d b e able t o m a k e gestures; his face is a g i t a t e d by m o v e m e n t s ; he emits inarticulate cries - in o t h e r w o r d s , cries t h a t are ' c o i n e d n e i t h e r b y t h e t o n g u e n o r b y t h e lips'[65]. All this is n o t yet either l a n g u a g e or even sign, b u t t h e effect a n d 104

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c o n s e q u e n c e o f o u r a n i m a l i t y . T h i s manifest agitation nevertheless has t h e v i r t u e o f b e i n g universal, since i t d e p e n d s solely u p o n t h e c o n f o r m a t i o n o f o u r o r g a n s . H e n c e t h e possibility for m a n to o b s e r v e t h a t it is identical in h i m s e l f a n d his c o m p a n i o n s . H e i s t h e r e f o r e able t o associate t h e c r y h e hears f r o m a n o t h e r ' s m o u t h , t h e g r i m a c e h e sees u p o n t h a t o t h e r ' s face, w i t h t h e s a m e representations t h a t h a v e , o n several occasions, a c c o m p a n i e d his o w n cries a n d m o v e m e n t s . He is able to accept this mimesis as t h e m a r k a n d substitute o f the o t h e r ' s t h o u g h t . A s a sign. C o m p r e h e n s i o n is b e g i n n i n g . He can also, in r e t u r n , e m p l o y this mimesis t h a t has b e c o m e a sign in o r d e r to excite in his c o m p a n i o n s t h e idea t h a t he h i m s e l f is e x p e r i e n c i n g , t h e sensations, t h e needs, t h e difficulties that are o r d i n a r i l y associated w i t h certain gestures a n d certain s o u n d s : a c r y expressly directed in a n o t h e r ' s presence a n d t o w a r d s an object, a p u r e interjection [66]. W i t h this c o n c e r t e d use of t h e sign ( w h i c h is already expression), s o m e t h i n g like a l a n g u a g e is in t h e process of b e i n g b o r n . It is e v i d e n t , f r o m these analyses c o m m o n to C o n d i l l a c a n d D e s t u t t , that t h e l a n g u a g e o f action does indeed link l a n g u a g e t o n a t u r e b y m e a n s of a genesis - b u t in o r d e r to detach it f r o m n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n to g i v e it r o o t s there, t o emphasize its indelible difference f r o m t h e cry a n d t o p r o v i d e a basis for t h a t w h i c h constitutes its artifice. As l o n g as it is a simple extension o f t h e b o d y , action has n o p o w e r t o speak: i t i s n o t l a n g u a g e . I t b e c o m e s l a n g u a g e , b u t o n l y a t t h e e n d o f definite a n d c o m p l e x o p e r a t i o n s : t h e n o t a t i o n o f a n a n a l o g y o f relations (the o t h e r ' s c r y i s t o w h a t h e is e x p e r i e n c i n g - t h a t w h i c h is u n k n o w n - w h a t my c r y is to my a p p e t i t e o r m y fear); inversion o f t i m e a n d v o l u n t a r y use o f t h e sign before t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n it designates (before e x p e r i e n c i n g a sensation of h u n g e r s t r o n g e n o u g h to m a k e me c r y o u t , I e m i t t h e cry t h a t is associated w i t h i t ) ; lastly, t h e p u r p o s e o f a r o u s i n g i n t h e o t h e r t h e representation c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c r y o r gesture (but w i t h this particularity, that, b y e m i t t i n g a cry, I d o n o t a r o u s e , and d o n o t i n t e n d t o arouse, t h e sensation o f h u n g e r , b u t t h e representation o f t h e relation b e t w e e n this sign a n d m y o w n desire to eat). L a n g u a g e is possible o n l y u p o n t h e basis of this e n t a n g l e m e n t . I t rests n o t u p o n a n a t u r a l m o v e m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r expression, b u t u p o n t h e reversible a n d analysable relations o f signs a n d representations. L a n g u a g e does n o t c o m e i n t o b e i n g w h e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s exteriorized, b u t o n l y w h e n , in a c o n c e r t e d fashion, it detaches a sign f r o m itself a n d causes itself to be represented by t h a t sign. It is n o t , therefore, because he functions as a s p e a k i n g subject, or f r o m w i t h i n a l a n g u a g e already m a d e , t h a t m a n discovers, all a r o u n d h i m , signs t h a t m i g h t b e t a k e n a s s o 105

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many mute words to be deciphered and rendered audible again; it is because representation provides itself with signs that words can come into being, and with them a whole language that is no more than the ulterior organization of vocal signs. Despite its name, the 'language of action' calls into existence the irreducible network of signs that separates language from action. A n d in this way it bases its artifice in nature. For the elements of which this language of action is composed (sounds, gestures, grimaces) are suggested successively by nature, and yet they have no identity of content for the most part - with what they designate, but above all relations of simultaneity or succession. T h e cry does not resemble fear, nor the outstretched hand the sensation of hunger. Once they have become concerted, these signs will remain without 'fantasy and without caprice'[67], since they have been established once and for all by nature; but they will not express the nature of what they designate, for they are in no way its image. A n d from this starting-point men will be able to establish a language of convention: they now have at their disposal enough signs as marks for things to enable them to invent further signs that will analyse and combine the primary ones. In his Discours sur I'origine de l'incgalitc[68], Rousseau made the point that no language can have an agreement between men as its basis, since such an agreement presupposes that some established, recognized, and practised language already exists; we would therefore have to imagine it as having been received by men, not built by them. In fact, the language of action c o n f i r m s this necessity and renders this hypothesis futile. Man receives from nature the material to make signs, and those signs serve h i m first of all as a means of-teaching agreement with other men as to the choice of those that shall be retained, the values that they shall be recognized as possessing, and the rules for employing them; after that, they serve him as a means of forming new signs on the model of the primary ones. T h e first form of agreement consists in selecting the vocal signs (which are easier to recognize from a distance and the only ones that can be used when it is dark), the second in composing, in order to designate representations still left without signs, sounds close to those indicating neighbouring representations. It is in this way that language, properly speaking, is constituted, by a series of analogies that are a lateral extension of the language of action or at least of its vocal element: language resembles this vocal element, and 'it is this resemblance that facilitates the understanding of it. We term it analogy . . . Y o u observe that analogy, which gives us law, does not permit us to choose signs at random or arbitrarily.' [69]
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T h e genesis o f l a n g u a g e i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f action e n t i r e l y avoids t h e alternatives o f n a t u r a l i m i t a t i o n a n d a r b i t r a r y c o n v e n t i o n . I n t h a t w h i c h is n a t u r a l - in t h e signs t h a t arise s p o n t a n e o u s l y t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m of o u r bodies - t h e r e i s n o r e s e m b l a n c e ; a n d w h e r e t h e r e i s e m p l o y m e n t o f resemblances it is after a v o l u n t a r y a g r e e m e n t has b e e n r e a c h e d b e t w e e n m e n . N a t u r e j u x t a p o s e s t h e differences a n d b i n d s t h e m t o g e t h e r b y force; reflection discovers t h e r e s e m b l a n c e s , a n d analyses a n d d e v e l o p s t h e m . T h e first phase m a k e s artifice possible, b u t w i t h m a t e r i a l i m p o s e d u p o n all m e n i n identical fashion; t h e second excludes a r b i t r a r y c h o i c e b u t o p e n s u p channels for analysis that will n o t b e e x a c t l y s u p e r i m p o s a b l e i n t h e case o f all m e n a n d all peoples. T h e l a w o f n a t u r e i s c o n s t i t u t e d b y t h e difference b e t w e e n w o r d s a n d t h i n g s - t h e vertical division b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d t h a t lying b e n e a t h i t w h i c h i t i s t h e task o f l a n g u a g e t o d e s i g n a t e ; t h e r u l e prescribed b y c o n v e n t i o n s i s t h e r e s e m b l a n c e t h a t exists b e t w e e n w o r d s , t h e g r e a t h o r i z o n t a l n e t w o r k that f o r m s w o r d s f r o m o t h e r w o r d s a n d p r o p a g a t e s t h e m ad infinitum. It n o w becomes comprehensible w h y the theory of roots in no w a y c o n t r a d i c t s t h e analysis o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f action, b u t i s t o b e f o u n d w i t h i n it. R o o t s are those r u d i m e n t a r y w o r d s t h a t are t o b e f o u n d , a l w a y s identical, in a g r e a t n u m b e r of l a n g u a g e s - p e r h a p s in all; t h e y h a v e b e e n i m p o s e d u p o n l a n g u a g e b y n a t u r e i n t h e f o r m o f i n v o l u n t a r y cries s p o n taneously employed by the language of action. It was there that m e n s o u g h t t h e m o u t i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e m a place i n their c o n v e n t i o n a l l a n g u a g e s . A n d if all p e o p l e s , in all climates, chose these s a m e e l e m e n t a r y sounds from a m o n g the r a w material of the language of action, that is because t h e y discerned in t h e m , t h o u g h in a s e c o n d a r y a n d reflective m a n n e r , a r e s e m b l a n c e w i t h t h e object t h e y designated, o r t h e possibility o f a p p l y i n g i t t o a n a n a l o g o u s object. T h e r e s e m b l a n c e o f t h e r o o t t o w h a t it n a m e s assumes its v a l u e as a v e r b a l sign o n l y t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y of the convention that b r o u g h t m e n together and regulated their language of a c t i o n so as to create a l a n g u a g e . In this w a y , f r o m w i t h i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , signs are u n i t e d w i t h t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f w h a t t h e y designate, a n d t h e p r i m i t i v e t r e a s u r y of vocables is i m p o s e d , in identical fashion, on all languages. R o o t s m a y b e f o r m e d i n several w a y s . B y o n o m a t o p o e i a , o f c o u r s e , w h i c h is n o t a s p o n t a n e o u s expression, b u t t h e deliberate a r t i c u l a t i o n of a sign that is also a r e s e m b l a n c e : ' t o m a k e t h e s a m e s o u n d w i t h o n e ' s v o i c e a s t h e object t h a t o n e wishes t o n a m e ' [ 7 0 ] . B y e m p l o y i n g a r e s e m b l a n c e e x p e r i e n c e d i n o n e ' s sensations: ' t h e i m p r e s s i o n m a d e b y t h e c o l o u r r e d , 107

w o u l d n o t fill ' a single sheet o f w r i t i n g p a p e r ' . b e l o w each r o o t o n e c o u l d place t h e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d w o r d s d e r i v e d f r o m it. it h o l l o w s itself inside to indicate a c o n c a v e surface [ 7 2 ] . a n d to follow t h e m in a sequence sufficiently t i g h t for there to be as small a distance as possible b e t w e e n e a c h w o r d in t h e series.THE ORDER OF THINGS w h i c h i s v i v i d . B u t i t i s o n t h e basis o f t h e m t h a t each l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p s its o w n p a r t i c u l a r i t y : ' t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t is p r o d i g i o u s . A t t h e t o p o f this spacji. L a n g u a g e can n o w reveal its g e n e a l o g y . a dialect. of absolutely c o n t i n u o u s chains in w h i c h t h e breaks. o n e w o u l d h a v e a t w o . will b e v e r y well r e n d e r e d b y t h e sound R. b y e m p l o y i n g t h e sounds a n o r g a n n a t u r a l l y p r o d u c e s t o d e s i g n a t e t h a t o r g a n : t h e glottal stop d e t e r m i n e d t h e n a m e o f t h e t h r o a t i n w h i c h it o c c u r s . Finally.t w o h u n d r e d for H e b r e w . seamless expanse h a d b e e n c o n s t i t u t e d . a n d e v e n smaller w h e n o n e r e m e m b e r s t h a t (because o f t h e relations o f r e s e m b l a n c e t h a t t h e y establish) t h e y are c o m m o n t o a l m o s t all of o u r l a n g u a g e s : de Brosses t h i n k s that all of t h e m t o g e t h e r . h o r i z o n t a l l y . w h i c h makes an analogous impression u p o n the e a r ' [ 7 1 ] . f r o m all t h e dialects o f E u r o p e a n d t h e O r i e n t . By i m p o s i n g m o v e m e n t s u p o n t h e o r g a n s o f t h e v o i c e a n a l o g o u s t o those o n e wishes t o signify: 'so t h a t t h e s o u n d resulting f r o m t h e f o r m a n d n a t u r a l m o v e m e n t o f t h e o r g a n w h e n placed i n this state b e c o m e s t h e n a m e o f t h e o b j e c t ' . o n e w o u l d w r i t e t h e r o o t s . o n e w o u l d h a v e t h e c o m p l e t e filiation o f each r o o t . U s i n g these c o n v e n t i o n a l articulations o f r e s e m b l a n c e .e m p l o y e d i n a l l E u r o p e a n a n d O r i e n t a l l a n g u a g e s . or a lang u a g e n o l o n g e r i n existence [ 7 7 ] . o n e w o u l d h a v e t h e w o r d s e m p l o y e d i n a n y g i v e n l a n g u a g e . h a r s h t o t h e e y e . b u t t a k i n g care to place first those t h a t are nearest to t h e r o o t s . r a p i d . since t h e r o o t s are a l m o s t all m o n o s y l l a b i c a n d exist o n l y in v e r y small n u m b e r s . In this w a y o n e w o u l d b e able t o c o n s t i t u t e a n u m b e r o f perfect a n d e x h a u s t i v e series.d i m e n s i o n a l space that o n e c o u l d cross either o n abscissae o r o n o r d i n a t e s : vertically. a n d t h e dentals (d a n d r) are used to designate t h e t e e t h [ 7 3 ] . t h e t h r o a t rasps t o designate t h e r u b b i n g o f o n e b o d y against a n o t h e r . Just as o n e e l m seed p r o d u c e s a g r e a t tree.and no doubt m o r e recent 108 . a c c o r d i n g t o B e r g i e r ' s estimate [ 7 4 ] . O n c e this vast. w o u l d indicate t h e place of a w o r d . T h e p a c k is a small o n e . w h i c h b y g r o w i n g n e w shoots f r o m each r o o t p r o d u c e s i n t h e e n d a n entire f o r e s t ' [ 7 5 ] . t h e g e n e a l o g y t h a t d e Brosses a t t e m p t e d to display in a d i m e n s i o n of c o n t i n u o u s filiation t h a t he called t h e ' U n i v e r s a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t ' [ 7 6 ] . the m o r e complicated . t h e further a w a y o n e m o v e d f r o m t h e primitive roots.v e r y few i n n u m b e r . e v e r y l a n g u a g e is able to p r o v i d e itself w i t h its p a c k of p r i m i t i v e r o o t s . if t h e r e w e r e a n y .

I n the C l a s s i c a l period. a n d i s o l a t i o n o f t h e inflectional e n d i n g s a n d p r e f i x e s . t h r o u g h all t h e a n c i e n t 'charts a n d g l o s s a r i e s ' .t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f t h e r o o t t h e o r y a historical e n t i t y i s p r o v e d q u i t e easily b y t h e w a y i n w h i c h e t y m o l o g i e s w e r e s o u g h t for i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . language is not a fragment of history authorizing at any g i v e n m o m e n t a definite m o d e o f t h o u g h t a n d r e f l e c t i o n . t h o u g h w i t h o u t a n y o b l i g a t i o n [ 7 9 ] . w h i c h k n o w s n o d i s c o n t i n u i t y o r r u p t u r e . o n e h a d t o strip t h e w o r d o f all the s u b s e q u e n t traces that m i g h t h a v e b e e n left u p o n i t b y c o m b i n a t i o n s a n d inflections. b u t the c o n s t a n c y o f its s i g n i f i c a tions.o r b e c o m e o n c e a g a i n . T h i s is because 'nothing perhaps can limit inductions and e v e r y t h i n g c a n s e r v e as a basis for t h e m . it m a k e s h i s t o r y a j o u r n e y . for the v o w e l s are t h e v o i c e itself. to h a v e s u s p e n d e d . for a t i m e . are m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o certain p r i v i l e g e d c h a n n e l s : g u t turals. t h e environment into w h i c h it was born and in w h i c h it developed. i t i s a n area o f analysis u p o n w h i c h t i m e a n d h u m a n k n o w l e d g e p u r s u e their j o u r n e y . as it w e r e . across t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s p a t t e r n i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d w o r d s . labials.SPEAKING w o u l d the l a n g u a g e s d e f i n e d b y a n y transversal line b e c o m e . A n d t h e fact that l a n g u a g e d o e s n o t b e c o m e . a n d nasals all m a k e u p families o f h o m o p h o n o u s c o n s o n a n t s w i t h i n w h i c h c h a n g e s o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n are m a d e for p r e f e r e n c e . palatals. the historical space a n d t h e g r i d o f t h o u g h t w o u l d b e e x a c t l y c o i n c i d e n t a l . f o l l o w that e l e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e entire past o f t h e l a n g u a g e . dentals. T h i s search h a d t w o aspects: d e f i n i t i o n o f the r o o t .l a n g u a g e s that C l a s s i c i s m s e e m e d . A n d thus s u p e r i m p o s e d . T h e g u i d i n g t h r e a d used for s u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w a s n o t the m a t e r i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u n d e r g o n e b y t h e w o r d . In r e a l i t y . I t w a s a n art w i t h c o d i f i e d rules [ 7 8 ] . t h e m o r e s u b t l e a n d efficacious w o u l d the w o r d s b e a s instrum e n t s f o r the analysis o f representations. T o d e f i n e the r o o t w a s t o d i s c o v e r a n e t y m o l o g y . f r o m total r e s e m b l a n c e to t h e 109 . the c o n s o n a n t s . Rather. t h e n f o l l o w i t b a c k i n t o o t h e r a n d m o r e p r i m i t i v e l a n g u a g e s . b u t . l i n g u a l s . a c c o m p l i s h e d in s u c c e s s i v e stages. T h e o n l y i n d e l i b l e c o n s t a n t g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f the r o o t t h r o u g h o u t its h i s t o r y i s the u n i t y o f m e a n i n g : the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e area that persists i n definitely. T h i s quest for the r o o t s o f l a n g u a g e m a y w e l l a p p e a r t o b e a r e t u r n t o t h e historical h y p o t h e s i s a n d t o t h e t h e o r y o f m o t h e r . a r r i v e a t a m o n o s y l l a b i c e l e m e n t . an analysis of its r o o t s d o e s n o t r e p l a c e l a n g u a g e in a h i s t o r y that is. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . A n d i t m u s t also b e a c c e p t e d that a t a n y p o i n t a l o n g this b a c k w a r d j o u r n e y the m o n o s y l l a b l e m a y c h a n g e : all the v o w e l s m a y r e p l a c e o n e a n o t h e r i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a r o o t . a t the s a m e t i m e .

w h i c h . Figures a n d w r i t i n g . a n d n e v e r stable. w h i c h f o m e n t t h e internal h i s t o r y o f l a n g u a g e s . t h e first a m o n g g r a p h i c a l l y o r i e n t e d p e o p l e s . I n fact. o r o n e o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t h a b i t u a l l y a t t e n d 110 . c a n m o v e irresistibly a w a y f r o m their o r i g i n a l signification a n d a c q u i r e either a b r o a d e r o r m o r e limited adjacent m e a n i n g ? H o w can t h e y c h a n g e n o t o n l y their forms b u t their field o f application? H o w can t h e y a c q u i r e n e w s o u n d s . t o s u c h a n e x t e n t that v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s . or w h e t h e r o n e accepts . T h e s e principles. b u t o n e o f its c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s .l i n e . a n d t h a t w h i c h analyses a n d reconstitutes their s o u n d s . fashions. o t h e r s c o n c e r n t h e area i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e a n d t h e f o r m it uses to p r e s e r v e itself coexist. T r u e w r i t i n g b e g a n w h e n t h e a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o represent. e q u i p p e d i n t h e first place w i t h a n u m b e r o f p r o b a b l y identical r o o t s . a n d also n e w c o n t e n t s . t o say n o t h i n g o f w o r d s w h o s e m e a n i n g s are lost t o us? T h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f f o r m o b e y n o rule. T h e alterations o f m e a n i n g . According to W a r b u r t o n . is at least ' p r o b a b l e ' [ 8 2 ] . if n o t a b s o l u t e l y exact. W e k n o w o f t w o b r o a d types o f w r i t i n g : t h a t w h i c h retraces t h e m e a n i n g o f w o r d s . VI DERIVATION H o w i s i t t h a t w o r d s . a n d w h i c h a r e articulated j u s t as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself is analysed. the Mexicans scarcely k n e w o f a n y o t h e r m e t h o d [ 8 5 ] . a r e m o r e o r less endless.THE ORDER OF THINGS v e r y slightest o f r e s e m b l a n c e s ' : t h e m e a n i n g o f w o r d s i s ' t h e surest s o u r c e o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t w e can consult'[80]. w h e t h e r o n e accepts t h a t t h e s e c o n d t o o k o v e r f r o m t h e first a m o n g certain peoples a s t h e result o f a v e r i t a b l e ' s t r o k e of g e n i u s ' [ 8 3 ] . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d since t h e y are so l i m i t e d as to justify an e t y m o l o g i c a l science. B e t w e e n these t w o t h e r e is a strict d i v i d i n g . it is scarcely w r i t i n g at all . h o t w e a t h e r ' g u t t u r a l a s p i r a t e s ' [ 8 1 ] . are all o f a spatial o r d e r . c l i m a t e . habits. n o l o n g e r t h e t h i n g itself.do o b e y fixed principles. S o m e c o n c e r n t h e visible r e s e m b l a n c e o r adjacency b e t w e e n t h i n g s .o r i e n t e d peoples [84].so different are t h e y f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . T o represent t h e m e a n i n g o f w o r d s g r a p h i c a l l y i s o r i g i n a l l y t o m a k e a n e x a c t d r a w i n g o f t h e t h i n g t o b e designated. t h e second a m o n g s o n g .at t h e v e r y m o s t a pictorial r e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e aid o f w h i c h o n e c a n scarcely t r a n s c r i b e a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e most concrete f o r m of narrative. h a v e f o r m e d different s o u n d s . w h i c h i n their p r i m a r y essence are n a m e s a n d designations.t h a t t h e y b o t h a p p e a r e d m o r e o r less s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . All their causes are e x t e r n a l : ease of p r o n u n c i a t i o n .c o l d w e a t h e r e n c o u r a g e s ' u n v o i c e d labials'.

T h i s is h o w superstitions arise w h e r e b y p e o p l e believe that t h e sun is a c r o c o d i l e . a l a d d e r for a siege).SPEAKING it.s o m e w h a t m o r e perfected .p o i n t s for l o n g m e t a p h o r s . T h e s e t h r e e m e t h o d s p r o d u c e d t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s : t h e curiological w r i t i n g o f t h e E g y p t i a n s . M o r e o v e r . w i t h p o e t i c p o w e r s . i n a d d i t i o n . w h i c h m a k e s use o f m o r e o r less concealed resemblances (the rising sun is expressed by t h e h e a d of a crocodile w h o s e r o u n d eyes a r e j u s t level w i t h t h e surface o f t h e w a t e r ) [86]. as w e l l as t h e illusion t h a t k n o w l e d g e consists in u n d e r s t a n d i n g resemblances.w h i c h e m p l o y s ' t h e principal c i r c u m s t a n c e of a s u b j e c t in lieu of t h e w h o l e ' (a b o w for a battle.t h e crudest of t h e t h r e e . F o r it is h a r d l y possible to achieve m u c h progress in such a l a n g u a g e . s y m b o l i c w r i t i n g . these m e t a p h o r s b e c o m e progressively m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d . T h e y b e c o m e e n d o w e d . Its signs do n o t m u l t i p l y w i t h t h e m e t i c u l o u s analysis of representations b u t w i t h t h e m o s t distant analogies. or t h a t G o d is a great e y e k e e p i n g w a t c h on t h e w o r l d . W i t h t h e result t h a t t h e o n l y in . A n d it is by f o l l o w i n g t h e n e r v u r e laid d o w n by these figures t h a t those languages paralleled w i t h a s y m b o l i c f o r m o f w r i t i n g will b e able t o e v o l v e . a n d traditions c o m p r o m i s e d . o r again s o m e o t h e r t h i n g t h a t i t resembles. catachresis. a h u m a n life-span is n o t t o o l o n g for this d o u b l e e d u c a t i o n . a n d it is h o w allegorical discourse (so frequent in t h e m o s t a n c i e n t literatures) c o m e s i n t o b e i n g . finally. t h e n w i t h w r i t t e n signs t h a t h a v e n o b e a r i n g u p o n t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of t h e w o r d s . it is also h o w esoteric f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e arise a m o n g those (the priests) w h o pass o n t h e m e t a p h o r s to their successors f r o m g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n . a n d are s o o n so far f r o m their points of o r i g i n t h a t it is difficult to recall t h e m . their p r i m a r y n o m i n a t i o n s b e c o m e t h e s t a r t i n g . their c r e d u l i t y r a t h e r t h a n science. Inversely. so that it is t h e i m a g i n a t i o n of t h e peoples using t h e m that is e n c o u r a g e d r a t h e r t h a n their p o w e r s o f reflection. W e can r e c o g n i z e h e r e t h e t h r e e g r e a t figures o f r h e t o r i c : s y n e c d o c h e . k n o w ledge necessitates t w o k i n d s of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p : first in w o r d s (as w i t h all languages). little b y little. o n e has no signs at o n e ' s disposal to h a n d it o n .p o w e r f u l h e k n o w s e v e r y t h i n g a n d sees all t h a t m e n d o : h e i s therefore represented b y a n e y e ) . t h e leisure t o m a k e s o m e discovery. I n n o v a t i o n s are t h e r e f o r e impossible. since it bears no intrinsic relation to t h e w o r d it represents. m e t o n y m y . a t r a n s m i t t e d sign always r e m a i n s d u b i o u s : f r o m o n e a g e t o t h e n e x t o n e can n e v e r b e sure that t h e s a m e s o u n d resides in t h e s a m e figure.w h i c h e m p l o y s o m e n o t a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e (since G o d i s a l l . a n d i f o n e has had. t h e n t h e ' t r o p a l ' h i e r o g l y p h i c s . B u t t h e history of a l a n g u a g e e n d o w e d w i t h a figurative w r i t i n g s o o n c o m e s to a halt.

t h e s a m e a l p h a b e t c a n b e used t o transcribe different l a n g u a g e s . or at least all history o t h e r t h a n p u r e a n d simple c o n s e r v a t i o n . inversely. t h e h i s t o r y o f m e n i s e n t i r e l y c h a n g e d . alphabetical w r i t i n g . a n d ideas can be l i n k e d t o g e t h e r a n d disjoined j u s t like t h e letters of t h e a l p h a b e t [89]. b y a b a n d o n i n g t h e a t t e m p t t o d r a w t h e r e p r e sentation. a r e valid for reason itself. o b e y s t h e confused l a w o f similit u d e s . ( since t h e y c a n b e c o m b i n e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e s a m e w a y a s ideas. a c c o r d i n g t o V o l n e y [ 8 8 ] . i n t o the general d o m a i n of analysis. W i t h alphabetic w r i t i n g . as s o o n as it is m a d e . W h e n a p e o p l e possesses n o t h i n g b u t a figurative f o r m of w r i t i n g . T h e y transcribe i n space. a n d t h u s t o c o n v e y t h e ideas o f o n e p e o p l e t o a n o t h e r . t h a t t h e essential difference b e t w e e n East a n d W e s t is situated. i n a t t e m p t i n g t o spatialize representations themselves. As t h o u g h t h e spatial a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e prescribed t h e l a w o f t i m e . a n d h a n d on e a c h n e w d i s c o v e r y . w i t h o u t fear of its b e i n g f o r g o t t e n . a n d f r o m t h o s e s o u n d s t h e y e x t r a c t t h e c o m m o n elements i n o r d e r t o f o r m a small n u m b e r o f u n i q u e signs w h o s e c o m b i n a t i o n will enable t h e m t o f o r m all possible syllables a n d w o r d s . e v e r y o n e i s able t o d e v o t e t o reflection a n d t o t h e analysis o f ideas t h e t i m e t h a t t h e h i e r o g l y p h i c peoples w a s t e d i n l e a r n i n g h o w t o w r i t e . as a t o t a l i t y . n o t their ideas b u t s o u n d s . a s t h o u g h their particular l a n g u a g e d i d n o t c o m e t o m e n via h i s t o r y . t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e p r o gress o f w r i t i n g a n d t h a t o f t h o u g h t t o p r o v i d e each o t h e r w i t h m u t u a l s u p p o r t [90].THE ORDER OF THINGS c o n c e r n of t h e learned is to m a i n t a i n 'a superstitious respect' for t h e l e a r n i n g h a n d e d d o w n b y their ancestors a n d for t h e institutions p r e s e r v i n g t h a t h e r i t a g e : ' t h e y feel that a n y c h a n g e i n m a n n e r s will b r i n g c h a n g e i n t h e l a n g u a g e . transposes i n t o its analysis of s o u n d s the rules that. i n fact. e v e n w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . Since it is v e r y easy to learn this a l p h a b e t . its politics m u s t e x c l u d e h i s t o r y . It is h e r e . a n d that a n y c h a n g e i n t h e l a n g u a g e will c o n f o u n d a n d a n n u l all their k n o w l e d g e ' [ 8 7 ] . A n d so it is w i t h i n l a n g u a g e itself. W h e r e a s s y m b o l i c w r i t i n g . w o r d s . It is in this n e x u s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . e x a c t l y in t h a t fold of w o r d s 112 . a n d i n t u r n r e p r e s e n t i n g themselves i n t i m e ) that t h e destiny of peoples is silently f o r m e d . a n d causes l a n g u a g e t o slip o u t o f the f o r m s o f reflective t h o u g h t . a n d space (the w o r d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e space o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . i n this relation o f space t o l a n g u a g e . their o n l y m e a n s of access to h i s t o r y was via t h e i r s y s t e m of signs. because of its v e r y small n u m b e r of e l e m e n t s . So t h a t it does n o t m a t t e r that letters do no t represent ideas. b u t t h a t . The disruption of the exact parallelism between representation and g r a p h i c signs m a k e s i t possible t o b r i n g l a n g u a g e . T h e s a m e g r a p h i c signs can b r e a k d o w n all n e w w o r d s .

"3 . to s o m e o t h e r . a n d t o w o r d s . c o n s i d e r e d f r o m its o r i g i n . t h e m i n d can attach itself. a n d attach a v e r b a l sign. F o r t h o u g h w r i t i n g i s i n deed t h e buttress a n d e v e r .w a t c h f u l g u a r d i a n o f these p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o r e refined analyses. a n d patterns r e p r e sentation that i t has t h e p o w e r t o link o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h i n g s t o g e t h e r across t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t i m e . I n a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . to a c i r c u m s t a n c e a t t e n d i n g it. a n d b e c a m e applicable to all t h e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s t h a t also c o n t a i n e d t h a t clem e n t : it is no l o n g e r a p a r t i c u l a r o a k t h a t is called tree. e v e r y t h i n g h a d a n a m e . T h e n t h e n a m e b e c a m e a t t a c h e d t o a single e l e m e n t o f t h e t h i n g . This latter is a slipping m o v e m e n t c o m m o n to a t t e n t i o n . absent. O r i g i n a l l y . w e r e d e v e l o p e d a l o n g t h e lines o f these t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l f i g u r e s s o w e l l k n o w n t o r h e t o r i c : s y n e c d o c h e . a n d it is to t h e d e g r e e t h a t it analyses. as defined in t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h i n g t h a t is similar to it a n d is recalled t o m e m o r y o n a c c o u n t o f i t [92]. b u t t h e p e r i o d o f darkness separating all sunsets f r o m all d a w n s . to o n e e l e m e n t of t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w h i c h enable u s t o give a single n a m e t o several t h i n g s . its c h i l d h o o d a n d its progress [ 9 1 ] . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f l a n g u a g e .SPEAKING w h e r e analysis a n d space m e e t . T h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t this i s h o w l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p e d a n d g r a d u a l l y drifted a w a y f r o m p r i m a r y designations. T h e p r o g r e s s i v e analysis and m o r e a d v a n c e d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . is n o t a m o v e m e n t w i t h i n h i s t o r y . it is n e i t h e r their p r i n c i p l e n o r e v e n their initial m o v e m e n t . In its r o o t . articulates. b u t a n y t h i n g t h a t includes at least a t r u n k a n d b r a n c h e s . like e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l . progress. n o t t h e e n d o f this particular d a y .a p r o p e r or peculiar n a m e . Finally. b u t t h e result of a f u n d a m e n t a l relation b e t w e e n space a n d l a n g u a g e : T h e a r b i t r a r y signs o f l a n g u a g e a n d w r i t i n g p r o v i d e m e n w i t h t h e m e a n s o f e n s u r i n g t h e possession o f their ideas a n d o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e m to others in the m a n n e r of an inheritance. it a t t a c h e d itself to analogies: e v e r y t h i n g w a s called a leaf that w a s as t h i n a n d flexible as t h e leaf of a t r e e [ 9 3 ] . constantly a u g m e n t e d w i t h t h e n e w discoveries o f each a g e . t h e c h a o t i c m o n o t o n y o f space i s f r a g m e n t e d . w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e diversity o f t e m p o r a l successions is unified. that t h e first b u t endless possibility o f p r o g r e s s arises. T h e n a m e also b e c a m e a t t a c h e d to a c o n s p i c u o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e : night c a m e t o designate. a n d t h e h u m a n race. L a n g u a g e gives t h e p e r p e t u a l d i s r u p t i o n o f t i m e t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f space. appears to t h e eyes of t h e p h i l o s o p h e r as an i m m e n s e w h o l e t h a t itself possesses. T h e r e r e m a i n s o n e last p r o b l e m . to signs. h o w e v e r .

w h e n w o r d s w e r e few. t h e ' p s y c h e ' . I t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t this m o b i l i t y w a s e v e n g r e a t e r i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f l a n g u a g e t h a n it is n o w : t o d a y . B u t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h u m a n h i s t o r y . b u t in a space in w h i c h t h e y a r e a b l e t o find t h e i r o r i g i n a l site. B u t this succession. w h i c h w e r e d o u b t l e s s c o m m o n t o t h e m all o w i n g t o t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f h u m a n n a t u r e . O n e m i g h t e v e n s a y t h a t w o r d s w e r e figurative b e f o r e b e i n g p r o p e r : i n o t h e r w o r d s . u p o n s o m e adjacent p o i n t . w a s initially g i v e n t h e figurative f o r m of the m o t h [96]. a n d p e r i o d s o f o b l i v i o n . w h i c h analyses disc o n t i n u o u s e l e m e n t s a n d b r i n g s t h e m i n t o v i e w o n e after t h e o t h e r . S o t h a t l a n g u a g e m e r e l y a r r a n g e s i n t o a linear o r d e r t h e scattered f r a g m e n t s 114 . c h a n g e t h e i r positions. A n d i f l a n g u a g e s possess t h e d i v e r s i t y w e o b s e r v e i n t h e m . i f f r o m . u p o n s o m e a n a l o g o u s figure. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . u p o n s o m e internal e l e m e n t . a n d s l o w l y u n f o l d a w h o l e d e v e l o p i n g c u r v e : a topological space. i f t h e a n a l o g y i s less i m m e diately p e r c e p t i b l e ) . i f t h e y h a v e all h a d t h e i r o w n h i s t o r y . t h e r e l a tions o f c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d s u b o r d i n a t i o n are s o f i r m l y established. c u s t o m s . a n d catachresis (or m e t a p h o r . t h e y h a v e n o t ceased t o d e v e l o p a c c o r d i n g t o t h e dictates o f differing f o r m s .THE ORDER OF THINGS m e t o n y m y . t h a t w o r d s scarcely h a v e a n y o p p o r t u n i t y t o m o v e f r o m t h e i r places. L a n g u a g e w a s o f all signs t h e o n e h a v i n g t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g s e q u e n t i a l : n o t because i t w a s itself p a r t o f a c h r o n o l o g y . n o t in time. A n d i n this w a y o n e r e t u r n s o n c e m o r e t o w h a t h a d served a s a s t a r t i n g . t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f their p r i m i t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n s . t h e y r e v e a l t h e m o b i l i t y peculiar t o all l a n g u a g e w h e n e v e r i t i s s p o n t a n e o u s : ' L a H a l l e p r o d u c e s m o r e figures o f speech i n o n e m a r k e t d a y t h a n o u r a c a d e m i c assemblies d o i n a w e e k ' [ 9 4 ] . B o a t s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e i r sails. a n d t h e s o u l . fashions. this i s because w o r d s h a v e t h e i r locus. t h e g r i d so fine. A s R o u s s e a u says. S o t h a t a t t h e base o f s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . traverses t h e space offered b y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e m i n d ' s e y e . t h e analysis is so detailed. w h a t w e disc o v e r i s t h e r h e t o r i c a l d i m e n s i o n o f w o r d s : t h a t f r e e d o m o f t h e sign t o alight. F o r these t h i n g s a r e n o t t h e effect o f a r e f i n e m e n t o f style. a s w i t h w r i t i n g .p o i n t for reflection u p o n l a n g u a g e . t h a t t h e y h a d scarcely attained t h e i r status a s p a r t i c u l a r n a m e s b e f o r e t h e y w e r e b e i n g scattered o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s b y t h e f o r c e o f s p o n t a n e o u s r h e t o r i c . w h e n t h e passions b o t h m o d i f i e d t h e m a n d p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h a basis. w e p r o b a b l y talked a b o u t giants b e f o r e d e s i g n a t i n g m e n [ 9 5 ] . w h e n r e p r e sentations w e r e still c o n f u s e d a n d n o t w e l l analysed. b u t b e c a u s e i t d r e w o u t i n t o sequential s o u n d s t h e s i m u l t a n e i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w o r d s h a d g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y . o n t h e c o n t r a r y . t u r n b a c k u p o n t h e m s e l v e s .

t h e figures w o u l d h a v e r e m a i n e d m u t e a n d m o m e n t a r y . as it w e r e . t h e s e g m e n t s of a quadrilateral. it fills that form. t h a t t h e w h o l e W e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e f o u n d e r e d . First o f all. T h e t h e o r y o f d e r i v a t i o n indicates t h e c o n t i n u o u s m o v e m e n t o f w o r d s f r o m t h e i r source o f o r i g i n . of d e s i g n a t i o n . b e t w e e n t h e o p p o s i n g c o r n e r s o f this r e c t a n g l e . a n d of d e r i v a t i o n . as a n o m i n a t i o n t h a t differentiates t h i n g s is in o p p o s i t i o n to t h e p r e dication t h a t links t h e m t o g e t h e r . It s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e also exist d i a g o n a l relations.t h e e x p e r i e n c e t h a t h a d a l w a y s led m e n to believe. T h e t h e o r y o f d e s i g n a t i o n reveals t h e p o i n t o f a t t a c h m e n t o f all t h e n o m i n a l f o r m s c u t o u t b y a r t i c u l a t i o n . a n d since t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n p e r c e i v e d o n l y i n t h e incandescence o f t h e instant. Finally. yet is in opposition to it. d e r i v a t i o n leads b a c k t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . T h e four theories . gestural. t h a t language spoke. W i t h o u t this t r o p o l o g i c a l space. t h e y w o u l d h a v e fallen f o r t h w i t h i n t o a darkness in w h i c h t h e r e is n o t e v e n a n y time. T h e p r o p o s i t i o n unfolds a n d m a k e s a u d i b l e t h e f i g u r e t h a t r h e t o r i c m a k e s visible. I t w a s u p o n this p o i n t . VII THE Q U A D R I L A T E R A L OF L A N G U A G E A f e w c o n c l u d i n g r e m a r k s . b u t t h e slipping t h a t occurs o n t h e surface of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n is in o p p o s i t i o n to t h e single stable b o n d t h a t links o n e r o o t t o o n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .is m e r e l y a detailed c o m m e n t a r y u p o n t h e simple p h r a s e : ' l a n g u a g e analyses'. since w i t h o u t i t all d e s i g n a t i o n w o u l d r e m a i n folded i n o n itself a n d c o u l d n e v e r a c q u i r e t h e g e n e r a l i t y t h a t a l o n e can a u t h o r i z e a p r e d i c a t i n g l i n k . p e r p e n d i c u l a r d e s i g n a t i o n is in o p p o s i t i o n to p a t t e r n s based on g e n e r a l i ties. u n t i l t h e n . A r t i c u l a t i o n gives c o n t e n t t o t h e p u r e a n d still e m p t y verbal form of the proposition. b e t w e e n articulation a n d d e r i v a t i o n : if t h e existence of an articulated l a n g u a g e is 115 . l a n g u a g e w o u l d n o t b e f o r m e d o f all t h o s e c o m m o n n a m e s t h a t m a k e i t possible t o e s t a b lish a p r e d i c a t i v e r e l a t i o n . b u t t h e y are in o p p o s i t i o n to articulation. o f articulation. A n d w i t h o u t this analysis o f t h e w o r d s .SPEAKING represented. w h e r e a s t h e p r o p o s i t i o n unfolds in o b e d i e n c e to a sequential a n d linear order. as it w e r e . F r o m t h e t h e o r y o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t o t h a t o f d e r i v a t i o n . j u s t as t h e instantaneous.o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . y e t d e r i v a t i o n is created by m e a n s of a spatial figure.f o r m . T h e y c o n f r o n t each o t h e r in pairs a n d reinforce each o t h e r i n pairs. i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . all Classical reflection upon l a n g u a g e .all t h a t w a s called ' g e n e r a l g r a m m a r ' .

starting f r o m their original values and f r o m t h e s i m p l e act of designation t h a t w a s their basis . a s a n e l e m e n t ( w i t h its p o w e r t o make combinations and break t h e m d o w n ) . o n t h e f o r m e r . since it is by n o m i n a t i o n t h a t representations a r e e n a b l e d to e n t e r as figures i n t o a p r o p o s i t i o n . but that they always n a m e s o m e t h i n g r e p r e s e n t e d . To n a m e is at t h e s a m e t i m e to g i v e t h e v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . B u t i f all n a m e s w e r e exact. t h e w o r d functions as a substitute ( w i t h its p o w e r t o r e p r e s e n t ) . T h e o t h e r d i a g o n a l r u n s f r o m t h e p r o p o s i t i o n b a c k t o t h e o r i g i n . i f t h e l a n g u a g e i n q u e s t i o n h a d b e e n ' w e l l m a d e ' . w i t h w o r d s i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n . w h e r e t h e substitute has t h e p o w e r o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d w h e r e . a n d e r r o r . t h e n it is so o n l y in so far as t h e w o r d s of that l a n g u a g e . in c o n s e q u e n c e . i f t h e analysis u p o n w h i c h t h e y are based h a d been perfectly t h o u g h t o u t . t h e r e resides t h e possibility a n d t h e pVrYciple of a general t a x o n o m y of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . s h o u l d it o c c u r . T h e first d i a g o n a l m a r k s t h e progress o f a l a n g u a g e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f its specification. and all t h e slight shifts caused by d e r i v a t i o n . h e n c e a n axis t h a t cuts across t h e w h o l e quadrilateral o f l a n g u a g e . t h e s e c o n d t h e e n d less i n t e r l e a v i n g of l a n g u a g e a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . such a r e a d i n g defines b o t h its historical p o s t u r e a n d its p o w e r o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . h a v e 116 . w h e r e t h e d u p l i c a t i n g process of representation. i n t e r l o c k i n g . i t i s a l o n g this axis t h a t t h e relation o f w o r d s t o w h a t t h e y represent is established: h e r e it b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t that w o r d s n e v e r speak anything other than the being of representation. is revealed a s analysis.h a v e n e v e r ceased to m o v e further a n d further a w a y . t h e r e w o u l d b e n o difficulty in p r o n o u n c i n g t r u e j u d g e m e n t s . a n d to place it in a general table. B u t t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n of analysis. On this latter line. T h e entire Classical t h e o r y of l a n g u a g e is o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d this central a n d p r i v i l e g e d e n t i t y . there is t h e name. It is therefore also t h r o u g h n o m i n a t i o n that discourse i s articulated u p o n k n o w l e d g e .t h e d u p l i c a t i n g process w h i c h is t h e reason w h y t h e v e r b a l sign is always r e p r e s e n t i n g a r e p r e sentation. o r a r r a n g i n g t h e m selves in relation to o n e a n o t h e r .THE ORDER OF THINGS possible. by a process of d e r i v a t i o n . o f course. O n l y t h e j u d g e m e n t . a n d it is a l o n g this line that t h e state of a l a n g u a g e is m a r k e d off: its articulative capacities are d e t e r m i n e d by t h e distance it has m o v e d a l o n g t h e line of d e r i v a t i o n . A t t h e p o i n t w h e r e these t w o diagonals intersect. f r o m t h e affirmation a t t h e h e a r t o f e v e r y act o f j u d g e m e n t t o t h e designation i m p l i e d b y a n y act o f n o m i n a t i o n . c a n b e t r u e o r false. w o u l d be as easy to u n c o v e r a n d as e v i d e n t as in a calculation in algebra. that is. All t h e v a r i o u s functions o f l a n g u a g e intersect w i t h i n it. a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e q u a n d r i l a t e r a l . thus a c q u i r i n g a variable e x t e n s i o n .

T h i s is w h y . t h e great Utopia o f a perfectly t r a n s p a r e n t l a n g u a g e in w h i c h t h i n g s themselves c o u l d be n a m e d w i t h o u t a n y p e n u m b r a o f confusion. B u t o n c e that n a m e has b e e n s p o k e n . i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e quadrilateral o f l a n g u a g e . o r 117 .o u t system (artificial l a n g u a g e ) . a n d w h i c h m a k e s i t possible t o g i v e t h e m a n a m e . that is. is r e a b s o r b e d i n t o it a n d disappears. I t c o n t i n u e s o n its w a y i n t h e p e r p e t u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d suspension o f t h e N a m e . T h e r e w o u l d be no d i s a d v a n t a g e in this (any m o r e t h a n i n g i v i n g n a m e s t o fabulous m o n s t e r s ) i f w o r d s did n o t posit themselves a s b e i n g representations o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : w i t h t h e result t h a t w e c a n n o t t h i n k o f a w o r d . a n o m i n a l i s m t h a t is inseparable f r o m a critique of l a n g u a g e a n d f r o m all t h a t mistrust w i t h r e g a r d t o general a n d abstract w o r d s t h a t w e f i n d i n M a l e b r a n c h e . abstractions.SPEAKING caused n a m e s t o b e a t t a c h e d t o analyses. a n d r e m o u l d i n g t h e m i n t o t h e i r representative function. w i t h all t h e space that s u r r o u n d s t h e n a m e . t o m o v e . general. or by a l a n g u a g e so n a t u r a l t h a t it w o u l d translate t h o u g h t like a face expressing a passion (it w a s this l a n g u a g e o f i m m e d i a t e sign that Rousseau d r e a m e d o f i n t h e f i r s t of his Dialogues). t h e f u n d a m e n t a l n o m i n a l i s m o f p h i l o s o p h y f r o m H o b b e s t o I d e o l o g y . all t h e l a n g u a g e that has led u p t o it. t h e p u r e i n t e r n a l result of all its c o n v e n t i o n s . a n d as t h e p o i n t f r o m w h i c h all l a n g u a g e in general can e n t e r i n t o a relation w i t h t h e t r u t h a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h i t will b e j u d g e d . rules. pushes t h e b o u n d a r y further a w a y . t h e n a m e appears b o t h a s t h e p o i n t u p o n w h i c h all t h e structures o f a l a n g u a g e c o n v e r g e (for t h e n a m e is its m o s t secret. e m p l o y i n g t h e m . b u t . T h i s i s t h e n e x u s o f t h e e n t i r e Classical experience o f l a n g u a g e : t h e reversible character of g r a m m a t i c a l analysis. T h i s is w h y . a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s t h a t are in fact illegitimate. So t h a t Classical discourse. in its v e r y possibility. i n s u r v i v i n g it. t o w a r d s t h e place w h e r e t h i n g s a n d w o r d s are c o n j o i n e d i n their c o m m o n essence. w h i c h is at o n e and t h e s a m e t i m e science a n d prescription. causes it to oscillate a r o u n d w h a t i t represents. it is n o t a m a t t e r of p l a y i n g w i t h l a n g u a g e . a s t u d y of w o r d s a n d a rule for c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e m .h o w e v e r abstract. a n d e m p t y i t m a y be . in its p r o f o u n d essence. to speak or to w r i t e is n o t to say t h i n g s or to express oneself. a n d h i s t o r y ) . o r t h e adjacency. o r that has b e e n crossed in o r d e r to r e a c h it. cither b y a totally a r b i t r a r y b u t precisely t h o u g h t . t e n d s a l w a y s t o w a r d s this b o u n d a r y . m o s t closely g u a r d e d figure. it is to m a k e o n e ' s w a y t o w a r d s t h e s o v e r e i g n act o f n o m i n a t i o n . a n d reveals t h e elements. t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e . B e r k e l e y . O n e m i g h t say that it is t h e N a m e t h a t organizes all Classical discourse.w i t h o u t affirming t h e possibility of w h a t it represents. a n d H u m e . C o n d i l l a c . it is l i n k e d w i t h r h e t o r i c .

a n intolerable o n e . a n d t h e r e b y kills. I n fact all Classicism t e n d e d t o w a r d s this e n d : H u g o w a s t h e fulfilment o f V o i t u r e ' s p r o m i s e . It is this striving m o v e m e n t t h a t carried t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e o n w a r d s f r o m t h e restrained confession o f L a Princesse de Cleves to t h e i m m e d i a t e v i o l e n c e of Juliette. l a n g u a g e e m e r g e s in all its b r u t e b e i n g as a t h i n g .a n d t h e s a m e n a m e s .a t w h i c h t h e n a m e w a s a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e fulfilment a n d t h e substance o f l a n g u a g e . T h e figures t h r o u g h w h i c h discourse passes act as a d e t e r r e n t to t h e n a m e . those impressions b o r n a t t h e frontier o f t h i n g s a n d t h e b o d y for w h i c h t h e l a n g u a g e of t h e Cinquieme Reverie m a d e itself s p o n t a n e o u s l y t r a n s p a r e n t . b y this v e r y fact.d i s c u r s i v e discourse 118 . i t b e c o m e s instead its enigmatic material. collapse a n d b e c o m e t h e endless figures of desire . passing f r o m t h e task o f n a m i n g t h e s a m e t h i n g y e t again b y m e a n s o f n e w figures ( w h i c h i s preciosity) t o t h a t o f f i n d i n g w o r d s that will a t last n a m e accurately that w h i c h has n e v e r b e e n n a m e d before o r t h a t w h i c h has r e m a i n e d d o r m a n t i n t h e e n v e l o p i n g folds o f w o r d s t o o far r e m o v e d f r o m it: o f this latter k i n d are t h o s e secrets o f t h e soul. o f w h i c h i t w a s a t o n c e t h e place o f o c c u r r e n c e . w a s w h e n . T h e n a m e i s t h e end o f discourse. for l o n g b u r i e d i n s e c r e c y . A n d possibly all Classical literature resides in this space. All Classical literature resides i n t h e m o v e m e n t t h a t p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e figure o f t h e n a m e t o t h e n a m e itself. t h e satisfaction. Later. in this striving to reach a n a m e that r e m a i n s a l w a y s f o r m i d a b l e because it exhausts. a n d ceasing t o f o r m a r o u n d i t a n accessory circle o f o r n a m e n t s . n o m i n a t i o n is at last p o s i t e d in its starkest n u d i t y . escaping f r o m t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e n a m e . H e n c e t h e fact t h a t Sade's w o r k s p l a y t h e r o l e o f a n incessant p r i m o r d i a l m u r m u r i n o u r c u l t u r e . W i t h this v i o l e n c e o f t h e n a m e b e i n g u t t e r e d a t last for its o w n sake. a n d t h e rhetorical figures. t h e possibility of speech. R o m a n t i c i s m w a s t o believe that i t h a d b r o k e n w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s a g e because i t h a d learned t o n a m e t h i n g s b y their n a m e . In t h e latter. T h e o n l y m o m e n t . w h i c h u n t i l t h e n h a d b e e n h o l d i n g i t i n suspense. B u t . i n m a k i n g i t s h o w w h a t it does n o t say. e x h a u s t themselves in t h e i r effort to cross those figures. t h e n a m e ceases t o b e t h e r e w a r d o f l a n g u a g e . A n d since t h e r e i s n o l o n g e r a n y particular b e a u t y i n ' r e t a i n i n g ' l a n g u a g e a r o u n d t h e frontiers o f t h e n a m e . t h e result will be a n o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e analogies o f w h a t i t n a m e s . w h i c h t h e n arrives at t h e last m o m e n t t o fulfil a n d abolish t h e m . c o n s t a n d y r e p e a t e d . a n d t h e p e r p e t u a l r e c u r r e n c e . t h e o t h e r 'parts o f o r a t i o n ' assume i n t u r n their a u t o n o m y . w i t h Sade. w i t h o u t ever b e i n g able t o reach t h e i r e n d . its p r o m i s e a n d its r a w material. i t w a s traversed t h r o u g h o u t its w h o l e expanse b y desire.

T h i s is w h y o u r r e c t a n g l e defines a p e r i p h e r y r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i d e s a n i n t e r i o r figure. t h e r e m u s t b e a m u r m u r o f analogies rising f r o m things. b u t a collection o f signs like a n y o t h e r s . designation. t h e r e m u s t b e resemblances t h a t posit themselves f r o m t h e v e r y start. W e h a v e seen t h a t l a n g u a g e existed o n l y b y v i r t u e o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n : w i t h o u t at least t h e i m p l i c i t presence of t h e v e r b to be. n o r . B u t t h e o t h e r t h r e e theoretical s e g m e n t s enclose a q u i t e different r e q u i r e m e n t : if it is to be possible to d e r i v e w o r d s f r o m their first source. o r t o establish t h e general o u t line o f w h a t m e n m i g h t h a v e t h o u g h t a b o u t l a n g u a g e a t t h a t t i m e . N e i t h e r m e m o r y n o r i m a g i n a t i o n . A r o u n d t h e p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d b y t h e n a m e i n t h e Classical p e r i o d . a n d o f t h e p r e d i c a t i v e relation for w h i c h i t p r o v i d e s a u t h o r i t y . t h e r e f o r e . reflection.w h a t e v e r t h e o p i n i o n s m a y h a v e b e e n . t o t h e b e i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .to exist at all. N o t t o calculate t h e c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r o f m e n ' s o p i n i o n s . a n d d e r i v a t i o n ) c o n s t i t u t e t h e frontiers o f w h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l a n g u a g e w a s a t t h a t t i m e . a n d to establish a c o m m o n n a m e 119 . T h e intention was to determine in w h a t conditions language could become the object o f a p e r i o d ' s k n o w l e d g e . b u t t o define w h a t m a d e i t possible for o p i n i o n s a b o u t l a n g u a g e . T h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l f o r m posits a s a c o n d i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e t h e affirmation of a relation of i d e n t i t y or difference: we c a n speak o n l y in so far as this relation is possible. articulation. t h e theoretical s e g m e n t s ( p r o p o s i t i o n . to define their identical characteristics.b y . A n d t h e discourse t h a t contains this b e i n g a n d frees it for its o w n sake is literature. A n d i t w o u l d b e impossible t o c o m p a r e t h i n g s w i t h each o t h e r . discreetly b u t c o n t i n u o u s l y . as o p p o s e d to t h e Classical ' v e r b ' . perceptible e v e n i n t h e m o s t i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e . O u r s t e p . t h o u g h t w o u l d b e d o o m e d t o singularity. if t h e r e is to be an articulated p a t t e r n ing o f representations. a n d i t s h o w s h o w l a n g u a g e i n t e r t w i n e s w i t h w h a t i s e x t e r i o r a n d indispensable t o it. a n d b e t w e e n w h a t limits this e p i s t e m o logical d o m a i n d e v e l o p e d . This p r o p e r b e i n g o f l a n g u a g e i s w h a t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s t o call t h e W o r d (le Verbe). i t w o u l d n o t b e l a n g u a g e t h a t w e w e r e d e a l i n g w i t h a t all. I f e v e r y t h i n g w e r e absolute diversity. i t w o u l d b e d o o m e d also t o absolute dispersion a n d absolute m o n o t o n y . w o u l d b e possible.s t e p analysis o f these s e g m e n t s w a s n o t u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a history o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries.SPEAKING w h o s e r o l e will b e t o manifest l a n g u a g e i n its b r u t e b e i n g . if an original k i n s h i p is to be a l r e a d y in existence b e t w e e n a r o o t a n d its signification. a n d like Condillac's statue before i t b e g a n t o r e m e m b e r a n d m a k e c o m p a r i s o n s . w h o s e function is to p i n l a n g u a g e .

r e d u c e d t o o r d e r .THE ORDER OF THINGS for t h e m . it is because b e l o w t h e level of identities a n d differences t h e r e is t h e f o u n d a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y continuities. 120 . b u t w i t h o u t it it c o u l d n o t speak. t h r o u g h t h e play o f a n articulated designation. If l a n g u a g e exists. a n d n a t u r a l criss-crossings. a s y s t e m of identities a n d differences as based u p o n t h e v e r b to be a n d manifested by t h e n e t w o r k of names. T h e f u n d a m e n t a l task of Classical 'discourse' is to ascribe a name to things. W h e n i t n a m e d t h e b e i n g o f all r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n general. i t w a s p h i l o s o p h y : t h e o r y o f k n o w l e d g e a n d analysis o f ideas. It is this u n i t y that. t h a t is. F o r t w o centuries. Discourse dissipates the m u r m u r . W e s t e r n discourse w a s t h e locus o f o n t o l o g y .m a d e l a n g u a g e across t h e w h o l e field of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . e x c l u d e d f r o m k n o w l e d g e since t h e early s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . still constitutes t h e o u t e r e d g e o f l a n g u a g e : t h e r i n g s u r r o u n d i n g t h e d o m a i n o f t h a t w h i c h can b e analysed. enables r e s e m b l a n c e t o e n t e r t h e p r o positional relation. and in that name to name their being. a n d laid o u t t h e grid of a w e l l . resemblances. T h e r e w o u l d be no l a n g u a g e . W h e n i t ascribed t o each t h i n g represented t h e n a m e t h a t w a s fitted t o it. R e s e m b l a n c e . a n d k n o w n . t h e n it w a s science . repetitions.n o m e n c l a t u r e a n d t a x o n o m y . I t i s n o w possible t o g r a s p h o w solid a n d t i g h t l y k n i t t h e u n i t y o f l a n g u a g e is in t h e Classical experience.

t h e Physiocrats' beliefs w e r e e v i d e n c e of this.w a y between h u s b a n d r y a n d t h e o r y .t h a t o f T o u r n e f o r t t o t h e Middle East. o b s e r v a t i o n s . b y m e a n s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d t h e o r y . a curiosity w i t h r e g a r d to e x o t i c plants and animals. t h e historians tell us. w h i c h p r o v i d e d a m o d e l of r a t i o n a l i t y . w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y p r o v e d a n obstacle. O n t h e side o f origins o r m o t i v e s . w e place t h e n e w privileges a c c o r d e d t o o b s e r v a t i o n : t h e p o w e r s a t t r i b u t e d t o i t since B a c o n a n d t h e technical improvements introduced in it by the invention of the microscope. as a sort of i n s t r u m e n t of transference. at least to g i v e t h e m a h i t h e r t o unsuspected scope a n d precision. A certain n u m b e r of causes a n d several essential manifestations a r e traditionally a t t r i b u t e d t o this p h e n o m e n o n . a n d in a s o m e w h a t pell-mell fashion. the laws t h a t m i g h t g o v e r n t h e m o r e c o m p l e x b u t adjacent r e a l m o f living beings? Cartesian m e c h a n i s m . Alongside these is set t h e t h e n recently attained prestige of t h e physical sciences. w h i c h a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e t o acclimatize. for e x a m p l e . t h e historians of ideas place a v a r i e t y of n e w interests: t h e e c o n o m i c a t t i t u d e towards a g r i c u l t u r e .CHAPTER 5 Classifying I W H A T THE HISTORIANS SAY Histories of ideas or of t h e sciences . w a s i t n o t n o r m a l t o seek. w i t h a n e w curiosity: t h e curiosity that caused t h e m . o r calculations. a n d o f w h i c h t h e great v o y a g e s o f i n q u i r y o r e x p l o r a t i o n . t o analyse t h e l a w s o f m o v e m e n t o r those g o v e r n i n g t h e reflection o f light b e a m s . i f n o t t o discover t h e sciences of life.by w h i c h is m e a n t h e r e an a v e r a g e cross-section of t h e m .credit t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . r a t h e r in spite of itself. h a l f . w a s used at first.b r o u g h t b a c k 125 . since it h a d p r o v e d p o s sible. Still on t h e side of causes. a n d especially t h e eighteenth. b y m e a n s o f e x p e r i m e n t s . t h e n . b u t s o t o o w e r e t h e f i r s t efforts t o create a n a g r o n o m y . or that of A d a n s o n to Senegal . f r o m m e c h a n i c a l rationality t o the discovery o f that o t h e r rationality w h i c h i s t h a t o f t h e living b e i n g . a n d led.

f i n a l l y c o a l e s c i n g to f o r m a u n i t a r y d o c t r i n e . T h e y also r e c o g n i z e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n a science still t o o a t t a c h e d t o t h e o l d p r e . and by Diderot t h e n B i c h a t i n Paris. a n d t h e n . t h e y w e r e m e c h a n i s t i c t o b e g i n w i t h . o f a n opposition b e t w e e n those w h o believe i n the i m m o b i l i t y 126 .o n e ' i n v e s t e d ' m o n e y a n d f e e l i n g i n t o a l a n d that earlier p e r i o d s h a d f o r s o l o n g left f a l l o w . h o l d i n g that all o f n a t u r e c a n b e a c c o m m o d a t e d w i t h i n a t a x o n o m y . t h e n t h e first efforts o f a n infant c h e m i s t r y m a d e its i m p r i n t u p o n t h e m . a n d o p t i c s . A p p a r e n t l y . a s w e l l a s t h e i r r e a s o n i n g . t h e historians t h e n i n c l u d e the v a r i e d f o r m s that w e r e t a k e n b y these n e w sciences o f life. b u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e vitalist t h e m e s a r e t h o u g h t t o h a v e attained o r r e t u r n e d t o their p r i v i l e g e d status. l i k e L i n n a e u s . B y these m e a n s t h e y b e l i e v e that t h e y c a n d i s c o v e r the traces o f a m a j o r c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n a t h e o l o g y that sees the p r o v i d e n c e o f G o d a n d t h e s i m p l i c i t y . by B l u m e n b a c h in G e r m a n y . h o l d i n g that it is t o o rich and various t o b e fitted w i t h i n s o r i g i d a f r a m e w o r k . a n d t h e 'spirit'. m e c h a n i c s . others.e m i n e n c e o f a s t r o n o m y . t h e e t h i c a l valorization o f nature. t h a t d i r e c t e d t h e m . a n d a n o t h e r science t h a t a l r e a d y suspects all t h e i r r e d u c i b l e a n d specific c o n t e n t s t h e r e m a y b e i n the r e a l m s o f life. a s t h e y p u t it. t h e historians see t h e e m e r g e n c e .w h e t h e r o n e w a s a n aristocrat or a b o u r g e o i s . t h e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s . a b o v e all. h k e Buffon. a m b i g u o u s i n its p r i n c i p l e . i t i s s i m p l e e n o u g h for t h e historians t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e g r e a t c o n t r o v e r s i e s that are said t o h a v e d i v i d e d m e n ' s o p i n i o n s a n d passions. together w i t h the whole o f that movement. a s t h o u g h b e f o r e their v e r y eyes. sensation. I n their list o f m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . a n d f o r e s i g h t o f his w a y s r e s i d i n g b e n e a t h e a c h f o r m a n d in all its m o v e m e n t s . m y s t e r y . t o w a r d s the e n d o f the century. q u e s t i o n s w e r e a s k e d that w e r e a l m o s t a l w a y s t h e s a m e b u t w e r e g i v e n e a c h t i m e a different s o l u t i o n : t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c l a s s i f y i n g l i v i n g b e i n g s .s o m e . b y m e a n s o f w h i c h .THE ORDER OF THINGS d e s c r i p t i o n s . a n d c o n t i n u e d t o b e s o t o the e n d o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w i t h the m o r e mechanistically m i n d e d in favour of preformation. e n g r a v i n g s .that ' v i t a l i s m ' w h i c h i n s l i g h t l y differing f o r m s w a s p r o f e s s e d b y B o r d e u a n d Barthez in Montpellier. and others b e l i e v i n g i n t h e specific d e v e l o p m e n t o f g e r m s . w a s a student o f b o t a n y . U n d e r these different t h e o r e t i c a l r e g i m e n s . a n d s p e c i m e n s . a n d . R o u s s e a u . m o t i v i t y . a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . L a s t l y . a n d a science that is a l r e a d y a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e t h e a u t o n o m y o f n a t u r e . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g these p r o b l e m s a n d the discussions t h e y g i v e rise t o . u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f D e s cartes. analysis o f f u n c t i o n s ( c i r c u l a t i o n after H a r v e y . respiration).

irreligion a n d a w h o l e confused i n t u i t i o n of life. L o n g before D a r w i n a n d l o n g before L a m a r c k . t h e m o s t i m p o r tant of all these refers to life. a n d o f t h a t m o v e m e n t b y m e a n s o f w h i c h it envelops all its p r o d u c t i o n s . a r e said to be d r a w i n g it t o w a r d s its i m m i n e n t future . conflicting in t u r n (as in B o n n e t ) or acting as accomplices (as w i t h D i d e r o t ) . b u t t h e y d o n o t realize t h a t b i o l o g y d i d n o t exist t h e n . a n d a b o v e all Linnaeus . a n d t h a t s o m e w h a t s u b t e r r a n e a n w a r m t h w h i c h circulates b e t w e e n t h e m . A n d that. w h o are h e r e t o k n o w t h e m . in a t i m e of w h i c h no o n e i s m a s t e r .t h e object o f o u r k n o w l e d g e . ourselves i n c l u d e d .a n d us.a n d those w h o . a n d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t has b e e n familiar t o us for a h u n d r e d a n d fifty years is n o t valid for a p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . o p p o s i t e t h e m . w h i c h is supposed t o h a v e p r o v i d e d t h e still o b s c u r e a n d fettered e n d e a v o u r s o f the e i g h t e e n t h w i t h their positive a n d rational fulfilment in a science of life w h i c h did n o t n e e d to sacrifice rationality in o r d e r to preserve in t h e v e r y quick o f its consciousness t h e specificity o f living things.t o w a r d s t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t e n d e d to k e e p t h e Classical age as close as possible to its o r i g i n . of its inexhaustible p o w e r of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Historians w a n t to w r i t e histories of b i o l o g y i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e w e i g h t o f Cartesianism. a n d D i d e r o t . w h e r e a s . a n d a b o v e all t h e application o f categories t h a t are strictly anachronistic i n relation t o this k n o w l e d g e . t h e r e w a s a v e r y simple reason for it: t h a t 127 .CLASSIFYING of n a t u r e . t h e g r e a t d e b a t e o n e v o l u t i o n w o u l d a p p e a r t o h a v e been o p e n e d b y t h e Telliamed. M e c h a n i s m a n d t h e o l o g y .in t h e m a n n e r of T o u r n e f o r t . t h e n o t i o n o f o r g a n i s m ) . t h e specificity o f life.t h e first b e i n g defined b y w h a t w a s k n o w n a l r e a d y and f r o m e l s e w h e r e (the Aristotelian o r scholastic i n h e r i t a n c e .on t h e side o f Descartes a n d M a l e b r a n c h e . if b i o l o g y w a s u n k n o w n . s u p p o r t i n g o n e a n o t h e r o r ceaselessly conflicting w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . O b v i o u s l y . t h e prestige o f N e w t o n ) . I t w o u l d b e pointless t o g o back o v e r t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n such a m e t h o d . t h e second b y w h a t still r e m a i n e d t o b e k n o w n (evolution. t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o d i v i d e k n o w l e d g e i n t o t w o i n t e r w o v e n fabrics w h e n i n fact t h e y w e r e alien t o o n e a n o t h e r . o r b e t w e e n t h e experimentalists a n d t h e partisans o f t h e system. t h e Palingenesie a n d t h e Rive de d'Alembert. t h e necessity of r e c o r d i n g as o b s e r v e d facts t h e c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n those w h o w e r e fixists a n d those w h o w e r e n o t . Let it suffice h e r e to p o i n t o u t its consequences: t h e difficulty o f a p p r e h e n d i n g t h e n e t w o r k t h a t i s able t o link t o g e t h e r such diverse investigations as a t t e m p t s to establish a t a x o n o m y a n d m i c r o scopic o b s e r v a t i o n s . w i t h B o n n e t . already h a v e a p r e s e n t i m e n t of life's creative p o w e r s . B e n o i t d e Maillet. o f its plasticity.

