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Bradley Polytechnic Institute. Illinois SERIES A NUMBER 1 THE CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES CHARLES M. ILLINOIS . California THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS PE^RIA.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS Edited by Professor of CHARLES A. BENNETT Manual Arts. Peoria. MILLER Assistant Supervisor of Manual Training Los Angeles.

COPYRIGHT THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS 1909 .

3 284607 . The Reprints will be arranged in two series. Discussions having special permanent value. of the demand for certain numbers Manual Train- Magazine has led to the conclusion that some of the articles in these to be reprinted. Illustrated articles of special practical value for class use. as follows: Series A. or such as supply needed data to students preparing to become teachers.TL n M MANUAL TRAINING The ing persistent REPRINTS. To supply this evident need the Manual Training Reprints have been planned and will be issued at irregular intervals as the demand may warrant. Series B. numbers ought Moreover. it is believed that from time to time in the future the Magazine will publish articles which owing to their special value ought to be reprinted soon after they appear in the Magazine.

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But Some- even the wisest teacher. They sire MANUAL to instruction in the manual arts stimulates in the pupils the de- have often encouraged pupils to bring home projects into the school. him a means of stimulating sponta- neous effort in his pupils and has opened the lar way to a large field of simi- work. : E. has invented . Mr. this point of view with reference to home work that has led Miller of Los Angeles. C. but they have seldom differentiated between problems especially adapted to school work and those which are preeminently is home problems. he does consider likes an especially good form of work for the school shop." as he It has furnished to call it. California. when it comes. The completeness of the success of the kite tournament is shown by the following statement of Public Schools. Kite Day is a school festival which we all look forward to and which. to develop kite-making and organize the annual kite tournament which has been so remarkably successful during the past three years. who started it skill. here. Superintendent Los Angeles I regard our kite day as the best school undertaking that we have. Miller. but very few teachers have attempted to direct and develop such outside work. something which may be used to advantage by every school department in the land. C.INTRODUCTION. is enjoyed by thousands of adults as well as thousands of children. training teachers generally believe that good school do construction work out of school. M. in order to insure the greatest value in such home work. Moore. and more of the spirit of clean sport. Yet such a differentiation teacher's influence practicable and it suggests a broadening of the pupils. made by Dr. and the enrichment of the handwork of the late Sometimes the manual training teacher has been striving to stimupupils to spontaneous effort in school when he would have done better to have held the pupils down to organized. It is a splendid institution. must It is give his pupils encouragement and suggestions. Miller does not claim that Charles kite-making is M. systematic the school and reserved the spontaneous work for work in home problems. and nothing that we do calls forth more inventiveness. times he must even supply the motive to effort. more Mr. but it an excellent form of "home occupation work.

" t :"\To enable lias . Number 3. as the first tjhe| ljUfitntoat ^nt*nin& Magazine. number of the Manual Training Reprints. -THE EDITOR. Miller and has added suggestions to teachers concerning the kite tournament.qther teachers and supervisors to profit by the data Mr. we present his article published Volume X. in if iller used* witlv such success. 1909. To this article Mr. August 10. as it apwe have appended his account of the tournament of 1909 just peared in the Manual Training Magazine. .

The kites of to-day are more scientific and more con- a boy sees they are possible to construct. some very practical uses These men have not only performed for the certain experiments by means of kites. interesting possibilities. KITE In The Chinese.' Men of science have found frail structures of the air. but made in two years by the boys safely predicted. G. flying dates back to very ancient history. California. for boys keep their eyes but have developed considerable aerial open and are apt scholars when so they are tail . this amusement the people . struction as well. come their way. to the small boy. no longer limited to the English bow-kite with its long suspended they have turned kitedifficult of surgeon. and "What anthat other boys have constructed them. Yankee invention Kite making and kite flying has received a great impetus the last few years as the result of the efforts of some of the boys who have "older 1 grown. FIG. THE CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. that in ful aerial crafts of Los Angeles. All these developments have been of decided advantage craftsmanship. but when . and amputated this appendage. have been flying kites for ages. it may be a short time we may expect to see some wonderthat will far excel the Oriental. both children and grown people. he is tempted to try.A TOURNAMENT WINNER.many of of China and Japan are unquesjudging by the progress tionably far ahead of us in respects.

wants ballast to tackle. being sufficient to carry the kite through a temporary disturbance. A. we might work If we had a very steady breeze. its tail. the cover is bowed. called the spine. cross-currents. and may be likened to the keel of put on loosely. and add just the right ballast here and there to make a partial success. If a boy undertakes to a tightly stretched." ciently used. The cross piece of the frame throws the vertical stick. and one not in the boy's work is good to put way. Just how. The this tailless kite is must have some recompense for the loss of to be found is in its construction. The first canoes were hollowed out of logs and were round on the bottom. Instead of the tight-covered surface. they don't quite know. ful suggestions. not it The boys use a tissue paper tail for ballast. The tail steadies the kite. vision. It is the same principle as the one employed by the rope walkers who and poise themselves by the use of fans. hard. pass before his mental which he pursues. he will soon find he has about as foxy a problem as he He will soon discover that he needs ballast. vague perhaps at first. the consideration of a few of the simpler ones may fly not be out of place. It takes is much longer for a tail of this kind to drop to normal position and a constant balancer during that time. original thinking in working out plans already prepared. A piece of lead suspended to a string It will not answer the purpose finds its will not give poise to a darting kite. well for- a canoe.MANUAL TRAINING other boy has done. and as he works on temptation to these. sometimes to failure. whirls and calms. as by the pull drawn through its due to the resistance offers in being the air. "It It is REPRINTS." In kite making the boy has an incentive to do some good. forms a ridge on the front surface. Fig. or to the adjustment of a contrary breeze. but the needed is not mere weight. Such a one would soon leave the uninitiated on but later there was a keel extending 8 wrong side the under side . new All boys that who have had some experience in kite flying probably know It takes the wind to make the kite go. so much by its actual weight. and all such disturbances that a boy encounters in all kite-flying. Without going too deeply into the physics of the various problems of kite construction. So much for kites with tails. like the keel of a bird. plain-surface kite. out the right attachment of bridle. suffi- an old saying. the also. I can do. but very often to successconstruction and operation. and this ward. but we must consider vertical position too quickly. The projection of the spine to the front.

