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KATA PENGANTAR

Puji dan syukur kita panjatkan kehadrat Allah Yang maha Esa atas segala rahmat dan kurnia-Nya sehingga Modul Pecutan Akademik, Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan dapat dihasilkan pada tahun ini. Modul Pecutan Akademik ini diharapkan dapat menjadi panduan dan bimbingan kepada para guru dan para pelajar dalam membuat persediaan bagi menghadapi peperiksaan UPSR, PMR dan SPM. Setinggi-tinggi penghargaan dan terima kasih dirakamkan kepada semua guru dan semua pihak yang terlibat dalam menjayakan penghasilan Modul Pecutan Akademik ini. Semoga usaha murni ini dapat diteruskan pada masa hadapan bagi menghasilkan pelajar yang cemerlang, gemilang dan terbilang dan seterusnya menjayakan visi Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan, Cakna Pendidikan Kelantan Terbilang 2013.

HJ MOHD ADNAN BIN MOHD NOOR Ketua Sektor Pengurusan Akademik Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan

Senarai Ahli Panel


En. Eyu Foo On (Maktab Sultan Ismail) En Ismail b Mahmood (Sek. Men. Keb. Kota) Pn Roselina bt Mat Zin (Sek. Men. Keb. Kedai Buloh) Tn. Hj. Burhan b. Ramli (Sek. Men. Sains Machang) Pn Aminah bt Ab Rahman (Sek. Men. Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra) Pn. Che Romah bt. Jaya (Sek. Men. Sains Machang) Pn. Hjh Khatijah bt. Yusoff (Sek. Men. Keb. Agama Wataniah) Pn. Hjh Nik Mahani bt. Nik Zaid (Sek. Men. Keb.Kubang Bemban) Pn Hasnah bt Daud (Maktab Sultan Ismail) Tn. Hj. Suhaimi b.Yusof (Sek. Men. Keb. Machang)

CONTENT CHAPTER 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FORCES AND MOTION FORCE AND PRESSURE HEAT LIGHT WAVES ELECTRICITY ELECTROMAGNETISM ELECTRONICS RADIOACTIVITY LAMPIRAN 1-19 20 36 37 50 51 64 65 81 82 94 95 110 111 123 124 139 140 - 144

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CHAPTER 2 : FORCE AND MOTION PAPER 2/ SECTION B 1. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show two parachutists, A and B of identical mass is falling from certain height, h to the ground during a parachutes practice. Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan keadaan dua orang penerjun, A dan B yang berjisim serupa sedang jatuh daripada suatu ketinggian, h ke tanah semasa latihan payung terjun.

Parachute Payung terjun

Parachutist A Penerjun A

Parachutist B Penerjun B

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 (a)

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2 [1mark] [ markah]

What is the meaning of net force? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan daya bersih?

(b)

Using Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 , compare the weight of the parachutists, the air resistance and the net force acted on both of them. Write an equation to relate the net force with the forces acted towards the parachutists to make a deduction on the relationship between net force and acceleration. [5 marks] Menggunakan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2, bandingkan berat kedua-dua penerjun itu, rintangan udara dan daya bersih yang bertindak ke atas mereka. Tuliskan satu persamaan untuk menghubungkaitkan daya bersih dengan daya-daya yang bertindak ke atas kedua-dua penerjun itu untuk membuat kesimpulan tentang hubungan daya bersih dan pecutan. [5 markah] 1

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(c) Diagram 1.3 shows two ways of moving load of identical mass with an identical wheelbarrow. Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan dua kaedah untuk menggerakkan beban yang berjisim serupa dengan sebuah kereta sorong yang serupa.

Pushing force Daya tolakan

Load Beban

Pulling force
Daya tarikan

Diagram 9.2 Rajah 9.2 Using the concept of component force, explain with the aid of diagram, why the wheelbarrow is easier moved when a pulling force is applied. [4 marks] Dengan menggunakan konsep komponen daya, terangkan dengan bantuan gambar rajah, mengapa kereta sorong adalah lebih mudah digerakkan apabila daya tarikan dikenakan. [4 markah]

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Seat Tempat duduk

Handlebar Stereng hendal

Tyre Tayar

Diagram 1.4 Rajah 1.4 (d) Diagram 1.4 shows a bicycle. You are required to give some suggestions to design a bicycle to be used in the Bicycle Racing Competition. Using your knowledge of motion, forces and properties of materials, state and explain the suggestions based on the following aspects: Rajah 1.4 menunjukkan sebuah basikal. Anda dikehendaki memberikan cadangan dalam mereka bentuk sebuah basikaluntuk digunakan dalam Pertandingan Lumba Basikal. Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan anda dalam gerakan, daya-daya dan sifat bahan, nyata dan terangkan cadangan-cadangan berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: The distance between the seat and the handlebar Jarak antara tempat duduk dan stereng hendal The type of handlebar Jenis stereng hendal The height of the seat Ketinggian tempat duduk The density of bicycles frame. Ketumpatan rangka basikal The thickness of tyre. Ketebalan tayar [10 marks] [10 markah] 3

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2. Diagram 2.1 shows two identical steel balls compressed an elastic spring M and N, made of the same material and has the same original length and the diameter of the coil. The springs are compressed until the lengths of spring M and spring N are the same. Both springs are placed on an identical incline plane. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan dua bola keluli yang serupa memampatkan spring kenyal, M dan N yang diperbuat daripada bahan yang sama dan mempunyai panjang asal dan diameter gegelung yang sama. Spring-spring itu dimampatkan sehingga panjang bagi spring M dan spring N adalah ama. Kedua-dua spring diletakkan di atas satah condong yang serupa

Steel ball Bola keluli Spring M Spring N

Steel ball Bola keluli

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

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Diagram 2.2 shows the launching distance of the balls when the hands are released. Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan jarak pelancaran bagi bola-bola itu apabila tangan dilepaskan.

Spring M

X1 cm

Spring N

X2 cm Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2 (a) What is the meaning of elasticity? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kekenyalan? (i) [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

With reference to Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2, compare the thickness of the spring wire and the launching distance of the balls. [2 marks] Merujuk kepada Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2, bandingkan ketebalan dawai spring dan jarak pelancaran bola-bola itu. [2 markah]

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(ii) Relate the thickness of the spring wire and: Hubungkaitkan ketebalan dawai spring dan: The launching distance of the ball. Jarak pelancaran bola-bola itu. The force used to compress the spring. Daya yang digunakan untuk memampatkan spring. [2 marks]/ [2 markah]

(iii)

State the relationship between the force with the elastic potential energy of the spring [1 mark] Nyatakan hubungan antara daya dengan tenaga keupayaan kenyal spring [1 markah]

(c)

Based on Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2, and your knowledge on transformation of energy, explain the launching distance of the balls. [4 marks] Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2, dan pengetahuan anda tentang perubahan tenaga, terangkan jarak pelancaran bagi bola-bola tu. [4 markah] Diagram 2.3 shows an archer aimed on a target board from a far distance. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan seorang pemanah membuat sasaran ke arah papan sasaran daripada suatu jarak yang jauh.

(d)

Target board Papan sasaran

Arrow Anak panah

Cord Tali

Bow Busur Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3

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You are required to give some suggestions on the method in which the arrow is able to reach the target board, and on the characteristics of the archery set. Using your knowledge of motion, forces and properties of materials, state and explain the suggestions, based on the following aspects: Anda dikehendaki memberi cadangan mengenai kaedah yang mana anak panah boleh sampai ke papan sasaran, dan ciri-ciri bagi set memanah. Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan anda mengenai gerakan, daya dan sifat-sifat bahan, nyatakan and terangkan cadangan-cadangan itu berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The strength of the cord Kekuatan tali The force constant of the bow Pemalar daya bagi busur The material used for the bow Bahan yang digunakan untuk busur The way the arrow is aimed at the target Cara anak panah ditujukan ke arah sasaran The shape of the arrow Bentuk bagi anak panah [10 marks] [10 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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PAPER 2/SECTION C 3. Diagram 3.1 shows a boy of mass 40 kg is riding a bicycle on a horizontal plane. The boy applies a thrust force of 300 N to move with an acceleration of 5 ms-2. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan seorang budak lelaki berjisim 40 kg sedang menunggang sebuah basikal di atas sebuah satah ufuk. Budak lelaki itu mengenakan daya tujah 300 N untuk bergerak dengan suatu pecutan 5 ms-2.

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1 Diagram 3.2 shows another boy of the same mass is riding an identical bicycle up an inclined plane at 60o to the horizontal. The incline plane has the same frictional force. He finds that he has to apply a bigger thrust force to move up the inclined plane. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan budak lelaki yang lain berjisim sama sedang menunggang basikal yang serupa menaiki satu satah condong pada 60 o terhadap ufuk. Satah condong itu mempunyai daya geseran yang sama. Dia mendapati dia perlu mengenakan daya tujah yang lebih besar untuk bergerak naik satah condong itu.

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60o Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2

(a)

What is the meaning of acceleration? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pecutan? (i)

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

Based on Diagram 3.1, calculate the frictional force acting on the bicycle. [1 mark] Berdasarkan Rajah 3.1, hitung daya geseran yang bertindak ke atas basikal itu. 1 markah] Using Diagram 3.2 and the concept of force, explain why the boy has to apply more thrust force to move up the inclined plane [3 marks] Menggunakan Rajah 3.2 dan konsep daya, terangkan mengapa budak lelaki itu mesti mengenakan daya tujah yang lebih besar untuk bergerak naik satah condong itu. [3 markah]

(ii)

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(c) Diagram 3.3 shows a playground swing. Diagram 3.3 menunjukkan buaian di taman mainan. Bar Galang Chain Rantai

Seat Tempat duduk

Pillar Tiang

Mat Pelapik Diagram 3.3 Rajah 3.3 Table 3.1 shows the characteristics of four different type of swings at the playground. Jadual 3.1 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat jenis buaian yang berlainan di taman permainan. Angle of Vshape pillars Sudut bagi tiang bentukV 10o 40o 40o 10o

Type of swing Jenis buaian J K L M

Seat Tempat duduk Wood Kayu Plastic Plastik Canvas Kanvas Wood Kayu

Type of mat Jenis pelapik

Length of chain Panjang bagi rantai Short Pendek Long Panjang Short Pendek Long Panjang

Concrete Konkrit Concrete Konkrit Rubber Getah Rubber Getah Table 11.1 Jadual 11.1

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Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable swing which is safe, can swing faster and more stable. Give a reason for your choice. [10 marks] Terangkan kesesuaian setiap aspek dan seterusnya tentukan buaian yang paling sesuai yang mana adalah selamat, poleh berayun dengan lebih cepat dan lebih stabil. Beri sebab untuk pilihan anda. [10 markah] (d) Diagram 3.4 shows a car on tow. Rajah 3.4 menunjukkan sebuah kereta sedang ditunda.

100 N 50o 80 N Diagram 3.4 Rajah 3.4 (i) Draw the vector diagram by using suitable scale to determine the resultant force, F. Lukis gambar rajah vektor dengan menggunakan skala yang sesuai untuk menentukan daya paduan, F. Calculate the resultant force, F. Hitung daya paduan, F. [5 marks] [5 markah]

(ii)

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4. Diagram 4.1 shows a pendulum system which consists of five identical balls suspended in a row from a wooden frame by a stiff wire. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan satu sistem bandul yang terdiri daripada lima biji bola yang serupa tergantung dalam satu baris pada satu kerangka kayu dengan menggunakan seutas dawai keras.

Wire Dawai Ball Bola A B

Wooden frame Kerangka kayu

Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 Diagram 4.2 shows the state of the ball B when ball A is pulled aside and released. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan keadaan bola B apabila bola A di tarik ke tepi dan dilepaskan.

Diagram 4.2 Rajah 4.2 (a) (i) What is the meaning of momentum ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan momentum? [1 mark] 1 markah]

(ii)

Explain, in terms of momentum and energy transfer, why ball B is knocked away from the others when ball A is released. [4 marks] Terangkan, dalam konteks momentum dan pemindahan tenaga, mengapa bola B tertolak menjauhi bola yang lain apabila bola A dilepaskan. [4 markah]

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(b) Table 4.1 shows five designs of the pendulum system P, Q, R, S and T, with different specifications. Rajah 11.2 menunjukkan lima rekabentuk bagi sistem bandul, P, Q, R, S dan T dengan spesifikasi yang berbeza. Pendulum system P Sistem bandul P Material for the balls : Rubber Bahan bagi bebola: Getah

Pendulum system Q Sistem bandul Q Material for the balls : Steel Bahan bagi bebola: Keluli

Pendulum system R Sistem bandul R Material for the balls : Steel Bahan bagi bebola: Keluli

Pendulum system S Sistem bandul S Material for the balls : Steel Bahan bagi bebola: Keluli

Pendulum system T Sistem bandul T Material for the balls : Rubber Bahan bagi bebola: Getah

Table 4.1 Jadual 4.1

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You are required to determine the most suitable design to make the ball at the end swings up at the higher level and with bigger speed. Anda dikehendaki menentukan rekabentuk yang paling sesuai digunakan supaya bola yang berada pada bahagian hujung akan berayun pada paras yang lebih tinggi dan dengan laju yang lebih besar. Study the specifications of the five pendulum systems based on the following aspect: Kaji spesifikasi bagi kelima-lima sistem bandul itu berdasarkan aspekaspek berikut: (i) The arrangement of the balls Susunan bebola The type of material used to make the balls Jenis bahan yang digunakan untuk membuat bebola The number of string used to hang the balls Bilangan tali yang digunakan untuk menggantung bebola The position of the ball to start the oscillation Kedudukan bebola untuk memulakan ayunan

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable pendulum system. Give a reason for your choice. 10 marks] Terangkan kesesuaian setiap aspek dan seterusnya tentukan sistem bandul yang paling sesuai. Beri sebab untuk pilihan anda. [10 markah]

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(c) A white ball of mass 50 g moves with speed 0.8 ms -1 , hits a red ball of mass 30 g which is initially at rest . Sebiji bola putih berjisim 50 g bergerak dengan laju 0.8 ms-1 , melanggar sebiji bola merah berjisim 30 g yang pada mulanya adalah pegun. If the white ball stops after the collision, calculate; Jika bola putih itu berhenti selepas perlanggaran, hitung (i) The velocity of the red ball after the elastic collision. Halaju bola merah selepas perlanggaran kenyal itu. The change of the momentum of the white ball. Perubahan momentum bagi bola putih. The impulsive force acting on the white ball during the collisions if it is stopped in 0.05 seconds. Daya impuls yang bertindak terhadap bola putih ketika perlanggaran jika ia diberhentikan dalam masa 0.05 saat. [5 marks] [5 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


PAPER 3/SECTION B 5. Diagram 5.1 shows an archer aiming an arrow by stretching an elastic cord of a bow. The arrow moves with a small speed. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan seorang pemanah sedang membuat sasaran sebatang anak panah secara meregangkan tali kenyal bagi sebuah busur. Anak panah itu bergerak dengan laju yang kecil.

Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 Diagram 5.2 shows the man aiming an identical arrow with different stretching distance using the same force and bow. The arrow moves with a high speed. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan lelaki itu membuat sasaran sebatang anak panah yang serupa dengan jarak regangan yang berbeza menggunakan daya dan busur yang sama. Anak panah itu bergerak dengan laju yang tinggi.

Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2 Based on the information and observation: Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian itu: (a) State one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. [1 mark] [1 markah]

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(b) State one suitable hypothesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 mark] [1 markah]

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as a trolley, a ticker timer, a spring and other apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 5(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti troli, jangka masa detik, spring dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 5(b). In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables of the experiment. Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. The arrangement of the apparatus. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which should include one method of controlling the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable. Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pemboleh ubah bergerak balas. The way to tabulate the data. Cara untuk menjadualkan data. The way to analyse the data. Cara untuk menganalisis data. [10 marks] [10 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


6. Diagram 6.1 shows identical plasticines are released from different height to fall on identical sponge. Diagram 6.2 show the sponge which plasticine released from a bigger height is moredented. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan plastisin yang serupa dilepaskan daripada ketinggian yang berbeza supaya jatuh ke atas span yang serupa. Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan span yang mana plastisin dilepaskan daripada ketinggian yang lebih besar adalah lebih lekuk.

Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1

Diagram 6.2 Rajah 6.2

Based on the information and observation: Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian itu: (a) State one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. State one suitable hypothesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 mark] [1 markah] [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as a slotted weight, plasticine, nail and other apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 6(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti pemberat, plastisin, paku dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 4(b). 18

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In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables of the experiment. Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. The arrangement of the apparatus. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which should include one method of controlling the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable. Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pemboleh ubah bergerak balas. The way to tabulate the data. Cara untuk menjadualkan data. The way to analyse the data. Cara untuk menganalisis data. [10 marks] [10 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


CHAPTER 3 FORCE AND PRESSURE PAPER 2/SECTION B 1 Diagram 1.1 shows a simple hydraulic lift used to raise loads 500 N and 4 000 N. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu pengangkat hidraulik ringkas digunakan untuk mengangkat beban 500 N dan 4 000 N. 50 N Piston Y Omboh Y 500 N Piston X Omboh X

4 000 N Piston Z Omboh Z

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1

(a)

(i)

What is the meaning of pressure? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan tekanan?

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

A force of 50 N is used to push down piston X and able to raise piston Y and piston Z. Satu daya 50 N digunakan untuk menolak omboh X ke bawah dan boleh menaikkan omboh Y serta omboh Z. Referring to Diagram 1.1, compare the pressure exerted on pistons Y and Z, the surface area of pistons Y and Z, and the force produced at pistons Y and Z [3 mark] Merujuk kepada Rajah 1.1, bandingkan tekanan yang dikenakan ke atas omboh Y dan Z, luas permukaan omboh Y dan Z, dan daya yang terhasil pada omboh Y dan Z. [3 markah]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(iii) Relate the surface area of the pistons with the force produced on the pistons. Name a physics principle relating the surface area and the force exerted on pistons Y and Z. Hubungkaitkan luas permukaan omboh dengan daya yang terhasil ke atas omboh. Namakan prinsip fizik yang mengaitkan luas permukaan dan daya dikenakan ke atas omboh Y dan Z. [2 m]

(b)

Explain how toothpaste is squeezed out from its tube. Terangkan bagaimana ubat gigi dikeluarkan daripada tiubnya. [4 m] Diagram 1.2 shows a cars hydraulic brake system. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan sistem brek hidraulik kereta.

(c)

Master cylinder Silinder utama

Brake fluid Bendalir brek Brake pad Alas brek

Brake pedal Pedal brek To other brakes Ke brek lain

Slave cylinder Silinder kedua Axle Gandar Brake disc Cakera brek

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2

Tyre Tayar

By referring to Diagram 1.2, suggest and explain ways that can be taken to have an efficient hydraulic brake system. Your suggestions should be based on the following aspects: Dengan merujuk kepada Rajah 1.2, cadang dan terangkan cara-cara yang boleh diambil untuk memperolehi satu sistem brek hidraulik yang cekap Cadangan anda harus berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The type of the brake fluid Jenis bendalir brek

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(ii) The characteristic of the brake fluid Ciri-ciri bendalir brek The ratio of the cross sectional area of the master cylinder to the slave cylinder Nisbah luas keratan rentas silinder utama kepada silinder kedua The material used for the brake disc Bahan yang digunakan untuk cakera brek The material used for the brake pad Bahan yang digunakan untuk alas brek [10 m]

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(a)

Diagram 2.1 shows the cross section of a wing of a moving aeroplane. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan keratan rentas bagi sayap sebuah kapalterbang yang sedang bergerak. Air flow Aliran udara

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1 (i) Name the shape of the cross section in Diagram 2.1. Namakan bentuk keratan rentas dalam Rajah 2.1 [1m] Explain why the wing of the aeroplane experiences a lift force. Terangkan mengapa sayap kapalterbang mengalami daya angkat. [4 m] Name the physics principle involved. Namakan prinsip fizik yang terlibat. [1 m ]

(ii)

(iii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(b) Diagram 2.3 shows the initial positions and positions after a period of time of the two sailboats, X and Y of the same mass which sail against the direction of the wind. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan kedudukan-kedudukan awal dan kedudukankedudukan selepas suatu tempoh masa bagi dua buah kapal layar, X dan Y yang berjisim serupa yang belayar menentang arah angin.

Direction of wind Arah angin Sailboat X Kapal layar X

Sail Layar

Sailboat X Kapal layar X

Sailboat Y Kapal layar Y Initial position Kedudukan awal

Sailboat Y Kapal layar Y Position after period of time Kedudukan selepas suatu tempoh masa Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3

(i)

Based on Diagrams 2.3, compare the shapes of the sail and the distance traveled by the sailboats and the forward force produced after a period of time. Berdasarkan Rajah 2.3, bandingkan bentuk layar dan jarak yang dilalui oleh kedua-dua kapal layar dan daya ke hadapan yang dihasilkan selepas suatu tempoh masa. [ 3 m] Relate the forward force produced and the distance traveled. Hubungkaitkan daya ke hadapan yang terhasil dengan jarak yang dilalui. [1 m] 23

(ii)

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(c) Diagram 2.4 shows an insecticide sprayer. Rajah 2.5 menunjukkan sebuah penyembur racun serangga.

Cylinder Silinder

Plunger Omboh Nozzle Muncung jet Plastic container Bekas plastik Insecticide Racun serangga

Air hole Liang udara

Diagram 2.4 Rajah 2.4 Explain how you would design an efficient car paint sprayer using the idea of the working principle of the insecticide sprayer. Terangkan bagaimana anda mereka bentuk satu penyembur cat kereta yang efisien menggunakan idea prinsip kerja penyembur racun serangga. Your design should be based on the following aspects: Rekabentuk anda hendaklah bedasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) Way to produce continuous spray of paint Cara untuk menghasilkan semburan cat berterusan Way to increase the speed of spray Cara untuk meningkatkan laju semburan The material of the paint sprayers container Jenis bahan bagi bekas penyembur cat The density of the paint sprayers container Ketumpatan bagi bekas penyembur cat The size of paint sprayers container Saiz bagi bekas penyembur cat [10 m]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


PAPER 2 /SECTION C 3 Diagram 3.1 shows an air balloon that is used as a weather balloon to carry meteorological instruments for collecting data about the earths atmosphere. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan sebuah belon udara yang digunakan sebagai belon kajicuaca untuk membawa alatan meteorologi bagi mengumpul data mengenai atmosfera bumi.

Balloon Belon

String Tali

Meteorological instruments Alat meteorologi

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1 (a) The ability of the weather balloon to rise in the air can be explained based on the Archimedes principle. Keupayaan belon kajicuaca untuk naik ke udara dapat diterangkan berdasarkan prinsip Archimedes. (i) State the Archimedes principle. Nyatakan prinsip Archimedes.

