Teacher Induction Program
Teacher Education Council, Department of Education

Carolina S. Guerrero, Ph. D. Writer

Bernadette S. Pablo, M. Ed. In-house Editor

All rights reserved. This module may not be reproduced in any form without the permission of the Teacher Education Council, Department of Education.

2 Alternative Learning System .TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM MODULE 2.

4 The Setting for Learning Fig. 10 Assessment of Learning A Note to the Teacher Self-Check Questions Checkpoints 7 9 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 17 19 1 2 2 6 6 . 8 The Learning Materials Fig. 6 The Age of the Learner Fig. 1 The Two Paths to Basic Education Fig. 3 The Learning Programs Fig. 5 The Teacher Fig. 9 The Teaching Methodology Fig. 7 The Curriculum Fig. 2 A Conceptual Framework on the Relationship between Formal Education and the Alternative Learning System Major Aspects of Comparison Fig.TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Objectives Historical Context of ALS The ALS and Formal Education Fig.

absence of a school in the community. you will encounter words or concepts that will be defined and explained to facilitate your understanding of ALS. his answer would be “going to school in order to learn”. these are the marginalized members of our society: the rural and urban poor. you will know more about another kind of education that does not need to take place in school but is just as good as formal schooling. This is a general perception historically based on tradition.g. disability. education is predictably associated with learning that takes place in schools. They include those who have never gone to school and those who have dropped out of school. Thus. Likewise. Their reasons for staying out of school are varied (e. the alternative learning system (ALS) which is provided by the Department of Education to help those who cannot “go to school to learn” or who do not want to “go to school to learn”. There will also be a simple historical overview that will give you a perspective of the ALS in Philippine setting and in the context of global development. In this module. gender discrimination. laborers. generally. MODULE 2. As you go through this module. prisoners. need to work to augment income.). etc. the reasons are directly linked to poverty. but most of the time.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM THE DepED ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM THE OTHER SIDE OF BASIC EDUCATION INTRODUCTION If one were to ask the man on the street what he understands of the word “education”. no money for school-related expenses. etc. different learning style. almost always. This is a module that will help you understand a new system. you will read about the ALS and its significant features as well as the comparison between formal education and the ALS. indigenous peoples.2: 1 . To the common man. children in areas of armed conflict.

MODULE 2. In the 80’s. it is best to trace the source of an educational system such as the ALS to the basic and fundamental law of the land. Our nation was a signatory to this and as such. HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF ALS As always. and describe the major ALS programs and their specific target learners. I hope you will get to be interested enough to undergo a hands-on experience as a teacher in the ALS of the Department of Education. committed to providing education for all Filipinos. discuss how ALS compares with formal basic education. you are encouraged to take some time to be familiar with the ALS through this module.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM As a new teacher in the public educational system.2: 2 . This means that all Filipinos have a constitutional right to basic education. Welcome to the other side of basic education! OBJECTIVES After completing this module. The Philippine Constitution provides for free and compulsory elementary education and free secondary education through the Department of Education (DepEd). you should be able to: explain how the ALS evolved. the global community launched a campaign called Education for All (EFA) that aimed to eradicate illiteracy and promote functional literacy for all peoples of the world. and the DepEd is mandated to provide this service to all Filipinos.

the Philippine government put in place the following legal measures and commitment that serve as basis for the introduction of ALS in the Philippine educational system: 1. Republic Act 9155: The Governance Act of Basic Education On June 6. this law recognized the ALS as a complement of formal education and a major component of basic education with a clearly defined role within the overall educational goals. It encompasses early childhood. Moreover. It encompasses both the nonformal and informal sources of knowledge and skills Basic Education – is the education intended to meet basic learning needs and which lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based. MODULE 2. OSY and adult learners and for those with special needs. Among many of its provisions. systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population Informal Education – is a lifelong process of learning by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge. at work. the Philippine Congress passed a law that defined the governance of basic education. this law operationally defined these terms: Nonformal Education (NFE) – is any organized. 2001. elementary and high school education as well as alternative learning systems for children. at play and from life itself Alternative Learning System – is a parallel learning system that provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education system.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM Against this backdrop. attitudes and insights from daily experiences at home. skills.2: 3 .