so the tailless. in poise Box kites have vertical or oblique surfaces that keep the kite tail without the assistance of the kite rise? this is or special keel. 9 . just so much more of a lifting force. FIG. down deep kite. then. but in addition to the lifting power. Kites with their keels will ride a rather turbulent atmosphere. must then get by is The attachment of the bridle so cause is such as to throw the upper part far for- by the under route. as well a plain one. that he would stand on his head. The same and true with a box kite. A. and compression means resisa double meaning: tance but that resistance is nearly all on the under side of the kite and is ward and most of the air to escape . Fig. Fig.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. does the same. the air will pass too much to one side or the other. and the surface of the kite FIG. and very soon recover equilibrium. The windmill fan turns at an angle to the breeze. Just so with the not square to the front or to the rear. in Fig. lies in the proper shap- ing and balancing of the kite in its construction. But the thickening of the arrows has it means compression. a proper tilting of the kite's surface to the breeze. B. so foxy The secret. and would carry it on away with it but for the fact that there The air usually a boy attached to the other end of the anchor line. FIG. but he said the grandpa proved It lacked poise somewhere. if it may be called a secret. into the water The boat the best of all which gave greater poise. flyers. has a tendency to push the obstacle out of the way. C. The keel is someis times projected straight out from a flat surface. as there is other air pushing from behind. some way. C. The air moving against the kite. One boy tried to make a "Foxy Grandpa" kite. tapers at the top and bottom. thing that causes the wind- What makes mill to turn . if the kite is not well balanced. and if the bridle should not be well adujsted the kite will dodge and dive sufficient to try the and cut up antics most patient. as shown by the congestion of arrows. The force of gravity has all the while to be overcome. B. C will help to demonstrate this principle. and the use of keels or balancers sufficient to give additional poise in times of special disturbances.

MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS.CONSTRUCTION stick / Group Q sP nie - l e-ss ^'^ . KITE. T'tATC I.

It comes in all colors. as there will be more sagging on one side than the other. lining cambric is very serviceable. A flimsy covering not as good as one with a In draw- ing on the cloth cover. covering is See Fig. rice paper. care must be taken to avoid getting the goods on the kite too much on the bias. A string. article. should be light and tough. Probably more kites are covered with tissue paper than any other material. redwood shingle. and some don't. Sometimes a light wood of large dimensions is is preferred to heavier wood of smaller considered a very satisfactory wood. In the large-sized kites. the sticks should be lashed together with string. it Southern California breezes. size. ) ( For folding kites see the bibliography at the end of this The string is an essential part. possible to get is With large tailless kites. string should be about twice as strong as the kite usually pulls in order 11 . but split it is bamboo for body construction lacks suffi- very serviceable. is inexpensive and durable. however. grades of tissue paper. is a very serviceable The kites.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. In California the boys use a three-foot cient stiffness. in bending for forms. D. pine. although larger sheets. The framework. but yellow Spruce basswood and white cedar are very good. kite-line. is bamboo excellent. which is usually made of wood. they should diagonally in both directions. If a good grade in the material used The of tissue paper is used. little stiffening. In lashing two pieces together. For very large running from 6 ply to 72. as it comes in rather small sheets in this part of the country. with a few rounds between the sticks and around the other windings. a very important part of the construction. called a "shake. makes a very satisfactory covering for our There is a great deal of difference in the is A much stronger paper the Japanese or Chinese it is which usually has to be pasted together. it Some pre- fer silk. The seine twine. In the plain kite. Some frames have been made of aluminum tubing. because is squeezes the pocketbook too hard. a network of string some- times strung over the surface to be covered. to tighten the whole lashing. but not for bows in tailless kites. -f^ about as nailing weakens the be wound stick. For box kites and large surface plain kites. not only but in the way it is put on. small rope and wire are used." It is of uniform thickness and is split into sticks or ^2 inch in width. for if the string breaks !! For small kites of about three feet a four-ply cotton string is about as good as well twisted cotton string is much to be preferred to a hemp any. to give support to the paper.

E. Constructions belonging to kitology. 5. the bow in the middle. around b. Remember your string is as only as strong as its weakest point. take string and Now See Fig. F. (4) tetrahedral. FIG. measure and secure be and cd. the spine at one-fifth the Tb FIG. as shown on Plate I. It is possible (2) triangular. B. FIG. at the lower corner. D. Plain-surface kites. E. b in this illustration is a little higher than d. shows the best way to let in the string at the end of the sticks of the framework. Some kind up the modes of a classification of kites seems necessary before taking of construction. and B features. c. can be subdivided as follows: kites. if it is not thoroughly dried afterward. for the spacing of ab and ad will not necessarily bring be equal to cd. We now measure and make ab exactly equal to ad. A kites.MANUAL TRAINING to REPRINTS. and Plate II. We framework with two pieces lashed together. as the spine may be bent. as the knife kite is liable to split the wood. signaling devices. 2. meet emergencies. Box kites. This should not be of each stick. 12 . and with the saw-cuts as indicatd above at the end Start by tying string around top of spine at a. and many other appliances. distance from the top. A saw is used to make the cuts. F. (3) cylindrical. and d. Draw it fairly tight through a and tie again. but each may be used in tan- A I. and a string soon loses in strength if it is allowed to get wet more so. or they may be compounded. so. each large in itself: A. to combine not only the dem. Fig. Fig. wireless aerials. but not exactly kites in themselves. pass Now. are the messengers. photographic ap- paratus. parachutes. As soon as they are equal. We will first separate them into two general classes. as shown on Plate Fig. Fig. 7 of Plate I. (2) tailless (1) square or rectan- gular. Directions for stringing a tailless will present our might be of value here. (1) kites with (3) figure B may be divided thus: tails. wind securely b and d.