[1 m ]

(ii)

Explain why a rising weather balloon will stop moving upwards after reaching a certain altitude. Terangkan mengapa sebuah belon kajicuaca yang sedang menaik akan berhenti bergerak ke atas selepas mencapai suatu altitud tertentu. [4 m ]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(b) Diagram 3.2 shows a hot air balloon. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan sebuah belon udara panas.

envelope karung

burner pemanas propane tanks tangki propana basket bakul

Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2 Table 3.1 show the characteristics of four hot air balloons, P, Q, R and S. Jadual 3.1 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat biji belon udara panas, P, Q, R dan S. Hot air balloon Belon udara panas P Q R S Size of balloon Saiz belon Small Kecil Small Kecil Large Besar Large Besar Material of envelope Bahan karung Nylon Nilon Canvas Kanvas Nylon Nilon Canvas Kanvas Table 3.1 Jadual 3.1 Number of burners Bilangan pemanas 1 1 2 2 Material of basket Bahan bakul Rattan Rotan Steel Keluli Rattan Rotan Steel Keluli

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


You are going to enter a hot air balloon competition and wish to choose a balloon that is safe and can rise up fast. Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the balloon and choose the most suitable balloon. Give reasons for your choice. Anda akan memasuki satu pertandingan belon udara panas dan bercadang memilih belon yang selamat dan dapat naik ke atas dengan cepat. Jelaskan kesesuaian setiap ciri belon dan pilih belon yang paling sesuai. Berikan sebab-sebab untuk pilihan anda. [10 m ] (c) An air balloon is made from a bag of a certain material with a mass of 40 kg. Hot air with a density of 1.0 kgm-3 is then filled into the balloon and its volume becomes 800 m3. When a load of mass 160 kg is attached to the balloon, it is found that the balloon floats in the air. Sebuah belon udara diperbuat daripada beg satu bahan tertentu yang berjisim 40 kg. Udara panas yang berketumpatan 1.0 kgm-3 diisi ke dalam belon dan isipadunya menjadi 800 m3. Apabila beban berjisim 160 kg diikat kepada belon itu, didapati belon itu terapung pegun di udara. (i) Calculate the mass of the hot air in the balloon. Hitung jisim udara panas di dalam belon Calculate the weight of the hot air in the balloon. Hitung berat udara panas di dalam belon Write an equation that relates all the forces acting on the balloon when it floats. ( Ignore air resistance ) Tulis satu persamaan yang mengaitkan semua daya yang bertindak ke atas belon itu semasa ia terapung. ( Abaikan rintangan udara ) Calculate the buoyant force of the balloon. Hitung daya tujah ke atas belon itu. [5 m]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


4 Diagram 4.1 shows a plastic bottle full of water which is inverted into a container filled with water. Water does not flow out of the bottle. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan sebuah botol plastik yang penuh berisi air ditelangkupkan ke dalam sebuah bekas air. Air tidak mengalir keluar daripada botol.

water air

plastic bottle botol plastik

container bekas

Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1

(a)

(i)

What is atmospheric pressure? Apakah tekanan atmosfera?

[1 m]

(i)

Based on the observation in Diagram 4.1, explain the situation using the concept of atmospheric pressure. Berdasarkan pemerhatian dalam Rajah 4.1, terangkan situasi itu dengan menggunakan konsep tekanan atmosfera. [2 m] Without removing the plastic bottle from the container, suggest and explain a method of making the water in the bottle flow out into the container. Tanpa mengalihkan botol plastik dari bekas air, cadang dan jelaskan satu cara untuk membuatkan air di dalam botol mengalir keluar ke dalam bekas. [3 m]

(ii)

(b) 28

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(b) Diagram 4.2 shows four liquid barometers, A, B, C and D with different characteristics. You are asked to determine the most suitable barometer to measure the atmospheris pressure. Study the charateristics of all the four barometers from the following aspects: Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan empat barometer cecair, A, B, C dan D dengan ciri-ciri yang berlainan. Anda diminta untuk menentukan barometer yang paling sesuai untuk mengukur tekanan atmosfera. Kaji ciri-ciri bagi keempat-empat barometer daripada aspek-aspek berikut: The density of the liquid Ketumpatan bagi cecair The boiling point of the liquid Takat didih bagi cecair The length of the glass tube Panjang bagi tiub kaca The diameter of the glass tube Diameter bagi tiub kaca

Explain the suitability of the aspects. Justify your choice. Terangkan kesesuaian aspek-aspek itu. Beri sebab bagi pilihan anda. [10 m ]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Boiling point of liquid = 357 0 C Takat didih bagi cecair = 357 0 C

Liquid Barometer A Barometer cecair A

Length of glass tube = 100 cm Panjang tiub kaca = 100 cm

Diameter of tube = 3.0 mm Diameter tiub = 3.0 mm

Density of liquid = 13 600 kgm-3 Ketumpatan cecair = 13 600 kgm-3

Liquid Barometer B Barometer cecair B

Length of glass tube = 100 cm Panjang tiub kaca = 100 cm

Boiling point of liquid = 1000 C Takat didih bagi cecair = 1000 C

Diameter of tube = 9.0 mm Diameter tiub = 9.0 mm

Density of liquid = 1000 kgm-3 Ketumpatan cecair = 1000 kgm-3

Liquid Barometer C Barometer cecair C

Length of glass tube = 200 cm Panjang tiub kaca = 200 cm

Boiling point of liquid = 800 C Takat didih cecair = 800 C

Density of liquid = 1250 kgm-3 Ketumpatan cecair = 1250 kgm-3 Diameter of tube = 2.0 mm Diameter tiub = 2.0 mm

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Boiling point of liquid = 1200 C Takat didih cecair = 1200 C

Liquid Barometer D Barometer cecair D

Length of glass tube = 200 cm Panjang tiub kaca = 200 cm

Density of liquid = 800 kgm-3 Ketumpatan cecair = 800 kgm-3

Diameter of tube = 8.0 mm Diameter tiub = 8.0 mm Diagram 4.2 Rajah 4.2

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(c) Diagram 4.3 shows a mercury barometer in a slanting position. Rajah 4.3 menunjukkan sebuah barometer merkuri dalam keadaan condong. Vacuum Vakum

Diagram 4.3 Rajah 4.3 If the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm Hg, determine : Jika tekanan atmosfera adalah 76 cm Hg, tentukan : (Given density of mercury = 1.36 x 104 kgm-3 ) (Diberi ketumpatan merkuri = 1.36 x 104 kgm-3 ) (i) The length, x Panjang x The pressure at A in cm Hg Tekanan di A dalam cm Hg The pressure at B in Pa Tekanan di B dalam Pa [4 m]

(ii)

(iii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


PAPER 3 /SECTION B 5 Diagram 5.1 shows two water taps on the first and second floors of a house. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan dua pili air yang berada di tingkat satu dan tingkat dua sebuah rumah.

Water tank Tangki air

Water tap Pili air

Water flow out Aliran air keluar Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 Based on the observation and information above: Berdasarkan kepada pemerhatian dan maklumat di atas: (a) State one suitable inference Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai State one hypothesis that could be investigated Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang boleh dikaji

[1 m]

(b)

[1 m]

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as a thistle funnel, measuring cylinder, manometer and others, describe an experiment to investigate your hypothesis stated in 5(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti corong tisel, silinder penyukat, manometer dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 5(b).

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment Tujuan eksperimen The variables in the experiment Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen The list of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan The arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas The procedure used in the experiment. Describe how to control the manipulated variable and how to measure the responding variable Prosedur yang digunakan dalam eksperimen. Terangkan bagaimana mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasi dan bagaimana mengukur pembolehubah bertindakbalas. The way to tabulate the data Cara menjadualkan data The way to analyse the data Cara untuk menganalisis data [10 m]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


6 Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show a man carrying a bag of identical mass with different size of straps on his back. He feels more comfortable when the size of strap is bigger. Rajah 6.1 dan Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan seorang lelaki membawa beg yang berjisim serupa dengan saiz tali yang berbeza di atas belakangnya. Dia merasa lebih selesa apabila saiz tali adalah lebih besar.

Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1

Diagram 6.2 Rajah 6.2

Based on the observation and the information above: Berdasarkan pemerhatian dan maklumat di atas: (a) State one suitable inference Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai State one hypothesis that could be investigated Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang boleh dikaji

[1 m]

(b)

[1 m]

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as cylinders with different diameters, plasticine and others, describe an experiment to investigate your hypothesis stated in 6(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti silinder yang berlainan diameter, plastisin dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 6(b). In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment Tujuan eksperimen

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(ii) The variables in the experiment Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen The list of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan The arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas The procedure used in the experiment. Describe how to control the manipulated variable and how to measure the responding variable Prosedur yang digunakan dalam eksperimen. Terangkan bagaimana mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasi dan bagaimana mengukur pembolehubah bertindakbalas. The way to tabulate the data Cara menjadualkan data The way to analyse the data Cara untuk menganalisis data

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


CHAPTER 4 HEAT PAPER 2/SECTION B 1. Diagram 1.1 shows two metal blocks made of the same material, A and B which are in thermal contact. The initial temperature of metal block A is 800C and metal block B is 30 0 C. After some time, the two objects are in thermal equillibrium. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan dua bongkah logam yang diperbuat dengan bahan yang sama, A dan B dalam keadaan sentuhan terma. Suhu awal bongkah logam A ialah 80 0 C dan bongkah logam B ialah 30 0 C. Selepas suatu masa, dua objek itu mencapai keseimbangan terma.

Metal block A Blok logam A

Metal block B Blok logam B

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 (a) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium ? [ 1 mark ] Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan keseimbangan terma? [1 markah] Using Diagram 1.1, compare the mass of the metal block A and metal block B, initial temperature, final temperature on both of them, rate heat flow between A and B and quantity of heat in A and B. [5 marks] Menggunakan Rajah 1.1, bandingkan jisim logam A dan B, suhu awal dan suhu akhir kedua-duanya,kadar pengaliran haba antara A dan B dan juga kuantiti haba dalam A and B. [5 markah] Based on suitable physics concept, describe how a doctor can use a clinical thermometer to get the body temperature of his patient . [4 marks] Berdasarkan konsep fizik yang sesuai, terangkan bagaimana seorang doktor boleh menggunakan satu termometer klinik untuk mendapatkan suhu badan pesakitnya. [4 markah]

(b)

(c)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(d) Diagram 1.2 shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan satu thermometer cecair dalam kaca. Scale divisions Senggatan skala

Capillary tube Tiub kapilari

Glass walled bulb Bebuli kaca

Liquid Cecair Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2

Glass bore stem Dinding batang kaca

Explain how you would design a thermometer which is more accurate and sensitive, and able to measure the temperature at range of -10oC to 110oC. Your suggestions should be based on the following aspects: Terangkan bagaimana anda akan mereka bentuk sebuah termometer yang lebih jitu dan peka, dan boleh mengukur suhu pada julat -10oC ke 110oC Cadangan anda haruslah berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The characteristics of the liquid used Ciri-ciri cecair yang digunakan [4 marks] [4 markah]

(ii)

The way to increase the sensitivity of the thermometer [2 marks] Cara untuk menambah kepekaan bagi termometer [2 markah]

(iii)

The boiling point and the freezing point of the liquid used [2 marks] Takat didih dan takat beku bagi cecair yang digunakan [2 markah] The way to reduce the error during measurement [2 marks] Cara untuk mengurangkan ralat semasa pengukuran [2 markah]

(iv)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


2 Diagram 2.1 shows a melting ice cube Diagram 2.2 shows a boiling water.. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan seketul ais sedang melebur. Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan air sedang mendidih. Steam Wap

Kettle filled with water Cerek berisi air Ice Ais Water Air

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2

(a)

What is meant by heat? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan haba? Using Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 , Menggunakan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2 , (i)

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

Compare the process that take place in both situations Bandingkan proses yang berlaku di dalam keduadua situasi [2m] The heat required for both processes to occur. Haba yang diperlukan bagi kedua-dua proses itu berlaku [1m]

(ii)

(iii)

Relate the processes with the heat required to deduce a relevant physics concept. Hubungkaitkan kedua-dua proses dengan haba yang diperlukan untuk meyimpulkan satu konsep fizik yang sesuai. [1m]

(iv)

Name the physics concept involved. Namakan konsep fizik yang terlibat.

[1m]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(c) (i) Your body sweats when you are feeling hot. Using the physics concept, explain how sweating helps to cool down your body? Badan anda mengeluarkan peluh apabila panas. Dengan menggunakan konsep fizik, terangkan bagaimana berpeluh membantu menyejukkan badan anda? [2 marks] Explain why a scald from steam is more serious than the one from boiling water? Terangkan mengapa kesan lecur dari stim adalah lebih serius berbanding dari air yang mendidih? [2 marks]

(ii)

(d)

Diagram 2.3 shows a simple solar waterheating system. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan satu sistem solar pemanasan-air yang ringkas.

Pipes embedded in plate Paip yang terbenam dalam plat Pipe Paip

Sun light Cahaya matahari

Solar panel Papan solar Tank Tangki

Pump Pam Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


You are required to give some suggestions to modify the solar waterheating system in Diagram 2.3 so that it is more efficient. Using your knowledge on energy transformation, heat and the properties of materials, explain the suggestions based the following aspects: Anda dikehendaki memberi beberapa cadangan untuk mengubahsuai sistem pemanasan-air dalam Rajah 2.3 supaya lebih cekap. Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan anda dalam pemimdahan tenaga, haba dan sifat-sifat bahan terangkan cadangan-cadangan itu berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The design of the pipes Reka bentuk bagi paip The material used for the pipes Bahan yang digunakan untuk paip The way to increase the heat absorption Cara untuk menambah penyerapan haba [4 marks] [4 markah] [4 marks] [4 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


PAPER 2 /SECTION C (3) (a) Diagram 3.1 shows a mercury thermometer which has not been calibrated. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan sebuah termometer merkuri yang belum ditentukur.

Mercury Merkuri

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1

(i)

What is meant by temperature? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan suhu?

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

Explain one method of the calibrating the thermometer. [4 marks] Terangkan satu kaedah penentukuran bagi sebuah termometer. [4 markah]

(b)

Diagram 3.2 shows a cooling system of a motorcycle engine Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan sistem penyejukan enjin motosikal.

Spark plug Palam pencucuh Fin Sirip To carburetor Ke kaburator Engine block Blok enjin Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Table 3.1 shows the characteristics of the four metals, P, Q, R and S to make an effective fin blades in the cooling system in Diagram 3.2. Jadual 3.1 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat logam, P. Q, R dan S untuk dijadikan bilah-bilah sirip yang efektif dan sistem penyejukan dalam Rajah 3.2. . Type of metal Jenis logam Specific heat capacity (Jkg -1 0C -1) Muatan haba tentu (Jkg -1 0C -1) 300 360 1000 900 Melting point (C) Takat lebur (C) Conduction of heat Kekonduksian haba Good Baik Moderate Sederhana Good Baik Moderate Sederhana Rate of expansion Kadar pengemban gan Moderate Sederhana High Tinggi Moderate Sederhana High Tinggi

P Q R S

1020 700 1600 720 Table 3.1 Jadual 3.1

Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the metals and determine the most suitable metal to be used as the fin blades for the purpose of cooling the motorcyle engine more effectively. Give reasons for your choice. Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri logam dan tentukan logam yang paling sesuai untuk digunakan sebagai bilah-bilah sirip bagi tujuan menyejukkan enjin motorsikal yang lebih efektif. Beri sebab bagi pilhan anda. [10 marks] [10 markah]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(d) (i) A piece of fin blade in the motorcycle engine of mass 0.5 kg is made from metal R. If the temperature in the blade is increased by 10C in 10 minutes, calculate the heat energy that has been absorbed by the fin blade? [3 marks] Sekeping bilah sirip pada enjin motosikal berjisim 0.5 kg adalah diperbuat daripada logam R. Jika suhu bilah itu meningkat sebanyak 10C dalam masa 10 minit, hitung tenaga haba yang telah diserap oleh bilah sirip itu? [3 markah] (ii) If the number of identical fin blades as in 3 (d)(i) used in the motorcycle engine are 10, calculate the heat energy lost by the engine in an hour? [2 marks] Jika bilangan bilah sirip yang serupa dengan 3(d)(i) digunakan pada enjin motosikal adalah 10 ,hitung jumlah tenaga haba yang hilang dalam 1 jam? [2 markah]

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4. (a) (i) What is meant by specific latent heat of vapourisation? [1 mark] Apakah maksud haba pendam tentu pengewapan? [1 markah] Explain why a person who is sweating feels cool when he is under a rotating fan. [4 marks] Terangkan mengapa seseorang yang badannya berpeluh berasa sejuk apabila berada di bawah kipas yang berputar. [4 markah]

(ii)

(b)

A liquid substance of mass 2.0 kg is heated using an immersion heater of 100 W. Diagram 4.1 shows the heating-curve of the liquid. Suatu bahan dalam keadaan cecair berjisim 2.0 kg dipanaskan dengan menggunakan pemanas rendam 100 W. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan keluk pemanasan bagi cecair itu.

Temperature (oC) Suhu (oC) 50

30

2 Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1

10

Time (min) Masa (min)

Calculate Hitung (i) The energy supplied by the immersion heater during the phase change state. 2 marks] Tenaga yang dibekalkan oleh pemanas rendam semasa keadaan perubahan fasa. [2 markah]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(ii) The specific latent heat of vapourisation of the liquid substance [3 marks] Haba pendam tentu pengewapan bagi cecair itu. [3 markah]

(c)

Table 4.1 and Table 4.2 show the characteristics of the coolants and the pipes that carry the coolant in the refrigerator. Jadual 4.1 dan Jadual 4.2 menunjukkan ciri- ciri bagi bahan penyejuk dan paip yang membawa bahan penyejuk dalam sebuah peti sejuk. Specific latent heat of vapourisation Haba pendam tentu pengewapan ( J kg-1 ) 1.5 x 105 7.6 x 105 4.5 x 105 Table 4.1 Jadual 4.1 Specific heat capacity Muatan haba tentu ( J kg1 oC1 ) 220 350 180 Table 4.2 Jadual 4.2 Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the coolant and the pipe so that the refrigerator can work efficiently. State which coolant and which pipe is most suitable. Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri bahan penyejuk dan saluran supaya peti sejuk itu boleh berfungsi dengan cekap. Nyatakan bahan penyejuk dan paip manakah yang paling sesuai. [10m] 46

Coolant Bahan Penyejuk

Boiling point Takat didih ( oC )

P Q R

35 10 -10

Pipe Paip

Diameter Diameter

X Y Z

Big Besar Small Kecil Big Besar

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


PAPER 3 /SECTION B 5. Diagram 5.1 shows two identical electric kettles, R and S, but containing different amounts of water. When the kettles are switched on simultaneously, the water in kettle R takes less time to boil compared to the water in kettle S Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan dua cerek elektrik yang serupa, tetapi R dan S, mengandungi jumlah air yang berbeza. Bila cerek itu dihidupkan serentak, air di dalam cerek R mendidih lebih cepat berbanding air di dalam cerek S.

Water Air

Electric kettle R Cerek elektrik R Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1

Electric kettle S Cerek elektrik S

Based on the information and observation: Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian: (a) State one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. State one suitable hypothesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 mark]

(b)

[1 mark]

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as immersion heater, beaker , measuring cylinder and other necessary apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 5(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti pemanas rendam, biker, silinder penyukat dan lain-lain radas yang sesuai, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 5(b).

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables in the experiment. Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. The arrangement of apparatus. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which should include one method of controlling the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable. Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. The way you tabulate the data. Cara anda menjadualkan data. The way you analyse the data. Cara anda menganalisis data.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

[10 marks]

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


6. Ali measures the air pressure of the tyres of his car before starting on a journey to Johor Bahru, as shown in Diagram 6. He noted that the air pressure of one the tyres is 200 kPa. Ali mengukur tekanan udara di dalam tayar keretanya sebelum memulakan perjalanannya ke Johor Bahru, seperti yang ditunjukkan pada Rajah 6. Dia mendapati tekanan udara pada satu dari tayar-tayar tersebut adalah 200 kPa.

Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1 When he reaches Johor Bahru, Ali measured the air pressure of the tyres again. He found that the air pressure in the same tyre has increases to 240 kPa. Apabila sampai ke Johor Bahru, Ali telah mengukur tekanan udara di dalam tayar semula. Dia mendapati tekanan udara dalam tayar yang sama telah meningkat kepada 240 kPa. Ali also found that the tyre become hot after he arrived at Johor Bahru. However the size of the tyre remains the same. Ali juga mendapati tayar itu menjadi panas setelah sampai di Johor Bahru. Walau bagaimanapun, saiz tayar itu adalah sama. Based on the information: Berdasarkan maklumat: (a) State one suitable inference Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. State one suitable hypothesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 mark] [1 markah] [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

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With the use of apparatus such as Bourdon gauge, a round bottom flask and other apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 6(b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti tolok Bourdon, kelalang dasar bulat dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan pada 6(b) In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables in the experiment. Pemboleh ubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. The arrangement of the apparatus. Susunan radas. The procedure of the experiment which should include one method of controlling the manipulated variable and one method of measuring the responding variable. Prosedur eksperimen yang mesti termasuk satu kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan satu kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. The way you tabulate the data. Cara anda menjadualkan data. The way you analyse the data. Cara anda menganalisis data. [10 marks] [10 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

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Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


CHAPTER 5 : LIGHT PAPER 2/SECTION B 1. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show incident rays travel toward a semicircular glass block and perspex block. AO, BO,PO and QO are incident rays while OA, OB, OP and OQ are the refracted rays respectively. Rajah 1.1 dan rajah1.2 menunjukkan sinar tuju bergerak ke arah blok kaca dan blok perspeks berbentuk semibulatan. AO, BO, PO dan QO ialah sinar tuju dan OA, OB, OP dan OQ adalah sinar terbias masing-masing.

Light box Kotak sinar A

Light box Kotak sinar B P 50 30o


o

60o 30o

o
Perspex block Blok perspek

Glass block Blok kaca B A A

Q Q Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2

PP

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1

The refractive indeces of the glass block and the perspex block is 1.50 and 1.39 respectively. Indeks biasan bagi blok kaca dan blok perspek adalah 1.50 dan 1.39 masingmasing. (a) (i) What is the meaning of critical angle? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan sudut genting?