128 of course. t h e possibility of n a t u r a l history. a n d y e t s o far r e m o v e d f r o m itself t h a t t h e y h a d t o b e s o b y t h e m e d i u m o f analysis a n d reflection? O n e has t h e i m p r e s s i o n . o r e v e n f r o m s o m e obstacle a n o t h e r has e n c o u n t e r e d . o r e x p l a i n i n g it.for H i s t o r y t o b e c o m e N a t u r a l . it w a s necessary . In fact. all that existed w a s histories: B e l o n h a d w r i t t e n a History of the nature of birds. o r f r o m a n o t h e r ' s failure. All that existed was l i v i n g beings. is contemporaneous with C a r t e s i a n i s m itself. II NATURAL HISTORY H o w w a s t h e Classical age able t o define this r e a l m o f ' n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ' .t h a t t h e h i s t o r y of n a t u r e m u s t h a v e a p p e a r e d a s Cartesian m e c h a n i s m e b b e d .t h o u g h it w o u l d be a m a t t e r r e q u i r i n g careful scrutiny . A l d r o v a n d i . Christophorus Knauth.a n d it is often expressed . F o r n a t u r a l h i s t o r y t o a p p e a r . . It is q u i t e possible . it is there o n l y to s y m b o l i z e a l a n d m a r k .THE ORDER OF THINGS life itself d i d n o t exist. b u t n o science can b e g e n e r a t e d b y t h e absence o f a n o t h e r . t h i n g s do n o t h a p p e n as s i m p l y as that. a n d r i g h t u p t o the m i d d l e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h . a History of serpents and dragons. w h i c h w e r e v i e w e d t h r o u g h a g r i d of k n o w l e d g e c o n s t i t u t e d by natural history. absolutely definitive[1]. a n d n o t w i t h its failure. w h e n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e v e g e t a b l e and a n i m a l k i n g d o m s h a d sufficiently resisted t h e simple f o r m s o f e x t e n d e d substance. w i t h o u t a n y possibility o f m e a s u r i n g it. i t w a s n o t necessary for n a t u r e t o b e c o m e denser a n d m o r e o b s c u r e . I n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . with Ray. Mechanism f r o m Descartes to d'Alembert and natural history from Tournefort to D a u b e n t o n were a u t h o r i z e d by t h e s a m e episteme. a n d as t h o u g h already b l u r r e d ? W h a t is this field in w h i c h n a t u r e a p p e a r e d sufficiently close to itself for t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g s it c o n t a i n e d to be classified. a n d to indicate. T h i s d a t e of b i r t h is n o t . J o n s t o n published a Natural history of quadrupeds. D u r e t . t h e p r o o f s a n d e v e n t h e u n i t y o f w h i c h n o w a p p e a r t o u s s o distant. an Admirable history of plants. Jonston. U n f o r t u n a t e l y . t h e n it b e c a m e necessary for n a t u r e to manifest itself in all its s t r a n g e richness. a n d t h e m e t i c u l o u s o b s e r v a t i o n o f living beings w a s thus b o r n u p o n the e m p t y strand from w h i c h Cartesianism had just w i t h d r a w n .a n d this is e n t i r e l y t h e o p p o s i t e . t o m u l t i p l y its m e c h a n i s m s t o t h e p o i n t o f a c q u i r i n g t h e o p a q u e w e i g h t o f a h i s t o r y t h a t c a n o n l y b e retraced and described. W h e n i t h a d at last b e c o m e clear that it w a s impossible to fit t h e entire w o r l d i n t o t h e laws o f rectilinear m o v e m e n t .that o n e science can arise o u t o f a n o t h e r . calculating it. In 1657.

N a t u r a l history finds its locus in the g a p t h a t is n o w o p e n e d up b e t w e e n 129 . the great tripartition. w h a t t h e ancients r e c o r d e d o f it. offered the reader. a n d Fable. t h e legends a n d stories w i t h w h i c h it h a d been i n v o l v e d . Document. t h e n w e m u s t r e p l y t h a t J o n s t o n k n e w a g r e a t deal less t h a n A l d r o v a n d i . b u t for the m u c h m o r e precise a n d m u c h m o r e constraining reason t h a t signs w e r e t h e n p a r t o f things themselves. w h e r e a s i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e y b e c o m e m o d e s o f representation. U n t i l t h e t i m e o f A l d r o v a n d i . its habitat a n d l e g e n d a r y m a n s i o n s . did he k n o w a n y m o r e a b o u t t h e m t h a n A l d r o v a n d i did. the virtues that it w a s t h o u g h t to possess. T h e h i s t o r y of a living b e i n g w a s t h a t b e i n g itself. appears as t h o u g h stripped n a k e d . w h a t others h a v e o b s e r v e d a n d h a n d e d d o w n . its b i r t h a n d death. T h e w h o l e of a n i m a l semantics has disappeared. the historians assure us. in its a n a t o m y . w i t h i n t h e w h o l e s e m a n t i c n e t w o r k that c o n n e c t e d i t t o the w o r l d . its allegorical uses a n d m o d e of g e n e r a t i o n . s y m p a t h y a n d a n t i p a t h y . m o v e m e n t s . voice. i n t o Observation. its place in h e r a l d r y . the m e d i c a m e n t s that w e r e c o n c o c t e d f r o m its substance. ages. i n t h e r e a l m o f Historia. a n d w h a t travellers m i g h t h a v e said o f it. A n d this w a s n o t because science w a s hesitating b e t w e e n a rational v o c a t i o n a n d the vast w e i g h t o f naive tradition. habitat. did n o t exist. a n d he gives us a g r e a t deal m o r e besides. J o n s t o n subdivides his c h a p t e r on t h e horse u n d e r t w e l v e h e a d i n g s : n a m e . T h e essential difference lies in w h a t is missing in J o n s t o n . a n d on t h e s a m e level. the foods it p r o v i d e d . b e t w e e n w h a t w e see. m e d i c i n a l uses[2]. uses. T h i s e v e n t is the s u d d e n separation. a description of its a n a t o m y a n d of the m e t h o d s of c a p t u r i n g it. T h e latter. W h e n J o n s t o n w r o t e his Natural history of quadrupeds. a half-century earlier? N o t a g r e a t deal m o r e . B u t t h a t is n o t the question. its habits. s o evident t o us.CLASSIFYING f r o m afar. N o n e of this w a s o m i t t e d by A l d r o v a n d i . a n d w h a t others i m a g i n e o r naively believe. O r . t h e a p p a r e n t e n i g m a of an e v e n t . a n a t o m i c a l parts. g e n e r a t i o n . H i s t o r y w a s the inextricable a n d c o m p l e t e l y u n i t a r y fabric of all t h a t w a s visible o f things a n d o f the signs that h a d b e e n discovered o r l o d g e d i n t h e m : to w r i t e the history of a plant or an a n i m a l w a s as m u c h a m a t t e r of desc r i b i n g its elements or o r g a n s as of describing the resemblances t h a t c o u l d be f o u n d in it. like a dead a n d useless l i m b . in the case of each a n i m a l he e x a m i n e d . if w e m u s t pose i t i n these t e r m s . T h e w o r d s t h a t h a d been i n t e r w o v e n i n the v e r y b e i n g o f t h e beast h a v e been unravelled a n d r e m o v e d : a n d t h e living b e i n g . its food a n d t h e best w a y s of c o o k i n g its flesh. T h e division. a p p a r e n t l y so simple a n d so i m m e d i a t e . its f o r m . o f t w o o r d e r s o f k n o w l e d g e h e n c e f o r w a r d t o b e considered different.

of t h e transference of a r a t i o n a l i t y formed elsewhere (for g e o m e t r i c a l or m e c h a n i c a l p u r p o s e s ) . a n d p e r h a p s rediscovers o n e of its archaic significations. t o c o n c l u d e . U n t i l t h e m i d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h u s t h e old w o r d ' h i s t o r y ' changes its v a l u e . on t h e t h r e s h o l d of t h e Classical age. T h e c o n s t i t u tion of a n a t u r a l science in t h e classical age is n o t t h e e S e ^ . for t h e Greeks. and. f r o m t h e v e r y first. use. distinct f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . c o m m u n i c a t e i n a representation. did n o t . o n e t h a t has its o w n a r c h a e o l o g y . beliefs. t h a t he a s s u m e d . or see at a distance. willy-nilly. attributes. a n d poetical figures. I n d e e d . even t h o u g h it is linked ( t h o u g h in a correlative a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s m o d e ) t o t h e general t h e o r y o f signs a n d t o t h e project for a universal mathesis. like a sort of s u p p l e m e n t in w h i c h discourse is a l l o w e d to r e c o u n t itself a n d r e c o r d discoveries. as an e x p e r i m e n t forcing e n t r y . Litteraria. species. it w a s at a relatively late date. it has n o t a l w a y s been so in o u r c u l t u r e . t h o u g h it is t r u e t h a t t h e historian. k i n d . is v e r y characteristic.but w h a t o n e c o u l d n o t say subsequently. those s a m e elements t h a t can n o w w i t h o u t let o r h i n d r a n c e b e n a m e d . e v e r y c h a p t e r dealing w i t h a g i v e n a n i m a l s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a n : n a m e .o f e v e r y t h i n g .this role.or r e s u m e d . it is t h e possibility o£ seeing w h a t o n e will be able to say.and this is w h y it a p p e a r e d at precisely this m o m e n t . All t h e l a n g u a g e deposited u p o n t h i n g s by t i m e is p u s h e d b a c k i n t o t h e v e r y last c a t e g o r y .a silent g a p . A c c o r d i n g to this o r d e r . It is a separate f o r m a t i o n . w i t h the empirical c l i m a t e i n w h i c h i t d e v e l o p s . natural history . b u t w i t h i n t h e reality t h a t has b e e n p a t t e r n e d f r o m t h e v e r y outset b y t h e n a m e . t r a ditions. Before this l a n g u a g e of l a n g u a g e . a n d y e t articulated a c c o r d i n g t o t h e elements o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i n g s t o u c h against t h e b a n k s o f discourse because t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e h o l l o w space o f representation. p u r e of all v e r b a l s e d i m e n t a t i o n . I t i s n o t therefore a t t h e m o m e n t w h e n o n e gives u p calculation t h a t o n e finally begins t o o b s e r v e . i n t o a k n o w l e d g e t h a t was keeping watch on the truth of nature elsewhere. w a s i n d e e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h o sees a n d w h o r e c o u n t s f r o m t h e s t a r t i n g . it is t h e t h i n g itself t h a t appears.THE ORDER OF THINGS things a n d w o r d s . either direct or indirect. W e m u s t n o t see t h e c o n s t i t u tion o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y .is t h e space o p e n e d up in r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by an analysis w h i c h is a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e possibility of n a m i n g . t h e o r y . t h a t m i g h t f o r m a m a r k . l o n g after J o n s t o n . In a n y case. t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . if things a n d w o r d s . t h e historian's task w a s t o establish t h e g r e a t c o m pilation o f d o c u m e n t s a n d signs . as it w e r e .p o i n t of his sight. in its o w n characters. It was t h e historian's responsibility to 130 . T h e descriptive o r d e r p r o p o s e d for n a t u r a l h i s t o r y by L i n n a e u s .

To t h e Renaissance. after this p u r e tabulation o f things. In fact. r e c o r d s . T h e Classical a g e gives history a q u i t e different m e a n i n g : t h a t of u n d e r t a k i n g a m e t i c u l o u s e x a m i n a t i o n of things themselves for t h e first t i m e . as t h a t of n a t u r a l history. their surfaces visible. His existence w a s defined n o t s o m u c h b y w h a t h e s a w a s b y w h a t h e retold. t h e r e n e w e d possibility o f t a l k i n g a b o u t w o r d s . these h a d already claimed m e n ' s interest for a l o n g w h i l e . as objective. replace t h e circular procession o f t h e ' s h o w ' w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f things i n a ' t a b l e ' . g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o their c o m m o n features. a n d bearers o f n o t h i n g b u t their o w n i n d i v i d u a l n a m e s . in t h e c o n stitution o f a w h o l e e n v i r o n m e n t o f h i s t o r y (in t h e n o w familiar sense o f the w o r d ) i n w h i c h t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s t o rediscover. in t h e classification of w o r d s . b u t i n a m o d e that w a s to be considered as positive. t h e locus o f this history is a n o n . neutralized. b u t u n e n c u m b e r e d spaces i n w h i c h things are j u x t a p o s e d : h e r b a r i u m s . in fictitious or real c o m b a t s . of all e n v e l o p i n g l a n g u a g e . a n d t h u s a l r e a d y virtually analysed. It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e first f o r m of history c o n s t i t u t e d i n this p e r i o d o f 'purification' s h o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e h i s t o r y o f n a t u r e . T h e d o c u m e n t s o f this n e w h i s t o r y are n o t o t h e r w o r d s . W h a t h a d c h a n g e d w a s t h e space i n w h i c h i t was possible t o see t h e m a n d f r o m w h i c h i t w a s possible t o describe t h e m . g a r d e n s . A n e w w a y of m a k i n g history. as created in t h e Classical p e r i o d . t o t h i n g s themselves. F o r its c o n s t r u c t i o n requires o n l y w o r d s applied.CLASSIFYING restore t o l a n g u a g e all t h e w o r d s t h a t h a d b e e n b u r i e d . a n d faithful w o r d s . at t h e e n d of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . collections.in s h o r t . in r e c o n stitutions of legends in w h i c h t h e bestiary displayed its ageless fables. texts o r records. b u t a n e w w a y o f c o n n e c t i n g t h i n g s b o t h t o t h e eye a n d t o discourse. in t o u r n a m e n t s . t h e strangeness of animals w a s a spectacle: it w a s featured in fairs.t e m p o r a l r e c t a n g l e in w h i c h . b y a s e c o n d a r y speech w h i c h p r o n o u n c e d afresh s o m a n y w o r d s that h a d been muffled. a n d t h e n o f transcribing w h a t i t has g a t h e r e d i n s m o o t h . T h e natural history r o o m a n d t h e g a r d e n . 131 . r o o t s . n o t i n t h e style o f c o m m e n t a r y . w i t h o u t i n t e r m e d i a r y . A n d o f t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e m . stripped of all c o m m e n t a r y . It is often said t h a t t h e establishment of botanical g a r d e n s a n d zoological collections expressed a n e w curiosity a b o u t exotic plants a n d animals. W h a t c a m e surreptitiously i n t o b e i n g b e t w e e n t h e a g e o f t h e t h e a t r e a n d t h a t o f t h e c a t a l o g u e w a s n o t t h e desire for k n o w l e d g e . W e also k n o w w h a t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e these ' n a t u r a l ' allocations assumed. languages. d o c u m e n t s . creatures p r e s e n t themselves o n e beside a n o t h e r .

f r o m its o r d e r i n g a n d t h e o d i c y : a h i s t o r y restored to t h e i r r u p t i y e v i o l e n c e of t i m e . at t h e e n d of t h e Classical age. to t h e density of h i s t o r y . liberated f r o m Classical rationality. O n e m i g h t say. It m u s t therefore r e d u c e this distance b e t w e e n t h e m so as to b r i n g l a n g u a g e as close as possible to t h e o b s e r v i n g gaze. t h a t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g . a n d i n t o t h e traces it has left. O n e has t h e impression that w i t h T o u r n e f o r t . T h e sense o f t o u c h i s v e r y n a r r o w l y l i m i t e d to t h e designation of a f e w fairly e v i d e n t distinctions (such as that 132 . a n d t h e t h i n g s o b s e r v e d as close as possible to w o r d s . as a w a y of i n t r o d u c i n g into t h e l a n g u a g e already i m p r i n t e d o n things. at least to restrict deliberately t h e area of its experience. indexes. Ill STRUCTURE T h u s a r r a n g e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d . f r o m t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y o n w a r d . b u t so a r e taste a n d smell. N a t u r a l history is n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f the visible. t h e d r a w i n g u p o f catalogues. a n d that air of n a i v e t e it has f r o m a distance. n a t u r a l history has as a c o n d i t i o n of its possibility t h e c o m m o n affinity o f things a n d l a n g u a g e w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . is a perceptible k n o w l e d g e furnished w i t h a series of systematically n e g a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . n o t so m u c h a n e w sensitivity to t i m e . t h a t the historians o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w e r e to u n d e r t a k e t h e creation of a history t h a t c o u l d at last be ' t r u e ' . that t h e Classical age used its i n g e n u i t y .THE ORDER OF THINGS T h e ever m o r e c o m p l e t e preservation o f w h a t w a s w r i t t e n . b u t it exists as a task o n l y in so far as things a n d l a n g u a g e h a p p e n to be separate. H e a r s a y is e x c l u d e d . A n d it is in this classified t i m e . in this squared a n d spatialized d e v e l o p m e n t . strictly speaking. an o r d e r of t h e s a m e t y p e as that w h i c h was b e i n g established b e t w e e n living creatures.o l d inattentiveness b e i n g s u d d e n l y dissipated. H e n c e its a p p a r e n t simplicity. N a t u r a l h i s t o r y did n o t b e c o m e possible because m e n l o o k e d h a r d e r a n d m o r e closely. b u t h a d r e m a i n e d m u t e before a sort o f invincible distraction o f m e n ' s eyes. a n d inventories. because their lack of c e r t a i n t y a n d their variability r e n d e r impossible a n y analysis i n t o distinct elements that c o u l d b e universally acceptable. w i t h Linnaeus o r Buffon. s o m e o n e h a s a t last t a k e n o n t h e task o f stating s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a d been visible f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e . all these t h i n g s represent. so simple does it a p p e a r a n d so o b v i o u s l y i m p o s e d b y t h i n g s themselves. b u t a n e w field of visibility b e i n g c o n s t i t u t e d in all its density. O b s e r v a t i o n .in o t h e r w o r d s . if n o t to see as little as possible. it w a s n o t an a g e . to its past. In fact. t h e n o f f i l i n g systems for t h e m . t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f archives. t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f libraries.

and. f o r m s . In o t h e r words. b u t he c a n n o t be a naturalist [3]. It w a s Linnaeus. t o black and w h i t e . after all. reliefs. t h e m e a n s to an analysis partes extra partes acceptable t o e v e r y o n e : t h e blind m a n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y can p e r fectly w e l l be a g e o m e t r i c i a n .a relation that defines natural h i s t o r y . it was n e v e r t h e less b e i n g e x t e n d e d t o w a r d s t h e n e w objects of a technically c o n t r o l l e d f o r m o f o b s e r v a t i o n . w h o said t h a t Naturalia-zs o p p o s e d to Coelestia a n d Elementa . a n d o f their species. o n e ' s r e a d i n g . defines n a t u r a l history's c o n d i t i o n o f possibility. and characteristic p r o p o r t i o n s o f individual adults. A c h a n g e o f scale i n t h e visual s p h e r e m u s t h a v e m o r e v a l u e t h a n t h e correlations b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s kinds o f e v i d e n c e that m a y b e p r o v i d e d b y o n e ' s impressions. m u c h m o r e t h a n t h e receptivity a n d a t t e n t i o n a t last b e i n g g r a n t e d t o t h i n g s themselves. T h e use o f t h e m i c r o s c o p e w a s based u p o n a n o n . o n e m u s t r e n o u n c e the a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e k n o w l e d g e b y m e a n s o f t h e o t h e r senses o r f r o m hearsay. o r learned c o m p i l a t i o n s . e v e n t h e n . m o r e o v e r . A n d . T h e m i c t o s c o p e w a s called u p o n n o t t o g o b e y o n d t h e frontiers o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d o m a i n o f visibility.i n s t r u m e n t a l relation b e t w e e n t h i n g s a n d t h e h u m a n eye . T o a t t e m p t t o i m p r o v e o n e ' s p o w e r o f o b s e r v a t i o n b y l o o k i n g t h r o u g h a lens. T h o u g h indefinite c o n f i n e m e n t o f t h e visible w i t h i n its o w n e x t e n t i s m a d e m o r e easily perceptible to t h e eye by a m i c r o s c o p e . A n d t h e best p r o o f o f this i s p r o b a b l y that optical i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e used a b o v e all as a m e a n s of r e s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s of g e n e r a t i o n .CLASSIFYING b e t w e e n s m o o t h a n d r o u g h ) . This area. it is nevertheless n o t freed f r o m it. surfaces. b e i n g t h e sense b y w h i c h w e p e r c e i v e e x t e n t a n d establish proof. arrangements. as a means of discovering h o w the forms. b u t t o resolve o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m s i t p o s e d : t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f specific visible f o r m s f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . T h e area of visibility in w h i c h o b s e r v a t i o n is able to assume its p o w e r s is thus o n l y w h a t is left after these exclusions: a visibility freed f r o m all o t h e r sensory b u r d e n s a n d restricted. w h i c h leaves sight w i t h a n almost exclusive privilege. I n fact. I t m a y p e r h a p s b e c l a i m e d that t h e use o f t h e m i c r o s c o p e c o m p e n s a t e s for these restrictions.w e r e i n t e n d e d to be t r a n s m i t t e d 133 . in c o n s e q u e n c e . a n d that t h o u g h sensory e x p e r i e n c e w a s b e i n g restricted in t h e d i r e c t i o n of its m o r e d o u b t f u l frontiers. a n d the a p p e a r a n c e of its screened objects: lines. c o u l d b e h a n d e d o n d o w n t h e centuries w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g their strictly defined identity. e v e r y t h i n g that presents itself to o u r gaze is n o t utilizable: c o l o u r s especially can scarcely serve as a f o u n d a t i o n for useful c o m p a r i s o n s . i t w a s t h e s a m e c o m p l e x o f n e g a t i v e c o n ditions that l i m i t e d t h e r e a l m o f experience a n d m a d e t h e use o f optical i n s t r u m e n t s possible.

to define t h e f o r m t h e y assume. it w a s b e t t e r to analyse t h e m 'as t h e y fall b e n e a t h t h e gaze'fs]T o o b s e r v e . a c c o r d i n g to t h e case). W i t h seeing w h a t . e m p t i e d of all resemblances. g i v e n s u c h a description e v e r y o n e will be able t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i n d i v i d u a l entities t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o it. T h e s e f o u r variables. a n d d e t e r m i n i n g . a n y g i v e n e l e m e n t o r o r g a n are w h a t botanists t e r m its structure. t r i a n g l e ) . e v e r y o n e will b e able t o g i v e t h e s a m e d e s c r i p t i o n . i n o r d e r t o gain a k n o w l e d g e o f plants. to e n u m e r a t e t h e s t a m e n s a n d pistil (or to r e c o r d t h e i r absence. ' B y t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a plant's parts w e m e a n t h e c o m position a n d a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e pieces t h a t m a k e u p its b o d y . I n this f u n d a m e n t a l articulation o f the visible. cleansed e v e n of t h e i r c o l o u r s . of situation' [ 7 ] . c a n be analysed. Displayed in t h e m selves.m a d e l a n g u a g e it intends to c o n s t r u c t . t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y are distributed i n space i n relation t o each o t h e r . w i t h precisely w h a t i t will c o n v e y i n t h e w e l l . 'every note should be a product of n u m b e r . F o r e x a m p l e . of form. fruits . inversely. a n d . A n d b y f o u r variables o n l y : t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s . ' r a t h e r t h a n scrutinize e a c h o f their variations w i t h a religious s c r u p l e ' . b u t indispensable. t h e q u a n t i t y o f those e l e m e n t s . i s t o b e c o n t e n t w i t h s e e i n g . visual representations will n o w a t last b e able t o p r o v i d e n a t u r a l h i s t o r y w i t h w h a t constitutes its p r o p e r object. t h e first c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e a n d t h i n g s can n o w be established in a m a n n e r that excludes all u n c e r tainty.w i t h seeing a f e w t h i n g s systematically. w h e n o n e studies t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e o r g a n s o f a p l a n t . T h i s object is t h e e x t e n s i o n o f w h i c h all n a t u r a l beings are c o n s t i t u t e d . in a passage of capital i m p o r t a n c e . t h e n . a c c o r d i n g t o w h a t g e o m e t r i c a l figure t h e y a r e d i s t r i b u t e d in t h e flower (circle. a n d t h e relative m a g n i t u d e o f ' e a c h e l e m e n t . of proportion. 'are introduced only to the shame of art'[6].a n e x t e n s i o n t h a t m a y b e affected b y four variables. ' [ 8 ] S t r u c 134 . a n d t h u s g i v e n a n a m e t h a t e v e r y o n e will b e able t o u n d e r s t a n d : ' A l l o b s c u r e similitudes.roots* stem* leaves. it is sufficient. As L i n n a e u s said.THE ORDER OF THINGS directly t o t h e senses [4]. A n d T o u r n e f o r t t h o u g h t that. a n d w h a t their size is i n relation t o t h e o t h e r o r g a n s . E a c h visibly distinct p a r t of a p l a n t or an a n i m a l is t h u s describable in so far as f o u r series of values are applicable to it. i n t h e r a t h e r confused w e a l t h o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . r e c o g n i z e d by all. T h e s e f o u r values affecting. h e x a g o n .' said Linnaeus. flowers.specify t h e e x t e n s i o n available to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w e l l e n o u g h for us to articulate it i n t o a description acceptable to e v e r y o n e : c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e s a m e i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t y . w h i c h c a n b e applied in t h e s a m e w a y to t h e five parts of the p l a n t .

s h o u l d h a v e a v e g e t a b l e s t r u c t u r e . a n d e v e n its t y p o g r a p h i c a l m o d u l e s . T h a t t h e p r i n t e d t e x t . N u m b e r a n d m a g n i t u d e can a l w a y s b e assigned b y m e a n s o f a c o u n t o r a m e a s u r e . I t p e r m i t s t h e visibility o f t h e a n i m a l o r p l a n t t o pass o v e r in its e n t i r e t y i n t o t h e discourse t h a t receives it. t h e y can t h e r e f o r e b e expressed i n q u a n t i t a t i v e t e r m s . its use. 'It is beautiful to f o l l o w n a t u r e : t o pass f r o m t h e R o o t t o the Stems. a n d q u a n t i t y . I n this w a y i t b e c o m e s possible t o describe certain fairly c o m p l e x f o r m s o n t h e basis o f their v e r y visible r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e h u m a n b o d y . s t r u c t u r e enables i t t o b e t r a n scribed i n t o l a n g u a g e . A n d let no o n e r e p l y that this is m e r e l y t h e reverie of a systematizer a n d does n o t represent t h e w h o l e o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . t o t h e Petioles. i t m a y m a n a g e t o r e c o n s t i t u t e itself i n visible f o r m b y m e a n s o f w o r d s . a r r a n g e m e n t . a n d the analysis o f t h e 'parts o f p a r t s ' b e i n g c o n v e y e d i n small t y p e . their p o s i t i o n . T h e b o o k b e c o m e s t h e h e r b a r i u m o f l i v i n g s t r u c t u r e s . 135 . e v e r y t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g its p r i n c i p a l p a r t s b e i n g p r i n t e d i n large t y p e .CLASSIFYING t u r e also m a k e s possible t h e description o f w h a t o n e sees. in its variables of f o r m . t h e different parts. such as its n a m e s . s h o u l d r e p r o d u c e t h e f o r m o f t h e p l a n t itself. m u s t b e described b y o t h e r m e t h o d s : either b y identification w i t h g e o m e t r i c a l figures. a n d acts as a s p o n t a n e o u s link b e t w e e n w h a t o n e can see a n d w h a t o n e can s a y [ i o ] . their gaze occupies t h e s a m e surface o f c o n t a c t u p o n t h i n g s . its e x t e r n a l assemblage. O n e w o u l d then a d d w h a t o n e k n e w o f t h e p l a n t f r o m o t h e r sources i n t h e s a m e w a y a s a n artist c o m p l e t e s his sketch b y i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i n t e r p l a y o f light a n d shade: ' t h e A d u m b r a t i o n w o u l d exactly c o n t a i n t h e w h o l e h i s t o r y o f t h e plant. Buffon a n d L i n n a e u s e m p l o y t h e same g r i d . a n d this i n t w o w a y s w h i c h are n e i t h e r c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o r m u t u a l l y exclusive. ' T h e description w o u l d h a v e t o b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f p a r a g r a p h s a s t h e r e are p a r t s i n t h e p l a n t . t o t h e P e d u n c l e s . t o t h e F l o w e r s . p e r h a p s . a s w i t h t h e b o t a n i c a l calligrams d r e a m e d o f b y L i n n a e u s [11]. Buffon w a s a c o n s t a n t adversary o f Linnaeus. m a g n i t u d e . its s t r u c t u r e . o r b y analogies t h a t m u s t all b e ' o f t h e u t m o s t c l a r i t y ' [ 9 ] . t o the Leaves. t h e i r n u m b e r . a n d r e c o m p o s e s its p u r e f o r m before t h e reader's v e r y eyes. its division i n t o p a r a g r a p h s . A n d u l t i m a t e l y . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . y e t t h e s a m e s t r u c t u r e exists i n his w o r k a n d plays the same r o l e : ' T h e m e t h o d o f e x a m i n a t i o n will b e directed t o w a r d s f o r m . F o r m s a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s . H i s w i s h w a s that t h e o r d e r o f t h e description. its n a t u r e . w h i c h serves a s a sort o f r e s e r v o i r for m o d e l s o f visibility. B y l i m i t i n g a n d filtering t h e visible. a n d the v e r y substance o f t h e t h i n g ' [ 1 2 ] .' T h e p l a n t i s t h u s e n g r a v e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e l a n g u a g e i n t o w h i c h i t has b e e n transposed.

o n e a n d t h e s a m e a n i m a l . N a t u r a l history is a science. t h a t is. o r again. B y v i r t u e o f s t r u c t u r e . w h a t representation p r o v i d e s i n a confused a n d simultaneous f o r m is analysed a n d t h e r e b y r e n d e r e d suitable to t h e linear u n w i n d i n g of l a n g u a g e . In effect. it reduces t h e w h o l e area o p t h e visible to a system of variables all of w h o s e values can be designated. a n d t h a t i t w o u l d p r o v e permissible t o p o s e botanical p r o b l e m s i n t h e s a m e w a y a s o n e does algebraic o r g e o m e t r i c a l o n e s : 'find t h e m o s t o b v i o u s p o i n t t h a t establishes t h e line o f separation o r discussion b e t w e e n t h e scabious family a n d t h e h o n e y s u c k l e f a m i l y ' . A n d it is by this m e a n s t h a t s t r u c t u r e links t h e possibility of a n a t u r a l history to t h e mathesis. t h e g r e a t proliferation o f beings o c c u p y i n g t h e surface of t h e g l o b e is able to e n t e r b o t h i n t o t h e sequence of a descriptive l a n g u a g e a n d i n t o t h e field of a mathesis that w o u l d also be a general science 136 . o r o n e a n d t h e s a m e plant.w a y b e t w e e n D o g ' s .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e r e a r e t h e s a m e black squares left t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e invisible. b u t a securely based a n d w e l l . will be described in t h e same w a y . find a k n o w n g e n u s of plants ( w h e t h e r n a t u r a l or artificial is u n i m p o r t a n t ) t h a t stands exactly h a l f . In fact. elements succeeding e l e m e n t s . B u t it will be r e m e m b e r e d t h a t l a n g u a g e in its empirical f o r m i m p l i e d a t h e o r y of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a n d a t h e o r y of articulation. T h e t h e o r y of structure. description is to t h e object o n e l o o k s at w h a t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n is to t h e representation it expresses: its a r r a n g e m e n t in a series. a n d t h e ability o f articulation t o g i v e f o r m t o a u t h e n t i c discourse w a s c o n d i t i o n a l u p o n its b e i n g linked t o g e t h e r b y t h e p a t e n t o r secret function of t h e v e r b to be. t h e p r o p o s i t i o n r e m a i n e d e m p t y . B y m e a n s o f s t r u c t u r e . s u p e r i m p o s e s t h e roles p l a y e d in l a n g u a g e by t h e proposition a n d articulation in such a w a y that t h e y p e r f o r m o n e a n d t h e same function. t h e same o p e n a n d distinct spaces t o a c c o m m o d a t e w o r d s . w h i c h r u n s r i g h t t h r o u g h n a t u r a l h i s t o r y in t h e Classical age. It is t h e r e f o r e possible t o establish t h e s y s t e m o f identities a n d t h e o r d e r o f differences existing b e t w e e n n a t u r a l entities. if n o t by a q u a n t i t y .b a n e a n d B o r a g e [ i 3 ] . a l a n g u a g e . "Whereas o n e a n d t h e same representation can g i v e rise to a c o n siderable n u m b e r o f p r o p o s i t i o n s . A d a n s o n w a s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t o n e day it w o u l d be possible to treat b o t a n y as a r i g o r o u s l y m a t h e matical science.c o n s t r u c t e d o n e : its p r o p o s i t i o n a l u n f o l d i n g is indisputably an a r t i c u l a t i o n . in so far as their s t r u c t u r e g o v e r n s their passage f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t o l a n g u a g e . at least by a perfectly clear a n d a l w a y s finite description. since t h e n a m e s t h a t e m b o d y i t a r t i c u l a t e i t a c c o r d i n g t o different m o d e s . In itself. t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of its elements i n t o a linear series p a t t e r n s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to an e v i d e n t a n d universal m o d e .

does n o t lie essentially in w h a t t h e y m a k e it possible t o see. t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e y a r e b o o k s furnished w i t h structures. a n d their m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e p l a n t a n d t h e a n i m a l a r e seen n o t so m u c h i n their o r g a n i c u n i t y a s b y t h e visible p a t t e r n i n g o f their o r g a n s . In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a n a t o m y lost t h e leading role t h a t it h a d p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e R e n a i s sance a n d t h a t it w a s to r e s u m e in C u v i e r ' s d a y . i n o r d e r t o raise u p before t h e eyes o f those w h o a w a i t t h e t r u t h t h e visible relief o f f o r m s . s i m u l t a n e o u s . w i t h their e l e m e n t s . A t t h e institutional level. f l o w e r s a n d fruits. in so far as t h e r e are a g r e a t m a n y c o n s t i t u e n t o r g a n s visible in a p l a n t t h a t are n o t so in animals. a n d i n w h i c h classifications a r e physically displayed. A n d this constituent relation. is established w i t h i n t h e a p p a r e n t simplicity of a description of the visible. A n d their i m p o r t ance. c o n c o m i t a n t variables. T h e y are p a w s a n d hoofs. O n e d a y . a m u c h less ' b l a c k ' g r i d for plants t h a n for a n i m a l s . n o t by functions or invisible tissues. N a t u r a l history traverses an area of visible. b y this process o f obliteration. t h e y a l l o w t o e m e r g e : t h e y screen off a n a t o m y a n d function. for Classical c u l t u r e . t h e y conceal t h e o r g a n i s m . t h e k n o w l e d g e o f plants w a s b o u n d t o p r o v e m o r e extensive t h a n that o f animals. H e n c e t h e e p i s t e m o logical p r e c e d e n c e e n j o y e d b y b o t a n y : t h e area c o m m o n t o w o r d s a n d things constituted a m u c h m o r e a c c o m m o d a t i n g . o r that k n o w l e d g e h a d regressed. T h e latter is p r o v i d e d by surfaces a n d lines. B u t because i t was possible t o k n o w a n d t o say o n l y w i t h i n a t a x o n o m i c area o f visibility. smash t h e m o p e n a n d dissect all t h e forms of a n i m a l visibility t h a t t h e 137 .CLASSIFYING of o r d e r . t h e space i n w h i c h characteristics c o m b i n e . All this is of great i m p o r t a n c e for t h e definition of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y in t e r m s of its object. W e m u s t t h e r e f o r e reverse w h a t is usually said on this subject: it is n o t because t h e r e w a s a g r e a t interest i n b o t a n y d u r i n g t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h centuries t h a t s o m u c h investigation w a s u n d e r t a k e n i n t o m e t h o d s o f classification. t a x o n o m i c k n o w l e d g e based u p o n i m m e d i a t e l y perceptible variables w a s richer a n d m o r e c o h e r e n t i n t h e b o t a n i c a l o r d e r t h a n i n t h e zoological. their m o d e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . t h e inevitable correlatives o f this p a t t e r n i n g w e r e botanical g a r d e n s a n d n a t u r a l history collections. b u t i n w h a t t h e y h i d e a n d i n w h a t . c o m p l e x as it is. before b e i n g r e s p i r a t o r y systems or internal liquids. it w a s n o t t h a t curiosity h a d d i m i n i s h e d i n t h e m e a n t i m e . C u v i e r was t o t o p p l e t h e glass j a r s o f t h e M u s e u m . w i t h o u t a n y internal relation o f subordination or organization. b u t r a t h e r that t h e f u n d a m e n t a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e visible a n d t h e expressible n o l o n g e r passed t h r o u g h t h e thickness o f t h e b o d y .

I t i s r a t h e r . e n g r a v e d i n black o n w h i t e .THE ORDER OF THINGS Classical age h a d p r e s e r v e d i n t h e m . w a s to m a k e possible t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t o t h e o l d f l a t w o r l d o f animals a n d plants. s o t h e t h e o r y o f character m u s t identify t h e values 138 . a m u t a t i o n i n t h e n a t u r a l d i m e n s i o n o f W e s t e r n c u l t u r e : t h e e n d of history in t h e sense in w h i c h it was u n d e r s t o o d by T o u r n e f o r t . B u t t h e description t h u s o b t a i n e d is n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a sort of p r o p e r n o u n : it leaves each b e i n g its strict individuality a n d expresses n e i t h e r t h e table to w h i c h it b e l o n g s . in spontaneous language. b y substituting a n a t o m y for classification. Linnaeus. w h e n he o p p o s e d historical k n o w l e d g e of t h e visible to philosophical k n o w l e d g e of t h e invisible. A n d j u s t as t h e t h e o r y of s t r u c t u r e s u p e r i m p o s e d articulation a n d t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s o t h a t t h e y b e c a m e o n e a n d t h e s a m e . a c q u i r e d m o r e general values. A n d for n a t u r a l h i s t o r y t o b e c o m e l a n g u a g e . It i s designation p u r e a n d simple. Buffon. a w h o l e p r o f o u n d mass o f t i m e t o w h i c h m e n w e r e t o g i v e t h e r e n e w e d n a m e o f history. I t has heen seen h o w . after h a v i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f action a n d t h e resultant p r i m i t i v e r o o t s . h a d little b y little. the primary designations which conc e r n e d o n l y individual representations. T h i s iconoclastic g e s t u r e . IV CHARACTER S t r u c t u r e is t h a t designation of t h e visible w h i c h . s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . n o r t h e area s u r r o u n d i n g it. t h e series for t a b u l a t i o n . a n d m u c h m o r e seriously. I t should unite i n o n e a n d t h e s a m e o p e r a t i o n w h a t e v e r y d a y l a n g u a g e keeps separate: n o t o n l y m u s t it designate all natural entities v e r y precisely. B u t n a t u r a l history is a w e l l . i t should n o t l e n d credit t o a n y e t y m o l o g y f i s ] . enables i t t o b e transcribed i n t o l a n g u a g e .c o n s t r u c t e d l a n g u a g e : it should n o t accept t h e constraint i m p o s e d b y d e r i v a t i o n a n d its f o r m s . a certain designation a n d a c o n t r o l l e d derivation. N a t u r a l h i s t o r y m u s t p r o v i d e . o r g a n i s m for s t r u c t u r e . does n o t reveal a n e w curiosity directed t o w a r d s a secret t h a t n o o n e h a d t h e interest o r c o u r a g e t o u n c o v e r . A n d i t w a s also t o b e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f w h a t . b u t i t m u s t also situate t h e m w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m o f identities a n d differences that unites t h e m t o a n d distinguishes t h e m f r o m all t h e others. o r t h e possibility o f u n c o v e r i n g . of w h a t is h i d d e n a n d o f c a u s e s [ i 4 ] . t h e description m u s t b e c o m e a ' c o m m o n n o u n ' .a n d in t h e sense in w h i c h it w a s u n d e r s t o o d by Boissier de Sauvages also. a n d A d a n s o n . w h i c h L a m a r c k c o u l d n e v e r b r i n g h i m s e l f t o m a k e . before. t h r o u g h t h e m o m e n t u m o f d e r i v a t i o n . n o r t h e site it occupies. internal s u b o r d i n a t i o n for visible character. by m e a n s of a k i n d o f pre-linguistic sifting.

.CLASSIFYING t h a t designate a n d t h e area i n w h i c h t h e y are derived. A n d y e t t h e essential does n o t lie in this conflict b e t w e e n the great intuitions o f n a t u r e . I t lies r a t h e r i n t h e n e t w o r k o f necessity w h i c h a t this p o i n t r e n d e r e d t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n t w o w a y s o f c o n s t i t u t i n g 139 . w h o s e variations a n d constants m a y b e studied in a n y individual e n t i t y t h a t presents itself.L a u r e n t de Jussieu . T o u r n e f o r t says: T o k n o w plants i s t o k n o w w i t h precision t h e n a m e s t h a t h a v e b e e n g i v e n to t h e m in relation to t h e s t r u c t u r e of s o m e of their p a r t s . it w o u l d be necessary to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t e v e r y feature t h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n listed in a g i v e n description. E i t h e r that o f m a k i n g total c o m p a r i s o n s . Establishing c h a r a c t e r is at t h e s a m e t i m e easy a n d difficult. It is a m a t t e r of c o n s t r u c t i n g a s e c o n d a r y l a n g u a g e based u p o n t h a t p r i m a r y . t h e establishment of all identities a n d d i s tinctions can b e g u a r a n t e e d . n o t u p o n w h a t o n e sees. . or A n t o i n e . unless t h e r e existed techniques that w o u l d a v o i d this difficulty a n d limit t h e l a b o u r o f m a k i n g s o m a n y c o m p a r i s o n s . a n d in this w a y . B u t a m a j o r difficulty appears i m m e d i a t e l y . T h e idea o f t h e character that essentially distinguishes plants f r o m o n e a n o t h e r o u g h t invariably t o b e o n e w i t h t h e n a m e o f each p l a n t [ i 6 ] . and perhaps being transformed into one a n o t h e r . mingling w i t h one another. T h e y are usually contrasted.n e v e r land. step by step. . It is possible. In o r d e r to establish t h e identities a n d differences existing b e t w e e n all n a t u r a l entities. S u c h an endless task w o u l d p u s h t h e a d v e n t o f n a t u r a l history b a c k i n t o a n i n a c cessible n e v e r . Easy. b u t o n l y w i t h i n empirically c o n stituted g r o u p s i n w h i c h t h e n u m b e r o f resemblances i s manifestly s o h i g h that t h e e n u m e r a t i o n o f t h e differences will n o t take l o n g t o c o m p l e t e . t h e f i r s t t h e M e t h o d . l a n g u a g e .or as a rigid a n d simple c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e detailed a n d i m m e d i a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f its relations. or as t h e idea of a motionless n a t u r e is c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t of a t e e m i n g c o n t i n u i t y o f beings all c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . a priori. T h e process o f n a m i n g w i l l b e based. T h i s last p r o c e d u r e was t e r m e d t h e S y s t e m . b u t o n l y t o d e r i v e i t f r o m a l a n g u a g e that has a l r e a d y b e e n u n f o l d e d in t h e process of d e s c r i p t i o n . because n a t u r a l history does n o t h a v e to establish a system of n a m e s based u p o n representations t h a t a r e difficult t o analyse. . to state t h a t these techniques a r e of t w o types. A d a n s o n . . b u t u p o n elements t h a t h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o discourse b y s t r u c t u r e . b u t certain a n d universal. O r t h a t o f selecting a f i n i t e a n d relatively limited g r o u p o f characteristics. in t h e s a m e w a y as Linnaeus is c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Buffon.

exclusive s t r u c t u r e in relation to w h i c h identities or differences a s a w h o l e are t o b e e x a m i n e d . since it deliberately i g n o r e s all differences a n d all identities n o t related t o t h e selected s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s w h y L i n n a e u s does n o t seek to establish a n a t u r a l s y s t e m i m m e d i a t e l y . t h e n a difference o f leaf o r s t e m o r r o o t o r petiole m u s t b e systematically i g n o r e d . T h e rest is m e r e l y a logical a n d inevitable c o n s e q u e n c e . all d i s c o r d a n t notes b e i n g e l i m i n a t e d . t h e c h a r a c t e r e m e r g e s ' [ 1 8 ] . t h e character s h o u l d b e c o m p o s e d o f ' t h e m o s t careful description o f t h e fructification o f t h e f i r s t species. finally. t h e s y s t e m is relative: it is able to function a c c o r d i n g to a desired d e g r e e of precision. 'artificial systems are absolutely n e c e s s a r y ' [ 2 1 ] .o n e in w h i c h all t h e differences i n t h e character w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o differences o f t h e s a m e v a l u e in t h e plant's general s t r u c t u r e . M o r e o v e r . t h e n as s o o n as o n e 140 . a n d t h a t all its ' f r a g m e n t s s h o u l d b e searched for w i t h t h e greatest c a r e ' [ 2 0 ] . F r o m t h e e l e m e n t s that t h e System j u x t a p o s e s in g r e a t detail by m e a n s of description. a n y i d e n t i t y n o t o c c u r r i n g i n o n e o f these selected e l e m e n t s will h a v e n o v a l u e i n t h e definition o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . as Linnaeus h i m s e l f searches for t h e m in his Classes Plantarum. If. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e n a t u r a l m e t h o d constitutes ' t h e f i r s t a n d last w i s h o f b o t a n i s t s ' . If t h e selected c h a r a c t e r is c o m p o s e d of a l a r g e s t r u c t u r e . h a v i n g a large n u m b e r of variables. All t h e o t h e r species o f t h e g e n u s are c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e f i r s t . A c c o r d i n g t o L i n n a e u s .THE ORDER OF THINGS n a t u r a l h i s t o r y as a l a n g u a g e b o t h possible a n d indispensable. inversely. o n e selects as t h e characteristic e l e m e n t s 'all t h e different parts related to f r u c t i f i c a t i o n ' [ 1 7 ] . a n d in w h i c h . T h e s y s t e m is a r b i t r a r y in its basis. like Linnaeus. w h e n these e l e m e n t s a r e similar i n t w o individuals t h e y receive a c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t i o n . t h r o u g h a use of this t e c h n i q u e . T h e s e define t h e p r i v i l e g e d a n d . b u t until this n a t u r a l m e t h o d appears in its certain a n d finished f o r m . Similarly. all t h e individuals or all t h e species g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r a c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r w o u l d i n fact h a v e t h e s a m e relation o f r e s e m b l a n c e i n all a n d each o f their p a r t s . T h e s t r u c t u r e selected t o b e t h e locus of p e r t i n e n t identities a n d differences is w h a t is t e r m e d t h e character. in fact. B u t o n e c a n n o t f i n d t h e w a y t o this n a t u r a l s y s t e m unless o n e has first established w i t h c e r t a i n t y an artificial system. B u t t h e r e i s n o l a w t h a t says that i t will n o t b e possible t o a r r i v e o n e d a y . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . it selects a particular few. ' b e f o r e a c o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e has b e e n a t t a i n e d of e v e r y t h i n g t h a t is r e l e v a n t ' [ 1 9 ] to his s y s t e m . A n y difference n o t related t o o n e o f these e l e m e n t s will be c o n s i d e r e d irrelevant. at least i n certain o f t h e v e g e t a b l e o r a n i m a l d o m a i n s . after this process. at t h e d i s c o v e r y of a n a t u r a l s y s t e m .

w h i l e t h e o t h e r p a r t s h o u l d b e ' s o u n d e d ' (one m u s t n a m e t h e g e n u s . for e x a m p l e . stems. a s w i t h C e s a l p i n o . a s i t w e r e . i n effect. T h e Method is a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e for r e s o l v i n g t h e s a m e p r o b l e m . E a c h g r o u p c a n b e g i v e n a n a m e . p a r t o f this n a m e s h o u l d r e m a i n 'silent' (one does n o t n a m e t h e class a n d o r d e r ) . r i g h t u p t o t h e largest classifications o f all. e a c h c o m p r i s i n g t h e four variables o f n u m b e r . f o r m . t h e n o n e m u s t m a k e use o f m o r e l i m i t e d characters ('factitious characters a g r e e d u p o n b e t w e e n b o t a n i s t s ' ) . N a t u r a l h i s t o r y will h a v e a c c o m p l i s h e d its f u n d a m e n t a l task. as. a n d t h e v a r i e t y [26]. t h e differences will a p p e a r at o n c e : t h e c h a r a c t e r in this case is v e r y close to p u r e d e s c r i p t i o n [ 2 2 ] . situation. w h i c h i s t h a t o f ' a r r a n g e m e n t a n d d e s i g n a t i o n ' [ 2 8 ] . a n d leaves) w e r e .CLASSIFYING passes f r o m o n e i n d i v i d u a l to a n o t h e r . T h e g e n e r i c n a m e is. If. on t h e o t h e r h a n d . a g r i d c a n b e laid o u t o v e r t h e entire v e g e t a b l e o r a n i m a l k i n g d o m . o r t h e pistil alone. N o t . w o u l d p r o d u c e 5 . can b e d e s i g n a t e d w i t h t h e greatest a c c u r a c y b y m e a n s o f t h e n a m e s o f t h e different g r o u p s i n w h i c h i t i s i n c l u d e d . o r sufficient t o define t h e g e n e r a [ 2 4 ] . L i n n a e u s calculated t h a t t h e t h i r t y . t h e n t h e differences will b e r a r e a n d t h e individuals g r o u p e d i n c o m p a c t masses. B u t for c o n v e n i e n c e . T h e p l a n t t h u s r e c o g n i z e d in its essential c h a r a c t e r a n d d e s i g n a t e d u p o n t h a t basis will express a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h a t w h i c h a c c u r a t e l y designates it a n d t h e relation l i n k i n g it to t h o s e plants t h a t r e s e m b l e it a n d b e l o n g t o t h e s a m e g e n u s (and t h u s t o t h e s a m e family a n d t h e s a m e o r d e r ) .w h e t h e r 141 . t h e s t a m e n s a l o n e . b u t because t h e y p e r m i t t e d a numerically satisfying c o m b i n a b i l i t y : t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d b e t a k e n f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e parts (roots. Its c o m p l e t e n a m e will cross t h e e n t i r e n e t w o r k o f c h a r acters t h a t o n e has established. a n d its variables few. w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o b e described. I f o n e wishes t o o b t a i n g r o u p s m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n g e n e r a . a n d p r o p o r t i o n . Instead of selecting. T h e c h a r a c t e r i s c h o s e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f detail r e q u i r e d i n t h e classification. t h e species.e i g h t o r g a n s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . f r o m t h e totality described. because these w e r e t h e m o s t useful p a r t s o f t h e p l a n t . W i t h t h e result t h a t a n y species. T o u r n e f o r t chose t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f f l o w e r a n d fruit a s his c h a r a c t e r . 7 7 6 c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . I n this w a y o n e w o u l d b e able t o distinguish classes o r o r d e r s [ 2 5 ] . I n o r d e r t o establish g e n e r a . t h e official c u r r e n c y o f o u r b o t a n i c a l r e p u b l i c ' [ 2 7 ] . a s L i n n a e u s p o i n t s o u t . e v e n if it is i m m e d i a t e l y adjacent. either t o o n u m e r o u s i f t r e a t e d t o g e t h e r o r t o o few i f t a k e n separately [23]. I n this w a y . I t will h a v e b e e n g i v e n a t t h e s a m e t i m e its p r o p e r n a m e a n d t h e w h o l e series o f c o m m o n n a m e s (manifest o r h i d d e n ) i n w h i c h i t resides. t h e selected s t r u c t u r e is l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t . t h e e l e m e n t s .

indeed. A n d similarly w i t h t h e t h i r d species i n relation t o t h e first t w o . a t t h e v e r y e n d . O n e a d m i t s t h e existence o f t h e g r e a t families t h a t are manifestly r e c o g n i z a b l e . a n d w e shall r e v i e w all t h e general a n d p a r ticular characters o f t h e b e i n g s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n those families'. o n l y t h e n u m b e r o f existing species is so g r e a t t h a t it w o u l d be impossible to deal w i t h t h e m all. t h e description s h o u l d be as total as i n t h e first instance. by t h e first descriptions o f t h e m . t h e n . t h e r e s e m b l a n c e b e j w e e n all t h e species of R a n u n c u l u s . T h e c h a r acter t h a t distinguishes e a c h species or each g e n u s is t h e o n l y feature p i c k e d o u t f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f tacit identities. such a t e c h n i q u e w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e t h e m o s t reliable. O n e describes i t i n its e n t i r e t y . w e shall b e able t o perceive. I n d e e d . S o considerable. also g i v e n by t h e a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e m e t h o d consists i n d e d u c i n g t h e m stage b y stage. w h e n e v e r we m e e t w i t h a g e n u s or species t h a t is manifestly c o n t a i n e d by t h e m . o n e i s o b l i g e d t o reverse t h e process.THE ORDER OF THINGS f e w or n u m e r o u s . is i m m e d i ately a p p a r e n t t o t h e senses. b u t w i t h t h e o n e difference t h a t n o t h i n g t h a t has b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n t h e first d e s c r i p t i o n s h o u l d b e r e p e a t e d i n t h e second. O n l y t h e differences a r e listed. all t h e different features o f all t h e plants h a v e been listed o n c e . l e a v i n g o u t n o n e o f its p a r t s a n d d e t e r m i n i n g all t h e values t h a t t h e variables h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m it. o f v e r y b r o a d g r o u p s i n w h i c h t h e species a n d t h e g e n e r a h a v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f identities.w i t h a species either arbitrarily chosen or e n c o u n t e r e d b y c h a n c e . T h i s process is r e p e a t e d w i t h t h e n e x t species. i n this w a y 142 . as it w e r e blindfold. a n d s o o n indefinitely. t h a t t h e y signalize t h e m s e l v e s b y a v e r y large n u m b e r o f c h a r acteristics. D e d u c t i o n i s t o b e t a k e n h e r e i n t h e sense of s u b t r a c t i o n . i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e task b e c o m i n g infinite. or b e t w e e n all t h e species of Aeonite. t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e general table o f relations.t h a t a r e to be used as characters. A k n o w l e d g e o f each species can b e a c q u i r e d easily u p o n t h e basis o f this general c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : ' W e shall d i v i d e each o f t h e t h r e e k i n g d o m s i n t o several families w h i c h w i l l g r o u p t o g e t h e r all those b e i n g s t h a t a r e strikingly related.as A d a n s o n did in his e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e plants of Senegal [29] . A t this p o i n t . t h r o u g h t h e o r i g i n a l chaos. b u t n e v e r m o r e t h a n o n c e . e v e n t o t h e least a n a l y t i c e y e . S o t h a t . A n d b y a r r a n g i n g t h e later a n d progressively m o r e sparse d e s criptions a r o u n d t h e earlier o n e s . a n d w h o s e general features h a v e b e e n defined. O n e b e g i n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s . it w i l l suffice to indicate w h a t difference distinguishes it f r o m t h e o t h e r s t h a t serve it as a sort of n a t u r a l e n t o u r a g e . T h e s e a r e t h e c o m m o n features t h a t w e n o w e s t a b lish in a positive w a y . t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f such species a s w e d o m e e t w i t h reveals t h e existence o f g r e a t 'families'.

b u t o n c e t h e s y s t e m of variables . t h e m e t h o d m u s t a l w a y s b e r e a d y t o rectify itself. t h e r e i s n o p r o o f t h a t i n t h e internal h i e r a r c h y o f a n y individual p l a n t s u c h a n d s u c h a f o r m o f pistil o r a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t a m e n s necessarily entails such a n d such a s t r u c t u r e : if t h e g e r m of t h e A d o x a is placed b e t w e e n t h e c a l y x a n d t h e corolla. i t i m m e d i a t e l y transcribes p e r c e p t i o n i n t o discourse. w h i c h are animals o f t h e s a m e family [30]. w h i c h o n e expresses b y a general n o t i o n applicable t o all t h o s e objects. . A s A d a n s o n says. n o t o n a c c o u n t o f its functional i m p o r t a n c e b u t o n a c c o u n t o f its c o m binative efScacity.has b e e n defined at t h e outset. w i t h o u t possessing t h a t feature. . T h e r e can b e o n l y o n e m e t h o d . b u t it is a l w a y s possible to a p p l y to t h e general c h a r a c t e r it has defined e m p i r i c a l l y such m o d i f i c a tions as m a y be i m p o s e d : a feature o n e h a d t h o u g h t essential to a w h o l e g r o u p o f p l a n t s o r animals m a y v e r y w e l l p r o v e t o b e n o m o r e t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r i t y o f a f e w o f t h e m . is a g i v e n a r r a n g e m e n t o f objects o r facts g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o certain g i v e n c o n v e n t i o n s o r r e s e m b l a n c e s . T h e m e t h o d i s i m p o s e d f r o m w i t h o u t . or as so g e n e r a l t h a t it c a n n o t suffer a n y e x c e p t i o n . b u t i t m u s t b e absolutely c o h e r e n t .t h e c h a r a c t e r . t h e tiger. t h e s t a m e n s 143 . b u t o n e c a n i n v e n t a n d a p p l y a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f s y s t e m s : A d a n s o n a l o n e set o u t s i x t y . t h e s y s t e m is like ' t h e trial a n d e r r o r m e t h o d in m a t h e m a t i c s ' : it is t h e result o f a decision. it is no l o n g e r possible t o m o d i f y it. t o a d d o r s u b t r a c t e v e n o n e e l e m e n t . i f o n e discovers o t h e r s that. in its p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e . i t r e m a i n s . M o r e o v e r . T h e s y s t e m i s a r b i t r a r y t h r o u g h o u t its d e v e l o p m e n t .CLASSIFYING we shall be assured of r e l a t i n g all these beings to t h e i r n a t u r a l families. a n d t h e h y e n a . I t i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t i n w h a t w a y t h e m e t h o d a n d the s y s t e m are o p p o s e d . t h e d o g a n d t h e bear. v e r y close to d e s c r i p t i o n . b e l o n g q u i t e o b v i o u s l y t o t h e s a m e family. T h e m e t h o d differs f r o m t h e s y s t e m o n l y i n t h e idea t h a t t h e a u t h o r attaches t o his principles. b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e ferret a n d t h e wolf. or if. b y t h e total resemblances t h a t relate t h i n g s t o g e t h e r . without. a n d t h u s . t h e s y s t e m can r e c o g n i z e o n l y relations o f c o o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n a n i m a l or v e g e t a b l e s t r u c t u r e s . Since t h e c h a r a c t e r is selected. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . in the a r u m . w e shall c o m e t o k n o w sufficient a b o u t t h e lion. r e g a r d i n g t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l n o t i o n o r p r i n c i p l e a s absolute o r invariable.f i v e [ 3 1 ] . t h e m e t h o d . r e g a r d i n g t h e m as variables in t h e m e t h o d a n d as absolutes in t h e s y s t e m [ 3 2 ] . however.

I n t h e m e t h o d . a n d it w a s sufficient for t h e naturalists' ' a g r e e m e n t ' to select a factitious c h a r a c t e r t h a t w o u l d distinguish b e t w e e n classes o r o r d e r s . f r o m t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . these are n o t h i n g m o r e o r less t h a n 'singular s t r u c t u r e s ' [ 3 3 ] . T o k n o w w h a t p r o p e r l y appertains t o o n e i n d i v i d u a l i s t o h a v e before o n e t h e classification . T h e m e t h o d . o r d e r e d . it is w h a t t h e o t h e r s are n o t . in Classical t e r m s . It enables us. I d e n t i t y a n d w h a t m a r k s i t are defined b y t h e differences that r e m a i n . their slight i m p o r t a n c e is a p r o d u c t of t h e i r r a r i t y a l o n e . w a s n o t t h e differences t h a t existed between t h e m b u t t h e fact t h a t this o n e h u n t e d its f o o d a t n i g h t . it exists in itself o n l y in so far as it is b o u n d e d by w h a t is distinguish144 . t h a t y e t a n o t h e r fed o n l i v i n g fleshes]. b o t h s y s t e m a n d m e t h o d rest u p o n t h e s a m e epistemological base.all o t h e r s . w h e r e a s t h e e q u a l division o f c a l y x a n d corolla derives its v a l u e o n l y f r o m its f r e q u e n c y [ 3 4 ] . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s y s t e m . expressed its i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n d e p e n d e n t l y of all t h e o t h e r s : it w o u l d h a v e b e e n perfectly possible for all those o t h e r s n o t t o exist. t h e r e can n o l o n g e r b e a n y signs e x c e p t i n t h e analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a tions a c c o r d i n g to identities a n d differences. t h e reversal i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t : t h e m o s t essential characters m a k e it possible to distinguish t h e largest a n d m o s t visibly distinct families.the* species was So that each species measured by the extent of a c o m m o n emblem. general o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d its internal d e p e n d e n c i e s are m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e lateral a p p l i c a t i o n of a c o n s t a n t a p p a r a t u s of variables. An a n i m a l or a p l a n t is n o t w h a t is indicated . B u t . I n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . for instance. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d .or t h e possibility of classifying . identified itself by itself. for T o u r n e f o r t o r L i n n a e u s . since t h e criteria o f definition w o u l d n o t t h e r e b y h a v e been m o d i f i e d for t h o s e t h a t r e m a i n e d visible. that a n o t h e r lived o n t h e w a t e r . T h a t is. a n d universal t a b u l a t i o n of all possible differences. to see w h i c h characters are i m p o r t a n t e n o u g h n e v e r t o b e n e g a t e d w i t h i n a g i v e n family. a k n o w l e d g e o f e m p i r i c a l individuals can b e a c q u i r e d o n l y f r o m t h e c o n t i n u o u s .. all designation m u s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by m e a n s of a certain relation to all o t h e r possible designations. t h e essential c h a r a c t e r defined t h e g e n u s .or b e t r a y e d .THE ORDER OF THINGS are a r r a n g e d b e t w e e n t h e pistils. It can be defined briefly by saying that. in fact. and. E v e r y b e i n g b o r e a m a r k . often visible) w h i c h t h e y all b o r e : w h a t distinguished t h e v a r i o u s species of birds. because i t p r o c e e d s f r o m identities a n d differences o f t h e m o s t general k i n d to those t h a t are less so. is capable of b r i n g i n g o u t vertical relations of s u b o r d i n a t i o n .by t h e s t i g m a that is to be f o u n d i m p r i n t e d u p o n it. t h e i d e n t i t y o f plants o r animals w a s assured b y t h e positive m a r k (sometimes h i d d e n . w h e r e a s . D e s p i t e these differences.

W h o can g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e descriptions. a n d that it will n o t function as an i n d i v i d u a l m a r k ? In o r d e r t h a t t h e simplest character can b e c o m e a p p a r e n t . respiration. t o o k u p its p o s i t i o n historically. b e g i n n i n g w i t h C u v i e r . are n o t g o i n g t o display e l e m e n t s that v a r y s o m u c h f r o m o n e i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e n e x t . t h e invertebrates w e r e t o b e defined. t h e r e w a s n o n e e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e status o f t h a t resemblance. T h e internal laws of t h e o r g a n i s m w e r e to replace differential characters as t h e object of t h e n a t u r a l sciences. a n d t h a t t h e c o m m o n n o u n m a y n e v e r b e able t o e m e r g e f r o m t h e p r o p e r n o u n . B u t in o r d e r t o o u t l i n e this rhetorical space i n w h i c h n o u n s g r a d u a l l y t o o k o n their general v a l u e . it w a s sufficient for 145 . as a f u n d a m e n t a l a n d constituent p r o b l e m o f n a t u r a l history. a n d by a w h o l e o r g a n i c cohesiveness o u t l i n i n g a p o s i t i v e u n i t y . o r f r o m o n e species t o t h e n e x t . T h e p r o b l e m h e r e is isom o r p h i c w i t h t h e o n e w e h a v e a l r e a d y m e t i n relation t o l a n g u a g e [ 3 6 ] : for a c o m m o n n o u n t o b e possible. o n e p r o b l e m r e m a i n s . b u t also by a certain m o d e of respiration. finally. by t h e existence of a t y p e of circulat i o n . It is possible after all t h a t t h e t r a n s f o r m a tion o f s t r u c t u r e i n t o character m a y n e v e r b e possible. t o cling t o their similarities a n d t h u s . t h e r e h a d t o b e a n i m m e d i a t e r e s e m blance b e t w e e n t h i n g s that p e r m i t t e d t h e signifying e l e m e n t s t o m o v e a l o n g t h e representations. L a t e r o n . to f o r m collective designations. or w h e t h e r it w a s f o u n d e d u p o n t r u t h .c o n s t r u c t e d l a n g u a g e that n a t u r a l h i s t o r y has b e c o m e . t h e i d e n t i t y o f species w a s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e s a m e w a y by a set of differences. M e t h o d a n d system are s i m p l y t w o w a y s o f defining i d e n tities b y m e a n s o f t h e general g r i d o f differences. Classification. b e t w e e n a t h e o r y of t h e mark a n d a t h e o r y of the organism. t o slide across t h e surface o f t h e m . V CONTINUITY AND CATASTROPHE A t t h e heart o f this w e l l . b u t t h e differences w e r e in this case to e m e r g e f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e great o r g a n i c unities possessing their o w n internal systems o f d e p e n d e n c i e s (skeleton. it is essential t h a t at least o n e e l e m e n t in the s t r u c t u r e e x a m i n e d first s h o u l d be r e p e a t e d in a n o t h e r .CLASSIFYING able f r o m it. o n c e m a d e . and in a necessary fashion. F o r t h e general o r d e r o f differences t h a t m a k e s i t possible t o establish t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f species implies a certain n u m b e r of similarities. c i r c u l a t i o n ) . t h a t a n y a t t e m p t t o use t h e m a s t h e basis for a c o m m o n n o u n w o u l d b e d o o m e d i n a d v a n c e ? W h o can b e certain that each s t r u c t u r e is n o t strictly isolated f r o m e v e r y o t h e r s t r u c t u r e . n o t o n l y b y their lack o f v e r t e b r a e .

it will b e c o m e a p p a r e n t t h a t all these values are o c c u p i e d b y real beings. t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r derives f r o m t h e g e n u s .c o n s t r u c t e d l a n g u a g e . it m u s t find a w a y o f a v o i d i n g that t h r e a t . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . a r e relative t o a c o n t i n u o u s scale o f objects o f w h i c h w e can clearly p e r c e i v e o n l y t h e m i d d l e r u n g s a n d w h o s e e x t r e m i t i e s increasingly f l e e f r o m a n d escape o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .l i n e t h a t indicates.a r e p o s i t e d t o start w i t h . t h e y will be areas t h a t are larger t h a n individuals b u t j u s t a s real. . b y t h e radical d o u b t that H u m e b r o u g h t to b e a r u p o n t h e necessity for r e p e t i t i o n in e x p e r i e n c e . I n this w a y . s o t h a t a n y d i v i d i n g . since r e s e m b l a n c e s in their massive a n d clearly e v i d e n t f o r m . b u t a positive r e q u i r e m e n t : all n a t u r e f o r m s o n e great fabric i n w h i c h beings r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r f r o m o n e t o t h e n e x t . these analogies of t h e i m a g i n a t i o n c a n n o t h a v e t h e v a l u e o f g u a r a n t e e s . n o t t h e g e n u s f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r ' [ 3 8 ] . h o w e v e r . T h e r e m u s t b e c o n t i n u i t y i n n a t u r e . I n t h e m e t h o d s . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t that n a t u r e s h o u l d b e c o n t i n u o u s does n o t t a k e e x a c t l y t h e s a m e f o r m in t h e systems as it does in t h e m e t h o d s . A n d t h e categories will n o t s i m p l y b e a r b i t r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s laid o u t o v e r this continuity of juxtaposition. c o n t i n u i t y consists o n l y o f t h e u n b r o k e n j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e different r e g i o n s that can b e clearly distinguished b y m e a n s o f c h a r acters. e v e n t h o u g h t h e y m a y n o t y e t b e k n o w n . s t a r t i n g f r o m this p r i n c i p l e . b u t t h e g e n u s t h a t constitutes t h e c h a r a c t e r . is a l w a y s u n r e a l . n o t t h e m i n u t e difference o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . i n w h i c h adjacent individuals are infinitely similar t o each o t h e r . w h i c h is a w e l l . all t h a t is r e q u i r e d is an u n i n t e r r u p t e d g r a d a t i o n of t h e values that t h e s t r u c t u r e selected as a c h a r a c t e r can a s s u m e in t h e species as a w h o l e . ' T h e s y s t e m indicates t h e plants. like all l a n g u a g e . T h e r e is a c o n t i n u i t y p r o d u c e d by fusion in w h i c h all g e n e r a l i t y is n o m i n a l . . e v e n t h o s e i t has n o t m e n t i o n e d . In n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . w h i c h i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e e n u m e r a t i o n o f a c a t a l o g u e can n e v e r d o ' [ 3 7 ] . t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e s y s t e m m a d e i t possible t o establish t h e existence o f i n d i s p u t a b l y w e l l f o u n d e d g e n e r a : ' K n o w t h a t i t i s n o t t h e c h a r a c t e r t h a t constitutes t h e g e n u s . O u r g e n e r a l ideas. T h e m o r e w e increase the 146 . a n d since n a t u r a l h i s t o r y i s t h r e a t e n e d . b u t b r o a d e r categories.THE ORDER OF THINGS it to strike t h e i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h sufficient force. t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f n a t u r e w i l l n o t b e this p u r e l y n e g a t i v e p o s t u l a t e (no b l a n k spaces b e t w e e n distinct categories). they will correspond (if t h e y h a v e b e e n p r o p e r l y established) to areas that h a v e a distinct existence on this uninterrupted surface of n a t u r e . F o r t h e s y s t e m atician. a c c o r d i n g t o L i n n a e u s . says Buffon.

step b y step. t h e y r e p r e s e n t n o m o r e t h a n ' m e a n s relative t o o u r needs a n d t o t h e limitations o f o u r k n o w l e d g e ' [ 4 0 ] . T h e identities o f n a t u r e w o u l d b e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n a s t h o u g h spelled o u t letter b y letter. m e a n i n g m u c h t h e s a m e t h i n g . t o traverse e x a c t l y . o r d e r s . i n its u n i n t e r r u p t e d m o m e n t u m . B u t this r e q u i r e m e n t i m m e d i a t e l y b e c o m e s a d o u b l e o n e . C o n s e q u e n t l y . In t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . varieties. a n d classes. s u c h a s t h e p o l y p b e t w e e n t h e a n i m a l a n d t h e v e g e t a b l e . o r rather it w o u l d already have been written by man's everyday language. w h e t h e r t h e y b e real a n d p r e scribed b y o b v i o u s distinctions o r a m a t t e r o f c o n v e n i e n c e a n d q u i t e simply a pattern produced by o u r imagination. A n d B o n n e t . a n d t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h i n g s w o u l d b e c o n s t i t u t e d a s scientific discourse b y its o w n s p o n t a n e o u s m o m e n t u m . o u r divisions i n t o species a n d classes ' a r e p u r e l y n o m i n a l ' . t h e c o n t i n u i t y of n a t u r e is a r e q u i r e m e n t of all n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . since n o t h i n g really exists i n n a t u r e e x c e p t i n d i viduals. s h a d e d . If t h e r e w e r e a n e m p t y space b e t w e e n a n y t w o b e i n g s . a n d t h e s p o n t a n e o u s shift o f w o r d s w i t h i n t h e i r r h e t o r i c a l space w o u l d r e p r o d u c e . t h a t is. species. w i t h perfect e x a c t i t u d e . i n c o n s e q u e n c e . N a t u r a l h i s t o r y w o u l d b e c o m e useless. t h e i d e n t i t y o f b e i n g s w i t h their increasing g e n e r a l i t y .CLASSIFYING n u m b e r o f divisions i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n s o f n a t u r e . descriptive designations w o u l d attain to g e n e r a l i t y q u i t e freely. B u t i f a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y perfectly distinct f r o m t h e analysis o f w o r d s is indispensable. a n d classes exist o n l y i n o u r i m a g i n a tion^]. t h e r e w o u l d b e n o n e e d t o c o n s t i t u t e a science. the m o n k e y between the q u a d r u p e d a n d m a n . t h e great c o n t i n u i t y c o m p r i s i n g i n d i viduals. O n l y continuity can g u a r a n t e e that n a t u r e repeats itself a n d t h a t s t r u c t u r e c a n . w h a t reason w o u l d t h e r e b e for p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e o n e t o t h e o t h e r ? T h e r e i s thus n o b e i n g a b o v e a n d b e l o w w h i c h t h e r e are n o t o t h e r beings t h a t are u n i t e d t o i t b y s o m e characters a n d separated f r o m i t b y o t h e r s . t h e closer w e shall a p p r o a c h t o t h e t r u e . It is t h e r e f o r e a l w a y s possible to discover ' i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o d u c t i o n s ' . of a n y effort to establish an o r d e r in n a t u r e a n d t o discover g e n e r a l categories w i t h i n it. t h e f l y i n g squirrel between the bird and the quadruped. g e n e r a . said: T h e r e are no leaps in n a t u r e : e v e r y t h i n g in it is g r a d u a t e d . b e c o m e character. general g r a m m a r w o u l d a t t h e s a m e t i m e b e t h e universal taxonomy o f beings. t h a t is because e x p e r i e n c e does n o t reveal t h e H7 . F o r i f i t w e r e g i v e n t o e x p e r i e n c e . a n d since g e n e r a .