(tons of G-rotl -s/>/es. '' Bo* Keet \ 13 .CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. 7a~t Mess Tu/o or more it /ca.

Attach another . A crescent frame made of split bamboo. star may be of i kite. they can be made double. which should add much to the beauty of the structure. to a small The doth can be used) with long tassels on the ends. H. Plate III. I. The (The horizontal stick may be omitted. Fig. beyond the large circle in the card board discs used on the tails little are not sufficient balancers. 1. Before leaving this group. See Fig. running down one at the tip end. G. two sticks of the star are long to cross the crescent. and both with or without the fringe. Take a string long enough to reach from b to c with enough slack to reach out about half tr height 01 the kite away from 14 the kite. The construction English bow-kite was quite a familiar figure to our fathers. The circles of the small lower kite should extend a If order to allow good lashing. A The may star kite. and tied about the middle with the string of the tail. admits of considerable variety. See photograph. we must consider the bridle.) The tail is long and is made of short pieces of paper folded or rolled up. The or cover extend over the entire figure. The two tails are of heavy cord (twisted heavier than the horizontal. The horiA further develzontal stick can be bowed a little to good advantage. See Fig. may may be made. contrasting color. giving strength to the five whole structure. each point of the be a star within a star. The enough star and crescent is a production of one the school boys. is simple and can be easily understood from the drawing. The kite considered the most artistic by a very competent set of judges at last year's tournament was a large six pointed star kite with fringe. The pointed star kite also has three sticks of equal length. Japanese rectangular kite shown at the top of Plate III is made The vertical and two oblique sticks should be entirely of split bamboo. PLAIN-SURFACE KITES. making a hexagonal cover just to the string shown by the dotted line. but the horizontal should bow a little the upper one more than the lower. They must be securely lashed together at the point of crossing. or there may is Again. piece of cloth usually is found on the end. of this kite would be the addition of a light circular band around opment the outside for the support of a fringe. sticks The circular kites need little explanation.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. of. Let us show the attachment of a bridle to a hexagonal kite. and smaller stars of contrasting colored papers on the inside. The tail was made up of a graded series of duplicate kites. Kites with tails have a representation in the group on Plate III.

PL AT Kites. Kt-i/ect /" f\ Jr awes are "G ^"~2h-.cfe.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. 15 . Of us>~tn /ica. ur/f/i tatl-s r.</if <5^// ^e m boo *. ma.

and be attached to the anchor above the center of the Two ing kite tactics in the air. The bridle is sometimes attached to the two ends of the is spine. instead of crossing. The bridle string of the from the top two sticks would meet two strings from the lower end of the line same kite. is that just reaches the end of the bow. you get a very pleasing effect. They cannot fasten the pieces together and attach bridles carelessly with hope for success. the kite is would extend from a to c and from b to d in the The two strings must be played out equally until well up. star FIG. Don't said to be it has to have a tail. but should be to the made long enough to reach from the top fog is the length of the bridle. back and forth in the varying breezes. anchor lines are sometimes used for the purpose of performTwo separate bridles are then necessary. and attach the kite-string at this point. end of the bow. upper 16 at the crossing of the . but all unite a in their at- must be tached to the kite string or anchor line center. but when two long graceful lines float out parallel to each other. The fox Surely many kites are made more beautiful by the trailing of a long tail. and from that to the bottom. Plate I. I. but each operation must be carefully measured and worked. See that a e is the same length as b e. or may be compounded. The tailless is a very easy flyer and works well in tandem. It has one long The bridle will be attached spine and two bows. sometimes the upper end attached where the bow and spine are lashed together. sticks. Fig. as they sway proud of his tail. and above illustration. bow and bottom of the spine. Plate a compound kite of two tailless. of equal length to a and d. The Japanese great many points bridle. The anchor line is attached to the point I.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. H. Tailless kites are most popular with the boys nowadays. In Fig. then by skillful manipulation cast aside a kite just because many beautiful tricks may is be attempted. FIG. 2. 1. 2. above the five-pointed The kite would have a little different bridle. Bring the two strings together at e about one-fourth of the distance above the center.

IBox KITES Celled 17 .CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES.