[1 mark]

(ii)

Give a reason why the incidence rays is not refracted when entering the semicircular blocks? Beri satu sebab mengapa sinar tuju tidak dibiaskan apabila memasuki blok semibulatan? [1 mark]

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(b ) Observe Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2; Perhatikan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah1. 2 ; (i) Compare the refractive index of the glass block and the perspex block. Bandingkan indeks biasan bagi blok kaca dan blok perspeks. [1 mark] Compare the refracted angle when the incident angle of light increase. Bandingkan sudut biasan apabila sudut sinar tuju bertambah. [1 mark] Compare the critical angle of the glass block and the perspex block. Bandingkan sudut genting bagi blok kaca dan blok pespeks [1 mark] Relate the critical angle of material with the refractive index of the material. Hubungkaitkan sudut genting bahan dengan indeks biasan bagi bahan itu. [1 mark]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(c)

Name the light phenomenon that occurs when the incident angle is more than the critical angle of the medium. Namakan fenomena cahaya yang berlaku apabila sudut sinar tuju adalah melebihi sudut genting bahan. [1 mark]

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(d) Diagram 1.3 shows an optical fibre which is used as a component in the telecommunications. Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan suatu gentian optik yang mana digunakan sebagai komponen dalam telekomunikasi. Glass Kaca

Inner core Teras dalam Outer cladding Pembalut luar

Diagram 1.3 Rajah 1.3

Using your knowledge on total internal reflection and other properties of light, give some suggestions on how you would design an efficient optical fibre which is capable of carrying the largest number of signals simultaneously. Explain the suggestions based on the following aspects: Dengan menggunakan pengetahuan dalam pantulan dalam penuh dan sifat-sifat cahaya, beri beberapa cadangan tentang bagaimana anda akan mereka bentuk sebuah gentian optik yang efektif yang mana mampu untuk membawa isyarat yang paling banyak secara serentak. Terangkan cadangan-cadangan itu berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: The features of the optical fibre Sifat gentian optik The density of the inner core and outer cladding Ketumpatan bagi teras dalam dan pembalut luar The flexibility of the optical fibre Kelenturan gentian optik The ability to withstand extreme heat Kebolehan untuk menahan haba yang kuat The strength of the optical fibre Kekuatan gentian optik [10 marks]

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2. Diagrams 2.1 and 2.2 show two identical objects placed in front of two identical convex lenses . The focus point of the lenses is F and u is the object distance. Rajah 2.1 dan 2.2 menunjukkan dua objek yang serupa diletakkan di hadapan dua kanta cembung yang serupa. Titik fokus kanta ialah F dan u adalah jarak objek.

. F image object imej objek

. F

u Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

image imej

object objek

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2 The characteristic of the image formed by both lenses is virtual. Ciri Imej yang terbentuk oleh kedua-dua kanta itu adalah maya. (a) What is the meaning of virtual image ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan imej maya ? Referring to Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 ; Merujuk kepada Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2; (i) Compare the object distance, u . Bandingkan jarak objek , u

[1 mark]

(b)

[1 mark]

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(ii) Compare the size of image produced by the lenses Bandingkan saiz imej yang dihasilkan oleh kanta. Relate the size of image with the object distance, u . Hubungkaitkan saiz imej dengan jarak objek, u . [1 mark]

(iii)

[1 mark]

(c)

Diagram 2.3 shows an object placed in front of a convex lens with focal length ,f. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan satu objek berada di hadapan kanta cembung dengan jarak fokus , f.

Object (Arrow shape hole) Objek (Lubang berbentuk anak panah)

Convex lens Kanta cembung

image imej

screen skrin

v Lens holder Pemegang kanta u

Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3 The Image formed on the screen is enlarged. Imej yang terbentuk di atas skrin adalah diperbesarkan. (i) Name the light phenomenon that occurs. Namakan fenomena cahaya yang berlaku.

[1 mark]

(ii)

State two other characteristics of the image formed on the screen. Nyatakan dua ciri lain imej yang terbentuk di atas skrin. [2 marks]

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(iii) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the image in Diagram 2.3. Lukis satu gambar rajah sinar untuk menunjukkan penghasilan imej dalam Rajah 2.3. [3 marks]

(d)

You are given two convex lenses P and Q with focal lengths of 40 cm and 20 cm respectively. Using your knowledge on lenses , explain how you would build a simple astronomical telescope at normal adjustment. In your explanation, emphasise on the following aspects; Anda diberikan dua kanta cembung P dan Q dengan jarak fokus 40 cm dan 20 cm masing-masing. Menggunakan pengetahuan anda mengenai kanta, terangkan bagaimana anda akan membina sebuah teleskop astronomi ringkas pada pelarasan normal. Dalam penerangan anda beri penekanan kepada aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The lens for the eyepiece and objective lens Kanta untuk kanta mata dan kanta objektif The distance between the two lenses . Jarak antara kedua-dua kanta itu

[2 marks]

(ii)

[1 mark]

(iii)

(iv)

The formation of the image by objective lens and eyepiece. Pembentukan imej oleh kanta objektif dan kanta mata [4 marks] The characteristics of the final image Ciri-ciri bagi imej akhir [2 marks] The way to increase the magnification of the image . Cara untuk meningkatkan pembesaran imej [1 mark]

(v)

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PAPER 2 / SECTION C 3. Diagram 3.1 shows a stamp collector examines a stamp using a magnifying glass. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan seprang pengumpul setem sedang meneliti sekeping setem menggunakan kanta pembesar.

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1 (a) What is the meaning of focal length of a lens? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan panjang fokus bagi satu kanta? [1 mark] (i) Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image by the magnifying glass. Lukis satu gambar rajah sinar untuk menunjukkan bagaimana imej dihasilkan oleh kanta pembesar. [4 marks] State the characteristics of the image produced Nyatakan ciri-ciri imej yang dihasilkan.

(b)

(ii)

[2 marks]

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(c) Table 3.1 shows the characteristics of four types magnifying glass, J, K, L, and M. Jadual 3.1 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat jenis kanta pembesar, J, K, L dan M. Characteristics Ciri-ciri Percentage of light transmitted (%) Peratus penembusan cahaya (%) 90 95 95 85 Type of lens Jenis kanta Convex Cembung Concave Cekung Convex Cembung Concave Cekung Table 3.1 Jadual 3.1 Explain the suitability of each characteristics of the magnifying glass in Table 3.1 and then determine the most suitable magnifying glass that can be used to examine the stamp more clearly. Give reasons for your choice. Terangkan kesesuaian bagi setiap ciri-ciri kanta pembesar dalam Jadual 3.1 dan seterusnya tentukan kanta pembesar yang paling sesuai untuk digunakan bagi meneliti setem dengan lebih jelas. Beri sebab bagi pilihan anda. [10 marks] Focal length, f(cm) Jarak fokus, f(cm)

Type of magnifying glass Jenis kanta pembesar

Diameter (cm)

K L M N

5.0 20.0 20.0 5.0

15.0 5.0 15.0 5.0

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(d) A student is using a magnifying glass M to observe a small ant at a distance 2 cm. Seorang pelajar sedang menggunakan kanta pembesar M untuk memerhati seekor semut yang kecil pada jarak 2 cm. Calculate; Hitung; (i) The image distance. Jarak imej. The linear magnification of the image. Pembesaran linear bagi imej.

(ii)

[3 marks]

4.

Diagram 4.1 shows the image formed by a concave mirror when the object distance is u. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan imej dibentuk oleh cermin cekung apabila jarak objek adalah u. Screen skrin

image imej Bulb Mentol To power supply Ke bekalan kuasa Object objek

concave mirror cermin cekung

pembaris meter meter rule Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1

(a)

(i)

What is the meaning of real image? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan imej sahih? Name the phenomenon of light involved . Namakan fenomena cahaya yang terlibat .

[1 mark]

(ii)

[1 mark]

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(b) Diagram 4.2 shows a lighted candle is placed in front of the identical concave mirror as in Diagram 4.1 at a distance less than u. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan sebatang lilin yang menyala diletakkan dihadapan cermin yang serupa seperti Rajah 4.1 pada jarak kurang daripada u. Virtual image Imej maya Concave mirror Cermin cekung

Lighted candle Lilin menyala Diagram 4.2 Rajah 4.2 Draw a ray diagram to show how the image is formed by the mirror. Lukiskan rajah sinar cahaya untuk menunjukkan bagaimana imej dibentuk oleh cermin itu. [4 marks] (c) Diagram 4.3 shows a student is looking at the image of E which is situated behind him through a plane mirror placed 3 m in front of him. Rajah 4.3 menunjukkan seorang pelajar melihat imej , E, yang berada 4 m di belakangnya melalui cermin satah yang terletak 3 m di hadapannya.

plane mirror cermin satah

4m

3m Diagram 4.3 Rajah 4.3

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(i) State one characteristic of the image observed by the student. Nyatakan satu ciri imej yang dilihat oleh pelajar itu. [1 mark] What is the distance between the student and the image of E? Apakah jarak antara pelajar itu dengan imej E? [1 mark]

(ii)

(iii)

The board is then moved backwards 2 m from its original position. What is the distance between the image E and the student now? Papan kenyataan itu kemudiannya dialihkan 2 m ke belakang dari kedudukan asalnya . Apakah jarak di antara imej E dengan pelajar itu sekarang? [4 marks]

(d)

You are asked to investigate the designs and the characteristics of a filament and reflector to be used in a spotlight. Explain the suitability of each characteristics and determine the spotlight which is more efficient. Anda diminta mengkaji reka bentu dan ciri-ciri filamen serta pemantul untuk digunakan di dalam sebuah lampu limpah. Terangkan kesesuaian bagi setiap ciri dan tentukan lampu yang lebih cekap.

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Shape of reflector Bentuk pemantul S at the curvature of the reflector pada lengkungan pemantul coated with white paint bahagian dalam permukaan dilapisi cat putih thin glass with smooth surface at both side kaca nipis dengan permukaan licin di kedua-dua belah Inner Surface of reflector Permukaan dalam pemantul

Position of filament Kedudukan filamen

cover Penutup

Small aperture parabolic Parabola bukaan kecil T Big aperture Parabolic Parabola bukaan besar

at the focus point of reflector pada titik fokus pemantul

coated with silver bahagian dalam permukaan pemantul dilapisi perak

thick glass with uneven surface inside and smooth surface outside kaca tebal dengan permukaan tidak rata pada bahagian dalam dan licin di bahagian luar

Big semicircular Semibulatan besar

at focus point of reflector Filamen terletak pada titik fokus pemantul

coated with white paint dilapisi cat putih

thin glass with smooth surface at both side kaca nipis dengan permukaan licin di kedua-dua belah

V Small semicircular Semibulatan kecil

Filament situated at curvature of reflector Filamen terletak pada lengkungan pemantul

coated with silver dilapisi dengan perak

thick glass with uneven surface inside and smooth surface outside kaca tebal dengan permukaan tidak rata pada bahagian dalam dan licin di bahagian luar

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PAPER 3 / SECTION B 5. Diagram 5.1 shows a cameraman taking pictures of a model standing next to a plant using a camera with a convex lens in it. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan seorang jurugambar mengambil gambar seorang model yang sedang berdiri di sebelah pokok menggunakan kamera yang mempunyai kanta cembung.

Model

camera man

camera man

image in camera

image in camera

Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 While taking the picture, he looks at the image of the model on a small screen in the camera . He finds that the image becomes smaller when he stands further from the model. Semasa mengambil gambar, dia melihat imej model tersebut pada sebuah skrin di kamera. Dia mendapati imej menjadi semakin kecil apabila dia berdiri lebih jauh daripada model itu 63

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Based on this information ; Berdasarkan maklumat ini: (a) State a suitable inference that can be made . Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. [1 mark] (b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an investigation Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang boleh dikaji [ 1 mark ] (c) With the use of apparatus such as convex lens , screen an other apparatus , describe an experiment to investigate your hypothesis. Dengan menggunakan radas seperti kanta cembung, skrin dan lainlain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis anda In your description , state clearly the following ; Dalam penerangan anda, jelaskan perkara berikut: (i) The aim of the experiment Tujuan eksperimen The variables in the experiment Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen The list of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan The arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas The procedure used in the experiment. Describe how to control the manipulated variable and how to measure the responding variable Prosedur yang digunakan dalam eksperimen. erangkan bagaimana mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasi dan bagaimana mengukur pembolehubah bertindakbalas. The way to tabulate the data Cara menjadualkan data The way to analyse the data Cara untuk menganalisis data

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

[10 mark]

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CHAPTER 6 : WAVES PAPER 2/SECTION B 1 Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show images formed in a ripple tank when two water waves originate from two coherent sources. Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan imej yang dihasilkan dalam tangki riak apabila dua gelombang air berasal dari punca yang koheren.

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2

(a)

What is the meaning of coherent sources ? Apakah maksud sumber koheren ? [ 1 mark]

(b)

Observe Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 Perhatikan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 (i) Compare the wavelength of the wave in region A and region B. Bandingkan panjang gelombang bagi gelombang di kawasan A dan kawasan B. [1 mark]

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(ii)

Compare the distances between two consecutive node or antinode lines , X, in region A and B . Bandingkan jarak antara dua garis nodal atau antinodal berturutan, X, dalam kawasan A dan B. [ 1mark]

(iii)

Compare the distances between the two-slit separation, a in region A and B. Bandingkan jarak antara dua pemisah,a dalam kawasan A dan B [ 1 mark] Relate the wave length of waves to the distances between two consecutive nodes or antinode lines , X, Hubungkait panjang gelombang bagi gelombang dengan jarak antara dua garis nodal dan antinodal berturutan, X [1mark] Name the wave phenomenon involved. Namakan fenomena gelombang terlibat. [1mark]

(iv)

(v)

Diagram 1.3 Rajah 1.3 Diagram 1.3 shows a ripple tank used to produce water wave . The bright and dark fringes are formed on the white paper(screen) . Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan sebuah tangki riak diguna untuk menghasilkan gelombang air. Pinggir-pinggir cerah dan gelap terbentuk pada kertas putih (skrin) 66

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik

(c)

Explain why the bright and dark fringes are formed on the screen. Terangkan mengapa pinggir cerah dan gelap terbentuk pada skrin. [4 marks]

(d)

Diagram 1.4 shows the seashore of a seaside resort. During the monsoon season, waves are big and eroded the seashore, damaged the hotels and caused the jetty to collapse. Rajah 1.4 menunjukkan pantai bagi suatu tempat peranginan di tepi laut. Semasa musim monsun, ombak adalah besar dan menghakis pantai, memusnahkan hotel dan menyebabkan keruntuhan jeti.

Diagram 1.4 Rajah 1.4 To prevent similar damage in the future, there are several suggestions to build a retaining wall , relocate the jetty and the basic amenities. Provide ideas to solve the problems. You should use knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to explain these suggestions which include the following aspects: Untuk mengelakkan kemusnahan yang sama pada masa depan, terdapat beberapa cadangan untuk membina tembok penahan, memindahkan jeti dan kemudahan asas.

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Berikan idea untuk menyelesaikan masalah itu. Anda perlu menggunakan kefahaman tentang pemantulan, pembiasan dan pembelauan gelombang untuk menjelaskan cadangan tersebut yang termasuk aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The design of the retaining wall Rekabentuk tembok penahan The structure and material of the retaining wall. Struktur dan bahan tembok penahan. The surface of the retaining wall Permukaan tembok penahan The location of the new jetty. Lokasi bagi jeti baru. The size of the retaining wall Saiz tembok penahan [10 marks ]

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Diagram 2.1 shows a tuning fork vibrating near a microphone. The sound waves detected by the microphone are displayed on a cathode-ray oscilloscope. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan sebuah tala bunyi bergetar berhampiran dengan sebuah mikrofon. Gelombang bunyi yang dikesan oleh mikrofon itu dipaparkan pada sebuah osiloskop sinar katod. When the tuning fork is struck harder, the sound produced is louder and the sound waves produced are as shown in Diagram 2.2. Apabila tala bunyi itu diketuk dengan lebih kuat, bunyi yang dihasilkan adalah lebih nyaring dan gelombang bunyi yang dihasilkan adalah seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 2.2.

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a1

a2

Tuning fork Tala bunyi

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 10.1

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2

(a)

(i)

What is the meaning of longitudinal waves? Apakah maksud gelombang membujur? [1 mark]

(ii)

Explain how a tuning fork produces sound waves. Jelaskan bagaimana tala bunyi menghasilkan gelombang bunyi. [4 marks]

(b)

Using Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2, Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2, (i) Compare the amplitudes of vibration of the tuning forks. Banding amplitud getaran tala bunyi itu. (ii) Compare the peak values, a1 and a2, of the waves displayed by the oscilloscope. 69

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Banding nilai puncak, a1 dan a2, bagi gelombang yang dipaparkan pada osiloskop. (iii) Relate the peak values displayed by the oscilloscope to the amplitude of the sound wave. Hubungkan nilai-nilai puncak yang dipapar pada osiloskop dengan amplitud gelombang bunyi. (iv) Relate the peak value to the loudness of the sound produced. Hubungkan nilai puncak dengan kenyaringan bunyi yang dihasilkan. (v) Hence, deduce the relationship between the loudness of the sound and the amplitude of the wave. Seterusnya, deduksikan hubungan antara kenyaringan bunyi dengan amplitud gelombang itu. [5 marks] (c) Diagram 2.3 shows a boat using sound waves to measure the depth of the sea. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan sebuah bot menggunakan gelombang bunyi untuk mengukur kedalaman laut.

Reflected sound Bunyi terpantul

Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3 Transmitted sound Bunyi terpancar

(i)

Using your knowledge of the nature and phenomena of waves, explain how the following aspects of the wave affect the results obtained. Menggunakan pengetahuan anda tentang sifat dan fenomena gelombang, terangkan bagaimana aspek gelombang yang berikut mempengaruhi keputusan yang diperoleh. Frequency of the waves Frekuensi gelombang Energy of the waves 70

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Tenaga gelombang [4 marks] (ii) List the equipment needed for the measurement. Senaraikan peralatan yang diperlukan untuk pengukuran itu. [4 marks] (iii) Explain how the depth of the sea is determined. Terangkan bagaimana kedalaman laut ditentukan. [2 marks]

Paper 2 (Section C) 3. Diagram 3.1 shows the plane wave moving to the gap formed by two barriers. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan gelombang satah bergerak ke celah yang dibentuk oleh dua penghalang.

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1 (a) (i) What is meant by diffraction? Apakah yang di maksudkan dengan pembelauan? [1 mark ] Draw the wave pattern of the waves after passing through the gap formed by two barriers. Lukiskan corak gelombang bagi gelombang selepas melalui celah dibentuk oleh dua penghalang. [1 mark] Diagram 3.2 shows the gap is made wider. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan celah dijadikan lebih lebar. (i) draw the wave pattern of the waves after passing through the wider gap. lukiskan corak gelombang bagi gelombang selepas melalui celah yang lebih lebar. [ 1 mark ] 71 (ii)

(b)

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik

Diagram 3.2 Diagram 3.2 (ii) What remains unchanged after the waves passing through the gaps? Apakah yang tidak berubah selepas gelombang melalui celah ? [1 mark] What is the effect on the waves and the harbour passing through the entrance? Apakah kesan terhadap gelombang dan pelabuhan yang melalui laluan masuk itu? [2 marks]

(iii)

(c)

Diagram 3. 3 shows modifications to the harbour to overcome the heavy sea traffic problem. The wave pattern produced at the entrances is shown in Diagram 3.3. Rajah 3.3 menunjukkan pengubahsuaian kepada pelabuhan untuk mengatasi masalah laluan dipelabuhan. Corak gelombang yang dihasilkan di laluan masuk seperti di Rajah 3.3

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Diagram 3.3 Rajah 3.3

Describe the movement of two similar ships that are located at A and B . Explain your answer. Huraikan gerakan dua buah kapal serupa yang berada di A dan B. Terangkan jawapan anda. [ 4 marks ] (d) A new harbour city is constructed at a selected location. There are four possible structures of the retaining wall. Table 3 shows the locations and the characteristics of the four retaining walls. Sebuah bandar pelabuhan baru dibina di lokasi yang terpilih. Terdapat empat struktur kemungkinan bagi tembok penahanan. Jadual 3 menunjukkan lokasi dan ciri-ciri bagi empat tembok penahanan. Explain the best location and the suitability of each characteristics of retaining wall. Determine the most suitable model to be used for
construction of the harbour. Give reasons for your choice.

Terangkan lokasi yang paling baik dan kesesuaian bagi setiap ciri-ciri untuk tembok penahan . Tentukan model yang paling sesuai digunakan untuk pembinaan pelabuhan. Berikan sebab untuk pilihan anda. [ 10 marks ]

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Type of Locations Surface of retaining of the retaining wall retaining wall Wall Jenis Lokasi Permukaan Tembok tembok tembok penahan penahan penahan P Cape Tanjung Smooth licin Height of the retaining wall Ketinggian Tembok penahan Low Rendah Structure of the retaining wall

Struktur tembok penahan

Bay Teluk

Rough Kasar

High Tinggi

Cape Tanjung

Smooth licin

High Tinggi

Bay Teluk

Rough Kasar

Low Rendah

Table 3 Jadual 3

(a)

Diagram 4.1 shows a Bartons pendulum which consists of five pendulums tied to a horizontal string. When X is pulled and released, it causes the other four pendulums to oscillate. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan bandul Barton yang terdiri daripada lima bandul yang diikat kepada satu tali mengufuk. Apabila X ditarik dan dilepaskan, ia menyebabkan empat bandul lain berayun.

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Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 (i) Why do the other pendulum start to oscillate when X is pulled and released?
Mengapakah bandul lain mula untuk berayun apabila X ditarik dan dilepaskan? [ 1 mark ]

(ii)

What type of oscillation is gained by pendulums A, B,C and D ? Apakah jenis ayunan yang diperoleh oleh bandul A,B,C dan D? [ 1 mark ] Which pendulum oscillates with the maximum amplitude? Give reason . Bandul yang manakah berayun dengan amplitud
maksimum? Berikan sebab .

(iii)

[ 2 marks ] (iv) Name the phenomenon that occurred in (a) (iii). Namakan fenomena yang terjadi di (a) (iii). [ 1 mark ]

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(b) Table 4 shows the features of four radar systems,P,Q,R and S. Jadual 2 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat sistem radar,P,Q,R and S. Diameter Of the parabolic disc/m Diameter disk Parabola/m Types of wave transmitted Jenis gelombang yang dipancar Distance of the signal receiver from the parabolic dish Jarak Penerima isyarat dari disk parabola Focal length Panjang fokus Height of the parabolic dish Ketinggian disk parabola

Types of radar system Jenis sistem radar

10 P

Radiowave Gelombang radio

Low Rendah

Microwave Gelombang mikro

Less than the focal length Kurang daripada panjang fokus Focal length Panjang fokus More than the focal length lebih daripada panjang fokus

High Tinggi

Microwave Gelombang Mikro

High Tinggi

Radiowave Gelombang radio

Low Rendah

Table 2 Jadual 2 Study the specifications of all the four radar systems based on the following aspects and choose the most suitable radar system. Kaji spesifikasi untuk keempat-empat radar sistem radar berdasarkan aspek yang berikut dan pilih sistem radar yang paling sesuai.

