Introduction to

Introduction to
GPS Vehicle Tracking
GPS Vehicle Tracking
Technology
Technology
Technologies Involved
• GPS – Global Positioning System
Allow GPS receiver to determine its exact POSITION in longitude and
latitude, velocity, direction etc.
• GSM – Global System of Mobile
Allow this POSITION information to be sent to central control room as
SMS or GSM data call
• GPRS – General Packet Radio Service
Allow transfer of multimedia content like photograph to central control
room or other mobile unit
• GIS – Geographical Information system
City maps with technical information which allow converting the
POSITION information into possible address, street or place.
What is GPS?
Developed by the U.S. Department of Defense for the
military, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide,
satellite-based, radio navigation system that will give you the
exact position of your vehicles, no matter where they are,
what time it is, or what the weather is like. A total of 24
satellites orbit the Earth, monitored continuously by earth
stations. The satellites transmit signals that can be detected
by GPS receivers located in your vehicles and used to
determine their location with great accuracy.
How does GPS work?
Each GPS satellite transmits radio signals that enable the
GPS receivers to calculate where its (or your vehicles)
location on the Earth and convert the calculations into
geodetic latitude, longitude and velocity. A receiver needs
signals from atleast three GPS satellites to pinpoint your
vehicle’s position.
GPS Receivers commonly used in most Vehicle
tracking systems can only receive data from GPS
Satellites. They cannot communicate back with GPS or
any other satellite.
A system based on GPS can only calculate its location
but cannot send it to central control room. In order to
do this they normally use GSM-GPRS Cellular networks
connectivity using additional GSM modem/module.
IMPORTANT POINTS
• GPS Receiver can communicate (receive and
send data) to GPS Satellites
WRONG, GPS Receiver can only Receive data
and cannot send data to Satellite (s)
• GPS Satellites know the position of your GPS
receiver mounted on vehicle
WRONG, GPS satellites do not know the
position of a GPS Receiver. GPS Receiver
calculate its position using data from 3-4 satellites
and no single satellite know the calculations done
by GPS receiver or its position.
IMPORTANT POINTS
• We need to pay GPS Satellite company for
enabling GPS receiver to receive data
WRONG, GPS Satellite service is freely
available throughout the world, anyone anywhere
can receive GPS data by buying any off-the-shelf
GPS receivers.
• GPS Satellites are standard satellites like for
Television broadcast, VSAT etc.
WRONG, GPS satellites are different satellites
and can only send small and week radio signals
to earth.
IMPORTANT POINTS
• GPS Satellite Signals can be received anywhere
WRONG, GPS Satellite signals are weak and can be received normally with
GPS antenna (external or integrated with GPS receiver) facing open sky. GPS
signals cannot be received inside the home, building, garage, bridges. Even
clouds and Trees can prevent GPS signals from reaching GPS receiver. Hence
no GPS receiver can guarantee performance. Certain advanced and sensitive
GPS receivers can receive signals in above situations but performance is still not
satisfactory.
• GPS Receivers give accurate position information
WRONG, GPS receivers have cannot give accurate position, Normally errors
from plus/minus 5meters to 25 meters are possible.
• GPS receiver is enough to know about Position or Location
WRONG, GPS receiver only give Latitude, Longitude and Velocity calculated.
To know your location you need highly accurate map. If maps are not accurate
you will have much high error in location. Normally accuracy of Maps is
considered more important then accuracy of GPS Receiver.
What is GSM ?
GSM, Global system of Mobile, is a popular
Mobile communication system provided by
Cellular service providers or GSM Operators
in most countries internationally.
It is used for in most mobile handsets used by us.
GSM Mobile communication system can be intelligently used by
electronic devices which can collect some data and send it to the
central place using SMS or GSM data call.
GSM is required in Vehicle tracking systems because GPS system
can normally only receive location information from satellites but
cannot communicate back with them. Hence we need some other
communication system like GSM to send this location information
to central control room.
Other technologies can also be used but they are more costly.
What is GPRS?
General Packet Radio Service, is new communication services
introduced by GSM operators. These services are part of same
GSM network. These services allow secure and confirmed transfer of
content like digital photos or other data to other GPRS capable system.
example of services based on GPRS is MMS (Multimedia Messaging
Service)
GPRS is required in case we want to take snaps and transfer them to the
central control room. They are not required for GPS tracking etc.
GPRS does not involve additional hardware but we need to use more
advanced GSM modules which support GPRS.
GPRS services are not provided by all GSM operators.
IMPORTANT POINTS
• GPS Receiver is enough for Tracking Vehicle
WRONG, GPS Receiver cannot send its calculated position to your
computer hence it is not enough for tracking vehicle. You need
second technology or device to do this which can do two way
communication with your office or internet.
• GSM-GPRS (Cellular Network) is not required for Vehicle
Tracking
WRONG, GSM-GPRS is most suitable two way communication
system available to complement GPS receiver and send location
information to Mobile phone, Office or Internet. GSM-GPRS
Modem/Receiver can allow you to receive GPS position by SMS or
Data.
IMPORTANT POINTS
• Satellite two way communication technology can be used instead of
GSM-GPRS to complement GPS receivers
CORRECT, Though GPS satellites do not allow two way communication,
Other communication satellites allow it. Hence we can buy Service Plans and
Equipment from those communication satellites companies to enable satellite
based Vehicle Tracking. But it has been found that only in few regions
such communication satellite services are available for use with GPS
receivers. Enabling these services in many countries is very
complicated or not possible currently. Also these services are costly
and may require government approvals.
