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External lightning protection
5.1 Air-termination systems
The function of the air-termination systems of a lightning protection system is to prevent direct lightning strokes from damaging the volume to be protected. They must be designed to prevent uncontrolled lightning strokes to the structure to be protected. By correct dimensioning of the air-termination systems, the effects of a lightning stroke to a structure can be reduced in a controlled way. Air-termination systems can consist of the following components and be combined with each other as required: ⇒ Rods ⇒ Spanned wires and cables ⇒ Intermeshed conductors When determining the siting of the airtermination systems of the lightning protection system, special attention must be paid to the protection of corners and edges of the structure to be protected. This applies particularly to air-termination systems on the surfaces of roofs and the upper parts of façades. Most importantly, air-termination systems must be mounted at corners and edges. Three methods can be used to determine the arrangement and the siting of the air-termination systems: ⇒ Rolling sphere method ⇒ Mesh method ⇒ Protective angle method The rolling sphere method is the universal method of design particularly recomIf there are external areas of the structure situated in heights which are higher than the radius of the corresponding rolling sphere (Tab. 126.96.36.199), an airtermination system has to be installed applying e.g. the mesh method. mesh size and rolling sphere radius corresp. to the type of LPS air-termination system rolling sphere downward leader point afar from the head of the downward leader height acc. to type of LPS starting upward leader head of the downward leader starting upward leader
ng iki str h B al ce fin istan d
mended for geometrically complicated applications. The three different described below. methods are
5.1.1 Installation methods and types of air-termination systems
The rolling sphere method – “geometricelectrical model“ For lightning flashes to earth, a downward leader grows step-by-step in a series of jerks from the cloud towards the earth. When the leader has got close to the earth within a few tens, to a few hundreds of metres, the electrical insulating strength of the air near the ground is exceeded. A further “leader“ discharge similar to the downward leader begins to grow towards the head of the downward leader: the upward leader. This defines the point of strike of the lightning stroke (Fig. 188.8.131.52). The starting point of the upward leader and hence the subsequent point of strike is determined mainly by the head of the downward leader. The head of the downward leader can only approach the earth to within a certain distance. This distance is defined by the continuously increasing electrical field strength of the ground as the head of the downward leader approaches. The smallest distance between the head of the downward leader and the starting point of the upward leader is called the final striking distance hB (corresponds to the radius of the rolling sphere). Immediately after the electrical insulating strength is exceeded at one point, the upward leader which leads to the final strike and manages to cross the final striking distance, is formed. Observations of the protective effect of overhead
earth wires and high voltage towers were used as the basis for the so-called “geometric-electrical model“. This is based on the hypothesis that the head of the downward leader approaches the objects on the ground in an arbitrary way, unaffected by anything, until it reaches the final striking distance. The point of strike is then determined by the object closest to the head of the downward leader. The upward leader starting from this point “forces its way through“ (Fig. 184.108.40.206).
Fig. 220.127.116.11 As this model examination shows, a rolling sphere can touch not only the steeple, but also the nave of the church at several points. All points touched are potential points of strike Ref.: Prof. Dr. A. Kern, Aachen
closest point to the head of the downward leader
protective angle acc. to type of LPS Fig. 5.1.1 Air-termination system for high buildings (h ≥ 60 m) – Mesh method
Fig. 18.104.22.168 Starting upward leader defining the point of strike
LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 37
Classification of the type of lightning protection system and radius of the rolling sphere As a first approximation, a proportionality exists between the peak value of the lightning current and the electrical charge stored in the downward leader. Furthermore, the electrical field strength of the ground as the downward leader approaches is also linearly dependent on the charge stored in the downward leader, to a first approximation. There is therefore a proportionality between the peak value I of the lightning current and the final striking distance R/radius of the rolling sphere:
R = 10 i I
R I in m in kA
0 , 65
The protection of structures against lightning is described in DIN V VDE V 0185-1. Among other things, this standard defines the classification into individual types of lightning protection system and stipulates the resulting lightning protection measures. It differentiates between four types of lightning protection system. A Type I lightning protection system provides the most protection and a Type IV, by comparison, the least. The interception effectiveness Ei of the air-termination systems is concomitant with the type of lightning protection system, i. e. which percentage of the prospective lightning strokes is safely controlled by the air-termination systems. From this results the final striking distance and hence the radius of the “rolling sphere“. The correlations between type of lightning protection system, interception effectiveness Ei of the air-termination systems, final striking distance/radius of the “rolling sphere“ and current peak value are shown in Table 22.214.171.124. Taking as a basis the hypothesis of the “geometric-electrical model“ that the head of the downward leader approachLightning protection level Interception criterion Ei IV III II I
es the objects on the earth in an arbitrary way, unaffected by anything, until it reaches the final striking distance, a general method can be derived which allows the volume to be protected of any arrangement to be inspected. Carrying out the rolling sphere method requires a scale model (e. g. on a scale of 1:100) of the building/structure to be protected, which includes the external contours and, where applicable, the air-termination systems. Depending on the location of the object under investigation, it is also necessary to include the surrounding structures and objects, since these could act as a “natural protective measure “ for the object under examination. Furthermore, a true-to-scale sphere is required according to the type of lightning protection system with a radius corresponding to the final striking distance (depending on the type of lightning protection system, the radius R of the “rolling sphere“ must correspond true-to-scale to the radii 20, 30, 45 or 60 m). The centre of the “rolling sphere“ used corresponds to the head of the downward leader formed by the respective upward leader. The “rolling sphere“ is now rolled around the object under examination and the contact points representing potential points of strike are marked in each case. The “rolling sphere“ is then rolled over the object in all directions. All contact points are marked again. All potential points of strike are thus shown on the model; it is also possible to determine the areas which can be hit by lateral strokes. The naturally protected zones resulting from the geometry of the object to be protected and its surroundings can also be clearly seen. Air-termination conductors are not required at these points (Fig. 126.96.36.199). It must be borne in mind, however, that lightning footprints have also been found on steeples in places not directly touched as the “rolling sphere“ rolled over. This is traced to the fact that, Radius of the rolling Min. peak sphere (final striking value of current distance hB) R in m I in kA 60 45 30 20 15.7 10.1 5.4 2.9
R R R R
building Fig. 188.8.131.52 Schematic application of the “rolling sphere” method at a building with considerably structured surface
among other things, in the event of multiple lightning flashes, the base of the lightning flash moves because of the wind conditions. Consequently, an area of approx. one metre can come up around the points of strike determined where lightning strokes can also occur. Example 1: New administration building in Munich During the design phase of the new administration building, the complex geometry led to the decision to use the rolling sphere method to identify the areas threatened by lightning strokes. This was possible because an architectural model of the new building was available on a scale of 1:100. It was determined that a Iightning protection system Type I was required, i. e. the radius of the rolling sphere in the model was 20 cm (Fig. 184.108.40.206).
Fig. 220.127.116.11 Construction of a new administration building: Model with “rolling sphere” acc. to lightning protection system Type I Ref.: WBG Wiesinger
0.84 0.91 0.97 0.99
Relations between ligtning protection level, interception criterion Ei, final striking distance R and min. peak value of current I Ref.: Table 5 and 6 of DIN V VDE V 0185-1
The points where the “rolling sphere“ touches parts of the building, can be hit by a direct lightning stroke with a corresponding minimum current peak value of 2.9 kA (Fig. 18.104.22.168). Consequently, these points required adequate air-termination systems. If, in addition, electrical installations were localised at these points or in their immediate vicinity (e. g. on the roof of the building), these loca-
38 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE
tions were equipped with additional air termination measures. The application of the rolling sphere method meant that air-termination systems were not installed where protection was not required. On the other hand, locations in need of more protection could be equipped accordingly, where necessary. (Fig. 22.214.171.124).
Fig. 126.96.36.199 Aachen Cathedral: Model with environment and “rolling spheres” for lightning protection systems type II and III Ref.: Prof. Dr. A. Kern, Aachen
Fig. 188.8.131.52 illustrates this consideration. Air-termination rods are frequently used to protect the surface of a roof, or installations mounted on the roof, against a direct lightning stroke. The square arrangement of the air-termination rods, over which no cable is normally spanned, means that the sphere does not “roll on rails“ but “sits deeper“ instead, thus
sphere decreases, i. e. which areas of Aachen Cathedral had additionally to be considered at risk of being hit by lightning strokes, if a lightning protection system Type II with a higher degree of protection was used. The “rolling sphere“ with the smaller radius (according to a type of lightning protection system with a higher lightning protection level) naturally touches also the model at all points already touched by the “rolling sphere“ with the larger radius. Thus, it is only necessary to determine the additional contact points. As demonstrated, when dimensioning the air-termination system for a structure, or a structure mounted on the roof, the sag of the rolling sphere is decisive. The following formula can be used to calculate the penetration depth p of the rolling sphere when the rolling sphere rolls “on rails“, for example . This can be achieved by using two spanned wires, for example .
cuboidal protective area between four air-termination rods
I R 20
Type of LPS II III 30 45
Fig. 184.108.40.206 Construction of a DAS administration building: Top view (excerpt) on the zones threatened by lightning strokes for lightning protection system type I Ref.: WBG Wiesinger
Example 2: Aachen Cathedral The cathedral stands in the midst of the old town of Aachen surrounded by several high buildings. Adjacent to the cathedral there is a scale model (1:100) whose purpose is to make it easier for visitors to understand the geometry of the building. The buildings surrounding the Aachen Cathedral provide a partial natural protection against lightning strokes. Therefore, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of lightning protection measures, models of the most important elements of the surrounding buildings were made according to the same scale (1:100) (Fig. 220.127.116.11). Fig. 18.104.22.168 also shows “rolling spheres“ for lightning protection systems Types II and III (i. e. with radii of 30 cm and 45 cm) on the model. The aim here was to demonstrate the increasing requirements on the air-termination systems as the radius of the rolling
⎛ d⎞ p= R− R −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠
Fig. 22.214.171.124 Air-termination system for installations mounted on the roof with their protective area
Radius of the rolling sphere Distance between two air-termination rods or two parallel air-termination conductors
increasing the penetration depth of the sphere (Fig. 126.96.36.199). The height of the air-termination rods ∆h should always be greater than the value of the penetration depth p determined, and hence greater than the sag of the rolling sphere. This additional height of the air-termination rod ensures that the rolling sphere does not touch the structure to be protected. Another way of determining the height of the air-termination rods is using Table 188.8.131.52. The penetration depth of the rolling sphere is governed by the largest distance of the air-termination rods from each other. Using the greatest distance, the penetration depth p (sag) can be taken from the table. The air-termination rods must be dimensioned according to the height of the structures mounted on the roof (in relation to the location of
penetration depth p
d Fig. 184.108.40.206 Penetration depth p of the rolling sphere
LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 39
94 3.1. g. 5.3 Mesh size Mesh size 5 x 5m 10 x 10 m 15 x 15 m 20 x 20 m type of lightning protection system is arranged on the roofing (Table 5.1.43 1.13 0. the sag of the rolling sphere is assumed to be zero for a meshed air-termination system.2 Sag of the rolling sphere [m] (rounded up) Type of LPS with rolling sphere radius in metres I (20 m) 0.62 5.13 1.15 m is either calculated or obtained from the table.27 0.1. antennas.64 0.21 0.5 m is normally used Mesh method A “meshed“ air-termination system can be used universally regardless of the height of the structure and shape of the roof.08 0.92 1.17 2.1.41 0.1.11 1.11).g. 5. steep roof) or roof-mounted structures (e.72 0. Protective angle method The protective angle method is derived from the electric-geometrical lightning model. 5.78 2.54 0. The comparable protective angle with the radius of the rolling sphere is given when a slope intersects the rolling sphere in such a way that the resulting areas have the same size (Fig.de .1.40 2.10 0.04 0. the individual cells can be sited as desired.23 8.40 0.10 0.03 0.54 IV (60 m) 0.92 2.40 0.1.9).55 0.49 1.10 Meshed air-termination system Fig.38 1.18 0.32 II (30 m) 0. The air-termination conductors on the outer edges of the structure must be laid as close to the edges as possible.3).07 0.01 0.02 0.61 0.96 3. A reticulated air-termination network with a mesh size according to the Type of LPS I II III IV Table 5. gutter 5 ∆h ago d di nal domelight installed on the roof Fig.84 1.23 0. This method must be used for structures with symmetrical dimensions (e.80 6.1.28 0.30 0. 5.d Distance between airtermination rods 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 26 29 32 35 Table 5.1. The protective angle depends on the type of lightning protection system and the height of the air-termination system 40 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.27 1.1. ventilation pipes). a total height of an airtermination rod of 1.dehn.83 1. A metal attic can serve as an air-termination conductor and/or a down-conductor system if the required minimum dimensions for natural components of the airtermination system are complied with (Fig.1. for example.61 By using the ridge and the outer edges of the structure.1.63 III (45 m) 0. To simplify matters.10).09 1.68 3.1.03 0.68 0. as well as the metal natural parts of the structure serving as an airtermination system.1. 5. The protective angle is determined by the radius of the rolling sphere.74 4.72 2. If.00 10. Sag of the rolling sphere over two air-termination rods or two parallel air-termination conductors e.15 0.14 2.01 0.67 2.64 4.9 Calculation ∆h for several air-termination rods according to rolling sphere method the air-termination rod) and also the penetration depth (Fig.91 1.1. g.29 2.1.42 0. an airtermination rod with a standard length of 1.
partial currents are conducted into the structure. They form a “cone-shaped“ zone of protection and thus prevent a direct lightning stroke to the structure mounted on the roof. Protective α2 refers to the height h2 = h1 + h. protrude from zones of protection. If. 5. masts and wires should be arranged to ensure that all parts of the building to be protected are situated within the volume of protection of the air-termination system. e. additional protective measures are required. these roof-mounted structures contain electrical or electronic equipment.11 Protective angle and comparable radius of the rolling sphere above the reference plane (Fig.1. h1 h1 α α2 1 air-termination conductor 5 ht a° a° Fig. 5.1. 5. in addition.1.15).while the earth surface is the reference plane.1.1. Therefore the angle α2 according to Fig. If such equipment is connected directly to the external lightning protection system. The separation distance s must be taken into account when dimensioning the height of the air-termination rod (see Chapter 5.1. the roof surface is the reference plane for protective angle α1.1.1. 5. 5. is spanned over it (Figs.14 Expamle of air-termination systems with protective angle α h h2 R rolling sphere angle α can be different. This could result in the destruction of surge sensitive equipment.dehn.1.equal surface areas air-termination rod Table 5.1.1. 5.12 Protective angle α as a function of height h depending on the type of lightning protection system www.1.6).1. Protective angle method for isolated air-termination systems on roof-mounted structures Special problems may occur when roofmounted structures.1.1. measuring systems or TV cameras.12).1. if a cable. Direct lightning strokes to such structures protruding above the roof can be prevented by having isolated air-termination systems.1.1.13 to 5. In Fig.1. Fig. 220.127.116.11.16. Air-termination rods as shown in Fig. in the event of a lightning stroke.1.4 is less than α1. 5. angle α angle α Air-termination conductors. g. which are often installed at a later date.de ht α° Angle α depends on the type of lightning protection system and the height of the air-termnation conductor above ground LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 41 . The ground is the reference plane for the protective angle α2. If air-termination rods are installed on the surface of the roof to protect structures mounted thereon. antennas.15 Area protected by an air-termination conductor Protective angle method αϒ 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 h (m) I II III IV Fig.1.1. Fig.13 Cone-shaped protection zone Fig. the mesh.1. then.12 and Table 5. volume protected by a vertical air-termination rod protective angle base Fig. such as roof-mounted fans. The protection zone can be “coneshaped“ or “tent-shaped“.4 provides the corresponding protective angle for each type of lighth1: Physical height of the air-termination rod angle α angle α Note: Protective angle α1 refers to the height of the air-termination system h1 above the roof surface to be protected (reference plane). air-termination rods. the protective ning protection system and the corresponding distance (zone of protection). 5.17 are suitable for protecting smaller roof-mounted structures (with electrical equipment). 5. for example.1.1.16 External lightning protection system. 5.
81 8.31 26.80 13.28 12.1.66 22.52 12.43 30.35 17.71 7.94 15.05 26.77 30.02 27.93 18.02 19.08 14.65 21.52 22.76 13.14 30.77 30.16 28.39 8.Height of the airtermination rod h in m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Table 5.74 9.78 23.46 12.74 14.20 20.01 15.47 5 angle α α height h of the air-termination rod distance a Protective angle α depending on the types of lightning protection system 42 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.21 31.00 14.44 28.65 10.49 6.43 6.41 23.80 9.67 22.11 16.11 30.39 15.45 22.73 Type of LPS III Angle Distance α a in m 74 74 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 61 59 58 57 55 54 53 52 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 40 39 38 37 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 3.31 23.45 15.41 13.61 22.66 22.03 30.95 15.87 29.18 23.51 30.04 18.97 10.70 8.00 23.41 22.90 10.40 14.93 22.96 9.05 19.26 8.90 30.41 14.30 14.35 29.70 9.43 18.90 5.13 27.66 7.21 21.00 15.50 22.99 30.76 14.55 22.80 9.53 27.89 20.27 20.37 29.96 25.51 28.04 16.94 30.80 20.76 21.25 24.90 30.1.12 12.85 15.45 21.61 26.99 20.71 10.86 22.61 30.42 10.60 28.66 13.dehn.40 16.31 13.23 21.40 28.52 22.18 26.31 19.31 15.44 28.04 8.43 14.72 16.26 15.05 30.36 4.91 29.24 9.10 15.de .07 Type of LPS II Angle Distance α a in m 71 71 71 69 65 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 49 47 45 44 42 40 39 37 36 35 33 32 30 29 27 26 25 23 2.58 27.4 Type of LPS I Angle Distance α a in m 67 67 67 65 59 57 54 52 49 47 45 42 40 37 35 33 30 28 25 23 2.62 21.81 30.27 25.48 20.57 23.72 11.69 27.07 6.76 29.23 21.34 13.82 28.20 9.18 27.00 29.87 29.07 15.10 Type of LPS IV Angle Distance α a in m 78 78 78 76 73 71 69 68 66 65 64 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 49 48 47 46 45 44 44 43 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 37 36 35 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 26 25 25 24 23 4.47 30.73 22.00 9.99 29.24 19.11 22.07 9.45 24.87 28.21 22.94 21.03 30.59 19.
thatch or also for ex-installations. 5. Air-termination systems isolated from the structure are frequently used. g. main section 1 of DIN V VDE V 0185-3 Protective angle acc.1.dehn. Fig. the separation distance s to the structure must be kept.1. we distinguish between two types of air-termination system: ⇒ isolated ⇒ non-isolated The two types can be combined.1.21 illustrate one type of air-termination system which is isolated from the structure α s 4 α s 2 1 3 1 2 3 4 Air-termination mast Protected structure Reference plane Separation distance s corresponding to 5. The components of the external lightning protection system can therefore be mounted directly on the structure (Figs.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 43 .1. the complete structure is protected against a direct lightning stroke via airtermination rods. Normally non-flammable building materials are used.19 Flat roof with conductor holder www.21 Isolated external lightning protection system. air-termination conductors or air-termination meshes of the air-termination system must not be less than 0.1. α Fig. see Annex E of DIN V VDE V 0185-3) e. tank installations. to DIN V VDE V 0185-3 Fig.20 Isolated external lightning protection system with two separate air-termination masts according to the protective angle method.3 1 Fig. With isolated air-termination systems.1.1. 5. See also Chapter 5. air-termination masts or masts with cables spanned over them. 5. between the flammable parts of the roof and the air-termination rods.17 Protection of small-sized installations on roofs against direct lightning strokes by means of airtermination rods Isolated and non-isolated air-termination systems When designing the external lightning protection system of a structure.1.20 and 5. e.1. 5. when the roof is covered with inflammable material.1.1. Neither may they be located under the roofing.1.1.4 m. Easily inflammable parts of the structure to be protected must not be in direct contact with parts of the external lightning protection system. 5. then the distance Fig.18 Gable roof with conductor holder If the roof is made of easily inflammable material (building material class B 18.104.22.168 and 5.19). the conductors of the air-termination system can be installed on the surface of the structure (e.1.1.Figs. 5. e.1. g.5 Thatched roofs).1.1. connected through a horizontal air-termination conductor: Projection on a vertical surface via the two masts (vertical section) 1 2 The separation distance s between the air-termination system and the structure must be kept.1. consisting of two separate airtermination masts. which can be punctured in the event of a lightning stroke (see also Chapter 5. When installing the air-termination systems. s2 separation distance acc.1.1. gable or flat roof). thatched roofs. g. Air-termination systems of a non-isolated external lightning protection system for protection of a structure can be installed in the following ways: If the roof is made of non-flammable material.5 “Air-termination system for structures with thatched roofs“. to Table 5. g. Projection on a vertical area 2 s1 s2 3 1 1 s2 5 Air-termination mast Horizontal air-termination conductor Protected structure 3 s1. 5.
A further method of designing isolated air-termination systems consists in securing the air-termination systems (air-termination rods, conductors or cables) with electrically insulating materials such as GRP (glass fibre-reinforced plastic). This form of isolation can be limited to local use or applied to whole parts of the installation. It is often used for roofmounted structures such as fan systems or heat exchangers with an electrically conductive connection into the structure (see also chapter 5.1.8). Natural components of air-termination systems Metal structural parts such as attics, guttering, railings or cladding can be used as natural components of an air-termination system. If a structure has a steel skeleton construction with a metal roof and façade made of conductive material, these can be used for the external lightning protection system, under certain circumstances. Sheet metal cladding on the walls or roof of the structure to be protected can be used if the electrical connection between the different parts is permanent. These permanent electrical connections can be made by e.g. brazing, welding, pressing, screwing or riveting, for example. If there is no electrical connection, a supplementary connection must be made for these elements e. g. with bridging braids or bridging cables. If the thickness of the sheet metal is not less than the value t' in Table 22.214.171.124, and if there is no requirement to take account of a through-melting of the sheets at the point of strike or the ignition of flammable material under the cladding, then such sheets can be used as an air-termination system. Material Fe Cu Al / StSt
sheet metal shall not be less than value t in Table 126.96.36.199. Material Fe Cu Al / StSt
Thickness t 4 mm 5 mm 7 mm
protective angle method. An air-termination system with a mesh size according to the type of lightning protection system used can be installed if the whole arrangement is isolated (elevated) from the structure to be protected by at least the required separation distance s. A universal system of components for the installation of isolated air-termination systems is described in chapter 5.1.8.
Min. thickness of metal plates (if melt-through is not allowed)
The required thickness t of the materials can generally not be complied with, for example, for metal roofs, For pipes or containers, however, it is possible to meet the requirements for these minimum thicknesses (wall thickness). If, though, the temperature rise (heating-up) on the inside of the pipe or tank represents a hazard for the medium contained therein (risk of fire or explosion), then these must not be used as airtermination systems (see also chapter 5.1.4). If the requirements on the appropriate minimum thickness are not met, the components, e. g. conduits or containers, must be situated in an area protected from direct lightning strokes. These natural components can nevertheless still be in a position to conduct lightning currents and can therefore be used as an interconnecting conductor or down-conductor system. A thin coat of paint, 1 mm bitumen or 0.5 mm PVC cannot be regarded as insulation in the event of a direct lightning stroke. Such coatings break down when subjected to the high energies deposited during a direct lightning stroke. There must be no coatings on the joints of the natural components of the downconductor systems. If conductive parts are located on the surface of the roof, they can be used as a natural air-termination system if there is no conductive connection into the structure. By connecting, e.g., pipes or electrical conductors into the structure, partial lightning currents can enter the structure and affect or even destroy sensitive electrical/electronic equipment. In order to prevent these partial lightning currents from penetrating, isolated air-termination systems shall be installed for the aforementioned roof-mounted structures. The isolated air-termination system can be designed using the rolling sphere or
5.1.2 Air-termination systems for structures with gable roofs
Air-termination systems on roofs are the metal components in their entirety, e. g. air-termination conductors, air-termination rods, air-termination tips. The parts of the structure usually hit by lightning strokes, such as the top of the gable, chimneys, ridges and arrises, the edges of gables and eaves, parapets and antennas and other protruding structures mounted on the roof, must be equipped with air-termination systems. Normally, a reticulated air-termination network is installed on the surface of gabled roofs, said network corresponding to the mesh size of the appropriate type of lightning protection system (e. g. 15 m x 15 m for a lightning protection system Type III) (Fig. 188.8.131.52).