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The diameter of the parabolic disc. Diameter disk parabola The distance of the signal receiver from the parabolic disc. Jarak penerima isyarat dari disk parabola. The type of the wave transmitted. Jenis gelombang yang dipancar. The height of the parabolic dics from the ground. Ketinggian disk parabola dari tanah.

Give reasons for your choice. Berikan sebab untuk pilihan anda. [10 marks] (c) Ultrasonic waves are transmitted by a hydrophone from a ship to the sea-bed to determine the depth of the sea. The hydrophone transmits an ultrasonic wave with a frequency of 25 kHz and a speed of 1 500 m s1 in sea water. The echoes of the ulltrasonic waves are received by the detector on the ship 0.12 s after transmission. Gelombang ultrasonik dipancar oleh hidrofon dari sebuah kapal kepada dasar laut untuk menentukan kedalaman laut. Hidrofon memancarkan gelombang ultrasonic yang berfrekuensi 25 kHz dan kelajuan 1 500 m s 1 dalam air laut. Gema gelombang ultrasonik yang diterima oleh alat pengesan pada kapal adalah 0.12 s selepas penghantaran. (i) What is the depth of the sea ? Berapakah kedalaman laut? [3 marks] (ii) Determine the wavelength of the ultrasonic waves in sea water. Tentukan panjang gelombang bagi gelombang ultrasonik dalam air laut. [2 marks]

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Paper 3 ( Section B ) 5 Diagram 5.1 shows the condition of a fortress at a harbour near a bay. The fortress is moveable to vary the size of the gap as shown in Diagram 5.2. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan keadaan benteng di sebuah pelabuhan laut dekat kawasan teluk. Benteng itu boleh di gerakan supaya celah yang berlainan saiz diperolehi seperti yang di tunjukkan dalam rajah 5.2.

Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1

Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2

Based on the information and observation above: Berdasarkan kepada maklumat dan pemerhatian di atas, a) State one suitable inference Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. b) State one suitable hypothesis Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai.

[ 1 mark ]

[ 1 mark ]

c) With the use of apparatus such as a ripple tank, obstacles and other apparatus, describe an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b) Dengan menggunakan radas seperti tangki riak, penghalang dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di (b) In your description, state clearly the following : Dalam penerangan anda, jelaskan perkara berikut : (i) Aim of the experiment Tujuan eksperimen Variables in the experiment Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen 78

(ii)

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(iii) List of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan Arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable Prosedur eksperimen termasuk kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerakbalas The way you would tabulate the data Cara anda akan menjadualkan data The way you would analyse the data. Cara anda akan menganalisis data [10 marks ] 6

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1 Diagram 6.1 shows the view of a beach at a bay. The water wave moves from the deeper to the shallower part of the beach . Hence, water

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waves follow the shape of the beach. The speed and wavelength decrease as the waves approach the beach . Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan pemandangan pantai di suatu teluk. Gelombang air bergerak daripada kawasan dalam ke kawasan cetek pantai. Oleh itu, gelombang air mengikut bentuk pantai. Laju dan panjang gelombang gelombang berkurang apabila gelombang itu menuju pantai. Based on the information and observation above: Berdasarkan kepada maklumat dan pemerhatian di atas, (a) State one suitable inference Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. (b) State one suitable hypothesis Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai.

[ 1 mark ]

[ 1 mark ]

(c) With the use of apparatus such as a ripple tank, lamp, motor, wooden bar and other apparatus, describe an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b) Dengan menggunakan radas seperti tangki riak, lampu, motor,batang kayu dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di (b) In your description, state clearly the following : Dalam penerangan anda, jelaskan perkara berikut : (i) Aim of the experiment Tujuan eksperimen (ii) Variables in the experiment Pembolehubah dalam eksperimen (iii) List of apparatus and materials Senarai radas dan bahan (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas (v) The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable Prosedur eksperimen termasuk kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasikan dan kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bergerakbalas (vi) The way you would tabulate the data 80

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Cara anda akan menjadualkan data (vii) The way you would analyse the data. Cara anda akan menganalisis data [10 marks ]

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CHAPTER 7 : ELECTRICITY PAPER 2/SECTION B 1. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show bulbs connection at the fruit stalls. The type of the bulbs and the electromotive force of the battery in both of the stalls are identical. Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan mentol-mentol yang disambung ke gerai buah-buahan. Jenis mentol dan daya gerak elektrik bagi bateri pada geraiadalah serupa.

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1

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Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2 (a) (i) What is meant by electromotive force? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan daya gerak elektrik? [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Draw a circuit diagram for each circuit and label the type of circuit. Lukis litar bagi setiap rajah dan labelkan jenis litar tersebut. [4 marks] [4 markah]

(b)

Using Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, compare the brightness of the bulbs, the potential difference across the bulb and the current flows through the bulb . Relate the brightness of the bulb, the potential different and the current flows through the bulbs to deduce a relevant physics concept. Menggunakan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2, bandingkan kecerahan mentol, beza keupayaan merentasi mentol dan arus yang melalui mentol. Hubungkaitkan kecerahan mentol, beza keupayaan dan arus yang mengalir melalui mentol untuk menyimpulkan satu konsep fizik yang relevan. [5 marks] [5 markah] 83

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( c) Diagram 1.3 shows an electric kettle with specification 240 V, 2000 W and connected by a flexible cable to a three-pin-plug. Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan sebuah cerek elektrik dengan spesifikasi 240 V, 2000 W dan disambungkan oleh kabel mudah alih ke plag- tiga -pin.

Electric kettle Cerek elektrik Three-pin-plug Plug-tiga-pin

Flexible cable Kabel mudah alih Diagram 1.3 Rajah 1.3

Heating element Elemen pemanas

You are required to modify the design of the electric kettle in Diagram 1.3 so that it can boil water in a shorter time and has better safety. State and explain the modifications based on the following aspects: Anda dikehendaki untuk mengubahsuai reka bentuk cerek elektrik dalam Rajah 1.3 supaya dapat mendidihkan air dengan lebih cepat dan lebih selamat. Nyata dan terangkan pengubahsuaian berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) diameter of the wire used as the flexible cable diameter wayar yang diguna sebagai kabel mudah alih (ii) length of the cable panjang kabel (iii) type of heating element jenis unsur pemanas (iv) type of material used as the body of the kettle jenis bahan yang digunakan sebagai badan cerek (v) safety precaution langkah keselamatan [10 marks] [10 markah]

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2 Diagram 2.1 shows a circuit used to investigate the relationship between electric current and potential difference for a constantan wire. Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan satu litar digunakan untuk mengkaji hubungan antara arus elektrik dan beza keupayaan satu dawai konstantan.

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2 (a) What is the meaning of electric current? Apakah maksud arus elektrik? [1 mark] [ 1 markah ] (b) Using Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2, compare the ammeter reading, the voltmeter reading and the length of the wire. Relate the voltmeter reading with the length of the wire to deduce a relevant physics concept. Dengan menggunakan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2, bandingkan bacaan ammeter, bacaan voltmeter dan panjang wayar. 85

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Hubungkaitkan bacaan voltmeter dengan panjang wayar untuk mendeduksikan satu konsep fizik. [5 marks] [5 markah] (c) Explain the properties of an ohmic conductor and give an example of it. Terangkan ciri-ciri bagi satu konduktor ohm dan berikan satu contoh. [4 marks] [4 markah] (d) Diagram 2.3 shows a filament bulb labeled 240 V, 80 W. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan satu filamen mentol berlabel 240 V , 80 W.

Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3 You are required to modify the design of the filament bulb so that it can light up with normal brightness. State and explain the modifications based on the following aspects: Anda dikehendaki untuk mengubahsuai reka bentuk filamen mentol dalam Rajah 2.3 supaya dapat menyala dengan kecerahan normal. Nyata dan terangkan pengubahsuaian berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) type of material used for the filament jenis bahan yang digunakan sebagai filamen shape of the filament coil bentuk gelung filamen thickness of the filament wire ketebalan wayar filamen melting point of the filament takat lebur filamen length of filament wire panjang wayar filamen 86

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[10 marks] [10 markah]

PAPER 2 (SECTION C) 3 Diagram 3.1 and 3.2 show two electrical circuits containing two bulbs 5 W 4 each and an adjustable rheostat (0 50 ) Rajah 3.1 dan 3.2 menunjukkan dua buah litar elektrik ringkas yang mengandungi dua buah mentol masing masing 5W, 4 dan sebuah reostat yang boleh melaras rintangan dari 0 hingga 50 .
Batteries bateri

Rheostat Reostat, (0 50 )

Bulb 5W, 4 Mentol , 5W,4

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1

Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2

(a)

What is meant by resistance ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan rintangan ? [1 mark]

(b)

(i) State the arrangement of the bulbs with the rheostat and relate it to theconcept of effective resistance for both diagrams. Nyatakan susunan mentol mentol dengan reostat dan hubungkaitkan dengan konsep rintangan berkesan bagi kedua dua Rajah. (ii)

If the rheostat has a resistance of 50, calculate the effective resistance in Diagram 3.2 Jika reostat mempunyai rintangan 50 , hitungkan rinta berkesan dalam Rajah 3.2 [4 marks] 87

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


(c) Diagram 3.3 shows an an electric jug used to boil water. Rajah 3. 3 menunjukkan sebuah cerek elektrik yang digunakan untuk memasak air.

Diagram 3.3 Rajah 3.3

Table 3 shows the specifications for four wires of the same diameter that can be used as a heating element of an electric kettle. Jadual 3 menunjukkan spesifikasi empat dawai berdiameter sama yang boleh digunakan untuk membuat elemen pemanas sebuah cerek elektrik.

Type Jenis

Density / ( kg m-3 ) Ketumpatan/ ( kg m-3 )

Melting point ( 0C ) Takat Lebur ( 0C ) 7500

Oxidation rate Kadar pengoksidaan

Resistance (/m) Kerintanga n ( /m ) 8.0 x 10-7

6500

High Tinggi High Tinggi Low Rendah Low Rendah

7000

8050

7.0 x 10-7

5000

8500

5.0 x 10-7

2500

9000

8.0 x 10-7

Table 3 / Jadual 3 You are required to determine the most suitable wire and explain the suitability of the aspects in Table 3.

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Anda diminta mengenalpasti dawai yang paling sesuai dan terangkan kesesuaian aspek-aspek yang tertera di Jadual 3 [10 marks] [10 markah] (d) An electric kettle labelled 240V , 2000W is used for 1 hour everyday for 30 days. Sebuah alat pemanas air berlebel 240V, 2000W digunakan selama 1 jam sehari selama 30 hari . (i) Find the resistance of the heating element if the kettle is connected to a 240 V power supply. Berapakah nilai rintangan pemanas itu jika disambungkan kepada bekalan kuasa 240V. If the cost per unit is RM 0.22 / kWh , calculate the cost of the usage of the eletrical energy. Jika kos seunit ialah RM 0.22 / kWj. Hitungkan kos penggunaan tenaga elektrik. [5 marks] [5 markah]

(ii)

(a)

What is meant by potential difference ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan beza keupayaan ? [1 mark] [ 1 markah]

(b)

Explain why the bulb connected to two dry cells lights up brighter than one bulb connected to one dry cell. Explain. Terangkan mengapa mentol yang disambungkan kepada dua sel kering menyala lebih terang berbanding dengan mentol yang disambung kepada satu sel kering. [4 marks] [4 markah] Table 4 below shows the characteristics of four types of cables that have the same length. Jadual 4 dibawah menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat jenis kabel yang mempunyai panjang yang sama. Cable Diameter Density 89 Rate of Melting point

(c)

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Kabel Diameter (cm) 2 4 3 1 Ketumpatan (kgm-3) 4.50 x 103 3.00 x 103 5.45 x 103 2.50 x 103 Table 4 Jadual 4 You are to choose one of the cables to be used in the National Grid Network. Explain the suitability of each of the characteristics of the cables. Choose the most suitable cable and justify your choice. Anda diminta memilih satu kabel untuk digunakan dalam Rangkaian Grid Nasional. Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri-ciri kabel tersebut. Pilih kabel yang paling sesuai dan jelaskan pilihan anda. [10 marks] [10 markah] (d) A power of 9.5 kW is transmitted from a small wind-powered generator to a village along 6000m of cables that have a total resistance of 1 . The power is transmitted at the usual mains supply voltage of 240V. Kuasa 9.5 kW dipindahkan dari sebuah generator kuasa-angin kecil ke sebuah kampong menggunakan kabel sepanjang 6000m yang mempunyai jumlah rintangan 1 . Kuasa dipindahkan pada bekalan voltan utama sebanyak 240V. Calculate Hitung (i) the current in the cables arus dalam kabel expansion Kadar pengembangan Medium Sederhana Low Rendah High Tinggi Low Rendah Takat lebur

P Q R S

High Tinggi High Tinggi Low Rendah Medium Sederhana

[ 1 mark ] [1 markah]

(ii)

the power loss due to the heating of the cables kuasa yang hilang oleh kesan pemanasan kabel [ 2 marks ] 90

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[2 markah (iii) the percentage of loss of power peratusan kehilangan kuasa [ 2 marks ] [2 markah]

PAPER 3 (SECTION B) 5 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two electric kettles used to boil the same amount of water with a heating element. The heating coil of the kettle in Diagram 5.1 is thicker than that in Diagram 5.2. The length and material of both coils are the same. It is noticed that the kettle in Diagram 5.2 heated up water faster than the kettle in Diagram 5.1. Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan dua cerek elektrik digunakan untuk mendidihkan jumlah air yang sama menggunakan unsur pemanas. Gegelung pemanas bagi cerek dalam Rajah 5.1 lebih tebal berbanding dalam Rajah 5.2. Didapati, cerek dalam Rajah 5.2 memanaskan air lebih cepat berbanding cerek dalam Rajah 5.1.

Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1

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Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2 Based on the information and observation : Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian tersebut : (a) State one suitable inference, Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai. [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) State one hypothesis that could be investigated. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang boleh disiasat. [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a dry cell, constantan wire and other apparatus, describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 5(b). Dengan menggunakan rada seperti sel kering ,wayar konstantan dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di 5(b). In your description, state clearly the following: Dalam penerangan anda nyatakan dengan jelas perkara berikut (i) (ii) (iii) The aim of an experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. The variables in the experiment. Pemboleh ubah dalam eksperimen. The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. 92

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(iv) The arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas. (v) The procedure of the experiment. Describe how to control the manipulated variable and how to measure the responding variable. Prosedur yang digunakan dalam eksperimen. Terangkan bagaimana mengawal pembolehubah dimanipuasikan dan bagaimana mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. (vi) The way to tabulate the data Cara untuk menjadualkan data (vii) The way to analyse the data Cara untuk menganalisis data [10 marks] [10 markah]

6.

Diagram 6.1 shows a light bulb which lights up when it is connected to a dry cell. Diagram 6.2 shows the same light bulb lights up with more brightness when it is connected to two dry cells. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan sebiji mentol menyala apabila disambungkan kepada sebiji sel kering. Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan mentol yang sama menyala dengan lebih cerah apabila disambungkan kepada dua biji sel kering.

Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1

Diagram 6.2 Rajah 6.2

Based on the information and observation above : Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian di atas: (a) State one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai 93

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


[1 mark] [1 markah] (b) State one suitable hypotesis. Nyatakan satu hipotesis yang sesuai. [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a 1.5 V battery, bulb, ammeter, voltmeter, connecting wire and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the hypothesis stated in 6(b) In your description, state slearly the following : Dengan menggunakan radas seperti sel kering 1.5 V, mentol, ammeter, voltmeter dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu rangka kerja ekperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang anda nyatakan dalam 6(b) Dalam penerangan anda jelaskan perkara berikut : (i) The aim of an experiment. Tujuan eksperimen. (ii) The variables in the experiment. Pemboleh ubah dalam eksperimen. (iii) The list of apparatus and materials. Senarai radas dan bahan. (iv) The arrangement of the apparatus Susunan radas. (v) The procedure of the experiment. Describe how to control the manipulated variable and how to measure the responding variable. Prosedur yang digunakan dalam eksperimen. Terangkan bagaimana mengawal pembolehubah dimanipuasikan dan bagaimana mengukur pembolehubah bergerak balas. (vi) The way to tabulate the data Cara untuk menjadualkan data (vii) The way to analyse the data Cara untuk menganalisis data [10 marks] [10 markah]

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CHAPTER 8 : ELECTROMAGNETISME PAPER 2/SECTION B 1. (a) Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show two identical arrangements of a solenoid, a galvanometer, and a bar magnet. In Diagram 1.1, the bar magnet is pushed slowly into the solenoid. In Diagram 1.2, the bar magnet is pushed quickly into the solenoid. The maximum deflection of the galvanometer pointer in each case is shown in the diagrams. Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan dua susunan solenoid, galvanometer dan magnet batang yang sama. Dalam Rajah 1.1, magnet batang ditolak dengan perlahan ke dalam solenoid. Dalam Rajah 1.2 , magnet batang ditolak dengan cepat ke dalam solenoid. Pesongan maksimum penunjuk galvanometer bagi setiap kes ditunjukkan dalam rajah-rajah.

Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2

(i)

What is the meaning of electromagnetic induction? Apakah maksud aruhan electromagnet? markah]

[1 marks/ 1

(ii)

Using Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, compare the speed of motion of the two Bar magnets and the deflection of the two galvanometer pointers. Relate the deflection of the galvanometer pointers, the currents in the solenoids and the speed of the bar magnets, deduce a physics concept. 95

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Dengan menggunakan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2, bandingkan kelajuan pergerakan kedua-dua magnet batang dan pesongan bagi dua penunjuk galvanometer. Hubung kait pesongan penunjuk galvanometer, arus dalam solenoid dan kelajuan magnet batang, deduksikan satu konsep fizik. [4 marks/ 4 markah]

(iii)

Name the physic law that explains the above situation. Namakan hukum fizik yang menerangkan situasi di atas. [1 marks/ 1 markah] State two advantages of the National Grid Network in the transmission of electricity. Nyatakan dua kelebihan Rangkaian Grid Nasional dalam penghantaran elektrik. [2 marks/ 2

(b) (i)

markah] (ii) Explain why the electrical power is better transmitted at a high voltage compared to a low voltage. Terangkan mengapa kuasa elektrik adalah lebih baik dihantar pada voltan tinggi berbanding dengan voltan yang rendah. [2 marks/ 2 markah]

(c) Diagram 1.3 shows a simple generator. Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan suatu penjana ringkas.

Diagram 1.3

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(i) Briefly explain how the generator produces electricity and name the type of current produced. Secara ringkas, terangkan bagaimana penjana itu menghasilkan elektrik dan namakan jenis arus yang dihasilkan.

(ii)

Explain the modification that needs to be done on the generator and the external circuit to change it to become a d.c electric motor. Explain how the motor can be made with faster rotation. Terangkan pengubahsuaian yang perlu dilakukan pada penjana dan litar luar untuk mengubahnya menjadi satu motor elektrik a.t. Terangkan juga bagaimana motor dapat dibuat dengan putaran yang lebih cepat. [10 marks/ 10 markah]

2.(a) Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 show two identical electromagnets, X and Y. The current in X is 2.0 A and the current in Y is 3.0 A. Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan dua electromagnet yang sama, X dan Y. Arus dalam X ialah 2.0 A dan arus dalam Y ialah 3.0 A.

Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2

(i)

What is the meaning of electromagnet? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan electromagnet? [1 marks/ 1 markah]

(ii)

Using Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2, compare the amount of iron 97

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filings attracted and the magnetic field strength of the two electromagnets. Relate the current and the amount of iron fillings attracted, deduce a physics concept. Dengan menggunakan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2, bandingkan amaun serbuk besi yang ditarik dan kekuatan medan magnet dua electromagnet itu. Hubung kait arus dengan amaun serbuk besi yang ditarik, deduksikan satu konsep fizik. [5 marks/ 5 markah] (b).In Diagram 2.3, when a magnet is pushed into a solenoid, the galvanometer pointer will deflect and this indicates a current flow. Dalam Rajah 2.3, apabila satu magnet ditolak ke dalam solenoid, penunjuk galvanometer akan terpesong dan ini menunjukkan pengaliran arus.

Diagram 2.3 (i) Explain why a current is produced. Terangkan mengapa arus dihasilkan. [1mark/1markah] What is the magnetic pole formed at the end of B of the solenoid when the magnet is pushed into the solenoid? Explain your answer. Apakah kutub magnet yang terbentuk pada hujung B solenoid itu apabila magnet ditolak ke dalam solenoid? Terangkan jawapan anda. [1mark/1markah] State the direction of the current in the solenoid seen by observer P. Nyatakan arah arus dalam solenoid yang dilihat oleh pemerhati P. [1mark/1markah] State what is observed on the galvanometer pointer when the magnet is 98

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

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pulled out from the solenoid. Nyatakan apa yang diperhatikan pada penunjuk galvanometer apabila magnet ditarik keluar dari solenoid. [1 mark/ 1 markah] (c) Diagram 2.4 shows a simple transformer used to light up a bulb. The bulb is labeled 12 V, 24 W. The bulb lights up at normal brightness. Rajah 2.4 menunjukkan suatu transformer ringkas digunakan untuk menyalakan mentol. Mentol itu dilabelkan 12V, 24W. Mentol itu menyala pada kecerahan normal.

Diagram 2.4 (i) Explain the operating principle of a transformer. Terangkan prinsip operasi transformer itu. markah]

[ 4 marks/ 4

(ii)

Explain the modification that needs to be done to the transformer so that it can step down the mains voltage of 240V to 2V, 4V, 6V, 8V,10V,or 12V. Suggest three ways to increase the efficiency of the transformer. Terangkan pengubahsuaian yang perlu dilakukan pada transformer supaya transformer itu dapat menurunkan voltan sesalur 240V menjadi 2V,4V, 6V,8V, 10V atau 12V. Cadangkan tiga cara untuk menambahkan kecekapan transformer itu. [6 marks/ 6 markah]

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3. Diagram 3.1 shows a bar magnet moving in and out of a copper coil which is connected to a galvanometer. Diagram 3.2 shows a copper wire, which is connected to a galvanometer, oscillating in the space between two bar magnets.

Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2

( a) ( i) What is the meaning of induced current ? ( ii) Observe Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2. Compare the motion between the bar magnets, the copper coil and copper wire, relate a physics concept with them. ( b) Diagram 3.3 shows a magnet moving towards a solenoid connected to a galvanometer. On Diagram 3.3, indicate the direction of flow of the induced current and state three ways to increase the magnitude of the induced current. ( c) Diagram 3.4 shows a simple transformer used for stepping down the voltage of an alternating current.

