IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Special Issue, ICVCI-2011, Vol.

1, Issue 1, November 2011 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 www.IJCSI.org


Traffic Analysis and Optimization of GSM Network
Madhusmita Panda1 and Saraju Prasad Padhy2
1 ITER, SOA University Bhubaneswar, Orissa, PIN-751007


Sub Divisional Engineer, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Bhubaneswar , Orissa,PIN-751007

Accurate traffic dimensioning plays an important role in telecommunications network planning and is particularly important for the performance analysis of mobile and wireless networks. The main goal of cellular operators now a day with the increasing number of mobile subscribers is to keep the subscribers satisfied with the delivered quality of service ( QoS ) . Traffic analysis & optimization is thus paramount importance for network planning and design. They are useful in areas such as network architecture comparisons, network resource allocations and performance evaluations. In order to achieve the best performance, service providers have to monitor and optimize their network continuously .A Operation Support Subsystem (OSS) with an online database is responsible for collection of data on live networks. In this paper, we have summarized the measurements taken on an operative GSM-900 & GSM-1800 network to evaluate and optimize traffic. Here we have established statistically the following facts (i) The peak hour in Orissa varies in four different MSC areas.(ii) Week day traffic is different from weekend traffic and the traffic intensity of weekday traffic is more than that of weekend traffic.(iii) Traffic channel availability is well within limits which implies that the network is well planned.(iv) SDCCH congestion is beyond threshold limits which implies operator is losing big revenue due to this. (v) In some cases the traffic carried exceeds the maximum full rate traffic resulting utilization of half rate TCH & thus reduction in speech quality.

infrastructure equipment, GSM decided to specify not only the air interface, but also the main interfaces that identify different parts. There are three dominant interfaces, namely, A interface between MSC and BSC, A-bis Interface between BSC & BTS and an Um interface between the BTS and MS. The BSS includes two types of elements: BTS which handles radio interfaces towards MS & BSC which manages the radio resources and controls the handover. A BSC can control several BTSs. The main function of the MSC is to coordinate the set up of calls between GSM mobiles and also between GSM mobiles and PSTN users. Specifically, it performs functions such as paging, resource allocation, location registration, and encryption. In addition GSM specifies three databases: Home location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR) and Authentication Centre (AuC). Here radio transmission is performed by assigning carriers and timeslots to logical channels. The frame duration is 4.615 ms and each frame is divided into eight timeslots.

Keywords: GSM, Traffic Analysis, Busy Hour, BSC, BTS, TCH,

1. Introduction
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is the most popular second generation digital cellular standard published by ETSI. In 2010 there were over 526 million GSM subscribers in India. It accounts for 78% of the digital cellular market. A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major subsystems: the network subsystem (NSS), the radio subsystem (BSS), and the operation support subsystem (OSS). In order to ensure that network operators will have several sources of cellular

Figure: 1. GSM Network Architecture

There are two types of channels in the air interface: physical channels and logical channels. The physical

