1

Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
• Introducing Adams/Chassis • Working with Half-Suspension Models • Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes • Working with Full-Vehicle Models • Working with Leaf Springs • Integrating Control Systems in Your Model

2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis

Introducing Adams/Chassis

Introducing Adams/Chassis 3
Overview

Overview
This chapter contains the basics of the Adams/Chassis analysis environment and introduces the tutorials found in later chapters:
• About Adams/Chassis ... • What You Will Learn • Starting Adams/Chassis • Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis

and post-processing. • Modeling complex leaf spring interactions with Adams/Chassis Makeleaf. Adams/Chassis comes with many standard suspensions such as: • Short-long arm • MacPherson • Hotchkiss • 4 Link • Quadralink Using Adams/Chassis. also referred to as events: • Half-vehicle analyses .During full-vehicle analyses you examine the behavior of complete vehicles. two analysis types. • Using Adams/SmartDriver to learn how to best drive a course. Adams/Chassis also helps you with the virtual prototyping process by: • Substituting rigid bodies with flexible bodies through Adams/Chassis Makeflex and Adams/Flex. you can perform the following types of analyses. Full-vehicle analyses include: • Step steer • Frequency response • Oncenter handling • Constant radius The majority of these standard events come with standard postprocessing. plots or reports or both. that is. .During half-vehicle analyses you examine the behavior of suspensions.4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis About Adams/Chassis About Adams/Chassis Adams/Chassis provides a complete analysis environment for automotive Adams analysis. It does this by providing standard model types. Half-vehicle analyses include: • Ride motion • Roll motion • Steering • Compliance • Full-vehicle analyses . You run Adams/Chassis in conjunction with Adams/Solver and Adams/PostProcessor.

In the tutorials.Introducing Adams/Chassis 5 What You Will Learn What You Will Learn This guide contains five tutorials that step you through the traditional iterative analysis process. plotting. • Review analyses using animation. you will perform the following tasks: • Build half-suspension. which is one of the many ways you can solve complex system problems using Adams/Chassis. • Modify models and review the effects of your design changes. However. The last two tutorials in the final chapter are independent of the other tutorials. • Analyze models in different virtual tests. • Iterate your design to achieve performance targets for your model. and reports. and leaf-spring models. The first three tutorials build on each other and assume that you work through them in sequence. full-vehicle models. . they still assume that you have learned the Adams/Chassis interface by running through the other tutorials.

point to AChassis. for example mdadams2010. point to Programs. . Select OK. To start Adams/Chassis in the Windows environment: 1. and then select Adams . . where x is the version number.Chassis. From the Start menu. point to MD Adams 2010. Select the Adams/Chassis tool 3. Database utilities automatically changes the permission for you so that the files can be overwritten.Software. The standard command that MSC. 2. You must run Adams/Chassis in a directory to which you have write permissions. Select OK. You must use Database Utilities to copy the example model from the installation directory to your working directory. enter the command to start the Adams Toolbar. point to MSC. 2. and then select Enter. The Adams Toolbar appears. To start Adams/Chassis in the UNIX environment: 1. The Adams/Chassis main window appears as shown in the figure below. The Adams/Chassis window appears as shown below.6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Starting Adams/Chassis Starting Adams/Chassis In this section you learn how to start Adams/Chassis in the UNIX and the Windows environment.Software provides is mdadamsx. The example models in the installation are always write protected. At the command prompt.

Introducing Adams/Chassis 7 Starting Adams/Chassis Treeview Property Editor Figure 1 Adams/Chassis Build Mode .

You can also create an animation of your event. Adams/Chassis Work Modes Adams/Chassis is divided into four work modes: • Build • Test • Review • Improve Build The Build mode allows you to edit model data and change system configuration. Review The Review mode allows you to visualize analysis results using Adams/PostProcessor. You can postprocess the output of standard Adams/Chassis events. a plot. . Improve The Improve mode allows you to refine models with Adams/Insight. Test The Test mode allows you to build and run your model. The Build mode is the default for starting Adams/Chassis. It also provides a collection of statistical tools for analyzing the results of your experiments so that you can better understand how to refine and improve your model. Below is the basic toolbar that is available in all work modes. Here you can use the features from Adams/Insight to create sophisticated experiments for measuring the performance of your model. Postprocessing has two formats: reports and plots. A majory of standard Adams/Chassis events have either a report. Learning About the Toolbars The toolbars in Adams/Chassis change according to the work mode. or both.8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis Here you will learn about the Adams/Chassis work modes and toolbars. You can also work on multiple models at once.

Introducing Adams/Chassis 9 Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis Figure 2 Adams/Chassis Basic Toolbar The following figures show the toolbars that are available in each work mode: Figure 3 Adams/Chassis Build Mode Toolbar Figure 4 Adams/Chassis Test Mode Toolbar .

10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis Figure 5 Adams/Chassis Review Mode Toolbar Figure 6 Adams/Chassis Improve Mode Toolbar .

Introducing Adams/Chassis 11 Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis Learning about the Treeview The Adams/Chassis treeview changes according to the work mode. Below are the two basic sections of the treeview: Bookshelf Treeview . The treeview has different features in each work mode.

Note: This directory must already exist and the directory path must not contain spaces. next to Current Working Directory. 5. . enter a Graphical Difference Command to launch a graphical differencing tool such as SGI/usr/sbin/gdiff or freeware tool. 4. you must either set up the preferences or load an existing preferences file. 2. and then select OK.must be a valid directory To set preferences: 1. The Preferences window appears. Select a current working directory from the list. 3. In the Preferences window. 8. ExamDiff for Windows. From the Edit menu. Before running Adams/Chassis. You must have the following preferences set for Adams/Chassis to work properly: • Working directory . In the Preferences window. and then select OK.specifies the directory for all output files • Temporary file directory . 6. make sure that a text editor is present for Text Editor Command. Optionally. Select a directory from the Browse for Folder window. In the Preferences window. select the Find tool next to Temporary Files Directory. The remaining options in the Preferences window are optional. select Preferences. 7. Incorrect preference settings can prevent Adams/Chassis from performing even the most basic functions. select the Find tool The Browse for Folder window appears.12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Learning About Preferences Learning About Preferences You set preferences to define the work environment specific to the machine you are using.

Working with Half-Suspension Models 1 Working with Half-Suspension Models .