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You are given the task to make modifications to the transformer as shown in Diagram 3.4 so that it practical for usage in electrical appliances. Explain the modifications based on the following aspects. The shape, design and material used to make the core The arrangement of the coils The diameter of the wire used for the coils

Paper 2 ( Section C ) 4. (a) Diagram 4.1 shows a simple experiment to demostrate the principle of electromagnetic induction. An induced current is produced when the bar magnet is pushed into a coil where it ends are connected to a sensitive galvanometer. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan suatu eksperimen ringkas untuk menunjukkan prinsip aruhan elektromagnet. Suatu arus teraruh dihasilkan apabila batang magnet ditolak ke dalam gegelung di mana hujungnya disambungkan kepada suatu galvanometer peka.

Diagram 4.1 (i) What is the meaning of electromagnetic induction? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan aruhan electromagnet?

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[ 1mark/1markah] (ii) . (ii) Give two ways in which the induced current is increased ? Berikan dua cara di mana arus teraruh ditambah ? [2marks/2markah] Describe and explain the observation on the galvanometer pointer if The bar magnet is held stationary inside the coil The bar magnet is pushed in and then pulled out of the coil Huraikan dan terangkan pemerhatian pada penunjuk galvanometer jika Magnet batang dipegang pegun dalam gegelung Magnet batang ditolak ke dalam dan kemudian ditarik keluar dari gegelung [2 marks/ 2 markah]

(b) Diagram 4.2 shows a model of an electric transmission system set up in a laboratory. A 12V power supply is used as a power station. X,Y and Z are transformers. A bulb of 6V is used to represent a factory and a bulb of 3V is uses to represent houses. The electric power from the power station is sent at a voltage of 36V. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan suatu model bagi sistem penghantaran elektrik yang disediakan dalam makmal. Bekalan kuasa 12V digunakan sebagai stesen kuasa. X, Y dan Z merupakan transformer. Satu mentol 6V digunakan untuk mewakili sebuah kilang dan satu mentol 3V digunakan untuk mewakili rumah-rumah. Kuasa elektrik dari stesen dihantar pada voltan 36V.

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Diagram 4.2 You are required to set up the model as shown in Diagram 3.2 using the information below. Number of turns of the coils Bilangan lilitan gegelung A = 1500 Type of transformer core Jenis teras transformer Material of transmission lines Bahan talian penghantaran Nichrome Nikrom Constantan Konstantan Copper Kuprum Aluminium Aluminium

Copper core solid Pepejal teras kuprum Laminated copper core Teras kuprum berlamina Iron core solid Pepejal teras besi Laminated iron core Teras besi berlamina Steel core solid Pepejal teras keluli Laminated steel core Teras keluli berlamina

B = 1080

C = 1000

D = 500

E = 180

F = 120

Using Diagram 4.2 and the above information, determine 103

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Dengan menggunakan Rajah 4.2 dan maklumat di atas, tentukan (i) the coil that can be used as the primary coil and secondary coil of the three transformers, X, Y and Z. gegelung yang boleh digunakan sebagai gegelung primer dan gegelung sekunder bagi tiga transformer, X , Y, dan Z. [6marks/6mark ah] (ii) the type of core that you use in all transformers. Give reasons for your choice. Jenis teras yang anda guna bagi semua transformer. Berikan sebabsebab bagi pilihan anda. [2 marks/2markah] the material that you use for transmission cable. Give one reason for your choice. Bahan yang anda guna untuk kabel penghantaran. Berikan satu sebab bagi pilihan anda. [2 marks/2 markah]

(iii)

(c) If the resistance of the transmission lines between X and Y in the model is 2 .0 and the power supplied by the power station is 36 W, calculate jika rintangan talian penghantaran di antara X dan Y dalam model itu ialah 4.0 dan kuasa yang dibekalkan oleh stesen kuasa ialah 18W, hitung (i) the current in the transmission line arus dalam talian penghantaran [2marks/2markah] .(ii) the power loss in the transmission line kehilangan kuasa dalam talian penghantaran. [3 marks/ 3 markah]

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5. (a) Diagram 5.1 illustrates an electric bell operated using battery. Rajah 5.1 mengilustrasi suatu loceng elektrik yang beroperasi menggunakan bateri.

Diagram 5.1 (i) What is the meaning of electromagnet? Apakah maksud elektromagnet? [1mark/1markah] (ii) Explain why the hammer strikes the bell repeatedly when the switch is turned on. Terangkan mengapa penukul memukul loceng berulang kali apabila suis dihidupkan.

[2marks/2markah] (iii) Explain why the bell can also function when an a.c voltage is used instead of the d.c supply. Terangkan mengapa loceng itu juga boleh berfungsi apabila voltan a.u digunakan untuk menggantikan bekalan a.t [1marks/1markah]

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(iv) A student wants to investigate the effect of using different materials as the core. He used cores made of plastic, copper, and steel successively. In each case, state and explain what happens when the switch is turned on. Seorang pelajar hendak menyiasat kesan penggunaan bahan-bahan yang berlainan sebagai teras. Dia menggunakan teras-teras yang diperbuat daripada plastik, kuprum, dan keluli satu demi satu. Dalam setiap kes, nyatakan dan terangkan apa yang berlaku apabila suis dihidupkan. [6 marks/6markah]

(b) Diagram 5.2 shows the National Grid Network. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan Rangkaian Grid Nasional.

Diagram 5.2

Table 5 gives the information about four types of cables that could be used for the Transmission of electricity in the National Grid Network. Jadual 5 memberikan maklumat tentang empat jenis kabel yang boleh digunakan untuk penghantaran elektrik dalam Rangkaian Grid Nasional.

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Material Bahan Resistance (/ km) Rintangan (/ km) 0.40 Density (kg/m-3), n=3 Ketumpatan(kg/m-3), x=3 Rate of rusting Kadar pengaratan Low rendah High tinggi Low rendah Medium sederhana Rate of thermal expansion Kadar pengembangan terma high tinggi Medium Sederhana Low Rendah low rendah

5.0 x 10x

1.50

3.0 x 10x

0.30

1.0 x 10x

0.60

6.3 x 10x

Table 5 Explain the suitability of each characteristic in Table 5 and determine which cable is most suitable to be used. Give reasons for your choices. Terangkan kesesuaian setiap ciri dalam Jadual 5 dan tentukan kabel yang manakah paling sesuai digunakan . Berikan sebab-sebab bagi pilihan anda. [10 marks / 10 markah] .

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Paper 3 (Section B) 6. Figure 6.1 shows a cross-section of a bicycle dynamo which has a magnet and a coil of insulated copper wire. The output of the dynamo is connected to a bicycle lamp. The lamp will light up when the magnet is rotated by turning the wheel. The light gets brighter when the wheel turns faster. Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan keratan rentas sebuah dinamo basikal yang mempunyai magnet dan gegelung daripada wayar kuprum bertebat. Output dinamo disambungkan kepada lampu basikal. Lampu akan menyala bila magnet berpusing dengan cara memutarkan roda. Lampu menjadi lebih cerah apabila roda berputar lebih laju.

Diagram 6.1 Using your knowledge of electromagnetism : Menggunakan pengetahuan anda berkaitan keelektromagnetan: ( a) Make one suitable inference. Nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai ( b) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. Nyatakan satu hipotesis bersesuaian yang boleh dikaji ( c) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis state in (b). Rekabentuk satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis dinyatakan dalam (b) Choose suitable apparatus such as a bar magnet, a coil of copper wire and others. In your description, state clearly the following : Pilih radas yang sesuai seperti magnet bar, gegelung wayar kuprum dan lainlain. Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas yang berikut:

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( i) aim of the experiment tujuan eksperimen

( ii) variables in experiment pembolehubah eksperimen ( iii) list of apparatus and materials senarai radas dan bahan ( iv) arrangement of the apparatus susunan radas ( v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable prosedur eksperimen termasuk kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasi dan kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bertindakbalas ( vi) the way you would tabulate the data cara menjadualkan data ( vii) the way you would analyse the data cara menganalisis data

7 Diagram 7.1 and Diagram 7.2 shows a large electromagnet used in steelworks to lift and move heavy steel scraps. The load is released when the electric current is switched off.

Diagram 7.1

Diagram 7.2

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Based on the information and your knowledge about the electromagnetism : Berdasarkan maklumat dan pengetahuan anda mengenai keelektromagnetan: ( a) state one suitable inference. nyatakan satu inferens yang sesuai ( b) State one hypothesis that could be investigated. Nyatakan satu hipotesis bersesuaian yang boleh dikaji ( c) With the use of apparatus such as paper clips, solenoid and other apparatus, describe an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b). Dengan menggunakan radas seperti klip kertas, solenoid dan lain-lain radas, terangkan satu eksperimen untuk menyiasat hipotesis yang dinyatakan di (b) In your description, state clearly the following : Dalam penerangan anda, nyatakan dengan jelas yang berikut: ( i) aim of the experiment tujuan eksperimen

( ii) variables in experiment pembolehubah eksperimen ( iii) list of apparatus and materials senarai radas dan bahan ( iv) arrangement of the apparatus susunan radas ( v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable prosedur eksperimen termasuk kaedah mengawal pembolehubah dimanipulasi dan kaedah mengukur pembolehubah bertindakbalas ( vi) the way you would tabulate the data cara menjadualkan data ( vii) the way you would analyse the data cara menganalisis data

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CHAPTER 9 : ELECTRONICS PAPER 2/SECTION B 1. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show two cathode ray tubes. The cathode ray in Diagram 1.1 reaches the screen slower than the cathode ray in Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan dua tiub sinar katod. Sinar katod dalam Rajah 1.1 sampai ke skrin lebih lambat dari sinar katod dalam Rajah 1.2 .

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2

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(a). What is the meaning of cathode ray? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan sinar katod? [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

Using Diagram 1.1 and Diagram1. 2 compare, Menggunakan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 bandingkan, (i) the intensity of the green dot kecerahan tompok hijau [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

voltage supplied voltan yang dibekalkan

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(iii) the velocity of electron halaju elektron (c) State the relationship between Nyatakan hubungan antara (i) voltage and the velocity of electron voltan dengan halaju elektron Velocity of electron and the intensity of green dot Halaju elektron dan keamatan tompok hijau

[1 mark] [1 markah]

[1 mark] [ 1 markah] [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

(d)

Explain how the green dot can be formed on the screen. [4 marks] Terangkan bagaimanakah tompok hijau itu dapat terbentuk di atas skrin. [ 4 markah] Using both Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, suggest the modifications to be made to the cathode ray tube to turn it into a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) based on the following aspects: Menggunakan kedua-dua Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 cadangkan modifikasi yang perlu dibuat untuk menukarkan tiub sinar katod itu kepada sebuah Osiloskop sinar katod (CRO) berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) electron gun senapang elektron [4 marks] [4 markah]

(e)

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(ii) deflecting system sistem pemesongan [4 marks] [4 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

(iii) screen skrin

2.

Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 shows two identical electric circuits containing a diode , an ammeter, a bulb and two batteries. Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan dua litar serupa mengandungi sebuah diod, satu ammeter dan dua buah bateri.

Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.2

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(a) What is the function of a diode? Apakah fungsi sebuah diod ? [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

Based on Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2, compare the lighting of the bulbs, the current flow and the connection of the diode to the battery terminal. Relate the connection of the diode to the battery and the lighting of the bulb to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] Berdasarkan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2, bandingkan nyalaan mentol, arus yang mengalir dan sambungan diod kepada terminal bateri. Hubungkaitkan sambungan diod kepada bateri dan nyalaan mentol bagi menyimpulkan satu konsep fizik yang relevan. [5 markah]

(c)

Diagram 2.3 shows a half wave rectifier circuit. Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan litar rektifikasi gelombang separuh.

Diagram 2.3 Rajah 2.3 (i) Draw the wave form at the output of the circuit. [1 mark] Lukiskan bentuk gelombang pada bahagian output litar itu. [1 markah] A capacitor is then placed across the output of the circuit.

(ii)

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Draw the wave form produced and explain how the shape of the wave form is produced. [3 marks] Sebuah kapasitor diletakkan merentasi bahagian output litar itu. Lukiskan bentuk gelombang yang terhasil dan terangkan bagaimana bentuk itu dapat terbentuk. [3 markah] (d) Diagram 2.4 shows a simple transistor circuit. Rajah 2.4 menunjukkan sebuah litar bertransistor ringkas.

Diagram 2.4 Rajah 2.4 You are required to make modifications to the circuit so that the circuit can be used to switch on the alarm automatically in case of a fire. The alarm used operates with a voltage supply of 240 V a.c. State and explain the modifications based on the following aspects: Anda dikehendaki untuk membuat perubahan kepada litar di atas bagi menghidupkan penggera secara automatik apabila berlaku kebakaran. Penggera yang digunakan beroperasi dengan bekalan 240 V a.u. Nyata dan terangkan pengubahsuaian berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) Position of the thermistor Kedudukan termistor. Connection of the battery Sambungan bateri [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

(ii)

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(iii) Position of the resistor, R2, to protect the transistor. [2 marks ] Kedudukan perintang R2, yang dapat melindungi transistor [2 markah] (iv) Additional components Komponen-komponen tambahan [4 marks] [4 markah]

Paper 2 (Section C)
3. Diagram 3.1 shows the symbol of a transistor. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan simbol satu transistor.

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1

(a)

(i)

Name the type of transistor Namakan jenis transistor itu.

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

Explain with the aid of a diagram how the transistor can be used as an amplifier. [ 4 marks] Terangkan dengan menggunakan rajah bagaimana transistor itu dapat digunakan sebagai penguat arus. [4 markah]

(b)

Diagram 3.2 shows four transistor circuits, J, K, L and M used to light up street light. Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan empat litar transistor, J,K,L dan M yang digunakan untuk menyalakan lampu jalan.

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Circuit Circuit Diagram

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Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2 You are required to determine the most suitable design of the circuit so that the street light with light up automatically when the surrounding is dark. Anda ditugaskan untuk menentukan rekabentuk litar yang paling sesuai untuk menyalakan lampu jalan secara automatik apabila keadaan persekitaran adalah gelap. Study the specification of all the four circuits based on the following aspects: Kaji spesifikasi keempat-empat litar berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) . (ii) The position of LDR. Kedudukan LDR The position of resistor R Kedudukan perintang R Connection of dry cells Sambungan sel kering Additional component Komponen tambahan [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

(iii)

(iv)

Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable circuit. 118

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Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks] Terangkan kesesuaian setiap aspek dan seterusnya tentukan litar yang paling sesuai. Berikan sebab untuk pilihan anda. [2 markah]

(c)

Diagram 3.3 shows a graph of collector current, I c against base circuit, I b from an experiment using a transistor circuit. Rajah 3.3 menunjukkan satu graf arus pengumpul, I c melawan arus tapak, I b dari satu eksperimen menggunakan litar bertransistor.

Diagram 3.3 Rajah 3.3

Based on the information from the graph, Berdasarkan maklumat dari graf, Calculate: Hitungkan:

(i)

the current amplification pembesaran arus

[2 marks] [ 2 markah]

(ii)

the value of emitter current, I e when the collector current, I c is 30 mA. [2 marks] Nilai arus pengeluar, I e apabila arus pengumpul, I c adalah 30 mA. [2 markah]

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4. Diagram 4.1 shows electrons produced in a cathode ray tube by a process called thermionic emission. Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan elektron terhasil di dalam tiub sinar katod melalui proses pancaran termion.

Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1 (a) (i) What is the meaning of thermionic emission? [1 mark] Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pancaran termion? [1 markah] Explain why the milliammeter record a reading when the switch is on. [4 marks] Terangkan mengapa milliammeter mencatatkan bacaan apabila suis dihidupkan. [4 markah]

(ii)

(b)

Diagram 4.2 shows four cathode ray tubes, L,M,N,O which is to be used to study the characteristics of cathode ray in a magnetic field. Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan empat tiub sinar katod yang digunakan untuk mengkaji sifat-sifat sinar katod di dalam medan magnet.

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Cathode ray tube L Cathode ray tube Diagram

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O

Diagram 4.2 Rajah 4.2

You are required to determine the most suitable cathode ray tube that can show the effect of cathode ray in a magnetic field. Anda ditugaskan untuk menentukan tiub sinar katod yang paling sesuai yang dapat menunjukkan kesan sinar katod dalam medan magnet. Study the specifications of all the four cathode ray tubes based on the following aspects: Kaji spesifikasi keempat-empat tiub sinar katod berdasarkan aspekaspek berikut: (i) . (ii) The position of the cross. Kedudukan palang The position of anode Kedudukan anod Connection of EHT Sambungan VLT The position of cathode Kedudukan katod [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

(iii)

(iv)

Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable cathode ray tube. Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks] Terangkan kesesuaian setiap aspek dan seterusnya tentukan tiub sinar katod yang paling sesuai. 122

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Berikan sebab untuk pilihan anda. [2 markah]

(c)

Diagram 4.3 shows a wave form on the screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope, CRO. The Y gain setting is 3 V cm-1 and time base setting on the CRO is 5 ms cm-1. Rajah 4.3 menunjukkan satu gelombang yang terhasil pada skrin sebuah osiloskop sinar katod, OSK. Pengganda Y adalah 3 V cm-1 dan masa tapak pada OSK adalah 5 ms cm-1.

Diagram 4.3 Rajah 4.3 Calculate: Hitungkan: (i) period of the wave tempoh ayunan gelombang frequency of the wave form frekuensi gelombang peak voltage of the wave Voltan puncak gelombang [2 marks] [2 markah] [1 mark] [1 markah] [ 2 marks] [2 markah]

(ii)

(iii)

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CHAPTER 10 RADIOACTIVITY 1. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 show a Geiger-Muller (G-M) tube and a rate meter are using to detect the milk level in container P and Q in a factory. The radioactive source emits the same type of radioactive rays. The background reading recorded by both rate meters is 50 count per minute. The distance between the detector and container P and Q is the same respectively. Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan sebuah tiub Geiger-Muller dan sebuah meter kadar sedang digunakan untuk mengesan aras susu dalam bekas P dan bekas Q didalam sebuah kilang. Sumber radioaktif memancarkan jenis sinaran radioaktif yang sama. Bacaan latar belakang yang direkodkan oleh kedua-dua meter kadar adalah 50 bilangan/minit. Jarak antara pengesan dari bekas P dan Q adalah sama masing-masing.

Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 (a) What is the meaning of background reading? Apakah maksud bacaan latarbelakang?

Diagram 1.2 Rajah 1.2 [ 1 mark] [1 markah]

(b) (i)

Based on information and observation on Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, compare the background reading, the level of milk in the containers and the readings of the rate meters. Berdasarkan maklumat dan pemerhatian pada Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2, bandingkan bacaan latarbelakang, aras susu dalam bekas dan bacaan meter kadar.

[3 marks]

[3 markah]

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(ii) State the relationship between the readings of the rate meter and : Nyatakan hubungan antara bacaan meter kadar dan : (a) The level of milk in the container. Aras susu dalam bekas. (b) The number of radioactive ray detected by G-M tube. Bilangan sinaran radioaktif yang dikesan oleh tiub G-M. [1 mark] [1 markah]

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(c)

A radioisotope emits two radioactive rays, R and S. The path of both rays in an electric field are shown in Diagram 1.3. Suatu bahan radioisotop memancarkan dua sinaran radioaktif, R dan S. Lintasan kedua- dua sinaran itu dalam medan elektrik seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 1.3.

Diagram 1.3 Rajah 1.3

(i)

Name radioactive ray R and S. Namakan sinaran radioaktif R dan S.

[2 marks] [2 markah]

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(ii) Explain why ray R and S follow the path shown in Diagram 1.3. Terangkan mengapa sinaran R dan S mengikut lintasan seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 1.3. [2 marks] [2 markah]

(d) Diagram 1.4 shows how a worker handling a radioactive material. The method used to handle the radioactive material is not safe. Radioactive ray emitted by the radioactive material can caused side effect to the worker. Suggest and explain how to handle the radioactive material safely based on the following aspects : Rajah 1.4 menunjukkan bagaimana seorang pekerja sedang mengendalikan bahan radioaktif. Kaedah yang digunakan untuk mengendalikan bahan radioaktif itu tidak selamat. Sinaran radioaktif yang dipancarkan oleh bahan radioaktif boleh menyebabkan banyak kesan sampingan. Cadang dan terangkan bagaimana untuk mengendalikan bahan radioaktif dengan selamat berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut:

Radioactive material Bahan radioaktif Wooden box Kotak kayu Diagram 1.4 Rajah 1.4

(i) The modifications in the storing methods of the radioactive material safely. Pengubahsuaian dalam kaedah penyimpanan bahan radioaktif secara selamat. 126

[2 marks] [2 markah]

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(ii) The equipment to be used in handling the radioactive material. Peralatan yang digunakan dalam mengendalikan bahan radioaktif. (iii) The other precautions should be taken to reduce the side effect of the radioactive ray. Langkah berjaga-jaga lain yang perlu diambil untuk mengurangkan kesan sampingan sinaran radioaktif.

[4 marks] [4 markah]

[4 marks] [4 markah]

2. Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 show the activities of two radioactive sources X and Y. Rajah 2.1 dan 2.2 menunjukkan aktiviti dua sumber radioaktif X dan Y.