Linnaeus p o i n t e d o u t t h a t . t h e v i o l e t g r o w s side b y side w i t h a n o a k . t h e animals. i s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n c h a n c e . a n d t h e insect. t h e r e . . It is possible. in relation to t h e g r e a t n e t w o r k of taxonomies. a n d w i t h t h e plants that g r o w in t h e d e p t h s of t h e w a t e r s . N o w . b y associating t h e h y d r a ( w h i c h i s a n a n i m a l ) a n d t h e c o n f e r v a ( w h i c h is an a l g a ) . since t h e real. T h i s m i x t u r e is i n d e e d so g e n e r a l a n d so m u l t i f a r i o u s t h a t it appears to be o n e of n a t u r e ' s laws [42]. w h e r e a s t h e t e m p e r a t e o r c o l d lands w e r e p e o p l e d b y species t h a t h a d n o t h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p e a r u n t i l t h a t t i m e . t o o . in an o r d e r w h i c h . . g o l d i s m i x e d w i t h a n o t h e r m e t a l . t h a t t h e e a r t h w a s o r i g i n a l l y incandescent.and b l u r r e d . b u t gives it to us b o t h b r o k e n up . w h a t t h e y affect first are t h e oceans a n d t h e c o n t i n e n t s . before g r a d u a l l y g r o w i n g c o l d e r . o r t u r b u l e n c e . w a n d e r t h e q u a d r u p e d . i n climatic c o n d i t i o n s . t h e reptile. b u t c o m b i n i n g i m p e r f e c t animals w i t h i m p e r f e c t plants'[4i]. i n t h e m o v e m e n t s o f t h e earth's crust.THE ORDER OF THINGS c o n t i n u i t y of n a t u r e as such. as Buffon. o n e m i g h t say.since t h e r e a r e a g r e a t m a n y gaps in t h e series of values effectively o c c u p i e d by t h e variables (there are possible creatures w h o s e place i n t h e g r i d o n e can note w i t h o u t ever having had the opportunity to observe them) . s u p p o s e d [43]. t h e y disappear w i t h t h e l a n d t h a t c r u m b l e s a w a y b e n e a t h t h e m . w i t h stone. n o t i n t h e l i v i n g species themselves. w i t h t h e a q u e o u s e l e m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y s w i m . A n d A d a n s o n r e m a r k e d t h a t n a t u r e is a confused m i n g l i n g o f beings t h a t s e e m t o h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r b y c h a n c e : h e r e . the fishes are confused. v o l c a n o e s d e s t r o y t h e m . in t h e s a m e localities. disorder. t h e n r e g r o u p e d themselves i n t h e o n l y r e g i o n t h a t still r e m a i n s t o r r i d . or t h e s p o n g e a n d t h e coral. T h e y are p r o d u c e d i n t h e relation o f t h e E a r t h t o t h e S u n . n a t u r e i s n o t . w i t h e a r t h . a c c u s t o m e d t o l i v i n g i n v e r y h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s . W i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e e a r t h . for e x a m p l e . b u t i n t h e s p a c e i n w h i c h those species reside. A m o n g these plants. this g r e a t m i x t u r e is t h e result of a c h r o n o l o g i c a l series of events. A n d these events h a v e their p o i n t o f o r i g i n a n d their p r i m a r y locus o f application. a s t h e o r d e r o f o u r classifications w o u l d h a v e it. t h e surface of t h e g l o b e . t h e t a x o n o m i c area (in w h i c h adjacencies are of t h e o r d e r ofcharacter a n d n o t ofmodus vivendi) w a s 148 . living b e i n g s are affected o n l y indirectly a n d in a s e c o n d a r y w a y : t h e y are a t t r a c t e d o r d r i v e n a w a y b y h e a t . l i n k i n g t o g e t h e r ' t h e m o s t perfect plants w i t h t h e animals t e r m e d v e r y i m p e r f e c t . g e o g r a p h i c a n d terrestrial space i n w h i c h w e find ourselves c o n f r o n t s u s w i t h creatures t h a t are i n t e r w o v e n w i t h o n e a n o t h e r .

O n e of t h e m is constituted by the continuous n e t w o r k o f b e i n g s . or r a t h e r a b u n d l e w h i c h e v e r y so often puts o u t side b r a n c h e s t h a t j o i n it up w i t h t h e b u n d l e s of a n o t h e r o r d e r ' [ 4 6 ] . h o w e v e r .in t h e c e n t r e . n a t u r a l h i s t o r y m u s t . n o t t h e beings themselves i n s o far a s t h e y h a v e t h e p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g alive. b u t o f w h i c h t h e inhabitants o f n e i g h b o u r i n g w o r l d s m a y p e r h a p s h a v e s o m e k n o w l e d g e [44].CLASSIFYING d i v i d e d u p i n t o a c o n c r e t e a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l area that j u m b l e d i t all u p . the other v e r y complicated. t h e series o f events i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s . p r e s u p p o s e t w o groupings. as a w h o l e . l e a v i n g n o t h i n g b e h i n d t h e m b u t traces difficult to d e c i p h e r . Pallas sees it as a p o l y h e d r i c figure [47]. its d e v e l o p m e n t lies i n t h e real d i m e n s i o n o f t h e w o r l d .t h e o n l y o n e t h a t is visible to us . C h a r l e s B o n n e t t h i n k s of it s o m e t i m e s as a g r e a t linear scale of w h i c h o n e e x t r e m i t y is very simple. s y m b o l i z e d by t h e biblical a c c o u n t s . In a n y case. t h e n c o m i n g t o g e t h e r a g a i n [ 4 8 ] . I t i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e w h o l e a s t r o n o m i c s y s t e m . To be able to exist as a science. w h i c h affects o u r a s t r o n o m i c s y s t e m directly a n d t h e t a x o n o m i c g r i d o f species i n d i r e c t l y . a n d t h e links t h a t j o i n this g l o b e t o t h e o t h e r celestial b o d i e s . i t w a s p r o b a b l y b r o k e n u p i n t o f r a g m e n t s . it can 14° . n o t t h e a n a l y t i c o n e of classifications. T h e r e is a historicity. i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e S u n a n d the comets. s e p a r a ting from one another. it is v e r y possible that o u r g l o b e u n d e r w e n t o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n s that h a v e n o t b e e n r e v e a l e d t o u s . a n d different in each of its episodes. adjacent t o t h o s e w e k n o w o r i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t a x o n o m i c squares familiar t o us. w i t h t h e crabs a n d crayfish as s u p p l e m e n t a r y r a m i f i c a tions) a n d t h e series o f insects o n t h e o t h e r . w i t h a n a r r o w intermediary r e g i o n . s o m e t i m e s as a central t r u n k f r o m w h i c h t h e r e is a b r a n c h f o r k i n g o u t on o n e side (that of t h e shellfish. this c o n t i n u i t y m a y take v a r i o u s spatial f o r m s . could have been the source of m a n y revolutions that have left n o traces p e r c e p t i b l e t o us. this historical series of events is an a d d i t i o n t o t h e expanse o f b e i n g s : i t does n o t p r o p e r l y a p p e r t a i n t o it. T h e series o f e v e n t s . M o r e o v e r . 'spreading out t h r o u g h a very great n u m b e r of lateral b r a n c h e s ' . H e r m a n n wished to constitute a three-dimensional m o d e l c o m p o s e d o f t h r e a d s all starting f r o m a c o m m o n p o i n t o f o r i g i n . e a c h o f w h i c h describes t h e t a x o n o m i c c o n t i n u i t y i n its o w n w a y . m u s t h a v e disappeared. w h a t it calls i n t o q u e s t i o n is t h e w o r l d as a locus for b e i n g s . a n d m a n y species. t h e n . b u t . i s q u i t e distinct f r o m these spatial c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . b r a n c h i n g o u t t o i n c l u d e t h e frogs [ 4 5 ] . a n d a p a r t f r o m Genesis a n d t h e F l o o d . Buffon defines this s a m e c o n t i n u i t y 'as a w i d e w o v e n strip.

VI MONSTERS AND FOSSILS It will be o b j e c t e d that. T h a t its i m p o r t a n c e w a s considerable in the middle of the eighteenth century. radically o p p o s e d because d e e p l y r o o t e d i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l choices o l d e r a n d m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l t h a n a n y science. T h e solidity.r o o t e d . t h e y dictate t h e intemperate i n t e r r u p t i o n s t h a t have c o n s t a n t l y dispersed t h e m . R o b i n e t . l o n g before L a m a r c k . a n d t h e r e f o r e i r r e d u c i b l e . d e s t r o y e d t h e m . T h e t e m p o r a l series c a n n o t b e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e g r a d a t i o n o f b e i n g s . t h e y are t w o s i m u l t a n e o u s r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l n e t w o r k t h a t defines t h e k n o w l e d g e o f n a t u r e i n t h e Classical a g e . a n d i n t e r w o v e n t h e m . a n d frozen. w h i c h is that of t i m e itself (and w h i c h c a n be c o n c e i v e d as straight. Diderot. n a t u r e resides w h o l l y b e t w e e n t h e fabric o f t h e taxinomia a n d t h e line of r e v o l u t i o n s . a t t h e s a m e level. t h e r e a l r e a d y existed a w h o l e b o d y o f t h o u g h t o f t h e e v o l u t i o n i s t t y p e . a r e t h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e g r e a t surface o f l i v i n g species t h a t a r e a p p a r e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w a y i t has b e e n p a t t e r n e d . a 'fixism' t h a t is c o n t e n t to classify t h e b e i n g s of n a t u r e in a p e r m a n e n t t a b u l a t i o n . In its c o n c r e t e f o r m . a n d a sort o f ' e v o l u t i o n i s m ' t h a t i s s u p p o s e d t o believe i n a n i m m e m o r i a l h i s t o r y o f n a t u r e a n d i n a d e e p . a n d B e n o i t d e Maillet all v e r y clearly articulated t h e idea t h a t 150 . T h e y a r e n o t t w o w a y s o f p e r c e i v i n g n a t u r e . T h a t Bonnet. a n d t h a t i t i s the task o f t h e discourse o f science t o t r a verse. separated t h e m .THB ORDER OF THINGS be d r a w n o n l y as a s i m p l e line. T h e t a b u l a t i o n s t h a t it f o r m s in t h e eyes o f m e n . a n d in t h e d e p t h t h a t i s p r o p e r t o it. o f a n e t w o r k o f species a n d genera. T h e eras o f n a t u r e d o n o t prescribe t h e internal time o f beings a n d their c o n t i n u i t y . as t w o different o p i n i o n s c o n f r o n t i n g o n e a n o t h e r in t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l o p t i o n s . B u t these t w o r e q u i r e m e n t s are c o m p l e m e n t a r y . m i n g l e d t h e m . o n w a r d u r g e o f all b e i n g s t h r o u g h o u t its c o n t i n u i t y . b u r s t o p e n . b e t w e e n t w o t e m p o r a l r e v o l u t i o n s . Maupertuis. and up to the sudden halt m a r k e d by the w o r k of Cuvier. for t i m e is n e v e r c o n c e i v e d as a p r i n c i p l e of d e v e l o p m e n t for l i v i n g beings in their internal o r g a n i z a t i o n . a n d t h e series o f events t h a t h a v e b l u r r e d t h a t n e t w o r k . w i t h o u t g a p s . b o t h b e l o n g . or circular). t o t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n t h a t m a d e a b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e like n a t u r a l h i s t o r y possible i n t h e Classical a g e . it is p e r c e i v e d o n l y as t h e possible b e a r e r of a r e v o l u t i o n in t h e e x t e r n a l space i n w h i c h t h e y live. It will be seen h o w superficial it is to o p p o s e . T h e r e i s n o t a n d c a n n o t b e e v e n t h e suspicion o f a n e v o l u t i o n i s m or a t r a n s f o r m i s m in Classical t h o u g h t . b r o k e n .

carried o n w a r d b y t h e same m o m e n t u m . T h e first consists i n i n t e g r a t i n g t h e series o f successions w i t h t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e beings a n d their d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r t h e table. T h e y are c o n c e r n e d . t h a t t h e p r e s e n t species are n o d o u b t t h e result o f f o r m e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . distance t h e w h o l e u n i n t e r r u p t e d fabric of beings is ceaselessly a d v a n c i n g t o w a r d s a greater perfection. such analyses are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h w h a t w e u n d e r s t a n d t o d a y b y e v o l u t i o n a r y t h o u g h t . because. o n c e t r a n s p o r t e d to an a b o d e m o r e suited to t h e e m i n e n c e o f his faculties. . i n fact. b u t in t h e sense that all t h e p o i n t s of t h e t a x o n o m y a r e affected by a t e m p o r a l i n d e x . . w i t h t h e result t h a t all t h e degrees o f t h e scale will b e c o n t i n u a l l y variable w i t h i n a d e t e r m i n e d a n d c o n stant relation . will leave t o t h e m o n k e y a n d t h e e l e p h a n t t h a t f o r e m o s t place t h a t h e o c c u p i e d before a m o n g t h e animals o f o u r p l a n e t . p e r h a p s u n b r i d g e a b l e . that t h e distance b e t w e e n G o d a n d t h e least defective o f his creatures is still infinite. . A n d i n o r d e r t o c o n c e i v e o f t h e u n i t y o f that table a n d that series t h e y h a v e o n l y t w o m e a n s a t t h e i r disposal. w i t h t h e result t h a t ' e v o l u t i o n ' i s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t a n d general d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e w h o l e scale f r o m t h e first o f its e l e m e n t s to t h e last. this does n o t m e a n that t h e latter has t h e r e b y b e e n o v e r t a k e n . He implies in t h e first place that t h e chain o f b e i n g . a n d t h a t t h e w h o l e o f t h e living w o r l d is p e r h a p s in m o t i o n t o w a r d s a future p o i n t . i t c a n n o t a v o i d perfecting itself t o a n e q u i v a l e n t degree: T h e r e will b e a c o n t i n u a l a n d m o r e o r less s l o w p r o g r e s s o f all t h e species t o w a r d s a s u p e r i o r perfection. does n o t a t p r e s e n t attain t o i t [ 4 9 ] . All t h e creatures t h a t t a x o n o m y has a r r a n g e d i n a n u n i n t e r r u p t e d s i m u l t a n e i t y a r e t h e n subjected t o t i m e . H e implies further t h a t this ' e v o l u t i o n ' keeps intact t h e relation t h a t exists b e t w e e n t h e different species: i f o n e o f t h e m . In fact. s t r e t c h i n g u p t h r o u g h a n i n n u m e r a b l e series o f links t o w a r d s t h e perfection o f G o d . s h o u l d attain t h e d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y p o s sessed b e f o r e h a n d b y t h e species o n e step h i g h e r . so t h a t o n e c a n n o t g u a r a n t e e o f a n y living f o r m t h a t i t has b e e n definitively a c q u i r e d a n d is n o w stabilized forever. . M a n . T h e r e will be N e w t o n s a m o n g t h e m o n k e y s a n d V a u b a n s 151 . w i t h l i n k i n g t h e table o f identities a n d differences t o t h e series o f successive events.CLASSIFYING living f o r m s m a y pass f r o m o n e i n t o a n o t h e r . N o t i n t h e sense t h a t t h e t e m p o r a l series w o u l d g i v e rise to a m u l t i p l i c i t y of species t h a t a h o r i z o n t a l l y o r i e n t e d e y e c o u l d t h e n a r r a n g e a c c o r d i n g to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of a classifying g r i d . T h i s system is that of C h a r l e s B o n n e t . a n d t h a t across this. i n t h e process o f perfecting itself.

o n e after t h e o t h e r . It is n o t a matter of progressive hierarchization. be a p r e f o r m a t i o n i s t a n d a s far r e m o v e d a s possible f r o m w h a t w e u n d e r s t a n d . in reality. I t causes t h e variables o f the l i v i n g w o r l d to a s s u m e all possible values successively: it is t h e i m m e d i a c y of a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t h a t is a c c o m p l i s h e d little by little a n d . a n d t h a t it is pre-established. h e m u s t s u p p o s e t h a t t h e upheavals o r catastrophes o f t h e g l o b e w e r e a r r a n g e d i n a d v a n c e a s s o m a n y o p p o r tunities for t h e infinite c h a i n of b e i n g to c o n t i n u e its p r o g r e s s in t h e d i r e c t i o n o f infinite a m e l i o r a t i o n : ' T h e s e e v o l u t i o n s w e r e foreseen a n d inscribed i n t h e g e r m s o f a n i m a l s u p o n t h e v e r y first d a y o f c r e a t i o n . F o r these e v o l u t i o n s a r e l i n k e d w i t h r e v o l u t i o n s i n t h e w h o l e solar s y s t e m t h a t w e r e a r r a n g e d b y G o d i n a d v a n c e . A n d e v e r y species will b e c a u g h t u p i n t h e / f e m e w a y i n t h a t g r e a t m u t a t i o n . B o n n e t m u s t . b y ' e v o l u t i o n i s m ' . as it w e r e . t h e r e f o r e . o n e d a y it w i l l . w h e n v i e w e d t o g e t h e r . T h e partial identities o r resemblances that m a k e a taxinomia possible w o u l d t h e n b e t h e m a r k s . since t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . is n o t an* e v o l u t i o n i s m b e g i n n i n g to o v e r t h r o w t h e old d o g m a of fixism. b u t of the constant and total force e x e r t e d b y a n a l r e a d y established h i e r a r c h y . it is a taxinomia that includes t i m e in a d d i t i o n . a n d t h e infiniteness o f t h e p r o g r e s s of beings t o w a r d s perfection to their infinite m u l t i p l i c i t y . T h e o t h e r f o r m o f ' e v o l u t i o n i s m ' consists o f g i v i n g t i m e a c o m p l e t e l y o p p o s i t e r o l e t o p l a y . r e v e a l e d i n t h e p r e s e n t . e l e m e n t after e l e m e n t . I n t h e e n d this p r e supposes that t i m e . it is clear. T h i s ' e v o l u t i o n i s m ' i s n o t a w a y o f c o n c e i v i n g o f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f beings as a process of o n e g i v i n g rise to a n o t h e r .THE ORDER OF THINGS a m o n g t h e b e a v e r s . b u t to reveal. S u c h a system. ' T h e u n i v e r s e i n its e n t i r e t y has b e e n a larva. far f r o m b e i n g a p r i n c i p l e of taxinomia.a generalized classification. like all t h e o t h e r values a s s u m e d by all t h e o t h e r variables. T h e oysters a n d t h e p o l y p s will stand i n t h e s a m e relation t o t h e species a t t h e t o p o f t h e scale a s t h e birds a n d t h e q u a d rupeds d o n o w t o man[5o]. persisting t h r o u g h all t h e u p h e a v a l s o f n a t u r e a n d t h e r e b y filling all t h e v a c a n t possibilities offered b y t h e 152 . no d o u b t . n o w it is a chrysalis. t h e squares that. will f o r m t h e c o n t i n u o u s n e t w o r k o f t h e species. b e c o m e a butterfly [52]. t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t i m e t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f space. it is a w a y of g e n e r a l izing t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y a n d t h e l a w t h a t requires that all beings f o r m an u n i n t e r r u p t e d e x p a n s e . It adds. o f o n e a n d t h e s a m e l i v i n g b e i n g . I t i s used n o l o n g e r t o m o v e t h e classifying table as a w h o l e a l o n g t h e finite or infinite line l e a d i n g to p e r f e c t i o n . is m e r e l y o n e of its factors. in a Leibnizian s t y l e [ 5 i ] .

h e r e . B u t t h e m o d e i n w h i c h t h e air. t h e e x t e r i o r elements i n t e r v e n e o n l y in so far as t h e y occasion t h e e m e r g e n c e of a character. t h e table of species that it is possible for n a t u r a l history to establish has been built up piecemeal by t h e balance. C o n s e q u e n t l y . A n d t h a t e m e r g e n c e .as it is to be in M a u p e r t u i s . at t h e t i m e w h e n the o r i g i n a l w a t e r s o f t h e e a r t h w e r e e b b i n g . it is because t h e y w e r e o n c e . c o n s t a n t l y 153 . as it was to be described by L a m a r c k .a slightly different c h a r a c t e r f r o m that originally g i v e n . b u t in a h i g h e r d e g r e e of c o m plexity a n d p e r f e c t i o n . e n a b l i n g it to t a k e on a n e w character w h e n a n a t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n occurs. a p r i n c i p l e of m o d i f i c a t i o n m u s t be defined w i t h i n t h e living b e i n g . o r t o a t t r i b u t e t o t h e m s o m e o b s c u r e u r g e t o w a r d s a t e r m i n a l species t h a t will possess t h e c h a r acters of all those that h a v e p r e c e d e d it. t h e w a t e r . t h e n . and t h e positive action o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . as it w a s later t o b e f o u n d i n D a r w i n .e v o l u t i o n i s m o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y seems to presage e q u a l l y well t h e s p o n t a n e o u s v a r i a t i o n of character. i n fact. B e n o i t de Maillet p o i n t s o u t . w i t h a n o t h e r c h o i c e : either t o p r e s u p p o s e a s p o n t a n e o u s a p t i t u d e in l i v i n g beings to c h a n g e their f o r m s (or at least to a c q u i r e . as in certain forms o f e v o l u t i o n i s m . s o t h a t i t will c h a n g e g r a d u a l l y f r o m o n e t o the n e x t a n d finally b e c o m e u n r e c o g n i z a b l e ) . E v e n t h o u g h a h u n d r e d millions m a y h a v e perished w i t h o u t h a v i n g b e e n able t o g r o w a c c u s t o m e d t o it.CLASSIFYING t a x o n o m i c table. m a y p e r h a p s h a v e p r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f t h e species f r o m its m a r i n e t o its t e r restrial h o m e . T h e first s y s t e m is t h a t of errors to infinity . carried i n t o s w a m p s . T h e seed o f these f i s h e s . I f birds h a v e w i n g s i n t h e w a y that f i s h e s h a v e f i n s . t h e sequence o f t i m e c a n n e v e r b e a n y thing b u t t h e line a l o n g w h i c h all t h e possible values o f t h e pre-established variables succeed o n e a n o t h e r . i t w a s sufficient for t w o o f t h e m t o a r r i v e a t t h a t p o i n t t o g i v e rise t o t h e species[53]. is r e n d e r e d possible a priori by t h e general table of variables t h a t defines all t h e possible f o r m s of t h e living w o r l d . o r the e a r t h acts u p o n animals is n o t that of an e n v i r o n m e n t u p o n a function and u p o n t h e o r g a n s i n w h i c h t h a t function takes place. t o b e t h e necessary cause o f t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f n e w species. T h e q u a s i . t h o u g h i t m a y b e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by such a n d such a global e v e n t .w i t h succeeding g e n e r a t i o n s . C h a n g e s in t h e c o n d i t i o n s of life of living beings s e e m h e r e . o n c e for all. A c c o r d i n g to this s y s t e m . d e h y d r a t e d giltheads or d o l p h i n s that passed o v e r . i n t o an aerial h o m e . t h e c l i m a t e . W e are p r e s e n t e d . B u t this is an illusion of h i n d s i g h t : for this f o r m o f t h o u g h t .

u n t i l w e reach t h e m o s t c o m p l e x a r r a n g e m e n t w e k n o w of. t h e least active f o r m m i n e r a l substances.B . t h e e l e m e n t s c o m b i n e . m u c h finer. p r o d u c e s species w h i c h a r e d i v i d e d a n d s u b d i v i d e d t o infinity b y n e w a r r a n g e m e n t s ' [ 5 5 ] . a n d dispersion. In this case it is necessary to s u p p o s e . T h u s . f o r g o t t e n . i n size. T h e s e f o r m s . 154 . T h e s a m e can b e said for t h e inverse s y s t e m o f t h e p r o t o t y p e a n d the t e r m i n a l species. living b e i n g s a c q u i r e d by successive variations all t h e characters w e n o w r e c o g n i z e i n t h e m . a n d . o r miscarried differences. w h e n o n e considers t h e m i n t h e d i m e n sion o f t i m e . w h i c h t h e s t u b b o r n force o f m e m o r y m a i n t a i n s i n existence i n t u r n : ' B y d i n t o f r e p e a t e d d e v i a t i o n s . in r e f i n e m e n t .THE ORDER OF THINGS p r e s e n t in n a t u r e .t h e p r o j e c t o f a c o m p l e x b e i n g t o w a r d s w h i c h n a t u r e m a k e s its w a y f r o m t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f s i m p l e elements w h i c h i t g r a d u a l l y c o m b i n e s a n d a r r a n g e s : 'First o f all. g l i m m e r . A n d this process c o n t i n u e s until a d e v i a t i o n of t h e particles . R o b i n e t . in internal t e x t u r e . A n d this is t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t : n a t u r e has a h i s t o r y o n l y in so far as it is susceptible of c o n t i n u i t y . these a r e t h e ones t h a t g o v e r n exclusively the organization of minerals. It is because it takes on all possible characters in t u r n (each v a l u e of all t h e variables) that it is p r e s e n t e d in t h e f o r m of a succession. T h e visible species t h a t n o w p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s for o u r analysis h a v e b e e n separated o u t f r o m t h e ceaseless b a c k g r o u n d o f m o n s t r o s i t i e s that a p p e a r . differences. sink i n t o t h e abyss. t h e infinite diversity o f t h e a n i m a l s c a m e t o p a s s ' [ 5 4 ] . w i t h J . M a u p e r t u i s supposes that t h e p a r ticles o f m a t t e r are e n d o w e d w i t h activity a n d m e m o r y . w h i c h are t h e result o f a t t r a c t i o n a n d c h a n c e . W h e n a t t r a c t e d t o o n e a n o t h e r . then 'the magnificence of nature' continues t o increase w i t h o u t a b r e a k ' u p t o t h e level o f t h e beings t h a t m o v e u p o n t h e surface o f t h e g l o b e ' . t h e m o s t active f o r m t h e m o r e c o m p l e x bodies o f animals. T h o s e that d o r e m a i n i n existence g i v e rise t o n e w individuals i n w h i c h t h e characters o f t h e p a r e n t c o u p l e are p r e s e r v e d b y m e m o r y . disappear i f t h e y are u n a b l e t o s u r v i v e . A small n u m b e r o f s i m p l e principles serves as a basis for all b o d i e s ' . A n d s o o n . ' t h e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n s i n n u m b e r .a c h a n c e h a p p e n i n g b r i n g s i n t o b e i n g a n e w species. c o n t i n u i t y : a c o n t i n u i t y t h a t has b e e n w o v e n f r o m a n incalculable n u m b e r o f t i n y . n o t by m e m o r y . t h a t c o n t i n u i t y is assured. p r o g r e s s i n g f r o m o n e t o t h e n e x t . a n d occasionally s u r v i v e . b e t w e e n a m e m o r y t h a t g u a r a n t e e s its c o n t i n u i t y ( m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e species i n t i m e a n d their r e s e m b l a n c e t o o n e a n o t h e r ) a n d a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s d e v i a t i o n that s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g u a r a n t e e s t h e existence o f h i s t o r y . a n d in e x t e r n a l f o r m . solid expanse t h e y f o r m i s m e r e l y t h e f r a g m e n t a r y result o f a m u c h m o r e t i g h t l y k n i t . b u t by a p r o j e c t . t h e c o h e r e n t .

o f w h i c h s o m e h a v e persisted i n t h e f o r m o f c o n t i n u i n g species a n d s o m e h a v e s u n k i n t o o b l i v i o n . j u s t as t h e geological c a t a s t r o p h e w a s necessary t o enable u s t o w o r k b a c k f r o m t h e 155 . b e l o n g necessarily a n d essentially t o t h e universal p l a n o f b e i n g . p e r h a p s . I n d e e d . if it is necessary for t i m e . t h e necessity o f i n t r o d u c i n g m o n s t e r s into t h e s c h e m e . as in M a u p e r t u i s . C o n t i n u i t y is n o t t h e visible w a k e of a f u n d a m e n t a l history in w h i c h o n e s a m e l i v i n g p r i n c i p l e struggles w i t h a variable e n v i r o n m e n t . .f o r m i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d noise. I t i s o n l y . It is n o t . First. M o n s t e r s a r e n o t o f a different ' n a t u r e ' f r o m t h e species t h e m selves: We should believe t h a t t h e m o s t a p p a r e n t l y bizarre f o r m s . b u t t h a t against t h e c o n t i n u o u s b a c k g r o u n d o f all t h e possible variations t i m e traces o u t a n itinerary u p o n w h i c h climates a n d g e o g r a p h y p i c k o u t o n l y certain p r i v i l e g e d regions destined to s u r v i v e .t h e w h o l e c o n t i n u i t y o f n a t u r e . or ignores it a n d allows it to disappear. B e t w e e n these t w o e x t r e m e s t h e r e lie all t h e possible degrees o f c o m p l e x i t y a n d c o m b i n a t i o n . even t h o u g h t h e y present us w i t h different p h e n o m e n a . i n t h e p e r s o n o f t h e h u m a n b e i n g [ 5 6 ] .like a n i m m e n s e series o f e x p e r i m e n t s . A n d h i s t o r y can p l a y no m o r e t h a n a n e g a t i v e r o l e in relation to it: it either picks o u t an e n t i t y a n d allows it to survive. t h a t far f r o m d i s t u r b i n g t h e o r d e r o f things. T h i s has t w o consequences. . t h a t t i m e or d u r a t i o n ensures t h e c o n t i n u i t y a n d specification o f living beings t h r o u g h o u t t h e diversity o f successive e n v i r o n m e n t s . succession a n d h i s t o r y are for n a t u r e m e r e l y m e a n s of traversing t h e infinite fabric of variations of w h i c h it is capable. w h i c h is limited. It is its c o n d i t i o n . o n e i s forced t o a d m i t t h a t a considerable n u m b e r o f possible variations h a v e b e e n e n c o u n t e r e d a n d t h e n erased. t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o it. t h a t t h e y p r e p a r e a n d b r i n g a b o u t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w t h e m . F o r c o n t i n u i t y precedes t i m e . a n d t h e e x t r e m e c o m p l i c a t i o n of this m o d e l as it is n o w possible to o b s e r v e it. b y d i n t o f p r o d u c i n g m o n s t r o u s beings t h a t n a t u r e succeeds i n p r o d u c i n g beings o f g r e a t e r r e g u l a r i t y a n d w i t h a m o r e s y m m e t r i c a l s t r u c t u r e [ 5 7 ] . In R o b i n e t . at least on this e a r t h l y g l o b e .o r p e r h a p s t o h a v e already r u n t h r o u g h . t o r u n t h r o u g h . t h a t t h e y serve as m e a n s o f passing t o adjacent f o r m s . t h e endless m u r m u r of n a t u r e . as it w e r e . t h a t t h e y are metamorphoses of the p r o t o t y p e just as natural as the others. b u r i e d deeper t h a n a n y h i s t o r y . j u s t a s t h e y themselves w e r e b r o u g h t a b o u t b y those t h a t p r e c e d e d t h e m . t h e n .CLASSIFYING S o t h a t t h e entire c o n t i n u i t y o f n a t u r e resides b e t w e e n a n absolutely archaic p r o t o t y p e .

w i t h its m i x e d a n i m a l a n d m i n e r a l n a t u r e . for m a n ' s ear.THE ORDER OF THINGS t a x o n o m i c table t o t h e c o n t i n u u m . O n t h e basis o f t h e p o w e r o f t h e c o n t i n u u m held b y n a t u r e . a n d for o u r theoretical k n o w l e d g e . H o w . i s t h e p r i v i l e g e d locus o f a r e s e m b l a n c e r e q u i r e d b y t h e h i s t o r i a n o f t h e c o n t i n u u m . as an obvious aberration of forms. so t h e proliferation of m o n s t e r s w i t h o u t a future is necessary t o e n a b l e u s t o w o r k d o w n again f r o m t h e c o n t i n u u m . i s w o r t h y o f p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n .s t o c k of specification. or sexual parts. Since this history i s n o t defined b y a n y relation o f o r g a n i s m t o e n v i r o n m e n t [ 5 8 ] . H o w m a n y fossils are t h e r e . T h e o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e is t h a t t h e signs o f c o n t i n u i t y t h r o u g h o u t s u c h a h i s t o r y can n o l o n g e r b e o f a n y o r d e r o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f r e s e m b l a n c e . t o g e t h e r w i t h its l o w e r or d e s c e n d i n g b r a n c h [59]. t h r o u g h a t e m p o r a l series. t h e living forms will b e subjected i n i t t o all possible m e t a m o r p h o s e s a n d leave b e h i n d t h e m n o trace o f t h e p a t h t h e y h a v e f o l l o w e d o t h e r t h a n t h e reference p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t e d b y similitudes. t h e m o n s t e r ensures t h e e m e r g e n c e of difference. t h e m o n s t e r i s t h e r o o t . starting f r o m a p r i m i t i v e p r o t o t y p e . T h i s difference is still w i t h o u t l a w a n d w i t h o u t a n y well-defined s t r u c t u r e . a n d for t h a t reason is n a m e d A n t h r o p o c a r d i t e . has n e v e r ceased t o w o r k t o w a r d s t h e p r o v i s i o n a l l y t e r m i n a l f o r m t h a t i s m a n ? B y t h e fact that i t has . as we m o v e in o n e direction. for e x a m p l e . w h a t m u s t b e c o n s t r u e d . T h e fossil. Its s u b stance is flint inside. T h e fossil i s w h a t p e r m i t s resemblances t o subsist t h r o u g h o u t all t h e deviations traversed by n a t u r e . T h e m o n s t e r ensures i n t i m e . v o l c a n o e s . . it functions as 156 . . for o u r e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e . O n e can distinguish i n i t t h e s t u m p o f t h e v e n a c a v a . T h e m o n s t e r a n d t h e fossil b o t h p l a y a v e r y precise r o l e i n this c o n f i g u r a t i o n . w h e r e a s t h e space o f t h e taxinomia d e c o m p o s e d i t w i t h r i g o u r . a r e w e t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t n a t u r e . a c o n t i n u i t y that. as a d r a m a of the earth and waters must be construed. f l o o d s . like so m a n y plaster statues. in the other direction. t h r o u g h a b l u r r e d . fashioned o n e d a y a n d d r o p p e d t h e n e x t i n f a v o u r o f a m o r e perfected f o r m ? T h e species t h a t resembles t h e h u m a n h e a r t . t o t h e table. b u t it is o n l y a sub-species itself in t h e s t u b b o r n l y s l o w s t r e a m o f h i s t o r y . chaotic. t o g e t h e r w i t h a p o r t i o n o f its t w o cross-sections. T h e f o r m of a h e a r t is i m i t a t e d as perfectly as p o s sible. or skull. a b a n d o n e d o n t h e w a y t h o u s a n d s o f f o r m s that p r o v i d e u s w i t h a p i c t u r e o f t h e r u d i m e n t a r y m o d e l . a n d s u b s i d i n g c o n t i n e n t s confuse in space. O n e can also see t h e s t u m p o f t h e g r e a t a r t e r y e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e left v e n t r i c l e . I n o t h e r w o r d s . and f r a g m e n t e d e x p e r i e n c e .

i n its u n c o n s i d e r e d m a r g i n s . B u t t h e y all rested u p o n a sort of historical a priori. o f the genesis of differences. N o r is it a q u e s t i o n of a m o r e general rationality i m p o s i n g identical f o r m s u p o n g r a m m a t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d u p o n taxinomia. a n d r e n d e r e d equally possible all t h e differences of o p i n i o n of w h i c h t h e y w e r e t h e source. it is so impossible for natural history to c o n c e i v e of the history of nature. w h i c h a u t h o r i z e d t h e m in their dispersion and in their singular a n d d i v e r g e n t projects. R a t h e r . w h i c h o r d e r s t h e k n o w l e d g e o f beings s o a s t o m a k e i t possible t o represent t h e m i n a system o f n a m e s . B u t . t h e n w i t h character. T h u s . or as a m o v e m e n t ceaselessly b e i n g o u t l i n e d . a n d t h e fossil recalls. in t h e u n c e r t a i n t y of its resemblances. has b e e n tried o u t in t h e o n e n e x t to it. m a n y inquiries o t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t s a t classification. t h e epistemological a r r a n g e m e n t delineated b y t h e table a n d t h e c o n t i n u u m i s s o f u n d a m e n t a l . t h e m o n s t e r p r o v i d e s a n a c c o u n t . against t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c o n t i n u u m . w a v e r i n g r e g i o n i n w h i c h w h a t analysis is to define as identity is still o n l y m u t e a n a l o g y . n o r o f a c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s . because it has 'succeeded' in o n e field. t h e first b u d d i n g s o f identity. it concerns a f u n d a m e n t a l a r r a n g e m e n t of k n o w l e d g e . n o r is it 157 .either as a totality of destructive events alien to l i v i n g beings a n d o c c u r r i n g o n l y f r o m o u t s i d e t h e m . t h e n halted as s o o n as sketched. A n d y e t it is n o t a q u e s t i o n of a transference of m e t h o d . m a n y k i n d s o f analysis o t h e r t h a n that of identities a n d differences. T h i s a priori does n o t consist of a set of c o n s t a n t p r o b l e m s u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y presented to m e n ' s curiosity by c o n c r e t e p h e n o m e n a as so m a n y e n i g m a s . VII THE D I S C O U R S E OF N A T U R E T h e t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y c a n n o t b e dissociated f r o m that o f l a n g u a g e . a s t h o u g h i n caricature. it m a r k s a quasi-character in t h e shift of t i m e . A n d this is because t h e m o n s t e r a n d t h e fossil a r e m e r e l y t h e b a c k w a r d p r o j e c t i o n o f those differences a n d those identities that p r o v i d e taxinomia first w i t h s t r u c t u r e . f r o m o n e to t h e o t h e r . T h e r e w e r e doubtless. i n this r e g i o n w e n o w t e r m life. B e t w e e n table a n d c o n t i n u u m t h e y f o r m a shady. n o r o f t h e prestige o f a m o d e l w h i c h . m o b i l e . in t r u t h . T h i s i s w h y i t occurs o n l y i n o r d e r to b r i n g a b o u t t h e necessary passage f r o m o n e to t h e o t h e r . a n d perceptible o n l y on t h e fringes of t h e table. t h a t b e c o m ing can o c c u p y n o t h i n g b u t a n i n t e r m e d i a r y place m e a s u r e d o u t for i t solely b y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e w h o l e . a n d w h a t it will define as assignable a n d c o n s t a n t difference is still o n l y free a n d r a n d o m v a r i a t i o n .CLASSIFYING a distant a n d a p p r o x i m a t i v e f o r m of i d e n t i t y .

it is doubtless n o t e v e n d e t e r m i n e d b y w h a t i s called t h e m e n t a l i t y o r t h e ' f r a m e w o r k o f t h o u g h t ' o f a n y g i v e n p e r i o d . p r o v i d e s m a n ' s e v e r y d a y p e r c e p t i o n w i t h theoretical p o w e r s . t h e four elements (proposition. t h e stability o f species. in a g i v e n p e r i o d . In t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . d e s i g n a t i o n . t h e definition o f t h e four variables o f description. delimits in t h e totality o f e x p e r i e n c e a field o f k n o w l e d g e . a m o r e or less a w a k e n e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n . articulation. prejudices. d e r i v a t i o n ) leave interstices o p e n b e t w e e n t h e m : individual experiences. w a s t h e existence of a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y : t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a certain visible existence as a d o m a i n o f k n o w l e d g e . T h i s a priori is w h a t . needs or passions.a n d a universally valid o n e . It constitutes a w h o l e d o m a i n of e m p i r i c i t y as at t h e s a m e t i m e describable a n d orderable. progress of r a t i o n a l i t y . N a t u r a l h i s t o r y is c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h l a n g u a g e : it is on t h e same level as t h e s p o n t a n e o u s p l a y that analyses representations in t h e m e m o r y . a n d f i n a l l y i m p o s e s n a m e s . In s p o n t a n e o u s a n d ' b a d l y c o n s t r u c t e d ' l a n g u a g e . B u t n a t u r a l h i s t o r y c a n n o t a n d s h o u l d n o t exist as a l a n g u a g e i n d e p e n d e n t of all o t h e r languages unless it is a w e l l . t h e historical a priori that p r o v i d e d t h e basis for i n q u i r y i n t o or c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t t h e existence o f g e n e r a . establishes signs u p o n t h e basis o f those e l e m e n t s . defines t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f t h e objects that a p p e a r i n t h a t field. i f w e are t o u n d e r s t a n d b y t h a t t h e historical o u t l i n e o f t h e speculative interests. by b i o l o g y . it covers a series of c o m p l e x o p e r a t i o n s t h a t i n t r o d u c e t h e possibility o f a c o n s t a n t o r d e r i n t o a totality of representations. to c o n t i n u i t y . o r b r o a d theoretical o p t i o n s o f t h e t i m e . W h a t m a k e s it a k i n to theories o f l a n g u a g e also distinguishes i t f r o m w h a t w e h a v e u n d e r s t o o d . t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f a n area o f adjacencies i n w h i c h a n y individual b e i n g w h a t e v e r can find its place. h a v e established h u n d r e d s of different l a n g u a g e s . to m e m o r y .l a n g u a g e s that differ f r o m o n e a n o t h e r n o t o n l y i n t h e f o r m o f their w o r d s . habits. a n d t h e transmission o f characters f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . a n d defines t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h h e can sustain a discourse a b o u t things t h a t is r e c o g n i z e d to be t r u e . since t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .c o n s t r u c t e d l a n g u a g e . a n d causes it to p l a y a certain critical r o l e in Classical t h o u g h t .THE ORDER OF THINGS m a d e u p o f a certain state o f a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e laid d o w n i n t h e course o f t h e p r e c e d i n g ages a n d p r o v i d i n g a g r o u n d for t h e m o r e o r less i r r e g u lar. beliefs. m o r e or less r a p i d . d e t e r m i n e s their c o m m o n elements. Classification a n d speech h a v e their place o f o r i g i n i n t h e same space t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o p e n s u p w i t h i n itself because it is consecrated to t i m e . b u t a b o v e all 158 . to reflection. N a t u r a l h i s t o r y in t h e Classical age is n o t m e r e l y t h e d i s c o v e r y of a n e w object of curiosity.

w h i c h articulates t o g e t h e r all t h e variables t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d to a b e i n g . w h i c h appears t h e r e f o r e a t t h e v e r y basis o f n o m i n a t i o n . a n d it is w i t h i n t h e latter that t h e n a m e s b r i n g their system o f articulation i n t o p l a y . In o r d e r to fulfil a n d enclose t h e figure t h a t p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e m o n o t o n o u s function of t h e v e r b to be to d e r i v a t i o n a n d traversal of rhetorical space.leads back to a costly r e q u i r e m e n t . n a t u r e m u s t be t r u l y c o n t i n u o u s . designates at first sight any b o d y in n a t u r e in such a w a y t h a t t h e b o d y in question expresses t h e n a m e t h a t is p r o p e r to it. A n d n o t o n l y because 159 . in t h e o p e n i n g left b e t w e e n description a n d a r r a n g e m e n t . w h i c h e n d o w t h e c o m m o n n a m e s w i t h their scope a n d extension. t h e soul of science. as established by n a t u r a l history. So t h a t a b o v e t h e o r d i n a r y . W h e r e l a n g u a g e r e q u i r e d t h e similarity o f impressions. on the o t h e r h a n d . spontaneous language had no need of anything b u t the play of imaginat i o n : t h a t is. F o r taxonomy to be possible. N o w . e v e r y d a y w o r d s (and b y m e a n s o f t h e m . as its c o n d i t i o n . B u t this essential n o m i n a t i o n . since i t i s o f c o u r s e necessary to use t h e m for t h e initial descriptions) t h e r e is raised t h e edifice of a l a n g u a g e in t h e second d e g r e e in w h i c h t h e exact N a m e s of t h i n g s finally r u l e : T h e m e t h o d . of i m m e d i a t e resemblances. n a t u r a l history r e g r o u p s these t w o functions i n t o t h e u n i t y o f t h e structure.c o n s t r u c t e d l a n g u a g e o n l y if t h e a m o u n t of p l a y in it is enclosed: if its descriptive e x a c t i t u d e m a k e s e v e r y p r o p o s i t i o n i n t o an invariable p a t t e r n of reality (if o n e can a l w a y s attribute to t h e r e p r e s e n t a tion w h a t is articulated in it) a n d if t h e designation of each b e i n g indicates clearly t h e place it occupies in t h e general arrangement of t h e w h o l e . in its individual f u n c t i o n i n g . t h e function o f t h e v e r b i s universal a n d v o i d .this transition f r o m t h e visible s t r u c t u r e to t h e t a x o n o m i c character . A n d w h e r e a s in l a n g u a g e t h e designation. is presupposed well before l a n g u a g e . i t m e r e l y p r e scribes t h e m o s t general f o r m of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . In l a n g u a g e . classification requires t h e p r i n c i p l e of t h e smallest possible difference b e t w e e n t h i n g s . i n t h e course o f t i m e . this c o n t i n u u m . t h e character. a n d in all its p l e n i t u d e . m a k e s i t possible b o t h t o indicate t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t o situate it in a space of generalities that fit inside o n e a n o t h e r . a n d that this n a m e recalls all t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t m a y .CLASSIFYING i n t h e w a y i n w h i c h those w o r d s p a t t e r n representation. N a t u r a l h i s t o r y can be a w e l l . is e x p o s e d t o t h e h a z a r d o f derivations. h a v e been a c q u i r e d a b o u t t h e b o d y t h u s n a m e d : so that in t h e m i d s t of e x t r e m e confusion there is revealed t h e s o v e r e i g n o r d e r o f n a t u r e [60].

t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n n o place for e v e n t h e m e r e s t n a m e .c o n s t r u c t e d l a n g u a g e . It is w i t h o u t d o u b t t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f n a t u r e t h a t gives m e m o r y t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f exercising itself. i n t h e v e r y d e p t h o f things. w h i c h are r e c o g n i z e d a s c a p a b l e o f g r o w t h . or r a t h e r several classes. B u t o n e m u s t situate i t m u c h h i g h e r i n t h e series i f o n e defines i t b y m e a n s o f 160 . It is usual to d i v i d e t h e t h i n g s in n a t u r e i n t o t h r e e classes: m i n e r a l s .t h o u g h w i t h o u t such n a m e s i t w o u l d r e m a i n m u t e a n d invisible . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e criteria o n e a d o p t s . As for life a n d t h e t h r e s h o l d i t establishes. and a n i m a l s . a s w h e n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n possible t o speak. a n d if it is possible to speak of life it is o n l y as of o n e c h a r a c t e r . T o establish t h e g r e a t . criticize. b u t n o t o f m o v e m e n t o r feeling. g e n e r a . and . i n t h e Classical p e r i o d . T h e s e beings f o r m o n e class. If. o n e defines life b y t h e m o b i l i t y a n d relations o f affinity that d r a w elements towards one another and keep t h e m together. t h r o u g h s o m e confused a n d ill-perceived identity. recalls a n o t h e r a n d m a k e s i t possible t o a p p l y t o b o t h t h e a r b i t r a r y sign of a c o m m o n n a m e . a n d finally reconstitute a t n e w expense a l a n g u a g e w h o s e c o n d i t i o n o f possibility resided p r e cisely i n t h a t c o n t i n u u m . w h i c h a r e capable of s p o n t a n e o u s m o v e m e n t [61]. h a d n o t been c o n t i n u o u s . life does n o t exist: o n l y living beings.in t h e universal d i s t r i b u t i o n of beings. a n d classes. justifies l a n g u a g e ) f o r m e d . i f n a t u r e . I m a g i n a t i o n ( w h i c h . before all r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s . unflawed table o f t h e species. i n fact.in t h e t a x o n o m i c sense of t h a t w o r d . w h i c h nevertheless presents i t t o o u r k n o w l e d g e a n d r e n d e r s i t visible only w h e n wholly spanned by language. T h i n g s a n d w o r d s a r e v e r y strictly i n t e r w o v e n : nature is posited only t h r o u g h the grid of denominations. then one m u s t c o n c e i v e of life as residing in t h e simplest particles of m a t t e r . i s w h y n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . w i t h o u t its t h e n b e i n g k n o w n . in t h e series of all t h e t h i n g s in t h e w o r l d . these can b e m a d e t o slide f r o m o n e end o f t h e scale t o t h e o t h e r . c o n t i n u o u s l y p r e s e n t on t h e far side of this grid.THE ORDER OF THINGS it can p r o v i d e t h e basis for a w e l l . b y m a k i n g c o m p a r i s o n possible. vegetables. w h i c h are c a p a b l e o f g r o w t h a n d susceptible t o sensation. c a n n o t b e established a s b i o l o g y . W h a t w a s p r e s e n t e d in t h e i m a g i n a t i o n as a b l i n d similitude w a s m e r e l y t h e b l u r r e d a n d unreflected trace o f t h e g r e a t u n i n t e r r u p t e d fabric o f identities a n d differences. n a t u r a l h i s t o r y h a d t o e m p l o y . n o d o u b t .i t g l i m m e r s far off b e y o n d t h e m . t h e a m b i g u o u s locus i n w h i c h t h e shattered b u t insistent c o n t i n u i t y o f n a t u r e was u n i t e d w i t h t h e e m p t y b u t a t t e n t i v e c o n t i n u i t y o f consciousness. U p t o t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w i t h M a u p e r t u i s . b u t because it a c c o u n t s for all l a n g u a g e in general.

e p i d e r m s . W e m u s t t h e r e f o r e n o t c o n n e c t n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . a s i t w a s manifested d u r i n g t h e Classical p e r i o d . t h e naturalist . a n d h e n a m e s t h e m ' [ 6 4 ] . diseases. T h e critical q u e s t i o n did exist i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B u t t h e d i v i d i n g . inversely. since it is essentially a c o n c e r t e d use of n a m e s a n d since its u l t i m a t e a i m is to g i v e t h i n g s their t r u e d e n o m i n a t i o n . so t h e fossils. but. It is a c a t e g o r y of classification. albeit an o b s c u r e a n d still faltering o n e . it is i n t e r w o v e n w i t h a t h e o r y of w o r d s . position. I t leaps o v e r t h e e v e r y d a y v o c a b u l a r y t h a t p r o v i d e s i t w i t h its i m m e d i a t e g r o u n d . subject to certain imprecisions as s o o n as t h e q u e s t i o n of d e c i d i n g its frontiers arises. it criticizes l a n g u a g e . In reality. it resides in its e n t i r e t y in t h e area of l a n g u a g e . a n d b e y o n d t h a t g r o u n d it searches for that w h i c h c o u l d h a v e c o n s t i t u t e d its raison d'etre. relative. n u t r i t i o n (by intussusception). A n d also. d e a t h .l i v i n g is n e v e r a decisive p r o b l e m [63]. a n d utricles [62]. in fact. internal p r o p u l s i o n o f fluids. to k n o w n a t u r e is. as L i n n a e u s d i d w h e n he set up as his criteria b i r t h ( b y seed o r b u d ) .'distinguishes the p a r t s of n a t u r a l bodies w i t h his eyes. like t h e m . w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y of life. Life docs n o t c o n stitute a n o b v i o u s t h r e s h o l d b e y o n d w h i c h entirely n e w f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e are r e q u i r e d . T h e naturalist i s t h e m a n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e visible w o r l d a n d its d e n o m i n a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o characters.CLASSIFYING a c r o w d e d a n d c o m p l e x c h a r a c t e r . As L i n n a e u s says. to b u i l d u p o n t h e basis of l a n g u a g e a t r u e l a n g u a g e . N a t u r a l h i s t o r y is situated b o t h b e f o r e a n d after l a n g u a g e . as well as t h e metals. F o r this reason i t c o u l d n o t a c q u i r e e i t h e r a u t o n o m y or t h e v a l u e of radical q u e s t i o n i n g : it p r o w l e d endlessly t h r o u g h a r e g i o n 161 . f o r m . a n d p r o p o r t i o n . o n e that will reveal t h e c o n d i t i o n s in w h i c h all l a n g u a g e is possible a n d t h e limits w i t h i n w h i c h i t can h a v e a d o m a i n o f v a l i d i t y . b u t i n o r d e r t o r e c o m p o s e i t a n d d i s c o v e r w h a t has m a d e i t possible t h r o u g h t h e b l i n d resemblances o f i m a g i n a t i o n . b u t l i n k e d t o t h e f o r m o f a d e t e r m i n a t e k n o w l e d g e . J u s t a s t h e z o o p h y t e stands o n t h e a m b i g u o u s frontier b e t w e e n animals a n d plants. t o t h e criteria o n e a d o p t s . like all t h e o t h e r categories. it d e c o m p o s e s the l a n g u a g e o f e v e r y d a y life. b u t in o r d e r to reveal its f o u n d a t i o n . B e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d t h e t h e o r y o f n a t u r e t h e r e exists t h e r e f o r e a relation that is of a critical t y p e . a n d presence o f vessels. g l a n d s . e x t e r i o r m o v e m e n t . reside in t h a t u n c e r t a i n frontier r e g i o n w h e r e o n e does n o t k n o w w h e t h e r o n e o u g h t t o speak o f life o r n o t .w h o m he calls Historicns naturalis . describes t h e m a p p r o p r i a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o their n u m b e r . N o t w i t h life. this is because it also delves d o w n i n t o t h e o r i g i n o f l a n g u a g e . If n a t u r a l history r e w o r k s l a n g u a g e a n d a t t e m p t s to perfect it.l i n e b e t w e e n t h e living a n d t h e n o n . a g e i n g .

f r o m K a n t t o D i l t h e y a n d t o B e r g s o n . S o t h a t t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . f r o m the r i g h t t o n a m e t o t h e basis for a t t r i b u t i o n . T h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y transfers t h e critical q u e s t i o n f r o m the c o n c e p t t o the j u d g e m e n t . a n d the v a l u e o f g e n e r a l a n d abstract ideas validity of the concept. and i s a n s w e r a b l e . b u t it also resists this critical j u r i s d i c t i o n . w e see c r i t i c i s m d i s p l a c i n g i t s e l f a n d d e t a c h i n g i t s e l f f r o m t h e g r o u n d w h e r e i t h a d first arisen. O n the o t h e r h a n d . w h e r e a s b e f o r e i t w a s a q u e s t i o n o f establishing relations o f i d e n t i t y o r difference against the continuous background of similitudes. reverses t h e q u e s t i o n . q u e s t i o n s t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f all k n o w l e d g e . B u f f o n a n d H u m e a r e o u r e v i d e n c e o f this . i n its o w n n a m e . it W h e r e u p o n i t b e c o m e s a b s o l u t e l y g e n e r a l i z e d . f r o m n o m i n a l a r t i c u l a t i o n to the p r o p o s i t i o n itself. critical f o r m s o f t h o u g h t and p h i l o s o p h i e s o f life f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i o n o f r e c i p r o c a l b o r r o w i n g and contestation.L o c k e and Linnaeus. b y i s o l a t i n g c a u s a l i t y .THE ORDER OF THINGS w h e r e w h a t m a t t e r e d w a s r e s e m b l a n c e .i n short. life assumes its a u t o n o m y i n r e l a t i o n t o the c o n c e p t s o f classification. to all c r i t i c i s m in g e n e r a l . a n d to t h e v e r b to be that establishes it. Instead o f h a v i n g v a l i d i t y s o l e l y w h e n a p p l i e d t o t h e relations o f n a t u r e a n d h u m a n n a t u r e . n a t u r e a n d h u m a n n a t u r e . In the Classical a g e . w h i c h i t takes o v e r o n its o w n a c c o u n t a n d b r i n g s t o bear.t h e critical q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n e d the basis f o r r e s e m b l a n c e a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f the g e n u s . h o w e v e r . t h e relations b e t w e e n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s i m i l i t u d e imaginaand the t i o n . W h e r e a s H u m e m a d e the p r o b l e m o f c a u s a l i t y o n e case i n the g e n e r a l i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f r e s e m blances [65]. O n the o n e h a n d . a n d d u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r i o d . It^escapes f r o m that critical r e l a t i o n w h i c h . K a n t . I t escapes . i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s c o n s t i t u t i v e o f the k n o w l e d g e o f n a t u r e . . I n t h e late e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . f r o m the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e g e n u s ( o b t a i n e d b y the analysis o f representations) to the possibility of linking representations together. i n this respect. a n e w c o n f i g u r a t i o n w a s t o a p p e a r that w o u l d d e f i n i t i v e l y b l u r t h e o l d space o f natural h i s t o r y f o r m o d e r n e y e s . o n all possible k n o w l e d g e . Kant brings into p r o m i n e n c e t h e i n v e r s e p r o b l e m o f t h e synthesis o f t h e d i v e r s e .w h i c h m e a n s t w o things: life b e c o m e s o n e o b j e c t o f k n o w l e d g e a m o n g o t h e r s . the s t r e n g t h o f the .

B u t ' n o t i o n ' is n o t really t h e w o r d we should a p p l y to it. is t h a t of wealth. t h e r e i s n o political e c o n o m y . B u t t h e r e i s n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . W e m u s t therefore a v o i d a r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e a d i n g o f these t h i n g s that w o u l d m e r e l y e n d o w t h e Classical analysis o f w e a l t h w i t h t h e ulterior u n i t y of a political e c o n o m y in t h e t e n t a t i v e process of c o n s t i t u t i n g itself. since it does n o t o c c u r w i t h i n a n i n t e r p l a y o f e c o n o m i c concepts t h a t i t m i g h t displace t o s o m e slight e x t e n t by t a k i n g o v e r a little of their m e a n i n g or eating i n t o their s p h e r e of application. like s o m a n y partial objects. a n d a b o v e all. price. w h i c h . 166 . t h o u g h it has lost its essential precision for us. a n d general g r a m m a r . t h e r e does exist in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries a n o t i o n t h a t is still familiar to us t o d a y . t r a d e . o r Bauzee's t h e o r y o f tenses w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e fact that general g r a m m a r w a s its historical c o n d i t i o n of possibility. for e x a m p l e . Y e t i t i s i n this w a y t h a t historians o f ideas d o g o a b o u t their r e c o n s t r u c tions o f t h e e n i g m a t i c b i r t h o f this k n o w l e d g e . if their n a m e s h a v e b e e n p e r p e t u a t e d in succeeding ages w i t h s o m e w h a t a n a l o g o u s m e a n i n g s ) . circulation. n o r any p h i l o l o g y either. w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s y s t e m f r o m w h i c h t h e y d r a w their positivity. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m . t h e n o t i o n s o f v a l u e . because. T h i s d o m a i n . useless also to analyse its v a r i o u s concepts (even. p r o d u c t i o n does n o t exist. i n t h e o r d e r o f k n o w l e d g e . It is m o r e a question of a general d o m a i n : a v e r y c o h e r e n t a n d v e r y well-stratified layer t h a t comprises a n d contains. I n t h e s a m e w a y . i n c o m e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . O n e m i g h t a s well t r y t o analyse t h e L i n n a e a n g e n u s outside t h e d o m a i n o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y .CHAPTER 6 Exchanging I THE ANALYSIS OF WEALTH T h e r e is no life in t h e Classical p e r i o d . t h e g r o u n d a n d object o f ' e c o n o m y ' i n t h e Classical age. It is useless to apply it questions d e r i v i n g f r o m a different t y p e of e c o n o m i c s . interest. n o r a n y science of life.o n e o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d p r o d u c t i o n or w o r k .

t a k e n u p i n F r a n c e b y Boisguillebert a n d Q u e s n a y ) . R i c a r d o t h e role p l a y e d b y capital. I n fact. t h e c o n c e p t s o f m o n e y . a n d i n T u r g o t ) . b y o p p o s i n g t h e useless dearness o f t h e d i a m o n d t o t h e cheapness o f t h e w a t e r w i t h o u t w h i c h we c a n n o t live (it is possible. political e c o n o m y is s u p p o s e d to h a v e b e g u n to exist w i t h its o w n p r o p e r object a n d its o w n inner coherence.on the task o f d i s e n t a n g l i n g t h e t h e o r y o f intrinsic v a l u e f r o m t h a t o f m a r k e t v a l u e . at connecting value to a general t h e o r y o f utility ( w h i c h w e find sketched o u t i n Galiani. a b o v e all. t h e n b y a systematic confusion b e t w e e n m o n e y a n d w e a l t h . to a lesser d e g r e e . i n t e r m s 167 .t h o u g h n o t a r b i t r a r y . a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h i g h prices to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t r a d e w a s s u p p o s e d l y r e a c h e d (this is t h e ' B e c h e r p r i n c i p l e ' . a n d m a r k e t w e r e n o t r e g a r d e d . t a k i n g u p t h e analysis of p r o d u c t i o n again in a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . circulation.character (as a c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e l o n g discussion b e t w e e n bullionists a n d anti-bullionists: a m o n g t h e first w o u l d h a v e t o b e i n c l u d e d C h i l d . F r o m this m o m e n t o n . a n d t h e g r e a t ' p a r a d o x o f value* w a s dealt w i t h . B a r b o n . price. political e c o n o m y i s t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n silently b r i n g i n g i n t o position its essential t h e m e s . t o o .B . a start is s u p p o s e d to h a v e b e e n m a d e . to find this p r o b l e m r i g o r ously f o r m u l a t e d in G a l i a n i ) . lastly . in fact. Boisguillebert. T h e y p r e s u p p o s e t h a t a scientific e c o n o m i c s h a d for l o n g b e e n r e n d e r e d impossible b y a p u r e l y m o r a l p r o b l e m a t i c s o f profit a n d i n c o m e ( t h e o r y o f t h e fair price. a b e g i n n i n g is t h o u g h t to have been m a d e . fully a r m e d a n d already full o f d a n g e r . a n d .in the w o r k of Cantillon .a start w a s m a d e on t h e analysis o f t h e m e c h a n i c s o f p r o d u c t i o n . Say.B . A d a m S m i t h is s u p p o s e d t o h a v e b r o u g h t t o light t h e process o f t h e increasing division o f l a b o u r .EXCHANGING s p r a n g u p i n W e s t e r n t h o u g h t . t h u s prefiguring the w o r k of Jevons and M e n g e r . C a n t i l l o n . M o n t e s q u i e u a n d M e l o n ) . L o c k e . L a w .a n d h e r e we m e e t t h e Physiocrats . t h e n . a n d J . v a l u e a n d m a r k e t p r i c e : a n d o f this assimilation t h e y take m e r c a n t i l i s m t o b e o n e o f t h e principle causes a n d t h e m o s t striking manifestation. B u t t h e n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s supposed t o h a v e p r o v i d e d t h e essential distinctions a n d o u t l i n e d s o m e o f t h e great p r o b l e m s that positivist e c o n o m i c s s u b s e q u e n t l y treated w i t h tools b e t t e r a d a p t e d t o t h e task: m o n e y i s supposed t o h a v e revealed i n this w a y its c o n v e n tional . i n Graslin. justification o r c o n d e m n a t i o n o f interest). P e t t y . i n f r a g m e n t s h e r e a n d there. until t h e m o m e n t w h e n . after t h e disaster o f 1 7 2 0 . a t t h e t i m e o f R i c a r d o a n d J . Galiani. Say s o m e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l laws o f t h e m a r k e t e c o n o m y . v a l u e . i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h centuries. a m o n g t h e latter. A n d thus.