so an extra keel was added that gave poise and made a strong puller of it. 5 of the same plate. lower bow of this kite should not be bent quite as is much as the up- The spacing as essential in this. 3. A A aging words soon brought back the smile. Let the line out until the second is 300 feet or so away. 2 on an extra line about 100 feet or more. they probably will be needed. then put up a No. with another string from its exact center to the lower end of the spine. and tie this to the main line. as shown. Spe- 18 . which it is will do as soon as relieved of the load of string. The tailless kites as a rule* are not strong pullers. REPRINTS. 1 to mount higher. leaving the spine well raised. is one of the strong r g and a c b and h d b are made of makes a beautiful kite and flies well. shown in the illustrations or not. third Kites can be put up to a great height in this way. with one spine and two bows. The illustration is given a little to the right. the drawmore for the extra line of each kite. The bridle may loop from one end of the upper bow to the lower end. The three to the left are small boys* The middle one modification. but it is also the most difficult. and so on. be attached in different ways. a beginning of a modificais tion of this class. as shown in Fig. Fig. 3 of Plate I Figure Kites. but an interesting experiment. Plate I. lift the string it is and allow No.MANUAL TRAINING Fig. and attach the third. m h are put on. The 3. large is compound kite has no very great advantage over other is forms. Plate I. The construction of figure kites one of the most interesting developments on the amusement side of the whole problem. and a little manipulation brought out as good a sailing kite as there was in the neighborhood. as in Fig. ing says 30 feet or A In flying the tandem. all small boy came to me one day with a broken heart. the strings at m and k drav them down into the upper curves. then the fourth. some three hundred or more feet. The curves split bamboo and are fastened before a k g pulling tailless kites. and it was few encourbecause another boy had broken the bow of his kite. 1. Fig. but when the latter are attached. The per. so an extra stick was lashed to the back. but an hundred First put up a kite on the main line feet and upward is much better. 4. Plate II self-explanatory. on the left-hand gave some trouble one day. The bow was broken in the middle. for the second. is a very satisfactory attachment. and so on. The result is shown in the upper corner. unless tails are used so whether tails are . and should have a very loose covering.

framework that comes nearest to the center line may be best in some cases. as impossible to get the irregular outline is by turning over the edges. of recommendation V door "American Boy's Handy Book. beetle is so near like the owl that it will not require separate . Tlv attention. The antennae of light wire or small reed. or by the use of a brush. Sometimes a is pieced out with a piece of stiff paper to carry some small defigure tail of the outline. as it would be as unlimited as nature itself. at the same time leaving the irregular edge free. but he is not any than some other boys are with their bridle should be attached to the wrists. but much more is done by a skillful running of string from one part of the framework to another. so stow it away. and if carefully made. A re- light yellow butterfly with dark markings makes a showy The verse is also true. C. so a side of the cover. hands and Some very for pretty butterfly kites have been made." Many interesting figures are worked out in kite The two books named should be in every home where there are forms. ankles home. to approach the outline. Apply the bridle at a b c d. so a glance at a skeleton here and there will Much of the detail must be brought be as much as we can accomplish. strip pasted over the string to the back thus securing the string to the cover. for he is too broad for the height to balance without one. it is Here a chance of some good observation is A little different method pasting necessary here. ends of the spine and both ends of the upper bow. see Fig. A while in others the object will be. out with dark paper cut to shape. The bat will surely need a tail. Reed is is to form the outline of the head. the The bridle jshould be attached to both kite should fly without a tail. cific directions or comment cannot be given to each. restless boys. I. can be modified to suit the occasion. kite. The boy more obedient duties at kite in the flying. The body of the butterfly can >c made of a stiff piece of paper. This hint will 'be useful T many times. The suggestions for the boy kite on Plate was found in D. The arm and used top of the head. in nature study." and "The OutHandy Book. The two horizontal pieces should be bowed.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. feet. There are two books by this author that are very worthy Beard's book. The owl may be made of tan paper with dark brown markings. sticks also to the Each arm sticks stick should be securely lashed to both leg where they cross each other. at times.

MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. BUTTERFLY Dark brou un't/% light spots. PLATE V. c a .

CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. PLATE vi. I SHIP KlTS 21 .

most important of the The latest air ships are kites of large dimensions. Plate VI. are hard to fly. the square or rectangular being perhaps the most familiar. Boyle St. K. enough to fly and dark hulls. balloon should be dark This has never been tried to my 512 knowledge. The braces should be just long enough between the kite A ' . ship kites with white sails The one to the right is "Outdoor Handy Book. Plate III. REPRINTS. The K. so he who succeeds with it may send word to the writer. one at each end. one in each Two corner. as out of this group has been developed the air ship inventions. brace should be cut to fit the corner piece. The brownies make interesting kites. running lengthwise. The square kite is only square in cross sec- framework of four long sticks. The second general division has more than ordinary interest these days. j. Los Angeles. and four short ones used as braces. too. K." by Beard. Cal. 'Lone cortr called a cell. It consists of a light bands of paper or cloth surround the kite. but like Foxy Grandpas. combining compound box and plain apparatus. 4. The The color. are very about the construction given in the I believe it will tails. construction of the balloon kite tail. kites with the addition of propelling is Reference to Plate IV should convince one that there ample opportunity for variety in this class.MANUAL TRAINING The beautiJttl. tion. BOX KITES.. construction of the banner kite is the is same as Fig. shown in Fig. It necessary to have these open spa as air vents. are fitted in about half the depth as the cell. The braces of FIG. The baftu is and space enclosed Cirdof FIG. The winding is to prevent splitting when size for the is suddenly wrenched by a whirl of wind. I. given on Plate The basket and cords take the place of a The S. struct these carefully them without be possible to conThe tails should be in the shape of anchors when used. with an open space is L:"ween ? them. good long sticks is -f^x^x 34 inches set diagonally in the corner as shown in Fig.

PLATE vn. 23 .CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES.