Adams/Chassis has been developed to make this process as quick and easy as possible. This chapter contains the following sections: • Copying Example Vehicle Database • Registering a Database • Selecting a Vehicle System File • Running an Analysis • Animating a Model • Plotting Analysis Results • Running an Analysis with Alignment • Comparing Results The tutorial takes about 45 minutes to complete. .2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Overview Overview In this chapter you complete a build-run-modify-compare analysis cycle.

Adams/Chassis copies the achassis_gs example database to your working directory. In the Copy Database tab. They contain the full set of parameters for vehicle models.Working with Half-Suspension Models 3 Copying Example Vehicle Database Copying Example Vehicle Database In this section. from the Utilities menu. The Select . Data files are the inputs to Adams/Chassis. select achassis_gs.vdb Directory to Copy window. select Copy Database to Working Directory.vdb. select the Find tool . 3. 6. In the Build mode. and then select OK. To copy a database: 1. Close the Database Utilities window. At the prompt.vdb Directory to Copy window appears. In the Database Utilities window. you load example data files for your Adams/Chassis session. 5. . 2. select OK. In the Select . The Database Utilities window appears. 4. select Database Utilities.

select Add New. . Select Save to save these settings.vdb from your working directory. In the Database Registration section. 4.vdb. Here you register achassis_gs. and then select Ok. Select achassis_gs. From the Edit menu. 3.4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Registering a Database Registering a Database You can reference multiple registered databases for access. select Preferences. 2. Databases are registered in the Preferences window. To register a database: 1.

Working with Half-Suspension Models 5 Selecting a Vehicle System File Selecting a Vehicle System File Here you will select your vehicle system file. 2. and then select Open. Adams/Chassis loads the model into the treeview. 3. select achassis_gs from the Registered Databases section. To select a vehicle system file: 1. From the toolbar. In the Select File window.xml. Select achassis_gs_front_sys. . select the Load Model button.

4. • Select the Build and Run Selected Events tool . then 20 mm into rebound. . . Double-click Front Ride Motion. 3. achassis_gs_front_sys_fride has been added to the fingerprint tree and displayed in the property editor. From the main toolbar. To run an analysis: 1. When the event is complete. You will see that the event. select the Test mode 2. In the bookshelf. Do one of the following: • Right-click achassis_gs_front_sys_fride and then select Build and Run Selected Events. 5. expand Suspension.6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Running an Analysis Running an Analysis You now run an analysis on the front suspension to exercise the left and right wheel centers 20 mm into jounce. close the command window.

and then select Exit. On the menu toolbar. 5. and to check model geometry. . In the treeview. To exit Adams/PostProcessor. See the online help for Adams/PostProcessor for more information. Adams/Chassis launches Adams/PostProcessor. from the File menu.Working with Half-Suspension Models 7 Animating a Model Animating a Model You animate the model to see the effects of the analysis. select the Play tool This animates the ride motion simulation. Don’t Save. 2. 4. To animate your model: 1. to check that your model is being assembled as you like. select achassis_gs_front_sys_fride. From the toolbar. From the toolbar. select Exit. select the Pause tool . . 3. select the Review mode . a post-processing tool that lets you view the results of simulations you performed. After the suspension goes through a complete animation. 6. select the Execute Selected Animations tool .

or both. there are plots and reports. look for checkboxes in the property editor. In the Adams/Chassis window. next to analysis name. The standard plots for ride motion include: Toe. For the halfsuspension ride motion analysis. under Plots and Reports.8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Plotting Analysis Results Plotting Analysis Results Most Adams/Chassis standard analyses have plots or reports. To check if there are plots or reports associated with the analysis you just ran. From the toolbar. . caster. select the Execute Selected Plots tool . associated with them. To plot analysis results: 1. 2. Notice that there are plots and reports associated with the achassis_gs_front_sys_fride analysis. Adams/Chassis launches Adams/PostProcessor. make sure that achassis_gs_front_sys_fride is selected in the treeview. and camber versus wheel travel Wheel rate versus wheel travel Vertical force versus wheel travel The figure below shows some of the standard plots. To display the plots.

5. click each page. select Exit. in the treeview on the left. To review the different plot pages. 4. don’t save. From the File menu. Select Exit. . Adams/PostProcessor asks you if you want to save the plots.Working with Half-Suspension Models 9 Plotting Analysis Results Figure 7 Standard Plots for Ride Motion 3.

Camber to -0.1. When the analysis is complete. 5. You can save and load fingerprints. 2. select the Test mode tool . In Adams/Chassis you can create an unlimited number of events in a single session. Select the Build and Run Selected Events tool . Adams/Chassis analyzes your model. select Front Auto-Alignment. Set Avg. the second analysis will use the same files. caster. you add an event to your session. 2.10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Running an Analysis with Alignment Running an Analysis with Alignment In this section. you run an analysis with the same model data. and camber alignment. 4. From the bookshelf. At the beginning of the analysis. caster. The second analysis refers to the same vehicle configuration files as the first analysis.0. Adding an event did not create copies of the vehicle configuration file or database. 3. Before you run the analysis. Adams/Chassis invokes the auto-aligner. From the toolbar. The auto-aligner adjusts various parts of the front suspension to iteratively achieve the desired values for toe. Set Avg. Caster to 4. To run an analysis with alignment: 1. 6. but with toe. To add an event tab to the current fingerprint: 1.5. you can refer to the same vehicle configuration files for all the analyses. Set Total Toe to 0. or use different vehicle configuration files. Adams/Chassis adds another analysis to your fingerprint tree. If you modify one of the vehicle configuration files. In the property editor. that is. When using a fingerprint. the modification will affect future builds for both events. close the window. and camber. . double-click Front Ride Motion. We call this a fingerprint session.

3. Adams/PostProcessor displays two curves in every plot. Select Execute Selected Plots . similar to the figure below. Note that both analyses appear in the fingerprint tree. This option overlays the plot data for the two analyses so you can easily compare results. Shift-click to select both analyses in the fingerprint tree. 2. select the Review mode . From the toolbar. you compare the results of the two analyses you ran. Verify that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is checked.Working with Half-Suspension Models 11 Comparing Results Comparing Results In this section. 4. To compare results: 1. Figure 8 Comparison Plots .