T h e m o n e t a r y r e f o r m prescribed b y t h e States G e n e r a l o f 1 5 7 5 . It is this a r r a n g e m e n t that sustains t h e 'analysis of w e a l t h ' in its overall necessity. a n d e x c h a n g e is linked to a practice a n d to institutions. i t w o u l d n o t b e possible t o discover t h e link o f necessity that connects t h e analysis o f m o n e y . j u s t a s o n e c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d . or a l m o s t so. In a n y g i v e n c u l t u r e a n d at a n y g i v e n m o m e n t . w i t h o u t e x p l o r i n g t h e d o m a i n o f n a t u r a l history. A n d t h o u g h practice a n d p u r e speculation m a y b e placed i n o p p o s i t i o n t o o n e a n o t h e r . w h e t h e r expressed in a t h e o r y or silently invested in a practice. i n t h e same w a y . t h e y nevertheless rest u p o n o n e a n d t h e same f u n d a m e n t a l g r o u n d o f k n o w ledge. B o u t e r o u e . b u t as p a r t of a r i g o r o u s a n d general epistemological a r r a n g e m e n t . or C a n t i l l o n . a b a n k i n g c u s t o m . a n d t h a t o f roots a n d their d e v e l o p m e n t . P e t t y . b u t w h o s e necessities a r e exactly t h e same as for abstract theories or speculations w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t relation to reality.THE ORDER OF THINGS of a s h a d o w y future. A n d j u s t as it is n o t possible to u n d e r s t a n d t h e t h e o r y of v e r b a n d n o u n . T h e analysis of w e a l t h is to political e c o n o m y w h a t general g r a m m a r is to p h i l o l o g y a n d w h a t n a t u r a l history is to b i o l o g y . v a l u e . T h i s is because reflection u p o n m o n e y . so. a t r a d e practice can all be rationalized. t r a d e . mercantilist measures. o r L a w ' s e x p e r i m e n t a n d its liquidation. A n d it is these f u n d a m e n t a l necessities o f k n o w l e d g e that w e m u s t give voice t o . t h e analysis o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f action. t o t h e p r o b l e m o f prices a n d that o f t h e best m o n e t a r y substance. It is t r u e that t h e analysis of w e a l t h is n o t c o n s t i t u t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e s a m e curves o r i n o b e d i e n c e t o t h e s a m e r h y t h m a s general g r a m m a r o r n a t u r a l history. A m o n e y r e f o r m . or 'fixism' a n d ' e v o l u t i o n ' . and t r a d e if o n e did n o t first clarify this d o m a i n of w e a l t h w h i c h is t h e locus of their s i m u l t a n e i t y . can all d e v e l o p . t o t h e archaeological n e t w o r k that m a k e s those t h i n g s possible and necessary. m a i n t a i n themselves or disappear a c c o r d i n g t o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s . characterization. II MONEY AND PRICES In t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . t h e y a r e all based u p o n a certain g r o u n d o f k n o w l e d g e : an obscure k n o w l e d g e that does n o t manifest itself fonAts o w n sake in a discourse. T h e 168 . t h e r e is a l w a y s o n l y o n e episteme t h a t d e fines t h e c o n d i t i o n s of possibility of all k n o w l e d g e . e c o n o m i c t h o u g h t is restricted. prices. w i t h o u t referring. all h a v e t h e s a m e archaeological basis as t h e theories of D a v a n z a t t i . t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y o f general g r a m m a r . any m o r e than the opposition between system and m e t h o d . w h a t Classical description. a n d t a x o n o m y were.

o f t h e price relation b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s metals e m p l o y e d . It possessed the p o w e r to signify because it w a s itself a real m a r k . w h i c h g a v e e i t h e r t h e p r i n c e o r p o p u l a r c o n s e n t t h e r i g h t t o f i x t h e valor impositus o f m o n e y . H e n c e t h e correlation b e t w e e n t h e p r o b l e m o f prices a n d t h e n a t u r e o f m o n e y . T h e t w o functions o f m o n e y . the signs t h a t i n d i c a t e d w e a l t h a n d m e a s u r e d i t w e r e b o u n d t o c a r r y t h e real m a r k i n themselves. t h a t is. A n d j u s t as w o r d s h a d t h e s a m e reality as w h a t t h e y said. w h o s e m a t e r i a l l e n g t h a n d v o l u m e serve a s u n i t s [ i ] . n o r g o l d . A m e a s u r e is stable. i t r e t u r n s t o w h a t i t w a s before. t o w i t h d r a w a n y c a t e g o r y o f coins o r a n y particular m e t a l . a n d o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n b e t w e e n t h e w e i g h t s o f coins a n d their n o m i n a l values. a s a c o m m o n m e a s u r e b e t w e e n c o m m o d ities a n d as a substitute in t h e m e c h a n i s m of e x c h a n g e . w h i c h constitutes t h e p r i v i l e g e d object o f all reflection upon wealth from Copernicus to Bodin and Davanzatti. if it has as a s t a n d a r d an assignable reality t h a t can be c o m p a r e d to t h e diversity of t h i n g s t h a t o n e wishes to m e a s u r e : as is t h e case. C o p e r n i c u s p o i n t s o u t . all these qualities h a d t o b e stable i f t h e m a r k t h e y i m p r i n t e d u p o n things w a s t o b e a n a u t h e n t i c a n d universally legible signature. I n this sense. b u t o n l y v a l u e d a c c o r d i n g t o their w e i g h t ' [ 2 ] . similarly. T h e p r o b l e m o f m o n e t a r y substance i s t h a t o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e standard. desirable. w h e n princes h a d n o t y e t s t a m p e d their effigy o r seal u p o n pieces o f m e t a l . are based u p o n its material reality. r e c o g n i z e d as valid by e v e r y o n e a n d in all places. a r b i t r a r y signs w e r e n o t a c c o r d e d t h e v a l u e of real m a r k s .EXCHANGING q u e s t i o n o f prices c o n c e r n s the absolute o r relative c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i n creasing clearness of c o m m o d i t i e s a n d t h e effect t h a t successive devaluations o r t h e influx o f A m e r i c a n metals m a y h a v e h a d u p o n prices. and as a sign for m e a s u r i n g w e a l t h . w i t h t h e f a t h o m a n d t h e bushel. in so far as it w a s itself w e a l t h . 169 . m o n e y does n o t t r u l y m e a s u r e unless its u n i t is a reality t h a t really exists. I n c o n s e q u e n c e . t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y r e t u r n s t o t h e t h e o r y accepted d u r i n g a t least p a r t o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s . m o n e y w a s a fair m e a s u r e because it signified n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n its p o w e r t o standardize w e a l t h o n t h e basis o f its o w n m a t e r i a l reality as w e a l t h . t o m o d i f y its rate. a t t h a t t i m e ' n e i t h e r c o p p e r . useful. n o r silver w e r e m i n t e d . since the m e t a l a p p e a r e d o n l y as a sign. M o r e o v e r . j u s t as t h e m a r k s of l i v i n g beings w e r e inscribed u p o n their bodies i n t h e m a n n e r o f visible a n d positive m a r k s . T h e v a l u e o f m o n e y m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e q u a n t i t y o f m e t a l i t c o n t a i n s . t h e y themselves h a d t o b e precious. I n o r d e r t o r e p r e s e n t prices. to w h i c h a n y c o m m o d i t y w h a t e v e r m a y b e referred. B u t these t w o scries of p r o b l e m s w e r e linked. T h e y h a d t o b e rare.

the proclamation of M a r c h 1561 ' b r o u g h t d o w n ' the nominal value o f m o n e y a n d m a d e i t equal o n c e m o r e t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f m e t a l each coin c o n t a i n e d . t h e fact that c o i n a g e circulates all t h e q u i c k e r for b e i n g less g o o d . T h e sign t h e coins b o r e . in a d d i t i o n t o t h e definition b y w e i g h t a n d t h a t b y n o m i n a l v a l u e : this s u p p l e m e n t a r y relation concealed t h e sense o f m o n e t a r y o p e r a t i o n s f r o m those w h o did n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t ) . w h e r e a s coins w i t h a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e 170 . inspired E n g l a n d ' s m o n e t a r y p o l i c y u n d e r Elizabeth.w a s m e r e l y t h e exact a n d t r a n s p a r e n t m a r k o f t h e m e a s u r e t h e y constituted. It is n o t k n o w n w h e t h e r t h e Compendious. in France. t h e edict o f S e p t e m b e r 1 5 7 7 established t h e g o l d ecu as b o t h a real coin a n d an a c c o u n t i n g u n i t . since t h e ' f o r c i n g u p ' o f its n o m i n a l value has l o n g since vitiated its functions of m e a s u r e m e n t . First. T h e r e was a n a t t e m p t t o b r i n g m o n e t a r y signs back t o their e x a c t i t u d e a s m e a s u r e s : t h e n o m i n a l values s t a m p e d o n t h e coins h a d to be in c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e q u a n t i t y of m e t a l chosen as a s t a n d a r d a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o each c o i n . as for n e w m o n e y . I n this sense. s o that h e n c e f o r w a r d o n l y t h e n e w a n d t h e o l d m o n e y will b e c u r r e n t . silver.t h e valor impositus . a p u r e l y * arithmetical o n e . O n e t h i n g is certain: t h a t after a series o f ' f o r c i n g s u p ' (devaluations) b e t w e e n 1 5 4 4 and 1559. a certain n u m b e r o f p h e n o m e n a c a m e t o light w h i c h a r e peculiar t o t h e m o n e y . each i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o n e a n d t h e same value. t h e a n o n y m o u s a u t h o r of t h e Compendious insists t h a t all t h e m o n e y actually c u r r e n t s h o u l d cease to be so after a certain d a t e . t h e States General of 1 5 7 5 asked for a n d o b t a i n e d t h e suppression of a c c o u n t i n g ^jinits ( w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d a t h i r d definition of m o n e y . w h i c h r e tained its legality as t e n d e r b u t lost its legal i m m u t a b i l i t y . w e i g h t a n d d e n o m i n a t i o n . all c o i n a g e already m i n t e d s h o u l d t h e n b e accepted o n l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the a m o u n t o f m e t a l it is estimated to c o n t a i n . Similarly.in particular. w h i c h w a s n o t published before 1 5 8 1 . s o that all m o n e y will b e re-established at its f o r m e r rate a n d r e g a i n its f o r m e r g o o d n e s s [3]. b u t was certainly in existence a n d circulating in m a n u s c r i p t for t h i r t y years b e f o r e h a n d .THE ORDER OF THINGS It is u p o n this epistemological foundation t h a t r e f o r m s w e r e effected i n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . m o n e y w o u l d t h e n signify n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n its m e a s u r i n g v a l u e . decreed t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n of all o t h e r metals to g o l d . B u t at t h e s a m e t i m e as this r e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n w a s b e i n g d e m a n d e d . that will h a v e its o w n w e i g h t a s its n o m i n a l v a l u e . a n d occasionally a c c o m p l i s h e d .s i g n a n d p e r h a p s definitively c o m p r o m i s e d its role as a m e a s u r e . T h e c o i n a g e w a s t h u s restandardized o n t h e basis o f its metallic w e i g h t . a n d t h a t the controversies o f t h e a g e assumed their p a r t i c u l a r d i m e n s i o n s .

for t h e s a m e a m o u n t o f a c o m m o d i t y o n e is t h e r e f o r e g i v i n g a larger q u a n t i t y of m e t a l . A n d t h o u g h M a l e s t r o i t implicitly a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y a n d m a r k e t a b l e v a l u e o f metals r e m a i n e d stable. for t h e s a m e q u a n t i t y o f w h e a t . T h e s t a n d a r d o f equivalences i s itself i n v o l v e d i n t h e system o f e x changes. d e t e r m i n e s it. o n e still gives t h e s a m e w e i g h t i n silver o r g o l d . it is inevitable t h a t an ell of velvet. is thus reversible. a n d t h a t a l m o s t t h e o n l y o n e that n o o n e has t o u c h e d u p o n h i t h e r t o ' : ' t h e a b u n d a n c e o f g o l d a n d silver'. it b e c o m e s clearly a p p a r e n t t h a t it is subjected to t h e s a m e v a r i a t i o n s a s all o t h e r m e r c h a n d i s e . a n d b o t h C o p e r n i c u s [5] a n d t h e a u t h o r o f t h e Compendious^] w e r e already a w a r e of it.' B u t o n c e this identification has been established b e t w e e n t h e role o f m o n e y and the mass o f metal i t causes t o circulate. ' T h e increasing dearness o f things does n o t c o m e f r o m h a v i n g t o deliver m o r e b u t f r o m receiving a lesser q u a n t i t y of g o l d or fine silver t h a n o n e w a s a c c u s t o m e d to before. in its p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e .q u a l i t y c o i n s . Second. observes t h a t t h e r e has been an increase i n t h e stock o f m e t a l i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e N e w W o r l d . s h o u l d n o w b e w o r t h t e n . there h a d b e e n n o increase i n prices d u r i n g t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y : since c o m m o d i t i e s a r e a l w a y s w h a t t h e y are. Malcstroit[7] h a d p o i n t e d o u t that. t h e increased dearness o f c o m m o d i t i e s can b e d u e o n l y t o t h e a u g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e n o m i n a l values b o r n e b y a n u n c h a n g i n g metallic mass: b u t . a n d since m o n e y . a n d i n c o n s e q u e n c e a real increase in t h e price of c o m m o d i t i e s . T h e rise in prices therefore has a 'principal cause. a n d t h e b u y i n g p o w e r o f m o n e y signifies n o t h i n g b u t t h e m a r k e t a b l e v a l u e o f t h e m e t a l . n o w possessing ingots i n larger q u a n t i t y o r r e c e i v i n g m o r e f r o m p r i v a t e persons. renders it certain a n d acceptable to all. a r e m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o its a b u n d a n c e o r r a r i t y : m o n e y t o o has its p r i c e . a n d m a y be c o n s t r u e d in either d i r e c t i o n : it refers to a q u a n t i t y of m e t a l 171 . a n d since it is n o w w o r t h fifty. despite appearances.n o t an a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d for all equivalences. B o d i n . since princes. is a c o n stant standard. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y w h o s e v a l u e as a substitute in e x c h a n g e . a n d a b o v e all. o n l y a v e r y f e w years later [8]. T h e m a r k t h a t distinguishes m o n e y . w h i c h f o r m e r l y cost four livres. S o t h a t ' n o t h i n g has b e c o m e d e a r e r ' : since t h e g o l d e n ecu w a s w o r t h t w e n t y sols toumois in a c c o u n t i n g m o n e y u n d e r P h i l i p p e V I . t h e r e w a s t h e relation b e t w e e n t h e m o n e t a r y facts a n d t h e m o v e m e n t o f prices: i t w a s this that revealed m o n e y as a c o m m o d i t y like a n y o t h e r . b u t a c o m m o d i t y w h o s e capacity for e x c h a n g e . h a v e b e e n m i n t i n g m o r e a n d b e t t e r . ' t h e a b u n d a n c e o f that w h i c h gives t h i n g s estimation a n d p r i c e ' .EXCHANGING o f m e t a l are h o a r d e d a n d d o n o t take p a r t i n t r a d e : this i s w h a t w a s called G r e s h a m ' s l a w [4].

b u t it also refers to certain c o m m o d i t i e s . j u s t a s plants g r o w a n d animals m u l t i p l y o n t h e surface o f t h e e a r t h . variable in q u a n t i t y a n d p r i c e . I n o r d e r t o ascertain each d a y t h e r u l e a n d m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s that exist b e t w e e n t h i n g s a n d b e t w e e n t h e m a n d g o l d . t a l a n d m e r c h a n d i s e w h i c h . a n d t h e g l i t t e r i n g . so m a n y things. so m a n y men. i s w o r t h all t h e g o l d that i s w o r k e d . it will be r e m e m b e r e d . a n d to the d e g r e e that each t h i n g satisfies needs. or so m u c h gold[9]. A n d j u s t a s t h e relation o f the m i c r o c o s m t o t h e m a c r o c o s m w a s indispensable in o r d e r to arrest t h e indefinite oscillation b e t w e e n r e s e m blance a n d sign. .THE ORDER OF THINGS that is a constant m e a s u r e ( w h i c h is t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n M a l e s t r o i t p u t s u p o n i t ) . a n d c a n be established as a m a r k o n l y on a metallic mass w h i c h in t u r n defines its v a l u e in t h e scale of o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s . W e w o u l d t h e n a b a n d o n all o u r calculations a n d w e w o u l d say: t h e r e is upon earth so m u c h gold. I f o n e a d m i t s t h a t e x c h a n g e . a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t o standardize t h e p r i c e of all c o m m o d i t i e s in a certain a n d definitive fashion. then o n e sees t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f n a t u r e . H e r e . m a d e i t possible t o f i x t h e total m a r k e t a b l e v a l u e o f the precious m e t a l s . so many n e e d s . W e are. w h e n i t c a m e t o it. B e t w e e n all t h e t h i n g s t h a t m a n m a y n e e d o r desire. i n t h e s y s t e m o f needs. all m e n therefore desire e v e r y t h i n g in o r d e r to a c q u i r e all t h i n g s . called metals ( w h i c h i s B o d i n ' s r e a d i n g o f t h e m a t t e r ) . all t h e t h i n g s t h a t exist o r are d o n e o n e a r t h . t h e s u m o f these. t h e r e is an absolute c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . so it w a s necessary to lay d o w n a certain relation b e t w e e n m . its v a l u e shall be so m a n y things. i n t u r n . a n d reflection o r practices c o n c e r n i n g m o n e y . p r e s e n t e d w i t h a n a r r a n g e m e n t a n a l o g o u s t o t h a t w h i c h characterizes t h e general o r g a n i z a t i o n of signs in t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y : signs. w e r e c o n t r o l l e d d u r i n g t h e Renaissance b y o n e a n d t h e s a m e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e episteme. h i d d e n veins w h e r e those metals g r o w in darkness. t h e m o n e t a r y sign c a n n o t define its e x c h a n g e v a l u e . a n d caused t h e m t o g r o w . f r o m the h e i g h t o f h e a v e n o r s o m e v e r y tall o b s e r v a t o r y . . o r r a t h e r their i m a g e s r e p r o d u c e d a n d reflected in t h e s k y as in a faithful m i r r o r . As D a v a n z a t t i says: N a t u r e m a d e all terrestrial t h i n g s g o o d . w e r e c o n s t i t u t e d b y resemblances w h i c h . n e c e s sitated further signs i n o r d e r t o b e r e c o g n i z e d . 172 . b y v i r t u e o f t h e a g r e e m e n t c o n c l u d e d b y m e n . T h i s relation is t h e o n e that w a s established by P r o v i d e n c e w h e n it b u r i e d g o l d a n d silver m i n e s u n d e r the e a r t h . t h e n . c o r responds to similitude in the system of acquired k n o w l e d g e . w e s h o u l d h a v e t o b e able t o c o n t e m p l a t e .

i n o t h e r w o r d s . t o m e r c h a n t s . t h r e e great functions m e e t . inversely. j u s t as. of t h e Philosophos. I t b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t h o w t i g h t l y k n i t is t h e n e t w o r k of necessities that. t h a t t h e latter unites t h e terrestrial t o t h e celestial. T h e m a r k s o f similitude. o r f r o m m a n . o r that w h i c h o n e m i g h t acquire f r o m ' s o m e v e r y tall o b s e r v a t o r y ' .EXCHANGING T h i s celestial a n d e x h a u s t i v e calculation can b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y n o n e o t h e r t h a n G o d : i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h a t o t h e r calculation that b r i n g s each a n d e v e r y e l e m e n t o f t h e m i c r o c o s m i n t o relation w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g e l e m e n t in t h e m a c r o c o s m . E x c e p t for b r i e f instants. i n that r e g i o n w h e r e i t b e c o m e s all p o w e r f u l a n d quasi-divine. because m e t a l resembles t h e stars. u p t o t h e stars. a n d finally a f o u n d a t i o n . O n t h e confines o f k n o w l e d g e . so. f r o m animals. for reflection u p o n prices a n d m o n e y . h o w i t also authorizes theoretical a n d practical speculation u p o n metals. A n d thus reflection u p o n w e a l t h has its p i v o t in t h e b r o a d e s t speculation u p o n t h e c o s m o s . of e x c h a n g e a n d money. g o i n g f r o m t h i n g s . o f desire w i t h prices. h o w i t p r o v i d e s a c o m m u n i c a t i n g link b e t w e e n t h e p r o m i s e s o f desire a n d those o f k n o w l e d g e . t h e merchants a r e to t h e interplay. a n d . W h a t t h e soothsayers w e r e to t h e undefined interplay of resemblances a n d signs. d i v i n e k n o w l e d g e . are sustained by t h e d a r k . An e q u i v o c a l glitter. w h e r e a s t h e f o r m e r links t h e earth t o its caves a n d m i n e s . B u t j u s t as this k n o w ledge is g i v e n o n l y in f r a g m e n t s a n d in t h e a t t e n t i v e lightning-flash of t h e divinatio. a n d a s t h o u g h a t r a n d o m . t h e k n o w l e d g e of all these perilous treasures is at t h e s a m e t i m e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r l d . a n d of t h e Metallkos. 173 . in t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . p r o f o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e o r d e r o f t h e w o r l d m u s t lead t o t h e secret o f metals a n d t h e possession o f w e a l t h . t h e signs o f e x c h a n g e . also forever o p e n . because t h e y satisfy desire. t o those m i n d s t h a t k n o w h o w t o w a t c h for i t . are addressed t o t h e perfection o f h e a v e n . d a n g e r o u s . a n d accursed glitter of m e t a l . i n t h e s a m e w a y a s t h e metals a n d t h e stars c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r a n d are d r a w n t o g e t h e r b y secret affinities. i s n o t g i v e n t o m a n . links t o g e t h e r all t h e elements o f k n o w l e d g e : h o w t h e c o s m o l o g y o f signs p r o vides a d u p l i c a t i o n . for it r e p r o d u c e s in t h e d e p t h s o f t h e e a r t h that o t h e r glitter that sings a t t h e far e n d o f t h e n i g h t : it resides t h e r e like an i n v e r t e d p r o m i s e of happiness. i t m a k e s those things t h a t are b r o u g h t into b e i n g b y t h e h a n d s o f m e n c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e treasures b u r i e d i n t h e e a r t h since t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . because t h e y are a g u i d e t o k n o w l e d g e . in t h e case of t h e singular a n d partial relations of things w i t h metal.those of t h e Basileus.w i t h this o n e difference.

as w e l l as its e x c h a n g e a b i l i t y . if. t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t u r n s t h e analysis upside d o w n : it is t h e e x c h a n g i n g function t h a t serves as a f o u n d a t i o n for t h e o t h e r t w o characters (its ability to m e a s u r e a n d its capacity to receive a price t h u s a p p e a r i n g as qualities d e r i v i n g f r o m t h a t function). It w a s precious a b o v e all o t h e r things. to w h i c h the value of any and every c o m m o d i t y could be r e f e r r e d [ n ] . rested u p o n its intrinsic v a l u e : t h e y w e r e w e l l a w a r e t h a t t h e precious metals h a d little usefulness o t h e r t h a n as c o i n a g e . n o t o n t h e first (possession o f price). t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n established in t h e sixt e e n t h c e n t u r y h a d t o b e dissolved. T h e m e r c h a n t s are p r o m p t l y a n d v e r y well advised o f these t h i n g s . In t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Fine m e t a l w a s . It is for this reason t h a t it h a d a price. h i g h e r t h a n any other. in c o n s e q u e n c e . Ill MERCANTILISM I n o r d e r t h a t t h e d o m a i n o f w e a l t h c o u l d b e c o n s t i t u t e d a s a n object o f reflection in Classical t h o u g h t . a n d r i g h t u p t o D a v a n z a t t i himself. t h a t o n e c o u l d exchange it for a n y t h i n g else t h a t h a d a p r i c e . b u t t h e y a r e all t h r e e m a d e t o rest. It is usual to characterize this 174 . a n d that i s w h y t h e y h a v e a n a d m i r a b l e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p r i c e of things [10]. a n absolute a n d f u n d a m e n t a l price. t h e ability o f m o n e y t o m e a s u r e c o m m o d i t i e s . a n d w e g i v e a price t o t h e m a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r w e p e r c e i v e t h e m t o b e m o r e o r less i n d e m a n d i n each place a n d a t each t i m e . b o t h i n t h e n a t u r a l scale o f things a n d i n themselves. o f itself. its b u r i e d brightness w a s sufficient indication t h a t it w a s at t h e s a m e t i m e a h i d d e n p r e s e n c e a n d a visible s i g n a t u r e of all t h e w e a l t h of t h e w o r l d . these t h r e e p r o p e r t i e s a r e still a t t r i b u t e d t o m o n e y . b u t if t h e y h a d b e e n chosen as standards. if t h e y h a d b e e n e m p l o y e d as a m e a n s of e x c h a n g e . b u t o n t h e last (substitution for t h a t w h i c h possesses p r i c e ) . t h e y fetched a h i g h p r i c e . for this reason t o o t h a t it was a measure of all prices. T h i s reversal is t h e w o r k of a c o m p l e x of reflections a n d practices t h a t o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( f r o m Scipion d e G r a m m o n t t o Nicolas B a r b o n ) a n d t h a t are g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r t h e s o m e w h a t a p p r o x i m a t e t e r m ' m e r c a n t i l i s m ' . F o r t h e Renaissance ' e c o n o m i s t s ' . W h e r e a s t h e Renaissance based t h e t w o functions of c o i n a g e (measure a n d substitution) on t h e d o u b l e n a t u r e of its intrinsic character (the fact that it w a s p r e c i o u s ) . a m a r k o f w e a l t h . finally. a n d for this reason.THE ORDER OF THINGS F r o m h e r e b e l o w . t h a t w a s because t h e y possessed. w e h a v e difficulty i n p e r c e i v i n g t h e few things t h a t s u r r o u n d us.

J u s t a s t h e old circular c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f similitudes a n d m a r k s h a d u n r a v e l l e d itself s o t h a t i t c o u l d b e r e d e p l o y e d t o f o r m t h e t w o c o r r e l a t i v e fabrics o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d signs. B u t this m u s t b e e x a m i n e d m o r e closely. because it w a s t h e universal i n s t r u m e n t for t h e analysis a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w e a l t h .t h a t ' m e r c a n t i l i s m ' established b e t w e e n these t w o t h i n g s . a r e also objects o f desire . o r pleasure. because i t c o v e r e d t h e e n t i r e e x t e n t of its d o m a i n l e a v i n g no r e s i d u u m . s o t h e circle o f 'preciousness' i s b r o k e n w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f m e r c a n t i l i s m . h o w e v e r r a r e t h e y m a y b e .' a s far a s their use i n t h e h o u s e g o e s ' . i t i s because t h e process o f m i n t i n g t h e m i n t o g o l d a n d silver c o i n a g e has g i v e n t h e m a utility a n d a r a r i t y t h a t t h o s e metals do n o t possess o f t h e m s e l v e s . t h a t a n y i n d i v i d u a l w a s nameable a n d c o u l d find its p l a c e in an articulated language. All w e a l t h is coinable. in a system of identities and differences.t h a t is. i f m e n find t h a t t h e y n e v e r h a v e e n o u g h of t h e m . a n d . in o r d e r to be knotim. In fact.EXCHANGING r a t h e r hastily as an a b s o l u t e ' m o n e t a r i s m ' . t h a t is. b u t w i t h coins that are used i n foreign t r a d e ) are p a r t o f w e a l t h ? G o l d a n d silver h a v e v e r y little u t i l i t y . N o w . or utility.in t h e s a m e w a y t h a t a n y n a t u r a l b e i n g w a s characterizable. it is n o t an i d e n t i t y m o r e or less confused . i n t o t h e c o n t e n t r e p r e s e n t e d b y m o n e y . it is split i n t o e l e m e n t s t h a t can b e substituted for o n e a n o t h e r b y t h e i n t e r p l a y o f t h e c o i n a g e t h a t signifies t h e m . o r r a r i t y ' [ 1 2 ] . m o r e o v e r . a n d t h e reciprocal relations o f m o n e y a n d w e a l t h a r e established i n t h e f o r m o f circulation a n d e x c h a n g e . a n d it is by this m e a n s t h a t it enters i n t o circulation . a n d w e a l t h b e c o m e s w h a t e v e r is t h e object of needs a n d desires. w h i c h ones will m e r c a n t i l i s m b e able t o include i n t h e t e r m ' w e a l t h ' ? All t h o s e that. a n d c o u l d t h e r e b y find its place in a taxonomy. a n d m a k e s w e a l t h . w h i c h is used as small c h a n g e o n l y in certain c o u n t r i e s . b u t a c o n s i d e r e d articulation t h a t m a k e s m o n e y t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d analysis o f w e a l t h . t h a t a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s signifiable a n d c o u l d find its place. can o n e say t h a t t h e metals used i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f c o i n a g e ( w e are n o t c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h c o p p e r c o i n a g e . if they dig mines and m a k e w a r on one another in order to get h o l d o f t h e m . A m o n g all t h e t h i n g s t h a t exist i n t h e w o r l d . I f t h e y are s o u g h t after. t h o s e t h a t are m a r k e d by 'necessity. w h i c h is t h e i m a g e 175 . ' M o n e y does n o t d r a w its v a l u e f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l of w h i c h it is c o m p o s e d . b u t r a t h e r f r o m its f o r m . c o n v e r s e l y . a systematic (or s t u b b o r n ) confusion b e t w e e n w e a l t h a n d c o i n a g e . this i s p r o b a b l y because m o n e y for t h e mercantilists h a d t h e p o w e r o f r e p r e s e n t i n g all possible w e a l t h . b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a b l e . their a b u n d a n c e still exceeds w h a t i s r e q u i r e d b y t h e i r utility. I f i t w a s possible t o believe t h a t m e r c a n t i l i s m confused w e a l t h a n d m o n e y .

i n relation t o o n e a n o t h e r . j u s t as o u r ideas are w h a t t h e y a r e because w e represent t h e m . C o p p e r . i m p e r i s h a b l e .n o t t h e c o n v e r s e . w h i c h in m a n y c o u n t r i e s is still a c h e a p c o m m o d i t y . t h e n . w h i c h are scarcely w e a l t h a t all i n t h e m selves. possess peculiar p r o p e r t i e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d capacities for analysis t h a t will p e r m i t it to establish relations of equality a n d difference b e t w e e n different kinds of w e a l t h . t h e y arc easily pierced. I t i s i n this w a y t h a t t h e relation o f m o n e y t o w e a l t h has c o m e t o b e defined. b u t i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n their endless capacity for r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a n d for strict c o m parisons b e t w e e n t h e m b y m e a n s o f analysis. t h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s will n o l o n g e r p r o c e e d f r o m t h e m e t a l itself. t h e n .THE ORDER OF THINGS or m a r k of t h e P r i n c e ' [ 1 3 ] . All these factors m a k e g o l d a n d silver i n t o a p r i v i l e g e d i n s t r u m e n t for t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f all o t h e r k i n d s o f w e a l t h . T h i s entails t w o c o n s e q u e n c e s . received o r t a k e n o n this signifying p o w e r ? N o d o u b t o n e c o u l d v e r y w e l l e m p l o y s o m e o t h e r c o m m o d i t y t o this effect ' h o w e v e r vile a n d base it m i g h t b e ' [ 1 5 ] . w i t h o u t reference to t h e c o i n a g e . M o n e t a r y o r v e r b a l signs are a d d i t i o n a l to this. t h e y c a n c o n c e n t r a t e a g r e a t w e i g h t i n t o a little v o l u m e . can serve a s m o n e y . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e criteria o f utility. T h e y are h a r d . b u t it m u s t . B u t w h y h a v e g o l d a n d silver. It is a p p a r e n t . t h e y c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o m i n u t e pieces. t h a t t h e use of g o l d a n d silver for this p u r p o s e has a justifiable basis. b u t t h e t r u e e s t i m a t i o n o f that v a l u e has its s o u r c e i n h u m a n j u d g e m e n t a n d i n t h a t faculty t e r m e d t h e e s t i m a t i v e ' [ 1 4 ] . y e t does n o t c o n stitute it: ' G o l d i s m e r e l y t h e sign a n d t h e i n s t r u m e n t c o m m o n l y used t o c o n v e y t h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s i n p r a c t i c e . As B o u t e r o u e says. B u t in a g e n e r a l fashion we use g o l d a n d silver because t h e y c o n t a i n h i d d e n w i t h i n themselves 'a peculiar p e r f e c t i o n ' . as a n a m e represents an i m a g e or an idea. I t i s a n a r b i t r a r y relation because it is n o t t h e intrinsic v a l u e of t h e m e t a l t h a t gives t h i n g s their prices. G o l d is p r e c i o u s because it is m o n e y . t h e y can be easily t r a n s p o r t e d . A perfection t h a t i s n o t o f t h e o r d e r o f price. m o n e y 'is a p o r t i o n o f m a t t e r t o w h i c h p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y has g i v e n a certain v a l u e a n d w e i g h t so that it m a y serve as a price a n d m a k e t h e i n e q u a l i t y o f all t h i n g s e q u a l i n t r a d e ' [ i 7 ] . W e a l t h is w e a l t h because we e s t i m a t e it. a n y object. it establishes itself by itself. First. u n c o r r o d a b l c . t h e m e t a l m e r e l y enables this v a l u e t o b e r e p r e s e n t e d . e v e n o n e t h a t has n o price. pleasure. T h e r e l a t i o n s o strictly laid d o w n i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s f o r t h w i t h r e v e r s e d : m o n e y (and e v e n t h e m e t a l o f w h i c h i t i s m a d e ) receives its v a l u e f r o m its p u r e function as sign. nevertheless. T h i n g s t a k e o n v a l u e . o r r a r i t y . ' M e r c a n t i l i s m ' freed 176 . b e c o m e s p r e c i o u s in o t h e r s o n l y w h e n it is t u r n e d i n t o c o i n a g e [ i 6 ] .

these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o r hesitations exist o n l y if o n e confronts m e r c a n t i l i s m w i t h a d i l e m m a t h a t c o u l d h a v e n o m e a n i n g for it: t h a t o f m o n e y a s c o m m o d i t y o r a s sign.t h e folly o f t h o s e w h o 'say t h a t m o n e y is a c o m m o d i t y like o t h e r t h i n g s ' [ i 8 ] . I n fact. useless. w h i l e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g their a c t i o n u p o n prices. in this sense. W i t h o u t s u c h signs. i s t h a t b y w h i c h m e n ' e s t i m a t e t h e v a l u e o f all o t h e r t h i n g s . of r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of q u a n t i t a t i v e fluctuations in specie. says B a r b o n .a n d at t h e s a m e t i m e established b e t w e e n it a n d w e a l t h a strict relation of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d analysis. or it is revealed as a series of i m m e d i a t e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s : it is accused of d e f i n i n g m o n e y in its p u r e function as a sign w h i l e insisting u p o n its a c c u m u l a t i o n as a c o m m o d i t y . T h e usual a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s w h a t i t has b e e n a g r e e d t o call ' m e r c a n t i l i s m ' is d o u b l y unjust: either it is d e n o u n c e d for c o m p r i s i n g a n o t i o n it c o n tinually criticized (the intrinsic v a l u e of p r e c i o u s m e t a l as t h e p r i n c i p l e of w e a l t h ) . M o n e y . t h e n u m b e r o f coins i n existence i s d e t e r m i n e d . it is this m o n e y . B u t i n o r d e r t o p l a y this role a s r e p resentation. g o l d a n d silver are t h e creators o f all t h a t m a n c a n c o v e t . t h a t is n e e d e d in o r d e r to m a k e w e a l t h 177 . A t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t o f t i m e . h a v i n g r e g a r d m o r e t o t h e s t a m p a n d c u r r e n c y o f t h e m o n e y t h a n t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f fine silver i n each piece'[19]. H e n c e t h e a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e principles o f a c c u m u l a t i o n a n d t h e rules o f circulation. m o n e y m u s t offer p r o p e r t i e s (physical a n d n o t e c o n o m i c ones) that r e n d e r it a d e q u a t e to its task. C o l b e r t e v e n t h o u g h t . J u s t as in t h e o r d e r of representations t h e signs that replace a n d analyse t h e m m u s t also b e representations t h e m selves. i n o t h e r w o r d s t o attract it. a n d as it w e r e silent. t o o . w e a l t h w o u l d r e m a i n i m m o b i l e . m o n e y is t h a t w h i c h p e r m i t s w e a l t h t o b e r e p r e s e n t e d . s o m o n e y c a n n o t signify w e a l t h w i t h o u t itself b e i n g w e a l t h . B u t it b e c o m e s w e a l t h because it is a sign. despite t h e i m p o r t s o f m e t a l f r o m A m e r i c a . that ' t h e q u a n t i t y o f m o n e y c i r c u l a t i n g i n E u r o p e i s c o n s t a n t ' . d e spite t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f m i n e s .EXCHANGING m o n e y f r o m t h e p o s t u l a t e o f t h e intrinsic v a l u e o f m e t a l . N o w i t i s this m o n e y t h a t i s n e e d e d t o r e p r e s e n t w e a l t h . t o m a k e i t a p p e a r b y b r i n g i n g i t i n f r o m a b r o a d o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g it at h o m e . o f b e i n g p r o t e c t i o n i s t w h i l e basing its m e c h a n i s m for t h e increase o f w e a l t h u p o n e x c h a n g e . w h e r e a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n m u s t first be r e p r e s e n t e d in o r d e r s u b s e q u e n t l y to b e c o m e a sign. It is in its q u a l i t y as a universal sign t h a t it b e c o m e s a r a r e a n d u n e q u a l l y distributed c o m m o d i t y : ' T h e r a t e a n d v a l u e i m p o s e d u p o n all m o n e y i s its t r u e intrinsic g o o d n e s s ' [ 2 0 ] . a n d in c o n s e q u e n c e p r e c i o u s . F o r Classical t h o u g h t in its f o r m a t i v e phase.

e n c o u r a g e t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f r a w materials. e v e r y t h i n g t h a t is e x p e n s e for o n e of t h e p a r t ners i s i n c o m e for t h e o t h e r [ 2 3 ] . a n d i m p o s e c u s t o m s duties such t h a t t h e y e n a b l e t h e b a l a n c e o f t r a d e t o b e always p o s i t i v e . T h e legislature m u s t t h e r e f o r e take care t o d o t w o t h i n g s : F o r b i d t h e transfer o f m e t a l a b r o a d . a n d all t h a t d e p e n d s on it. e x p o r t m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o m m o d i t i e s themselves w h o s e disappearance leads to f a m i n e a n d causes t h e rise of prices [22]. A s H o r n e c k p u t s it. w h e n c o i n a g e b e c o m e s m o r e plentiful. W h e n g o o d s c a n circulate (and this t h a n k s t o m o n e y ) . t h e n . t o i m p o r t m e t a l b y t a k i n g i t f r o m n e i g h b o u r i n g states: ' T r a d e a l o n e . o n e can attract fresh m e r c h a n d i s e and increase b o t h a g r i c u l t u r e a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g . t h o u g h it is t r u e that an increase in specie causes prices to rise at first. a n d w e a l t h increases.THE ORDER OF THINGS pass f r o m h a n d to h a n d in t h e process of e x c h a n g e . p r e v e n t as far as possible t h a t of m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s . T h e relations b e t w e e n w e a l t h a n d m o n e y . n o w t h a t t h e m i d d l e classes. N o w . each piece o f m e t a l loses s o m e o f its v a l u e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r s a s t h e mass o f c o i n a g e i n circulation increases [ 2 5 ] . c o u l d fall o n l y i n relation t o t h e totality o f t h e o t h e r s . t h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e n o reason t o fear t h a t t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of m o n e y in a state will cause prices to rise i n it. a n d T h o m a s M u n identified r e a d y m o n e y w i t h w e a l t h [24]. w h e n i t enables t h e m t o b e m o v e d o r t o w a i t . w h e n i t r e m u n e r a t e s w o r k . is capable of p r o d u c i n g this g r e a t e f f e c t ' [ 2 1 ] . t h e r e fore. o r its utilization for o t h e r ends t h a n that o f c o i n a g e . it also stimulates t r a d e a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g . It is necessary. t h e m e t a l a c c u m u l a t e d i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o sleep a n d g r o w fat. similarly. a r e based o n circulation a n d e x c h a n g e . e v e n o f t h e rarest t h i n g s . t h e y m u l t i p l y . T h i s i s because m o n e y b e c o m e s real w e a l t h o n l y t o exactly t h e s a m e d e g r e e to w h i c h it fulfils its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f u n c t i o n : w h e n i t replaces c o m m o d i t i e s . As B e c h e r said. Rising prices are n o t t o b e feared: o n the c o n t r a r y . a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e established b y B o d i n t h a t t h e g r e a t dearness p r e v a l e n t i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s caused b y t h e influx o f g o l d f r o m A m e r i c a is n o t v a l i d . w h e n i t p r o v i d e s r a w materials w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f b e c o m i n g c o n s u m a b l e . i t i s a t t r a c t e d i n t o a state o n l y s o that i t m a y b e c o n s u m e d b y t h e process o f e x c h a n g e . n o w t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f p r e c i o u s objects has increased. a n d n o l o n g e r o n t h e 'preciousness' o f m e t a l . t h e q u a n t i t y o f w e a l t h g r o w s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s a m o n g w h i c h the c o i n a g e i s t o b e d i v i d e d increases b y t h e s a m e a m o u n t . can w e a r 'satin a n d v e l v e t ' . as a result of a g o o d circulation a n d a f a v o u r a b l e balance. a s Scipion d e G r a m m o n t p u t s it. g o l d 178 .

a t o n e r e m o v e . m a n u f a c t u r e s .EXCHANGING a n d silver 'are t h e p u r e s t p a r t o f o u r b l o o d . t h e d o m a i n o f w e a l t h w a s c o n stituted i n t h e s a m e m o d e a s t h a t o f representations. specie h a d n o o t h e r r o l e t h a n t h a t o f i r r i g a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s parts o f t h e n a t i o n . It is t h e r e t h a t t h e m e t a l is ' m a d e v i t a l ' : t h e state can. T h e m e t a p h o r o f t h e city a n d t h e b o d y . We meet once m o r e w i t h the old m e t a p h o r of a coinage that i s t o society w h a t b l o o d i s t o t h e b o d y [ 2 7 ] . t o b o t h w e a l t h a n d representations. T h r o u g h t h e mercantilist e x p e r i e n c e . s o all t h e k i n d s o f w e a l t h i n t h e w o r l d are related o n e t o a n o t h e r in so far as t h e y are all p a r t of a s y s t e m of e x c h a n g e .L e v i a t h a n . i t will s t i m u l a t e . i n its second. d e r i v e d its i m a g i n a r y p o w e r s o n l y f r o m t h e m u c h d e e p e r f o u n d a t i o n o f archaeological necessities. Similarly. t h e r e is no a u t o n o m o u s act of signification. o r r e n u m e r a t i o n for provisions b o u g h t b y t h e state). B u t t h e transference o f this physiological m e t a p h o r w a s m a d e possible o n l y b y the m o r e p r o f o u n d o p e n i n g u p o f a space c o m m o n t o b o t h m o n e y a n d signs. B u t for D a v a n z a t t i . b o u g h t . s o assiduously p u t t o w o r k i n o u r W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . o r sold. T h u s circulation b e c o m e s o n e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l categories o f analysis. t h e m a r r o w o f o u r s t r e n g t h ' . F r o m o n e r e p r e s e n t a tion to a n o t h e r . in effect.in o t h e r w o r d s . ' t h e m o s t indispensable i n s t r u m e n t s o f h u m a n activity a n d o f o u r existence'[26]. the v e n o u s c i r c u l a t i o n o f m o n e y i s t h a t o f duties a n d taxes. e x c h a n g e s o f w e a l t h . B u t at all events it is t h e state's a u t h o r i t y a l o n e t h a t c a n g i v e it c u r r e n c y . i n a n u n i n t e r r u p t e d sequence. W e h a v e seen t h a t these latter h a d t h e p o w e r t o represent themselves w i t h themselves a s the basis of t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : to o p e n w i t h i n themselves a space in w h i c h t h e y c o u l d analyse themselves. According to Hobbes[28]. a n d a g r i c u l t u r e . t o signify itself b y m e a n s o f t h o s e c o m p l e t e l y c o m p a r a b l e e l e m e n t s o f w e a l t h called precious metals. m e r c a n t i l i s m can adjust its analysis in t e r m s of t h e m o d e l recently provided by Harvey. salaries. t o analyse itself i n t o e l e m e n t s t h a t a u t h o r i z e relations o f equality o r i n e q u a l i t y . t h e b u l l i o n levied is c o n v e y e d to t h e h e a r t of M a n . i n t o t h e coffers of t h e state. t h u s m a k i n g i t possible t o establish b o t h a system of signs a n d a table of identities a n d differences. b u t a s i m p l e 179 . r e p r e s e n t it. A n d j u s t a s t h e entire w o r l d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n covers itself w i t h r e p resentations w h i c h . m e l t it d o w n or send it b a c k i n t o circulation. w h i c h l e v y a certain mass o f b u l l i o n u p o n all m e r c h a n d i s e t r a n s p o r t e d . N o w that m o n e y a n d w e a l t h are b o t h i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e area o f e x c h a n g e a n d circulation. a n d r e d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g p r i v a t e persons (in t h e f o r m o f pensions. arterial circuit. w e a l t h has t h e p o w e r t o b e e x c h a n g e d . a n d t o f o r m substitutes for t h e m selves o u t o f t h e i r o w n e l e m e n t s .

o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . at all events. w h e n q u e s t i o n e d a t t h e level o f t h e episteme. W h a t e v e r its e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n s a n d consequences. H e n c e t h e g r e a t series of d e v a l u a t i o n s that t o o k place in F r a n c e d u r i n g t h e first fifteen years of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y in o r d e r t o increase t h e q u a n t i t y o f specie. a w h o l e series of measures that d i m i n i s h e d t h e rate o f i n v e s t m e n t i n c o m e a n d r e d u c e d n o m i n a l capital. h a d a m u c h h i g h e r d e g r e e of historic viscosity. appears as t h e s l o w . At t h e end of t h e c e n t u r y . as a first. t h e m o d e o f b e i n g for m o n e y a n d w e a l t h . a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e . a n d l i k e wise t o t h a t w h i c h u n f o l d e d before general g r a m m a r . IV THE PLEDGE AND THE PRICE T h e Classical t h e o r y o f m o n e y a n d prices was elaborated d u r i n g a w e l l k n o w n series o f historical experiences. to a w h o l e institutional c o m p l e x .to d r a w h o a r d e d b u l l i o n back i n t o circulation. price 180 . I t w a s responsible for t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a d o m a i n o f ' w e a l t h ' c o n n e c t e d t o t h a t w h i c h . t h e r e w a s t h e g r e a t crisis of m o n e t a r y signs t h a t b e g a n in E u r o p e fairly early in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f p a p e r m o n e y i n 1 7 0 1 . l o w e r i n g of prices. N e i t h e r n a t u r a l beings n o r l a n g u a g e n e e d e d t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e l o n g mercantilist process i n o r d e r t o e n t e r t h e d o m a i n of representation. w a s o p e n e d u p t o natural history. that t h e q u a n t i t y o f b u l l i o n i s stable i n E u r o p e a n d t h a t i m p o r t s f r o m A m e r i c a can be i g n o r e d . B u t w h e r e a s i n these last t w o cases t h e m u t a t i o n c a m e a b o u t a b r u p t l y ( a certain m o d e o f b e i n g e m e r g i n g s u d d e n l y for l a n g u a g e in t h e Grammaire de Port-Royal. s o o n t o b e replaced b y g o v e r n m e n t b o n d s . and were intended . a n d receive f r o m it their signs a n d their principles of o r d e r . Possibly w e o u g h t t o c o n s t r u e C o l b e r t ' s s t a t e m e n t . l o n g effort to b r i n g reflection u p o n prices a n d m o n e y i n t o a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e analysis o f representations. t h e eleven ' d i m i n u t i o n s ' (revaluations) t h a t w e r e spaced o u t at r e g u l a r intervals b e t w e e n i D e c e m b e r 1713 and 1 September 1 7 1 5 . First o f all. a certain m o d e of b e i n g for individuals in n a t u r e manifesting itself a l m o s t simultaneously w i t h J o n s t o n a n d T o u r n e f o r t ) . L a w ' s e x p e r i m e n t m a d e possible t h e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f m e t a l m o n e y .THE ORDER OF THINGS a n d endless possibility o f e x c h a n g e . a fall in t h e value of land. t h o u g h still m a r g i n a l a n d allusive. sign of a w a r e ness as to w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g . subject themselves to its laws. because i t w a s linked t o a n entire praxis. rents.t h o u g h the attempt failed . a n d duties. t h e s h o r t a g e o f c o i n b e c a m e a n acute a n d direct e x p e r i e n c e : recession o f trade. m e r c a n t i l i s m . difficulties in p a y i n g debts. A m o n g its m a n y o t h e r consequences.

a s a r e g o l d . in V a u g h a n [ 3 7 ] . i n F o r t b o n n a i s . a deferred e x c h a n g e . t h o u g h it is logically necessary. a n d t h e discussions t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e g i v e n rise. D u t o t [30]. for a t i m e . at a g i v e n p o i n t . t o g e t h e r w i t h T e r r a s s o n [ 2 9 ] . b e t w e e n t h e t w o factions. As Le T r o s n e says. since it c a n in t u r n be e x c h a n g e d for t h a t s a m e q u a n t i t y o f m e r c h a n d i s e o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t . T h e edicts o f J a n u a r y a n d M a y 1 7 2 6 established a c o i n a g e t h a t w a s t o r e m a i n stable t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y : t h e y d e c r e e d t h e m i n t i n g of a louis-d'or w o r t h t w e n t y . j u s t as. a s t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t h e m o n e y . It is a definition we find in L o c k e a n d . t h e equivalent. B u t i f w e investigate t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t m a d e all t h o s e v a r i o u s o p i n i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y possible.w a y line a s i t w e r e .s i g n faction w i t h t h e u p h o l d e r s o f m o n e y .' g o l d a n d silver are. a n d c o p p e r ' [ 3 9 ] . and the Chevalier de Jaucourt[32]. w e p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m is superficial. t h e n i n M e l o n . t h e p l e d g e . C o i n a g e can a l w a y s b r i n g b a c k i n t o t h e h a n d s o f its o w n e r t h a t w h i c h has j u s t b e e n e x c h a n g e d for it. a self-duplicating r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . o n t h e h a l f . b u t it is also to say t h a t it has e x a c t l y t h e s a m e v a l u e as t h a t for w h i c h it has b e e n g i v e n . o f course. A n d i t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e interesting t o w o r k o u t a detailed a c c o u n t o f these o p i n i o n s a n d discover h o w t h e y w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s social g r o u p s .' w e a l t h o f credit o r o p i n i o n i s o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . a p u r e fiction. . silver.a s . t r a d e that m a k e s use of m o n e y is an i m p r o v e m e n t in so far as it is ' a n imperfect t r a d e ' [ 4 1 ] . a n d D e s t u t t .' t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t ' i n c o n v e n t i o n a l w e a l t h lies 'in t h e confidence o f t h e o w n e r s o f m o n e y a n d c o m m o d i t i e s that t h e y c a n e x c h a n g e t h e m w h e n t h e y will . . b y general a g r e e m e n t . a sign m u s t be able to recall to t h o u g h t that w h i c h it represents. it is so on t h e basis of a single a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t s i m p l y creates. T o say t h a t m o n e y i s a p l e d g e is to say that it is no m o r e t h a n a t o k e n a c c e p t e d by c o m m o n c o n s e n t .E X C H A N G I N G increases.f o u r livres toumois . It is usual to c o n s t r u e these experiences. their theoretical c o n t e x t . C o n d i l l a c . o n t h e f o o t i n g established b y c u s t o m ' [ 4 0 ] . a n d that. o r t h e c o m m o n m e a s u r e o f all that w h i c h serves for m e n ' s u s e ' [ 3 8 ] . T h i s single a r r a n g e m e n t is that w h i c h defines m o n e y as a p l e d g e . I n t h e f i r s t g r o u p w e f i n d L a w . in r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h a t w h i c h r e c o m p e n s e s 181 .h e n c e . M o n t e s q u i e u [ 3 i ] . a n d t h e revival o f t r a d e . on the opposing side we find Paris-Duverney[33]. i n D u t o t . an act that lacks.c o m m o d i t y . the Chancelier d'Aguesseau[34].a s .a v a l u e it r e t a i n e d r i g h t up to t h e Revolution. slightly earlier. t h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f land. b r o n z e . t h e alternatives o f a n indispensable c h o i c e . M o n e y is a m a t e r i a l m e m o r y . o n e w o u l d h a v e t o place M e l o n [ 3 5 ] a n d G r a s l i n [ 3 6 ] .

t h e p l e d g e w a s r e q u i r e d t o b e p r o v i d e d b y t h e actual substance o f t h e coins. . or.o p e r a t i o n t h a t p r o m i s e s a n d expects t h e c o n v e r s e e x c h a n g e w h e r e b y t h e p l e d g e will b e r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o its effective c o n t e n t . . a n d far f r o m its b e i n g an evil that it should be employed at the same time as b o t h merchandise and m e a s u r e . L a w . T h e failure o f his e n t e r prise i n n o w a y affected t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e m o n e y . B u t he t h o u g h t t h a t it w o u l d b e b e t t e r g u a r a n t e e d ( m o r e a b u n d a n t a s w e l l a s m o r e stable) i f i t w e r e based u p o n s o m e m e r c h a n d i s e e x t e r i o r t o m o n e t a r y specie itself. W h a t e n s u r e d t h e e x c h a n g e ability o f m o n e y . n o t t h e sign. these t w o uses m a i n t a i n its price [43]. by a n o t h e r q u a n t i t y o f m e r c h a n d i s e . b u t t h a t h a d also m a d e possible all reflection o f a n y k i n d o n m o n e y . as his o p p o n e n t s did. t o g e t h e r w i t h his partisans. like m i n t e d c o i n . e x t e r i o r t o it.p r e c u r s o r o f fiduciary c u r r e n c y . . It is c o n c e i v a b l e . these n o t e s w i l l be e x c h a n g e d . H e d e fines m o n e y . for t h e Classical analysis o f m o n e y . for t h e value printed on them'[42]. t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n t h a t pledges t h e m o n e y i s g u a r a n t e e d b y t h e m a r k e t a b l e value of the material from which it is m a d e . e v e n t h a t o p p o s e d t o L a w ' s c o n c e p t i o n s . I t i s this second s o l u t i o n t h a t L a w chose. b u t t h e c o m m o n m e a s u r e of all o t h e r m e r c h a n d i s e .t h e c h o i c e t h a t divides t h e followers of L a w f r o m his o p p o n e n t s . a n d T u r g o t w a s t o criticize L a w for h a v i n g believed t h a t m o n e y is o n l y a sign of w e a l t h .p l e d g e t h e o r y t h a t h a d m a d e i t possible. does n o t s t a n d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o his age a s t h e brilliant . H e t h o u g h t t h a t o n e c o u l d circulate p a p e r m o n e y b a c k e d b y l a n d e d p r o p e r t y : i n w h i c h case i t w a s s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f issuing ' b a n k n o t e s m o r t g a g e d against lands a n d d u e t o b e r e d e e m e d b y a n n u a l p a y m e n t s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e a s m e r c h a n d i s e t h a t m o n e y is. b u t l i n k e d t o i t b y c o l lective c o n s e n t o r t h e w i l l o f t h e p r i n c e . as a p l e d g e . A n d w h e n a stable metallic m o n e y w a s established i n 1726. i t w a s d e c i d e d . w a s t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f t h e m e t a l t o b e f o u n d i n it. As we k n o w . t h a t t h e p o i n t o f h e r e s y occurs . . 182 . in fact. T h a t m a r k i s o n each c o i n o n l y i n o r d e r t o certify its w e i g h t a n d title . o n a c c o u n t o f t h e r a r i t y o f p r e c i o u s m e t a l a n d t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n its m a r k e t v a l u e .THE ORDER OF THINGS it. . L a w was obliged to renounce this t e c h n i q u e i n his F r e n c h e x p e r i m e n t a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d s u r e t y for his m o n e y b y m e a n s o f a t r a d i n g c o m p a n y . a sign w h o s e credit is based u p o n t h e m a r k o f t h e p r i n c e . a d e m i . B u t h o w c a n t h e m o n e t a r y p l e d g e p r o v i d e this assurance? H o w c a n i t escape f r o m t h e d i l e m m a o f t h e valueless sign a s o p p o s e d t o t h e c o m m o d i t y a n a l o g o u s to all o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s ? It is h e r e . .o r i m p r u d e n t . G o l d derives its p r i c e f r o m its r a r i t y . . on the other hand.

As L o c k e says: T h a t s u p p o s i n g w h e a t a s t a n d i n g m e a s u r e . b u t this m e c h a n i s m s e e m e d t o t h e m t o b e linked t o a n intrinsic d e v a l o r i z a t i o n of t h e m e t a l itself. a n d prices will be l o w . As a p l e d g e . is m o d i f i e d as s o o n as t h e q u a n t i t y of m o n e y o r t h e q u a n t i t y o f c o m m o d i t i e s a t a n y m o m e n t o f t i m e i s also m o d i f i e d . If m o n e y is in s h o r t s u p p l y w i t h relation to g o o d s . in t h e o t h e r case. since m o n e y has a p r i c e in itself. . . m o n e y . t h e n i t w i l l h a v e a l o w v a l u e .a n d i m m e d i a t e l y a n y c o m m o d i t y existing i n t h e w o r l d will h a v e slightly m o r e representative elements a t its disposal. B u t in b o t h cases it is m o n e y t h a t m a k e s it possible to fix t h e price of things. In t h e o n e case. this s a m e m e c h a n i s m was defined o n t h e basis o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e function o f m o n e y . m o r e m e r c h a n d i s e and each metallic u n i t will b e slightly m o r e h e a v i l y m o r t g a g e d . a n d prices will b e h i g h . ' t h e quantity of m o n e y being in proportion to the whole of trade'. in t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . a n d thus t h e p r i c e system. t h a n k s to a certain relation of proportion w i t h various f o r m s o f w e a l t h a n d a certain p o w e r t o m a k e t h e m circulate. b u t g u a r a n t e e d b y a v a l u e e x t e r i o r t o it. In t h e late s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . O n e n e e d o n l y take a n y g i v e n c o m m o d i t y as a stable reference p o i n t a n d this p h e n o m e n o n of fluctuation is clearly revealed. t h e n it will h a v e a h i g h value. t h a t is. m o n e y designates a certain w e a l t h (actual or n o t ) : it establishes its price. it is at t h e s a m e t i m e t h a t ' b y m e a n s of w h i c h ' a n d t h a t 'for w h i c h ' o n e e x c h a n g e s w e a l t h . relieved of all m a r k e t a b l e v a l u e . B u t t h e relation b e t w e e n m o n e y a n d c o m m o d i t i e s . i s t h a t ' b y m e a n s o f w h i c h ' o n e e x c h a n g e s m e r c h a n d i s e [44]. T h e p o w e r o f m o n e y t o represent a n d analyse varies w i t h t h e q u a n t i t y o f specie o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d w i t h t h e q u a n t i t y o f w e a l t h o n t h e o t h e r : i t w o u l d b e constant o n l y i f b o t h q u a n t i ties w e r e stable. T h e conflict b e t w e e n L a w a n d his critics concerns o n l y the distance b e t w e e n t h e p l e d g e a n d w h a t it is p l e d g i n g . T h e reason w h e r e o f is this. t h a t t h e r e is c o n s t a n t l y t h e same q u a n t i t y o f i t i n p r o p o r t i o n t o its v e n t . B o d i n and D a v a n zatti already k n e w . T h e 'quantitative law' was not 'invented' by Locke. that t h e r e b e i n g ten times as m u c h 183 . if it increases in q u a n t i t y to t h e p o i n t o f b e c o m i n g a b u n d a n t i n relation t o w e a l t h . o r v a r i e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n . t h a t an increase in t h e mass o f m e t a l i n circulation caused t h e price o f c o m m o d i t i e s t o rise. w e shall find m o n e y to r u n t h e s a m e v a r i e t y of changes in its v a l u e . M o r e m e t a l . as all o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s do .E X C H A N G I N G w h e r e a s his o p p o n e n t s t h o u g h t t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e t t e r g u a r a n t e e d ( m o r e secure a n d less subject to speculation) if based u p o n t h e metallic substance c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l reality o f m o n e y .

it will e x c h a n g e for 1% less of a n y c o m m o d i t y n o w . divisible g o l d is. t h e n h a l f o f t h a t c o m m o d i t y w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o h a l f o f total on t h e o t h e r side [46]. b u t its general p o w e r o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . . M o n e y a n d w e a l t h are t o b e t h o u g h t o f a s t w i n masses. its function b e i n g t o represent t h e m all. i f m e n possessed o n l y o n e coin b e t w e e n t h e m . i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e m [47]. since this p o r t i o n will be taken f r o m t h e w h o l e mass of signs. inversely. all t h e g o l d o n e a r t h w o u l d b e t h e r e t o represent it.' t h e value of each division o f t h e c u r r e n t specie will d i m i n i s h b y t h e s a m e a m o u n t ' . o n the o t h e r hand. it will d i m i n i s h t h e relative q u a n t i t y of t h a t mass a n d increase its representative value by t h e s a m e a m o u n t in o r d e r to c o v e r t h e increase in values. T h o u g h t h e r e d o exist rules o f c o n v e n t i o n t h a t m a k e i t possible t o fix t h e q u a n t i t y o f m o n e y b y m e a n s o f w h i c h i t i s desirable t o represent w e a l t h . it will b e necessary t o a p p l y a. T h e d r o p i n t h e v a l u e o f p r e c i o u s m e t a l i n v o k e d h e r e does n o t c o n c e r n a certain precious q u a l i t y w h i c h it is t h o u g h t of as possessing in itself. I f t h e r e w e r e o n l y o n e c o m m o d i t y . .THE ORDER OF THINGS silver n o w i n t h e w o r l d . I n t h e last resort.in specie. S u p p o s i n g t h a t t h e r e w e r e o n l y o n e f o r m o f g o o d s i n t h e w o r l d .w h i l e c o m m o d i t i e s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d in q u a n t i t y . t h e n all t h e w e a l t h p r o d u c e d b y n a t u r e o r b y their o w n h a n d s w o u l d h a v e t o share i n its subdivisions. w h i c h bears t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n to its v e n t as it d i d 200 years since [ 4 5 ] . G i v e n these l i m i t i n g circumstances. t h e arts a n d t h e sciences i n t r o d u c e n e w objects i n t o t h e circle o f e x c h a n g e . a n d .'its d e s i g n a t i o n ' . e v e r y t h i n g e x c h a n g e a b l e s h o u l d h a v e its e q u i v a l e n t . it is T^O less w o r t h n o w t h a n it w a s at t h a t t i m e . w h i c h necessarily c o r r e s p o n d w i t h o n e another: As to as its t h e total of t h e o n e is to the total of t h e o t h e r . .I n d i e s h a v i n g m a d e t h e p l e n t y ) as t h e r e w a s t h e n . C h e a p n e s s is n e i t h e r m o r e n o r less exact t h a n dearness. portion o f t h e signs r e p r e s e n t i n g values to t h e n e w value of those new p r o d u c t i o n s . i f i n d u s t r y . . if t h e r e is an influx of m o n e y . t h a t is. (the d i s c o v e r y o f t h e W e s t . so p a r t of t h e o n e is p a r t o f the o t h e r . a state of affairs t h a t w o u l d entail no d r a w b a c k s 184 . T h e r e can therefore b e n o fair p r i c e : n o t h i n g i n a n y g i v e n c o m m o d i t y indicates b y a n y intrinsic character t h e q u a n t i t y o f m o n e y t h a t s h o u l d b e p a i d for it.

m o n e y can represent m o r e kinds of w e a l t h o n l y by circulating faster. a s L a w p r o p o s e d . N o w . g i v e n t h e harvests a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e n u m b e r o f individuals m a k i n g up t h e p o p u l a t i o n of a state. i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e needs o f e x c h a n g e ) . a m e a s u r e of w h e a t . a s i t circulates. t h a t t h e speed o f m o n e t a r y m o v e m e n t d u r i n g a set t i m e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t a x o n o m i c extension of a character w i t h i n t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s space of t h e table. a n d a n infinitely s l o w speed w o u l d m e a n t h a t e v e r y e l e m e n t o f w e a l t h possesses its p e r m a n e n t m o n e t a r y d o u b l e . s o m e t i m e s p a y m e n t to a l a n d o w n e r of his r e n t . o r even impossible. N o w . several species.j u s t as a c o m m o n n o u n has t h e p o w e r to represent several things.p o i n t (this is w h y p a y m e n t to a g r i c u l t u r e for t h e p r o d u c t s of its harvest is taken as a first s o u r c e . represent several e q u i v a l e n t things (an object. a p o r t i o n of i n c o m e ) . w o r k . i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e e x t e n s i o n of a character is defined by t h e n u m b e r of species it includes (therefore by t h e area it occupies in t h e t a b l e ) . w h e n it changes h a n d s it is s o m e t i m e s p a y m e n t t o a n e n t r e p r e n e u r for s o m e object. i f t h e m o n e y w e r e metallic. t h e r e fore. b u t t h a t w o u l d b e t r o u b l e s o m e . or a t a x o n o m i c character has t h e p o w e r t o represent several individuals. s o m e t i m e s p a y m e n t t o a w o r k e r o f his w a g e . B u t w h e r e a s t h e character can c o v e r a larger generality o n l y b y b e c o m i n g simpler. analyses o f t h e circulation o f m o n e y based u p o n agricultural r e v e n u e w e r e linked t o t h e p r o b l e m o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h a n d t o calculation o f t h e o p t i m u m q u a n t i t y o f c o i n a g e . B e t w e e n these t w o e x t r e m e s t h e r e are variable speeds t o w h i c h t h e quantities o f m o n e y t h a t m a k e t h e m possible c o r r e s p o n d . It is t h u s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e h o w . s o m e t i m e s p a y m e n t t o a m e r c h a n t for s o m e c o m m o d i t y . therefore. A single piece of m e t a l can. in t h e course of t i m e a n d a c c o r d i n g to t h e individuals that receive it. because t h e r e o n e has absolutely reliable a n n u a l cycles to deal w i t h ) . to define t h e necessary a n d sufficient q u a n t i t y of m o n e y t h e r e m u s t be if it is to pass t h r o u g h e v e r y o n e ' s h a n d s a n d to represent at least t h e m e a n s of subsistence to t h e m all.E X C H A N G I N G i f t h e m o n e y used w e r e o f p a p e r ( w h i c h w o u l d b e p r i n t e d o r d e s t r o y e d . o n e a n d t h e same m o n e t a r y u n i t acquires t h e p o w e r to represent several t h i n g s . several g e n e r a . speed of circulation is defined by t h e n u m b e r of hands t h r o u g h w h i c h m o n e y passes d u r i n g t h e t i m e i t takes t o r e t u r n to its s t a r t i n g . A triple q u e s t i o n t h a t is posited in a n o r m a t i v e f o r m : for t h e p r o b l e m is 185 . It will be seen. t h e cycles o f circulation are d e t e r m i n e d by t h e y e a r l y o c c u r r e n c e of t h e harvests: it is possible. s o m e times p a y m e n t to a f a r m e r for his p r o d u c e . T h i s speed is limited in t w o directions: an infinitely r a p i d speed w o u l d i m p l y a n i m m e d i a t e e x c h a n g e i n w h i c h m o n e y w o u l d h a v e n o role t o play. etc.