Table:1 Traffic Measurements Traffic Handling Capacity (Fullrate) in Erlang 3407 3876 8364 2831 7355 8464 4816 2349 6141 8464 7476 6403 5990 TCH Measure Avali Actual bility Traffic Rate in Erlang (%) 3348 95. November 2011 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 www.5 4740 85.8 or 2.31 1.13 BSCs and 4467 BTSs are taken into account . ICVCI-2011. while the HR supports 6. Each counter can produce only a narrow view of the network .16 0.There are again two types of traffic channels: halfrate (HR) and full-rate (FR).58 0.3 4936 81.11 0.29 2.4 kbps.IJCSI.21 0.73 Network Performance SDCCH Conje stion (%) 0. The FR channel is a 13 kbps coded speech or data channel with a raw data rate of 9. For Berhampur MSC area it is: 1600 hrs to 1700 hrs For Sambalpur MSC are it is: 1800 hrs to 1900 hrs For Bhubaneswar MSC area it is: 1000 hrs to 1100 hrs For Cuttack MSC area it is: 1000 hrs to 1100 hrs Following conclusions are made from the above graph. measurements from several counters.5 Kbps).7 3391 89.Furthermore one performance data can result a number of different It is found that busy hour in Orissa varies in four different MSC areas.41 1. Logical channels can also be divided into two types: traffic channels (TCH) and control channel (CCH).9 4456 82 3889 80. Graph : Busy hour of different MSCs of Orissa In this section the measurements that were carried out on an operative GSM network GSM-900 & GSM-1800 are summarized to evaluate the performance of GSM’s air interface during last six months. It may be due to low signal strength or TCH conjunction etc. SDCCH Drop: It is call drop at SDCCH level. 15 are used as SDCCH & one CBCH.31 0. The summery of measurements are shown in a tabular form below. Vol.01 0. 4. Special Issue.22 0.4 kbps.03 0 0. • BSC1BER BSC2BER BSC3BER BSC4BER BSC1CK BSC2CK BSC3CK BSC1BBSR BSC2BBSR BSC3BBSR BSC1SMB BSC2SMB BSC3SMB • • • 4. No of SDCCH: One logical channel generates 8 SDCCH or CBCH channels.It may be due to bad quality link. Determination of Busy Hour • • • • • 3. Normally one ARFCN (absolute radio frequency carrier number) generates 8 physical channels which can be configured as 8 Full rate TCH (13 Kbps) or 16 Half rate TCH (6. TCH Traffic: Traffic carried by TCH channels SDCCH Traffic: Traffic carried by SDCCH Channels SDCCH Availability Rate: It is the number of SDCCH Channels available divided by maximum number of SDCCH channels possible for carrying control information & signalling. .5 4178 84.8 6288 91 TCH Conj estion (%) 0.6 4732 91.03 0. In the study the statistical modeling of voice traffic in the state of Orissa consisting of 4 MSCs.03 0.5 kbps coded speech or data rate of 4.8 or 2.88 0.68 0.2 0.5 5912 97. Issue 1. suddenly lost connection or any other. 1.17 0 0.56 0.6. All the measurements are taken from OSS (Operation Support Subsystem) using the software Business Object and are stored in different counters.02 0. TCH Availability Rate: It is the number of TCH available divided by maximum number of TCH channels possible for carrying traffic. Normally two logical channels are used in a sector and out of 16 chls generated.6 9826 87.09 0. Traffic Measurement and Analysis Figure : 2. SDCCH Congestion: Non availability of SDCCH due to traffic Subscriber Perceived TCH Congestion: Non availability of TCH due to traffic.23 0.4 1391 90.org 29 channel is the time slots (TS) and Logical channel refers to the specific type of information that is carried by the physical channel.4 4936 90. TCH Drop: It is the call drop at TCH level .06 0. Parameters and Definitions • • Traffic: It represents hours of calls in Erlang.IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues. low signal strength. No of TCH: It is the total number of TCH available in that sector.48 1.

1 Traffic Estimation In some BSCs the actual traffic is more than the theoretical traffic. Figure : 3.2 Resource Availability & Usage TCH Availability (in %) The following facts were established from below two graphs at fig: 4 & fig: 5. Congestion of TCH & SDCCH Channels TCH availability of 30. Vol. Further analysis needs to be carried out at each BSC level to find out the BUSY HOUR of Location Area which can be used for dimensioning BSC. It is happening due to the fact that whenever all the TCH are occupied system automatically divides the traffic channel (TCH of 13 Kbps) into 2 parts resulting 2 traffic channels (TCH/2 of 6.That way the traffic channels can be increased to twice the theoretical value because of one channel becoming 2 channels. But the drawback with this is the speech quality of the channel which reduces as it is directly proportional to the bit rate. So for these cases and also for BSC1BER.It is very critical because if a call is blocked at this stage. The congestion on SDCCH must be very low. BSC3CK & BSC2BBSR where both the values are almost equal. the operator will lose big revenue.1%.IJCSI.4% indicates that the network is well planned. Graph : Theoretical Vs Actual traffic The actual traffic carried obtained by BO software is compared with the theoretical traffic obtained from Erlangs -B table and the graph is plotted. The resource addition should take place as soon as TCH availability reaches 20% . BSC4BER & BSC3SMB. The following conclusion is drawn from the Graph at figure 3.5 Kbps).IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues. immediate increase in channels by addition of hardware is required. It is occurring for BSC3BER. ICVCI-2011. Issue 1. 3.So some Time Slots (Logical Channels) meant for TCH may be immediately diverted and configured as SDCCH channels for those BSCs with which SDCCH congestion exceeds 0. Figure: 4. 3. Weekend traffic is different from weekday traffic but its intensity is normally less than weekday traffic. 1.9% to 61.29 % is not acceptable .org 30 There is a non-uniform traffic distribution in different MSC areas & the Busy Hour of different MSC areas are different. Graph: Availability of TCH in different BSCs Figure: 5. less than 0. Graph: Congestion of TCH & SDCCH Channels . November 2011 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 www. Here maximum congestion measured on TCH channels is up to 1. Special Issue.1%. Congestion of TCH with Less than 2% threshold is what many operators adopt in the world.8% which may be acceptable but maximum congestion on SDCCH channels which is 0.