Thickness t‘ 0.5 mm 0.5 mm 0.7 mm
Fig. 184.108.40.206 Air-termination system on a gable roof
Min. thickness of metal plates (if melt-through is allowed)
The material thicknesses are not distinguished according to the type of lightning protection system. It is, however, necessary to take precautionary measures against through-melting or intolerable heating-up at the point of strike, if the thickness of the
By using the ridge and the outer edges of the structure, as well as the metal parts of the structure serving as an air-termination system, the individual meshes can be sited as prefered. The air-termination conductors on the outer edges of the structure must be installed as close to the edges as possible. Generally, the metal gutter is used for closing the “mesh“ of the air-termination system on the roof surface. If the gutter itself is connected so as to be electrically conductive, a gutter clamp is
44 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE
mounted at the crossover of the air-termination system and the gutter. Roof-mounted structures made of electrically non-conductive material (e. g. PVC vent pipes) are considered to be sufficiently protected if they do not protrude more than h = 0.3 m from the plane of the mesh (Fig. 220.127.116.11).
conductor systems must be maintained (Fig. 18.104.22.168).
Air-termination systems on the ridge have a tent-shaped zone of protection (according to the protective angle method). The angle depends on the height above the reference plane (e. g. surface of the earth) and the type of lightning protection system chosen.
5.1.3 Air-termination systems for flat-roofed structures
Fig. 22.214.171.124 Building with photovoltaic system Ref.: Wettingfeld Lightning Protection, Krefeld, Germany Fig. 126.96.36.199 Height of a roof superstructure made of electrically non-conductive material (e.g. PVC), h ≤ 0.3 m
An air-termination system for structures with flat roofs (Figs. 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206) is designed using the mesh method. A mesh-type air-termination system with a mesh size corresponding to the type of lightning protection system is installed on the roof (Table 220.127.116.11). Fig. 18.104.22.168 illustrates the practical application of the meshed air-termination system in combination with air-termination rods to protect the structures mounted on the roof, e. g. domelights, photovoltaic cells or fans. Chapter 5.1.8 shows how to deal with these roof-mounted structures. Roof conductor holders on flat roofs are laid at intervals of approx. 1 m. The airtermination conductors are connected with the attic, this being a natural component of the air-termination system. As the temperature changes, so does the length of the materials used for the attic, and hence the individual segments must be equipped with “slide plates“. If the attic is used as an air-termination system, these individual segments must be permanently interconnected so as to be electrically conductive without restricting their ability to expand. This can be achieved by means of bridging braids, straps or cables (Fig. 22.214.171.124). The changes in length caused by changes in temperature must also be taken into account with air-termination conductors and down-conductor systems (see Chapter 5.4). A lightning stroke to the attic can cause the materials used to melt through. If this is unacceptable, a supplementary airtermination system, e. g. with air-termination tips, must be installed, its location being determined by using the rolling sphere method.
If the protrusion is h > 0.3 m, the structure must be equipped with an air-termination system (e. g. interception tip) and connected to the nearest air-termination conductor. One way of doing this would be to use a wire with a diameter of 8 mm up to a maximum free length of 0.5 m, as shown in Fig. 126.96.36.199.
Air-termination rods for chimneys must be erected to ensure that the whole chimney is in the zone of protection. The protective angle method is applied when dimensioning the air-termination rods. If the stack is brick-built or constructed with preformed sections, the air-termination rod can be mounted directly on the stack. If there is a conductive pipe in the interior of the stack, e. g. as found when redeveloping old buildings, the separation distance to this conductive component must be kept. This is an example where isolated air-termination systems are used and the air-termination rods are erected with distance holders. The assembly to protect parabolic antennas in particular is similar to that to protect stacks with an internal stainless steel pipe. In the event of a direct lightning stroke to antennas, partial lightning currents can enter the structure to be protected via the shields of the coaxial cables and cause the effects and destruction previously described. To prevent this, antennas are equipped with isolated air-termination systems (e. g. air-termination rods) (Fig. 188.8.131.52).
Fig. 184.108.40.206 Additional air-termination system for ventilation pipes
Metal structures mounted on the roof without conductive connection into the structure do not need to be connected to the air-termination system if all the following conditions are met: ⇒ Structures mounted on the roof may protrude a maximum distance of 0.3 m from the plane of the mesh. ⇒ Structures mounted on the roof may have a maximum enclosed area of 1 m2, (e. g. dormer windows) ⇒ Structures mounted on the roof may have a maximum length of 2 m (e. g. sheet metal roofing parts) Only if all three conditions are met, no terminal is required. Furthermore, with the conditions stated above, the separation distance to the airtermination conductors and down-
Fig. 220.127.116.11 Antenna with air-termination rod Ref.: Upper Austrian Lightning Protection, Linz, Austria
LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 45
Conductor holders for flat roofs, homogeneously welded In the wind, roof sheetings can move across the roof surface horizontally, if they are only fixed mechanically/laid on the surface. A special position fixing is required for the air-termination conductor for preventing the conductor holders for air-termination systems from being displaced on the smooth surface. Conventional roof conductor holders cannot be permanently bonded to roof sheetings since the latter do not usually permit the application of adhesives. A simple and safe way of fixing the position is to use roof conductor holders Type KF in combination with straps (cut the strips to fit) made of the roof sheeting material. The strap is clamped into the plastic holder and both sides are welded onto the seal. Holder and strap should be positioned immediately next to a roof sheeting joint at a distance of approx. 1 m. The strip of foil is welded to the roof sheeting according to the manufacturer of the roof sheeting. This prevents airtermination conductors on flat roofs from being displaced. If the slope of the roof is greater then 5°, each roof conductor holder must be equipped with a position fixing element. If the synthetic roof sheetings are secured by mechanical means, the roof conductor holders must be arranged in the immediate vicinity of the mechanical fixing elements. When carrying out this work, it must be considered that welding and bonding work on the seal affect the guarantee provided by the roofer. The work to be carried out must therefore only be done with the agreement of the roofer responsible for the particular roof, or be carried out by him himself (Fig. 18.104.22.168).
Fig. 22.214.171.124 Air-termination system on a flat roof
Roof conductor holder Type FB2 Part No. 253 050
Bridging braid Part No. 377 015
flexible connection Roof conductor holder Type FB Part No. 253 015 distance between the roof conductor holders approx. 1 m
Fig. 126.96.36.199 Air-termination system
Fig. 188.8.131.52 Use of air-termination rods
Fig. 184.108.40.206 Bridged attic
46 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE
4. The size of the hole depends on the energy of the lightning stroke and the characteristics of the material. The biggest problem here is the subsequent damage.1.7 – 1. Holes must not be drilled into the metal roof when fixing the conductors and airtermination tips. In practice. g. e. standing seam.dehn.1.2: Detail B).4.1. 20. Days or weeks can pass before this damage is noticed. then a separate air-termination system must be installed on a metal roof. 5. 253 030 Fig. If the owner is not prepared to tolerate damage to the roof in the event of a lightning stroke.4.000 A struck the sheet metal roof and made a hole (Fig.1. ~3 ~9 0 00 distance between the roof conductor holders approx. since there is no longer any guarantee that the roof will offer protection from the rain. Since the sheet metal roof was not earthed with a down-conductor system. e. 5.3. The Detail A Evaluation: BLIDS – SIEMENS I = 20400 A Residential building Fig.1. roofs with round standing seam Detail B When the roof is hit by a direct lightning stroke. regardless of the type of lightning protection system involved. 5.2 are tried and tested. roof insulation becomes damp and/or the ceiling becomes wet. thickness). The metal sheets and plates on the roofs are usually 0. g.4.4. Fig.2: Detail A). the heights of air-termination tips according to Table 5.4.1. Protection against the rain is no longer guaranteed to be provided.1.1. A current of approx.Roof conductor holder Type KF / KF2 5. the metal sheets must have the minimum values stated in Table 5.1.1 shows an example of the construction of a metal roof.2 mm thick. To prevent such kind of damage. The DIN V 5 Fig. One example of damage. 5. Also the Rules of the German Roofing Trade concerning lightning protection on and attached to roofs require the agreement of the owner.4. 5. (e.1 Types of metal roofs. The owner of the structure must agree to tolerate this type of roof damage.4. overheating and melting is tolerated.3). 1 m flexible connection Roof conductor holder Type KF Part No. a suitable external lightning protection system with wires and clamps capable of carrying lightning currents must be installed even on a “thin“ metal roof. Fig. 5. 5.2 Example of damage: Metal plate cover www.5 Highly polymeric roof sheetings for flat roofs . Metal sheets with a thickness t’ may only be used as a natural air-termination system if puncturing. water entering at this point.1.4.4a shows one possible design for a metal roof with round standing seam.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 47 .4 Air-termination systems on metal roofs Modern industrial and commercial purpose-built structures often have metal roofs and façades. 5. assessed using the Lightning-Information Service from Siemens (BLIDS) illustrates this problem (Fig. Where an external lightning protection system is required. which also caused a hole. The air-termination system must be installed to ensure that the rolling sphere (radius R which corresponds to the type of lightning protection system chosen) does not touch the metal roof (Fig. When mounting the air-termination system it is recommended to install a socalled “hedgehog roof“ with longitudinal cables and air-termination tips. 5.1.~70 00 ~3 VDE V 0185-3 lightning protection standard clearly illustrates the risk of damage to metal roofs.1. Various conductor holders are available for the different types of metal roofs (round standing seam.g.2).1. The thicknesses t are not relevant for roofing materials.4. flashovers to natural metal components in the wall occurred in the area around the fascia (Fig. trapezoidal). melting through or vaporisation can cause a hole formed at the point of strike.
4. Fig.3 Air-termination system on a metal roof . loose conductor leading. DEHNgrip conductor holder StSt Al Part No.1. to type of LPS air-termination tip When installing the cables.4b). 5.Metal sheetings can be used as “natural” components of the air-termination system.4.6 also shows the connection to the roof with round standing seam at the Fig.1. Fig.4.1.35 m 0. Fig. if the thickness t / t’ of the metal plate is not less than: Materials If the melting through or the ignition of adjacent material below the sheeting is impermissible: permissible: Thickness t Thickness t’ 4 mm 5 mm 7 mm 0.5 using the example of a trapezoidal sheet roof.25 m 0.15 m 0.1. 223 041 roof connection bridging cable Fig.1.1.1 0.1. air-termination tip conductor holder with loose conductor leading 5 Fig.4.45 m Natural components of an air-termination system *) recommended values Table 5.1.4b Conductor holder for metal roofs with round standing seam 2 3 Roof conductor holder for metal roofs fixed conductor leading with clamping frame StSt Al Part No.7 mm Suitable for all types of lightning protection systems Distance of the horizontal conductors 3m 4m 5m 6m Height of the airtermination tip*) Galvanised steel Copper Aluminium / StSt Table 5. 5.5 mm 0. whereas all other conductor holders must be designed with a loose conductor leading because of the linear compensation caused by changes in temperature (Fig. 223 011 Part No.Round standing seam 48 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.4.6 uses the example of a round standing seam roof to illustrate the loose conductor leading.4. 5.4.5 mm 0.4.4a Conductor holders for metal roofs . 223 010 Part No.5 also shows an air-termination tip next to the conductor holder. 5. 5.1. 307 000 bridging braid KS connector 2 1 3 Roof conductor holder for metal roofs.4. 223 040 The conductor holder with fixed conductor leading is illustrated in Fig. 5. 5.4.Protection against holing Parallel connector 1 St/tZn Part No.de . The conductor holder must be hooked into the fixing screw above the covering plate for the drill hole to prevent any entering of water.dehn. 5.1. care must be taken that the conductor holder located at the highest point of the roof must be designed with a fixed conductor leading.2 Lightning protection for metal roofs Height of the air-termination tips rolling sphere with a radius acc.
3 Clause 1.4. e. 5.1. The previously described system for protection against lightning is not effective for thatched roofs covered with a metal wire mesh.5.1. irrigation systems.5. Certain distances must also be maintained around the eaves. air-termination rods must be installed adjacent to the installations projecting above the roof. vent pipes. Subclause 5. which is capable of carrying currents.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 49 .1. e. When a lightning protection system is installed on a roof at a later date. on non-conductive supports so that a large enough separation distance s is maintained. and down-conductor systems up to around 10 m without additional supports. Ideally. Fig. The height of the air-termination rod results from the protective angle α. effective protection against lightning is not possible if metal covers.2 of DIN V VDE V 0185-3 stipulates a special installation procedure for an air-termination system for a structure with thatched roof.15 m Eaves / Eaves support 2. conductor holder with clamping frame Fig.5 Principle of an air-termination system for structures with thatched roof The design of lightning protection systems Type III generally meets the requirements of such a structure. straw or rushes) must be fastened across isolating supports to be free to move. g. The exact distance of the down-conductor systems from each other resuslts from calculating the separation distance s in accordance with DIN V VDE V 0185-3 Clause 1. For a lightning protection system Type III. are exposed points of strike for a lightning discharge. Metal components situated above the roof surface (such as weather vanes.1.1. Similarly. conductors) must be secured. Unprotected installations projecting above the roof. conductor / Roofing 0. 5.6 explains how to calculate the separation distance. The metal wire meshwork must be removed or substituted with a UV-resistant plastic mesh. This allows maintain the necessary minimum distances when re-roofing is carried out. domelights and chimney covers. In order to prevent these installations from being struck by a direct lightning stroke.4 m Air-term. or with airtermination nets between masts adjacent to the structure.4.3). Fastening posts must be tightly connected to the roof structure (rafters and rails) by means of bolts and washers. Subclause 3.1 Air-termination system for buildings with thatched roofs www. the distances must be increased. g. In such cases. the typical distance of the down-conductor system is 15 m.1.7 Air-termination rod for a domelight on a roof with round standing seam Fig.5. which are at least 0. In particular individual cases.1.5.1. ridge conductors should have spans up to around 15 m.4. The air-termination conductors on such roofs (made of thatch. effective protection against lightning can only be achieved with an isolated external lightning protection system with air-termination rods near the structure. 5. in accordance with 5.3.dehn. 5. Chapter 5.6 m above and below it. Signs and symbols Air-termination conductor Connecting point Isolating point / Measuring point Earth conductor Down conductor Important distances (min.6 Model construction of a roof with standing seam 5 roof edge. Irrigation system feeds in the vicinity of the duct through the skin of the roof. dormer windows. 5. may only be made of plastic (Figs.1 to 5. values) 0. chimney skirtings. irrigation systems.6 m Air-term. conductor / Gable 0. skylights and the like are present.5 Model construction of a trapezoidal sheet roof. a risk analysis based on DIN V VDE V 0185-2 can be carried out.0 m Air-termination conductor / Branches of trees a b c d Fig.
6.5 m (with outstretched arm) from direct lightning strokes. This method can be found in Chapter 5. in plastic. a structure. then it is sufficient to install the measures described above. Persons who can go onto this storey of the car park must be informed by means of a sign that they must immediately clear this storey when a thunderstorm occurs.1. These air-termination rods are secured to structural elements such as parapets or the like.6. If it is also possible that persons are on the roof during a thunderstorm. can also act as air-termination rods to prevent life hazards.1. The necessary distances must be maintained. lighting masts.1.2).Building protection 50 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. with concrete blocks) on drive-over roofs. attention must be paid to the partial lightning currents which can be conducted into the structure via the power lines. then an air-termination conductor must be mounted on the edge of the roof facing the trees (edge of the eaves. 48811 A 145 309 48812 − 48827 48827 B − 145 241 240 000 239 000 241 002 840 050 If a thatched roof borders onto metal roofing material.1.1. Tree branches must be kept at least 2 m away from a thatched roof.3). e. for example . The air-termination system can be dimensioned using the rolling sphere or the protective angle method according to the type of lightning protection system (Fig.3 Thatched roof Fig. and higher than. g. 108 001 conductors installed within concrete or the joints of the roadway (plates) Warning! Keep off the car park during thunderstorms down conducting via steel reinforcement Fig.de .dehn. With this version. then the air-termination system must be designed to protect these persons. e.1. These air-termination systems can also be constructed from spanned cables or airtermination rods.5.1). The mesh size must not exceed the value according to the type of lightning pro- Fig. 5. 5.1 2 6 3 4 5 Pos Description 1 Clamping cap with air-termination rod 2 Wood pile 3 Support for roof conductors 4 Eaves support 5 Tensioning block 6 Air-term. then an electrically non-conductive roofing material at least 1 m wide.1. and not return for the duration of the storm (Fig.1.5.2 Components for thatched roofs Mushroom-type collector after asphalting Mushroom-type collector Part No.1. must be inserted between the thatched roof and the other roof. 5.g. Al cable 1 2 DIN Part No. 5. If the air-termination conductor is installed in these joints. for example. and if the structure has to be equipped with an external lightning protection system.1.8 Isolated air-termination system (steel telescopic lightning protection masts).1. however. 5. gable) and connected to the lightning protection system. It is imperative to have lightning equipotential bonding measures for these lines. If it can be guaranteed that no persons will be on this area during a thunderstorm. If trees are very close to. conductor.6.6 Walkable and trafficable roofs 3 4 5 5 6 It is not possible to mount air-termination conductors (e. Table 5. mushroom-type collectors are installed at the intersections of the mesh as defined points of strike. tection system (see Chapter 5. A further way of protecting structures with thatched roofs against a stroke of lightning is to erect air-termination masts so that the whole structure is in the protected volume.1 Lightning protection for car park roofs . One possible solution is to install the air-termination conductors in either concrete or the joints between the sections of the roadway. assuming they have a height of 2. g. Furthermore. 5.
Stainless steel (Material No. and should.1 Planted roof Fig.7 Air-termination system for planted and flat roofs A planted roof can make economic and ecological sense. and the height of the interception system can be lifted up by means of air-termination tips and rods and “grown“ with the plants on the roof. 5. provides additional heat insulation. (Figs. 5.1.3).2 Air-termination system on a planted roof Fig. For a meshed air-termination system. It is preferable to determine the installation site of the mesh considering the external edges of the roof and any metal structures acting as an air-termination system.3).1. either earth substrate or granulate must be laid on the roof.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 51 .7. It is even more expensive if the granulate or substrate has to be removed because of a direct lightning stroke. suppresses dust from the ambient air. and frequently damaged by maintenance work. Moreover. Airtermination systems can be designed in different ways. also be installed on the surface of a planted roof.4571) has proven to be a good material for the conductors of air-termination systems on planted roofs. regardless of the type of care required. Aluminium wire must not be used for installing conductors in the covering layer (in the earth substrate or granulate).1.1 to 5.3 Conductor leading on the covering layer www. This is because it provides noise insulation.5 m + s Fig. Moreover.1.1. Conductors of air-termination meshes installed uniformly on top of the covering layer are easier to inspect even if they become overgrown. 1.1. If there is no external lightning protection system. in many regions it is possible to obtain grants from public funds for cultivating plants on the roof. irrigation and cutting.dehn.2 Lightning protection for car park roofs .1.7. protects the roof skin. The usual way is to install a meshed air-termination net with a mesh size of 5 x 5 m (lightning protection system Type I) up to a max. mesh size of 15 x 15 m (lightning protection system Type III) on the roof surface.additional airtermination cable h height of the air-termination rod dimensioned according to the required protective angle h = 2.1.7. An extensive planted area requires little care.1. 5. For both types of planted area.1. 5.6. 5.Building and life protection 5.7. the air-termination system of an external lightning protection system can.7. the roof seal can be damaged at the point of strike. the DIN V VDE V 0185-3 lightning protection standard prescribes a mesh size which depends on the type of lightning protec- tion system chosen (see Chapter 5. regardless of the height of the structure.1. A distinction is made between so-called extensive and intensive cultivation. filters and retains rainwater and is a natural way of improving the living and working conditions. An air-termination conductor installed inside the covering layer is difficult to inspect after a number of years because the air-termination tips or mushroom-type collectors are overgrown and no longer recognisable. Experience has shown that. Table 5. in contrast to an intensive planted area which requires fertiliser. 5 Fig. air-termination conductors installed inside the covering layer are more susceptible to corrosion.
via electrical cables or ducts.1. must be treated in a similar way. 5.1. This prevents partial lightning currents from entering the structure. Fig. According to the State of the Art for lightning protection. This direct connection meant that parts of the lightning current were conducted into the structure. g. for example . Fig.de . protection provided by an air-termination rod Fig. these roof-mounted structures were connected directly. 102 010) to be isolated (Fig. 5. In the past. Self-supporting air-termination rods up to a height of 8. 5.1 Connection of roof mounted structures 52 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.dehn. or a combination of several. Antennas.1.5).1. e. which nothing can be secured to.3 Air-termination rod with distance holder Angled supports are a practical solution when air-termination rods also have to be secured against the effects of side winds (Figs. advertising signs with integrated lighting and all other protruding roof-mounted structures having a conductive connection. into the structure. e.0 m can be fixed with one or two concrete bases piled on top of each other (e.8.8. DEHNiso distance holder) (Fig.8. 5. If an air-termination rod is higher than 2. 5.8 Isolated air-termination systems Roof-mounted structures such as air conditioning and cooling systems.1. previously also known as safety distance.5 m to 3. electrically controlled domelights.1.5. e.0 m. for larger roof-mounted structures. the air-termination rods can be installed by using special supports.5 m can be installed by using a tripod. 4 kV was almost always attained and hence a partial lightning current was also carried into the structure via the electrical cable. This meant that direct lightning strokes to the roof-mounted structure could also flow away via the “internal conductors“ to some extent. Part No.8.1. air-termination rods. The only way of preventing these coupled currents is to use isolated air-termination systems which maintain the separation distance.1.4 Angled support for air-termination rods direct connection Roof connection via isolating spark gap 1st Floor Fig. g. for mainframes.8. Fig. Air-termination rods up to a height of 2. 5. 5. These supports are secured to the floor with standard concrete bases (one on top of another). the spark gap should not operate.8.1. Later. These widely different roof-mounted structures can be protected by various designs of isolated air-termination systems.1.4 and 5. g. 5 Fig.2).2 Isolated air-termination system. are nowadays used on the roofs of larger office blocks and industrial structures. where they would affect or even destroy the sensitive electrical/electronic installations.5 Supporting element for the air-termination rod data lines Ground floor Basement EB If higher air-termination rods are required. the air-termination rods must be secured to the property to be protected with distance holders made of electrically insulating material (e. 5. The operating voltage of approx.8.3).8. g small fans) the protection can be achieved by using individual. 5. g.8. Air-termination rods For smaller roof-mounted structures (e. and in the event of a more distant lightning stroke to the structure. such roof-mounted structures are protected against direct lightning strokes by means of separately mounted air-termination systems. This can affect or even destroy electrical or electronic installations inside the structure. “indirect connection“ via a spark gaps was introduced.8.1 shows a partial lightning current penetrating the inside of the structure.1. g.