The making lifting of box kites requires more real construction. FIG. no great and by reference to the should be encountered.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. so that when the head is tipped to the proper angle. and the other two glued as Such a kite can be even spacing that otherwise would be hard to get. when dry gether. year by using tailless kites throughout. which is not true of other box. It is easy to see that rolled into small space and is very serviceable. and their power is greater. the it two hems. bibliography. should be turned back like a side to give strength to the fast to the outside first as hem and pasted down with a string inThe cloth or paper should be glued edge. cannot leave the kites proper without mentioning the dragon are a series of plain surface kites. The Chinaman devised a set of harness to make a lot of single kites pull together. connecting string. kites. the kite to be covering we 16 inches square. 24 . The triangular box kite can be compounded to quite it an extent. but the tetrahedral has been developed by Dr. M. The pounded. L. They are not comand not in tandem. the have been writen on this phase of the subject. L. M. with a number of adjustable planes for guiding purposes. at the top and They side and sometimes at the bottom should all be the same length between kites. The head can be some body will be inclined the same amount. all the sec- tions of the on kite has discs for the last The Chinese dragbut a very successful plan was adopted body kites. and the cell should be 9 inches wide so to allow for ] The . should be cut in the long sticks to receive the braces. Bell until can be made of any size. the strip would need to be 10 inches. difficulty V/////A W///A FIG. DRAGON I KITES. Some of the aeroplanes have a number of square cells in a series. kites. quire a strip 64 inches long plus have a /2 inch hem. traces. If paper is used. but belong in a class by themselves. directions cannot be given for all the box kite class. It will reThe two edges should 1 inch for seam. or whatever they may be called. This gives an sticks. Shallow notches notches to necessitate their being sprung into place. but many articles We start with two sticks two sticks can be brought toshown in Fig. will suppose to be of cloth. edge of the long shown in Fig.

The drawings of reels should require no special direction.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. extending a few inches to the outside of the kites. with ] streamers floating out behind. FIG. A dragon kite with a 3 ft. can be used as balancers. Very light splinters of bamboo with tassels of tissue paper on the ends. N FiG. See the "American Boy's Handy Book" for the operate Chinese dragon kite. The centipede kite is about the same in construction. used a little differit is no easy matter to make a successful yacht. like an apron. but October. It will require a sturdy boy or two to such a monster. larger with the lower part of the covering (best of cloth) left loose and longer than the kite. Figs. Nicholas for should inspire any boy to work hard to win success. set Two photographs here pre- and O. Some of the boys have attached light . show what was accomplished' by a lad twelve years old with a kodak on a kite string. in the Clouds. This year we used a beam for the yacht and a wire nail bent into the shape of a hook for the release of the sail. stick A broomfor makes a very good rod.'be elastic." by Nugent in St. 25 . thus expediting the return. The may consist of a rod about the width of the body kite. so this must be built up. head and 2 ft. spacing between kites. The signaling and experiments in photography have been well forth in articles given in the bibliography. 0. N. sented. 1900. will prove very satisfactory. All the way from 6 to 15 body kites tail piece may be used with about 2 /2 ft. body kites. For this reason it is cut in irregular shapes. but there is still room for im- provement. so that when the sail is released it will pulled down quickly. which blows back in the breeze like a beard. but it is not large enough in diameter the drum. The "Yacht Race We ent mechanism last year for our yachts. These should be very carefully spaced.

1907. wireless opera- but we will close with just a word on the purpose and plan of the work. The air seemed full of kites It was a big and little. 1903. 1907. but The boy in uses his his used as a supplement to shopwork. that might be used in a similar way. Cur. Supp. 8. 6. etc. The tournament of 1907 was recorded in the MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE of December. . 1907. Franklin Kite Experiments with Modern Apparatus Frost Pop. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KITES IN PERIODICAL LITERATURE. June Nic. Mimeograph sheets were posted in each school with drawings similar to those presented here... 5. for use as suggestions. Much tion. Circus on a Kite String Experiments with Kites St. Lit.. Exploration of the Atmosphere at Sea Sci Excursion with Kites Cur. 11. 1903.. 1903 . Amer. reach boys through this sport. 4.. King (Tetrahedral) Sci. Roth. The tournament of 1908 was a much Fully five thousand people were present. Craze About Kites Competition of Kite Flying Sci. Cent.. June 1. 26 . All the participants were not registered. bition sight to be remembered. G. March. greater success. but is a construction is not carried on in the manual is training shop. what would otherwise be Many mothers have expressed their approval of the undertaking. Amer. July. The tournament is brought about for the purpose of recognizing the efforts and success of the home occupation. strong and curious. 9. messengers.. 3. Supp. Sci.. 19. May 2. 27. 1902. 7. Construction of Kites Sci. The is encouraged through the schools. . Wise. Overland.. but 39 schools were represented. 10. knowledge developed in a manual training course working out own problems by himself. Lorrimer. and 216 registrations were made. 1907. Lit.. 2. Bell Sci Amer. 1. N''?ent. Mo. There many similar projects having as great variety as this one. May. Bell.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. 32:78. 1902. might be said about the streamers. 31:739.. ing The boys got their ideas. and many teachers have been able to that they were not able to understand be- The are kite problem is seasonal. and worked them out duridle hours. June 13. Jan. The home kite undertaking occupation. June. Bell. Experiments by A. and the exhiwas worth going to see.. 1901 Tindal. Festival of the Lantern Kites Amer. fore.