[9] [10] Haug. Digital Object Identifier:0-7803-5435-4/99 Publication year 1999. IMTC 2001. UMTS and other wireless networks. (v) In some cases the traffic carried exceeds the maximum full rate traffic resulting utilization of half rate TCH & thus reduction in speech quality. Developing GSM standard. T . This experimental study can be easily extended to GPRS. GSM Seminar. An Empirical study on time co-relation GSM telephone traffic .. Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Volume: 2 Digital Object Identifier: 10. Michel Mouly & Marie Bernadette Pautet . Current Evolution of the GSM system. Opechowski Z....1. Conclusions In this paper we have presented the results of an extensive study of a GSM network utilization.The GSM system for mobile communication . Page(s): 1281 .. IEEE Journal. M . IEEE Personal Communications.IJCSI.3435 Tatai.Aouam. Digital Object Identifier: 0-7803-7467-3/02 Publication year 2002 . Digial Object Identifier 0-7803-7467-3/02 Publication year 2002 . GSM system Engineering . References [1] Khedher.Horroud. Session 2. S.org 31 4. IEEE Transactions on Volume: 7 . October 1995.1109/ TWC. Luipen Van Boris. The experimental analysis focused on the following parameters. H.Pages 390-394. Decina. and pautet Marie-Bernadette.928281 Publication Year: 2001 .Page No-1485 1489. [11] Mouly.1286 vol.M. [12] Beddoes. Analysis of Traffic distribution in GSM . 2001. IEEE Journal. R. GSM Network Architecture. T. Wireless Communications. [13] Boulmalf.. Traffic Characterization of mobile Networks.1109/ IMTC. IEEE Journal . IEEE Journal . Correia L. Bregni. J. P. Asha Mehrotra . Cioffi. Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference. M. M.IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues... Marosi. G. [7] [8] Theodore Rappaport .9-19.Abrache. These findings prove to be useful to network planning engineers as they provide them the data that help decide on timely and efficient management and investment on infrastructure.2008. Osvath. October 1990..070092 Publication Year: 2008 . Kennedy Kevin. Special Issue. Page(s): 3428 .. A flexible approach to mobile telephone traffic mass measurement & analysis. Issue 1. Traffic Analysis of GSM Networks.Digital object identifier :978-1-4244-3806-8/09 Publication year 2009 pages:498-503. S.. Budapest. Andrea Goldsmith. Interference effects of GPRS on a GSM Network. 1991..Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice.1st Edition.. Acknowledgments Our thanks to the officers of BSNL who had contributed towards the measurement of Traffic on live GSM Network. Artech House. (i) The peak hour in Orissa varies in four different MSC areas (ii) Week day traffic is different from weekend traffic and the traffic intensity of weekday traffic is more than that of weekend traffic. E.(iii) Traffic channel availability is well within limits which implies that the network is well planned.1st Edition. Pages 2087-2091. 2nd Edition. Toni Janevski . 1..H. L. Traffic Analysis and design of wireless IP networks. PP.2 [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] ..2001. pan-European Digital Cellular Radio Conf. ICVCI-2011. Artech House Publisher. Issue: 9 Digital Object Identifier: 10. Nic France. W. Tabbane. November 2011 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 www.. Vol. 1st Edition .(iv) SDCCH congestion is beyond threshold limits which implies operator is losing big revenue due to this. Wireless Communications.

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