8.8. g.14). 5 Fig. isolating distance holders in concrete bases are installed vertically. mesh) is provided by the DEHNiso-Combi programme of products.1. 5.8. The protective angle α depends on the type of lightning protection system and the height of the air-termination system above the reference plane. Free heights of 19 m above ground level can be achieved. Further information (e.8.11 Tripod support for self-supporting insulating pipes www.8.6 Isolated air-termination system for photovoltaic system Fig. 5. 5. The rolling sphere method with its corresponding radius (according to the type of lightning protection system) can also be used to dimension the conductors or cables. offering enormous advantages for transportation. Krefeld. g.7). 5.8. provide an indirect way of guiding the cables.8. installation.1. which are fixed to the object to be protected. The special feature of this type of air-termination system is its short installation time as no holes need to be drilled and only few elements need to be screwed together (Figs. if custommade ones are used.8.8. The air-termination conductors generate a tent-shaped zone of protection at the sides.7 Isolated air-termination system for terrestrial antenna For protecting complete structures or installations (e.10 Installed air-termination system. PV installations).dehn.1.1. Spanned over by cables or conductors According to DIN V VDE V 0185-3. The standard lengths of the steel telescopic lightning protection masts are supplied in sections of 2 m. In such cases. The “mesh“ type of air-termination system can also be used if an appropriate separation distance s between the components of the installation and the airtermination system must be maintained. It is also possible to span a cable between these masts if they are especially designed for this purpose. for example.8 and 5.8. g. air-termination conductors can be installed above the structure to be protected. and a cone-shaped one at the ends.1. pro- Further information about the application is contained in the publications DS 123E “DEHNiso-Combi System for isolated Air-termination Systems“. Fig.1.8. 5. PV installations. for guiding the “mesh“ on an elevated level (Fig. DEHNiso-Combi A user-friendly way of installing conductors or cables in accordance with the three different design methods for airtermination systems (rolling sphere.10).8.6 to 5. even higher. These self-supporting air-termination rods can be used for a wide variety of applications (e.: Wettingfeld Lightning Protection. The cables are subsequently guided separately to the down-conductor systems or supplementary air-termination systems (e.9).8 Additional corrosion protection in the transition area by anticorrosive band for underground application Fig.1. 5.9 Installation of a steel telescopic lightning protection mast Fig. Germany tective angle.8. 1475.1. Ref. 5. Fig. 5. DS 111 “DEHNiso Distance Holder: The Modular Lightning Protection System“ and in the set of installation instructions No.1. 1489 (Figs.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 53 . These masts are installed in natural soil or in a concrete foundation. g. lightning protection masts are used.Additional guy lines are required above a free height of 6 m in order withstand the stresses caused by the wind. antennas.1. 5. assembly) about these steel telescopic lightning protection masts can be found in installation instructions No. 5.11 to 5.1. The aluminium insulating pipes with “isolating distance“ (GRP – glass-fibre-reinforced plastic).1.1. The types of design described can be combined with each other as desired to adapt the isolated air-termination systems to the local conditions (Fig. ammunition depots) with air-termination rods. mesh) by means of GRP distance holders.
the air-termination conductor along the transverse ridge must be equipped with a down-conductor system at each end. Fig. 5.13 Detail picture of DEHNiso-Combi Fig. then this down-conductor system must be connected to the external lightning protection system of the nave by the shortest route (Fig.14 Isolated air-termination system with DEHNiso-Combi Fig.1). If steeple and nave are joined. this system must be connected by the shortest route with a down-conductor system of the steeple.1 a.9. According to DIN V VDE V 0185-3. 5.8. Subclause 7. In particular individual cases. If the down-conductor system of the steeple coincides with a down-conductor system of the nave.1.de . 5. 5. At least one of these down conductors must be connected with the external lightning protection system of the nave via the shortest route.8. a special risk analysis in accordance with DIN V VDE V 0185-2 must be carried out.9 Air-termination system for steeples and churches External lightning protection system According to DIN V VDE V 0185-220.127.116.11.3.1. Fig.9. if a steeple is attached. then a common down-conductor system can be used at this location. In the transept. Nave According to DIN V VDE V 0185-3. for example in the case of culturally significant structures. Subclause 18.104.22.168. lightning protection systems Type III meet the normal requirements for churches and steeples.1 Installing the down-conductor system at a steeple 54 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.12 Isolated air-termination systems with DEHNiso-Combi 5 Steeple Steeples up to a height of 20 m must be equipped with a down-conductor system. the nave must have its own lightning protection system and. 5.dehn. Subclause 7.5. steeples above 20 m in height must be provided with at least two down conductors.
lamps. In order to protect structures on the nacelle. belfry) and under the roof (e. receptors. the reinforcement steels can be used as down-conductor systems if it can be ensured that they provide a continuous conductive connection. in turn.11.. air-termination tips or air-termination meshes.5 mm).2 Lightning protection for wind speed indicators at WT The metal tower or. such as anemometers in the event of a lightning stroke. This is important as the entering of partial lightning currents www. It is essential to protect roof-mounted structures such as air conditioning and cooling systems. such as air-termination rods. 5.1.1. The construction of an isolated lightning protection system creates a zone of protection in which direct lightning strokes cannot occur. 5. extensive installations are being sited more than ever on the roofs of larger office blocks and industrial structures. the receptors in the rotor blades are connected to the hub with a metal interconnecting conductor (often flat line St/tZn 30 x 3.1). Lightning strokes to wind turbines usually affect the rotor blades.11. Subclause 7.10. This requires an isolation of both the air-termination systems. Carbon fibre brushes or air spark gaps then. g. the conductive connection into the structure can be replaced with an isolating connector (e. Lightning protection measures are carried out in accordance with the DIN V VDE V 0185 series of standards.5 mm) is used as the down-conductor system. down-conductor systems and an earth termination system and protects against mechanical destruction and fire. This creates an “equipotential surface“ which prevents In accordance with the relevant lightning protection standards contained in the DIN V VDE V 0185 series.1.1. The wind turbine is earthed by a foundation earthing electrode in the base of the tower and the meshed connection with the foundation earthing electrode of the operation building. a GRP pipe) to prevent hazardous sparking in parts of the external lightning protection system. as described in DIN V VDE V 0185-2. This can control lightning strokes with currents measuring up to 150. clock mechanisms.Down-conductor systems on steeples must always be guided to the ground on the outside of the steeple.10 Air-termination systems for wind turbines (WT) Requirement for protection against lightning E DIN VDE 0127-24 describes measures to protect wind turbines against lightning. 5. the separation distance s to metal components and electrical installations in the steeple (e.2). air conditioning.10. e. If pre-cast reinforced concrete parts are used. Principle of an external lightning protection system for wind turbines The external lightning protection system comprises air-termination systems.1 WT with integrated receptors in the rotor blades 5. these roofmounted structures can be protected from direct lightning strokes with isolated air-termination systems. in case of a prestressed concrete version. bridge the ball-bearings in the head of the nacelle in order to avoid the welding of the revolving parts of the structure. the VdS recommends that a lightning protection system Type II to be installed for wind turbines. 5. to be installed with sufficient separation distance from the roofmounted structures within the zone of protection. They must not be installed inside the steeple (DIN V VDE V 0185-3. Especially when extending the technical equipment in the structure.1.1. It also prevents partial lightning currents from entering the low voltage system and hence the structure. In order to allow the coupled lightning currents to flow to earth in a controlled way. In its VdS 2010 directive “Risk-orientated lightning and surge protection“.10. g. The required separation distance can become a problem especially at the clock. 5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 55 . Hence. are integrated to determine defined points of strike (Fig. g.1. potential differences in the event of a lightning stroke. Further.dehn. ventilation and heating systems) must be maintained by suitable arrangement of the external lightning protection system.11 Wind load stresses on lightning protection air-termination rods receptor wire meshwork Roofs are being used more and more as areas for technical installations. 5. the reinforcement may be used as a down-conductor system if terminals to connect the reinforcement continuously are provided on the pre-cast concrete parts. Fig.000 A. for example.10. transmitters for cell sites on host buildings.2).1). flue gas vents and other apparatus connected to the electrical low voltage system (Fig. This recommendation results from the assessment of the risk of damage from a lightning stroke for structures. air-termination rods or “air-termination cages“ are installed (Fig. Fig. i. 5. In this case.1. In more modern churches built with reinforced concrete.10 mm or tape conductor St/tZn 30 x 3.1 Protection against direct lightning strokes by self-supporting air-termination rods 5 Fig.. and the down-conductor systems. the down-conductor systems embedded in the concrete (round conductor St/tZn Ø8.
A single air-termination rod is sufficient to provide the protection required by smaller roof-mounted structures.3). apart from the zonedependent wind load. Stress caused by wind loads Since self-supporting air-termination rods are installed at exposed sites (e. the rolling sphere must touch the ground and/or the airtermination system only.2 Procedure for installation of air-termination systems according to DIN V VDE V 0185-3 56 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. A 40% increase in wind speed.11. With the rolling sphere method.4 it can be seen that around 95% of Germany’s surface area lies within Wind Zones I and II. When designing self-supporting airtermination rods. users demand a lightweight system of “self-supporting air-termination rods“. For the calculations. the individual air-termination rods should ideally be erected with a corresponding height.11. height of the building Type Radius of the Mesh size M of LPS rolling sphere R I II III IV 20 m 30 m 45 m 60 m 5x5m 10 x 10 m 15 x 15 m 20 x 20 m mesh size M air-termination conductor air-termination rods from tilting and breaking by a suitably designed base and supplementary guys (Fig. and also to be able to protect larger roof-mounted structures against direct lightning strokes.1.1. mechanical stresses arise which.11. Air-termination rods are therefore generally designed for Wind Zone II. This requires to prevent self-supporting Max.de .dehn. According to DIN 4131 a constant dynamic pressure over the height of a structure can be expected for structures up to a height of 50 m. their mechanical stability must be proven.1. DIN 4131 divides Germany up into 4 wind zones with zone-dependent wind speeds (Fig. so that a total height (height of the structure plus length of the air-termination rods) is kept below the 50 m mark. the maximum height of the structure was considered 40 m. the height of the air-termination rod with air-termination tip bracing variable tripod Fig. At the same time. a rolling sphere whose radius depends on the type of lightning protection system chosen is rolled in all possible directions on and over the structure to be protected. 5. This method produces a protection volume where direct lightning strokes are not possible. The requirement for the self-supporting air-termination rods to be built as high as possible must be balanced against the higher stress exerted by the active wind loads. To achieve the largest possible zone of protection. From Fig. on roofs).11.2). These are connected with each other and also with the earth-termination system.1.4). Self-supporting air-termination rods must therefore basically meet the same requirements concerning their mechanical stability as set out in DIN 4131 for antenna frames. During this procedure.11. Among other things the magnitude of the zone of protection created depends on the number and the height of the air-termination systems installed. for example. To ensure that it is safe to use air-termination rods on roofs. When calculating the prospective actual wind load stresses. which are easier to transport and install. 5. The procedure involves the application of the rolling sphere method in accordance with DIN V VDE V 0185-3 (Fig. 5. 5.1.5 into the building can affect or destroy sensitive electrical/electronic installations. 5. from the application point of view.1. 5. owing to the comparable location and the upcoming wind speeds. Extended roof-mounted structures are also equipped with a system of isolated air-termination systems. g. The use of self-supporting air-termination rods in Wind Zone III and Wind Zone IV must be assessed for each individual case taking the arising stresses into account. the following requirements must be met for the wind load stress: ⇒ Tilt resistance of the air-termination rods ⇒ Fracture resistance of the rods ⇒ Maintaining the required separation distance to the object to be protected even under wind loads (prevention of intolerable deflections) h1 down conductor earth-termination system Fig.11.3 Self-supporting air-termination rod with variable tripod air-termination rod protective angle h2 rolling sphere R α2 structure and the local conditions (structure standing alone in open terrain or embedded in other buildings) must also be included. correspond to the stresses suffered by antenna frames. doubles the active tilting moment.
8 126. at the same time. ⇒ Load torque formed from the weight of the post. wind velocity Ref. The air-termination rods must be designed to Fig. Implementation In order to provide the smallest possible wind contact surface. if so desired) and an aluminium airtermination rod. the tilting moment MT must be opposed by a load torque MO. the mechanical strength of the air-termination rod decreases (risk of breaking). The proof of the stability of self-supporting air-termination rods is also obtained from static calculations. One fixed version for lower rod heights and an adjustable post version for higher rod heights. The post to hold the airtermination rod is available in two versions. ⇒ Weight of the post: the post is a tripod weighted down with concrete blocks. If the tilting moment is greater than the load torque. Berlin: Beuth-Verlag GmbH Determination of the tilt resistance The dynamic pressure arising (depends on the wind speed). i. Steel radio towers and masts. The bending stress in such cases must not exceed the max.1 III 1. Basically: the greater the ratio of load torque to tilting moment. since the occuring wind load exerts bending stresses on the self-supporting air-termination rod. but also the fracture resistance. permissible stress. The magnitude of the load torque MO depends on the standing weight and the radius of the post.zone IV Kiel Rostock and the lever arm of the air-termination rod. the wind load pushes the air-termination rod over.4 161.05 145.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 57 .11. ⇒ Tilting lever of the post: the tilting lever denotes the shortest distance between the centre of the tripod and the line or point around which the whole system would tilt. the weight of the air-termination rod and the guy lines. the cable lengths are shortened accordingly when considered in the calculation. Determination of the fracture resistance Not only the stability of the air-termination rod must be proven. The proof of stability is obtained by comparing the following moments: ⇒ Tilting moment formed from the wind-load-dependent force on the air-termination rod or the guy lines 5 www. but.5 IV 1. The wind contact surface of these cables corresponds to the area projected by these cables onto a plane in a right angle to the direction of the wind.7 12 . 5.7 II 1. ⇒ The stability can be increased by using larger base weights and/or larger post radii.: DIN 4131: 1991-11. Besides the mechanical characteristics of the materials used.dehn. To ensure that the selfsupporting air-termination rod is stable. which is generated by the post. the cross sections used have to be as small as possible. ⇒ Wind contact surface of the guy: very high self-supporting air-termination rods are anchored with 3 cables mounted equidistantly around the circumference.7 184. The required stability can be achieved in the following ways: Wind strength zone I Nürnberg Saarbrücken Mannheim Stuttgart Regensburg Augsburg Freiburg München Zone Dynamic pressure Wind velocity v [km/h] q [kN/m2] I 0. the air-termination rod comprises an aluminium tube (in sections. It is therefore crucial to make a compromise between a smallest possible cross section to reduce the wind load and a largest possible cross section to achieve the required strength.17 ⇒ In order to keep the wind contact surface of the air-termination rod small. generate a uniform load q‘ on the surface which generates a corresponding tilting moment MT on the self-supporting airtermination rod. the resistance coefficient cw and the contact surface of the wind on the air-termination rod. The load on the air-termination rod is reduced. The bending stress occuring is higher for longer air-termination rods. the greater the stability. the radius of the post is adjusted to the height of the air-termination rod to minimise the space required. the cross sections of the air-termination rods were optimised in accordance with the results of the calculation. With this version.4 Division of Germany into wind load zones and corresponding values of dynamic pressure and max. For ease of transportation and installation. and the length of the tilt lever through the tripod.1. the following information is included in the calculation: ⇒ Wind contact surface of the air-termination rod: determined by length and diameter of the individual sections of the air-termination rod. e. ⇒ Weight of the air-termination rod and the guy lines: the dead weight of the air-termination rod and the guy lines is taken into account in the calculation of the load torque. The weight of this post is made up of the dead weight of the tripod and the individual weights of the concrete blocks used. This often conflicts with the limited areas for erection and the general requirement for low weight and easy transport. Berlin Hannover Magedburg Potsdam Hamburg Schwerin zone III Bremen zone II Essen Dortmund Düsseldorf Köln Bonn Frankfurt Wiesbaden Würzburg Erfurt Halle Leipzig Dresden Chemnitz Stability is achieved when the ratio of load torque to the tilting moment assumes a value >1.
expected wind loads.dehn. This clearly illustrates the effect of a possible guy on the course of the moments. Wind loads cause the air-termination rods to bend. 5. the strength of the materials used is not exceeded and the air-termination rod is not destroyed.5 m) Fig.7).ensure that wind loads as can arise in Wind Zone II cannot cause permanent deformation of the rods. the guy reduces the bending moment to around 270 Nm.1. for the max.6 and 5.1. ⇒ Material characteristics: The performance of the material is represented by the details of crosssectional values. the same principle also applies here: the greater the ratio of permissible to actual bending stress. The bending of the rod results in a change to the zone of protection. 0 The fracture resistance is determined by comparing the permissible bending stress (material parameter) and the max. 5.7 FEM model of a self-supporting air-termination rod with guy cables (length = 8. Objects to be protected are no longer situated in the zone of protection and/or proximities can no longer be maintained. the FEM calculation also provides the tensile forces occuring in the guy cables.de . the greater the fracture resistance. Using the FEM calculation model. 0 2 4 6 8 Height of air-termination rod [m] Bending moment [Nm] air-termination rod with guy cables (length = 8. Bending moment [Nm] 1200 air-termination rod without guy cables (length = 8. the actual bending moments for two air-termination rods (length = 8.11.1. air-termination rods higher than 6 m are equipped with guy cables.11. FEM for short. Fracture resistance is achieved if the ratio of permissible to actual bending stress is > 1. the air-termination rods would not cope with the stresses of Wind Zone II. 5. Determination of the wind-loaddependent deflection of the air-termination rod A further important value calculated with the FEM model is the deflection of the tip of the air-termination rod. 5. Basically. Since both the exact geometry of the airtermination rod and the non-linear performance of the materials used must be taken into account.5 m) 58 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. is a numerical method for calculation of stresses and deformations of complex geometrical structures.5 m) 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0 2 4 6 8 Height of air-termination rod [m] Fig. The finite elements method.1. whose strength must also be proven. The structure under examination is broken down into so-called “finite elements“ using imaginary surfaces and lines which are interconnected via nodes. modulus of elasticity.11. Therefore.1. Whereas the max.11. bending stress which can occur (calculated from the bending moment and the effective cross section at the point of maximum stress).6 FEM model of a self-supporting air-termination rod without guy cables (length = 8. Without supplementary guys. 22.214.171.124 Comparison of bending moment courses at self-supporting air-termination rods with and without guy cables (length = 8. bending moment of the air-termination rod without a guy in the fixed-end point is around 1270 Nm. The application of the calculation model on a self-supporting air-termination rod without and with guys produces the following results (Figs. the proof of the fracture resistance of self-supporting air-termination rods is obtained using an FEM calculation model. The calculation requires the following information: ⇒ FEM calculation model: The FEM calculation model corresponds to the simplified geometry of the self-supporting air-termination rod. 1000 800 600 400 200 5 The wind load is applied to the geometric model as a pressure load. density and lateral contraction.5). This guy cable makes it possible to reduce the stresses in the airtermination rod to such an extent that.5 m) In addition to the bending moments. ⇒ Loads: Implementation Guy cables create an additional “bearing point“ which significantly reduces the bending stresses occuring in the air-termination rod.5 m) were calculated as a function of their height with and without guys (Fig.11.5 m) Fig.
g.2 Down-conductor system The down-conductor system is the electrically conductive connection between the air-termination system and the earthtermination system. the temperature rise (on the surface) is reduced if an additional PVC sheath is used.1. in turn. Aluminium wire sheathed in PVC can also be used. a theoretical value which exceeds the breaking point of the air-termination rod under consideration.1). To avoid damage caused during the lightning current discharge to the earthtermination system.2 Down-conductor system for a non-isolated lightning protection system The down-conductor systems are primarily mounted directly onto the structure (with no distance). Owing to the specifications in the building regulations of the German federal states. the down-conductor systems may be installed directly on or in the wall. Implementation Above a certain rod height. steel skeleton) can also be used as supplementary down conductors if continuous electrical conductivity can be ensured. there must be at least the total number of down conductor required for the respective type of lightning protection system. for example. The criterion for installing them directly on the structure is the temperature rise in the event of lightning striking the lightning protection system. it is even permissible to install down conductors underneath heat insulation because these temperature rises present no fire risk to the insulation materials. g. If these measures are not sufficient to maintain the required separation distance. Furthermore.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 59 . starting at the corners of the structure. this also reduces the bending load on the rod. Type of LPS I II III IV Table 5. nor damage it.1 Determination of the number of down conductors The number of down conductors depends on the perimeter of the external edges of the roof (perimeter of the projection on the ground surface). Depending on the structural features (e. The function of down-conductor systems is to conduct the intercepted lightning current to the earth-termination system without intolerable temperature rises. Base and air-termination rod must be coordinated to ensure that the loads occuring as a result of the wind speeds of Zone II do not cause a tilting of the rod.2. from 12 m to 18 m for a lightning protection system Type III (typically 15 m) must also be taken into account when calculating the separation distance. If the wall is made of flame-resistant material or material with a normal level of flammability.6 describes how the exact separation distance can be determined. the down-conductor systems must be mounted to ensure that from the point of strike to the earth. ⇒ The length of the current paths is kept as short as possible (straight. The measures described ensure that selfsupporting air-termination rods can cope with Zone II wind speeds according to DIN 4131. In each case.2. By interconnecting the down conductors at ground level (base conductor) and using ring conductors for higher structures. ⇒ Several parallel current paths exist. The maximum temperature rises ∆ T in K of the various conductors for each type of lightning protection system are stated in Table 5. generally. for example . These values mean that. reinforced concrete supports. Chapter 5.For the example chosen. precast components). reduces the separation distance s. the down conductors can be installed directly on the surface of the wall. The parallel current paths improve the current splitting coefficient kc.1. s = separation distance).4.1 the separation distance. supplementary guys reduce this deflection significantly. ⇒ The connections to conductive components of the structure are made wherever required (interval < s.2. These possibly different distances. 5. and the required separation distance can be maintained. highly flammable materials are generally not used. Higher air-termination rods require a supplementary guy to prevent such intolerable deflections of the tips of the air-termination rods. The exact number of down conductors can only be determined by calculating the separation distance s. gates. vertical. no loops). it is also possible to use a new type of high voltage-resistant insulated conductors (HVI). e.2. If the wall is made of highly flammable material. When installing the down-conductor system in or underneath heat insulation. It must still be borne in mind that large deflections of the air-termination rod reduce the separation distance and thus intolerable proximities can arise.dehn. Without guy there would be a deflection of around 3740 mm. This ensures that the fire retardation measure is also provided. g. the distances between the various down conductors can be different. it is possible to symmetrise the distribution of the lightning current which.2.2. This measure reduces the current in both down conductors. The latest DIN V VDE V 0185 series of standards attaches great significance to www. to damage the structure. The down conductors must be arranged to ensure that. Wood with a bulk density greater than 400 kg/m2 and a thickness greater than 2 mm is considered to have a normal level of flammability. Conclusion Tilting resistance.1. provided that the temperature rise when lightning currents flow is not hazardous. The DIN V VDE V 0185-3 standard gives typical distances between down conductors and ring conductors for each type of lightning protection system (Table 5. they are distributed as uniformly as possible to the perimeter. These are described in Chapter 5. This means that the down-conductor systems can usually be mounted directly on the structure. The measures specified can change the separation distance positively for structures and thus the lightning current can be safely discharged. Typical distance 10 m 10 m 15 m 20 m 5 Distance between down conductors according to DIN V VDE V 0185-3 5. the calculation gives a displacement of the tip of the airtermination rod with guy of around 390 mm. fracture resistance and deflection are the decisive factors when designing air-termination rods. Hence the down-conductor system can be mounted on wooden poles.2. 5. Natural components of the structure (e. then one way of meeting this requirement is to increase the number of down conductors. If the calculated separation distance cannot be maintained for the intended number of down conductors of a structure.
1. Down-conductor systems must not be installed in gutters and downpipes. the downpipe also takes a part of the lightning current which must be conducted into the earth-termination system. nor will the insulation fracture at low temperatures. must fulfil the requirements on separation distance s (Fig. If this is not possible.1.2. It is recommended to mount down conductors to maintain the required separation distance s to all doors and windows (Fig. mortar. temperature rise ∆ T in K of different conductor materials If the wall is made of highly flammable material. neither should it be installed in the ground.1 m. Loops. The precise definition of the terms flameresistant.2). If it is equipped with a PVC sheath.2. 5. Since it is connected to the eaves gutter.1.2. and the temperature rise of the down-conductor systems presents a hazard.de . The damp in the gutters would badly corrode the down-conductor systems. g.2. Metal gutters must be connected with the down conductors at the points where they intersect (Fig. concrete.2. it must not be installed directly (with no distance) on. plaster or concrete.2. 5.2.1. straight and installed vertically downpipes may only be used as down conductor. the distance measured where two points of a down-conductor system are closest.2. is made of flammable material.2. normal level of flammability and highly flammable can be taken from Annex E of DIN V VDE V 0185-3.2. 5. The base of metal downpipes must be connected to the equipotential bonding or the earth-termination system.3).2. The separation distance s is calculated using the total length l = l1 + l2 + l3. even if the pipe is not used as a down conductor. in or under plaster. if they are soldered or riveted s Fig.2.2 Down-conductor system 60 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE l2 www. where a down-conductor system is to be installed.2. overprojecting eaves or structures.1 Loop in the down conductor Fig. must be avoided.2.2. They must be installed straight and vertically so as to represent the shortest possible direct connection to the earth. If aluminium is used as a down conductor. 5. 5. The mounting elements may touch the wall.1.q mm2 16 50 (Ø8 mm) Aluminium III+IV 146 12 4 II 454 28 9 I * 52 17 Iron Copper Stainless steel II * 460 174 I * 940 310 Fig.1 Installation of down-conductor systems The down conductors must be arranged to be the direct continuation of the airtermination conductors.2.1).3 Air-termination system with connection to the gutter Type of lightning protection system III+IV II I III+IV II I III+IV 1120 37 15 * 96 34 * 211 66 56 5 3 143 12 5 309 22 9 * 96 78 78 (Ø10mm) * melting / vaporising Table 5.2. even if they are sheathed in an insulating material. The erector of the structure must state whether the wall. e. and the length l of the down-conductor system between these points. then aluminium can be installed in mortar.dehn. 5 StSt wire Ø10 mm 5. 5.1.4 Earthed downpipe l3 the connection must be as short as possible.1.1. through which the lightning current flows. then the down conductors must be mounted to ensure that the distance between the down-conductor systems and the wall is greater than 0.2.2. if it is possible to ensure that the sheath will not be mechanically damaged. l1 Fig. 5.1 Max. Fig.4 illustrates one possible design.2. 5.