356: Renaming the Bureau of Nonformal Education (BNFE) the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) On September 13. Executive Order No. 2004. adults and those with special needs) Alternative Learning System = Nonformal education (NFE) and Informal education (IEd) 2. by virtue of this Executive Order. the Office of the President of the Republic of the Philippines renamed the DepEd’s Bureau of Nonformal Education the Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) through this Executive Order signed by Her Excellency. youth. we say: Basic Education = early childhood education (kindergarten) and elementary education (Grades 1 – 6) and secondary education (1st – 4th year) and ALS (for out-of-school age children. demographic characteristics. capabilities. and socio- economic origins and status To promote certification and accreditation for basic education of alternative learning programs both nonformal and informal in nature. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. MODULE 2. In summary. the Executive Order spelled out the functions of the BALS.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM In summary. They include the following: To address the learning needs of all marginalized groups including the deprived. depressed and underserved citizens To coordinate with various agencies for skills development of the learners To expand access to educational opportunities for citizens of different interests. the BALS has been given the authority to guide the development of the country’s ALS.2: 4 . In addition. Not only does this Order reiterate the Bureau’s mandate to address the learning needs of marginalized learners but also directs BALS to provide a systematic and flexible approach to reach all types of learners outside the school system.

3. the Philippine government once again committed to participate in the global campaign for Education for All by the year 2015. validating and communicating competencies acquired through NFE and informal education. 5. 6. namely: 1. In summary. Ensure a vigorous and credible system for reliably assessing. To this end. measuring. It embodies the various programs. Develop and strengthen the DepED’s BALS and mandate it to serve as the government agency to guide the development of the country’s ALS. This means that the goal is to have in place a credible ALS (consisting of NFE and Informal Education) that shall increase functional literacy among the marginalized groups of learners. projects and direction to achieve the goal of quality ALS for Filipino learners. Education for All (EFA) Plan by 2015 In 2004.2: 5 . MODULE 2. 2. Undertake an inventory of available resources in localities for literacy interventions outside schools. 4. Make available public funds for ALS programs of GOs and NGOs subject to the guidelines of BALS. Conduct research and studies to test cost-effective options for delivering quality ALS. In this Plan.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM 3. one of the major goals is “transforming all nonformal and informal education interventions into an ALS to yield more EFA benefits”. certain tasks will need to be undertaken. Build and develop a constituency for ALS development. the EFA Plan for 2015 prescribes urgent tasks that will guide the Department of Education in fulfilling the spirit of RA 9155 and EO 356 and ultimately the vision of the Philippine Constitution.

the travelers in the “formal education” road and those in the “ALS” road. What is important. Further. too. a church. The MODULE 2.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM THE ALS and FORMAL EDUCATION FIGURE 1: The Two Paths to Basic Education Take a look at the figure above. In the former. etc. a conceptual framework on the relationship between formal education and the ALS is hereby presented. It shows two (2) roads both leading towards the attainment of basic education. One road is marked “formal education” and it makes use of schools. they are young. Notice. Because this is a very simple illustration. This illustration suggests that the Filipino can choose to take any of the two (2) roads to acquire basic education.2: 6 . it suggests that the “ALS” road is open to anyone regardless of age. it does not explain the other important features of ALS. Consequently. in the latter. they are both young and old. a factory. The other road is marked “ALS” and it makes use of community learning centers for out-of-school youth and adults and these centers may be a barangay hall. too is that one may attain basic education even without entering the school system.

it is assumed that learning may take place in different places under different conditions. The paradigm is based on the assumption that all learning leads towards a common goal of life skills development that results in employment. social participation and self actualization. it is significant that a new paradigm of learning has evolved.2: 7 . But there is now a recognized parallel and equivalent learning system that provides an alternative to the school-based system of learning. time and environment for different types of learners. This alternative learning system consists of nonformal and informal education both of which develop the MODULE 2.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM discussion that follows Figure 2 also explains those theoretical aspects that Figure 1 cannot provide. where or how it was acquired. Likewise. A Conceptual Framework of the Relationship between Formal Education and the Alternative Learning System In the context of a lifelong learning goal that the EFA 2015 Plan envisions. it is assumed that learning may be measured and equated no matter when. Further. FIGURE 2. The traditional view of delivering education is through the schools system.