0 degrees.05 degrees. The curve for LF wheel travel versus toe intersects the x-axis at 0. 5.12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Comparing Results Notice that for achassis_gs_front_sys_fride_2: achassis_gs_front_sys_fride_2 is aligned at zero wheel travel. You input 0.1 total toe. select Exit. don’t save. Caster intersects at 4. Camber intersects at -0. From the File menu. Adams/Chassis returns to the main window.5 degrees. and then select Exit. . which is left toe plus right toe.

Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 1 Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes .

you modify model components to analyze the effects of design changes. You will modify tie-rod geometry and bushing stiffness. . This chapter contains the following sections: • Inspecting Data Elements • Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry • Running a Compliance Analysis • Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness The tutorial takes about 45 minutes to complete.2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Overview Overview In this chapter.

Adams/Chassis has a set of utilities that gives you visual access to the XML subsystem.Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 3 Inspecting Data Elements Inspecting Data Elements Before you modify the example data. 2. you will first focus on the different data elements in the vehicle configuration files. To inspect data elements: 1. select achassis_gs_front_sys. Select the Build mode . The property editor allows access to all the vehicle data. . as shown below. You use the property editor to gain quick access to every data element in your model. In the toolbar.

Camber to -0. enter achassis_gs_front_suspension_new. In the treeview. select Test mode.0 6.1 5. Note: These changes will only be in effect during this session since you are not saving the system file. Running an Analysis You now run an analysis on the modified tie rod to assess the effect of the changes to its geometry. Caster to 4. 3. 7. enter 548.xml. in the File name text box. To run an analysis: 1. select Front Auto-Alignment and set the following: 4. double-click Front Ride Motion. 6. 4. A dialog box appears and asks if you want to update references to this data in the system file. and then expand Hardpoints. 2. In the bookshelf. 3. 2. The . Avg. you modify the front suspension tie-rod geometry and analyze the effect of the changes. Total Toe to 0. Select Save. Select Save As.xml file you just created appears in the treeview. The Select File window appears. At the bottom of the window. expand achassis_gs_front_suspension. Select tierod_outer. Avg. From the toolbar.4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry In this section.5 . In the box common to tierod_outer and Left Z. as outlined next: • Modifying Tie-Rod Geometry Hardpoints • Running an Analysis • Plotting Analysis Results Modifying Tie-Rod Geometry Hardpoints To modify tie-rod geometry hardpoints: 1. Select Yes. 5. In the property editor.

4. Adams/Chassis runs the analysis and. When the analysis is complete. In the treeview. 3. select the Review mode. Later in this guide. Verify that Overlay data of same events is selected. The change made the toe curve more vertical. Plotting Analysis Results To plot the analysis results: 1. close the window. From the toolbar. 2. you analyze how that change affects full-vehicle performance. . The overlay plot shows the effect of the new tie-rod geometry (see Figure 9). Select Execute Selected Plots. shows you the analysis steps. Select Build and Run Selected Events. 8. in the Adams run Python window.Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 5 Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry 7. Clear the selection of achassis_gs_front_sys_fride by clicking the checkbox under Plots. 5. select fingerprint_1.

. Return to Adams/Chassis.6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry Figure 9 Plot of Modified Tie-Rod Geometry 6. Exit the Adams/PostProcessor without saving the plots. 7.

In the bookshelf. In fingerprint_2. Running an Analysis In this analysis you will model a series of loads applied to the suspension. Select the Build and Run Selected Events tool. close the window. From the toolbar. Animating the Model You animate the model to see the effects of the analysis. double-click Front Compliance. From the toolbar. From the list in the bookshelf. To animate the model: 1. To run an analysis: 1. and examine the analysis results. 4. 2. 3. 5. you modify the compliance of the front suspension. run a compliance analysis. • Starting a New Fingerprint • Running an Analysis • Animating the Model • Creating a Report • Plotting Analysis Results Starting a New Fingerprint To start a new fingerprint: 1. select achassis_gs_front_sys_fcomp. Select fingerprint_2 in the treeview. 4. On the menu toolbar. select the Test mode. 6. Make sure that fingerprint_2 is selected in the treeview.Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 7 Running a Compliance Analysis Running a Compliance Analysis In this section. . 2. select the Review mode. 3. Select the Animate tool. select the Play tool. From the toolbar. When the analysis is complete. expand Suspension. 2. This will enable you to calculate various suspension compliances. select the New Fingerprint tool .

2. Select Execute Selected Reports tool . Exit Adams/PostProcessor and return to Adams/Chassis. Adams/PostProcessor displays a series of plots with force/moment versus displacement/rotation. Adams/Chassis creates the report and opens it in your default text editor. The analysis consisted of several 2-second subevents where forces were applied at various points and in various directions on the wheel. 6. Select Execute Selected Plots.8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Running a Compliance Analysis 5. In the Review mode. Plotting Analysis Results To plot the analysis results: 1. . 3. After viewing the report. In the Review mode. select the Pause tool. The report tabulates the results of the subevents and calculates different front wheel compliances. 2. exit the report window. Creating a Report You can create a report for the front compliance analysis. as shown in Figure 10. verify that Reports is selected. make sure Plots is selected. To create a report: 1. After the suspension goes through a complete animation.

Exit Adams/PostProcessor without saving the plots. Return to Adams/Chassis. .Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 9 Running a Compliance Analysis Figure 10 Compliance Test Plots 3. 4.

10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis

Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness

Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness
You now increase the stiffness rate for the front lower control arm bushing and view the results, as explained next:
• Modifying Bushing Stiffness • Running an Analysis • Plotting Analysis Results

Modifying Bushing Stiffness
To modify the bushing stiffness: 1. From the toolbar, select the Build mode. 2. Make sure achassis_gs_front_suspension_new is selected. 3. In the property editor, select the Connectors tab. A table of bushings appears. 4. Select lca_front and then click in the Left_K-X box. 5. Change the Left _K-X stiffness for the Spring Rate to 6.450E+04. Since this is symmetrical, the right side also changes.

Running an Analysis
To run the analysis: 1. From the toolbar, select the Test mode. 2. Double-click Front Compliance to add a new event to the fingerprint. 3. Select Build and Run Selected Events.

Plotting Analysis Results
To see the effect of increasing the bushing’s stiffness, you now plot the analysis results. To plot analysis results: 1. In the Review mode, make sure Plots is selected for fingerprint_2. 2. Select Execute Selected Plots. The figure below shows the resulting plots. The plots show that your design change affected steer compliance (toe change per unit force) and lateral compliance. For example, in the plot named LF Parallel Lat Force vs. Toe, the overall toe change is less than the toe change.

Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 11
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness

Figure 11

Compliance Test Plots (Modified)

3. Exit Adams/PostProcessor without saving the plots. 4. Return to Adams/Chassis.

12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis

Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness

Working with Full-Vehicle Models 1 Working with Full-Vehicle Models .

. you work with a full-vehicle model and perform full-vehicle analyses.2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Overview Overview In this chapter. This chapter contains the following sections: • Setting Up a Full-Vehicle Model • Performing a Swept Steer Analysis • Performing a Constant Radius Analysis • Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change • Optimizing Full-Vehicle Handling The tutorial takes about one hour to complete.

Creating a New Fingerprint To create a new fingerprint: 1. 2. From the toolbar. select the Test mode. . 2. Select achassis_gs_full_sys. select the New Fingerprint tool .Working with Full-Vehicle Models 3 Setting Up a Full-Vehicle Model Setting Up a Full-Vehicle Model In this section. Loading a Full-Vehicle Model To load a full-vehicle model: 1. select the Load Model button. From the toolbar.xml from the achassis_gs database. you set up a full-vehicle model. In the Build mode.

2. select achassis_gs_full_sys_swpt.. and then select Execute Selected Animations. 2.4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Performing a Swept Steer Analysis Performing a Swept Steer Analysis When you perform a swept steer analysis. expand Full Vehicle and then expand Handling Analyses. Double-click Swept Steer. exit Adams/PostProcessor. 3. 4. and then Build and Run Selected Events. Running the Analysis To run the analysis: 1. In the test mode. Adams/Chassis applies a steering wheel input to your model and stops when it reaches the specified lateral acceleration. Select the Review mode. . After the event is complete. close the command window. and then return to the Adams/Chassis window. 5. 3. Animating the Model To animate the model: 1.. In the treeview. Play the animation. From the bookshelf. Select the swept steer event in the treeview. make sure the new fingerprint you created is selected in the treeview.

4. Note: The constant radius event turns bold in the treeview to indicate that changes have been made. select the constant radius event. . To create a report: 1. In the property editor. Creating a Report You now create a report to view the numerical results of the analysis. you do the following: • Running the Analysis • Animating the Model • Creating a Report • Plotting Analysis Results Running the Analysis To run the analysis: 1.Working with Full-Vehicle Models 5 Performing a Constant Radius Analysis Performing a Constant Radius Analysis One of the most useful full-vehicle analyses is the constant radius analysis. You can use numerical results in optimization and design sensitivity studies. 3. 2. expand Full Vehicle. When the event is complete. expand Handling Analyses. and then select Execute Selected Animations. in the Turn radius text box. Select the constant radius event in the treeview and then Build and Run Selected Events. From the Test mode bookshelf. make sure that the correct fingerprint is selected in the treeview. In this section. In the Review mode. In the Review mode. close the command window. Animating the Model To animate the model: 1. 2. 2. and then double-click Constant Radius. enter 60. Verify that Reports is selected. Return to the Adams/Chassis window. You can use this analysis to measure the steady-state performance of your vehicle and calculate such measures as understeer and roll gradient.0.

Plotting Analysis Results To plot the analysis results: 1. and can help point out which parameters you can modify to cause the greatest change in understeer. 3. Adams/Chassis creates the report.6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Performing a Constant Radius Analysis 3. Select Execute Selected Reports. Figure 12 Constant Radius Plots . focus on the section named Understeer Budget. When reviewing the report. 4. 2. as shown in Figure 12. Exit the report window. select Plots. Adams/PostProcessor displays a series of plots. Return to the Adams/Chassis window. This section lists the relative contributions of different subsystems to understeer. Select Execute Selected Plots. In the Review mode.

select the Hardpoints tab. 2. In the property editor. select both constant radius analyses.Working with Full-Vehicle Models 7 Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change Now you review the effects of the tie-rod geometry change to see how that change affects the understeer. 8. 3. and in the Left-Z column. and then Build and Run Selected Events. 3. Select tierod_outer. 9. double-click Constant Radius. Make sure the constant radius event is selected in the treeview. In the treeview. 5. When the event is complete.0 for Turn radius. In this section. make sure that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is checked. 6. Close the command window. Plotting Results of Both Analyses To plot: 1. the change made the toe curve more vertical. In the property editor. modify the turn radius. Select the Build mode. 4. enter 548. close the command window. In the Review mode. Remember that in Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry. To perform an analysis: 1. you do the following: • Performing an Analysis • Plotting Results of Both Analyses • Comparing Reports Performing an Analysis You create a new event. Select Execute Selected Plots. Enter 60. and run another analysis. Select the Test mode. The first plot shows that modifying the tie-rod geometry had an effect on steering wheel angle versus lateral acceleration. You later compare this analysis to the analysis you performed in Performing a Constant Radius Analysis. 7. In the bookshelf. . 4. select the front suspension. 2.

8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change Figure 13 Constant Radius Comparison Plots .

Working with Full-Vehicle Models 9 Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change 5. Consequently. Compare the two reports (achassis_gs_full_sys_cnrd and achassis_gs_full_sys_cnrd_2). Roll steer is approximately toe change versus roll angle. 2. you generate a second report and compare it to the one you generated in Creating a Report. The front roll steer in the second report is less than the roll steer in the first report. 3. . the roll steer has been reduced. make sure that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is checked. Return to Adams/Chassis. In the property editor. To compare reports: 1. the understeer gradient is also reduced. Comparing Reports To look at the numerical data associated with the analyses. Create a report for the second constant radius event. and because the tie-rod geometry modification caused a more vertical toe curve.

Generate reports. Modify the tie-rod geometry just as you did in Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry. you will use the target value of 2. you modify vehicle parameters to try to achieve a specific numerical analysis result. . Repeat this process until you achieve the target value. For instructional purposes. 3.4 deg/g for the understeer gradient.10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Optimizing Full-Vehicle Handling Optimizing Full-Vehicle Handling In this section. To optimize full-vehicle handling: 1. 2.

Working with Leaf Springs 1 Working with Leaf Springs .

• Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs • Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs .2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Overview Overview Adams/Chassis supports two types of leaf springs: SAE 3-link and beam element. This chapter introduces you to the different types of leaf springs and contains two tutorials for modeling leaf springs in Adams/Chassis.