The individual components must be interconnected on site during installation (Fig. then they can be used as a down-conductor system (Figs. expansion joint that they are continuously conductive from the connection on the airtermination system to the connection on the earth-termination system. 5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 61 . 5.2. connections to tensioning rods or cables must only be effected outside the stressed area. they must be interconnected to ensure that the individual plates are safely interconnected with each other by means of screws. For sheet metal. ⇒ Safe interconnected reinforcement of the structure The reinforcement of existing structures cannot be used as a natural component of the down-conductor system unless it can be ensured that the reinforcement is safely interconnected. In this case.new buildings made of ready-mix concrete Note: In the case of prestressed concrete.5. the thickness must not be less than 0. The following parts of a structure can be used as “natural components“ of the down-conductor system: ⇒ Metal installations. These metal installations may also be sheathed in insulating material. The use of conduits containing flammable or explosive materials as down conductors is not permitted if the seals in the flanges/couplings are non-metallic or the flanges /couplings of the connected pipes are not otherwise connected so as to be electrically conductive. 377 015 Fig. external down conductors must be installed.2 Metal subconstruction. Separate external down conductors must be installed.2. 5.1 Use of natural components . or bridging connections. ⇒ Precast parts Precast parts must be designed to provide terminal connections for the reinforcement. in some cases. If the reinforcement of existing structures is not safely interconnected.2. rivets.dehn.2. 478 200 Bridging braid Part No.2. vertical box section expansion joint wall fixing Fixed earthing terminal Part No. 377 115 Fig. provided that the safe connection between the various parts is permanent and their dimensions conform to the minimum requirements for down conductors. For prestressed concrete. 5.3 Earth connection of a metal façade www.1). There must be a safe connection capable of carrying currents to the air-termination system and also to the earth-termination system. ⇒ If plates are not interconnected in accordance with the above requirement. they can be dispensed with altogether.3). façade elements. attention must be paid to the particular risk of possible intolerable mechanical effects arising from lightning current and resulting from the connection to the lightning protection system.2 Natural components of a down-conductor system When using natural components of the structure as a down-conductor system.2.2.2 and 5. it cannot be used as a down-conductor system.2. 5.2. The permission of the person responsible for erecting the structure must be given before using tensioning rods or cables as a down conductor. mounting channels and the metal substructures of façades can be used as a natural down-conductor system.2. provided that ⇒ the dimensions meet the minimum requirements of down-conductor systems.2.2.5 mm.2.2. Their electrical conductivity in vertical direction must be ensured.2. then ring conductors are not required since additional ring conductors would not improve the splitting of the current. the number of down conductors to be installed separately can be reduced or. Furthermore.2. ⇒ The metal skeleton of the structure If the metal frame of structures with a steel skeleton or the interconnected reinforced steel of the structure is used as a down-conductor system. conductively bridged 5 Fig. but the substructure ensures horizontal support Bridging braid Part No. If metal façades are used as a downconductor system.2.2. Precast parts must have an electrically conductive connection between all terminal connections.2.2.
This type of application is illustrated in Fig. At least 2 down conductors must be installed (Fig.2. foundation earthing electrode).1 Isolating point with number plate 45 m 15 m 5.4. The effects from the currents have to be taken into account.2.2.2. The grid dimension for the internal down-conductor systems is around 40 x 40 m. it can serve as a holder for the supplementary down conductor.Metal downpipes can be used as natural down conductors. such as large production halls or also distribution centres.1.5 m 5. Large structures with flat roofs.2.5. frequently require internal down-conductor systems. g. Measuring points are required to allow the inspection of the following characteristics of the lightning protection system: ⇒ Connections of the down conductors via the air-termination systems to the next down conductor ⇒ Interconnections of the terminal lugs via the earth-termination system.3. Fig. 5. if possible).4. the conductive parts of the building construction have to be connected to the air-termination system. 5. If a downpipe is not safely interconnected. 7. Fig. metal attic 5 Fig.2.4 Internal down-conductor systems courtyard circumference > 30 m separation distance s internal down conductor metal construction If the separation distance is too short. 5.de .126.96.36.199 Air-termination system installed on large roofs .1. the ducts through the surface of the roof should be installed by a roofer because he is responsible for ensuring that the roof provides protection against rain.Internal down-conductor system 62 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.2. otherwise it must be closed.2.2. The connection of the downpipe to the earth-termination system must be capable of carrying lightning currents since the conductor is held only along the pipe. 5. Each measuring point must be able to be clearly assigned to the design of the lightning protection system.2. Generally.3 Measuring points There must be a measuring point at every connection of a down conductor with the earth-termination system (above the lead-in.2.2. Typical distances according to type of LPS.dehn.2.3. all measuring points are marked with numbers (Fig. g. reinforced concrete structure or steel skeleton) allows no “electrical“ disconnection of the “natural“ down-conductor system to the If the edges of the structure (length and width) are four times as large as the distance of the down conductor which corresponds to the type of lightning protection system.2. 5. then supplementary internal down conductors must be installed (Fig. 5.5 mm. The consequences of the partial lightning currents through internal downconductor systems within the structure must be taken into account.2.1 Down-conductor systems for courtyards roof bushing roofing heat insulation wood insulation 30 m Courtyards with circumferences of more than 30 m must be furnished with min. earth-termination system (e. in the case of ring or foundation earthing electrodes (earthing electrode Type B) ⇒ Earthing electrode resistance of single earthing electrodes (earthing electrode Type A) Measuring points are not required if the structural design (e.2. as long as they are safely interconnected (brazed or riveted joints) and comply with the minimum wall thickness of the pipe of 0.1). 2 down conductors.1).2. e.2. 5.4 Down conductor installed along a downpipe Fig.2.2. In such cases. g.1).5. The resulting electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the down conductors must be taken into consideration when designing the internal lightning protection system (pay attention to inputs to electrical/electronic systems).4. 5.2. The measuring point may only be opened with the help of a tool for the purpose of taking measurements.2. 5.5 Courtyards Structures with enclosed courtyards having a perimeter greater than 30 m must have down-conductor systems installed with the distances shown in Table 5.
3 Air-termination masts spanned with cables with cross connection (meshing) www.1).3. this has a higher priority than an antenna earthing installation. the individual spanned wires or cables are interconnected to form a mesh (being cross-linked). if problems subsequently arise with proximities. the installation must be equipped with an isolated lightning protection system. the actual situation must be taken into account during the design phase while the relevant standards have to be strictly differentiated.2.2).3.2. In this case. there must be at least one down conductor at the end of each cable the conductors are attached to (Fig. 5. ⇒ If other system components are situated on the roof. The separation distance s between the air-termination and down-conductor systems and the structure must be maintained. This deals with the earthing of the cell site. DIN VDE 0855 Part 300 can only be used for the equipotential bonding of the antenna cable. then this is both air-termination system and down-conductor system at the same time (Fig. each end of the cable which the conductors are attached to requires at least one down conductor (Fig. down-conductor system and connection to the earth-termination system. For installations with lightning protection systems Type I and II.3. Any observed defects to parts of the installation which are not required must be notified in writing to the owner of the structure.2. Structure is equipped with a functioning lightning protection system Experience has shown that most lightning protection systems are designed Fig. however.2. The connection should be done via the shortest route. the situation at the time of construction can be proven.dehn.3). and if it is intended to erect a central mast. For optical reasons. Some of these structures have lightning protection systems.2.2 Air-termination masts spanned with cables If the air-termination system forms an intermeshed network of conductors. it is not permissible to mix DIN V VDE V 0185-3 and DIN VDE 0855 Part 300. Care must be taken that the cell site infrastructure is designed to be geometrically small so that the costs of the isolated lightning protection system are economically viable. supplementary protection against surges is integrated into the meter section. which is not a problem. Proximities must be calculated as appropriate to the type of lightning protection system. s according to lightning protection systems Type III. It must be planned to integrate the cell site installation in accordance with the type of lightning protection system determined. in many cases. the surroundings of the installation must be recorded photographically to ensure that. 5. a metal flag pole. existing lightning protection systems have old defects which adversely affect the effectiveness of the installa- 5 Fig. ⇒ If the system technology is located within the structure.3. 5.3 Down conductors of an isolated external lightning protection system If an air-termination system comprises air-termination rods on isolated masts (or one mast). mechanical fixing down conductor Fig.3. isolated down-conductor system – HVI®conductor A multitude of structures is used in order to create an exhaustive network of cell sites. If there is a functional lightning protection system on the host building. it is preferable to install the electrical cable on the exterior side of the structure.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 63 . it is preferable to have an isolated lightning protection embedment. If the air-termination system consists of one or more spanned wires or cables.4 High-voltage resistant. This involves replacing non-functional components of the existing installation which are required to discharge the lightning current. For reasons of standardisation. as the air-termination conductors on flat roofs are usually designed to be meshed. e.3. 5. Structure is equipped with a lightning protection system which is no longer capable of functioning The cell site must be connected to the external lightning protection system (LPS) as required by the type of lightning protection system determined. In accordance with the concept for protection against surges of the mobile phone network operators. 5. Because of how it is designed. 5. the type of lightning protection system to be effected must be laid down at the discussion stage of the project: ⇒ If other system components are also situated on the roof. The lightning current paths required for the cell site are investigated and assessed.1 Air-termination masts isolated from the building Each individual mast requires at least one down conductor. Regular inspections are prescribed for certain structures. All mechanical components used must be able to cope with the prospective partial lightning currents. Steel masts or masts with an interconnected steel reinforcement require no supplementary downconductor system.2. such as air-termination conductor.2. Owing to the different protection objectives (protection against lightning or earthing of the cell site). s s 5. all the steel fixing elements and structures for holding antennas of many mobile phone network operators must be designed for lightning protection systems Type I. In order to design and implement the mast infrastructure in accordance with the standards. For the operator of a mobile phone network there are basically three different situations: ⇒ Structure has no lightning protection system ⇒ Structure is equipped with a lightning protection system which is no longer capable of functioning ⇒ Structure is equipped with a funtioning lightning protection system Structure has no lightning protection system The cell site is constructed in accordance with DIN VDE 0855 Part 300. its erection is governed by the latest lightning protection standard (DIN V VDE V 0185). If a cell site is erected on a structure with a functional external lightning protection system. i.2.5. for example can also be used as an air-termination system. Experience has shown that.
The HVI conductor with its high dielectric strength can be assigned an equivalent separation distance in air of s = 0. In order to achieve this. a connection between the special external coating and the equipotential bonding must be created at a defined distance (1.2. In order to enable a designer of mobile phone networks to erect antenna installations in accordance with the standards even in difficult situations.1). The earth side is also designed for a terminal.4.4.2. To prevent creepage discharges. 5.60 m from the supply point) (Figs. however. 5.4.2 Installation example Application for cell sites Cell site installations are frequently erected on host structures. damage can still be caused within the structure.4.4.4. this particularly means that no partial lightning currents must enter the structure if there is a lightning stroke to the frame structure. There must be no connection between components of the air-termination system and the down conductor.2. Air-termination systems as shown in Fig. 5. one obtains max.tion. These defects mean that even if the cell site is correctly “tied-in“ to the external lightning protection system.4.2 Components of HVI Conductor Fig.75 m. Fig 5. 5.2.2. could really not be considered architecturally aesthetic (Fig. These terminals do not have to be capable of conducting lightning currents since the capacitive displacement currents are low in energy and do not lead to dangerous sparking.2.1 shows one possible solution for the “isolated air-termination system“ on the frame structure of an antenna. thick-walled highvoltage-resistant insulation. head piece KS connector sealing unit range supporting clamp connection to the equipotential bonding length of the HVI conductor to be shortened on site. 5 Fig.4.1. To avoid low energy flashovers arising as a result of the capacitive displacement currents. For protection against lightning.1 Isolated air-termination system with distance holder The isolated HVI conductor is an innovative solution which provides the installer of lightning protection systems with novel possibilities for design and for easy maintaining of the separation distance.2. This can be mounted on the HVI conductor on site (delivered: mounted on the earth side).1 Installation of a HVI® isolated down conductor If no additional measures are provided.4. Fig.1 Basic development of a creepage discharge at an isolated down conductor without special coating 64 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.2. cable length for a given lightning protection level for a structure.dehn.2.3). the new HVI conductor has been equipped with a specially doped special external coating inner conductor insulation proximity Fig. The prefabricated HVI conductor supplied by the manufacturer is equipped with a matched terminal on the supply side. 5. the HVI conductor can be additionally connected to the equipotential bonding as the conductor is being installed. the only thing available to him used to be the isolated lightning protection system with horizontal distance holders.1.4. and a special external weatherproof coating. which enables the high “impulse voltages“ caused by the lightning to be “directed“ to a reference potential.2. The coaxial HVI conductor consists of a 19 mm2 copper wire.2. EB terminal earth connection element HVI¤ conductor 5.2 to 5.2. There is usually an agreement between the operator of the cell site installation and the owner of the structure that the erection of the cell site installation must not increase the risk to the structure. Specifying an equivalent separation distance in air of s = 0. 5. impulse voltages > 250 kV cause flashovers along the surface of insulating materials.2. This allows the 5. 5.40 m – 1.4.de . cable lengths as a function of the lightning protection level provided by the lighting protection system and the current splitting coefficient kc.1. By improving the current splitting to several down conductors (reducing cc) it is possible to further increase the max.1 are not applicable for locations where the antennas have to be pleasing to look at. the design of the antenna installation.1. This effect is known as creeping flashover. In such cases.75 m.1 shows how a creepage discharge is caused. A partial lightning current within the structure would especially put the electrical and electronic apparatus at risk.
The new installation of the external lightning protection system to protect against damage to the structure and life hazards was designed in accordance with lightning protection standard DIN V VDE V 0185-3.2a and b illustrate the installation on an antenna post. The cables from the antenna in the middle are also installed by means of a metal cable duct directly to the 2nd BTS room on the north-east side of the structure to the 6th floor.80 m high (without attic) up to the roof level (.2. 5. The cables (coax cables) from the four antennas in the corners of the roof surface were installed in the vicinity of the attic to the south-west corner.7th floor).2. air-termination tip feeding point Roof-mounted structures Metal and electrical roof-mounted structures protrude above roof level and are exposed points for lightning strokes.2.4.α α HVI¤ conductor air-termination rod insulating pipe supporting clamp GRP/Al HVI¤ conductor sealing unit range earthing clamp earth connection feeding point If several structures are mounted on the roof then.4. During the installation of the antennas. At a later date.2. The roof surface of the 6th and 7th floors was finished off with a metal attic whose components are interconnected so as to be non-conductive. The antennas were erected both in the corners and in the middle of the roof surface. the ground floor is used for administration. 5. The external façade of the 7th floor consists of metal sheets.2. as shown in Fig.4.4. 5.3 Project example: Training and residential building Structure The structure in Fig.4. 5 isolated airtermination system α metal attic cover in the protective area of the isolated air-termination system sealing unit range EB terminal metal earthed roofmounted structure cable duct earth connection reinforcement cable duct separation distance s HVI® conductor I HVI¤ conductor insulating pipe foundation earthing electrode Fig.2. The complete structure is 25.2a Insulating pipe within the antenna area Fig.4.2. Structures with several antenna systems must be equipped with multiple “isolated air-termination systems“. Fig.3 Keeping the required separation distance with voltage-controlled isolated down conductor (HVI) www. 5.2.2. 5. the equipotential bonding and earthing measures of the system were carried out in accordance with DIN VDE 0855 Part 300. From this point.dehn. To prevent this and to set up the necessary separation distance for the complete structure easily. several isolated airtermination systems must be installed. The risk of partial lightning currents flowing within the structure is also existing because of conductive connections with conduits and electrical conductors leading into the structure. Subsequently.4.2. The media centre is situated on the 3rd floor. the cables are led through a metal cable duct which is connected to the attic of the roof surfaces of the 7th and 6th floors to the BTS room on the 6 th floor.3.2. Figs. the 7th floor was attached to the existing roof surface. This must be done to ensure that all structures protruding above the roof must be arranged in an area protected from lightning strokes (lightning protection zone 0B).2.2b Connection to the antenna construction for directing potential s = separation distance Fig.1 Isolated air-termination sytem with voltage-controlled isolated down conductor The air-termination tip must be fixed to the frame structure of the antenna by means of an insulating pipe in non conductive material so that it is isolated. This cable duct is also connected to the surrounding attics. 5.2. five antenna systems for mobile phone systems and microwaves were installed by different operators of mobile phone networks on the roof surface of the 7th floor. the air-termination system must be installed with a terminal to the isolated down-conductor system. antenna 188.8.131.52. according to the basic illustration in Fig.4. The height of the air-termination tip is governed by the requirement that the structure of the frame and any electrical devices which are part of the cell site installation (BTS) must be arranged in the zone of protection of the air-termination tip. All other floors up to the 7th floor are used for appartments.2.4.1 was built conventionally from the ground floor to the 6th floor. 5.3.5. The structure was equipped with a lightning protection system.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 65 .
Oldenburg.2.3.1) and the lower attachments (Fig.2.2.2. 5. care was taken that the deck on the 6th floor (Fig. 5.dehn. 5. Germany Fig.2.3. in the event of a lightning discharge.4. cable shields and installation systems).4.2b).4 and 5.4.2. When designing the external lightning protection system.4. however. This required the following components: ⇒ Air-termination tips on insulating pipes in GRP material. they also present a hazard to the existing technical equipment of the structure.4. all down-conductor systems interconnected at a height of approx. It is also important to note that the proposed design concept was discussed in detail with the system erector in order to avoid mistakes when carrying out the work.3.3.3. 5.2.3).2.2 Isolated air-termination system and isolated ring conductor Ref.4. secured directly to the antenna pole (Fig.2.2. These partial lightning currents do not only present a life hazard. 5. 5.2.5) 5 4 3 1 2 cable tray 5 Fig.2. 5.1 Total view HVI¤ conductor isolated ring conductor HVI-Leitung cable tray connection to equipotential bonding HVI® conductor isolated ring conductor Fig. the required separation distance s between the frame structures of the antennas and the air-termination system on the roof surface of the 7th floor must be realised.4.4.1).2).2.2a). Antennas of the cell site operators (1 .4. 5.3. 5.2.4.de .3.2a and 5. This cannot be effected with a lightning protection system of a conventional design. Hence. supports as high as according to the calculation of the required separation distance ⇒ Down conductors installed separately from the isolated ring conductor via the respective metal attics and metal façade to the bare metal down conductors on the 6th floor with the required separation distance s to the lower attic (Fig. The various implementation stages explained in detail are summarised in Fig.2.3. a lightning protection system was constructed with an isolated air-termination system.3 Down conductor of isolated ring conductor 66 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.4) were also arranged in the zone of protection/protective angle of the air-termination system. Bartels GmbH. but directly at the air-termination system. 5.4.4. ⇒ Down conductor from the airtermination tip by means of an HVI conductor with connection to the isolated ring conductor (Fig.4. ⇒ Isolated ring conductor on insulating supports made of GRP. ⇒ Field-controlled feeding point to ensure the resistance against creeping flashovers at the input (Figs.4. 15 m to reduce the required separation distance s of the interception and down-conductor system (Figs. At the same time. New concept A lightning protection system was required. By installing the HVI conductor. ⇒ Supplementary ring conductor. was not isolated from the existing external lightning protection system at the earth-termination system at ground level. partial lightning currents are conducted directly into the structure via the coax cable shields.3. which prevents partial lightning currents from being conducted directly into the structure via the antenna components (frame structures.4.: H. 5.2.The earthing of the systems.
2.4.4 Total view on a new installed external lightning protection system 5.6 m above the roof surface.40 m ⇒ Three further. The ring conductor at ground + 15. A special cable.4.5 m (solid building materials) to be maintained.4. Partial section of + 15.air-termination tip HVI¤ conductor isolated ring conductor attic cable duct bare down condductor ring conductor bare down conductor Fig. 3. 27. 5.6 m above the surface of the roof. was used as the isolated down conductor. south side. metal façades and the attics on both roof levels) was done using two supplementary earthing cables NYY 1x25 mm2 connected to the equipotential bonding of the individual BTS stations.0 to ± 0 m (lower ring conductor to ground level). isolated separate airtermination rods on the west side of the roof surface and two isolated airtermination masts on the balcony 6th floor.0 m. Partial section with height + 32.75 m (air) / 1.40 m ⇒ 1 antenna in the middle of the roof surface to the base of the air-termination tip + 32. 5.4. Considering the height of the structure . This produces a different splitting of the current in the individual partial areas which had to be taken into consideration for the design of the lightning protection system. 5.dehn.de L3 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 67 EB conductor .1 for three partial areas : 1. not only the height of the structure but also the heights of the individual antennas with the isolated air-termination system had to be taken into consideration.4.3 m (isolated ring conductor) on the roof.2. realise the zone of protection of the complete roof surface.1 Calculation of the required separation distance www.4 m (antennas) to + 2.result the following total heights to be taken into account when calculating the installation: ⇒ 4 corner antennas to the base of the air-termination tip + 29.2. Partial section of + 27.4 Separation distance When calculating the required separation distance s. 5 kc1 L1 7th floor kc2 L2 6th floor 5th floor 4th floor 3rd floor 2nd floor 1st floor ground floor ring conductor down conductor kc3 Fig.4 m and height + 29. The antenna in the middle protrudes 6. as well as the isolated down conductors around metal parts of the structure. Each of the four corner antennas protrudes 3.2. The calculation of the required separation distances was done as shown in Fig.3 m to the supplementary ring conductor at ground level + 15. The erection of this isolated air-termination system on the surface of the roof and on the antenna systems.3.4.3 m to + 15.0 m (isolated ring conductor on roof up to lower supplementary ring conductor). The complete down-conductor system comprises six down conductors from the isolated ring conductor at a height of + 27. Type HVI. prevent partial lightning currents from entering the structure. The equipotential bonding required and the earthing of the antenna components on the roof surface (including the cable ducts.0 m is connected with the earthing ring conductor via the six down conductors of the residential structure and four further down conductors on attached parts of the structure. allowing an equivalent separation distance of s = 0. DEHNconductor.
These requirements arise from the electrical conductivity of the materials to carry lightning currents (temperature rise) and the mechanical stresses when in use. The height limit for a round conductor Ø10 mm is 1 m in free length. Note: According to DIN V VDE V 0185-3 Clause 1. Tests with a PVC-isolated copper conductor and short strokes of 100 kA (10/350 µs) determined a temperature rise of around 56 K. Table 9.7 mm min. which is made of 10 mm round material. d tape f tape round f cable round c round d a b Tin-coated or galvanised. For applications where mechanical loads. the min. Material Form Min. a max.3. When using a round conductor Ø8 mm as an air-termination tip. thickness 2 mm min. thickness 3 mm Ø8 mm min. cross section for round material has to be increased to 75 mm2 (Ø10 mm) for round material and to 75 mm2 (thickness 3 mm) for flat material Material.3 Materials and minimum dimensions for air-termination conductors and down conductors Table 5.dehn. diameter per wire 1. For lead-in earthing rods only. 0. diameter per wire 1. carbon max. mean value 50 µm. thickness 3 mm Ø8 mm min. diameter per wire 1. diameter per wire 1. cross sections of air-termination conductors. diameter per wire 1. 1 m long rod can be used.1 68 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. diameter per wire 1. nickel ≥ 8 %. form and min.5 mm Ø8 mm min.7 mm Ø16 mm min. air-termination rods and down conductors 5 c d e f Table 5.5 m. for example. are not critical.de .7 mm min. crosssection mm2 50 50 50 200 50 50 50 70 50 50 50 50 50 200 50 50 50 200 60 105 50 70 200 78 Remarks Copper tape round cable round c. The zinc coating should be smooth. For air-termination rods only. Thus. free height permitted is 0.5. like wind loads. thickness 2.7 mm Ø16 mm min. Chromium ≥ 16 %.3. the minimum cross section for an interconnecting conductor between two equipotential bonding bars is 16 mm2 Cu. form and material of air-termination systems.5 mm Ø8 mm min.7 mm Ø16 mm Ø10 mm Tin-coated tape copper a round cable Aluminium tape round cable Aluminium tape alloy round cable round c Hot-dip galvanised steel b Stainless steel e tape round cable round c.7 mm Ø16 mm min. continuous and free of residual flux.03 % For stainless steel in concrete and/or in direct contact with flammable material. the max. mean value 2 µm. thickness 2 mm Ø8 mm min. thickness 2. a cable NYY 1 x 16mm2 Cu can be used as a down conductor or as a surface and underground interconnecting cable. thickness 2 mm Ø8 mm min.1 gives the minimum cross sections. d min.