The ALS curriculum consists of competencies equivalent to those found in the formal education curriculum. and the assessment of learning for promotion to the next learning level. such as. Both curricula aim to develop basic and functional literacy skills. there exists flexibility in both educational systems that enables a learner to seek and avail of entry and reentry opportunities in both streams. The framework presented in Figure 2 reflects this parallel relationship between the two learning systems: formal education and alternative learning system. the teaching methodology.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM competencies of the ALS curriculum. the teacher. which suggests that because of this comparability. the learning programs. the figure suggests that comparable competencies may be equated and parallel learning’s accredited. The figure also shows that in the context of continuing education. the learning materials. middle. MODULE 2. But more importantly. the setting where learning takes place. In more concrete terms. It is in this light that the ALS is said to be parallel and comparable to formal education. the age of the learner. The competencies are said to be comparable although their methodology and content may differ. take a closer look at both formal education and ALS and compare and contrast the two in some major aspects. the educational ladder in both streams promotes corresponding skills development at basic.2: 8 . and higher levels. the curriculum.

formal basic education consists of elementary education which covers Grades 1 to 6 and secondary education which covers 4 year levels.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM MAJOR ASPECTS OF COMPARISON Figures 3 to 10 present the major aspects for which comparison is made between the ALS and formal basic education. FIGURE 3: Learning Program Figure 3 shows the learning programs of formal education and those of the ALS. and the Accreditation & Equivalency Program (A&E) which is equivalent to the elementary and high school programs of formal education and which address the learning needs of school dropouts or those who have not completed 10 years of schooling as mandated by the Philippine Constitution. writing and numeracy skills.2: 9 . Specifically. MODULE 2. The ALS program on the other hand consists of the Basic Literacy Program which is a program for the illiterates on basic reading.

or the home. Generally. church.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM FIGURE 4: Setting FIGURE 4: Setting Figure 4 presents the setting where learning takes place. teaching-learning in the ALS occurs in the community learning centers (CLC) which may either be a barangay hall. factory. FIGURE 5: Teacher Figure 5 contrasts the teacher in the formal school system with that in the ALS.2: 10 . MODULE 2. The rest of the time.learning is conducted primarily in the school. On the other hand. In the formal school system teaching. the learners meet in the CLCs as a group according to an agreement they themselves have set with the facilitator or instructional manager. learners take home their learning materials to study at their own time. a reading center.

2: 11 .e. Oftentimes. On the other hand. is 6-years and the exit age at 4th year high school is 15 years. the teacher in the A&E Program must be at least a college graduate though not necessarily an Education major but must have undergone training in ALS. learners in the Basic Literacy Program are adults. The classroom teacher must be a college graduate with a degree of either BSEd or BEEd. the teacher of the Basic Literacy Program is called a facilitator who may be a high school graduate at the very least but must have undergone training as a facilitator. In formal education. Thus. In ALS.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM In formal education. FIGURE 6: Age of Learner Figure 6 compares the age of learners in both the formal and ALS System. MODULE 2. age of entry in Grade 1. there is no age prescribed for learners in the ALS. while learners in the A&E Program are youth and adults 16 years old and over. On the other hand. the age of the learner is prescribed. the teacher is called a classroom teacher who is a professional i. licensed to teach (having passed the Licensure Exam for Teachers).