24. TTr ireless Telegraphy Sci.. Kites and Meteorological Observations Nat. Adams. Their 23. 42.. Kite Flying as a Fine Art World Today. 1905. Zah. Scientific Kite Flying Signaling with Kites Nich. Captive Nat. Aug. New and Observation Kites Invented by Sci. 1903.. 49. Tailless Kites.. 1900. Millett. June 27. 78:576. 21. International Kite Ascensions International Kite Flying Contest Amer. Supp. Kite Balloon. Kite as a Life Saver at Sea Engineer Mag.. Lit. 1900. . 1903. July Meteorograph Construction and Operation Sci. 17. 13.. Tetrahedral Kites of A. Kite in War and Peace Chaut. Welsh. Amer. 25. Sci.. 50. Amer. Sept. Kite Principles in Aerial Navigation Sci. Claudy. Amer. 58:1026. 1904. 5. Ser- viss. April. 1903 Grosvenor.. 39. 1907. Supp. 1906. 28. May 10. 43. Beasley. 1907. 32:86. Sci. 48. Mar. Amer. 40. Tetrahedral Kite in. 37. Scientific Kite Spec. 31. Modern Kite and Government Experiments Outing. 29. 32:66. 53:48. 55:150.. Dec. Dec. 20. Theory and Practice Jo. 41. Feb..CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. 41. Sci. Eddy. also Nat. G. 1903. Oct..ag. 30:43.-Sci. 19. Oct. Flexible Bridles on Kites 14.. Claudy. Hargrave Box Kite and Tetrahedral Compared 1908. 1901.. Supp.. 1906 47.. Bell Tetrahedral Princip'e in Kite Pop. June. Apr. S. 1907. Marvin. 1904. 27. F. Amer.. Ferguson. 36:278. Oct. June 3. 10. 21.. 22. Meteorological Phenomena on Mountain Summits Sci. April.. April Tetrahedral Kite. 15. 20. 6:379. Hunter. Worn.. 13. 1900. Amer.. 29:582. 18. Amer.. Kite in Meteorological Research J. 1903. Rotch. July 25. Sci. Dec. Amer. Geog. July. Feb. 1904. 27 .. Kite Flying. Amer. 1907. Kite Flying in the East Cur. 1900. Picturesque Chinese Kites Sci. St. 148:241. Home 10. Briggs.. 32. 12. Supp. Woglom. 1903 29.. Scientific Kite Scientific Kite Flying Flying Century. 1907.. Marvin. Soc..ur. Amer. Eddy. 3. Traction by Kites. 30. Scientific Kite Flying St. Oct. Supp. 1907. June 1903. 1903.. Arts. 36.. Sci... 1900. 21.. Oct. Amer. Kites in the Service of Meteorology Nature. 26. Oct. Kite Flying in Life Saving Operations Sci. V. 34. How to Make Kites and Flying Gigs Sci. Observation War Kites Sci. Amer. Franklin Inst. Nich. Folding Malay Kites Sci... 1904. Cody 13. Amer. 7:213. 31. Use in Meteorological Observations at Sea Sci. Kites. 27. Amer. Baden-Powell. Moffett. 45. Construction Sci. 35. Scientific McClure. Sept. June . Lit. Independent.. 13. Photography from Kites 38. 6.. Amer. Supp. Century. 33. Varney. Com. Sci. 46. 11. 16. 9. Amer. Clayton. Kite Flying in 1897 Pop. How Made Outlook. 46:359.

Baden-Powell. Rotch. In "Los Angeles four or more copies were and they had hard wear. Nugent. Yacht Race in the McClure. S. At least on" copy of k instructions should be sent to each school. 1900. If the occupation is enT couraged in selected schools. 63:108. April 18. so before^ the tournament. Work with Kites by U. 52. Nat. 53. 13. Clouds St. Nic. the superintendent c. Dec.*v appoint some one especially interested in boys' sports. In special be ripped out in the ' u boys get their the sticks c may manual training room.. training is would naturally be the best one to act as director. Geog.. Oct. 1901. of the instructions could be placed .. WINDMILL KITE TOURNAMENT OF 1909. 21-28. - In organizing a kite tournament some one person should take the The supervisor of manual responsibility of the undertaking as a whole. Oct. B. War Kites 54.. a co in each room. Weather Bureau Nat. 12:543. 1900. THE KITE TOURNAMENT. Amer.. In case there no manual training supervisor. * own material and do the work at home. in Meteorological Observations 1903. Sci. 11:55. It is not ne sssary to have a manual training system to start kite construction.MANUAL TRAINING 51. Use Mag. Supp.. REPRINTS. sent to each school. Some six weeks or tht irector i should send out the announcement.

best boy kite. A company gets good returns few policemen have a quiet- ing effect on boys with inclinations to do mischief. a. reels. Group Bird. animal. Reels may be used to wind in. e. suspended banners. The street car out of it. Choose a place for the tournament that is free from wires. . Group flyer. more than other The feats. that has plenty of room. so should be very considerate. of insect kite. Los first Angeles started with eight the first year. tournament should not be loaded down with too many Perhaps eight or ten would be enough for a beginning. registration should be taken at the various schools by the prin- The cipals the director the day preceding the tournament and should be turned in to the same evening. sixteen in three groups the ond year. and thirty in four groups the third year. It is quite difficult to get a complete regis- tration on the tournament grounds. and are also very serviceable in keeping back the crowds from some of the contestants. e. a. SUGGESTIVE PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST TOURNAMENT. See the street car officials that the car crews may give the kindest con- sideration to the kite boys. should not be too near the tournament as the boys do not want to exhibit their kites then for fear they may be torn or that someone else may get their ideas and copy them. down some place out of in the air the last No t kites for the tournament may be looked for week. These boards should be placed high enough well above the heads of the spectators. seconded by the It is manual training teacher. 29 . quarter mile dash (in which a boy lets out 1320 feet of string and winds it in again. highest strongest puller (to be tested by spring scales) II. b. String must be measured before the tournament) .CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. I. c. c. if there is in the building. that is open to the breeze and is accessible to car service. d. b. good policy to use the principals and manual teachers to training teachers as judges as they will do get out a good representation. sec- Each school might have a but it ' 'try-out" week before the tournament. Most artistic kite. d. work in barns. they sight. are of to be much service. Bulletin boards designating where the various feats are to take place. best decorated kite. best invention. The work one principal of the school is the proper person to encourage the of that school. When the boys get to cellar work in real earnest for contest.