3 m corrosion protection 1m Fig. 5. » 1m > 0. ring earthing electrodes) around the structure at a depth of 5 a building e 0. ma x 0. Fig.4.2 m max. due to temperature-dependent changes in length.4. the earth rods should be separated by at least the pile depth. 1 m from the structure (Fig.4. distances of 1.3 m max.4 Assembly dimensions for air-termination and down-conductor systems The following dimensions (Fig.3 m e = 0. 5. but more as a result of the compression forces and the tensile forces.2 m appropriate distance Fig. the separation distances to windows.4.0. Further important assembly dimensions are: Installation of surface earthing electrodes (e.4 Dimensions for ring earthing electrodes 0.4.5 m 0.5 Points threatened by corrosion www.2). 1.4. e.5 m and a distance of approx.2 m between the conductor holders primarily relates to St/tZn (relatively rigid). corrosion protection must be considered. 5. DIN V VDE V 0185-3 gives the following assembly dimensions for an external lightning protection system (Fig.2 m 0. The information concerning the max.4 m Fig.2 m 1. 5. distances of 1 m have become the norm in practice. 5. These mechanical forces arise not so much as a result of the electrodynamic forces generated by the lightning currents. there must also be corrosion protection for the terminal lug for equipotential bonding inside the building in damp and wet rooms.4.5 m 1. doors and other openings should be maintained when installing down conductors. Measures such as anticorrosive bands or wires with PVC sheath at a min.15 m If possible.dehn.5 m 0. An optically acceptable and corrosionfree connection possibility is provided by a stainless steel fixed earthing terminal set to be laid in concrete. For using aluminium.4. of 0. 5.5 m Detail examples of an external lightning protection system at a building with an inclined tiled roof 5.4. For the earth entries or terminals on the foundation earthing electrode (ring earthing electrodes). g. 5.2 m .3 illustrates the application on a flat roof. 1.3 Application on a flat roof 0. Moreover.3 m above and below the turf (earth entry) must be employed (Fig. 5. When driving in several earth rods next to each other (necessitated by ground conditions). 5. wind loads or the weight of snow.2 Air-termination rod for chimneys Fig.1) have been tried and tested in practice and are primarily determined by the mechanical forces acting on the components of the external lightning protection system. 5. The individual earth rods must be interconnected.5) for protection.1 0.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 69 .4). g.4. Fig.
for example to metal attics surrounding the edges of roofs. handmade on site. Tin Table 5. 5.The material combinations below (within air-termination systems.1).11 cm = 1. It is not sufficient to bend the metal wires into an S shape since these “expansion pieces”.1 mm/m ∆L = 16 • 10-6 • 100 cm • 100 = 0.24 cm ≈ 2. These are values obtained from experience (Table 5.1.g. The resulting changes in length for different metal wire materials are shown in Table 5. for steel and aluminium. If this flexible connection is not made.1. care should be taken that there is a flexible connection to suitable components or measures.4. copper and especially aluminium materials were not taken into account. provided that no particularly corrosive environmental conditions must be taken into consideration.6 mm/m ∆L = 17 • 10-6 • 100 cm • 100 = 0.1.4.16 cm = 1. care must be taken that they provide flexible length equalisation. To compensate for the temperaturedependent changes in length of the airtermination conductors.4. Steel (tZn) Steel (tZn) Aluminium Copper StSt Titanium yes yes no yes yes yes Material combinations Aluminium yes yes no yes yes yes Copper no no yes yes no yes StSt yes yes yes yes yes yes Titanium yes yes no yes yes yes Tin yes yes yes yes yes yes 5. the temperature-dependent changes in length of air-termination and down conductors are often underestimated. pantiles or brickwork X Distance between the expansion pieces in m Steel StSt / Copper Aluminium X X X X X ≈ 15 ≤ 20 ≈ 15 ≤ 15 ≤ 10 Use of expansion pieces. 5.4 mm/m Calculation of the temperature-related change in length ∆L of metal wires in lightning protection 70 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.4.1). down conductors and with parts of the structure) have been tried and tested. e. the temperature-dependent changes in length differ by a factor of 2. there is a risk that the metal attic cover will be damaged by the temperaturedependent change in length.Compensation of expansion with bridging braid Calculation formula: ∆L = α i L i ∆T Assumed change in temperature on the roof: ∆T = 100 K Steel Stainless steel Copper Aluminium Table 5.2 Expansion pieces in lightning protection . The stipulations governing the use of expansion parts in practice are thus as shown in Table 5. temperature changes of 100 K must be expected on and around the roof.4. expansion pieces must be used to equalise the expansion (Fig.1 Air-termination system .de . This stipulation was based on the use of steel wires. In the course of the year.1 Material Surface under the fixing of the air-termination system or down conductor soft.1 ∆L = 11 • 10-6 • 100 cm • 100 = 0.4.g. if no other length compensation is provided Table 5. which used to be the usual and sole material employed.7 mm/m ∆L = 24 • 10-6 • 100 cm • 100 = 0.1. The older regulations and stipulations recommended an expansion piece about every 20 m as a general rule in many cases. e.2.1.Recommended application 5 Material Coefficient of linear expansion α 1 1 ⎯⎯ ⎯ 106 K Steel Stainless steel Copper Aluminium 11 16 17 24 When using expansion pieces.1.1 Change in length of metal wires In practice.or synthetic roof sheetings hard.4. It is noticeable that.1.17 cm = 1. are not sufficiently flexible. The higher values for the coefficients of linear expansion of stainless steel.dehn.4.4. Fig. When connecting air-termination systems. flat roof with bitumen.
1 and Table 5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 71 .4.2 DEHNsnap und DEHNgrip conductor holders This screwless system of holders can also be used as both a roof and a wall conductor holder for Ø8 mm conductors.4.1 External lightning protection of a residential building 5. Simply press in the conductors and the conductor is fixed in DEHNgrip (Fig.17 18 3 4 1 11 6 7 5 8 10 13 9 16 EB 2 14 15 12 21 19 20 Fig.4.dehn.184.108.40.206.4.2).4. 5.4. 220.127.116.11 illustrates the design of the external lightning protection system for a residential house with attached garage. 5. The cap simply snaps in to fix the conductor in the holder while still being loosely guided. The DEHNsnap generation of synthetic holders (Fig.2. No account is taken of the measures required for an internal lightning protection system such as lightning equipotential bonding and surge protection (see also Chapter 6). 5.1 show examples of the components in use today. 5. Particular attention is drawn to DEHN’s DEHNsnap and DEHNgrip programme of holders.4. Fig.4. 5. The special snap-in technique exerts no mechanical load on the fastening.2) is suitable as a basic component (roof and wall).2. 5.2) is a screwless stainless steel system of holders which was put into the programme to supplement the DEHNsnap system of synthetic holders. DEHNgrip (Fig.2 External lightning protection system for a residential house Fig. www. DEHNsnap conductor holder 5 cap base part DEHNgrip conductor holder Fig.2.
2.Pos.1 11 Part description Bridging bracket made of aluminium Bridging braid made of aluminium Part No.5 mm – St/tZn 810 335 2 377 015 480 150 480 175 275 116 275 260 Round conductor Ø10 mm – StSt V4A Roof conductor holders for ridge and hip tiles 860 010 12 Lead-in earthing rod Ø16 mm complete Rod holder with flange 3 202 204 204 204 206 206 204 204 202 202 202 206 206 020 109 249 269 109 239 149 179 010 050 080 209 309 13 4 Roof conductor holders for conductors within roof surfaces 14 Parallel connector Cross unit SV clamps made of St/tZn SV clamps made of StSt Rod holder with cleat and flange for heat insulation 305 306 319 308 308 000 020 201 220 229 15 275 260 273 730 5 DEHNsnap DEHNgrip conductor holder with cleat and flange for heat insulation Gutter clamp for beads made of stainless steel Single-screw gutter glamp made of stainless steel MV clamp made of Al MV clamp made of StSt Gutter board clamp 204 006 207 009 275 160 273 740 339 339 339 339 050 059 100 109 16 Number plate for marking isolating points Air-termination rod with forged tab with rounded ends Rod clamp 480 006 480 005 6 5 7 8 17 100 075 483 075 380 020 262 130 390 050 390 059 18 Rod holder with tip 343 000 19 9 Downpipe clamp adjustable for Ø60-150 mm for any cross sections 423 020 423 200 20 Earth rod St/tZn sectional unit with bolt and hole Impact tip for deep-driven earth rods Connecting clamp for earth rods unilateral for earth rods 620 625 620 625 150 150 151 151 620 001 625 001 KS connector for connecting conductors made of StSt MV clamp 301 000 301 009 21 620 011 625 011 620 015 625 015 10 390 051 Table 5. in Fig.1 1 Part description Round conductor Ø8 mm – DEHNALU. 377 006 Steel strip 30 x 3.dehn.4. in Fig.4.2. 5. 5. medium-hard.2.de .4. 840 008 840 018 Pos.1 Components for external lightning protection of a residential builiding 72 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. soft-twistable Part No.
4.3. Smooth tiles (Fig.6 Roof conductor holder with preformed brace . e.6) or equipped with a supplementary clamp (Part No. 18.104.22.168.4. 5.3) is put on the ridge clamp already on the structure (2) and tightened manually (only turn DEHNsnap). 5 angle the inner latching for use on slate roofs Fig.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 73 .4.3.3. 5. The conductor holder is bent by hand before being hooked into the battens. Fig.5.3.5 Roof conductor holder with preformed brace .4.5): 1 2 Fig.Used on grooved pantiles www.2 SPANNsnap with plastic DEHNsnap conductor holder Fig.) SPANNsnap roof conductor holder with DEHNsnap synthetic conductor holder or DEHNgrip stainless steel conductor holder (Fig. 5. Additionally.3. For dry ridges.4.3.4. Universal tension range from 180-280 mm with laterally adjustable conductor leading for Rd 8 mm conductors. FIRSTsnap conductor holder with DEHNsnap synthetic conductor holder for putting on existing ridge clamps for dry ridges.4).1).3 Application tips for mounting roof conductor holders Ridge and hip tiles: Adjust roof conductor holders with adjusting screw to suit the dimension of the ridge tile (Fig. 5.2). 5. plain tiles Fig.4 Roof conductor holder with preformed brace . 5. Slate roofs: When using it on slate roofs.g.4.3.4. in addition.3 FIRSTsnap for mounting on existing ridge clamps Grooved pantiles: The roof conductor holder with preformed struts is used for the roof surfaces. the internal hook system is bent (Fig. Fig. it can also be secured with nails (Fig. 5. be gradually adjusted by means of conductor holders from the top centre to the bottom side.1 Conductor holder with DEHNsnap for ridge tiles The conductor leading can. 22.214.171.124. 5.Used on smooth tiles.Used on slate roofs angled by hand Permanent tension due to stainless steel tension spring.4.3. 204 089). the DEHNsnap conductor holder (1) (Fig. 5. 5.4.dehn. (conductor holder can be loosened by either turning the holder or opening the fixing screw.3.
g. 5.3. for direct fitting on the groove (Fig. insert the holder underneath 1 2 press tile on it 3 1 press tile on it DEHNsnap Fig.de . plain tile) or slabs and tightened manually (only turn DEHNsnap).4.8). 5.9) and its clamping device (2) is pushed in between the flat tiles (3) (e.3. the stainless steel strut is deformed and adapts itself to the shape of the groove. 5.7).4. This application with an aluminium strut makes it easy to adapt to the shape of the groove.3.4.7 Conductor holder for direct fitting on the seams The flexible stainless steel strut is pushed between the grooved tiles. 5.4.10) with clamping terminals (2) is pushed on from the side and secured with a screw driver when the holder is open.Grooved tiles: FLEXIsnap roof conductor holder for grooved tiles.3.3. DEHNsnap can also be turned to allow a plumb conductor leading.4.9 ZIEGELsnap. Flat tiles or slabs: DEHNsnap conductor holder (1) (Fig. insert the holder underneath lift tile lift tile Overlapped constructions: In case of overlapped constructions (3) (e.8 Roof conductor holder for hanging into the bottom seam of pantile roofs 5 Fig. 5. DEHNsnap conductor holder (1) (Fig. for fixing between flat tiles or plates 74 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.4. For slabs laid on a slant.3.dehn. By pressing on the top grooved tile.3.10 PLATTENsnap roof conductor holder for overlapped constructions 1 2 3 1 DEH Nsn ap 4 Fig. Roof conductor holders with preformed strut.3. The strut of the holder can also be nailed down (holes in the strut). 5.4. Thus it is fixed tightly under the tile.4. for hooking into the bottom groove for pantile roofs (Fig. slabs and natural slates). 5. A notch is provided for an eventually existing window hook. g. 2 Fig. 5.
Classification according to form and profile One distinguishes between: flat strip earthing electrodes. DIN VDE 0100 "Erection of power supply systems with nominal voltages up to 1000 V" (Part 200 and Part 540).). sand. we repeat only the terminology which is required to understand the following designs. cruciform earthing electrodes and earth rods.5. ring or meshed earthing electrode or a combination thereof. 5. It can consist of round material or flat strips and be designed as a star-type. The word "earth" is also the designation for both the earth as a place as well as earth as a material. Earth rod is an earth rod generally driven in plumb down to greater depths.1). whose original function is not as an earthing electrode but which acts as an earthing electrode (reinforcements of concrete foundations. Voltages at current carrying earth-termination systems. Foundation earthing electrode is a conductor embedded in concrete which is in contact with the earth over a wide area. Lightning protection earthing is the earthing installation of a lightning protection system to discharge lightning currents into the earth. Impulse earthing resistance Rst is the resistance as lightning currents traverse from one point of an earth-termination system to the reference earth. Earthing conductor is a conductor connecting a system component to be earthed to an earthing electrode and which is installed above the ground or insulated in the ground. etc. Below. Natural earthing electrode is a metal component in contact with the earth or with water either directly or via concrete. 5. Potential of the earth’s surface ϕ is the voltage between one point of the earth’s surface and reference earth (Fig.5. It is given in Ωm and represents the resistance between two opposite sides of a cube of earth with edges of 1 m in length. Below some types of earthing electrodes and their classification are described according to location. cable metal sheaths in contact with the earth. form and profile. e. no perceptible voltages arising from the earthing current occur (Fig. control of potential Earth potential UE is the voltage arising between an earth-termination system and reference earth (Fig.1). g. between two arbitrary points.). g. Classification according to location Surface earthing electrode is an earthing electrode generally driven in at a shallow depth down to 1 m. 5.dehn.5.de UE LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 75 .1). Control earthing electrode is an earthing electrode whose form and arrangement serves more to control the potential than to maintain a certain earthing electrode resistance. for example.5. 5. RA is practically a resistance. DIN VDE 0101 "Power supply systems for nominal ac voltages above 1 kV". in which.5. the type of soil: humus. Terminology Earth is the conductive ground whose electrical potential at each point is set equal to zero as agreed. Fig. Earthing electrode is a conductive component or several conductive components in electrical contact with the earth and forming an elec- 5 UE Earth potential UB Shock hazard voltage UB1 Shock hazard voltage without potential control (at the foundation earthing electrode) UB2 Shock hazard voltage with potential control (foundation and control earthing electrode) US ϕ FE CE Step voltage Earth surface potential Foundation earthing electrode Control earthing electrode (ring earthing electrode) CE FE 1m ϕ UB2 UB1 ϕFE US ϕFE + SE reference earth Shock hazard voltage UB is the part of the potential of the earth’s surface which can be bridged by humans (Fig. Earthing electrode resistance RA of an earthing electrode is the resistance of the earth between the earthing electrode and reference earth. gravel and rock. (e. Reference earth (neutral earth) is the part of the earth. the current path via the human body running from hand to foot (horizontal distance from touchable part around 1 m) or from one hand to the other. especially the surface of the earth outside the sphere of influence of an earthing electrode or an earth-termination system.1 Earth surface potential and voltages at a foundation earthing electrode FE and control earthing electrode CE flown through by currents www. trical connection with it (includes also foundation earthing electrodes).5. Types of resistance Specific earth resistance ρE is the specific electrical resistance of the earth. It can consist of round material or material with another profile. reinforcements of concrete foundations.1).5 Earth-termination systems A detailed explanation of the terms used in earth-termination technology is contained in DIN V VDE V 0185-3 "Lightning protection – physical damage to structures and life hazards". Earth-termination system is a localised entirety of interconnected conductive earthing electrodes or metal components acting as such. loam. etc. conduits. 5.
the amount of moisture in the soil and the temperature. 5. The type of earthing electrode and the way it is installed must now be chosen to ensure that the voltages affecting the surface of the earth (shock hazard and step voltages) do not assume hazardous values.dehn.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 ρE in Ωm Fig. 5. then as a function of the distance from the centre of the sphere.5.5.004). 5. The earthing electrode resistance RA is composed of the partial resistances of individual layers of the sphere connected in series.1). we assume a metal sphere 20 cm in diameter buried at a depth of 3 m at a specific earth resistance of 200 Ωm. 5. The concentric circles around the surface of the sphere represent surfaces of equal voltage. since even under unfavourable conditions (very low temperatures). 5. l the thickness of an imaginary layer of the sphere and q the medial surface of this layer of the sphere 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 1 RA = 161 Ω approx.3 is obtained. the current path via the human body running from one foot to the other (Fig.5. 5. 3 m deep. assuming it is homogeneous.5. as a comparison. particularly the potential of the earth’s surface (Fig..3 shows that the largest fraction of the total earthing electrode resistance occurs in the immediate vicinity of the earthing electrode. lightning current arresters or isolating spark gaps.02 . Fig. 0. Thus.4 Specific earth resistance ρE of different ground types 76 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. The trace of the curve in Fig.1). Owing to the negative temperature coefficient of the ground (α = 0. The curve of the specific earth resistance ρE as Concrete Boggy soil. 90 % of the total earthing elec- equipotential lines a) Spherical earthing electrode deep in the ground b) Spherical earthing electrode close to the earth surface Sea water 0.5. permissible values must not be exceeded. The earthing electrode resistance RA for the spherical earthing electrode is calculated using: Fig. Values for various types of soil Fig. turf Farmland. which determines the magnitude of the earthing electrode resistance RA of an earthing electrode. Potential control is the effect of the earthing electrodes on the earth potential. If now the increase in earthing electrode resistance for the different layers of the sphere is calculated.3 Earthing electrode resistance RA of a spherical earthing electrode with Ø20 cm.5. at a distance of 5 m from the centre of the sphere. It is therefore advisable to convert the measured values obtained from earthing electrodes to the maximum prospective values. If the sphere is buried deep enough. the specific earth resistances attain a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. the current discharges radially to be equally distributed over the surface of the sphere. loam Humid sandy soil Dry sandy soil Rocky soil Gravel Lime River and lake water 5 rK ρE i 100 1 + 2 t RA = i 2π i rK 2 ρE Specific earth resistance in Ωm t rK Burial depth in cm Radius of the spherical earthing electrode in cm This formula gives a earthing electrode resistance of RA = 161 Ω for the spherical earthing electrode.4 gives the fluctuation ranges of the specific earth resistance ρE for various types of soil. earthing electrode resistance / Specific earth resistance earthing electrode resistance RA The conduction of the lightning current via the earthing electrode into the ground does not happen at one point but rather energises a particular area around the earthing electrode.2a illustrates this case. 5.2b illustrates the case of a sphere buried just under the earth’s surface.de . Seasonal fluctuations Extensive measurements (literature) have shown that the specific earth resistance varies greatly according to the burial depth of the earthing electrode.5. Specific earth resistance ρE The specific earth resistance ρE. 5.5.5.Earthing electrode resistance RA (Ω) Step voltage US is the part of the potential of the earth’s surface which can be bridged by humans taking one step 1 m long.2 Current distribution from the spherical earthing electrode Fig. a curve as shown in Fig. It can fluctuate between wide limits.. is a function of the composition of the soil.5. 90% 2 3 4 5 Distance x (m) To illustrate this. 5. The earthing electrode resistance RP of an earthing electrode can best be explained with the help of a metal sphere buried in the ground. The resistance of such a layer of the sphere is calculated using I R = ρE i q where ρE is the specific earth resistance of the ground. Fig. 5. at ρE = 200 Ωm as a function of the distance x from the centre of the sphere trode resistance RA has already been achieved. Equipotential bonding for lightning protection systems is the connection of metal installations and electrical systems to the lightning protection system via conductors. for example.
6 Determination of the specific earth resistance ρE with a four-terminal measuring bridge acc. March April May Dec. 5.5.. 5. The measurement is carried out from a fixed central point M which is retained for all subsequent measurements.5 m) For earthing electrodes buried deeper (particularly for earth rods). Calculation of earthing electrode resistances Table 5. measured resistance R one can determine the specific earth resistance ρE of the ground: ρE = 2π i e i R R e measured resistance in Ω probe distance in m ρE average specific earth resistance in Ωm down to a depth corresponding to the probe distance e By increasing the probe distance e and re-tuning the earthing measuring bridge. From the sineshaped curve of the specific earth resistance in Fig.5. Jan.5 m June July Aug.5 Specific earth resistance ρE as a function of the seasons without influencing of rainfall (burial depth of the earthing electrode < 1.5).dehn. the earthing electrode resistance RA of such a surface earthing electrode is calculated as if it lays on the surface of the ground: RA = 2il ρE i In d π iI RA earthing electrode resistance of a stretched surface earthing electrode in Ω ρE Specific earth resistance in Ωm l d Length of the surface earthing electrode in m Half the width of steel strip in m or diameter of the round wire in m − ρE in % Fig.. for earthing electrodes buried not deeper than around 1. From the e e e Earthing electrode resistance Surface earthing electrode (star-type earthing electrode) earth rod (earth rod) Ring earthing electrode Rough estimate Auxiliary ⎯ RA = RA = RA = RA = RA = RA = 2 i ρE l 5 2 ρE l 2 i ρE 3iD ⎯ D = 1. Oct.5 i a ρE π iD 2 Earth plate Hemispherical earthing electrode RA Earthing electrode resistance (Ω) D = 1.a function of the season (ground temperature) can be represented to a very good approximation by a sine curve having its maximum around the middle of February and its minimum around the middle of August. The precise formulae for the calculations must be taken from the following sections.5. Four measuring probes (earthing spikes 30 .1 gives the formulae for calculating the earthing electrode resistances of the most common types of earthing electrode. 5.5. the fluctuation is merely ± 10 %.13 i ⎯ A A Meshed earthing electrode ρE 2iD ρE 4. 5..5.5 m.6 illustrates the measuring arrangement of this measuring method named after WENNER. Feb. the maximum deviation of the specific earth resistance from the average is around ± 30 % (Fig. Fig.5. while b and c are the two sides of the rectangle Content (m3) of a single foundation element Formulae for calculating the earthing electrode resistance RA for different earthing electrodes measuring device Fig. Straight surface earthing electrode Surface earthing electrodes are generally embedded horizontally in the ground at a depth of 0.57 i 3 V a M a’ ρE Specific earth resistance (Ωm) I D Length of the earthing electrode (m) Diameter of a ring earthing electrode. Sept.5. to the WENNER method A a V Table 5. Measurement The specific earth resistance ρE is determined using an earthing measuring bridge with 4 clamps which operates according to the null method. 50 cm long) are driven into the soil along a line a – a' pegged out in the ground. the curve of the specific earth resistance can be determined ρE as a function of the depth. the earthing electrode resistance RA of an earth-termination system measured on a particular day can be converted to the maximum prospective value. + ρE in % 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 burial depth < 1.. these approximate formulae are quite sufficient.13 i D = 1. 5.5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 77 . Since the layer of soil covering the earthing electrode dries out in summer and freezes in winter. Nov.1 m. of the area of the equivalent circuit or of a hemispherical earthing electrode Area (m2) of the enclosed area of a ring or meshed earthing electrode Edge length (m) of a square earth plate. Investigations have further shown that.5. for rectangular plates value: b i c . In practice.1 www.5 m burial depth > 1.
5. The effect of the burial depth on the earthing potential can be clearly seen.10 Earthing electrode resistance RA of earth rods as a function of their length l at different specific earth resistances ρE 78 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.5. Fig. at an earth strip (8 m long) in different depths t a V RA Earthing electrode resistance of the cruciform surface earthing electrode in Ω ρE Specific earth resistance in Ωm l d Side length in m Half a bandwidth in m or diameter of the round wire in m Earth potential UE (%) 40 20 ρE = 200 Ωm ρE = 100 Ωm 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Drive-in depth l of the earth rod As a rough approximation. g.de . the earthing electrode resistance RA can be calculated using the approximate formula given in Table 5. 5. Increasing the length of the surface earthing electrodes or earth rods above 30 m reduces the impulse earthing electrode resistance by only an insignificant amount. the calculation is done using the approximate formula in Table 5.5. 5. 5. It is therefore expedient to combine several shorter earthing electrodes.dehn.5. This is where the inductive part plays a role. which can lead to higher values of the impulse earthing resistance for larger expansion of the earth-termination system. Star-type earthing electrodes Star-type earthing electrodes in the form of cruciform surface earthing electrodes are important when relatively low earthing electrode resista nces shall be created in poorly conducting ground at an affordable price.1: RA = LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION Earth potential UE (%) UE 100 80 60 40 20 50 cm t = 0 cm t 100 cm a V ρE l Fig. because of their interaction.5 2m Burial depth Fig. the calculated earthing electrode resistances do not apply to lightning currents. for surface earthing electrodes. for longer lengths of the star arrangement (l > 10 m).8 shows the transverse and longitudinal earthing potential UE for an 8 m long flat strip earthing electrode. care must be taken that the actual total earthing electrode resistance is greater than the value calculated from the individual resistances connected in parallel.5.9 Max. the ac current also has an inductive part.5. Earthing electrode resistance RA (Ω) 100 Combination of earthing electrodes % 100 80 60 40 20 0. e.5. step voltage in % of the total voltage The earthing electrode resistance RA as a function of the length of the earthing electrode can be taken from Fig. 5.7 Earthing electrode resistance RA as a function of length I of the surface earthing electrode at different specific earth resistance ρE As an approximation. the earthing electrode resistance RA can be determined using the total length of the star obtained from the equations in Table 5. Fig.5⎟ i ⎜ ln ⎠ d 4π i l ⎝ Distance a (m) from earthing electrode TRANSVERSE DIRECTION UE 100 80 60 40 20 100 cm 50 cm t = 0 cm a Distance a (m) from earthing electrode Fig. 5. 126.96.36.199 1 1.5. Earthing electrode resistance RA 100 a 80 60 ρE = 500 Ωm RA = 2il ρE ⎛ ⎞ + 2.5.10 shows the earthing electrode resistance RA as a function of the rod length l and the specific earth resistance ρE. The earthing electrode resistance RA of a cruciform surface earthing electrode whose sides are at 90° to each other is calculated using: 5 Fig.9 illustrates the step voltage US as a function of the burial depth.8 Earth potential UE between supply conductor and earth surface as a function of the distance from the earthing electrode.1.5. Fig. For longer lengths. In such cases.Max. 5. step voltage US as a function of the burial depth for a stretched earth strip In practice.7. Furthermore.1: RA = 2 i ρE l ρE = 100 Ωm ρE = 200 Ωm 50 ρE = 500 Ωm Earth rod The earthing electrode resistance RA of a earth rod is calculated using: RA = 2il ρE i ln d 2π i l RA Earthing electrode resistance in Ω ρE Specific earth resistance in Ωm l 50 Length I of the stretched surface earthing electrode (m) 100 Length of the earth rod in m Diameter of the earthing rod in m d The earthing electrode resistances calculated using the formulae and the measurement results given in the diagrams apply to low frequency dc current and ac current provided that the expansion of the earthing electrode is relatively small (a few hundred metres).
