Physics 1230: Light and Color
Instructor: Joseph Maclennan TOPIC 3 - Resonance and the Generation of Light
• How do we generate light? • How do we detect light? • Concept of resonance
distance λ speed = c = = = λf time T
Static magnetic fields
• Magnets generate magnetic fields that we can draw as field lines • Magnetic field lines form continuous loops
org/10796/ch12/ch12.Static electric fields
• Positive and negative charges generate electric fields that we can draw as field lines • Electric field lines from charges behave like stretched strings • Electric fields generate static sparks: first radio transmissions
.colorado.How do we generate a wave on a rope?
A) Drop one end B) Raise and lower one end quickly C) Drop both ends D) Twang it in the center
How do we generate EM waves?
• How do we make waves in the electromagnetic field? • Let’s wiggle the charges..edu/new/simulations/sims.colorado.php?sim=Radio_Waves_and_Electromagnetic_Fields
.. • Light waves are disturbances in the electromagnetic field. a non-material physical entity whose equilibrium state is vacuum
Heinrich Hertz (1888)
in turn.magnet. As the current oscillates up and down in the spark gap. at a characteristic circuit frequency.html
.fsu. induces an electric field so that a series of electrical and magnetic oscillations combine to produce a formation that propagates as an electromagnetic wave. a magnetic field is created that oscillates in a horizontal plane.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/emwave/index.
http://micro. The changing magnetic field. such as a discharging spark or by an oscillating electrons in an atom or molecular.Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Electromagnetic waves can be generated by a variety of methods.
g. radio. phosphorescence)
. microwave oven) 3.g.Sources of electromagnetic waves
• So electrons moving up and down will emit electromagnetic waves because the electrons make an electric field. An oscillating electric field due to current changes (e. or a fluorescent light) 4. and the lines are wiggled when the electrons move • What makes electrons move? 1.g. TV. Chemical excitation (e. firefly. Electrons in an excited atom (e. neon sign. Heat 2.
Concept Quiz: How does your cell phone transmit your voice?
A) Generating sound waves B) Generating heat C) Generating electromagnetic waves (high frequency radio) D) Generating neural activity
How does your cell phone generate electromagnetic waves?
A) Heat B) Voltage in a circuit C) Excited atoms D) Neural activity/heat
Generating electromagnetic waves SOURCE Radio stations Microwaves Human body Cell phones Neon light Laser Warm stove MECHANISM Voltage in a circuit Voltage in a circuit Neural activity/heat Voltage in a circuit Excited atoms Excited atoms Heat
Sources of electromagnetic waves What are the frequencies of these sources? Radio stations Microwaves Human body Cell phones Neon light Laser Warm stove
magnet. arcdischarge lamps. and tungsten-halogen bulbs.
http://micro.Creating Light from Atoms
Electrons can absorb energy from external sources. when the electron falls back to the original ground state. such as lasers. and be promoted to higher energy levels. Light energy is absorbed by an electron to elevate it into a higher energy level and the energy can subsequently be released.edu/primer/java/fluorescence/exciteemit/index.html
. The precise difference between the energy levels determines the resonance frequency or color of light that is emitted or absorbed.fsu. in the form of a lower energy photon.
is responsible for this selectivity. Light of certain frequency (wavelength) drives the molecules to vibrate.Detecting Electromagnetic Waves – Resonance
The emission and reception of electromagnetic waves is not equally efficient for all waves. called resonance.
Resonance effects cause molecules to vibrate . so that eventually a signal is transmitted to your brain via the optic nerve.for example in your eye. but depends on the nature of the emitter and receptor. One phenomenon.
Detection of electromagnetic waves Resonance and Selectivity
Why do we see only certain colors? How does tuning of a radio signal work?
Research of design flaws in the bridge led to the use of aerodynamic testing as a standard procedure in suspension span structural analysis.
Can you think of other examples of resonance?
. the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failed from windinduced torsional oscillations.(State Route 16 spanning the Tacoma Narrows)
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
The vibrating air molecules are the sound wave that you hear (the frequency or pitch of the sound wave is the same as the resonant frequency of the glass). this takes more energy than you can provide by rubbing the rim. When the energy is reduced. you will force it to vibrate or resonate (resonance is a forced vibration).com/mpeg/wine. If you impart enough energy to the glass at its resonant frequency. However. If you put energy into the substance at its resonant frequency. your finger slides and sticks along the surface of the glass as you rub the rim (a wet fingertip has no oil and makes a better contact with the glass). The vibrating glass causes air molecules to vibrate at the same frequency. Some singers can sing a note equal to the resonant frequency of a wine glass and cause it to shatter
http://static. which is reflected in the pitch of the sound wave that you hear.howstuffworks. it drags the water molecules with it. The motion of your hand sets up a wave of vibration traveling through the glass. creating a wave of water that you can see near the edge of the glass. The rubbing imparts energy to the glass molecules and causes them to resonate. called a resonant frequency. how does the water change the pitch of the singing wine glass? As the resonant wave moves around the glass.Resonance
Every material (such as glass. The dragging water molecules effectively increase the mass (both the water and the glass molecules) and reduce the energy of the wave traveling through the glass. So. concrete) has a natural frequency at which it vibrates. steel. you can cause the glass to shatter.mpg
. so is the frequency of the wave in the glass. In the case of the wine glass.
edu/physics/2000/microwaves/standing_wave2.colorado. because the sound waves fit an even number of times between the walls.html
http://www. Another experiment you can do is to stand in the shower (they reflect sound well) and start singing while changing the pitch slowly. At certain pitches the sound will suddenly amplify.RESONANCE IN SOUND
If you look at a guitar string under a strobe light (or even a fluorescent light) you can see it that makes a standing wave.