1909. there is a much better showing the kites can remain up all the time. recognizing superior exhiappreciated by the victors. The Third Annual wind was morning School District was held April Kite Tournament of the Los Angeles City It was a glorious day but the 3. these kites only pulling about 2 the kites began to break Ibs. simple defects. . work. signed by the superintendent. away and our 30 fears but by three o'clock some of were removed. but leave something for the boys to work out for themselves. The is article is intended for suggesion. and the director. for The simple ones are of kite much tion better the study of the main principles construc- Until some ability has been acquired. some of the boys brought their lunch and were on the grounds by eight in the morning. If principals or instructors.MANUAL TRAINING It REPRINTS. but stops short of complete details. Simple little diplomas. and may give up a good some grown up boys who are acting as make an the boys. would strengthen a bond The start the foregoing sketch and notes on kite-making give enough to w ork r of construction. The ginning. chairman of athletic sports committee.. The greatest good derived from the planning of the kites and the construction of the same. boys should be encouraged to select the plain kites at the bethe tendency being just the opposite. the kite flyer cannot properly diagnose a case of kite delirium. from a northerly direction in the The tournament be- gan at about 2 o'clock. changing to a southerly direction in the afternoon. bition of skill at the tournament. but the social gathering of the schools and the learning to abide by the judges' decision are valuable assets to the year's. Then. he does not recognize and flying. quite uncertain. kite that is nearly a success. too. There was not sufficient breeze at the beginning to support the large kites and it looked quite discouraging. are It is much possible that a silver to the school cup might be used to good advantage as a trust winning the greatest number of points. to be kept until the next tournament. would up-to-date kite for their it own pleasure and the encouragement of of fellowship wonderfully. LOS ANGELES KITE TOURNAMENT. the kites of one entry pulled will probably be impossible to get down if all to give way to another. all seems best to so plan the tournament that as it the kites may re- main up during the afternoon.

ARTISTIC KITE TOURNAMENT OB 1909. The l diplomas were 5 /2 x 8^2 in. A more complex construction were atgood start was made on trussed construc- Many are planning its One kite had a windmill inside frame which gave motor power to work a lever which caused a head above the kite. so a numsmall ber of feats exclusively for girls will be added next time. A number of girls entered this year but do not like to compete with the boys except in artistic make-up and decorative features. and interest did not cease with the tournament. to secure a prize next year. the thousands of children. to wag One example of the sort is enough to start a whole new field of possibilities. SECOND PRIZE. in. Electricity will probably be used for a simi- lar purpose next year.. CALIFORNIA. The boy too under. The interest is ever increasing with both the children and the parents and a great assembly was present to witness the contest. It was a magnificent sight when all the various creations of color. 31 were genteel and happy.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. Larger kites and tion tempted than heretofore. is hard pressed and so a place will be given for spirit of the fifth grade and The and all whole occasion was excellent no bitter strife of one school with another each child enthusiastic about the whole affair. . printed with brown ink on a light tan paper. while excited. LOS ANGELES. Simple diplomas stating the feat in which the contestant excelled were given to the victors. shape and energy were exhibited.

making suggestions. one failing to carry all the string. and Sometimes they turn out in full force to see Bobbie win the prize. not allowed to remain there. larger boys try for the difficult feats of skill and strong pullkites Two seemed almost alike. Very soon three kites were far in the lead. as well as the rest. Each boy was entitled to one Policemen kept the helper and they were timed by one of the judges. however. The second follows hard after. is At first. ten entries but seven started . The and to say that the boys per- crowd about the boys shut spired freely off all breeze putting very mildly. and Elgin is McNarry it Union Avenue School had won McKinley Avenue second. then left one of the kites kept breaking away so the one where the sail was tripped and the yacht spun made its down to ascent of its proud of to owner. so the children are learning valuable lessons for life in their own contests. but is dragged right into the reel. a boy works on his kite for a month or more. to their limit. 32 . but by the time the kite finished. etc. is now to that. the simpler kites with inexpensive materials are superior to the opposite. In a race. father. excitement too great to even yell. Nat Stockwell of the of place. In nearly every case there is a very willing submission to the decision of the judges. yonder winding in now another is windwind in. kites one winding in a little over a yard at each turn . and so the race is over. but when it the scales pulled 34 pounds while the other registered but 28 pounds. some getting mixed up. catches his kite way out and snap goes the string! The other two are working his string and is . play out and when it was all out he could attach it to a and wind it in as fast as possible. they are being pulled unmercifully. end of ing in in the third. See! one is at the . The ing. Perhaps the most exciting feat was the quarter mile dash. parison brought out further study in which curve that the lighter puller did not have. now to this side.MANUAL TRAINING Many of the REPRINTS. making the round trip in about 2^2 minutes. Each boy was to start his kite. some members is of the family will be very indifferent. up the the mount is in the sky. Here comes the first one right is down with a bang on the heads of the spectators. Now one nearly overhead! Noisy? It No. 1320 reel feet of string. crowd back from the lines. were applied one This coma was found that one had Only two 400 feet yachts were in condition at the time for the race. Out the string was all measured and handed the boys at the time for starting. one wins and the others must lose. There was a prolonged yell about first this time. soon after starting to tree.