14 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 79 . According to Fig. If the individual earthing electrodes are arranged roughly in a circle and if they all have about the same length.12 Side length 25 m Surge impedance of the earth conductor Earthing electrode resistance Quantity of the parallel connected earthing Mean length of the earthing electrodes Impulse earth resistance Rst of single or multiple star-type earthing electrodes with equal length Earth potential UE between the supply conductor of the earthing electrode and earth surface of crossed surface earthing electrodes (90°) as a function of the distance from the cross centre point (burial depth 0.5. The reduction factor p as a function of the length of the earthing electrode. 5.13 Foundation earthing electrode The earthing electrode resistance of a metal conductor in a concrete foundation can be calculated as an approximation using the formula for hemispherical earthing electrodes: 0.. As can be seen from this diagram. the distance of the individual earthing electrodes and the number of earthing electrodes can be taken from Fig. 5. if possible.5.13 illustrates the curve of the impulse earthing electrode resistance of surface earthing electrodes with single and multiple stars for square-wave voltages.de 45 ° Fig. ρ RA = E 2iD Where D is the diameter of the analogous circle having the same area as the meshed earthing electrode.57 i V V Volume of the foundation Earthing electrode resistance RA (Ω) % 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0.5 m) For star-type earthing electrodes. 5. which is determined as follows: For rectangular or polygonal dimensions of the meshed earthing electrode: Where D is the diameter of the analogous hemisphere having the same volume as the foundation D = 1.11 Earthing electrode resistance RA of crossed surface earthing electrodes (90°) as a function of the burial depth Fig. the distances between the individual earthing electrodes and earth rods connected in parallel should not be less than the pile depth.11 shows the curve of the earthing electrode resistance RA of cruciform surface earthing electrodes as a function of the burial depth. 5.1 i b Fig. Z RA n n·l = 150 Ω = 10 Ω = 1 . the angle between the individual arms should be greater than 60°. 4 = 300 m l = Side length Fig. one must be aware that the foundation earthing electrode can only be effective if the concrete body has a large contact area with the surrounding ground. 5.dehn. 5.12 shows the curve of the earthing voltage. Earth rods connected in parallel To keep the interactions within acceptable limits. 5. Water repellent..5 l = 25 m l = 10 m ρE = 200 Ωm D= A Ai4 π Area of the meshed earthing electrode When calculating the earthing electrode resistance. 5.Fig.12 the earthing electrode resistance of a meshed earthing electrode is given by the formula: www.5. 5.5.5 1 Burial depth (m) 1. Voltage % RA = RA ' p Ω 160 Impulse earth resistance Rst 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Z RA n l n=4 100 80 60 40 20 10 20 30 m Distance from the centre of the intersection n=1 2 3 4 RA = 10 Ω Where RA' is the average earthing electrode resistance of the individual earthing electrode. isolating shielding significantly increases the earth earthing electrode resistance.14. then the earthing electrode resistance can be calculated as follows: For square dimensions (edge length b): l D = 1. it is more expedient to install a radial earthing electrode than one single arm. for a given length. 5 l 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time µs 10 p 10 5 3 2 1 5 3 2 n = 20 d m irect ea io su n re of m en tI direction of measurement II Fig.188.8.131.52.5.5 1 2 a l 5 10 p n a l ρE RA = π iD Reduction factor Quantity of the parallel connected earthing electrodes Mean distance of the earthing electrodes Mean length of the earthing electrodes Reduction factor p for calculating the total earthing electrode resistance RA of earth rods connected in parallel Fig.
the construction costs of surface earthing electrodes and earth rods are roughly the same. The potential of the earth’s surface decreases with increasing distance from the earthing electrode (Fig.13. In order to avoid the risk of punctures and flashovers here. then the earth rod shall be as close as possible to the object to be protected.dehn. If a long feed is required. a foundation earthing electrode must be equipped with terminal lugs for connection of the down-conductor systems of the external lightning protection system to the earth-termination system. The foundation earthing electrode must be arranged to be enclosed by concrete on all sides.1). a connection must be established between foundation earthing electrode and equipotential bonding bar. For steel strips in non-reinforced concrete. 5. Area enclosed by the ring earthing electrode Implementation According to the DIN VDE standards. It is important that the equipotential bonding at ground level is carried out system- 80 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. supplementary corrosion protection should be considered (with PVC sheath or by using stainless steel with Material No. mesh size 20 m x 20 m.2 î i ρE Ieff Effective length of the earthing electrode in m î Peak value of the lightning current in kA RA = D= A 2 i ρE 3iD Ai4 π ρE Specific earth resistance in Ωm The impulse earthing resistance Rst can be calculated using the formulae in (Table 5. such conductors are connected via isolating spark gaps or with live conductors via surge protective devices (see DEHN main catalogue for Surge Protection) to the earth-termination system as part of the lightning equipotential bonding. where the effective length of the earthing electrode Ieff is used for the length I. 1. if the specific earth resistance at the surface is roughly the same as it is deep down) then. If isolated conductors are led into the structure. in accordance with DIN 18014. The reinforcement of plate and strip foundations can be used as a foundation earthing electrode if the required terminal lugs are connected to the reinforcement and the reinforcements are interconnected via the joints. The effective length of the earthing electrode for the lightning current is calculated as an approximation as follows: Surface earthing electrode: 5 RA = ρE 2π i D i ln d π iD 2 For non-circular ring earthing electrodes. atically and the lightning current is safely distributed in the ground. the earthing potential UE has its full value with respect to the conductor.5.5 m.e. the earthing electrode resistance is calculated as an approximation using the formula for the flat strip earthing electrode (where the circumference π • D is used for the length of the earthing electrode): In the service entrance room. the foundation earthing electrode should contain interconnections to prevent an exceeding of the max. According to DIN V VDE V 0185-3. As an approximation. The inductive voltage drop across the earthing electrode during the lightning current rise must only be taken into account for extended earth-termination systems (e. Due to the risk of corrosion at the point where a terminal lug comes out of the concrete. See also Fig.Combination of flat strip earthing electrodes and earth rods If sufficient earthing electrode resistance is provided by earth rods. The earth-termination system can be designed as a foundation earthing electrode. for structures with large surface areas.4571). for example from deep water carrying layers in sandy soil.5. In general. it is expedient to install a radial multiple star-type earthing electrode in parallel to this in order to reduce the resistance as the current rises. g. the magnitude of the earthing electrode resistance must be limited. the earthing electrode resistance is calculated by using the diameter D of an analogous circle with the same area: I eff = 0. Surface earthing electrodes are always advantageous when the upper soil layers have less specific resistance than the subsoil. a ring earthing electrode and. Foundation earthing electrodes must be designed in accordance with DIN 18014. The lightning current i raises the structure to be protected to the earthing potential UE U E = i i RA + 1 di iLi 2 dt with respect to the reference earth. For larger structures. the earthing electrode resistance is determined only by the ohmic part. The magnitude of the earthing electrode resistance RA is of only secondary importance for protecting a structure or installation against physical damage. the earthing electrode resistance of a flat strip earthing electrode with earth rod can be calculated as if the flat strip earthing electrode were extended by the drive-in depth of the earth rod. each installation to be protected must have its own earth-termination system which must be fully functional in itself without requiring metal water pipes or earthed conductors of the electrical installation. also as an individual earthing electrode. RA ≈ ρE I flat strip + I earth rod Ring earthing electrode For circular ring earthing electrodes with large diameters (D > 30 m). 5. In order to keep contact and step voltages as low as possible.de . The impulse earthing resistance of earthing electrodes is a function of the maximum value of the lightning current and of the specific earth resistance. Surface earthing electrodes must be installed in a depth of at least 0.5.28 î i ρE earth rod: I eff = 0.1). as a meshed earthing electrode and. If the ground is relatively homogeneous (i. the earthing electrode must be installed on edge. for a given earthing electrode resistance. or in the foundation slab. The foundation earthing electrode must be designed as a closed ring and arranged in the foundations of the external walls of the structure. in special cases. as required for long surface earthing electrodes in poorly conducting soils with bedrock).
earth rods provide the advantage of lying at greater depths in soil layers whose specific resistance is generally lower than in the areas closer to the surface. when calculating the separation distance. these earthing electrodes are also suitable for improving existing earth-termination systems. Since DIN V VDE V 0185-3 assumes a systematic lightning equipotential bonding. The minimum length for the earthing electrode can be disregarded if an earth Earthing electrodes Type B Earthing electrodes of the Type B arrangement are ring earthing electrodes around the structure to be protected. The standard classifies earthing electrode arrangements into Type A and Type B. 5.Determination of the mean radius .1.According to Fig. Since earth rods are easy to assemble and achieve excellent constant earthing electrode resistances without the need to dig a trench and without damaging the ground. This earthtermination system must be connected to the equipotential bonding (MEB – main equipotential bonding bar).5.dehn. e. The minimum length for earthing electrodes I1 can be taken from Fig. Earthing electrode lengths of 9 m have proved to be advantageous. g. can often only be decided by measuring the specific earth resistance as a function of the depth. The requirements on these earthing electrodes are described in DIN 18014. e typ ty of LPS I I fL pe o PS I type of LPS III-IV 2000 2500 3000 ρE (Ωm) Fig. earth rods are generally driven in vertically down to greater depths into natural soil which is generally initially encountered below the foundations. or foundation earthing electrodes.5. Type I and II the length of the earthing electrode is determined as a function of the specific ground resistance.1.5. The issue of whether earth rods or surface earthing electrodes are more costeffective in a particular case. Minimum length of each earthing electrode is: I1 x 0.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 81 r . At least 80% of the length of the earthing electrode must be in contact with the earth to ensure that. For lightning protection systems. The minimum lengths of the earthing electrodes corresponding to the Type B arrangement are a function of the type of lightning protection system. It must be borne in mind that a common earth-termination system for the various electrical systems (lightning protection. If the conductivity of the ground is better deep down than it is on the surface. In frosty conditions.1.5 for vertical or slanted earthing electrodes I1 for star-type earthing electrodes The values determined apply to each individual earthing electrode. Earthing electrode Type A earthing electrode resistance of less than 10 Ω is achieved.15.5. Earthing electrodes Type A do not fulfil the equipotential bonding requirements between the down conductors and the potential control. Gen- Earthing electrode arrangement Type A describes individually arranged horizontal star-type earthing electrodes (surface earthing electrodes) or vertical earthing electrodes (earth rods). it is recommended to consider the first 50 cm of a vertical earthing electrode as ineffective. Lightning protection systems Type III and IV require a minimum length of 5 m for earthing electrodes.1. no particular value is required for the earth earthing electrode resistance. For lightning protection systems Type I and II. Fig. 5. however. a earth rod must have only around half the length of a surface earthing electrode.example calculation www. 5. 5. lengths of earthing electrodes 5. low voltage systems and telecommunications systems) is preferable. the mean radius r of the area enclosed by the earthing electrode must not be shorter than l1. a low earth resistance (less than 10 Ω.5. mean radius r With respect to ring or foundation earthing electrodes. Conduits or other metal components which are permanently electrically conductive can also be used for this purpose.2 Earthing electrode Type B .5. the ring must be completed using conductors inside the structure.1.15 Earthing electrode resistance RA of surface and earth rods as a function of the length of the earthing electrode I l1 (m) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 500 1000 1500 because of ground water. There must be at least 2 earthing electrodes Type A. measured with low frequency) is recommended. 5. Further functions of the earth-termination system are to create equipotential bonding between the down conductors and a potential control in the vicinity of the walls of the structure. Earthing electrode resistance RA (Ω) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 erally. If it is not possible to have a closed ring outside around the structure. the earthing electrode Type B can be used as the base. the minimum earthing electrode length I1 of the earthing conductor is a function of the type of lightning protection system (Fig.1) The exact specific earth resistance can only be determined by on-site measurements using the “WENNER method” (four-conductor measurement). the minimum length for earthing electrodes is also determined as a function of the 5 area A1 to be considered A = A1 = A2 r = r l1 A π circular area A2.1 Min. each of which must be connected to a down-conductor system.1 Earth-termination systems in accordance with DIN V VDE V 0185-3 Earth-termination systems are the continuation of air-termination and downconductor systems to discharge the lightning current into the earth. then an earth rod is generally more cost-effective than the surface earthing electrode. surface earthing electrode earth rod ρE = 400 Ωm ρE = 100 Ωm Length of the earthing electrode l (m) Fig.5. For combinations of the various earthing electrodes (vertical and horizontal) the equivalent total length should be taken into account. 5. For both Type A and B earthing electrode arrangements.
2 m. 5.de . 5.2. Many national and international standards specify foundation earthing electrodes as a preferred earthing electrode because. To determine the average radius r. It is preferable to Installation in non-reinforced concrete Non-reinforced foundations. lr = l1 − r lv = l1 − r 2 Fig. IT systems) in accordance with VDE 0100 Part 410 ⇒ Equipotential bonding in accordance with VDE 0100 Part 540 ⇒ Electronic systems – data information technology ⇒ Antenna earthing installation in accordance with VDE 0855 ⇒ Electromagnetic compatibility ⇒ Substation in or near the structure in accordance with VDE 0101 and 0141 ≤ 20 m additional terminal conductor for forming meshes ≤ 20 m x 20 m 7m Example: Residential building. Below a calculation example: If the required value of l1 is greater than the value r corresponding to the structure.1. The function Foundation earthing electrode − steel strip 30 x 3.5.1 Foundation earthing electrode with terminal lug 82 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.5.5 mm − round steel bar 10 mm Fig. the area under consideration is transferred into an equivalent circular area and the radius is determined as shown in Figs.5.3). spacers requires the use of. These supplementary earthing electrodes shall be connected to the ring earthing electrode so as to be equidistant around the circumference.1.89 m No further earthing electrodes required! Fig. If supplementary earthing electrodes have to be connected to the foundation earthing electrode.1) and thus also acts primarily as the equipotential bonding.5.2 and 5. 5.3.5. The division into Terminal lug min. in every technical centre Fig. According to DIN 18014. care must be taken with the materials of the earthing electrode and the connection to the foundation earthing electrode. supplementary star-type earthing electrodes or vertical earthing electrodes (or slanted earthing electrodes) must be added.2.2.2 Mesh of a foundation earthing electrode r A1 = circular area A2 mean radius r r = r = 109 m2 109 m2 3. For earthing electrodes Type B.dehn. must be considered (Fig.5 mm − StSt round steel bar 10 mm − round steel bar 10 mm with PVC coating − fixed earthing point meshes ≤ 20 m x 20 m and the terminal lugs to the outside required to connect the down conductors of the external lightning protection system. reinforcement cages or reinforcement irons in foundations. their respective lengths lr (radial/horizontal) and lv (vertical) being given by the following equations: 5.3 Earthing electrode Type B Determination of the mean radius 5 specific ground resistance (see also Fig. The question of how to install the foundation earthing electrode must be decided according to the measure required to ensure that the foundation earthing electrode is enclosed on all sides as the concrete is being poured in. 1. The hygroscopic characteristics of concrete generally produce a sufficiently low earth earthing electrode resistance.5 m long.14 5.12 m area A1 to be considered 12 m 5m 7m 5m A = A1 = A2 r = r l1 A π use stainless steel with Material No.2.5.5.g.2. l1 = 5 m 20 m terminal lug Recommendation: Several terminal lugs e.5.2 Earth-termination systems. g. Only by using the spacers at distances of approx.5.4571 (Fig. is it possible to ensure that the foundation earthing electrode is "lifted up" and can be enclosed on all sides by concrete.2).5. foundation earthing electrodes and foundation earthing electrodes for special structural measures Foundation earthing electrodes – Earthing electrodes Type B DIN 18014 "Foundation earth electrode" specifies the requirements on foundation earthing electrodes. Sk III. Furthermore. it is enclosed in concrete on all sides and hence corrosion-resistant.2. 5. for example: ⇒ Electrical systems – conditions of disconnection from supply with respect to the type of network (TN. noticeably marked − steel strip 30 x 3. and to the inside for equipotential bonding. this should be done. Installation in reinforced concrete When using steel mats.3 Foundation earthing electrode The number of supplementary earthing electrodes must not be less than the number of down conductors.1).1.4). TT. when professionally installed. 1.5. The foundation earthing electrode must be installed as a closed ring in the strip foundation or the bedplate (Fig.5.5.2. strip foundations of residential structures (Fig. 5. the installation of the foundation earthing electrode is an electrical engineering measure to be carried out or monitored by a recognised specialist electrical engineer. 5. but a minimum of 2. it is not only possible to connect the foundation earthing electrode to these natural iron components. 5. e. The following systems can make additional demands on the earth-termination system. 5. the average radius r of the area enclosed by the earthing electrode must be not less than the given minimum length l1. 5.
318 201 Fig. the insulation affects their installation and arrangement. When designing the foundation earthing electrode. The thermal insulation regulations have also influenced the design of the strip foundations and foundation slabs. 318 201 Distance holder Part No.5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 83 . high-alloy stainless steel.: VDE series 35 www.5.5. 5. If professionally installed. the specific resistance of concrete lies between 150 Ωm and 500 Ωm. Material No. For foundation earthing electrodes installed in new structures in accordance with DIN 18014.5. 5.2. special care must be taken during the installation). a specific resistance of 5.6). Modern building techniques employ various types of foundations in a wide variety of designs and sealing versions. foundation slab). or fixed earthing terminals. for a polyurethane rigid foam with bulk density 30 kg/m2.6 Arrangement of a foundation earthing electrode in a strip foundation Ref.of the foundation earthing electrode is thus made even more favourable. 478 800 concrete Cross unit Part No. The arrangement of the foundation earthing electrodes for each design is shown in Figs. 390 050 Fixed earthing terminal for EB Part No.5.2. 290 001 insulation moisture barrier insulating layer basement floor foundation slab granular sub-grade course foundation earthing electrode drainage Fig. the earthing electrode is enclosed on all sides by concrete and hence corrosion-resistant.5. 5. Perimeter / Base insulation The magnitude of the specific resistance of the perimeter insulating plates is a decisive factor when considering the effect of perimeter insulation on the earthing electrode resistance of foundation earthing electrodes in conventional arrangements in the foundation (strip foundation.5 to 5. concrete MV Terminal Part No. Galvanised steel is sufficient as material of the foundation earthing electrode. Fig.2. There is no need to use spacers.4 • 1012 Ωm is given. This alone shows that. In contrast.dehn.4 Foundation earthing electrode in use insulation moisture barrier basement floor foundation slab granular sub-grade course Terminal lugs to the outside into the ground must have supplementary corrosion protection at the outlet point. This mesh size bears no relation to the type of lightning protection system of the external lightning protection system. Distance holder Part No.4 illustrates one possible application for the horizontal installation of a flat strip as a foundation earthing electrode.5 Arrangement of a foundation earthing electrode in a strip foundation (insulated basement wall) terminal lug soil perimeter / base insulation MV Terminal Part No.2. The exact arrangement of the earthing electrode in the strip foundation with insulated sides towards the outside and the bedplate is not important (Fig. plastic sheathed steel wire (owing to the risk of fracture of the plastic sheath at low temperatures. Suitable materials are. 390 050 Fixed earthing terminal for EB Part No. meshes no bigger than 20 m x 20 m must be created. a conventional foundation earthing electrode arranged in the foundations has practically no terminal lug soil perimeter / base insulation effect. ensure that the concrete also “flows” under the foundation earthing electrode enclosing it on all sides.5. The modern methods of laying concrete and then vibrating it.: VDE series 35 Fig. 1.2. The perimeter insulation also acts as an electrical insulator.4571.2.2. for example. in the case of continuous perimeter insulation. 290 001 5 foundation earthing electrode drainage Ref. 478 800 Cross unit Part No. The diagrams below illustrate the various ways of insulating the foundations and walls for structures with perimeter and base insulation. Thus. 5.7 .5. for example . 5. The intersections of the foundation earthing electrode must be connected so as to be capable of carrying currents.
Modern building techniques apply both above mentioned processes for sealing against penetrating water.2.: VDE series 35 Fig. 5. Fixed earthing terminal for EB Part No.8). 5. 5. hence it is "white". no water leaks through nor become any damp patches evident. MV Terminal Part No. 1. on hillsides. the cellars are equipped with special measures to prevent moisture penetrating. which. 478 800 MV Terminal Part No. white tank In structures erected in regions with a high groundwater table.6).4571) should be used (Fig. with “pressing” water. One particular issue in this context is whether the efficiency of a foundation earthing electrode is still provided for maintaining the measures to protect terminal lug concrete soil Foundation earthing electrodes for structures with white tank The name "white tank" is used to express the opposite of "black tank": a "white tank" receives no additional treatment on the side facing the earth.2. if water acts upon one side of it over a long period of time. The concrete body is waterproof.5.40 cm thick.7 Arrangement of a foundation earthing electrode in case of a closed floor slab (fully insulated) 5 If the foundation slab is completely insulated. The outer walls surrounded by earth.4571 against life hazards in accordance with DIN VDE 0100 Part 410. In such cases. Material V4A (Material No. The "white tank" is manufactured from a special type of concrete. 318 201 insulation moisture barrier foundation plate basement floor Black. It is efficient to install fixed earthing terminals. 390 050 perimeter / base insulation Cross unit Part No. the maximum permissible value of water/concrete is 0. 478 800 Fig. a sufficient effect of the earthing electrode can be expected.4571 reinforcement Ref. 318 209 insulation moisture barrier foundation slab basement floor granular sub-grad course ring earthing electrode Mat No.: VDE series 35 Fig. 184.108.40.206.7).2. 5.5. 1. ensure that no troublesome moisture can form on the inside of the wall. and as a lightning protection earthing electrode in accordance with DIN V VDE V 0185. 390 050 Fixed earthing terminal for EB Part No.6 (W/C < 0. g. If the concrete is manufactured correctly and the "white tank" is 10 .de . does not mean that the concrete cannot absorb any water. it does not penetrate the concrete of the tank. and the foundation slab are sealed against the penetration of water to granular sub-grade course foundation earthing electrode foil reinforcement drainage Ref. care must be taken that the installation during the construction phase is carried out professionally (Fig.2.dehn. the earthing electrode must be installed below the bedplate.5. especially for reinforced structures.8 Fixed earthing point Cross unit Part No.concrete soil terminal lug Mat No. 1. The concrete tank being waterproof means that. If a closed round or steel strip ring is laid in the lowest layer of the concrete plate as a foundation earthing electrode. The penetration depth of the water for this concrete is then a maximum of 5 cm. e.9 Arrangement of a foundation earthing electrode in case of a closed floor slab “white tank” 84 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. however. or in locations. On the side of the tank away from the water.