Figure 14 Adams/Chassis Dataview Table .Working with Leaf Springs 3 Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs When you work with 3-link leaf springs. as shown Figure 14. The next two sections explain the data displayed in the table. you use the VisEdit Property Spring Tab to display and edit rotation spring and second stage rates.

• TO Z = The torque applied to the interleaf bushings (that is. • KT Y = Lateral bending stiffness of that section (front or rear) of the spring. 1. Select Copy Database to Working Directory. In the Beam tutorial. 2. Hint: The path is: <adams_install_directory>\achassis\examples\vehicles\big_truck. and then close the Database Utilities window. you will integrate a beam element spring in place of the 3-link leaf spring. Loading Example Vehicle Database and System File In this section. Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial. 4. From the Utilities menu. Second Stage Rates • If the vehicle has a second stage (auxiliary leaf). • You can enter a simple linear rate (denoted by a positive value) or a nonlinear rate.vdb 3. This value is important since it defines the spring rate of the spring. SAE 3-Link Leaf Spring Model Tutorial This tutorial explains how to select the files associated with 3-link beam elements.4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs Rotational Spring Rates • KT X = Longitudinal twist stiffness of that section (front or rear) of the spring. front-to-middle link and middle-to- rear link). 6. It is important for the lateral stiffness of the suspension. This value is important in defining the spring rate of the leaf spring. . Select the Find tool next to the Vehicle Database text box. Select the Load Model button. The tutorial takes about one hour to complete. Choose the big_truck. select Database Utilities.vdb for the Registered Database. Select OK at the prompt. integrate them into a rear suspension. In the Select File window. 5. you will copy over an example vehicle database that uses a hotchkiss rear supension for study. Adams/Chassis models the second stage as a single-component force (SFORCE) between the body and the axle.vdb database by double-clicking the selection and selecting OK in the Selection dialog box. Note that you will use the model that you create here in next tutorial. select big_truck. • KT Z = Vertical bending stiffness of that section (front or rear) of the spring. and run an analysis and view the results. It is important for roll stiffness.

select big_truck_rst..xml. . view the data in the VisEdit Property Editor. select the Springs tab as shown below. In the property editor. and then select Open.Working with Leaf Springs 5 Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs 7. To view the data: 1. 2. Viewing Leaf Spring Data Before you run the simulation. In the treeview. Select big_truck_rear_sys.

6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs 3. View the data. Figure 15 Leaf Spring Visual Editing Panel .

3. Exit Adams/PostProcessor. Select the Test mode. and return to Adams/Chassis. .Working with Leaf Springs 7 Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs Running an Analysis To run an analysis: 1. When the event is complete. close the command window. select the Play tool . expand Suspension. 3. In the bookshelf. Animating the Model To animate the model: 1. and compare the results. Select Execute Selected Animations. 5. select the Pause tool 6. select big_truck_rear_sys_rride. 2. 4. 4. save the changes as a new file. Modifying the Leaf Spring You modify 3-link leaf springs using the same methods you have already learned for suspensions and full vehicles: modify properties in the property editor. Select the Review mode. and the double-click Rear Ride Motion. and then Build and Run Selected Events. . In the treeview. 2. From the dashboard. After the suspension goes through a complete animation. Select the rear ride motion event in the treeview.

The tutorial. Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial. Adams/Chassis provides a Leaf Spring Preprocessor in which you can quickly and efficiently prepare the beam element leaf spring. The next sections explain more about working with beam element leaf springs and provide a tutorial that steps you through the process of adding and analyzing leaf springs: • Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial • Viewing and Editing Beam Element Leaf Springs The following is a flowchart that shows how to generate a model containing beam element leaf springs. . runs you through the steps needed to generate the model in Adams/Chassis.8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs A beam element leaf spring model is a series of small parts connected by beams based on first principles. You run the Preprocessor whenever you change the leaf properties.

It contains parts. The next sections explain the information about beam element leaf springs that you can view and edit in the Leaf Preprocessor. the editor is the Leaf Preprocessor. Generate Model Run Leaf Preprocessor to exercise leaf model to design position. that define the leaf spring. Measure the mass of the shackle. For beam springs. markers. • General Leaf Spring Information • Axle • Shackle • Geometry .Working with Leaf Springs 9 Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs Gather Data Measure the leaf spring geometry in the free position. Adams/Chassis provides you with the ability to view and edit the information defining the leaf spring.ltf Enter data in the leaf spring . and so on. Adams/Chassis creates a leaf . Turn off the 3-link leaf spring and turn on the beam element leaf spring Figure 16 Flowchart for Working with Beam Element Leaf Spring Models Viewing and Editing Beam Element Leaf Springs Just as for the 3-link leaf spring. Measure the height of the leaf spring leaf Enter Data .ltf file.py file. beams. Measure the bushing rates of the three leaf spring bushings.

as shown in the following figure.Leaf-to-leaf friction.Level of impact.The number of leaves in the model. (Generally.Polynomial fitting of the leaf profile. • Reference marker to leafpack -The z height of the reference marker for the axle with respect to the coordinate system used to define the profiles. Used mainly for part numbering. • Axle mount type .Sections of the leaf spring regarded as rigid near the point x=0. Once the axle reaches this point. it is underslung.Either underslung or overslung.0.) Axle For the axle. • Front and rear inactive lengths . you use second order.The z height of reference marker used to stop the simulation.Where the leaf spring will be mounted in the vehicle. If the leaves are mounted below the axle. • Leaf spring mounting .The extra mass used to assemble the spring pack and connect it to the axle. If the leaves are mounted above the axle. . • Impact exponent . you can specify: • Extra mass on dummy axle . it is at design load. • Fitting algorithm . • Reference marker height at design load .10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs • Leaf Eyehook • Bushing • Leaf Profile General Leaf Spring Information You can view and edit the following general information about the beam element leaf spring: • Number of leaves . • Frictional coefficients . it is overslung.

the link is in tension.The physical length of the shackle part. y. This information is formatted such that it can be taken directly from the Adams/Chassis templates. and z positions for both the front and rear chassis connection points. • Shackle position . specified in millimeters. Geometry For geometry. the link is in compression. in the units shown. you indicate points in space where the leaf springs will be constructed. • Shackle location . If the leaf eye is below the shackle-to-body point. . You need another entry for the chassis contact points if you define an auxiliary leaf spring in the template.Whether the shackle is at the front or rear of the leaf spring pack. • Shackle mass and inertia .Working with Leaf Springs 11 Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs Figure 17 Shackle Illustration of Underslung and Overslung Leaves For the shackle. if the leaf eye is above the shackleto-body point. You must do this for both LEFT and RIGHT springs. Enter the x. you can specify: • Shackle length .Whether the shackle is used in tension or compression.The mass and inertial properties of the leaf spring shackle. from eye center to eye center.