Activity / s1 Aktiviti/ s1
1200 900 600 300

Activity / s1 Aktiviti/ s1
2000 1500 1000 500

10

15

20

Time / h Masa / j

100

200

300

400

Time / s Masa / s

Radioactive source X Sumber radioaktif X Diagram 2.1 Rajah 2.1

Radioactive source Y Sumber radioaktif Y Diagram 2.2 Rajah 2.1

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(a) What is the meaning of radioactive? Apakah maksud radioaktif? Using Diagram 2.1 and Diagram 2.2 Menggunakan Rajah 2.1 dan Rajah 2.2 (i) state two similarity of how the activity of radioactive sources X and Y change to time. nyatakan dua persamaan bagaimana aktiviti sumber radioaktif X dan Y berubah terhadap masa. (ii) determine the time taken for radioactive sources X and Y to be half from their initial values. tentukan masa yang diambil untuk sumber radioaktif X dan Y menjadi separuh daripada nilai asal mereka . (iii) name the physical quantity represents the time stated in answer 2(b)(ii). namakan kuantiti fizik yang mewakili masa yang dinyatakan itu dalam jawapan 2(b)(ii). (c) [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

[2 marks]

[2 markah]

[2 marks]

[2 markah]

[1 mark] [1 markah]

The following equation shows the decay process of Polonium. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan proses penyepaian Polonium.
214 84

Po

x 82

4 Pb + y He

(i) Determine the value of x and y. Tentukan nilai x dan y (ii) Name the radioactive emission emitted by Polonium 214 ( 84 Po ) Namakan sinaran radioaktif yang dipancarkan oleh 214 Polonium ( 84 Po )

[2 marks] [2 markah]

[1 marks] [1 markah]

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(iii) State one suitable detector to detect the radioactive ray in 2(c)(ii). Nyatakan satu alat pengesan sinaran radioaktif yang sesuai untuk mengesan sinaran dalam2(c)(ii) [1 marks]

[1 markah]

(d) The radioactive ray emitted by a radioactive source used in the treatment of brain tumor. You are assigned to conduct the treatment so that the side effect of radioactive ray to the patient can be reduced. Using the knowledge of radioactivity, suggest and explain on the following aspects: Sinaran radioaktif yang dipancarkan oleh sumber radioaktif digunakan untuk rawatan ketumbuhan dalam otak. Anda ditugaskan untuk mengendalikan rawatan itu supaya kesan sampingan sinaran raadioaktif terhadap pesakit dapat dikurangkan. Menggunakan pengetahuan tentang keradioaktifan, cadang dan terangkan berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) The type of radioactive ray Jenis sinaran radioaktif (ii) How to target the radioactive ray on the tumor cells Bagaimana sinaran radioaktif disasarkan ke atas sel-sel ketumbuhan. (iii) The dosage of the radioactive ray Dos sinaran radioaktif (iv) Exposure time to radioactive ray Masa pendedahan sinaran radioaktif [2 marks] [2 markah] [4 marks] [4 markah] [ 2 marks] [2 markah] [ 2 marks] [2 markah]

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3. Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2 show the path of radioactive ray in an electric field. Rajah 3.1 dan Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan lintasan sinaran radioaktif dalam suatu medan elektrik.

Diagram 3.1 Rajah 3.1

Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2

(a)

What is the meaning of radioactive? Apakah maksud radioaktif? Using Diagram 3.1 and Diagram 3.2, compare: Menggunakan Rajah 3.1 dan 3.2, bandingkan: (i) The voltage of the EHT Voltan VLT (ii) The deflection of radioactive ray Pesongan sinaran radioaktif

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(b)

[1 mark] [1 markah] [1 mark] [1 markah]

(c)

State the relationship between the strength of electric field between the plates and Nyatakan hubungan antara kekuatan medan elektrik antara plat-plat

dengan (i) the voltage of EHT Voltan VLT [1 mark] [1 markah] [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii) the deflection of radioactive ray Pesongan sinaran radioaktif 130

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(d)

Explain why a radioisotope that emits alpha particle is not suitable for use as a tracer in medicine? [4 markah] Terangkan mengapa radioisotop yang memancarkan zarah alfa tidak sesuai digunakan dalam bidang perubatan? [4 markah]

(e)

Diagram 3.3 shows a system used in a factory to ensure the thickness of cardboard sheet is uniform. The system used radioactive source. The rollers are used to compress the cardboard sheet. Rajah 3.3 menunjukkan suatu sistem yang digunakan dalam sebuah kilang untuk memastikan ketebalan kepingan kadbod adalah seragam. Sistem itu menggunakan sumber radioaktif. Penggelek-penggelek digunakan untuk memampatkan kepingan kadbod.

Diagram 3.3 Rajah 3.3 The thickness of cardboard sheets are accepted if the reading of the counter is 250 count per minute. Suggest and explain on the following aspects so that the system can works efficiently. Ketebalan kepingan kadbod akan diterima jika bacaan pembilang adalah 250 bilangan per minit.Cadang dan terangkan berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut supaya sistem itu boleh bekerja dengan lebih cekap

(i)

the physical state of the radioisotope. 131

[2 marks]

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keadaan fizikal radioisotope. (ii) the type of ray emitted. jenis sinaran yang dipancarkan. [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

(iii) the half life of the radioisotope. separuh hayat radioisotop (iv) the modification should be done on the distance between the rollers when the readings recorded by the counter is lower or higher than 250 count per minute. pengubahsuaian yang perlu dilakukan ke atas jarak antara penggelek bila bacaan yang direkodkan oleh pembilang lebih rendah atau lebih tinggi dari 250 bilangan perminit.

[4 marks]

[4 markah]

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SECTION C

4. to

Radioactive material has some important uses in the field of agriculture such as study the effectiveness of fertilizers and control the population of pests.

Bahan radioaktif mempunyai beberapa kegunaan penting dalam bidang pertanian seperti mengkaji keberkesanan baja dan pengawalan populasi serangga. (a) A researcher conducted an investigation using posphorus-32 to study the absorption and movement of fertilizers in the plant. Diagram 4.1 shows how radioisotope phosphorus - 32 is injected to the stem of the plant. The half-life of posphorus-32 is 14 days and emits -particles. Seorang penyelidik telah menjalankan satu penyiasatan menggunakan fosforus-32 untuk mengkaji penyerapan dan pergerakan baja dalam satu tumbuhan.Rajah 4.1menunjukkan bagaimana fosforus-32 disuntik kedalam batang tumbuhan itu. Separuh hayat bagi fosforus-32 ialah 14 hari dan memancarkan zarah- .

Diagram 4.1 Rajah 4.1

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Based on the information on radioactivity and Diagram 4.1 : Berdasarkan maklumat dalam keradioakifan dan Rajah 4.1: (i) What is the meaning of half life? Apakah maksud separuh hayat? [1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii)

State one characteristic of particle. Nayatakan satu ciri zarah- .

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(iii) Name the most suitable detector could be used to detect -particles. Namakan satu alat pengesan yang paling sesuai digunakan untuk mengesan zarah- .

[1 marks] [1 markah]

(b) The initial posphorus-32 activity is 600 counts per second. Calculate the time taken for the phosphorus-32 activity to decrease to 75 counts per second. Keaktifan awal fosforus-32 ialah 600 bilangan per saat.Hitung masa yang diambil untuk keaktifan fosforus-32 berkurang menjadi 75 bilangan per saat. [2 marks] [2 markah]

(c)

The population of pests can be controlled using radiation from radioactive source.

You are assigned to study the characteristics of some radioisotopes that are suitable for use in controlling the population of pests. Table 3.2 shows the characteristics of four radioisotopes. Populasi serangga dapat dikawal dengan menggunakan sinaran radioaktif dari satu sumber radioaktif. Anda ditugaskan untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri bagi beberapa radioisotope yang sesuai untuk digunakan dalam mengawal populasi serangga.

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Jadual 3.2 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat radioisotop.

Radioisotope Radioisotope

Characteristics of radioisotope Ciri-ciri radioisotop State of matter Keadaan jirim Types of ray Jenis sinar Half-life Separuh hayat

Iodine-131 Iodin-131

Liquid Cecair

Gamma Gama

8 days 8 hari

Xenon-133 Xenon-133

Solid pepejal

Beta Beta

5 days 5 hari

Cobalt-60 Kobalt-60

Solid Pepejal

Gamma Gama

5 years 5 tahun

Strontium-90 Strontium-90

liquid cecair

Beta Beta

8 years 8 tahun

Table 4.2 Jadual 4.2 Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the radioisotope to be used in the controlling the population of pests based on the following aspects: Terangkan kesesuian ciri-ciri radioisotope untuk digunakan dalam mengawal populasi serangga berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut: (i) State of matter Keadaan jirim (ii) Types of ray Jenis sinar (iii) Half-life Separuh hayat 135 [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

Modul Pecutan Akademik Fizik


Determine the most suitable radioisotope to be used and give the reason for your choice. Tentukan radioisotope yang paling sesuai digunakan dan beri sebab bagi pilihan anda.

[2 marks] [2 markah]

(d) The following equation shows a fission reaction of Uranium-235. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan satu persamaan tindakbalas pembelahan nukleus Uranium-235.

(i) What is the meaning of nuclear fission? Apakah maksud pembelahan nucleus?

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(ii) Explain how nuclear energy is produced from the nuclear fission? [3 marks] Terangkan bagaimana tenaga nuklear dihasilkan daripada tindak balas pembelahan nukleus itu? [3 markah]

(e)

The nuclear energy produced in fusion reaction of two nuclei is 6.0 x 10-9 J. Tenaga nuklear yang dihasilkan dalam tindakbalas pelakuran dua nucleus ialah 6.0 x 10-9 J. Calculate: Hitungkan: (i) The total loss of mass in the reaction. Jumlah kehilangan jisim dalam tindakbalas itu. [ c = 3.0 x 108 ms-1] (ii) Time taken to produce the power of 200 W Masa yang diambil untuk menghasilkan kuasa 200 W [2 marks] [2 markah]

[1 mark] [1 markah]

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5. Diagram 5.1 shows the process of controlling the thickness of metal plates. The radioactive source used emits gamma ray. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan proses mengawal ketebalan kepingan logam. Sumber radioactive yang digunakan memancarkan sinar gamma.

Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 (a) (i) State one characteristic of gamma ray. Nyatakan satu ciri sinar gamma. [1 mark] [1 markah]

(b) Explain Terangkan (i) why the radioactive source is kept in the lead box. mengapa sumber radioaktif itu disimpan dalam kotak plumbum. how gamma ray is used to control the thickness of the metal plate. bagaimana sinar gamma digunakan untuk mengawal ketebalan kepingan logam. [2 marks] [2 markah]

(ii)

[4 marks] [4 markah]

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(c) Radioactive ray emitted by radioisotopes can be used to sterilize the medical equipments in hospitals. You are assigned to study the characteristics of some radioisotopes that are suitable for use in the sterilization of medical equipments. Sinaran radioaktif yang dipancarkan oleh radioisotop boleh digunakan untuk pensterilan perlalatan perubatan di hospital. Anda ditugaskan untuk mengkaji ciri-ciri beberapa radioisotop yang boleh digunakan untuk pensterilan peralatan perubatan. Table 5 shows the characteristics of five radioisotopes. Jadual 5 menunjukkan ciri-ciri lima radioisotop.
Characteristics of isotope Ciri-ciri isotop State of matter Types of ray Keadaan jirim Jenis sinaran Solid Beta Pepejal Solid Gamma Pepejal Gas Beta Gas Liquid Gamma Cecair Solid Alpha Pepejal Alfa

Radioisotope Radioisotop V W X Y Z

Half-life Separuh hayat 28 years 28 tahun 5 years 5 tahun 5 days 5 hari 8 days 8 hari 140 days 140 hari

Table 5 Jadual 5 (i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics to be used in the sterilization of medical equipment. Terangkan kesesuaian ciri-ciri yang boleh digunakan untuk pensterilan peralatan perubatan. (ii) Determine the most suitable radioisotope to be used and give one reason for your choice. . Tentukan radioisotop yang paling sesuai digunakan dan beri satu sebab bagi pilihan anda. .

[6 marks] [6 markah]

[2 marks] [2 markah]

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(d) The following equation shows Po-210 undergoes alpha decay to become Pb-206. Persamaan berikut menunjukkan Po-210 mengalami penyusutan alfa untuk menjadi Pb-206. [ 1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg ] [ c = 3.0 x 108 ms-1]

Additional information: Maklumat tambahan: Mass of Po Jisim Po Mass of Pb Jisim Pb Mass of He Jisim He = 209.982 u

= 205.969 u

= 4.004 u

Based on the equation and additional information given, calculate; Berdasarkan persamaan dan maklumat tambahan yang diberi, hitung; (i) the mass defect cacat jisim (ii) the energy released tenaga yang dibebaskan (iii) the power produced in 5 s kuasa yang dihasilkan dalam 5 s [1 mark] [1 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah] [2 marks] [2 markah]

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BIl. Alat Ciri ciri , huraian dan alasan

ALAT ELEKTRIK 1. Kipas yang boleh menyejuk dengan pantas 1. Motor yang berkuasa tinggi supaya kelajuan putaran tinggi. 2. Bilah yang banyak supaya isipadu udara yang dapat digerakkan adalah tinggi. 3. Panjang bilah kipas yang lebih panjang supaya lebih banyak udara dapat diputarkan. 4. Bilah diperbuat daripada bahan yang ringan dan kukuh supaya tidak mudah patah. 5. Luas keratan permukaan kipas yang menggerakkan udara hendaklah besar supaya lebih banyak udara dapat digerakkan . 1. Ruang penyejuk dibahagian atas supaya berlaku proses perolakan udara . 2. Dinding ditebat dengan tebal supaya haba dari persekitaran tidak dapat mengalir masuk 3. Motor pemampat yang berkuasa tinggi supaya dapat menyejuk dengan pantas. 4. Sirip penyejuk yang berwarna hitam dan banyak supaya dapat mengalirkan haba kepersekitaran dengan lebih pantas. 5. Gegelung penyejuk dalam kotak penyejuk yang lebih banyak supaya lebih banyak haba dapat diserap . 6. Mempunyai ciri-ciri keselamatan seperti dawai pembumian supaya tidak berlaku renjatan elektrik bila berlaku litar pintas. 1. Motor yang berkuasa tinggi supaya dapat menghasilkan ruang hampagas yang bertekanan rendah. 2. Ruang kotak hampagas mestilah kedap udara supaya udara tidak boleh mengalir masuk atau keluar. 3. Liang penapis debu yang bersaiz kecil supaya semua debu halus dapat ditapis. 4. Mempunyai sistem penyejukan motor yang sesuai supaya motor tidak terbakar. 5. Mempunyai ciri-ciri keselamatan seperti dawai pembumian supaya tidak berlaku renjatan elektrik bila berlaku litar pintas.

2.

Peti sejuk yang boleh menyejuk secara efisien

3.

Pembersih hampagas yang berkuasa tinggi

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LAMPIRAN
4. Cerek elektrik yang efisien dan selamat 1. Elemen pemanas daripada bahan yang sesuai seperti wayar nikrom kerana rintanagan wayar tinggi dan banyak haba dapat dihasilkan. 2. Gegelung wayar yang banyak supaya banyak haba dapat dihasilkan 3. Pemegang cerek diperbuat daripada bahan yang mempunyai muatan haba tentu yang tinggi supaya tidak mudah panas. 4. Mempunyai ciri-ciri keselamatan seperti dawai pembumian supaya tidak berlaku renjatan elektrik bila berlaku litar pintas. 5. Mempunyai sensor atau timer supaya apabila air mencapai takat didih kuasa elektrik dapat dimatikan secara automatik. 6. Kuasa pemanas yang tinggi supaya banyak haba dapay dihasilkan . 7. Dinding bekas diperbuat daripada bahan yang tahan panas supaya tidak mudah lebur 1. Kipas yang berkuasa tinggi supaya banyak udara yang dapat digerakkan. 2. Gegelung penyejuk yang banyak supaya lebih banyak hada dapat dipindahkan keluar. 3. Diameter geglung penyejuk yang lebih besar supaya lebih banyak cecair penyejuk dapat mengalir 4. Sirip penyejuk yang banyak supaya pembungan haba lebih cepat. 5. Kuasa motor pemampat yang tinggi supaya penyejukan lebih cepat 6. Bilik mempunyai sistem penebat haba yang baik supaya haba dari luar tidak dapat mengakir masuk. 1. Elemen pemanas diperbuat daripada wayar nikrom yang boleh menghasilkan haba dengan banyak 2. Kipas yang berkuasa tinggi supaya dapat meniup dengan lebih laju 3. Memunyai suis dua haa yang sesuai supaya dapat menghembus udara panas dan sejuk. 4. Diameter muncung pengering yang besar supaya banyak udara dapat ditup keluar 5. Mempunyai ciri-ciri keselamatan seperti dawai pembumian supaya tidak berlaku renjatan elektrik bila berlaku litar pintas. 6. Pemengang yang mempunyai muatan haba tentu tinggi supaya tidak mudah panas. 7. Elemen pemanas yang mempunyai takat lebur yang tinggi supaya tidak mudah cair.

5.

Penghawa dingin yang dapat menyejuk sebuah bilik dengan cepat.

6.

Pengering rambut yang efisein dan berkuasa .

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LAMPIRAN
7. Mentol lampu berfilamen yang cerah 1. Filamen yang bergelung yang lebih banyak supaya rintangan filamen lebih tinggi 2. Diameter wayr yang halus supaya rintangan wayar tinggi 3. Filamen diperbuat daripada bahan yang mempunyai takat lebur yang tinggi. 4. Mentol mempunyai tekanan udara yang rendah supaya mentol tidak mudah terbakar 5. Bahan tungsten sebagai filamen kerana rintanganya tinggi. 6. Gas lengai digunakan dalam mentol supaya filamen tidak mudah terbakar 1. Jisim sterika yang lebih besar supaya lebih berat bagi meratakan pakaian yang tebal yang berkedut 2. Elemen pemas yang boleh menghasilakn haba yang banyak supaya sterika cepat panas. 3. Elemen pemanas tidak mudah lebur supaya elemen pemanas tidak mudah lebur. 4. Mempunyai ciri-ciri keselamatan seperti dawai pembumian supaya tidak berlaku renjatan elektrik bila berlaku litar pintas. 5. Pemegang sterika diperbuat daripada bahan yang mempunyai muatan haba tentu yang tinggi supaya tidak mudah panas. 6. Bentuk sterika tajam dihadapan supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan 7. Tapak sterika diperbuat daripada bahan yang muatan haba tentu yang rendah supaya mudah panas. 1. Kuasa pam yang tinggi supaya ia dapat mengalirkan air yang lebih banyak 2. Sistem paip air yang tidak bocor supaya tekanan adalah tetap. 3. Paip air yang tebal supaya paip tidak pecah atau bocor 4. Sistem penyejuk motor pump yang sesuai supaya motor tidak mudah terbakar 5. Diameter paip air masuk dan diameter paip air keluar mestikan sesuai supaya pump berfungsi dengan baik. 1. Magnet kekal yang lebih kuat supaya daya getaran yang lebih besar dapat dihasilkan. 2. Pembesar suara perlu disambungkan kepada amplifier supaya arus yang lebih besar dapat dialirkan kedalam gegelung . 3. Bilangan gegelung yang lebih besar supaya dapat menghasilkan daya yang lebih besar.

8.

Sterika elektrik yang efisien dan dapat menggosok pakaian yang lebih tebal.

9.

Pump air elektrik yang efisien dan dapat membekalkan air kepada bangunan tinggi.

10.

Pembesar suara yang efisein dan berkuasa tinggi.

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4. Diameter wayar gegelung besar supaya dapat menampung arus yang lebih besar. Atau rintangan lebih rendah 5. Luar permukaan kon yang lebih besar supaya lebih bnayak udara yang boleh digetarkan. 6. Mempunyai transformer yang sesuai supaya beza keupayaan yang lebih tinggi dapat dihasilkan. 7. Dipasangkan kepada kotak yang besar supaya lebih banyak uadara dapat digetarkan. ALAT ATAU KENDERAAN DI ATAS PERMUKAAN AIR 11. Kapal yang boleh membawa kargo yang banyak dan selamat 1. Bentuk hadapan berbentuk aerofoil supaya mengurangkan rintangan air 2. Kapal yang menpunyai ruang yang besar supaya boleh membawa lebih muatan 3. Kapal yang mempunyai garisan plimsol memberi maklumat tentang kuantiti muatan yang selamat 4. Bentuk kapal yang lebar di bahagian bawah supaya dapat menyesarkan air dengan banyak dan menghasilkan daya apungan yang lebih besar 5. Kapal mempunyai engin yang berkuasa tinggi supaya ia dapat membawa muatan yang banyak 6. Bahagian bawah kapal diperbuat lebih tebal supaya dapat menampung tekanan air yang lebih besar di bawah. 7. Bahan untuk badan kapal yang kukuh dan tahan karat supaya kapal tidak mudah pecah atau terhakis. 8. Propeller kapal yang besar supaya kapal boleh bergerak lebih laju . 1. Bahagian hadapan berbentuk aerofoil supaya dapat mengurangkan rintanagn udara 2. bentuk bahagian belakang juga berbentuk aerofoil supaya ia dapat menghasilkan aliran air yang seragam ( streamline ) 3. Badan kayak yang kecil dan tidak lebar dapat menyrangkan rintangan air. 4. Bahan diperbuat daripada gentian fiber yang berktumpatan rendah supaya jisim kecil 5. Pengdayung yang permukaan lebar supaya dapat menambah lelajuan 6. Permukaan atas yang ditutupi supaya tidak

12.

Canoe ( Kayak ) yang boleh bergerak laju

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dimasuki air 7. Permukaan badan kayak yang licin supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan air. 8. Bahan untuk badan kayak kalis air supaya kayak tidak mudak rosak. 13. Rakit yang boleh bergerak laju dan membawa muatan penumpang yang ramai. 1. Bahagian hadapan berbentuk aerofoil/ tajam supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan air. 2. Jisim rakit yang kecil supaya ia dapat memberi halaju yang lebih tinggi 3. Bahan terdiri daripada buluh/ balak supaya boleh terapung di atas air. 4. Batang-batang buluh diikat untuk menghasilkan bahagian yang terggelam lebih besar supaya daya apungan lebih besar 5. Pasang enjin pada bahagian belakang supaya dapat memberi daya tujah ke hadapan yang lebih besar 6. Guna tong plastik, tiub getah berisi udara dan lain-lain supaya dapat menambah daya apungan. 1. Bahan badan berketumpatan rendah supaya jisimnya kecil 2. Bahan badan yang kalis air dan ringan supaya boleh terapung di atas air. 3. Bahagian hadapan berbentuk aerofoil/ larus supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan air. 4. Permukaan badan kapal licin supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan udara. 5. Layar mempunyai permukaan besar supaya daya tolakan angin lebih besar dihasilkan. 6. Kain layar ringan dan kalis air supaya dapat menembah halaju 7. Tiang layar diperbuat daripada bahan yang kukuh supaya tidak mudah patah. 1. Badan kapal berbentuk peluru / torpedo/ aerofoil supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan air 2. Ada tangki balast supaya air boleh dikeluarkan atau dimasukkan bagi tujuan mengubah kedalaman 3. Badan diperbuat daripada keluli yang tebal supaya kapal selam tidak pecah 4. Propeller yang mempunyai bilangan daun kipas yang banyak supaya boleh memberi tujahan ke hadapan yang besar 5. Enjin kapl selam berkuasa tinggi supaya dapat menghasilkan daya tujah yang besar kehadapan.

14.

Perahu layar yang dapat bergerak pantas.

15.