THE

ORDER

OF

THINGS

n o t t o discover b y w h a t m e c h a n i s m s m o n e y circulates o r fails t o circulate, h o w it is e x p e n d e d or a c c u m u l a t e d (such questions are possible o n l y in a n e c o n o m y t h a t poses p r o b l e m s o f p r o d u c t i o n o r capital), b u t w h a t the necessary q u a n t i t y of m o n e y is in a g i v e n c o u n t r y t h a t will p r o v i d e a sufficiently r a p i d circulation a n d pass t h r o u g h a sufficiently large n u m b e r o f h a n d s . T h u s prices will n o t b e intrinsically 'fair', b u t e x a c t l y r e g u l a t e d : t h e divisions o f t h e m o n e t a r y mass will analyse w e a l t h a c c o r d i n g t o a n a r t i c u l a t i o n that will b e n e i t h e r t o o loosely n o r t o o t i g h t l y k n i t . T h e ' t a b l e ' will b e w e l l m a d e . T h i s o p t i m u m p r o p o r t i o n i s n o t t h e s a m e w h e t h e r w e consider a c o u n t r y i n isolation o r t h e m o v e m e n t o f its foreign t r a d e . I f w e suppose a state capable o f l i v i n g o n itself, t h e q u a n t i t y o f m o n e y i t w o u l d b e necessary t o p u t i n t o circulation w o u l d d e p e n d u p o n several variables: the quantity of merchandise entering the exchange system; the portion o f t h a t m e r c h a n d i s e w h i c h , b e i n g n e i t h e r d i s t r i b u t e d n o r p a i d for b y b a r t e r , m u s t a t s o m e m o m e n t d u r i n g its j o u r n e y b e r e p r e s e n t e d b y m o n e y ; t h e q u a n t i t y o f m e t a l for w h i c h signed p a p e r m a y b e substituted; and, finally, t h e r h y t h m a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h p a y m e n t s m u s t b e m a d e : i t i s n o t a m a t t e r of indifference, as C a n t i l l o n p o i n t s o u t [ 4 8 ] , w h e t h e r w o r k e r s are p a i d b y t h e w e e k o r t h e d a y , o r w h e t h e r r e n t s fall d u e a t t h e e n d o f e v e r y y e a r r a t h e r t h a n , as is c u s t o m a r y , at t h e e n d of e v e r y q u a r t e r . Since t h e values o f these four variables are d e t e r m i n a b l e for a n y g i v e n c o u n t r y , t h e o p t i m u m q u a n t i t y o f c o i n a g e for t h a t c o u n t r y can b e likewise d e t e r m i n e d . I n o r d e r t o m a k e a calculation o f this k i n d , C a n t i l l o n begins w i t h w h a t i s p r o d u c e d b y t h e land, f r o m w h i c h all w e a l t h i s directly o r i n d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d . T h i s p r o d u c t is d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e revenues in t h e h a n d s o f t h e f a r m e r : t h e r e v e n u e p a i d t o t h e l a n d o w n e r ; t h a t w h i c h i s used for t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e f a r m e r h i m s e l f a n d that o f his m e n and horses; and, lastly, ' a t h i r d w h i c h s h o u l d r e m a i n i n o r d e r t o m a k e his enterprise p r o f i t a b l e ' [ 4 9 ] . N o w , o n l y t h e first o f these a n d r o u g h l y h a l f o f t h e t h i r d h a v e t o b e p a i d i n specie; t h e rest c a n b e p a i d i n t h e f o r m o f direct e x c h a n g e s o f g o o d s . T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e fact that o n e - h a l f o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n lives i n t o w n s a n d m u s t t h e r e f o r e e x p e n d m o r e o n u p k e e p t h a n do peasants, it is a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e m o n e t a r y mass in circulation s h o u l d be a l m o s t equal to t w o - t h i r d s of p r o d u c t i o n - if, that is, all p a y m e n t s w e r e m a d e o n c e a y e a r ; b u t , i n fact, g r o u n d r e n t falls d u e e v e r y q u a r t e r ; it is t h e r e f o r e sufficient if t h e q u a n t i t y of c o i n a g e is e q u i v a l e n t t o o n e - s i x t h o f p r o d u c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , m a n y o t h e r p a y m e n t s are m a d e daily o r w e e k l y ; t h e q u a n t i t y o f c o i n r e q u i r e d i s t h e r e f o r e o f t h e o r d e r o f 186

EXCHANGING

a ninth part of production - in other words, one-third of the landowners' revenue from ground rent[50]. B u t this calculation i s exact o n l y o n c o n d i t i o n t h a t o u r i m a g i n a r y n a t i o n is w h o l l y isolated. N o w , t h e m a j o r i t y of states m a i n t a i n a t r a d e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r i n w h i c h t h e o n l y m e a n s o f p a y m e n t are barter, m e t a l estimated a c c o r d i n g t o its w e i g h t (and n o t i n t h e f o r m o f coins w i t h t h e i r n o m i n a l v a l u e ) , a n d , on occasion, b a n k e r s ' drafts. In this case also it is possible to calculate t h e relative q u a n t i t y of m o n e y t h a t it is desirable to p u t i n t o c i r c u l a t i o n : h o w e v e r , this estimate s h o u l d n o t b e a r r i v e d a t w i t h reference t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l a n d b u t r a t h e r w i t h reference t o a certain relation o f w a g e s a n d prices w i t h t h o s e i n force i n foreign c o u n tries. In fact, in a c o u n t r y w h e r e prices are relatively l o w (because t h e q u a n t i t y of m o n e y in circulation is small), foreign m o n e y is a t t r a c t e d b y t h e g r e a t e r b u y i n g p o w e r i t acquires t h e r e : t h e q u a n t i t y o f m e t a l increases. T h e state, as we say, b e c o m e s ' r i c h a n d p o w e r f u l ' ; it is able to m a i n t a i n a fleet and an a r m y , achieve c o n q u e s t s , a n d e n r i c h itself further. T h e q u a n t i t y o f c o i n a g e i n circulation causes prices t o rise, w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e affording p r i v a t e persons t h e resources t o b u y a b r o a d , w h e r e prices are l o w e r : little by little, t h e m e t a l disappears, a n d t h e state b e c o m e s p o o r o n c e again. Such is t h e cycle t h a t C a n t i l l o n described a n d f o r m u l a t e d i n t o a general p r i n c i p l e : ' T h e excessive a b u n d a n c e o f m o n e y , w h i c h m a k e s the p o w e r o f states w h i l e i t lasts, thrusts t h e m i m p e r c e p t i b l y a n d n a t u r a l l y back into indigence'[51]. I t w o u l d , n o d o u b t , b e impossible t o a v o i d these f l u c t u a t i o n s d i d t h e r e n o t exist in t h e o r d e r of t h i n g s a c o n t r a r y t e n d e n c y , w h i c h ceaselessly aggravates t h e p o v e r t y o f nations that are a l r e a d y p o o r a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , increases t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f states that a r e rich. F o r p o p u l a t i o n t e n d s t o m o v e i n t h e c o n t r a r y d i r e c t i o n t o m o n e y . T h e latter m o v e s o u t f r o m the p r o s p e r o u s states i n t o t h e r e g i o n s w h e r e prices are l o w ; w h e r e a s m e n are attracted t o w a r d s h i g h w a g e s , t h e r e f o r e t o w a r d s c o u n t r i e s t h a t h a v e a n a b u n d a n t c o i n a g e a t their disposal. T h e p o o r e r c o u n t r i e s thus h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o b e c o m e d e p o p u l a t e d ; their a g r i c u l t u r e a n d industries d e t e r iorate a n d p o v e r t y increases. I n r i c h c o u n t r i e s , i n contrast, t h e influx o f l a b o u r m a k e s possible t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f n e w w e a l t h , t h e sale o f w h i c h p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y increases t h e a m o u n t o f m e t a l i n circulation [ 5 2 ] . G o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c y s h o u l d therefore a t t e m p t t o c o m e t o t e r m s w i t h these t w o contrary m o v e m e n t s on the part of population and currency. T h e n u m b e r o f inhabitants m u s t g r o w , g r a d u a l l y b u t u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y , s o t h a t m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries w i l l a l w a y s h a v e a n a b u n d a n c e o f w o r k e r s t o d r a w 187

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o n ; t h e n w a g e s will n o t increase at a g r e a t e r rate t h a n w e a l t h , n o r prices w i t h t h e m ; a n d t h e balance o f t r a d e will b e able t o r e m a i n f a v o u r a b l e : o n e recognizes in all this t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s t theses [ 5 3 ] . B u t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , it is also necessary t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y of specie s h o u l d b e slightly b u t c o n s t a n t l y o n t h e rise: t h e o n l y m e a n s o f m a k i n g sure t h a t t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e land o r o f i n d u s t r y will b e w e l l r e m u n e r a t e d , t h a t w a g e s will b e sufficient, a n d t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n will n o t b e p o v e r t y stricken in t h e m i d s t of t h e w e a l t h it is c r e a t i n g : h e n c e all t h e m e a s u r e s i n t e n d e d to e n c o u r a g e f o r e i g n t r a d e a n d m a i n t a i n a positive balance. W h a t ensures t h e e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e e c o n o m y , therefore, a n d p r e v e n t s p r o f o u n d fluctuations b e t w e e n w e a l t h a n d p o v e r t y , is n o t a certain a n d definitively a c q u i r e d e c o n o m i c c o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h e b a l a n c e d i n t e r a c t i o n a t o n c e n a t u r a l a n d deliberately m a i n t a i n e d - o f t w o tendencies. T h e r e i s p r o s p e r i t y w i t h i n a state, n o t w h e n c o i n is plentiful a n d prices are h i g h , b u t w h e n t h e c o i n a g e has r e a c h e d t h a t stage o f a u g m e n t a t i o n - w h i c h m u s t be m a d e to c o n t i n u e indefinitely - that m a k e s it possible to m a i n t a i n w a g e s w i t h o u t increasing prices a n y f u r t h e r : this b e i n g so, t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w s at a steady rate, its w o r k c o n s t a n t l y p r o d u c e s m o r e , a n d , since each c o n s e c u t i v e increase in t h e c o i n a g e is d i v i d e d up (in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v i t y ) b e t w e e n small quantities o f w e a l t h , prices will n o t increase in r e l a t i o n to those in force a b r o a d . It is o n l y b e t w e e n an increase in t h e q u a n t i t y of g o l d a n d a rise in prices t h a t an increasing q u a n t i t y o f g o l d a n d silver e n c o u r a g e s i n d u s t r y . A n a t i o n w h o s e c o i n a g e i s i n process o f d i m i n u t i o n is, a t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t o f c o m p a r i s o n , w e a k e r a n d p o o r e r t h a n a n o t h e r n a t i o n w h i c h has n o grea&cr possessions b u t w h o s e c o i n a g e i s i n process o f g r o w t h . T h i s i s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e Spanish disaster: its m i n i n g possessions h a d , in fact, increased t h e n a t i o n ' s c o i n a g e - a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , prices - to a massive d e g r e e , w i t h o u t g i v i n g i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d p o p u l a t i o n t h e t i m e , b e t w e e n cause a n d effect, t o d e v e l o p p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y : i t w a s inevitable t h a t A m e r i c a n g o l d s h o u l d spread t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e , b u y c o m m o d i t i e s t h e r e , cause m a n u f a c t u r i n g t o d e v e l o p , a n d e n r i c h its farms, w h i l e l e a v i n g Spain m o r e p o v e r t y stricken t h a n i t h a d e v e r b e e n . E n g l a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o u g h i t a t t r a c t e d b u l l i o n t o o , d i d s o a l w a y s for t h e profit o f l a b o u r a n d n o t m e r e l y t o p r o v i d e its i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h l u x u r y , that is, i n o r d e r t o increase the number o f its workers a n d t h e q u a n t i t y o f its p r o d u c t s b e f o r e a n y increase in prices o c c u r r e d [54.]. S u c h analyses a r e i m p o r t a n t because t h e y i n t r o d u c e t h e n o t i o n o f p r o gress i n t o t h e o r d e r o f h u m a n activity. B u t t h e y are still m o r e i m p o r t a n t 188

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i n t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e t h e i n t e r p l a y o f signs a n d representations w i t h a t e m p o r a l i n d e x t h a t gives progress a definition of its c o n d i t i o n of possibility. A n i n d e x n o t t o b e f o u n d i n a n y o t h e r area o f t h e t h e o r y o f o r d e r . M o n e y , as c o n c e i v e d by Classical t h o u g h t , c a n n o t , in fact, r e p r e s e n t wealth w i t h o u t that p o w e r being modified, from within, b y t i m e w h e t h e r a s p o n t a n e o u s cycle a u g m e n t s , after h a v i n g first d i m i n i s h e d , its capacity for r e p r e s e n t i n g w e a l t h , o r w h e t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c y , b y dint of c o n c e r t e d efforts, keeps its representativity c o n s t a n t . In t h e o r d e r of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , t h e characters (the g r o u p s of identities selected to r e p resent a n d distinguish a n u m b e r of species or a n u m b e r of g e n e r a ) resided w i t h i n t h e c o n t i n u o u s area o f n a t u r e , w h i c h t h e y d i v i d e d i n t o a t a x o n o m i c table; t i m e i n t e r v e n e d o n l y f r o m w i t h o u t , i n o r d e r t o upset t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e v e r y smallest differences a n d t o scatter t h e m i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e f r a g m e n t e d localities o f g e o g r a p h y . H e r e , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , t i m e b e l o n g s t o t h e inner l a w o f t h e representations a n d i s p a r t o f it; i t follows a n d modifies w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n t h e p o w e r possessed b y w e a l t h t o represent itself a n d so analyse itself by m e a n s of a m o n e t a r y s y s t e m . W h e r e n a t u r a l history revealed squares of identities separated by differences, t h e analysis of w e a l t h reveals 'differentials' - tendencies t o w a r d s increase a n d t o w a r d s diminution. I t w a s inevitable t h a t this function o f t i m e w i t h i n w e a l t h s h o u l d b e c o m e a p p a r e n t as s o o n as m o n e y w a s defined (as it w a s at t h e e n d of t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y ) as a p l e d g e a n d assimilated i n t o credit: it t h e n b e c a m e necessary t h a t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e credit, t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h r e p a y m e n t fell d u e , t h e n u m b e r of h a n d s t h r o u g h w h i c h it passed in a g i v e n t i m e , s h o u l d b e c o m e characteristic variables of its representative p o w e r . B u t all this w a s m e r e l y t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f a f o r m o f reflection that placed t h e m o n e t a r y sign, w i t h relation to w e a l t h , in a p o s t u r e of representation in t h e full sense of t h e t e r m . It is, therefore, t h e s a m e a r c h a e o logical n e t w o r k t h a t s u p p o r t s t h e t h e o r y of money-as-representation in t h e analysis of w e a l t h and t h e t h e o r y of character-as-representation in n a t u r a l history. T h e character designates n a t u r a l beings b y situating t h e m i n their s u r r o u n d i n g s ; m o n e t a r y price designates w e a l t h , b u t i n t h e m o v e m e n t o f its g r o w t h o r d i m i n u t i o n .

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The theory of m o n e y and trade responds to the question: h o w , in the m o v e m e n t o f e x c h a n g e , can prices characterize things - h o w can m o n e y 189

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establish a system o f signs a n d designation b e t w e e n kinds o f w e a l t h ? T h e t h e o r y of v a l u e r e s p o n d s to a q u e s t i o n t h a t intersects this first o n e , a question t h a t p r o b e s , as it w e r e vertically a n d in d e p t h , t h e h o r i z o n t a l area i n w h i c h e x c h a n g e i s c o n t i n u o u s l y t a k i n g p l a c e : w h y are t h e r e t h i n g s t h a t m e n seek t o e x c h a n g e ; w h y are s o m e o f t h e m w o r t h m o r e t h a n o t h e r s , w h y d o s o m e o f t h e m , t h a t h a v e n o utility, h a v e a h i g h v a l u e , w h e r e a s o t h e r s , t h a t are indispensable, h a v e no value at all? It is t h u s no l o n g e r a question o f k n o w i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t m e c h a n i s m k i n d s o f w e a l t h can represent each o t h e r (and represent themselves b y m e a n s o f t h a t universally representative w e a l t h c o n s t i t u t e d b y precious m e t a l ) , b u t w h y objects o f desire a n d n e e d h a v e t o b e represented, h o w o n e posits t h e v a l u e o f a t h i n g , a n d w h y o n e can affirm t h a t i t i s w o r t h this o r that. T o b e w o r t h , for Classical t h o u g h t , i s first o f all t o b e w o r t h s o m e t h i n g , t o b e substitutable for t h a t t h i n g i n a process o f e x c h a n g e . M o n e y w a s i n v e n t e d , prices w e r e fixed a n d can m o d i f y themselves, o n l y in so far as t h a t process of e x c h a n g e exists. N o w , e x c h a n g e is o n l y a p p a r e n t l y a simple process. In fact, e x c h a n g e by b a r t e r is possible o n l y if each of t h e t w o parties c o n c e r n e d recognizes a value in w h a t t h e o t h e r possesses. In o n e sense, therefore, these e x c h a n g e a b l e t h i n g s , t o g e t h e r w i t h their p a r ticular values, s h o u l d exist in a d v a n c e in t h e h a n d s of each p a r t y so that t h e d o u b l e cession a n d d o u b l e acquisition can finally t a k e place. B u t , f r o m a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w , w h a t each p e r s o n eats a n d d r i n k s , w h a t h e needs i n o r d e r t o live, has n o v a l u e a s l o n g a s h e does n o t relinquish it; a n d w h a t he does n o t n e e d is equally d e v o i d of value as long as he does n o t e m p l o y i t t o a c q u i r e s o m e t h i n g h e does n e e d . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i n o r d e r t h a t o n e t h i n g can represent a n o t h e r i n a n e x c h a n g e , t h e y m u s t b o t h exist a s bearers o f v a l u e ; a n d y e t v a l u e exists o n l y w i t h i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (actual o r possible), t h a t is, w i t h i n t h e e x c h a n g e o r t h e e x c h a n g e ability. H e n c e t w o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y possible w a y s o f c o n s t r u i n g t h e m a t t e r : t h e o n e analyses v a l u e i n t h e act o f e x c h a n g e itself, a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e g i v e n a n d t h e received intersect; t h e o t h e r analyses it as a n t e r i o r to t h e exchange and as a p r i m a r y condition w i t h o u t w h i c h that exchange could n o t t a k e place. T h e first o f these t w o r e a d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a n analysis t h a t places a n d encloses t h e w h o l e essence o f l a n g u a g e w i t h i n t h e p r o p o sition; t h e second c o r r e s p o n d s to an analysis t h a t reveals this s a m e essence o f l a n g u a g e a s residing i n t h e r e g i o n o f p r i m i t i v e designations (language of action or r o o t s ) ; in t h e first case, l a n g u a g e does, in fact, find its field of possibility in a p r e d i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e v e r b - t h a t is, by t h e e l e m e n t 190

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o f l a n g u a g e t h a t i s set a p a r t f r o m all o t h e r w o r d s , y e t relates t h e m t o o n e a n o t h e r ; t h e v e r b , w h i c h r e n d e r s all t h e w o r d s o f l a n g u a g e possible o n t h e basis o f their p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e e x c h a n g e , w h i c h , as an act a n t e d a t i n g t h e o t h e r s , p r o v i d e s a basis for t h e v a l u e of t h e t h i n g s e x c h a n g e d a n d for t h e p r i c e for w h i c h t h e y a r e r e l i n q u i s h e d ; i n t h e o t h e r f o r m of analysis, l a n g u a g e is r o o t e d o u t s i d e itself a n d , as it w e r e , i n t h e n a t u r e o r t h e analogies o f t h i n g s ; t h e r o o t , t h e first c r y t h a t g a v e rise t o w o r d s e v e n before l a n g u a g e itself w a s b o r n , c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e i m m e d i a t e f o r m a t i o n o f v a l u e p r i o r t o e x c h a n g e a n d t h e reciprocal measurements of need. F o r g r a m m a r , h o w e v e r , these t w o f o r m s o f analysis - based o n t h e p r o p o s i t i o n or based on r o o t s - a r e perfectly distinct, because g r a m m a r is d e a l i n g w i t h l a n g u a g e , t h a t is, w i t h a s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e d b o t h t o designate a n d t o j u d g e , o r again, related t o b o t h a n object a n d a t r u t h . I n t h e e c o n o m i c sphere this distinction does n o t exist, since, for desire, t h e r e l a t i o n to its object a n d t h e affirmation that it is desirable a r e o n e a n d t h e s a m e t h i n g ; t o designate i t i s a l r e a d y t o posit t h e c o n n e c t i o n . S o t h a t , w h e r e a s g r a m m a r h a d t w o separate a n d reciprocally adjusted theoretical s e g m e n t s at its disposal, f o r m i n g first of all an analysis of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n (or t h e j u d g e m e n t ) , t h e n a n analysis o f designation (the g e s t u r e o r t h e r o o t ) , t h e e c o n o m y k n o w s o n l y a single theoretical s e g m e n t , b u t o n e t h a t i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y susceptible o f t w o readings m a d e i n c o n t r a r y directions. T h e o n e analyses v a l u e i n t e r m s o f t h e e x c h a n g e of objects of n e e d - of useful objects; t h e o t h e r in t e r m s of t h e f o r m a t i o n a n d o r i g i n of objects w h o s e e x c h a n g e will later define their v a l u e - in t e r m s o f n a t u r e ' s p r o l i x i t y . B e t w e e n these t w o possible readings w e r e c o g n i z e a p o i n t of heresy t h a t is by n o w familiar: it separates w h a t is t e r m e d t h e ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y ' o f C o n d i l l a c , Galiani, a n d Graslin, f r o m t h a t o f t h e Physiocrats, w i t h Q u e s n a y a n d his school. T h e d o c t r i n e s o f t h e Physiocrats m a y n o t really possess t h e i m p o r t a n c e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e m b y e c o n o m i s t s o f t h e early n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w h e n t h e latter w e r e s e e k i n g i n t h e m t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e o f political e c o n o m y ; b u t i t w o u l d be e q u a l l y v a i n to a t t r i b u t e t h e s a m e r o l e - as t h e marginalists in fact did - to t h e ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c h o o l ' . T h e r e a r e no differences b e t w e e n these t w o m o d e s o f analysis o t h e r t h a n t h e p o i n t o f o r i g i n a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n c h o s e n to traverse a n e t w o r k of necessity t h a t r e m a i n s identical in b o t h . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e m a y b e values a n d w e a l t h , say t h e Physiocrats, a n e x c h a n g e m u s t be possible: t h a t is, o n e s h o u l d h a v e at o n e ' s disposal a 191

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superfluity that t h e o t h e r p a r t y n e e d s . T h e fruit I a m h u n g r y for, w h i c h I p i c k a n d eat, is a commodity p r e s e n t e d to me by n a t u r e ; t h e r e c a n be n o wealth unless t h e fruits o n m y t r e e are sufficiently n u m e r o u s t o exceed m y a p p e t i t e . E v e n t h e n , s o m e o n e else m u s t b e h u n g r y a n d r e q u i r e those fruit o f m e . ' T h e air w e b r e a t h e , ' says Q u e s n a y , ' t h e w a t e r w e d r a w f r o m t h e s t r e a m , a n d all t h e o t h e r s u p e r a b u n d a n t g o o d s o r f o r m s o f w e a l t h c o m m o n t o all m e n , are n o t m a r k e t a b l e : t h e y a r e c o m m o d i t i e s , n o t w e a l t h ' [ 5 5 ] . B e f o r e e x c h a n g e , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g b u t that r a r e o r a b u n d a n t reality p r o v i d e d b y n a t u r e ; d e m a n d o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d r e l i n q u i s h m e n t o n t h e o t h e r are a l o n e c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g v a l u e . N o w , t h e p u r p o s e o f e x c h a n g e is precisely t h a t of d i s t r i b u t i n g w h a t e v e r is in excess in such a m a n n e r t h a t i t w i l l b e passed o n t o t h o s e w h o n e e d it. I t i s therefore ' w e a l t h ' o n l y p r o v i s i o n a l l y , d u r i n g t h e t i m e w h e n , possessed b y s o m e a n d n e e d e d b y o t h e r s , i t begins a n d c o m p l e t e s t h e trajectory t h a t will c o n v e y it to t h e c o n s u m e r s a n d t h u s restore it to its o r i g i n a l n a t u r e as a c o m m o d i t y . ' T h e a i m o f e x c h a n g e , ' says M e r c i e r d e L a R i v i e r e , 'is e n j o y m e n t , c o n s u m p t i o n . T r a d e , t h e n , can b e s u m m a r i z e d a s t h e e x c h a n g e o f e v e r y d a y t h i n g s i n o r d e r t o achieve their d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e i r c o n s u m e r s ' [ 5 6 ] . N o w , this c o n s t i t u t i o n o f v a l u e b y m e a n s o f trade[57] cannot be achieved w i t h o u t a subtraction of goods: trade, in fact, t r a n s p o r t s g o o d s , a n d entails c a r t a g e , storage, processing, a n d selling c o s t s [ 5 8 ] : in s h o r t , it costs a certain c o n s u m p t i o n o£ goods for t h e goods t h e m s e l v e s t o b e c o n v e r t e d i n t o wealth. T h e o n l y sort o f t r a d e that w o u l d cost n o t h i n g w o u l d b e s i m p l e b a r t e r , since i n t h a t case t h e g o o d s are w e a l t h a n d h a v e v a l u e o n l y for t h e b r i e f instant d u r i n g w h i c h / h e e x c h a n g e i s m a d e : 'If t h e e x c h a n g e c o u l d b e m a d e i m m e d i a t e l y a n d w i t h o u t cost, it could be only the m o r e advantageous to the t w o exchangers: it is t h e r e f o r e a g r i e v o u s m i s t a k e to t a k e for t r a d e itself t h o s e i n t e r m e d i a r y o p e r a t i o n s t h a t serve a s t h e m e a n s o f t r a d e ' [ 5 9 ] . T h e Physiocrats a l l o w themselves t o posit o n l y t h e m a t e r i a l reality o f g o o d s , w h i c h m e a n s that t h e f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e in e x c h a n g e b e c o m e s a process costly in itself a n d m u s t b e d e b i t e d against existing g o o d s . T h e creation o f v a l u e i s t h e r e f o r e n o t a m e a n s of satisfying a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of n e e d s ; it is t h e sacrifice o f a certain q u a n t i t y o f g o o d s i n o r d e r t o e x c h a n g e o t h e r s . Values t h u s f o r m t h e n e g a t i v e o f g o o d s . B u t h o w i s i t t h a t v a l u e can b e f o r m e d i n this w a y ? W h a t i s t h e o r i g i n o f this excess t h a t m a k e s i t possible for g o o d s t o b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o w e a l t h w i t h o u t b e i n g effaced a n d finally d i s a p p e a r i n g a l t o g e t h e r as a result o f successive e x c h a n g e s a n d c o n t i n u a l circulation? H o w i s i t that 192

t h e increase i n v a l u e d u e t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process represents t h e c o n sumption of those w h o m it remunerates. c o m p e t i t i o n tends t o l o w e r t h e m t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e . O n e m a y h a u l o n e ' s m e r chandise f r o m o n e e n d o f t h e w o r l d t o t h e o t h e r . It is n o t t r a d e t h a t has p r o d u c e d t h e superfluity o f g o o d s : the excess m u s t a l r e a d y h a v e existed in o r d e r for t r a d e to be possible. according t o C a n t i l l o n ' s definition. T h a t i s t h e w h o l e a r t o f t r a d e . in fact. t h e selling price of objects can rise c o n s i d e r a b l y .EXCHANGING t h e cost o f this c o n t i n u o u s creation o f v a l u e does n o t e x h a u s t t h e g o o d s t h a t m e n h a v e a t their disposal? Is it that t r a d e is able to fmd this necessary s u p p l e m e n t in itself? C e r t a i n l y n o t . m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s m a y b e sold i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t w o different systems. a n d doubtless o n e s h o u l d also a d d t h e subsistence a n d profits o f t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r . so that in order to p r o d u c e w e a l t h i t has b e e n necessary t o sacrifice s o m e g o o d s : ' T h e artisan d e s t r o y s a s m u c h i n subsistence a s h e p r o d u c e s b y his w o r k ' [ 6 1 ] . b u t this increase c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e real e x p e n s e of t r a n s p o r t i n g it. It is t r u e that a c o m m o d i t y taken to a distant m a r k e t can b e e x c h a n g e d for a p r i c e h i g h e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h i t w o u l d c o m m a n d in its place of o r i g i n . o n e m u s t receive m u c h . a n d i n o r d e r t o g i v e m u c h . it d e d u c t s t h e cost of o n e or several subsistences f r o m 193 . N o r i s i n d u s t r y capable o f c o m p e n s a t i n g for t h e cost o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f v a l u e . I f prices a r e free. I n d u s t r y appears t o i n crease values. b u t i n a n y case. e x c h a n g e s t o g e t h e r o n l y t h i n g s o f e q u a l v a l u e ' [ 6 0 ] . b u t t h e cost o f its e x c h a n g e is a l w a y s levied on t h e g o o d s e x c h a n g e d . W h e n prices are c o n t r o l l e d by a m o n o p o l y . as for t h e profits of t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . a p a r t f r o m t h e cost o f t h e r a w materials. since its a i m is to e x c h a n g e v a l u e for v a l u e in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e greatest possible equality. B u t this does n o t m e a n t h a t t h e l a b o u r o f t h e w o r k e r s will b e b e t t e r r e m u n e r a t e d : t h e c o m p e t i t i o n existing b e t w e e n t h e m tends t o m a i n t a i n their w a g e s at t h e level that is j u s t indispensable for their subsistence[62]. b y its v e r y n a t u r e . it is t r u e that m o n o p o l i s t i c prices increase t h e m t o t h e d e g r e e that t h e v a l u e o f t h e objects p u t o n t h e m a r k e t is increased. b u t this increase is m e r e l y t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d r o p in t h e e x c h a n g e v a l u e o f o t h e r m e r c h a n d i s e : ' A l l these e n t r e p r e n e u r s m a k e fortunes o n l y because o t h e r s i n c u r e x p e n s e s ' [ 6 3 ] . t h e y c o v e r no m o r e than the w o r k of the w o r k e r w h o m a d e the product. this w a g e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e w o r k e r ' s subsistence d u r i n g t h e t i m e h e takes t o d o t h e w o r k . T r a d e . I n fact. a n d t h e o n l y reason i t does n o t lose a n y t h i n g because o f this fact is that t h e s t a t i o n a r y m e r c h a n d i s e for w h i c h it is e x c h a n g e d loses t h o s e freightage charges o u t o f its o w n p r i c e . o n e m u s t g i v e m u c h . 'In o r d e r t o receive m u c h .

T h e status o f t h e w o r k e r w h o p l o u g h s i s i n n o w a y different f r o m t h a t o f t h e w o r k e r w h o w e a v e s o r carts. As i n all t h e o t h e r cases. o r increased. he is o n l y o n e o f ' t h e tools of w o r k or c u l t i v a t i o n ' [ 6 5 ] . a n d w h i l e t h e l a b o u r e r c o n s u m e s a n a m o u n t equal t o his w o r k . t h e P r o d u c e r o f all g o o d s a n d all w e a l t h ' [ 6 8 ] . T h i s i s e v e n t r u e o f agricultural w o r k .A u t h o r . b u t . Y e t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r does possess o n e privilege. 194 . therefore. V a l u e arises o n l y w h e r e g o o d s h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d . w h i c h c a n n o t b e said o f a bale o f silk o r w o o l i n s t o r a g e ' [ 6 7 ] . p r o d u c e s all t h e g o o d s f r o m w h i c h t h e c r e a t i o n of values will be d e d u c t e d : ' A g r i c u l t u r e is a m a n u f a c t u r e of d i v i n e i n s t i t u t i o n i n w h i c h t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r has a s his p a r t n e r t h e A u t h o r o f n a t u r e . T h i s is because the latter is r e m u n e r a t e d by c o n s u m p t i o n .a n d n o t t o a g r i c u l tural l a b o u r . T h i s is because t h e r e is really an invisible p r o d u c e r w h o does n o t r e q u i r e a n y r e m u n e r a t i o n . t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n o f agricultural l a b o u r tends t o r e g u l a t e itself so as to p r o v i d e that subsistence exactly. t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r ' s l a b o u r is j u s t as n e g a t i v e a n d wasteful a s t h a t o f factory w o r k e r s . o r t h a t o f t h e n o n . ' T h e increase i n m a r k e t v a l u e w h i c h i s d u e t o t h e sterile class i s t h e effect o f t h e w o r k e r ' s e x p e n d i t u r e . w i t h o u t k n o w i n g it. a n d w o r k functions as an e x p e n d i t u r e : it t u r n s t h e subsistence w h i c h it has itself consumed into a price. A s r e m u n e r a t e d w o r k . b y v i r t u e o f t h e l a b o u r e r ' s C o . n o t o f his w o r k . w h e n w o r k e d . n o t a n e c o n o m i c o n e .w o r k e r w h o b u y s . e v e r y o n e k n o w s that w h e r e y o u s o w a g r a i n o f w h e a t y o u reap a n ear. therefore.w h e t h e r i t b e t h a t o f t h e w o r k e r i n o r d e r t o subsist. i n t h e s y s t e m o f e x c h a n g e s . F o r t h e idle m a n w h o e x p e n d s w i t h o u t w o r k i n g p r o d u c e s t h e s a m e effect i n this respect' [64]. a n d a n i m a l fodder. A g r i c u l t u r e i s t h e o n l y s p h e r e i n w h i c h t h e increase i n v a l u e d u e t o p r o d u c t i o n i s n o t e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e p r o d u c e r . w h y t h e P h y s i o c r a t s a c c o r d e d such theoretical a n d practical i m p o r t a n c e t o g r o u n d r e n t . b u t a physical o n e . i t i s t h e s o u r c e o f a n i m m e n s e fecundity. b u t b y c o n s u m p t i o n . p r o v i d e s a possible q u a n t i t y o f subsistence m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t actually n e e d e d b y t h e l a b o u r e r w h o w o r k s it.THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e e x c h a n g e itself. i t i s w i t h h i m t h a t t h e f a r m e r is. n o t b y p r o d u c t i o n . V a l u e i s created.a t o o l t h a t requires a subsistence. i n p a r t n e r s h i p . It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . A n d t h o u g h it is t r u e t h a t this lavishness is r e m u n e r a t e d in a d v a n c e by t h e costs o f p l o u g h i n g . a s 'physical c o m m e r c e ' w i t h n a t u r e [66]. i n t h e s p h e r e o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f g o o d s : t h e l a n d . that s a m e w o r k . a n d that h e j d s and f l o c k s g r o w fatter e v e r y d a y e v e n w h i l e t h e y rest. t h a t o f t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r t a k i n g his profit. a n d d e d u c t s it f r o m w h a t t h e land p r o d u c e s . s o w i n g .

T h e Physiocrats' e c o n o m i c a n d political p r o g r a m m e m u s t therefore i n c l u d e : a n increase i n agricultural prices. will b e forced t o m a i n t a i n fair p r i c e s ) . b u t w h i c h exists p r i o r t o t h e system o f w e a l t h . f o o d . a vast r e i n v e s t m e n t of m o n e y in t h e land for t h e advances necessary for future p r o d u c t i o n . w i t h w a g e s . a n d of t h e successive abstractions by m e a n s of w h i c h t h a t r o o t b e c o m e s a n a m e in a l a n g u a g e . w i t h a p a r t of t h a t surplus of w h i c h it is itself a p a r t . radical. 195 . a n d it is f r o m w i t h i n this n e t p r o f i t that d e d u c t i o n s o f g o o d s can b e m a d e t o c o v e r t h e costs necessitated b y each e x c h a n g e . b u t it is t h e inexhaustible source of t h e g o o d s t h a t e x c h a n g e transforms i n t o values. Q u e s n a y a n d his disciples analyse w e a l t h on t h e basis of w h a t is g i v e n in e x c h a n g e . t h e a b o l i t i o n of m o n o p o l i s t i c prices a n d all t r a d e preferences (so t h a t i n d u s t r y a n d t r a d e . T h i s e x c h a n g e a l o n e is absolutely profitable. in short. so t h a t l a b o u r . It p r o v i d e s t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n for all o t h e r k i n d s o f w o r k a n d all t h e c o n s u m p t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e m . t h e w h o l e costly creation o f values. a n d t h u s b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f each n e w e l e m e n t o f w e a l t h . b u t t h a t b e c o m e s v a l u e b y t a k i n g p a r t i n a circuit o f substitutions. is referred b a c k to t h e u n b a l a n c e d . t h e n e t p r o d u c t : t h e q u a n t i t y o f g o o d s p r o v i d e d b y n a t u r e o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e subsistence it yields to t h e w o r k e r a n d t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n it d e m a n d s for itself in o r d e r t o g o o n p r o d u c i n g . I t i s this r e n t t h a t p e r m i t s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f g o o d s i n t o values or i n t o w e a l t h .that is. on t h e basis of t h e superfluity t h a t exists w i t h o u t a n y v a l u e . b u t n o t i n t h e w a g e s o f those w h o w o r k t h e l a n d . T h e same i s t r u e o f g r a m m a r i a n s w h e n t h e y analyse w o r d s o n t h e basis o f their r o o t s . a n d i n d u s t r y can b e a d e q u a t e l y supplied w i t h it. a n d t o see t o i t t h a t absolute p r o t e c t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h a t p a r t o f t h e w o r k i n g capital t h a t m u s t r e t u r n t o t h e land i n o r d e r t o a l l o w i t t o g o o n p r o d u c i n g . a n d p r i m i t i v e e x c h a n g e established b e t w e e n t h e advances m a d e b y t h e l a n d o w n e r a n d t h e g e n e r osity of n a t u r e . H e n c e t w o m a j o r c o n c e r n s : to h a v e a large q u a n t i t y of specie at o n e ' s disposal.EXCHANGING w h e r e a s g r o u n d r e n t represents. t h o u g h n o t w i t h o u t e x p e n d i t u r e a n d c o n s u m p t i o n . T h e Physiocrats b e g i n their analysis w i t h t h e t h i n g itself w h i c h is designated in v a l u e . i n w h i c h i t m u s t r e m u n e r a t e each o f its m o v e m e n t s . o f t h e i m m e d i a t e relation t h a t unites a s o u n d a n d a t h i n g . each of its t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . t h e l e v y i n g o f all taxes o n g r o u n d r e n t itself. I t w o u l d b e u n t r u e t o say t h a t n a t u r e s p o n t a n e o u s l y p r o d u c e s v a l u e s . t r a d e . r e g u l a t e d b y c o m p e t i t i o n . o r o u g h t t o represent. T h e w h o l e s y s t e m o f e x c h a n g e s . a n d subsistence.

THE ORDER OF THINGS VI UTILITY T h e analysis o f C o n d i l l a c . T h i s j u d g e m e n t is the foundation of w h a t T u r g o t terms the 'estimative value' of t h i n g s [ 7 1 ] . a n d s o m e times c o m p l e m e n t a r y .for his analysis of circulation a n d t h e r o l e h e gives t o m o n e y [ 6 9 ] .as w e l l as by t h e latter . b u t in o p p o s i t e directions: t h e f o r m e r a r e asking themselves on w h a t c o n d i t i o n . t h e latter. n o e q u i v a l e n c e . w h y T u r g o t w a s able t o b e faithful t o P h y s i o c r a t d o c t r i n e in Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses. t h e r e i s n o fixed price. i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e passed a certain j u d g e m e n t o n these t h i n g s . o n t h e use w e can m a k e o f t h e m ' [ 7 0 ] . i n fact. T h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s i s t h u s f o u n d e d o n their utility. desires. It is 196 . w h y C a n t i l l o n c o u l d b e c l a i m e d b y t h e f o r m e r .for his t h e o r y o f t h e t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l r e v e n u e s a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e h e gives to land . or t h a t we e s t e e m it. but w h a t is received: the same t h i n g . since it c o n c e r n s each c o m m o d i t y i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d w i t h o u t its b e i n g c o m p a r e d w i t h a n y o t h e r . H o w e v e r . a n d n e e d . w h o w a n t s it. on w h a t c o n d i t i o n a j u d g e m e n t of appraisal can be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p r i c e in t h a t s a m e system of e x c h a n g e s . Graslin. a n d y e t v e r y close to Galiani in Valeur et monnaie. T h e Physiocrats a n d their o p p o n e n t s are in fact t r a v e r s i n g t h e s a m e theoretical s e g m e n t . w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o c o m p a r e i t w i t h a n y t h i n g else. a n d D e s t u t t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e g r a m m a t i c a l t h e o r y of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . A v a l u e t h a t is absolute. Galiani. t h e n . Let us i m a g i n e t h e m o s t r u d i m e n t a r y of all e x c h a n g e situations: a m a n w h o has n o t h i n g b u t c o r n o r w h e a t c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a n o t h e r w h o has n o t h i n g b u t w i n e o r w o o d . g o o d for s o m e use. n o t w h a t is given in an exchange. t h e y j u d g e d t h a t this w h e a t o r that w o o d w a s able t o satisfy o n e o f their n e e d s . since it is m o d i f i e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h m e n ' s a p p e t i t e . y e t i t i s also relative a n d c h a n g i n g . w h y t h e analyses o f t h e Physiocrats a n d those o f t h e utilitarians are often s o close. n o c o m m o n m e a s u r e .t h a t i t w o u l d b e useful t o t h e m : ' T o say t h a t a t h i n g has v a l u e is to say t h a t it is. t h e e x c h a n g e achieved u p o n t h e basis o f these p r i m a r y utilities is n o t their simple r e d u c t i o n to a c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r . b u t seen f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p e r s o n w h o n e e d s it. It is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . a n d w h o agrees t o g i v e u p w h a t h e possesses i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n this o t h e r t h i n g w h i c h in his e s t i m a t i o n is m o r e useful a n d to w h i c h h e attaches g r e a t e r v a l u e . It selects as its p o i n t of d e p a r ture. w h a t a m o u n t s t o t h e s a m e t h i n g . t o s o w a n d h a r v e s t the c o r n o r t h e w h e a t . o r . Y e t i f these m e n h a v e g o n e t o t h e t r o u b l e t o collect t h e w o o d . A s yet.a n d at w h a t cost an article can b e c o m e a v a l u e in a s y s t e m of e x c h a n g e s .

since e a c h o f t h e m k n o w s that h e can use. h e will k e e p s o m e p a r t o f i t i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n f r o m a t h i r d p a r t y t h e a d d i t i o n a l q u a n t i t y indispensable to his n e e d . b u t e q u a l l y . a n d vice versa. a s C o n d i l l a c [ 7 2 ] p u t s i t . t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g absolutely superfluous t o either p a r t y . since he has a g r e e d to e x c h a n g e it. each o n e o f t h e m m a y calculate that a p o r t i o n o f t h e o t h e r ' s c o m m o d i t y w o u l d b e m o r e useful t o h i m t h a n a p o r t i o n o f his o w n . t h e appraisal adjusting itself a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o t h e estimate. I n this case. h e m u s t b e a c c o r d i n g a g r e a t e r v a l u e t o w h a t h e receives t h a n t o w h a t h e relinquishes.c o r r e s p o n d s in q u a l i t y a n d in q u a n t i t y to t h e needs o f t h e o t h e r : t h e w h o l e surplus o f t h e w h e a t . o n e o f t h e m says. as b e i n g useful to t h e w i n e . a n d t h e r e f o r e in a c c o r d ance w i t h differing calculations . since it presents for t h e appraisal of o n e p a r t y w h a t until t h e n h a d possessed o n l y slight utility for t h e o t h e r .t h a t w h i c h h e has n o t utilized o r does n o t e x p e c t to utilize i m m e d i a t e l y . w h a t w a s useless b e c o m e s totally useful. t h r o u g h a c r e a t i o n o f s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d equal values o n each side. since h e needs all t h e first's surplus .EXCHANGING in itself a c r e a t o r of utility. A t this p o i n t . i n t h e e x c h a n g e situation. as t h e result of an altercation.b u t each for himself. w h a t w a s e s t i m a t e d a s null b y t h e o n e b e c o m e s p o s i t i v e i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r . Shall w e say. three possibilities exist. this d e d u c t e d p o r t i o n w h i c h t h e second p a r t y will t r y t o r e d u c e t o a m i n i m u m . utility a n d price c o r r e s p o n d exactly. t h e t w o parties m a y v e r y w e l l e x c h a n g e n o t h i n g a t all. will b e m o r e v a l u a b l e t o m e t h a n such a n d such a q u a n t i t y of c o r n . a n d this is t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s . T h e y b o t h establish . such a n d such a q u a n t i t y o f w o o d . in this case. t h e n .o w n e r . s o o n e r o r later. t h e e s t i m a t i v e values thus created a r e a u t o matically e q u i v a l e n t .o w n e r i s revealed. t h a t t h e p a r t y w h o gives t h e m o s t i s losing s o m e o f t h e v a l u e o f w h a t h e possessed i n this e x c h a n g e ? N o t a t all. I t m a y b e t h a t t h e 'surplus o f e a c h ' . for t h e surplus is of no use to h i m . w i t h n o resid u u m . a n d t h a t t h e latter will refrain f r o m g i v i n g all t h a t he possesses. a n d e v e r y i t e m o f g o o d s o w n e d b e c o m e s w e a l t h . T h e s e t w o e s t i m a t i v e inequalities define for each p a r t y t h e relative v a l u e h e gives t o w h a t h e possesses a n d t o w h a t 197 . O r i t m a y b e that t h e surplus o f t h e o n e p a r t y i s n o t sufficient for t h e needs o f t h e o t h e r .gives rise to p r i c e : it is no l o n g e r an excess of w h e a t that is b e i n g e x c h a n g e d for an excess of w i n e . s o m a n y h o g s h e a d s o f w i n e for s o m a n y bushels o f w h e a t . a n d since t h e situation is s y m m e t r i c a l .a minimum inequality: so many measures o f t h e c o r n I d o n o t h a v e . says t h e o t h e r . Or it m a y be. will b e w o r t h a little m o r e t o m e t h a n s o m a n y measures o f m y w o o d . b u t . t h e totality o f w h a t h e possesses: t h e state o f need i s t h e r e f o r e general. or at all events.

t h e Physiocrats explain t h e p r o g r e s s i v e patterning of values by t h e existence of w e a l t h . a n d that. that. i n fact. since t h e y w e r e c l a i m i n g political p o w e r .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e first. A n d t h a t t h e P h y s i o crats. B u t t h o u g h m e m b e r ship of a social g r o u p can a l w a y s explain w h y such a n d such a p e r s o n chose one system of t h o u g h t rather than another. links t h e m o m e n t of attribution a n d t h a t ofarticulation. A n d t h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e b r o a d e c o n o m i c choices o f b o t h sides can b e p e r c e i v e d b e y o n d their c o h e r e n c e o f interests. consists i n defining t h e c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e basis o f w h i c h i t w a s possible t o c o n c e i v e o f b o t h ' p h y s i o c r a t i c ' a n d 'utilitarian' k n o w l e d g e i n i n t e r l o c k i n g a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s f o r m s . (see p. t h e y w a n t e d t o b e t h e o n l y ones subject t o t a x a t i o n . b e i n g l a n d o w n e r s . T h e t h e o r y of v a l u e m a k e s i t possible. in t h e o t h e r . b y force o f c i r c u m s t a n c e . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . believed o n l y i n agricultural p r o d u c t i o n . T h e first w o u l d b e a s t u d y o f o p i n i o n s i n o r d e r t o discover w h o in the eighteenth century was a Physiocrat and w h o an Antiphysiocrat. w h a t w e r e t h e p o i n t s a n d a r g u m e n t s o f t h e p o l e m i c . w h i c h takes n o a c c o u n t o f t h e persons i n v o l v e d . 2 0 1 ) . t h a t t h e y w e r e p r e o c c u p i e d . T h e o t h e r . w i t h a m a r k e t e c o n o m y i n w h i c h needs a n d desires created t h e laws. VII GENERAL TABLE T h e g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e m p i r i c a l spheres can n o w b e sketched o u t as a w h o l e . h o w t h e s t r u g g l e for p o w e r d e v e l o p e d . like t h a t of structure in n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . o r their h i s t o r y . W e m u s t b e careful t o distinguish h e r e b e t w e e n t w o forms a n d t w o levels o f investigation. A r c h a e o l o g y can r e c o g n i z e a n d practise o n l y t h e second. a n d c l a i m e d that its r e m u n e r a t i o n s h o u l d b e h i g h e r . T h e first t h i n g we o b s e r v e is that analysis of wealth o b e y s t h e same c o n f i g u r a t i o n as natural history a n d general grammar. t o explain ( w h e t h e r b y d e a r t h a n d n e e d o r b y 200 . T h a t t h e latter. T h e 'utilitarians' base their attribution of a certain value to t h i n g s u p o n t h e articulation of e x c h a n g e s . i n c o n s e q u e n c e . t h e y a t t r i b u t e d a n a t u r a l basis to g r o u n d rent. a n d t h u s i n exclusive e n j o y m e n t o f t h e rights t a x a t i o n c o n f e r r e d . T h e first analysis w o u l d b e t h e p r o v i n c e o f a d o x o l o g y . w h a t interests w e r e a t stake. the condition enabling that s y s t e m t o b e t h o u g h t n e v e r resides i n t h e existence o f t h e g r o u p . B u t in b o t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h e t h e o r y of v a l u e . believed t h a t t h e v a l u e o f w h a t t h e land p r o d u c e d w a s increased w h e n i t was t r a n s f o r m e d o r t r a n s p o r t e d . P e r h a p s i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n s i m p l e r t o say t h a t t h e Physiocrats r e p resented t h e l a n d o w n e r s a n d t h e 'utilitarians' t h e m e r c h a n t s a n d e n t r e p r e n e u r s .

Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries G G : General grammar NH: Natural history AW: Analysis ol wealth Nineteenth Century .

* F o r its p a r t . possessed b y m y c o u n t e r p a r t . h o w it can shift. (or general grammar. t h a t is. dilate. to w h a t in general grammar appears in t h e f o r m of an analysis of r o o t s a n d of t h e l a n g u a g e of action (the function of designation) a n d t o w h a t appears i n t h e f o r m o f t r o p e s a n d shifts o f m e a n i n g (the function o£ derivation). t o t h e a t t r i b u t i v e function w h i c h . t h e n each v a l u e finds itself positioned a n d p a t t e r n e d b y all t h e o t h e r s : w h e n this h a p p e n s . In t h e system of e x c h a n g e s . t h e r e f o r e . M o n e y . t h e t h e o r y o f m o n e y a n d t r a d e expiai^s h o w a n y g i v e n f o r m o f m a t t e r can take o n a signifying function b y b e i n g related t o a n object a n d s e r v i n g as a p e r m a n e n t sign for it. a t t r i b u t i o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS t h e s u p e r a b u n d a n c e o f n a t u r e ) h o w certain objects can b e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s y s t e m o f e x c h a n g e s . g i v i n g rise t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n . is p e r f o r m e d by t h e v e r b . a n d in all w o r d s that. T h e t h e o r y o f m o n e t a r y prices c o r r e s p o n d s . w h e t h e r visibly or in secret. a n d shrink in relation to t h e values i t has t h e task o f r e p r e s e n t i n g . like w o r d s . in n o u n s . t h e n . constitutes t h e initial threshold b e y o n d w h i c h t h e r e i s l a n g u a g e . b y m e a n s o f t h e p r i m i t i v e process o f barter. w h e n it is defined a n d limited w i t h i n the system c o n s t i t u t e d by all possible e x c h a n g e s . it unites in o n e a n d t h e same o p e r a t i o n t h e function t h a t p e r m i t s t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f o n e sign t o a n o t h e r sign. i n t h e interplay t h a t p e r m i t s each p o r t i o n o f w e a l t h t o signify t h e o t h e r s or to be signified by t h e m . h o w t h e s a m e m o n e t a r y e l e m e n t can signify m o r e or less w e a l t h . h o w . B u t w h e n appreciative value b e c o m e s estimative v a l u e . t h e n . a n d w h i c h . has t h e role of d e s i g n a t i n g . w h i c h I possess. i s t o m y n e e d w h a t t h e value o f B . value assumes t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y r o l e r e c o g n i z e d by general grammar in all t h e n o n . a n d p a t t e r n . p o w e r to c o n n e c t a n d principle of analysis. h o w t h e estimate o f t h e first can b e related t o t h e estimate o f t h e second i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a relation of e q u a l i t y (A a n d B h a v e t h e s a m e value) or o n e of a n a l o g y (the v a l u e o f A . i s t o h i m ) . o f o n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a n o t h e r .v e r b a l e l e m e n t s of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n (that is. V a l u e c o r r e s p o n d s . a n d t h e function t h a t p e r m i t s t h e articulation o f t h e elements that c o m p o s e t h e totality o f representations or t h e signs t h a t d e c o m p o s e t h e m . c o n t a i n a n o m i n a l function). o n e t h i n g can b e posited a s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a n o t h e r . occupies exactly t h e s a m e position in t h e analysis of w e a l t h as structure does in n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . Value. value is at t h e s a m e t i m e verb a n d noun. y e t n e v e r ceases t o f l u c t u a t e a r o u n d t h a t vertical axis: variations o f price are t o t h e initial establishment o f t h e relation b e t w e e n m e t a l a n d w e a l t h 202 . like s t r u c t u r e . it also explains (by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t r a d e a n d t h e increase a n d d i m i n u t i o n o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f specie) h o w this relation o f sign t o t h e t h i n g signified c a n b e m o d i f i e d w i t h o u t ever disappearing.

EXCHANGING w h a t rhetorical displacements are t o t h e original value o f verbal signs M o r e o v e r . h o w e v e r . a s t h e o r d e r o f representations a s manifested b y w o r d s . signs. it unites i n t o o n e a n d t h e s a m e function t h e possibility o f g i v i n g things a sign. systems o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y a n d theories o f m o n e y o r t r a d e h a v e t h e same c o n d i t i o n s o f possibility a s l a n g u a g e itself. are t o taxinomia: a c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d e v i d e n t manifestation of t h e o r d e r of things. a n d t h e a t t r i b u t i o n of certain representations to certain others. t h e articulation of w h a t is represented. t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f signifying representations i n relation t o those signified. for Classical t h o u g h t . w h e n it is a question of r e v e a l i n g t h e o r d e r of things.if it is well o r g a n i z e d a n d m o n e y . W h a t algebra i s t o mathesis. T h i s m e a n s t w o t h i n g s : first. t h e designation o f w e a l t h . it can be said t h a t . O r r a t h e r t h e r e exist t w o differences: o n e m a k e s i t possible t o distinguish t h e d o m a i n s o f v e r b a l signs f r o m t h a t o f w e a l t h o r t h a t o f n a t u r a l b e i n g s . 203 . t h e modification o f n o m i n a l values.if it is well r e g u l a t e d . L i k e t h e latter. b y e n s u r i n g . t h a t w o r d s f o r m a s y s t e m of signs sufficiently privileged. m o n e y f u n c tions in relation to w e a l t h in the same w a y as character does in relation to natural b e i n g s : it m a k e s it possible b o t h to i m p o s e a particular m a r k u p o n it a n d to indicate a place for it . a n d t h e i m p o v e r i s h m e n t a n d e n r i c h m e n t o f nations.in t h e area actually defined b y t h e totality o f things a n d o f t h e signs a t o n e ' s disposal. T h e four functions t h a t define t h e verbal sign in its particular p r o p e r t i e s . t h e o t h e r m a k e s i t possible t o distinguish t h e t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l history f r o m t h a t o f value o r prices. a n d distinguish it f r o m all o t h e r signs t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can p r o v i d e for itself. a n d t h e possibility of causing a sign to shift in relation to w h a t it designates.no d o u b t a provisional o n e . T h e o r d e r o f w e a l t h a n d t h e o r d e r of n a t u r a l beings a r e established a n d revealed in so far as t h e r e a r e established b e t w e e n objects o f n e e d . o f representing o n e t h i n g b y a n o t h e r . T h e t h e o r y o f m o n e y a n d prices occupies t h e same position i n t h e analysis of w e a l t h as t h e t h e o r y of character does in n a t u r a l history. a m a j o r difference t h a t p r e v e n t s classification f r o m b e i n g t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e o f n a t u r e a n d prices f r o m b e i n g t h e n a t u r a l discourse o f w e a l t h . In this sense. for t h e Classical e x p e r i e n c e . a n d b e t w e e n visible individuals. a n d w o r d s i n particular. o n t h e basis o f its o w n possibilities. systems o f signs w h i c h m a k e possible t h e designation o f representations o n e b y a n o t h e r . a r e t h u s to be f o u n d in t h e theoretical signalization of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y a n d i n t h e practical utilization o f m o n e t a r y signs.to function in t h e s a m e w a y as l a n g u a g e . second. t h a t o r d e r i n n a t u r e a n d o r d e r i n t h e d o m a i n o f w e a l t h h a v e t h e s a m e m o d e o f b e i n g . for n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . T h e r e does exist. t h e establishment o f prices.

shifts o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n m u l t i p l y . i n a d d i t j o n t o t h e diversity o f l a n g u a g e s . b e t w e e n articulation a n d a t t r i b u t i o n . sufficiently clearly r e c o g n i z e d for reflection to be able t o c o m e t o a decision w i t h t o t a l clarity a b o u t a n y p r o p o s i t i o n w h a t e v e r . o n t h e p e r h a p s endlessly p o s t p o n e d h o r i z o n o f l a n g u a g e . a n d w i t h i n a n y particular l a n g u a g e . It is also w h y t h e practice of a n y real l a n g u a g e s h o u l d b e reinforced b y a n E n c y c l o p a e d i a w h i c h defines t h e p r o g r e s s o f w o r d s . w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e v e r b . since it m u s t of necessity be a science. t h e process does n o t take place either i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n o r w i t h t h e s a m e r i g o u r : o n t h e basis o f p r i m i t i v e designations. a n d codifies t h e r e l a t i o n ships of a d j a c e n c y a n d r e s e m b l a n c e . A t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t o f this d e r i v a t i o n . a n d w h i c h doubtless explain. that m e n e m p l o y v a r i o u s w o r d s a n d f o r m u l a t e different p r o p o s i t i o n s w i t h t h e s a m e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : their reflection i s n o t w h o l l y p r o t e c t e d against e r r o r . e r r o r s o f reflection proliferate. o n e has crossed t h e t h r e s h o l d b e y o n d w h i c h l a n g u a g e exists. T h e Ars combinatoria a n d the Encyclopaedia languages.THE ORDER OF THINGS T h e f o u r m o m e n t s t h a t define t h e essential functions o f l a n g u a g e ( a t t r i b u t i o n . t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f their existence. a n d t h e circulation 204 together c o m p e n s a t e for the i m p e r f e c t i o n o f real . sufficiently securely based. T h e D i c t i o n a r y is c r e a t e d as a m e a n s o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e p l a y o f d e r i v a t i o n s o n t h e basis o f t h e p r i m a r y d e s i g n a tion of w o r d s .b y m e a n s o f this l a n g u a g e 'peasants c o u l d b e t t e r j u d g e of t h e t r u t h o f t h i n g s t h a n p h i l o s o p h e r s n o w d o ' [ 7 8 ] . m e n h a v e a t their disposal a t o t a l i t y o f w o r d s . T h i s i s w h y . d e r i v a t i o n ) a r e solidly l i n k e d t o o n e a n o t h e r . traces o u t t h e l e g i t i m a t e shifts o f k n o w l e d g e . o f n a m e s w h i c h a r e articulated o n e u p o n a n o t h e r a n d p r o v i d e t h e p a t t e r n o f their r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . t h e i r feelings a n d t h e i r passions. m e n ' s i m a g i n a t i o n s ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e climates t h e y live in. since t h e y r e q u i r e o n e a n o t h e r a s s o o n as.w h e n it is f o r m u l a t i n g a j u d g e m e n t on t h e basis of a well-established a r t i c u l a t i o n . t h e r e is p r o j e c t e d t h e idea of a universal l a n g u a g e in w h i c h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a l u e o f w o r d s w o u l d b e sufficiently clearly fixed. b u t this analysis is so imperfect. articulation. prescribes t h e m o s t n a t u r a l r o u t e s for t h e m t o t a k e . N a t u r a l h i s t o r y . it allows so m a n y imprecisions a n d o v e r l a p p i n g s to p e r sist. d e s i g n a t i o n . a perfectly distinct l a n g u a g e w o u l d m a k e possible a n entirely clear discourse: this l a n g u a g e w o u l d be an Ars combinatoria in itself. B e t w e e n d e s i g n a t i o n a n d d e r i v a t i o n . t h e relative instability o f each o f t h e m . just as the Universal Language is created in order to c o n t r o l t h e e r r o r s of reflection . B u t in t h e real genesis of actual l a n g u a g e s . their experiences) g i v e rise to d e r i v a t i o n s w h i c h differ f r o m p e o p l e t o p e o p l e .

a r e b o u n d t o escape t h e perils i n h e r e n t i n s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s . s t r u c t u r e a n d c h a r a c t e r ensure t h e theoretical closing o f w h a t r e m a i n s o p e n i n l a n g u a g e a n d gives rise o n its frontiers t o t h e projects o f essentially u n c o m p l e t e d arts. a n d t h a t o f designation a n d d e r i v a t i o n . value a n d m o n e y . w h i c h b y g r o w t h o r d i m i n u t i o n of its q u a n t i t y causes y e t a l w a y s limits fluctuations of prices. 205 . character designates a n d localizes in o n e a n d t h e s a m e m o v e m e n t . t h e s t r u c t u r e o f beings i s b o t h t h e i m m e d i a t e f o r m o f t h e visible a n d its a r t i c u l a t i o n . W e a l t h is a system of signs t h a t are created. W h e r e t h e d i s o r d e r e d o r d e r o f l a n g u a g e implies t h e c o n t i n u o u s r e l a t i o n t o a n a r t a n d its endless tasks. similarly. W i t h l a n g u a g e . a n d o n l y an art can rectify it: t h e t h e o r y of l a n g u a g e is i m m e d i a t e l y p r e scriptive. w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y changes f r o m b e i n g estimative t o b e i n g appreciative. t h e r e is an exact s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f a t t r i b u t i o n a n d articulation. a n d m o n e y . It should be n o t e d . a n d c h a r a c t e r allows i t t o establish a n exact a n d definitive poetics w i t h r e g a r d t o beings a n d their resemblances. n o i m a g i n a r y shifts either. m u l t i p l i e d . h o w e v e r . v a l u e . Similarly. m o n e y p e r m i t s their real e x c h a n g e . since t h e s t r u c t u r e is g i v e n in its i m m e d i a t e visibility. t h e s y s t e m of signs is passively accepted in its i m p e r f e c t i o n . V a l u e c o m b i n e s t h e f o r m s o f w e a l t h o n e w i t h a n o t h e r . a n d t h a t is w h y it is a t h e o r y . t h e t h e o r y o f w e a l t h i s linked t h r o u g h o u t t o politics. T h e r e i s n o e r r o r possible b e t w e e n articulation a n d a t t r i b u t i o n i n t h e o r d e r of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . designation a n d d e r i v a t i o n . S t r u c t u r e enables n a t u r a l h i s t o r y to find itself i m m e d i a t e l y in t h e e l e m e n t of a c o m b i n a t i o n . a transition l i n k e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f things a n d t o h u m a n activity. that t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r is f o r m u l a t e d in a t h e o r y t h a t has value as t h e correct i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a real series or t a b l e : m o r e o v e r . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . a n d t h e initial relation between metal and merchandise becomes only gradually a price subject to variations. estimative v a l u e b e c o m e s appreciative o n l y b y m e a n s o f a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I n n a t u r a l history.EXCHANGING of w e a l t h . In t h e first case. i n t h e second. since it is an institution created by m e n a n d also c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e m . e n s u r e i n t h e sphere o f w e a l t h t h e c o n g r u i t y o f a t t r i b u t i o n a n d articulation. n o i n c o n g r u o u s j u x t a p o s i t i o n s p l a c i n g a c o r r e c t l y designated n a t u r a l b e i n g in a space n o t its o w n . since character i s established either b y t h e c o h e r e n c e o f t h e s y s t e m o r b y t h e exactness o f t h e m e t h o d . a n d m o d i f i e d b y m e n . N a t u r a l h i s t o r y establishes of itself a system of signs for d e n o t i n g beings. t h e o r d e r s of n a t u r e a n d w e a l t h are expressed in t h e m e r e existence o f s t r u c t u r e a n d character. V a l u e a n d prices ensure t h e v i r t u a l closing o f those s e g m e n t s t h a t r e m a i n o p e n i n l a n g u a g e . n o false resemblances.

this t h o u g h t exists w i t h i n a n o n t o l o g y r e n d e r e d t r a n s p a r e n t by t h e fact t h a t b e i n g is offered to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n . s t r u c t u r e t o b e o r d e r e d a s character. a philosophical space e m e r g e d i n t h a t v e r y area w h e r e Classicism h a d m o s t f i r m l y established its epistemological g r i p . value a n d prices) d e f i n e t h e scientifically s t r o n g m o m e n t o f t h a t t h o u g h t (that w h i c h m a k e s possible g r a m m a r . a general representability of b e i n g . T h e c o n t i n u u m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d b e i n g . a n o n t o l o g y defined n e g a t i v e l y a s a n absence of n o t h i n g n e s s . a n d if i t i s t o b e possible for t h e r e t o b e w e a l t h a n d use o f w e a l t h . s t r u c t u r e a n d character. It is n o w possible. d e s i g n a t i o n a n d d e r i v a t i o n (that w h i c h p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n for j u d g e m e n t o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d for m e a n / h g o n t h e o t h e r . a n d w i t h i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i l l u m i n a t e d by t h e fact t h a t it releases t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f b e i n g . w e a l t h . if t h e r e is to be a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . t h a t n a t u r a l beings a r e i n relations o f adjacency a n d r e s e m b l a n c e t o o n e a n o t h e r . i n d e e d . a n d t h a t . H o w can designation ( a single. a n d representations? H o w .and eighteenthc e n t u r y t h o u g h t (that w h i c h enables t h e f o r m o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t o h a v e a n effective m e a n i n g . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . p r e s e n c e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . f r o m a distance. can t h e t w o o p p o s i t e s e g m e n t s (those o f j u d g e m e n t a n d signification for l a n g u a g e . w h e r e a s t h e relations b e t w e e n a r t i c u lation a n d a t t r i b u t i o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS H o w e v e r . a n d t h e proliferation o f n a t u r e are still r e q u i r e d if t h e r e is to be l a n g u a g e . o f s t r u c t u r e a n d character for n a t u r a l h i s t o r y .all this is i n c l u d e d in t h e total c o n figuration of t h e Classical epistcme. precise act) m a k e possible a n a r t i c u lation o f n a t u r e . a s y s t e m of n a t u r e . to characterize t h e m u t a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e e n t i r e W e s t e r n episteme t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y b y saying t h a t a scientifically s t r o n g m o m e n t w a s c r e a t e d i n j u s t t h a t area w h e r e t h e Classical episteme w a s m e t a p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g . a n d t h a t m e n ' s needs c o r r e s p o n d t o o n e a n o t h e r a n d are capable o f satisfaction. o f v a l u e a n d prices for t h e t h e o r y o f w e a l t h ) relate t o each o t h e r i n such a w a y a s t o m a k e possible a l a n g u a g e . T h e o r d e r i n g o f e m p i r i c i t y is thus l i n k e d to t h e o n t o l o g y t h a t characterizes Classical t h o u g h t . t h e u n b r o k e n expanse o f b e i n g s . t h e o t h e r t w o sides o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l quadrilateral r e m a i n o p e n . n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . T h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n o f representations. O n e can see in this p r i n c i p l e of c o n tinuity the metaphysically strong m o m e n t of seventeenth. f r o m t h e v e r y outset. generally s p e a k i n g . a n d t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d flow of w e a l t h ? It is h e r e t h a t it b e c o m e s really necessary to suppose t h a t r e p resentations r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r a n d suggest o n e a n o t h e r i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . a n d b e i n g as expressed in t h e . a n d t h e science o f w e a l t h ) . a n d t h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s t o b e calculated a s prices). 206 .

a n e w philosophical space w a s t o e m e r g e i n t h e place w h e r e t h e objects o f Classical k n o w l e d g e dissolved. t h e m o m e n t of p r i m i t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n a n d that o f d e r i v a t i o n t h r o u g h t i m e also separated.in s h o r t . a n d i t b r i n g s b a c k i n t o p r o m i n e n c e t h e t h e m e s a n d m e t h o d s o f interpretation. t h e concepts o f o r g a n i s m s a n d o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e . b u t a t o t a l i t y o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l constants subject to a h i s t o r y . t h e p r o b l e m o f mathesis. t h e analysis o f p r o d u c t i o n . b u t a r c h a e o l o g y can designate t h e r e g i o n in w h i c h t h a t relation seeks to exist. all t h e t h e m e s of t h e n e w ' b i o l o g y ' e x p l a i n h o w structures o b s e r v a b l e i n individuals can h a v e v a l i d i t y a s g e n e r a l characters for g e n e r a . a n d political e c o n o m y w e r e established. a s t h e n e w p r o j e c t o f t h e n e w 'political e c o n o m y ' . i t p r o c e e d s b y t h e paths o f f o r m a lization a n d e n c o u n t e r s . i n a n e w f o r m . i t u n d e r t a k e s a n u n v e i l i n g w h i c h i s n o t a n d p r o b a b l y n e v e r can b e c o m p l e t e d . natural history. t h e n . has as its essential r o l e t h e analysis of t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v a l u e a n d prices. 'philology' w o u l d no l o n g e r s t u d y t h e representative functions o f discourse. i n t h e space t h e y left b l a n k . b u t in an area w h e r e t h o s e f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e d i d n o t exist. P h i l o l o g y . o r h o w i t c o u l d b e p r o v i d e d w i t h a f o u n d a t i o n . a n d t h u s c r e a t e d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e relations b e t w e e n a f o r m a l a p o p h a n t i c s a n d a f o r m a l o n t o l o g y . s u b .EXCHANGING I n fact. b i o l o g y . t h e m e t h o d s of c o m p a r a t i v e a n a t o m y . i n w h a t area o f t h e episteme m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h y a t t e m p t s t o f i n d its u n i t y . T h u s t h e t w o g r e a t f o r m s o f m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h i c reflection w e r e established. n o t i n t h e places f o r m e r l y o c c u p i e d by general grammar. Inversely. T h e object o f k n o w l e d g e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s f o r m e d i n t h e v e r y place w h e r e t h e Classical p l e n i t u d e of b e i n g has fallen silent. a n d lastly. T h e m o m e n t o f a t t r i b u t i o n (as a f o r m of j u d g e m e n t ) a n d t h a t of articulation (as a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i n g o f beings) separated. T h e s e c o n d questions t h e relations o f signification a n d t i m e . i n w h a t p o i n t o f k n o w l e d g e i t discovers its b r o a d e s t d o m a i n : i n such a place t h e f o r m a l (in a p o p h a n t i c s a n d o n t o l o g y ) w o u l d m e e t t h e 207 . P r o b a b l y t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n t h a t can p r e s e n t itself t o p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s certainly n o t w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f a r c h a e o l o g y t o say w h e t h e r this relation i s possible. T h e first questions t h e relations b e t w e e n logic a n d o n t o l o g y . o p e n i n g up a space in w h i c h t h e r e arose t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e relations b e t w e e n o r i g i n a l m e a n i n g a n d history. i n o r d e r to unify t h e f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t s of a l a n g u a g e (its ability to establish propositions) and the meaning belonging to words. i n t h e d e e p gaps t h a t separated their b r o a d theoretical s e g m e n t s a n d t h a t w e r e filled w i t h t h e m u r m u r o f t h e o n t o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u u m . concerns t h e relation b e t w e e n these t w o f o r m s o f reflection.k i n g d o m s . families. a n d t h e analysis of wealth.