Expanding One’s World Vision . Math.2: 12 .Development of Self and A Sense of Community . Filipino.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM FIGURE 7: Curriculum In terms of the curriculum. and Makabayan. The learning competencies of both curricula are parallel and comparable although subject matter or content may differ. This means that both curricula are meant to develop competencies that are equivalent in nature. Figure 7 reflects the parallel curricula of both learning systems. the ALS curriculum has 5 learning strands which are lifeskills-oriented rather than subject-oriented. Science.Critical Thinking and Problem Solving . While the BEC curriculum has 5 major subjects English.Communication Skills . Formal education has the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) while the ALS has the ALS Curriculum.Sustainable Use of Resources/Productivity MODULE 2. The 5 learning strands are the following: .

Also.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM FIGURE 8: Learning Materials Figure 8 compares the learning materials that are generally used as the main tools for learning in the two systems of learning. Formal education generally makes use of textbooks which normally require teachers to facilitate their use.2: 13 . The ALS meanwhile. the modules are said to be integrated. since the subject matter is not compartmentalized according to subject areas. MODULE 2. generally makes use of printed modules which may be used by learners with or without the aid of a teacher since the materials are designed as self-instructional and therefore self-paced.

Figure 9 shows that formal education utilizes the principles of pedagogy or the science of learning among children while the ALS utilizes the principles of andragogy. MODULE 2.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM FIGURE 9: Teaching Methodology One of the basic characteristics that differentiates formal education and ALS is the teaching methodology.2: 14 . the science of adult learning. FIGURE 10: Assessment of Learning Promotion to the next Learning Level Figure 10 compares the measures for assessing learning for promotion to the next learning level in both systems.

This arrangement is provided for in DepEd Order No. on weekends. Division or Region. writing and numeracy skills. The ALS generally makes use of end-of-program tests which may be given at any time that a learner completes the program. You can either be a facilitator of ALS for the Basic Literacy program for illiterates or an instructional manager for the Accreditation and Equivalency program for school dropouts as long as you undergo special training conducted by the local DepEd office in charge of ALS in the District. creatively and think critically use resources sustainably and be productive develop oneself and a sense of community expand one’s world view A NOTE TO THE TEACHER As a regular classroom teacher. the elementary level learner takes the A&E Elementary level test and the secondary level learner takes the A&E Secondary level test. When you do serve as an ALS facilitator or instructional manager. after class. In both cases. 2003 entitled “Updated Guidelines on Grant of Vacation Service Credits to Teachers” and which states among others: MODULE 2. For the A&E test.2: 15 .. For the Basic Literacy level. you will have to observe regular class hours. you may be a teacher to them outside of your regular class hours. the tests measure functional literacy competencies such as the following: • • • • • communicate effectively solve problems scientifically. i. 53 s. this test is called the Assessment of Basic Literacy (ABL Test) and it measures basic reading. on holidays. But if you also wish to serve the marginalized people in the community (the illiterates and school dropouts).e. you can earn service credits.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM Formal education generally makes use of end-of-school year achievement tests for all learning levels starting in Grade 1 to 4th year High School.

extra nonmonetary compensation is justified.3 Schools Division Superintendent approves/disapproves request If reason for request is not among those listed above. c. b.1 Head of office/school recommends approval of request to render vacation service a. Other Rules The following rules shall also apply in the grant or use of service credits: a. One work day of vacation service credit is granted for one day (eight hours) of service. Activities Eligible for the Grant of Service Credits One of the activities eligible for the grant of service credits is teaching in non-formal education classes in addition to teaching in formal education classes carrying a normal teaching load. d. there are situations wherein extraordinary work is demanded from teachers including those which expose their lives to certain risks and for which monetary compensation is not enough. the Central Office shall make the necessary issuances on the grant of vacation service credits. For attendance/participation in DepEd-wide programs and projects. Vacation service credits shall not be granted for services rendered without previous authority. The number of days of vacation service credits granted to a teacher shall not exceed 15 work days in one year except in cases authorized by the Secretary upon the recommendation of the Regional Director. Teachers on detail in offices or assigned to non-teaching jobs are on the vacation-sick leave basis and should not therefore be granted vacation service credits.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM Statement of the Policy The basic policy in the grant of vacation service credit is that it should be given only for work beyond regular functions or beyond regular work hours/days where payment of honorarium or overtime pay is not possible. Thus. In addition.2: 16 . request should be forwarded to theRegional Director for action if activity is region-wide and to theCentral Office through theRegional Director if activity is DepEd-wide. MODULE 2.2 a. Procedure in the Grant of Service Credits The following steps shall be followed in the grant of service credits: a.