Kapal selam yang boleh bergerak laju dan selamat

144

LAMPIRAN
6. Periskop dipasang supaya kapten kapal selam boleh melihat objek di atas permukaan air. 7. Sistem komunikasi menggunakan gelombang radio yang canggih supaya dapat berhubung dengan pusat kawalan 8. Mempunyai kelengkapan SONAR untuk menyukur kedalaman dasar laut dan navigasi. 9. Tekanan udara dalam kapal yang sama dengan tekanan atmosfera supaya anak-anak kapal tidak mengalami gangguan tekanan 10. Bekalan oksigen yang mencukupi supaya dapat menampung pernafasan 1. Bahagian hadapan berbentuk aerofoil/ tajam supaya dapat mengurangkan rintangan air. 2. Jisim motor boat yang kecil supaya ia dapat memberi halaju yang lebih tinggi 3. Bahan untuk badan boat terdiri daripada bahan yang kukuh ia tidak mudah pecah atau patah 4. Permukaan bawah licin supaya mengurangkan rintangan air 5. Pasang enjin berkuasa kuda tinggi pada bahagian belakang supaya dapat memberi daya tujah ke hadapan yang lebih besar 6. Guna pelampung keselamatan , tong plastik, tiub getah berisi udara dan lain-lain supaya dapat digunakan untuk terapung 7. Mempunyai sistem membrek yang sesuai supaya dapat diberhentikan dengan baik 8. Mempunyai kemudi di bahagian belakang supaya mudah menukar arah

16.

Motor boat yang boleh bergerak laju dan selamat

KENDERAAN DI ATAS DARATAN 17. Lori tangki yang membawa minyak dengan selamat 1. Kuasa enjin tinggi supaya dapat menggerakkan lori dengan muatan yang besar 2. Sistem brek angin yang cekap supaya lori dapat di berhentikan dengan baik 3. Tangki terdiri daripada beberapa tangki kecil supaya mengurangkan inersia 4. Sistem suspensi dengan spring yang keras supaya dapat menahan beban yang besar 5. Bilangan tayar yang banyak supaya dapat mengurangkan tekanan pada permukaan tanah 6. Terdapat jarak pemisahan antara tangki

145

LAMPIRAN
dengan ruang pemandu supaya dapat mengurangkan daya impuls 7. Terdapat alat pemadam apil supaya dapat mengawal kebakaran. 8. Sistem rantai tangki ke bumi supaya berlaku pembuangan cas elektrostatik ke bumi dan mengelak daripada kebakaran. 18. Kereta lumba bergerak laju dan selamat 1. Bahagian hadapan yang mudah kemek supaya mengurangkan daya impuls semasa pelanggaran 2. Kuasa enjin ( kuasa kuda) yang tinggi supaya dapat bergerak dengan halaju yang tinggi atau memecut 3. Bahagian hadapan yang berbentuk aerofil supaya mengurangkan rintangan udara 4. sistem brek yang cekap( contoh : ABS, hidraulik, brek angin dan lain-lain) supaya kereta dapat diberhentikan dengan cepat 5. Tayar yang lebar supaya kereta bergerak dengan stabil 6. Tali pinggang keledar supaya mengurangkan kesan inersia terhadap pemandu dan penumpang 7. Jisim kereta kecil supaya dapat bergerak dengan halaju tinggi 8. Pemandu dan penumpang memakai topi keledar supaya dapat mengurangkan daya impuls sewaktu kepala mengena hentakan 9. Pusat graviti kereta rendah supaya lebih stabil dan mengelak kereta daripada terbalik 10. Tayar diperbuat daripada bahan takat lebur tinggi supaya mengelak daripada pencairan . 1. Lapisan luar terdiri daripada bahan yang kukuh supaya tidak mudah pecah . 2. Bentuk topi keledar adalah sfera dan bersaiz penuh supaya menutupi kepala dengan sempurna. 3. Bahan dalam lapisan dalam terdiri daripada sponj // bahan lembut supaya dapat mengurangkan daya impuls . 4. Terdapat tali pengikat supaya tidak mudah tercabut semasa kemalangan.

19.

Topi keledar yang selamat

146

Answers Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure Paper 2 Section B Question Answer 1(a)(i) Pressure is normal force per unit area (ii) Pressure on Y = pressure on Z Surface area Y < surface area Z Force on Y < force on Z The bigger the surface area, the bigger the force Pascals principle (b) A force is exerted when the tube is squeezed/pressed A large pressure is produced / P = F/A Due to Pascals principle the pressure is transmitted equally in all directions A large force pushed the toothpaste out of the tube (c) Suggestion Explanation 1. Brake fluid should be 2. Pressure exerted is constant non-compressible liquid throughout the liquid / - oil pressure can be transferred without any bubbles forming in the liquid 3. -Liquid should have a 4. Does not change to gas high boiling point easily on hot days -Low freezing point -Does not freeze easily on cold days -low rate of evaporation - Does not vaporize easily when engine is hot - low density -Total weight of liquid is small 5. Ratio of cross sectional area of master piston to slave piston is big 7. The material for the disc has a high melting point - high specific heat capacity 9. High degree of hardness for brake pad 6. Produce a large braking force 1,1 8. does not melt easily when temperature is high -to better absorb heat produced by friction between brake pad and brake disc 10. able to withstand very strong force / does not break easily

Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1,1

1,1

1,1

1,1

Total

20

2(a)(i) (ii)

(iii) (b)(i)

(ii) (c)

Aerofoil the air flowing above the aerofoil is faster the pressure above the aerofoil is lower creates a pressure difference between the upper and lower regions of the aerofoil produces an upward force known as lift force Bernoullis principle the shape of the sail in sailboat X is an aerofoil whereas sailboat Ys sail is in the shape of a rectangle sailboat X traveled a longer distance than sailboat Y the forward force in the sail of sailboat X is greater than that of sailboat Y the greater the lift force, the longer the distance traveled Modification 1. Use air compressor 3. Use a thin nozzle/ Use high pressure 5. Material for paint container is metal 7. Use low density material 9. Size of container should be large Explanation 2. To produce a continuous air flow 4. Air flow will be faster / fine 6. Cannot be easily broken

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1

8. Lighter and easier to be moved/ handled and carried 10. Can be filled with a large volume of paint at one time and needs less refills

1,1

Total Paper 2 Section C Question Answer 3 (a)(i) The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that body (ii) buoyant force acting on the balloon is equal to the weight of air displaced by the balloon/ buoyant force is larger than the weight of the balloon density of air decreases with altitude weight of air displaced becomes smaller / buoyant force is smaller when weight of air displaced// buoyant force is equal to the total weight of the balloon, balloon stops to rise (b) Characteristics Explanation 1. Size of balloon should 2. A bigger volume of air can be be large displaced to produce a higher

20 Mark 1

1 1 1 1

1,1

3. Envelope of balloon is made from nylon

5. The number of burners used should be more than one 7. The basket should be made of rattan

buoyant force 4. Reduce the total weight of the balloon to produce a larger upward resultant force/ not easy to break 6. Able to heat up the air in the balloon faster to keep the balloon rising 8. Light /can reduce the impulsive force when the basket touches the ground

1,1

1,1

1,1

1 Balloon chosen is R because the size of balloon is large, envelope of balloon is made from nylon, two burners are used and the basket is made of rattan Mass = volume x density = 800 x 1.0 = 800 kg Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration = 800 x 10 = 8 000 N Buoyant force = weight of hot air + weight of bag + weight of load Buoyancy = 8 000 + (40)(10) + (160)(10) = 10 000 N Total Weight of air molecules acting on the surface of the earth Atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of the water in the container supports the column of water in the bottle puncture a small hole on the side of the bottle outside air which is at atmospheric pressure will be forced into the bottle the water in the bottle will be pushed out due to the atmospheric pressure in the bottle Characteristics 1. Length of glass tube should be short 3. Diameter of tube should be small 5. Liquid must have a high boiling point 7. Density of liquid must be Explanation 2. Easier to handle / move around 4. Only a small amount of liquid is required 6. Does not evaporate easily 8. To reduce the required 1

(c)(i)

1 1 1 1 20 1 1 1 1 1 1

(ii) (iii)

4 (a)(i) (ii) (iii)

(b) 1,1 1,1

1,1

high Barometer A is chosen

height of the tube

1,1 1

because the tubes length is short, the diameter of the tube is small, the boiling point of the liquid is high and the density of the liquid is also high (c)(i) (ii) (iii) x = 76 cm P at A = 76 cm Hg P at B = hg = (0.88)(1.36 x 104)(10) = 1.197 x 105 Pa Total Paper 3 Section B Question Answer 5 (a) The water pressure depends on the height / depth (b) If the height / depth increases, the pressure also increases (c)(i) To investigate the relationship between the height / depth of water and the water pressure (ii) Manipulated variable : height / depth Responding variable : pressure Fixed variable : density of liquid / type of liquid (iii) Thistle funnel, manometer, measuring cylinder, meter rule, rubber tube, water, rubber membrane (iv)

1 1 1 1 20 Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1

(v)

1. Controlling the manipulated variable: The thistle funnel which is connected to the manometer using a rubber tube is immersed into the water until the height / depth , y = 10 cm 2. Measuring the responding variable: The difference in the levels of water in the manometer, h is

measured 3. The experiment is repeated with y = 15cm, 20 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm (vi) Height / Depth, y (cm) Difference in levels of water, h ( cm ) 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 (vii) A graph of h against y is plotted h (cm) 1

1 y (cm) Total 6 (a) (b) (c)(i) (ii) Pressure depends on surface area If surface area increases, then pressure decreases To investigate the relationship between surface area and pressure Manipulated variable : surface area / diameter Responding variable : pressure / depth of depression Fixed variable : force applied Five cylinders with the same mass but different diameters, plasticine, meter rule cylinder height, h plasticine (v) 1. Controlling the manipulated variable: A slotted weight with mass m = 1 kg is put on a cylinder. The diameter of the cylinder, d = 1.0 cm is measured. (The surface area A = (d/2)2) 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1

(iii) (iv)

1 2. Measuring the responding variable: The depth of the depression made by the cylinder on the surface of the plasticine, l is measured using a meter rule 3. The experiment is repeated with d = 1.5cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm (vi) Diameter, d (cm) Depth of depression, l (cm) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 (vii) A graph of l against d is plotted l 1

Answers Chapter 4: Heat Number 1 (a) (b) Answer Paper 2 (Section B) Rate heat flow is equal / net rate heat flow is zero - mass of the metal A is higher than B - initial temperature A is higher than B - final temperature on both of them are equal - rate heat flow between A to B = rate heat flow between B to A - quantity of heat in A is higher than B. - Place the thermometer at.. - heat from body transfer to the thermometer - when net rate heat flow is zero/ thermal equilibrium achieve the length of the mercury not change, take the reading of temperature Suggestion An opaque liquid is used The liquid should expand uniformly went heated A thin capillary tube is used A liquid with high boiling point and low freezing point is used Position eyes must be perpendicular to the scale 2 (a) Explanation Can be easily seen Calibration of scale would be easier as the divisions in the scale are equal To increase the sensitivity of the thermometer. Able to measure a wide range of temperature. Reduce parallax error 20 1 Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(c)

(d) 2 2

2 2 2

TOTAL Heat is the quantity of energy that is transformed from one hot object to a cold object. 1-Figure 9.1 shows a situation where a solid changes into liquid / Figure 9.2 shows a situation where a liquid change into gas 2-Both processes have a change in the state of matter. 3-Both processes require heat. 4-The heat absorbed is not to raise the temperature, to overcome the force between the molecule particles during the physical change. 5-Concept involved is Latent Heat

(b)

1 1 1 1 1

(c)(i)

1-Water evaporates from the skin when we sweat. 2-for water to evaporate it use heat from the body 1-Steam condenses to form water so, 2-latent heat of vaporization of steam is let out more steam.

1 1 1 1

(ii)

(d) Suggestion Use insulator behind the absorber panel Use an absorber panel which is painted black. Explanation To prevent the loss of heat energy A black surface is a good absorber of radiation so it will absorb heat faster The pipe inside the Metal is a good heat conductor, plate must be made of so it will transmit heat to metal water easily Pipe embedded in Longer pipe will enlarge plate must be long surface area will absorbs heat faster A storage tank must be To give higher pressure place at a higher level To trap heat energy. (energy is radiated in, but cannot radiate out again). Any five suggestions and explanation[ 10 marks ] TOTAL Paper 2 (Section C) Degree of hotness in an object. 1. put the thermometer in melting ice, mark the lower part or the mercury thread ,1o. 2. place the same thermometer in boiling water, mark the top part of the mercury thread,1 100. 3. divide the length between the two marks into 100 equal divisions. 4. each division is now equal to 1c 1 Characteristics 1. specific heat capacity is low.(1m) 3. melting point is high.(1m) Reasons 2. faster to get hot.(1m) 4.does not melt easily.(1m) 6.the heat can be lost easily.(1m) 20 1 1 Use glass cover on the top of the panel

2 2

2 2 2

3. (a) (b)

5. good conductor of heat.(1m) 7. rate of expansion is moderate.(1m) The most suitable is P (i) Q=mc =0.5x450x10 =2250J Energy lost=10x2250 =22500J

8. the shape of the fin unchanged.(1m) because specific heat capacity is low, melting point is high, rate of expansion is moderate 10 1 1 1 1 20 1

(ii)

4 (a) (i)

TOTAL Specific latent heat of vaporization is amount of heat required to change 1 kg of liquid into gas without a change in the temperature. - When a fan is rotating, there is a movement of air - the sweat absorbs heat and evaporates - Specific latent heat of vaporization of water is absorbed from the body - when there is air movement, the rate of evaporation increase - the body feels cool after the removal of heat

(ii) 1 1 1 1

(b) (i)

E= Pt = 100 x ( 8x 60) = 48,000 J Pt = ml 48000 = 2 x l l = 24000 J kg-1

1 1 1 1 1 Explanation Increase the surface area/release Heat faster A lot of air can move Not easy to hot Not easy to boil

(c)

Suggestion large number of fin blade Big size of fan High specific heat capacity High boiling point

The most suitable is P, because large number of fin blade, big size

of fan, specific heat capacity is high and melting point is high TOTAL Paper 3 (Section B) 5 a b

10 20

c i

ii

iii

iv

Inference The time taken for water to boil is affected by its volume ( mass ) Hypothesis The larger the volume ( mass ) of water, the longer is the time required for water to boil Aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the volume ( mass ) of water and the time required for the water to boil. Variables: Manipulated : Volume/ mass of water Responding: Time required to boil the water Fix : The power rating of the immersion heater. Apparatus and materials: Stopwatch, measuring cylinder. * needed to measure the manipulated and responding variable. Arrangement of the apparatus: * with label.

1 1

1 1 1

Thermometer

Measuring cylinder

Immersion heater

Stopwatch

Procedure of experiment: 100 cm3 of water is measured using cylinder and pour into a beaker. A thermometer and an immersion heater are placed into the water in the beaker.

The heater is then switched on and at the same time the stopwatch is started . The water is heated until its the temperature reached 100 oC and the time is recorded according to the stopwatch reading. The experiment is repeated using different volume of water of 200 cm3, 300 cm3, 400 cm3, 500 cm3.

1 1

Tabulation of data: Volume of water, v ( cm3 ) 100 200 300 400 500

Time for water to boil, t ( s )

Analysis of data - The graph time for water to boil against volume of water is drawn.

t(s)

v ( cm3 ) TOTAL MARKS 12

Answers Chapter 5 : Light Number 1(a)(i) Answer Paper 2 (Section B) Incident angle is when the ray of light travel from denser medium to less dense medium where the refracted angle is 90o Because the ray of light towards the curve surface is normal to the surface. Glass block is denser than the perspex When the incident angle increase the refracted angle also increase The critical angle of glass block is smaller than perspex. When the density increase the critical angle decrease. Total internal reflection Suggestion The fiber optic is made in bundles The fiber is made in two different layers, core is denser than outside layer Explanation more signals can be transmitted at one time as the light travel from a denser to a less dense medium total internal reflection takes place. Mark 1

(ii) (b)(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (c)

1 1 1 1 1 1

Flexibility of fiber is high

to make it easy to bend in any situation The fiber should be heat not easy to damage when resistant exposed to the heat. The fiber is able to not broken when the cable withstand pressure sinks under ground

2 2 2

2(a) (b)(i) (ii) (iii) (c)(i) (ii) (iii)

TOTAL Virtual image is the image that cant be shown on screen Distance of object in D1 is smaller than in D2. Image produced in D1 is smaller than D2 When the distance of object increase the image also increase Refraction Real /Inverted/Magnified

20 1 1 1 1

(d)(i)

(ii) (iii)

Choose lens P as an objective lens because it has a large focal length And Q as an eye piece because it has a smaller focal length. The distance between two lenses is at normal adjustment = fo + fe . Show with the scale diagram:

1 1 1

1m 1m m 1m

1m (iv) A light ray at infinity from the object passes through the objective lens to form a real,bigger and inverted image. The final image seen is enlarged, virtual and situated at infinity To increase the magnification of the telescope the focal length of the objective lens is increased and the focal length of the eyepiece is reduced TOTAL Paper 2 ( Section C ) Critical angle is the incident angle of a light ray traveling from a denser medium to a less dense medium when the refracted angle is 90o. The incident angle of light ray is more than the critical angle. total internal reflection 1 1 1

(v)

20

3(a)(i)

(ii) (iii)

(b)

(c)(i)

n=

On a hot day the air near the earth is hotter than the upper layer. - The density of air near the earth is low and increases with height. [2m] - Light from the sky travels from a high density layer of air to a low density layer of air and is refracted with an increasing angle as it nears the earth - When the incident angle of light is more than the critical angle, total internal reflection occurs.[2m] - -The reflected light enters the observers eyes causing him to see a pool on the road. = 2.42

(ii) (iii) (d)

Sin c = c = .. reflected incident angle is more than critical angle Characteristic prism made of glass Reason it is hard and not easy to Damage or berdebu//malap//always shiny. isosceles the small incident angle is always more than the critical angle Denser

Prism is an triangle

Bigger index of refraction Two prisms must be arranged opposite of each other The most suitable is M.

the light from the object is reflected in each prism and follows the direction which is needed Made of glass, is an isosceles triangle, large index of refraction and arranged opposite of each other 20

4(a)(i) (ii)

TOTAL Real image is an image that can be projected on the screen reflection

(b)

Draw a light ray from object parallel to the principle axis and reflected through the F [1m] Draw a straight line to represent a light ray from the curvature moving toward to the mirror is reflected through the C [1m] Draw a dotted line form behind mirror [1m] Draw an upright image [1m]

image imej C F

(c)(i) (ii) (iii) (d)

virtual//upright//laterally inverted 10 m 12 m Characteristic Use a semicircle reflector Filament of the bulb is situated at the focal length of the reflector The surface of reflector is coated with silver Reason all the rays of light will be reflected very far ahead so that the light rays will be reflected parallel to each other

2 2

reflector will be shiny and acts as a concave mirror // all the lights will be reflected The lamp cover is many small curves on the made of glass with surface of the glass cover will uneven surface inside make the light reflected by a reflector converge and spot to long distance The most suitable spot because it have used a light is T semicircle mirror. filament situated at focus point, reflector coated with silver like a mirror and using cover made by a glass with uneven inside surface. TOTAL Paper 3 ( Section B )

20

5(a) (b) (c)(i) (ii) Magnification of image depends on the distance of object When distance of opbject,u , increase the magnification of object ,M,decrease. To investigate the relationship between distance of object,u to the magnification of object,M. Variable ; manipulated distance of object,u responding - magnification//distance of image,v constant - fical length//power of lens Apparatus: lens, bulb (object),screen, power supply//barttery, meter rule, lens holder and screen Arrangement apparatus 1 1 1

1 1

(iii)

(iv)

object

lens

screen 1

lens holder (v) -Put a lens of focal length 10cm on the lens holder and arrange the apparatus as shown in diagram. -Place a bulb as the object at u = 25 cm from the lens. --Adjust the screen until a sharp image is formed on it. -Measure the distance between image and lens as distance of image, v. -Calcul;ate the magnification of image, M using equation v M= u -Experiment is repeated with u = 30cm, 35 cm, 40 cm, 45 cm and 50 cm.

(vi) Object distance, u / cm 25 30 35 40 Image distance, v / cm Magnification, m

45 50 (vii) Plot a graph of 1/m against u 1/m 1

u TOTAL 12

Answers Chapter 6: Wave Paper 2 Section B Question Answer 1(a) Sources that have the same frequency /same amplitude and in phase (same phase) b(i) Wave length in Diagram 1.1 shorter than in Diagram 1.2 / in 1.1 < in 1.2 // vice versa Distance , x in Diagram 1.1 is shorter / X in 1.1 < X in Diagram 1.2 Unchanged / constant Wave length increases, distance X increases // X interference The bright and dark bands of the wave pattern formed on the screen because the surface of water acts as lenses. The crest of water waves similar with convex lens to focus the light, hence the bright bands occur, and the trough of water waves similar with concave lens diverges the light, hence the dark banks occur.

Mark 1

(ii)

(iii) (iv) (v) (c)

1 1 1

(d)

Suggestions Design an inclined concrete retaining wall

Explanations wave is refracted with velocity/ magnitude /decreasing wavelength Can absorb waves/decrease reflection

/curve Build diffraction barrier

(aperture/slit very small) for ship passage

To diffract the wave / diffracted

Retaining wall is built from a strong material/concrete

Not easily corrosive/broken// able to withstand strong /hard wave

Rough surface of the retaining wall Jetty is built at bay

the wave not be reflected Water at the bay is more still/calmer

To prevent over flow of water Design a higher retaining wall 2(a)(i) TOTAL A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. When a tuning fork vibrates, layers of air vibrate The particles of air undergos a series of compression and rarefaction 20 1

(ii)

1 1 1

Sound energy is propagated through the air in the form of waves

(b)(i)

Compare the amplitudes of the wave form correctly - The amplitude in Diagram 2.2 is higher Compare the peak values of the wave form correctly - The peak value in Diagram 12.2 is higher State the relationship between amplitude and peak value correctly - The higher the amplitude, the higher the peak value State the relationship between the peak value and loudness correctly

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

- The higher the peak value, the louder is the sound. (v) State the relationship between the loudness and the amplitude correctly - The higher the amplitude, the louder is the sound Suggest the type of frequency correctly - The boat must use high frequency sound waves Give the reason correctly - Smaller wavelength, less diffracted Suggest the type of energy correctly - High energy waves Give the reason correctly - High penetrating power Suggest the list of equipments needed for the measurement Transmitter Receiver Sound generator CRO [Any of the three above] State the method of measuring the time - The time taken, t from the transmitter to the receiver is recorded by the CRO - The speed of the sound wave, v in water is given vt - The depth of the sea, d = 2 TOTAL Paper 2 Section C State the meaning correctly Spreading out of waves when they pass through aperture or around an obstacle.