may be cautious how they handle w ire r kite lines near The program a. Strong puller 3^ feet) . Parachutes. I. Kite antics. Insect kite. Bird kite. A real glider was brought on by one and of the boys. flyer. Group Star kite. e. High a. however. also instructive for next year's construction. b. let the wire drop across the trolley wire. . event looked very serious for a time but had no serious conse- A lad had entered the wireless competition and had plans. Real glider. kite. Strong puller e. Suspended figures. c. A gust of wind. Group (under 3 f. kites . One quences.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. c. Artistic kite. Balloon ascension (endurance) operations. as kite . Quarter mile dash. This is reported that others trolley systems. Animal a. in his The current was sufficient to stun him and he As soon as he was removed he revived and was taken home immediately. 33 . Group sion III. Wireless d. An attempt was made to glide for a short distance but a gust of wind caught the aeroplane and forced one corner to the ground. c. Photograph from Dragon Aeroplane g. II. it was very inter- esting at the time. (beauty). b. f. kite. Balloon ascenkite. . AN OLD BICYCLE BROUGHT INTO SERVICE IN THE LOS ANGELES TOURNAMENT. of the tournament \\as as follows: b. Man (over d. / T 2 feet) g. Yacht race. g. When wire. d. decorated kite. he had aluminum wire to a for a conductor from his kite laid good and had the ground wire attached snapped his kite loose and water hydrant. the kite broke loose he became confused and got tangled fell. Best h. f. The boy claims he did not have any bad effects from the schock. e. snapping off a post.

MANUAL TRAINING Group IV. Kites with moving Best invention. Reels. A few of the winners are shown by the photographs. a. Windmill kites. d. Quick f. Smallest box kite. Smallest plain kite. c. 34 . parts. but the colors are missing. c. g. construction of kite. b. a very important feature in the kite's appearance. REPRINTS.

w. including laying-out tools and their use. that should be given to a student along with his of models. $1. paneling. and Its bound in purpose is to furnish teachers of classes beginning mechanical of simple.00. Board Price. with a large heavy paper covers drawing number These have been selected with reference to the formation of good habits in technique. Ill Wood and wood-finishing. The book does not contain a course may be used with any course. Each of these figures an Essentials of Woodworking. Each plate is a working drawing. is This book consists of 80 plates and a few explanatory notes. Lawrence. $1. BENNETT. 20 cents extra. original drawing made expressly for this book. By CLINTON SHELDON VAN DEUSEN. Price. wood. with numerous pen drawings by Edwin V. planes of projection. interest and taste of the pupil. may acquire considerable a safe guide for farmers' boys as well as for city boys. The book is illustrated by more is than one hundred figures. with brass fasteners. intersections. By IRA s. I The book Tools and elementary processes. the instruction given by the teacher. covers. It is faithfully. planes and their use. including directions for making elementary cabinet work involving drawer construction. Even without a teacher a bright boy. form work. the interest of the pupils. and clear description in detail of the fundamental processes of elementary benchwork This description is given through directions for making a few simple. With drawings made by Fred D. This is illustrated a comprehensive textbook on woodworking tools. is unsolved and therefore in proper form to hand to the pupil for solution. It consists of bound in heavy paper covers with brass fasteners. saws. developisometric projection. This book consists of 32 plates of working drawings suitable for use in grammar and high schools and 24 pages of text. The book covers simple projection straight lines and circles. problems involving tangents. but not to take the place of. useful articles suitable either for school or this home problems. including chapters on design. convenient collection of good problems ready to place in the hands of the pupils. Many of the problems can be worked out in various ways according to the individual ability. construction and finishes. boring tools. revolution of solids. practical problems. sandpapering. including a great amount of information common joints. GRIFFITH. book illustrated by Edwin Victor Lawrence. rabbeting. contains three parts. grinding and whetting. Price. Each problem given ments. Price. 75 cents. A forty plates By M.00.Books on the Manual Arts Beginning A in full Woodwork. It work in wood. and door construction. and notes on the problems. or problem in bench work that has been successfully worked out by boys in one of the grades from seven to nine inclusive. Problems in Furniture Making. and fastening parts. Board covers. in heavy paper covers. materials and processes.00. Crawshaw. 20 cents extra. At Home and in School. 20 cents extra. including ten plates of working drawings. the II Simple joinery. Price. 1 Board covers. By CHARLES A. CRAWSHAW. laying out duplicate parts. $1. Problems in Woodworking. to supplement. chisels. $1. and the subjects usually included in a grammar and first-year high school course. Problems in Mechanical Drawing. By FRED D. 35 . and little is especially well suited for use in rural and village schools in which the teacher has had but experience in the use of woodworking tools. lettering and working drawings.00. by following skill. scraping. MURRAY.

y CATHERINE MORRIS LESTER. 36 Press Illinois . Subscription priqj . the making of tiles and ornamental pottery. $1. Very sug- gestive. 35 cents. $1. richly illustrated booklet Price. In foreign countries. bimonthly publication devoted to the interests of the Manual Arts in Education. 40 cents. The Wash Method "This little of Handling Water Colour. up-to-date. 75 cents. including Canada. is a helpful by the earlier painters.00. human figure. simple architectural ornament. whose beautiful work guide and affords a stimulus to the use of water-color as practiced is 'unexcelled. 50 cents. e By JAMES the . study of plant forms. Clay W . By JA$IES PARTON HANEY. Classroom Practice in Design. single copies. POLLITT. ManMl training ~ Magazine. ." Price. v.Books on the Manual Arts Woodwork This relate r . FORREST By FRANK Tip book . 50 cents. and S. Price.ling iroblems designed to cor. The Manual Arts Peoria. A concise.75 a year. THOMAS BAILY ' for Schools on Scientific Lines. them u- ling. FREDERICK.>$L50 a year. This book covers the whole range of clay work for the elementary school technique of clay modeling. single copies. on the teaching of applied design. ' An \ * * illustrated. story illustration.

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'67 (H5067slO)476B Umversity of California Berkeley . date * date to which Ren* /? . stamped below' or This book is due on the las.14 DAY USE TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN DEPT.General Library .enewed books are subject to new^d immediate recall RECEIVED j-OAN DEPT. I7?V^ LD2lA-45m-9.

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