Examples of Resonance
Guitar string . green and blue Chemical dyes
.sensitive to red.can be tuned by changing the tension
Electrical circuits in radios
Nerve cells in eye .
mov http://video. It is also not possible for one note to shatter all glasses as each glass would have its own natural frequency. the glass begins to deform beyond what its bonds can sustain. It is not about singing loudly or horribly. As the energy builds.com/videoplay?docid=-7765557442856739526
.Using Resonance to Shatter a Wineglass
If a singer can match the natural frequency of the wine glass she can put more energy into the wine glass than it can handle.com/pics/glass.
http://www.google.blazelabs. The trick is to sing with the right frequency and being able to sustain that note.
By tuning ultrasound waves to the natural frequency of a kidney stone.Another Example of Resonance
Using Resonance to shatter a Kidney stone. we can rely on resonance to pulverize the stone
the new natural frequency will be: A.Concept Test on Resonance
You are swinging back and forth on a swing at the natural frequency.you won’t be able to swing any more
. D. C. If a friend (or your cat) joins you on the swing. greater the same smaller zero . B.
vibrations from your finger excite a resonant response in the glass B.Concept Test on Resonance
If you rub the rim of a wineglass you can make it ”sing”. otherwise it would shatter
. the glass is a mechanical system in resonance D. the table top transmits a musical tone to the glass E. This is because: A. you need to sing the same note to get the resonance C.
Subsequently. With glucose as a basic building block.
. plants synthesize a number of complex carbon-based biochemicals used to grow and sustain life.edu/primer/java/photosynthesis/index. and utilizing energy from the sun.magnet.fsu.RESONANT ABSORPTION OF LIGHT -
Green plants absorb water and carbon dioxide from the environment. water molecules are converted to molecular hydrogen and oxygen as a result of photon absorption in the granum.
In the applet. This process is termed photosynthesis. turn these simple substances into glucose and oxygen. the hydrogen molecules react with carbon dioxide in the stroma to produce oxygen and carbohydrates. and is the cornerstone of life on Earth.
but green and yellow light are not effectively absorbed by photosynthetic pigments in plants. therefore.html
Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light and carotenoids absorb blue-green light. light of these colors is either reflected by leaves or passes through the leaves.asu. This is why plants are green.
Examples of photosynthetic organisms: leaves from higher plants flanked by colonies of photosynthetic purple bacteria (left) and cyanobacteria (right).Color of Plants.edu/photosyn/education/photointro.
COLOR OF PLANTS .
Absorption spectrum of isolated chlorophyll and carotenoid species. light of these colors is either reflected by leaves or passes through the leaves.la.edu/photosyn/education/photointro.asu.
http://photoscience. The color associated with the various wavelengths is indicated above the graph. but green and yellow light are not effectively absorbed by photosynthetic pigments in plants.Photosynthesis
Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light and carotenoids absorb bluegreen light. This is why plants are green. therefore.html
What we see
– Wineglass broken by an opera singer’s voice – due to resonance between voice sound frequency and natural frequency of wineglass
– We then say that a resonance has occurred e.
– Hand moving back and forth at same frequency as pendulum’s resonant frequency (or hit) – Tacoma narrows bridge in the wind – Car on a dirt road with regular bumps (washboard effect)
• The oscillations of the object are largest when the "shaking" occurs at the object’s resonant frequency.g.What is a resonance?
• Many objects oscillate or vibrate at special frequencies called resonant frequencies or resonances • When these objects are hit or "shaken" by an external agent at a frequency = to their resonant frequency they will oscillate at their resonant frequency. girl on swing being pushed by her mother (mother’s push frequency = swing frequency)
• Energy is transferred from an external agent to the object during resonance.
Effect of resonance produced by military helicopter blade going around at frequency resonant with the helicopter body
– Each color of light emitted corresponds to a particular atomic resonance. – When this happens. – This energy in the atom can then be released by another resonant interaction in which light is emitted and the atom loses energy.What do resonances have to do with light?
• When light is absorbed by atoms we can think of this as a resonance • When light is emitted by atoms we can think of this as a resonance
– The light frequency may match a certain frequency of resonant vibration in the atom. – For example. we see light rays of 470 nm coming into our eyes because this light excites a resonance in certain atoms inside our eyes
– For example when an electron hits an atom the atom can gain energy in the form of resonances. the energy of the light is transferred to the atom and the light disappears.
Resonance and the Creation of Light
• Absorption of light • Emission of light