T h i s does n o t m e a n that it can n o w be left to o n e side. in fact. F o r 208 . a p r o f o u n d d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . such a b o d y of k n o w l e d g e is n o t . defines a certain m o d e of b e i n g for l a n g u a g e . m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y . a n d w e a l t h are perfectly c o h e r e n t a n d h o m o g e n e o u s w i t h r e g a r d t o o n e a n o t h e r . a n d an analysis of w e a l t h . frolic at ease. S t r u c t u r a l ism is n o t a n e w m e t h o d . it is t h e a w a k e n e d a n d t r o u b l e d consciousness of modern thought. a p h e n o m e n o n of h e r e d i t y a n d t r a d i t i o n . It is in this sense t h a t a r c h a e o l o g y can g i v e an a c c o u n t of t h e existence of a general g r a m m a r . a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y .a s w e say . o r languages i n t e r m s that had been b e q u e a t h e d t o t h e m b y p r e c e d i n g ages o r i n f o r m s t h a t presaged w h a t w a s s o o n t o b e disc o v e r e d . VIII DESIRE AND REPRESENTATION T h e m e n o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries d o n o t t h i n k o f w e a l t h . h o w to establish a s y s t e m o f signs t h a t w o u l d b e transparent t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f b e i n g . a n d t h e h i s t o r y o f o p i n i o n s can. a n d t h u s o p e n up a free. T h o u g h t h e analyses o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . n a t u r e . u n d i v i d e d area in w h i c h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e sciences. T h e h i s t o r y o f k n o w l e d g e can b e w r i t t e n o n l y o n t h e basis o f w h a t w a s c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h it. a n d o n e does n o t e x p l a i n h o w i t c a m e a b o u t s i m p l y b y describing t h e state o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t p r e c e d e d i t a n d w h a t i t has p r o v i d e d b y w a y o f . b u t i n t e r m s o f c o n d i t i o n s a n d a prioris established in t i m e . t h e y t h i n k o f t h e m i n t e r m s o f a general a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t n o t o n l y prescribes their concepts a n d m e t h o d s . a n d certainly n o t i n t e r m s o f reciprocal influence. a w h o l e c o m m o n g r o u n d appears u p o n w h i c h t h e history of t h e sciences figures as a surface effect. or again. n a t u r a l o r d e r s .THE ORDER OF THINGS significative as illuminated in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . t h e r e exists. b u t also. t h e h i s t o r y o f ideas. if t h e y w i s h .a p e r h a p s inaccessible discourse w h i c h w o u l d a t t h e s a m e t i m e b e a n o n t o l o g y a n d a semantics. this m o d e o f b e i n g i s t h a t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . nevertheless. b u t t h a t a reflection u p o n t h e h i s t o r y of a particular b r a n c h o f k n o w l e d g e can n o l o n g e r c o n t e n t itself w i t h f o l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h a t b o d y of k n o w l e d g e in a t e m p o r a l sequence. W h a t m o d e r n t h o u g h t is to t h r o w f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t o q u e s t i o n is t h e relation of m e a n i n g w i t h the form of truth and the form of being: in the firmament of o u r reflection t h e r e reigns a discourse . n a t u r a l individuals.' o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s ' . As a result. l a n g u a g e . a n d t h e objects o f n e e d a n d desire. T h e essential p r o b l e m of C l a s sical t h o u g h t lay in t h e relations b e t w e e n name a n d order: h o w to discover a nomenclature t h a t w o u l d be a taxonomy.

i l l u m i n e their slightest m o v e m e n t w i t h a lucid a n d deliberately elucidated r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . n a t u r a l h i s t o r y .EXCHANGING r e p r e s e n t a t i o n g o v e r n s t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f l a n g u a g e . a n d t h e science o f w e a l t h possible . n a t u r e .c o n s t i t u t i n g it p e r h a p s . H e n c e t h a t rigid sequence o f ' s c e n e s ' (the scene. b y t h e e n o r m o u s thrust of a f r e e d o m . T h e e n d o f Classical t h o u g h t a n d o f t h e episteme t h a t m a d e general g r a m m a r . T h e analysis of representation therefore has a d e t e r m i n i n g v a l u e for all t h e empirical d o m a i n s . t h e o r d e r of discourse finds its L i m i t a n d its L a w . m o c k e d p e r h a p s . or a will. e v e r y desire m u s t be expressed in t h e p u r e light of a representative discourse. o f t h e living b e i n g . t h e d y n a s t y of a representation signifying itself a n d g i v i n g v o i c e i n t h e sequence o f its w o r d s t o t h e o r d e r that lay d o r m a n t w i t h i n things. a n d o f n e e d . i s t h e principle o f t h a t ' l i b e r t i n a g e ' w h i c h w a s t h e last i n t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d (after i t t h e a g e o f sexuality b e g i n s ) : t h e libertine is he w h o . w i t h o u t d o u b t . t h e m e t i c u l o u s balance 209 . O r r a t h e r . t h e w h o l e o f that great taxinomia t h a t m a k e s i t possible t o k n o w things b y m e a n s o f t h e s y s t e m o f their identities. w i t h i n t h e scenes. T h e r e is a strict o r d e r g o v e r n i n g t h e life o f t h e libertine: e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n m u s t b e i m m e d i a t e l y e n d o w e d w i t h life i n t h e living b o d y o f desire. b u t also m u s t . w i t h r e g a r d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . is profligacy subjected to t h e o r d e r o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) a n d . L a n g u a g e is s i m p l y t h e representation of w o r d s . t h e v i o l e n c e a n d t h e endless effort of life. A n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself w a s t o b e paralleled. a n d w i t h i t t h e r e i g n o f representative discourse. H e r e . S o m e t h i n g like a will or a force w a s to arise in t h e m o d e r n e x p e r i e n c e . in Sade.will coincide w i t h t h e decline o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w e r e all t o escape f r o m t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a desire. w h i l e y i e l d i n g to all t h e fantasies of desire a n d to each of its furies. t h e h i d d e n e n e r g y o f needs. i s u n f o l d e d w i t h i n t h e space t h a t is o p e n e d up inside representation w h e n representation represents itself. c i r c u m s c r i b e d . a n d n e e d itself. n e e d i s s i m p l y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f needs. limited. posited as t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n v e r s e of consciousness. individuals. H e r e . o r r a t h e r w i t h t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . t h a t area w h e r e b e i n g a n d t h e S a m e reside. t h a t i n e x h a u s t ible b o d y o f w o r k manifests t h e precarious balance b e t w e e n t h e l a w w i t h o u t l a w o f desire a n d t h e m e t i c u l o u s o r d e r i n g o f discursive r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e w h o l e Classical s y s t e m o f o r d e r . b u t it is still s t r o n g e n o u g h t o r e m a i n coexistensive w i t h t h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t g o v e r n s it. T h e o b s c u r e b u t s t u b b o r n spirit o f a p e o p l e w h o talk. can. nature is simply the representation of beings. b u t in a n y case i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e Classical age w a s n o w o v e r . b u t i n a n y case regulated f r o m t h e o u t s i d e . T h i s reversal i s c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h Sade.

w h i l e she herself k n o w s n o t h i n g of desire o t h e r t h a n its d i a p h a n o u s . e x t e r i o r . So t h a t t h e g r e a t n a r r a t i v e of Juliette's life reveals. b u t a fate h e n c e f o r t h i m p o s e d u p o n h i m b y o t h e r s . Justine w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d to t h e second p a r t of Don Quixote: she is t h e u n a t t a i n a b l e object o f t h e desire o f w h i c h she i s t h e p u r e o r i g i n . b u t since this r e p r e s e n t a t i o n h a d n o o t h e r l a w b u t similitude. the g l i t t e r i n g table of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . i n t h e second p a r t o f t h e n o v e l . a l o n g t h e c o m m i n g l e d paths o f t h e w o r l d a n d b o o k s . it is t h e o b s c u r e a n d r e p e a t e d v i o l e n c e o f desire b a t t e r i n g a t t h e limits o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s n o l o n g e r t h e i r o n i c t r i u m p h of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o v e r r e s e m b l a n c e . i s n o m o r e t h a n t h e subject of all possible desires. D o n Q u i x o t e received his t r u t h a n d his l a w f r o m t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d w o r l d . a t t h e m o m e n t o f its decline. finally b e c a m e a m e r e character in t h e artifice of a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Possibly Justine a n d Juliette a r e in t h e s a m e position on t h e t h r e s h o l d of m o d e r n c u l t u r e as t b a t o c c u p i e d by Don Quixote b e t w e e n t h e Renaissance a n d Classicism. H e h a d o n l y t o a l l o w h i m s e l f t o live i n a castle i n w h i c h h e himself. d e c o d i n g inns i n t o castles a n d f a r m girls i n t o ladies w i t h n o o t h e r k e y t h a n t h e p l a y o f r e semblance. w h e n h e believed h i m s e l f t o b e p r o g r e s s i n g . i t c o u l d n o t fail t o b e c o m e visible i n t h e a b s u r d f o r m o f m a d ness. w i t h o u t a n y r e s i d u u m . B u t this table is so thin. S u c h is h e r m i s f o r t u n e : h e r i n n o c e n c e acts as a p e r p e t u a l c h a p e r o n e b e t w e e n desire a n d its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 210 . b u t those desires are carried o v e r . distant. C e r v a n t e s ' s h e r o . a n d icy f o r m as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e object of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h he also is in t h e d e p t h o f his b e i n g . Juliette. h a v i n g p e n e t r a t e d b y m e a n s o f his m a d n e s s i n t o t h e w o r l d o f p u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a n d d e a t h . despite himself. violence.THE ORDER OF THINGS b e t w e e n t h e c o n j u g a t i o n o f bodies a n d t h e c o n c a t e n a t i o n o f reasons. j u s t a s D o n Q u i x o t e is. w h i c h h e h a d n o t read b u t w h o s e course h e w a s b o u n d t o follow. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . i n t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that p r o v i d e s t h e m w i t h a reasonable f o u n d a t i o n in discourse a n d transforms t h e m s p o n t a n eously i n t o scenes. was imprisoning himself w i t h o u t k n o w i n g it in the m o d e of p u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h r o u g h o u t t h e desire. h e h a d n o t h i n g m o r e t o e x p e c t f r o m t h e b o o k i n w h i c h h e w a s b o r n . f r o m similit u d e t o similitude. c o n s t r u i n g t h e relations o f w o r l d a n d l a n g u a g e a s p e o p l e h a d d o n e i n t h e sixteenth c e n t u r y . I n J u s t i n e . Sade's characters c o r r e s p o n d t o h i m a t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e Classical age. savagery. t h a t it is j u s t as l a c k i n g in reason as t h a t o f D o n Q u i x o t e . N o w . desire a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e presence o f A n o t h e r w h o represents t h e h e r o i n e t o h i m s e l f as an object of desire. so t r a n s p a r e n t to all t h e figures o f desire t h a t u n t i r i n g l y a c c u m u l a t e w i t h i n i t a n d m u l t i p l y t h e r e s i m p l y by t h e force of their c o m b i n a t i o n .

EXCHANGING b u t w a s i n fact g e t t i n g m o r e a n d m o r e e n t a n g l e d i n t h e l a b y r i n t h o f his o w n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . H e h o l d s s w a y p r e c i s e l y u p o n t h e i r frontier. a s far a s w e c a n . thus e l i m i n a t i n g t h e s p a c e o c c u p i e d b y rhetoric) and extends it to infinity (by n a m i n g e v e r y t h i n g . the slightest v e i l . f o r t h e y are all t r a v e r s e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e U n i v e r s a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f D e s i r e ) . v i o l e n c e . T h e p r o s p e r i t i e s of Juliette are still m o r e s o l i t a r y . i n o u r t h o u g h t . i n c l u d i n g the slightest o f possibilities. t o name. i n o u r f r e e d o m . that w e m u s t face t h e fact t h a t that e x p a n s e o f s h a d e b e l o w is r e a l l y a b o t t o m l e s s sea. . o u r f r e e d o m s o e n s l a v e d . o u r d i s c o u r s e s o r e p e t i t i v e . A f t e r h i m . this s t o r y closes t h e C l a s s i c a l a g e u p o n itself.a n d endless. W i t h that. B u t o u r t h o u g h t i s s o brief. life a n d d e a t h . Juliette thins o u t this inspissation o f t h e r e p r e s e n t e d s o that. j u s t a s Don Quixote h a d o p e n e d it. w e are w e l l e n o u g h a w a r e that i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e d u c e s this c e r e m o n y t o t h e u t m o s t p r e c i s i o n (it calls t h i n g s b y their strict n a m e . w i t h o u t the slightest b l e m i s h . desire. a n i m m e n s e e x p a n s e o f s h a d e w h i c h w e are n o w a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c o v e r . a n d s e x u a l i t y w i l l e x t e n d . t h o u g h i t i s t h e last d i s c o u r s e that u n d e r t a k e s t o ' r e p r e s e n t ' . S a d e attains the e n d o f C l a s s i c a l d i s c o u r s e a n d t h o u g h t . the slightest r e t i c e n c e . all t h e possibilities o f desire m a y rise t o t h e surface. i n o u r d i s c o u r s e . A n d t h o u g h it is t r u e t h a t this is the last l a n g u a g e still c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h R o u s s e a u a n d R a c i n e . b e l o w t h e l e v e l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .

PART 2 .

a d i s c o n t i n u i t y as e n i g m a t i c in its principle.general g r a m m a r . o r t h e drift of positivities in relation to o n e a n o t h e r . into t h e r e a l m o f fantasy. shocks. living beings. t h e alteration in their m o d e o f b e i n g ? H o w i s i t t h a t t h o u g h t detaches itself f r o m t h e squares it i n h a b i t e d before . b u t beings radically different f r o m t h e m ? F o r a n a r c h a e o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e . a n d disc o u r s e t h a t are presented t o k n o w l e d g e i n t h e interstices o f w o r d s o r t h r o u g h their t r a n s p a r e n c y .a p p r e h e n d i n g itself a t t h e r o o t o f its o w n history c o u l d p r o v i d e a 217 . as t h a t w h i c h separates t h e Paracelsian circles f r o m t h e Cartesian o r d e r . these m u t a t i o n s that s u d d e n l y decide t h a t things a r e n o l o n g e r perceived. t h e n . w h i l e k n o w l e d g e takes up residence in a n e w space . d e e p e r still. t h o u g h i t m u s t b e analysed. o r . a n d effects it is possible to f o l l o w step by step. a n d that it is no l o n g e r w e a l t h . i n t o n o n .k n o w l e d g e ? W h a t event. describes. expressed. W h e r e d i d this u n e x p e c t e d m o b i l i t y o f epistemological a r r a n g e m e n t s u d d e n l y c o m e f r o m . a n d m i n u t e l y so. a n d w h o s e signs. O n l y t h o u g h t r e . in its o r i g i n a l r u p t u r e . a n d k n o w n in t h e s a m e w a y . c a n n o t b e 'explained* or e v e n s u m m e d up in a single w o r d . It is a radical e v e n t t h a t is d i s t r i b u t e d across t h e entire visible surface of k n o w l e d g e . classified. w h a t l a w d o t h e y o b e y . t h e g r e a t circular f o r m s i n w h i c h similitude w a s enclosed w e r e dislocated a n d o p e n e d s o that t h e table o f identities c o u l d b e u n f o l d e d . this p r o f o u n d b r e a c h i n t h e e x p a n s e o f continuities. a n d t h a t table i s n o w a b o u t t o b e d e s t r o y e d i n t u r n .CHAPTER 7 The Limits of Representation I T H E A G E OF HISTORY T h e last years o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y are b r o k e n b y a d i s c o n t i n u i t y similar t o t h a t w h i c h d e s t r o y e d Renaissance t h o u g h t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h . w e a l t h a n d allows w h a t less t h a n t w e n t y years before h a d b e e n posited a n d affirmed i n t h e l u m i n o u s space o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t o p p l e d o w n i n t o e r r o r . n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . characterized.

a n d t h e n e w i m p o r t a n c e o f systems o f inflection. i n fact. it will recount h o w the configurations proper to each positivity w e r e m o d i f i e d (in t h e case of g r a m m a r . a n o t h e r e x a m p l e . b u t t h a t certain o f t h e m are o n t h e s a m e level w h e r e a s o t h e r s f o r m series or linear sequences. it is because t h e y h a v e b o t h b e e n f o r m e d at t h e s a m e t i m e . for w h a t t h e solitary t r u t h o f this e v e n t w a s in itself. of a general taxinomia.THE ORDER OF THINGS f o u n d a t i o n . A r c h a e o l o g y . f o r m a table o f u n b r o k e n s i m u l taneities. a n d e c o n o m i c s ) . it will s h o w that these o r g a n i c structures are d i s c o n t i n u o u s . it is n o t because t h e y o c c u p y p r o x i m a t e places w i t h i n an area of classification. it will analyse t h e alteration o f the empirical entities w h i c h inhabit t h e positivities (the s u b stitution o f languages for discourse. b u t an area m a d e up of o r g a n i c structures. as t h e o r g a n i z i n g principles of this space of empiricities. b e t h e i d e n t i t y o f o n e o r several e l e m e n t s . t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n of character to function in living b e i n g s ) . entirely free o f doubt. m u s t e x a m i n e each e v e n t i n t e r m s o f its o w n evident arrangement. therefore. t h e sciences o f l a n g u a g e . t h e n e w relation b e t w e e n b i o l o g y . m o r e o v e r . o f internal relations b e t w e e n elements w h o s e totality p e r f o r m s a function. i t w i l l s h o w t h a t t h e general area o f k n o w l e d g e i s n o l o n g e r t h a t o f identities a n d differences. T h e Classical o r d e r distributed across a p e r m a n e n t space t h e n o n q u a n t i t a t i v e identities a n d differences t h a t separated a n d u n i t e d t h i n g s : it was this o r d e r t h a t h e l d s o v e r e i g n s w a y . W h e r e a s i n Classical t h o u g h t t h e sequence o f c h r o n o logies m e r e l y scanned t h e p r i o r a n d m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l space of a table w h i c h p r e s e n t e d all possibilities i n a d v a n c e . t h a t of a universal characterization. Analogy a n d Succession: t h e l i n k b e t w e e n o n e o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e a n d a n o t h e r can n o l o n g e r . o n a c c o u n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h density of analogies. So t h a t we see e m e r g i n g . lastly. i t w i l l s t u d y the d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e positivities each in relation to t h e others (for e x a m p l e . t h e 218 . t h a t t h e y d o n o t .o v e r m e n ' s discourse. it will analyse t h e eclipse o f t h e m a j o r r o l e h i t h e r t o a c c o r d e d t o t h e n a m e . h o w e v e r . b u t m u s t b e t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e relation b e t w e e n t h e elements (a relation in w h i c h visibility no l o n g e r plays a role) a n d o f t h e functions t h e y p e r f o r m . that o f n o n q u a n t i t a t i v e o r d e r s .m e a s u r a b l e mathesis. that is. o r . a n d a b o v e all. f r o m n o w o n . of a n o n . t h e c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o b s e r v a b l e resemblances i n space will b e s i m p l y t h e fixed f o r m s o f a succession w h i c h p r o c e e d s f r o m a n a l o g y t o a n a l o g y . i f these o r g a n i c structures h a p p e n t o b e adjacent t o o n e a n o t h e r .t h o u g h in each case in a c c o r d ance w i t h slightly differing f o r m s a n d laws . a n d t h e o n e i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e o t h e r i n t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e successions. o f p r o d u c t i o n for w e a l t h ) . for e x a m p l e .

t h a t w h i c h . a n d distributed i n t h e space o f k n o w l e d g e for t h e use of such disciplines or sciences as m a y arise. t h a t f r o m w h i c h . O b v i o u s l y . r e g u l a r i t y . t h e m o s t conscious. t o o . established t h e m i n t h e field o f k n o w l e d g e . p h i l o s o p h y w a s t o reside i n t h e g a p b e t w e e n h i s t o r y a n d H i s t o r y . posited. t h e analysis o f o r g a n i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d beings. u p o n t h e basis o f w h i c h t h e y are affirmed. p r i o r t o all established c h r o n o l o g y . b e t w e e n n a t u r a l b e i n g s a n d N a t u r e . t h e m o s t a w a r e . I t will b e M e t a physics. b e t w e e n m e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n (or i m a g i n a t i o n ) a n d t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d will o f G o d . it derives its o w n b e i n g . a n d it w i l l necessarily lead t h o u g h t b a c k t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f k n o w i n g w h a t i t m e a n s for t h o u g h t 219 . progressively. I n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i m p o s e its laws o n t h e analysis o f p r o d u c t i o n . i s c e r t a i n l y t h e m o s t erudite. Since it is t h e m o d e of b e i n g of all t h a t is g i v e n us in e x p e r i e n c e . F r o m t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . J u s t as O r d e r i n Classical t h o u g h t w a s n o t t h e visible h a r m o n y o f things. a n d . b e t w e e n events a n d t h e O r i g i n . i n t o an empirical science of events a n d t h a t radical m o d e o f b e i n g t h a t prescribes their destiny t o all e m p i r i c a l b e i n g s . f r o m t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . It is no d o u b t because of this t h a t H i s t o r y b e c o m e s s o s o o n divided. it i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e o f b e i n g o f empiricities. a n d t h e e x c h a n g e o f w e a l t h . a n d t h e Classical m e t a p h y s i c resided precisely in t h a t g a p b e t w e e n o r d e r a n d O r d e r . H i s t o r y . i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a n a m b i g u i t y t h a t it is p r o b a b l y impossible to c o n t r o l . b e t w e e n classifications a n d I d e n t i t y . H i s t o r y in this sense is n o t to be u n d e r s t o o d as t h e c o m pilation of factual successions or sequences as t h e y m a y h a v e o c c u r r e d . b u t i t i s equally t h e d e p t h s f r o m w h i c h all beings e m e r g e i n t o their precarious. b u t t h e particular space o f their b e i n g . a r r a n g e d . a n d possibly t h e m o s t cluttered area o f o u r m e m o r y . s o H i s t o r y . H i s t o r y w a s to d e p l o y . o r s y m m e t r y . lastly. H i s t o r y gives place to analogical o r g a n i c structures. it is p r o b a b l y n o t so v e r y different f r o m Classical O r d e r .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION table o f n a t u r a l b e i n g s . t h e analogies t h a t c o n n e c t distinct o r g a n i c structures t o o n e a n o t h e r . b e t w e e n o b l i v i o n a n d t h e R e t u r n . o r their o b s e r v e d a r r a n g e m e n t . b e t w e e n e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e first r e n d i n g o p e n o f t h e s o u r c e . c o u l d be established as a f r a m e w o r k for a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e . o n l y in so far as it is M e m o r y . g l i t t e r i n g existence. i n short. H i s t o r y has b e c o m e t h e u n a v o i d a b l e e l e m e n t i n o u r t h o u g h t : i n this respect. Classical O r d e r . b u t i t w a s m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e space i n w h i c h e v e r y b e i n g a p p r o a c h e d m a n ' s consciousness. a s w e k n o w . in a t e m p o r a l series. defines t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f t h e empirical. t h e r e f o r e . T h i s s a m e H i s t o r y will also. j u s t as O r d e r o p e n e d t h e w a y to successive identities a n d differences. o n t h e analysis o f linguistic g r o u p s . p r i o r t o all effective k n o w l e d g e . t o t h o s e particular beings t h a t w e are.

n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f positivities w e can speak. themselves h e l p e d by a little g o o d l u c k or genius. A n d it t o o k a f u n d a m e n t a l e v e n t . for n e a r l y a c e n t u r y a n d a half. a n d w a s t o o p r o u d t o lean. f r o m H e g e l t o N i e t z s c h e a n d b e y o n d . because it is t r a p p e d in t h e m o d e of being of History. i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f scientific research a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . exclusively. a n d t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l modification of those positivities w h i c h . those n o w familiar f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e that w e h a v e called. a n d economics? We t e n d to i m a g i n e t h a t if these n e w d o m a i n s w e r e defined d u r i n g t h e last c e n t u r y .certainly o n e of t h e m o s t radical t h a t e v e r o c c u r r e d i n W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . q u i t e s i m p l y . a n d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t forms. a n d t h e theories o f t r a d e o r a g r i c u l t u r e . philology. t h e classifications of L i n n a e u s .analysis o f representations. reflections o n w e a l t h a n d t r a d e . u p o n w h a t w a s said before it a n d by o t h e r s . biology. to its flux a n d its r e t u r n s . o f h i s t o r y .discourse. i n t h e precision o f o b s e r v a tion. even n o w . B u t w e m u s t r e t u r n i n a little m o r e detail t o w h a t h a p p e n e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y : t o that t o o sketchily o u t l i n e d m u t a t i o n o f O r d e r i n t o H i s t o r y . since t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .t h a t all this. h a v e w o r d s . heavily a n d tirelessly. t h e table. let us n o t use this as a p r e t e x t for d i s p a r a g i n g a t h o u g h t powerless to stand on its o w n feet. beings. w i t h t h e aid of a f e w f o r t u n a t e discoveries. after scarcely m o r e t h a n a f e w years. 220 . B u t w e m u s t n o t see this as t h e e n d of an a u t o n o m o u s philosophical reflection t h a t c a m e t o o early. exchange .t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e dissolution o f t h e positivity o f Classical k n o w l e d g e . i n t h e r i g o u r o f o u r r e a s o n i n g . T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s t o bear d o w n u p o n p h i l o s o p h y . general g r a m m a r . w e h a v e doubtless n o t entirely e m e r g e d . it was s i m p l y t h a t a slight increase i n t h e objectivity o f k n o w l e d g e .eclipsed? In w h a t n e w space. y e t d o o m e d to T i m e . H o w w e r e these w a y s of o r d e r i n g e m p i r i c i t y . a n d a l w a y s forced to find s u p p o r t b y w i n d i n g itself a r o u n d a p r e v i o u s l y established b o d y o f t h o u g h t . B u t t h o u g h w e m a y indeed talk o f p r e history from the point of v i e w of the rationality of learning. h a d g i v e n place t o s o m a n y adjacent k i n d s o f k n o w l e d g e . It is e n o u g h to r e c o g n i z e h e r e a p h i l o s o p h y d e p r i v e d of a certain m e t a physics because it has b e e n separated off f r o m t h e space of o r d e r . a n d t o enable t o a p p e a r . enabled us to e m e r g e f r o m a p r e h i s t o r i c a g e in w h i c h k n o w l e d g e w a s still s t a m m e r i n g o u t t h e Grammaire de Port-Royal.THE ORDER OF THINGS t o h a v e a history. a n d objects o f n e e d t a k e n their places a n d a r r a n g e d themselves i n relation t o o n e a n o t h e r ? W h a t n e w m o d e o f b e i n g m u s t t h e y h a v e received i n o r d e r t o m a k e all these changes possible. a n d t o c o n s t i t u t e a n o t h e r positivity f r o m w h i c h .

o r V i c q d ' A z y r . t h e species o f n a t u r e . t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e l e m e n t s f u n c t i o n i n relation t o o n e a n o t h e r . a n d t h e w o r d s w i t h w h i c h languages are p e o p l e d . t h e s o v e r e i g n p o w e r t h a t has enabled it. a t the time of Jones or Anquetil-Duperron. t h e d e p t h o f t h e strata i t has affected. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . t h e f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e o f b e i n g o f t h e positivities d o e s n o t c h a n g e . I n t h e first o f these phases. are only so m a n y signs o f a d e e p e r r u p t u r e . T h e y are c h r o n o logically scattered t o o : t r u e . p r o b a b l y because we are still c a u g h t inside it. m e n ' s riches. still r e m a i n w h a t t h e y w e r e in t h e Classical a g e : d o u b l e representations . all this c o u l d b e appraised a n d m e a s u r e d o n l y after a quasi-infinite investigation c o n c e r n e d w i t h n o t h i n g m o r e n o r less t h a n t h e v e r y b e i n g o f o u r m o d e r n i t y . b u t i n e a c h o f t h e d o m a i n s studied w e can p e r c e i v e t w o successive phases. a n d w e a l t h will a c q u i r e a m o d e o f b e i n g n o l o n g e r c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t o f r e p r e sentation. is the configuration of positivities: t h e w a y i n w h i c h . i n w h i c h t h e y p e r f o r m their d o u b l e r o l e a s d e s i g n a t i o n a n d articulation.L . t h e p h e n o m e n o n as a w h o l e can be situated b e t w e e n easily assignable dates (the o u t e r limits are t h e years 1 7 7 5 a n d 1 8 2 5 ) . A . t o analyse t h e m . t o c o m p o s e and decompose t h e m in order to bring into being within them. to traverse t h e e n t i r e space o f o u r c u l t u r e . w h i c h a r e articulated o n e u p o n t h e o t h e r m o r e o r less a r o u n d t h e years 1 7 9 5 . d e Jussieu. It is this first phase t h a t will be investigated in t h e present c h a p t e r . T h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f s o m a n y positive sciences. t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e o f an o r d e r .by m e a n s o f t h e i n t e r p l a y of c o m p a r i s o n s .by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c o n c e p t of l a b o u r 221 .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION T h i s e v e n t . t h e folding b a c k o f p h i l o s o p h y u p o n its o w n d e v e l o p m e n t . is largely b e y o n d o u r c o m p r e h e n s i o n . since t h e y a l l o w themselves t o b e p e r c e i v e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n . b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e analyses o f A d a m S m i t h . Signs scattered t h r o u g h t h e space o f k n o w l e d g e . t h e r e again o f b i o l o g y . all t h e positivities it has succeeded in d i s i n t e g r a t i n g a n d r e c o m p o s i n g . t h e r e o f e c o n o m i c s . It is o n l y in t h e second phase t h a t w o r d s . in establishing an o r d e r .representations w h o s e r o l e i s t o designate representations.1 8 0 0 . h e r e o f p h i l o l o g y . w h a t i s m o d i f i e d v e r y early o n . together w i t h t h e s y s t e m o f their identities a n d differences. w i t h i n each o n e . Its scope. . t h e e m e r g e n c e o f h i s t o r y a s b o t h k n o w l e d g e and the m o d e of being of empiricity. in o n l y a few y e a r s . i n w h i c h t h e y succeed. t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f literature. II THE MEASURE OF L A B O U R It is often asserted that A d a m S m i t h f o u n d e d m o d e r n political e c o n o m y o n e m i g h t say e c o n o m i c s tout court . classes.

h e does n o t e v e n g i v e it a n e w r o l e to p l a y . since i t can b e f o u n d i n C a n t i l l o n . h o u s i n g . i n v e n t l a b o u r a s a n e c o n o m i c c o n c e p t . w h e a t a n d land. w h i c h resulted i n t h e generally r e c o g n i z e d p r i v i l e g e a c c o r d e d i n this respect t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . therefore. i s e q u a l t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r w h i c h i t enables h i m t o p u r c h a s e o r c o m m a n d [ 2 ] . I n fact. n e e d . w h i c h i s a c c o r d e d t h e m e r i t o f h a v i n g a t least a t t e m p t e d t h e analysis o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . All t h r o u g h t h e Classical a g e .f o r f o o d . a n d e v e n before h i m . a n d e x c h a n g e w e r e r e l e g a t e d a t a single b l o w t o a prehistoric a g e o f k n o w l e d g e . a n d v a l u e in use t h a t served as a b s o l u t e reference for e x c h a n g e values. t h e r e f o r e . q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r w a s b e i n g used a s a m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e latter. r a t h e r . Q u e s n a y .THE ORDER OF THINGS i n t o a d o m a i n o f reflection n o t p r e v i o u s l y a w a r e o f it: all t h e o l d analyses o f m o n e y . it does n o t lie w h e r e it is g e n e r a l l y believed t o lie. i s t h e real m e a s u r e o f t h e e x c h a n g e a b l e 222 . A m a n ' s l a b o u r w a s i n fact e q u a l t o t h e v a l u e o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f n o u r i s h m e n t necessary t o m a i n t a i n h i m a n d his family for a s l o n g as a g i v e n task l a s t e d [ 3 J . a n d C o n d i l l a c . it is also t r u e that S m i t h relates t h e ' v a l u e in u s e ' of t h i n g s to m e n ' s n e e d s . t h e difference b e t w e e n S m i t h ' s analyses a n d t h o s e o f T u r g o t o r C a n t i l l o n is less t h a n is s u p p o s e d . c l o t h i n g . a n d t h e i r ' v a l u e i n e x c h a n g e ' t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r applied t o its production: T h e v a l u e o f a n y c o m m o d i t y . t o t h e p e r s o n w h o possesses it. a n d w h o m e a n s n o t t o use o r c o n s u m e i t himself. b u t t o e x c h a n g e i t for o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s . therefore. i t w a s necessity that w a s t h e m e a s u r e o f e q u i valences.w i t h t h e o n e possible e x c e p t i o n o f t h e P h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e . t r a d e . since he t o o uses it as a m e a s u r e of e x c h a n g e v a l u e : ' L a b o u r . a n d w h i c h consist a l w a y s either i n t h e i m m e d i a t e p r o d u c e o f t h a t l a b o u r . B u t t h e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r inscribed i n t h e p r i c e o f t h i n g s w a s n o m o r e t h a n a relative a n d r e d u c i b l e t o o l o f m e a s u r e m e n t . o r i n w h a t i s p u r c h a s e d w i t h t h a t p r o d u c e f r o m o t h e r nations [ i ] . o r . So t h a t in t h e last resort.defined t h e a b s o l u t e m e a s u r e o f m a r k e t price. I t i s t r u e t h a t f r o m t h e v e r y outset A d a m S m i t h relates t h e n o t i o n o f w e a l t h t o t h a t o f l a b o u r : T h e a n n u a l l a b o u r o f e v e r y n a t i o n i s t h e fund w h i c h o r i g i n a l l y supplies it w i t h all t h e necessaries a n d c o n v e n i e n c e s of life w h i c h it a n n u a l l y c o n s u m e s . A d a m S m i t h d i d n o t . F r o m t h e t i m e o f C a n t i l l o n . t h e distinction b e t w e e n v a l u e i n use a n d v a l u e i n e x c h a n g e w a s b e i n g clearly m a d e . f r o m C a n t i l l o n . t h e g a u g e o f prices w a s food. a n d again.

] . B u t t w o objections i m m e d i a t e l y present t h e m s e l v e s : h o w can l a b o u r b e a fixed m e a s u r e of t h e n a t u r a l p r i c e of t h i n g s w h e n it has itself a price a n d a variable price? H o w can l a b o u r b e a n a b s o l u t e u n i t w h e n i t c h a n g e s its f o r m . a s i t w e r e . W e a l t h is always a f u n c t i o n i n g representative e l e m e n t : b u t . e l s e w h e r e . that it is possible to reveal t h e irreducibility of l a b o u r a n d its p r i m a r y character. in a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y . a n d .THE LIMITS OF R E P R E S E N T A T I O N v a l u e o f all c o m m o d i t i e s ' [ 4 . t h e m o r e costly t h e p r o d u c t s will b e . a n d w h e n industrial p r o g r e s s i s c o n s t a n t l y m a k i n g i t m o r e p r o d u c t i v e b y i n t r o d u c i n g m o r e a n d m o r e divisions i n t o it? N o w . in t h e sense of a d a y ' s w o r k . A n d yet o n e c o u l d say t h a t this u n i t is n o t a fixed o n e . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . i t reveals a n i r r e d u c i b l e . B u t i t i s n o t really t h e l a b o u r itself t h a t has c h a n g e d . w h a t it represents is no l o n g e r t h e object of desire. B u t w h a t is m o d i f i e d in these a l t e r n a t i n g states is t h e q u a n t i t y of f o o d t h a t can be p r o c u r e d w i t h a d a y ' s w o r k . toil a n d t r o u b l e . a n d the g r e a t e r t h e n u m b e r o f units r e q u i r e d . in fact. t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l o f all. m a y b e said t o b e o f e q u a l v a l u e t o t h e l a b o u r e r ' [ 5 ] . a t all times a n d places. absolute u n i t o f m e a s u r e m e n t . m a n p o w e r is plentiful. it will be w e l l p a i d . b u t that analysis i s n o l o n g e r s i m p l y a w a y o f expressing e x c h a n g e i n t e r m s o f n e e d (and t r a d e i n t e r m s o f p r i m i t i v e b a r t e r ) . since to p r o d u c e t h e self-same object will r e q u i r e m o r e o r less l a b o u r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e perfection o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process (that is. or at o t h e r t i m e s . b u t if. it is b a d l y r e m u n e r a t e d . is a fixed n u m e r a t o r : o n l y t h e d e n o m i n a t o r (the n u m b e r o f objects p r o d u c e d ) i s 223 . B u t h e does displace i t : h e m a i n t a i n s its function as a m e a n s of analysing e x c h a n g e a b l e w e a l t h . w e a l t h n o l o n g e r establishes t h e i n t e r n a l o r d e r o f its e q u i v a l e n c e b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e objects t o b e e x c h a n g e d . t h e toil a n d t r o u b l e . i n w h i c h l a b o u r i s d e a r : w o r k e r s are few. i n t h e last resort. c o u n t r i e s in t h e w o r l d . f o o d ) . o r b y a n appraisal o f t h e p o w e r peculiar t o e a c h r e p r e s e n t a n object o f n e e d (and. T h e r e are. c o m m o d i t i e s are i n g o o d s u p p l y . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f t h e division o f l a b o u r ) . a n d t h r o u g h their s p o k e s m a n . i f c o m m o d i t i e s are i n s h o r t s u p p l y a n d t h e r e are m a n y c o n s u m e r s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e . T h e s e are m e r e l y t h e consequences of a m a r k e t s i t u a t i o n . ' E q u a l quantities o f l a b o u r . t h e l a b o u r itself. L a b o u r . w a g e s are h i g h . a n d l a b o u r is c h e a p . t h e h o u r s spent at it. t i m e s . in t h e e n d . it is labour. i t i s precisely t h r o u g h these objections. are i n e v e r y case t h e s a m e . each u n i t o f l a b o u r will b e r e m u n e r a t e d w i t h o n l y a small q u a n t i t y o f subsistence. i t i s b r o k e n d o w n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e units o f l a b o u r t h a t h a v e i n reality p r o d u c e d it. i t i s t h e relation o f t h e l a b o u r t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w h i c h i t i s capable.

t h e objects m a n u f a c t u r e d h a v e b e e n increased i n n u m b e r . it is t h e t h i n g s that h a v e . w h e n t h e y are satisfied.at t h e level of w h a t will s o o n be called p s y c h o l o g y w h a t t h e y a r e e x c h a n g i n g i s w h a t i s 'indispensable. A s m e n e x p e r i e n c e t h i n g s . T h e p r o d u c t i v e p o w e r o f l a b o u r has b e e n m u l t i p l i e d .e a r n e r ' s d a y ) . t h e division t h a t r e n d e r s it m o r e p r o d u c t i v e . t h e i r e x c h a n g e v a l u e will t h e r e f o r e fall. Inversely. t h a t limit l a b o u r a n d its i m p r o v e m e n t : ' A s i t i s t h e p o w e r o f e x c h a n g e t h a t gives occasion t o t h e division o f l a b o u r . B u t w i t h i n e x c h a n g e . t h a t is. t r a d e w o u l d n o t exist. b u t t h e o r d e r o f e x c h a n g e s . c o m m o d i o u s o r 224 1 . s o t h e e x t e n t o f this division must always be limited to the extent of that p o w e r . between the nature of w h a t i s e x c h a n g e d a n d t h e units t h a t e n a b l e i t t o b e b r o k e n d o w n . P e o p l e e x c h a n g e because t h e y h a v e needs. l a b o u r a n d t h e division t h a t o r g a n i z e s i t a r e m e r e l y its effects. each of t h o s e objects will be able to b u y o n l y a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y smaller a m o u n t o f w o r k i n t u r n . w i t h o u t t h e m . B u t ten w o r k e r s w h o each h a d t o p e r f o r m o n l y o n e o r t w o of those operations could produce between t h e m m o r e than forty-eight t h o u s a n d pins in a d a y . o r u p o n t h e i r a p p e t i t e s . or variable like t h e m . L a b o u r has n o t d i m i n i s h e d in relation to t h e t h i n g s . t h u s e a c h of those w o r k e r s . n o r l a b o u r either. by the extent of the m a r k e t ' [ 7 ] . it is needs.* m o d i f i e d by t h e m . can b e c o n s i d e r e d a s m a k i n g four t h o u s a n d e i g h t h u n d r e d pins d u r i n g his w o r k i n g d a y [6]. their h i e r a r c h y a n d t h e differences expressed i n t h a t h i e r a r c h y . are established b y t h e units o f labour that have b e e n invested i n t h e objects i n q u e s t i o n . It is an a b s o l u t e m e a s u r e . a b o v e all. as it w e r e . n o r . A d a m S m i t h ' s analysis represents a n essential h i a t u s : it distinguishes b e t w e e n t h e reason for e x c h a n g e a n d t h e measurement of that w h i c h is exchangeable. or in other w o r d s . p r o d u c i n g a t e n t h p a r t o f t h e t o t a l p r o d u c t . if o n e takes t h a t t o m e a n t h a t i t i s n o t d e p e n d e n t u p o n m e n ' s hearts. and the exchange of products that can a n s w e r t o t h e m . In relation t o t h a t o f his predecessors. A single w o r k e r w h o h a d t o p e r f o r m o n his o w n t h e e i g h t e e n distinct o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f a p i n w o u l d certainly n o t p r o d u c e m o r e t h a n t w e n t y pins i n t h e c o u r s e o f a w h o l e d a y . s h r u n k i n relation t o t h e u n i t o f l a b o u r . i n t h e o r d e r o f equivalences. it is i m p o s e d u p o n t h e m f r o m o u t s i d e : it is t h e i r t i m e a n d t h e i r toil. It is n o t linked solely to i n d i v i d u a l cteshres. I t i s t r u e t h a t w e e x c h a n g e because w e h a v e n e e d s . are still t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e e c o n o m y : t h e y are its p r i m e m o t i v e a n d c i r c u m s c r i b e it. t h e m e a s u r e that establishes equalities a n d differences is of* a different n a t u r e f r o m n e e d .THE ORDER OF THINGS capable o f v a r i a t i o n s . a n d t h e y e x c h a n g e precisely t h e objects t h a t t h e y n e e d . w i t h i n a single u n i t (a w a g e . Needs.

concealed. a n d b y t h a t t e r m h e t o o m e a n s objects o f n e e d a n d t h u s t h e objects of a certain f o r m of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . to d e a t h itself. b u t its real p r o d u c t i o n : f o r m s of l a b o u r a n d capital. to toil. b u t for t h e e c o n o m i s t . if this can b u y t h a t . As for t h e fecundity of l a b o u r . his relation w i t h t i m e . in t h e last resort.THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION pleasurable' to t h e m . w h a t is actually circulating in t h e f o r m of things is l a b o u r . b u t t i m e a n d toil. b u t t h e y a r e able to e x c h a n g e a n d to order these e x c h a n g e s because t h e y are subjected to t i m e a n d to t h e g r e a t e x t e r i o r necessity. t r a n s f o r m e d . It is t r u e t h a t A d a m S m i t h is still. it is based u p o n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t are also e x t e r i o r to its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : industrial progress. g r o w i n g division o f tasks. a c c u m u l a t i o n o f capital.d a y t h a t a t o n c e p a t t e r n s a n d uses u p m a n ' s life. it indicates t h e still unfulfilled possibility of a political e c o n o m y w h o s e object w o u l d no l o n g e r b e t h e e x c h a n g e o f w e a l t h (and t h e i n t e r p l a y o f representations w h i c h is its basis). if t h e r e is an o r d e r r e g u l a t i n g t h e f o r m s of w e a l t h . T h e equivalence o f t h e objects o f desire i s n o l o n g e r established b y t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y o f o t h e r objects a n d o t h e r desires. f o r g o t t e n . d i a g o n a l l y as it w e r e . It is thus apparent h o w . t h a t is. or because their hearts a r e all s w a y e d by t h e s a m e passions. It is 225 . M e n e x c h a n g e because t h e y e x p e r i e n c e needs a n d desires.n o t objects of n e e d r e p r e s e n t i n g o n e a n o t h e r . it is n o t because t h e y e x perience t h e s a m e h u n g e r in their bodies.inside t h e analysis of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . it is because t h e y are all subject to t i m e . B u t w i t h i n this duplication. analysing t h e field of p o s i t i v i t y t h a t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e r m e d ' w e a l t h ' .he formulates a principle of o r d e r t h a t is irreducible to t h e analysis of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : he u n e a r t h s l a b o u r . like his predecessors. reflection u p o n w e a l t h begins to o v e r f l o w t h e space assigned to it in t h e Classical a g e . division o f p r o d u c t i v e labour and non-productive labour. f r o m n o w o n . if g o l d is w o r t h t w i c e as m u c h as silver. with A d a m S m i t h . t h e i m m i n e n c e o f d e a t h ) a n d the object i n w h i c h h e invests his days o f t i m e a n d toil w i t h o u t b e i n g able t o r e c o g n i z e in it t h e object of his i m m e d i a t e n e e d . on t h e o t h e r . it is referred. it w a s l o d g e d w i t h i n ' i d e o l o g y ' . a n d in o r d e r to r e g u l a t e its laws . it is already p o i n t i n g in t h e d i r e c t i o n of an a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t will call i n t o question m a n ' s v e r y essence (his finitude.t h e units a n d measures of e x c h a n g e . a n d . b u t by a transition to t h a t w h i c h is r a d i c ally h e t e r o g e n e o u s to t h e m . it is n o t so m u c h d u e to personal ability or to calculations of self-interest. toil a n d t i m e . t h e n . t o t w o d o m a i n s w h i c h b o t h escape t h e f o r m s a n d laws o f the d e c o m position of ideas: on t h e o n e h a n d . t h e w o r k i n g . to weariness. T h i s hiatus is of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . it is n o t because m e n h a v e c o m p a r a b l e desires.r e p r e s e n t i n g themselves i n t h e m o v e m e n t s a n d m e t h o d s o f e x c h a n g e .

d i e y are t h e analysis o f that r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d m a k e i t possible. w h e r e a s for t h e m e t h o d i s t s t h e y w e r e t h e g r a d u a l result of a 226 . a n d C a n d o l l e . b v r e p r e s e n t i n g those representations. a n d soon to d o m i n a t e i d e o l o g y f r o m its full h e i g h t . d e Jussieu. in o p p o s i t i o n . the relation b e t w e e n visible structure a n d criteria o f identity. n o r t h e linear increase a c h i e v e d b y astute policies. Y e t t h e t e c h n i q u e that m a k e s it possible to establish t h e character. Ill THE O R G A N I C STRUCTURE OF BEINGS I n t h e d o m a i n o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y .a n a n t h r o p o l o g y dealing w i t h a m a n r e n d e r e d alien t o h i m s e l f a n d a n e c o n o m i c s dealing w i t h m e c h a n i s m s e x t e r i o r t o h u m a n consciousness . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e principle o f classifications is n o t called in q u e s t i o n : their a i m is still to d e t e r m i n e t h e 'character' t h a t g r o u p s individuals a n d species i n t o m o r e general units. t h e general principles of taxinomia . V i c q d ' A z y r . o r t h e Analysis o f representations. F r o m S m i t h o n w a r d . k n o w n or u n k n o w n . it w a s to be t h e interior t i m e o f a n o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h g r o w s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h its o w n necessity a n d develops in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a u t o c h t h o n o u s laws . t h e t i m e o f e c o n o m i c s w a s n o l o n g e r t o b e t h e cyclical t i m e o f a l t e r n a t i n g i m p o v e r i s h m e n t a n d w e a l t h . was s o o n t o find itself r e d u c e d t o b e i n g n o m o r e t h a n a p s y c h o l o g y .preserve t h e same k i n d o f validity for A . a c c o r d i n g to t h e o r d e r i n g principle selected. L a m a r c k . t h e r e w a s t o e m e r g e t h e d i m e n s i o n o f a possible h i s t o r y . b y c o r r e l a t i n g elements t h a t w e r e h o m o g e n e o u s (since each e l e m e n t . could be used to represent all the o t h e r s ) : t h e o n l y difference lay in t h e fact that for t h e systematicians t h e representative elements w e r e fixed f r o m t h e outset. classifiers h a d b e e n establishing character b y c o m p a r i n g visible structures. are m o d i f i e d i n j u s t t h e same w a y a s A d a m S m i t h m o d i f i e d t h e relations o f n e e d o r price.t h e t i m e o f capital a n d p r o d u c t i o n . T h e s e characters are d r a w n f r o m t h e total r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e individuals c o n c e r n e d . will h a v e their a p p r o p r i a t e place. c o n s t a n t l y i n t r o d u c i n g slight increases in t h e a m o u n t of circulating specie so that t h e y accelerated p r o d u c t i o n at a faster rate t h a n t h e y raised prices.L .t h e same principles t h a t h a d d e t e r m i n e d t h e systems of T o u r n e f o r t a n d Linnaeus a n d t h e m e t h o d o f A d a n s o n . b e t w e e n these n e w l y f o r m e d positivities . t h a t distinguishes those units o n e f r o m a n o t h e r .I d e o l o g y .THE ORDER OF THINGS u n d e r s t a n d a b l e h o w . a n d t h a t enables t h e m t o fit t o g e t h e r to f o r m a table in w h i c h all individuals a n d all g r o u p s . to constitute an o r d e r . w h e r e a s o p p o s i t e . t h e modifications observable b e t w e e n t h e years 1 7 7 5 a n d 1 7 9 5 are o f t h e s a m e t y p e . t h a t is.

o r r a t h e r t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s t r u c t u r e i n t o character. A n d as a basis for t a x o n o m i e s . a n d i t b e c o m e s possible t o divide t h e v e g e t a b l e k i n g d o m i n t o t h r e e classes: a c o t y l e d o n s . if applied to all t h e species. this i s because t h e y are f o r m e d b y less essential o r g a n s ( n u m b e r of petals.u n i f o r m ' characters. a n d t h e characters t h a t m a k e it r e c o g n i z a b l e are t h e nearest t o these f u n d a m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s : thus. t h e Cruciferae. for animals . Finally.it b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t t h a t certain characters are absolutely c o n s t a n t a n d o c c u r in all t h e g e n e r a a n d all t h e species it is possible to distinguish: for e x a m p l e . in t h e f o r m of a h i e r a r c h y of characters. L a m a r c k . t h e o t h e r s can a p p e a r a n d i n t r o d u c e m o r e detailed distinctions. t h e transition f r o m described structure t o classifying character t o o k place w h o l l y a t t h e level o f t h e representative functions exercised b y t h e visible w i t h r e g a r d t o itself.u n i f o r m ' characters are s o m e t i m e s constant a n d s o m e t i m e s variable (unifoliate o r polyfoliate calyx. If o n e does n o t . First. fishes. t h e insertion of t h e stamens. o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e appears in f o u r different w a y s . A g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f these essential a n d ' p r i m a r y ' c h a r a c t e r s .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION progressive c o n f r o n t a t i o n . i f o n e accepts t h e b r o a d g r o u p i n g s e v i d e n t at a first glance .such as t h e G r a m i n e a e . their p o s i t i o n i n relation t o t h e pistil. E a c h great n a t u r a l family has requisites that define it.a n internal principle n o t reducible t o t h e r e ciprocal i n t e r a c t i o n o f representations.n o t because t h e y a r e n o t capable. a n d V i c q d ' A z y r o n w a r d .u n i f o r m characters it is n o t possible to define families or o r d e r s . respective position o f t h e calyx o r t h e pistil). these are t h e ' s e c o n d a r y s u b . t h e C o m p o s i t a e . presence or absence of t h e corolla. F r o m Jussieu. m o n o c o t y l e d o n s . a n d w i t h o u t a n y criterion o t h e r t h a n its presence or absence. O t h e r characters are v e r y frequent t h r o u g h o u t a family. t h e e m b r y o will b e its m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t . o f f o r m i n g general entities. a n d t h e L e g u m i n o s a e for p l a n t s . b u t because t h e y d o n o t c o n c e r n w h a t is essential in a g r o u p of living beings. birds. n a t u r e of t h e s t e m ) : w i t h these s e m i . n u m b e r o f cells i n t h e fruit. I. in fact. character. It will be seen t h a t character is no l o n g e r d r a w n directly f r o m t h e visible s t r u c t u r e . b u t d o n o t attain t h e s a m e d e g r e e o f c o n s t a n c y . w a s to be based u p o n a p r i n c i p l e alien to t h e d o m a i n o f t h e visible . B u t . it is based u p o n t h e existence 227 . a r r a n g e t h e species side by side in all their vast diversity. position o f f l o w e r s a n d leaves. r e p r o d u c t i o n b e i n g t h e m a j o r function o f t h e p l a n t . t h e n u m b e r o f lobes s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e m b r y o i n t h e seed. a n d q u a d r u p e d s . T h i s p r i n c i p l e ( w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s to l a b o u r in t h e e c o n o m i c sphere) is organic structure. in o r d e r t o l i m i t t h e field o f investigation f o r t h w i t h . a n d d i c o t y l e d o n s . t h e insertion o f t h e corolla w h e n i t bears t h e stamens. t h e 'tertiary s e m i . b u t . o r w o r m s .

s u m m i n g u p t h e w o r k o f t h e c e n t u r y ' s last g r e a t m e t h o d i s t s . it is because it is f u n c t i o n ally i m p o r t a n t t h a t it is often e n c o u n t e r e d . C h a r a c t e r s are linked. since i t takes i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e o r g a n s [10]. t h e r e has b e e n a r e t u r n t o t h e o l d t h e o r y o f signatures o r m a r k s . it is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e h o w t h e n o t i o n of life c o u l d b e c o m e indispensable t o the o r d e r i n g o f n a t u r a l beings. 2. to functions. it w a s essential to be able to a p p r e h e n d in t h e depths o f t h e b o d y t h e relations that link superficial o r g a n s t o those w h o s e existence a n d h i d d e n f o r m s p e r f o r m t h e essential functions. a n d u p o n relations o f i m p o r t a n c e that are n o l o n g e r m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f description. a n d i n t e s t i n e s ' ^ ] . the m o r e the properties that remain c o m m o n are c o n s t a n t . w h i c h supposed t h a t each b e i n g b o r e t h e sign o f w h a t w a s m o s t essential i n i t u p o n t h e m o s t visible p o i n t o f its surface. these m e t h o d s o f l o c o m o t i o n can b e correlated i n t u r n w i t h t h e f o r m o f a l i m e n t a t i o n a n d t h e different 228 . t h e h i g h e r w e m o v e t o w a r d s t h e m o r e generalized classes. t h e n . t h u s S t o r r p r o p o s e s classifying m a m m a l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f their h o o f s . therefore. B u t h e r e t h e relations o f i m p o r t a n c e are relations of functional s u b o r d i n a t i o n . a n d because t h e y are for that v e r y reason linked t o t h e plant's entire internal o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e . t o n g u e s .THE ORDER OF THINGS o f functions essential t o t h e living b e i n g . In t h e s a m e w a y . claws. 3. It is n o t because a character occurs frequently in t h e structures o b s e r v e d t h a t it is i m p o r t a n t . established by a relation of t h e visible to itself. C h a r a c t e r is n o t . . s t o m a c h s . V i c q d ' A z y r s h o w e d t h a t in t h e case of animals it is t h e a l i m e n t a r y functions that a r e w i t h o u t d o u b t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t . t h a t is because t h e y p l a y a particular r o l e in t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e function. As C u v i e r w a s to p o i n t o u t . s o t h e characters o f t h e h i g h e r divisions will b e f o u n d t o b e d r a w n f r o m t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t parts . I t i s i n this w a y t h a t t h e m e t h o d will b e n a t u r a l . n o w . In o n e sense. and as the m o s t constant relations are those that p e r t a i n t o t h e q i p i t i m p o r t a n t parts. it is for this reason t h a t ' t h e r e exist c o n s t a n t relations b e t w e e n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c a r n i v o r e s ' teeth a n d t h a t o f their muscles. t h e reason b e i n g t h a t this i s linked t o m e t h o d s o f l o c o m o t i o n a n d t o t h e a n i m a l ' s possibilities o f m o v e m e n t . t h e y indicate a function that g o v e r n s t h e individual's entire a r r a n g e m e n t [8]. toes. G i v e n these c o n d i t i o n s . it is n o t h i n g in itself b u t t h e visible p o i n t of a c o m p l e x a n d hierarchized o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e in w h i c h function plays an essential g o v e r n i n g a n d d e t e r m i n i n g role. I t b e c a m e so for t w o reasons: first. . If t h e n u m b e r of c o t y l e d o n s is decisive in t h e classification of plants.

i t follows t h a t t h e crustaceans. it w i l l m e a n . as it w e r e . t h e n to rise u p w a r d s o n c e m o r e f r o m that h i d d e n a r c h i t e c t u r e t o w a r d s t h e m o r e o b v i o u s signs displayed on t h e surfaces of b o d i e s . a n d like t h e m h a v e a m u s c u l a r h e a r t . w h i c h d o n o t h a v e a like o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e [ 1 2 ] . ' t o restrict oneself to t h e e x t e r i o r characters assigned b y n o m e n c l a t u r e s . before the arachnids a n d t h e insects. will n o l o n g e r m e a n t o refer t h e visible b a c k t o itself. a n d I m y s e l f l o n g f o l l o w e d t h e general o p i n i o n in this r e g a r d . the great b o o k of n a t u r e w h i c h is precisely w h a t o n e has set o u t t o k n o w ? ' [ 1 3 ] H e n c e f o r t h . T o classify. to its d e e p e r cause. i s this n o t t o i g n o r e t h e m o s t fertile s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . a muffled w o r d . in a m o v e m e n t that m a k e s analysis p i v o t on its axis. T h e parallelism b e t w e e n classification a n d n o m e n c l a t u r e i s t h u s . as w e l l as i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t r u e relations b e t w e e n t h e m . c h a r a c t e r r e s u m e s its f o r m e r role as a visible sign d i r e c t i n g us t o w a r d s a b u r i e d d e p t h . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n i s e v e n m o r e f r e q u e n t i n animals. it is t h e c o h e r e n t totality of an o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t w e a v e s b a c k i n t o t h e u n i q u e fabric o f its s o v e r e i g n t y b o t h t h e visible a n d t h e invisible. S t o r r t h o u g h t that t h e b r o a d e r classifications o u g h t t o b e defined a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m s o f circulation. therefore. t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t characters m a y also b e t h e m o s t h i d d e n . w h i c h b r e a t h e solely b y m e a n s o f gills i n t h e s a m e w a y a s molluscs. dissolved. b u t t h e e m b r y o n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d such o r g a n s a s t h e c o t y l e d o n . 4 . a n d L a m a r c k . to relate t h e visible to t h e invisible. w h i l e a l l o t t i n g o n e o f its e l e m e n t s the task o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o t h e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e . rejects a n y p r i n c i p l e o f classification for t h e l o w e r animals based solely u p o n visible f o r m : C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e articulations o f t h e bodies and l i m b s o f t h e c r u s taceans has led all naturalists to r e g a r d t h e m as t r u e insects. b u t w h a t it indicates is n o t a secret text. or a r e s e m b l a n c e t o o p r e c i o u s to be revealed. As Pinel said. B u t since it is r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e is of all considerations t h e m o s t essential as a g u i d e in a m e t h o d i c a l a n d n a t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of animals. a n d to refuse to o p e n . As l o n g as classification consisted of a p a t t e r n of progressively smaller areas fitted i n t o a visible space. as it w e r e .t h e m o s t easily visible p a r t s of t h e p l a n t . it w a s q u i t e c o n ceivable that t h e delimitation a n d d e n o m i n a t i o n o f t h e resultant g r o u p s 229 . i t h a d a l r e a d y p r o v e d possible t o o b s e r v e in t h e v e g e t a b l e k i n g d o m t h a t it is n o t flowers a n d fruits . b y this v e r y fact. o u g h t t o b e placed i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e m .that are t h e significant e l e m e n t s . in his w o r k as a naturalist. t h o u g h h e h i m s e l f did n o t practise dissection.THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION o r g a n s o f t h e digestive s y s t e m [ n j .

a n d w h i c h h a d led s t r u c t u r e t o c h a r acter. designation a n d classification. w h i c h w i t h i n a f e w years will r e n d e r n a t u r a l history a n d t h e p r e e m i n e n c e o f taxinomia obsolescent. instead o f b e i n g exactly s u p e r i m p o s e d . T h e r e is a f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t o r t i o n b e t w e e n t h e space o f o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e a n d t h a t o f n o m e n c l a t u r e : o r r a t h e r . i n w h i c h case o n e m u s t l o o k i n t h e left-hand p a r t . T h e i r o l d affinity. a n d b e t w e e n these latter a n d t h e b r o a d functions t h a t t h e y p e r f o r m . w h i c h h a d been t h e f o u n d a t i o n of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y i n t h e Classical age. all w i t h o n e a n d t h e s a m e m o v e m e n t . B u t n o w that character can classify o n l y b y m e a n s o f p r i o r reference t o t h e o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e o f individuals. B y m a k i n g such a distinction. it has b e c o m e necessary to e x p l o r e in d e p t h t h e space t h a t lies b e t w e e n their superficial o r g a n s a n d their m o s t concealed ones.h a n d p a r t o f t h e t a b l e . w e o w e t o t h e genius o f L a m a r c k : i n t h e P r e l i m i n a r y D i s c o u r s e to La Flore frangaise he set o u t t h e t w o tasks of b o t a n y a s t w o radically distinct entities: ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' . T h i s distinction. 'distinction' can n o l o n g e r b e achieved i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s a m e criteria. o r I t i s n o t present. T h e p r o b l e m o f t h e n a m e a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e g e n u s w e r e i s o m o r p h i c . a s ' d e n o m i n a t i o n ' . T h e r e is talk of t h i n g s t h a t t a k e place in a n o t h e r space t h a n that o f w o r d s . w h i c h applies t h e rules of analysis a n d m a k e s it possible to discover the n a m e of an individual by t h e simple use of a b i n a r y m e t h o d (either such a n d such a character is present in t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g e x a m i n e d . o n e m u s t find o n e ' s w a y t o that precise square i n w h i c h i s to be f o u n d t h e n a m e of its genus a n d its species. o r b y m e a n s o f t h e s a m e o p e r a t i o n s . A n y g o o d n o m e n c l a t u r e . in w h i c h case o n e m u s t l o o k for its location i n t h e r i g h t . w h i c h presupposes a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e entire o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e o f s p e c i e s [ i 4 ] . N a m e s a n d g e n e r a . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o d e n o m i n a t i o n . will c o n t i n u e t o b e d e p l o y e d i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n o f t h e table: starting f r o m t h e visible characters o f t h e individual. I n o r d e r t o discover t h e f u n d a m e n t a l g r o u p s i n t o w h i c h n a t u r a l beings can be d i v i d e d . t h e y are n o w p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o o n e a n o t h e r . a n d b y m a k i n g i t s o early o n . a n d s o o n until t h e n a m e has finally b e e n d e t e r m i n e d ) . T h e o r d e r o f w o r d s a n d t h e o r d e r o f beings n o l o n g e r intersect e x c e p t a l o n g a n a r t i ficially defined line. a n d t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e real relations o f resemblance. a n d a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e y m e e t w e find t h e manifest character. cease t o b e a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n t e r l o c k e d . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d .THB ORDER OF THINGS c o u l d b e a c c o m p l i s h e d simultaneously. L a m a r c k b r o u g h t t h e era of natural history to a close a n d p r o v i d e d a 230 . l a n g u a g e a n d n a t u r e . w h i c h indicates a function in t h e vertical plane a n d m a k e s it possible to discover a n a m e in t h e h o r i z o n t a l o n e . i s b e g i n n i n g t o dissolve. a n d t h e visible i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e abstract genus.

a n d 231 . this c o n c e p t o f o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e h a d n e v e r been used before t h e e n d of t h e c e n t u r y as a f o u n d a t i o n for o r d e r i n g n a t u r e . T h e c o n c e p t o f o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e already existed i n e i g h t e e n t h . t h e t e r m s o r g a n i z e d a n d n o n . i t arranges t h e m i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h an a r c h i t e c t u r e that is internal as well as external. T h i s i m p o r t a n t m u t a t i o n further exerts its influence u p o n t h e e l e m e n t of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . V i c q d ' A z y r . it distributes t h e m t h r o u g h o u t a space that is o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f n a m e s . N o w .j u s t as. a n d no less i n visible t h a n visible. o t h e r s solid'[16]. B o n n e t contrasted the ' a g g r e g a t i o n ' o f ' u n r e f i n e d solids' w i t h t h e ' c o m p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c solids'. distinguished b e t w e e n j u x t a p o s i t i o n ' . w h i c h enables t h e v e g e t a b l e k i n g d o m t o d e v e l o p b y feeding i t s e l f [ i 5 ] .l i n e b e t w e e n o r g a n i c a n d i n o r g a n i c . interior. o n t h e basis o f m o r e e l e m e n t a r y materials. these t w o categories o v e r l a p p e d . I t does. w h i c h ' w e a v e s t o g e t h e r a n a l m o s t infinite n u m b e r o f parts. it modifies t h e m e t h o d s a n d t h e techniques of a taxinomia.o r g a n i z e d defined m e r e l y t w o c a t e gories. F r o m t h e m o m e n t w h e n o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e b e c o m e s a basic c o n c e p t of n a t u r a l characterization. the antithesis o f living a n d n o n . s o m e f l u i d . a m u c h m o r e certain a n d radical g l i m p s e o f t h e era o f b i o l o g y t h a n h e did t w e n t y years later b y t a k i n g u p o n c e m o r e t h e a l r e a d y w e l l . it has n o t yet t o u c h e d t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f a n a t u r a l o r d e r . i t n o l o n g e r m e r e l y indicates a d i v i d i n g . the n o t i o n of l a b o u r w a s n o t i n v e n t e d at t h e e n d of t h e Classical a g e . a n d l a n g u a g e .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION m u c h clearer. for e x a m p l e . h o w ever. b u t it w a s a c o n c e p t t h a t served a t that t i m e t o define a certain m o d e o f c o m p o s i t i o n o f c o m p l e x individuals. It is t h r o u g h the w o r k s o f Jussieu. b u t it does n o t refute its f u n d a m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s of possibility. i t links t h e m t o functions. a n d L a m a r c k t h a t i t begins t o function for the first t i m e as a m e t h o d of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : it subordinates characters o n e t o a n o t h e r . entail o n e m a j o r c o n s e q u e n c e : t h e radicalization o f the d i v i d i n g . a n d 'intussusception'. as a m e a n s of defining its space or d e l i m i t i n g its f o r m s . it defines for certain beings t h e internal l a w t h a t enables a particular o n e of their structures to take on the v a l u e of a character.l i v i n g . in the sphere of the analysis of w e a l t h . O r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e intervenes b e t w e e n t h e articulating structures a n d t h e d e s i g n a t i n g c h a r acters . a n d essential space. I t i s thus n o l o n g e r c o n t e n t t o designate o n e c a t e g o r y o f beings a m o n g o t h e r categories. b u t did n o t necessarily coincide w i t h . w h i c h causes g r o w t h i n minerals. discourse. I n t h e table o f beings u n f o l d e d b y n a t u r a l history. Linnaeus.creating b e t w e e n t h e m a p r o f o u n d .l i n e r u n n i n g t h r o u g h the t a x o n o m i c space.k n o w n t h e m e o f t h e single series o f species a n d their p r o g r e s s i v e transformation.c e n t u r y n a t u r a l history .