0 E+7 for rotational rates).Young’s modulus of elasticity (Emod).Diameter of the inside of the eyehook.Corresponds to Points 20 and 21 in the file. because Leaf 1 is always the leaf with eyehooks. • Front and rear eyehook shape . Leaf Eyehook For the leaf eyehook.0. The leaf flag does not apply to Leaf 1. Used to define the beam statements and part masses. Leaf Profile • Auxiliary leaf flag .The leaf being defined will be broken up into discrete sections. you can specify: • Front and rear eyehook inner diameter .12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs • Front leaf eye bushing . • Z-offset . each of which will be modeled using an Adams BEAM element (see the BEAM statement in the online help for Adams/Solver.0 defined in the profile. and allows you to modify the bushings for variation studies.0 E+9 for translational rates and ~1. the auxiliary leaf contacts the chassis and augments the spring pack. • # of elements (<=45) .Whether the leaf is defined as an auxiliary leaf (1) or not (0).Corresponds to Points 1 and 2 in the subsystem file. . The auxiliary leaf should generally be the last leaf you specify. The leaf-to-leaf bushings keep the leaves from moving laterally or twisting from each other.Thickness (z-direction) and width (y-direction) of the leaf being defined at the point X=0.The sum of all previous leaf thickness and gap distances.The shape of the eyehook. Shear modulus of elasticity (Gmod). after the leaf spring has been compressed to a point. density . You can choose to call the bushing spring rates from the subsystem file by turning on the flag in the lower right corner of the Leaf Preprocessor.The length of the front and rear sections of the leaf from the point x=0.) • Seat thickness and width . and density of leaf spring material. as shown below. Gmod. Calling the rate information from the subsystem file reduces bookkeeping. They should have rather large values (~1. Berliner Eyehook Downturned Eyehook Upturned Eyehook Figure 18 Bushing Eyehook Shapes For bushings. you specify the translational and rotational spring and damping rates. • Shackle to frame . • Leaf length . An auxiliary leaf is located on top of the leafpack and. • Emod.

according to Timoshenko beam theory. • Increasing the number of contacts between the leaves results in an increase in computational time. Tips for Using Beam Element Leaf Spring Models • Increasing the thickness of the leaves increases the ride rate. When Adams/Chassis builds the leaf spring. • Damping ratio . The leaf will be in its deformed position. The column is flexible about the amount of data entered. ASZ . markers.Correction factor for shear deflection in the y (ASY) and z (ASZ) directions. For this tutorial. • Gap distance . while a negative number indicates underslung. • X column . • Empty points at the ends of the spring (outside of defined points) are held constant at the last defined value.The gap between the leaf and the one above it. Negative values are forward with respect to the vehicle. It shows you how you use the Leaf Spring Preprocessor to generate all the necessary flexible parts (beam elements.The ratio for calculating the structural damping matrix for the Adams beam. in effect modeling the physical contact of the top of the current leaf with the bottom surface of the one above it.ltf. .The Thickness column defines the thickness of the leaf at each x value.ltf file called example. parts. of an overslung leaf or the top of the underslung leaf. and so on) needed to define the leaf spring in your model. • Number of contact points . You can define data only at desired points or at all points.Used to keep the leaves from passing through each other as they deflect. • Z column . • Thickness column . we’ve gathered the data for you and provided you with a sample . Adams/Chassis processes the data in the following way: • Empty points between defined points are linearly interpolated. Adams/Solver multiplies the stiffness matrix by this value to obtain the damping matrix.The curvature of the top of the spring at the points on the spring that correspond to x. it exercises the model until the reference marker to leafpack reaches the height. A positive number indicates overslung. which is determined by flattening the spring. • You define two reference markers that are intended to move the leaf spring to design position: • The reference marker height at design load is the height of the axle center at design. The only restriction is that you enter at least one value.ltf file. • The reference marker to leafpack is the distance from the reference marker to the bottom Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial This tutorial creates a beam element leaf spring and incorporates it into a rear suspension.The position along the arc length of the spring. which is the sum of the two heights.Working with Leaf Springs 13 Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs • ASY. The process for creating a model containing a beam element leaf spring includes gathering data and entering the data in an.

. The tutorial takes about one hour to complete. Copy example.ltf appears in the Leaf Spring Preprocessor.tbl folder in the big_truck database in your working directory. 2. double-click springs. select the Leaf Spring Editor tool 3. . as shown in the following figure. To run the Leaf Preprocessor: 1. Double-click the database to which you copied the example file. and then select example. 4.ltf located in <achassis_install_dir>/examples/ltf into the springs.ltf. From the Utilities menu. be sure to run through that tutorial first. The data in example. Viewing the Leaf Spring You will use the file. Select the Find tool for the . Therefore. example.ltf text box. which contains a profile of a leaf spring. SAE 3-Link Leaf Spring Model Tutorial. The leaf spring contains four leaves.tbl.14 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs This tutorial builds upon the model you created in the tutorial earlier in this chapter.ltf.

Working with Leaf Springs 15 Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs General properties about the entire leaf Information about each leaf in the spring Plot of leaf springs Figure 19 Leaf Spring Preprocessor .

Note: The leaf spring processor can also be executed from the command line by issuing the following command: achassis_script -makeleaf example. Select the newly created beam_leaf property. 6. select the Springs tab. parts. 5. The Leaf Spring Preprocessor generates a file called example. Double click on sae3link_leafspring. In the “Enter Name and Type” dialog box. 4.py. markers. select Enter. 3.ltf (where "achassis_script" is the command to start up Adams/Chassis) Incorporating the Beam Element Leaf Spring into Your Model To incorporate the spring into your model: 1. 2. 2. select big_truck_rst. . which contains the beam elements. see Viewing and Editing Beam Element Leaf Springs. and then select example.py. To return to the Adams/Chassis main window. Under “Select Current Property”. select SpringLeaf under Type. 5. select each of the leaf tabs in the lower portion of the Preprocessor.16 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs Note: If you modify the leaf spring. select the Create New button. In the command window. select Exit. In the treeview. 3. and so on. View the general information about the leaf spring by selecting each tab at the top of the Preprocessor. Running Makeleaf To implement the leaf spring into your Adams/Chassis model. Select the Find tool next to the property file. In the property editor. For explanations of the information displayed in each of the tabs. To view a plot of each leaf in the file. you must save the data before you select GO. Select GO. 7. at the prompt. To run Makeleaf from the Leaf Spring Preprocessor: 1. needed to define the leaf spring in your model. you must first run the Leaf Spring Preprocessor (Makeleaf). Enter “beam_leaf” in the Name field. Adams/Chassis highlights the selected leaf in the plot to the right. 6.