the curriculum. the age of the learner. In your opinion. What is the relationship between NFE and ALS? Do you think this move by DepEd to focus attention from NFE to ALS is good for school dropouts? Explain your answer. As a consequence. which one of these aspects makes ALS and formal education truly comparable? Explain your answer briefly. the learning materials. you may now assess your own understanding of the messages it contains by answering the following questions: 1. the Bureau of Nonformal Education (BNFE) was renamed Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS).2: 17 . and assessment of learning. In 2004. the teaching methodology. the setting for learning. the Bureau was mandated to provide not only nonformal education but also an alternative learning system. the teacher. The module compares the ALS with the formal education program in terms of various aspects such as: the learning programs. 2. MODULE 2.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM SCQ Having read through the module.

He stopped going to school four years ago because he was sickly. 2 Mang Carding is a 49 year-old grandfather who completed 4th grade as his highest educational level several years ago.2: 18 . What ALS program can help him? Why? MODULE 2. Case No. his grandson asked his help in doing his homework. The long period that he has not done reading and writing has affected his literacy.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM 3. Today. He admits that he himself needs help in reading and writing. He is very much interested now to study again. What program can you advise him to join? Why? 4. He is a first year high school dropout. 1 Mario is 16 years old now. but he does not want to go back to school. He thinks he is too old for first year. Case No.

In both options. With the operationalization of ALS by the DepEd. or the more experiential-type of learning known as informal education. Thus.2: 19 .TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM CHECKPOINTS 1. The ALS is a learning system delivered outside the school system. In view of this. however. S) that equally promote the same goal which is functional literacy. It is a nonformal education program. a dropout’s prior learning is recognized and may be accredited if so desired. The other component of ALS is informal education. attitude and skills (K. the move to shift the DepEd focus from NFE to ALS is a good decision especially from the point of view of the school dropout. In other words. MODULE 2. They may opt to join the more systematic learning program which is nonformal education. 2. their curricula aim to develop competencies of knowledge. The curricula of the learning systems make them truly comparable because the competencies in both are parallel and comparable to each other. A. school dropouts now have other options for learning aside from the formal school system. it is the curriculum that makes formal education and ALS truly comparable to each other.

MODULE 2. at home. then he will receive a certificate of recognition (equivalent to a high school diploma) signed by no less than the Secretary of Education which will enable him to enter college/university. The DepEd Division Office can assist him on this matter. Moreover. Therefore if Mario is evaluated as qualified for the secondary level of the A&E program. writing and numeracy. Mario can be advised to join the Accreditation and Equivalency Program of the ALS for the following reasons: a. or to take up a job that requires a high school diploma. A&E does not prescribe an age limit for those who wish to continue and complete basic education. church. c. 4. the A&E program certifies and recognizes past learnings acquired by an individual. the program is provided outside the school system specifically in the community learning centers. As an ALS program. barangay hall. If he is able to take the A&E test for secondary level and pass it. In fact. Mario should be advised to enlist in the A&E program with assistance from the DepEd Division Office. The A&E program does not compartmentalize prior learning of an individual into a specific grade or year level. This means that the A&E program may be availed of in the community learning centers i. Since Mario is indeed over-aged for secondary level. the program admits all types of learners regardless of age. The Basic Literacy Program of ALS is most appropriate for Mang Carding because it is a program that helps illiterates acquire the basic skills of reading. Accreditation and Equivalency is a program delivered outside the school system.TEACHER INDUCTION PROGRAM ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM 3. Because of the reasons given. place of work.e. wherever it is provided.2: 20 . Likewise. b. then he can work his way towards the last stage of high school education according to his own pace. then joining the A&E for secondary level is a good decision that he can make. Mang Carding can be given assistance by the DepEd Division Office on this matter.

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