' o n e enjoys life a n d t h e o t h e r i s d e p r i v e d o f i t ' [ i 8 ] . g r o w s . t h e m o s t p r o f o u n d l y l i n k e d t o t h e m o v e m e n t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself. t h e inert.does n o t replace t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n e x a c t l y . A n d t o t h a t e x t e n t i t w a s m o r e firmly rooted in representation and in the m o d e of being of repre232 . as t h e s p o n t a n e o u s analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a t a n o t h e r level a n d i n a n o t h e r space. s o m e t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a b i o l o g y w a s t o b e c o m e possible. l a n g u a g e w a s p o s i t e d a n d reflected u p o n as discourse. T h o u g h it is t r u e t h a t t h e y t a k e a m o r e discreet f o r m a n d o b e y a s l o w e r c h r o n o l o g y t h a n in t h e field of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n o r g a n i c a n d i n o r g a n i c b e c o m e s f u n d a m e n t a l . Pallas a n d L a m a r c k [ i 7 ] f o r m u l a t e this g r e a t d i c h o t o m y . It is.q u a n t i t a t i v e o r d e r i t w a s t h e m o s t i m m e d i a t e . f r o m t h e p e r i o d 1 7 7 5 . b y i m p o s i n g a n o t h e r division. t h e least deliberate. it is so as t h a t e l e m e n t w i t h i n it t h a t destroys a n d kills it. a n d also h o w . ' w r o t e V i c q d ' A z y r i n 1 7 8 6 . O f all t h e f o r m s o f n o n .THE ORDER OF THINGS m a k e s possible t h e transition f r o m visible s t r u c t u r e t o d e s i g n a t i o n . i t s u r r o u n d s t h e t a x o n o m i c space i n w h i c h i t lay b e f o r e . ' T h e r e a r e o n l y t w o k i n g d o m s i n n a t u r e . i t m u s t o f course cease t o b e n o m o r e t h a n a c h a r a c t e r itself. vitalism a n d its a t t e m p t t o define t h e specificity o f l i f e a r e m e r e l y t h e surface effects of those archaeological e v e n t s . t h r o u g h o u t t h e Classical age. b u t r a t h e r . t h e unfruitful d e a t h . T h e r e is an easily d i s c o v e r a b l e reason for this.o r g a n i c a n d i n o r g a n i c . w h i c h are v e r y distinct a n d a l w a y s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o each o t h e r . it is t h a t . the inorganic is the non-living. in fact. t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e t w o k i n g d o m s . it lies at t h e frontiers of life. b y f r a g m e n t i n g i n d e p t h t h e g r e a t table o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . s o m u c h s o t h a t each p e r p e t u a l l y d e s t r o y s t h e effects t h a t t h e o t h e r succeeds i n p r o d u c i n g ' [ 1 9 ] . W h a t w a s t o t a k e place w a s n o t t h e m o r e o r less precarious t r i u m p h o f a vitalism o v e r a m e c h a n i s m .a d i c h o t o m y w i t h w h i c h the opposition of the living and the non-living coincides. A n d a l t h o u g h it is i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h life. T h e o r g a n i c b e c o m e s t h e l i v i n g a n d t h e living i s t h a t w h i c h p r o d u c e s . t h e f u n d a m e n t a l o p p o s i t i o n o f life a n d d e a t h w a s able t o e m e r g e . i n t h e analyses o f B i c h a t . i t m a k e s t h e o l d articulation i m possible. a n d i n t u r n p r o v i d e s t h e g r o u n d for a possible classification. t h a t is.9 5 o n w a r d that t h e o l d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e o r four k i n g d o m s disappears. T h i s b e i n g so. I t can b e seen h o w . that w h i c h neither develops n o r r e p r o d u c e s . a n d reproduces. ' T h e r e exist in all living b e i n g s t w o p o w e r f u l forces. IV WORD INFLECTION T h e exact c o u n t e r p a r t o f these events i s t o b e f o u n d i n t h e area o f lang u a g e analysis.

o n c e a n d for all. w h e t h e r m y t h i c a l or n o t . m o r e or less d e r i v e d . I n t h e last q u a r t e r o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e t h e o r y o f t h e n a m e h a d its place as near as possible to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d thus g o v e r n e d . H e n c e those great confrontations between various languages that we see a p p e a r i n g at t h e e n d of the c e n t u r y . the density o f their similitudes.w e r e n o t e d a n d listed o n l y in o r d e r t o c o n f i r m t h e vertical relation o f each t o these d e e p l y b u r i e d . t h e limits w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y are t r a n s p a r e n t t o one another. events capable of c h a n g i n g t h e v e r y b e i n g o f representations i n W e s t e r n c u l t u r e . A n d yet. w h a t m a r k s f r o m b e f o r e B a b e l h a v e been p r e s e r v e d i n t h e s o u n d s o f its w o r d s . U n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . these representative c o n tents are n o l o n g e r analysed o n l y i n t h e d i m e n s i o n t h a t b r i n g s r e p r e sentation near to an absolute o r i g i n . a t t h e m o m e n t w h e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself w a s m o d i fied at the deepest level of its archaeological o r g a n i z a t i o n . e v e n p r o f o u n d e r events w e r e necessary. T e c h n i c a l modifications such as t h o s e t h a t affected t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f e x c h a n g e values. by archaic cries. In general grammar.THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION sentation t h a n w e r e t h e m o r e intellectual o r d e r s . w a s situated i n t h e o p e n i n g that h a d b e e n created.disinterested o r i n terested .based u p o n t h e classification o f beings o r t h e e x c h a n g e o f w e a l t h . I n o r d e r that t h e science o f l a n g u a g e c o u l d u n d e r g o m u t a t i o n s a s i m p o r t a n t as these. w e r e sufficient t o c h a n g e c o n s i d e r a b l y t h e analysis o f w e a l t h o r n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . i n . a t t h e e n d o f t h e Classical age. silted o v e r . E v e r y l a n g u a g e . a s w i t h t h e a t t e m p t s m a d e i n Russia[20] t o establish a n abstract o f all t h e l a n g u a g e s o f t h e E m p i r e . t h e analysis of structures a n d character in living beings. i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d e i g h t e e n t h centuries. t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p a r i s o n o f l a n g u a g e s acquires a n o t h e r f u n c t i o n : i t n o l o n g e r m a k e s i t possible t o k n o w w h a t e a c h l a n g u a g e m a y still preserve o f its ancestral m e m o r y . to a certain d e g r e e . W o r d s are still investigated o n t h e basis o f their r e p r e sentative values. s o i n t h e s a m e w a y . a n d that o f price a n d v a l u e i n t h e sphere o f w e a l t h . o r the m e t h o d s o f a r r i v i n g a t 'characters'. h o w e v e r c o m p l e x .in s o m e cases b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e pressure o f political m o t i v e s . in its p u r e s t f o r m . all t h e w o r d s of a l a n g u a g e w e r e bearers of a m o r e or less h i d d e n . a l m o s t m u t e values. Lateral resemblances w i t h o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . b u t i t s h o u l d m a k e i t possible to measure the extent to w h i c h languages resemble o n e another. a s v i r t u a l e l e m e n t s o f discourse w h i c h prescribes o n e a n d t h e s a m e m o d e o f b e i n g for t h e m all. signification w h o s e original raison d'etre lay in an initial d e s i g n a t i o n . b r e a k i n g u p o n l y late i n t h e d a y . analyses o f l a n g u a g e s h o w little c h a n g e . i t w a s this t h e o r y d i a t subsisted longest. J u s t as.similar sounds applied to a n a l o g o u s significations .

the confrontation of languages at the end of the eighteenth c e n t u r y b r i n g s t o light a f o r m i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t h e articulation o f c o n t e n t s a n d t h e v a l u e o f r o o t s : n a m e l y . asti. T h e c o m parisons are still m a d e exclusively o n t h e basis o f a n d i n t e r m s o f r e p r e sentative c o n t e n t s : a single k e r n e l of signification . b u t b y inflectional a n a l o g y . B u t w h a t was at 234 . All these analyses always refer b a c k t o t w o principles. t h e c o n c e p t o f l a b o u r w a s k n o w n before A d a m S m i t h ) . o n e discovers a relation o f c o n s t a n c y t h e reverse of t h e o n e usually a d m i t t e d : it is t h e r o o t t h a t is m o d i f i e d . b y m u l t i p l y i n g o r c o m b i n i n g its f o r m s (invasions. 3 0 i n Africa. m i g r a t i o n s . asi. or w e r e seen as a w a y of l i n k i n g representations t o g e t h e r (rather like another kind of w o r d order). a n d t h e latter s a w i t a s t h e result o f the historic m i x t u r e t h a t m a y h a v e o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n H i n d u s a n d M e d i terranean peoples at the time of the Bactrian k i n g d o m . It is t r u e t h a t C o e u r d o u x a n d A n q u e t i l D u p e r r o n r e m a i n e d at t h e level of analysis as practised in general grammar. a d v a n c e s in l e a r n i n g . w e a r i t a w a y . b u t inflections h a d b e e n analysed o n l y for' their r e p r e sentative v a l u e . i n e c o n o m i c s .THE ORDER OF THINGS 1 7 8 7 t h e r e a p p e a r e d i n P e t e r s b u r g t h e first v o l u m e o f t h e Glossarium comparativum totius orbis. a n d that of a series of historical events. or o n e r o o t is selected as a c o n stant e l e m e n t r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f slightly differing f o r m s . stha. m a k e i t m o r e f l e x i b l e . w h i c h . 5 5 i n E u r o p e . sunt. T h e Sanskrit series asmi. w h i c h w e r e a l r e a d y t h o s e of general grammar: t h a t of an original a n d c o m m o n l a n g u a g e w h i c h s u p p o s e d l y p r o v i d e d t h e initial b a t c h o f r o o t s . es. b e n d it. political f r e e d o m o r slavery. But when one compares. N o w . estis. a n d t h e inflections t h a t a r e a n a l o g o u s . w h e n t h e f o r m e r s a w this parallelism a s e v i d e n c e o f t h e r e m a i n s o f a n o r i g i n a l c o m m o n l a n g u a g e . in n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . a n d t h e full a r r a y of m e a n i n g s t h a t it c a n t a k e on is p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d (these are t h e first a t t e m p t s at L e x i c o g r a p h y . a n d .w h i c h is used as an invariable . e t c . w i t h t h e Latin series sum.w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d as accessory r e p r e s e n t a tions. smas. santi c o r r e s p o n d s exactly. I t i s t r u e t h a t g r a m m a r i a n s h a d l o n g b e e n familiar w i t h inflectional p h e n o m e n a (just as. as Coeurdoux[23] a n d W i l l i a m J o n e s [24] d i d .is related to t h e w o r d s by m e a n s of w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s l a n guages are able to designate it ( A d e l u n g [ 2 2 ] gives 500 different versions of Pater in different l a n g u a g e s a n d dialects). inflection. refine it. ) . foreign to l a n g u a g e . t h e c o n c e p t o f o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e w a s familiar before Pallas o r L a m a r c k . t h e different f o r m s of t h e v e r b to be in Sanskrit a n d L a t i n o r G r e e k . it h a d to i n c l u d e references to 2 7 9 l a n g u a g e s : 1 7 1 i n Asia. sumus. f r o m o u t s i d e . est. s u c h as t h a t of B u t h e t de L a S a r t h e ) . 2 3 i n A m e r i c a [ 2 i ] .

it w a s already a m o r e c o m p l e x relation b e t w e e n t h e modifications o f t h e radical a n d t h e functions o f g r a m m a r . s e c o n d a r y in its significative v a l u e . s y n tactical values. w i t h their g r e a t lability o f f o r m . A s a p r i m a r y 235 . o r again. t h e relation b e t w e e n r o o t s . it is a system of modifications of w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s s e g m e n t s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t : the letter s does n o t signify t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n in t h e w a y t h a t the letter e. w h i c h i m p o s e u p o n t h e s o u n d s . o r o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e i n t o t h a t o f characters). It is still a q u e s t i o n o f discourse. g r o u p e d i n t o a system. M o r e o v e r . signified b r e a t h i n g . it is a q u e s t i o n of t h e t i m e of t h e a c t i o n ) . this e l e m e n t . general grammar begins to c h a n g e its c o n f i g u r a t i o n : its v a r i o u s theoretical s e g m e n t s are no l o n g e r linked t o g e t h e r in exactly t h e s a m e w a y . t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e p u r e l y g r a m m a t i c a l i s a p p e a r i n g : l a n g u a g e n o l o n g e r consists o n l y o f representations a n d o f sounds t h a t i n t u r n represent t h e representations a n d are o r d e r e d a m o n g t h e m a s t h e links o f t h o u g h t r e q u i r e . a n d t h e n e t w o r k t h a t j o i n s t h e m already suggests a s l i g h d y different r o u t e . i t consists also o f f o r m a l e l e m e n t s . o n t h e side o f f o r m . is n o t itself an isolated syllable. T h u s a n e l e m e n t has been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e analysis o f l a n g u a g e that is n o t r e d u c i b l e to it (as l a b o u r w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e analysis o f e x c h a n g e . t t h a t gives t h e v e r b a l r o o t t h e values o f t h e first. second. this n e w analysis has its place in t h e search for the representative values of l a n g u a g e . a n d t h i r d p e r s o n . N o w a n e w e l e m e n t intervenes: o n t h e o n e h a n d . U n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . syllables. a n d t h e m e a n i n g p a t t e r n e d o u t o f representations.THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION stake i n this c o m p a r i s o n o f conjugations w a s n o l o n g e r t h e link b e t w e e n original syllable a n d p r i m a r y m e a n i n g . For this v e r y reason. a n d r o o t s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s n o t t h a t o f r e p r e sentation. a n d existence. a c c o r d i n g to C o u r t de Gebelin. A t the t i m e o f B a u z e e o r C o n d i l l a c . B u t already. s. life. o r modifications o f m e a n i n g . a l m o s t unalterable totality w h o s e s o v e r e i g n l a w is so far i m p o s e d u p o n t h e representative roots as to m o d i f y e v e n those r o o t s themselves. t h r o u g h t h e inflectional system. b u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . like a sort of c o n s t a n t r o o t . i t constitutes t h e solid. constant. i t w a s b e i n g discovered t h a t i n t w o different languages t h e r e w a s a c o n s t a n t relation b e t w e e n a d e t e r m i n a t e series of formal m o d i f i c a tions a n d a n equally d e t e r m i n a t e series o f g r a m m a t i c a l functions. w a s assured b y t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e N a m e . p r i m a r y in its f o r m a l consistence. it is t h e totality of t h e modifications m. it indicates o n l y an accessory a n d necessarily s e c o n d a r y v a l u e (it is a q u e s t i o n of t h e role p l a y e d by t h e individual or t h i n g d e s i g n a t e d as either subject or c o m p l e m e n t . the link b e t w e e n t h e p o w e r t o designate a n d t h e p o w e r t o articulate. o n t h e side o f m e a n i n g o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .

t h e n a n d o n l y t h e n d i d a g i v e n l a n g u a g e u n d e r g o m o d i f i c a t i o n . declensions. B u t f r o m n o w o n t h e r e i s a n interior ' m e c h a n i s m ' i n l a n g u a g e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s n o t o n l y each one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y b u t also its r e s e m blances to t h e o t h e r s : it is this m e c h a n i s m . therefore. b u t directly f r o m o n e to t h e o t h e r . i n 1 7 8 1 . k n o w l e d g e . o r that t h e y are b o t h dialects o f t h e s a m e l a n g u a g e [26].THE ORDER OF THINGS c o n s e q u e n c e o f this. By its m e a n s . o n e m a y n o t e the a p p e a r a n c e a t the e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y of a p h o n e t i c s that is no l o n g e r an investigation of p r i m a r y expressive values. a n d o f their possible t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o n e i n t o a n o t h e r . b u t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m e a n s w h e r e b y those w o r d s are linked t o g e t h e r . 236 . n o t via t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y o f t h a t a n o n y m o u s a n d general t h o u g h t t h e y exist t o represent. t h e b e a r e r of i d e n t i t y a n d difference. V IDEOLOGY AND CRITICISM T h e r e t o o k place therefore. it is o n e of t h e principal t h i n g s b y w h i c h t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f languages w i t h o n e a n o t h e r i s t o b e d i s c o v e r e d . A n d . t h a t i s n o w t o b e c o m e t h e basis for h i s t o r y . t h a n k s to these delicate i n s t r u m e n t s . O n e c a n n o t e also t h e b e g i n nings of a c o m p a r a t i v e g r a m m a r : t h e object selected for c o m p a r i s o n in the various languages is no longer the couple formed by a g r o u p of letters a n d a m e a n i n g . or feelings h a p p e n e d to c h a n g e . a n d in exactly t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n as t h e changes i n q u e s t i o n . and f l e x i o n . in general grammar. A s M o n b o d d o said: T h e art of a l a n g u a g e is less a r b i t r a r y a n d m o r e d e t e r m i n e d by rule t h a n either t h e s o u n d or sense of the w o r d s . L a n g u a g e s a r e n o l o n g e r c o n t r a s t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t their w o r d s designate. f r o m n o w o n t h e y will c o m m u n i c a t e . so fragile in a p p e a r ance y e t so c o n s t a n t a n d so irreducible. i n t h e same w a y . things. suffixes. it c o u l d have no o t h e r history t h a n t h a t of its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : if ideas. historicity will be able to i n t r o d u c e itself i n t o t h e density o f t h e s p o k e n w o r d itself. d e r i v a t i o n . w e m a y c o n c l u d e that t h e o n e l a n g u a g e i s t h e original o f t h e o t h e r . in natural history. t h e m a r k o f k i n s h i p . c o m p o s i t i o n . a n d in t h e analysis of wealth. b u t g r o u p s of modifications of a g r a m m a t i c a l n a t u r e (conjugations. by w h i c h w o r d s are a r r a n g e d in relation t o each o t h e r . b u t a n analysis o f sounds. t h e sign o f adjacency. t o w a r d s t h e last years o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . o f their relations. a n d prefixes). w e find H e l w a g defining t h e vocalic t r i a n g l e [ 2 5 ] . As l o n g as l a n g u a g e w a s defined as discourse. w h e n w e find that t w o l a n g u a g e s practise t h e three great arts o f l a n g u a g e .

F r o m this e v e n t o n w a r d . a n d t h e relations of o r d e r it b e c o m e s possible to d e t e r m i n e a p a r t f r o m all q u a n t i t a t i v e forms o f m e a s u r e m e n t . T h e signs w h o s e representations w e r e affected. t h e relation of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to itself. n o w t h e y represent on t h e basis of that g r a m m a r . its inflectional system. In o r d e r to link t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a m e a n i n g w i t h t h a t of a w o r d . it is n o w necessary to refer to the p u r e l y biological laws. n o w pass t h r o u g h c o n d i t i o n s e x t e r i o r t o t h e actuality o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself. living beings n o l o n g e r define their resemblances. In all these cases. the p u r e l y g r a m m a t i c a l l a w s o f a l a n g u a g e w h i c h . w h i c h . b u t an e l e m e n t t h a t c a n n o t b e r e d u c e d t o t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : labour. a partial s t r u c t u r e and t h e visible totality of a living b e i n g . t h e clearly defined o r d e r a m o n g t h e empirical multiplicities. c o n c a v e . it is necessary t o refer t o . b u t a certain internal a r c h i t e c t u r e . n o n e o f these can h e n c e f o r t h b e based solely u p o n t h e duplication o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n relation t o itself. is subjected to t h e r i g o r o u s system of its p h o n e t i c modifications a n d its s y n t h e t i c s u b o r d i n a t i o n s . w h a t m a k e s it possible to characterize a n a t u r a l b e i n g is no l o n g e r t h e elements that w e can analyse i n t h e representations w e m a k e for ourselves o f i t a n d o t h e r beings. visible exterior. t h e analysis of identities a n d differences t h a t it was possible to establish at t h a t rime. in a w a y . I n o r d e r t o link t o g e t h e r . an interior a n d necessary v o l u m e w h o s e representative values a r e n o m o r e t h a n t h e glittering. o r g a n i z e t h e relations b e t w e e n functions a n d o r g a n s . a n d t o h a v e recourse t o .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION an e v e n t t h a t is of t h e s a m e t y p e in all these spheres. a p a r t f r o m all descriptive signs and as it w e r e set back f r o m t h e m . in a defined character. their affinities. a certain m a n n e r of m o d i f y i n g t h e w o r d s themselves in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g r a m m a t i c a l position t h e y take u p i n relation t o o n e a n o t h e r . in o t h e r w o r d s . t h e c o n t i n u o u s . a n d their families on t h e basis of their displayed descriptability. table t h a t w a s set u p i n t h e t e e m i n g profusion o f similitudes. a p a r t f r o m all p o w e r o f r e p r e s e n t i n g r e p r e sentations. a sort of storehouse e x t e r i o r t o t h e p e r i p h e r y o f o r g a n i s m s n o w b o u n d i n u p o n 237 . y e t articulated. it is a certain relation w i t h i n this b e i n g . i n n e r side of their visibility: it is on t h e clear a n d discursive surface of this secret b u t s o v e r e i g n mass that characters e m e r g e . in t h e Classical age. w h a t gives v a l u e t o t h e objects o f desire is n o t solely t h e o t h e r objects that desire can represent to itself. w h i c h we call its organic structure. t h e y possess characters w h i c h l a n g u a g e can scan a n d define because t h e y h a v e a structure t h a t is. t h e d a r k . languages h a d a g r a m m a r because t h e y h a d t h e p o w e r t o represent. w h a t m a k e s it possible to define a l a n g u a g e is n o t t h e w a y in w h i c h it represents representations. w h i c h is for t h e m a sort of historical reverse side.

T h e c o m p l e x p h e n o m e n a o f b i o l o g y . t h e a p p e a r ance o f n e w f o r m s i n scientific discourse. it is t h e activity that has p r o d u c e d t h e m a n d has silently l o d g e d itself w i t h i n t h e m . b u t as a surface m o v e m e n t : a m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d shifting of cultural interests. t h e r e w a s n o d e t a c h m e n t . a n d e x p l a i n e d i n k n o w l e d g e . o r i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a n e w cultural t h e m e . its o w n d e p l o y m e n t a n d its p o w e r of d o u b l i n g o v e r on itself . w h i c h d e t e r m i n e its v a l u e . can n o w b e located w i t h i n t h e u n i t y t h a t f o r m s a f o u n d a t i o n for its diverse f o r m s . T h i s s o m e w h a t e n i g m a t i c e v e n t . o r o f i n d u s trial p r o d u c t i o n . or L a m a r c k . Finally. is a m i n u s c u l e b u t absolutely essential d i s p l a c e m e n t . t o t h e rules o f analysis a n d t h e laws o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g .p r o v o k e d by t h e 'influence' of a b u d d i n g ' r o m a n t i c i s m ' . W h a t c a m e i n t o b e i n g w i t h A d a m S m i t h .THE ORDER OF THINGS themselves. o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h a t c o n s t i t u t e their p r o p e r w e i g h t . a n d society.for t h e links t h a t can j o i n its 238 . w h i c h t o p p l e d t h e w h o l e o f W e s t e r n t h o u g h t : r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has lost t h e p o w e r t o p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n . w h e n it is a m a t t e r of l i n k i n g t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o m e object o f n e e d t o all t h e o t h e r s t h a t can c o n f r o n t i t i n t h e act o f e x c h a n g e . it is on t h e basis of this essential nucleus t h a t e x c h a n g e s can b e a c c o m p l i s h e d a n d t h a t m a r k e t prices. w e r e n o t . i n t r o d u c e d i n t o f o r m s o f rational analysis t o w h i c h until t h e n t h e y h a d r e m a i n e d entirely f o r e i g n .in t h e c o m p l e x f o r m s of life. it is necessary to h a v e r e c o u r s e to t h e f o r m a n d q u a n t i t y of a piece o f w o r k . Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y . i t w o u l d b e superficial t o seek this u n i t y i n s o m e p r o g r e s s m a d e i n rationality. a n d at t h e level w h e r e a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e is r o o t e d in its positivity. h i s t o r y . O r r a t h e r . a n d t h u s w h a t o n e can call their real p r i c e . n o t e v e n t h e m a n n e r o f k n o w i n g t h e m o r rationalizing t h e m . In a m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l fashion. u n d e r t h e pressure o f its p r o b l e m s . o f t h e history o f languages. it is t h e days and h o u r s r e q u i r e d for their m a n u f a c t u r e . n o r w a s t h e r e a s u d d e n interest .w i t h its o w n b e i n g . e x t r a c t i o n . can find their p o i n t of rest. w i t h t h e first philologists. w r i n k l e s traced for t h e first t i m e u p o n t h e e n l i g h t e n e d face of k n o w l e d g e . after h a v i n g fluctuated. w h a t creates a h i e r a r c h y a m o n g things i n t h e c o n t i n u o u s circulation o f t h e m a r k e t i s n o t o t h e r objects o r o t h e r n e e d s . their internal l a w . n o t t h e objects a i m e d at. i n t h e last years o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . subjecting t h e m a t o n e b l o w t o o n e a n d t h e s a m e break. b u t t h e relation o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o that w h i c h i s posited i n it. a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p i n i o n s a n d j u d g e m e n t s . their m a r k e t a b l e solidity. analysed. V i c q d ' A z y r . this e v e n t rising u p f r o m b e l o w w h i c h o c c u r r e d t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n these t h r e e d o m a i n s . f r o m a r a t i o n a l i s m subjected t o t h e m o d e l o f m e c h a n i c s . t h e e v e n t c o n c e r n s . all this d i d i n fact h a p p e n . w i t h Jussieu.

a n d t h e n representation. It is f r o m t h e s t a r t i n g . w h i c h served as a common place for r e p r e sentation a n d for things. n o analysis i n t o identities a n d differences can n o w justify t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f r e p r e sentations o n e to a n o t h e r . W i t h d r a w n i n t o their o w n essence. w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t m a i n t a i n s t h e m . outlines. in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a logical sequence. instead o f b e i n g n o m o r e t h a n t h e c o n s t a n c y t h a t distributes their representations always in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s a m e f o r m s . t h e v a l u e o f w e a l t h . t h e successions it authorizes as so m a n y possible r o u t e s b e t w e e n t h e p o i n t s on its surface . t h e t i m e t h a t p r o d u c e s t h e m . n o d e c o m p o s i t i o n .offer t h e m selves. o r d e r . representation can d r a w o u t . a n d m a d e it possible to scan step by step. t a k i n g u p their place a t last w i t h i n t h e force t h a t animates t h e m . T h e c o n d i t i o n o f these links resides h e n c e f o r t h outside r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .in fragments. piece b y piece. t h e table in w h i c h it is spatialized. t o w a r d s t h e v e r y h e a r t o f t h i n g s . N o c o m p o s i t i o n . t h e space that articulates t h e m . i t i s f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f t h e force that b r o u g h t t h e m into b e i n g a n d that r e m a i n s in t h e m . a p u r e l y t e m p o r a l 239 . pieces. t h a t t h i n g s .t h e structure o f living beings. t h e y t u r n i n u p o n themselves. things. t h e s y n t a x o f w o r d s . o n l y t e n u o u s e l e m e n t s whose unity.this space o f o r d e r i s f r o m n o w o n s h a t t e r e d : t h e r e w i l l b e t h i n g s . shards . posit their o w n v o l u m e s . t h a t necessary b u t always inaccessible p o i n t . i n their f u n d a m e n t a l t r u t h . T h e space of o r d e r . t h e totality of n a t u r e ' s e l e m e n t s thus r e n d e r e d c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h o u g h v e r y partially.n o n e of these is a n y l o n g e r in a position to l i n k representations or t h e elements of a particular r e p r e sentation t o g e t h e r . I n o r d e r t o find a w a y b a c k t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e visible f o r m s o f beings a r e j o i n e d . w i t h i n t h e genesis t h a t has n e v e r ceased t o p r o d u c e t h e m . whose point of connection.w e m u s t direct o u r search t o w a r d s that peak. t h e adjacencies it defines. w h i c h u n i t e d t h e regularities o f n a t u r e a n d t h e resemblances o f i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h e g r i d o f identities a n d differences.t h e scenes w o r l d e v e n d e e p e r a n d m o r e dense t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself. w h i c h drives d o w n . is on t h e exterior. b e y o n d its i m m e d i a t e visibility. o f t h e cohesion t h a t m a i n t a i n s its s o v e r e i g n a n d secret s w a y o v e r each o n e o f their parts.THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION v a r i o u s elements t o g e t h e r . b e y o n d o u r gaze. w i t h their o w n o r g a n i c structures. A n d f r o m their inaccessible store. in a sort of b e h i n d . h a v e n o w escaped f r o m t h e space o f t h e table. a n d define for themselves an internal space w h i c h .p o i n t of t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e t h e y conceal. for empirical visibility a n d for t h e essential rules. as t h o u g h motionless y e t still q u i v e r i n g . to o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . their h i d d e n veins. always remains hidden in that b e y o n d . w h i c h displayed t h e e m p i r i c a l sequence of representations in a s i m u l t a n e o u s table.

for t h e v e r y b e i n g o f w h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d has n o t y e t been m a d e . J o n e s m a d e use o f t h e n o t i o n s o f l a b o u r . T h e v e r y b e i n g o f that w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d is n o w g o i n g to fall outside r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself. I d e o l o g y s h o u l d be a k i n d of k n o w l e d g e of t h e s a m e t y p e a s those that take a s their object t h e beings o f n a t u r e . and g r a m m a t i c a l system. It w a s still a m a t t e r of d i s c o v e r i n g t h e general o r d e r of identities a n d differences. t h e w o r d s o f l a n g u a g e . I d e o l o g y does n o t q u e s t i o n t h e f o u n d a t i o n . it scans t h e d o m a i n of representations in 240 . or to find a w a y a r o u n d t h e visibility o f things a n d t o escape f r o m t h e p l a y o f r e p r e sentation r e p r e s e n t i n g itself. their a i m i n d o i n g s o w a s n o t t o b r e a k o u t of t h e tabular space laid o u t by Classical t h o u g h t . T h e g r e a t d e t o u r . o r o n t h e basis o f t h e t r a d i t i o n h a n d e d o n t o h i m . on t h e o t h e r h a n d . b e y o n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w h a t scientific f o r m s of reflection. a n d well f o u n d e d . t h e limits. yet s i m u l t a n e o u s . a consciousness. t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y are expressed i n w o r d s a n d linked t o g e t h e r in r e a s o n i n g . c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o this a m b i g u o u s epistemological c o n f i g u r a t i o n . or t h e laws of society. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n is in t h e process of losing its p o w e r to define t h e m o d e of b e i n g c o m m o n t o t h i n g s a n d t o k n o w l e d g e . Y e t t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n is i m p r u d e n t . B e i n g a science of ideas.THE ORDER OF THINGS succession. into t w o forms o f t h o u g h t . Jussieu. h o l d t o g e t h e r in a u n i t y d o o m e d t o i m m i n e n t dissociation. e x t e r i o r t o o n e a n o t h e r . i s t r y i n g t o k n o w . in w h i c h those t h i n g s address themselves (always partially) to a subjectivity. A n d t h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e r e exists. it anticipates an a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e field o f k n o w l e d g e that i s n o t y e t definitively established b y t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . it has validity as t h e G r a m m a r and t h e L o g i c of all possible science. T h e coexistence o f I d e o l o g y a n d critical p h i l o s o p h v a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B u t this place still figures a m o n g t h e i n t e r i o r a r r a n g e m e n t s o f representations. t h e g r e a t quest. constant. a singular effort of c o g n i t i o n . o r t h e r o o t of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . to t h e ' p s y c h o logical' i n d i v i d u a l w h o f r o m t h e d e p t h o f his o w n h i s t o r y . o n l y t h e place f r o m w h i c h t h a t quest will b e c o m e possible has so far b e e n e s t a b lished. I n D e s t u t t o r G e r a n d o . I t m u s t n o t b e f o r g o t t e n that.of D e s t u t t de T r a c y a n d K a n t . I d e o l o g y posits itself b o t h as t h e o n l y rational a n d scientific f o r m that p h i l o s o p h y can assume a n d as t h e sole p h i l o s o p h i c f o u n d a t i o n t h a t can be p r o p o s e d for t h e sciences in general a n d for each particular sphere of k n o w l e d g e .divides. a p h i l o s o p h i c duality w h i c h indicates its i m m i n e n t dissolution. At a n y rate. t h o u g h S m i t h . B u t precisely in so far as its object is ideas. it was s i m p l y to establish w i t h i n it a f o r m of c o n n e c t i o n t h a t w o u l d b e a t t h e same t i m e analysable. a n d W . o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e .

I d e o l o g y i s a p a r t of z o o l o g y . completely simple form of representation. . o n t h e confines o f passivity a n d consciousness. In fact. t h e w h o l e d o m a i n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . B u t K a n t does n o t seek this relation . It situates all k n o w l e d g e in t h e space o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . appears a s t h e m o s t t e n u o u s g e n e r a l i t y o f t h o u g h t . t h a t . as y o u see. it defines t h e links t h a t p r o v i d e its c o n n e c t i o n s . is always to feel. w h e n deciphered in another direction. t h a n m e r e sensation. w h e n y o u f o r m a j u d g e m e n t . t h o u g h t i n general b y sensation. h o w e v e r . style. h e questions it as to w h a t r e n d e r s it possible in general. a n d is n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n to feel [ 2 7 ] . to pass a j u d g e m e n t . Analysis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . it d e t e r m i n e s t h e necessary sequences t h a t a p p e a r t h e r e . Y o u say to yourself: / think that. w h a t y o u e x p e r i e n c e w h e n y o u t h i n k . Different a s t h e y are i n f o r m . B u t this d u p l i c a t i o n u p o n w h i c h it is based does n o t cause i t t o e m e r g e f r o m t h e field o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . e v e n a t t e n u a t e d in its c o n t e n t so far as to be n o t h i n g m o r e .t h a t of a n a t u r a l science of m a n . t h e K a n t i a n q u e s t i o n a n d the question of the 'Ideologues' have the same point of application: the relation o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o each o t h e r . b u t h e reaches t h e frontier w h e r e sensation a s the primary. for it does n o t exist as y e t .o n t h e level of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t r u e or false. w i t h o u t e m e r g i n g f r o m it. o r . It is in a sense t h e k n o w l e d g e of all k n o w l e d g e . t h e a i m o f that d u p l i c a t i o n is to s u p e r i m p o s e all k n o w l e d g e u p o n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m w h o s e i m m e d i a c y o n e n e v e r escapes: H a v e y o u e v e r u n d e r s t o o d a t all precisely w h a t t h i n k i n g is. . as the m i n i m u m c o n t e n t o f w h a t can b e g i v e n t o t h o u g h t . . a t t h e m o m e n t w h e n i t attains its greatest d e g r e e o f e x t e n s i o n . a relation .or r a t h e r . Instead of basing t h e 241 . a n d it is a b o v e all in m a n t h a t this p a r t is i m p o r t a n t a n d m e r i t s d e l v i n g i n t o ' [ 2 8 ] . T h a t w h i c h . i n defining t h e t h o u g h t o f a relation b y t h e sensation o f t h a t relation. brushes w i t h its v e r y o u t e r m o s t e d g e a d o m a i n t h a t is m o r e or less .w h a t gives it its f o u n d a t i o n a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION g e n e r a l . D e s t u t t i s i n d e e d c o v e r i n g . w h e n y o u h a v e an o p i n i o n . as the c o m p l e x result o f a z o o l o g i c a l s i n g u l a r i t y : ' W e h a v e o n l y a n i n c o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e o f a n a n i m a l i f w e d o n o t k n o w its intellectual faculties. is an act of t h o u g h t . appears. To think. W e s h o u l d n o t e . a n d b y s c a n n i n g that space i t f o r m u l a t e s t h e k n o w l e d g e of the laws t h a t p r o v i d e its o r g a n i z a t i o n . i n briefer t e r m s . a n y t h i n g at all? . a n d a i m . it expresses t h e laws of c o m p o s i t i o n a n d d e c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t m a y rule it. . w h e n read i n o n e sense. this act consists in feeling t h a t t h e r e is a c o n n e c t i o n . that will be m o r e or less. t o p p l e s o v e r i n t o the d o m a i n o f t h e physiological c o n d i t i o n s t h a t can p r o v i d e a n awareness o f it.

tried t o r e s u m e i n t h e f o r m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n precisely w h a t w a s b e i n g f o r m e d a n d r e . B u t I d e o l o g y . i n o n e a n d t h e same m o v e m e n t . m a y b e posited. e v e n t h e m o s t c o m p l e x ones. Sade's scenes a n d r e a s o n i n g r e c a p t u r e all t h e fresh v i o l e n c e of desire in t h e d e p l o y m e n t of a representation t h a t is transparent a n d w i t h o u t f l a w . m u s t h a v e its f o u n d a t i o n b e y o n d all e x p e r i e n c e . in t h e a priori t h a t r e n d e r s it possible. b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e m o s t t e n u o u s f o r m o f representation.f o r m e d o u t s i d e representation. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . K a n t avoids r e p r e s e n t a t i o n itself a n d w h a t is g i v e n w i t h i n it.f r o m p r i m a r y impressions t o political e c o n o m y . i n o r d e r t o address h i m s e l f t o t h a t o n t h e basis o f w h i c h all r e p r e sentation. C o n f r o n t i n g I d e o l o g y . a n d its limits: a n d 242 . fn this sense.r a t h e r as Juliette is t h e last of t h e Classical narratives. T h i s r e s u m p t i o n could b e a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y in t h e q u a s i . build u p little by little t h e g r e a t table of all t h a t is r e p r e s e n t a b l e . a n d g r a m m a r . I d e o l o g y is t h e last of t h e Classical philosophies . b y e x t e n d i n g its reflection o v e r t h e w h o l e field o f k n o w l e d g e . T h e r e is thus a definite c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n the K a n t i a n critique a n d w h a t i n t h e s a m e p e r i o d w a s posited a s t h e first a l m o s t c o m p l e t e f o r m o f ideological analysis. b y w a y o f logic. T h u s it sanctions for t h e first t i m e that e v e n t in E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e w h i c h coincides w i t h t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y : t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f k n o w l e d g e a n d t h o u g h t o u t s i d e t h e space o f representation. b u t on t h e basis of its rightful limits. its o r i g i n . N o t t h a t it is a q u e s t i o n of a n o t h e r w o r l d . t h e analyses o f I d e o l o g y r e c a p t u r e i n their n a r r a t i v e o f a b i r t h all t h e f o r m s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . c o u l d b e d e p l o y e d a n d . m a r k s t h e t h r e s h o l d o f o u r m o d e r n i t y . d e c o m p o s e d (by analysis) a n d r e c o m p o s e d (by synthesis): o n l y j u d g e m e n t s d e r i v e d f r o m e x p e r i e n c e o r empirical o b s e r v a t i o n s can b e based u p o n t h e c o n t e n t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e sciences o f n a t u r e . if it is to be universal. w h a t e v e r its f o r m .o u t process.THE ORDER OF THINGS c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n representations on a f o u n d a t i o n arrived at by a sort o f internal h o l l o w i n g . i t questions r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . w h i c h g r a d u a l l y whittles i t a w a y until t h e r e is n o t h i n g left b u t t h e p u r e impression. I t i s therefore n o t r e p r e sentations themselves t h a t . A n y o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n . T h a t space is b r o u g h t i n t o q u e s t i o n in its f o u n d a t i o n . a r i t h m e t i c . By directing his i n q u i r y in this direction. e m p t y .m y t h i c a l f o r m of a s i m u l t a n e o u s l y sing u l a r a n d universal genesis: an isolated. i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h their o w n laws. he establishes it on t h e c o n ditions t h a t define its universally valid f o r m . b u t of t h e c o n d i t i o n s in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h i c h a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d i n general can exist. n o t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e endless m o v e m e n t t h a t p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e s i m p l e e l e m e n t to all its possible c o m b i n a t i o n s . t h e K a n t i a n c r i t i q u e . a n d abstract consciousness m u s t .

that h a d p o s i t e d i t s e l f i n a n u n i n f o r m e d d o g m a t i s m . such as general g r a m m a r .b y . i f n o t n e w . d i s c u r s i v e .o f u n l i m i t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s . t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f the mathesis a s a g e n e r a l science o f o r d e r n o t o n l y p l a y e d a f o u n d i n g r o l e i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l disciplines b u t w a s c o r r e l a t i v e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p u r e l y empirical domains. a n d that h a d n e v e r b r o u g h t o u t i n t o t h e l i g h t t h e q u e s t i o n o f its r i g h t . o f t h e W i l l . o n e w h o s e purpose w i l l be to question. I t w a s t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f this h o m o g e n e o u s f i e l d o f o r d e r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .c e n t u r y p h i l o s o p h y h a d a t t e m p t e d t o r e d u c e s o l e l y b y m e a n s o f t h e analysis o f r e p r e sentation. a t least d i s t r i b u t e d a n d f o u n d e d i n a n e w w a y . scientific m e t h o d . i t m a k e s p o s s i b l e t h o s e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f L i f e . w h i c h I d e o l o g y h a d a t t e m p t e d t o scan i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a s t e p . and the analysis o f w e a l t h .THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION b y this v e r y fact. B u t i t o p e n s u p a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r metaphysics. b u t w h i c h i s finite (since there i s n o i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t u i t i o n ) . w e m u s t u n d o u b t e d l y p l a c e the s i m u l taneous e m e r g e n c e of a transcendental t h e m e and n e w empirical fields . since o u r t h o u g h t t o d a y still b e l o n g s t o t h e s a m e d y n a s t y . that b r o u g h t a b o u t the c o r r e l a t i v e a p p e a r a n c e o f t w o n e w f o r m s o f t h o u g h t . B u t a s a m e t a p h y s i c s t h a t h a d n e v e r s t e p p e d o u t s i d e itself. t h e u n l i m i t e d field o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .s t e p . i n t h e last y e a r s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . t h e y w e r e constituted and arranged against the b a c k g r o u n d o f a g e n e r a l p o s s i b i l i t y : that w h i c h m a d e i t p o s s i b l e t o establish a n o r d e r e d t a b l e o f identities a n d differences b e t w e e n r e p r e sentations. I n t h e f i r s t r a n k . a t least. d e t e r m i n e s in its r e l a t i o n to an o b j e c t = x all t h e formal conditions of experience in general. i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . natural history. t h e r e s p r i n g s a n a l m o s t infinite series o f c o n s e q u e n c e s . I n this sense. T h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n s the c o n d i t i o n s o f a r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n representations f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f w h a t i n g e n e r a l m a k e s t h e m p o s s i b l e : i t thus u n c o v e r s a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l f i e l d i n w h i c h t h e subject. a n d o f t h e W o r d . C r i t i c i s m b r i n g s o u t t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n that e i g h t e e n t h . that t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s t o d e p l o y i n the w a k e o f c r i t i c i s m . w h i c h C l a s s i c a l t h o u g h t h a d established. these latter w e r e n o t c o n s t r u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a ' m o d e l ' supposedly prescribed for t h e m by the mathematicization or mechanization o f nature. VI OBJECTIVE SYNTHESES F r o m this. apart f r o m representation.o r . W e h a v e seen h o w . n o w a p p e a r s a s a m e t a p h y s i c s . w h i c h i s n e v e r g i v e n t o e x p e r i e n c e (since i t i s n o t e m p i r i c a l ) . 243 it is t h e analysis of the . all t h a t i s t h e s o u r c e a n d o r i g i n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .

T h e n e w positivity o f t h e sciences of life. in a w a y . t h e o r d e r a n d t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f w h a t i t has t o k n o w . as t h e f o u n d a t i o n of their u n i t y . a p p e a r as 'pre-critical': t h e y d o . a n d l a n g u a g e a p p e a r as so m a n y ' t r a n s c e n d e n t a l s ' w h i c h m a k e possible t h e objective k n o w l e d g e o f living beings. a n o t h e r f o r m o f t h o u g h t questions t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a relation b e t w e e n representations f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e b e i n g itself t h a t is r e p r e s e n t e d : w h a t is indicated. a n d e c o n o m i c s is in c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e founding of a transcendental p h i l o s o p h y . o f t h e laws o f p r o d u c t i o n . a n d .THE ORDER OF THINGS transcendental subject that isolates t h e foundation of a possible synthesis b e t w e e n representations. t h e o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e o f living beings. those realities t h a t are r e m o v e d f r o m reality t o t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y are t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f w h a t i s g i v e n t o u s a n d reaches us: t h e force o f l a b o u r .a n d n o t t h e a priori synthesis of all possible e x p e r i e n c e . those s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e v i d e n t a n d invisible visibilities. L a b o u r . like t h e Idea in t h e transcendental Dialectic. b e y o n d it. a n d o f t h e f o r m s o f l a n g u a g e . It is on t h e basis of these f o r m s . b u t these m e t a p h y s i c s d e v e l o p o n t h e basis o f 244 . t h e y c o n c e r n t h e d o m a i n of a posteriori t r u t h s a n d t h e principles of their synthesis . m o r e o v e r . a v o i d a n y analysis of the c o n d i t i o n s o f k n o w l e d g e a s t h e y m a y b e revealed a t t h e level o f transcendental subjectivity. t h e y are o u t s i d e k n o w l e d g e . those n e v e r entirely representable representations. on t h e h o r i z o n of all actual representations. t h e e n e r g y o f life. t h e y c o r r e s p o n d t o K a n t ' s d i s c o v e r y o f a transcendental field a n d y e t t h e y differ f r o m it in t w o essential p o i n t s : t h e y are situated w i t h t h e object. p r i o r t o all k n o w l e d g e . T h e first difference (the fact t h a t t h e transcendentals a r e situated w i t h t h e object) explains t h e o r i g i n o f those m e t a p h y s i c a l doctrines that. life. l a n g u a g e . t h e p o w e r of speech. t h e g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e a n d h i s torical affinities o f l a n g u a g e s . in fact. w h e r e a s in transcendental reflection t h e c o n ditions o f possibility o f t h e objects o f experience a r e identified w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f possibility o f e x p e r i e n c e itself. despite their p o s t .K a n t i a n c h r o n o l o g y .se. t h a t t h e v a l u e o f things. t h e c o n d i t i o n s of possibility o f experience are b e i n g s o u g h t i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f possibility o f t h e object a n d its existence. b u t t h e y p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h a f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a b e i n g w h o s e e n i g m a t i c reality constitutes. is f o u n d to be those n e v e r objectifiable objects. In this cr. a n d s y m m e t r i c a l t o it. I n their b e i n g . O p p o s i t e this o p e n i n g t o t h e transcendental. b u t b y t h a t v e r y fact t h e y are c o n d i t i o n s o f k n o w l e d g e . w h i c h p r o w l a r o u n d t h e o u t e r b o u n d a r i e s o f o u r experience. t h e y totalize p h e n o m e n a a n d express t h e a priori c o h e r e n c e of e m p i r i c a l m u l t i plicities. attain o u r representations a n d u r g e u s o n t o t h e p e r h a p s infinite task of k n o w i n g .

THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION transcendental objectives (the W o r d o f G o d . T h e r e is n o t h i n g p a r a d o x i c a l in t h i s : t h e analysis of representations in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h their identities a n d differences. a n d . I t w i l l b e seen h o w t h e t w o t e r m s o f this o p p o s i t i o n l e n d o n e a n o t h e r s u p p o r t a n d reinforce o n e a n o t h e r . to t h e e m e r g e n c e o f those empirical fields o f w h i c h m e r e internal analysis o f r e p r e sentation c a n n o w n o l o n g e r p r o v i d e a n a c c o u n t . t h e r e a r e philosophies t h a t set themselves n o o t h e r task t h a n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f precisely t h a t w h i c h i s g i v e n t o positive k n o w l e d g e . b u t n o t essences. o f w h i c h K a n t i a n d o c t r i n e i s t h e first philosophical s t a t e m e n t . T h u s . o r p h i l o l o g y are able t o release) t h a t t h e m e t a p h y s i c s o f t h e ' d e p t h s ' o r o f t h e o b j e c t i v e ' t r a n scendentals' w i l l find their p o i n t of attack. inversely. a t h e m e c o m e s t o light w h i c h u n t i l this p o i n t h a d r e m a i n e d u n f o r m u l a t e d . l a w s . i t i s possible t o k n o w p h e n o m e n a . T h e s e c o n d difference (the fact t h a t these transcendentals c o n c e r n a posteriori syntheses) explains t h e a p p e a r a n c e of a ' p o s i t i v i s m ' : t h e r e is a w h o l e layer o f p h e n o m e n a g i v e n t o e x p e r i e n c e w h o s e r a t i o n a l i t y a n d i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n rest u p o n a n objective f o u n d a t i o n w h i c h i t i s n o t possible t o b r i n g t o l i g h t . regularities. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . I t i s t h u s correlative w i t h a certain n u m b e r o f a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o p e r t o t h e m o d e r n episteme.a f u n d a m e n t a l c o r r e l a t i o n is established: on t h e o n e h a n d t h e r e a r e m e t a p h y s i c s o f t h e object. m o r e exactly. T o b e g i n w i t h . o n t h e basis o f criticism . e c o n o m i c s . in its archaeological possibility. it is in t h e division b e t w e e n t h e u n k n o w a b l e d e p t h s a n d t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e k n o w able t h a t t h e positivisms will find their justification. T h e criticismp o s i t i v i s m . b u t n o t substances. o r t h e e c o n o m i c e x perience.o r r a t h e r o n t h e basis o f this d i s p l a c e m e n t o f b e i n g i n relation t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . m e t a physics o f t h a t n e v e r objectifiable d e p t h f r o m w h i c h objects rise u p t o w a r d s o u r superficial k n o w l e d g e . a u t o m a t i c a l l y situated t h e sciences o f t h e 245 . t h e y t h e r e f o r e h a v e t h e s a m e archaeological subsoil a s C r i t i c i s m itself. their o r d e r i n g i n t o p e r m a n e n t tables. A s t h o u g h t h e Galilean m a t h e m a t i c i z a t i o n o f n a t u r e a n d t h e f o u n d i n g o f m e c h a n i c s w e r e e n o u g h o n their o w n t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e p r o j e c t of a mathesis.e x i s t e n t . Life) w h i c h a r e possible o n l y in so far as t h e d o m a i n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has b e e n p r e v i o u s l y l i m i t e d .m c t a p h y s i c s t r i a n g l e o f t h e object w a s c o n s t i t u t i v e o f E u r o p e a n t h o u g h t from the beginning of the nineteenth century to Bergson. o r . o r g r a m m a t i c a l l e a r n i n g . I t m a y s e e m s t r a n g e t h a t n o a t t e m p t w a s m a d e d u r i n g t h e Classical era t o m a t h e m a t i c i z e t h e sciences o f o b s e r v a t i o n . a n d . i t i s i n t h e treasury o f positive b r a n c h e s o f k n o w l e d g e (and a b o v e all o f those t h a t b i o l o g y . W i l l . S u c h a s t r u c t u r e is linked. b u t n o t t h e b e i n g s t h a t o b e y t h e m . n o t t o say n o n .

I n c o u n t e r p o i n t t o these a t t e m p t s to r e c o n s t i t u t e a unified e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l field. It is this e v e n t t h a t places f o r m a l i z a t i o n . a n d possibly m a t h e m a t i c i z e t h e d o m a i n s o f e c o n o m i c s . d e t a c h e d t h e possibility o f synthesis f r o m t h e space o f representations. N o w . p e r h a p s w e s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e the ground-plan of that profound event which. H e n c e a certain n u m b e r o f efforts t h a t characterize m o d e r n reflect i o n o n t h e sciences: t h e classification o f t h e d o m a i n s o f k n o w l e d g e o n t h e basis o f m a t h e m a t i c s . towards the end of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . p u r e f o r m a l sciences. t o o . i t i s this e v e n t . e m p i r i cal sciences. a t t h e v e r y h e a r t o f a n y m o d e r n scientific p r o j e c t . a n d t h e h i e r a r c h y established t o p r o v i d e a p r o gression t o w a r d s t h e m o r e c o m p l e x a n d t h e less exact. w h i c h w e r e s u p p o s e d l y resistant t o all m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e d u c t i o n (the a t t e m p t t o define a n d m e a s u r e this r e sistance o c c u r r e d m o s t l y i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) . this division has as its c o n s e q u e n c e an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n t o discover a t s o m e o t h e r level t h e u n i t y t h a t has b e e n lost w i t h t h e dissociation o f t h e mathesis a n d t h e universal science o f o r d e r . T h e result i s t h a t on t h e o n e h a n d we h a v e a field of a priori sciences.a l t e r n a t i n g or s i m u l t a n e o u s . t h e c o n s t a n t . a n d t h e effort m a d e t o p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h b o t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n a n d a f o r m a l justification. d e d u c t i v e sciences based o n logic a n d m a t h e m a t i c s . D u r i n g t h e Classical age. w h i c h e m p l o y t h e d e d u c t i v e f o r m s o n l y i n f r a g m e n t s a n d i n strictly localized r e g i o n s .THE ORDER OF THINGS qualitative i n t h e f i e l d o f a universal mathesis. reflection o n e m p i r i c a l m e t h o d s o f i n d u c t i o n .of b e i n g able a n d n o t b e i n g able t o formalize t h e empirical. f u n d a m e n t a l relation o f k n o w l e d g e . a n e w a n d f u n d a m e n t a l division arises: n o w t h a t t h e link b e t w e e n representations i s n o l o n g e r established i n t h e v e r y m o v e m e n t t h a t d e c o m poses t h e m . formalize. t h e e n d e a v o u r t o p u r i f y . b i o l o g y . a n d f i n a l l y linguistics itself. t h a t explains w h y all hasty m a t h e m a t i c i z a t i o n o r n a i v e f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f t h e empirical seems like 'pre-critical' d o g m a t i s m a n d a r e t u r n to t h e platitudes o f I d e o l o g y . t h e analytic disciplines a r e f o u n d t o b e epistemologically d i s tinct f r o m t h o s e t h a t are b o u n d t o m a k e use o f synthesis. a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d we see t h e separate f o r m a t i o n of a d o m a i n of a posteriori sciences. or m a t h e m a t i c i z a tion. I n this d o u b l e affirmation . to a universal mathesis justified t h e p r o j e c t 246 . we find at regular intervals t h e affirmation o f a n impossibility: this w a s t h o u g h t t o b e d u e either t o t h e i r r e d u c i b l e specificity o f life ( w h i c h t h e r e i s a n a t t e m p t t o isolate especially i n t h e early n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) o r t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h u m a n sciences. e v e n e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e . W e s h o u l d also e v o k e a s e c o n d characteristic o f t h e m o d e r n episteme. A t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .

e v e n i n w h a t m a y b e t e r m e d their failure. o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i t i s o f little i m p o r t a n c e t h a t these e n d e a v o u r s d i d n o t r e a c h fulfilment o r t h a t t h e y d i d n o t entirely a c c o m p l i s h t h e p u r p o s e t h a t h a d b r o u g h t t h e m i n t o b e i n g : t h e y all expressed. F r o m K a n t o n w a r d . a n d t h e universal possibility o f t a b u lated o r d e r . O n t h e o n e h a n d . t h e p r o f o u n d u n i t y t h a t t h e Classical a g e h a d established b y p o s i t i n g t h e analysis o f identities a n d differences. T h e s e t w o f o r m s o f fracture g i v e rise t o t w o series o f e n d e a v o u r s w h i c h a certain striving t o w a r d s universality w o u l d s e e m t o c a t e g o r i z e a s echoes o f t h e Cartesian o r Leibnizian u n d e r t a k i n g s . B u t i n b o t h these cases t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t c o n c e r n e d w i t h universality is on a 247 . D i d e r o t . t o t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e universalization o f k n o w l e d g e i n a philosophical s y s t e m o f t h o u g h t d i d n o t r e q u i r e a specific m o d e o f reflection. o r t h e s a m e f o u n d a t i o n s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s i n t h e Classical p e r i o d . t h e reciprocal t r a n s p a r e n c y o f k n o w l e d g e a n d p h i l o s o p h y w a s total. B u t . a l o n g t h e line t h a t separates. this p r o j e c t a s s u m e d i n t u r n . t h e r e arises t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e relations b e t w e e n t h e d o m a i n o f e m p i r i c i t y a n d t h e transcendental f o u n d a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e (in w h i c h case t h e p u r e o r d e r o f t h e f o r m a l i s set a p a r t a s n o n . t h e aspect o f a general science o f m o v e m e n t . finally.THE LIMITS OF REPRESENTATION . t h e s a m e claims. t h e u n i t y o f t h e mathesis w a s fractured. e v e n that o f t h e p u r e f o r m s o f t h o u g h t .c o n s t a n t l y r e s u m e d in v a r i o u s f o r m s . t h e unification o f t h e field o f k n o w l e d g e does n o t a n d c a n n o t h a v e t h e s a m e f o r m s . w h e n it is a m a t t e r o f establishing syntheses. t h a t o f a n alphabetical o r analytical E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f k n o w l e d g e . second. a s t h e archaeological basis o f k n o w l e d g e . a n d d ' A l e m b e r t . S o t h a t Descartes.p e r t i n e n t t o a n y a c c o u n t o f t h a t r e g i o n i n w h i c h all e x p e r i e n c e . t h a t of a universal characteristic. k n o w l e d g e can n o l o n g e r b e d e p l o y e d against t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f a unified a n d u n i f y i n g mathesis. t h o u g h w i t h o u t its f o u n d a t i o n u n d e r g o i n g a n y m o d i f i c a t i o n . A t t h e t i m e o f Descartes o r Leibniz. t h a t of a l a n g u a g e reflected u p o n a n d r e c o n stituted in all its analytic values a n d all its syntactical possibilities. t h e r e arises t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e relations b e t w e e n t h e f o r m a l field a n d t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l field (and at this level all t h e e m p i r i c a l c o n tents o f k n o w l e d g e are placed b e t w e e n parentheses a n d r e m a i n s u s p e n d e d f r o m all v a l i d i t y ) . transcendental subjectivity a n d t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f objects. Leibniz. a n d . D o u b l y f r a c t u r e d : first. in their unfinished or deflected a c h i e v e m e n t s . r e m a i n e d as close as possible t o w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d Classical t h o u g h t . a l o n g t h e line d i v i d i n g t h e p u r e f o r m s o f analysis f r o m t h e l a w s of synthesis. has its f o u n d a t i o n ) . i f w e l o o k m o r e closely. t h e p r o b l e m i s q u i t e different. a n d . o n t h e visible surface o f events o r texts.of a finally unified corpus of l e a r n i n g .

c a u s i n g t h e endless b i r t h a n d r e b i r t h o f a p r o j e c t t o formalize t h e c o n c r e t e a n d t o c o n s t i t u t e . a s s u m i n g t h e v a l u e a n d function 248 . o r t o displace t h e m i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a-constituent subjectivity. T h e second p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a t h a p p e a r e d first o f all w i t h H e g e l i a n p h e n o m e n o l o g y . or to discover. in its p r o f o u n d e s t possibilities a n d i m p o s s i bilities. a n d e m p t y l a w s of t h o u g h t . It is t r y i n g .THE ORDER OF THINGS different level f r o m that of t h e field of real k n o w l e d g e . to t h e destiny of W e s t e r n p h i l o s o p h y as it w a s established in t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i n t o an a n t h r o p o l o g y . w h i c h i t a l o n e c o n t a i n s t h e possibility o f c o n s t i t u t i n g . T h e m o s t distant consequences . w h e n t h e totality o f t h e e m p i r i c a l d o m a i n w a s t a k e n b a c k i n t o t h e interior o f a consciousness r e v e a l i n g itself to itself as spirit. in transcendental subjectivity. at least silently. B u t p e r h a p s i t does n o t escape t h e d a n g e r t h a t .of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e v e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d in t h e W e s t e r n episteme towards the end of the eighteenth century m a y be s u m m e d up as follows: n e g a t i v e l y . t o a m o d e o f t h o u g h t i n w h i c h t h e rightful limitations o f a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e (and c o n s e q u e n t l y o f all e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e ) are a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e c o n c r e t e f o r m s o f existence. w i t h o u t g i v i n g rise.a n d t h e m o s t difficult ones for us to e v a d e . i n spite o f e v e r y t h i n g . t h e e m p i r i c a l d o m a i n s b e c o m e l i n k e d w i t h reflections o n s u b j e c t i v i t y . positively. T h e first o f these f o r m s o f p h i l o s o p h y m a n i fested itself initially in Fichte's u n d e r t a k i n g to d e d u c e genetically t h e totality o f t h e transcendental d o m a i n f r o m t h e p u r e . a basis for t h e possibility o f all f o r m a l i s m . I t i s t h u s a p p a r e n t h o w t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l task t h a t Husserl w a s later to set h i m s e l f is linked. a n d also t o link transcendental subjectivity t o t h e implicit h o r i z o n o f e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t s . a n d o p e n i n g u p b y m e a n s o f infinite explicitations. to an a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t is. as an e m p i r i c a l a n d a transcendental field simultaneously. t h e h u m a n b e i n g . It is p r o b a b l y impossible to g i v e e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t s transcendental v a l u e . m a i n t a i n i n g . p u r e sciences. it is c o n s t i t u t e d either as p u r e reflection c a p a b l e of providing a foundation. e v e n before p h e n o m e n o l o g y . precisely a s t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h a t same empirical k n o w l e d g e . t h r e a t e n s e v e r y dialectical u n d e r t a k i n g a n d causes i t t o t o p p l e o v e r . a n d finitude.n i l l y . to a n c h o r t h e r i g h t s a n d l i m i t a tions of a f o r m a l logic in a reflection of t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l t y p e . a t t a i n i n g b o t h a u t o n o m y a n d s o v e r e i g n t y i n relation t o all e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e . w i l l y . in effect. or as a r e s u m p t i o n capable o f revealing. diis o p e n e d up a field of i n q u i r y in w h i c h an a t t e m p t is m a d e either t o r e d u c e all t r a n s c e n d e n t a l reflection t o t h e analysis o f formalisms. in o t h e r w o r d s . t h e d o m a i n o f t h e p u r e f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e b e c o m e s isolated. universal.