Working with Leaf Springs 17 Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs 8. and then Build and Run the Selected Event. Select the event in the treeview. Double-click Rear-Ride Motion. 4. First. Play the animation. and then you’ll run an analysis and compare the results of analysis with the previous analysis to see the effect of the different thicknesses. you see many more elements than you saw in the previous 3-link leaf spring model. Select Yes to update references in the system file. For more information about the Thickness column. Load the file example. 4. In the animation. Switch to the Review mode. Running an Analysis and Animating It To run an analysis of the model with a beam element leaf spring: 1. close the command window. 2. Select Save as along the bottom.xml.ltf. and then select Execute Selected Animations. 5. Select Leaf 1. To change the leaf spring thickness: 1.ltf. 3. 3. Note that this analysis takes significantly longer to run than the 3-link beam analysis because the model is more complex. . Select the event in the treeview. see Leaf Profile. and save your new rear subsystem file as hotch_beam2. Select Save as along the bottom. select the Leaf Spring Editor. 2. expand Suspension in the bookshelf. When the analysis is completed.xml. Analyzing Effects of Leaf Spring Design Changes Now you’ll use the model you created to examine the effect of leaf spring thickness on wheel rate. Adams/Chassis modeled each leaf spring as a series of beam elements. 4. Rebuild the leaf model by selecting GO. Select the rear suspension and select the new spring property. 3. From the Utilities menu. and change the name of your modified file to example2. To animate the model: 1. Return to the Adams/Chassis window. In the Test mode. Select Save as. you’ll change the thickness of Leaf 1 of the leaf spring. 7. 6. and change its thickness to 13 mm by entering 13 in the Thickness column (third column in the middle table). 2. and save your new rear subsystem file as hotch_beam. 9.

4. Switch to the Test mode. select p03_Rear_Ride_motion. Select Build and Run Selected Events. Verify that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is selected. 3.18 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs 8. As you can see from this tutorial. To save the system file. . To run an analysis: 1. select Yes. Double-click the Rear Ride Motion event. Select Execute Selected Plots. Exit Adams/PostProcessor and Adams/Chassis. When the analysis is complete. To plot the analysis results: 1. In the Review mode. To update references in the system file. 2. In the treeview of Adams/PostProcessor. select Save. 9. 4. modeling with beam element leaf springs requires one additional modeling step when investigating design changes. 3. select the two rear ride motion analyses in the fingerprint tree. Now you’ll view plots that show the effect of modifying Leaf 1’s thickness from 8 mm to 13 mm on wheel rate. 5. close the window. 2.

Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 1 Integrating Control Systems in Your Model .

. It explains: • About Adding Control Systems • Loading Example Data Files • Running an Open-Loop Braking Event • Creating the Control System Utility • Building and Running the Model with Control System Included • Analyzing Effect of the Control System The tutorial takes about one hour to complete. It uses the example of adding an ABS controller to a brake model to improve the braking performance of the vehicle so that the wheels do not lock up.2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Overview Overview This tutorial explains how to integrate a control system into your model.

You represent the control system as FORTRAN or C code. You can attach the inputs and outputs represented in these lists to an external control system with no customization to the Adams/Chassis preprocessing templates. . You will set up the inputs and outputs to this control system. We’ve constructed these lists so they support some of the most common control systems in use today. The calling program's parameter list must adhere to strict requirements. see the Adams/Chassis online reference. And.Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 3 About Adding Control Systems About Adding Control Systems External controllers are becoming more and more common in vehicles today. create a new custom Adams/Solver library that contains the ABS system. you can connect anything else in your Adams/Chassis model to the control system. and compare your model's performance in a braking maneuver with and without the controller. we’ve added the ability for you to add external control systems into your Adams/Chassis model. The logic is represented as lists of standard control system inputs and outputs. and it is sometimes necessary to include them in your model to accurately predict how your vehicle will behave under various conditions. The code must contain a main calling program that serves as the interface to your Adams/Chassis model. The following tutorial takes you through the process of adding a simple ABS brake system to your model. For more information about control system subroutines. Adams/Chassis standard templates have logic for control systems built directly into them. with customization. Therefore.

select the Find tool for Brakes. The path is: <adams_install_directory>\achassis\examples\vehicles\f_car. 2. 4. select shared_chassis_database. review the Brake System documentation in the Adams/Chassis online help. Select the Load model tool. and then select Apply in the property editor. The Database Utilities window appears. In the property editor. From the list of databases in the Select File window. Select Copy Database to Working Directory. select f_car. 4. 2.xml.4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Loading Example Data Files Loading Example Data Files In this section. To load files: 1. from the Utilities menu.vdb. 5. select Open. To load example brake subsystem data: 1. Save the system file. double-click systems. and then select OK. In the Build mode. 5. Adams/Chassis copies the f_car example database to your working directory. Select OK at the prompt and then exit the Database Utilities window. 6.xml. Select brake_simple.vdb. 6. In the Browse for Folder window. select Database Utilities. double-click f_car.vdb. you load the component example data files for your Adams/Chassis session. Select f_car_full_sys in the tree. In the Copy database tab. 3. To learn more about the simple brake model.tbl. select the Find tool next to Database to Copy. . and then open f_car_full_sys. 3.