If the requirements on the earthing electrode resistance to protect against life hazards (automatic disconnection of supply. The proportion of steel fibres is around 20 – 30 kg/m3 concrete. The corresponding terminal lugs have to be considered. ground water level Bushing between earthing electrode and building Part No. earth rods.2.5. however. a ring earthing electrode.2.2. The steel fibres are approx. Earthing electrodes for structures with black tank The name "black tank" derives from the multi-layered strips of black bitumen applied to the sections of the structure which are outside in the ground. Material No. compared to a conventional concrete slab concrete soil terminal lug min. an earthing electrode. It is used for bedplates in the foundations of large halls. Fibre concrete has no reinforcement.5. the earthing electrode is ineffective. ground water level tank seal foundation plate granular sub-grade course ring earthing electrode Ref. The admixture gives the concrete slab both a high compression strength and also a high tensile strength and. 478 600 tank seal foundation plate granular sub-grade course ring earthing electrode Ref. 5. www.2. It is therefore recommended to install a corrosion-resistant high-alloy stainless steel. Fibre concrete foundation slabs Fibre concrete is a type of concrete which forms a heavy-duty concrete slab with steel fibres added to the liquid concrete before hardening. e. this must be proved via corresponding earthing measurements. if it is made of galvanised material.5.g.: VDE series 35 soil Fig. This requires a supplementary ring conductor or a meshed network to be constructed for installing earthing measures. it also provides a considerably higher elasticity. for example.5. supplementary earthing electrodes (startype earthing electrodes. This allows to create large areas with a smooth surface and no joints.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 85 .4571) Max. The steel fibres are slightly wavy and are admixed equally to the liquid concrete.: VDE series 35 soil Fig.2. No. The liquid concrete is discharged on site. in order to ensure the tightness of the tank also in the long term.If a specific value of the earth earthing electrode resistance is required in order to maintain the protection against electrical shock.dehn.g. in the TT system (automatic disconnection by means of RCDs or fuses). it must be enclosed on all sides. 1.11 Arrangement of the earthing electrode outside of the tank seal “black tank” with reinforcement. e. 5. A waterproof penetration of the "black tank" is only possible using a special bushing between earthing electrode and building (Fig.9 illustrates the arrangement of the foundation earthing electrode in a white tank.11). 5. In order to comply with the earthing requirements stipulated in the various standards. 1. 150 cm lead-in above ground water level e. The earthing conductor can be set in the concrete and. 5. g. StSt (Mat. below the subsequent concrete bedplate. must be installed externally around the structure or below all seals in the granular sub-grade course.10). Fig.4571. ring earthing electrodes) must be installed.5. Wherever possible. shock hazard voltage) are not met. The body of the structure is coated with bitumen/tar which is then covered by generally up to 3 layers of bitumen strips. 6 cm long and have a diameter of 1 –2 mm.10 Arrangement of the earthing electrode outside of the tank seal “black tank” concrete soil tank seal 5 Max. Due to the high-impedance insulation to the outside. This is very difficult to do on site. 5. the external earthing electrode should be led into the structure above the seal of the structure (Fig. A ring conductor set into the foundation slab above the seal can act as the potential control in the structure.
4 Earth rods – Earthing electrodes Type A The sectional earth rods. With earthing electrode Type “AZ”.5.5.1). With earthing electrode Type “S”.3.5.1). the building contractor can undertake the work only if it is supervised by a specialist. Each rod has a bore at its lower end. the terminal lugs must be particularly protected against corrosion. With earthing electrode Type “Z”.4.1 Couplings of DEHN earth rods EB Fig. the local conditions must be taken into consideration. When installing the ring earthing electrode. If the earthing electrode is driven in as previously described.5. System DEHN. creating an excellent electrical and mechanical connection.5.de .2) or mallets ⇒ Constant resistance values are achieved since the earth rods penetrate through the soil layers which are unaffected by seasonal changes in moisture and temperature ⇒ High corrosion resistance as a result of hot-dip galvanising (zinc coating 70 µm thick) 5. The earth-termination system of existing structures can be designed in the form of a ring earthing electrode (Fig. 5.3.5. or they consist of high-alloy stainless steel with Material No. 5. tar coatings or even steps. the soft metal insert deforms as it is driven into the bore. it reduces the step voltage and thus acts as a potential control around the structure.4. The particular feature of these earth rods is their coupling point.4571 (the high-alloy stainless steel earthing electrode is used in areas especially at risk from corrosion).4.4. 1. This earthing electrode should be installed in natural soil. The requirements on the minimum length of earthing electrodes according to the type of lightning protection system must be taken into account (see Chapter 5. while the other end of the rod has a corresponding spigot (Fig.Note: A specialist must install the earthing conductors and connecting components in concrete. a connection to close the ring must be made inside the structure.5. for installing a new flat strip. no increase in diameter so that the earth rod is in close contact with the ground along the whole of its length ⇒ Self-closing when driving in the rods ⇒ Simple to drive in with vibration hammers (Fig.5 m and a distance of 1 m from the structure. 5. 5. if this is not possible. it has to be checked if supplementary earthing electrodes Type A are required.dehn. 80 % of the conductors of the earthing electrode shall be installed so as to be in contact with the earth. the high coupling quality is achieved with a multiply knurled spigot. This earthing electrode must be installed in a closed ring around the structure or. are manufactured from special steel and hot-dip galvanised.2 Driving the earth rod in with a work scaffolding and a vibrating hammer 86 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. In addition. If this 80 % cannot be achieved. 5. 5. which allows the earth rods to be connected without increasing their diameter.3 Earth rod – Earthing electrode Type B DIN 18014 stipulates that all new structures must have foundation earthing electrodes. 5. When choosing the material of the earthing electrode with regard to corrosion. The advantages of the DEHN earth rods are: ⇒ Special coupling: type S type Z type AZ 5 Fig. the high coupling quality is achieved with a multiply knurled and shouldered spigot. Setting it in gravel or ground filled with construction waste worsens the earth earthing electrode resistance. care must be taken that it is installed at a depth > 0.5.5. If this is not possible. This earthing electrode material does not corrode nor does it subsequently require the earth-termination system to be refurbished with time-consuming and expensive measures such as removal of paving. It is advantageous to use stainless steel.1).1 Ring earthing electrode around a residential building Fig.
Therefore. central or intermeshed 2-dimensional design within a structure. When choosing the material for the conductors of the meshed earthing network. wet-mix slag aggregate or similar. If. 1. In the event of lightning effects.⇒ Galvanised earth rods also provide hot. The functional earthing installation serves to ensure that the electrical and electronic installations operate safely and trouble-free.6. 5 workshop stock power centre administration gate production production production Fig. potential differences could arise between the installations earthed on different earth-termination systems. 5. The interconnection of the individual earthtermination systems of the structure should produce a meshed network.5 Earthing electrodes in rocky ground In bedrock or stony ground. If a larger structure comprises more than one building.5 or 1 m long.dehn. The earth-termination system of a structure must be used for all earthing tasks together. 5. The clamped points should be installed with particular care and be protected against corrosion (anticorrosive band). This can lead to destruction of electronic installations and also to life hazards. The meshed earthing network should be constructed to contact the earth-termination systems at the points where the vertical down conductors are also connected. if possible. The purpose of protective earthing is to safely connect electrical installations and equipment to earth potential and to prevent life hazards and physical damage to property in the event of an electrical fault.5. for example. If this were not the case. and. surface earthing electrodes such as ring earthing electrodes or star-type earthing electrodes are often the only way of creating an earth-termination system. i. the potential differences between the structures are also reduced considerably.5. the smaller the potential differences between the structures in the event of a lightning stroke. The lightning protection earthing system takes over the current from the down conductors and discharges it into the ground. The smaller the mesh size of the network of the earthing installation. Previously. the corrosion and material compatibility must be taken into account.1). 5.4571 as earthing electrode material.6 Intermeshing of earth-termination systems An earth-termination system can serve a wide variety of purposes. e. The earthing electrode should be covered with gravel. Mesh sizes from 20 m x 20 m up to 40 m x 40 m have proved to be costeffective. radial with circular interconnections (potential control). environment and also on the characteristics of the electronic installation. In addition.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 87 . the flat strip or round material is laid on the stony ground or on the rock. the earth-termination system deals with all earthing tasks. high vent stacks (preferred points of strike) are existing. DIN V VDE V 0185-3 and -4 require continuous equipotential bonding within a structure.1 Intermeshed earth-termination system of an industrial facility www. It is advantageous to use stainless steel Material No. This depends both on the electromagnetic 5. and if these are connected by electrical and electronic conductors. When installing the earthing electrodes. The earthing of the electronic systems can be constructed to have a radial.5.5. separately from the lightning protection and the protective earth.galvanised coupling points ⇒ Easy to store and transport since individual rods are 1. then combining the individual earthing systems can reduce the (total) earth resistance. This is extremely disadvantageous and can even be dangerous. great potential differences up to a few 100 kV occur in the earth-termination system. a “clean earth” was sometimes applied in practice for functional earthing of the electronic equipment.6. (Fig. then the connections around this part of the plant should be made closer. This diminishes noticeably the voltage load of the electrical and electronic connecting cables. This depends on the total area of the structure.
7. i. fused salts).7. By means of extensive measurements it could be proved.5. the results of extensive preliminary examinations have also been embodied in this standard. Electrode is an electron-conducting material in an electrolyte. since all the usual sheaths employed until now have had a high electrical resistance and therefore negate the effect of the earthing electrodes. Corrosion damage due to the formation of voltaic cells is being increasingly observed. ⇒ on the electrolyte caused by different concentrations of certain materials having stimulatory or inhibitory characteristics for dissolving the metal. An electrical isolation of installations acting as anodes to prevent this cell formation is only possible in exceptional cases. Many interesting results are available which are important for the earthing electrodes. The copper sulphate electrode is the most common form of reference electrode for measuring the potential of subterranean metal objects (Fig.1). In high voltage installations. ac currents.5. The fundamental processes leading to corrosion are explained below. Anodes and cathodes of the corrosion cell can be formed ⇒ on the material due to different metals (contact corrosion) or different structural components (selective or intercrystalline corrosion). 5. The reaction is usually of electrochemical character. The aim nowadays is to integrate all earthing electrodes including those metal installations connected to the earth in order to achieve equipotential bonding and hence maximum safety against shock hazard voltages at faults or lightning strokes.1 Application example of a non-polarisable measuring electrode (copper/copper sulphate electrode) for tapping a potential within the electrolyte (crosssectional view) 88 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. high voltage protective earthing electrodes are increasingly being connected to low voltage operating earthing electrodes in accordance with DIN VDE 0101. Reference electrode is a measuring electrode for determining the potential of a metal in the electrolyte. The system of electrode and electrolyte forms a half-cell. is that the reinforcements of concrete foundations can also become the cathode of a cell and hence cause corrosion to other installations. including those of lightning protection systems. Electropotential is the electrical potential of a metal or an electron-conducting solid in an electrolyte. This cell formation between different metals with widely different metal/electrolyte potentials has been known for many years.1 Earth-termination systems with particular consideration of corrosion Metals in immediate contact with soil or water (electrolytes) can be corroded by stray currents. soil.1. corrosive soils and the formation of voltaic cells. Potentials Reference potential Potential of a reference electrode with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. What is not widely realised.de . The risk of corrosion depends on the material and the type and composition of the soil. Corrosion cell is a voltaic cell with different local partial current densities for dissolving the metal. and the risk of corrosion of the more base metals is inevitably increasing. They take place exclusively in the presence of an electrolyte. Apart from decades of experience in the field of earthing technology.7. e.5.1. Terms used in corrosion protection and corrosion protection measurements Corrosion is the reaction of a metal material to its environment which leads to impairment of the characteristics of the metal material and/or its environment. 5. made of copper in saturated copper sulphate solution.5. DIN VDE 0100 Part 410 requires the integration of conduits and other installations into the shock hazard protective measures. Electrochemical corrosion is corrosion during which electrochemical processes occur. Thus.5. water. Anode is an electrode from which a dc current enters the electrolyte. g. With the changes to the way buildings are constructed – larger reinforced concrete structures and smaller free metal areas in the ground – anode/cathode surface ratio is becoming more and more unfavourable. 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Electrolyte copper bar with hole for measurements Rubber plug Ceramic cylinder with porous base Glaze Saturated Cu/CuSO4 solution Cu/CuSO4 crystals Fig. In many cases it was previously suspected that the corrosion was caused by other influences. Electrolyte is an ion-conducting corrosive medium (e. Practical anticorrosion measures especially for lightning protection earthing electrodes shall be derived from this and from the wealth of material already acquired by the VDE task force on "Earthing electrode materials". DIN VDE 0151 "Material and minimum dimensions of earth electrodes with respect to corrosion" has been available since June 1986 as a white paper. Furthermore. that ac currents with the technical frequencies of 16 2/3 and 50 Hz at the current densities occurring in practice could not be neglected as a reason for the corrosion of bare metals usually used in the ground nowadays. g.dehn. Cathode is an electrode from which a dc current leaves the electrolyte. Copper sulphate/Electrode is a reference electrode which can hardly be polarised. by separating the metals from the soil. It is not possible to protect earthing electrodes from corrosion by completely enclosing them. Earthing electrodes made of a uniform material can be threatened by corrosion from corrosive soils and the formation of concentration cells. however.7 Corrosion of earthing electrodes 5. however. the only way of preventing or at least reducing the risk of corrosion for earthing electrodes and other installations in contact with them is choosing suitable materials for the earthing electrodes. e.
Connecting the two electrodes enables the current i to flow and the electrode. from the “nobler” copper electrode according to Table 5. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage between the rods (electrodes).2 10.e. The dissolution of the metal occurs at those points where the current enters the electrolyte. The potential of tin-coated copper depends on the thickness of the tin coating. which is electrochemically more negative.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 89 . the potentials of the metals in the ground are measured with the help of a copper sulphate electrode. 70 µm has also a closed external pure zinc layer. positively charged ions pass into the electrolyte and conversely.27 2) Symbol(s) UM-Cu/CuSO UM-Cu/CuSO K= ∆m It Wlin = ∆ s/t Iron – 0.1 Galvanic cell: iron/copper anode of the voltaic cell.5.1 www.65 33.1 5) – 1. Values more positive than approx.7.2.65 19. with a zinc coating according to the above mentioned table.5.e. the potential can get more positive. A voltage is thus created between two metal rods in the electrolyte.1) is ascertained: in the outer circuit. corrosion The corrosion processes can be clearly explained with the help of a voltaic cell. have not been found yet.2. either more of the metal ions from the rod pass into the solution (the rod therefore becomes negative compared to the solution) or the ions of the electrolyte collect in large numbers on the rod (the rod becomes positive compared to the electrolyte).6 2) – 0. In the course of time.1 – 0. In this case.7. How does it now come that current flows in the electrolyte and hence that material is transported. With its complete corrosion it can reach the value of steel.5. Values are verified in presently performed tests. In case of a loss of the zinc layer. dissolves. Tin – 0. Hot-dip galvanised steel.5 to – 0. the current i flows from + to –. 5. i. on the other hand. positive ions are absorbed from the electrolyte from the metal band.4 to – 0.4 0.5 V. Depending on the magnitude of these two pressures. the potential gets more positive. Measured to a saturated copper/copper sulphate electrode it generally amounts to – 0.7 0. – 0.85 9. The potential of steel in concrete (reinforcing iron of foundations) depends considerably on external influences. has a closed external pure zinc layer. Definition 1 2 3 4 1) 2) Consider the case of two rods made of different metals dipping into the same electrolyte. The potential of hot-dip galvanised steel in concrete has approximately the same initial values.1 to the iron electrode. If.2.7. for example.e. Potential values and corrosion rates of common metal materials 3) 4) 5) Table 5.dehn.12 Measured to saturated copper/copper sulphate electrode (Cu/Cu SO4).15 5) Free corrosion potential in the soil1) Cathodic protective potential in the soil1) Electrochemical equivalent Linear corrosion rate at J = 1 mA/dm2 4 5 4 kg / (A • year) 10. this means that the more negative pole passes positive ions to the electrolyte and hence becomes the Measuring unit V V Copper 0 to – 0. for example.1 0.7. In anaerobic soils the protective potential should be – 0. This consists of a copper rod dipped into a saturated copper sulphate solution (the reference potential of this reference electrode remains constant). These values do also apply to lower alloyed types of iron.4 mm/year 0.5.2. the potential gets more positive. As a generalisation. two electrodes made of the same metal dip into different electrolytes.75 V.6 – 0. the following (Fig 5. The potential of hot-dip galvanised steel in the soil corresponds therefore to approximately the stated value of zinc in the soil. it is cathodically polarised and thus reaches values up to approximately – 0. In case of a thinner zinc layer or a corrosion of the zinc layer.9 0.4 V.5 to – 0. as shown here. a metal rod is dipped into an electrolyte.12 4) Zinc – 0.1 to – 0.5.5. i. The electrode in electrolyte II with the higher concentration of metal ions becomes electrically more positive than the other.3 electrode I Fe i electrode II Cu i electrolyte Fig.7.2.2 Formation of voltaic cells. i.2 Lead – 0. the stated value of zinc in soil. this is the difference between the potentials of the individual electrodes compared with the electrolyte.5.7. A voltage of a certain magnitude is now created on each rod in the electrolyte. In this context one speaks of the “solution pressure” of the metal and the "osmotic pressure" of the solution.95 V. In practice.9 to – 1. the current i must therefore flow from the "more negative" iron electrode to the copper electrode to close the circuit. however. corrosion occurs? If. the copper and iron electrodes are connected via an ammeter outside the electrolyte. it dissolves. In case of metal conductive connections with wide underground installations made of metal with more negative potential.8 3) – 0. A corrosion current can also arise from a concentration cell (Fig 5.2). Heavily hot-dip galvanised copper with a zinc layer of min. The potential of hot-dip galvanised copper in soil corresponds therefore to approx. Limit values have still not been defined yet. Common tin coatings up to now have amounted up to a few µm and are thus between the values of tin and copper in the soil. In the electrolyte.
Let us consider the case of a galvanised steel strip situated in the ground and connected to the (black) steel reinforcement of a concrete foundation (Fig 5. it is possible to measure a potential of the interconnected cells of between – 200 and – 800 mV. High positive polarisation thus always indicates an increased risk of corrosion. in sand: – 200 mV – 800 mV For illustration. 5. If strong polarisation is now measured at the anode (the more negative electrode). but also. in particular. g. and over which period of time. The exact value depends on the ratio of the anodic to cathodic area and the polarisability of the electrodes. e.5.7. galvanised. In contrast. it is not solely the magnitude of the corrosion current steel. Of more practical interest. the latter is therefore destroyed by ion loss. which applies in every case.2 Concentration cell A concentration cell of this type can be formed.1 gives values which express the effect of the corrosion current (current density) in terms of the quantity of metal dissolved. The strength of the polarisation is directly proportional to the current density. if there is an obvious shift to more positive potentials. The magnitude of the current i is now a function of the voltage difference.5. 5.4).e.3 Concentration cell: Iron in soil / Iron in concrete Fig. If they are now connected above ground. 90 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. the larger the ions and the lower their charge.7. But a change to the material also means that the voltage of the individual metals changes with respect to the ground. Recording instruments are usually used for such measurements since there is frequently a rapid depolarisation immediately after the corrosion current is interrupted.3). 5.2. corrosion will cause holes or pitting in earthing electrodes. how- Thus there is a potential difference of 600 mV between these two metals. Corrosion current measurements thus make it possible to calculate in advance how many grammes of a metal will be eroded over a specific period. the greater the transport of metal associated with the current flow i. i.5.4). the potential difference across the electrodes decreases as well. With respect to a distant copper sulphate electrode. there is a higher current density at these spots resulting in rapid corrosion of the steel. In such cases. the current per unit of area of the discharge area.7. the calculations are carried out with currents flowing over a certain period of time.dehn. it is not possible to give a definite value.i electrode I permeable to ions i electrode II electrolyte I electrolyte II Fig.5. by two iron electrodes. It is often not possible to determine this current density directly.2.4 Concentration cell: Galvanised steel in soil / steel (black) in concrete Connecting these electrodes. The magnitude of the corrosion current is therefore also a function of the polarisation characteristics of the electrodes. Thus. i electrode I Fe electrode II Fe which is decisive. The polarisation behaviour of electrodes is discussed only briefly here. The potential of the steel conductor is shifted to more positive values.2. So it is important whether the prospective current attack will take place in a diffuse or punctiform way. however. Thus the polarisation is greater at the more negative insulated steel conductor than at the positive copper earthing electrodes. This potential drift caused by the corrosion current i is called polarisation. i is proportional to the atomic mass of the metal). It is. the following potential differences occur here with respect to the copper sulphate electrode: i electrode I St/tZn electrode II St i concrete soil i soil concrete 5 Fig. Generally.2. the conductance of the ground and the polarisation of the two metals. e. In practice it is. However. is the prediction if. the effects of the soil conditions alone are too various.2. galvanised in the sand (Fig. For the corrosive attack. 5. According to our measurements.5. the iron in the concrete becomes the cathode of the concentration cell and the one in the ground becomes the anode. Let us now return to our corrosion cell steel (bare) in concrete/steel. The circuit is split in order to avoid the voltage drop in the electrolyte. then there is a high risk that the anode will corrode. If the insulated pipe has only a few small spots where material is missing.7.5.7.de . we consider the following example: A well-insulated steel gas pipe in the ground is connected to copper earthing electrodes. and in the ground from the steel in the sand to the steel in the reinforcement.e. a current i flows in the outer circuit from reinforced concrete to the steel in the sand. for example. its density. of course. Unfortunately. i. 5. now important to know the limit above which a positive potential shifting means an acute risk of corrosion. If. it is found that the current i in the ground is generated by changes in the material. Polarisation phenomena now occur at the negative and positive electrodes. the current density is low over the much larger area of the copper earthing electrodes where the current enters. For electrochemical corrosion it is generally the case that. the area of the reinforced concrete foundation is very large compared to the surface of the galvanised steel wire. The strength of the polarisation can be estimated by measuring the electrode potentials for a split circuit. one of which is fixed in concrete while the other lies in the ground (Fig. pipes etc. (i. over one year.5. Table 5. steel tanks.2. then a high anodic current density occurs at the latter. so that it is polarised to almost the potential of the reinforcement steel and destroyed in a relatively short time. the current densities at both electrodes are mostly different.7. this is managed with potential measurements the extent of the available "polarisation" can be taken from. for example.7.2. (bare) in concrete: steel. In practice.
salinity. Hot-dip galvanised steel Hot-dip galvanised steel is also suitable for embedding in concrete. steel). If there is a metal conductive connection between anode and cathode. Potential shifts exceeding + 100 mV are definitely hazardous. The results of examinations available until now allow the conclusion that ϕA is much smaller than ϕC. one can stipulate: The precondition for the formation of corrosion cells (voltaic cells) is always the presence of metal and electrolytic anodes and cathodes connected to be conductive. ⇒ Electrolytes: different concentration (e. then the potential difference gives rise to a dc current in the electrolyte which passes from the anode into the electrolyte by dissolving metal before entering again the cathode.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 91 . 1. however. The “area rule” is often applied to estimate the average anodic current density IÄ: The polarisation resistance is the ratio of the polarisation voltage and the total current of a mixed electrode (an electrode where more than one electrode reaction takes place). the anodic fields always have a more negative metal/electrolyte potential than the cathodic fields. however. 5 % nickel and 2 % molybdenum. To achieve a satisfactory service life. Damage to the copper sheath.8. Stainless steels shall contain at least 16 % chrome. UC U C − U A AK i in A/m 2 AA ϕC Anode or cathode potentials in V Specific polarisation resistance of the cathode in Ωm2 Anode or cathode surfaces in m2 ϕK AA. Bare copper Bare copper is very resistant due to its position in the electrolytic insulation rating.8. it is clear. From the area rule.1. are not available to a sufficient degree of accuracy.1 is a compilation of the earthing electrode materials and minimum dimensions usually used today.dehn. Foundation earthing electrodes. however. albeit at the expense of the more "base" metals. it has additional cathodic protection. To ϕC applies: steel in the ground copper in the ground steel in concrete approx. hence a complete closed copper layer must always be present. Between 20 and 100 mV there will always be cases where the polarisation causes considerable corrosion phenomena.3 Choice of earthing electrode materials Table 5. By choosing suitable materials it is possible to avoid or reduce the risk of corrosion for earthing electrodes. that powerful corrosion phenomena occur both on enclosed steel conductors and tanks with small spots in the sheath where material is missing. 5 Ωm2 approx. Other materials Other materials can be used if they are particularly corrosion-resistant in certain environments or are at least equally as good as the materials listed in Table 5. In corrosion cells. • different structural components (selective or intercrystalline corrosion). and also on earthing conductors made of galvanised steel connected to extended copper earth-termination systems or extremely large reinforced concrete foundations. g. The metal/electrolyte potentials are measured using a saturated copper sulphate electrode mounted in the immediate vicinity of the metal in or on the ground. AC www. In practice. Steel with copper sheath In the case of steel with copper sheath. They depend on the electrode materials. possible to stipulate fields of potential shifting for natural soils. Extensive measurements have shown that only a high-alloy stainless steel with the Material No. connected to copper earthing electrodes. the comments for bare copper apply to the sheath material.7. earthing electrodes and equipotential bonding conductors made of galvanised steel in concrete may be connected with reinforcement iron.5. Anodes and cathodes are formed from ⇒ Materials • different metals or different surface conditions of a metal (contact corrosion). is sufficiently corrosion-resistant in the ground. ventilation). The values for ϕA (specific polarisation resistance of the anode) and ϕC. Summary: A polarisation below + 20 mV is generally non-hazardous. the electrolytes and the anodic and cathodic current densities. material minimum dimensions must be maintained (Table 5.4571. To summarise. it is indeed possible to determine the driving cell voltages UA – UC and the size of the areas AC and AA as an approximation for estimating the rate of corrosion. in combination with earthing electrodes or other installations in the ground made of more “base” materials (e. Moreover.ever.5. creates a high risk of corrosion for the steel core.5. 5 IÄ = UA. Stainless steels Certain high-alloy stainless steels according to DIN 17440 are inert and corrosionresistant in the ground. g. 1 Ωm2 approx. The free corrosion potential of high-alloy stainless steels in normally aerated soils is mostly close to the value of copper.1). 30 Ωm2 5.8.5. for example.