In a first p h a s e .t o o p e n u p t h e transcendental f i e l d o f subjectivity. a n d w h o s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n w e can indicate b y m e a n s o f t h e w o r k s o f S m i t h . b e y o n d t h e object. a n d it is this o t h e r h a l f t h a t w e m u s t n o w analyse. a n d t o m a s t e r t o s o m e e x t e n t w h a t . I n o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e e m e r g e n c e o f this o b l i g a t i o n a n d this impossibility in all t h e harshness of their historical i r r u p t i o n . a n d L a n g u a g e .has r e m a i n e d in suspense. a n d isolates for us t h e b e g i n n i n g of a certain modem m a n n e r of k n o w i n g empiricities. it w a s necessary t o let analysis r u n r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e t h o u g h t t h a t f i n d s its source in such a c h a s m . 250 . Life. for i t c o n c e r n s i n their v e r y b e i n g . still pale b u t p e r h a p s decisive. w e t h i n k . w i l l y . it w a s necessary t h a t v e r b a l f o r m u l a t i o n s h o u l d w a s t e no t i m e i n t r a v e r s i n g t h e d e s t i n y o r slope o f m o d e r n t h o u g h t i n o r d e r t o r e a c h a t last t h e p o i n t w h e r e i t c o u l d t u r n b a c k : this clarity o f o u r d a y .CHAPTER 8 Labour. A n d y e t t h e o t h e r h a l f o f t h e e v e n t . at least t o d o m i n a t e b y f r a g m e n t s . if n o t to a v o i d entirely. a n d t o c o n s t i t u t e inversely. Language I THE NEW EMPIRICITIES W e h a v e n o w a d v a n c e d a l o n g w a y b e y o n d t h e historical e v e n t w e w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h situating . t h a t enables us. f r o m t h a t t h o u g h t f o r m e d o n t h e t h r e s h o l d o f t h e m o d e r n age. T h i s i s because t h e t h o u g h t t h a t i s c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h us.w h i c h extends c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y f r o m 1775 to 1795. a n d serves as a c o n t i n u o u s g r o u n d for o u r discourse.a l o n g w a y b e y o n d t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l edges o f t h e rift t h a t divides i n d e p t h t h e episteme o f t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d . L a b o u r . w h a t a r e for u s t h e 'quasi-transcendentals' o f Life. still reaches us. i n their r o o t s .p r o b a b l y t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t . b r o u g h t t o light t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . a n d w i t h w h i c h . invests us. a n d by t h e correlative o b l i g a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s b u t i m m e d i a t e l y d i v i d e d against itself . t h e positivities b y w h i c h o u r empirical f o r m s of k n o w l e d g e are sustained .n i l l y . o f basing syntheses in t h e space of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . i s still largely d o m i n a t e d b y t h e impossibility.

t h e space of analysis c o u l d n o t fail. o r i g i n . f o r m s n o m o r e t h a n a t h i n surface film for k n o w l e d g e . E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e i s i n v e n t i n g for itself a d e p t h in w h i c h w h a t m a t t e r s is no l o n g e r identities. distinctive characters. n o r t h e g r a m matical system. a n d to p r o v i d e t h e t o o l . o r systems.a sort of qualitative y a r d s t i c k . is n o w o n l y a superficial glitter a b o v e an abyss. a n d g r a m m a t i c a l s y s t e m h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d . to a l l o w t h e establishment of identities a n d differences. n o r o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e c o u l d b e defined. t h e resemblances it dissolves by displaying t h e m . w h o s e great.or r e i n t r o d u c e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r status i n t o t h e analysis o f representations a n d i n t o t h e t a b u l a t e d space i n w h i c h t h a t analysis h a d h i t h e r t o b e e n d e p l o y e d . inescapably g r o u p e d b y t h e v i g o u r t h a t i s h i d d e n d o w n b e l o w . t h e m a t r i x o f all relations.t h e c o n c e p t s o f l a b o u r . a n d h i s t o r y . H e n c e forth.for t h e o r d e r i n g o f n a t u r e . T h e visible o r d e r . o r g a n i s m . a n d W i l k i n s . therefore.b e a t of k n o w l e d g e . b y t h e simple process w h e r e b y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w a s d e c o m p o s e d . t h u s r e p r e s e n t i n g itself to itself in a p u r e d u p l i c a t i o n .at o n c e its p r i m a r y possibility a n d t h e e n d of its perfection . to lose its a u t o n o m y . universal e x p a n s e e x t e n d e d i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e possibility of a mathesis. t h e b l a n k spaces t h a t isolate t h e m a n d s u r r o u n d their 251 .these are n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e effects o f certain syntheses.LABOUR. analysed. a n d w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d t h e d o w n . o r structures. w i t h its p e r m a n e n t g r i d o f distinctions. o r established. b u t b o u n d t i g h t l y t o themselves. ceasing t o b e t h e g r o u n d o f all possible o r d e r s . causality. t h e adjacencies it expresses. a n d displace all t h e great h o r i z o n t a l d e p l o y m e n t s o f t h e taxinomia t o w a r d s t h e s o m e w h a t accessory r e g i o n o f consequences. p r o v i d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n for p e r c e p t i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s . their c o n n e c t i o n s . p e r h a p s b l u r r e d a n d d a r k e n e d b y its o b s c u r i t y . i n t h o s e d e p t h s .is n o w a b o u t to o r d e r itself in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h an o b s c u r e verticality: a verticality t h a t is t o define t h e l a w o f resemblances. F r o m n o w o n things will b e r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f this density w i t h d r a w n into itself. B u t n e i t h e r l a b o u r . w h i c h reside far b e y o n d all t h e divisions t h a t c a n b e o r d e r e d o n t h e basis o f t h e visible. t h e table. T h u s . assembled o r d i v i d e d . prescribe all adjacencies a n d d i s c o n t i n uities. t h e f o r m i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h i c h all beings a r e distrib u t e d i n their singular individuality. p e r m a n e n t tables w i t h all their possible paths a n d routes. N o d o u b t their function w a s still o n l y to p r o v i d e a u t h o r i t y for this analysis. a n d r e c o m p o s e d . T h e space o f W e s t e r n k n o w l e d g e i s n o w a b o u t t o t o p p l e : t h e taxinomia. b u t g r e a t h i d d e n forces d e v e l o p e d o n t h e basis o f their p r i m i t i v e and inaccessible n u c l e u s . t h e e l e m e n t a r y identities it circumscribes a n d w h o s e r e p e t i t i o n it s h o w s . t h e constants it m a k e s it possible to scan . LIFE. Visible f o r m s . LANGUAGE Jussieu.

w a s k n o w l e d g e itself a s a n a n t e r i o r a n d indivisible m o d e o f b e i n g b e t w e e n t h e k n o w i n g subject a n d t h e object o f k n o w l e d g e . o r t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a n a t o m i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d o r g a n i c functions i n living b e i n g s . a n d t h e analysis o f w e a l t h political e c o n o m y . such a s t h e g r a m m a t i c a l s y s t e m o f Sanskrit. A n d i t w o u l d b e n o m o r e accurate t o i m a g i n e t h a t general g r a m m a r b e c a m e p h i l o l o g y . because all these m o d e s o f k n o w l e d g e c o r r e c t e d their m e t h o d s . o r t h e e c o n o m i c role o f capital. e x c h a n g e h a d b e e n replaced as a f u n d a m e n t a l figure in t h e space of k n o w l e d g e by p r o d u c t i o n . a n d i f i n o r d e r t o m a k e this possible t h e m e t h o d s o f c o m p a r a t i v e a n a t o m y w e r e used. n e w c o n c e p t s a n d n e w m e t h o d s (such as t h e analysis of f o r m s of p r o d u c t i o n ) . i f t h e r e w e r e those w h o b e g a n t o s t u d y t h e cost o f p r o d u c t i o n . c a m e closer t o their objects. h a d also p r o d u c e d n e w objects (such a s t h e relation o f c h a r a c t e r t o f u n c t i o n ) a n d n e w m e t h o d s (such as t h e search for analogies). n a t u r a l h i s t o r y b i o l o g y . u p o n a b o d y of l e a r n i n g 252 .all these will n o w be p r e s e n t e d to o u r gaze o n l y in an a l r e a d y c o m p o s e d state. T h e n . a l r e a d y articulated in t h a t n e t h e r darkness t h a t is f o m e n t ing t h e m with time. life. after C u v i e r . W h a t c h a n g e d at the turn of the century. i t i s because.a n d this is t h e s e c o n d p h a s e of t h e e v e n t . and u n d e r w e n t an irremediable modification. rationalized their c o n c e p t s .THE ORDER OF THINGS outlines . It w o u l d be false .to a t t r i b u t e this m u t a t i o n to t h e d i s c o v e r y of h i t h e r t o u n k n o w n objects. P r o d u c t i o n . Similarly.k n o w l e d g e in its positivity c h a n g e s its n a t u r e a n d its f o r m .a n d a b o v e all i n a d e q u a t e . if G r i m m a n d B o p p a t t e m p t e d t o define t h e l a w s o f v o w e l g r a d a t i o n o r c o n s o n a n t m u t a t i o n . Finally. b r i n g i n g i n t o v i e w o n t h e o n e h a n d n e w k n o w a b l e objects (such a s capital) a n d p r e s c r i b i n g . o n t h e o t h e r . a t t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l level.we m u s t n o t seek to c o n s t r u e these as objects t h a t i m p o s e d themselves f r o m t h e outside. l a n g u a g e . because t h e y freed themselves f r o m their prehistories t h r o u g h a sort o f auto-analysis achieved b y reason itself. if. w h i c h defines objects n o t h i t h e r t o a p p a r e n t (such as families of l a n g u a g e s w h o s e g r a m m a t i c a l systems a r e a n a l o g o u s ) a n d prescribes m e t h o d s t h a t h a d n o t p r e v i o u s l y b e e n e m p l o y e d (analysis o f t h e rules g o v e r n i n g t h e modifications o f c o n s o n a n t s a n d v o w e l s ) .in s h o r t . a s t h o u g h b y their o w n w e i g h t a n d as a result of s o m e a u t o n o m o u s pressure. research w a s directed t o w a r d s t h e internal organic s t r u c t u r e o f living b e i n g s . it is because D i s c o u r s e as a m o d e of k n o w l e d g e h a d b e e n replaced b y L a n g u a g e . as a f u n d a m e n t a l f o r m of k n o w l e d g e . it is because Life. a n d i f t h e ideal a n d p r i m i t i v e b a r t e r situation w a s n o l o n g e r e m p l o y e d a s a m e a n s o f a n a l y s i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f v a l u e . selected b e t t e r m o d e l s o f f o r m a l i z a t i o n .

T h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f these f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e s i s doubtless b u r i e d d e e p d o w n i n t h e dense archaeological layers: o n e can. w e a r e left w i t h t h e l a b o u r c o n t r i b u t e d b y t h e w o r k e r s . It is h e r e that R i c a r d o ' s analysis finds its place a n d t h e reason for its decisive i m p o r t a n c e . in return. t h e w o r k e r ' s e n e r g y . o r subjected t o a n essential relativity. N o w . discern s o m e signs o f t h e m i n t h e w o r k s o f R i c a r d o . h o w c o u l d this i d e n t i t y b e justified? On w h a t c o u l d it be based. O n t h e o n e h a n d . T h e y a r e f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e s o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h sustain i n their flawless u n i t y t h e s e c o n d a r y a n d d e r i v e d c o r r e l a t i o n o f n e w sciences a n d t e c h n i q u e s w i t h u n p r e c e d e n t e d objects. i t m a d e i t possible t o achieve e q u i v a l e n c e i n t h e e x c h a n g e o f objects o f n e e d w h o s e standardization w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d t o c h a n g e . a n d singles o u t in a radical fashion. LIFE. a n d t i m e t h a t are b o u g h t a n d sold. if n o t on a certain assimilation accepted as t a k i n g place i n t h e m o r e t h a n i l l u m i n e d s h a d o w l y i n g b e t w e e n l a b o u r a s p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y a n d l a b o u r a s a c o m m o d i t y t h a t can b e b o u g h t a n d sold? In t h e s e c o n d sense. accepted o r d e m a n d e d b y t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . a n d o f B o p p . B u t i t c o u l d a s s u m e such a r o l e o n l y at t h e price of o n e c o n d i t i o n : it w a s necessary to suppose t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r indispensable for t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a thing was equal to the quantity of labour that the thing. It is n o t t h e f i r s t t o g i v e l a b o u r a n i m p o r t a n t place i n t h e e c o n o m i c process. could b u y i n t h e process o f e x c h a n g e . LANGUAGE t h a t h a d i g n o r e d t h e m for t o o l o n g . 253 . M e n ' s activity a n d t h e v a l u e o f things w e r e seen a s c o m m u n i c a t i n g i n t h e cransparent e l e m e n t of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . o w i n g t o n e w m e t h o d s . b u t i t explodes t h e u n i t y of t h a t n o t i o n .LABOUR. II RICARDO I n A d a m S m i t h ' s analysis. t h r o u g h t h e progress o f sciences a d v a n c i n g t o w a r d s their o w n rationality. l a b o u r c a n n o t be used as a c o n s t a n t m e a s u r e . t h e n . i n t h e case o f philology. for the f i r s t t i m e . since it 'is subject to as m a n y fluctuations as t h e c o m m o d i t i e s c o m p a r e d w i t h i t ' [ i ] . and all l a b o u r c o u l d represent a certain q u a n t i t y of m e r c h a n d i s e . this confusion o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d e n c e a c c o r d e d to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : all m e r c h a n d i s e r e p r e s e n t e d a certain l a b o u r . l a b o u r o w e d its p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n t o t h e p o w e r it w a s r e c o g n i z e d to possess to establish a c o n s t a n t m e a s u r e b e t w e e n t h e values o f t h i n g s . n o r m u s t w e see t h e m a s c o n c e p t s g r a d u a l l y built u p . toil. I n A d a m S m i t h . n e v e r t h e less. a n d t h e activity t h a t i s a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s . o f C u v i e r . i n t h e case o f b i o l o g y . a n d r e m u n e r a t e d b y w a g e s . i n t h e case o f e c o n o m i c s .

n o t o n l y because t h e t h i n g i s representable i n units o f w o r k . o r i f their v a l u e is at least p r o p o r t i o n a t e to t h a t l a b o u r . p r o d u c e s c o m m o d i t i e s . as in t h e Classical a g e . a n d o f t h e capacity t h a t c o m m o d i t i e s h a v e o f r e p r e s e n t i n g o n e a n o t h e r . l a b o u r c a n m e a s u r e t h e equivalence o f m e r c h a n d i s e w h i c h takes p a r t i n t h e circulation o f exchanges: I n t h e early stages o f society. w h a t e v e r i t m a y b e . b u t first a n d f o r e m o s t because l a b o u r as a p r o d u c i n g activity is ' t h e source of all v a l u e ' . As t h e y circulate t h r o u g h t h e m a r k e t . can be used as a u n i t c o m m o n t o all o t h e r m e r c h a n d i s e ( i n c l u d i n g e v e n t h e c o m m o d i t i e s necessary t o subsistence t h e m s e l v e s ) . for t h e s e c o n d . V a l u e has ceased to be a sign. has its o r i g i n i n l a b o u r . o r t h e r u l e w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s h o w m u c h o f o n e s h o u l d b e g i v e n i n e x c h a n g e for a n o t h e r . V a l u e c a n no l o n g e r be defined. t r a n s p o r t s m e r c h a n d i s e . W h e r e a s in Classical t h o u g h t t r a d e a n d e x c h a n g e serve as an indispensable basis for t h e analysis of w e a l t h (and this is still t r u e of S m i t h ' s analysis. A n d t h e best p r o o f o f this i s t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h i n g s increases w i t h t h e q u a n t i t y o f labour that must be devoted to t h e m if we wish to produce t h e m . B u t t h e difference b e t w e e n S m i t h a n d R i c a r d o i s t h i s : for t h e first. on t h e basis of a total s y s t e m of equivalences. If t h i n g s are w o r t h a s m u c h a s t h e l a b o u r d e v o t e d t o t h e m . values still h a v e a p o w e r o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . m a n u f a c t u r e s objects. w h i l e t h e y a r e b e i n g e x c h a n g e d for o n e a n o t h e r . 254 . it is n o t t h a t l a b o u r is a fixed a n d c o n s t a n t v a l u e e x c h a n g e a b l e as such in all places a n d a11 t i m e s . like all o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s . t h e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r m a k e s i t possible t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l u e o f a t h i n g . after R i c a r d o . it has b e c o m e a p r o d u c t . t h e possibility o f e x c h a n g e i s based u p o n l a b o u r . t h e e x c h a n g e a b l e v a l u e o f these c o m m o d i ties. a n d t h u s f o r m s e x c h a n g e a b l e values w h i c h d i d n o t exist before i t a n d w o u l d n e v e r h a v e arisen w i t h o u t it. b u t it does n o t c h a n g e w i t h t h e increase o r decrease o f t h e w a g e s for w h i c h l a b o u r . a n d h e n c e f o r t h t h e t h e o r y o f p r o d u c t i o n m u s t a l w a y s p r e c e d e t h a t o f circulation. w e h a v e t h e l a b o u r t h a t extracts metals. It is t r u e t h a t . l a b o u r . a n d t h a t c a n n o t . it is because a n y v a l u e . i n c o n s e q u e n c e . for R i c a r d o as for S m i t h .f r o m t h e l a b o u r t h a t i s m o r e p r i m i t i v e a n d m o r e radical t h a n all r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . is e x c h a n g e d [3]. because it is analysable i n t o days of subsistence. b e defined b y e x c h a n g e . d e p e n d s a l m o s t exclusively o n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r e x p e n d e d o n each [2].THB ORDER OF THINGS o n t h e o t h e r . B u t this p o w e r i s d r a w n f r o m e l s e w h e r e . in w h i c h t h e division o f l a b o u r i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e criteria o f b a r t e r ) .

as we shall see. T h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s n o t i g n o r a n t . w h i c h is t h a t of p r o d u c t i o n . b y dissociating t h e c r e a t i o n o f v a l u e f r o m its representativity. LANGUAGE H e n c e t h r e e consequences t o b e b o r n e i n m i n d . or t r a n s p o r t i n g ) of a t h i n g . R i c a r d o conceives of t h e e v o l u t i o n a h e a d o n l y as a s l o w i n g d o w n a n d . e v e n if in fact. o r d i m i n i s h e d . h o m o g e n e o u s series.of t h e p l a y of e c o n o m i c d e t e r minations: it had provided explanations of h o w m o n e y could flow into a c o u n t r y o r o u t o f it.LABOUR. a n d t h e a m o u n t h e has invested i n t h e fitting o u t of his f a c t o r y . All l a b o u r gives a result w h i c h . T h e f i r s t i s t h e e s t a b lishing of a causal series w h i c h is radically n e w in its f o r m . n o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t p e r m i t its analysis. since i t w a s n e v e r c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n y t h i n g b u t t h e reciprocal p o w e r s o f t h a t w h i c h w a s analysing a n d t h a t w h i c h w a s analysed. instead o f b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a table a n d t h e r e b y c o n s t i t u t i n g a s y s t e m of e q u i v a lences. a total suspension of h i s t o r y . It w a s a l w a y s a q u e s t i o n of a circular a n d surface causality. etc. by its v e r y existence. in certain cases it w i l l be costly. d e p e n d s u p o n t h e f o r m s o f p r o d u c t i o n : p r o d u c t i o n w i l l b e m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f division o f l a b o u r . h a v i n g b e e n displaced i n its relation t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . B u t since this cost (wages. is a p p l i e d to a further l a b o u r w h o s e cost it defines. T h e q u a n t i t y o f l a b o u r necessary for t h e m a n u f a c t u r e (or h a r v e s t i n g . in o n e f o r m or a n o t h e r . t h e q u a n t i t y a n d n a t u r e o f t h e tools used. b u t all these m o v e m e n t s w e r e defined o n t h e basis of a t a b u l a t e d space in w h i c h all values w e r e able to represent o n e a n o t h e r . at m o s t . is o r g a n i z e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a causality peculiar t o itself. A t t h e level o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f possibility p e r t a i n i n g t o t h o u g h t . prices increased w h e n t h e r e p r e s e n t i n g elements increased faster than the elements represented. It i n t r o d u c e s . l a b o u r . h o w p r o d u c t i o n g r e w . b u t 255 . in o t h e r s it will be less so [ 4 ] . profits) is in e v e r y case d e t e r m i n e d b y l a b o u r a l r e a d y a c c o m p l i s h e d a n d applied t o this n e w p r o d u c t i o n . production diminished w h e n the instrum e n t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d i m i n i s h e d i n relation t o t h e t h i n g s t o b e r e p r e sented. etc. F r o m R i c a r d o o n . a n d d e t e r m i n i n g its v a l u e . LIFE. t h e possibility of a c o n t i n u o u s historical t i m e . t h e mass o f capital t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r has a t his disposal. w e see t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a g r e a t linear. ' W e a l t h ' . capital a n d i n c o m e . T h i s a c c u m u l a t i o n i n series b r e a k s for t h e f i r s t t i m e w i t h t h e reciprocal d e t e r m i n a t i o n s t h a t w e r e t h e sole active factors in t h e Classical analysis of w e a l t h .far f r o m it . stagnated. m a d e possible t h e articulation o f e c o n o m i c s u p o n h i s t o r y . h o w prices rose o r fell. is o r g a n i z e d a n d a c c u m u l a t e d in a t e m p o r a l s e q u e n c e : all v a l u e is d e t e r m i n e d . a n d i n stalled in a r e g i o n w h e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has no p o w e r . a n d this n e w l a b o u r participates i n t u r n i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a v a l u e . R i c a r d o .

a n d b r o u g h t u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n . m a d e i t possible t o o v e r c o m e this scarcity. c o n s e q u e n c e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n o t i o n of scarcity. b u t t h e r e is w e a l t h because t h e l a n d p r o d u c e s . scarcity w a s defined in relation to n e e d : i t w a s a c c e p t e d t h a t scarcity b e c a m e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . n e w areas o f forest h a d t o b e felled. a n d less i m m e d i a t e l y fruitful l a b o u r s . w h e a t i s scarce. lacking t h e m e a n s o f subsistence. d i a m o n d s are scarce. objects t h a t a r e n o t i m m e d i a t e l y c o n s u m e d a n d t h a t can t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t o t h e r s i n t h e processes o f e x c h a n g e a n d t h e circulation o f w e a l t h . E v e n b e f o r e e c o n o m i c reflection w a s l i n k e d t o t h e h i s t o r y o f events o r societies i n a n explicit discourse. inversely.t h a t is. scarcity c o m e s a b o u t because m e n r e p r e s e n t t o t h e m s e l v e s objects t h a t t h e y d o n o t h a v e . even prior to that. F o r Classical analysis. e c o n o m i c activity . T h e e c o n o m i s t s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S o m e . i n fact.THE ORDER OF THINGS according to the conditions of production that have b r o u g h t it into being. l a b o u r . in s o m e a b u n d a n c e .w h e t h e r P h y s i o c r a t s o r n o t . a n d m a n y o t h e r s w o u l d h a v e died h a d t h e y n o t b e g u n t o w o r k t h e land. t h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f e c o n o m i c s h a d b e e n p e n e t r a t e d . A t e v e r y m o m e n t o f its h i s t o r y . A n d a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n increased. died. t h e n . W h a t m a k e s e c o n o m i c s possible. w h a t is p r i m a r y is n o t n e e d a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n e e d in m e n ' s m i n d s . to the degree that m e n multiply. o f t h e m e n c u l t i v a t i n g it. h u m a n i t y is henceforth labouring under the threat of death: any population t h a t c a n n o t find n e w resources i s d o o m e d t o e x t i n c t i o n . so. m o r e distant. I n Classical t h o u g h t . it is m e r e l y a f u n d a m e n t a l insufficiency. b y historicity. o r w a s displaced. n o less decisive. o r l a b o u r applied t o t h e land. 256 . l a b o u r m u s t g r o w i n intensity a n d e m p l o y all possible m e a n s t o m a k e itself m o r e prolific. the conditions in question are determined by the quantities o f l a b o u r applied i n p r o d u c i n g t h e m . Since t h e p r o s p e c t o f d e a t h b e c o m e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y m o r e fearful a s t h e necessary m e a n s o f subsistence b e c o m e m o r e difficult o f access. a s needs increased o r t o o k o n n e w f o r m s . for those w h o a r e h u n g r y .t h o u g h t t h a t land. m o r e difficult. b u t t o t h e t i m e o f successive p r o d u c t i o n s . to its g r o w i n g avarice. R i c a r d o inverts t h e t e r m s o f this analysis: t h e a p p a r e n t g e n e r o s i t y o f t h e l a n d i s d u e . T h e s e c o n d . In fact.d i d n o t make its a p p e a r a n c e i n w o r l d h i s t o r y until m e n b e c a m e t o o n u m e r o u s t o b e able t o subsist o n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s fruits o f t h e land. cleared. a t least i n p a r t : this w a s because t h e l a n d h a d t h e m a r v e l l o u s p r o p e r t y o f b e i n g able t o a c c o u n t for far m o r e needs t h a n those. inversely. and. a n d p r o b a b l y for a l o n g w h i l e . a n d . T h e m o d e o f b e i n g o f e c o n o m i c s is no l o n g e r l i n k e d to a s i m u l t a n e o u s space of differences a n d identities. b u t for t h e rich w h o m a k e u p society. a n d necessary. so they undertake m o r e n u m e r o u s .

A n d t h u s e c o n o m i c s refers u s t o t h a t o r d e r o f s o m e w h a t a m b i g u o u s considerations w h i c h m a y b e t e r m e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l : i t i s related. as M a l t h u s s h o w e d i n t h e s a m e p e r i o d a s R i c a r d o . e c o n o m i c s has rested. a n d a n e w cpistemological a r r a n g e m e n t will h a v e replaced it. the only means of o v e r c o m i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l insufficiency o f n a t u r e a n d o f t r i u m p h i n g for a n instant o v e r d e a t h . is b e c o m i n g an object of p s y c h o l o g y . T h e p o s i t i v i t y o f e c o n o m i c s i s situated i n t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l h o l l o w .t h a t sphere w h i c h . u p o n a n a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t a t t e m p t s t o assign c o n c r e t e f o r m s t o finitude. m a n risks his life. W h a t will h a v e h a p p e n e d . similarly. 257 . since he analysed v a l u e in t e r m s of n e e d . since K a n t . f r o m R i c a r d o o n w a r d s . t h e r e i g n of t h e episteme t h a t based k n o w l e d g e u p o n t h e o r d e r i n g o f representations will h a v e b e e n b r o k e n .c e n t u r y e c o n o m i c s will be referred to an a n t h r o p o l o g y as to a discourse on m a n ' s n a t u r a l finitude. and in the very hardship of that labour. o r Graslin. E i g h t e e n t h . B y this v e r y fact. tends a l w a y s t o increase unless p r e v e n t e d by s o m e r e m e d y or c o n s t r a i n t . lastly. a n d t h e objects capable o f satisfying t h e m . h e i s t h e h u m a n b e i n g w h o spends. o r F o r t b o n n a i s . save for o n e v e r y small p a r t . It is no l o n g e r in t h e i n t e r p l a y of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t e c o n o m i c s finds its principle. t h o u g h n o t w i t h o u t referring t h e m t o o n e a n o t h e r . i s t h a t t h e c o n f i g u r a tion t h a t m a d e Q u e s n a y a n d C o n d i l l a c s i m u l t a n e o u s l y possible will h a v e been left b e h i n d . w h i c h . i t designates in labour. i n fact. a n a r r a n g e m e n t that distinguishes. in fact. w a s ' a l r e a d y ' a ' p s y c h o l o g i s t ' . n i n e t e e n t h . w e a r s o u t . Homo oeconomicus is n o t t h e h u m a n b e i n g w h o represents his o w n needs t o himself. LIFE. T h e belief will t h e n arise t h a t C o n d i l l a c . in a m o r e or less explicit fashion. it will be believed t h a t t h e Physiocrats w e r e t h e first ancestors o f a n e c o n o m i c s w h i c h . He is a finite b e i n g : a n d j u s t as. n e e d a n d desire w i t h d r a w t o w a r d s t h e s u b j e c t i v e sphere . in t h e s a m e p e r i o d . b a r r e n . It is precisely h e r e t h a t in t h e s e c o n d h a l f of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e marginalists will seek t h e n o t i o n o f utility. a n d wastes his life i n e v a d i n g t h e i m m i n e n c e of d e a t h .LABOUR. to t h e biological p r o p e r t i e s of a h u m a n species.c e n t u r y e c o n o m i c s s t o o d in relation to a mathesis as to a general science of all possible o r d e r s . b u t near t h a t perilous r e g i o n w h e r e life is in c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h d e a t h . LANGUAGE is a p e r p e t u a l a n d f u n d a m e n t a l situation of scarcity: c o n f r o n t e d by a n a t u r e t h a t in itself is inert a n d . t h e q u e s t i o n o f finitude has b e c o m e m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l t h a n t h e analysis o f representations (the latter n o w b e i n g necessarily a d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r ) . analysed v a l u e i n t e r m s o f p r o d u c t i o n costs. it is related also to t h e situation o f t h o s e living beings t h a t r u n t h e risk o f n o t f i n d i n g i n their n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t e n o u g h t o ensure their existence. since R i c a r d o .

exists precisely in so far as agricultural l a b o u r b e c o m e s increasingly h a r d a n d less a n d less ' r e n t a b l e ' . shelter. A n d finally. t h e last c o n s e q u e n c e c o n c e r n s t h e e v o l u t i o n o f e c o n o m i c s . t h e costs o f p r o d u c t i o n increase. s a w as t h e sign of a fruitfulness p r o p e r to land. As o n e is forced by t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d g r o w t h of t h e p o p u l a t i o n to clear a n d cultivate less fertile tracts of land.i n d e e d necessary . u p t o a n d i n c l u d i n g A d a m S m i t h h i m s e l f [5]. a n d g r o u n d rents w i t h t h e m .THE ORDER OF THINGS b e t w e e n a p s y c h o l o g y o f needs r e p r e s e n t e d a n d a n a n t h r o p o l o g y o f n a t u r a l finitude. It w o u l d c o n t i n u e to decrease indefinitely. b u t o f t h e avarice o f t h e land. t h e l a b o u r force will n o l o n g e r b e able t o g r o w . o r because a g r e a t e r surface m u s t b e s o w n . N o w . in fact. i n fact. n o t o f a prolific n a t u r e . t h e cost o f p r o d u c t i o n i s t h u s m u c h h i g h e r for these later harvests t h a n i t w a s for t h e first o n e s . its essential avarice. U n d e r this pressure.t h a t t h e n o m i n a l w a g e of t h e l a b o u r e r s will also b e g i n to rise. t h e profit o f t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r s will decrease i n exactly t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n a s g r o u n d r e n t increases. these c o m m o d i t i e s . Finally. T h e ' r e n t o f l a n d ' . w h i c h all e c o n o m i s t s . w h i c h w e r e o b t a i n e d originally f r o m rich a n d fertile lands. w e r e it n o t t h a t t h e r e is a l i m i t to t h e process: after a certain p o i n t . for lack o f a d d i t i o n a l w a g e s . it is v e r y possible . until it disa p p e a r e d a l t o g e t h e r . for t h e s a m e reason. t h o u g h s o difficult t o p r o d u c e . progressively p o o r e r l a n d i s b r o u g h t u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n . their real w a g e can n e v e r rise i n p r a c t i c e a b o v e t h e s u m t h a t i s indispensable t o p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h c l o t h i n g . this avarice b e c o m e s m o r e p e r c e p t i b l e e v e r y d a y : t h e p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s therefore t h e cost o f p r o d u c t i o n o f w h e a t g r o w n o n t h e m o s t b a r r e n o f t h e available l a n d t h a t w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e price o f w h e a t i n g e n e r a l . T h i s leads t o a n increased profit for t h e easily cultivable lands. a n d i n a n e v e r m o r e insistent m a n n e r . o r because m o r e fertilizer i s n e e d e d . a n d a s t h e l a b o u r e r s ' r e m u n e r a t i o n r e m a i n s fixed. a n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n will 258 . industrial profits will be so l o w t h a t it will b e c o m e impossible t o p r o v i d e w o r k for n e w w o r k e r s . N o w . t h e prices o f agricultural p r o d u c t s increase. b u t . R i c a r d o s h o w s t h a t we s h o u l d n o t i n t e r p r e t as a sign of n a t u r e ' s fruitfulness t h a t w h i c h indicates. w h i c h will enable t h e o w n e r s o f those lands t o lease t h e m o u t in r e t u r n for considerable rents. so t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f these n e w units o f w h e a t requires m o r e a n d m o r e l a b o u r : either because t h e l a n d m u s t b e p l o u g h e d m o r e d e e p l y . a n d food. G r o u n d r e n t is t h e effect. a r e n o less indispensable t h a n t h e o t h e r s if o n e does n o t w i s h a certain p o r t i o n of h u m a n i t y t o die o f h u n g e r . i n o r d e r t o c o v e r t h e m i n i m u m costs o f their subsistence. increases. e v e n t h o u g h i t m a y h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d w i t h t w o o r t h r e e t i m e s less l a b o u r .

o f c o u r s e . W e see w h a t roles H i s t o r y a n d a n t h r o p o l o g y are p l a y i n g in relation to o n e a n o t h e r . a n d w i t h increasing slowness. t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d h i s t o r y o f scarcity. LIFE. a n d t o b r i n g i t closer. w e p e r c e i v e t h a t his a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l situation n e v e r ceases its p r o g r e s s i v e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f his H i s t o r y . T h e m o r e m a n makes himself at h o m e in the heart of the world. its s t o n y i m m o b i l i t y . i t c a n d o n o t h i n g b u t s t o p . H i s t o r y does n o t a l l o w m a n to escape f r o m his initial l i m i t a t i o n s e x c e p t i n a p p e a r a n c e . t o w a r d s a state of stability t h a t justifies. g r o u n d r e n t w i l l r e a c h a ceiling a n d will cease to e x e r t its c u s t o m a r y pressure u p o n industrial profits. a t least i n secret. B u t this can o c c u r i n t w o different w a y s : either i t can m o v e g r a d u a l l y . a c c u m u l a t i o n . t h e w h o l e d e v e l o p m e n t o f civilizations. in fact. M a n ' s finitude will h a v e been defined . Classical t h o u g h t . u l t i m a t e l y .c h a n g i n g f u t u r e . e v e r . t h a t is. the f u r t h e r h e a d v a n c e s i n his possession o f n a t u r e . LANGUAGE r e m a i n c o n s t a n t . o r i t m a y attain a p o i n t o f reversal a t w h i c h i t b e c o m e s 259 . b u t e n t e r i n g i n t o relations w i t h n e w elements. w h a t i t has n e v e r really ceased t o b e f r o m t h e start. a n d a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r . w i t h each e l e m e n t losing s o m e o f its relative surface. its petrification. a n d t h e closer h e c o m e s t o his o w n d e a t h . n e v e r ceases t o r e n d e r i t m o r e p e r i l o u s . T h e tide o f H i s t o r y w i l l at last b e c o m e slack. H i s t o r y exists (that is. a s i t w e r e . p r o d u c t i o n . On the other hand. w h a t it has a l w a y s b e e n a d v a n c i n g t o w a r d s .o n c e a n d for all. t h e m o r e s t r o n g l y also does h e feel t h e pressure o f his finitude. a n d i f w e t a k e t h e w o r d l i m i t a t i o n i n its superficial sense. t o its o w n impossibility. i n w h i c h case i t r e m a i n e d t h e s a m e table. it is the cumulative time of population and p r o d u c t i o n . e x c h a n g e d . c o n c e i v e d o f t h e e c o n o m y a s possessing a n ever o p e n . b u t t h a t n e v e r ceases t o a c c o m p a n y . l a b o u r . i t will n o l o n g e r b e necessary t o clear a n d c u l t i v a t e fresh tracts o f land e v e n m o r e infertile t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s o n e s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y . for an indefinite t i m e .LABOUR. a n d . c o u l d v e r y w e l l b e e n l a r g e d . w h i c h w i l l t h e n b e c o m e stabilized. it is t h e historicity i n t r o d u c e d i n t o e c o n o m i c s by R i c a r d o t h a t m a k e s i t possible t o c o n c e i v e o f this i m m o b i l i z a t i o n o f H i s t o r y . b u t t h e t y p e o f m o d i f i c a t i o n i n q u e s tion w a s . in t h e indefiniteness of time. q u i v e r for a n instant u p o n its axis. its p r o g r e s s i v e inertia. a n d g r o w t h of real costs) o n l y in so far as m a n as a n a t u r a l b e i n g is finite: a finitude t h a t is p r o l o n g e d far b e y o n d t h e o r i g i n a l limits o f t h e species a n d its i m m e d i a t e b o d i l y n e e d s . b u t i f w e consider t h e f u n d a m e n t a l f i n i t u d e o f m a n . t h a t m a k e s i t possible from the nineteenth century to conceive of the impoverishment of H i s t o r y . T h e m o m e n t H i s t o r y reaches s u c h b o u n d a r i e s . a n d i m m o b i l i z e itself forever. spatial: t h e table t h a t w e a l t h w a s s u p p o s e d to f o r m as i t w a s displayed.

b u t its aspect is t h a t of a positive f o r m .also increase. t h e costs of p r o d u c t i o n . subjected t o t h e great erosion o f H i s t o r y . w i t h t i m e . As this scarcity b e c o m e s daily m o r e c o n s t r i c t i n g . b y l o n g . b u t . h e will h a v e e x h a u s t e d all t h e possible e l e m e n t s t h a t t e n d t o b l u r a n d disguise b e n e a t h t h e p r o m i s e s o f t i m e his a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l n a k e d n e s s . S o t h a t . surface to surface. H i s t o r y . t h a t a u g m e n t s t h e pressures o f n e e d . A n y a d d i t i o n a l agricultural l a b o u r w o u l d b e useless.THE ORDER OF THINGS fixed o n l y in so far as it suppresses w h a t it h a d a l w a y s a n d c o n t i n u o u s l y been beforehand. t h e quantities of l a b o u r necessary to p r o d u c e t h e s a m e object . a n d d r i v e n b y t h e s a m e forces. face to face w i t h himself. F r o m t h e n o n . i t i s situated w i t h i n h u m a n finitude. s o l a b o u r b e c o m e s m o r e intense. I n t h e second solution (represented b y M a r x ) . a t t h e s a m e t i m e . a l t h o u g h t h e y receive n o m o r e t h a n w h a t is indispensable to t h e m to subsist. in this case. i t will h a v e n o m o r e m a r g i n p e r m i t t i n g it to escape f r o m itself. Life a n d d e a t h will fit exactly o n e against t h e o t h e r . H i s t o r y will h a v e led m a n ' s finitude t o t h a t b o u n d a r y . t r u e . t h e relation o f H i s t o r y t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l finitude is c o n s t r u e d in t h e o p p o s i t e direction. it enables m a n to o v e r c o m e t h e scarcity to w h i c h he is d o o m e d . In t h e first solution (represented by R i c a r d o ' s ' p e s s i m i s m ' ) . a n d n o n e w lands t o o p e n u p for future m e n . b o t h i m m o b i l i z e d a n d a s i t w e r e reinforced b y their reciprocal a n t a g o n i s m . In w h i c h case scarcity will limit itself (by a process of d e m o g r a p h i c stabilization) a n d l a b o u r will adjust itself exactly to needs (by a d e t e r m i n e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h ) . o b l i g i n g m e n c o n stantly t o w o r k a n d t o p r o d u c e m o r e a n d m o r e . a p p e a r i n g in relief.p o i n t a t w h i c h i t will a p p e a r a t last i n its p u r e f o r m . it will h a v e no m o r e effort to m a k e to p r o v i d e a future for itself. P r o d u c t i o n can n o l o n g e r m a k e g o o d t h e deficit. t h a t causes w a n t t o increase. H i s t o r y functions w i t h r e g a r d to a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s as a sort of vast c o m p e n s a t i n g m e c h a n i s m . H i s t o r y will h a v e led m a n t o t h e t r u t h t h a t b r i n g s h i m t o a halt. w h i l e ceaselessly e l u d i n g those w h o a c c o m p l i s h t h a t l a b o u r : these latter p r o d u c e 260 .t h a t is. in fact. p r o d u c t i o n increases i n absolute figures. m a n will g r a d u a l l y b e s t r i p p e d o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t m i g h t h i d e h i m f r o m his o w n eyes. plays a n e g a t i v e r o l e : it is H i s t o r y itself. t h e p r o d u c t o f l a b o u r a c c u m u l a t e s . So t h a t t h e r e m u s t inevitably c o m e a time w h e n labour is no longer supported by the c o m m o d i t y i t p r o d u c e s (the latter costing n o m o r e t h a n t h e food o f t h e l a b o u r e r p r o d u c i n g i t ) . b u t inevitable a n d tyrannical p a t h s . finitude a n d p r o d u c t i o n will b e exactly s u p e r i m p o s e d t o f o r m a single figure. a n d s o m e t i m e s a little less. a n y excess p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d perish.

g o o d n e s s k n o w s . w i t h i n an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t w e l c o m e d it g l a d l y (since it w a s this a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t w a s i n fact m a k i n g r o o m for it) a n d t h a t it. satisfying f o r m for a t i m e (its o w n ) .t h e y a l o n e are able . H i s t o r y . B u t t h e alternatives offered b y R i c a r d o ' s 'pessimism' a n d M a r x ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o m i s e are p r o b a b l y o f little i m p o r t a n c e . w h a t n e e d . W h a t o t h e r s a t t r i b u t e t o n a t u r e o r t o t h e s p o n t a n e o u s o r d e r o f things. h a d n o i n t e n t i o n o f d i s t u r b i n g a n d . o f H i s t o r y a s i t has d e v e l o p e d u p t o t h e p r e s e n t : t h e n a l o n e w i l l a t i m e b e g i n w h i c h will h a v e n e i t h e r t h e s a m e f o r m . i n r e t u r n . 261 . b y dispossessing m a n o f his l a b o u r . these m e n are able to r e c o g n i z e as t h e result of a h i s t o r y a n d t h e alienation of a finitude t h a t d o e s n o t h a v e this f o r m . n o r t h e s a m e m o d e o f passing. I n this w a y t h e n u m b e r o f those m a i n t a i n e d b y H i s t o r y a t t h e l i m i t o f their c o n d i t i o n s o f existence ceaselessly g r o w s .LABOUR. a n d w h y s o m e o p t e d for t h e first t y p e o f analysis a n d o t h e r s for t h e second. A t t h e deepest level o f W e s t e r n k n o w l e d g e . H i s t o r y fills t h e v o i d p r o d u c e d b y a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l finitude a n d expressed in a p e r p e t u a l scarcity. causes t h e positive f o r m o f his finitude to s p r i n g i n t o r e l i e f . o n t h e level o f o p i n i o n . F o r R i c a r d o . all cause t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t t o s h r i n k . a s i t w e r e . as a full.h i s material t r u t h is finally liberated. a c c o r d i n g to t h e M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .to r e .a p p r e h e n d this t r u t h of t h e h u m a n essence a n d so restore it. M a r x i s m i n t r o d u c e d n o real d i s c o n t i n u i t y . T h r u s t b a c k b y p o v e r t y t o t h e v e r y b r i n k o f d e a t h . it f o u n d its place w i t h o u t difficulty. quiet. S u c h a s y s t e m o f o p t i o n s represents n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e t w o possible w a y s o f e x a m i n ing t h e relations o f a n t h r o p o l o g y a n d H i s t o r y a s t h e y are established b y e c o n o m i c s t h r o u g h t h e n o t i o n s o f scarcity a n d l a b o u r . a n d t h u s p r o v i d e capital w i t h t h e possibility o f b u y i n g further l a b o u r . until t h e m o m e n t w h e n a p o i n t of definitive stabilization is a t t a i n e d . l o w e r i n g w a g e s a n d increasing u n e m p l o y m e n t . h o w such real choices w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d . those c o n d i t i o n s b e c o m e increasingly m o r e p r e c a r i o u s until t h e y a p p r o a c h t h e p o i n t w h e r e existence itself will b e impossible. B u t these are m e r e l y d e r i v e d differences w h i c h s t e m first a n d last f r o m a d o x o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t . a b o v e all. c o m fortable a n d . a n d l a b o u r are. B u t this can b e achieved o n l y b y t h e suppression. F o r this reason t h e y are able . h u n g e r . LANGUAGE infinitely m o r e t h a n t h e share o f v a l u e that r e t u r n s t o t h e m i n t h e f o r m o f w a g e s . o r a t least t h e reversal. T h e r e is certainly n o difficulty i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f capital. t h e excess o f p r o d u c t i o n . n o r t h e s a m e l a w s . n o p o w e r t o m o d i f y . n a k e d l y . a n d because o f this. t h e c o n s t a n t pressure o n w a g e s . a w h o l e class o f m e n e x p e r i e n c e . t h e g r o w t h o f enterprises a n d o f t h e i r capacities. LIFE.

t h e Utopia is c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e final decline o f t i m e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h its m o r n i n g : this i s because k n o w l e d g e i s n o l o n g e r c o n s t i t u t e d i n t h e f o r m o f a table b u t i n t h a t o f a series. M a r x i s m exists in n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t like a fish in w a t e r : that is. for e x a m p l e . W h a t is essential is t h a t at t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n e w arrangement o f k n o w l e d g e was constituted. t h e s l o w erosion o r v i o l e n t e r u p t i o n o f H i s t o r y will cause m a n ' s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t r u t h t o s p r i n g f o r t h i n its s t o n y i m m o b i l i t y . b u t t h e y a r e n o m o r e t h a n s t o r m s in a c h i l d r e n ' s p a d d l i n g p o o l . it is u n a b l e to b r e a t h e a n y w h e r e else. H i s t o r y . In t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . w e k n o w h o w i t b r o u g h t t h e Utopias o f u l t i m a t e d e v e l o p m e n t b a c k to life. v o i d . t h e s h a d o w o f t h e denouement c o m e s . a n d o f d e v e l o p m e n t : w h e n . will be h e l d w i t h i n an 262 J . since it rested entirely u p o n it.w h e t h e r i n t h e f o r m o f an indefinite deceleration or in t h a t of a radical reversal.THE ORDER OF THINGS e v e n o n e jot. as it w e r e .c e n t u r y t h o u g h t . a n d t h a t p r e s c r i b e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . both nineteenth-century bourgeois economics and nineteenthc e n t u r y r e v o l u t i o n a r y e c o n o m i c s . for historicity will h a v e b e e n s u p e r i m p o s e d e x a c t l y u p o n t h e h u m a n essence. a n d t h e suspension o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e all l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a figure t h a t defines o n e o f t h e m a j o r n e t w o r k s o f n i n e t e e n t h . w i t h all its resources of d r a m a . w i t h t h e p r o m i s e d e v e n i n g . n o t t h e r e w o r k i n g o f all H i s t o r y . a n d its i m m e d i a t e equivalences. calendar t i m e w i l l b e able t o c o n t i n u e . t h e Utopia f u n c t i o n e d r a t h e r as a fantasy of o r i g i n s : this w a s because t h e freshness o f t h e w o r l d h a d t o p r o v i d e t h e ideal u n f o l d i n g o f a table i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d b e p r e s e n t a n d i n its p r o p e r place. a n d t h e fulfilment o f a n e n d t o H i s t o r y . i n this p r i m a l light. b u t a n e v e n t t h a t a n y a r c h a e o l o g y can situate w i t h precision. t h a t conflict a n d t h a t project nevertheless h a v e a s their c o n d i t i o n o f possibility. a n t h r o p o l o g y . a n d t h o u g h this o p p o s i t i o n leads it to use t h e p r o j e c t of a radical reversal of H i s t o r y as a w e a p o n against t h e m . p e r c e p t i b l e presence o f w h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t . w i t h its adjacencies. w h i c h a c c o m m o d a t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h e historicity o f e c o n o m i c s (in relation t o t h e f o r m s o f p r o d u c t i o n ) . t h e finitude o f h u m a n existence (in relation t o scarcity a n d l a b o u r ) . o f sequential c o n n e c t i o n . its peculiar differences. T h e i r c o n t r o v e r s i e s m a y h a v e stirred u p a f e w w a v e s a n d caused a f e w surface ripples. t h e r o l e t h a t this arrangement played in reviving the w e a r y g o o d intentions of the h u m a n isms. alienation. T h o u g h i t i s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e ' b o u r g e o i s ' theories o f e c o n o m i c s . In Classical t h o u g h t . s h a r p . T h e f l o w o f d e v e l o p m e n t . a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e same m o d e . W e k n o w . b u t it w i l l b e . representations c o u l d n o t y e t h a v e b e e n separated f r o m t h e living. o b l i v i o n .

T h e fact r e m a i n s t h a t t h e y sent all these stable f o r m s u p i n f l a m e s . and the promise and terror of t h e g r e a t y e a r take u p o n c e m o r e . I t w a s N i e t z s c h e . T h e g r e a t d r e a m o f a n e n d t o H i s t o r y i s t h e Utopia o f causal systems o f t h o u g h t . t h a t t h e y used their c h a r r e d r e m a i n s t o d r a w s t r a n g e a n d p e r h a p s impossible faces. a s i t w e r e t e r m b y t e r m . j u s t a s S m i t h h a d used t h e c o n s t a n t v a l u e o f l a b o u r t o establish t h e n a t u r a l p r i c e o f things i n t h e p l a y o f equivalences. s o C u v i e r freed t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f characters f r o m its t a x o n o m i c f u n c t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e it. e v e n before w e w e r e b o r n . a n d time is therefore f i n i t e . w i t h its t r u t h . Ill CUVIER In his project for establishing a classification t h a t w o u l d be as faithful as a m e t h o d a n d as strict as a system. the imminence of the superman. T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t m a i n t a i n e d its f i r m g r i p on t h o u g h t for a l o n g while. j u s t a s t h e d r e a m o f t h e w o r l d ' s b e g i n n i n g s w a s t h e Utopia o f t h e classifying systems o f t h o u g h t . p r i o r t o all e x c h a n g e . and Nietzsche. w h o b u r n e d for us. i n a n y case.w e d o n o t y e t k n o w w h i c h . i n t o t h e g e n e r a l f o r m s o f p r o d u c t i o n . A n d j u s t as R i c a r d o freed l a b o u r f r o m its r o l e as a m e a s u r e in o r d e r to i n t r o d u c e it. h e t o o k u p a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l finitude o n c e again. i n t o t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i c structural plans o f living beings.c e n t u r y t h o u g h t a n d f o r m its a r c h a e o logical f r a m e w o r k . b u t i n o r d e r t o b e n d it r o u n d i n t o t h e infinity of t h e eternal r e t u r n . t h e elements t h a t are a r r a n g e d i n n i n e t e e n t h . at the end of the nineteenth century. b u t i n o r d e r to use it as a basis for t h e p r o d i g i o u s leap of t h e s u p e r m a n . LIFE. t h e i n t e r m i n g l e d p r o m i s e s o f t h e dialectic a n d anthropology. It is this displacement a n d this inversion t h a t Geoffroy 263 . its o w n i l l u m i n a t e d expression. he t o o k u p o n c e again t h e g r e a t c o n t i n u o u s chain o f H i s t o r y .LABOUR. Jussieu h a d discovered t h e rule of t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f characters. It is in v a i n t h a t t h e d e a t h of G o d . H e t o o k t h e e n d o f t i m e a n d t r a n s f o r m e d i t i n t o t h e d e a t h o f G o d a n d t h e odyssey o f t h e last m a n . i n t u r n .t h e r e v i v i n g f l a m e o f t h e last g r e a t fire o r a n indication o f t h e d a w n . p r i o r t o a n y classification t h a t m i g h t o c c u r . m a d e it g l o w i n t o brightness again for t h e last t i m e b y setting fire t o it. LANGUAGE a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l finitude w h i c h finds i n t h e m . a n d b y a light t h a t m a y b e either . Finitude. w e see t h e e m e r g e n c e o f w h a t m a y p e r h a p s b e t h e space o f c o n t e m p o r a r y t h o u g h t . T h e internal link b y w h i c h structures a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n o n e a n o t h e r i s n o l o n g e r situated solely a t t h e level o f f r e q u e n c y . i t b e c o m e s t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f all c o r r e l a t i o n . is posited in time.

H e rejects. . a n d t h a t are called organs. h e gives function p r o m i n ence o v e r t h e o r g a n . o r f r o m t h a t o f its m o r p h o l o g i c a l variables ( f o r m .a n d to a large e x t e n t . m a g n i t u d e . these functions are relatively f e w i n n u m b e r : respiration. w h i c h operates in t h e different classes by m e a n s o f o r g a n s s o v a r i o u s t h a t their structures offer n o p o i n t s i n c o m m o n [ 8 ] . it w a s like a d o u b l e . i f n o t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of t h e o r g a n . . T h e space of living beings p i v o t s a r o u n d this n o t i o n . digestion. t h e second t h e identifiable. individuals. It is this a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t C u v i e r o v e r t h r o w s : d o i n g a w a y w i t h t h e postulates o f b o t h their c o i n c i d e n c e a n d their i n d e p e n d e n c e . . arrangement. o r g a n s ) .t h e first expressing t h e utilizable.THE ORDER OF THINGS Saint-Hilaire expressed w h e n h e said: ' O r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e i s b e c o m i n g a n abstract b e i n g . t h a t gills a n d l u n g s m a y h a v e a few variables o f f o r m . T h i s m u s t h a v e b e e n especially striking as r e g a r d s respiration. t h e o r g a n w a s defined by b o t h its s t r u c t u r e a n d its f u n c t i o n . N o w .a n d subjects t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e o r g a n t o t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f function. o r n u m b e r i n c o m m o n : t h e y r e s e m b l e 264 . our attention must b e directed ' r a t h e r u p o n t h e functions themselves t h a n u p o n t h e o r g a n s ' [ 7 ] . after all. In Classical analysis. W h e n w e consider t h e o r g a n i n relation t o its function. capable of a s s u m i n g n u m e r o u s f o r m s ' [ 6 ] . at least its i n d e p e n d e n c e : it is an e r r o r to believe that 'everything is important in an important organ'. l o c o m o t i o n . b u t t h e y w e r e nevertheless i n d e p e n d e n t o f o n e a n o t h e r . a n d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t until t h e n h a d b e e n able t o m a k e itself visible t h r o u g h t h e g r i d o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y (genera. w e see. t h e e m e r g e n c e o f ' r e s e m b l a n c e s ' w h e r e t h e r e i s n o 'identical' e l e m e n t . for e x a m p l e ) . before defining o r g a n s b y their variables. First a n d f o r e m o s t are t h o s e distinct g r o u p s of e l e m e n t s t h a t t h e e y e is able to articulate as it scans t h e b o d i e s of individuals. . magnitude. species. and n u m b e r ) : the t w o modes of decipherment c o i n c i d e d e x a c t l y . e v e r y t h i n g t h a t h a d b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o v i e w . n o w takes o n a n e w m o d e o f b e i n g . a n d often o r g a n s r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r o n l y i n t h e effect t h e y p r o d u c e .e n t r y s y s t e m w h i c h c o u l d be read e x h a u s t i v e l y either f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e r o l e i t p l a y e d ( r e p r o d u c t i o n . S o t h e visible diversity o f structures n o l o n g e r e m e r g e s f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f a table o f variables. t h e r e f o r e . b u t f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f a f e w great functional units capable o f b e i n g realized a n d o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g their aims i n v a r i o u s w a y s : W h a t i s c o m m o n i n all animals t o each k i n d o f o r g a n c o n s i d e r e d r e duces itself t o v e r y little i n d e e d . circulation. It m a t t e r s little. s t r u c t u r e s . w e m u s t relate t h e m t o t h e functions t h e y p e r f o r m . a r e s e m b l a n c e t h a t i s c o n s t i t u t e d b y t h e transition o f t h e function i n t o e v i d e n t invisibility.

s o t h e a l i m e n t a r y canal. o f internal hierarchy.a n d t h e r e f o r e w h e t h e r t h e a n i m a l w i l l b e able t o g r a s p a n d tear u p its f o o d o r n o t . unassignable o r g a n . c o n v o l u t i o n s .p e r c e p t i b l e f o r m as an effect to be attained. s o m e t h i n g like biology b e c o m e s possible w h e n this u n i t y of level begins t o b r e a k u p . w h i c h serves for respiration in general.LABOUR. unreal. b u t t h e y w e r e used o n l y t o d e t e r m i n e functions. T r u e . t h e f o r m o f t h e teeth ( w h e t h e r t h e y a r e incisors o r m o l a r s ) varies w i t h t h e ' l e n g t h . Coexistence designates t h e fact t h a t an o r g a n or system of o r g a n s c a n n o t be p r e s e n t in a l i v i n g b e i n g unless a n o t h e r o r g a n or a n o t h e r system of o r g a n s . W i t h i n t h e digestive system. a n d this u n c o u p l i n g o f t h e level o f identities f r o m t h a t o f differences. a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e y will b e p r o v i d e d w i t h c l a w s o r hoofs . W h a t t o Classical eyes w e r e m e r e l y differences j u x t a p o s e d w i t h identities m u s t n o w b e o r d e r e d a n d c o n c e i v e d o n t h e basis of a functional h o m o g e n e i t y w h i c h is their h i d d e n f o u n d a t i o n . a n d dilations o f t h e a l i m e n t a r y s y s t e m ' . LANGUAGE o n e a n o t h e r because t h e y are t w o varieties o f t h a t n o n . function. T h u s t h e r e is a r e t u r n in t h e analysis of living beings to A r i s totelian analogies: t h e gills are t o respiration i n w a t e r w h a t t h e l u n g s are t o respiration i n air. T h e s e a r e lateral correlations t h a t establish relations of c o n c o m i t a n c e . as it w e r e . LIFE. defined a c c o r d i n g t o its n o n . t h e 'dissolving j u i c e s ' . y e t present in t h e a n i m a l k i n g d o m in its e n t i r e t y . a n d w h e n differences stand o u t against t h e b a c k g r o u n d of an i d e n t i t y t h a t is d e e p e r a n d . a n d of dependence w i t h r e g a r d to t h e level of organic structure. a n d react u p o n each o t h e r . based u p o n functional necessities. act. T h i s reference t o function. is also p r e s e n t : All t h e o r g a n s o f o n e a n d t h e s a m e a n i m a l f o r m a single system o f w h i c h all t h e parts h o l d t o g e t h e r . b e t w e e n elements o n t h e 265 . such relations w e r e perfectly well k n o w n i n t h e Classical a g e . g i v e rise t o n e w relations: those o f coexistence. a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e t e e t h will also diflfer[io].e x i s t e n t . W h e n t h e S a m e a n d t h e O t h e r b o t h b e l o n g to a single space. absent f r o m all describable species. F r o m C u v i e r o n w a r d . abstract. is to serve as a c o n s t a n t m i d d l e t e r m a n d to m a k e i t possible t o relate t o g e t h e r totalities o f e l e m e n t s w i t h o u t t h e slightest visible i d e n t i t y . t h e r e is natural history. t h e y w e r e n o t used t o establish t h e o r d e r o f things w i t h i n t h e space o f n a t u r e . of a particular n a t u r e a n d f o r m . t h e digestive o r g a n s c a n n o t v a r y i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f t h e l i m b s (and especially o f t h e f o r m o f t h e nails). o r again. a n d t h e r e can b e n o modifications i n a n y o n e o f t h e m t h a t will n o t b r i n g a b o u t a n a l o g o u s modifications in t h e m all [9]. m o r e serious t h a n t h a t u n i t y . a s a n e x a m p l e o f coexistence b e t w e e n different systems.

i n its v i v i p a r o u s f o r m . i t i s also d e t e r m i n e d . a table. o b e y s a plan. i t also r e q u i r e s t h e existence o f o r g a n s o f lactation. L a t e r still. N o w that w e a r e n o l o n g e r d e a l i n g w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t variables. a n d t h e possession o f lips a n d a f l e s h y t o n g u e . 266 . r e p r o d u c t i o n does n o t m e r e l y i m p l y t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h o s e o r g a n s i m m e d i a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h it. t h e f o r m e r o r g a n s w o u l d f o r m t h e p r i m a r y characters. c o m p o s e d n o t o f t h e e l e m e n t s . g o v e r n . T h e analysis o f o r g a n i s m s . c i r c u l a t i n g b l o o d a n d t h e bilocularity o f t h e h e a r t [ n ] .e m i n e n c e o f o n e function o v e r t h e o t h e r s implies t h a t t h e o r g a n i s m . i t prescribes t h e existence o f w a r m . t h e r e i s a hierarchy o f levels. t h e n it feels a n d acts'): he s u p p o s e d . t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n a n d circulation m u s t in t h e first p l a c e d e t e r m i n e a certain n u m b e r o f o r g a n s t o w h o s e a r r a n g e m e n t o t h e r s w o u l d find t h e m s e l v e s subject. in its visible a r r a n g e m e n t s . W e k n o w h o w Classical analysis h a d b e e n b r o u g h t t o t h e p o i n t o f s u s p e n d i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e d position o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o r g a n s i n o r d e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e a t t e n t i o n o n their t a x o n o m i c efficacity. b u t a hierarchical p y r a m i d o f i m p o r t a n c e .THE ORDER OF THINGS s a m e level: since it is necessary t h a t t h e a n i m a l s h o u l d feed itself. T h u s t h e a l i m e n t a r y canal of m a m m a l s is n o t m e r e l y in a relation of possible c o v a r i a t i o n w i t h t h e o r g a n s o f l o c o m o t i o n a n d p r e h e n s i o n . a n d o r d e r o n e a n o t h e r : n o t a p o l y g o n o f possible m o d i fications. I n d e e d . b y t h e m o d e o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . w h i c h m a y v a r y f r o m species t o species. a n d t h e possibility o f resemblances a n d distinctions b e t w e e n t h e m . b u t w i t h systems g o v e r n e d b y o n e a n o t h e r . A t first. Such a p l a n ensures t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e essential functions a n d b r i n g s u n d e r t h a t c o n t r o l . C u v i e r t h o u g h t t h a t t h e functions o f existence p r e c e d e d t h o s e o f relationships ('for t h e a n i m a l is first. a n d t h e latter the secondary ones[i2]. p r e s u p p o s e s . w e a r e c o n f r o n t e d o n c e again w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f reciprocal i m p o r t a n c e . w h e r e a s b l o o d a n d b l o o d vessels are f o u n d ' o n l y i n t h e h i g h e r a n i m a l s a n d p r o g r e s s i v e l y disappear i n t h o s e o f t h e l o w e r classes'[13]. T h i s p r e . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . b u t o f t h e functions. t h e r e f o r e . t h e n a t u r e o f its p r e y a n d its m o d e o f c a p t u r e c a n n o t r e m a i n i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e m a s t i c a t o r y a n d digestive systems (and vice v e r s a ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s . c o m p l e m e n t . because t h e latter exists in all animals (the p o l y p ' s e n t i r e b o d y i s n o m o r e t h a n a sort o f digestive a p p a r a t u s ) . T h e n he subordinated circulation to digestion. t h e r e f o r e . w h i c h . i t w a s t h e n e r v o u s system ( t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e presence o r absence o f a spinal c o r d ) t h a t s e e m e d t o h i m t h e d e t e r m i n i n g factor in all o r g a n i c a r r a n g e m e n t s : 'It is really t h e w h o l e a n i m a l : t h e o t h e r systems a r e t h e r e o n l y t o serve a n d m a i n t a i n it'[H]. a t least i n p a r t . i n l i v i n g b e i n g s i n g e n e r a l .

This p r o cess i s easily o b s e r v e d i n t h e l o c o m o t i v e s y s t e m o f m a m m a l s . t h e o r g a n s t h a t p e r f o r m less vital functions. it b e c o m e s m o r e liberal. h o w t h e species can a t t h e s a m e t i m e r e s e m b l e o n e a n o t h e r (so as to f o r m g r o u p s such as t h e g e n e r a . . t h e m o r e o n e wishes t o isolate t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t h e o r g a n i s m . . t h e p l a n of o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e plays a less d e t e r m i n i n g r o l e . i n t o t h a t d i m e n s i o n t h a t eludes p e r c e p t i o n . c h a n g e s i n t h e possible f o r m or utilization. in possibilities of v a r i a t i o n . t o w a r d s t h e less a n d less visible. i t m a y e v e n h a p p e n t h a t t h e y are ' d e n a t u r e d by use as in t h e p e c t o r a l fins of t h e c e t a c e a n s . for m u l t i p l i c i t y is a p p a r e n t 267 . b u t t h e y a r e ' m a s k e d s o m e t i m e s a s i n t h e w i n g s o f t h e b a t a n d t h e p o s t e r i o r fins o f seals'. LANGUAGE t h o u g h w i t h a greater d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m .LABOUR. b u t it has b e c o m e m o r e flexible. i t i s t h e vital functions t h a t a r e m o s t i m p o r t a n t [ i 5 ] . t h e n . t h e y are c o n n e c t e d b y t h e inaccessible. T h e four propulsive limbs belong to the plan of the organic structure. Y o u p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e r e i s a l w a y s a sort o f c o n s t a n c y i n t h e s e c o n d a r y characters in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h their d i s g u i s e ' [ i 6 ] . t h e classes. A n i m a l species differ at their peripheries. a n d r e s e m b l e each o t h e r at their c e n t r e s . T h e i r generality lies in t h a t w h i c h is essential to their life. t h e y are therefore n e v e r e l i m i n a t e d . and m o r e permeable to other forms of determination. a n d t h e further t h e y are f r o m t h e c e n t r e . as it w e r e . a n d places t h e m i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e parts o f t h e b o d y . o n t h e o t h e r h a n d .k i n g d o m s ) a n d b e distinct f r o m o n e a n o t h e r . their singularity in t h a t w h i c h i s m o s t accessory t o it. t h e m o r e t h e y gain i n f l e x i b i l i t y . alterations. t h e class o f Insects reveals t h e p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l o c o m o t i v e functions a n d t h e o r g a n s o f m o v e m e n t . as it m o v e s further a w a y f r o m t h e c e n t r e . a n d in distinctive characters. p e r m i t t i n g o f modifications. As a hierarchical principle. t h e o r g a n s are a r r a n g e d i n t h e b o d y . a n d separated b y t h e a p p a r e n t . this p l a n defines t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t functions. t h u s . T h e m o r e extensive t h e g r o u p s o n e wishes t o find. It is u n d e r standable. b u t only as a s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r . t h e d e e p e r m u s t o n e p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e o r g a n i s m ' s i n n e r darkness. a n d w h a t C u v i e r calls t h e s u b . arranges t h e a n a t o m i c a l e l e m e n t s t h a t enable i t t o o p e r a t e . a n d a l l o w t h e perceptible f o r m s to shine in all their visibility. I n t h e r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l i t exercises o v e r t h e less f u n d a m e n t a l o r g a n s . it is a sort of focus of i d e n t i t y w h i c h c a n n o t be analysed i n t o visible areas because it defines t h e reciprocal i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s functions. N a t u r e has m a d e a fin o u t o f a n a r m . o r absent o r replaced. o n t h e basis o f this i m p e r c e p t i b l e c e n t r e o f identities. w i t h i n t h e vast g r o u p o f t h e Articulata. i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e classes. W h a t d r a w s t h e m t o g e t h e r is n o t a certain q u a n t i t y of c o i n c i d e n t e l e m e n t s . LIFE. t h e further m u s t o n e g o t o w a r d s its surface. It is still t h e r e .

I t m u s t n o w b e a p p a r e n t w h a t a n i m m e n s e reversal all this presupposes in relation to t h e Classical taxonomy. h i d d e n . at an even d e e p e r level. the a r r a n g e m e n t o f w h a t w e d o p e r c e i v e . t h e possibility of d e p l o y i n g a g r e a t n a t u r a l o r d e r w h i c h w o u l d e x t e n d c o n t i n u o u s l y f r o m t h e simplest a n d m o s t inert o f things t o t h e m o s t living a n d t h e m o s t c o m p l e x d i s a p p e a r s .t h a t is. t h e l i v i n g b e i n g w a s a locality o f n a t u r a l classification. as an endless source of k n o w ledge. t o o . T h i s t a x o n o m y w a s c o n s t r u c t e d entirely u p o n t h e basis o f t h e four variables o f description (forms. n u m b e r . by m a t e r i a l l y r e m o v i n g the coloured envelope formed by the secondary organs. w h i c h a r e essential. w h i c h a r e spatial. t h e fact of b e i n g classifiable is a p r o p e r t y of t h e living b e i n g . t h e p r i m a r y o r g a n s . b u t as a h o m o g e n e o u s space of o r d e r a b l e identities a n d differences.THE ORDER OF THINGS a n d u n i t y is h i d d e n . ' N a t u r e ' . m a g n i t u d e ) . a n d . a n d t h e functions. which are n o t perceptible. living species 'escape' f r o m t h e t e e m i n g profusion of individuals a n d species. So t h e project of a general taxinomia disappears. Lastly. o f w h i c h t h e t w o t e r m s are n e v e r o n t h e s a m e level: o n t h e o n e h a n d . w h i c h are visible o n t h e surface o f t h e b o d y a n d offer themselves w i t h o u t i n t e r v e n t i o n t o i m m e d i a t e p e r c e p t i o n . central. p u r e l y functional aspect t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e basis for t h e e x t e r i o r possibility of a classification. Before. f r o m those e l e m e n t s m o s t h i d d e n f r o m v i e w . t h r o u g h o u t t h e Classical age. t h e possibility o f classification n o w arises f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f life.a m e r e classifying b o u n d a r y . solid. directly or indirectly visible. but determine. T h i s space has n o w been dissociated a n d a s i t w e r e o p e n e d u p i n d e p t h . b y l a n g u a g e a n d b y t h e e y e .p e r c e p t i b l e . a n d a t t h e furthest e x t r e m e . as an 'idea'. o n t h e o t h e r . t h e y are n o l o n g e r established i n relation t o each 268 . we h a v e a series of o p p o s i t i o n s .it b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d t h a t n a t u r e . t h e y can be classified o n l y because t h e y are alive a n d o n t h e basis o f w h a t t h e y conceal. n o w . t h e r e is t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n identities a n d differences: t h e y are no l o n g e r o f t h e s a m e fabric. There is also. d i d n o t exist in t h e first place as a ' t h e m e ' . t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e o r g a n s in general. as t h o u g h from below. disappears . a s i t w e r e i n o n e a n d t h e s a m e m o v e m e n t . whoSe elements h a v e a distinctive v a l u e in relation to each o t h e r . life a p p e a r e d as t h e effect of a p a t t e r n i n g process . a n d i n this d e p l o y m e n t of t h e visible. a n d u n r e a c h a b l e e x c e p t by dissection . a n d t h e search for o r d e r as t h e g r o u n d a n d f o u n d a t i o n of a general science of n a t u r e also disappears. Instead of a u n i t a r y field of visibility a n d o r d e r . w h i c h c o u l d b e scanned. T h e classification of l i v i n g beings is no l o n g e r to be f o u n d i n t h e g r e a t e x p a n s e o f o r d e r . a r r a n g e m e n t . In short. t h e r e are t h e s e c o n d a r y o r g a n s . it is life in its n o n . F r o m C u v i e r o n w a r d .

b u t d e e p e r d o w n t h e y fade. w h i c h b y s c a n n i n g o r g a n i s m s i n their wholeness sees u n f o l d i n g before it t h e t e e m i n g profusion of their differences. f r o m w h i c h t h e m u l t i p l e seems to d e r i v e . it is n o w t h e real divisions of a n a t o m y t h a t w i l l m a k e i t possible t o f o r m t h e g r e a t families o f living beings. A n d thus. It is this transition f r o m t h e t a x o n o m i c to t h e synthetic n o t i o n of life w h i c h is indicated. Life is no l o n g e r t h a t w h i c h can be distinguished in a m o r e or less certain fashion f r o m t h e m e c h a n i c a l . a n d o r d e r e d i n relation t o o n e a n o t h e r . i t reconstitutes t h e unities t h a t underlie t h e g r e a t dispersion of visible differences. b o u n d e d on t h e o n e h a n d b y t h e superficial s t r a t u m o f t e g u m e n t s a n d shells. this m e a n s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t w o correlated techniques w h i c h are c o n n e c t e d a n d s u p p o r t each o t h e r . b y really c u t t i n g u p bodies i n t o p a t t e r n s . dissociating t h e space of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . t h e m a j o r functional s y s t e m has to be isolated. a n d m i n g l e . in t h e c h r o n o l o g y of ideas a n d sciences. T h e second t e c h n i q u e is based on a n a t o m y (since it is a result of i t ) . In a n y case. m o r e precisely a n d m o r e closely. it is t h a t in w h i c h all t h e possible distinctions b e t w e e n living beings h a v e their basis. b y d i v i d i n g t h e m u p i n t o distinct p o r t i o n s . this series of o p p o s i t i o n s . spatialized. as t h o u g h by ceaseless dispersion. discloses t h e g r e a t resemblances t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e r e m a i n e d invisible. W i t h i n t h a t space i t reveals t h e reciprocal a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e o r g a n s . a n a t o m y . it is n o t c o n t e n t w i t h seeking to l o o k u n d e r n e a t h . a n d o n t h e o t h e r b y t h e quasi-invisibility o f t h a t w h i c h i s infinitely small.LABOUR. invisible focal u n i t y . has h a d i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s . m y s t e r i o u s . w h a t i s b e i n g established at this p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t is t h e c o n d i t i o n s of possibility of a biology. i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e m e r e gaze. T h e first of these techniques is constituted by c o m p a r a t i v e a n a t o m y : this discipline gives rise to an interior space. LANG