close the window. Before doing so. you’ll change the default preferences to generate road graphics. Notice the tire patch slip ratios for the rear tires are going to -100%. exit Adams/PostProcessor. Select Save. Select Build and Run Selected Events. 3. select the open-loop braking event. In the Preferences window. select the open loop braking event in the tree. In the bookshelf. During the animation. After reviewing the animation. 2. note the severe braking in the maneuver. expand Braking Analyses. To animate the results: 1. Adams/Chassis builds your model and runs it through an open-loop braking analysis. 3. Use the Display Next Page tool to view the plots. 2. Select Execute Selected Animations. In the Review mode. Adams/PostProcessor animates the analysis. Now you’ll view the results of the open-loop braking event. Go to the Test mode. 2. expand Full Vehicle. Review plots in the lower-left corner of page 3. and then double-click Open Loop Braking. 3. and then change Brake Pedal Force to 200 N. To run an open-loop braking event: 1. you’ll run an open-loop braking event and then view the results. In the tree. To change preferences: 1. . To plot the results: 1.Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 5 Running an Open-Loop Braking Event Running an Open-Loop Braking Event In this section. select Use Road Graphics. When the analysis is complete. 4. From the Edit menu. 2. indicating wheel lockup. 4. select Preferences. Plot the analysis by selecting Execute Selected Plots.

verify that it is .xml.f that we’ve supplied. verify that it is ABS. 2. verify that it is ABS_example. In the Select File window. Select FORTRAN as the Code Type. 6. and supporting source code files. 10. • Activating and Setting Up Control System Utility • Specifying Control System Inputs • Specifying Control System Outputs • Specifying Control System Libraries and Saving System Data Activating and Setting Up Control System Utility To activate the Control System utility: 1. In the treeview. In the Step Size text box. In the Subroutine Name text box. Return to the Build mode. Select the Find tool for Controls. 7. and then open brakes_controls_abs. Specifying Control System Inputs Now you’ll specify the inputs to the control system. In the Name text box. Make sure to activate the Controls subsystem by selecting the check box on the left. you will specify control system inputs. and in the property editor.01. select brakes_controls_abs. 3. This makes the text box active and allows you to create a new controls file.6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Creating the Control System Utility Creating the Control System Utility To add the ABS controller to your model you use the Control System utility. 9. select the shared_chassis_database. Using the Control utility. you can add up to five control systems to your model. 2. 8. In the example abs. the input parameters to the subroutine are as follows: • Master cylinder pressure • Left front wheel omega (left front wheel rotational speed) • Right front wheel omega . 5. outputs. Select the Controls tab. Select f_car_full_sys. 4. In the property editor. For each system. To set up the Control System utility: 1. select Apply. select the Check box to the left of Controls.

Select Add  to move these four to the Selected List. Holding down the left mouse button. and then highlight Wheel Omega FL through Wheel Omega RR. To select the four wheel omega inputs at once. Select Add  to add these four to the Selected List. Specifying Control System Outputs The four output parameters for this tutorial are: • Left front brake-line pressure • Right front brake-line pressure • Left rear line pressure • Right rear line pressure To specify the control system outputs: 1. 3. and are associated with the default units for each input. Select the Add  button to add the input to the Selected List. . If the source code is expecting a different unit than shown. hold down the left mouse button. you may have to modify the scale factor for one of the default inputs. To specify control system inputs: 1. highlight Brake Line Pressure FL through Brake Line Pressure RR to select the four brake-line pressure outputs at once. You must then customize Adams/Chassis such that an Adams/Solver variable with your specified ID is included in your model. The scale factors are also the default for the standard list. 3. 5. Select the Output tab. Select Master Cylinder Pressure. Note that variable IDs and scale factors are present for each input. you must supply the variable ID and scale factor.Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 7 Creating the Control System Utility • Left rear omega • Right rear omega Note: Control system inputs and outputs must be selected for them to appear in the subroutine's parameter list. For user factors. 2. Select the Input tab. 2. 4. You have now selected the five subroutine inputs. the necessary Adams/Solver VARIABLES are contained in the standard Adams/Chassis templates. For these standard inputs. and will be automatically added to your model when you include this control system.

select Save as.f is the only source file you need. 2. . Select to update reference in system file.xml. the standard outputs have default units and scale factors. you specify abs. you must supply the variable ID.f. Specifying Control System Libraries and Saving System Data In this section. Select the Find tool.f. 2. see the Adams/Chassis online help. 6. To specify a control system library and save it: 1. and customize Adams/Chassis such that the variable is included in your model. Note: For information on the format of control system libraries. 4. Copy example abs. 5. Then double-click the Controls. Select the Control Libraries tab. Copy <top dir>/examples/f/abs. 5.f as your control system library and save it. To find the top directory. Select Add  to move abs. Select the f_car database in the upper left corner. Your control system specification is now complete. You may have to modify the scale factor or add a user output for different control systems. 3. 4. Select Save as and enter f_car_abs. For user outputs. Enter abs_example. In the lower right corner.xml. Select Open. enter From the shell: achassis_top. The file abs. 7.8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Creating the Control System Utility The four outputs of the controller have now been selected. To save the control system: 1.tbl folder.f to your working directory. You’ll now save it. 3. Select Save. As with the inputs. 6. 8.f to the Control Library List. Select abs.

This library should reside in the working directory. expand Full Vehicle. http://www. 4. In the Test mode.com/products/adams_support.bat" located in the FORTRAN installation directory will set up the correct environment for the compilers).{so. executing the batch file "ifortvars. expand Braking Analyses. Adams/Chassis will compile and link abs. Note: Ensure that the pedal force is 200.mscsoftware. it may be due to the fact that Adams/Chassis was launched from a command shell without the proper compiler settings (on Windows. select f_car_abs as your system file. During the build process. and then double-click Open Loop Braking to add an additional event. Select Build and Run Selected Event. If the compile or link process fails. 2. In the bookshelf. For more information. refer to the hardware and software specifications included with your installation instructions. Make sure your event parameters are the same as in the original model. and on the MSC Adams Product Support Page. Note: In order for Adams/Chassis to compile and link the native ADAMS library. sl. Adams/Chassis displays a message stating that the control system abs_example has been included in the model. 3.cfm . dll}. it must have access to both the FORTRAN and C compilers. To integrate the control system: 1.Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 9 Building and Running the Model with Control System Included Building and Running the Model with Control System Included You will now begin the process of integrating the control system into your model and performing an open-loop braking event.f to create a control library ABS_example.

2. 3. Activate the plots for the original and control-system analyses. Select Execute Selected Plots. Select the Review mode.10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis Analyzing Effect of the Control System Analyzing Effect of the Control System To see the effects of the ABS control system: 1. You can now compare the plots to see the effect of the ABS system. . the rear wheels do not lock with the ABS system activated.

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