Earthing electrodes and earthing conductors connected directly to the reinforcement of large reinforced concrete foundations Material with small area Galvanised steel Steel Steel in concrete Steel with Cu coating Copper / StSt Table 5.dehn.4 Combination of earthing electrodes made of different materials The cell current density resulting from the combination of two different metals installed in the earth to be electrically conductive. since these earthing electrodes must always be connected to the plant. e. bitumen coatings are not sufficient. high-alloy stainless steel. This also applies particularly to short connecting cables in the immediate vicinity of the foundations. Corrosive waste When filling ditches and pits to install earthing electrodes. The "Corrosion behaviour of earthing electrode materials" research project has found the following with respect to the choice of earthing electrode materials.7.5.1). If the connecting cables are led through the ground. Underground terminals and connections Cut surfaces and connection points in the ground must be designed to ensure that the corrosion resistance of the corrosion protection layer of the earthing electrode material is the same for both.7. At upcoming surges. Normally. it is possible to interrupt the conductive connection between systems with very different potentials installed in the ground by integrating isolating spark gaps. stainless steel or fixed earthing terminals must be used. sheathed with an anticorrosive band.4. Sheathing not absorbing moisture offers protection.de . the isolating spark gap operates and interconnects the installations for the duration of the surges. g.7. then it is no longer possible for corrosion currents to flow. AC > 100 AA Generally. Earth entries made of galvanised steel Earth entries made of galvanised steel must be protected against corrosion for a distance of at least 0. Generally.7. it can be assumed that the material with the more positive potential will become the cathode. terminal lugs with NYY cable. e. Within the masonry. Connection points in the ground must therefore be equipped with a suitable coating. alternatively.4.5. 5.5 Other anticorrosion measures Galvanised steel connecting cables from foundation earthing electrodes to down conductors Galvanised steel connecting cables from foundation earthing electrodes to down conductors shall be laid in concrete or masonry up to above the surface of the earth. g. the earth conductors can also be led upwards without corrosion protection. pieces of slag and coal must not come into immediate contact with the earthing electrode material. Installation of isolating spark gaps As already explained. butyl rubber strips or heat-shrinkable sleeves. Connecting steel installations in the ground. the following earthing electrode materials always behave as cathodes in (covering) soils: – – – bare copper. tin-coated copper.5. This essentially depends on the ratio of the magnitude of the cathodic area AC to the magnitude of the anodic area AA. The anode of a corrosion cell actually present can be recognised by the fact that it has the more negative potential when opening the metal conductive connection. However.5.5. particularly regarding the combination of different materials: A higher degree of corrosion is only to be expected if the ratio of the areas is should therefore be made of stainless steel or copper.1 Galvanised steel + + + + + Steel + + + + + Steel in concrete –– + + + + Copper StSt –– + + + + Material combinations of earth-termination systems for different area ratios (AK > 100 x AA) 92 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. the same applies to construction waste. isolating spark gaps must not be installed for protective and operating earthing electrodes. Material with great area 5 Steel reinforcement of concrete foundations The steel reinforcement of concrete foundations can have a very positive potential (similar to copper).3 m above and below the surface of the earth. leads to the corrosion of the metal acting as the anode (Table 5. galvanised steel must be equipped with concrete or synthetic sheathing or.
5. and metal and electrical installations within the structure to be protected. dimension Material Copper Form cable f Earth rod Ø Earthing Earth plate conductor 50 mm2 Notes min. if embedded completely in concrete. thickness 3 mm 100 mm2 20 mm s electrical installation The zinc coating must be smooth. thickness 2 mm 5. thickness 2 mm 600 x 600 mm 25 x 2 mm cross section 5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 93 .Separation distance www. wire-Ø 1.9 % copper 5 bare. thickness 3 mm min.6 Electrical isolation of the external lightning protection system – Separation distance There is a risk of uncontrolled flashovers between components of the external lightning protection system and metal and electrical installations within the structure. shape and material of earthing electrodes. s Separation distance MDB Main distribution board grid-type plate Steel galvanised round a. if there is insufficient distance between the air-termination or downconductor system on one hand.dehn.5. 5. Aluminium and aluminium alloys must not be laid in soil foundation earthing electrode metal installation soil down conductor s b c d e MDB L EB f g h Note: Table 5. Only permitted.e galvanised cable d Stainless steel g round strip a h e Ø10 mm 75 mm2 min. for example. can cause enormous damage to the installation and the connected consumers.b galvanised strip a galvanised plate a galvanised grid-type plate copper-plated 14 mm round c 20 mm 25 mm Ø10 mm min. continuous and free of residual flux.b galvanised pipe a. The formula for calculating the separation distance is difficult for the practitioner to apply. Fig. if connected safely with the reinforcement every 5 m. The copper must be connected unresolvably with the steel. thickness 3mm 600 x 600 mm 30 x 3 mm cross section min.6.7 mm Ø8 mm min. These impulse voltages must be prevented from causing uncontrolled flashovers which can also possibly cause a fire.5. carbon ≤0.8. wall thickness 2 mm 500 x 500 mm min.7 mm Ø10 mm h 100 mm2 min. cross sections of earthing electrodes Fig. Only permitted for the part of the foundation in contact with the earth. thickness 3 mm 500 x 500 mm min.1 illustrates the principle of separation distance. wall thickness 2 mm 100 mm2 min.03 %. Also permitted as earth entry. round strip round pipe plate f 50 mm2 50 mm2 20 mm 20 mm min.8 Materials and minimum dimensions for earthing electrodes Table 5. wire Ø1. Chrome ≥16 %.1 illustrates the minimum cross sections. Metal installations such as water and air conditioning pipes and electric power lines. 5.8. molybdenum ≥2 %. 250 µm coating with 99. on the other. form and min.1 Illustration . mean value 50µm for round and 70 µm for flat material. nickel ≥5 %. round bare or galvanised strip d. Flashovers on electric power lines.Min.1 Material. The material must be formed correspondingly before galvanising.6. Can also be tin-coated. produce induction loops in the structure which are induced by impulse voltages due to the rapidly changing magnetic lightning field.
for example. masonry. 5.The formula is: s = ki where ki kc kc i L(m) km is a function of the type of lightning protection system chosen. 5. then for a height of 20 m. This requires a multiple calculation of the distance from the down conductors with a different distance L. s down conductor s km L (m) is the geometric distance measured from the point of the proximity to the next point of the lightning equipotential bonding level. the equipotential surface of the foundation earthing electrode/earthing electrode shall be used as reference point and basis for the length L.6. This can be imagined as a cone standing on its tip (Fig.6. Factor kc is therefore equal to 1. The lightning equipotential bonding must be realised by using surge protective devices Type I. The material factor km takes into consideration the insulating characteristics of the surroundings. for example. for roof-mounted structures.7 is specified for the GRP material (glass fibre-reinforced plastic) used in the products of the isolated air-termination systems from DEHN + SÖHNE (DEHNiso distance holder. A factor of 0. This surface is the reference plane for determining the distance L. the separation distance to be maintained is greatest at the tip of the building or on the surface of the roof and becomes less towards the earth-termination system.4). This calculation assumes the electrical insulating characteristics of air to be a factor of 1. Length L is not the actual length of the down conductor but the plumb distance (vertical measurement). This defined path carries 100 % (kc = 1) of the lightning current (Fig. The standard gives different formulae for determining kc.6. The potential difference increases with increasing height. measured from the point of the “proximity” to the next equipotential bonding or the next lightning equipotential bonding level. In order to achieve the separation distances which still can be realised in practice. Otherwise.3 Air-termination mast with kc = 1 Almost the same situation occurs for airtermination rods e. If a single air-termination rod is erected next to the structure. DEHNiso Combi). Therefore it is often difficult to maintain the separation distance. The following values are defined for the types of lightning protection system: Type of LPS I Coefficient ki 0. even for high structures. e. g. This factor can be used for calculation in the same way as the other material factors. All other solid materials used in the construction industry (e. 5.2). The lightning current cannot split here. The coefficient ki (induction factor) of the corresponding type of lightning protection system represents the threat from the steepness of the current.g. is a function of the geometric arrangement (current splitting coefficient). which reduces the required separation distance. Hence.05 soil earthing electrode Fig. Factor kc takes into consideration the splitting of the current in the down-conductor system of the external lightning protection system. 5.3.) insulate only half as well as air. Each structure with lightning equipotential bonding has an equipotential surface of the foundation earthing electrode or earthing electrode near the surface of the earth. i. Deviating values must be proved by technical tests.2 Potential difference with increasing height 5 II III / IV The calculation of the current splitting coefficient kc is often difficult because of the different structures. the total lightning current flows in this one air-termination conductor and down conductor. This intermeshing balances the current flow.6. If a lightning equipotential bonding level is to be created for high structures. Higher structures are making it more and more difficult to maintain the required separation distances.5 protective angle I s Fig. wood. Until it reaches the next connection of the air-termination rod to the air-termination or down conductor. particularly for higher structures. etc. Material Air Solid material Factor km 1 0. The potential difference between the structure’s installations and the down conductors is equal to zero near the earth’s surface.075 0. to intermesh the down conductors. it is recommended to install ring conductors. is a function of the material in the point of proximity and Further material factors are not given.1 0.dehn. the lightning equipotential bonding must be carried out for all electrical and electronic conductors and all metal installations. In Fig.de .6. 5. 94 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. this can be achieved by erecting the mast further away from the structure.
shall be determined (Fig.7 Gable roof with 4 down conductors h Fig.5 m).4 Flat roof with air-termination rod and ventilation outlet If two air-termination rods or air-termination masts have a cable spanned between them. height up to the gable of the building mutual distance of the down conductors is the total number of down conductors c c s lamp h electrical conductor L Fig. The current splitting coefficient is significantly improved by using two further down conductors. i.5( m ) 0. 5. e. If single earthing electrodes Type A are existing. however. 5.2 2n 3 c h Result: s = 0.05 kc L(m) km 0. 5. The roofing and the roof structure are situated between the two conductors. An earth-termination system Type B (ring or foundation earthing electrode) is existing.6).6.6. 5. height of the building mutual distance of the air-termination rods or air-termination masts plumb distance.6. The most unfavourable case is taken into account by calculating the factor kc in the formula. The material factor is thus km = 0. Owing to the different impedances.1 + 0. There is a risk of uncontrolled flashovers.595 m The actual distance of 0. 9 + 12 kc = = 0.5 m is not sufficient since the required separation distance is 0. a total of 4 (Fig.6 should no longer be installed.8).8 Separation distance s Problematic installation of electrical conductors www.1 + 0.5 5 kc = h c h+c 2h + c h c n kc = 1 + 0.05) and both values of the factor kc determined (for 2 and 4 down conductors) is intended to illustrate the calculation of the separation distance s for the ridge conductor.7 2 i 9 + 12 f soil Fig.6. The following formula is used in the calculation: c s = ki s = 0. not even on a detached house either. Separation distance for 2 down conductors (first example kc = 0.45 The example of a detached house with a lightning protection system Type III (ki = 0. This calculation assumes an earth-termination system Type B.e.7) height of the structure 9 m.dehn. Fig. 5.6. the lightning current can split between two paths (Fig.6.7 8.595.6.6. g. for the loft lighting.2 2i4 3 12 9 Result: kc ≈ 0.5). kc = 1 + 0. The required distance between the ridge conductor and the electrical conductor. 5.6.6 Determination of kc for a gable roof with 2 down conductors The arrangement of the down-conductor system shown in Fig.5 Determination of kc with two masts with overspanned cable and an earthing electrode Type B Fig. 5. the splitting is not always 50 % to 50 %. ring earthing electrode) is taken as given. since the lightning flash does not always strike the exact centre of the arrangement but can also strike along the length of the air-termination system.7).kc = 1 s M The following example illustrates the calculation of the coefficient for a gable roof with two down conductors (Fig. plumb distance.5 m (distance from ridge conductor 0.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 95 . the electrical conductor is installed at a height of 8.6. 5. 5.5. 5. An earth-termination system Type B (foundation earthing electrode. these must be interconnected.
5. 16 m ⇒ Height of the electrically controlled domelights: 1.05 0.6.5 m The calculation of the current splitting coefficient kc for the structure is: kc = n cs cd h 1 + 0.5( m ) 0.05 8.de . kc = h c n 1 + 0.6.11).15 m h c s Fig. 5. in case of a wall thickness of 24 cm. 5.5( m ) 0.5 Material factors of an air-termination rod on a flat roof 96 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. height of the building mutual distance of the down conductors the total number of down conductors If electrical structures or domelights are located on the flat roof (Fig.39 m (less than 0. Example: Domelights were installed on a structure with a lightning protection system Type III.5 m) between the roof lighting and the air-termination system on the ridge is maintained. For structures with flat roofs.05 0.g. then two current splitting coefficients must be taken into account when calculating the separation distance. In such cases. the separation s = 0. e.5 because of the position of the air-termination rod on the flat roof.45 s = 0. 5.48 m Calculation of the separation distance for the air-termination rod: The material factor is km = 0. height of the building s = 0.dehn.9).5.10 Values of coefficient kc in case of asymmetric arrangement of the down conductors Calculation of the separation distance for the top edge of the roof of the structure: The material factor km is set as for solid building material km = 0. a correction factor must be incorporated into the calculation. cs cd h kc = 1 + 0.1 + 0.23 m Consequently. The calculation of the current splitting coefficient kc for the subsequent course of the air-termination system and down conductors is performed as explained above. To determine the separation distance at the height of the eaves gutter (5 m above ground level).5 Result: s ≈ 0. s = 0.2 2n 3 cs h 6 cd cs total number of down conductors distance from the next down conductor distance from the next down conductor on the other side plumb distance.6. an earthing electrode arrangement Type B is a precondition (Fig. if the down conductors are distributed equally on the perimeter (same distance).1 + 0.6. For illustration. Structure data: ⇒ Length 40 m Width 30 m Height 14 m = perimeter 140 m ⇒ Earth-termination system.39 m The required separation distance of 0.5 Result: s = 0. For the air-termination rod.1 + 0. an electrical conductor could be installed in the inside of the structure. 5. distance s for a flat roof with roofmounted structures is determined below. 12 m max.2 2i11 3 12 14 6 16 12 Result: kc ≈ 0.5 Result: s ≈ 0. g gates. They are controlled electrically.345 It is not necessary to calculate the factor kc for the air-termination rod kc = 1.45 5( m ) 0. In this case.05 1 1.10). the current splitting coefficient is calculated as follows. without risk of uncontrolled flashovers.6.If the number of down conductors is increased by 2 (second example kc = 0. foundation earthing electrode Type B ⇒ Number of earthing electrodes: 11 ⇒ Distance of the down conductors: min. in a cable duct .2 2n 3 c h plumb distance. kc = 1 to the next air-termination/down conductor. 5 Fig.5 Result: s ≈ 0. 5.6.11 km = 0.46).345 14 ( m ) 0. the separation distance results as follows: 0.9 Values of coefficient kc in case of a meshed network of air-termination conductors and an earthing Type B Fig. the calculation is as follows: Due to local conditions (e. support distances) down conductors can often not be arranged equally (Fig.
48 m + 0. 5. Erecting the air-termination rod with a concrete base. (A) h1 da df Ia h2 dg Ig cd db Ib h3 dc h4 Ic dd cs Fig. This assumes an earth-termination system in form of a foundation or ring earthing electrode (Type B) (Fig. As previously explained. the separation distance of the structure must be added. 5. This involves calculating distances to conductors installed on only one lightning equipotential bonding level. and also to those installed over several levels.5 for solid materials. Fig. 5.12).01 n kc3 1st floor ground floor Fig.dehn. without installing a lightning equipotential bonding level by using lightning current arresters at the height of the ring conductors.6.6.6. ring conductors interconnecting the down conductors and an earthing Type B If 5 kc1 = 1 + 0. This separation distance was determined using the material factor 0.6.1 + 0. This has a positive effect on the separation distance.13 illustrates the principle of ring conductors around the structure.15 m Stot = 0.6.63 m This calculation states that a separation distance of 0. then the following calculation can be carried out.63 m must be maintained at the uppermost point of the domelight.1 n L2 kc2 5th floor 4th floor 3rd floor L3 down conductor 2nd flor kc3 = 1 + 0. In order to obtain the separation distance completely and correctly. 5.13 Principle of ring conductors installed around a building www. the “full insulating characteristics” of the air are not available at the foot of the air-termination rod (Fig.This calculated separation distance would be correct if the air-termination rod were erected on the surface of the earth (lightning equipotential bonding level). 5. supplementary ring conductors can be installed around the structure (truss) to balance the lightning current.2 · 2n 3 cs · L 6 cd cs kc1 L1 7th floor ring conductor 6th floor 1 kc2 = + 0. If lightning equipotential bonding levels are created for high structures at differ- ent heights by integrating all metal installations and all electrical and electronic conductors by means of lightning current arresters (SPD Type I).11). Stot = sstructure + sair-termination rod = 0.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 97 .12 hn Id Values of coefficient kc in case of an intermeshed network of air-termination.
barriers can also be used. Moreover. ⇒ the position of the down conductors can be changed. g. floodlight masts in sports grounds and bridges. e. 5. the entrances or canopies of structures frequented by large numbers of people such as theatres. These measures (e. mountain huts. carry lightning currents.de Fig. If the total separation distance sg is to be determined. This roof-level lightning equipotential bonding surface is generally implemented for extremely high structures where it is physically impossible to maintain the separation distance. UE Ut Earth potential Touch voltage US ϕ FE Step voltage Potential of earth surface Foundation earthing electrode FE 1m ϕ Ut ϕFE US ϕFE + SE UE reference earth www. potential control) are primarily applied to steeples. The following measures can reduce the risk of someone being injured by touching the down conductor: ⇒ the probability of people accummulating can be reduced with information or prohibition signs.7. observation towers. If the separation distance for a roofmounted structure shall now be determined.7 Step and contact voltages DIN V VDE V 0185-3 draws attention to the fact that. It is advantageous to split the lightning current over a large area. in special cases. This equipotential bonding is also directly connected to the external lightning protection system. metal installations. not in the entrance of the structure sg = ki ( kc1 i l1 + kc 2 i l2 + kc 3 i l3 ) km 5 With this design of supplementary ring conductors around the structure. the contact voltage can be disregarded for metal façades if they are integrated into the equipotential bonding and/or used as natural components of the down conductor. it is possible to define the upper edge of the structure as the lightning equipotential bonding surface (+/– 0). g. shopping centres. then this measure already improves the curve of the gradient area and acts as a potential control. The effect of these currents on electrical and electronic systems must be taken into account when designing the internal lightning protection system (surge protection). where bare down conductors and earthing electrodes are present in the immediate vicinity. g.The individual segments are assigned different current splitting coefficients kc.dehn. in shopping centre entrances or in the staircase of observation towers). it is still the case that no partial lightning currents whatsoever are conducted into the structure. cinemas. For a structure built with a steel skeleton or reinforced concrete. g. Gatherings of people can vary from place to place (e. Special cases are. e. Hence step voltages can be left out of the considerations. Definition of contact voltages Contact voltage is a voltage acting upon a person between his position on the earth and when touching the down conductor. These previously described measures allow to set the separation distances on the upper edge of the structure to 0.1 Illustration of touch voltage and step voltage 98 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE . reinforcements. Even if the numerous down conductors and supplementary ring conductors do not allow a maintaining of the separation distance for the complete installation. for example. there is no risk of intolerably high contact voltages provided that the reinforcement is safely interconnected or the down conductors are installed in concrete. If a reinforced concrete with a safe tie-in of the reinforcement to the foundation earthing electrode is already present under the surface of the earth in the areas outside the structure which are at risk. Structures which are particularly exposed (at risk of lightning strokes) and freely accessible to members of the public may also be required to have measures preventing intolerably high step and contact voltages. 5. The current path leads from the hand via the body to the feet (Fig.7. The individual measures can also be combined with each other. Possible measures are potential control.1). the following formula must be used for the calculation: 5. lift rails and the down conductors as well. This requires the integration of all metal installations and all electrical and electronic conductors into the equipotential bonding by means of lightning current arresters (SPD Type I). the total length from the equipotential surface of the earthing electrode to the uppermost tip of the roof-mounted structure must be used as the base (sum of the partial lengths). The disadvantage of this type of design is that all conductors. Measures to reduce step and contact voltages are therefore only required in the areas particularly at risk. contact or step voltages outside a structure in the vicinity of the down conductors can present a life hazard even though the lightning protection system was designed according to the latest standards. isolation of the site or the additional measures described below.
zone 0c ). As is evident from the illustration. 5. The current path runs via the human body from one foot to the other (Fig. The individual rings must be connected at least twice. however.5 m 1.5 m 2.0 m If a potential control is implemented for a structure. their ends must be connected to the other ends of the ring earthing electrodes.7.5 m 1m 3m 3m 3m 2m reference earth symbolic course Fig. Distance from the building 1st Ring 2nd 3rd 4th Ring Ring Ring 1m 4m 7m 10 m Depth 0.5 m) the more after it is from the structure (see Table 5. one possibility is to replace the metal pipe with a PVC one (height: 3 m.2): The down conductors must be connected to all the rings of the potential control. this is already “the first ring” of the potential control.7. If the structure already has an earth-termination system in form of a ring earthing electrode.7. by barriers or fences) ⇒ Reducing the mesh size of the earthing installation network – Potential control ⇒ The specific resistance of the surface layer of the earth at a distance of up to 3 m around the down-conductor system must be not less than 5000 Ωm. To achieve this. The depth of the ring earthing electrode shall be increased (in steps of 0. A layer of asphalt with a thickness of 5 cm generally meets this requirement ⇒ Compression of the meshed network of the earth-termination system by means of potential control Note A downpipe. Additional ring earthing electrodes should be installed at a distance of 3 m from the first one and the subsequent ones. Table 5.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 99 .⇒ the down conductor is sheathed in insulating material (min. then a potential control must be provided to protect them.5).1 Ring distances and depths of the potential control 5 0.Illustration and symbolic course of the gradient area www. Definition of step voltages Step voltage is a part of the earthing potential which can be bridged by a person taking a step over 1 m. The potential control is sufficient if the resistance gradient on the surface of the earth in the field to be protected does not exceed 1 Ω/m.2 Potential control . 3 mm crosslinked polyethylene with an impulse withstand voltage of 100 kV 1. can present a hazard to persons touching it.dehn.5 m 1m 1.7. 5.7. even if it is not defined as a down conductor. The following measures can be taken to reduce the step voltage: ⇒ Persons can be prevented from accessing the hazardous areas (e. the step voltage decreases as the distance from the structure increases.1).5 m. In such a case. an existing foundation earthing electrode should be supplemented by a ring earthing electrode installed at a distance of 1 m and a depth of 0.7. 5. The step voltage is a function of the form of the gradient area. The risk to persons therefore decreases the more after they are from the structure. There should be at least two connections within the individual rings (Fig. it must be installed as follows (Fig. 5. g. If ring earthing electrodes (control earthing electrodes) cannot be designed to be circular.0 m 1.1).2/50 µs) ⇒ The specific resistance of the surface layer of the earth at a distance of up to 3 m around the down conductor must be not less than 5000 Ωm. A layer of asphalt with a thickness of 5 cm generally meets this requirement If large numbers of people frequently congregate in a hazardous area near to the structure to be protected.
dehn.4 Potential control performance for a flood light or cell site mast mast Fig. 5 100 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.de . attention must be paid to the possible corrosion load (Chapter 5. 5.5 mm.7.4571) has proved to be a good choice for taking the formation of voltaic cells between foundation and ring earthing electrodes into account.g.clamped points connection to e.3 Possible potential control in entrance area of the building Fig. existing foundation (reinforced concrete) 3m 1m 3m 3m 3m 1m mast Fig. Stainless steel V4A (Material No. 1.7. Ring earthing electrodes can be designed as round wires Ø10 mm or as flat strips 30 x 3.5 Connection control at the ring / foundation earthing electrode When choosing the materials for the ring earthing electrodes. 5.7. 5.7).5.
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