1 1 1 1 1

(c)(i)

(ii)

(iii)

1 1 1 20

3(a)(i)

(ii)

(b)(i)

(ii) (iii)

Frequency or amplitud or velocity The wave increasing , hence the energy also increasing The harbour wil be erosion/collapse/destroy The movement at A UP and down frequently because constructive interference occur The movement at B Standstill/ calm/ not moving becauce destructive interference occur Item location Characteristic Bay Reason Calm/not moving

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(c)

(d)

1,1

Surface of retaining wall Height of the retaining wall

rough

Not reflected/ wave absorb Not allow the water flow/ prevent the high wave To overcome the high pressure of the water

1,1

high

1,1

Structure of the retaining wall

Sloping retaining wall

1,1

Choose Q Because , at bay, surface is rough, height of the wall is high and sloping retaining wall. TOTAL

1 1 20

4(a)(i) (ii) (iii)

Transfer of energy Forced oscillation Pendulum B because the natural frequency of B is the same as the natural/ driving frequency of X. Resonance Item The diameter of the parabolic disc Type of wave Characteristic Large Reason that more signals are received frequency is high. signals are focused at the receiver. signal is not blocked.

1 1 1 1

(iv) (b)

1,1

microwave

1,1

Distance of signal receiver from parabolic disc Height of the disc

same as focal length

1,1

high

1,1

Based on the reasons above, R is most suitable because the diameter of the parabolic disc is large, transmits microwave, distance of signal receiver from the disc is the same as the focal length and height of the parabolic disc is high. (c)(i) s = vt 2 = 1 500 0.12 2 = 1 500 0.06 = 90 m =v f = 1 500 25 000 = 0.06 m TOTAL

1 1

1 1 1

(ii)

1 1 20

5(a)

Paper 3 Section B Inference The angle of bent depends on the size of aperture 1

(b)

Hypothesis: The angle of bent increases as the size of aperture decreases 1

(c)(i)

Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the angle of bent and the size of aperture Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: size of aperture Responding variable: angle of bent Fixed variable: frequency of vibrator List of apparatus and materials: Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply white paper , two pieces metal bar ,metre rule protractor and mechanical stroboscope. Arrangement of the apparatus:

(ii)

1 1

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. By using a metre rule , the width of the slit is measured = a The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves which propagate towards the aperture. 1

The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope. The waves are sketched on the screen. By using a protractor , the angle of bent = The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different widths of slit. (vi) Tabulate the data: a Analysis the data: Plot the graph against a

(vii)

TOTAL 6 (a) Inference : The wavelength of water waves depand on the depth of water waves

12 1

(b)

Hypothesis: The depth of water increases as the wavelength of water waves increases.

(c)(i)

Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the depth of water and the wavelength of water waves.

(ii)

Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: depth of water Responding variable: wavelength Fixed variable: frequency

1 1

(iii)

List of apparatus and materials: Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply white paper , protractor ,plane reflector , perspex plate , metre rule and mechanical stroboscope. Arrangement of the apparatus:

(iv)

(v)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. The depth of water on a perspex is measured by using a metre rule = d The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves which propagate onto the perspex plate . The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope. The waves are sketched on the screen. The distance between 11 successive bright bands is measured by the metre rule = x The wavelength is calculated i.e. = x 10 The experiment is repeated 5 by increasing the number of perspex plate to change the depth the water.

(vi)

Tabulate the data: d Analysis the data: Plot the graph against d

(vii)

TOTAL

12

CHAPTER 7: ELETRICITY

Paper 2 Section B Question Answer 1(a)(i) Work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another

Mark 1

(ii)

2 Diagram 10.1 Series circuit

Answers

Parallel circuit Chapter 7: Electricit y Diagram 1. 10.2 The bulb in parallel circuit // Diagram 1.2 is brighter than those in series circuit // Diagram 1.1 2. The potential difference across each bulb in the parallel circuit is the same as that of the battery // dry cell. 3. The potential difference across each bulb in the series circuit is smaller than that of the battery // dry cell. 4. The current flowing through each bulb in the parallel circuit is higher than the current flowing in the series circuit. 5. When the potential difference across each bulb is higher, the current flowing through it is also higher and the bulb is brighter.

(b)

1 1 1

(c) Suggestion 1. Diameter of wire used as flexible cable must be thicker Explanation So that the resistance will be reduced. A thinner wire has a higher resistance. If large current flows through it, it becomes overheated and may burn and cause a fire.

1,1

2. Length of cable is shorter 3. Heating element must made of material with high resistivity such as nichrome 4. The kettle is made of good heat insulator 5. Use a suitable fuse. The current flow through the cable is 8.33 A. The suitable fuse is between 11 A to 13 A 2 (a) (b)

So that the resistance is smaller Can produce the higher heat energy with small current. So that water will boil faster So that the heat will not loose to the surroundings and water will boil faster. It is safer to handle If there is a short-circuit, a very high current flows and melt the fuse wire. The kettle will not be damaged. Total

1,1

1,1

1,1

1,1

( c)

The rate of charge flow Ammeter reading in Diagram 2.1 = Diagram 2.2 Voltmeter reading in Diagram 2.1 > Diagram 2.2 Length of wire in Diagram 2.1 >Diagram 2.2 The longer the length, the higher the voltmeter reading/potential difference. The longer the wire, the higher the resistance -Ohmic conductor is the conductor which obeys ohms law -V I provided that the temperature and other physical properties or the conductor are constant -Resistance of the conductor is constant -Example: constantan wire Aspect Tungsten Coil Low thickness of the wire Low melting point Long wire of filament Explanation High resistance Able to fix in a small area High resistance Easy to melt and break the circuit High resistance TOTAL

20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

(d)

20

Mark Scheme : PAPER 2 (SECTION C) Question Answer 3(a) Ratio of potential difference to current (b)(i) In both diagrams the bulbs are connected in parallel to the rheostat Mark 1 1

(ii)

In Diagram 12.1 the effective resistance is given by; 1 / R effective = 1 / R bulb + 1 / R bulb + 1 / R rheostat 1 In Diagram 12.2 the effective resistance is given by ; 1 / R effective = 1 / 2R bulb + 1 / R rheostat 1 1 / R effective = 1 / 2R bulb + 1 / R rheostat 1 / R effective = 1 / 2(4) + 1 / 50 R effective = 6.89 Specification Low density High melting point 1 Reason Lighweight / not heavy / portable Does not melt at high temperatures / does not melt easily Does not oxidize easily / can be used for a longer period Current will increase / more heat will be produced 2 2 2 2

(c)

Low rate of oxidation Low resistance

(d)(i)

R is my choice because it has a low density , high melting point , low rate of oxidation and it has a low resistance P = VI 2000 = 240 I I = 8.33A R =V/I R = 240 / 8.333 = 28.81 Cost = 30 days x 2 kWh x RM0.22 = RM13.20 sen.

1 1

1 1 1

(ii)

(a)

TOTAL Potential difference is defined as work done in moving a unit electric charge between two point. (1m)

20 1

(b)

The two dry cells are connected in parallel The effective e.m.f. remains the same The effective internal resistance of the two cells is smaller A larger current will flow through the bulb to make it brighter 1. Diameter should be large 2. to reduce the resistance of the cables 3. Density should be low 4. the cables will be lighter and can be supported securely 5. The rate of expansion should be low 6. So there is less expansion and less sagging in the cables during hot days. 7. The melting point should be high 8. So the cables does not melting in high temperature. 9. Q is suitable 10. Diameter is large, density is low, the rate of expansion is is low and the melting point is high. Current = P/V = 9500/240 = 39.58A Power loss ,P = I2R = 39.582 x1 = 1566.6 W Percentage of loss of power 1566 .6 = x100 9500 = 16.49 % TOTAL

1 1 1 1

(c)

10

(d) (i)

(ii)

(iii)

20

Mark scheme : PAPER 3 (SECTION B) Question Answer 5(a) Making the right inference Resistance depends on the thickness/ cross sectional area/ diameter of the conductor // (b) Building an appropriate hypothesis The greater the thickness/ cross sectional area/ diameter, the greater the resistance of the conductor// (c)(i) Stating the aim of the experiment To study the relationship between the thickness/ cross sectional area/ diameter and the resistance of the conductor.// (ii) Stating the correct variables Marks 1

(iii)

(iv)

Manipulated variable : thickness/ cross sectional area/ diameter,A Responding variable : Resistance, R // Potential difference, V Fixed variable : Current, I // Length // Resistivity // Temperature List of appropriate apparatus and material ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, connecting wires, constantan wires(s.w.g.24, s.w.g.26, s.w.g. 28, s.w.g. 30, s.w.g.32) Describing set up of the apparatus

V
X Y

Constantan wire

(v)

vi) vii)

Stating the procedure of the experiment Set up the the electrical circuit as shown. Connect a 50 cm constantan wire of size s.w.g.24 between terminal X and Y. Adjust the rheostat to get a current of I = 0.5 A on the ammeter. Record the values of current, I and potential difference,V. Calculate resistance, R of the wire, where R = V I Repeat by using 50 cm constantan wires of size s.w.g.24, s.w.g.26, s.w.g.28, s.w.g.30 and s.w.g.32. Record data Plot an R against A graph Tabulating data Show table with A, I, V and R as headings Analysing data
R A or swg

1 1

1 1

Total

12

Question 6. (a)

Answer State a suitable inference The brightness of light influenced by the number of dry cell.

Marks

State a relevant hypothesis The higher the potential difference across a wire, the higher the current flows in it. (c) (i) State the aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between potential difference and the current for a constantan wire. State a suitable manipulated variable and responding (ii) variable (Quantity that can be measured) Manipulated variable : potential difference Responding variable : current State the constant variable The length / thickness / temperature of resistance wire (iii) State the complete list of apparatus and materials Ammeter, Voltmeter, rheostat, dry cell, 10 cm constantan wire and connecting wires Draw functional arrangement of the apparatus (iv)

(b)

State the method to control the manipulated variable (v) Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the voltmeter reads the potential difference, V= 0.2 V. State the method to measure the responding variable Read and record the current, I, across the wire. Repeat the experiment at least 4 times with the values Repeat steps 2 and 3 for V = 0.3 V, 0.4 V, 0.5 V and 0.6 V 1

1 1

State how the data tabulated with the title MV and RV (vi) Potencial difference / V 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 I/A

State how the data is analysed, plot a graph RV against (vii) MV I/A

V/V

Total

12

Answers Chapter 8: Electromagnetism Paper 2 Section B Question Answer 1(a)(i) Electromagnetic induction is the production of an induced e.m.f in conductor by a changing magnetic field. (ii) When the magnet is pushed into the solenoid quickly, the deflection of the galvanometer pointer is more compared to that when the magnet is pushed slowly. Deflection of the galvanometer is more meant the induces current bigger The motion of the magnet induces a current in the solenoid which causes a deflection in the galvanometer pointer. The magnet is pushed quickly the change of magnetic field is faster then the induces current bigger. Physics concept : An induced e.m.f is produced in a conductor if the conductor is in a changing magnetic field, whereby the rate of change of the magnetic field affects the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. (iii) (b)(i) Faradays law When a certain power station breaks down, electricity can be supplied to the affected area from the power stations. When the demand for electricity low, certain power stations can be repaired and shut down for mantainance. When power is transmitted at high voltage, the current in the transmission lines is small. This will reduce power loss. When the coil rotates, it cuts the magnetic field lines of the permanent magnets. Using Faradays law, this induces a current which flows in the coil and the electric circuit. Alternating current is produced. Conversion of generator to a d.c motor : On the generator, replace the two slip rings with a commutator. On the external circuit, replace the galvanometer with d.c supply. 1 1 1

Mark

(ii)

1 1

(c)(i)

(ii)

The motor speed can be increased by : Increasing the current in the coil. Increasing the strength of the magnet in the motor. Increasing the area of the coil. Increasing the number of turns in the coil.

2(a)(i)

TOTAL An electromagnet is a coil wrapped around a soft iron core which will be magnetised when a current flow through the coil and loses all it magnetism when the current is switched off. Electromagnet Y attracted more iron filings than electromagnet X. The magnetic field strength of electromagnet Y is stronger than that of electromagnet X. The current flowing in electromagnet Y is larger than that flowing in electromagnet X. Current flowing in a conductor produces a magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field increases as the current flowing in the conductor increases. When the magnet is pushed into the solenoid, the solenoid cuts the magnetic field lines of the magnet and produces an induced current. A North pole is formed at B because according to Lenzs law, the induced current will flow in such a direction that it opposes the change producing it. Clockwise The galvanometer pointer will show deflection in the opposite direction A transformer is made of two coils wound on a soft iron core. The coil connected to the power supply is the primary coil while the other coil is known as the secondary coil. When alternating current flowing in the primary circuit changes, the magnetic field in the primary coil also changes. The changing magnetic field is linked to the secondary coil

20

(ii)

(b)(i)

(ii)

(iii) (iv) (c)(i)

by the soft iron core. Therefore, an induced e.m.f is produced in the secondary coil. (ii) The secondary coil is tapped slowly at different points to produce different output voltage.

The efficiency of the transformer is increased by : Using thicker wires made of a good conductor to reduce heat energy Winding the secondary coil on top of the primary coil to reduce linkage magnetic field Using a laminated core to increase resistance therefore reducing eddy current TOTAL Induced current is the current produced in a closed circuit by a conductor in a changing magnetic field. The bar magnet is moving while the copper coil is stationary. The copper wire is moving while the two bar magnets are stationary. Both the copper wire and the copper coil cut through the magnetic field of the bar magnets. Induced current is produced as the conductor cuts across the magnetic field lines. The physics concept is electromagnetic induction 20

3(a)(i) (ii)

(b)

The induced current increases by : Increasing the speed of the magnet towards the solenoid Increasing the number of turns of the solenoid Changing to a stronger magnet (c)

The shape and design of the core should be made as shown. The core is laminated to reduce the eddy currents induced in the core. The shape of the core allows the secondary coil to be arranged in such a way that it wraps around the primary coil, to reduce the leakage of magnetic flux. The core should be made of soft iron as it concentrates the magnetic field produced by the primary coil. Magnetization and demagnetization of the core occur easily and this reduces the amount of energy lost in the form of heat. The transformer shown is a step-down transformer, the current flowing in the primary coil is lower than that of the secondary coil. Therefore, the diameter of the wire in the secondary coil should be thick while the diameter of the wire in the primary coil should be thin. This is because there needs to be more number of turns in the primary coil compared to that of the secondary coil for a step-down transformer

TOTAL 4(a)(i) (ii) Using a stronger magnet Moving the magnet at a higher speed Increasing the number of turns in the coil When the bar magnet is held stationary inside the coil, there is no induced current, because there is no changing magnetic field in the coil. When the bar magnet is pushed in and pulled out of the coil, an induced current is produced and its direction changes when the direction of motion of the bar magnet changes. Transformer X : Primary coil = 500 turns (D) Secondary coil = 1500 turns (A) 36 = 1500 12 500 Transformer Y : Primary coil = 1080 turns (B) Secondary coil = 180 turns (E) 6 = _180_ 36 1080 Transformer Z : Primary coil = 1000 turns (C) Secondary coil = 500 turns (D) 3 = 500 6 1000 (ii) Laminated iron core is used as the cores in the transformers. Magnetisation and demagnetization occur easily for iron. Laminated iron core will reduce eddy currents formed in the core and reduce power loss. Copper is used as transmission line. Copper has low resistance. Reduce power loss = V x I 36 = 36 x I = 1A Paper 2 ( Section C ) Electromagnetic induction is the production of an induced e.m.f in a conductor by a changing magnetic field.

20

(iii)

(b)(i)

(iii)

(c)(i)

P I

(ii)

= I2 R = (1)2 x 2 = 2 W 20

5(a)(i)

TOTAL An electromagnet is a coil of insulated wire wrapped round a soft iron core, so that the iron core becomes a magnet when a current flows through the coil and loses its magnetism when the current is switched off. When the switch is turned on, current flows, the Ushaped iron core becomes a magnet and pulls the iron armature and the hammer hits the bell. When the armature is attracted by the electromagnet, the contact between the armature and the screw is broken, the circuit is no longer complete, no current flows, the iron core loses its magnetism, the armature is pulled back to its original position by the springy steel, there is contact between armature and the screw again. The process described above will be repeated continuosly and cause the hammer to hit the bell repeatedly. When the a.c current flows in the circuit, the iron core still attracts the armature. Plastic core the plastic cannot be magnetized. The magnetism of the electromagnet will not be strong enough to pull the armature and the hammer will not hit the bell. Copper core copper also cannot be magnetized. The magnetism of the electromagnet is very week. Steel core when the current is switched on, the steel becomes a permanent magnet, it retains the magnetism when the current is not flowing. Therefore, the hammer will hit the bell once only and the armature will be permanently attracted to the steel core. The resistance per km should be low. To reduce heat loss The cables should be made of low density material to reduce weight Rate of rusting low to avoid rusting The rate of thermal expansion should be low. There will be less expansion and less sagging of the cables in hot wheather. C is most suitable. It has the lowest resistance per km, the lowest density ,

(ii)

(iii) (iv)

(b)

6(a)

(b)

(c)(i)

(ii)

(iii) (iv) (v)

rate of rusting low and low rate of thermal expansion TOTAL Paper 3 (Section B) Inference : The magnitude of the induced current (and before the brightness of the bulb ) depends on how rapid the magnet moves in a coil of wire. Hypothesis : The greater the velocity of a magnet moves through a coil, the greater magnitude of the induced current produced. Aim of the experiment : To study the relationship between the motion of a magnet in a coil and the induced current produced. Variables of the experiment : Manipulated :Height of the magnet ( height of magnet from the coil determines the velocity of the magnet in the coil ) Responding :Galvanometer reading Constant :Number of turns in the coil List of apparatus and materials : Bar magnet, coil of wire, galvanometer and connecting wire. Arrangement of apparatus : Procedure : Apparatus as shown in the figure is prepared. The height of the bar magnet from the table is set as 20.0 cm. the magnet is then dropped into the coil of the wire. The deflection of the galvanometer is recorded. The experiment is repeated with heights of 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm and 60.0 cm. Height of the Galvanometer magnet, deflection h / cm 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 a graph of the galvanometer reading I against height of the bar magnet from the surface of the table, x is plotted. TOTAL The strength of an electromagnet is influenced by the magnitude of the current flowing in the coil. The strength of an electromagnet is directly proportional to the magnitude of the current flowing in the coil.

20

(vi)

(vii)

12

7(a) (b)

(c)(i) (ii)

To study the relationship between current flowing in the solenoid and the strength of the electromagnet. Manipulated variable : Current flowing in the solenoid Responding variable : Strength of the electromagnet ( Number of paper clips attracted ) Constant variable : Distance of solenoid from the paper clips Iron nails, insualted kuprum wire, ammeter, rheostat, batteries, switch, paper clips, retort stand and solenoid.

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in ( iv ). 2..Adjust the rheostat until the reading of the ammeter is 1.0A. 3. Place the box of paper clips under the solenoid and count the number of paper clips attracted by the solenoid. 4. Repeat the experiment for the currents, I=2.0A, 3.0A, 4.0A and 5.0A.

(vi) Current, (A) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 (vii) Number of paper clips attracted, n

TOTAL

12

Answers Chapter 9 : Electronics Number 1 (a) (b)(i) (ii) (iii) (c)(i) (ii) (d) Answer Paper 2 (Section B) Fast moving electron Intensity of green dot in Diagram 1.1 is lower Voltage supplied in Diagram 1.1 is lower Velocity of electron in Diagram 1.1 is lower Voltage supplied increases, velocity of electron increases Velocity of electron increases, intensity of green dot increases Electron emitted from the hot filament through thermionic emission Electron is attracted to the anode Electron strike the fluorescent screen Screen will glow green light / kinetic energy change to light energy (e) Modifications Control grid Explanation Regulates the number of electrons which reach the anode// control the brightness of the spot on the screen Focuses electrons leaving the cathode to a narrow beam so that they arrive at the same spot on the screen // accelerates the electron beam to a high velocity to move electron beam vertically and horizontally Glow when electron beam strikes it. Channel the electrons striking the screen to earth 10 Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 4

Focusing anode and accelerating anode

X plate and Y plate Inside surface coated with zinc sulphide The glass surrounding the fluorescent screen coated with graphite and connected to earth

TOTAL

20

2(a) (b)

Allow current to flow in one direction only Bulb in Diagram 2.1 lights up / vice versa Current flows in Diagram 2.1 / vice versa P to positive terminal battery // vice versa P to positive terminal battery bulbs light up / vice versa Diode allow current to flow in one direction only

1 5

(c)(i)

(ii)

Capacitor charge Capacitor discharge (d) Modifications Thermistor below R1 Explanation Produces high voltage across R1 during dark // Acts as a potential divider in the circuit Positive terminal battery to Produces forward bias // so the collector of transistor that collector current flows R2 at the base of transistor Control or limit the current flow to the base Replace earphone with an alarm Use relay switch Produces loud sound To switch on the alarm which needs higher voltage 20 TOTAL 10

Paper 2 (Section C) 3. (a) (i) (ii) npn 1 4

When a person speak sound convert to electrical energy Produces I b I c Produce A small change in I b will cause a bigger changes in I c current amplification = I c Ib (b) Aspect LDR at the bottom Reasoning Acts as a potential divider / produces higher voltage across LDR R at base of transistor Positive terminal of cell to collector Relay switch Limit the current to base Produces forward bias to switch on the second circuit connecting to street light LDR at bottom, R at base , Positive terminal of cell to collector and Relay switch = 2.7 x 103 50 x 10 -6 = 54 1 1 10

K is chosen

(c) (i)

Gradient = I c Ib

(ii)

I c= 30 mA , Ib = 60 A I e = I b + Ic = 30 mA + 60 A = 3.006 x 10- 2 A TOTAL Process where electron emits from surface of hot metal Electron emits from surface of cathode Anode will attracts the electrons The terminal of node is positive Current flow through the circuit

1 1 1 20 1

4. (a) (i) (ii)

(b) Aspect Between anode and cross In front of cathode Positive terminal of EHT connected to cathode In front of the filament N is chosen Reasoning to form a shadow / block the electron flow to attract electrons Anode will be positive terminal to get heat from filament Between anode and cathode, in front of cathode, positive terminal of EHT connected to cathode, in front of the filament

10

(c) (i) (ii)

T = 4 cm x 5 ms cm -1 = 20 ms f=1 P = 1 0.02 = 50 Hz

1 1 1 1

(iii)

Vp = 3 cm = 3 x 3 = 9 V Total

1 20