• GSM-GPRS allow tracking of the vehicle anywhere
WRONG, GSM-GPRS services are not available in many location or may
not perform as expected. Hence they cannot provide assured tracking.
What is GIS?
Geographical Information System, GIS is a software which consist of
specially developed comprehensive and detailed maps of the city with
longitude and latitude information of each place, street, junctions and
address.
These maps are useful to locate the address of a vehicle fitted with GPS
system.
GPS-GSM system only provide the longitude and latitude of the vehicle but
GIS software if properly developed can provide details of exact or nearby
address where the vehicle is.
In case one does not have detailed GIS maps of the city it would be very
difficult to track and teach the vehicle in very short time.
IMPORTANT POINTS
• Accurate GIS Maps are available for all parts of the
world
WRONG, Accurate GIS maps like street level maps are not available for all
parts of the world. For countries in USA and Europe they are easily
available but for most other countries you need to search for their
availability.
• It is not possible to use GPS vehicle tracking without
accurate maps
WRONG: GPS Vehicle tracking can be implemented even without accurate
maps. Many software allow you to mark location of your offices, warehouse,
customers etc. and do vehicle tracking based on them. More then 50% of
the fleet management systems do not even use maps. They work on the
basis of simple reports generated by software that give you the approx
address (using waypoints) of the locations visited by your vehicle instead of
showing maps. For achieving your return on investment and benefiting from
the system normally you may not need maps at all.
GPS Mouse/Receiver for
Laptop/computer
GPS Compact Flash card
for PDAs
GPS Bluetooth Receiver
for PDA’s , Mobile
Phones
Simple GPS Products
Inmarsat-D+ Satellite Transceiver DMR-200
Satellite Modems
Satellite modems are used in Vehicle Tracking systems along with GPS
Receivers because GPS Receivers cannot transfer coordinate data to control
room server via GPS satellites. Also GSM Modems can operate only in areas
where GSM network is available. For Global tracking Satellite Modems are
required along with Service plan from Satellite service provider.
These satellites are different satellites then GPS satellites. Also Many
satellite service provider offer services only in USA & Europe. Satellite
Modems and service plans are very costly and not considered cost effective
for fleet management or personal vehicle tracking operations
GPS Vehicle Data Logger
• Integrated GPS Receiver
• Records 20000 GPS logs in its memory
• Can transfer logs to laptop via USB/Bluetooth
• Log download and analysis software availabe
• Useful for Spy work or recording vehicle routes
GPS Data logger simply store changing
GPS coordinates in its memory , which
can be downloaded later on computer.
What is Automated Vehicle Location (AVL)?
AVL systems are computer-based vehicle tracking systems that
use a positioning system-GPS (Global Positioning System),
GSM (Global System of Mobile) and GIS (Geographical
Information System). Vehicle locations are transmitted at regular
intervals to dispatch center, where “GIS map matching" software
convert it into location and address on map for decision making.
Simple GPS-GSM Vehicle Tracking Unit
GSM Antenna
GPS Antenna
Main Vehicle Tracking unit
consist of Vehicle Controller,
GPS Receiver, GSM Modem
Optional Inputs/Outputs like
Emergency button, Alarm signal etc.
System work on 12VDC or 24VDC
from Car power supply
Where to install AVL device?
GPS Receiver
GSM Modem
GSM Modem
1
7
6
5
2
GPS Receiver
Receive signals
from 3-4
satellites
GPS Receiver
calculate its
Position
GSM Modem
send position to
nearest GSM
Tower via SMS
GSM Tower
send SMS to
destination
Tower
Destination
tower send SMS
to destination
GSM Modem
GSM Modem
connected to
Server deliver
SMS to Server
Vehicle Controller
3
GPS Receiver
communicate its
position to GSM
Modem via
vehicle controller
SMS based GPS-GSM Vehicle Tracking
Server display
location on the
computer with
maps
8
4
GPS Receiver
GSM Modem
1
7
6
5
GPS Receiver
Receive signals
from 3-4
satellites
GPS Receiver
calculate its
Position
GSM Modem make
GPRS connection to
internet through nearest
GSM Tower. GSM
Modem can be always
connected to the
internet
GSM Tower
connects GSM
Modem to
Internet
GSM Modem
directly makes
connection with
the Server
connected on
the Internet
Server continuously
receives data from
GSM Modem
Vehicle Controller
3
GPS Receiver
communicate its
position to GSM
Modem via
vehicle controller
GPRS based GPS-GSM Vehicle Tracking
Server display
location on the
computer with
maps
8
INTERNET
2
4
GPS Receiver
Satellite Modem
1
6
5
GPS Receiver
Receive signals
from 3-4
satellites
GPS Receiver
calculate its
Position
Satellite Modem make
connection with server
side satellite modem via
Satellite
GSM Tower
connects GSM
Modem to
Internet
Satellite connect
Satellite modem
on vehicle with
Satellite modem
on Server
Satellite Modem
connected to server
deliver data to Server
Vehicle Controller
3
GPS Receiver
communicate its
position to
Satellite Modem
via vehicle
controller
Satellite based GPS Vehicle Tracking
Server display
location on the
computer with
maps
7
4
2
Satellite Modem
GPSIntegrated.com
BioEnable Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
103, Green Terraces, Koregoan Park
Pune 411001,
MH, India
www.gpsintegrated.com
Tel: +91-20-30583063
Fax: +91-20-26141659
e-mail | sales@bioenabletech.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful